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Sample records for mining district tunisia

  1. Grants Mining District

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Grants Mineral Belt was the focus of uranium extraction and production activities from the 1950s until the late 1990s. EPA is working with state, local, and federal partners to assess and address health risks and environmental effects of the mines

  2. TRACE ELEMENTS LATERAL DISTRIBUTION AND LIMITATIONS FOR REVEGETATION IN LEAD MINE SOILS: CASE OF LAKHOUAT MINE, TUNISIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Sahraoui

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic activities such as mining have increased the prevalence and occurrence of trace elements soil contamination. Abandoned mine tailings cause the contamination of adjacent agricultural soils. In Lakhouat mining area (West-Northern Tunisia, the dispersion of particles containing Pb, Zn and Cd results in the contamination of the surrounding agricultural soils. These soils presented high concentrations of Pb (1272 mg kg-1, Zn (5543 mg kg-1 and Cd (25 mg kg-1. Furthermore, the tailing sample and soil sample close the dam tailing presented higher concentrations of Pb, Zn and Cd and conferred more limitation factors for revegetation than adjacent soils of mining area. The main limiting factors of mine soils are their low effective depth, low organic matter content and low phosphorus content and an imbalance between potassium and manganese exchangeable cations. These mine soils are strongly affected by high Pb, Zn and Cd levels which hinder revegetation.

  3. Measuring the Capacity Utilization of Public District Hospitals in Tunisia: Using Dual Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chokri Arfa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Public district hospitals (PDHs in Tunisia are not operating at full plant capacity and underutilize their operating budget. Methods Individual PDHs capacity utilization (CU is measured for 2000 and 2010 using dual data envelopment analysis (DEA approach with shadow prices input and output restrictions. The CU is estimated for 101 of 105 PDH in 2000 and 94 of 105 PDH in 2010. Results In average, unused capacity is estimated at 18% in 2010 vs. 13% in 2000. Of PDHs 26% underutilize their operating budget in 2010 vs. 21% in 2000. Conclusion Inadequate supply, health quality and the lack of operating budget should be tackled to reduce unmet user’s needs and the bypassing of the PDHs and, thus to increase their CU. Social health insurance should be turned into a direct purchaser of curative and preventive care for the PDHs.

  4. Manganese Exposure in the General Population in a Mining District ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Manganese Exposure in the General Population in a Mining District (Mexico) ... in a population living close to a mine and mineral processing plant in Mexico ... Call for proposals: Innovations for the economic inclusion of marginalized youth.

  5. The uranium mining district Baden-Baden/Gernsbach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altmann, H.J.

    1980-01-01

    A number of statements are made on the fauna, flora, ecology, mining and industrial settlements concerning the planned uranium mining district in Waldbachtal with the aim to instruct the 'visitor in this recreational area' about possible radiation hazards. (DG) [de

  6. Atmospheric dust deposition on soils around an abandoned fluorite mine (Hammam Zriba, NE Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djebbi, Chaima; Chaabani, Fredj; Font, Oriol; Queralt, Ignasi; Querol, Xavier

    2017-10-01

    The present study focuses on the eolian dispersion and dust deposition, of major and trace elements in soils in a semi-arid climate, around an old fluorite (CaF 2 ) and barite (BaSO 4 ) mine, located in Hammam Zriba in Northern Tunisia. Ore deposits from this site contain a high amount of metal sulphides constituting heavy metal pollution in the surrounding environment. Samples of waste from the surface of mine tailings and agricultural topsoil samples in the vicinity of the mine were collected. The soil samples and a control sample from unpolluted area, were taken in the direction of prevailing northwest and west winds. Chemical analysis of these solids was performed using both X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. To determine the transfer from mine wastes to the soils, soluble fraction was performed by inductively coupled plasma and ionic chromatography. The fine grained size fraction of the un-restored tailings, still contained significant levels of barium, strontium, sulphur, fluorine, zinc and lead with mean percentages (wt%) of 30 (calculated as BaO), 13 (as SrO), 10 (as SO 3 ), 4 (F), 2 (Zn) and 1.2 (Pb). Also, high concentrations of cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) were found with an averages of 36, 24 and 1.2mgkg -1 , respectively. As a result of the eolian erosion of the tailings and their subsequent wind transport, the concentrations of Ba, Sr, S, F, Zn and Pb were extremely high in the soils near to the tailings dumps, with 5%, 4%, 7%, 1%, 0.8% and 0.2%, respectively. Concentration of major pollutants decreases with distance, but they were high even in the farthest samples. Same spatial distribution was observed for Cd, As and Hg. While, the other elements follow different spatial patterns. The leaching test revealed that most elements in the mining wastes, except for the anions, had a low solubility despite their high bulk concentrations. According the 2003/33/CE Decision Threshold, some of these tailings samples were considered as

  7. Assessment of metal pollution in a former mining area in the NW Tunisia: spatial distribution and fraction of Cd, Pb and Zn in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmani, Mohamed Ali; Souissi, Fouad; Durães, Nuno; Abdelkader, Moussi; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira

    2015-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the impact of the former mining Touiref district (NW Tunisia) on the spatial distribution of metal contamination. In order to characterize the metal content of the tailings and to assess how far the soils from the district could be impacted by metals, a sampling campaign was conducted. According to the spatial distribution concentration maps of potential toxic elements (PTE), the highest concentrations occur near the flotation tailings and in mining facilities and decrease abruptly with distance. These results confirm that wind is the main agent capable of dispersing metals in a W-E direction, with concentrations exceeding the standards of soil quality for Cd, Pb and Zn over several hundred metres away from the source, facilitated by the small-size fraction and low cohesion of tailings particles. Chemical fractionation showed that Pb and Cd were mainly associated with the acid-soluble fraction (carbonates) and Fe-(oxy) hydroxides, while Zn was mainly associated with Fe-(oxy) hydroxides but also with sulphides. Thus, the immobilization of metals in solution may be favoured by the alkaline conditions, promoted by carbonates dissolution. However, being carbonate important-bearing phases of Cd and Pb (but also for Zn), the dissolution facility of these minerals may enhance the release of metals, particularly far away from the mine where the physicochemical conditions can be different. Also, the metal uptake by plants in these alkaline conditions may be favoured, especially if secondary phases with high sorption ability are reduced at this site. A remediation plan to this area is needed, with particularly attention in the confinement of the tailings.

  8. Geophysical investigation for 3D geological modelling and ore exploration in the Skellefte mining district

    OpenAIRE

    Tavakoli, Saman

    2012-01-01

    The Skellefte mining district, northern Sweden, is regarded as one of the country’s richest mineral districts. Most of the outcropping deposits in this district or those deposits which are located at shallow depths (≤ 300 m) are likely to have already been discovered, which motivated the Swedish mining companies to expand their explorations at greater depths (e.g. ~5 km depth). Whereas previous explorations conducted in the central Skellefte district (CSD) contributed extensively to unveil VM...

  9. Mercury speciation on three European mining districts by XANES techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbri, J. M.; Garcia-Noguero, E. M.; Guerrero, B.; Kocman, D.; Bernaus, A.; Gaona, X.; Higueras, P.; Alvarez, R.; Loredo, J.; Horvat, M.; Ávila, M.

    2009-04-01

    The mobility, bioavailability and toxicity of mercury in the environment depend on the chemical species in which is present in soil, sediments, water or air. In this work we used synchrotron radiation to determine mercury species in geological samples of three mercury mining districts: Almadén (Spain), Idria (Slovenia) and Asturias (Spain). The aim of this study was to find differences on mobility and bioavailability of mercury on three mining districts with different type of mineralization. For this porpoises we selected samples of ore, calcines, soils and stream sediments from the three sites, completely characterized by the Almadén School of Mines, Josef Stefan Institute of Ljubljana and Oviedo School of Mines. Speciation of mercury was carried out on Synchrotron Laboratories of Hamburg (HASYLAB) by XANES techniques. Spectra of pure compounds [HgCl2, HgSO4, HgO, CH3HgCl, Hg2Cl2 (calomel), HgSred (cinnabar), HgSblack (metacinnabar), Hg2NCl0.5(SO4)0.3(MoO4)0.1(CO3)0.1(H2O) (mosesite), Hg3S2Cl2 (corderoite), Hg3(SO4)O2 (schuetteite) y Hg2ClO (terlinguaite)] were obtained on transmittance mode. The number and type of the compounds required to reconstruct experimental spectra for each sample was obtained by PCA analysis and linear fitting of minimum quadratics of the pure compounds spectra. This offers a semiquantitative approach to the mineralogical constitution of each analyzed sample. The results put forward differences on the efficiency of roasting furnaces from the three studied sites, evidenced by the presence of metacinnabar on the less efficient (Almadén and Asturias) and absence on the most efficient (Idria). For the three studied sites, sulfide species (cinnabar and metacinnabar) were largely more abundant than soluble species (chlorides and sulfates). On the other hand, recent results on the mobility of both Hg and As on the target sites will be presented. These results correlate with the related chemical species found by XANES techniques.

  10. Bioavailability of Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Ni and Cr in the sediments of the Tessa River: A mining area in the North-West Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebei, Abdelaziz; Helali, Mohamed Amine; Oueslati, Walid; Abdelmalek-Babbou, Chiraz; Chaabani, Fredj

    2018-01-01

    Tessa River is seen as one of the important rivers in Tunisia. Its catchment is known for its agricultural and mining activities, especially the Bougrine and Fedj Lahdhoum mines. Eighteen (18) surface sediments and five (5) water samples were collected from the Tessa River, near these two mining sites. Sediments are essentially sandy (>80%), the most important mineral is quartz (20-73%), then calcite (41%) and dolomites (4%). Heavy metal contents are relatively high near the mining sites, 356 μg g-1 for Pb, 3000 μg g-1 for Zn, and 5 μg g-1 for Cd. These values are lower downstream due to watercourse dilution effects. Other heavy metals: Cu, Ni and Cr, are low, and values are relatively constant in all the studied samples, even near the mining sites. The metals originate from natural sources and not from mining activities. This trend is confirmed by the enrichment factor (EF) where EFNi, EFCu and EFCr are lower or equal to 1, unlike EFPb, EFZn or EFCd where values are much higher (>20). Chemical speciation of these metals does not show any spatial variation. Except for cadmium which is bound to the residual fraction and in the carbonates; all other heavy metals are bound to the five sediment chemical fractions: the residual fraction (>52%), followed by the oxyhydroxides fraction (21%) and carbonates (16%), and finally bound to the organic matter and to the exchangeable fraction (bioavailable fraction of the studied heavy metals exceeds 45%, which present risk of toxicity.

  11. Effect of Traditional Gold Mining to Surface Water Quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Wilopo, W; Resili, R; Putra, D P E

    2013-01-01

    There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our dat...

  12. Mining districts in the Carson Sink region, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, F.

    1947-01-01

    The region lies in an area of primarily sedimentary rocks which are principally Mesozoic and are tilted, folded, and faulted and cut by granular intrusives, and flooded by Tertiary lavas as shown on Figure 4. The Mesozoic sediments were strongly folded and invaded by granular intrusives at or about the time of the intrusion of the great Sierra Nevada batholith. The rocks are exposed chiefly in the mountain ranges and hills.The mountain ranges are mostly fault ranges with much of their structure monoclinical. Faulting in many instances has been prominent since the deposition of the Tertiary lavas and continues down to the present, as shown by fresh scarps and recent earthquake disturbances in the Stillwater and Augusta ranges and in general along the flaks of the various ranges by the tilted attitude of the lava flows and lake beds, and by the older lavas in general being tilted at steeper angles than the overlying lake beds. The faulting may be normal or overthrust.The faulting shown in the various mining districts as Fairview and Wonder may be regarded as indicating that of the region in general.In some parts of the region faulting is so young that it is still shown in the topographic forms as by trunctated gulches in the east base of the Stillwater range in Dixie Valley.As the writer in the present work had but small opportunity to examine the rocks excepting in the various mining districts many of which are located far apart, the accompanying geologic map (Fig. 4) is largely compiled from earlier reports of various authors in order to here present a geologic picture of the region. The portion to the north of Latitude 39°30’ is largely adapted from the 40th Parallel Survey and that to the south of the 39th parallel form the papers and reports by Buwalda, Clark, Merriam, Hill, Spurr, and the unpublished work of H. G. Ferguson of the U. S. Geological Survey on the Hawthorne and Tonopah quadrangles.

  13. Pitchblende deposits at the Wood and Calhoun mines, Central City mining district, Gilpin County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Frank R.; Butler, C.R.

    1952-01-01

    Pitchblende has been mined in commercial quantities from four gold- and silver-bearing pyrite-sphalerite-galena veins that occur in an area about one-half mile square on the south side of Quartz Hill, Central City district, Gilpin County, Colo. These veins are the Kirk, the German-Belcher, the Wood, and the Calhoun. Two of these veins, the Wood and the Calhoun, were studied in an attempt to determine the geologic factors favorable for pitchblende deposition. All accessible workings at the Wood and East Calhoun mines were mapped by tape and compass, and the distribution of radioactivity was studied in the field. Channel and chip samples were taken for chemical assay to compare radioactivity with uranium content. The pitchblende-bearing veins cat both pre-Cambrian granite gneiss and quartz-biotite schist; however, the gneiss was the more favorable host rock. Two bostonite porphyry dikes of Tertiary(?) age were crosscut by the Wood and Calhoun veins. The pitchblende occurs in lenses erratically distributed along the veins and in stringers extending outward from the veins. In the lenses it forms hard'. masses, but elsewhere it is Soft and powdery. The pitchblende is contemporaneous with the pyrite bat earlier than the sphalerite and galena in the same vein. All the observed pitchblende was at depths of less than 400 ft. The veins probably cannot be mined profitably for the pitchblende alone under present conditions.

  14. What's weathering? Mineralogy and field leach studies in mine waste, Leadville and Montezuma mining districts, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, S.F.; Hageman, Phil L.; Smith, Kathleen S.

    2006-01-01

    Weathering is important in the development of rock fabrics that control porosity in mine-waste materials, and in turn, porosity affects metal transport through and from mine-waste piles into watersheds. Mine-waste piles are dynamic physical and chemical systems as evidenced by remnant Fe-oxide boxwork structures after sulfide minerals, development of alteration rinds and etch pits on grains, and precipitation of secondary minerals under low temperature conditions. These microscale changes in the mine-waste materials are the result of partial to total dissolution of sulfide and other minerals. Mine-waste materials from the Dinero, Lower Chatauqua, and Saints John sites, Leadville and Montezuma mining districts, Colorado, exhibit rock fabrics that indicate that weathering products, e.g., Fe oxyhydroxides, jarosite, and clays, have been transported in suspension through the waste piles and deposited in voids and as coatings on rock fragments. Microscale characterization of weathered, partially dissolved minerals lends insight into the source of leachable metals in these mine-waste sites. Mineralogic studies show that galena in the Lower Chatauqua waste is enriched in Ag. Qualitative and semiquantitative microanalysis of weathered, altered galena grains from all three sites show that the Ag-bearing galena is more susceptible to dissolution. It is not surprising, then, that solutions experimentally leached from Lower Chatauqua waste are higher in Pb (2310 ppb) compared to leachates from the Dinero (31 ppb) and Saints John (1360 ppb) wastes. The mobility of metals is increased at acidic pH. Using the USGS Field Leach Test protocol, leachate derived from the Dinero waste has a pH of 3 and high concentrations of Al (443 ppb), Fe (441 ppb), and Zn (7970 ppb). Leachate from Sts. John tailings has a pH about 4 and high concentrations of Mn (1520 ppb), Zn (2240 ppb), and Pb (1360 ppb). Leachate from the Lower Chatauqua waste has an intermediate pH of 5, but in addition to the

  15. Seismic activity in the Sunnyside mining district, Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah, during 1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunrud, C. Richard; Maberry, John O.; Hernandez, Jerome H.

    1970-01-01

    More than 20,000 local earth tremors were recorded by the seismic monitoring network in the Sunnyside mining district during 1968. This is about 40 percent of the number of tremors recorded by the network in 1967. In 1968 a total of 281 tremors were of sufficient magnitude to be located accurately--about 50 percent of the number of tremors in 1967 that were located accurately. As in previous years, nearly all the earth tremors originated near, or within a few thousand feet of, the mine workings. This distribution indicates that mine-induced stress changes caused most of the seismic activity. However, over periods of weeks and months there were significant changes in the distribution of seismic activity caused by tremors that were not directly related to mining but probably were caused by adjustment of natural stresses 6r by a complex combination of both natural and mine-induced stress changes. In 1968 the distribution of tremor hypocenters varied considerably with time, relative to active mining areas and to faults present in the mine workings. During the first 6 months, most tremors originated along or near faults that trend close to or through the active mine workings. However, in the last 6 months, the tremor hypocenters tended to concentrate in the rock mass closer to, or around, the active mining areas. This shift in concentration of seismic activity with time has been noted throughout the district many times since recording began in 1963, and is apparently caused by spontaneous releases of stored strain energy resulting from mine-induced stress changes. These spontaneous releases of strain energy, together with rock creep, apparently are the mechanism of adjustment within the rock mass toward equilibrium conditions, which are continually disrupted by mining. Although potentially hazardous bumps were rare in the Sunnyside mining district during 1968, smaller bumps and rock falls were more common in a given active mining area whenever hypocenters of larger

  16. Post mining hazard assessment in North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) at the example of the Aachen hard coal mining district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heitfeld, M.; Mainz, M.; Schetelig, K.

    2005-01-01

    In North Rhine-Westphalia, large areas are affected by mining legacies endangering the ground surface and public safety. The problems arising and the current risk management are demonstrated at the example of the Aachen hard coal mining district. Hazards especially result from outcrops of coal seams mined at shallow depths and shafts whilst galleries usually seem to be rather unperilous due to their depth and small dimension. In this paper, the design of hazard zones and the assignment of hazard classes are described. Recent scientific developments related to the size of hazard areas are described and an outlook on future procedures is given. (authors)

  17. Mercury pollution by mining activities in Rayo Rojo mining district, Apolobamba (Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teran-Mita, T.; Faz Cano, A.; Muñoz, M.; Millán, R.; Salvador, F.

    2009-04-01

    In Bolivia, metal mining activities since historical times have been one of the most important causes of the environmental degradation. This is the case of the Natural Integrated Management Area of Apolobamba (Department of La Paz, Bolivia), where intense gold mining activities have been carried out from former times to present days, with very little gold extraction and very scarce mineral processing technology. In Apolobamba mercury is still being used in the amalgam processes and this might conduct to high Hg contents. Inhabitants of this area consume fish from lakes and rivers, and use the waters for the livestock, domestic use, and irrigation. The aim of this work was to evaluate mercury impact into the soil-plant-water system. The Technical University of Cartagena, Spain, through the Research Group "Sustainable Use, Management and Reclamation of Soil and Water", carried out a research, in the most intense affected gold extraction zones in Apolobamba, among them Rayo Rojo, where mining activity is mainly gold extraction, although the extracted mineral volume and technology used is low. Rayo Rojo is located in the central part of ANMI - Apolobamba (in the andean region), inside of Pelechuco municipality; the area belongs biogeographically to the Altoandina and Puna. This district, located in Apolobamba mountain-range, where altitudes above 5.000 m.a.s.l are reached. Water, soil, sediment and plant samples were taken around the operations mining sites and total mercury analysed. Mercury content was determined by AMA-254 model, based on the thermal decomposition of the sample and collection of the Hg vapour on a gold amalgamator. The analysis is performed from solid samples without any further preparation. Samples are initially dried at 125°C and then thermally decomposed at the temperature of 550°C. Mercury vapour is then trapped on the gold amalgamator. AMA-254 method certificated standards were BCR 62-BCR 281. Preliminary results show high Hg concentrations

  18. Mercury in the gold mining district of San Martin de Loba, South of Bolivar (Colombia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivero-Verbel, Jesus; Caballero-Gallardo, Karina; Turizo-Tapia, Alexi

    2015-04-01

    Gold mining is responsible for most Hg pollution in developing countries. The aims of this study were to assess the levels of total Hg (T-Hg) in human hair, fish, water, macrophyte, and sediment samples in the gold mining district of San Martin de Loba, Colombia, as well as to determine fish consumption-based risks for T-Hg ingestion. T-Hg levels were measured by electrothermal atomization and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The overall mean T-Hg level in hair for humans in the mining district of San Martin de Loba was 2.12 μg/g, whereas for the reference site, Chimichagua, Cesar, it was 0.58 μg/g. Mean T-Hg levels were not different when considered within localities belonging to the mining district but differed when the comparison included Chimichagua. T-Hg levels in examined locations were weakly but significantly associated with age and height, as well as with fish consumption, except in San Martin de Loba. High T-Hg concentrations in fish were detected in Pseudoplatystoma magdaleniatum, Caquetaia kraussii, Ageneiosus pardalis, Cyrtocharax magdalenae, and Triportheus magdalenae, whereas the lowest appeared in Prochilodus magdalenae and Hemiancistrus wilsoni. In terms of Hg exposure due to fish consumption, only these last two species offer some guarantee of low risk for Hg-related health problems. Water, floating macrophytes, and sediments from effluents near mining sites also had high Hg values. In mines of San Martin de Loba and Hatillo de Loba, for instance, the geoaccumulation index (I(geo)) for sediments reached values greater than 6, indicating extreme pollution. In short, these data support the presence of a high Hg-polluted environment in this mining district, with direct risk for deleterious effects on the health of the mining communities.

  19. Hydrogeochemical Investigations of Historic Mining Districts, Central Western Slope of Colorado, Including Influence on Surface-Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J. Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This report describes reconnaissance hydrogeochemical investigations of 22 mining districts on the Western Slope of Colorado in the Gunnison and Uncompahgre National Forests and adjacent public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. Sources and fates of contaminants from historic mines, mine waste, and mill tailings are interpreted from chemical analyses for 190 samples of surface waters; 185 samples of mined rocks, mill tailings, and altered rocks; and passive leach analyses of 116 samples of those mineralized materials. Short reaches of several headwater streams show relatively low level effects of historic mining; the headwaters of the Uncompahgre River are highly contaminated by mines and unmined altered rocks in the Red Mountain district. There is encouraging evidence that natural processes attenuate mine-related contamination in most districts.

  20. Environmental contamination in the K eban Mining District, Eastern Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolucek, C.

    2007-01-01

    The present research is focused on the contribution of base-metal mining to heavy metal contamination of the environment. Mining wastes and unworked ore-mineral concentrations present in the Keban region (eastern Turkey) are the main sources of environmental contamination in the area via leaching of the potentially toxic elements. Total-element concentrations of several different sampling media, such as sediment, waters and plants were measured. Analyses of metal and metalloid concentrations of sediment samples indicate high As, F, Mo and Zn contents, which decrease exponentially with distance from the mine and mineralized zones, mainly due to dilution by water and barren material. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ta in the water samples are higher than the average natural background values for these heavy metals. The most significant components of water samples under study are (>1 mg/1) Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Zn and S and (1 mg/1) Ba, Fe and Mo; these samples are also enriched in some toxic elements such as As, Cd, Cr, Pb and Sb. Red algae have a higher capacity for absorption of Cr, Cu, Mn,Ni, Pb and S, whereas green algae are enriched in Co, Hg, La, Se and V. However, the highest heavy-metal and toxic element contents are found in moss collected at the mine adit. (author)

  1. Rock mechanics research in the Coeur d'Alene mining district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corp, E. L.

    1980-05-15

    Over the past 20 years, the Bureau of Mines and mining companies of the Coeur d'Alene district have conducted cooperative research on problems of ground control. For the past six years emphasis has been placed on research to improve deep shaft design and to control rock bursts during cut-and-fill stoping. Finite-element modeling and construction of small-scale circular and rectangular test shafts have shown that circular openings are stable only when stresses are hydrostatic or weakly biaxial. Under a strongly-biaxial horizontal stress field, a rectangular shaft has a greater depth capability if its long axis can be oriented parallel to the major stress and normal to the bedding and joint system. Steel sets appear preferable to wood sets or concrete lining. Based on underground tests at Hecla's Star mine, destressing or preconditioning of the vein rock prior to mining was shown to be an effective means of controlling rock bursts. Drilling and shooting a radial pattern of longholes before stope mining starts has preconditioned or softened the vein material to the extent that seismic energy release during mining is reduced and no bursting occurred. Increased burst and seismic activity while mining about the preconditioned zone points out the need to precondition an entire stope block before mining.

  2. An application of data mining in district heating substations for improving energy performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Puning; Zhou, Zhigang; Chen, Xin; Liu, Jing

    2017-11-01

    Automatic meter reading system is capable of collecting and storing a huge number of district heating (DH) data. However, the data obtained are rarely fully utilized. Data mining is a promising technology to discover potential interesting knowledge from vast data. This paper applies data mining methods to analyse the massive data for improving energy performance of DH substation. The technical approach contains three steps: data selection, cluster analysis and association rule mining (ARM). Two-heating-season data of a substation are used for case study. Cluster analysis identifies six distinct heating patterns based on the primary heat of the substation. ARM reveals that secondary pressure difference and secondary flow rate have a strong correlation. Using the discovered rules, a fault occurring in remote flow meter installed at secondary network is detected accurately. The application demonstrates that data mining techniques can effectively extrapolate potential useful knowledge to better understand substation operation strategies and improve substation energy performance.

  3. Hydrologic conditions in the coal mining district of Indiana and implications for reclamation of abandoned mine lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olyphant, G.A.; Harper, D.

    1998-01-01

    Bedrock strata of the mining district of Indiana (Indiana Coal Mining District, ICMD) include numerous coalbeds of economic importance, together with underclays, roof shales, limestones, and sandstones of Pennsylvanian age. These are typically poor aquifers with low hydraulic conductivities and specific yields. Surficial materials include loess, till, alluvium, and other deposits of pleistocene age. The loess and till also have low hydraulic conductivities, so that very few shallow aquifers exist in the vicinities of abandoned mine land (AML) sites, except where they are close to the alluvial fill of large bedrock valleys. The hydrologic cascade at AML sites in Indiana is strongly conditioned by the existence of elevated deposits of coarse-grained coal-preparation refuse and flooded underground mine workings. Flooded mines are the principal conduits of groundwater flow in the area, but their boundaries, flowpaths, and mechanisms of recharge and discharge are very different from those of natural aquifers and are poorly understood. Acidic mine drainage often emerges as seepages and springs on the edges of the elevated refuse deposits, but the low permeability of the natural surficial materials and bedrock inhibits the development of off-site groundwater contaminant plumes. The water balance across the surface of the refuse deposits is critical to reclamation planning and success. Enhancing runoff through reduction of infiltration capacity has the beneficial effect of reducing recharge through the acid-generating refuse, but the excess runoff may be accompanied by soil erosion that can lead to reclamation failure. Furthermore, during cool seasons and stormy periods, a well vegetated surface promotes recharge through increased infiltration, resulting in greater rates of acidic baseflow seepage. Passive Anoxic Limestone Drains (PALDs) have been successfully coupled with wetland treatment systems to improve surface waters that discharge from AML sites. Storm runoff from

  4. Artisanal small-scale mining: Potential ecological disaster in Mzingwane District, Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siduduziwe Ncube-Phiri

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Artisanal small-scale mining (ASM has devastating impacts on the environment, such as deforestation, over-stripping of overburden, burning of bushes and use of harmful chemicals like mercury. These environmental impacts are a result of destructive mining, wasteful mineral extraction and processing practices and techniques used by the artisanal small-scale miners. This paper explores the ecological problems caused by ASM in Mzingwane District, Zimbabwe. It seeks to determine the nature and extent to which the environment has been damaged by the ASM from a community perspective. Interviews, questionnaires and observations were used to collect qualitative data. Results indicated that the nature of the mining activities undertaken by unskilled and under-equipped gold panners in Mzingwane District is characterised by massive stripping of overburden and burning of bushes, leading to destruction of large tracts of land and river systems and general ecosystem disturbance. The research concluded that ASM in Mzingwane District is an ecological time bomb, stressing the need for appropriate modifications of the legal and institutional frameworks for promoting sustainable use of natural resources and mining development in Zimbabwe. Government, through the Ministry of Small Scale and Medium Enterprises, need to regularise and formalise all gold mining activities through licensing, giving permanent claims and operating permits to panners in order to recoup some of the added costs in the form of taxes. At the local level, the Mzingwane Rural District Council (MRDC together with the Environmental Management Agency (EMA need to design appropriate environmental education and awareness programmes targeting the local community and gold panners.

  5. Heavy metal contamination in the environs of the Zn-pB Mine in North-West of Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Guirat, S.; Ben Aissa, N.; Mhiri, A.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of industrial heavy metals (HM) pollution on soil quality and plant growth has become a public concern. To evaluate heavy metals concentration a Zn-Pb mine site was selected, as source of pollution, localized in BouGrine (BG) region at 120 km North-west of Tunis characterized by calcareous soils. Soils of the imine site are occupied by forest pine. (Author)

  6. Intoxication by mining revenues. San Marcos district politics after twelve years of Antamina’s presence

    OpenAIRE

    Salas Carreño, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes and analyses the changes in local politicstaken place in the district of San Marcos (Huari, Ancash) associatedwith the arrival of the Canon Minero – a fraction of taxes paid byAntamina mining company to the Peruvian State. Canon Minero hasincreased sudden and spectacularly the municipality’s funds so muchthat currently San Marcos in «ones of the Peruvian richest districts».The paper pays attention to the municipal elections of 2006 and theimplementation of the Plan Piloto...

  7. Mass loading of Hg in the Monte Amiata mining district, Southern Tuscany (Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Rimondi V.; Costagliola P.; Gray J. E.; Lattanzi P.; Nannucci M.; Salvadori A.; Vaselli O.

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) transport in natural environments is of concern because Hg bioaccumulates in the food web. Particularly methyl-Hg is the form of Hg of major concern as it is highly toxic to humans and is ingested through food consumption, dominantly fish. Quantification of Hg mass loads in watersheds draining Hg mine districts allows (1) the identification of sources of contamination, (2) the evaluation of the effect of Hg on the environment, and (3) the identification of processes affecting Hg ...

  8. Rock mechanics research in the Coeur d'Alene mining district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corp, E. L.

    1980-05-15

    Over the past 20 years, the Bureau of Mines and mining companies of the Coeur d'Alene district have conducted cooperative research on problems of ground control. For the past six years emphasis has been placed on research to improve deep shaft design and to control rock bursts during cut-and-fill stoping. Factors contributing to ground control problems include: depth of mining ranging to 8000 feet; local tectonic activity that in many instances has produced horizontal stresses exceeding the vertical; unequal horizontal stresses at ratios ranging between 1.25 and 2.73; major faults, joints, and bedding planes; and hard, brittle quartzite rock capable of concentrating high levels of stress. Finite-element modeling and construction of small-scale circular and rectangular test shafts have shown that circular openings are stable only when stresses are hydrostatic or weakly biaxial. Under a strongly-biaxial horizontal stress field, a rectangular shaft has a greater depth capabiity if its long axis can be oriented parallel to the major stress and normal to the bedding and joint system. Steel sets appear preferable to wood sets or concrete lining. Based on underground tests at Hecla's Star mine, destressing or preconditioning of the vein rock prior to mining was shown to be an effective means of controlling rock bursts. Drilling and shooting a radial pattern of longholes before stope mining starts has preconditioned or softened the vein material to the extent that seismic energy release during mining is reduced and no bursting occurred. Increased burst and seismic activity while mining above the preconditioned zone points out the need to precondition an entire stope block before mining.

  9. Spatial Conflict of Mining Land in Tolitoli District -Province of Central Sulawesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwarno, Y.; Windiastuti, R.

    2018-05-01

    Spatial planning is supposed to be applied in the use of space, so there will be no overlapping space utilization. In fact, there are still overlapping uses of land, between the area of mining and plantation, as well as with forest areas. The purpose of this study was to find out the conflicts that occured due to overlapping permits given to mining and plantation companies, and also to forest status. The method used was by overlaying the maps of Mining Business Permit with that of Plantation Business Permit, and also with Forest Area Map. In Tolitoli District there were 23 mining business permit holders with 7 types of mining commodities, covering total areaof 81,503.54 Hectare. In addition, there were 5 companies holding plantation business permits, mostly on palm oil, and only 2 companies with rubber and sengon wood business commodities, with a total area of 80,005.35 Hectare. From the result of spatial analysis, it was found that there was an overlapping area of 22,869.70 Hectare, while the area of 118,072.93 Hectare did not overlap. The Mining Business Permit overlapped with the Plantation Business Permit covering an area of 18,853.32 Hectare, and 4,301.77 Hectare were located in Forest Protected Area and Nature Reserve.

  10. Effect of traditional gold mining to surface water quality in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.Wilopo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available There are many locations for traditional gold mining in Indonesia. One of these is in Murung Raya District, Central Kalimantan Province. Mining activities involving the application of traditional gold processing technology have a high potential to pollute the environment, especially surface water. Therefore, this study aims to determine the impact of gold mining and processing on surface water quality around the mine site. Based on the results of field surveys and laboratory analysis, our data shows that the concentration of mercury (Hg and Cyanide (CN has reached 0.3 mg/L and 1.9 mg/L, respectively, in surface water. These values exceed the drinking water quality standards of Indonesia and WHO. Many people who live in the mining area use surface water for daily purposes including drinking, cooking, bathing and washing. This scenario is very dangerous because the effect of surface water contamination on human health cannot be immediately recognized or diagnosed. In our opinion the dissemination of knowledge regarding the treatment of gold mining wastewater is urgently required so that the quality of wastewater can be improved before it is discharged into the environment

  11. Minor and trace-elements in apiary products from a historical mining district (Les Malines, France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losfeld, Guillaume; Saunier, Jean-Baptiste; Grison, Claude

    2014-03-01

    The trace-elements (TE) contents of honey, royal-jelly and beeswax from a historical Zn-Pb mining district have been investigated to assess potential contamination. In spite of high levels of heavy metal (As, Cd, Tl, Pb) in wastes left after mining stopped, apiary products appear to be relatively free of TE contamination. For honey, the following average levels (±standard error) were observed: Zn 571±440μgkg(-1), Pb 26±20μgkg(-1), Tl 13±10μgkg(-1), Cd 7±6μgkg(-1) and As 3±4μg.kg(-1). These results bring additional data to the potential impact of brownfields left after mining on apiary products. They also bring new data to assess potential risks linked with honey consumption and discuss legal TE contents in honey and other food products from apiaries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mine water management. Modification of the mine water management in the Ruhr district within the decommissioning of the hard coal mining; Grubenwasserhaltung. Aenderung der Grubenwasserhaltung im Ruhrrevier im Zuge der Stilllegung des Steinkohlenbergbaues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terwelp, Tassilo [Bezirksregierung Arnsberg, Dortmund (Germany). Dezernat 63 - Zentrale Grubenwasserhaltung, Grubenwassernstieg, Schachtverfuellung

    2013-03-15

    Within the so-called Legacy Agreement regarding the overcoming of the burdens in perpetuity of the coal mining of the RAG AG (Herne, Federal Republic of Germany), the Federal States North Rhine-Westphalia (Federal Republic of Germany) and Saarland (Federal Republic of Germany) as well as the RAG Foundation (Essen, Federal Republic of Germany) have regulated the mine water drainage in the decommissioning of the mines. Under this aspect, the department 'Mining and energy in NRW' of the district government Arnsberg (Federal Republic of Germany) as the mining authority increasingly is concerned with the topic mine water in the Ruhr district. In this context, the district government Arnsberg is responsible for an organized mine water control after the withdrawal of the hard coal mining. The main aims of this are the protection of the surface area being mined and mine safety aspects. As part of the withdrawal from the deposit, the rise of the mine water level has to be planned and controlled carefully in order to avoid adverse impacts at the surface of the area to be mined.

  13. Environmental assessment of mining industry solid pollution in the mercurial district of Azzaba, northeast Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seklaoui, M'hamed; Boutaleb, Abdelhak; Benali, Hanafi; Alligui, Fadila; Prochaska, Walter

    2016-11-01

    To date, there have been few detailed studies regarding the impact of mining and metallogenic activities on solid fractions in the Azzaba mercurial district (northeast Algeria) despite its importance and global similarity with large Hg mines. To assess the degree, distribution, and sources of pollution, a physical inventory of apparent pollution was developed, and several samples of mining waste, process waste, sediment, and soil were collected on regional and local scales to determine the concentration of Hg and other metals according to their existing mineralogical association. Several physico-chemical parameters that are known to influence the pollution distribution are realized. The extremely high concentrations of all metals exceed all norms and predominantly characterize the metallurgic and mining areas; the metal concentrations significantly decrease at significant low distances from these sources. The geo-accumulation index, which is the most realistic assessment method, demonstrates that soils and sediments near waste dumps and abandoned Hg mines are extremely polluted by all analyzed metals. The pollution by these metals decreases significantly with distance, which indicates a limited dispersion. The results of a clustering analysis and an integrated pollution index suggest that waste dumps, which are composed of calcine and condensation wastes, are the main source of pollution. Correlations and principal component analysis reveal the important role of hosting carbonate rocks in limiting pollution and differentiating calcine wastes from condensation waste, which has an extremely high Hg concentration (˃1 %).

  14. Geology and ore deposits of the Section 23 Mine, Ambrosia Lake District, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, H.C.; Santos, E.S.

    1982-01-01

    The section 23 mine is one of about 18 large uranium mines opened in sandstones of the fluvial Westwater Canyon Member of the Jurassic Morrison Formation in the Ambrosia Lake mining district during the early 1960s. The Ambrosia Lake district is one of several mining districts within the Grants mineral belt, an elongate zone containing many uranium deposits along the southern flank of the San Juan basin. Two distinct types of ore occur in the mine. Primary ore occurs as peneconcordant layers of uranium-rich authigenic organic matter that impregnates parts of the reduced sandstone host rocks and which are typically elongate in an east-southeast direction subparallel both to the sedimentary trends and to the present-day regional strike of the strata. These are called prefault or trend ores because of their early genesis and their elongation and alinement. A second type of ore in the mine is referred to as postfault, stacked, or redistributed ore. Its genesis was similar to that of the roll-type deposits in Tertiary rocks of Wyoming and Texas. Oxidation, related to the development of a large tongue of oxidized rock extending from Gallup to Ambrosia Lake, destroyed much of the primary ore and redistributed it as massive accumulations of lower grade ores bordering the redox interface at the edge of the tongue. Host rocks in the southern half of sec. 23 (T. 14 N., R. 10 W.) are oxidized and contain only remnants of the original, tabular, organic-rich ore. Thick bodies of roll-type ore are distributed along the leading edge of the oxidized zone, and pristine primary ore is found only near the north edge of the section. Organic matter in the primary ore was derived from humic acids that precipitated in the pores of the sandstones and fixed uranium as both coffinite and urano-organic compounds. Vanadium, molybdenum, and selenium are also associated with the ore. The secondary or roll-type ores are essentially free of organic carbon and contain uranium both as coffinite and

  15. Intoxication by mining revenues. San Marcos district politics after twelve years of Antamina’s presence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Salas Carreño

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes and analyses the changes in local politicstaken place in the district of San Marcos (Huari, Ancash associatedwith the arrival of the Canon Minero – a fraction of taxes paid byAntamina mining company to the Peruvian State. Canon Minero hasincreased sudden and spectacularly the municipality’s funds so muchthat currently San Marcos in «ones of the Peruvian richest districts».The paper pays attention to the municipal elections of 2006 and theimplementation of the Plan Piloto de Mantenimiento de la InfraestructuraPública, a program of temporary work for all San Marcos’citizens. The latter was key for launching a novel alliance betweenthe municipality and the rural population, particularly with the ConoSur composed by hamlets which were traditionally unimportantactors in district politics. Hence, district politics had stopped to bedominated by the struggle between two factions of former landlordfamilies and had become articulated by the opposition between therural hamlets and the town of San Marcos with the emergence ofethnic political claims. Also, local politics ceased to revolve aroundAntamina and has become entangled with struggles over the administrationof Canon Minero. Rural communities which have directnegotiations with Antamina remain important political actors whichare independent from the municipality and are even oppose to it.

  16. EVALUATION OF THE INITIAL TREE COMMUNITY ESTABBLISHED ON A GRAVEL MINE IN THE BRAZILIAN FEDERAL DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Álvares Leão

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Mining activities for urbanization purposes have been practiced in the BrazilianFederal District for the last fifty years. Exploitation of sand, clay, stones, calcareous rocks,and gravel deposits resulted in 0.6% of the territory degraded by mining. Deposits explored inthe last ten years have been reclaimed as demanded by local laws.The natural restoration of areas degraded by mining explotation is unpraticable,because the seed-bed and seedlings-bed is very injuried. Also the superficial layers of soil aretaken off, causing loss of microorganism like fungi, which contributes for environmental’squality improvement for the vegetation reestablishment (Vargas & Hungria, 1997.Fortunatelly, environmental laws oblige miners to replace these superficial layers of soil(CREA-DF Cursos, 2004.The recovering of a degradaded area doesn’t necessarily mean restoration. Restorationonly happens when the damage is minimal, for example, a glade opened by the death of a tree(Fonseca et al., 2001. When an area is hardly damaged, the vegetal climax community,resulting from secondary succession, will never be the same as the one standed there before(CREA-DF Cursos, 2004; Fonseca et al., 2001. In the case of areas degraded by mining,human intervention is necessary, because the vegetation has lost its resilience, and is not ableto commence a secondary succession by itself.

  17. Study on Association between Spatial Distribution of Metal Mines and Disease Mortality: A Case Study in Suxian District, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Daping; Jiang, Dong; Wang, Yong; Chen, Wei; Huang, Yaohuan; Zhuang, Dafang

    2013-01-01

    Metal mines release toxic substances into the environment and can therefore negatively impact the health of residents in nearby regions. This paper sought to investigate whether there was excess disease mortality in populations in the vicinity of the mining area in Suxian District, South China. The spatial distribution of metal mining and related activities from 1985 to 2012, which was derived from remote sensing imagery, was overlapped with disease mortality data. Three hotspot areas with high disease mortality were identified around the Shizhuyuan mine sites, i.e., the Dengjiatang metal smelting sites, and the Xianxichong mine sites. Disease mortality decreased with the distance to the mining and smelting areas. Population exposure to pollution was estimated on the basis of distance from town of residence to pollution source. The risk of dying according to disease mortality rates was analyzed within 7–25 km buffers. The results suggested that there was a close relationship between the risk of disease mortality and proximity to the Suxian District mining industries. These associations were dependent on the type and scale of mining activities, the area influenced by mining and so on. PMID:24135822

  18. SpecTIR and SEBASS analysis of the National Mining District, Humboldt County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morken, Todd O.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the minerals and materials that could be uniquely identified and mapped from measurements made with airborne hyperspectral SpecTIR VNIR/SWIR and SEBASS TIR sensors over areas in the National Mining District. SpecTIR Corporation and Aerospace Corporation acquired Hyperspectral measurements on June 26, 2008 using their ProSpecTIR and SEBASS sensors respectively. In addition the effects of vegetation, elevation, the atmosphere on spectral measurements were evaluated to determine their impact upon the data analysis and target identification. The National Mining District is located approximately 75 miles northeast of Winnemucca, Nevada at the northern end of the Santa Rosa Mountains. Precious metal mining has been dormant in this area since the 1940's, however with increased metal prices over the last decade economic interest in the region has increased substantially. Buckskin Mountain has a preserved alteration assemblage that is exposed in topographically steep terrain, ideal for exploring what hydrothermal alteration products can be identified and mapped in these datasets. These Visible Near Infrared (VNIR), Short Wave Infrared (SWIR), and Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral datasets were used to identify and map kaolinite, alunite, quartz, opal, and illite/muscovite, all of which are useful exploration target identifiers and can indicate regions of alteration. These mapping results were then combined with and compared to other geospatial data in a geographic information systems (GIS) database. The TIR hyperspectral data provided significant additional information that can benefit geologic exploration and demonstrated its usefulness as an additional tool for geological exploration.

  19. Pollution by Arsenic, Mercury and other Heavy Metals in Sunchulli mining district of Apolobamba (Bolivia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terán Mita, Tania; Faz Cano, Angel; Muñoz, Maria Angeles; Millán Gómez, Rocio; Chincheros Paniagua, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    In Bolivia, metal mining activities since historical times have been one of the most important sources of environmental pollution. This is the case of the National Area of Apolobamba Integrated Management (ANMIN of Apolobamba) in La Paz, Bolivia, where intense gold mining activities have been carried out from former times to the present, with very little gold extraction and very primitive mineral processing technology; in fact, mercury is still being used in the amalgam processes of the gold concentration, which is burned outdoors to recover the gold. Sunchullí is a representative mining district in ANMIN of Apolobamba where mining activity is mainly gold extraction and its water effluents go to the Amazonian basin; in this mining district the productivity of extracted mineral is very low but the processes can result in heavy-metal contamination of the air, water, soils and plants. Due to its high toxicity, the contamination by arsenic and mercury create the most critical environmental problems. In addition, some other heavy metals may also be present such as lead, copper, zinc and cadmium. These heavy metals could be incorporated in the trophic chain, through the flora and the fauna, in their bio-available and soluble forms. Inhabitants of this area consume foodcrops, fish from lakes and rivers and use the waters for the livestock, domestic use, and irrigation. The aim of this work was to evaluate the heavy metals pollution by gold mining activities in Sunchullí area. In Sunchullí two representative zones were distinguished and sampled. Zone near the mining operation site was considered as affected by mineral extraction processes, while far away zones represented the non affected ones by the mining operation. In each zone, 3 plots were established; in each plot, 3 soil sampling points were selected in a random manner and analysed separately. In each sampling point, two samples were taken, one at the surface, from 0-5 cm depth (topsoil), and the other between 5

  20. Geology and ore deposits of the Section 23 mine, Ambrosia Lake District, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granger, H.C.; Santos, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    The Section 23 mine is one of about 18 large uranium mines opened in sandstones of the fluvial Westwater Canyon Member of the Jurassic Morrison Formation, in the Ambrosia Lake uranium district, during the early 1960s. Two distinct types of unoxidized ore occur in the mine. One type consists of uranium-rich authigenic organic matter that impregnates parts of the reduced sandstone host rocks. This type of ore occurs as peneconcordant layers which are typically elongate east-southeast, subparallel both to the sedimentary trends and to the regional strike of the host rock. A second type of ore is essentially devoid of organic matter and occurs in thick zones which conform to interfaces that separate oxidized from reduced parts of the host rocks. Genesis of the second type of ore is similar to that of roll-type deposits in Tertiary rocks of Wyoming and Texas. Organic matter in the primary ores was probably introduced into the host rock as humic acids that precipitated in the pores of the sandstone. This material is inferred first to have fixed uranium as urano-organic compounds but with further diagenesis, to have released some of the uranium to form coffinite. Vanadium, molybdenum, and selenium are associated with primary ore and may also have been fixed by the organic matter. The secondary or roll-type ores contain uranium mostly in the form of coffinite and only rarely as uraninite. They also contain vanadium and selenium but are virtually devoid of molybdenum

  1. Geology and Ore Deposits of the Uncompahgre (Ouray) Mining District, Southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbank, Wilbur Swett; Luedke, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    The Uncompahgre mining district, part of the Ouray mining district, includes an area of about 15 square miles (mi2) on the northwestern flank of the San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado from which ores of gold, silver, copper, lead, and zinc have had a gross value of $14 to 15 million. Bedrock within the district ranges in age from Proterozoic to Cenozoic. The oldest or basement rocks, the Uncompahgre Formation of Proterozoic age, consist of metamorphic quartzite and slate and are exposed in a small erosional window in the southern part of the district. Overlying those rocks with a profound angular unconformity are Paleozoic marine sedimentary rocks consisting mostly of limestones and dolomites and some shale and sandstone that are assigned to the Elbert Formation and Ouray Limestone, both of Devonian age, and the Leadville Limestone of Mississippian age. These units are, in turn, overlain by rocks of marine transitional to continental origin that are assigned to the Molas and Hermosa Formations of Pennsylvanian age and the Cutler Formation of Permian age; these three formations are composed predominantly of conglomerates, sandstones, and shales that contain interbedded fossiliferous limestones within the lower two-thirds of the sequence. The overlying Mesozoic strata rest also on a pronounced angular unconformity upon the Paleozoic section. This thick Mesozoic section, of which much of the upper part was eroded before the region was covered by rocks of Tertiary age, consists of the Dolores Formation of Triassic age, the Entrada Sandstone, Wanakah Formation, and Morrison Formation all of Jurassic age, and the Dakota Sandstone and Mancos Shale of Cretaceous age. These strata dominantly consist of shales, mudstones, and sandstones and minor limestones, breccias, and conglomerates. In early Tertiary time the region was beveled by erosion and then covered by a thick deposit of volcanic rocks of mid-Tertiary age. These volcanic rocks, assigned to the San Juan

  2. Prosopographic notes on roman mining in Moesia superior: The families of wealthy immigrants in the mining districts of Moesia superior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušanić Slobodan

    2006-01-01

    aspects of which remained unobserved. The presence of rich people/bearers of significant gentilicia should be pointed out here; it tends to be overlooked by the epigraphists. A Greek inscription from Rudnik (Spomenik 71 [1931] 92 no. 215 records a Fulcinius (line 1, who probably originated in Macedonia and may have been a distant successor to the Fulcinius figuring as quaestor in the province's Fasti for 148 BC. The economic expansion of the Fulcinii from Macedonia to the mining districts in the north obviously went via Scupi (IMS VI 121. Another inscription of the same provenance was erected by a Paconius (Spomenik 71[1931] 92 no. 213, with photograph, certainly connected with the city élite of S(plonum? and Risinium, perhaps also with merchants from Delos and Thessalonice. IV The honorary base of Gamicus conductor an(nis X, lib(ertus Pont[io(rum], found at Agio Pnevma not far from Siris (Ann. ép. 1986, 629, slightly modified, is of double interest. On the one hand, it provides an instructive piece of evidence on iron-mines in the south of Macedonia. (A number of facts tend to indicate their role in the matter: Gamicus' title of conductor, his being a freedman of the Pontii [? to be identified with the senatorial family of the Pontii from Dardania, whose social success, it is generally assumed, must have owed much to the mines in the neighbourhood of Ulpiana], and the mineral wealth of the Strymon region If Gamicus is really taken to have belonged to the Dardanian branch of the Pontii as their libertus, i.e. the prominent family owning i.a. the ferrariae in Macedonia, their interest in iron may be attributed to the intensity of their need for tools, typical of people possessing mines as well as latifundia. On the other hand, despite the silence of scholars on the subject, it seems that the Gamicus of Ann. ép. 1986, 629, must be identified with the Gamicus of the Mursan dedication reading [I.]O.M./[pr]o salute/C. Iul. Agatho/pi c(onductoris/ f(errariarum Panno5/niar

  3. Selected Metals in Sediments and Streams in the Oklahoma Part of the Tri-State Mining District, 2000-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, William J.; Becker, Mark F.; Mashburn, Shana L.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2009-01-01

    The abandoned Tri-State mining district includes 1,188 square miles in northeastern Oklahoma, southeastern Kansas, and southwestern Missouri. The most productive part of the Tri-State mining district was the 40-square mile part in Oklahoma, commonly referred to as 'the Picher mining district' in north-central Ottawa County, Oklahoma. The Oklahoma part of the Tri-State mining district was a primary producing area of lead and zinc in the United States during the first half of the 20th century. Sulfide minerals of cadmium, iron, lead, and zinc that remained in flooded underground mine workings and in mine tailings on the land surface oxidized and dissolved with time, forming a variety of oxide, hydroxide, and hydroxycarbonate metallic minerals on the land surface and in streams that drain the district. Metals in water and sediments in streams draining the mining district can potentially impair the habitat and health of many forms of aquatic and terrestrial life. Lakebed, streambed and floodplain sediments and/or stream water were sampled at 30 sites in the Oklahoma part of the Tri-State mining district by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality from 2000 to 2006 in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Quapaw and Seneca-Cayuga Tribes of Oklahoma. Aluminum and iron concentrations of several thousand milligrams per kilogram were measured in sediments collected from the upstream end of Grand Lake O' the Cherokees. Manganese and zinc concentrations in those sediments were several hundred milligrams per kilogram. Lead and cadmium concentrations in those sediments were about 10 percent and 0.1 percent of zinc concentrations, respectively. Sediment cores collected in a transect across the floodplain of Tar Creek near Miami, Oklahoma, in 2004 had similar or greater concentrations of those metals than sediment cores collected at the upstream end of Grand Lake O' the Cherokees. The greatest concentrations of

  4. Geology and mining history of the Southeast Missouri Barite District and the Valles Mines, Washington, Jefferson, and St. Francois Counties, Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugel, Douglas N.

    2017-03-09

    The Southeast Missouri Barite District and the Valles Mines are located in Washington, Jefferson, and St. Francois Counties, Missouri, where barite and lead ore are present together in surficial and near-surface deposits. Lead mining in the area began in the early 1700’s and extended into the early 1900’s. Hand mining of lead in the residuum resulted in widespread pits (also called shafts or diggings), and there was some underground mining of lead in bedrock. By the 1860’s barite was recovered from the residuum by hand mining, also resulting in widespread diggings, but generally not underground mines in bedrock. Mechanized open-pit mining of the residuum for barite began in the 1920’s. Barite production slowed by the 1980’s, and there has not been any barite mining since 1998. Mechanized barite mining resulted in large mined areas and tailings ponds containing waste from barite mills.The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has determined that lead is present in surface soils in Washington and Jefferson Counties at concentrations exceeding health-based screening levels. Also, elevated concentrations of barium, arsenic, and cadmium have been identified in surface soils, and lead concentrations exceeding the Federal drinking-water standard of 15 micrograms per liter have been identified in private drinking-water wells. Potential sources of these contaminants are wastes associated with barite mining, wastes associated with lead mining, or unmined natural deposits of barium, lead, and other metals. As a first step in helping EPA determine the source of soil and groundwater contamination, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the EPA, investigated the geology and mining history of the Southeast Missouri Barite District and the Valles Mines.Ore minerals are barite (barium sulfate), galena (lead sulfide), cerussite (lead carbonate), anglesite (lead sulfate), sphalerite (zinc sulfide), smithsonite (zinc carbonate), and chalcopyrite (copper

  5. Drone-Borne Hyperspectral Monitoring of Acid Mine Drainage: An Example from the Sokolov Lignite District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Jackisch

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution explores the potential of unmanned aerial systems (UAS to monitor areas affected by acid mine drainage (AMD. AMD is an environmental phenomenon that usually develops in the vicinity of mining operations or in post-mining landscapes. The investigated area covers a re-cultivated tailing in the Sokolov lignite district of the Czech Republic. A high abundance of AMD minerals occurs in a confined space of the selected test site and illustrates potential environmental issues. The mine waste material contains pyrite and its consecutive weathering products, mainly iron hydroxides and oxides. These affect the natural pH values of the Earth’s surface. Prior research done in this area relies on satellite and airborne data, and our approach focuses on lightweight drone systems that enables rapid deployment for field campaigns and consequently-repeated surveys. High spatial image resolutions and precise target determination are additional advantages. Four field and flight campaigns were conducted from April to September 2016. For validation, the waste heap was probed in situ for pH, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, and reflectance spectrometry. Ground truth was achieved by collecting samples that were characterized for pH, X-ray diffraction, and XRF in laboratory conditions. Hyperspectral data were processed and corrected for atmospheric, topographic, and illumination effects using accurate digital elevation models (DEMs. High-resolution point clouds and DEMs were built from drone-borne RGB data using structure-from-motion multi-view-stereo photogrammetry. The supervised classification of hyperspectral image (HSI data suggests the presence of jarosite and goethite minerals associated with the acidic environmental conditions (pH range 2.3–2.8 in situ. We identified specific iron absorption bands in the UAS-HSI data. These features were confirmed by ground-truth spectroscopy. The distribution of in situ pH data validates the UAS-based mineral

  6. Structural geology mapping using PALSAR data in the Bau gold mining district, Sarawak, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pour, Amin Beiranvand; Hashim, Mazlan

    2014-08-01

    The application of optical remote sensing data for geological mapping is difficult in the tropical environment. The persistent cloud coverage, dominated vegetation in the landscape and limited bedrock exposures are constraints imposed by the tropical climate. Structural geology investigations that are searching for epithermal or polymetallic vein-type ore deposits can be developed using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) remote sensing data in tropical/sub-tropical regions. The Bau gold mining district in the State of Sarawak, East Malaysia, on the island of Borneo has been selected for this study. The Bau is a gold field similar to Carlin style gold deposits, but gold mineralization at Bau is much more structurally controlled. Geological analyses coupled with the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) remote sensing data were used to detect structural elements associated with gold mineralization. The PALSAR data were used to perform lithological-structural mapping of mineralized zones in the study area and surrounding terrain. Structural elements were detected along the SSW to NNE trend of the Tuban fault zone and Tai Parit fault that corresponds to the areas of occurrence of the gold mineralization in the Bau Limestone. Most of quartz-gold bearing veins occur in high-angle faults, fractures and joints within massive units of the Bau Limestone. The results show that four deformation events (D1-D4) in the structures of the Bau district and structurally controlled gold mineralization indicators, including faults, joints and fractures are detectable using PALSAR data at both regional and district scales. The approach used in this study can be more broadly applicable to provide preliminary information for exploration potentially interesting areas of epithermal or polymetallic vein-type mineralization using the PALSAR data in the tropical/sub-tropical regions.

  7. Assessment of radiological status of Bagjata underground uranium mine operating in the east Singhbhum District of Jharkhand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, B.K.; Meena, J.S.; Thakur, V.K.; Sahoo, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.; Puranik, V.D.

    2012-01-01

    Bagjata uranium mine deposits (22 °28’ 07”N and 86°29’ 36” E) is located in Dhalmugarh subdivision of East Singhbhum district of Jharkhand. This mine was commissioned in 2008 and presently it is operating with a production capacity of 500 tonne/day. The mining of uranium ores can lead to both internal and external exposures of workers. Internal exposure arises from the inhalation of radon gas and its decay products and radionuclides in ore dust. The contribution of respirable ore dust toward internal exposure has been reported to be insignificant in a low ore grade uranium mines by several authors. Radon gas is produced by the alpha decay of 226 Ra, which is a product of the long lived antecedent uranium ( 238 U), is present in the rocks, decays to a number of short-lived decay products that are themselves radioactive. Radon gas diffuses into the mine air through cracks and fissures present in the ore body, during blasting, mucking and fragmentation of ore body in mine. The short-lived daughters, 218 Po, 214 Pb, 214 Bi and 214 Po, are the principal contributor to internal exposure to mine workers. Radon has been recognized as a radiation hazard causing excess lung cancer among underground miners (NAS, 1988; ATSDR, 1990). 222 Rn concentration in the mine air was estimated by using a scintillation cell technique

  8. Gold-silver mining districts, alteration zones, and paleolandforms in the Miocene Bodie Hills Volcanic Field, California and Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vikre, Peter G.; John, David A.; du Bray, Edward A.; Fleck, Robert J.

    2015-09-25

    The Bodie Hills is a ~40 by ~30 kilometer volcanic field that straddles the California-Nevada state boundary between Mono Lake and the East Walker River. Three precious metal mining districts and nine alteration zones are delineated in Tertiary-Quaternary volcanic and Mesozoic granitic and metamorphic rocks that comprise the volcanic field. Cumulative production from the mining districts, Bodie, Aurora, and Masonic, is 3.4 million ounces of gold and 28 million ounces of silver. Small amounts of mercury were produced from the Potato Peak, Paramount-Bald Peak, and Cinnabar Canyon-US 395 alteration zones; a native sulfur resource in the Cinnabar Canyon-US 395 alteration zone has been identified by drilling. There are no known mineral resources in the other six alteration zones, Red Wash-East Walker River, East Brawley Peak, Sawtooth Ridge, Aurora Canyon, Four Corners, and Spring Peak. The mining districts and alteration zones formed between 13.4 and 8.1 Ma in predominantly ~15–9 Ma volcanic rocks of the Bodie Hills volcanic field. Ages of hydrothermal minerals in the districts and zones are the same as, or somewhat younger than, the ages of volcanic host rocks.

  9. Summary of seismic activity and its relation to geology and mining in the Sunnyside mining district, Carbon and Emery Counties, Utah, during 1967-1970

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunrud, C. Richard; Osterwald, Frank W.; Hernandez, Jerome

    1973-01-01

    In the Sunnyside mining district, Utah, coal is mined under thick and variable overburden which is locally weakened by faults and other structural discontinuities. Stress changes and local stress concentrations produced by mining under these conditions often cause sudden and violent ruptures in the coal and surrounding rock mass. The strain energy released by this type of failure, which can produce shock waves and may discharge coal and rock with explosive force, is often a serious threat to life and property. These releases of strain energy are called bumps or bounces by miners if they occur in the coal, and rock bursts if they occur in the surrounding rock mass. Many of these releases are so violent that they generate seismic waves that can be felt, or at least detected by seismic instruments, miles from the site of the rupture, whereas others are smaller and can be detected only by those sensitive seismic instruments within a few thousand feet of the site of the rupture. In 1969 and 1970, about 27,000 and about 15,000 earth tremors, respectively, were recorded by the five-station seismic monitoring network that is located at the surface and encompasses most of the mine workings in the district. Of these totals, 512 and 524 earth tremors, respectively, were of sufficient magnitude (greater than 1. 5 on the Richter scale) so that the hypocenters could be accurately located. In 1968 about 20,000 tremors were recorded, with 281 large enough to plot, but in 1967 over 50,000 were recorded, of which 540 were plotted. In this report we discuss the way in which seismic activity, geology, and mining are related or seem to be related for the period 1967 through 1970, with emphasis on the period 1969-70. We also suggest certain mining procedures which, based on studies during the period, might increase the safety and efficiency of mining operations in the Sunnyside district. A complete tabulation of the larger magnitude earth tremors which occurred during 1969-70 and

  10. Dental caries experience and treatment needs of green marble mine laborers in Udaipur district, Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duraiswamy Prabu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The study was undertaken at Kesariyaji, located in Udaipur district of Rajasthan. There are about 3 million workers who marble mine at Rajasthan. Living conditions of these workers are substandard and most of them are immigrant workers living in tiny shacks. Majority of them belong to lower socioeconomic status with poor educational background. The present study was carried out to estimate dental caries prevalence and treatment needs of laborers working in the green marble mines of Udaipur district. Basic Research Design: The data was collected using the methods and standards recommended by the WHO. Dentition status and treatment needs along with decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT index, and decayed, missing, and filled surfaces score were recorded. Standard error of mean was calculated for all the mean values of treatment needs. There were three examiners, who were trained before the survey for inter-examiner variability, and the reliability was tested by means of weighted kappa statistics, which was 90%. Participants: The study population comprised 513 men in four age groups of 18-25, 26-34, 35-44, and 45-54 years, respectively. Results: The mean DMFT for all age groups was 3.13 with highest mean of 4.0 for the age group of 45-54 years. Mean decayed teeth were 2.60, 3.33, 1.46, and 1.5 for the age groups 15-24, 25-34, 35-44, and 45-54 years, respectively. Filled component was nil for all age groups. Most of the subjects required one surface filling with a very less proportion needing pulp care. Conclusions: The missing component constituted the major part of DMFT index in the 45-54 years age group and the absence of filled component in the whole study population implies that the treatment needs of the study population are unmet. Thus, intervention in the form of oral health promotion and curative services are the need of the hour.

  11. Mercury isotope fractionation during ore retorting in the Almadén mining district, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, John E.; Pribil, Michael J.; Higueras, Pablo L.

    2013-01-01

    Almadén, Spain, is the world's largest mercury (Hg) mining district, which has produced over 250,000 metric tons of Hg representing about 30% of the historical Hg produced worldwide. The objective of this study was to measure Hg isotopic compositions of cinnabar ore, mine waste calcine (retorted ore), elemental Hg (Hg0(L)), and elemental Hg gas (Hg0(g)), to evaluate potential Hg isotopic fractionation. Almadén cinnabar ore δ202Hg varied from − 0.92 to 0.15‰ (mean of − 0.56‰, σ = 0.35‰, n = 7), whereas calcine was isotopically heavier and δ202Hg ranged from − 0.03‰ to 1.01‰ (mean of 0.43‰, σ = 0.44‰, n = 8). The average δ202Hg enrichment of 0.99‰ between cinnabar ore and calcines generated during ore retorting indicated Hg isotopic mass dependent fractionation (MDF). Mass independent fractionation (MIF) was not observed in any of the samples in this study. Laboratory retorting experiments of cinnabar also were carried out to evaluate Hg isotopic fractionation of products generated during retorting such as calcine, Hg0(L), and Hg0(g). Calcine and Hg0(L) generated during these retorting experiments showed an enrichment in δ202Hg of as much as 1.90‰ and 0.67‰, respectively, compared to the original cinnabar ore. The δ202Hg for Hg0(g) generated during the retorting experiments was as much as 1.16‰ isotopically lighter compared to cinnabar, thus, when cinnabar ore was roasted, the resultant calcines formed were isotopically heavier, whereas the Hg0(g) generated was isotopically lighter in Hg isotopes.

  12. Geology and ore deposits of Johnny M mine, Ambrosia Lake District

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falkowski, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    The Johnny M mine is one of very few mines in the Ambrosia Lake district with uranium ore in two members of the Morrison Formation (Jurassic); these members are the Westwater Canyon Sandstone and the Brushy Basin Shale. The Westwater Canyon ore is contained in the two upper sandstone units of the member, and the Brushy Basin ore is contained in the Poison Canyon sandstone (informal usage). The sedimentary features and structures in the Westwater Canyon sandstones indicate that the sediments were deposited by a system of aggrading braided streams, possibly at the distal end of coalescing alluvial fans. The Poison Canyon sandstone was probably the result of deposition in a complex environment of meandering and braided streams. Paleocurrent-direction indicators, such as fossilized-log orientation, foreset azimuths, and the axes of crossbeds and channel scours, suggest that the local palostream flow was to the east and southeast. The uranium mineralization is closely associated with 1) local accumulations of carbonaceous (humate) matter derived from the decay of organic material and 2) paleostream channels preserved in the rocks. The ore elements were derived from the leaching of volcanic air-fall tuffs and ash, which were introduced into the fluvial system during volcanic activity in the western United States. The mobile ore-element ions were reduce and concentrated by humic acids and bacteria present in the fluvial system and ultimately remobilized into the forms present today. The uranium is thus envisioned as forming either essentially on the surface as the sediments were being deposited or at very shallow depth

  13. Adverse health effects in Canada geese (Branta canadensis) associated with waste from zinc and lead mines in the Tri-State Mining District (Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Deon; Carpenter, James W; Nietfeld, Jerome C; Miesner, John F

    2011-07-01

    Lead and zinc poisoning have been recorded in a variety of bird species, including migrating waterfowl such as Canada Geese (Branta canadensis), at sites contaminated with mine waste from lead and zinc mines in the Tri-State Mining District, Kansas, Oklahoma, and Missouri, USA. The adverse health impacts from mine waste on these birds may, however, be more extensive than is apparent from incidental reports of clinical disease. To characterize health impacts from mine waste on Canada Geese that do not have observable signs of poisoning, four to eight apparently healthy birds per site were collected from four contaminated sites and an uncontaminated reference site, and examined for physical and physiologic evidence of metals poisoning. Tissue concentrations of silver, aluminum, arsenic, barium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, selenium, thallium, vanadium, and zinc were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy. Adverse health effects due to lead were characterized by assessing blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) enzyme activity. Adverse effects associated with zinc poisoning were determined from histologic examination of pancreas tissues. Elevated tissue lead concentrations and inhibited blood ALAD enzyme activities were consistently found in birds at all contaminated sites. Histopathologic signs of zinc poisoning, including fibrosis and vacuolization, were associated with elevated pancreatic zinc concentrations at one of the study sites. Adverse health effects associated with other analyzed elements, or tissue concentrations indicating potentially toxic exposure levels to these elements, were not observed.

  14. An assessment of AVIRIS data for hydrothermal alteration mapping in the Goldfield Mining District, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrere, Veronique; Abrams, Michael J.

    1988-01-01

    Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data were acquired over the Goldfield Mining District, Nevada, in September 1987. Goldfield is one of the group of large epithermal precious metal deposits in Tertiary volcanic rocks, associated with silicic volcanism and caldera formation. Hydrothermal alteration consists of silicification along fractures, advanced agrillic and argillic zones further away from veins and more widespread propylitic zones. An evaluation of AVIRIS data quality was performed. Faults in the data, related to engineering problems and a different behavior of the instrument while on-board the U2, were encountered. Consequently, a decision was made to use raw data and correct them only for dark current variations and detector read-out-delays. New software was written to that effect. Atmospheric correction was performed using the flat field correction technique. Analysis of the data was then performed to extract spectral information, mainly concentrating on the 2 to 2.45 micron window, as the alteration minerals of interest have their distinctive spectral reflectance features in this region. Principally kaolinite and alunite spectra were clearly obtained. Mapping of the different minerals and alteration zones was attempted using ratios and clustering techniques. Poor signal-to-noise performance of the instrument and the lack of appropriate software prevented the production of an alteration map of the area. Spectra extracted locally from the AVIRIS data were checked in the field by collecting representative samples of the outcrops.

  15. Geology of epithermal silver-gold bulk-mining targets, bodie district, Mono County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, V.F.; Silberman, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    The Bodie mining district in Mono County, California, is zoned with a core polymetallic-quartz vein system and silver- and gold-bearing quartz-adularia veins north and south of the core. The veins formed as a result of repeated normal faulting during doming shortly after extrusion of felsic flows and tuffs, and the magmatic-hydrothermal event seems to span at least 2 Ma. Epithermal mineralization accompanied repeated movement of the normal faults, resulting in vein development in the planes of the faults. The veins occur in a very large area of argillic alteration. Individual mineralized structures commonly formed new fracture planes during separate fault movements, with resulting broad zones of veinlets growing in the walls of the major vein-faults. The veinlet swarms have been found to constitute a target estimated at 75,000,000 tons, averaging 0.037 ounce gold per ton. The target is amenable to bulkmining exploitation. The epithermal mineralogy is simple, with electrum being the most important precious metal mineral. The host veins are typical low-sulfide banded epithermal quartz and adularia structures that filled voids created by the faulting. Historical data show that beneficiation of the simple vein mineralogy is very efficient. ?? 1995 Oxford University Press.

  16. Study on the quality of site in the mining district gangue of abandoned place

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Guo-bin; LI Ying; WU Xiang-yun

    2008-01-01

    Being as an example of Fuxin, gangue abandoned place was classified gangue hill and dump. It was built 68 piece of temporary standard fields, which physical and chemical character of soil were researched and analyzed. The quality of district site was estimated, and five type abandoned place were gotten. Stopping draining cash less than 7 a and draining cash gangue hill was regarded as Ⅰ gangue hill. Stopping draining gangue age limit 7-15 a and herbage abundance being CO1p level was regarded as Ⅱ gangue hill.Stopping draining gangue age limit 15~25 a and herbage abundance CO2p level was re-garded as Ⅲ gangue hill. Stopping draining cash gangue age limit over 25 a and herbage abundance CO3p level was regarded as Ⅳ gangue hill. Dump being formed the under-ground layer dug up and stacked in the course of mining was regarded asVgangue hill.The results show that every typical abandoned place can plant vegetable.

  17. 75 FR 71668 - Cibota National Forest, Mount Taylor Ranger District, NM, Roca Honda Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... develop and conduct underground uranium mining operations on their mining claims on and near Jesus Mesa in... open to mineral entry under the General Mining Law of 1872. Section 16 is State of New Mexico land, which is not subject to the regulatory jurisdiction of the Forest Service. Roca Honda proposes a mine...

  18. Arsenic partitioning among particle-size fractions of mine wastes and stream sediments from cinnabar mining districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Veronica; Loredo, Jorge; Fernández-Martínez, Rodolfo; Larios, Raquel; Ordóñez, Almudena; Gómez, Belén; Rucandio, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Tailings from abandoned mercury mines represent an important pollution source by metals and metalloids. Mercury mining in Asturias (north-western Spain) has been carried out since Roman times until the 1970s. Specific and non-specific arsenic minerals are present in the paragenesis of the Hg ore deposit. As a result of intensive mining operations, waste materials contain high concentrations of As, which can be geochemically dispersed throughout surrounding areas. Arsenic accumulation, mobility and availability in soils and sediments are strongly affected by the association of As with solid phases and granular size composition. The objective of this study was to examine phase associations of As in the fine grain size subsamples of mine wastes (La Soterraña mine site) and stream sediments heavily affected by acid mine drainage (Los Rueldos mine site). An arsenic-selective sequential procedure, which categorizes As content into seven phase associations, was applied. In spite of a higher As accumulation in the finest particle-size subsamples, As fractionation did not seem to depend on grain size since similar distribution profiles were obtained for the studied granulometric fractions. The presence of As was relatively low in the most mobile forms in both sites. As was predominantly linked to short-range ordered Fe oxyhydroxides, coprecipitated with Fe and partially with Al oxyhydroxides and associated with structural material in mine waste samples. As incorporated into short-range ordered Fe oxyhydroxides was the predominant fraction at sediment samples, representing more than 80% of total As.

  19. Mercury distribution in coals influenced by magmatic intrusions, and surface waters from the Huaibei Coal Mining District, Anhui, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Zhicao; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu; Wu, Dun; Wu, Bin; Zhou, Chuncai

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Hg concentrations in coal and surface water samples were determined. • Hg is enriched in the Huaibei coals. • Magmatic activities imparted influences on Hg content and distribution. • Hg contents in surface waters are relative low at the present status. - Abstract: The Hg concentrations in 108 samples, comprising 81 coal samples, 1 igneous rock, 2 parting rock samples and 24 water samples from the Huaibei Coal Mining District, China, were determined by cold-vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The abundance and distribution of Hg in different coal mines and coal seams were studied. The weighted average Hg concentration for all coal samples in the Huaibei Coalfield is 0.42 mg/kg, which is about twice that of average Chinese coals. From southwestern to northeastern coalfield, Hg concentration shows a decreasing trend, which is presumably related to magmatic activity and fault structures. The relatively high Hg levels are observed in coal seams Nos. 6, 7 and 10 in the southwestern coal mines. Correlation analysis indicates that Hg in the southwestern and southernmost coals with high Hg concentrations is associated with pyrite. The Hg concentrations in surface waters in the Huaibei Coal Mining District range from 10 to 60 ng/L, and display a decreasing trend with distance from a coal waste pile but are lower than the regulated levels for Hg in drinking water

  20. Alteration and geochemical zoning in Bodie Bluff, Bodie mining district, eastern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, P.A.; Closs, L.G.; Silberman, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    Banded, epithermal quartz-adularia veins have produced about 1.5 million ounces of gold and 7 million ounces of silver from the Bodie mining district, eastern California. The veins cut dacitic lava flows, pyroclastic rocks and intrusions. Sinter boulders occur in a graben structure at the top of Bodie Bluff and fragments of sinter and mineralized quartz veins occur in hydrothermal breccias nearby. Explosive venting evidently was part of the evolution of the ore-forming geothermal systems which, at one time, must had reached the paleosurface. Previous reconnaissance studies at Bodie Bluff suggested that the geometry of alteration mineral assemblages and distribution of some of the major and trace elements throughout the system correspond to those predicted by models of hot-spring, volcanic rock hosted precious metal deposits (Silberman, 1982; Silberman and Berger, 1985). The current study was undertaken to evaluate these sugestions further. About 500 samples of quartz veins and altered rocks, including sinter, collected over a vertical extent of 200 meters within Bodie Bluff were petrographically examined and chemically analyzed for trace elements by emission spectrographic and atomic absorption methods. Sixty-five samples were analyzed for major elements by X-ray fluorescence methods. The results of these analyses showed that, in general, alteration mineral assemblage and vertical geochemical zoning patterns follow those predicted for hot-spring deposits, but that geochemical zoning patterns for sinter and quartz veins (siliceous deposits), and altered wall rocks are not always similar. The predicted depth-concentration patterns for some elements, notably Au, Ag, Hg, and Tl in quartz veins, and Hg, As and Ag in wall rocks were not as expected, or were perturbed by the main ore producing zone. For both quartz veins and altered wall rocks, the main ore zone had elevated metal contents. Increased concentration of many of these elements could indicate proximity to this

  1. Bald Mountain gold mining district, Nevada: A Jurassic reduced intrusion-related gold system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, C.J.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2007-01-01

    The Bald Mountain mining district has produced about 2 million ounces (Moz) of An. Geologic mapping, field relationships, geochemical data, petrographic observations, fluid inclusion characteristics, and Pb, S, O, and H isotope data indicate that An mineralization was associated with a reduced Jurassic intrusion. Gold deposits are localized within and surrounding a Jurassic (159 Ma) quartz monzonite porphyry pluton and dike complex that intrudes Cambrian to Mississippian carbonate and clastic rocks. The pluton, associated dikes, and An mineralization were controlled by a crustal-scale northwest-trending structure named the Bida trend. Gold deposits are localized by fracture networks in the pluton and the contact metamorphic aureole, dike margins, high-angle faults, and certain strata or shale-limestone contacts in sedimentary rocks. Gold mineralization was accompanied by silicification and phyllic alteration, ??argillic alteration at shallow levels. Although An is typically present throughout, the system exhibits a classic concentric geochemical zonation pattern with Mo, W, Bi, and Cu near the center, Ag, Pb, and Zn at intermediate distances, and As and Sb peripheral to the intrusion. Near the center of the system, micron-sized native An occurs with base metal sulfides and sulfosalts. In peripheral deposits and in later stages of mineralization, Au is typically submicron in size and resides in pyrite or arsenopyrite. Electron microprobe and laser ablation ICP-MS analyses show that arsenopyrite, pyrite, and Bi sulfide minerals contain 10s to 1,000s of ppm Au. Ore-forming fluids were aqueous and carbonic at deep levels and episodically hypersaline at shallow levels due to boiling. The isotopic compositions of H and O in quartz and sericite and S and Pb in sulfides are indicative of magmatic ore fluids with sedimentary sulfur. Together, the evidence suggests that Au was introduced by reduced S-bearing magmatic fluids derived from a reduced intrusion. The reduced

  2. Long term fluctuations of groundwater mine pollution in a sulfide mining district with dry Mediterranean climate: Implications for water resources management and remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraballo, Manuel A; Macías, Francisco; Nieto, José Miguel; Ayora, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Water resources management and restoration strategies, and subsequently ecological and human life quality, are highly influenced by the presence of short and long term cycles affecting the intensity of a targeted pollution. On this respect, a typical acid mine drainage (AMD) groundwater from a sulfide mining district with dry Mediterranean climate (Iberian Pyrite Belt, SW Spain) was studied to unravel the effect of long term weather changes in water flow rate and metal pollutants concentration. Three well differentiated polluting stages were observed and the specific geochemical, mineralogical and hydrological processes involved (pyrite and enclosing rocks dissolution, evaporitic salts precipitation-redisolution and pluviometric long term fluctuations) were discussed. Evidencing the importance of including longer background monitoring stage in AMD management and restoration strategies, the present study strongly advise a minimum 5-years period of AMD continuous monitoring previous to the design of any AMD remediation system in regions with dry Mediterranean climate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An assessment of the radiological scenario around uranium mines in Singhbhum East district, Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, R M; Sahoo, S K; Mohapatra, S; Patra, A C; Lenka, P; Dubey, J S; Jha, V N; Puranik, V D

    2012-07-01

    The present work deals with the prevalent radiological scenario around uranium-mining sites in the Singhbhum East district of Jharkhand state, India. The concentration of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) was estimated from 27 soil samples collected around three regions in the study area, namely Bagjata, Turamdih and Jaduguda. The mean activity concentrations of (238)U in Bagjata, Turamdih and Jaduguda regions were found to be 128.6, 95.7 and 49.2 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Similarly for (232)Th and (40)K the activity concentrations were found to be 57.3, 78.4, 68.9 and 530, 425 and 615 Bq kg(-1) in the Bagjata, Turamdih and Jaduguda regions, respectively, which are comparable with other reported values worldwide, except for some high values. The calculated gamma dose rate, obtained from the concentrations of (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in the samples, was compared with the observed dose rate in air. A good correlation (0.96) was observed between the calculated and the observed gamma dose rate. The annual outdoor effective dose rate was estimated and the values falls between 0.04-0.3, 0.07-0.3 and 0.07-.14 mSv y(-1) with mean values of 0.14, 0.12 and 0.11 mSv y(-1) for the Bagjata, Turamdih and Jaduguda regions, respectively. The terrestrial dose rates in all the three regions are comparable with other reported values worldwide, except for a few high values in Greece, Rio Grande Do Norte (Brazil) and Kalpakkam (India).

  4. Mercury pollution from the artisanal mining in Yani gold district, Northern Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Pura; Freixas, Anna; Bascompta, Marc; María Aranibar, Ana; Villegas, Karla; María García-Noguero, Eva; Higueras, Pablo; Cielito Saraiva, Angela

    2016-04-01

    Artisanal gold mining is the main economic activity in the Yani district, Northern Bolivia. In this area abundant orogenic gold deposits constituted by quartz veins hosted in paleozoic turbiditic series that contain either free gold or associated with pyrite. Gold is recovered in processing plants by gravimetric methods using shaking tables in several communities of this district. Previously, miners ground the mineral in ball mills together with mercury. The present study aims to evaluate the effect of mercury used in the gold recovering process to the environment and human health in the Yani district. The assessment was based on the analysis of human hair, sediments and water from the river nearby the processing plant and drinking water from the fountain that supplies these communities. 47 samples of hair from miners and other people from the Yani and Señor de Mayo communities were obtained in 2014 and 52 samples in 2015. All were analysed to evaluate the mercury exposure in these places. The results from the 2014 sampling show a wide range of Hg concentration in hair, especially in Señor de Mayo, with values up to 136 μg/g THg. However, in 2015 among the 43 residents in Señor de Mayo, 29 (67%) exhibit concentrations higher than 2 μg/g THg, with an average value of 5.36 μg/g THg. On the other hand, in Yani only 40% have concentrations above 2 μg/g THg, with an average value of 2.34 μg/g THg. The content in Hg in most of the hair samples exhibit values above the tolerable limits established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (1 μg/g Hg) and the World Health Organisation (WHO, 2 μg/g Hg). These high Hg concentrations are found not only in miners but also in the other members of the community, in spite of low fish consumption in this area. Part of the hair was analysed before and after cleaning. Usually in the second case the content of Hg is reduced, but still show high Hg levels, then probably the atmosphere is polluted with Hg and population is

  5. Electricity demand in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gam, Imen; Ben Rejeb, Jaleleddine

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the global electricity demand in Tunisia as a function of gross domestic product in constant price, the degree of urbanization, the average annual temperature, and the real electricity price per Kwh. This demand will be examined employing annual data over a period spanning almost thirty one years from 1976 to 2006. A long run relationship between the variables under consideration is determined using the Vector Autoregressive Regression. The empirical results suggest that the electricity demand in Tunisia is sensitive to its past value, any changes in gross domestic product and electricity price. The electricity price effects have a negative impact on long-run electricity consumption. However, the gross domestic product and the past value of electricity consumption have a positive effect. Moreover, the causality test reveals a unidirectional relationship between price and electricity consumption. Our empirical findings are effective to policy makers to maintain the electricity consumption in Tunisia by using the appropriate strategy. - Highlights: ► This paper examined the electricity demand in Tunisia in the long-run. ► The empirical analysis revealed that in the long-run the electricity demand is affected by changes in its past value, GDP in constant price and real electricity price. ► There is a unidirectional relationship between price and electricity consumption, that is to say, that the electricity price causes the consumption. ► Those results suggest that a pricing policy can be an effective instrument to rationalize the electricity consumption in Tunisia in the long-run.

  6. Contamination by mercury in air of the mining district of San Martin de Loba in Bolivar's Department, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivero V, J.; Young C, F.; Caballero G, K.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a heavy metal, considered a highly toxic pollutant. In its elemental state is volatile, making it easy to transport over long distances through the atmosphere, so that environmental pollution caused by it is a serious problem worldwide. Activities such as gold mining, where metallic Hg is used, have contributed with its global distribution, affecting ecosystems and human health. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of total mercury (T-Hg) in air in gold mining areas in Southern Bolivar, particularly in the mining district of San Martin de Loba, in the municipalities of San Martin de Loba and Barranco de Loba (Mina Santa Cruz), Colombia. In situ analyses were performed by atomic absorption spectroscopy, using a portable Ra-915 + Zeeman mercury analyzer. In Mina Santa Cruz, one of the most important gold mines in Colombia, concentrations of Hg in air ranged between 163.7 ± 6.6 and 40 455 ± 2154 mg/m 3 , while in the urban area of San Martin de Loba varied from 223.6 ± 20.8 to 27 140 ± 212.5 ng/m 3 . In those places where an amalgam burning process was taking place at the time of the measurements, Hg concentrations reached values of 40 455 ± 2154 ng/m 3 . These data imply a severe occupational exposure to Hg for operators and citizens living in cities located near mines. Therefore, it is important to regulate and control the use of Hg in gold mining, avoiding a chronic impact of the metal on the health of people and the environment. (author)

  7. Electrical resistivity imaging survey to detect uncharted mine galleries in the mining district of Linares, Jaén, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-López, J.; Rey, J.; Dueñas, J.; Hidalgo, C.; Benavente, J.

    2012-02-01

    The scarcity of information about the existence of old mining shafts and galleries in urban areas is an important issue for future urban development. Electrical resistivity tomography is a non-destructive geophysical technique that can detect and characterize such subsurface cavities based on differences in the behaviour of electrical current in the void and in the embedding rock. Here we present a study in which this technique was used to determine the location of old engineered structures around the city of Linares, southern Spain, and to relate these structures to the abandoned deep mines present in the area. Eight electrical resistivity imaging profiles were performed, with a total of 22 808 measurements. Correlations between geoelectrical anomalies allow detection of the depth and the direction of several galleries, as well as the voids that result from mining extraction. Given the depth at which these structures are located (in some cases less than 5 m), they pose an important risk for future construction projects in areas of urban expansion. This technique is shown to be a useful tool for locating areas that pose important urban risks and, by extension, for the decision-making process in territorial planning, especially in areas with a history of deep mining.

  8. Electrical resistivity imaging survey to detect uncharted mine galleries in the mining district of Linares, Jaén, Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez-López, J; Rey, J; Hidalgo, C; Dueñas, J; Benavente, J

    2012-01-01

    The scarcity of information about the existence of old mining shafts and galleries in urban areas is an important issue for future urban development. Electrical resistivity tomography is a non-destructive geophysical technique that can detect and characterize such subsurface cavities based on differences in the behaviour of electrical current in the void and in the embedding rock. Here we present a study in which this technique was used to determine the location of old engineered structures around the city of Linares, southern Spain, and to relate these structures to the abandoned deep mines present in the area. Eight electrical resistivity imaging profiles were performed, with a total of 22 808 measurements. Correlations between geoelectrical anomalies allow detection of the depth and the direction of several galleries, as well as the voids that result from mining extraction. Given the depth at which these structures are located (in some cases less than 5 m), they pose an important risk for future construction projects in areas of urban expansion. This technique is shown to be a useful tool for locating areas that pose important urban risks and, by extension, for the decision-making process in territorial planning, especially in areas with a history of deep mining

  9. Application of Long Expansion Rock Bolt Support in the Underground Mines of Legnica–Głogów Copper District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypkowski Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the underground mines of the Legnica–Głogów Copper District (LGOM the main way to protect the room excavation is the use of a rock bolt support. For many years, it has proven to be an efficient security measure in excavations which met all safety standards and requirements. The article presents the consumption of the rock bolt support in the Mining Department “Polkowice–Sieroszowice” in the years 2010–2015 as well as the number of bolt supports that were used to secure the excavations. In addition, it shows the percentage of bolt supports that were used to conduct rebuilding work and cover the surface of exposed roofs. One of the factors contributing to the loss of the functionality of bolt supports is corrosion whose occurrence may lead directly to a reduction in the diameter of rock bolt support parts, in particular rods, bearing plates and nuts. The phenomenon of the corrosion of the bolt support and its elements in underground mining is an extremely common phenomenon due to the favorable conditions for its development in mines, namely high temperature and humidity, as well as the presence of highly aggressive water. This involves primarily a decrease in the capacity of bolt support construction, which entails the need for its strengthening, and often the need to perform the reconstruction of the excavation.

  10. Stream-sediment geochemistry in mining-impacted streams: Prichard, Eagle, and Beaver creeks, northern Coeur d'Alene Mining District, northern Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Box, Stephen E.; Wallis, John C.; Briggs, Paul H.; Brown, Zoe Ann

    2005-01-01

    This report presents the results of one aspect of an integrated watershed-characterization study that was undertaken to assess the impacts of historical mining and milling of silver-lead-zinc ores on water and sediment composition and on aquatic biota in streams draining the northern part of the Coeur d?Alene Mining District in northern Idaho. We present the results of chemical analyses of 62 samples of streambed sediment, 19 samples of suspended sediment, 23 samples of streambank soil, and 29 samples of mine- and mill-related artificial- fill material collected from the drainages of Prichard, Eagle, and Beaver Creeks, all tributaries to the North Fork of the Coeur d?Alene River. All samples were sieved into three grain-size fractions (Beaver Creek drainages has resulted in enrichments of lead, zinc, mercury, arsenic, cadmium, silver, copper, cobalt, and, to a lesser extent, iron and manganese in streambed sediment. Using samples collected from the relatively unimpacted West Fork of Eagle Creek as representative of background compositions, streambed sediment in the vicinity of the mines and millsites has Pb and Zn contents of 20 to 100 times background values, decreasing to 2 to 5 times background values at the mouth of the each stream, 15 to 20 km downstream. Lesser enrichments (<10 times background values) of mercury and arsenic also are generally associated with, and decrease downstream from, historical silver-lead-zinc mining in the drainages. However, enrichments of arsenic and, to a lesser extent, mercury also are areally associated with the lode gold deposits along Prichard Creek near Murray, which were not studied here. Metal contents in samples of unfractionated suspended sediment collected during a high-flow event in April 2000 are generally similar to, but slightly higher than, those in the fine (<0.063- mm grain size) fraction of streambed sediment from the same sampling site. Although metal enrichment in streambed sediment typically begins adjacent to

  11. Mercury methylation influenced by areas of past mercury mining in the Terlingua district, Southwest Texas, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, John E.; Hines, Mark E.; Biester, Harald

    2006-01-01

    Speciation and microbial transformation of Hg was studied in mine waste from abandoned Hg mines in SW Texas to evaluate the potential for methyl-Hg production and degradation in mine wastes. In mine waste samples, total Hg, ionic Hg 2+ , Hg 0 , methyl-Hg, organic C, and total S concentrations were measured, various Hg compounds were identified using thermal desorption pyrolysis, and potential rates of Hg methylation and methyl-Hg demethylation were determined using isotopic-tracer methods. These data are the first reported for Hg mines in this region. Total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations were also determined in stream sediment collected downstream from two of the mines to evaluate transport of Hg and methylation in surrounding ecosystems. Mine waste contains total Hg and methyl-Hg concentrations as high as 19,000 μg/g and 1500 ng/g, respectively, which are among the highest concentrations reported at Hg mines worldwide. Pyrolysis analyses show that mine waste contains variable amounts of cinnabar, metacinnabar, Hg 0 , and Hg sorbed onto particles. Methyl-Hg concentrations in mine waste correlate positively with ionic Hg 2+ , organic C, and total S, which are geochemical parameters that influence processes of Hg cycling and methylation. Net methylation rates were as high as 11,000 ng/g/day, indicating significant microbial Hg methylation at some sites, especially in samples collected inside retorts. Microbially-mediated methyl-Hg demethylation was also observed in many samples, but where both methylation and demethylation were found, the potential rate of methylation was faster. Total Hg concentrations in stream sediment samples were generally below the probable effect concentration of 1.06 μg/g, the Hg concentration above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment dwelling organisms; whereas total Hg concentrations in mine waste samples were found to exceed this concentration, although this is a sediment quality guideline and is not directly

  12. Thallium release from acid mine drainages: Speciation in river and tap water from Valdicastello mining district (northwest Tuscany).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Beatrice; Casiot, Corinne; Onor, Massimo; Perotti, Martina; Petrini, Riccardo; Bramanti, Emilia

    2017-08-15

    In this work we present an advantageous method for the simultaneous separation and detection of Tl(I) and Tl(III) species through ion chromatography coupled with on-line inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry. Chromatographic separation between Tl(III) and Tl(I) was achieved in less than two minutes. The method was validated by recovery experiments on real samples, and by comparing the sum of the concentrations of individual Tl species with total thallium values obtained from continuous flow ICP-MS. The experimental procedure offers an accurate, sensitive and interference-free method for Tl speciation at trace levels in environmental samples. This allowed us to investigate the Tl speciation in acid mine drainages (AMD), surface waters and springs in a mining catchment in Valdicastello Carducci (Tuscany, Italy), where severe Tl contamination ad been evidenced previously. This study shows for the first time that Tl(III), in addition to Tl(I), is present in considerable amounts in water samples affected by acid mining outflow, raising the question of the origin of this thermodynamically unstable species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Tunisia; Statistical Appendix

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2001-01-01

    This report provides the analysis of the IMF's projections and estimates on Tunisia's basic data; sectoral distribution of GDP at constant and current prices; supply and use of resources at current and constant prices; consumer price index; balance of payments; selected exchange rate indices; revenue from the petroleum sector during 1995–2000; assets and liabilities of the central bank and deposit money banks; monetary survey; selected interest rates; direction of trade energy production and ...

  14. A REIA Study of Marble Mining Activities in District- Nagaur (Rajasthan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Arif

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Conventional and unscientific mining poses severe threat to life, public property and continuation of mining in the area. Incompatible land uses, huge waste dumps and large scale land transformation have resulted in land degradation, ponding, flooding, water contamination and health hazards in Makrana mining area. Segregation of dumps, compatible land use, research and development activity for use of marble slurry are suggested measures for reclamation and restoration of the degraded land. While for the purpose of development and economic upliftment of people, there is a need for establishment of industrial project, but these have to be environmentally friendly. Therefore it is essential to assess the impacts of mining on different environmental parameters, before starting the mining operations, so that abatement measures could be planned in advance for eco-friendly mining in the area. Environmental impact assessment (EIA is a systematic process that examines the environmental consequences of development action like mining, cement, transport, river valley. EIA systematically examines booth beneficial and adverse consequences of the proposed project and ensures that these impacts are taken into account during the project design.

  15. Characteristics of Poverty in Rural Communities of Gold Mining District Area West Sumbawa

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Baiquni, Muhammad; Ritohardoyo, Su; Setiadi, Setiadi

    2016-01-01

    The research is conducted in rural areas of gold mining with the aim to find out the characteristics of poverty in the rural area of gold mining in West Sumbawa regency. The survey method is used in this study, focusing on the rural mining area. Sample of respondents are 167 households, selected by purposive sampling from four villages, which are determined based on the first ma slope. The data analysis uses cross tabulation and frequency tables. The results showes that the poverty rate in th...

  16. Evaluation of plant species composition after thirteen years post coal mining rehabilitation in East Kutai District of East Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komara, L. L.; Murtinah, V.; Arbain

    2018-04-01

    Coal mining leaving large overburden which needs to be rehabilitated by conducting reclamation and re-vegetation. This study objective was to evaluate plant species composition after thirteen years of re-vegetation activities in a coal mining rehabilitation site in KutaiTimur District, East Kalimantan, with coordinate 00º33’23”-00º38’17” NL and 117º23’55”-117º23’20” EL. This study compared rehabilitation site with the natural forest conditions sites. There were found 28 plant species in the rehabilitation site, consisting of 19 wood species (Cassia siamea and Ficus uncinata) and 9 non-wood species (Nephrolepis biserata and Miscanthus javanica).In comparison, 36 species were found in the natural forest condition, consisting of 25 woody species (Nephelium eriopetalum and Macaranga hypoleuca)and 11 non-wood species (Fordia splendidisima and Saurauia umbellata). Woody species diversity indices in the rehabilitation site after 13 years post mining (i.e., 2,21) was lower than in the natural forest sites (3,01); while the diversity indices for non-wood species were relatively similar (1,48 and 1,96 in the rehabilitation and natural forest sites respectively). Species richness of non-wood species was low, but it has a high coverage per species in this site.To restore rehabilitation site woody species to its assumed natural conditions, 22woody species should be planted.

  17. Intensifying waste water clarification in heavy and mining industries for sanitation of rivers in the Katowice district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paluch, J.; Twardowska, I.

    1976-01-01

    This article presents a detailed account of the state of water pollution in the main and tributary rivers of the heavily populated and industrialized district of Katowice, Poland: Results of surveys in the years 1969 to 1972 are given. Several tables and maps show the degree of water pollution in rivers, the amount to which the values exceed pollution standards, percentage of treated and untreated industrial waste water entering the rivers, the classification of river sections according to their content of suspensions, phenols and salt. Further figures show the effectiveness of water cleaning flocculating agents and of waste water treatment at coking plants. Black coal mining and processing contributes the greater part to pollution of the rivers. Only 54% of mining industry waste water is cleaned mechanically and 3% chemically. The amount of 3,300 t/d of chlorite and sulfate salts is led into the rivers primarily from the Rybnik coal mining area. The clarification of waste water resulting from hydraulic stowing and from flotation processes is described as most problematic. Research efforts are being made at economic desalination and suspension flocculation. In the coking industry waste water is treated in 88% of the plants, but dephenolization takes place in only 50% of the plants. (29 refs.) (In German)

  18. Industrial wastewater treatment using higher aquatic vegetation in the former mining company of the Far Eastern Federal district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupskaya, L. T.; Zvereva, V. P.; Gula, K. E.; Gul', L. P.; Golubev, D. A.; Filatova, M. Yu.

    2017-09-01

    The article describes the results of studying the problems of industrial wastewater treatment using higher aquatic vegetation (hydrophytes) in the former mining enterprise of the Far Eastern Federal District (FEFD). They are aimed at reducing the negative environment impact of toxic tin ore wastes. The material of research were drainage, mine and slime waters as well as Lemna minor and Common reed grass (Phragmites communis). In the work conventional modern physico-chemical, chemical, biological and mathematical-statistical methods were used, as well as in the process of research the methods of atomic absorption spectrophotometry for AAS and mass spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma on ISP-MS ELASN DRS II PerkinElmer was applied. The data obtained in the course of the experiment (2015-2016), indicate that a degree of wastewater treatment, using Lemna minor, is high. Virtually, all compounds of toxic chemical elements contained in industrial wastewater (zinc, cobalt, nickel, cadmium, iron, manganese, lead, etc.) were fully absorbed by a hydrophyte. Pollutant extraction was almost 95%. The obtained results of the study in laboratory conditions proved the possibility of effective use of the Lemna minor for the purification of drainage and mine waters. A key contribution of this paper is the relationship between possible toxic metals contained in industrial wastewater and a higher degree of absorption by their higher aquatic vegetation. These hydrophytes absorb these possible toxic metals in an aqueous medium and are contaminated with these heavy metals.

  19. 76 FR 35396 - Black Hills National Forest, Mystic Ranger District, South Dakota, Section 30 Limestone Mining...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... 60 acres will be disturbed at any one time. Reclamation will result in a depression on the existing... statutory exemption for the extraction of cement precursors. Pennington County Construction (Mining) Permit...

  20. Characteristics of Poverty in Rural Communities of Gold Mining District Area West Sumbawa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Ibrahim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The research is conducted in rural areas of gold mining with the aim to find out the characteristics of poverty in the rural area of gold mining in West Sumbawa regency. The survey method is used in this study, focusing on the rural mining area. Sample of respondents are 167 households, selected by purposive sampling from four villages, which are determined based on the first ma slope. The data analysis uses cross tabulation and frequency tables. The results showes that the poverty rate in the research area is still low. The results of the combined value of the characteristic size of the hilly topography of poverty are 84 per cent and 83.7 per cent flat topography caused by low levels of income, quality of houses, agricultural land ownership, livestock ownership, ownership of valuables

  1. Isotopically constrained lead sources in fugitive dust from unsurfaced roads in the southeast Missouri mining district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Emitt C.; Pribil, Michael; Hogan, John P; Wronkiewicz, David

    2016-01-01

    The isotopic composition of lead (Pb) in fugitive dust suspended by a vehicle from 13 unsurfaced roads in Missouri was measured to identify the source of Pb within an established long-term mining area. A three end-member model using 207Pb/206Pb and concentration as tracers resulted in fugitive dust samples plotting in the mixing field of well characterized heterogeneous end members. End members selected for this investigation include the 207Pb/206Pb for 1) a Pb-mixture representing mine tailings, 2) aerosol Pb-impacted soils within close proximity to the Buick secondary recycling smelter, and 3) an average of soils, rock cores and drill cuttings representing the background conditions. Aqua regia total concentrations and 207Pb/206Pb of mining area dust suggest that 35.4–84.3% of the source Pb in dust is associated with the mine tailings mixture, 9.1–52.7% is associated with the smelter mixture, and 0–21.6% is associated with background materials. Isotope ratios varied minimally within the operational phases of sequential extraction suggesting that mixing of all three Pb mixtures occurs throughout. Labile forms of Pb were attributed to all three end members. The extractable carbonate phase had as much as 96.6% of the total concentration associated with mine tailings, 51.8% associated with smelter deposition, and 34.2% with background. The next most labile geochemical phase (Fe + Mn Oxides) showed similar results with as much as 85.3% associated with mine tailings, 56.8% associated with smelter deposition, and 4.2% associated with the background soil.

  2. Terlinguacreekite, Hg32+O2 Cl2, a new mineral species from the Perry pit, Mariposa mine, Terlingua mining district, Brewster County, Texas, U.S.A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew C.; Gault, Robert A.; Paar, W.H.; Cooper, M.A.; Hawthorne, F.C.; Burns, P.C.; Cisneros, S.; Foord, E.E.

    2005-01-01

    Terlinguacreekite, ideally Hg32+O2 Cl2, has a very pronounced subcell that is orthorhombic, space-group choices Imam, Imcm, Ima2 and 12cm, with unit-cell parameters refined from powder data: a 6.737(3), b 25.528(10), c 5.533(2) A??, V951.6(6) A??3, a:b:c 0.2639:1:0.2167, Z=8. The true symmetry, supercell unit-cell parameters, and details regarding the crystal structure are unknown. The strongest nine lines of the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d in A?? (I)(subcell hkl)] are: 5.413(30)(011), 4.063(80)(121), 3.201(50)(080), 3.023(50)(161), 2.983(60)(240), 2.858(30)(211), 2.765(50)(002), 2.518(100b)(091, 251) and 2.026(30)(242). The mineral is found in an isolated area measuring approximately 1 ?? 0.5 m in the lower level of the Perry pit, Mariposa mine, Terlingua mining district, Brewster County, Texas (type locality), as mm-sized anhedral dark orange to reddish orange crusts of variable thickness on calcite, and rarely as 0.5 mm-sized aggregates of crystals of the same color. It has also been identified at the McDermitt mine, Humboldt County, Nevada, U.S.A., where it occurs with kleinite and calomel in silicified volcanic rocks and sediments. Terlinguacreekite is a secondary phase, most probably formed from the alteration of primary cinnabar or native mercury. At Terlingua, most crusts are thin, almost cryptocrystalline, with no discernable forms, and are resinous and translucent to opaque. Crystals are up to 0.2 mm in length, subhedral, acicular to prismatic, elongation [001], with a maximum length-to-width ratio of 4:1. They are vitreous, transparent, and some crystals have brightly reflecting faces, which may be {010} and {110}. The streak is yellow, and the mineral is brittle with an uneven fracture, no observable cleavage, and is soft, nonfluorescent under both long- and short-wave ultraviolet light. D (calc.) is 9.899 g/cm3 (empirical formula). Material from the McDermitt mine is reversibly photosensitive, and turns from vivid orange to black in strong

  3. Applicability of geostatistical procedures for the evaluation of hydrogeological parameters of a fractured aquifer in the Ronneburg mine district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grasshoff, C.; Schetelig, K.; Tomschi, H.

    1998-01-01

    The following paper demonstrates, how a geostatistical approach can help interpolating hydrogeological parameters over a certain area. The basic elements developed by G. Matheron in the sixties are represented as the preconditions and assumptions, which provide the best results of the estimation. The variogram as the most important tool in geostatistics offers the opportunity to describe the correlating behaviour of a regionalized variable. Some kriging procedures are briefly introduced, which provide under varying circumstances estimating of non-measured values with the theoretical variogram-model. In the Ronneburg mine district 108 screened drill-holes could provide coefficients of hydraulic conductivity. These were interpolated with ordinary kriging over the whole investigation area. An error calculation was performed, which could prove the accuracy of the estimation. Short prospects point out some difficulties handling with geostatistic procedures and make suggestions for further investigations. (orig.) [de

  4. Improvements mineral dressing and extraction processes of gold-silver ores from San Pedro Frio Mining District, Colombia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanez Traslavina, J. J.; Vargas Avila, M. A.; Garcia Paez, I. H.; Pedraza Rosas, J. E.

    2005-01-01

    The San Pedro Frio district mining, Colombia, is a rich region production gold-silver ores. Nowadays, the extraction processes used are amalgamation, percolation cyanidation and precipitation with zinc wood. Due to the ignorance of the ore characteristics, gold and silver treatment processes are inadequate and not efficient. In addition the inappropriate use of mercury and cyanide cause environmental contamination. In this research the ore characterization was carried out obtained fundamental parameters for the technical selection of more efficient gold and silver extraction processes. Experimental work was addressed to the study of both processes the agitation cyanidation and the adsorption on activated carbon in pulp. As a final result proposed a flowsheet to improve the precious metals recovery and reduce the environment contamination. (Author)

  5. Application of Long Expansion Rock Bolt Support in the Underground Mines of Legnica-Głogów Copper District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypkowski, Krzysztof; Korzeniowski, Waldemar; Zagórski, Krzysztof; Dudek, Piotr

    2017-09-01

    In the underground mines of the Legnica-Głogów Copper District (LGOM) the main way to protect the room excavation is the use of a rock bolt support. For many years, it has proven to be an efficient security measure in excavations which met all safety standards and requirements. The article presents the consumption of the rock bolt support in the Mining Department "Polkowice-Sieroszowice" in the years 2010-2015 as well as the number of bolt supports that were used to secure the excavations. In addition, it shows the percentage of bolt supports that were used to conduct rebuilding work and cover the surface of exposed roofs. One of the factors contributing to the loss of the functionality of bolt supports is corrosion whose occurrence may lead directly to a reduction in the diameter of rock bolt support parts, in particular rods, bearing plates and nuts. The phenomenon of the corrosion of the bolt support and its elements in underground mining is an extremely common phenomenon due to the favorable conditions for its development in mines, namely high temperature and humidity, as well as the presence of highly aggressive water. This involves primarily a decrease in the capacity of bolt support construction, which entails the need for its strengthening, and often the need to perform the reconstruction of the excavation. The article presents an alternative for steel bearing plates, namely plates made using the spatial 3D printing technology. Prototype bearing plates were printed on a 3D printer Formiga P100 using the "Precymit" material. The used printing technology was SLS (Selective Laser Sintering), which is one of the most widely used technologies among all the methods of 3D printing for the short series production of the technical parts of the final product. The article presents the stress-strain characteristic of the long expansion connected rock bolt support OB25 with a length of 3.65 m. A rock bolt support longer than 2.6 m is an additional bolt support in

  6. Structural and lithologic constraints to mineralization in Aurora, Nevada and Bodie, California mining districts, observed with aerospace geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smailbegovic, Amer

    This study used a multifaceted approach to investigate the geology and metallogenesis of the Bodie Hills region and the Aurora mining district. The factors influencing regional- and local-scale metallogenesis are compared and discussed in context of the various datasets, analysis techniques and methodologies. The Aurora and Bodie mining districts are located in the Miocene volcanics of the Bodie Hills, north of Mono Lake, on the opposite sides of the Nevada-California state line. From the standpoint of economic geology, both deposits are structurally controlled, low-sulfidation, quartz-adularia-sericite precious metal vein deposits with an extensive alteration halo. The area has been exploited since late 1870s by both underground and minor open pit operations (Aurora), exposing portions of altered andesites, rhyolite flows and tuffs and quartz-adularia-sericite veins. Much of the previous geologic mapping and explanation in Aurora was ad-hoc and primarily in support of the mining operations, without particular interest paid to the system as a whole. Using detailed field mapping and interpretation of the deposit in Bodie as a guide, a combined array of geophysical data in conjunction with traditional field mapping and GIS-based Weights of Evidence (WofE) modeling was utilized to attain better understanding of the Aurora district and both districts in the local and regional framework. The gravity data suggests a NE-trending, positive anomaly, resulting from a density contrast between the presumably uplifted pre-Tertiary basement and Miocene volcanic assemblage in the Bodie Hills. The aeromagnetic data are dominated by the strong signature of the Miocene volcanism (vents, flows, etc.) and suggests that the volcanic activity is concentrated along the northeasterly corridor of basement uplift. Multispectral, spaceborne imagery (Landsat ETM, ASTER) shows the regional structural setting, which is dominated by NNE and NE-trending lineaments and major alteration trends in

  7. An ecosystem approach to evaluate restoration measures in the lignite mining district of Lusatia/Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, Wolfgang

    2015-04-01

    Lignite mining in Lusatia has a history of over 100 years. Open-cast mining directly affected an area of 1000 km2. Since 20 years we established an ecosystem oriented approach to evaluate the development and site characteristics of post-mining areas mainly restored for agricultural and silvicultural land use. Water and element budgets of afforested sites were studied under different geochemical settings in a chronosequence approach (Schaaf 2001), as well as the effect of soil amendments like sewage sludge or compost in restoration (Schaaf & Hüttl 2006). Since 10 years we also study the development of natural site regeneration in the constructed catchment Chicken Creek at the watershed scale (Schaaf et al. 2011, 2013). One of the striking characteristics of post-mining sites is a very large small-scale soil heterogeneity that has to be taken into account with respect to soil forming processes and element cycling. Results from these studies in combination with smaller-scale process studies enable to evaluate the long-term effect of restoration measures and adapted land use options. In addition, it is crucial to compare these results with data from undisturbed, i.e. non-mined sites. Schaaf, W., 2001: What can element budgets of false-time series tell us about ecosystem development on post-lignite mining sites? Ecological Engineering 17, 241-252. Schaaf, W. and Hüttl, R. F., 2006: Direct and indirect effects of soil pollution by lignite mining. Water, Air and Soil Pollution - Focus 6, 253-264. Schaaf, W., Bens, O., Fischer, A., Gerke, H.H., Gerwin, W., Grünewald, U., Holländer, H.M., Kögel-Knabner, I., Mutz, M., Schloter, M., Schulin, R., Veste, M., Winter, S. & Hüttl, R.F., 2011: Patterns and processes of initial terrestrial-ecosystem development. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 174, 229-239. Schaaf, W., Elmer, M., Fischer, A., Gerwin, W., Nenov, R., Pretsch, H. and Zaplate, M.K., 2013: Feedbacks between vegetation, surface structures and hydrology

  8. Sources and fate of mercury pollution in Almadén mining district (Spain): Evidences from mercury isotopic compositions in sediments and lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Moreno, María; Barre, Julien P G; Perrot, Vincent; Bérail, Sylvain; Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, Rosa C; Amouroux, David

    2016-03-01

    Variations in mercury (Hg) isotopic compositions have been scarcely investigated until now in the Almadén mining district (Spain), which is one of the most impacted Hg areas worldwide. In this work, we explore and compare Hg isotopic signatures in sediments and lichens from Almadén mining district and its surroundings in order to identify and trace Hg aquatic and atmospheric contamination sources. No statistically significant mass independent fractionation was observed in sediments, while negative Δ(201)Hg values from -0.12 to -0.21‰ (2SD = 0.06‰) were found in lichens. A large range of δ(202)Hg values were reported in sediments, from -1.86 ± 0.21‰ in La Serena Reservoir sites far away from the pollution sources to δ(202)Hg values close to zero in sediments directly influenced by Almadén mining district, whereas lichens presented δ(202)Hg values from -1.95 to -0.40‰ (2SD = 0.15‰). A dilution or mixing trend in Hg isotope signatures versus the distance to the mine was found in sediments along the Valdeazogues River-La Serena Reservoir system and in lichens. This suggests that Hg isotope fingerprints in these samples are providing a direct assessment of Hg inputs and exposure from the mining district, and potential information on diffuse atmospheric contamination and/or geochemical alteration processes in less contaminated sites over the entire hydrosystem. This study confirms the applicability of Hg isotope signatures in lichens and sediments as an effective and complementary tool for tracing aquatic and atmospheric Hg contamination sources and a better constraint of the spatial and temporal fate of Hg released by recent or ancient mining activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Soil quality assessment using GIS-based chemometric approach and pollution indices: Nakhlak mining district, Central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Farid; Sheykhi, Vahideh; Salari, Mohammad; Bagheri, Adel

    2016-04-01

    This paper is a comprehensive assessment of the quality of soil in the Nakhlak mining district in Central Iran with special reference to potentially toxic metals. In this regard, an integrated approach involving geostatistical, correlation matrix, pollution indices, and chemical fractionation measurement is used to evaluate selected potentially toxic metals in soil samples. The fractionation of metals indicated a relatively high variability. Some metals (Mo, Ag, and Pb) showed important enrichment in the bioavailable fractions (i.e., exchangeable and carbonate), whereas the residual fraction mostly comprised Sb and Cr. The Cd, Zn, Co, Ni, Mo, Cu, and As were retained in Fe-Mn oxide and oxidizable fractions, suggesting that they may be released to the environment by changes in physicochemical conditions. The spatial variability patterns of 11 soil heavy metals (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn) were identified and mapped. The results demonstrated that Ag, As, Cd, Mo, Cu, Pb, Sb, and Zn pollution are associated with mineralized veins and mining operations in this area. Further environmental monitoring and remedial actions are required for management of soil heavy metals in the study area. The present study not only enhanced our knowledge regarding soil pollution in the study area but also introduced a better technique to analyze pollution indices by multivariate geostatistical methods.

  10. Lead in residential soil and dust in a mining and smelting district in northern Armenia: a pilot study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrosyan, Varduhi; Orlova, Anna; Dunlap, Charles E.; Babayan, Emil; Farfel, Mark; Braun, Margrit von

    2004-01-01

    This pilot study of sources of lead exposure in residential settings was conducted in a mining and smelting district in northern Armenia. Samples of exterior soil and dust and interior house dust were collected in and around apartment buildings in Alaverdi where the country's largest polymetallic smelter is located, and in nearby mining towns of Aghtala and Shamlugh. The NITON XL-723 Multi-Element XRF analyzer was used for lead testing. Lead levels in samples from Alaverdi were higher than those in Shamlugh and Aghtala. In all three towns, the highest lead levels were found in loose exterior dust samples, and lead concentrations in yard soil were higher than those in garden soil. Many soil samples (34%) and the majority of loose dust samples (77%) in Alaverdi exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency standard of 400 mg/kg for bare soil in children's play areas. In addition, 36% of floor dust samples from apartments in Alaverdi exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency standard of 40 μg/ft 2 for lead loading in residential floor dust. The Armenian Ministry of Health and other interested agencies are being informed about the findings of the study so that they can consider and develop educational and preventive programs including blood lead screening among sensitive populations

  11. Combination of drainage, water supply and environmental protection as well as rational distribution of water resource in Zhengzhou mining district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Q.; Li, D.; Di, Z.Q.; Miao, Y.; Zhao, S.Q.; Guo, Q.W. [CUMT, Beijing (China). Resource Exploitation Engineering College

    2005-10-01

    The geological condition of coalfield is much complex in China. With increasing in mining depth and drainage amount, the contradiction of drainage, water supply and environmental protection is becoming more and more serious. However, the contradiction can be solved by the scientific management of optimizing combination of drainage, water supply and environmental protection. The Philip multiple objectives simplex method used in this article has searched for a possible solution at the first step, and then it goes on searching to find out whether there is a weight number that can lead the solution to the biggest. It can reduce the randomness and difficulty of traditional weight method which determine the weight number artificially. Some beneficial coefficients are vague and the number is larger in the model of water resource dispatch. So the vague layer analysis method can consider these vague factors fully, combining the qualitative and quantitative analysis together. Especially, this method can quantify the experiential judgement of policy decider, and it will turn to be more suitable if the structure of objective factors is complex or the necessary data are absent. In the paper, the two methods above are used to solve the plans of drainage, water supply and optimizing distribution of water resource in the Zhengzhou mining district.

  12. Prevalence of periodontal disease among mine workers of Zonguldak, Kozlu District, Turkey: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Murat İnanç; Zengin, Büşra; İçen, Murat; Köktürk, Firüzan

    2018-03-16

    Occupational injuries cause major health problems in all nations. Coal mining is one of the largest, oldest industries in the world. However, there is relatively little available literature concerning the health status of coal miners. The purpose of this work is to assess the prevalence of periodontal disease among coal miners and provide a basis for planning and evaluating the data from community oral health services. A cross-sectional study was conducted 106 men selected based on a stratified cluster sampling procedure. The study was performed among the mine workers of Zonguldak, Kozlu District, Turkey. The questionnaire prepared by the American Academy of Periodontology risk assessment test was used for the evaluation. The data were collected byWorld Health Organization (WHO) oral health assessment form, and clinical examination was conducted by the method recommended by the WHO oral health surveys. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software programme. The overall prevalence of periodontal disease was found to be 96.2% and was determined by considering subjects with Community Periodontal Index scores of 1-4 as diseased and the healthy subjects comprised of a mere 3.8%. Furthermore, various disturbing or embarrassing work conditions were reported. Statistically significant differences were observed among the workers who brush their teeth daily and visit dental attendance within the last two years have better periodontal status than those of the others (p < 0.05). The present level of periodontal disease in coal mine workers is severe. Moreover, its distribution and severity are strongly influenced by host susceptibility and risk factors. The priority should be based on population strategy and primary prevention programmes to benefit the periodontal health by promoting self-care and oral hygiene.

  13. Geochemical Results of Lysimeter Sampling at the Manning Canyon Repository in the Mercur Mining District, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earle, John; Choate, LaDonna

    2010-01-01

    This report presents chemical characteristics of transient unsaturated-zone water collected by lysimeter from the Manning Canyon repository site in Utah. Data collected by U.S. Geological Survey and U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management scientists under an intragovernmental order comprise the existing body of hydrochemical information on unsaturated-zone conditions at the site and represent the first effort to characterize the chemistry of the soil pore water surrounding the repository. Analyzed samples showed elevated levels of arsenic, barium, chromium, and strontium, which are typical of acidic mine drainage. The range of major-ion concentrations generally showed expected soil values. Although subsequent sampling is necessary to determine long-term effects of the repository, current results provide initial data concerning reactive processes of precipitation on the mine tailings and waste rock stored at the site and provide information on the effectiveness of reclamation operations at the Manning Canyon repository.

  14. Geology, mineralization, mineral chemistry, and ore-fluid conditions of Irankuh Pb-Zn mining district, south of Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hassan Karimpour

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Irankuh mining district area located at the southern part of the Malayer-Isfahan metallogenic belt, south of Isfahan, consists of several Zn-Pb deposits and occurrences such as Tappehsorkh, Rowmarmar 5, Kolahdarvazeh, Blind ore, and Gushfil deposits as well as Rowmarmar 1-4 and Gushfil 1 prospects. Based on geology, alteration, form and texture of mineralization, and paragenesis assemblages, Pb-Zn mineralization is Mississippi-type deposit (Rastad, 1981; Ghazban et al., 1994; Ghasemi, 1995; Reichert, 2007; Timoori-Asl (2010; Ayati et al., 2013; Hosseini-Dinani et al., 2015. Geology of the area consists of Jurassic siltstone and shale and different types of Cretaceous dolostone and limestone. The aim of this research is new geological studies such as revision of old geologic map, study of different types of textures and mineral assemblages within carbonate and clastic host rocks, and chemistry of galena, sphalerite, and dolomite. Finally, we combined these results with isotopic and fluid inclusion data and discussed on ore-fluid conditions. Materials and Methods In order to achieve the aims of this work, at first field surveying and sampling were done. Then, 200 thin and 70 polished thin sections were prepared. Some of the samples were selected for microprobe analysis and galena and sphalerite minerals were analyzed by using JEOL- JAX-8230 analyzer at Colorado University, USA. The chemistry of dolomite and fluid inclusion data are used after Boveiri Konari and Rastad (2016 and stable isotope is used after Ghazban et al. (1994. Discussion The Irankuh mineralization is hosted by carbonate rocks (dolostone and limestone and minor clastic rocks as epigenetic. Mineralization has occurred as breccia, veinlet, open space filling, spoted, dessiminated, and replacement (carbonate hosted rock. The mineral assemblages are Fe-rich sphalerite, galena, minor pyrite, Fe- and Mn-rich dolomite, bituminous, ankrite, calcite ± quartz ± barite

  15. [Acupuncture and moxibustion in Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shi-Lin; Xu, Jin-Shui

    2013-04-01

    The development status of acupuncture and moxibustion in Tunisia is introduced in this article. Although acupuncture and moxibustion only has a history of more than 30 years in Tunisia, it is very popular among the local people. Until now, there is one acupuncture and moxibustion center aided and built with the help of the Chinese government. Acupuncture and moxibustion clinical department has been set in some of the hospitals, and acupuncture and moxibustion clinical practice is also carried out in some private clinics. Cost of acupuncture and moxibustion in public hospitals has already been covered by medical insurance. As for education of acupuncture and moxibustion, training courses were set up in medical colleges of Tunisia by Tunisian government which is lectured by Chinese acupuncture experts. Acupuncture and moxibustion has been used to treat many diseases in Tunisia and is warmly welcomed by Tunisian.

  16. Thiosulphate assisted phytoextraction of mercury contaminated soils at the Wanshan Mercury Mining District, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wanshan, known as the “Mercury Capital” of China, is located in the Southwest of China. Due to the extensive mining and smelting works in the Wanshan area, the local ecosystem has been serious contaminated with mercury. In the present study, a number of soil samples were taken from the Wanshan mercury mining area and the mercury fractionations in soils were analyzed using sequential extraction procedure technique. The obtained results showed that the dominate mercury fractions (represent 95% of total mercury were residual and organic bound mercury. A field trial was conducted in a mercury polluted farmland at the Wanshan mercury mine. Four plant species Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var. ASKYC (ASKYC, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.DPDH (DPDH, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.CHBD(CHBD, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.LDZY (LDZY were tested their ability to extract mercury from soil with thiosulphate amendment. The results indicated that the mercury concentration in the roots and shoots of the four plants were significantly increased with thiosulphate treatment. The mercury phytoextraction yield of ASKYC, DPDH, CHBD and LDZY were 92, 526, 294 and 129 g/ha, respectively

  17. Thiosulphate assisted phytoextraction of mercury contaminated soils at the Wanshan Mercury Mining District, Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Wang

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Wanshan, known as the “Mercury Capital” of China, is located in the Southwest of China. Due to the extensive mining and smelting works in the Wanshan area, the local ecosystem has been serious contaminated with mercury. In the present study, a number of soil samples were taken from the Wanshan mercury mining area and the mercury fractionations in soils were analyzed using sequential extraction procedure technique. The obtained results showed that the dominate mercury fractions (represent 95% of total mercury were residual and organic bound mercury. A field trial was conducted in a mercury polluted farmland at the Wanshan mercury mine. Four plant species Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var. ASKYC (ASKYC, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.DPDH (DPDH, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.CHBD(CHBD, Brassica juncea Czern. et Coss.var.LDZY (LDZY were tested their ability to extract mercury from soil with thiosulphate amendment. The results indicated that the mercury concentration in the roots and shoots of the four plants were significantly increased with thiosulphate treatment. The mercury phytoextraction yield of ASKYC, DPDH, CHBD and LDZY were 92, 526, 294 and 129 g/ha, respectively.

  18. Important improvement of utilization the available geological reserves of the South mining district deposit in Majdanpek in the new defined optimum contour of the open pit using the Whittle and Gemcom softwares

    OpenAIRE

    Kržanović, Daniel; Žikić, Miodrag; Pantović, Radoje

    2012-01-01

    A significant increase in copper prices on the World Metal Exchange, whose lower limit in the long term will not be under $ 6,000 per ton of cathode copper, and reduction the operating costs of ore mining by introduction the high capacity mining equipment in the production process, requires a new consideration of the open pit South Mining District Majdanpek and defining the new final (optimum) limit of mining for the given techno economic parameters. Using the modern software tools for strate...

  19. Republic of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, L

    1986-01-01

    The north African country of Tunisia (632,387 square miles) consists largely of desert, with some rich farmlands and a rocky transitional zone. Despite the government's family planning efforts, the population grew from 5.6 million in 1975, to 7.2 million in 1985, and, with its 2.4% annual growth rate, is projected to reach 8.1 million by 1990. Tunisia's rural population decreased to 46% in 1985 as workers and their families moved into urban areas. 98% of the population is Arab-Berber; Arabic and French are the offical languages. The age-sex distribution is typical of developing countries; the median age has increased from 16.8 years in 1966 to 19.5 in 1950 and persons over age 60 have increased from 5.1% in 1956 to 6.7% in 1980. Tunisian families average 5.7 persons in rural areas, and 5.4 persons in urban one. Marriages are declining, polygamy is outlawed, and divorce, once easy, is more difficult and declining. At independence in 1956, only 15% of Tunisians were literate, now 85-90% of primary school age children are enrolled and literacy had risen to 53% in 1980. Women, once heavily veiled, now have full rights and access to education. More than 60 thousand new workers compete for the 40,000 new job openings each year. An estimated 7000 laborers found work in Europe in 1984. Women composed only 11% of the 1975 work force, but by 1980, held 20% of jobs, although they were mainly low paying positions. In 1980, 35% of the laborers worked in agriculture, 19% in industry, 17% in service industries, and 10% in construction. Agriculture and tourism have declined in recent years, contributing to social unrest, currency decline, and inflated wages and consumer prices.

  20. Domestic radon in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El May, Michele V.; Omrane, Latifa; Mtimet, Sadok; Hammou, Azza

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine level of natural radioactivity and to eventually identify areas where radon concentrations are elevated, measurements of indoor air radon concentrations were carried out in Tunisian houses since 1999. Passive alpha-track open Kodalpha dosimeters have been placed in one or two rooms by dwellings at 1 m to 1.50 m from soil. The first campaign controlled the capital, Tunis, and lasted 14 months by two months periods. The annual median was 30 Bq m -3 . In the 120 surveyed houses, a seasonal variation has been found with the highest concentrations unregistered in winter. The second campaign was conducted in 1,151 houses situated in all the inhabited areas of Tunisia during two winter months. The median was 36 Bq m -3 with a maximum of 512 Bq m -3 . The majority of results were lower than 100 Bq m -3 . Only 5.5% of results were comprised between 100 and 200 Bq m -3 and 0.7% between 200 and 400 Bq m -3 . The third campaign was performed in an area where inhabitants used to live in underground homes. Sixty modern and sixty underground houses were controlled during one year by three months periods. The results were significantly different with a median at 46.5 Bq m -3 in the modern houses and 305 Bq m -3 in the underground caves with a maximum at 1,563 Bq m -3 . 54% of results were under 100 Bq m -3 , 32% between 100 and 400, 13% between 400 and 1,000 Bq m -3 . Only 1% (two underground houses) were higher than 1,000 Bq m -3 . A careful enquiry showed that most of these underground houses are no more inhabited and are rarely opened. In these dwellings, the highest concentrations were found during summer. Most of the indoor radon concentration levels found in Tunisia were under international recommended levels. (author)

  1. Stratigraphy of amethyst geode-bearing lavas and fault-block structures of the Entre Rios mining district, Paraná volcanic province, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LÉO A. HARTMANN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Entre Rios mining district produces a large volume of amethyst geodes in underground mines and is part of the world class deposits in the Paraná volcanic province of South America. Two producing basalt flows are numbered 4 and 5 in the lava stratigraphy. A total of seven basalt flows and one rhyodacite flow are present in the district. At the base of the stratigraphy, beginning at the Chapecó river bed, two basalt flows are Esmeralda, low-Ti type. The third flow in the sequence is a rhyodacite, Chapecó type, Guarapuava subtype. Above the rhyodacite flow, four basalt flows are Pitanga, high-Ti type including the two mineralized flows; only the topmost basalt in the stratigraphy is a Paranapanema, intermediate-Ti type. Each individual flow is uniquely identified from its geochemical and gamma-spectrometric properties. The study of several sections in the district allowed for the identification of a fault-block structure. Blocks are elongated NW and the block on the west side of the fault was downthrown. This important structural characterization of the mining district will have significant consequences in the search for new amethyst geode deposits and in the understanding of the evolution of the Paraná volcanic province.

  2. Trace metals in fugitive dust from unsurfaced roads in the Viburnum Trend resource mining District of Missouri--implementation of a direct-suspension sampling methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Emitt C; Wronkiewicz, David J; Pavlowsky, Robert T; Shi, Honglan

    2013-09-01

    Fugitive dust from 18 unsurfaced roadways in Missouri were sampled using a novel cyclonic fugitive dust collector that was designed to obtain suspended bulk samples for analysis. The samples were analyzed for trace metals, Fe and Al, particle sizes, and mineralogy to characterize the similarities and differences between roadways. Thirteen roads were located in the Viburnum Trend (VT) mining district, where there has been a history of contaminant metal loading of local soils; while the remaining five roads were located southwest of the VT district in a similar rural setting, but without any mining or industrial process that might contribute to trace metal enrichment. Comparison of these two groups shows that trace metal concentration is higher for dusts collected in the VT district. Lead is the dominant trace metal found in VT district dusts representing on average 79% of the total trace metal concentration, and was found moderately to strongly enriched relative to unsurfaced roads in the non-VT area. Fugitive road dust concentrations calculated for the VT area substantially exceed the 2008 Federal ambient air standard of 0.15μgm(-3) for Pb. The pattern of trace metal contamination in fugitive dust from VT district roads is similar to trace metal concentrations patterns observed for soils measured more than 40years ago indicating that Pb contamination in the region is persistent as a long-term soil contaminant. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Tracing toxic elements sources using lead isotopes: An example from the San Antonio–El Triunfo mining district, Baja California Sur, México

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutiérrez-Caminero, Leopoldo; Weber, Bodo; Wurl, Jobst; Carrera-Muñoz, Mariela

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Provenance of toxic elements is investigated in a basin close to the mining district. • Stable lead isotope analyses assist to distinguish between sources of toxic elements. • Two major sources are identified: mine tailings and fault bounded mineralization. • There is evidence in the detritus of a different natural lead component. • An additional anthropogenic lead input is detectable from the soluble phases. - Abstract: Pollution of sediments and water bodies with toxic elements around the San Antonio–El Triunfo mining district, Baja California Sur, México is probably sourced from the tailings of abandoned mines that are hosted in mineralized Cretaceous granitoids. However, there is evidence to suggest local hot springs related to recent faults may be an additional source for contamination in the area. In this study, lead isotope signatures are applied to draw conclusions with regard to potential sources of toxic elements. Lead isotope ratios were analyzed from sulfides and scoria from the abandoned mines, fluvial sediments, and igneous rocks with secondary disseminated mineralization. To differentiate between superposed secondary and residual primary lead, leaching experiments were performed, and both leachate and residues were analyzed separately. Most of the residues from sediment samples have lead isotope ratios similar to those from the sulfides and scoria of the mining district, indicating that most of the lead in the detritus is related to the mineralized plutons. However, there is evidence of an additional detrital component. Lead isotope ratios from the leachates indicate a different source for the superimposed lead that is best explained by the contamination with the average Mexican industrial lead. Secondary disseminated mineralization that is related to younger, deep structures (hot springs) has different lead isotope ratios compared to massive vein sulfides and accounts for a significant amount in areas with high

  4. Mass loads of dissolved and particulate mercury and other trace elements in the Mt. Amiata mining district, Southern Tuscany (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimondi, V.; Costagliola, P.; Gray, J.E.; Lattanzi, P.; Nannucci, M.; Paolieri, M.; Salvadori, A.

    2014-01-01

    Total dissolved and particulate mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), and antimony (Sb) mass loads were estimated in different seasons (March and September 2011 and March 2012) in the Paglia River basin (PRB) (central Italy). The Paglia River drains the Mt. Amiata Hg district, one of the largest Hg-rich regions worldwide. Quantification of Hg, As, and Sb mass loads in this watershed allowed (1) identification of the contamination sources, (2) evaluation of the effects of Hg on the environment, and (3) determination of processes affecting Hg transport. The dominant source of Hg in the Paglia River is runoff from Hg mines in the Mt. Amiata region. The maximum Hg mass load was found to be related to runoff from the inactive Abbadia San Salvatore Mine (ASSM), and up to 30 g day−1 of Hg, dominantly in the particulate form, was transported both in high and low flow conditions in 2011. In addition, enrichment factors (EFs) calculated for suspended particulate matter (SPM) were similar in different seasons indicating that water discharge controls the quantities of Hg transported in the PRB, and considerable Hg was transported in all seasons studied. Overall, as much as 11 kg of Hg are discharged annually in the PRB and this Hg is transported downstream to the Tiber River, and eventually to the Mediterranean Sea. Similar to Hg, maximum mass loads for As and Sb were found in March 2011, when as much as 190 g day−1 each of As and Sb were measured from sites downstream from the ASSM. Therefore, the Paglia River represents a significant source of Hg, Sb, and As to the Mediterranean Sea.

  5. Soil contamination from urban and industrial activity: example of the mining district of Linares (southern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, J.; Llamas, J. F.; de Miguel, E.; Rey, J.; Hidalgo, M. C.

    2008-04-01

    The Linares region (southern Spain) has been subjected to two important sources of pollution: the intensive mining works and the urban-industrial activity. To obtain a geochemical characterisation of the soil, 31 trace elements were analysed and 669 soil samples were collected. By means of clustering analysis, we identified groups of elements and grid squares in which relations could be established concerning soil lithology, urban and industrial activities and the degree of pollution impact; in addition, we were able to characterise the geochemical background of the study area. The multivariate study led us to identify four factors. Particularly important was factor 2, which represented the elements associated with mineral paragenesis (Cu, Pb, As, Co, Mn, Zn, Sn, Ba). This factor also contains elements related with an urban-industrial activity, such as Pb, Cu, Zn, As and Ba. Furthermore, we identified factor 4, associating Ni, V and Cr, and which is related to the use of fuels.

  6. Element geochemistry and cleaning potential of the No. 11 coal seam from Antaibao mining district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, W.F.; Qin, Y.; Song, D.Y.; Sang, S.X.; Jiang, B.; Zhu, Y.M.; Fu, X.H. [China University of Mining & Technology, Xuzhou (China). College for Resources & Geoscience

    2005-12-15

    Based on the analyses of sulfur and 41 other elements in 8 channel samples of the No. 11 coal seam from Antaibao surface mine, Shanxi, China and 4 samples from the coal preparation plant of this mine, the distribution of the elements in the seam profile, their geochemical partitioning behavior during the coal cleaning and the genetic relationships between the both are studied. The coal-forming environment was probably invaded by sea water during the post-stage of peatification, which results in the fact that the contents of As, Fe, S, etc. associated closely with sea water tend to increase toward the top of the seam. These elements studied are dominantly associated with kaolinite, pyrite, illite, montmorillonite, etc., of which the As, Pb, Mn, Cs, Co, Ni, etc. are mainly associated with sulfides, the Mo, V, Nb, Hf, REEs, Ta etc. mainly with kaolinite, the Mg, Al etc. mainly with epigenetic montmorillonite, and the Rb, Cr, Ba, Cu, K, Hg, etc. mainly with epigenetic illite. The physical coal cleaning is not only effective in the removal of ash and sulfur, but also in reducing the concentration of most major and trace elements. The elements Be, U, Sb, W, Br, Se, P, etc. are largely or partly organically bound showing a relatively low removability, while the removability of the other elements studied is more than 20%, of which the Mg, Mn, Hg, Fe, As, K, AI, Cs, and Cr associated mostly with the coarser or epigenetic minerals show a higher removability than that of ash. The distribution of the elements in the seam profile controls their partitioning behavior to a great degree during the coal cleaning processes.

  7. Effects of the November 2012 Flood Event on the Mobilization of Hg from the Mount Amiata Mining District to the Sediments of the Paglia River Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Pattelli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The Mount Amiata mining district (southern Tuscany, Italy was, for decades, one of the world’s largest mercury (Hg producing regions, where mining activity lasted until the 1980s. The Paglia River drains the eastern part of the district and is also the main western tributary of the Tiber River. Recent studies show that, still today, high total Hg contents severely affect the downstream ecosystems of these rivers. In November 2012, a major flood event occurred in the Paglia River basin, which drastically changed the river morphology and, possibly, the Hg concentrations. In the present work, stream sediment was sampled before and after the flood to evaluate possible changes in sediment total Hg concentrations as a consequence of this event. The comparison between pre- and post-flood Hg concentrations shows that Hg content increased up to an order of magnitude after the flood, suggesting that this event triggered Hg mobilization in the basin rather than its dilution.

  8. Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairullah Khan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Opinion mining is an interesting area of research because of its applications in various fields. Collecting opinions of people about products and about social and political events and problems through the Web is becoming increasingly popular every day. The opinions of users are helpful for the public and for stakeholders when making certain decisions. Opinion mining is a way to retrieve information through search engines, Web blogs and social networks. Because of the huge number of reviews in the form of unstructured text, it is impossible to summarize the information manually. Accordingly, efficient computational methods are needed for mining and summarizing the reviews from corpuses and Web documents. This study presents a systematic literature survey regarding the computational techniques, models and algorithms for mining opinion components from unstructured reviews.

  9. Biomarker responses of Peromyscus leucopus exposed to lead and cadmium in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W Nelson; Casteel, Stan W; Friedrichs, Kristen R; Gramlich, Eric; Houseright, Ruth A; Nichols, John R; Karouna-Renier, Natalie K; Kim, Dae Young; Rangen, Kathleen L; Rattner, Barnett A; Schultz, Sandra L

    2018-01-29

    Biomarker responses and histopathological lesions have been documented in laboratory mammals exposed to elevated concentrations of lead and cadmium. The exposure of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) to these metals and the potential associated toxic effects were examined at three contaminated sites in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District and at a reference site in MO, USA. Mice from the contaminated sites showed evidence of oxidative stress and reduced activity of red blood cell δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD). Histological examinations of the liver and kidney, cytologic examination of blood smears, and biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage failed to show indications of toxic effects from lead. The biomagnification factor of cadmium (hepatic concentration/soil concentration) at a site with a strongly acid soil was 44 times the average of the biomagnification factors at two sites with slightly alkaline soils. The elevated concentrations of cadmium in the mice did not cause observable toxicity, but were associated with about a 50% decrease in expected tissue lead concentrations and greater ALAD activity compared to the activity at the reference site. Lead was associated with a decrease in concentrations of hepatic glutathione and thiols, whereas cadmium was associated with an increase. In addition, to support risk assessment efforts, we developed linear regression models relating both tissue lead dosages (based on a previously published a laboratory study) and tissue lead concentrations in Peromyscus to soil lead concentrations.

  10. Biomarker responses of Peromyscus leucopus exposed to lead and cadmium in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Casteel, Stan W.; Friedrichs, Kristen R.; Gramlich, Eric; Houseright, Ruth A.; Nichols, John W.; Karouna-Renier, Natalie; Kim, Dae Young; Rangen, Kathleen; Rattner, Barnett A.; Schultz, Sandra

    2018-01-01

    Biomarker responses and histopathological lesions have been documented in laboratory mammals exposed to elevated concentrations of lead and cadmium. The exposure of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) to these metals and the potential associated toxic effects were examined at three contaminated sites in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District and at a reference site in MO, USA. Mice from the contaminated sites showed evidence of oxidative stress and reduced activity of red blood cell δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD). Histological examinations of the liver and kidney, cytologic examination of blood smears, and biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and DNA damage failed to show indications of toxic effects from lead. The biomagnification factor of cadmium (hepatic concentration/soil concentration) at a site with a strongly acid soil was 44 times the average of the biomagnification factors at two sites with slightly alkaline soils. The elevated concentrations of cadmium in the mice did not cause observable toxicity, but were associated with about a 50% decrease in expected tissue lead concentrations and greater ALAD activity compared to the activity at the reference site. Lead was associated with a decrease in concentrations of hepatic glutathione and thiols, whereas cadmium was associated with an increase. In addition, to support risk assessment efforts, we developed linear regression models relating both tissue lead dosages (based on a previously published a laboratory study) and tissue lead concentrations in Peromyscus to soil lead concentrations.

  11. Influence of ore processing activity on Hg, As and Sb contamination and fractionation in soils in a former mining site of Monte Amiata ore district (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protano, Giuseppe; Nannoni, Francesco

    2018-05-01

    A geochemical study was carried out at the former Abbadia San Salvatore (ASS) mining site of the Monte Amiata ore district (Italy). Hg, As and Sb total contents and fractionation using a sequential extraction procedure were determined in soil and mining waste samples. Ore processing activities provided a different contribution to Hg contamination and concentration in soil fractions, influencing its behaviour as volatility and availability. Soils of roasting zone showed the highest Hg contamination levels mainly due to the deposition of Hg released as Hg 0 by furnaces during cinnabar roasting. High Hg contents were also measured in waste from the lower part of mining dump due to the presence of cinnabar. The fractionation pattern suggested that Hg was largely as volatile species in both uncontaminated and contaminated soils and mining waste, and concentrations of these Hg species increased as contamination increased. These findings were in agreement with the fact that the ASS mining site is characterized by high Hg concentrations in the air and the presence of Hg 0 liquid droplets in soil. Volatile Hg species were also prevalent in uncontaminated soils likely because the Monte Amiata region is an area characterized by anomalous fluxes of gaseous Hg from natural and anthropogenic inputs. At the ASS mining site soils were also contaminated by Sb, while As contents were comparable with its local background in soil. In all soil and waste samples Sb and As were preferentially in residual fraction. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Lead, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in plaster and mortar from structures in Jasper and Newton Counties, Missouri (Tri-State Mining District)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perry, Phyllis M [Chemistry Department, Southwest Missouri State University, 901 S. National Avenue, Springfield, MO 65804 (United States); Pavlik, Jeffrey W [Chemistry Department, Southwest Missouri State University, 901 S. National Avenue, Springfield, MO 65804 (United States); Sheets, Ralph W [Chemistry Department, Southwest Missouri State University, 901 S. National Avenue, Springfield, MO 65804 (United States); Biagioni, Richard N [Chemistry Department, Southwest Missouri State University, 901 S. National Avenue, Springfield, MO 65804 (United States)

    2005-01-05

    The primary goal of this study was to evaluate anecdotal evidence that within Jasper and Newton Counties, Missouri, two counties within the Tri-State Mining District, granular mine tailings were commonly used in place of river sands in wall plasters and mortar. Interior wall plaster and mortar samples from structures in this mining district were analyzed for lead, cadmium, and zinc, and compared to samples from Springfield, MO (comparison site). The Jasper and Newton County samples showed elevated concentrations of the three elements, consistent with the inclusion of mine tailings, with a number of samples containing lead and cadmium at concentrations greater than EPA remediation targets for yard soil. X-ray diffraction studies showed the presence of the zinc ore minerals, sphalerite and hemimorphite, in high level samples. Thin section optical studies identified the major component of the aggregate as chert, a mineral abundant within the tailing piles. Because dust from crumbling plaster and mortar could represent an avenue for significant heavy metal exposure to building occupants, we suggest that there may be associated health consequences that should be further evaluated.

  13. Lead, cadmium, and zinc concentrations in plaster and mortar from structures in Jasper and Newton Counties, Missouri (Tri-State Mining District)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, Phyllis M.; Pavlik, Jeffrey W.; Sheets, Ralph W.; Biagioni, Richard N.

    2005-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to evaluate anecdotal evidence that within Jasper and Newton Counties, Missouri, two counties within the Tri-State Mining District, granular mine tailings were commonly used in place of river sands in wall plasters and mortar. Interior wall plaster and mortar samples from structures in this mining district were analyzed for lead, cadmium, and zinc, and compared to samples from Springfield, MO (comparison site). The Jasper and Newton County samples showed elevated concentrations of the three elements, consistent with the inclusion of mine tailings, with a number of samples containing lead and cadmium at concentrations greater than EPA remediation targets for yard soil. X-ray diffraction studies showed the presence of the zinc ore minerals, sphalerite and hemimorphite, in high level samples. Thin section optical studies identified the major component of the aggregate as chert, a mineral abundant within the tailing piles. Because dust from crumbling plaster and mortar could represent an avenue for significant heavy metal exposure to building occupants, we suggest that there may be associated health consequences that should be further evaluated

  14. Geochemistry, processes and environmental impact caused by the mining and auriferous ore process in the Marmato District (Caldas Department, Colombia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieto Rincon, Gloria

    1995-01-01

    Colombia is the third gold producer in Latin America, Mining and processing of gold ore bodies are backward and it is well known that produce great deal of effects on the environment. This study puts emphasis on heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ag, As, Hg, Sb. Bi) released from mining, processing and tailings of gold-sulfide ore bodies from the Marmato Area, and the main objective is research about the geochemical behavior of such heavy metals (sources, dispersion, accumulation, chemical speciation, deposition and accumulation rates) taking surface waters, sediments and suspended particulate matter as geochemical sampling media. In order to asses the fate of these heavy metals, was planned a sampling programmed (summer and winter seasons) of surface waters. Sediments and suspended particulate matter, in streams (Aguas Claras. CascabeI, Pantanos. Marmato, Arquia, Chirapoto), two mine drainages and two processing effluents from the Marmato gold District (vein type), and in the Cauca River (Marmato Area). Analytical work in surface waters was carried out in the field, (physical-chemical parameters: temperature, pH, conductivity, turbidity, sulfides and flow) and in specialized analytical laboratories of Colombia (cyanides, COD - Chemical Oxygen Demand, TOC - Total Organic Carbon, TS - Total Solids. DS - Dissolved solids, NH 3 , chlorides. Dissolved heavy metals - Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Ag, As, Hg, Sb. Bi). In sediments and suspended particulate matter is carrying out a gross geochemical speciation (non-detrital or geochemically reactive fraction and residual or inactive fraction) by leaching with HCl 0.5N and total contents analysis (acidic digestion -HF/ Perchloric acid) in specialized Laboratories of Colombia and Canada. Preliminary results of summer season sampling, showed that surface waters flowing from the Marmato Area are not appropriated neither as domestic supply, agriculture irrigation, aquatic life or industrial use (Cyanides (0.13 -3.8 mg/L), TS (9422-39952 mg

  15. Factors controlling localization of uranium deposits in the Dakota Sandstone, Gallup and Ambrosia Lake mining districts, McKinley County, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Charles Thomas; Green, Morris W.

    1977-01-01

    Geologic studies were made at all of the uranium mines and prospects in the Dakota Sandstone of Early(?) and Late Cretaceous age in the Gallup mining district, McKinley County, New Mexico. Dakota mines in the adjacent Ambrosia Lake mining district were visited briefly for comparative purposes. Mines in the eastern part of the Gallup district, and in the Ambrosia Lake district, are on the Chaco slope of the southern San Juan Basin in strata which dip gently northward toward the central part of the basin. Mines in the western part of the Gallup district are along the Gallup hogback (Nutria monocline) in strata which dip steeply westward into the Gallup sag. Geologic factors which controlled formation of the uranium deposits in the Dakota Sandstone are: (1) a source of uranium, believed to be uranium deposits of the underlying Morrison Formation of Late Jurassic age; (2) the accessibility to the Dakota of uranium-bearing solutions from the Morrison; (3) the presence in the Dakota of permeable sandstone beds overlain by impermeable carbonaceous shale beds; and (4) the occurrence within the permeable Dakota sandstone beds of carbonaceous reducing material as bedding-plane laminae, or as pockets of carbonaceous trash. Most of the Dakota uranium deposits are found in the lower part of the formation in marginal-marine distributary-channel sandstones which were deposited in the backshore environment. However, the Hogback no. 4 (Hyde) Mine (Gallup district) occurs in sandy paludal shale of the backshore environment, and another deposit, the Silver Spur (Ambrosia Lake district), is found in what is interpreted to be a massive beach or barrier-bar sandstone of the foreshore environment in the upper part of the Dakota. The sedimentary depositional environment most favorable for the accumulation of uranium is that of backshore areas lateral to main distributary channels, where levee, splay, and some distributary-channel sandstones intertongue with gray carbonaceous shales and

  16. Control of Precambrian basement deformation zones on emplacement of the Laramide Boulder batholith and Butte mining district, Montana, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Hildenbrand, Thomas G.; O'Neill, J. Michael

    2011-01-01

    What are the roles of deep Precambrian basement deformation zones in the localization of subsequent shallow-crustal deformation zones and magmas? The Paleoproterozoic Great Falls tectonic zone and its included Boulder batholith (Montana, United States) provide an opportunity to examine the importance of inherited deformation fabrics in batholith emplacement and the localization of magmatic-hydrothermal mineral deposits. Northeast-trending deformation fabrics predominate in the Great Falls tectonic zone, which formed during the suturing of Paleoproterozoic and Archean cratonic masses approximately 1,800 mega-annum (Ma). Subsequent Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic deformation fabrics trend northwest. Following Paleozoic through Early Cretaceous sedimentation, a Late Cretaceous fold-and-thrust belt with associated strike-slip faulting developed across the region, wherein some Proterozoic faults localized thrust faulting, while others were reactivated as strike-slip faults. The 81- to 76-Ma Boulder batholith was emplaced along the reactivated central Paleoproterozoic suture in the Great Falls tectonic zone. Early-stage Boulder batholith plutons were emplaced concurrent with east-directed thrust faulting and localized primarily by northwest-trending strike-slip and related faults. The late-stage Butte Quartz Monzonite pluton was localized in a northeast-trending pull-apart structure that formed behind the active thrust front and is axially symmetric across the underlying northeast-striking Paleoproterozoic fault zone, interpreted as a crustal suture. The modeling of potential-field geophysical data indicates that pull-apart?stage magmas fed into the structure through two funnel-shaped zones beneath the batholith. Renewed magmatic activity in the southern feeder from 66 to 64 Ma led to the formation of two small porphyry-style copper-molybdenum deposits and ensuing world-class polymetallic copper- and silver-bearing veins in the Butte mining district. Vein orientations

  17. The difficulties in the development of mining tourism projects: the case of La Unión Mining District (SE Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor M.Conesa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Mine sites are atypical industrial sites because they encompass not only economic but also landscape and anthropologic components. The need of developing new economic opportunities in areas, where a “mining monoculture” was the economic backbone, has resulted in the re-interpretation of mining activity from a cultural viewpoint. Some traditional mining towns from both, recent and ancient times, have forgone mining activity and have become new tourist attractions sites. However, the process of developing tourism in these zones is not easy and necessarily incorporates social, economic and environmental requirements. This paper describes the constraints, possibilities and efforts that meet in the former mining town of La Unión, Southeast Spain. It will be investigated in a critic point of view the current projects that, though in low number, try to preserve the identity and history of the town while generating relatively significant economic incomes.

  18. The child medulloblastoma in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochbati, L.; Bouaouina, N.; Besbes, M.; Frikha, H.; Benna, F.; Daoud, J.; Gargouri, W.; Damak, H.; Ben Abdallah, M.; Maalej, M.

    2000-01-01

    The medulloblastoma is the first pediatric cerebral tumor in Tunisia. Its treatment relies on the surgery and radiotherapy of cerebro-spinal axis. The chemotherapy is in progress for evaluation to try a de-escalation of irradiation dose. (N.C.)

  19. Arsenic and mercury levels in human hairs and nails from gold mining areas in Wassa West District of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serfor-Armah, Y.; Samlafo, B.V.; Yeboah, P.O.

    2009-01-01

    Hair and nail samples obtained from inhabitants of Wassa District, a major gold mining area in Ghana, were analysed for arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The samples were irradiated at a thermal neutron flux of 5 x 10 11 n cm -2 s -1 using the Ghana Research Reactor. Concentration of Hg in the hairs ranged from 1.65 to 20.46 μg/g, which were below World Health Organization (WHO) recommended level of 50.00 μg/g for human hair. Mercury concentration in human nail samples ranged from 0.97 to 31.94 μg/g. Arsenic concentrations in human hairs ranged from 0.07 to 0.95 μg/g, while the levels in nail samples ranged from 0.08 to 3.90 μg/g. Generally, levels of As in the hair were less than WHO recommended value of 1.00 μg/g, however, the levels of As in 5 nail samples (FN 11 , FN 20 , FN 28 , TN 9 and TN 16 ) were above the maximum WHO value of 1.80μg/g. The measurement precision specified by the relative standard deviation was within ± 3 %. The accuracy of determination evaluated by analysing certified standard human reference material GBW 09101 was within ± 4 % of the certified value. The levels of As in hair and nail samples of the experimental group were generally higher as compared to the control subject. Similarly, Hg levels in the hair and nail samples in experimental group were also higher compared to the control subject. However, the levels of the toxic elements determined were all below WHO recommended values. (au)

  20. Characteristics of hydrothermal alteration mineralogy and geochemistry of igneous rocks from the epithermal Co-O mine and district, Eastern Mindanao (Philippines)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Iris; Hagemann, Steffen

    2010-05-01

    Detailed petrographic as well as hyperspectral analyses using PIMA (Portable Infrared Mineral Analyser) and geochemical (major, trace and rare earth elements) studies were conducted on samples of the epithermal, low sulfidation Co-O mine (47,869 ounces gold produced in 2009 with an average grade of 13.3 g/t gold) and district in Eastern Mindanao (Philippines). The aims of the study were to unravel the petrogenetic origin of the various volcanic (host rocks) and intrusive rocks (potential fluid driver) as well as their relationship and influence on the hydrothermal alteration zoning and fluid chemistry. The auriferous veins at the Co-O mine were formed during two hydrothermal stages associated with the district wide D1 and D2 deformation events. Gold in stage 1 quartz veins is in equilibrium with galena and sphalerite, whereas in stage 2 it is associated with pyrite. Auriferous quartz veins of stage 1 reflect temperatures below 250° C or strong variations in pH and fO2 at higher temperatures, due to potential involvement of acidic gas or meteoric water. Cathodoluminescense studies revealed strong zonation of quartz associated with Au, presumably related to changes in the Al content, which is influenced by the pH. Plumose textures indicate times of rapid deposition, whereas saccharoidal quartz grains are related to potential calcite replacement. The geology of the Co-O mine and district is dominated by Miocene volcanic rocks (basic to intermediate flows and pyroclastics units), which are partly covered by Pliocene volcanic rocks and late Oligocene to Miocene limestones. The Miocene units are intruded by diorite (presumably Miocene in age). The epithermal mineralization event may be related to diorite intrusions. The geochemistry of all igneous rocks in the district is defined by a sub-alkaline affinity and is low to medium K in composition. Most units are related to a Miocene subduction zone with westward subduction, whereas the younger Pliocene rocks are related to

  1. Selection Criteria of Sites Suitable for Low- Level Radioactive U-mining and Milling wastes Disposal at Al-Missikat-Al-Aradiya District, Eastern Desert, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Monem, A.A.; Rabei, S.I.; El-Kiki, M.F.; Guirguis, G.P.; Rabei, S.I.

    1999-01-01

    Uranium mining and milling tailings are U-depleted but contain 230 TH and 226 Ra. These low-level radioactive wastes are disposed of in the near surface environment. Hydro geologically, suitable sites for disposal of these wastes should be characterized by:1) deep water-level,2) minimal precipitation,3) minimal exposure to flooding and 4) circular- shaped basins. Al-Missikat-Al-Aradiya District with future potential of U-mining and milling operations, a geomorphologic analysis led to the selection of four sites (sub basins) having the geomorphologic characteristics:1)elongation and circularity ratio≡1, 2) high track drainage density (limited infiltration),3) high stream frequency (deep water-table) and 4) moderate to low bifurcation ratio. These sites are further characterized geologically and structurally

  2. Estimation of volume and mass and of changes in volume and mass of selected chat piles in the Picher mining district, Ottawa County, Oklahoma, 2005-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, S. Jerrod

    2013-01-01

    From the 1890s through the 1970s the Picher mining district in northeastern Ottawa County, Oklahoma, was the site of mining and processing of lead and zinc ore. When mining ceased in about 1979, as much as 165–300 million tons of mine tailings, locally referred to as “chat,” remained in the Picher mining district. Since 1979, some chat piles have been mined for aggregate materials and have decreased in volume and mass. Currently (2013), the land surface in the Picher mining district is covered by thousands of acres of chat, much of which remains on Indian trust land owned by allottees. The Bureau of Indian Affairs manages these allotted lands and oversees the sale and removal of chat from these properties. To help the Bureau of Indian Affairs better manage the sale and removal of chat, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Indian Affairs, estimated the 2005 and 2010 volumes and masses of selected chat piles remaining on allotted lands in the Picher mining district. The U.S. Geological Survey also estimated the changes in volume and mass of these chat piles for the period 2005 through 2010. The 2005 and 2010 chat-pile volume and mass estimates were computed for 34 selected chat piles on 16 properties in the study area. All computations of volume and mass were performed on individual chat piles and on groups of chat piles in the same property. The Sooner property had the greatest estimated volume (4.644 million cubic yards) and mass (5.253 ± 0.473 million tons) of chat in 2010. Five of the selected properties (Sooner, Western, Lawyers, Skelton, and St. Joe) contained estimated chat volumes exceeding 1 million cubic yards and estimated chat masses exceeding 1 million tons in 2010. Four of the selected properties (Lucky Bill Humbah, Ta Mee Heh, Bird Dog, and St. Louis No. 6) contained estimated chat volumes of less than 0.1 million cubic yards and estimated chat masses of less than 0.1 million tons in 2010. The total volume of all

  3. Histopathological alterations of the gills, liver and kidneys in Anabas Testudineus (Bloch) fish living in an unused lignite mine, Li District, Lamphun Povince, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenphet, S.; Thaworn, W.; Saenphet, K. [Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand). Faculty of Science

    2009-09-15

    The acidity of mine water generally makes it toxic to most organisms. The gills, kidneys and livers of Anabas testudineus Bloch fish inhabiting the acidic water (pH 2-4) of an unused lignite mine in Li District, Lamphun Province, Thailand were examined and compared to those of farmed fish. Tissue abnormalities were found in all investigated organs. Deterioration and telangiectasia of gill filaments were found. Liver tissue revealed hemorrhages, blood congestion and necrotic cells with mononuclear cell infiltration. In addition, hypertrophy of the epithelial cells of the renal tubules with reduced lumens, aneurisms of the renal tubules, and contractions of the glomeruli in the Bowman's capsule were observed. These histopathological findings suggest the acidic water in this habitat causes severe damage to the internal organs of fish and consequently alter their physiological status. Since the water in this pond is utilized by local people, these findings highlight the need for adequate water treatment.

  4. Stability of the old mine workings in the Jeroným at Čistá, Sokolov District

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kukutsch, Radovan; Žůrek, P.; Kořínek, R.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 135, č. 42 (2012), s. 67-74 ISSN 0324-9670 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Jeroným Mine in Čistá * stability * geomechanical monitoring * old mine workings Subject RIV: DH - Mining , incl. Coal Mining http://yadda.icm.edu.pl/baztech/element/bwmeta1.element.baztech-article-BPW6-0029-0005?q=bwmeta1.element.baztech-volume-0370-0798-prace_naukowe_instytutu_gornictwa_politechniki_wroclawskiej__studia_i_materialy-2012-vol__135_nr_42;4&qt=CHILDREN-STATELESS

  5. Energy saving analysis on mine-water source heat pump in a residential district of Henan province, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Duan, Huanlin; Chen, Aidong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the mine-water source heat pump system is proposed in residential buildings of a mining community. The coefficient of performance (COP) and the efficiency of exergy are analyzed. The results show that the COP and exergy efficiency of the mine-water source heat pump are improved, the exergy efficiency of mine-water source heat pump is more than 10% higher than that of the air source heat pump.The electric power conservation measure of “peak load shifting” is also emphasized in this article. It shows that itis a very considerable cost in the electric saving by adopting the trough period electricity to produce hot water. Due to the proper temperature of mine water, the mine-watersource heat pump unit is more efficient and stable in performance, which further shows the advantage of mine-water source heat pump in energy saving and environmental protection. It provides reference to the design of similar heat pump system as well.

  6. Mercury accumulation in soils and plants in the Almadén mining district, Spain: one of the most contaminated sites on Earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, José Antonio; Oyarzun, Roberto; Esbrí, José María; Higueras, Pablo

    2006-10-01

    Although mercury (Hg) mining in the Almadén district ceased in May 2002, the consequences of 2000 years of mining in the district has resulted in the dissemination of Hg into the surrounding environment where it poses an evident risk to biota and human health. This risk needs to be properly evaluated. The uptake of Hg has been found to be plant-specific. To establish the different manners in which plants absorb Hg, we carried out a survey of Hg levels in the soils and plants in the most representative habitats of this Mediterranean area and found that the Hg concentrations varied greatly and were dependent on the sample being tested (0.13-2,695 microg g(-1) Hg). For example, the root samples had concentrations ranging from 0.06 (Oenanthe crocata, Rumex induratus) to 1095 (Polypogon monspeliensis) microg g(-1) Hg, while in the leaf samples, the range was from 0.16 (Cyperus longus) to 1278 (Polypogon monspeliensis) microg g(-1) Hg. There are four well-differentiated patterns of Hg uptake: (1) the rate of uptake is constant, independent of Hg concentration in the soil (e.g., Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus rotundifolia); (2) after an initial linear relationship between uptake and soil concentration, no further increase in Hg(plant) is observed (e.g., Asparagus acutifolius, Cistus ladanifer); (3) no increase in uptake is recorded until a threshold is surpassed, and thereafter a linear relationship between Hg(plant) and Hg(soil) is established (e.g., Rumex bucephalophorus, Cistus crispus); (4) there is no relationship between Hg(plant) and Hg(soil )(e.g., Oenanthe crocata and Cistus monspeliensis). Overall, the Hg concentrations found in plants from the Almadén district clearly reflect the importance of contamination processes throughout the study region.

  7. Study of radon exhalation rates using solid state nuclear track detectors in stone mining area of Aravali range in Pali region, district Faridabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raj Kumari; Yadav, A.S.; Kant, Krishan; Garg, Maneesha

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that indoor radon-thoron and daughters are the largest contributor to total radiation dose received by populations. They account for more than 50% of the total dose and the radiation exposure beyond permissible levels can lead to deleterious effects on health. This fact necessitates extensive studies of natural radioactivity levels in the stone mining area of Aravali range in Faridabad. The stone mining area of Aravali Range in Pali, District Faridabad bears significant geological features. Radon exhalation from ground plays an important role in enhanced indoor radon levels and can pose grave health hazards to the workers and the residents. Exhalation rates (mass and surface) from stone samples of the area have been studied using LR-115, Type II nuclear track detectors. The mass and surface exhalation rates from crushed stone samples, also called stone dust varied in the range 3.41-9.11 mBq kg -1 h - 1 and 75.9-202.7 mBq m -2 h -1 , respectively. The study has revealed substantial presence of radionuclides in the samples collected from the mining area. (author)

  8. Geochemical and Pb isotopic evidence for sources and dispersal of metal contamination in stream sediments from the mining and smelting district of Pribram, Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ettler, Vojtech; Mihaljevic, Martin; Sebek, Ondrej; Molek, Michael; Grygar, Tomas; Zeman, Josef

    2006-01-01

    Stream sediments from the mining and smelting district of Pribram, Czech Republic, were studied to determine the degree, sources and dispersal of metal contamination using a combination of bulk metal and mineralogical determinations, sequential extractions and Pb isotopic analyses. The highest metal concentrations were found 3-4 km downstream from the main polymetallic mining site (9800 mg Pb kg -1 , 26 039 mg Zn kg -1 , 316.4 mg Cd kg -1 , 256.9 mg Cu kg -1 ). The calculated enrichment factors (EFs) confirmed the extreme degree of contamination by Pb, Zn and Cd (EF > 40). Lead, Zn and Cd are bound mainly to Fe oxides and hydroxides. In the most contaminated samples Pb is also present as Pb carbonates and litharge (PbO). Lead isotopic analysis indicates that the predominant source of stream sediment contamination is historic Pb-Ag mining and primary Pb smelting ( 206 Pb/ 207 Pb = 1.16), while the role of secondary smelting (car battery processing) is negligible. - Pb isotopes properly complete traditional investigations of metal sources and dispersal in contaminated stream sediments

  9. Metals in riparian wildlife of the lead mining district of southeastern Missouri. [Rana catesbeiana, Ondatra zibethicus; Butorides striatus; Nerodia sipedon; Stelgidopteryx serripennis, Riparia riparia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niethammer, K.R.; Atkinson, R.D.; Baskett, T.S.; Samson, F.B.

    1985-03-01

    Five species of riparian vertebrates (425 individuals) primarily representing upper trophic levels were collected from the Big River and Black River drainages in two lead mining districts of southeastern Missouri, 1981-82. Big River is subject to metal pollution via erosion and seepage from large tailings piles from inactive lead mines. Black River drains part of a currently mined area. Bull-frogs (Rana catesbeiana), muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus), and green-backed herons (Butorides striatus) collected downstream from the source of metal contamination to Big River had significantly higher lead and cadmium levels than specimens collected at either an uncontaminated upstream site or on Black River. Northern water snakes (Nerodia sipedon) had elevated lead levels below the tailings source, but did not seem to accumulate cadmium. Levels of lead, cadmium, or zinc in northern rough-winged swallows (Stelgidopteryx serripennis) were not related to collecting locality. Carcasses of ten bank swallows (Riparia riparia) collected from a colony nesting in a tailings pile along the Big River had lead concentrations of 2.0-39 ppm wet weight. Differences between zinc concentrations in vertebrates collected from contaminated and uncontaminated sites were less apparent than differences in lead and cadmium. There was little relationship between metal concentrations in the animals studied and their trophic levels. Bull-frogs are the most promising species examined for monitoring environmental levels of lead, cadmium, and zinc.

  10. Occurrence, distribution, and volume of metals-contaminated sediment of selected streams draining the Tri-State Mining District, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Kansas, 2011–12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D. Charlie

    2016-12-14

    Lead and zinc were mined in the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD) of southwest Missouri, northeast Oklahoma, and southeast Kansas for more than 100 years. The effects of mining on the landscape are still evident, nearly 50 years after the last mine ceased operation. The legacies of mining are the mine waste and discharge of groundwater from underground mines. The mine-waste piles and underground mines are continuous sources of trace metals (primarily lead, zinc, and cadmium) to the streams that drain the TSMD. Many previous studies characterized the horizontal extent of mine-waste contamination in streams but little information exists on the depth of mine-waste contamination in these streams. Characterizing the vertical extent of contamination is difficult because of the large amount of coarse-grained material, ranging from coarse gravel to boulders, within channel sediment. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with U.S. Fish and Wildlife service, collected channel-sediment samples at depth for subsequent analyses that would allow attainment of the following goals: (1) determination of the relation between concentration and depth for lead, zinc and cadmium in channel sediments and flood-plain sediments, and (2) determination of the volume of gravel-bar sediment from the surface to the maximum depth with concentrations of these metals that exceeded sediment-quality guidelines. For the purpose of this report, volume of gravel-bar sediment is considered to be distributed in two forms, gravel bars and the wetted channel, and this study focused on gravel bars. Concentrations of lead, zinc, and cadmium in samples were compared to the consensus probable effects concentration (CPEC) and Tri-State Mining District specific probable effects concentration (TPEC) sediment-quality guidelines.During the study, more than 700 sediment samples were collected from borings at multiple sites, including gravel bars and flood plains, along Center Creek, Turkey Creek, Shoal Creek

  11. Tunisia: World Oil Report 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on more attractive E and P terms, and the Abiod Chalk oil play which means busier exploration in Tunisia. E and P agreement terms and conditions have been liberalized in the face of declining oil and gas production, thus encouraging development of smaller, previously marginal prospects. Ownership and acreage changes may have significant impact in the next few years as Texaco, under a farm-in, has acquired 60% and operatorship of Conquest Exploration's El Jem onshore block and Samedan acquired large acreage interests from Royal Dutch Shell

  12. The photovoltaic market in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouazzi, A.S.; Hydri, S.; Sakji, O.

    1997-01-01

    In this article, our aim is to estimate the number of rural houses to be supplied with electricity by photovoltaic systems, using data from the national electric company in Tunisia (STEG) and the 1994 General Census. We also intent to estimate the electric consumption of three categories of houses, depending on the electrical appliances they own and on the annual hours of sunshine of the part of the country where they are situated. The estimated of the needed peak power is 15525 kWp to electrify 114,323 houses. (author)

  13. Measurements for monitoring ground motion resulting from mining operations in the Rhenish brown coal district; Messungen zur Ueberwachung von bergbaubedingten Bodenbewegungen im rheinischen Braunkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duddek, H; Schaefer, W [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Coal mining in the Rhenish brown coal district resulted in loose rock slopes with a total height of more than 350 m. Mining operations caused ground motion in open-cast mines, in the slopes and in the region ahead of the face. Internal dumping caused motions of the floors, the overburden tip and te slopes of the open-cast mines. The deformations were measured by different methods, and the evaluations are presented here. As examples, permanent monitoring of a slope using the GEOROBOT measuring system and continuous subsidence measurements in an overburdan dump by means of hydrostatic measuring systems are presented. GEOROBOT ensures quasi-continuous measurements of slope motion with an error of 5-7 mm. Hydrostatic measuring systems on the basis of pressure sensors were developed for measurements of single overburden dump strata and the overburden dump basis during dumping. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den rheinischen Braunkohlentagebauen entstehen Lockergesteinsboeschungen mit Gesamthoehen von mehr als 350 m. Die Gewinnungstaetigkeiten verursachen Entlastungsbewegungen im Tagebau, in den Boeschungen und im Tagebauvorfeld. Die Innenverkippung fuehrt erneut zu Bodenbewegungen im Liegenden, im Kippenkoerper und im Bereich der Tagebauraender. Die auftretenden Deformationen werden mit verschiedenen Messverfahren erfasst, ausgewertet und dargestellt. Beispielhaft werden die permanente Ueberwachung einer Boeschung mittels des automatischen Messsystems GEOROBOT und kontinuierliche Setzungsmessungen in einer Tagebaukippe mit hydrostatischen Messsystemen vorgestellt. Mit GEOROBOT werden quasi kontinuierlich Boeschungsbewegungsmessungen mit einer Genauigkeit von {+-}5 bis 7 mm durchgefuehrt. Auf der Basis von Drucksensoren wurden hydrostatische Messsysteme konzipiert, mit denen Setzungen einzelner Kippscheiben und der Kippenbasis waehrend des Kippenaufbaues ermittelt werden. (orig.)

  14. Measurements for monitoring ground motion resulting from mining operations in the Rhenish brown coal district; Messungen zur Ueberwachung von bergbaubedingten Bodenbewegungen im rheinischen Braunkohlenbergbau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duddek, H.; Schaefer, W. [Rheinbraun AG, Koeln (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    Coal mining in the Rhenish brown coal district resulted in loose rock slopes with a total height of more than 350 m. Mining operations caused ground motion in open-cast mines, in the slopes and in the region ahead of the face. Internal dumping caused motions of the floors, the overburden tip and te slopes of the open-cast mines. The deformations were measured by different methods, and the evaluations are presented here. As examples, permanent monitoring of a slope using the GEOROBOT measuring system and continuous subsidence measurements in an overburdan dump by means of hydrostatic measuring systems are presented. GEOROBOT ensures quasi-continuous measurements of slope motion with an error of 5-7 mm. Hydrostatic measuring systems on the basis of pressure sensors were developed for measurements of single overburden dump strata and the overburden dump basis during dumping. (orig.) [Deutsch] In den rheinischen Braunkohlentagebauen entstehen Lockergesteinsboeschungen mit Gesamthoehen von mehr als 350 m. Die Gewinnungstaetigkeiten verursachen Entlastungsbewegungen im Tagebau, in den Boeschungen und im Tagebauvorfeld. Die Innenverkippung fuehrt erneut zu Bodenbewegungen im Liegenden, im Kippenkoerper und im Bereich der Tagebauraender. Die auftretenden Deformationen werden mit verschiedenen Messverfahren erfasst, ausgewertet und dargestellt. Beispielhaft werden die permanente Ueberwachung einer Boeschung mittels des automatischen Messsystems GEOROBOT und kontinuierliche Setzungsmessungen in einer Tagebaukippe mit hydrostatischen Messsystemen vorgestellt. Mit GEOROBOT werden quasi kontinuierlich Boeschungsbewegungsmessungen mit einer Genauigkeit von {+-}5 bis 7 mm durchgefuehrt. Auf der Basis von Drucksensoren wurden hydrostatische Messsysteme konzipiert, mit denen Setzungen einzelner Kippscheiben und der Kippenbasis waehrend des Kippenaufbaues ermittelt werden. (orig.)

  15. Disaster risk management in prospect mining area Blitar district, East Java, using microtremor analysis and ANP (analytical network processing) approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parwatiningtyas, Diyan, E-mail: diane.tyas@gmail.com, E-mail: erlinunindra@gmail.com; Ambarsari, Erlin Windia, E-mail: diane.tyas@gmail.com, E-mail: erlinunindra@gmail.com; Marlina, Dwi, E-mail: diane.tyas@gmail.com, E-mail: erlinunindra@gmail.com; Wiratomo, Yogi, E-mail: diane.tyas@gmail.com, E-mail: erlinunindra@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering, Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Indraprasta PGRI University, Nangka Street No. 58C Tanjung Barat, South Jakarta (Indonesia)

    2014-03-24

    Indonesia has a wealth of natural assets is so large to be managed and utilized, either from its own local government and local communities, especially in the mining sector. However, mining activities can change the state of the surface layer of the earth that have a high impact disaster risk. This could threaten the safety and disrupt human life, environmental damage, loss of property, and the psychological impact, sulking to the rule of law no 24 of 2007. That's why we strive to manage and minimize the risk of mine disasters in the region, how to use the method of calculation of Amplification Factor (AF) from the analysis based microtremor sulking Kanai and Nakamura, and decision systems were tested by analysis of ANP. Based on the amplification factor and Analytical Network Processing (ANP) obtained, some points showed instability in the surface layer of a mining area include the site of the TP-7, TP-8, TP-9, TP-10, (Birowo2). If in terms of structure, location indicated unstable due to have a sloping surface layer, resulting in the occurrence of landslides and earthquake risk is high. In the meantime, other areas of the mine site can be said to be a stable area.

  16. Disaster risk management in prospect mining area Blitar district, East Java, using microtremor analysis and ANP (analytical network processing) approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parwatiningtyas, Diyan; Ambarsari, Erlin Windia; Marlina, Dwi; Wiratomo, Yogi

    2014-01-01

    Indonesia has a wealth of natural assets is so large to be managed and utilized, either from its own local government and local communities, especially in the mining sector. However, mining activities can change the state of the surface layer of the earth that have a high impact disaster risk. This could threaten the safety and disrupt human life, environmental damage, loss of property, and the psychological impact, sulking to the rule of law no 24 of 2007. That's why we strive to manage and minimize the risk of mine disasters in the region, how to use the method of calculation of Amplification Factor (AF) from the analysis based microtremor sulking Kanai and Nakamura, and decision systems were tested by analysis of ANP. Based on the amplification factor and Analytical Network Processing (ANP) obtained, some points showed instability in the surface layer of a mining area include the site of the TP-7, TP-8, TP-9, TP-10, (Birowo2). If in terms of structure, location indicated unstable due to have a sloping surface layer, resulting in the occurrence of landslides and earthquake risk is high. In the meantime, other areas of the mine site can be said to be a stable area

  17. Alteration zone Mapping in the Meiduk and Sar Cheshmeh Porphyry Copper Mining Districts of Iran using Advanced Land Imager (ALI Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the capability of Earth Observing-1 (EO1 Advanced Land Imager (ALI data for hydrothermal alteration mapping in the Meiduk and Sar Cheshmeh porphyry copper mining districts, SE Iran. Feature-oriented principal components selection, 4/2, 8/9, 5/4 band ratioing were applied to ALI data for enhancing the hydrothermally altered rocks associated with porphyry copper mineralization, lithological units and vegetation. Mixture-tuned matched-filtering (MTMF was tested to discriminate the hydrothermal alteration areas of porphyry copper mineralization from surrounding environment using the shortwave infrared bands of ALI. Results indicate that the tested methods are able to yield spectral information for identifying vegetation, iron oxide/hydroxide and clay minerals, lithological units and the discrimination of hydrothermally altered rocks from unaltered rocks using ALI data.

  18. Bio-availability of tungsten in the vicinity of an abandoned mine in the English Lake District and some potential health implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, Bob; Pyatt, F. Brian

    2006-01-01

    This research addresses the occurrence, detection and possible fate of tungsten in the vicinity of an abandoned mine in the English Lake District. Aqua regia extraction and subsequent analysis of spoil and vegetation confirmed the presence of tungsten and other heavy metals. Spoil samples examined were last worked almost 100 years ago and the concentrations of copper, zinc, tungsten and arsenic detected demonstrate the environmental persistence of these metals in an area of relatively high rainfall. The bioaccumulation of tungsten by two species of plants is indicated and partitioning within different tissues of Calluna vulgaris is demonstrated. Mechanisms relating to mobility and speciation of the metals present were explored using sequential and single stage extraction systems. Tungsten appears to be relatively immobile when subjected to sequential extraction but increased bioavailability is indicated when single stage extraction using EDTA is employed

  19. Biochemical effects of lead, zinc, and cadmium from mining on fish in the Tri-States district of northeastern Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Christopher J.; Whyte, Jeffrey J.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Tillitt, Donald E.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the exposure of fish from the Spring and Neosho Rivers in northeast Oklahoma, USA, to lead, zinc, and cadmium from historical mining in the Tri-States Mining District (TSMD). Fish (n = 74) representing six species were collected in October 2001 from six sites on the Spring and Neosho Rivers influenced to differing degrees by mining. Additional samples were obtained from the Big River, a heavily contaminated stream in eastern Missouri, USA, and from reference sites. Blood from each fish was analyzed for Pb, Zn, Cd, Fe, and hemoglobin (Hb). Blood also was analyzed for ??-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity. The activity of ALA-D, an enzyme involved in heme synthesis, is inhibited by Pb. Concentrations of Fe and Hb were highly correlated (r = 0.89, p < 0.01) across all species and locations and typically were greater in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) than in other taxa. Concentrations of Pb, Zn, and Cd typically were greatest in fish from sites most heavily affected by mining and lowest in reference samples. The activity of ALA-D, but not concentrations of Hb or Fe, also differed significantly (p < 0.01) among sites and species. Enzyme activity was lowest in fish from mining-contaminated sites and greatest in reference fish, and was correlated negatively with Pb in most species. Statistically significant (p < 0.01) linear regression models that included negative terms for blood Pb explained as much as 68% of the total variation in ALA-D activity, but differences among taxa were highly evident. Positive correlations with Zn were documented in the combined data for channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris), as has been reported for other taxa, but not in bass (Micropterus spp.) or carp. In channel catfish, ALA-D activity appeared to be more sensitive to blood Pb than in the other species investigated (i.e., threshold concentrations for inhibition were lower). Such among-species differences are consistent

  20. The importance of ingested soils in supplying fluorine and lead to sheep grazing contaminated pastures in the Peak District mining area of Derbyshire, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahams, Peter W; Blackwell, Nia L

    2013-12-01

    For sheep grazing pastures in areas of mineralisation and former metalliferous mining activity, an excessive intake of potentially harmful elements (PHEs) such as fluorine (F) and lead (Pb) can result in clinical and subclinical toxicity. The prime aim of our work was to calculate the intakes of both of these PHEs by sheep grazing pastures in the mineralised/mined Peak District area of Derbyshire. The bi-monthly sampling of topsoils (0-15 cm depth) and the faeces of sheep from fields at seven farms was undertaken for a 1-year period. These samples were analysed for titanium that allowed the rates of soil ingestion (and hence also herbage ingestion since we assume that the sheep have an overall diet of 1 kg dry matter (DM)/day) to be determined. Our findings were then combined with previously published soil and soil-free pasture herbage F and Pb concentrations determined from the seven farms to calculate the intakes of both PHEs. The results show seasonal variations of soil ingestion at the seven farms ranging from toxic impact. Because the soil concentrations are greater than those associated with soil-free pasture herbage, ingested soils are the main dietary source of Pb and (especially) F to sheep. However, subjecting freshly sampled topsoils to sequential extraction procedures undertaken in the laboratory indicates that the majority of Pb and (especially) F may not be readily soluble in the ovine digestion system, so reducing the quantities of both PHEs available for absorption.

  1. Vocational training in Tunisia Strengths and weaknesses

    OpenAIRE

    bouoiyour, jamal

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers an analysis of institutional aspects of professional training in Tunisia. We describe briefly the genesis of this system and pointed out that Tunisia in spite of remarkable progress, suffers from some problems related to the low and partial integration of the professional training system in the general system of training. In a more precise way, the implement of professional training turns out incapable to anticipate future professions. Furthermore, when certain professions a...

  2. Energy, pollution, and economic development in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miniar Ben Ammar Sghari

    2016-11-01

    The rising level of energy consumption that is occurring internationally also is being mirrored at regional and national levels. An interesting case study along these lines is Tunisia, which is one of the high-growth economies in the Middle East and North African area yet lacks sufficient energy supply to satisfy its growing demand. Tunisia looks like many nations around the world with a young population, growing economy, increasing domestic energy consumption, and the need to balance economic development with environmental concerns.

  3. Hydrochemical characteristics and quality assessment of deep groundwater from the coal-bearing aquifer of the Linhuan coal-mining district, Northern Anhui Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Man-Li; Peng, Wei-Hua; Gui, He-Rong

    2016-04-01

    There is little information available about the hydrochemical characteristics of deep groundwater in the Linhuan coal-mining district, Northern Anhui Province, China. In this study, we report information about the physicochemical parameters, major ions, and heavy metals of 17 groundwater samples that were collected from the coal-bearing aquifer. The results show that the concentrations of total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, and potassium and sodium (K(+) + Na(+)) in most of the groundwater samples exceeded the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Chinese National Standards for Drinking Water Quality (GB 5749-2006). The groundwater from the coal-bearing aquifer was dominated by the HCO3·Cl-K + Na and HCO3·SO4-K + Na types. Analysis with a Gibbs plot suggested that the major ion chemistry of the groundwater was primarily controlled by weathering of rocks and that the coal-bearing aquifer in the Linhuan coal-mining district was a relatively closed system. K(+) and Na(+) originated from halite and silicate weathering reactions, while Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) originated from the dissolution of calcite, dolomite, and gypsum or anhydrite. Ion exchange reactions also had an influence on the formation of major ions in groundwater. The concentrations of selected heavy metals decreased in the order Mn > Zn > Cr > Cu > Ni > Pb. In general, the heavy metal concentrations were low; however, the Cr, Mn, and Ni concentrations in some of the groundwater samples exceeded the standards outlined by the WHO, the GB 5749-2006, and the Chinese National Standards for Groundwater (GB/T 14848-93). Analysis by various indices (% Na, SAR, and EC), a USSL diagram, and a Wilcox diagram showed that both the salinity and alkalinity of the groundwater were high, such that the groundwater could not be used for irrigating agricultural land without treatment. These results will be significant for water resource exploiting and utilization in

  4. The Vein-type Zn-(Pb, Cu, As, Hg) mineralization at Fedj Hassene ore field, North-Western Tunisia: Mineralogy, Trace Elements, Sulfur Isotopes and Fluid Inclusions; Le champ filonien a Zn-(Pb, Cu, As, Hg) du district minier de Fedj Hassene (Nord Ouest de la Tunisie): Mineralogie, Elements en traces, Isotopes du Soufre et Inclusions Fluides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejaouil, J.; Bouhlel, S.; Barca, D.; Braham, A.

    2011-07-01

    The Fedj Hassene district is localized at the edge of the Tuniso-Algerian border 10 km of Ghardimaou area. It consists of a Zn-Pb vein type with minor amounts of Cu-As-Hg. The total Zn reserves are about 370.000t. The mineralization occurs within sub parallel fractures to the Ain El Kohla ESE-WNW fault. Host rocks consist of limestones and marly limestones of the Middle Turonian. In the principal lode of Fedj Hassene, the mineralization occurs as vein filling of massive and brecciated brown sphalerite and minor galena ore with gangue. Other trace minerals are pyrite, chalcopyrite, orpiment, realgar, smithsonite and cerussite. LA-ICP-MS analyses in sphalerites show mean contents of 0,84 wt% Fe, 0,14 wt% Cd and 0,02 wt% Mn Ore. Fluid inclusions study in calcite and sphalerite reveals one mineralizing fluid characterized by an average salinity 23% wt NaCl with decreasing homogenisation temperature. In fact the temperature shows decrease from sphalerite to calcite. The fluid density that corresponds to trapping pressure ranges between 1.00 g/cm{sup 3} and 1.11 g/cm{sup 3} and pressure close to 200 bars. Micro thermometric data in fluid inclusion hosted by gangue mineral presented by calcite show an average temperature of formation around 194 degree centigrade. These inclusions homogenized to the liquid phase between 156 degree centigrade and 210 degree centigrade and salinities values ranging from 22 to 28 wt% NaCl and an average around 23% wt NaCl. The {delta}{sup 3}4S (VCDT) values of sphalerite are in the range of + 4,6% to 6,4% (average=5,6%). Thermochemical reduction of Triassic sulfate by reaction with hydro-carbons is the most probable source for the heavy and the narrow range of the d{delta}{sup 3}4S values. Mineralogical, geochemical of trace elements, fluid inclusions and sulfur isotopes studies allow to include the vein-type ore field of Fedj Hassene in the polymetallic (Pb-Zn-As-Hg) vein mineralization of the nappe zone in northern Tunisia and north eastern

  5. Physico-chemical properties of clay deposits of Bina and Jhingurdah mines of Singrauli coalfield, District Sidhi (MP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, V B; Joshi, V C

    1980-01-01

    Clay samples exposed over Baraker and Raniganj coal seams of Lower Gondwana System in Bina and Jhingurdah mines respectively are studied. The chemical and rational analyses of the samples indicate that range of variation of the different constituents. Infra-red, X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis and thermal gravimetric analysis were used to determine clay and other minerals. The deposits may be suitable for manufacture of triaxial wares, e.g. ordinary porcelain sanitary ware, stoneware, etc.

  6. tunisia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lanez

    31 déc. 2014 ... l'absence des ressources fourragères, à cause des ressources en eau généralement limitées tant quantitativement ... (Réseau de Distribution d'eau potable et Sondages), alors que 10% des eaux (Citernes) sont sales, à cause de .... éleveurs assurent la désinfection des trayons après la traite (Figure 2).

  7. Auditing the quality of immunization data in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Kouni Chahed

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To carry out a data quality audit for the consistency and quality of immunization monitoring in Kasserine governorate in Tunisia, where immunization coverage rates more than 100%, negative dropout and conflicting coverage rates had been reported. Methods: In a randomly selected sample of 12 primary health care facilities in 2 districts all files used to record immunization data were checked to verify the accuracy of the reported 3rd dose of diphtheriatetanus-pertussis vaccine during a calendar year. Results: The results found frequent overreporting or under-reporting of doses being administrated in all health facilities. The regional verification factor was estimated as 85% and quality index was 55%. Conclusions: Data quality audit provides a effective tool for self-assessment implementation and developing a critical analysis of the quality of routine immunization data at all levels of health service.

  8. Virtual Water and Food Security in Tunisia | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ... on the world grain market has social implications for Tunisia's small farmers and ... Thus, when a country exports an agricultural product, in effect it also exports ... Tunisia that incorporates the virtual water concept in a food security strategy.

  9. Concentrations, spatial distribution, and risk assessment of soil heavy metals in a Zn-Pb mine district in southern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jianying; Zhang, Hailong; Li, Xiangping; Lu, Jian; Zhang, Gaosheng

    2016-07-01

    China is one of the largest producers and consumers of lead and zinc in the world. Lead and zinc mining and smelting can release hazardous heavy metals such as Cd, Pb, Zn, and As into soils, exerting health risks to human by chronic exposure. The concentrations of Cd, Zn, Pb, and As in soil samples collected from a Pb-Zn mining area with exploitation history of 60 years were investigated. Health risks of the heavy metals in soil were evaluated using US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) recommended method. A geo-statistical technique (Kriging) was used for the interpolation of heavy metals pollution and Hazard Index (HI). The results indicated that the long-term Pb/Zn mining activities caused the serious pollution in the local soil. The concentrations of Cd, As, Pb, and Zn in topsoil were 40.3 ± 6.3, 103.7 ± 37.3, 3518.4 ± 896.1, and 10,413 ± 2973.2 mg/kg dry weight, respectively. The spatial distribution of the four metals possessed similar patterns, with higher concentrations around Aayiken (AYK), Maseka (MSK), and Kuangshan (KS) area and more rapidly dropped concentrations at upwind direction than those at downwind direction. The main pollutions of Cd and Zn were found in the upper 60 cm, the Pb was found in the upper 40 cm, and the As was in the upper 20 cm. The mobility of metals in soil profile of study area was classed as Cd > Zn ≫ Pb > As. Results indicated that there was a higher health risk (child higher than adult) in the study area. Pb contributed to the highest Hazard Quotient (57.0 ~ 73.9 %) for the Hazard Index.

  10. Mercury uptake and distribution in Lavandula stoechas plants grown in soil from Almadén mining district (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra, M J; Millán, R; Esteban, E

    2009-11-01

    This work studies mercury root uptake by Lavandula stoechas var. Kew Red (lavender) and the distribution of this metal through the plant under greenhouse conditions along three consecutive seasons. Mercury concentration in plant tissues and in the different products obtained from lavender plants (essential oil, toilet water and in lavender tea) was assessed in order to evaluate the possible cultivation of lavender as a profitable alternative land use to mercury mining in the Almadén area once the mine had been closed down. Mercury concentration in useful parts of the plant was low (0.03-0.55 mg kg(-1)). Likewise, the essential oil, toilet water and tea obtained from these plants presented very low mercury levels, below the detection limit of the used equipment (<0.5 microg kg(-1)). In the case of the obtained tea, according to the recommendations given by the World Health Organization, the maximum daily intake of it without intoxication risk would be 85.2l. So, although other sources of mercury intake should also be considered in order to elaborate a complete toxicological risk assessment. Lavender data, obtained under this greenhouse working conditions, shows that lavender cultivation could be an alternative crop in the Almadén area.

  11. A preliminary combined geochemical and rock-magnetic study of tailings of non-magnetic ores from Tlalpujahua-El Oro mining districts, Michoacán and Estado de México States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, J.; Hernández-Bernal, M.; Corona-Chávez, P.

    2013-05-01

    Mining activities in Mexico have been continuously developed since 1550. Since then several thousands of million tons of waste produced as a result of the mining activity have been accumulated and scattered throughout the territory. These wastes can contain minerals with potentially toxic elements (PTEs) such as Cr, As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, which show a distribution and mobility in the environment according to the chemical species in which are hosted. The Tlalpujahua - El Oro mining district (TOMD) concentrates an impressive number of mines and historical tailings. Due to their in-slope hydrographic position, the mining activities increase the risk of generating anthropogenic effluent that could contribute with a certain amount of mine-water with high contents of PTEs. Although magnetic methods have been widely applied to pollution studies of regions with high anthropogenic impact, its application to tailings is scarce in spite of the several studies that document the environmental effects as a result of the mining waste. We present the results obtained by combined geochemical and rock-magnetic studies in these tailings. Similarly to the traditional EPTs vs SiO2 diagrams, EPTs vs Fe show good linear (inverse) correlation with most of these health-risk elements. Fe concentrations determined magnetically from room-temperature susceptibility measurements agrees with those obtained by traditionally geochemical methods.

  12. Speciation and transport of uranium: application to a study case (the 'La Crouzille' uranium mining district, Northern Limousin, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peiffert, Ch.; Cathelineau, M.; Ruhlmann, F.; Thiry, J.; Moulin, V.

    2003-01-01

    The occurrence of suspended particles / colloids in mining effluent waters is studied for their potential role in the transport and deposit of contaminants (especially uranium) via the rivers. It is well-know that a major source of acid to waters in mineralized areas is the oxidation of pyrite. Although the overall oxidant that drives pyrite oxidation is O 2 from the atmosphere, dissolved Fe(III) appears to be the primary oxidant that attacks the pyrite surface to form Fe(II), SO 4 , and protons. The Fe(II) that is produced can oxidize in the presence of O 2 to Fe(III). This reaction is the rate determining step and is usually catalyzed by autotrophic bacteria. The Fe(III) produced can either further oxidize pyrite or hydrolyze and then precipitate as hydrous Fe oxide (goethite [?FeOOH] or ferri-hydrite [∼Fe 5 (OH) 8 .4H 2 O]) or as Fe hydroxy-sulfate minerals (jarosite [KFe 3 (SO 4 ) 2 (OH) 6 ] or schwertmannite [Fe 8 O 8 (OH) 6 SO 4 ]) depending on kinetic factors, pH, and concentrations of Fe(III), SO 4 , and bicarbonate. These reactions is accompanied by the gypsum formation. Water circulating through the galleries then will lixiviate these alteration minerals. Then, the mining water with Fe, Ca, Mg, U and SO 4 and to a lesser extent out of Na, K and Cl. Uranium in solution, can then be sorbed on the particles of more or less big size. This chemical adsorption is characterized by the formation of chemical associations between ions or molecules from the solution and surface particles. This includes chemi-sorption, ion exchange and co-precipitation mechanisms. The objective of this work is to discriminate in the uranium transport the relative role played by suspended particles / colloids and complexes (dissolved state). Methods: The most common procedure for the separation and concentration of suspended particles in natural waters for subsequent analysis is filtration using membrane filters of various types and pore diameters. The ultrafiltration technique are

  13. Economic geology of the Bingham mining district, Utah, with a section on areal geology, and an introduction on general geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutwell, J.M.; Keith, Arthur; Emmons, S.F.

    1905-01-01

    The field work of which this report represents the final results was first undertaken in the summer of the year 1900. This district had long been selected by the writer as worthy of special economic investigation, as well on account of the importance of its products as because of its geological structure and the peculiar relations of its ore deposits. It was not, however, until the summer mentioned above that the means at the disposal of the Survey, both pecuniary and scientific, justified its undertaking. As originally planned, the areal or surface geology was to have been worked out by Mr. Keith, who had already spent many years in unraveling the complicated geological structure of the Appalachian province, while Mr. Boutwell, who had more recently become attached to the Survey, was to have charge of the underground geology, or a study of the ore deposits, under the immediate supervision of the writer. When the time came for actually taking the field, it was found that the pressure of other work would not permit Mr. Keith to carry out fully the part allotted to him, and in consequence a part of his field work has fallen to Mr. Boutwell. Field work was commenced by the writer and Mr. Boutwell early in July, 1900. Mr. Keith joined the party on August 10, but was obliged to leave for other duties early in September. Mr. Boutwell carried on his field work continuously from July until December, taking up underground work after the snowfall had rendered work on the surface geology impracticable. The geological structure had proved to be unexpectedly intricate and complicated, so that, on the opening of the field season of 1901, it was found necessary to make further study in the light of results already worked out, and Mr. Boutwell spent some weeks in the district in the early summer of 1901. His field work that year, partly in California and partly in Arizona, as assistant to Mr. Waldemar Lindgren, lasted through the summer and winter and well into the spring of 1902

  14. Review of alien marine macrophytes in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. R. SGHAIER

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the list of alien marine macrophytes introduced into Tunisia was updated in the light of available data and new observations. A total of 27 alien marine macrophytes have been recorded so far from Tunisia: 18 Rhodophyta, 3 Ochrophyta, 5 Chlorophyta and 1 Magnoliophyta. For each species, the locality (-ies, the year (or period and the source of the first observation in Tunisia are given. The distribution and the status (casual, cryptogenic, established or questionable of species in Tunisia were evaluated and, where appropriate, discussed. Among them, Hypnea cornuta is reported for the first time from Tunisia. Fourteen alien marine macrophytes are established, whereas seven cryptogenic and two casual species require further investigation. Eleven species are considered as invasive or potentially invasive in the Mediterranean Sea: Acrothamnion preissii, Asparagopsis armata, A. taxiformis Indo-Pacific lineage, Hypnea cornuta, Lophocladia lallemandii, Womersleyella setacea, Caulerpa chemnitzia, C. cylindracea, C. taxifolia, Codium fragile subsp. fragile and Halophila stipulacea. Finally, the case of four questionable species is also discussed.

  15. The Laramide Mesa formation and the Ojo de Agua caldera, southeast of the Cananea copper mining district, Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Dennis P.; Miller, Robert J.; Woodbourne, Keith L.

    2006-01-01

    The Mesa Formation extends from Cananea, Mexico, southeast to the Sonora River and is the main host rock of Laramide porphyry copper deposits in the Cananea District and at the Alacran porphyry prospect to the east. The Mesa consists of two members-a lower andesite and an upper dacite. The lowest part of the dacite member is a crystal tuff about 100 m thick. This tuff is the outfall of a caldera centered near the village of Ojo de Agua, dated by 40Ar/39Ar at 65.8 Ma ?0.4. The Ojo de Agua Caldera is about 9 km in diameter and is filled by a light gray biotite dacite tuff with abundant flattened pumice fragments. The volume of the caldera is estimated to be 24 km3.

  16. Concentration, distribution, and translocation of mercury and methylmercury in mine-waste, sediment, soil, water, and fish collected near the Abbadia San Salvatore mercury mine, Monte Amiata district, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimondi, V.; Gray, J.E.; Costagliola, P.; Vaselli, O.; Lattanzi, P.

    2012-01-01

    The distribution and translocation of mercury (Hg) was studied in the Paglia River ecosystem, located downstream from the inactive Abbadia San Salvatore mine (ASSM). The ASSM is part of the Monte Amiata Hg district, Southern Tuscany, Italy, which was one of the world’s largest Hg districts. Concentrations of Hg and methyl-Hg were determined in mine-waste calcine (retorted ore), sediment, water, soil, and freshwater fish collected from the ASSM and the downstream Paglia River. Concentrations of Hg in calcine samples ranged from 25 to 1500 μg/g, all of which exceeded the industrial soil contamination level for Hg of 5 μg/g used in Italy. Stream and lake sediment samples collected downstream from the ASSM ranged in Hg concentration from 0.26 to 15 μg/g, of which more than 50% exceeded the probable effect concentration for Hg of 1.06 μg/g, the concentration above which harmful effects are likely to be observed in sediment-dwelling organisms. Stream and lake sediment methyl-Hg concentrations showed a significant correlation with TOC indicating considerable methylation and potential bioavailability of Hg. Stream water contained Hg as high as 1400 ng/L, but only one water sample exceeded the 1000 ng/L drinking water Hg standard used in Italy. Concentrations of Hg were elevated in freshwater fish muscle samples and ranged from 0.16 to 1.2 μg/g (wet weight), averaged 0.84 μg/g, and 96% of these exceeded the 0.3 μg/g (methyl-Hg, wet weight) USEPA fish muscle standard recommended to protect human health. Analysis of fish muscle for methyl-Hg confirmed that > 90% of the Hg in these fish is methyl-Hg. Such highly elevated Hg concentrations in fish indicated active methylation, significant bioavailability, and uptake of Hg by fish in the Paglia River ecosystem. Methyl-Hg is highly toxic and the high Hg concentrations in these fish represent a potential pathway of Hg to the human food chain.

  17. Tunisia: high fertility stalls development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, M

    1985-01-01

    Despite government policy enacted in 1964 to reduce fertility in order to hasten socioeconomic progress, population pressures continue to impair development in Tunisia. The birth rate fell 20% over the last 2 decades, but this accomplishment has been outweighed by a 50% decline in mortality rates. As a result, the rate of natural population increase has remained relatively constant at 2.5%/year. The initial decline in fertility that followed introduction of the national family planning program appears to have reached a plateau, explained in part by the resurgence of conservatism and religious fundamentalism and the consequent emphasis on women's childbearing roles. Unemployment in rural areas has led to widespread migration and unemployment is as high as 20% in the nonagricultural sector. Many young Tunisians lack adequate educational preparation to enter the labor force; in 1982, 27% of new job entrants could not read or write. The government's plan to decentralize development to stabilize population and achieve equilibrium between regions has been thwarted by the pace of population growth and limited resources. The rural regions where population is increasing the fastest are also the most difficult to reach with family planning programs. On the other hand, there have been some successes in this area when services have been adapted to the lifestyle and traditions of those in these isolated rural villages.

  18. Development actions of wind energy in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esseghir, M.

    1991-01-01

    The actions undertaken in Tunisia during the last few years concern research, development and industrial processes and the creation of the National Energy Agency (Agence de Maitrise de l'Energie (AME)) interested in starting up national programs for energy planning, energy saving, and the use of alternative energy sources. This study is based on the most important wind applications realized in the last few years in Tunisia. Firstly the national energy situation is observed. Then attention is paid to the activities in the field of wind energy. After this follows a general description of wind availability per region in Tunisia. Two important applications, water pumping and rural electrification, are described. Finally the perspectives and the evolution of these applications for the future are dealt with. 3 figs., 3 tabs., 2 ills

  19. Wall-rock alteration and uranium mineralization in parts of Thomas Range Mining District, San Juan County, Utah, and its significance in mineral exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, H.

    1985-01-01

    Several important uranium deposits associated with fluorspar and beryllium are located in parts of Thomas Range area. the mineralization is found in dolomites and dolomitic limestones of Paleozoic age and sandstones, tuffs, and rhyolites belonging to the Tertiary Spor Mountain and Topaz Mountain Formations. The pipes, veins, and nodules of fluorspar are replaced by uranium. Veins and disseminations of radioactive fluorspar and opal and overgrowths of secondary minerals are found in rhyolites, tuffs, carbonate rocks, and breccias. The radioactivity in sandstones and conglomerates emanates from weeksite, beta-uranophane, zircon, gummite, and zircon. It also occurs as highly oxidized rare aphanitic grains disseminated in a few ore deposits. The results of the present investigations may influence the initiation of future exploration programs in the Thomas Range mining district. Hydrothermal fluids of deep-seated magmatic origin rich in U, V, Th, Be, and F reacted with the country rocks. The nature and sequence of wall-rock alteration and its paragenetic relationship with the ores have been determined. The mineralization is confined to the altered zones. The ore bodies in the sedimentary rocks and the breccias are located in the fault zones. More than 1000 faults are present in the area, greatly complicating mineral prospecting. The wall-rock alteration is very conspicuous and can be used as a valuable tool in mineral exploration

  20. Raman and micro-thermometric investigation of the fluid inclusions in quartz in a gold-rich formation from Lepaguare mining district (Honduras, Central America).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, D; Salvioli-Mariani, E; Mattioli, M; Menichetti, M; Lottici, P P

    2009-08-01

    Fluid inclusions in the quartz crystals present in gold-rich veins from central Honduras have been studied by means of micro-thermometry and micro-Raman spectroscopy in order to provide information on the physico-chemical conditions and chemical composition of the mineralizing fluids. The use of a confocal micro-Raman apparatus allowed to obtain information on the fluid composition, in particular on the gas phase, minimizing the contributions of the host matrix to the Raman signal. The samples studied were collected from an area (Lepaguare mining district, Northern-Central Honduras) rich in ore deposits due to the Cenozoic magmatic activity, where the gold and sulphide mineralization is connected with a system of quartz veins (few decimetres thick) occurring in low-grade metamorphic rocks and produced by hydrothermal fluids. The quartz crystals present in the gold-rich veins often contain fluid inclusions. Four types of fluid inclusions have been observed, but their assemblage in the same clusters and fracture systems, as well as their comparable salinity and homogenization data, suggest that they have the same origin. Micro-thermometry and Raman spectroscopy provide a composition of the mineralizing fluids attributable to the system H(2)O-NaCl-KCl-CO(2)-CH(4), with temperature and pressure intervals of 210-413 degrees C and 1050-3850 bar, respectively. These data agree with an epigenetic origin of the gold deposit (depth < 6 km) related to granitoid or granodiorite intrusions associated to orogenic environments.

  1. Metals mobility in tailings coming from the mining district of Guanajuato, Mexico; Movilidad de metales en jales procedentes del distrito minero de Guanajuato, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramos G, M.; Avelar, J.; Yamamoto, L.; Ramirez, M. [Universidad Autonoma de Aguascalientes, Departamento de Fisiologia y Farmacologia, Laboratorio de Estudios Ambientales, Av. Universidad No. 904, Ciudad Universitaria, 20131 Aguascalientes (Mexico); Medel R, A.; Godinez, L.; Rodriguez, F. [Centro de Investigacion y Desarrollo Tecnologico en Electroquimica, S. C., Subdireccion de Investigacion, Parque Tecnologico Queretaro Sanfadila, 76703 Pedro Escobedo, Queretaro (Mexico); Guerra, R., E-mail: frodriguez@cideteq.mx [Centro de Innovacion Aplicada en Tecnologias Competitivas, A. C., Direccion de Investigacion, Omega No. 201, Fracc. Industrial Delta, 37545 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2012-07-01

    Characterization of different tailings from the mining district of Guanajuato, Mexico were carried out, including a tailing from an abandoned dam 20 years ago, a dam in operation and another coming from the mixture of different companies. The three tailings presented alkaline conditions, normal salinity, aerobic environment with oxidative tendency, low humidity, very low capacity of cationic exchange, and absence of organic matter. These conditions restrict the metal mobility. The mineralogical analysis showed that the tailings contained mainly quartz, calcite and magnetite. Tailings coming from the mixture of different companies had greater total concentrations (mg/kg) of Mn (1042.8), Al (12919.8), Fe (23911.3), Cr (71.3), Pb (24.6) and Cu (19.8). The highest concentration of Zn was observed at the abandoned tailing (53.3 mg/kg). No significant concentrations of Cd and Hg were observed, although Pb (24.6 mg/kg) and Cr (71.4 mg/kg) were detected. Leaching tests indicated that metals cannot be leached in percentages higher than 0.1%, and so these tailings do not represent an environmental risk. The low leaching of metals in the studied tailings was consistent with the mineralogical and physicochemical prevailing conditions, the low acid drainage generation potential and the high degree of stability observed in the tests of metals fractionation. The mineralogical characteristics were determined by X-ray diffraction. (Author)

  2. Mapping Hydrothermal Alteration Zones at a Sediment-Hosted Gold Deposit - Goldstrike Mining District, Utah, Using Ground-Based Hyperspectral Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupnik, D.; Khan, S.; Crockett, M.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the origin, genesis, as well as depositional and structural mechanisms of gold mineralization as well as detailed mapping of gold-bearing mineral phases at centimeter scale can be useful for exploration. This work was conducted in the Goldstrike mining district near St. George, UT, a structurally complex region which contains Carlin-style disseminated gold deposits in permeable sedimentary layers near high-angle fault zones. These fault zones are likely a conduit for gold-bearing hydrothermal fluids, are silicified, and are frequently gold-bearing. Alteration patterns are complex, difficult to distinguish visually, composed of several phases, and vary significantly over centimeter to meter scale distances. This makes identifying and quantifying the extent of the target zones costly, time consuming, and discontinuous with traditional geochemical methods. A ground-based hyperspectral scanning system with sensors collecting data in the Visible Near Infrared (VNIR) and Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) portions of the electromagnetic spectrum are utilized for close-range outcrop scanning. Scans were taken of vertical exposures of both gold-bearing and barren silicified rocks (jasperoids), with the intent to produce images which delineate and quantify the extent of each phase of alteration, in combination with discrete geochemical data. This ongoing study produces mineralogical maps of surface minerals at centimeter scale, with the intent of mapping original and alteration minerals. This efficient method of outcrop characterization increases our understanding of fluid flow and alteration of economic deposits.

  3. Mercury species accumulation and trophic transfer in biological systems using the Almadén mining district (Ciudad Real, Spain) as a case of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiño Ropero, M J; Rodríguez Fariñas, N; Mateo, R; Berzas Nevado, J J; Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, R C

    2016-04-01

    The impact of mercury (Hg) pollution in the terrestrial environments and the terrestrial food chains including the impact on human food consumption is still greatly under-investigated. In particular, studies including Hg speciation and detoxification strategies in terrestrial animals are almost non-existing, but these are key information with important implications for human beings. Therefore, in this work, we report on Hg species (inorganic mercury, iHg, and monomethylmercury, MeHg) distribution among terrestrial animal tissues obtained from a real-world Hg exposure scenario (Almadén mining district, Spain). Thus, we studied Hg species (iHg and MeHg) and total selenium (Se) content in liver and kidney of red deer (Cervus elaphus; n = 41) and wild boar (Sus scrofa; n = 16). Similar mercury species distribution was found for both red deer and wild boar. Major differences were found between tissues; thus, in kidney, iHg was clearly the predominant species (more than 81%), while in liver, the species distribution was less homogeneous with a percentage of MeHg up to 46% in some cases. Therefore, Hg accumulation and MeHg transfer were evident in terrestrial ecosystems. The interaction between total Se and Hg species has been evaluated by tissue and by animal species. Similar relationships were found in kidney for both Hg species in red deer and wild boar. However, in liver, there were differences between animals. The possible underlying mechanisms are discussed.

  4. Mesozoic Magmatism and Base-Metal Mineralization in the Fortymile Mining District, Eastern Alaska - Initial Results of Petrographic, Geochemical, and Isotopic Studies in the Mount Veta Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia; Slack, John F.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Mortensen, James K.

    2009-01-01

    We present here the initial results of a petrographic, geochemical, and isotopic study of Mesozoic intrusive rocks and spatially associated Zn-Pb-Ag-Cu-Au prospects in the Fortymile mining district in the southern Eagle quadrangle, Alaska. Analyzed samples include mineralized and unmineralized drill core from 2006 and 2007 exploration by Full Metal Minerals, USA, Inc., at the Little Whiteman (LWM) and Fish prospects, and other mineralized and plutonic samples collected within the mining district is part of the USGS study. Three new ion microprobe U-Pb zircon ages are: 210 +- 3 Ma for quartz diorite from LWM, 187 +- 3 Ma for quartz monzonite from Fish, and 70.5 +- 1.1 Ma for altered rhyolite porphyry from Fish. We also present 11 published and unpublished Mesozoic thermal ionization mass spectrometric U-Pb zircon and titanite ages and whole-rock geochemical data for the Mesozoic plutonic rocks. Late Triassic and Early Jurassic plutons generally have intermediate compositions and are slightly foliated, consistent with synkinematic intrusion. Several Early Jurassic plutons contain magmatic epidote, indicating emplacement of the host plutons at mesozonal crustal depths of greater than 15 km. Trace-element geochemical data indicate an arc origin for the granitoids, with an increase in the crustal component with time. Preliminary study of drill core from the LWM Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag prospect supports a carbonate-replacement model of mineralization. LWM massive sulfides consist of sphalerite, galena, and minor pyrite and chalcopyrite, in a gangue of calcite and lesser quartz; silver resides in Sb-As-Ag sulfosalts and pyrargyrite, and probably in submicroscopic inclusions within galena. Whole-rock analyses of LWM drill cores also show elevated In, an important metal in high-technology products. Hypogene mineralized rocks at Fish, below the secondary Zn-rich zone, are associated with a carbonate host and also may be of replacement origin, or alternatively, may be a magnetite

  5. Field experiences in the prevention of toxic effects for cyanide and mercury in the Mining District of Vetas-California, Santander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaparro Garnica, Helkin Claudio Martin

    2004-01-01

    The problem of the mercury and their impact in the health acquired their maximum importance starting from the intoxications of Minamata and Niigata (Japan), because the children that were exposed to the methyl-mercury during their fetal development presented a neurological syndrome and they were born with cerebral paralysis. In Colombia according to the ministry of mines a pound of mercury is used by each pound of obtained gold what can give an idea of the quantity of waste that they take place and that directly they will contaminate the soil, the air and the water. Additionally, they use cyanide, of high to be able to toxic, for the separation process of the fraction of gold whose they discharge they also go to the hydraulic sources. In the human being the white organs of the mercury are the kidneys and the nervous system, causing deterioration that can arrive until the patient's death for renal inadequacy or moderate inability to severe for the caused neurological damages, and in the case of the cyanide whose dose lethal stocking is surpassed in several percentiles by the miners, that same lethality has made them to have him respect and that therefore, single cases accidentals (dogs that they drink water of the saturation tank), or of suicide in human, they have been reported with reference to this toxic that however, it is need to include in the activities of sensitization. In the Mining District of Vetas-California, Department of Santander, Colombia, exists around 25 mines that exploit the gold, there only are not plants, there are also miners handmade called barrileros y/o arrastreros whose benefit involves processes of having amalgamated in development of which it is highly possible the sharp and mainly chronic intoxication for mercury in the exposed population, but additionally in the population not directly related with the productive system because the mercury in its elementary state, or of inorganic salts or of mercurial organic, they can penetrate to the

  6. Environmental aspects of sulphuric acid in situ leach uranium mining in the permafrost zone (Vitim District, Russian Federation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazlullin, M.I.; Boitsov, A.V.

    2002-01-01

    Currently in situ leaching pilot tests are in progress at the Khiagda deposit, Vitim District, Russian Federation. The deposit is of the sandstone basal channel type, or paleovalley type in the Russian classification. It contains about 15 000 mt U at an ore grade averaging 0.05% U. Mineralization occurs in permeable unconsolidated Neogene fluvial sediments located below the permafrost which extends to 100 m deep. The basement rock is Paleozoic granite. Neogene-Quaternary basalts overlap the ore hosting sediments. The thickness of the ore host horizon varies from a few meters to 120 m. The depth of mineralization averages 170 m. Ore bodies are of lens and strataform shape. The following types of underground waters have been identified: groundwaters of the near surface or active layer, the aquifer in the Neogene volcanics, the ore host aquifer of the Neogene permeable sediments and fault related waters. The permeability in the ore bearing horizon varies from 0.1 to 20 m/day (averages 2 to 3 m/day). The waters of the productive aquifer are not suitable for industrial nor potable water supply due to their initial chemical composition. The ore host horizons occur between two impermeable horizons, which confine leaching solutions. Using sulphuric acid solutions as leaching reagent decreases the pH and increases Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) of the groundwaters within the leaching area due to concentration of sulphate-ion and other dissolved components. Principal components contaminating the underground waters are sulphates of aluminium, manganese, nickel and chrome. Their content during leaching significantly exceeds initial values. The available information on residual acid migration with the ground water shows that the concentration of contaminants significantly decreases away from the leaching contour. This occurs due to precipitation of contaminants during migration of the underground water from ISL sites. The external contour of the contamination aureole is defined

  7. Geochemistry, mineralization, structure, and permeability of a normal-fault zone, Casino mine, Alligator Ridge district, north central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, K. Jill; Evans, James P.

    2003-05-01

    We examine the geochemical signature and structure of the Keno fault zone to test its impact on the flow of ore-mineralizing fluids, and use the mined exposures to evaluate structures and processes associated with normal fault development. The fault is a moderately dipping normal-fault zone in siltstone and silty limestone with 55-100 m of dip-slip displacement in north-central Nevada. Across-strike exposures up to 180 m long, 65 m of down-dip exposure and 350 m of along-strike exposure allow us to determine how faults, fractures, and fluids interact within mixed-lithology carbonate-dominated sedimentary rocks. The fault changes character along strike from a single clay-rich slip plane 10-20 mm thick at the northern exposure to numerous hydrocarbon-bearing, calcite-filled, nearly vertical slip planes in a zone 15 m wide at the southern exposure. The hanging wall and footwall are intensely fractured but fracture densities do not vary markedly with distance from the fault. Fault slip varies from pure dip-slip to nearly pure strike-slip, which suggests that either slip orientations may vary on faults in single slip events, or stress variations over the history of the fault caused slip vector variations. Whole-rock major, minor, and trace element analyses indicate that Au, Sb, and As are in general associated with the fault zone, suggesting that Au- and silica-bearing fluids migrated along the fault to replace carbonate in the footwall and adjacent hanging wall rocks. Subsequent fault slip was associated with barite and calcite and hydrocarbon-bearing fluids deposited at the southern end of the fault. No correlation exists at the meter or tens of meter scale between mineralization patterns and fracture density. We suggest that the fault was a combined conduit-barrier system in which the fault provides a critical connection between the fluid sources and fractures that formed before and during faulting. During the waning stages of deposit formation, the fault behaved as

  8. Mining highly stressed areas, part 2.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Johnson, R

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire related to mining at great depth and in very high stress conditions has been completed with the assistance of mine rock mechanics personnel on over twenty mines in all mining districts, and covering all deep level mines...

  9. 30 CFR 71.301 - Respirable dust control plan; approval by District Manager and posting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... District Manager and posting. 71.301 Section 71.301 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION... plan; approval by District Manager and posting. (a) The District Manager will approve respirable dust control plans on a mine-by-mine basis. When approving respirable dust control plans, the District Manager...

  10. Bayesian integration of radioisotope dating (210Pb, 137Cs, 241Am, 14C) and an 18-20th century mining history of Brotherswater, English Lake District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schillereff, Daniel; Chiverrell, Richard; Macdonald, Neil; Hooke, Janet; Welsh, Katharine; Piliposyan, Gayane; Appleby, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Lake sediment records are often a useful tool for investigating landscape evolution as geomorphic changes in the catchment are reflected by altered sediment properties in the material transported through the watershed and deposited at the lake bed. Recent research at Brotherswater, an upland waterbody in the Lake District, northwest England, has focused on reconstructing historical floods from their sedimentary signatures and calculating long-term sediment and carbon budgets from fourteen sediment cores extracted from across the basin. Developing accurate chronological control is essential for these tasks. One sediment core (BW11-2; 3.5 m length) from the central basin has been dated using artificial radionuclide measurements (210Pb, 137Cs, 241Am) for the uppermost sediments and radiocarbon (14C) for lower sediments. The core appears to span the past 1500 years, however a number of problems have arisen. We present our explanations for these errors, the independent chronological techniques used to generate an accurate age-depth model for this core and methods for its transferral to the other 13 cores extracted from the basin. Two distinct 137Cs markers, corresponding to the 1986 Chernobyl disaster and 1960s weapons testing, confirm the 210Pb profile for sediment deposition since ~1950, but calculations prior to this appear erroneous, possibly due to a hiatus in the sediment record. We used high-resolution geochemical profiles (measured by XRF) to cross-correlate with a second 210Pb-dated chronology from a more distal location, which returned more sensible results. Unfortunately, the longer 14C sequence exhibits two age-reversals (radiocarbon dates that are too old). We believe the uppermost two dates are erroneous, due to a shift in inflow location as a flood prevention method ~1900 A.D., dated using information from historical maps. The lower age-reversal coincides with greater supply of terrigenous material to the lake (increased Zr, K, Ti concentrations

  11. Finding Gold in Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Data-mining systems provide a variety of opportunities for school district personnel to streamline operations and focus on student achievement. This article describes the value of data mining for school personnel, finance departments, teacher evaluations, and in the classroom. It suggests that much could be learned about district practices if one…

  12. Republic of Tunisia : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of accounting, financial reporting, and auditing requirements and practices within the enterprise and financial sectors in Tunisia. The analysis of practices is based among others on the review of a sample of 16 financial statements prepared in accordance with Tunisian accounting standards, including 6 listed enterprise sector companies, 3 listed credit institutions and 3 insurance undertakings (of which 2 are listed). The assessment uses International Finan...

  13. Overview of geothermal activities in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Dhia, H.

    1990-01-01

    For Tunisia, the oil crisis and the decrease in local energy resources gave impetus to geothermal energy for potential assessment, exploration and utilization. Research undertaken showed a country with real potentialities either by its important deep aquifers or by the relatively high values of geothermal gradient and heat flow. This paper reports that it is expected that these efforts of geothermal investigation will continue in the future

  14. Contamination by mercury in air of the mining district of San Martin de Loba in Bolivar's Department, Colombia; Contaminacion por mercurio en aire del distrito minero de San Martin de loba en el Departamento de Bolivar, Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olivero V, J.; Young C, F.; Caballero G, K., E-mail: jolivero@unicartagena.edu.co [Universidad de Cartagena, Facultad de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, Grupo de Quimica Ambiental y Computacional, Calle de la Universidad 36-100, Cartagena de Indias (Colombia)

    2014-06-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a heavy metal, considered a highly toxic pollutant. In its elemental state is volatile, making it easy to transport over long distances through the atmosphere, so that environmental pollution caused by it is a serious problem worldwide. Activities such as gold mining, where metallic Hg is used, have contributed with its global distribution, affecting ecosystems and human health. The aim of this study was to determine the levels of total mercury (T-Hg) in air in gold mining areas in Southern Bolivar, particularly in the mining district of San Martin de Loba, in the municipalities of San Martin de Loba and Barranco de Loba (Mina Santa Cruz), Colombia. In situ analyses were performed by atomic absorption spectroscopy, using a portable Ra-915 + Zeeman mercury analyzer. In Mina Santa Cruz, one of the most important gold mines in Colombia, concentrations of Hg in air ranged between 163.7 ± 6.6 and 40 455 ± 2154 mg/m{sup 3}, while in the urban area of San Martin de Loba varied from 223.6 ± 20.8 to 27 140 ± 212.5 ng/m{sup 3}. In those places where an amalgam burning process was taking place at the time of the measurements, Hg concentrations reached values of 40 455 ± 2154 ng/m{sup 3}. These data imply a severe occupational exposure to Hg for operators and citizens living in cities located near mines. Therefore, it is important to regulate and control the use of Hg in gold mining, avoiding a chronic impact of the metal on the health of people and the environment. (author)

  15. Late-stage anhydrite-gypsum-siderite-dolomite-calcite assemblages record the transition from a deep to a shallow hydrothermal system in the Schwarzwald mining district, SW Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burisch, Mathias; Walter, Benjamin F.; Gerdes, Axel; Lanz, Maximilian; Markl, Gregor

    2018-02-01

    The majority of hydrothermal vein systems of economic interest occur at relatively shallow crustal levels, although many of them formed at significantly greater depths. Their present position is a consequence of uplift and erosion. Although, many aspects of their formation are well constrained, the temporal chemical evolution of such systems during uplift and erosion is still poorly understood. These vein minerals comprise calcite, dolomite-ankerite, siderite-magnesite, anhydrite and gypsum forming the last gangue assemblages in Jurassic and Tertiary sulphide-fluorite-quartz-barite veins of the Schwarzwald mining district, SW Germany. Mineral textures of samples from nine localities reveal that in these sequences, mineral precipitation follows a recurring pattern: early calcite is followed by anhydrite or gypsum, siderite and/or dolomite. This succession may repeat up to three times. In-situ (LA-ICP-MS) U-Pb age dating of 15 carbonates from three subsequent generations of the late-stage vein assemblage yield robust ages between 20 and 0.6 Ma. Each mineral sequence forms in a distinctive period of about 2-5 Ma. These ages clearly relate these late-stage mineral phases to the youngest geological episode of the Schwarzwald, which is associated with the Cenozoic Rhine Graben rifting and basement uplift. Based on thermodynamic modelling, the formation of the observed mineral assemblages required an deeply sourced Mg-, Fe- and SO4-rich fluid (b), which was episodically mixed with a shallow crustal HCO3-rich fluid (a). As a consequence of fluid mixing, concentrations of Mg, Fe and SO4 temporarily increased and initiated the formation of the observed sulphate-carbonate mineral sequences. This discontinuous large-scale vertical fluid mixing was presumably directly related to episodes of active tectonics associated with the Cenozoic strike-slip regime of the Upper Rhine Graben. Analogously, episodic fluid mixing is a major key in the formation of older (Jurassic to early

  16. Assessment of mercury levels in different environmental matrices in communities impacted by artisanal gold mining in the Asutifi District of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adjei-Kyereme, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) used in gold amalgamation is a major source of contamination in Ghana. Water, sediment and tailings samples from artisanal gold mining (AGM) sites in Kenyasi, Wuramumuso and Nkaseim in the Asutifi district were collected during the wet and the dry period of 2009 and 2010 respectively, and analyzed for total-Hg (T-Hg) using Cold Vapour Atomic Absorption spectroscopy. T-Hg concentration in water samples collected in the wet period were all below detection (< 1.00 μg/L) while that of the dry period ranged from below detection to 11.22 μg/L. T -Hg in water in the wet period were all below the WHO permissible limit of 1.0 μg/L whereas about 85 % of the samples collected in the dry period had values above the WHO permissible limit. In the sediment, T-Hg in the dry period was significantly higher (p < 0.05) than that of the wet period. T -Hg concentrations ranged from below detection limit (0.001 mg/kg) to 0.053 mg/kg (wet) and 0.233 to 8.564 mg/kg (dry) respectively. Likewise, in the tailings, T-Hg concentration ranged from 0.339 to 8.466 mg/kg for only dry period. The pollution status of mercury in sediment and tailings were evaluated by the geoaccumulation index and the enrichment factor. The average geoaccumulation index value indicated that sediments were practically uncontaminated (- 4.4) in the wet period but moderately contaminated (0.6) in the dry period while enrichment factor (ef) gave moderate to extremely high enrichment. In the case of tailings, average geoaccumulation index for mercury (0.5) denoted uncontaminated to moderately contaminated, while the EF indicated very high to extremely high enrichment. With regard to other trace metals, AGM seemed to have an impact on the ambient levels of As, Mn, Cu and Al as high levels were observed in sediment and tailings. The Pollution Load indices (< 1) however, suggested that the sites were not polluted. (au)

  17. Origin of intraformational folds in the Jurassic Todilto Limestone, Ambrosia Lake uranium mining district, McKinley and Valencia counties, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Todilto Limestone of Middle Jurassic age in the Ambrosia Lake uranium mining district of McKinley and Valencia Counties, New Mexico, is the host formation for numerous small- to medium-sized uranium deposits in joints, shear zones, and fractures within small- to large-scale intraformational folds. The folds probably were formed as a result of differential sediment loading when eolian sand dunes of the overlying Summerville Formation of Middle Jurassic age migrated over soft, chemically precipitated, lime muds of the Todilto shortly after their deposition in a regressive, mixed fresh and saline lacustrine or marine environment of deposition. Encroachment of Summerville eolian dunes over soft Todilto lime muds was apparently a local phenomenon and was restricted to postulated beltlike zones which trended radially across the Todilto coastline toward the receding body of water. Intraformational folding is believed to be confined to the pathways of individual eolian dunes or clusters of dunes within the dune belts. During the process of sediment loading by migrating sand dunes, layers of Todilto lime mud were differentially compacted, contorted, and dewatered, producing both small- and large-scale plastic deformation structures, including convolute laminations, mounds, rolls, folds, and small anticlines and synclines. With continued compaction and dewatering, the mud, in localized areas, reached a point of desaturation at which sediment plasticity was lost. Prolonged loading by overlying dune sands thus caused faulting, shearing, fracturing, and jointing of contorted limestone beds. These areas or zones of deformation within the limestone became the preferred sites of epigenetic uranium mineralization because of the induced transmissivity created by sediment rupture. Along most of the prograding Todilto coastline, adjacent to the eolian dune belts, both interdune and coastal sabkha environments dominated during Todilto-Summerville time. Sediments in coastal areas

  18. Co-circulation of Toscana virus and Punique virus in northern Tunisia: a microneutralisation-based seroprevalence study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Sakhria

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In northern Tunisia, the co-circulation of two related sand fly-borne phleboviruses, Toscana virus (TOSV and Punique virus (PUNV was previously demonstrated. In contrast to TOSV, a prominent human pathogen, there is no data supporting that PUNV is capable to infect and cause disease to humans. We studied the respective involvement of TOSV and PUNV in human infections in northern Tunisia through a seroprevalence study. METHODS: The presence of TOSV and PUNV neutralising antibodies (NT-Ab was tested in human sera collected from 5 districts of the governorate of Bizerte, and the titres of NT-Ab were estimated by microneutralisation (MN assay. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A total of 1,273 sera were processed. TOSV and PUNV NT-Ab were detected in 522 (41% and 111 sera (8.72% respectively. TOSV seroprevalence varied from 17.2% to 59.4% depending on the district. Analysis of TOSV geometric mean titre values demonstrated a constant increase according to the age. The vast majority of sera containing NT-Ab were found to be more reactive toward TOSV than PUNV. Indeed, past infections with PUNV and TOSV were undisputable for 5 and 414 sera, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: PUNV may be capable to infect humans but at a low rate. TOSV is responsible for the vast majority of human infections by sand fly-borne phleboviruses in northern Tunisia. TOSV must be considered by physician and tested in diagnostic laboratories for patients with meningitis and unexplained fever in northern Tunisia.

  19. Phytoextraction of 55-year-old wastewater-irrigated soil in a Zn-Pb mine district: effect of plant species and chelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, YiPing; Yang, YuFen; Li, ZhiAn; Yang, Yang; Wang, JiaXi; Zhuang, Ping; Zou, Bi

    2017-07-16

    Untreated water from mining sites spreads heavy metal contamination. The present study assessed the phytoextraction performance of heavy metal-accumulating plants and the effects of chemical chelators on cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) removal from paddy fields that have been continuously irrigated with mining wastewater from mines for 55 years. Outdoor pot experiments showed that the total Pb, Zn, and Cd content was lower in the rhizosphere soil of Amaranthus hypochondriacus than in that of Sedum alfredii, Solanum nigrum, and Sorghum bicolor. The aboveground biomass (dry weight) and relative growth rate of A. hypochondriacus were significantly higher than that of the other three species (P phytoextraction effect.

  20. Enterovirus Migration Patterns between France and Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Ines; Mirand, Audrey; Slama, Ichrak; Mastouri, Maha; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The enterovirus (EV) types echovirus (E-) 5, E-9, and E-18, and coxsackievirus (CV-) A9 are infrequently reported in human diseases and their epidemiologic features are poorly defined. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000-2012) and Tunisia (2011-2013) and from the publicly available sequences. The EV types (E-5, E-9, and E-18) exhibited a lower worldwide genetic diversity (respective number of genogroups: 4, 5, and 3) in comparison to CV-A9 (n = 10). The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. Despite the low number of genogroups in E-18, the virus exhibited the highest number of recombinant 3CD lineages (n = 10) versus 4 (E-5) to 8 (E-9). The phylogenies provided evidence of multiple transportation events between France and Tunisia involving E-5, E-9, E-18, and CV-A9 strains. Virus spread events between France and 17 other countries in five continents had high probabilities of occurrence as those between Tunisia and two European countries other than France. All transportation events were supported by BF values > 10. Inferring the source of virus transmission from phylogenetic data may provide insights into the patterns of sporadic and epidemic diseases caused by EVs.

  1. Paraphenylenediamine Poisoning in Tunisia: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorra Amira

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Paraphenylenediamine (PPD represents the main active substance in the color of hair dyes. In Tunisia, PPD poisoning is very common, especially in rural areas where the consequences linked to this toxic substance are still unknown. In this paper, we report a case of PPD poisoning and confirm the diagnosis by a qualitative method of analysis. We discuss the clinical manifestations and study the kinetics of biological parameters during the monitoring of the poisoning. The main complication was renal failure and the treatment was basically symptomatic.

  2. Arsenic mineralogy of near-neutral soils and mining waste at the Smolotely-Líšnice historical gold district, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drahota, P.; Kulakowski, O.; Culka, A.; Knappová, M.; Rohovec, Jan; Veselovský, F.; Racek, M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 89, February (2018), s. 243-254 ISSN 0883-2927 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : soil * mining waste * pharmacosiderite * yukonite * arseniosiderite Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.581, year: 2016

  3. Tracing sources of pollution in soils from the Jinding Pb–Zn mining district in China using cadmium and lead isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Hanjie; Zhang, Yuxu; Cloquet, Christophe; Zhu, Chuanwei; Fan, Haifeng; Luo, Chongguang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Cd isotopes can provide information on the emission, sources, and deposition of Cd. • Binary mixing model is established to trace pollution sources. • Dust transport is major pathway to transfer pollution in Jinding mine. - Abstract: Systematic variations in the Cd and Pb isotope ratios in polluted topsoils surrounding the Jinding Pb–Zn mine in China were measured so that the sources of the metals could be traced. The average δ 114/110 Cd value and 206 Pb/ 207 Pb isotope ratio in background soils from the region were +0.41‰ and 1.1902, respectively, whereas the contaminated soil samples had different values, with the δ 114/110 Cd values varying between −0.59‰ and +0.33‰ and the 206 Pb/ 207 Pb isotope ratios varying between 1.1764 and 1.1896. We also measured the Cd and Pb isotopic compositions in oxide ores, sulfide ores, and slags, and found that binary mixing between ores and background soils could explain almost all of the variations in the Cd and Pb isotope ratios in the contaminated soils. This suggests that Cd and Pb pollution in the soils was mainly caused by the deposition of dust emitted during anthropogenic activities (mining and refining). The Pb and Cd isotope ratios clearly showed that contamination in soils in the northeastern part of the area was caused by surface mines and zinc smelters and their slagheaps, while contamination in soils in the southwestern part of the area also came from tailing ponds and underground mines. The main area of soil polluted by dust from Pb–Zn mining processes roughly extended for up to 5 km from the mine itself

  4. Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Cary, North Carolina — View the location of the Town of Cary’s four Town Council districts.Please note that one district, District A, is split into two geo-spatial areas. One area is in...

  5. 78 FR 68783 - Refuge Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ... Alternatives for Underground Coal Mines AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Reopen... coal mines. The U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit remanded a training... for refuge alternatives in underground coal mines. On January 13, 2009, the United Mine Workers of...

  6. Tunisia: to finance energy management. Proceedings of the international conference, Hammamet (Tunisia), 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourguinat, Elisabeth; Missaoui, Rafik; Gromard, Christian de; Dognin, Hubert; Breton-Moyet, Laurence; Barbier, Jean-Pierre; Ayadi, Benaissa; Osman, Nejib; Amaimia, Neji; Bahri, Mounir; Marrouki, Sami; Henry, Alain; Dudziak, Rossana; ); Rassaa, Abdel Aziz; Kanoun, Faouzia; Pariente-David, Silvia; Baguenier, Henri; Gaudin, Thomas; Draeck, Mark; Lamande, Faycal; Quefelec, Stephane; Bosse, Philippe; Perthuis, Christian de; Amous, Samir; Lopez, Jose; Saidi, Ferid; Gueschir, Maxime; Allaire, Julien; Mezghani, Mohamed; Rejeb, Sarra; Soukah, Elyes; Laajimi, Brahim; Begon, Christophe; El Khoury, Pierre; Missaoui, Rafik; Sanz de Burgoa, Patricia; Ouchikh, Nadia; Joffre, Andre; Touhami, Myriem; ); Lihidheb, Kawther; Laponche, Bernard; Boujnah, Nejib

    2008-01-01

    After opening speeches, this publication proposes the contributions to a conference. These contributions addressed the following themes: investments in energy management and their financing (peculiarity, tools used by the AFD, tools of bilateral aid of the French economic mission in Tunisia, financing tools of the World Bank, needs and financing tools for investments in energy management in the eleventh plan in Tunisia), tools and examples of energy management financing (experience of the NovEnergia investment fund, financial and economic instruments in France, the British experience in energy saving certificates, funding the solar-gas plant project of Hassi R'Mel in Algeria, perspectives for the Blue Plan, example of the FFEM in financial partnership and energy management, financing carbon and energy management). The conference also comprised four sector-based workshops which addressed issues related to energy consumption, management and saving in the following sectors: industry, transports, housing, and office building. Contributions presented within these workshops notably give examples in Tunisia, France, Vietnam, or Lebanon

  7. Tunisia : tous les projets | Page 3 | CRDI - Centre de recherches ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Sujet: URBAN HOUSING, HOUSING NEEDS, HOUSING CONDITIONS, LOW COST HOUSING, HOUSING POLICY, HOUSING PROGRAMMES, ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH. Région: North of Sahara, South of Sahara, Malawi, Senegal, Tunisia, Uganda. Programme: Alimentation, environnement et santé. Financement total ...

  8. Survey of waterbirds wintering in Tunisia, January 2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROUAG Rachid

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available During a joint international expedition, there have been recorded between 18-31 January 2003 a total number of 83,653 water birds(belonging to 76 species in 58 wetlands of Tunisia.

  9. All projects related to Tunisia | Page 2 | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will analyze three state institutions in Tunisia, Egypt, and Yemen - the ... state-controlled religious institutions, and state-owned media - to assess the ... POLICY MAKING, MIDDLE EAST, Civil society, SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT.

  10. Arab Spring National Dialogues in Tunisia and Yemen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-conflict societies are in a fragile state in which social cohesion needs to be gradually ... Tunisia's national dialogue has been more successful than Yemen's in ... topic, which followed a Canadian Policy Research Networks Roundtable on.

  11. Greywater, greenhouses increase food production in Tunisia | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-05-13

    May 13, 2011 ... Research shows how cities and agriculture can grow together. ... sources of water for irrigation would be deployed to increase agricultural production. ... Following Tunisia's strict wastewater use regulation, it was used to grow ...

  12. Improvements mineral dressing and extraction processes of gold-silver ores from San Pedro Frio Mining District, Colombia; Mejora de los procesos de beneficio y extraccion de minerales auroargentiferos del asentamiento minero de San Pedro Frio, Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanez Traslavina, J. J.; Vargas Avila, M. A.; Garcia Paez, I. H.; Pedraza Rosas, J. E.

    2005-07-01

    The San Pedro Frio district mining, Colombia, is a rich region production gold-silver ores. Nowadays, the extraction processes used are amalgamation, percolation cyanidation and precipitation with zinc wood. Due to the ignorance of the ore characteristics, gold and silver treatment processes are inadequate and not efficient. In addition the inappropriate use of mercury and cyanide cause environmental contamination. In this research the ore characterization was carried out obtained fundamental parameters for the technical selection of more efficient gold and silver extraction processes. Experimental work was addressed to the study of both processes the agitation cyanidation and the adsorption on activated carbon in pulp. As a final result proposed a flowsheet to improve the precious metals recovery and reduce the environment contamination. (Author)

  13. Business Culture Differences in Communication between Finland and Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Jemaiel, Karima

    2013-01-01

    The topic for this thesis is the business culture differences in communication between Finland and Tunisia. The business world is increasingly international which means that the business men and women should acknowledge the cultural differences which they are facing when conducting business in a foreign culture. The objective of this thesis was to identify business culture differences between Finland and Tunisia. By identifying the culture differences this thesis was able to find answers...

  14. Application of multivariate analysis to investigate the trace element contamination in top soil of coal mining district in Jorong, South Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujiwati, Arie; Nakamura, K.; Watanabe, N.; Komai, T.

    2018-02-01

    Multivariate analysis is applied to investigate geochemistry of several trace elements in top soils and their relation with the contamination source as the influence of coal mines in Jorong, South Kalimantan. Total concentration of Cd, V, Co, Ni, Cr, Zn, As, Pb, Sb, Cu and Ba was determined in 20 soil samples by the bulk analysis. Pearson correlation is applied to specify the linear correlation among the elements. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Cluster Analysis (CA) were applied to observe the classification of trace elements and contamination sources. The results suggest that contamination loading is contributed by Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, As, and Pb. The elemental loading mostly affects the non-coal mining area, for instances the area near settlement and agricultural land use. Moreover, the contamination source is classified into the areas that are influenced by the coal mining activity, the agricultural types, and the river mixing zone. Multivariate analysis could elucidate the elemental loading and the contamination sources of trace elements in the vicinity of coal mine area.

  15. Legacy sediment, lead, and zinc storage in channel and floodplain deposits of the Big River, Old Lead Belt Mining District, Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlowsky, Robert T.; Lecce, Scott A.; Owen, Marc R.; Martin, Derek J.

    2017-12-01

    The Old Lead Belt of southeastern Missouri was one of the leading producers of Pb ore for more than a century (1869-1972). Large quantities of contaminated mine waste have been, and continue to be, supplied to local streams. This study assessed the magnitude and spatial distribution of mining-contaminated legacy sediment stored in channel and floodplain deposits of the Big River in the Ozark Highlands of southeastern Missouri. Although metal concentrations decline downstream from the mine sources, the channel and floodplain sediments are contaminated above background levels with Pb and Zn along its entire 171-km length below the mine sources. Mean concentrations in floodplain cores > 2000 mg kg- 1 for Pb and > 1000 mg kg- 1 for Zn extend 40-50 km downstream from the mining area in association with the supply of fine tailings particles that were easily dispersed downstream in the suspended load. Mean concentrations in channel bed and bar sediments ranging from 1400 to 1700 mg kg- 1 for Pb extend 30 km below the mines, while Zn concentrations of 1000-3000 mg kg- 1 extend 20 km downstream. Coarse dolomite fragments in the 2-16 mm channel sediment fraction provide significant storage of Pb and Zn, representing 13-20% of the bulk sediment storage mass in the channel and can contain concentrations of > 4000 mg kg- 1 for Pb and > 1000 mg kg- 1 for Zn. These coarse tailings have been transported a maximum distance of only about 30 km from the source over a period of 120 years for an average of about 250 m/y. About 37% of the Pb and 9% of the Zn that was originally released to the watershed in tailings wastes is still stored in the Big River. A total of 157 million Mg of contaminated sediment is stored along the Big River, with 92% of it located in floodplain deposits that are typically contaminated to depths of 1.5-3.5 m. These contaminated sediments store a total of 188,549 Mg of Pb and 34,299 Mg of Zn, of which 98% of the Pb and 95% of the Zn are stored in floodplain

  16. [The limnology of Tunisia: physicochemical study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumaiza, M

    1984-01-01

    Several chemical and physical parameters are measured in forty seven stations, distributed on the most part of the hydrographic systems of Tunisia. Some parameters: temperature of the water (T), salinity (S, electric conductivity (CE), chloride (Cl-), total hardness (DT) and turbidity (TUR) show great variations in the Northern hydrographic systems. In these systems, the parameters (S, CE, Cl-, DT) are generally elevated in the tributaries of the south bank of the Medjerda, the North-East streams, Melah and Tine Streams which flow in the Ichkeul lake. The waters in these septentrional systems are sometimes very turbid. The waters of the meridional hydrological system are very clear. The resurgence thermal waters are characterized by the small amplitude of variations of the studied parameters. The waters are alkaline, generally very mineralized they are well oxygenized in the no-polluted stations.

  17. Molecular detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in slaughtered ruminants (sheep, goats and cattle) in Northwest Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amdouni, Yosra; Rjeibi, Mohamed Ridha; Rouatbi, Mariem; Amairia, Safa; Awadi, Sofia; Gharbi, Mohamed

    2017-11-01

    The present study aimed to estimate the molecular prevalence of T. gondii infection in meat from slaughtered sheep, goats and cattle in Northwest Tunisia (Béja district). PCRs were performed on genomic DNA extracted from 420 meat samples (150 ewes, 120 goats and 150 cows). The overall molecular prevalence of T. gondii in sheep, goats and cattle were 33.3 (50/150), 32.5 (39/120) and 19.3% (29/150), respectively. Toxoplasma gondii molecular prevalences in the three meat ruminant species were significantly higher in adults compared to young animals (pgoats (pmeat. Extension programmes should be implemented to decrease the risk of infection related to sheep, goats and cattle meat manipulation and raw or undercooked meat consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Industrial and natural sources of gaseous elemental mercury in the Almadén district (Spain): an updated report on this issue after the ceasing of mining and metallurgical activities in 2003 and major land reclamation works.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higueras, Pablo; Esbrí, José María; Oyarzun, Roberto; Llanos, Willans; Martínez-Coronado, Alba; Lillo, Javier; López-Berdonces, Miguel Angel; García-Noguero, Eva Maria

    2013-08-01

    Two events during the last decade had major environmental repercussions in Almadén town (Spain). First it was the ceasing of activities in the mercury mine and metallurgical facilities in 2003, and then the finalization of the restoration works on the main waste dump in 2008. The combination of both events brought about a dramatic drop in the emissions of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) to the atmosphere. Although no one would now call the Almadén area as 'mercury-free', the GEM levels have fallen beneath international reference safety levels for the first time in centuries. This has been a major breakthrough because in less than one decade the site went from GEM levels in the order of "tens of thousands" to mere "tens" nanogram per cubic meter. Although these figures are per se a remarkable achievement, they do not mark the end of the environmental concerns in the Almadén district. Two other sites remain as potential environmental hazards. (1) The Las Cuevas mercury storage complex, a partially restored ex-mining site where liquid mercury is being stored. The MERSADE Project (LIFE-European Union) has tested the Las Cuevas complex as a potential site for the installation of a future European prototype safe deposit of surplus mercury from industrial activities. Despite restoration works carried out in 2004, the Las Cuevas complex can still be regarded as hotspot of mercury contamination, with high concentrations above 800μgg(-1) Hgsoil and 300ngm(-3) Hggas. However, as predicted by air contamination modeling using the ISC-AERMOD software, GEM concentrations fade away in a short distance following the formation of a NW-SE oriented narrow plume extending for a few hundred meters from the complex perimeter. (2) Far more dangerous from the human health perspective is the Almadenejos area, hosting the small Almadenejos village, the so-called Cerco de Almadenejos (CDA; an old metallurgical precinct), and the mines of La Nueva Concepción, La Vieja Concepción and El

  19. On the mining situation and future for Kibushi and Gairome clay in Tono-district. Tono chiku no kibushi nendo gairome nendo no sanjo to shorai ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omaru, I [Inagaki Clay Mining Co. Ltd., Gifu (Japan)

    1993-07-10

    The Kibushi clay and the Gairome clay which have been taking the role as the domestic produced bonding materials for refractories are running out. This paper reports their current situation and measures from the standpoint of producers. The Kibushi clay production has been decreasing since it has peaked in 1975 at 855,000 tons down to as low as its half at 400,000 tons in 1989. The Gairome clay production has also been decreased sharply from having been produced at 30 mines to 7 mines in Gifu Prefecture. The current situation is such that not only higher cost is incurred in removing gravel beds covering the clay bed, but also no gravel disposal areas can be procured, and no profitability can be assumed because of degradation in clay quality. On the other hand, demand as raw material for sanitary earthenwares and potteries has been increasing rapidly from 2,265,000 tons to 2,779,000 tons, hence import dependence of the material is rising. Positive activities as measures against the ore depletion include an establishment of a company jointly invested by five companies in 1991, which intends to develop the industry from a mining industry to a manufacturing industry by custom-blending and reforming various kinds of clays produced in different locations, including imports, to achieve stable supply. 1 tab.

  20. Iron precipitations in the Lusatian lignite district. Pt. 1: water pumpage and water drainage in the opencast mine of Nochten, hydrochemistry of mine water; Eisenausfaellungen im Lausitzer Braunkohlerevier. T. 1: Wasserhebung und -ableitung im Tagebau Nochten, Hydrochemie der Suempfungswaesser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, I. [LAUBAG, Senftenberg (Germany); Uhlmann, W. [IWB - Institut fuer Wasser und Boden, Dresden (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    Opencast lignite mines are subject to permanent drainage. Due to iron disulphide weathering, drainage waters are acidic and rich in ferrous iron and sulphate. In the case of the mine Nochten (Lusatia, East Germany) the originating water is directed from the mine through several open ditches and finally through a pipeline to reach to purification plant at a distance of 14 km. During this course part of the ferrous iron is oxidised to form ferric iron, which precipitates as Fe(III)-minerals. The iron loss in the drainage system between the open cast Nochten to the purification plant Schwarze Pumpe is 30-37% under summer conditions and 18% under winter conditions. Especially for the pipeline these precipitates represent a serious problem, as they result in incrustations and therefore in decreased discharge rates. This article focuses on the hydrochemical processes occurring during the discharge of water to the purification plant. Investigations were based on hydrochemical measurements in the drainage systems as well as on laboratory experiments on the oxidation kinetics of ferrous iron. These resulted in the following findings: (1) The oxidation of ferrous iron in the acidic waters is slow even at oxygen concentrations near saturation. Thus, oxygen is not the limiting factor for the oxidation process. (2) Oxidation kinetics are strongly dependent on temperature. Conclusively, a reduction of iron precipitates may be achieved firstly by shortening the distance of the transport course and secondly by preventing a warming up of waters in summer. (orig.)

  1. Reducing the loss of vaccines from accidental freezing in the cold chain: the experience of continuous temperature monitoring in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, John; Lydon, Patrick; Ouhichi, Ramzi; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-02-11

    Accidental freezing of vaccines is a growing threat and a real risk for national immunization programs when the potency of many vaccines can be compromised if these are exposed to sub-zero temperatures in the cold chain. In Tunisia, this issue is compounded by using sub-standard domestic cold chain equipment instead of equipping the program with medical refrigerators designed specifically for storing vaccines and temperature sensitive pharmaceuticals. Against this backdrop, this paper presents the findings of a demonstration project conducted in Tunisia in 2012 that tested the impact of introducing several freeze prevention solutions to mitigate the risk of accidental freezing of vaccines. The main finding is that, despite the continued use of underperforming domestic refrigerators, continuous temperature monitoring using new technologies combined with other technological interventions significantly reduced the prevalence of accidental exposure to freezing temperatures. These improvements were noticed for cold chain storage at regional, district and health center levels, and during the transport legs that were part of the demonstration conducted in the regions of Kasserine in the South-Eastern part of Tunisia. Subsequent to introducing these freeze prevention solutions, the incidence of freeze alarms was reduced and the percent of time the temperatures dropped below the 2 °C recommended threshold. The incidence of freeze alarms at health center level was reduced by 40%. Lastly, the solutions implemented reduced risk of freezing during transport from 13.8% to 1.7%. Although the solution implemented is not optimal in the longer term because domestic refrigerators are used extensively in district stores and health centers, the risk of accidental freezing is significantly reduced by introducing the practice of continuous temperature monitoring as a standard. The management of the cold chain equipment was strengthened as a result which helps protect the potency of

  2. Applicability of geostatistical methods and optimization of data for assessing hydraulic and geological conditions as a basis for remediation measures in the Ronneburg ore mining district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Post, C.

    2001-01-01

    The remediation of the former Wismut mines in Thuringia has been planed and prepared since 1990. Objects of remediation are mines, tailing ponds and waste rock piles. Since more than 40 years of mining have had a great affect on the exploited aquifer, special emphasis is given to groundwater recharge so that minery-flooding is one of the conceivable remedial options. Controlled flooding supports minimising the expanded oxidation zone, which renders an immense pollutant potential, while at the same time the flooding reduces the quantity of acid mine water, that has to be treated. One of the main tasks of modelling the flooding progress is to determine and prognosticate the wateroutlet-places. Due to the inadequacy of the database from the production period, limited accuracy of the available data and because of the inherent uncertainty of approximations used in numerical modelling, a stochastic approach is prospected. The flooding predictions, i.e. modelling of hydrodynamical and hydrochemical conditions during and after completion of flooding predominantly depend on the spatial distribution of the hydraulic conductivity. In order to get a better understanding of the spatial heterogeneity of the Palaeozoic fractured rock aquifer, certain geostatistical interpolation methods are tested to achieve the best approach for describing the hydrogeological parameters in space. This work deals in detail with two selected geostatistical interpolation methods (ordinary and indicator kriging) and discusses their applicability and limitations including the application of the presented case. Another important target is the specification of the database and the improvement of consistency with statistical standards. The main emphasis lies on the spatial distribution of the measured hydraulic conductivity coefficient, its estimation at non-measured places and the influence of its spatial variability on modelling results. This topic is followed by the calculation of the estimation

  3. How Terrorism Affects Attitudes toward Democracy: Tunisia in 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Robert; Brym, Robert

    2017-11-01

    Tunisia is the only country that emerged from the Arab Spring as a democracy. However, Tunisian democracy is threatened by political divisions, economic problems, and the threat of terrorist attacks. We shed light on Tunisia's democratic prospects by examining (1) the degree to which major terrorist attacks in 2015 influenced Tunisian public opinion on democracy and (2) the extent to which preference for a democratic system affected opinions on the prospects for democracy in Tunisia. We use data from three waves of a nationwide survey conducted just before and just after Tunisia's first major terrorist attack, and just after the country's second major terrorist attack. We demonstrate that after the attacks the Tunisian public became less favourable toward democracy and less optimistic that Tunisia would soon be ready for it. Such scepticism was widespread, affecting people who preferred democracy as much as those who did not. We conclude that the prospects for Tunisian democracy are more precarious than is sometimes assumed. © 2017 Canadian Sociological Association/La Société canadienne de sociologie.

  4. Season of birth and multiple sclerosis in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhom, Youssef; Kacem, Imen; Bayoudh, Lamia; Ben Djebara, Mouna; Hizem, Yosr; Ben Abdelfettah, Sami; Gargouri, Amina; Gouider, Riadh

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies on date of birth of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients showed an association between month of birth and the risk of developing MS. This association has not been investigated in an African country. We aimed to determine if the risk of MS is associated with month of birth in Tunisia. Data concerning date of birth for MS patients in Tunisia (n = 1912) was obtained. Birth rates of MS patients were compared with all births in Tunisia matched by year of birth (n = 11,615,912). We used a chi-squared analysis and the Hewitt's non-parametric test for seasonality. The distribution of births among MS patients compared with the control population was not different when tested by the chi-squared test. The Hewitt's test for seasonality showed an excess of births between May and October among MS patients (p = 0.03). The peak of Births of MS patients in Tunisia was in July and the nadir in December. Our data does support the seasonality hypothesis of month of birth as risk factor for MS in Tunisia. Low vitamin D levels during pregnancy could be a possible explanation that needs further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Radon in elementary schools in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labidi, S.; Mahjoubi, H.; Al-Azmi, D.; Ben Salah, R.

    2010-01-01

    Indoor radon measurements were carried out in 30 elementary schools in Tunis, the capital city of Tunisia, during the winter months of December 2008 to early March 2009. Two classrooms, one each from ground floor and first floor were chosen from each school making a total of 60 classrooms. In some of the classrooms, two detectors (open and closed) were used to measure the concentrations of radon as well as radon and its progeny to allow the calculations of the equilibrium factors. Nuclear track detectors type LR-115 (Kodalpha) were used for the measurements. The results show that the radon concentration levels are low in the range of 6-169 Bq m-3 with a mean value of 26.9 Bq m-3. The annual effective dose was found to vary between 0.025-0.715 mSv y-1 for teachers while the range for pupils was from 0.019-0.525 mSv y-1. These values are within the ICRP recommended values. (authors)

  6. Social Security and Fighting Poverty in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasna Khemili

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the role of social security in fighting poverty in Metlaoui, Tunisia, using survey data collected between July 2012 and January 2014, covering 200 poor households. We used questionnaire data, which gave a thorough analysis of the reactions, behavior, and strategies adopted by poor households as a result of various forms of risk. Social security has an effect on a number of different areas, including health, education, housing, and income. Our methodology explored both complete and partial risk-sharing, to investigate the impact of social security schemes on the strategies adopted by households to cope with economic shocks. The estimation results of different models showed that social security could help social security-covered households choose less costly strategies to cope with risks. However, the role of social security remains insufficient, given that covered households had less confidence in its services and they adopted strategies of self-insurance or income smoothing. Overall, the results showed that social security plays an important role in Metlaoui, but it remains insufficient, especially for households that are not covered by social security and are suffering from heavy health expenditures.

  7. Health system challenges of NCDs in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Tlili, Faten; Skhiri, Afef; Zaman, Shahaduz; Phillimore, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to present a qualitative 'situation analysis' of the healthcare system in Tunisia, as it applies to management of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. A primary concern was the institutional capacity to manage non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Research took place during 2010 (analysis of official documents, semi-structured interviews with key informants, and case studies in four clinics). Walt and Gilson's framework (1994) for policy analysis was used: content, actors, context, and process. Problems of integration and coordination have compounded funding pressures. Despite its importance in Tunisian healthcare, primary health is ill-equipped to manage NCDs. With limited funds, and no referral or health information system, staff morale in the public sector was low. Private healthcare has been the main development filling the void. This study highlights major gaps in the implementation of a comprehensive approach to NCDs, which is an urgent task across the region. In strategic planning, research on the health system is vital; but the capacity within Ministries of Health to use research has first to be built, with a commitment to grounding policy change in evidence.

  8. Rehabilitation of El Yahoudia dumping site, Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaïri, M; Ferchichi, M; Ismaïl, A; Jenayeh, M; Hammami, H

    2004-01-01

    As in all developing countries, cities in Tunisia face serious problems of environmental pollution caused mainly by the inadequate and inefficient final disposal of their generated solid wastes. The Tunisian government launched a development program including the construction of landfills in the main cities and the closure of the contaminated sites issued from solid wastes landrising practice. The project of the Henchir El Yahoudia landfill restoration is the first experience in this programme. It has been suggested to convert the site to a green park and to implement an ornamental plant nursery. The whole surface of the landfill is approximately 100 ha from which 30 ha have been already transformed to an urban recreational area and the remaining 70 ha have to be characterized for the project extension. A field investigation by boring was conducted in order to define the geological and the hydrogeological conditions, the vertical and horizontal wastes layer extension, content and degree of decomposition and the composition and quantities of leachate and landfill gas. Representative samples of waste, soil, groundwater and leachate were collected for laboratory analyses. Several of these borings were converted to piezometers to define the flow regime in the site. The results showed that the biogas (CH4, H2S, and CO2), leachate and waste, distribution in the site is mainly affected by the temporal variation of the site operating method. The underlying fissured clay layer facilitated leachate infiltration into the groundwater where high BOD, COD and nitrogen concentrations were registered.

  9. A comparison of the efficacy and ecosystem impact of residual-based and topsoil-based amendments for restoring historic mine tailings in the Tri-State mining district.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sally; Mahoney, Michele; Sprenger, Mark

    2014-07-01

    A long-term research and demonstration site was established on Pb and Zn mine wastes in southwestern Missouri in 1999. Municipal biosolids and lime and composts were mixed into the wastes at different loading rates. The site was monitored intensively after establishment and again in 2012. A site restored with topsoil was also included in the 2012 sampling. Initial results including plant, earthworm and small mammal assays indicate that the bioaccessibility of metals had been significantly reduced as a result of amendment addition. The recent sampling showed that at higher loading rates, the residual mixtures have maintained a vegetative cover and are similar to the topsoil treatment based on nutrient availability and cycling and soil physical properties including bulk density and water holding capacity. The ecosystem implications of restoration with residuals versus mined topsoil were evaluated. Harvesting topsoil from nearby farms would require 1875 years to replace based on natural rates of soil formation. In contrast, diverting biosolids from combustion facilities (60% of biosolids generated in Missouri are incinerated) would result in greenhouse gas savings of close to 400 Mg CO2 per ha. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A comparison of the efficacy and ecosystem impact of residual-based and topsoil-based amendments for restoring historic mine tailings in the Tri-State mining district

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Sally, E-mail: slb@uw.edu [School of Forest and Environmental Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105 (United States); Mahoney, Michele; Sprenger, Mark [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Environmental Response Team, Edison, NJ (United States)

    2014-07-01

    A long-term research and demonstration site was established on Pb and Zn mine wastes in southwestern Missouri in 1999. Municipal biosolids and lime and composts were mixed into the wastes at different loading rates. The site was monitored intensively after establishment and again in 2012. A site restored with topsoil was also included in the 2012 sampling. Initial results including plant, earthworm and small mammal assays indicate that the bioaccessibility of metals had been significantly reduced as a result of amendment addition. The recent sampling showed that at higher loading rates, the residual mixtures have maintained a vegetative cover and are similar to the topsoil treatment based on nutrient availability and cycling and soil physical properties including bulk density and water holding capacity. The ecosystem implications of restoration with residuals versus mined topsoil were evaluated. Harvesting topsoil from nearby farms would require 1875 years to replace based on natural rates of soil formation. In contrast, diverting biosolids from combustion facilities (60% of biosolids generated in Missouri are incinerated) would result in greenhouse gas savings of close to 400 Mg CO{sub 2} per ha. - Highlights: • Plant yield and metal uptake over 12 years show efficacy of residuals. • Field small mammal trapping indicate minimal risk of attractive nuisance. • Physical properties and fertility of residuals are similar to topsoil. • Ecosystem costs of replacement topsoil show benefit of residuals.

  11. A comparison of the efficacy and ecosystem impact of residual-based and topsoil-based amendments for restoring historic mine tailings in the Tri-State mining district

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Sally; Mahoney, Michele; Sprenger, Mark

    2014-01-01

    A long-term research and demonstration site was established on Pb and Zn mine wastes in southwestern Missouri in 1999. Municipal biosolids and lime and composts were mixed into the wastes at different loading rates. The site was monitored intensively after establishment and again in 2012. A site restored with topsoil was also included in the 2012 sampling. Initial results including plant, earthworm and small mammal assays indicate that the bioaccessibility of metals had been significantly reduced as a result of amendment addition. The recent sampling showed that at higher loading rates, the residual mixtures have maintained a vegetative cover and are similar to the topsoil treatment based on nutrient availability and cycling and soil physical properties including bulk density and water holding capacity. The ecosystem implications of restoration with residuals versus mined topsoil were evaluated. Harvesting topsoil from nearby farms would require 1875 years to replace based on natural rates of soil formation. In contrast, diverting biosolids from combustion facilities (60% of biosolids generated in Missouri are incinerated) would result in greenhouse gas savings of close to 400 Mg CO 2 per ha. - Highlights: • Plant yield and metal uptake over 12 years show efficacy of residuals. • Field small mammal trapping indicate minimal risk of attractive nuisance. • Physical properties and fertility of residuals are similar to topsoil. • Ecosystem costs of replacement topsoil show benefit of residuals

  12. Study of dung, urine, and milk of selected grazing animals as bioindicators in environmental geoscience--a case study from Mangampeta barite mining area, Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu, V

    2015-01-01

    The ancient scientific Sanskrit texts of Ayurveda (science of longevity) deal with waters, plants, and animals in relation to human health. Based on the studies mentioned in Ayurveda and modern literature, biological responses of grazing animals in Mangampeta barite mining area in Kadapa District, Andhra Pradesh, were studied. A non-mineralized Tirupati area in Chittoor District, Andhra Pradesh, was selected for the purpose of comparison. In these areas, certain animal products of selected grazing animals were studied if they could be used as tools in mineral exploration. Samples of dung, urine, and milk from cow, bullock, she-buffalo, he-buffalo, sheep, and goat were collected from these two areas during winter and summer seasons. Goat dung was found to have lowest moisture content and highest organic matter while goat urine contained highest amounts of organic matter and ash content. All these animal products were analyzed for 11 trace elements. The concentration of trace elements released through dung, urine, and milk widely varied in different animal species with seasonal variations. The elemental concentration was higher in dung and lower in urine, when compared to that of milk. The concentration of all elements in dung, urine, and milk of all animals, in both the areas, was higher in winter than that in summer. Dung represents the metabolic process of the whole animal and reflects the dietary conditions whether fed on natural or inorganic supplement. It can be inferred that dung, urine, and milk of any animal can be used as tools in mineral exploration during winter, while during summer, only dung can be useful. The dung of goat when compared to that of the other cattle serves as a better tool in environmental studies as goat depends almost entirely on natural vegetation without human interference.

  13. Environmental assessment of the arsenic-rich, Rodalquilar gold-(copper-lead-zinc) mining district, SE Spain: data from soils and vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzun, Roberto; Cubas, Paloma; Higueras, Pablo; Lillo, Javier; Llanos, Willians

    2009-08-01

    The Rodalquilar mineral deposits (SE Spain) were formed in Miocene time in relation to caldera volcanic episodes and dome emplacement phenomena. Two types of ore deposits are recognized: (1) the El Cinto epithermal, Au-As high sulphidation vein and breccia type; and (2) peripheral low sulphidation epithermal Pb-Zn-Cu-(Au) veins. The first metallurgical plants for gold extraction were set up in the 1920s and used amalgamation. Cyanide leaching began in the 1930s and the operations lasted until the mid 1960s. The latter left a huge pile of ~900,000-1,250,000 m3 of abandoned As-rich tailings adjacent to the town of Rodalquilar. A frustrated initiative to reactivate the El Cinto mines took place in the late 1980s and left a heap leaching pile of ~120,000 m3. Adverse mineralogical and structural conditions favoured metal and metalloid dispersion from the ore bodies into soils and sediments, whereas mining and metallurgical operations considerably aggravated contamination. We present geochemical data for soils, tailings and wild plant species. Compared to world and local baselines, both the tailings and soils of Rodalquilar are highly enriched in As (mean concentrations of 950 and 180 μg g-1, respectively). Regarding plants, only the concentrations of As, Bi and Sb in Asparagus horridus, Launaea arborescens, Salsola genistoides, and Stipa tenacissima are above the local baselines. Bioaccumulation factors in these species are generally lower in the tailings, which may be related to an exclusion strategy for metal tolerance. The statistical analysis of geochemical data from soils and plants allows recognition of two well-differentiated clusters of elements (As-Bi-Sb-Se-Sn-Te and Cd-Cu-Hg-Pb-Zn), which ultimately reflect the strong chemical influence of both El Cinto and peripheral deposits mineral assemblages.

  14. A new species of Loxosceles (Araneae, Sicariidae from Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Ribera

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the spider genus Loxosceles, L. mrazig sp. n., found in Tunisia is described and illustrated. The male bulb shows a high degree of morphological similarity to that of L. gaucho from Brazil, but the proportions of the palpal segments and the general colouration of the body reveal significant differences between the two species. A distance analysis of the sequences of the mitochondrial gene cox1 reveals that the specimen from Tunisia shows high genetic distance from L. gaucho (more than 20%. The American species L. gaucho and L. laeta form a sister group to the Mediterranean representatives (L. rufescens and the Tunisian specimen.

  15. Industrial and natural sources of gaseous elemental mercury in the Almadén district (Spain): An updated report on this issue after the ceasing of mining and metallurgical activities in 2003 and major land reclamation works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higueras, Pablo; María Esbrí, José; Oyarzun, Roberto; Llanos, Willans; Martínez-Coronado, Alba

    2013-01-01

    Two events during the last decade had major environmental repercussions in Almadén town (Spain). First it was the ceasing of activities in the mercury mine and metallurgical facilities in 2003, and then the finalization of the restoration works on the main waste dump in 2008. The combination of both events brought about a dramatic drop in the emissions of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) to the atmosphere. Although no one would now call the Almadén area as ‘mercury-free’, the GEM levels have fallen beneath international reference safety levels for the first time in centuries. This has been a major breakthrough because in less than one decade the site went from GEM levels in the order of “tens of thousands” to mere “tens” nanogram per cubic meter. Although these figures are per se a remarkable achievement, they do not mark the end of the environmental concerns in the Almadén district. Two other sites remain as potential environmental hazards. (1) The Las Cuevas mercury storage complex, a partially restored ex-mining site where liquid mercury is being stored. The MERSADE Project (LIFE—European Union) has tested the Las Cuevas complex as a potential site for the installation of a future European prototype safe deposit of surplus mercury from industrial activities. Despite restoration works carried out in 2004, the Las Cuevas complex can still be regarded as hotspot of mercury contamination, with high concentrations above 800 μg g −1 Hg soil and 300 ng m −3 Hg gas . However, as predicted by air contamination modeling using the ISC-AERMOD software, GEM concentrations fade away in a short distance following the formation of a NW–SE oriented narrow plume extending for a few hundred meters from the complex perimeter. (2) Far more dangerous from the human health perspective is the Almadenejos area, hosting the small Almadenejos village, the so-called Cerco de Almadenejos (CDA; an old metallurgical precinct), and the mines of La Nueva Concepción, La

  16. Predictors of smoking initiation among schoolchildren in Tunisia: a 4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To identify predictors of smoking initiation among non smoking Tunisian school children; and to propose efficient antismoking strategies in order to prevent smoking initiation. Methods: It was a cohort study surveying prospectively for four years pupils attending schools in Sousse city in Tunisia. 441 non smoking ...

  17. Vulvar cancer in Tunisia: Epidemiological and clinicopathological features multicentric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Kehila, MD

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: Vulvar cancer in Tunisia is a rare disease, occurs mostly in elderly women, and is diagnosed at advanced stages. Our findings emphasize that a greater effort should be made to facilitate early diagnosis, as treatment in earlier stages is less extensive and potentially curative.

  18. Popular Islam in Tunisia : a regional cults analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilder, Kees

    1990-01-01

    This study is about cults in northwestern Tunisia. A cult is defined as a religious grouping which exhibits several distinctive characteristics: the number of participants is limited, exclusivism is absent, the beliefs and practices are biased on one or several specific supernatural beings, and it

  19. α-Thalassaemia in Tunisia: some epidemiological and molecular data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The aim of the present work is to acquire further data concerning -thalassaemia prevalence and molecular defects spectrum in Tunisia, by collecting and studying several kinds of samples carrying -thalassaemia. The first survey conducted on 529 cord blood samples using cellulose acetate electrophoresis, have ...

  20. The end-Cretaceous in the southwestern Tethys (Elles, Tunisia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Galbrun, Bruno; Gardin, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    An integrated study of magnetic mass susceptibility (MS), bulk stable isotopes and calcareous nannofossil paleoecological changes is undertaken on the late Maastrichtian of the Elles section, Tunisia, spanning the last ca. 1 Myr of the Cretaceous. A cyclostratigraphic analysis reveals the presenc...

  1. Constitutional Reform and Emergency Powers in Egypt and Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, Andrej

    Legal mechanisms governing the state of emergency can play an important role in authoritarian rule and post-revolutionary transition periods. Egypt has experienced the terror of a regime empowered by emergency law. In Tunisia, emergency law was not so much an issue before but rather after the

  2. Radiological Evaluation of phosphate fertilizers used in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemli, Khaoula

    2010-01-01

    The need of control of natural radioactivity in the environment and the radiological impact of the use of chemical fertilizers has led us in this work to measure the natural radioactivity of the phosphate fertilizers in Tunisia. The distribution of various radionuclides during their manufacturing process of fertilizers is also part of this work.

  3. Neotectonic deformation in Tunisia (North of the African plate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soumaya, Abdelkader; Ben Ayed, Noureddine; Kadri, Ali; Delvaux, Damien; Khayati Ammar, Hayet; Braham, Ahmed

    2017-04-01

    In Tunisia, at the extreme North of the African plate, the neotectonic context is largely influenced by the Eurasia-Africa convergence. The aim of this work is to characterize the neotectonic regime that affected this region during Quaternary. Field work investigations integrated with published data allowed to evidence a spatial-temporal variation of the tectonic stress regime during this period. The spatial repartition of the different types of Quaternary to historical deformation shows a North-South neotectonic zoning in Tunisia. After lower Pleistocene, the Tellian domain (Maghrebides) in the North and its Atlassic foreland in central Tunisia are affected by NNW-SSE compression. It generated E-W to NE-SW folds and reverse faults, well developed in the Plio-Quaternary molassic basins of Kechabta and Jendouba (Northern Tunisia). In the Atlas, the major E-W and N-S pre-existing faults have been reactivated with dextral and sinistral strike-slip kinematic respectively, associated to en-echelon folds (Kasserine, N-S Axis, Northern Chott belt...). After the Tyrrhenian, a submeridian compressional regime affected Northern Tunisia (e.g., Bizerte region) and was responsible for the E-W folding of marine strata. More to the South, in the Tunisian Sahel, transtensional tectonics with a NW-SE horizontal maximal compression (SHmax) deformed the Tyrrhenian marine series (Khénis, Skanès, Monastir…). During the Holocene and up to present-day times, N-S compressional tectonics reactivated the E-W pre-existing faults with a reverse movement in Northern Tunisia (Bulla Regia, Utica …), generating historical earthquakes. In Central Tunisia, the Aqueduct of Cherichira (built around AD 850) is displaced by a N-S normal fault. Similarly, a mosaic of a roman house is shifted by 10 cm, along a N-S sinistral normal fault. These deformations evidence a transtensional tectonic regime. During the Quaternary, all the NW-SE oriented grabens are subsiding (e.g., Bizerte Lake, Grombalia

  4. Challenges of Globalization: Morocco and Tunisia. Curriculum Projects. Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program, 2001 (Morocco and Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This publication contains a collection of curriculum projects developed by educators who were participants in the 2001 Fulbright-Hays Summer Seminars Abroad Program in Morocco and Tunisia. The 13 curriculum projects in the publication are entitled: "Women in Morocco, Artists and Artisans" (Virginia da Costa); "Cultures of…

  5. Comparative study of German and Greek lignite mine reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    The reclamation planning of three European lignite mining districts are compared: amount and extent of planning, integration with mining operations, and results. The districts are: Rheinbraun (Cologne), Leipzig-Borna (''East'' Germany), and Megalopolis (Greece). Lignite mines were visited and mining and reclamation personnel interviewed. The Rheinbraun mines have the most thorough reclamation operations. The integrated mine and reclamation operations are world class in size, scope, and detail of reclamation. A comprehensive landscape and reclamation plan is required in the mine permitting process. The Leipzig-Borna district is the second largest of the districts, studied little pre-mining planning of the post-mining landscape or land uses was evident. Reclamation is not closely integrated with the mining and typically occurs many years after the mining. Reduced lignite production since German reunification has left vast areas of disturbed land with little mining; and no funding for the reclamation of the large areas of mined land reclamation. The Greek Megalopolis mines have mine operations plan, but with no integrated reclamation planning. The initial spoil pile was reclaimed according to the original German mining plan. No pits have been reclaimed, and spoil areas are revegetated sporadically. The Rheinbraun mining operations Cologne which include a post mining landscape/land use plan have integrated and timely reclamation operations. The other two mining operations, which do not have a comprehensive and detailed reclamation and landscape/land use plans, do not integrate reclamation operations with the mining operations. The results are large areas of mined land unreclaimed for many years

  6. Jensenite, Cu3 Te (super 6+) O6 .2H2O, a new mineral species from the Centennial Eureka Mine, Tintic District, Juab County, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andrew C.; Grice, Joel D.; Groat, Lee A.; Criddle, Alan J.; Gault, Robert A.; Erd, Richard C.; Moffatt, Elizabeth A.

    1996-01-01

    Jensenite, ideally Cu 3 Te (super 6+) O 6 .2H 2 O, is monoclinic, P2 1 /n (14), with unit-cell parameters refined from powder data: a 9.204(2), b 9.170(2), c 7.584(1) Aa, beta 102.32(3) degrees , V 625.3(3) Aa 3 , a:b:c 1.0037:1:0.8270, Z = 4. The strongest six reflections of the X-ray powder-diffraction pattern [d in Aa(I)(hkl)] are: 6.428(100)(101,110), 3.217(70)(202), 2.601(40)(202), 2.530(50)(230), 2.144(35)(331) and 1.750(35)(432). The mineral is found on the dumps of the Centennial Eureka mine, Juab County, Utah, where it occurs as isolated crystals or as groups of crystals on drusy white quartz. Associated minerals are mcalpineite, xocomecatlite and unnamed Cu(Mg,Cu,Fe,Zn) 2 Te (super 6+) O 6 .6H 2 O. Individual crystals of jensenite are subhedral to euhedral, and form simple rhombs that are nearly equant. Some crystals are slightly elongate [101], with a length-to-width ratio up to 2:1. The largest crystal is approximately 0.4 mm in size; the average size is between 0.1 and 0.2 mm. Cleavage {101} fair. Forms are: {101} major; {110} medium; {100} minor; {301}, {201}, {203}, {102}, {010} very small. The mineral is transparent, emerald green, with a less intense streak of the same color and an uneven fracture. Jensenite is adamantine, brittle and nonfluorescent; H (Mohs) 3-4; D (calc.) 4.78 for the idealized formula, 4.76 g/cm 3 for the empirical formula. In a polished section, jensenite is very weakly bireflectant and nonpleochroic. In reflected plane-polarized light in air, it is a nondescript grey, and in oil, it is a much darker grey in color with a brownish tint, with ubiquitous bright green internal reflections. Anisotropy is not detectable. Measured values of reflectance, in air and in oil, are tabulated. Electron-microprobe analyses yielded CuO 50.91, ZnO 0.31, TeO 3 38.91, H 2 O (calc.) [8.00], total [98.13] wt.%. The empirical formula, derived from crystal-structure analysis and electron-microprobe analyses, is (Cu (sub 2.92) Zn (sub 0.02) ) (sub

  7. Applicability of geostatistical procedures for the evaluation of hydrogeological parameters of a fractured aquifer in the Ronneburg mine district; Anwendbarkeit geostatistischer Verfahren zur Beurteilung hydrogeologischer Parameter eines heterogenen Kluftaquifers im Ronneburger Bergbaurevier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasshoff, C.; Schetelig, K. [RWTH Aachen, Lehrstuhl fuer Ingenieurgeologie und Hydrogeologie (Germany); Tomschi, H. [Harress Pickel Consult GmbH, Huerth (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The following paper demonstrates, how a geostatistical approach can help interpolating hydrogeological parameters over a certain area. The basic elements developed by G. Matheron in the sixties are represented as the preconditions and assumptions, which provide the best results of the estimation. The variogram as the most important tool in geostatistics offers the opportunity to describe the correlating behaviour of a regionalized variable. Some kriging procedures are briefly introduced, which provide under varying circumstances estimating of non-measured values with the theoretical variogram-model. In the Ronneburg mine district 108 screened drill-holes could provide coefficients of hydraulic conductivity. These were interpolated with ordinary kriging over the whole investigation area. An error calculation was performed, which could prove the accuracy of the estimation. Short prospects point out some difficulties handling with geostatistic procedures and make suggestions for further investigations. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der folgende Artikel soll aufzeigen, inwiefern ein geostatistischer Ansatz hilfreich ist, um hydrogeologische Parameter flaechenhaft zu interpolieren. Dabei werden die von Matheron in den sechziger Jahren entwickelten Grundlagen vorgestellt und die Voraussetzungen definiert, unter denen die geostatistischen Schaetzmethoden die besten Ergebnisse liefern. Das Variogramm, als wichtigstes Werkzeug, bietet die Moeglichkeit, die raeumliche Korrelation der untersuchten Variable zu belegen. Mehrere Kriging-Verfahren werden skizzenhaft vorgestellt, die es unter unterschiedlichen Voraussetzungen ermoeglichen, an den Stellen des Untersuchungsgebietes, wo keine Messungen vorliegen, Schaetzungen aus dem Variogramm-Modell zu errechnen. Im Ronneburger Bergbaugebiet wurden aus 108 verfilterten Bohrungen k{sub f}-Werte gewonnen, die mittels Ordinary Kriging flaechenhaft ueber das gesamte Untersuchungsgebiet interpoliert wurden. Eine Fehlerabschaetzung gibt ueber die

  8. Trust Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States and the Navajo Nation entered into settlement agreements that provide funds to conduct investigations and any needed cleanup at 16 of the 46 priority mines, including six mines in the Northern Abandoned Uranium Mine Region.

  9. Fisheries Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Fisheries districts data layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset...

  10. Warden Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of warden (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Warden Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative...

  11. Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Forestry Districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This is a layer file which...

  12. Wastewater Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wastewater districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  13. Wildlife Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Wildlife Districts layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature...

  14. Park Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Parks Districts layer is part of a dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes feature classes for...

  15. Capital Mobility: An application of Saving-Investment Link for Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauhari Dahalan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the degree of capital mobility in Tunisia for 1970 to 2009 period, using Feldstein and Horioka (1980 method of savings and investment comovement. We apply ARDL bound test to assess comovement between savings and investment; and to compute the savings retention ratio with FMOLS and DOLS as complements. The results reveal low capital mobility, in contrary to Maminingi (1997 who note perfect capital immobility in Tunisia. Hence, efforts should be made by authorities in Tunisia to evolve policies that will mobilize international capital into Tunisia

  16. A New Generation of Uprisings – from Tunisia to Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Kurnik

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The uprising in Tunisia, the occupation of public squares in Spain, the Occupy Wall Street movement, the global uprising on 15 October 2011 and the recent widespread demonstrations in Slovenia can be understood as the new generation of uprisings following the eruption of financial crisis. Those multitudinal expressions of indignation and quests for real democracy are expressions of the irreversible crisis of neoliberalism and representative democracy. From an examination of the defining traits of uprisings from Tunisia to Slovenia, one can define basic theoretical and practical dilemmas in the new ways of doing political encounters. These include the relationship between the social and political dimensions of uprisings, the relationship between heterogeneity and forms of political organization, how resistance against financialization prefigures emerging forms of direct democracy, how emerging movements address the issue of direct democracy and minority rights, and what theoretical practices can prevent the attenuation of the discourse of uprisings and enable the free production of enunciations.

  17. The seawater desalination needs of Tunisia after the year 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Kraiem, H.

    2000-01-01

    The supply of drinking water for north and central Tunisia is guaranteed from surface water resources in the north and other subsurface resources. These resources will satisfy the water demand in this region until the year 2010 and 100000 m 3 /d by the year 2015. In the south of Tunisia, the water supply comes from local subsurface resources, including the lake water of the chotts. Maximum exploitation of these lakes, whose average salinity exceeds 2 g/l, has already been reached. Therefore, non-conventional resources such as desalination have become unavoidable if the water quality is to be improved and the resources are to be maximized. The needs of this region will reach 80000 m 3 /d by the year 2010. This deficit can only be met by the desalination of seawater. At present, about 60000 m 3 /d of water is desalinated in the country using the reverse osmosis process and electric energy. (author)

  18. Tunisia : tous les projets | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Projet. Les États arabes enregistrent certains des niveaux les plus élevés de conflit armé et de dépenses militaires au monde. Sujet: Gender. Région: Egypt, Lebanon, Syria, Tunisia. Programme: Gouvernance et justice. Financement total : CA$ 1,114,700.00. Lutter contre la radicalisation des jeunes en Tunisie au moyen de ...

  19. Antiproliferative and Antibacterial Activities of Cirsium scabrum from Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Ramla Sahli; Céline Rivière; Cédric Dufloer; Claire Beaufay; Christel Neut; Joanne Bero; Thierry Hennebelle; Vincent Roumy; Riadh Ksouri; Joelle Quetin-Leclercq; Sevser Sahpaz

    2017-01-01

    Several Cirsium species are known for their uses in traditional medicine and consequently are studied for their phytochemical content and their biological activities. In the framework of a previous study conducted on eight extremophile plants from Tunisia, we highlighted that the crude methanolic extract of C. scabrum, a not investigated thistle, showed moderate but quite selective cytotoxic activity against the cancerous cell line J774 compared to the noncancerous cell line WI38 (IC50 = 11.5...

  20. Orientation of the Fiscal Policy in Tunisia: Structural VAR Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wissem Khanfir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to indicate the orientation of fiscal policy in Tunisia, using the structural budget balance, during the period 1972-2014. For this purpose, we estimate a structural VAR model consisting of the fiscal deficit to current GDP ratio and the volume of economic activity represented by the real GDP. We estimate bivariate structural VAR in order to decompose fiscal deficit fluctuations into different disturbances.

  1. Wage gap between men and women in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Jeddi, Hela; Malouche, Dhafer

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on estimating wage differences between males and females in Tunisia by using the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, a technical that isolates wage gap due to characteristics, from wage gap due to discrimination against women. The data used in the analysis is obtained from the Tunisian Population and Employment Survey 2005. It is estimated that, the gender wage gap is about 19% and the results ascertain that the gender wage gap is mostly attributed to discrimination, especially t...

  2. Quantitative morphometric analysis for the tectonic characterisation of northern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camafort, Miquel; Pérez-Peña, José Vicente; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Ranero, César R.; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Azañón, José Miguel; Melki, Fetheddine; Ouadday, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Northern Tunisia is characterized by low deformation rates and low to moderate seismicity. Although instrumental seismicity reaches maximum magnitudes of Mw 5.5, some historical earthquakes have occurred with catastrophic consequences in this region. Aiming to improve our knowledge of active tectonics in Tunisia, we carried out both a quantitative morphometric analysis and field study in the north-western region. We applied different morphometric tools, like river profiles, knickpoint analysis, hypsometric curves and integrals and drainage pattern anomalies in order to differentiate between zones with high or low recent tectonic activity. This analysis helps identifying uplift and subsidence zones, which we relate to fault activity. Several active faults in a sparse distribution were identified. A selected sector was studied with a field campaign to test the results obtained with the quantitative analysis. During the fieldwork we identified geological evidence of recent activity and a considerable seismogenic potential along El Alia-Teboursouk (ETF) and Dkhila (DF) faults. The ETF fault could be responsible of one of the most devastating historical earthquakes in northern Tunisia that destroyed Utique in 412 A.D. Geological evidence include fluvial terraces folded by faults, striated and cracked pebbles, clastic dikes, sand volcanoes, coseismic cracks, etc. Although not reflected in the instrumental seismicity, our results support an important seismic hazard, evidenced by the several active tectonic structures identified and the two seismogenic faults described. After obtaining the current active tectonic framework of Tunisia we discuss our results within the western Mediterranean trying to contribute to the understanding of the western Mediterranean tectonic context. With our results, we suggest that the main reason explaining the sparse and scarce seismicity of the area in contrast with the adjacent parts of the Nubia-Eurasia boundary is due to its extended

  3. The United States and Tunisia: A Foreign Policy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    headquarters to Tunis from Cairo following the signing of the Egypt- Israel peace treaty, and when the Palestine Liberation Organization .- set up its... Israel [Ref. 201. Such a message serves only to reinforce the appeal of Populist Islam. It is probable that the Islamic movement will, if well...THE ARAB-ISRAELI CONFLICT~ Tunisia has been a consistent supporter of the rights of Palestina * Arabs, but the Bourguibist idea of how Palestinians

  4. Radiological quality of mineral waters battled in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaitre, N.

    2002-01-01

    There are approximately 60 natural water springs in Tunisia, but only 10 of them, mostly in the north, are legally authorized to be sold for bottled mineral water. The object of this study is to determine the radiological content of the mineral waters bottled in Tunisia by calculating the annual effective dose resulting from ingestion of the natural radionuclides in these waters. The results show that radioactivity is relatively low in the Tunisian mineral waters and is due essentially to uranium and radium picked up as the water passes through the deep rocks. Levels measured range from 3.3 to 2.5 mBq/L for 234 U. Radium levels range from 2.0 to 67.0 mBq/L for 226 Ra and from 2.0 to 30.2 mBq/L for 228 Ra. These levels are lower than those measured in many other regions over the world. For daily mineral water consumption over one year, the estimated effective dose level varies between 0.006 and 0.091 mSv for an adult and between 0.008 and 0.107 mSv for a 5-year old child. These results do not present a public health risk in Tunisia. This investigation enabled us to assess the contribution of bottler water to radiological exposure of natural origins. (author)

  5. Application of the method of optimum increase of Carboniferous gass exploitation for the determination of its extractable amount from the space of attenuated plant of the Paskov Mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragon Vladimír

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A way of optimum extraction increase of Carboniferous gas which can be applied in any mine of the Ostrava-Karviná Mining District (OKMD during the current period of the restructuralisation and mining attenuation.

  6. Ciriottiite, Cu(Cu,Ag3Pb19(Sb,As22(As2S56, the Cu-Analogue of Sterryite from the Tavagnasco Mining District, Piedmont, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Bindi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The new mineral species ciriottiite, ideally Cu(Cu,Ag3Pb19(Sb,As22(As2S56 has been discovered in the Tavagnasco mining district, Piedmont, Italy, as very rare black metallic tubular crystals, up to 150 μm in length, associated with Bi sulfosalts and arsenopyrite. Its Vickers hardness (VHN10 is 203 kg/mm2 (range 190–219. In reflected light, ciriottiite is light grey in color, distinctly anisotropic with brownish to greenish rotation tints. Internal reflections are absent. Reflectance values for the four COM wavelengths (Rmin, Rmax (% (λ in nm are: 33.2, 37.8 (471.1; 31.8, 35.3 (548.3, 31.0, 34.7 (586.6; and 27.9, 32.5 (652.3. Electron microprobe analysis gave (in wt %, average of 5 spot analyses: Cu 2.33 (8, Ag 0.53 (5, Hg 0.98 (6, Tl 0.78 (3, Pb 44.06 (14, As 4.66 (7, Sb 23.90 (10, Bi 1.75 (7, total 99.38 (26. On the basis of 56 S atoms per formula unit, the chemical formula of ciriottiite is Cu3.23(11Ag0.43(4Hg0.43(2Pb18.74(9Tl0.34(1Sb17.30(5As5.48(10Bi0.74(3S56. The main diffraction lines, corresponding to multiple hkl indices, are (d in Å (relative visual intensity: 4.09 (m, 3.91 (m, 3.63 (vs, 3.57 (m, 3.22 (m, 2.80 (mw, 2.07 (s. The crystal structure study revealed ciriottiite to be monoclinic, space group P21/n, with unit-cell parameters a = 8.178 (2, b = 28.223 (6, c = 42.452 (5 Å, β = 93.55 (2°, V = 9779.5 (5 Å3, Z = 4. The crystal structure was refined to a final R1 = 0.118 for 21304 observed reflections. Ciriottiite is the Cu analogue of sterryite and can be described as an expanded derivative of owyheeite. The name ciriottiite honors Marco Ernesto Ciriotti (b. 1945 for his longstanding contribution to mineral systematics.

  7. Transitional Justice as Elite Justice? Compromise Justice and Transition in Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamont, Christopher; Pannwitz, Hannah

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects upon the ways in which transitional justice debates and processes impacted Tunisia's transition. It explores key questions such as what demands for justice emerged in the aftermath of the Tunisian revolution? Did Tunisia's transitional justice process reflect these demands?

  8. Impacts of historical mining in the Coeur d'Alene River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balistrieri, Laurie S.; Box, Stephen E.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Hooper, Robert L.; Mahoney, J. Brian

    2010-01-01

    Mining began in the late 1880s in the Coeur d'Alene mining district in northern Idaho (fig. 1). Although only two mines, the Galena and Lucky Friday, currently are operating, more than 90 historical mines exist in this region (Bennett and others, 1989).

  9. COMPARISON OF APATITE II™ TREATMENT SYSTEM AT TWO MINES FOR METALS REMOVAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two abandoned lead-zinc mine sites, the Nevada Stewart Mine (NSM) and Success Mine, are located within the Coeur d'Alene Mining District, in northern Idaho. An Apatite II™ Treatment System (ATS) was implemented at each site to treat metal-laden water, mainly zinc. In the ATS, f...

  10. 30 CFR 90.301 - Respirable dust control plan; approval by District Manager; copy to part 90 miner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... District Manager; copy to part 90 miner. 90.301 Section 90.301 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... control plan; approval by District Manager; copy to part 90 miner. (a) The District Manager will approve... District Manager shall consider whether: (1) The respirable dust control measures would be likely to...

  11. Mapping Croplands in Morocco and Tunisia using MAGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGaughey, K.; Purcell, B.; Tetrault, R. L.; Wasko, C.

    2017-12-01

    Morocco and Tunisia are both net-wheat importing countries, which experience fluctuations in production due to drought. Knowledge of food supply is critical for the local governments' understanding of food security and to re-assure the population regarding food availability. Tunisia was the epicenter for the event known as the "Arab Spring." Although the Arab Spring had several societal components, chronic uncertainty in the governments' reliability raised concerns about food supply and food availability despite the government's policy responses. Due to its importance for geopolitical as well as market opportunity reasons, in March and April of 2017, analysts from the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) traveled to Morocco and Tunisia to conduct crop assessment. Fieldwork data collection is necessary for us as crop analysts to use our convergence of evidence approach, which includes ground information, satellite imagery, meteorological information and reports from our offices abroad. During this trip, analysts used the new mobile application from the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA) called MAGE to collect fieldwork data for crop classification. Using the several thousand training data collected through the mobile application and by leveraging satellite data within Google Earth Engine, an in-season crop mask was created. The final product was delivered to the team just a few days after returning to USDA Washington and was used in the first wheat production estimate of the season released May 10, 2017. The final product helps analysts determine an experimental in-season area estimation and to focus our other remote sensing tools and products on our areas of interest. The US Department of Agriculture's International Production Assessment Division is responsible for publishing monthly production, area and yield estimates for 17 commodities in over 150 countries.

  12. McGee Creek Drainage and Levee District, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-04-01

    J COUNTY MC GEE REEK DRAINAGE BLEVEE DISTRICT N~ i, 0. ~ I I LEGEND Co ,. 3 ~ . -~------~----EXISTING LEVEE _____________PROPOSED LEVEE...Development, Conservation, Environmental Protection Agency, Health, Institute for Environmental Quality, Mines and Minerals. Pollution Control Board...Protection Agency, Health, Institute for Environmental Quality, Mines and Minerals, Pollution Control Board, Registration and Education, Transportation

  13. Mine drivage in hydraulic mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehkber, B Ya

    1983-09-01

    From 20 to 25% of labor cost in hydraulic coal mines falls on mine drivage. Range of mine drivage is high due to the large number of shortwalls mined by hydraulic monitors. Reducing mining cost in hydraulic mines depends on lowering drivage cost by use of new drivage systems or by increasing efficiency of drivage systems used at present. The following drivage methods used in hydraulic mines are compared: heading machines with hydraulic haulage of cut rocks and coal, hydraulic monitors with hydraulic haulage, drilling and blasting with hydraulic haulage of blasted rocks. Mining and geologic conditions which influence selection of the optimum mine drivage system are analyzed. Standardized cross sections of mine roadways driven by the 3 methods are shown in schemes. Support systems used in mine roadways are compared: timber supports, roof bolts, roof bolts with steel elements, and roadways driven in rocks without a support system. Heading machines (K-56MG, GPKG, 4PU, PK-3M) and hydraulic monitors (GMDTs-3M, 12GD-2) used for mine drivage are described. Data on mine drivage in hydraulic coal mines in the Kuzbass are discussed. From 40 to 46% of roadways are driven by heading machines with hydraulic haulage and from 12 to 15% by hydraulic monitors with hydraulic haulage.

  14. Detection of hepatitis A in shellfish in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitouni, Moncef

    2008-01-01

    Our study was aimed at developing a method of extraction and concentration of hepatitis A. We used two methods T1 and T2 described previously in the literature. 23 samples shellfish from different area of Tunisia were included in this study. Technique T2 based only on glycine revealed the highest yield. The reverse transcription followed by polymerase chain reaction was performed in this study in order to investigate HAV in our samples. The results of molecular analyses of shellfish showed that 8.6% of the samples were contaminated. (Author)

  15. Web Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fürnkranz, Johannes

    The World-Wide Web provides every internet citizen with access to an abundance of information, but it becomes increasingly difficult to identify the relevant pieces of information. Research in web mining tries to address this problem by applying techniques from data mining and machine learning to Web data and documents. This chapter provides a brief overview of web mining techniques and research areas, most notably hypertext classification, wrapper induction, recommender systems and web usage mining.

  16. Text Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trybula, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Reviews the state of research in text mining, focusing on newer developments. The intent is to describe the disparate investigations currently included under the term text mining and provide a cohesive structure for these efforts. A summary of research identifies key organizations responsible for pushing the development of text mining. A section…

  17. Surface mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Leopold; Bruce Rowland; Reed Stalder

    1979-01-01

    The surface mining process consists of four phases: (1) exploration; (2) development; (3) production; and (4) reclamation. A variety of surface mining methods has been developed, including strip mining, auger, area strip, open pit, dredging, and hydraulic. Sound planning and design techniques are essential to implement alternatives to meet the myriad of laws,...

  18. Uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, G.

    1975-01-01

    The winning of uranium ore is the first stage of the fuel cycle. The whole complex of questions to be considered when evaluating the profitability of an ore mine is shortly outlined, and the possible mining techniques are described. Some data on uranium mining in the western world are also given. (RB) [de

  19. Paleoproterozoic (~1.88Ga felsic volcanism of the Iricoumé Group in the Pitinga Mining District area, Amazonian Craton, Brazil: insights in ancient volcanic processes from field and petrologic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Pierosan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The Iricoumé Group correspond to the most expressive Paleoproterozoic volcanism in the Guyana Shield, Amazonian craton. The volcanics are coeval with Mapuera granitoids, and belong to the Uatumã magmatism. They have U-Pb ages around 1880 Ma, and geochemical signatures of α-type magmas. Iricoumé volcanics consist of porphyritic trachyte to rhyolite, associated to crystal-rich ignimbrites and co-ignimbritic fall tuffs and surges. The amount and morphology of phenocrysts can be useful to distinguish lava (flow and dome from hypabyssal units. The morphology of ignimbrite crystals allows the distinction between effusive units and ignimbrite, when pyroclasts are obliterated. Co-ignimbritic tuffs are massive, and some show stratifications that suggest deposition by current traction flow. Zircon and apatite saturation temperatures vary from 799°C to 980°C, are in agreement with most temperatures of α-type melts and can be interpreted as minimum liquidus temperature. The viscosities estimation for rhyolitic and trachytic compositions yield values close to experimentally determined melts, and show a typical exponential decay with water addition. The emplacement of Iricoumé volcanics and part of Mapuera granitoids was controlled by ring-faults in an intracratonic environment. A genesis related to the caldera complex setting can be assumed for the Iricoumé-Mapuera volcano-plutonic association in the Pitinga Mining District.O Grupo Iricoumé corresponde ao mais expressivo vulcanismo Paleoproterozóico do Escudo das Guianas, craton Amazônico. As rochas vulcânicas são coexistentes com os granitóides Mapuera, e pertencem ao magmatismo Uatumã. Possuem idades U-Pb em torno 1888 Ma, e assinaturas geoquímicas de magmas tipo-A. As vulcânicas do Iricoumé consistem de traquitos a riolitos porfiríticos, associados a ignimbritos ricos em cristal e tufos co-ignimbríticos de queda e surge. A quantidade e a morfologia dos fenocristais podem ser

  20. Sheep pox in Tunisia: Current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Chehida, F; Ayari-Fakhfakh, E; Caufour, P; Amdouni, J; Nasr, J; Messaoudi, L; Haj Ammar, H; Sghaier, S; Bernard, C; Ghram, A; Cêtre-Sossah, C

    2018-02-01

    Sheep pox, a well-known endemic capripox infection, has significant impacts on small ruminant populations in Tunisia. It is responsible for high economic losses throughout North Africa due to its enzootic nature and to the active animal transhumance existing in some governorates in Tunisia. The aim of this review was to analyse data gathered on annual vaccination campaigns designed to control its spread by reducing the level of endemicity and to describe diagnostic and management tools adapted to the Tunisian situation. Seasonal, temporal and spatial distributions of sheep pox outbreaks, as well as related clinical features, were found. It was concluded from this review that establishing strong herd immunization through individual animal immunization, creating adequate infrastructure, increasing awareness among breeders, setting up a field-based surveillance network and improving routine diagnostic methods need to be the major components of a programme to eradicate the disease. It was also felt that cost-benefit analyses of the surveillance and control strategies used would help in controlling its persistence. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Prevalence of human cosaviruses in Tunisia, North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezig, Dorra; Ben Farhat, Essia; Touzi, Henda; Meddeb, Zina; Ben Salah, Afif; Triki, Henda

    2015-06-01

    A new picornavirus, named human Cosavirus (HCoSV) was isolated recently from stools of children with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and healthy children in Pakistan and Afghanistan. Since then, it was also isolated from patients from other countries. Five species are presently identified forming a new genus in the Picornaviridae family. This study reports the detection of HCoSV in stool specimens collected as part of the National Poliovirus surveillance Program in Tunisia, between 2011 and 2012, from patients with AFP and healthy individuals among their contacts. One hundred and ninety four stool samples were investigated by RT-PCR in the 5' non-coding region of the genome. A total of 64 specimens (33%) tested positive for HCoSV. HCoSV positive specimens were found in 36 cases with neurological syndromes and 28 of their healthy contacts. The highest rate of HCoSV infection (62.5%) occurred in children younger than 6 years of age. The sampling date of stool specimens suggested that HCoSV infection occurred regularly over time. Also, the sampling origin of stool specimen showed that HCoSV infection was detected in almost all the governorates of Tunisia from the North to the South of the country. This study is the first report of HCoSV prevalence in the North African region. It contributes to a better knowledge on the geographic distribution and the epidemiology of these viruses. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. State and prospects of food irradiation in tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahjoub, A.

    1995-01-01

    Tunisia is a country with a high vocational agricultural orientation. It continues to promote production and gives incentives to construct storage and processing installations in order to meet the food demand of the growing population. This policy is part of a global development program aimed at reaching a food security system. This system is based not only on increasing production but also on the improvement of the storage and processing capacities existing in the country, whether modern or traditional, taking in consideration the food commodities and the region concerned. Food preservation by irradiation is an alternative to improve and reinforce our food security system, since it is considered as a way to protect commodities from spoilages and also to promote shelf life and improve hygienic qualities. The products which are concerned by decreasing losses are mainly potatoes, onions garlic, dates, nuts, etc. Hygiene improvement will concern poultry products for our growing tourist business. And, shelf extension concerns our exports of sea product to the european community. Within this scope the government of tunisia has submitted a proposal to install a pilot unit to carry out preliminary work toward the introduction of an industrial unit. The international atomic energy agency has accepted the proposal and is looking for funds for the implementation. The government has recently pledged 60.000 tunisian dinars to do the required engineering studies of the unit. 4 tabs

  3. State and prospects of food irradiation in tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahjoub, A [Dept., de la Technologie Alimentaire Ecole Superieure des Industries Alimentaires 58, Ave. Alain Savary, 1003 Tunis, (Tunisia)

    1995-10-01

    Tunisia is a country with a high vocational agricultural orientation. It continues to promote production and gives incentives to construct storage and processing installations in order to meet the food demand of the growing population. This policy is part of a global development program aimed at reaching a food security system. This system is based not only on increasing production but also on the improvement of the storage and processing capacities existing in the country, whether modern or traditional, taking in consideration the food commodities and the region concerned. Food preservation by irradiation is an alternative to improve and reinforce our food security system, since it is considered as a way to protect commodities from spoilages and also to promote shelf life and improve hygienic qualities. The products which are concerned by decreasing losses are mainly potatoes, onions garlic, dates, nuts, etc. Hygiene improvement will concern poultry products for our growing tourist business. And, shelf extension concerns our exports of sea product to the european community. Within this scope the government of tunisia has submitted a proposal to install a pilot unit to carry out preliminary work toward the introduction of an industrial unit. The international atomic energy agency has accepted the proposal and is looking for funds for the implementation. The government has recently pledged 60.000 tunisian dinars to do the required engineering studies of the unit. 4 tabs.

  4. LANDSAT M. S. S. IMAGE MOSAIC OF TUNISIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell-Thomas, J. C.; ,

    1984-01-01

    The Landsat mosaic of Tunisia funded by USAID for the Remote Sensing Laboratory, Soils Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Tunisia, was completed by the USGS in September 1983. It is a mixed mosaic associating digital corrections and enhancements to manual mosaicking and corresponding to the Tunisian request for high resolution and the limited available funds. The scenes were processed by the Environmental Research Institute of Michigan, resampling the data geodesically corrected to fit the Universal Transverse Mercator projection using control points from topographic maps at 1:50,000 and 1:100,000 scales available in the U. S. The mosaicking was done in the Eastern Mapping Center under the supervision of the Graphic Arts System Section. The three black and white mosaics were made at the 1:1,000,000 scale and various products generated. They included color film positives at 1:2,000,000 and 1:4,000,000 scales reproducible in the Remote Sensing Laboratory in Tunis and corresponding color prints as well as tricolor prints at various scales from 1:500,000 to 1:2,000,000.

  5. Molecular diagnosis of Rickettsia infection in patients from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrouf, Fatma; Sellami, Hanene; Elleuch, Emna; Hattab, Zouhour; Ammari, Lamia; Khalfaoui, Moncef; Souissi, Jihed; Harrabi, Hejer; M'ghirbi, Youmna; Tiouiri, Hanene; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Hammami, Adnene; Letaief, Amel; Bouattour, Ali; Znazen, Abir

    2016-07-01

    Diagnosis of rickettsioses had largely benefited from the development of molecular techniques. Unfortunately, in Tunisia, despite the large number of rickettsial cases registered every year, the Rickettsia species remain unidentified. In this study, we aimed to detect the Rickettsia species in clinical samples using molecular tests. A study was established to analyze skin biopsies, cutaneous swabs, and cerebrospinal fluid samples taken from clinically suspected patients to have rickettsial infection. Two molecular techniques were used to detect Rickettsia DNA: quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) and reverse line blot test (RLB). An analysis of the RLB hybridization assay results revealed the presence of Rickettsia DNA in skin biopsies (40.6%) and swabs (46.7%). Rickettsia conorii was the most prevalent identified species among tested samples. Other species of interest include Rickettsia typhi and Rickettsia massiliae. Using qPCR positivity rates in skin biopsies was 63.7% against 80% in swabs. R. conorii was the most frequently detected species, followed by R. typhi. The agreement between the two techniques was 68.6% (kappa=0.33). Molecular tests, especially using specific probes qPCR, allow for a rapid, better and confident diagnosis in clinical practice. They improve the survey of Mediterranean spotted fever which is considered to be the most important rickettsial infection in humans in Tunisia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  6. Contract Mining versus Owner Mining

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    mining companies can concentrate on their core businesses while using specialists for ... 2 Definition of Contract and Owner. Mining ... equipment maintenance, scheduling and budgeting ..... No. Region. Amount Spent on. Contract Mining. ($ billion). Percent of. Total. 1 ... cost and productivity data based on a large range.

  7. Agate and Amethyst Project. Detailed Exploration of amethyst deposits. Gemological District Los Catalanes - Artigas, Uruguay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techera, J.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this project is to achieve the knowledge of the amethyst geodes deposits filled with hard rock. For this purpose have studied two sites located in pilot mine Santino and pilot mine La Cordillera in the Gemoligical district Los Catalnes in Artigas town. The importance of this mineral riches is the base of mining projects that generate jobs and services.

  8. Heat Stress in Tunisia: Effects on dairy cows and potential means ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heat Stress in Tunisia: Effects on dairy cows and potential means. ... The objectives of this work were to characterize the environmental conditions to which Holstein ... Maintaining cow performance under hot conditions requires the adoption of ...

  9. The Albian oceanic anoxic events record in central and northern Tunisia: Geochemical data and paleotectonic controls

    OpenAIRE

    Khalifa , Zina; Affouri , Hassene; Rigane , Adel; Jacob , Jérémy

    2018-01-01

    International audience; The Albian organic-rich successions of the lower part of the Fahdene Formation (Albian to Cenomanian, Tunisia) were studied using sedimentology (analysis of carbonate contents and observation of thin sections), bulk organic geochemistry (Rock-Eval pyrolysis), and molecular biomarker distributions. The selected outcrops cover different structural domains from western central Tunisia (Jebel Hamra) to the Diapir zone or the Tunisian Trough (Koudiat Berkouchia, Jebel Ghazo...

  10. First report of olive anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Rhouma

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Ripe and overripe olive fruits (cv. Meski, Manzanilla and Picholine showing circular spots 1 to 10 mm in diameter, slightly depressed and reddish-brown in color, were collected from local markets and orchards located in the regions of Takelsa, Zarzis and Rgueb in Tunisia. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was isolated from symptomatic fruits and Koch’s postulates were fulfilled. This is the first report of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing anthracnose of olives in Tunisia.

  11. District heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental risks and uncertainties of a high-energy future are disturbing and give rise to several reservations concerning the use of fossil fuels. A number of technologies will help to reduce atmospheric pollution. In Denmark special importance is attached to the following: Energy conservation. Efficient energy conversion. Renewable energy sources. District heating, combined production of heat and power. Many agree that district heating (DH), produced by the traditional heat-only plant, and combined heat and power (CHP) have enormous potential when considering thermal efficiency and lowered environmental impacts: The basic technology of each is proven, it would be relatively simple to satisfy a substantial part of the energy demand, and their high efficiencies mean reduced pollution including greenhouse gas emissions. This is especially important in high population density areas - the obviously preferred sites for such energy generation. Compared with individual heating DH can provide a community with an operationally efficient and most often also an economically competitive heat supply. This is particularly true under the circumstances where the DH system is supplied from CHP plants. Their use results in very substantial improvements in overall efficiency. Further environmental improvements arise from the reduced air pollution obtainable in reasonably large CHP plants equipped with flue gas cleaning to remove particles, sulphur dioxide, and nitrogen acids. As a consequence of these considerations, DH plays an important role in fulfilling the space and water heating demand in many countries. This is especially the case in Denmark where this technology is utilised to a very great extent. Indeed, DH is one of the reasons why Denmark has relatively good air quality in the cities. (au)

  12. Study of polonium-210 in tobacco in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahali, Saifeddine

    2014-01-01

    Polonium-210 is a radio-isotopes natural α emitter, it cans be found in tobacco with a significant range. The high activity of 210 Po in tobacco and cigarettes causes the absorption of a high dose of alpha radiation that caused probably lung cancer, the objective of this study is to estimate the activity of 210 Po in tobacco matrix. Thirteen samples of cigarettes consumed in tunisia were experimented to determine the activity of this radionuclide. The PIPS, a silicon semiconductor, is used as on α spectrometry detector for the detection of 210 Po in all of our samples. The final results showed a high radioactivity of 210 Po from 11.77 to 25.31 mBq/g. We conclude that the effective annual average is estimated at 106.53 μSv / year.

  13. Prevalence of canine parvovirus infection in Grand Tunis, Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Tagorti

    2018-03-01

    Results: The overall prevalence of CPV-2 was 32.14% (n=54/168. A total number of 54 young dogs, aging 1 to 7 months, of American Staffordshire terrier, German shepherd, Rottweiler and Spaniel breeds were affected. There was no sex predisposition and German shepherd was the over-represented breed (n=33/54; 61.11%. The prevalence of clinical cases below the three months old was 70.37% (n=38/54 with autumn (n=27/54; 50% as the most common season of infection. Furthermore, the study showed that 87.04% (n=47/54 of CPV-2 unvaccinated young dogs were positive. Conclusion: This work was a new descriptive study concerning canine parvovirus infection in the Grand Tunis; further studies are required to better characterize the epidemiology of CPV-2 infection in Tunisia. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2018; 5(1.000: 93-97

  14. Nuclear medicine in Tunisia : current status and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammami, Hatem

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is concerned with the utilisation of radioactivity in vivo or in vitro for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. In Tunisia, there are four public departments of nuclear medicine and seven private clinics. 50% of the population is localized in the north, which justifies the existence of 7 public and private departments of nuclear medicine with nine gamma cameras in this region. In the south, there are 30 pour cent of the population that goes to Sfax and 20 pour cent to Sousse where we count two departments with gamma cameras in public services and one in the private sector. The nuclear medicine services in the public sector have 4 SPECT / CT. Siemens is the leading provider of gamma cameras and occupies 73 pour cent of market share, subsequently ranks SMV (13 pour cent) and (GE and GAEDE) have the same proportion of the market share (7 pour cent). For radio-protected rooms, there is a single center with a single chamber from four public services. On the other hand, there are 2/7 private centers that are equipped with five radio-protected electrically rooms. Concerning the human resources, there are 26 doctors and 24 technicians in the public sector. The private sector has 6 doctors and 12 technicians. In 2012, there has been 22000 examinations (diagnostic and therapeutic procedures) in which 14,600 in nuclear medicine departments of public hospitals. Bone scintigraphy ranks first, with a relative frequency of 40-80 pour cent thereafter ranks renal scintigraphy (10-15 pour cent) and then the thyroid scintigraphy (8-12 pour cent). The waiting period is a major problem, especially in the public sector. Taking as an example, for the therapy of thyroid, injection of 100 mCi of I-131 requires a period of waiting more than six months and waiting more than three months for the bone scan. The second problem for patient with cancer is the distance, there are 11 centers concentrated in 3 coastal cities and none in the inner areas of the country, no regional

  15. Celestial Navigation in the USA, Fiji, and Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Jarita C.

    2015-05-01

    Today there are many coastal communities that are home to navigators who use stars for position finding at night; I was, however, unaware of this fact when I began researching celestial navigation practices in 1997. My project focused on three communities: the Moce Islanders of Fiji, the Kerkennah Islanders in Tunisia, and the U.S. Navy officers and students at the United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland. My goal was to answer the question of why people continue to navigate by the stars, but also to understand the role of technology in their navigation practices. Using anthropology techniques of ethnography including participant observation, formal and informal interviews, audio and videotaping, I gathered data over five years at the three communities. I began by learning the details of how they use the stars for navigation. Next, I learned about who did the navigation and where they learned to navigate. I gathered opinions on various navigation aids and instruments, and opinions about the future of using the stars for navigation. I listened to the stories that they told about navigating. In the United States I worked in English, in Fiji, in Fijian and English, and in Tunisia, French and English. For the formal interviews I worked with translators. The navigators use stars for navigating today but the future of their techniques is not certain. Though practiced today, these celestial navigation traditions have undergone and continue to undergo changes. New navigational technologies are part of the stimulation for change, thus 'a meeting of different worlds' is symbolized by peoples encounters with these technologies.

  16. Intestinal helminths of golden jackals and red foxes from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmar, Samia; Boufana, Belgees; Ben Boubaker, Sarra; Landolsi, Faouzi

    2014-08-29

    Forty wild canids including 31 golden jackals (Canis aureus Linné, 1758) and 9 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes Linné, 1758) collected between 2008 and 2011 in the northeast, northwest and center of Tunisia were necropsied and examined for intestinal helminth parasites. All jackals and foxes were found infected with a prevalence rate of 95% for cestodes, 82.5% for nematodes and 7.5% for acanthocephalans. A total of twelve helminth species were recorded in red foxes: cestodes, Dipylidium caninum (55.6%), Diplopylidium noelleri (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes lineatus (55.6%), Mesocestoïdes litteratus (33%), Mesocestoïdes corti (22%); nematodes, Ancylostoma caninum (11%), Uncinaria stenocephala (44%), Spirura rytipleurites (11%), Trichuris vulpis (33%), Pterygodermatites affinis (67%), Oxynema linstowi (33%) and the acanthocephalan Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (22%). The fifteen recovered helminth species in jackals were Echinococcus granulosus (9.7%), D. caninum (16%), D. noelleri (16%), M. lineatus (74%), M. litteratus (23%), M. corti (12.9%), Taenia pisiformis (3.2%), Taenia spp. (19%), Toxocara canis (16%), Toxascaris leonina (6.5%), A. caninum (9.7%), U. stenocephala (68%), P. affinis (6.5%), O. linstowi (3.2%) and Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus (3.2%). This is the first report on the presence of P. affinis, D. noelleri and O. linstowi in Tunisia. E. granulosus was found in young jackals, aged less than 4 years old, with a higher abundance in females (8.9 worms). M. lineatus presented the highest mean intensity of 231.86 and 108.8 tapeworms respectively in jackals and foxes. Canids from the northwest region had the highest prevalence (77.5%) and highest intensity (243.7) of helminth species compared to those from the northeast and central areas. U. stenocephala and O. linstowi had the highest mean intensity for nematodes in both jackals and foxes at 14.3 and 88 worms respectively. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The Numidian of northern Tunisia: stratigraphic data and geodynamic interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talbi, F.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Numidian flysch consists of a thick turbiditic sandy and clayey formation of Oligocene-Lower Miocene age which outcrops largely in northern Tunisia. Concerning the relationship between the Numidian formation and its «substratum», two hypothesis are discussed : i allochtonous Numidian units (tangential abnormal contact ; ii autochtonous Numidian units (sedimentary contact : locally downlap. Detailed investigation undertaken in the study area, based on the survey and the dating of lithological logs, coupled with geodynamic and petrogenetic events, lead to the following results : i absence of tangential tectonic contact in the base of Numidian series ; ii a significant Tertiary tectonics attested by several phases. Moreover, the Numidian siliciclastic series are affected, like the other Tertiary formations in the North of Tunisia, by south-east ward deep-seated thrusts, oriented N50-60.El flysch Numidiense es una formación arenisco-arcillosa de gran espesor y de edad Oligoceno-Mioceno inferior, que aflora en el norte de Túnez. La naturaleza del contacto basal de esta formación ha suscitado numerosas discusiones. De ellas destacan dos hipótesis: 1 las unidades numidienses alóctonas se apoyan en forma de contacto anormal tangencial, y 2 se trata de unidades autóctonas (contacto sedimentario normal, a veces de tipo "downlap".El levantamiento de cortes litológicos detallados y su datación, combinado con datos de tipo geodinámico y petrogenético, ha permitido confirmar la ausencia de un contacto tectónico tangencial en la base del Numidiense y por el contrario, establecer la existencia de una significativa tectónica terciaria desarrollada en varias fases. Asi, las series siliciclásticas Numidienses se ven afectadas, como otras formaciones terciarias del norte de Túnez, por cabalgamientos de vergencia SE.

  18. Fairness in healthcare finance and delivery: what about Tunisia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Zaineh, Mohammad; Arfa, Chokri; Ventelou, Bruno; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2014-07-01

    Anecdotal evidence on hidden inequity in health care in North African countries abounds. Yet firm empirical evidence has been harder to come by. This article fills the gap. It presents the first analysis of equity in the healthcare system using the particular case of Tunisia. Analyses are based on an unusually rich source of data taken from the Tunisian HealthCare Utilization and Morbidity Survey. Payments for health care are derived from the total amount of healthcare spending which was incurred by households over the last year. Utilization of health care is measured by the number of physical units of two types of services: outpatient and inpatient. The measurement of need for health care is apprehended through a rich set of ill-health indicators and demographics. Findings are presented and compared at both the aggregate level, using the general summary index approach, and the disaggregate level, using the distribution-free stochastic dominance approach. The overall picture is that direct out-of-pocket payments, which constitute a sizeable share in the current financing mix, emerge to be a progressive means of financing health care overall. Interestingly, however, when statistical testing is applied at the disaggregate level progressivity is retained over the top half of the distribution. Further analyses of the distributions of need for--and utilization of--two types of health care--outpatient and inpatient--reveal that the observed progressivity is rather an outcome of the heavy use, but not need, for health care at the higher income levels. Several policy relevant factors are discussed, and some recommendations are advanced for future reforms of the health care in Tunisia. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  19. Carry on 50 Years of Traditional Friendship And Open a New Chapter of Cooperation Between CPAFFC and Tunisia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ai; Lin

    2014-01-01

    <正>Tunisia is located at the northern end of Africa and faces the Mediterranean Sea on the north and the east.In the early 9th century BCE,the Phoenicians built Carthage bordering the Tunisian Gulf,and created the brilliant Carthaginian civilization.Now,Tunisia has become a multicultural country integrating a long civilization.China and Tunisia established diplomatic relations on January 10,1964,and despite being separated by

  20. A review of reflection seismic investigations in three major metallogenic regions: The Kevitsa Ni–Cu–PGE district (Finland), Witwatersrand goldfields (South Africa), and the Bathurst Mining Camp (Canada)

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malehmir, A

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available -resolution image of the subsurface and information about structural and lithological relationships that control mineral deposits. The method has also become an attractive geophysical tool for deep exploration and mine planning. In this paper, we review the use...

  1. Mine Water Treatment in Hongai Coal Mines

    OpenAIRE

    Dang Phuong Thao; Dang Vu Chi

    2018-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is recognized as one of the most serious environmental problem associated with mining industry. Acid water, also known as acid mine drainage forms when iron sulfide minerals found in the rock of coal seams are exposed to oxidizing conditions in coal mining. Until 2009, mine drainage in Hongai coal mines was not treated, leading to harmful effects on humans, animals and aquatic ecosystem. This report has examined acid mine drainage problem and techniques for acid mine ...

  2. Extending mine life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Mine layouts, new machines and techniques, research into problem areas of ground control and so on, are highlighted in this report on extending mine life. The main resources taken into account are coal mining, uranium mining, molybdenum and gold mining

  3. Uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The economic and environmental sustainability of uranium mining has been analysed by Monash University researcher Dr Gavin Mudd in a paper that challenges the perception that uranium mining is an 'infinite quality source' that provides solutions to the world's demand for energy. Dr Mudd says information on the uranium industry touted by politicians and mining companies is not necessarily inaccurate, but it does not tell the whole story, being often just an average snapshot of the costs of uranium mining today without reflecting the escalating costs associated with the process in years to come. 'From a sustainability perspective, it is critical to evaluate accurately the true lifecycle costs of all forms of electricity production, especially with respect to greenhouse emissions, ' he says. 'For nuclear power, a significant proportion of greenhouse emissions are derived from the fuel supply, including uranium mining, milling, enrichment and fuel manufacture.' Dr Mudd found that financial and environmental costs escalate dramatically as the uranium ore is used. The deeper the mining process required to extract the ore, the higher the cost for mining companies, the greater the impact on the environment and the more resources needed to obtain the product. I t is clear that there is a strong sensitivity of energy and water consumption and greenhouse emissions to ore grade, and that ore grades are likely to continue to decline gradually in the medium to long term. These issues are critical to the current debate over nuclear power and greenhouse emissions, especially with respect to ascribing sustainability to such activities as uranium mining and milling. For example, mining at Roxby Downs is responsible for the emission of over one million tonnes of greenhouse gases per year and this could increase to four million tonnes if the mine is expanded.'

  4. Possibility of uranium synthesis from radioactive waste and mine waters of uranium mine kiik-tol of Tajikistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.M.; Hakimov, N.

    2005-01-01

    The article investigates the method of synthesis of U 3 O 8 from radioactive waste of Gafurov District of Republic of Tajikistan and uranium extraction from mine waters of Kiik-Tol mine. In addition, the authors showed the method of solubility of Uranium Oxide U 3 O 8

  5. POLLUTION AND SEA WATER IN THALASSOTHERAPY CENTERS OF TUNISIA (SW MEDITERRANEAN COASTAL?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donia BOUCHOUICHA-SMIDA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The practice of thalassotherapy in Tunisia has been possible while applying statement of Decree 92-129 published July 13, 1992 setting standards and conditions for implementation and exploitation of thalassotherapy centers (TCs, modified and replaced by Decree 2001-1081 of May 14, 2001 and Decree 2006-3174 published November 30, 2006 according to Tunisian standard 126.05 (2007. Recently, this Tunisian standard was origin of the international standard ISO 17680. Concerning quality of seawater used by TCs, these standards require the assay: trace metals (cadmium (Cd, lead (Pb, arsenic (As, mercury (Hg, selenium (Se and chromium (Cr, total hydrocarbons (THC, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, surface active substances to the methylene blue. The legislation (ISO 17680 cited limits concentration not exceeded. Concerning sewage sea water, Decree 3174-2006 of 30 November 2006 requires that seawater discharged into the marine environment, complies with the Tunisian standard NT 106 002 on liquid discharges in the receiving environment. In part, through the application of these standards, Tunisia was, after France, second destination for thalassotherapy. Thus, to maintain this privileged position and even more advanced in this field, the National Office of Thermalism and Hydrotherapy (NOTH applied standards ISO 17680 and monitored pollutants concentrations of sea water, which is the main tool for working thalassotherapy centers (TCs. Hence, this study is the first, nationally and internationally, assessing the impact of anionic detergents, heavy metals (cadmium (Cd, Pb, As, Hg, Se and Cr, total hydrocarbons (THC and detergents (anionic substances on seawater quality used by six TCs situated in four coastal regions from north to south (Hammamet, Sousse, Monastir and Mehdia during four months (from May to September 2014. The pollutants concentrations monitored varying among TCs and months. Indeed, Cd concentrations ranged from 1 to 5.10-3 mg.l-1, Pb

  6. Reestablishing natural succession on acidic mine spoils at high elevations: long-term ecological restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray W. Brown; Michael C. Amacher; Walter F. Mueggler; Janice Kotuby-Amacher

    2003-01-01

    Methods for restoring native plant communities on acidic mine spoils at high elevations were evaluated in a "demonstration area" in the New World Mining District of southern Montana. Research plots installed in 1976 were assessed for 22 years and compared with adjacent native reference plant communities. A 1.5-acre (0.61-ha) area of mine spoils was shaped and...

  7. Overview of mine drainage geochemistry at historical mines, Humboldt River basin and adjacent mining areas, Nevada. Chapter E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J. Thomas; Stillings, Lisa L.

    2004-01-01

    Reconnaissance hydrogeochemical studies of the Humboldt River basin and adjacent areas of northern Nevada have identified local sources of acidic waters generated by historical mine workings and mine waste. The mine-related acidic waters are rare and generally flow less than a kilometer before being neutralized by natural processes. Where waters have a pH of less than about 3, particularly in the presence of sulfide minerals, the waters take on high to extremely high concentrations of many potentially toxic metals. The processes that create these acidic, metal-rich waters in Nevada are the same as for other parts of the world, but the scale of transport and the fate of metals are much more localized because of the ubiquitous presence of caliche soils. Acid mine drainage is rare in historical mining districts of northern Nevada, and the volume of drainage rarely exceeds about 20 gpm. My findings are in close agreement with those of Price and others (1995) who estimated that less than 0.05 percent of inactive and abandoned mines in Nevada are likely to be a concern for acid mine drainage. Most historical mining districts have no draining mines. Only in two districts (Hilltop and National) does water affected by mining flow into streams of significant size and length (more than 8 km). Water quality in even the worst cases is naturally attenuated to meet water-quality standards within about 1 km of the source. Only a few historical mines release acidic water with elevated metal concentrations to small streams that reach the Humboldt River, and these contaminants and are not detectable in the Humboldt. These reconnaissance studies offer encouraging evidence that abandoned mines in Nevada create only minimal and local water-quality problems. Natural attenuation processes are sufficient to compensate for these relatively small sources of contamination. These results may provide useful analogs for future mining in the Humboldt River basin, but attention must be given to

  8. Social big data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Ishikawa, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Social Media. Big Data and Social Data. Hypotheses in the Era of Big Data. Social Big Data Applications. Basic Concepts in Data Mining. Association Rule Mining. Clustering. Classification. Prediction. Web Structure Mining. Web Content Mining. Web Access Log Mining, Information Extraction and Deep Web Mining. Media Mining. Scalability and Outlier Detection.

  9. Antiproliferative and Antibacterial Activities of Cirsium scabrum from Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramla Sahli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Several Cirsium species are known for their uses in traditional medicine and consequently are studied for their phytochemical content and their biological activities. In the framework of a previous study conducted on eight extremophile plants from Tunisia, we highlighted that the crude methanolic extract of C. scabrum, a not investigated thistle, showed moderate but quite selective cytotoxic activity against the cancerous cell line J774 compared to the noncancerous cell line WI38 (IC50 = 11.53 μg/ml on J774, IC50 = 29.89 µg/ml on WI38, and selectivity index = 2.6. In the current study, the partitions of the leaves of C. scabrum were analyzed for their antiproliferative activity on the same cell lines. From the most active petroleum ether partition, we isolated four triterpenoids including lupeol, taraxasterol acetate, and a (1 : 1 mixture of 25-hydroperoxycycloart-23-en-3β-ol and 24-hydroperoxycycloart-25-en-3β-ol. These two cycloartane-type triterpenoids are mostly responsible for this cytotoxic activity. On the other hand, the antimicrobial potential of this plant was also evaluated against 36 microorganisms. The moderate antibacterial activity against 6 Staphylococcus aureus and 2 Dermabacter hominis strains is mainly attributed to the butanol partition whose major compounds are glycosides of flavones.

  10. Antiproliferative and Antibacterial Activities of Cirsium scabrum from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahli, Ramla; Rivière, Céline; Dufloer, Cédric; Beaufay, Claire; Neut, Christel; Bero, Joanne; Hennebelle, Thierry; Roumy, Vincent; Ksouri, Riadh; Quetin-Leclercq, Joelle; Sahpaz, Sevser

    2017-01-01

    Several Cirsium species are known for their uses in traditional medicine and consequently are studied for their phytochemical content and their biological activities. In the framework of a previous study conducted on eight extremophile plants from Tunisia, we highlighted that the crude methanolic extract of C. scabrum , a not investigated thistle, showed moderate but quite selective cytotoxic activity against the cancerous cell line J774 compared to the noncancerous cell line WI38 (IC 50 = 11.53  μ g/ml on J774, IC 50 = 29.89  µ g/ml on WI38, and selectivity index = 2.6). In the current study, the partitions of the leaves of C. scabrum were analyzed for their antiproliferative activity on the same cell lines. From the most active petroleum ether partition, we isolated four triterpenoids including lupeol, taraxasterol acetate, and a (1 : 1) mixture of 25-hydroperoxycycloart-23-en-3 β -ol and 24-hydroperoxycycloart-25-en-3 β -ol. These two cycloartane-type triterpenoids are mostly responsible for this cytotoxic activity. On the other hand, the antimicrobial potential of this plant was also evaluated against 36 microorganisms. The moderate antibacterial activity against 6 Staphylococcus aureus and 2 Dermabacter hominis strains is mainly attributed to the butanol partition whose major compounds are glycosides of flavones.

  11. Risk assessment of fluoride exposure in drinking water of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guissouma, Wiem; Hakami, Othman; Al-Rajab, Abdul Jabbar; Tarhouni, Jamila

    2017-06-01

    The presence of fluoride in drinking water is known to reduce dental cavities among consumers, but an excessive intake of this anion might leads to dental and skeletal fluorosis. This study reports a complete survey of the fluoridated tap water taken from 100 water consumption points in Tunisia. The fluoride concentrations in tap water were between 0 and 2.4 mg L -1 . Risk assessment of Fluoride exposure was assessed depending on the age of consumers using a four-step method: hazard identification, toxicity reference values selection (TRVs), daily exposure assessment, and risk characterization. Our findings suggest that approximately 75% of the Tunisian population is at risk for dental decay, 25% have a potential dental fluorosis risk, and 20% might have a skeletal fluorosis risk according to the limits of fluoride in drinking water recommended by WHO. More investigations are recommended to assess the exposure risk of fluoride in other sources of drinking water such as bottled water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Reuse of reclaimed wastewater for golf course irrigation in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahri, A; Basset, C; Oueslati, F; Brissaud, F

    2001-01-01

    In Tunisia, golf courses are irrigated with secondary treated effluent stored in landscape impoundments. The impact of the conveyance and storage steps on the physical-chemical and biological quality of irrigation water was evaluated on three golf courses over two years. It was found that the water quality varies all along the water route, from the wastewater treatment plant up to the irrigation site: nutrient and bacteria contents decreased along the route in the three cases. This variation depends on the wastewater quality, the length of the pipes conveying water, the number of regulation reservoirs and ponds, the water residence time in pipes, reservoirs and ponds, and the operation of the ponds. The bacteriological quality of irrigation water deteriorates during the irrigation period in the three golf courses as the ponds are operated as continuous flow reactors. The results obtained in this study indicate the inability of golf water supplies, as currently managed, to properly sanitize reclaimed wastewater and meet target quality criteria recommended by WHO (1989) for water intended for recreational use. For a safe reuse of reclaimed wastewater for golf course irrigation, changes in the design and operation of the ponds should be planned or additional treatment steps provided.

  13. Mine Water Treatment in Hongai Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Phuong Thao; Dang, Vu Chi

    2018-03-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is recognized as one of the most serious environmental problem associated with mining industry. Acid water, also known as acid mine drainage forms when iron sulfide minerals found in the rock of coal seams are exposed to oxidizing conditions in coal mining. Until 2009, mine drainage in Hongai coal mines was not treated, leading to harmful effects on humans, animals and aquatic ecosystem. This report has examined acid mine drainage problem and techniques for acid mine drainage treatment in Hongai coal mines. In addition, selection and criteria for the design of the treatment systems have been presented.

  14. Mine Water Treatment in Hongai Coal Mines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dang Phuong Thao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is recognized as one of the most serious environmental problem associated with mining industry. Acid water, also known as acid mine drainage forms when iron sulfide minerals found in the rock of coal seams are exposed to oxidizing conditions in coal mining. Until 2009, mine drainage in Hongai coal mines was not treated, leading to harmful effects on humans, animals and aquatic ecosystem. This report has examined acid mine drainage problem and techniques for acid mine drainage treatment in Hongai coal mines. In addition, selection and criteria for the design of the treatment systems have been presented.

  15. North American Bats and Mines Project: A cooperative approach for integrating bat conservation and mine-land reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ducummon, S.L. [Bat Conservation International, Austin, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Inactive underground mines now provide essential habitat for more than half of North America`s 44 bat species, including some of the largest remaining populations. Thousands of abandoned mines have already been closed or are slated for safety closures, and many are destroyed during renewed mining in historic districts. The available evidence suggests that millions of bats have already been lost due to these closures. Bats are primary predators of night-flying insects that cost American farmers and foresters billions of dollars annually, therefore, threats to bat survival are cause for serious concern. Fortunately, mine closure methods exist that protect both bats and humans. Bat Conservation International (BCI) and the USDI-Bureau of Land Management founded the North American Bats and Mines Project to provide national leadership and coordination to minimize the loss of mine-roosting bats. This partnership has involved federal and state mine-land and wildlife managers and the mining industry. BCI has trained hundreds of mine-land and wildlife managers nationwide in mine assessment techniques for bats and bat-compatible closure methods, published technical information on bats and mine-land management, presented papers on bats and mines at national mining and wildlife conferences, and collaborated with numerous federal, state, and private partners to protect some of the most important mine-roosting bat populations. Our new mining industry initiative, Mining for Habitat, is designed to develop bat habitat conservation and enhancement plans for active mining operations. It includes the creation of cost-effective artificial underground bat roosts using surplus mining materials such as old mine-truck tires and culverts buried beneath waste rock.

  16. Sphincterochilidae from Tunisia, with a note on the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 (Gastropoda, Pulmonata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intidhar Abbes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to establish an updated checklist of terrestrial gastropod from Tunisia, a revision of the species of Sphincterochilidae is presented, using bibliographic and museum records and the results of our own field work. As a result, only two species, Sphincterochila candidissima and S. tunetana, are accepted to occur in Tunisia, and their type specimens are illustrated. The study of the morphological characters of the genital organs of both species clarified their subgeneric affiliation. Comparison of S. tunetana with S. cariosa from Lebanon showed that the first has to be classified within the subgenus Albea, and the latter within Sphincterochila s. str.; the subgenus Rima Pallary, 1910 remains in the synonymy of Sphincterochila s. str. Bibliographic records of S. baetica and S. otthiana from Tunisia could not be confirmed, the latter probably lives close to the border with Algeria.

  17. Early metal pollution in southwestern Europe: the former littoral lagoon of El Almarjal (Cartagena mining district, S.E. Spain).A sedimentary archive more than 8000 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manteca, José-Ignacio; Ros-Sala, Milagros; Ramallo-Asensio, Sebastián; Navarro-Hervás, Francisca; Rodríguez-Estrella, Tomás; Cerezo-Andreo, Felipe; Ortiz-Menéndez, José-Eugenio; de-Torres, Trinidad; Martínez-Andreu, Miguel

    2017-04-01

    A borehole drilling campaign has allowed the study of a former littoral lagoon located next to the harbour city of Cartagena in South-East Spain (close to the Sierra de Cartagena polymetallic ore deposits). This lagoon, which developed during the Holocene, was first a shallow sedimentary marine environment and later evolved into a swampy semi-endorheic basin named "Almarjal" (after the Arab term from the fourteenth century). The lagoon eventually dried out and at present forms part of the substratum of the modern sector of the city urban area. The basin representative sediments are sapropelic black silty facies forming a continuous sedimentary archive, accounting for more than 8000 years of depositional phenomena. The geochemical study of these sediments, together with their absolute calibrated dating by 14 C, allows definition of successive stages of mining and metallurgical activities in the area. In turn, this information provides a more comprehensive perspective regarding metal pollution, particularly lead contamination during different periods of the Recent Prehistory and the Classical Age. The results indicate that the beginning of contamination by lead and other heavy metals occurred as early as 4500 years ago, when the Final Chalcolithic period was taking place in the South-East of the Iberian Peninsula. This finding provides further insights regarding the debate on the origins of lead mining and metallurgy in SE Spain.

  18. Coastal mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Peter M.

    The Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) declared by President Reagan in March 1983 has met with a mixed response from those who would benefit from a guaranteed, 200-nautical-mile (370-km) protected underwater mining zone off the coasts of the United States and its possessions. On the one hand, the U.S. Department of the Interior is looking ahead and has been very successful in safeguarding important natural resources that will be needed in the coming decades. On the other hand, the mining industry is faced with a depressed metals and mining market.A report of the Exclusive Economic Zone Symposium held in November 1983 by the U.S. Geological Survey, the Mineral Management Service, and the Bureau of Mines described the mixed response as: “ … The Department of Interior … raring to go into promotion of deep-seal mining but industrial consortia being very pessimistic about the program, at least for the next 30 or so years.” (Chemical & Engineering News, February 5, 1983).

  19. Choice of the exchange policies in the developments countries: Study of the competitiveness of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benahji Sfaxi Hend

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available After the collapse of the Breton Woods system, the increased fluctuations of the exchange rates pushed the developing countries to adopt exchange rate policies to avoid rocking of the balance of payments. Since 1973, Tunisia adopted fixed or intermediary exchange rate policies to support or ameliorate her competitiveness and later to balance her current account. By calculating the real effective exchange rate misalignment, we showed that this country did not achieve her goals and that amelioration of competitiveness occurred only as from the moment when she softened her exchange policies. A policy of floating exchange rate is recommended for Tunisia specially why this country is more and more open. .

  20. Private Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — Private Water District boundaries are areas where private contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  1. Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is a representation overlay of Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts (areas of responsibility). The Vermont Lieutenant Chief Warden Districts layer is part...

  2. District heating in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, F.

    1991-01-01

    District heating has been used in Switzerland for more than 50 years. Its share of the heat market is less than 3% today. An analysis of the use of district heating in various European countries shows that a high share of district heating in the heat market is always dependent on ideal conditions for its use. Market prospects and possible future developments in the use of district heating in Switzerland are described in this paper. The main Swiss producers and distributors of district heating are members of the Association of District Heating Producers and Distributors. This association supports the installation of district heating facilities where ecological, energetical and economic aspects indicate that district heating would be a good solution. (author) 2 tabs., 6 refs

  3. California Political Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This is a series of district layers pertaining to California'spolitical districts, that are derived from the California State Senateand State Assembly information....

  4. State Water Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — State Water Project District boundaries are areas where state contracts provide water to the district in California. This database is designed as a regions polygon...

  5. National Register Historic Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The National Register Historic District layer is a shape file showing the boundaries of Historic Districts that are listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

  6. Zero Energy Districts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, Benjamin J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-05-04

    This presentation shows how NREL is approaching Zero Energy Districts, including key opportunities, design strategies, and master planning concepts. The presentation also covers URBANopt, an advanced analytical platform for district that is being developed by NREL.

  7. Surface Mines, Other - Longwall Mining Panels

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — Coal mining has occurred in Pennsylvania for over a century. A method of coal mining known as Longwall Mining has become more prevalent in recent decades. Longwall...

  8. Process mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Aalst, W.M.P.; Rubin, V.; Verbeek, H.M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Process mining includes the automated discovery of processes from event logs. Based on observed events (e.g., activities being executed or messages being exchanged) a process model is constructed. One of the essential problems in process mining is that one cannot assume to have seen all possible...... behavior. At best, one has seen a representative subset. Therefore, classical synthesis techniques are not suitable as they aim at finding a model that is able to exactly reproduce the log. Existing process mining techniques try to avoid such “overfitting” by generalizing the model to allow for more...... support for it). None of the existing techniques enables the user to control the balance between “overfitting” and “underfitting”. To address this, we propose a two-step approach. First, using a configurable approach, a transition system is constructed. Then, using the “theory of regions”, the model...

  9. District nurse training

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Arnold; Freeling, Paul; Owen, John

    1980-01-01

    Training for district nursing is being reviewed. By 1981 district nurses will have a new administrative structure, a new curriculum, and a new examination. Training for nursing, like that for general practice, is to become mandatory. The history of the development of district nurse training is briefly described.

  10. District nursing in Dominica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolkman, PME; Luteijn, AJ; Nasiiro, RS; Bruney, [No Value; Smith, RJA; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1998-01-01

    District nurses constitute the basis of the primary health care services in Dominica. All encounters of three district nurses were registered using the international classification of primary care. Information on other aspects of district nursing was collected by participating observation and the

  11. Isotopes to Study the coastal aquifer plain, Cap Bon, Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Hamouda, M. F.; Zouari, Kamel; Tarhouni, J.; Gaye, C.B.; Oueslati, M.N.

    2005-01-01

    The study area is located in the northeastern part of Tunisia about 60 km south of the Tunis city. It is bounded by the Gulf of Haematite in the East, Djebel Sidi Aberahmane in the West, The town of Nabeul in the south and the area of the town Kelibia in the north. The landscape is a coastal plain slightly sloping (3%) towards the sea. The groundwater of the Oriental coast aquifer system occurs mainly at two levels, a shallow aquifer up to depths of about 50 m whose reservoir is consisted by sediments of the Plio quaternary and a deep aquifer between about 150 and 400 m located in the sand stone formations of Miocene of the anticline of Djebel Sidi Abderrahmene. The climate of the region is semi-arid to sub-humid and of Mediterranean type. There are no perennial rivers in this region; but intense storms occasionally cause surface runoff, which is discharged by the oueds. The study is related to a technical cooperation project with the International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria, aimed at the use of isotope techniques to study the seawater intrusion into the coastal aquifers of Cap Bon in Tunisia. In this regard, a better understanding of the recharge and flow regime as well as the origin or salinity of the groundwater was required. To reach this goal, isotope and geochemical investigations were carried out. Water samples were taken from wells, boreholes from deep and shallow aquifer of the Oriental coastal aquifer located between Beni Khiar in the south and Kelibia in the north. The samples were analysed for their chemical and isotopic compositions (18O, 2H, 3H, 13C, 14C, 34S). In the following, the results of these analyses are presented and discussed in terms of the recharge and flow regime of the groundwater and the origin and evolution of its salinity. The results of geochemical and isotopic studies have shown that the groundwater is very eterogeneous and suggest the aquifer is replenished by recent water coming from direct infiltration from rain. At

  12. Data mining

    CERN Document Server

    Gorunescu, Florin

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge discovery process is as old as Homo sapiens. Until some time ago, this process was solely based on the 'natural personal' computer provided by Mother Nature. Fortunately, in recent decades the problem has begun to be solved based on the development of the Data mining technology, aided by the huge computational power of the 'artificial' computers. Digging intelligently in different large databases, data mining aims to extract implicit, previously unknown and potentially useful information from data, since 'knowledge is power'. The goal of this book is to provide, in a friendly way

  13. Mining wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pradel, J.

    1981-01-01

    In this article mining wastes means wastes obtained during extraction and processing of uranium ores including production of uraniferous concentrates. The hazards for the population are irradiation, ingestion, dust or radon inhalation. The different wastes produced are reviewed. Management of liquid effluents, water treatment, contamined materials, gaseous wastes and tailings are examined. Environmental impact of wastes during and after exploitation is discussed. Monitoring and measurements are made to verify that ICRP recommendations are met. Studies in progress to improve mining waste management are given [fr

  14. [Street food among children: a study in north Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffati, Larbi; Ridha, Hamza; Kolsteren, Patrick; Hilderbrand, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    As urbanization increases in Tunisia, eating meals outside the home is becoming more frequent. Children are prime consumers for the fast food sold in the streets. Neither their nor their parents' attitude towards street food is well documented as yet. This study was conducted in the city of Bizerte in February 1998. Its aim was to gather information about street food and parents' and children's attitudes towards it to help organize educational sessions with the children, parents, teachers, and vendors. The study interviewed 421 primary school children, ranging in age from 6 to 15 years (mean age: 10 years), from 24 schools. Half received pocket money, a percentage that did not differ by sex. Three quarters of the children used more than 75% of their pocket money to buy street food. The items bought most frequently were candy (27.2%), sandwiches (23.9%), pastries (23.9%), sunflower seeds and peanuts (21%), and either pizza, chocolate, or cheese (20.3%); the largest proportion of money was spent on sandwiches. In more than half the cases (55.7% of the children), the main motivation for buying street food was either to replace or fill out a meal at home, with sandwiches or pastries. The parents' monthly income did not influence the children's purchasing behavior, but the rhythm of receiving pocket money did. Most children were satisfied with the nutritional and hygienic quality of the food available, but their opinion of this quality as well as the reasons for buying the food and the prices spent on it differed considerably from that of their parents. This study highlights the important role of street foods in the daily diet of schoolchildren and the need for appropriate nutrition education in primary schools.

  15. Genetic variability and haplotypes of Echinococcus isolates from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Lahmar, Samia; Rebaï, Waël; Ben Safta, Zoubeir; Jebabli, Leïla; Ammar, Adel; Kachti, Mahmoud; Aouadi, Soufia; Craig, Philip S

    2014-11-01

    The species/genotypes of Echinococcus infecting a range of intermediate, canid and human hosts were examined as well as the intraspecific variation and population structure of Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) within these hosts. A total of 174 Echinococcus isolates from humans and ungulate intermediate hosts and adult tapeworms from dogs and jackals were used. Genomic DNA was used to amplify a fragment within a mitochondrial gene and a nuclear gene, coding for cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1; 828 bp) and elongation factor 1-alpha (ef1a; 656 bp), respectively. E. granulosus sensu stricto was identified from all host species examined, E. canadensis (G6) in a camel and, for the first time, fertile cysts of E. granulosus (s.s.) and E. equinus in equids (donkeys) and E. granulosus (s.s.) from wild boars and goats. Considerable genetic variation was seen only for the cox1 sequences of E. granulosus (s.s.). The pairwise fixation index (Fst) for cox1 E. granulosus (s.s.) sequences from donkeys was high and was statistically significant compared with that of E. granulosus populations from other intermediate hosts. A single haplotype (EqTu01) was identified for the cox1 nucleotide sequences of E. equinus. The role of donkeys in the epidemiology of echinococcosis in Tunisia requires further investigation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Young ischemic stroke in Tunisia: a multicentric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kefi, Asma; Larbi, Thara; Abdallah, Meya; Ouni, Amira El; Bougacha, Neil; Bouslama, Kamel; Hamzaoui, Saloua; M'rad, Skander

    2017-04-01

    There is wanting data regarding young ischemic stroke in developing countries, especially in Tunisia. The purpose of this study was to investigate risk factors and etiologies of young ischemic stroke in Tunisian and make a comparison with previous reports. A total of 102 young ischemic stroke patients (15-45 years old) were admitted, between January 1996 and August 2007, to 11 departments of internal medicine in different Tunisian hospitals. The risk factors for stroke were documented and assessed. Diagnosis workup consisted of anamnesis, complete physical examination and extensive laboratory, radiologic, immunologic, neurologic and cardiologic examination. Stroke etiologies were classified according the Trial of ORG 10172 in acute stroke treatment. There were 42 men (41.2%) and 60 women (58.89%) with a mean age at onset of 35.7 years. As regards stroke subtype, large-artery atherosclerosis was diagnosed in 6.9% of cases, cardioembolism in 11.8%, small-vessel occlusion in 8.8%, other determined etiology in 37.3% and undetermined etiology in 35.3%. Concerning the traditional risk factors, smoking (31.4%), hypertension and diabetes mellitus (12.7% for each one) and a family history of stroke (10.8%) were the most common. The mean follow-up period was 30.5 months. In our study, traditional risk factors were not-so-uncommon in young adults with ischemic stroke suggesting that prevention can go through controlling these factors. Stroke of other determined etiology was the most common among our patients, so that a broad and detailed diagnostic workup is crucial to puzzle out the etiology for more and better stroke prevention.

  17. Hydrocarbon potential of a new Jurassic play, central Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beall, A.O.; Law, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    A largely unrecognized Jurassic Sag Basin has been identified in central Tunisia, proximal to the Permo-Carboniferous flexure delineating the northern boundary of the Saharan platform of north Africa. The northwestern margin of the Sag is delineated by an extensive region of salt-cored anticlines and localized salt diapirs extending north and west. Due to lack of deep drilling, delineation of the Sag is largely based on regional gravity data. Subsidence of the Jurassic Sag Basin is characterized by rapid expansion of Jurassic sediments from 400 m. of tidal flat and shelf carbonate at the western outcrop to over 2000 meters of tidal flat and basinal carbonate and shale within the basin center, a five-fold expansion. Rapid loading of the basin continued into Lower Cretaceous time, marked by lateral flowage of Triassic salt into pronounced structural trends. Published source rock data and interpreted subsurface well data provided the basis for GENEX 1-D hydrocarbon generation and expulsion modeling of the Sag. Middle Jurassic black source shales typically contain Type II and Type III kerogens with T.O.C.'s ranging up to 4 percent. Modeling results indicate that middle Jurassic shales are presently mature for liquid generation within portions of the Sag, with maximum generation taking place during the Tertiary. Potential hydrocarbon generation yields, based on 60 meters of mature source shale, are 20,000 BOE/acre for gas and 75,000 BOE/acre for liquids. Prospects within the region could contain an estimated potential reserve of several T.C.F. or over 1 billion barrels of oil

  18. Factors determining Gekkotan (Reptilia, Sauria distribution in Tunisia (North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wided Tlili

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tunisian geckos count nine species (1 is insular relict, 1 is endemic, 2 are ubiquitous and 5 are enfeoffed. We aim to determine factors influencing their distributions. Surveys were founded on environmental divisions. Presence/absence data for 113 grids were analyzed using multivariate tools. 18 environmental variables were revealed and clustered into five factors to model species distributions. Established models were further projected on non-explored areas within Tunisian territory. The distribution of continental geckos follows an indirect bidirectional gradient; the South-northward one is physiologically stressful and the North-southward one is biologically stressful. Five biogeographic regions were established showing concordance with climatic and vegetation regionalization. The distribution of non-anthropophilic species is positively correlated to thermal amplitudes gradient. The distribution of anthropophilic taxa is positively correlated to agricultural land-use. Oasis, sebkhas and chotts are particular landscapes that disturb both distributions. Predicted areas follow the yielded distribution patterns despite some discrepancy for S. sthenodactylus. The niche characterizing shows that land use and altitude increase the probability of occurrence of H. turcicus and T. mauritanica. Alternatively, they decrease the probability of the presence of T. deserti, T. neglecta, T. tripolitanus and S. petrii. Models could also show that the absence of S. sthenodactylus in northern regions is attributed to high altitudes and cereal land-use. As to T. fascicularis, the displacement of the northern limits of its range is mostly attributed to an improvement of field investigations. Established model of its distribution shows a restricted area of probable occurrence in central Tunisia confirming its endemism.

  19. 4D seismic data acquisition method during coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Wen-Feng; Peng, Su-Ping

    2014-01-01

    In order to observe overburden media changes caused by mining processing, we take the fully-mechanized working face of the BLT coal mine in Shendong mine district as an example to develop a 4D seismic data acquisition methodology during coal mining. The 4D seismic data acquisition is implemented to collect 3D seismic data four times in different periods, such as before mining, during the mining process and after mining to observe the changes of the overburden layer during coal mining. The seismic data in the research area demonstrates that seismic waves are stronger in energy, higher in frequency and have better continuous reflectors before coal mining. However, all this is reversed after coal mining because the overburden layer has been mined, the seismic energy and frequency decrease, and reflections have more discontinuities. Comparing the records collected in the survey with those from newly mined areas and other records acquired in the same survey with the same geometry and with a long time for settling after mining, it clearly shows that the seismic reflections have stronger amplitudes and are more continuous because the media have recovered by overburden layer compaction after a long time of settling after mining. By 4D seismic acquisition, the original background investigation of the coal layers can be derived from the first records, then the layer structure changes can be monitored through the records of mining action and compaction action after mining. This method has laid the foundation for further research into the variation principles of the overburden layer under modern coal-mining conditions. (paper)

  20. Environmental geochemistry of acid mine drainage water at Indus coal mine at Lakhra, Sindh Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddique, I.; Shah, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    The annual coal production of Pakistan is about 3,637, 825 tones which is about 6% of the country's energy resources, out of this 1,241, 965 tones of coal was produced/ mined from the Lakhra coal field, District Dadu, Sindh which after the Thar coal field is the second largest coal field of Pakistan. At this coal field more than 58 mining companies are engaged in exploring the hidden wealth of the country. The problem of acid mine drainage, is caused by the passage or seepage of water, through mines where iron disulfides, usually pyrites, are exposed to the oxidizing action of water, air and bacteria, is the main problem faced by the mining companies. The geochemical analysis of acid mine drainage water collected from Indus coal mine no. 6 shows that beside its higher pH, total Dissolved Solids and Sulfates, it also posses higher amount of heavy metals like Cd, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni and Fe. This acid mine drainage water not only damages the mine structures but is also harmful to soil and ecology. (author)

  1. Mining Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Shik; Lee, Kyung Woon; Kim, Oak Hwan; Kim, Dae Kyung [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    The reducing coal market has been enforcing the coal industry to make exceptional rationalization and restructuring efforts since the end of the eighties. To the competition from crude oil and natural gas has been added the growing pressure from rising wages and rising production cost as the workings get deeper. To improve the competitive position of the coal mines against oil and gas through cost reduction, studies to improve mining system have been carried out. To find fields requiring improvements most, the technologies using in Tae Bak Colliery which was selected one of long running mines were investigated and analyzed. The mining method appeared the field needing improvements most to reduce the production cost. The present method, so-called inseam roadway caving method presently is using to extract the steep and thick seam. However, this method has several drawbacks. To solve the problems, two mining methods are suggested for a long term and short term method respectively. Inseam roadway caving method with long-hole blasting method is a variety of the present inseam roadway caving method modified by replacing timber sets with steel arch sets and the shovel loaders with chain conveyors. And long hole blasting is introduced to promote caving. And pillar caving method with chock supports method uses chock supports setting in the cross-cut from the hanging wall to the footwall. Two single chain conveyors are needed. One is installed in front of chock supports to clear coal from the cutting face. The other is installed behind the supports to transport caved coal from behind. This method is superior to the previous one in terms of safety from water-inrushes, production rate and productivity. The only drawback is that it needs more investment. (author). 14 tabs., 34 figs.

  2. Popular and formal Islam, and supralocal relations : the Highlands of Northwestern Tunisia, 1800-1970

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, W.M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper explores the interplay between local popular Islam and the repeated introduction of formal Islam in Khrumiria, North-western Tunisia, against the background of its social and political structure and the radical changes the latter underwent in the colonial and post-colonial era. The

  3. Tunisia | CRDI - Centre de recherches pour le développement ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    advance multi-party democratic systems in the region; analyze three state institutions to find ways to enhance legitimacy and accountability; understand critical factors related to youth participation in politics; measure public perception of security sector reforms in Tunisia and other countries; encourage women's participation ...

  4. Diversity and distribution of Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera of protected areas in North Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boulaaba S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In North Africa seasonal streams called wadi are an unique habitats with serve hydrological and thermal regime. Non-biting midges take an important part of freshwater biodiversity in North Africa. We present new data on the distribution and diversity of Chironomidae in North Tunisia. Larvae, pupal exuviae and adult males of chironomids were collected from a various freshwater ecosystems from May 2005 till April 2006. The aim of this study was to recognize the pattern of midge diversity in North Tunisia to estimate ecological value of running waters in the region. In total, 79 taxa were identified. Nearly all of the taxa were typical representatives of the Palaearctic and Mediterranean complexes. The majority of the investigated sites belonged to the protected areas in North Tunisia, such as the Ichkeul National Park, the Kroumerie Mountains and the El Feija National Park, part of the Intercontinental Reserve of the Mediterranean Biosphere. Altitudinal zonation of the communities composition was found in the lowland (250 m a.s.l. with maximum of 760 m. Whereas among the data 39 species are recorded from Tunisia for the first time, the species richness of Chironomidae is higher than previously estimated.

  5. Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2015-12-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A.nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program 1992: Morocco and Tunisia. Final Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AMIDEAST, Washington, DC.

    The projects described in this document were submitted by U.S. teachers who spent time in Morocco and Tunisia as part of the 1992 Fulbright-Hays Seminars Abroad Program. The following are among the titles of the projects included: "Formal Education in Rural Morocco: Problems and Constraints" (Victoria Baker); "Continuity and Change…

  7. Selected Bibliography of Educational Materials: Maghreb, Algeria, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia. Vol. 9, No. 3, 1975.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Azzedine, Comp.; And Others

    The bibliography presents 91 English language annotations of newspaper articles, journals, and government publications about education in Algeria, Libya, Morocco, and Tunisia. Although the title also includes Maghreb, this issue does not contain any annotations for that country. All articles were published during the period July-September 1975.…

  8. Gastrointestinal parasites of canids, a latent risk to human health in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudni-M'rad, Myriam; Chaâbane-Banaoues, Raja; M'rad, Selim; Trifa, Fatma; Mezhoud, Habib; Babba, Hamouda

    2017-06-05

    Although data on the parasite environmental contamination are crucial to implement strategies for control and treatment, information about zoonotic helminths is very limited in Tunisia. Contamination of areas with canid faeces harboring infective parasite elements represents a relevant health-risk impact for humans. The aim of this study was to assess the environmental contamination with eggs and oocysts of gastrointestinal parasites of dogs and wild canids in Tunisia with special attention to those that can be transmitted to humans. One thousand two hundred and seventy faecal samples from stray dogs and 104 from wild canids (red foxes and golden jackals) were collected from different geographical regions throughout Tunisia. The helminth eggs and protozoan oocysts were concentrated by sucrose flotation and identified by microscopic examination. The most frequently observed parasites in dog samples were Toxocara spp. (27.2%), E. granulosus (25.8%), and Coccidia (13.1%). For wild canid faeces, the most commonly encountered parasites were Toxocara spp. (16.3%) followed by Capillaria spp. (9.6%). The parasite contamination of dog faeces varied significantly from one region to another in function of the climate. To our knowledge, the study highlights for the first time in Tunisia a serious environmental contamination by numerous parasitic stages infective to humans. Efforts should be made to increase the awareness of the contamination risk of such parasites in the environment and implement a targeted educational program.

  9. Characterization of a Colletotrichum population causing anthracnose disease on Olive in northern Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattaoui, M; Raya, M C; Bouri, M; Moral, J; Perez-Rodriguez, M; Trapero, A; Msallem, M; Rhouma, A

    2016-05-01

    To phenotypically, physiologically and molecularly characterize the causal agent of olive anthracnose in the northern Tunisia and to study its genetic variability and pathogenicity. A total of 43 isolates were obtained from symptomatic olives collected from four regions in northern Tunisia. A range of morphological and physiological characteristics was recorded; and a phylogenetic study, based on the sequence analysis of both internal transcribed spacers and TUB2 gene regions, was performed. Of the 43 isolates, 41 were identified as Colletotrichum acutatum s.s, and only two were affiliated to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides s.s. Two more representative Spanish isolates, included for comparison, were identified as Colletotrichum godetiae. Using six inter-simple-sequence-repeat markers, homogeneity between isolates from different locations and within the same species was recorded. In pathogenicity and virulence studies, C. gloeosporioides s.s was found to be less virulent, while the Spanish C. godetiae isolate was significantly more virulent than the Tunisian C. acutatum s.s. Olive anthracnose in the North of Tunisia is mainly caused by C. acutatum s.s species. This is the first study of olive anthracnose in Tunisia, which combines both phenotypic and molecular approaches. Colletotrichum acutatum s.s group was recorded for the first time in the country as the causal agent of olive anthracnose. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Effects of environmental conditions on soil salinity and arid region in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Ahmed, C.; Ben Rouina, B.; Boukhris, M.

    2009-01-01

    The shortage of water resources of good water quality is becoming an issue in the arid and semi arid regions. for this reason, the use of water resources of marginal quality such as treated wastewater and saline groundwater has become and important consideration, particularly in arid region in Tunisia, where large quantities of saline water are used for irrigation. (Author)

  11. Calonectria spp. causing leaf spot, crown and root rot of ornamental plants in Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Polizzi, G.; Guarnaccia, V.; Vitale, A.; Crous, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    Calonectria spp. are important pathogens of ornamental plants in nurseries, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. They are commonly associated with a wide range of disease symptoms of roots, leaves and shoots. During a recent survey in Tunisia, a number of Calonectria spp. were isolated from

  12. Calonectria spp. causing leaf spot, crown and root rot of ornamental plants in Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Polizzi, G.; Guarnaccia, V.; Vitale, A.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Calonectria spp. are important pathogens of ornamental plants in nurseries, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. They are commonly associated with a wide range of disease symptoms of roots, leaves and shoots. During a recent survey in Tunisia, a number of Calonectria spp. were isolated from

  13. Acid mine drainage arising from gold mining activity in Johannesburg, South Africa and environs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naicker, K.; Cukrowska, E.; McCarthy, T.S.

    2003-01-01

    Ground water within the mining district is heavily contaminated and acidified. - The Witwatersrand region of South Africa is famous for its gold production and a major conurbation, centred on Johannesburg, has developed as a result of mining activity. A study was undertaken of surface and ground water in a drainage system in this area. Soils were also analysed from a site within the mining district. This study revealed that the ground water within the mining district is heavily contaminated and acidified as a result of oxidation of pyrite (FeS 2 ) contained within mine tailings dumps, and has elevated concentrations of heavy metals. Where the water table is close to surface, the upper 20 cm of soil profiles are severely contaminated by heavy metals due to capillary rise and evaporation of the ground water. The polluted ground water is discharging into streams in the area and contributes up to 20% of stream discharge, causing a lowering of pH of the stream water. Much of the metal load is precipitated in the stream: Fe and Mn precipitate as a consequence of oxidation, while other heavy metals are being removed by co-precipitation. The oxidation of iron has created a redox buffer which controls the pH of the stream water. The rate of oxidation and of dilution is slow and the deleterious effect of the addition of contaminated water persists for more than 10 km beyond the source

  14. Discovery of Ni-smectite-rich saprolite at Loma Ortega, Falcondo mining district (Dominican Republic): geochemistry and mineralogy of an unusual case of "hybrid hydrous Mg silicate - clay silicate" type Ni-laterite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauler, Esperança; Lewis, John F.; Villanova-de-Benavent, Cristina; Aiglsperger, Thomas; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Domènech, Cristina; Gallardo, Tamara; Longo, Francisco; Galí, Salvador

    2017-10-01

    Hydrous Mg silicate-type Ni-laterite deposits, like those in the Falcondo district, Dominican Republic, are dominated by Ni-enriched serpentine and garnierite. Recently, abundant Ni-smectite in the saprolite zone have been discovered in Loma Ortega, one of the nine Ni-laterite deposits in Falcondo. A first detailed study on these Ni-smectites has been performed (μXRD, SEM, EPMA), in addition to a geochemical and mineralogical characterisation of the Loma Ortega profile (XRF, ICP-MS, XRD). Unlike other smectite occurrences in laterite profiles worldwide, the Loma Ortega smectites are trioctahedral and exhibit high Ni contents never reported before. These Ni-smectites may be formed from weathering of pyroxene and olivine, and their composition can be explained by the mineralogy and the composition of the Al-depleted, olivine-rich parent ultramafic rock. Our study shows that Ni-laterites are mineralogically complex, and that a hydrous Mg silicate ore and a clay silicate ore can be confined to the same horizon in the weathering profile, which has significant implications from a recovery perspective. In accordance, the classification of "hybrid hydrous Mg silicate - clay silicate" type Ni-laterite deposit for Loma Ortega would be more appropriate.

  15. Post-War Development of Housing Estates in the Sorela Style Joint with the Boom of Mining and Metallurgy in the Ostrava-Karviná Coal District and their Current Significance for Geotourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraj, Miloš; Cheng, Xianfeng; Niemiec, Dominik; Arencibia Montero, Orlando; Koleňák, Petr

    2017-10-01

    The post-war Czechoslovakia needed to deal with a complex and urgent problem of rebuilding the destroyed industry after the Second World War. The complicated circumstances shortly after the war divided Europe into two antagonistic units. The former Czechoslovakia fell under the influence of the Soviet Union. Apart from the political and many other changes, the influence of this power also affected the style of the contemporary architecture. A new style called social realism (sorela) evolved and dominated also the culture and arts. The initial ornateness and exaggerated grandeur of the buildings gradually faded out due to economic reasons. The classical ornamental sorela is irregularly represented in many localities of the former Czechoslovakia. It takes form of discrete buildings or whole blocks. Among the most interesting and extensive units to house tens of thousands of citizens employed in mining and metallurgy, there are the buildings in Ostrava-Poruba and Havířov. The localities are nowadays conservation zones due to their significance.

  16. Stability of tailings ponds in the mining district of Mazarron (SE Spain): potential risks for the Moreras Rambla; Estudio de estabilidad en depositos de lodos del Distrito Minero de Mazarron (SE Espana): Riesgos potenciales sobre la Rambla de Las Moreras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta, J. A.; Martinez-Martinez, S.; Martinez-Pagan, P.; Zornoza, R.; Carmona, D. M.; Faz, A.

    2011-07-01

    We have used geochemical, geophysical and geotechnical techniques to identify and quantify the environmental risks of the San Cristobal and Las Moreras tailing ponds, which have been left since the closing down of Pb-Zn mining activities in a semi-arid Mediterranean area. The results show that the tailings ponds present a potential risk to nearby ecosystems because of their high acidity, high salinity and high concentrations of metals, especially Pb and Zn contain. If the pond dams were to fail or if erosion carried dry sludge to the surrounding areas, the result would be pollution, acidification, salinization, compaction and nutrient depletion of the soil, thus reducing the biodiversity of the area. Geoelectrical tomography has shown the depth of the deposits, their volume and the geomorphology of the basement. The profiles reveal that in none of the pseudo-sections are there any regions betraying cracks that might affect the stability of the structures. In fact, geotechnical studies indicate that on a large scale both ponds are stable. Nevertheless, if we contemplate circular rupture and seismic action in the San Cristobal pond, the safety factor values become critical. It is recommended, therefore, that periodic inspections should be carried out to assess moisture, upsurges and settlements in the dam. To reduce erosion of the surface sludge in the tailing ponds we suggest the application of alkaline and organic remediation so as to improve their geochemical characteristics and encourage the establishment of natural vegetation. (Author) 48 refs.

  17. Evaluation of the Performance of Multiple Drought Indices for Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geli, H. M. E.; Jedd, T.; Svoboda, M.; Wardlow, B.; Hayes, M. J.; Neale, C. M. U.; Hain, C.; Anderson, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    The recent and frequent drought events in the Middle East and Northern Africa (MENA) create an urgent need for scientists, stakeholders, and decision makers to improve the understanding of drought in order to mitigate its effects. It is well documented that drought is not caused by meteorological or hydrological conditions alone; social, economic, and political governance factors play a large part in whether the components in a water supply system are balanced. In the MENA region, for example, agricultural production can place a significant burden on water supply systems. Understanding the connection between drought and agricultural production is an important first step in developing a sound drought monitoring and mitigation system that links physical indicators with on-the-ground impacts. Drought affect crop yield, livestock health, and water resources availability, among others. A clear depiction of drought onset, duration and severity is essential to provide valuable information to adapt and mitigate drought impact. Therefore, it is important that to be able to connect and evaluate scientific drought data and informational products with societal impact data to more effectively initiate mitigation actions. This approach will further the development of drought maps that are tailored and responsive to immediate and specific societal needs for a region or country. Within the context of developing and evaluating drought impacts maps for the MENA region, this analysis investigates the use of different drought indices and indicators including the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) anomaly, land surface temperature (LST), and Evaporative Stress Index (ESI) for their ability to characterize historic drought events in Tunisia. Evaluation of a "drought map" product is conducted using data at the county level including crop yield, precipitation, in-country interviews with drought monitoring experts and agricultural

  18. The Radioisotopes production in tunisia, presentation of the CNSTN project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ounalli, Leila

    2013-01-01

    Radio-isotopes required in medicine (nuclear medicine, neurology, cardiology, orthopedics) need a deep reflection and a scientific analysis of the problems related to the human health. The utilisation of radioisotopes in other fields such as chemistry, agriculture, industry, safety, earth sciences and environmental physics is also of great importance. In pharmaceutical companies, radioisotopes used in a laboratory of imaging for small animal to check the efficiency of drugs in vivo is touched upon in this presentation. Radioisotopes are also needed for different activities in platform dedicated to the training of radio pharmacist and radio biologist. The availability of radioisotopes in a research center such as the National Center of Nuclear Sciences and Technologies (NCNST) will improve the activity of existing skills and serve the country's development in the field of biomedical research. Tunisia has two projects of cyclotrons facilities: the first one is in the private sector and the second one is proposed by the NCNST. The realization of these projects requires a period of time estimated to two years for the feasibility study and two years more for constitution. In the meantime, it is necessary to establish a master's degree in radio-pharmacy / radio-biology to provide skills that may activate cyclotron facilities. One last test phase lasts 6 months to a year. The work within a cyclotron facility requires a rigorous and a lot of discipline (a little bit military) ordered by the risk of the isotope radioactive half-life and its radiation activity. Thus, it is necessary to provide to the staff, various training required for the functioning of the cyclotron. It is useful to insist on the importance of scientist's team which is going to put on the cyclotron and which consists of: radio-pharmacists, radio physicists experts in radiation protection, and engineer's operators of cyclotrons. It is useful to attract the attention that the specialties in the field of the

  19. Childhood opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome: A case series from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Achour, Nedia; Mrabet, Saloua; Rebai, Ibtihel; Abid, Ines; Benrhouma, Hanene; Klaa, Hedia; Rouissi, Aida; Kraoua, Ichraf; Ben Youssef Turki, Ilhem

    2017-10-01

    Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare immune-mediated disorder characterized by opsoclonus, myoclonus, ataxia and behavioral changes. The aim of our study was to investigate the epidemiology, clinical features, etiological aspects and outcome of OMS in Tunisian children. We conducted a retrospective study over 11years (2005-2016) including all patients aged under 18years who were managed for newly diagnosed OMS in a tertiary care research centre for children with neurological symptoms. Epidemiological and clinical data were analyzed. Fifteen patients were included. The male-female ratio was 7:8. Median age of onset was 4.32years (range: 14months-16years). Time to diagnosis ranged between 2days and 10months. Median follow-up period was 3.8years (range: 2-6years). Acute ataxia was the preponderant inaugural feature. Mean severity score was 9 (range: 3-14). In "Tumor group" (n=7), the main underlying malignancy was neuroblastoma identified in 5 patient. In "No tumor group" (n=8), parainfectious and idiopathic OMS were identified in 5 and 3 patients, respectively. All patients received immunomodulatory treatment. Complete recovery of OMS symptoms was obtained in 12 children. Comparing the "Tumor group" and the "No tumor group", there were no differences in age of onset, sex ratio, main presenting symptom, median OMS severity score or responsiveness to treatment. However, sleep and behavioral disturbances were more frequent in the "No tumor group" (p=0.04). Neurological sequelae were equally found in both groups. Annual incidence of OMS in Tunisia could be estimated as 0.6 patients in children per million per year. Diagnosis may be challenging especially when the triad is incomplete. Although behavioral disturbances seem to be more frequent in the "No tumor group", our study suggests that there is no specific features differentiating paraneoplastic OMS from non paraneoplastic OMS. Acute symptoms are responsive to immunomodulatory treatment but long term follow

  20. Planning environmental restoration in the North Bohemian uranium district, Czech Republic: Progress report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomas, J.

    1997-01-01

    Uranium ores have been mined in Bohemian Massif in different mining districts i.e. in West Bohemia, Pribram region and Middle Bohemia, Rozna district and in Straz pod Ralskem district. The latter is represented by stratiform sandstone type of deposit where acid in-situ leaching has been applied as mining method since 1968. More than 4 million tons of leaching acids have been injected into the ore bearing sandstones. The district falls in an area of natural water protection in North Bohemian Cretaceous platform. A complex evaluation of negative impact of uranium mining and milling in this area has been clearly articulated in Government Decrees Nos.:366/92, 429/93, 244/95 and 170/96. A special declining regime of mining has been ordered for the implementation of which together with the Government Commission of Experts a remediation programme has been designed and put into operation in 1996. The uranium producer DIAMO a.s. prepared a Concept of Restoration of the area affected by in-situ leaching and MEGA a.s. has prepared the Environmental Impact Assessment (E.I.A.) according to the law No.244/1992. The Ministry of the Environment issued an Environmental Impact Statement which included evaluation of the condition of mining and restoration programme because both activities will influence the environment of the district. (author)

  1. Mine games

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patchett, A. [Hitachi Construction Equipment (United Kingdom)

    2006-09-15

    The article describes various excavators used in the UK by Hall Construction for coal mining and reclamation projects. They include machines from Hitachi Construction Machinery that have been modified with a coal shovel at the front end. The ZX350LC-3, for example incorporates a coal shovel, manufactured by Kocurek, to allow it to work at the rock face and lift coal into road wagons or dump trucks. 5 figs.

  2. Activities of the Main Studies and Designing Bureau for Mines in export of technical experience and international cooperation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielak, Z

    1985-07-01

    The Main Studies and Designing Bureau for Mines in Poland consists of 3 units: the Mine Design Bureau in Katowice (leading unit) and Mine Design Bureaus in Cracow and Katowice. There are 2200 employees (75% specialists) in 3 units. The Bureau is the leading agency for coal mine design and mine modernization in Poland. In 35 years the Bureau has developed the design of 25 coal mines in Poland, the design of more than 100 mining levels, and modernization projects for more than 50 coal mines. The Bureau specializes in programs for coal district development, mine design and mine modernization. It has developed the design of coal mines and coal preparation plants in the following countries: Albania, China, Mongolia, Vietnam, Argentina, Colombia, Canada, Colombia, India, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Prospects for increasing exports by the Bureau are discussed.

  3. Good luck. Rural district. The black coal mining since 1945. The first special exhibition in the new building of the German mining industry museum Bochum; Glueck auf. Ruhrgebiet. Der Steinkohlenbergbau nach 1945. Erste Sonderausstellung im Neubau des Deutschen Bergbau-Museums Bochum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrenkopf, Michael [Montanhistorisches Dokumentationszentrum, Bochum (Germany); Deutsches Bergbau-Museum Bochum (Germany). Forschungsgebiet Juengere Bergbaugeschichte

    2010-03-15

    As one of the eight large research museums in the Federal Republic of Germany and as a member of the Leibniz Society (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany), the German mining industry museum Bochum understands its special exhibitions as a result of a large-scale research project. Contrary to other institutions for science, the research museums use the chance to publish their research results in the sense of 'Public Understanding of Science' to the broad public. To this extent, research museums have an important educational function for our modern society.

  4. A comparative analysis of yield gaps and water productivity on smallholder farms in Ethiopia, South Africa and Tunisia

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jovanovic, Nebojsa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available obtained in field and modelling experiments in Ethiopia (maize, garlic, onion), South Africa (tomato) and Tunisia (tomato, potato, wheat). Innovative agricultural practices were introduced on smallholder farms: irrigation scheduling and NPS Zn fertilization...

  5. District heating in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sacchi, E.

    1998-01-01

    The legislative act establishing the electric monopoly virtually shut out the district heating associated with electricity cogeneration, while other laws, issued to counteract the effects of oil shocks, allowed municipal utilities to do so. Thus, district heating has experienced some development, though well below its possibilities. The article analyses the reasons for this lagging, reports district heating data and projects its forecasts against the Kyoto Protocol objectives [it

  6. Siemens' innovative role in mining technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The growth of the mining industry in South Africa has played a decisive role in the industrial development of the country. As mining activities expanded, the need for energy production increased and as of late mining is becoming more mechanised and the need for more energy as well as automation is growing. The origins of Siemens operations in South Africa date back to the humble beginnings of the mining era, when the company provided the first generator and floodlights to illuminate the famous 'Big Hole' of the diamond mine at Kimberley as well as hydro-electric plants in 1895 on the Crocodile River and Blyde River respectively to supply the newly established mines in the Lydenburg district with electric power. 7 figs.

  7. The tensions between Jews and Muslims in and the Jewish exodus from Tunisia during the 20th century

    OpenAIRE

    Nehdi, Dorsaf

    2010-01-01

    The Jewish community has maintained a presence in Tunisia since ancient time. Their presence goes up to the carthagene period. According to some historian research that throughout the course of history the Jewish minority was even in Tunisia since the time of king Salomon. However, the length of their presence which is about two thousand years left an important impact on The Tunisian society. It went gradually as multicultural society. My deep work has as subject target analyzing the rela...

  8. Post-Revolution Constitutionalism: The Impact of Drafting Processes on the Constitutional Documents in Tunisia and Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elsayed, Ahmed Mohamed Abdelfattah

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to address the constitutional paths that followed the Arab awakening in both Tunisia and Egypt. The Tunisian constitutional process, despite some tensions, was largely peaceful and consensual. On the other hand, the process in Egypt of establishing a new constitutional arrangement...... at identifying the factors have impacted both the constitutional drafting process and the popular perception of the produced constitutions in each of Tunisia and Egypt....

  9. Vocational and General Education of Girls and Boys in Tunisia: The Effects of Income and Parental Education

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Siala; Nehed Ben Ammar

    2014-01-01

    Throughout Tunisia, basic education is compulsory. Children are required to enroll for at least 9 years from age 6. This paper examines gender differences in education choice of upper basic education of youths aged 15–24 in Tunisia. To investigate the factors that influence an individual’s choice between vocational education, general education (secondary and high education) and leaving school, the paper estimates a multinomial probit model of education choice. We focus on the i...

  10. Exploration and Mining Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2002-09-01

    This Exploration and Mining Technology Roadmap represents the third roadmap for the Mining Industry of the Future. It is based upon the results of the Exploration and Mining Roadmap Workshop held May 10 ñ 11, 2001.

  11. Ghana Mining Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the Ghana mining journal: Geology and Mineral Exploration, Mining, Quarrying, Geomechanics, Groundwater Studies, Hydrocarbon Development, Mineral Processing, Metallurgy, Material Science, Mineral Management Policies, Mineral Economics, Environmental Aspects, Computer Applications and Mining Education.

  12. Coal Mine Permit Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — ESRI ArcView shapefile depicting New Mexico coal mines permitted under the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977 (SMCRA), by either the NM Mining these...

  13. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    The mining of uranium in Australia is criticised in relation to it's environmental impact, economics and effects on mine workers and Aborigines. A brief report is given on each of the operating and proposed uranium mines in Australia

  14. Mining royalties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelenković Rade J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral resources are finite and nonrenewable in the sense that their extraction permanently depletes a country's resource inventory. The role of governments should be to manage the exploitation of these resources to maximize the economic benefits to their community, consistent with the need to attract and retain the exploration and development capital necessary to continue to realize these benefits for as long as possible. In designing mineral sector taxation systems, policy makers must carefully seek to balance tax types, rates, and incentives that satisfy the needs of both the nation and the mining investor.

  15. Nankana West District of Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agribotix GCS 077

    Local governments in Ghana play very important roles with actors in the ... Metropolitan, Municipal and District Chief Executives (MMDCEs), the .... District Budget Officer, District Finance Officer, Presiding Member, members of the Works Sub-.

  16. The geothermal gradient map of Central Tunisia: Comparison with structural, gravimetric and petroleum data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhia, Hamed Ben

    1987-10-01

    Five hundred and fifty temperature values, initially measured as either bottom-hole temperatures (BHT) or drill-stem tests (DST), from 98 selected petroleum exploration wells form the basis of a geothermal gradient map of central Tunisia. A "global-statistical" method was employed to correct the BHT measurements, using the DST as references. The geothermal gradient ranges from 23° to 49°C/km. Comparison of the geothermal gradient with structural, gravimetric and petroleum data indicates that: (1) the general trend of the geothermal gradient curves reflects the main structural directions of the region, (2) zones of low and high geothermal gradient are correlated with zones of negative and positive Bouguer anomalies and (3) the five most important oil fields of central Tunisia are located near the geothermal gradient curve of 40° C/km. Such associations could have practical importance in petroleum exploration, but their significance must first be established through further investigation and additional data.

  17. Epidemiological studies on Fasciola hepatica in Gafsa oases (South West of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammami H.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological investigations on Fasciola hepatica fasciolasis were carried out from July 2004 to June 2005 in the Gafsa oases (Tunisia after the detection of a human case. Three habitats were studied: one in El Gsar and two in Ain Soltan. The prevalence of human infection was 6.6 %. The presence of the parasite was detected through serology in 14.3 % of cattle, 35 % of sheep and 68.4 % of goats. The plants Apium nodiflorum, Oxalis cernua and Sonchus maritimus were suspected to be at the origin of animal contamination and Apium nodiflorum was incriminated in human infection. The prevalence of the infection of the intermediate host Galba truncatula (G. truncatula was 19.2 % from July 2004 to June 2005. Gafsa oases constitute a new location for the development of fasciolasis in the southern west of Tunisia.

  18. International financial institutions and health in Egypt and Tunisia: change or continuity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Sharif

    2013-01-01

    The revolutions in Egypt and Tunisia appeared to herald a re-casting of International Monetary Fund and World Bank policy across the region. Public pronouncements by the heads of both institutions in the months following February 2011 acknowledged flaws in their approach to macroeconomic advice, against a background of worsening socioeconomic indicators, widespread youth unemployment, and widening health inequalities. Evidence on the ground, however, suggests continuity rather than change in international financial institution policies in Egypt and Tunisia, notwithstanding the emergence of a powerful new player-the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development. In the long term, new electoral realities and hardening public opposition in both countries seem likely to force a fundamentally different relationship between regional governments and the major international financial institutions than existed before 2011.

  19. FOOD SECURITY IN TUNISIA WITHIN WATER SCARCITY THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE MEAT SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emna Ouertani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the evolution of food and nutrition security in Tunisia, judges its sustainability within water scarcity conditions and free trade areas, with a specific focus on the meat sector. For such purpose, the FAO indicators and Food Balance Sheets, as well as the Global Food Security Index are all analyzed. Virtual water, owed to meat and cereals for animal feed production and trade, was estimated to expect food security sustainability. Results indicated that Tunisian food and nutrition security (FNS has been improved over the years, but its stability remains vulnerable because of the political and economic risks and the dependence of Tunisia on imported cereals for animal feed due to water scarcity. Tunisian agricultural policy, especially in both sectors of cereals and meat, should be readjusted to guarantee food and nutrition sustainability.

  20. VALORIZATION ABOVEGROUND OF THE EXTRACT OF COMPOST OVINE FOR FERTIGATION OF THE VEGETABLES PLANTS IN TUNISIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M’Sadak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to highlight the fertilizing capacity of the extract of ovine compost (prepared to the simple infusion in gardening nursery, while specifying the appropriate ratios of extraction and dilution ,for soilless plant fertigation intended for two strategic summer crops in Tunisia: seasonal tomato and seasonal pepper. It is clear that such extraction ratio of 1: 5 is effective for plants fertigation of two considered species. In addition, it has been shown that 200 times dilution of the concentrated extract is beneficial for the growth of tomato plants. However, this organic liquid fertilizer with different dilutions applied and in the experimental conditions adopted, wasn’t moderately efficient in stimulating the growth of pepper plants. The importance of this type of compost produced from sheep biomass, widely available in Tunisia, encourage the diversification of its exploitation, which is the object of this preliminary work, deserving more future investigations.

  1. Hydrogeochemical investigations of some historic mining areas in the western Humboldt River basin, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J.T.

    2001-01-01

    Productive historic mines in 13 mining districts, of many geochemical types, were investigated in May of 1998. Reconnaissance field observations were made and samples of mine dumps, mine drainage waters, and mill tailings have been collected to characterize the geochemical signature of these materials and to determine their actual or potential contamination of surface or ground waters. Field observations suggest that visible indicators of acidic mine drainage are rare, and field measurements of pH and chemical analyses of several kinds of materials indicate that only a few sites release acid or significant concentrations of metals.

  2. Tunisia- British gas intends to participate to the building of a combined cycle electric power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    Here is described the project to build a combined-cycle power plant in Tunisia, project in which the British Gas is interested. The transport, distribution, import and export of electricity should be controlled by the Tunisian society of electricity and gas. In the context of an agreement with Gec-Alsthom, the british company hopes to offer to build, and exploit the future power plant. (N.C.)

  3. Petroleum and natural gas economy in Arab Countries, in Iraq, Nigeria and Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This paper gives informations on petroleum and natural gas industry, petroleum market and prices, trade and contracts, prospection and investments: Portugal has retained the joining to the Maghreb-Europe gas pipeline for algerian gas supply. Saudi Arabia has closed several oil fields for maintenance. New contracts have been signed for exploration or development of petroleum or natural gas fields in Nigeria, Qatar, Tunisia and Yemen

  4. The new reform in tunisia: the democratic challenge of the manuals analysis and teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Lucenti

    2017-01-01

    Tunisia is affected by many changes, including the reform of the education system that plays a crucial role. The Ministry of Education together with Trade Unions (UGTT) and the Arab Institute of Human Rights are tracing the outlines of the reform, through an experiment of participatory democracy, synthesized through the preparation of a national report, which is analyzed here. The reform aims to change profoundly the current educational system: programs, manuals, the training of teachers, tea...

  5. HYRESS project. Study case of Tunisia. Installation, set-up and first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cendagorta, M.; Friend, M.; Lopez-Manzanares, L.; Rodriguez, J. [Poligono Industrial de Granadilla, Tenerife (Spain). Inst. Tecnologico y de Energias Renovables, S.A.; El Khazen, A. [Agence Nationale pour la Maitrise de l' Energie, Tunis (Tunisia); Linares, A.

    2010-07-01

    In the framework of the HYRESS project, a minigrid has been designed and installed at the village of Ksar Ghilene, in southern Tunisia. This project, developed from the perspective of knowledge transfer, will allow the installation of an underground minigrid during the trimester of 2010. STEG, Tunisian national electricity supplier, will finish civil works by May 2010. It is expected to have first results of system behaviour by the end of May or April 2010. (orig.)

  6. A multivariate analysis of the causal flow between renewable energy consumption and GDP in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Salha, Ousama; Sebri, Maamar

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the causality linkages between economic growth, renewable energy consumption, CO2 emissions and domestic investment in Tunisia between 1971 and 2010. Using the ARDL bounds testing approach to cointegration, long-run relationships between the variables are identified. On the other hand, the Granger causality analysis indicates that there is bi-directional causality between renewable energy consumption and economic growth, which supports the validity of the feedback hypothes...

  7. One hundred years after Pinctada: an update on alien Mollusca in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. ANTIT

    2011-04-01

    The occurrence of aliens in Tunisia is balanced between presumably Lessepsian species of tropical Indo-Pacific origin, and species from other sources including species from the Tropical Atlantic introduced through shipping. Nevertheless there is a prevalence of Lessepsian species towards the Gulf of Gabes in the south, whereas the shipping activity in Tunis harbour may be the main pathway of introduction in the north.

  8. Keeping cool in the desert: a study of ancient underground villages in Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cole, R.S.

    1981-07-01

    A preliminary report on a one-month study of passive solar structures in Tunisia describe ancient underground Roman homes in Bulla Reggia and similar inhabited Berber homes in Matmata. The research group gathered data on the passive-solar gain, compass orientations, and room measurements of the homes and on natural-lighting techniques, ventilation systems, earth-sheltered construction methods, cooling concepts, and domestic water-collecting systems used for these ancient dwellings. 1 figure.

  9. The dynamic interaction between combustible renewables and waste consumption and international tourism: The case of Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim; Apergis, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    This paper employs the Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds methodological approach to investigate the relationship between economic growth, combustible renewables and waste consumption, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and international tourism for the case of Tunisia spanning the period 1990-2010. The results from the Fisher statistic of both the Wald-test and the Johansen test confirm the presence of a long-run relationship among the variables under investigation. The stability of es...

  10. The environmental Kuznets curve, economic growth, renewable and non-renewable energy, and trade in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Jebli, Mehdi; Ben Youssef, Slim

    2013-01-01

    We use the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach for cointegration with structural breaks and the vector error correction model (VECM) Granger causality approach in order to investigate relationships between per capita CO2 emissions, GDP, renewable and non-renewable energy consumption and international trade (exports or imports) for Tunisia during the period 1980-2009. We show the existence of a short-run unidirectional causality running from trade, GDP, CO2 emission a...

  11. Middle-Upper Triassic and Middle Jurassic tetrapod track assemblages of southern Tunisia, Sahara Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niedźwiedzki, Grzegorz; Soussi, Mohamed; Boukhalfa, Kamel; Gierliński, Gerard D.

    2017-05-01

    Three tetrapod track assemblages from the early-middle Mesozoic of southern Tunisia are reported. The strata exposed at the Tejra 2 clay-pit near the Medenine and Rehach site, located in the vicinity of Kirchaou, contain the first tetrapod tracks found in the Triassic of Tunisia. The Middle Jurassic (early Aalenian) dinosaur tracks are reported from the Mestaoua plain near Tataouine. In the Middle Triassic outcrop of the Tejra 2 clay-pit, tridactyl tracks of small and medium-sized dinosauromorphs, were discovered. These tracks represent the oldest evidence of dinosaur-lineage elements in the Triassic deposits of Tunisia. Similar tracks have been described from the Middle Triassic of Argentina, France and Morocco. An isolated set of the manus and pes of a quadrupedal tetrapod discovered in Late Triassic Rehach tracksite is referred to a therapsid tracemaker. The Middle Jurassic deposits of the Mestaoua plain reveal small and large tridactyl theropod dinosaur tracks (Theropoda track indet. A-C). Based on comparison with the abundant record of Triassic tetrapod ichnofossils from Europe and North America, the ichnofauna described here indicates the presence of a therapsid-dinosauromorph ichnoassociation (without typical Chirotheriidae tracks) in the Middle and Late Triassic, which sheds light on the dispersal of the Middle-Upper Triassic tetrapod ichnofaunas in this part of Gondwana. The reported Middle Jurassic ichnofauna show close similarities to dinosaur track assemblages from the Lower and Middle Jurassic of northwestern Africa, North America, Europe and also southeastern Asia. Sedimentological and lithostratigraphic data of each new tracksite have been defined on published data and new observations. Taken together, these discoveries present a tantalizing window into the evolutionary history of tetrapods from the Triassic and Jurassic of southern Tunisia. Given the limited early Mesozoic tetrapod record from the region, these discoveries are of both temporal and

  12. The role of natural gas consumption and trade in Tunisia's output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhani, Sahbi; Shahbaz, Muhammad; Arouri, Mohamed; Teulon, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of natural gas consumption, real gross fixed capital formation and trade on the real GDP in the case of Tunisia over the period 1980–2010. We use an Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing approach to test for cointegration between the variables. The Toda–Yamamoto approach is then used to test for causality. Our findings indicate the existence of a long-term relationship between the variables. Natural gas consumption, real gross fixed capital formation and trade add in economic growth. Natural gas consumption, real gross fixed capital formation and real trade cause real GDP in Tunisia. These findings open up new insights for policymakers to formulate a comprehensive energy policy to sustain economic growth in the long-term. - Highlights: • We study how gas consumption, fixed capital formation and trade affect GDP in Tunisia. • We use auto-regressive distributed lag bounds testing approach and causality tests. • Gas consumption, real gross fixed capital formation and trade add in economic growth

  13. Tunisia-Japan Symposium: R&D of Energy and Material Sciences for Sustainable Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akimoto, Katsuhiro; Suzuki, Yoshikazu; Monirul Islam, Muhammad

    2015-04-01

    This volume of the Journal of Physics: Conference Series contains papers presented at the Tunisia-Japan Symposium: R&D of Energy and Material Sciences for Sustainable Society (TJS 2014) held at Gammarth, Republic of Tunisia on November 28-30, 2014. The TJS 2014 is based on the network of the Tunisia-Japan Symposium on Science, Society and Technology (TJASSST) which has been regularly organized since 2000. The symposium was focused on the technological developments of energy and materials for the realization of sustainable society. To generate technological breakthrough and innovation, it seems to be effective to discuss with various fields of researchers such as solid-state physicists, chemists, surface scientists, process engineers and so on. In this symposium, there were as many as 109 attendees from a wide variety of research fields. The technical session consisted of 106 contributed presentations including 3 plenary talks and 7 key-note talks. We hope the Conference Series and publications like this volume will contribute to the progress in research and development in the field of energy and material sciences for sustainable society and in its turn contribute to the creation of cultural life and peaceful society.

  14. Paleoclimatic variations in Maknassy Basin (central Tunisia) during the Holocene period using multidisciplinary approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouari, K.; Chkir, N.; Ouda, B.

    2002-01-01

    The signature of humid climatic episodes in the Holocene paleoclimatic history of Tunisia are evident in outcroppings along riverbanks almost all over the Tunisian drainage network. Previous multidisciplinary studies have already identified some sites where these remnants can contribute valuable information for reconstruction of paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic variations in the presently hyper-arid zone of the Northern Sahara. Sedimentary deposits outcropping on Wadi Leben and Wadi Ben Sellam banks, in the Maknassy Basin (Central Tunisia), have been sampled. Multidisciplinary studies, including prehistory, sedimentology, mineralogy, ecology and radiochronology have been conducted to improve palaeoenvironmental interpretations and to determine a precise chronological history of humid episodes during the Holocene in Tunisia. This paper deals with the interpretation of results obtained from the Maknassy Basin in comparison with some other Tunisian sites in order to highlight Holocene humid episodes. Establishment of a precise chronological framework is prerequisite to exploring potential relationships between the occurrence of humid phases and recharge of aquifers located in this area. (author)

  15. Morphological and molecular characterization of Fusarium spp. associated with olive trees dieback in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabelsi, Rahma; Sellami, Hanen; Gharbi, Yâakoub; Krid, Samira; Cheffi, Manel; Kammoun, Sonia; Dammak, Mariem; Mseddi, Aymen; Gdoura, Radhouane; Triki, Mohamed Ali

    2017-05-01

    Dieback and wilting symptoms caused by complex soilborne fungi are nowadays the most serious threatening disease affecting olive trees (Olea europaea) in Tunisia and presumably in many Mediterranean basin countries. Fusarium is one of the important phytopathogenic genera associated with dieback symptoms of olive trees. The objective of the present study was to confirm the pathogenicity of Fusarium spp. isolated from several olive-growing areas in Tunisia. According to the pathogenic test done on young olive trees (cv. Chemlali), 23 out of 104 isolates of Fusarium spp. were found to be pathogenic and the others were weakly or not pathogenic. The pathogenic Fusarium spp. isolates were characterized using molecular methods based on ITS PCR. Isolation results revealed the predominance of Fusarium solani (56.5%) and F. oxysporum species (21.7%) compared to F. chalmydosporum (8.7%), F. brachygibbosum (8.7%) and F. acuminatum (4.34%). Based on pathogenicity test, disease severity was highly variable among the 23 pathogenic isolates tested (P Fusarium spp. might be a major agent causing dieback disease of olive trees in Tunisia.

  16. First in situ operation performance test of ground source heat pump in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naili, Nabiha; Attar, Issam; Hazami, Majdi; Farhat, Abdelhamid

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Evaluate the geothermal energy in Tunisia. • Study of the performance of GSHP system for cooling space. • GSHP is a promising alternative for building cooling in Tunisia. - Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to study the energetic potential of the deployment in Tunisia of the Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) system for cooling mode application. Therefore, a pilot GSHP system using horizontal Ground Heat Exchanger (GHE) was installed and experimented in the Research and Technology Center of Energy (CRTEn), Borj Cédria. The experiment is conducted in a test room with a floor area of about 12 m 2 . In the floor of the tested room is integrated a polyethylene exchanger (PEX) used as a radiant floor cooling (RFC) system. The experimental setup mainly includes the ground temperature, the temperature and flow rate of water circulating in the heat pump and the GHE, as well as the power consumption of the heat pump and circulating pumps. These experimental data are essentially used to evaluate the coefficient of performance of the heat pump (COP hp ) and the overall system (COP sys ) for continuous operation mode. The COP hp and the COP sys were found to be 4.25 and 2.88, respectively. These results reveal that the use of the ground source heat pump is very appropriate for Tunisian building cooling

  17. River capture and sediment redistribution in northern Tunisia: The doom of Utica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Camafort, Miquel; Pérez-Peña, J. Vicente; Melki, Fetheddine; Ranero, César; Azañón, José Miguel; Gracia, Eulalia; Ouadday, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    Utica was a flourishing port city in northern Tunisia since the Phoenician times, 12-9th century B.C., until the 4th century A.D.. However, at present it is located 10 km from the coastline after very fast late Holocene progradation of the Mejerda River delta into the bay of Utica. This fast delta progradation occurred after Mejerda River captured Tine River increasing 140 % the river catchment area. Charcoal fragments present in the youngest Tine river terrace at the wind gap give a conventional radiocarbon age of 3240 +/- 30yr BP, indicating that the capture occurred after this date. Quaternary fluvial terraces located in the Tine River paleovalley have been folded and uplifted above a fold related to the active El Alia Tebousouk reverse fault (ETF). Continued uplift of the Tine River valley above the ETF favoured headward erosion of the Medjerda river tributaries creating a transverse drainage that captured Tine River. This capture produced an important change in sediment discharge along the northern Tunisia coast driving sediments to the Gulf of Tunis instead of feeding the Tyrrhenian Sea through the Ichkeul and Bizerte lakes. Although anthropogenic derived degradation of northern Tunisia land for agricultural purposes probably influenced the increase in sediment into the Utica bay, the main cause of rapid progradation of the Medjerda River delta during the late Holocene is related to its increase in drainage area after capturing the Tine River. This process was mostly driven by local contractive tectonics linked to the seismogenic Alia Tebousouk reverse fault.

  18. Biological, serological and molecular typing of potato virus Y (PVY) isolates from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayahi, M; Gharsallah, C; Khamassy, N; Fakhfakh, H; Djilani-Khouadja, F

    2016-10-17

    In Tunisia, potato virus Y (PVY) currently presents a significant threat to potato production, reducing tuber yield and quality. Three hundred and eighty-five potato samples (six different cultivars) collected in autumn 2007 from nine regions in Tunisia were tested for PVY infection by DAS-ELISA. The virus was detected in all regions surveyed, with an average incidence of 80.26%. Subsequently, a panel of 82 Tunisian PVY isolates (PVY-TN) was subjected to systematic biological, serological and molecular typing using immunocapture reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and a series of PVY OC - and PVY N -specific monoclonal antibodies. Combined analyses revealed ~67% of PVY NTN variants of which 17 were sequenced in the 5'NTR-P1 region to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship of PVY-TN against other worldwide PVY isolates. To investigate whether selective constraints could act on viral genomic RNA, synonymous and non-synonymous substitution rates and their ratio were analyzed. Averages of all pairwise comparisons obtained in the 5'NTR-P1 region allowed more synonymous changes, suggesting selective constraint acting in this region. Selective neutrality test was significantly negative, suggesting a rapid expansion of PVY isolates. Pairwise mismatch distribution gave a bimodal pattern and pointed to an eventually early evolution characterizing these sequences. Genetic haplotype network topology provided evidence of the existence of a distinct geographical structure. This is the first report of such genetic analyses conducted on PVY isolates from Tunisia.

  19. Refugees in and out North Africa: a study of the Choucha refugee camp in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourgnon, Paul; Kassar, Hassène

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, North African (NA) countries ceased to be emigration-only countries and are now on the verge of becoming immigration as well as transit countries for economic migrants and refugees. Contextual as well as structural long-term factors are driving these changes. The ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are prompting strong outflows of refugees, which are likely to induce NA countries to share some common public policy and public health concerns with European countries in a near future. This article highlights some aspects of these changes, from the study of the consequences of the 2011 Libyan crisis in Tunisia. It addresses individual trajectories and health concerns of refugees in and out North Africa from a study of the Choucha camp in Tunisia. The camp opened to immigrants from Libya during the 2011 crisis and accommodated the bulk of the refugees flow to Tunisia until July 2012. The study includes a monographic approach and a qualitative survey in the Choucha camp refugees. We describe the crisis history and the health response with a focus on the camp. We then address refugees' trajectories, and health needs and concerns from the interviews we collected in the camp in April 2012. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatio-temporal evolution of shoreline changes along the coast between sousse- Monastir (Eastearn of Tunisia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathallah, S.; Ben Amor, R.; Gueddari, M.

    2009-04-01

    Spatio-temporal evolution of shoreline Changes along the coast between Sousse-Monastir (Eastern of Tunisia). Safa Fathallah*, Rim Ben Amor and Moncef Gueddari Unit of Research of Geochemistry and Environmental Geology. Faculty of Science of Tunis, University of Tunis El Manar, 2092. (*) Corresponding author: safa_fathallah@yahoo.fr The coast of Sousse-Monastir in eastern of Tunisia, has undergone great changes, due to natural and anthropic factors. Increasing human use, the construction of two ports and coastal urbanization (hotels and industries) has accelerated the erosion process. The coastal defense structures (breakwaters and enrockment), built to protect the most eroded zone are efficient, but eroded zones appeared in the southern part of breakwaters. Recent and historic aerial photography was used to estimate, observe, and analyze past shoreline and bathymetric positions and trends involving shore evolution for Sousse-Monastir coast. All of the photographs were calibrated and mosaicked by Arc Map Gis 9.1, the years used are 1925, 1962, 1988, 1996, and 2001 for shoreline change analysis and 1884 and 2001 for bathymetric changes. The analyze of this photographs show that the zone located at the south of breakwater are mostly eroded with high speed process (2m/year). Another zone appears as eroded at the south part of Hamdoun River, with 1,5m/year erosion speed . Keywords: Shoreline evolution, defense structures, Sousse-Monastir coast, Tunisia.

  1. Economic growth and pollutant emissions in Tunisia. An empirical analysis of the environmental Kuznets curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodha, Mouez [Paris School of Economics and CES, University Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne, Maison des Sciences Economiques, 106-112 Bd de l' Hopital, 75647 Paris (France); Zaghdoud, Oussama [CES, University Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne and Department of Economics, High School of Economic and Commercial Sciences of Tunis, 4 Rue Abou Zakaria El Hafsi, 1089 Montfleury (Tunisia)

    2010-02-15

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth and pollutant emissions for a small and open developing country, Tunisia, during the period 1961-2004. The investigation is made on the basis of the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, using time series data and cointegration analysis. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) are used as the environmental indicators, and GDP as the economic indicator. Our results show that there is a long-run cointegrating relationship between the per capita emissions of two pollutants and the per capita GDP. An inverted U relationship between SO{sub 2} emissions and GDP has been found, with income turning point approximately equals to 1200 (constant 2000 prices) or to 3700 (in PPP, constant 2000 prices). However, a monotonically increasing relationship with GDP is found more appropriate for CO{sub 2} emissions. Furthermore, the causality results show that the relationship between income and pollution in Tunisia is one of unidirectional causality with income causing environmental changes and not vice versa, both in the short-run and long-run. This implies that an emission reduction policies and more investment in pollution abatement expense will not hurt economic growth. It could be a feasible policy tool for Tunisia to achieve its sustainable growth in the long-run. (author)

  2. Economic growth and pollutant emissions in Tunisia: An empirical analysis of the environmental Kuznets curve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fodha, Mouez, E-mail: fodha@univ-paris1.f [Paris School of Economics and CES, University Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne, Maison des Sciences Economiques, 106-112 Bd de l' Hopital, 75647 Paris (France); Zaghdoud, Oussama [CES, University Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne and Department of Economics, High School of Economic and Commercial Sciences of Tunis, 4 Rue Abou Zakaria El Hafsi, 1089 Montfleury (Tunisia)

    2010-02-15

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth and pollutant emissions for a small and open developing country, Tunisia, during the period 1961-2004. The investigation is made on the basis of the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, using time series data and cointegration analysis. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) are used as the environmental indicators, and GDP as the economic indicator. Our results show that there is a long-run cointegrating relationship between the per capita emissions of two pollutants and the per capita GDP. An inverted U relationship between SO{sub 2} emissions and GDP has been found, with income turning point approximately equals to $1200 (constant 2000 prices) or to $3700 (in PPP, constant 2000 prices). However, a monotonically increasing relationship with GDP is found more appropriate for CO{sub 2} emissions. Furthermore, the causality results show that the relationship between income and pollution in Tunisia is one of unidirectional causality with income causing environmental changes and not vice versa, both in the short-run and long-run. This implies that an emission reduction policies and more investment in pollution abatement expense will not hurt economic growth. It could be a feasible policy tool for Tunisia to achieve its sustainable growth in the long-run.

  3. Economic growth and pollutant emissions in Tunisia: An empirical analysis of the environmental Kuznets curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fodha, Mouez; Zaghdoud, Oussama

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between economic growth and pollutant emissions for a small and open developing country, Tunisia, during the period 1961-2004. The investigation is made on the basis of the environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, using time series data and cointegration analysis. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) are used as the environmental indicators, and GDP as the economic indicator. Our results show that there is a long-run cointegrating relationship between the per capita emissions of two pollutants and the per capita GDP. An inverted U relationship between SO 2 emissions and GDP has been found, with income turning point approximately equals to $1200 (constant 2000 prices) or to $3700 (in PPP, constant 2000 prices). However, a monotonically increasing relationship with GDP is found more appropriate for CO 2 emissions. Furthermore, the causality results show that the relationship between income and pollution in Tunisia is one of unidirectional causality with income causing environmental changes and not vice versa, both in the short-run and long-run. This implies that an emission reduction policies and more investment in pollution abatement expense will not hurt economic growth. It could be a feasible policy tool for Tunisia to achieve its sustainable growth in the long-run.

  4. Uranium mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheeseman, E.W.

    1980-01-01

    The international uranium market appears to be currently over-supplied with a resultant softening in prices. Buyers on the international market are unhappy about some of the restrictions placed on sales by the government, and Canadian sales may suffer as a result. About 64 percent of Canada's shipments come from five operating Ontario mines, with the balance from Saskatchewan. Several other properties will be producing within the next few years. In spite of the adverse effects of the Three Mile Island incident and the default by the T.V.A. of their contract, some 3 600 tonnes of new uranium sales were completed during the year. The price for uranium had stabilized at US $42 - $44 by mid 1979, but by early 1980 had softened somewhat. The year 1979 saw the completion of major environmental hearings in Ontario and Newfoundland and the start of the B.C. inquiry. Two more hearings are scheduled for Saskatchewan in 1980. The Elliot Lake uranium mining expansion hearings are reviewed, as are other recent hearings. In the production of uranium for nuclear fuel cycle, environmental matters are of major concern to the industry, the public and to governments. Research is being conducted to determine the most effective method for removing radium from tailings area effluents. Very stringent criteria are being drawn up by the regulatory agencies that must be met by the industry in order to obtain an operating licence from the AECB. These criteria cover seepages from the tailings basin and through the tailings retention dam, seismic stability, and both short and long term management of the tailings waste management area. (auth)

  5. Design characteristics of the Belchatow brown coal mine in light of achievements of the Poltegor center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, Z [Akademia Gorniczo-Hutnicza, Cracow (Poland)

    1988-01-01

    Discusses development of the Belchatow mine design by the Poltegor center in Wroclaw (coordinator of the project). Research units in Wroclaw (University and Technical University), Gliwice (Silesian Technical University), Cracow (Academy of Mining and Metallurgy) also participated in the project. The following stages of coal exploration and planning of surface mining at Belchatow are discussed: evaluation of mining and geologic conditions, assessment of coal reserves and calorific value, selecting optimum scheme for deposit opening, planning development of the Belchatow district, design of bucket wheel excavators, belt conveyor systems and stackers, development of heavy-duty mining equipment for the largest and deepest surface mine in Poland, design development of auxiliary installations, planning earthmoving operations. Selected specific problems associated with the Belchatow mine solved by Poltegor are discussed: seismic shocks, mine draining, landslide hazards.

  6. Kiruna research mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestensen, A

    1983-12-01

    The research mine at Kiruna is the first large-scale mining research project sponsored by the Swedish government. Under the leadership of the Swedish Mining Research Foundation, a five-year project involving development of new mining systems and machinery will be carried out in cooperation with the Lulea Institute of Technology and a number of Swedish industrial companies.

  7. Application for trackless mining technique in Benxi uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Bingguo

    1998-01-01

    The author narrates the circumstances achieving constructional target in Benxi Uranium Mine under relying on advance of science and technology and adopting small trackless mining equipment, presents the application of trackless mining equipment at mining small mine and complex mineral deposit and discusses the unique superiority of trackless mining technique in development work, mining preparation work and backstoping

  8. Solid Waste Management Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Solid waste management districts layer is part of a dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. This dataset...

  9. District nursing is vital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliss, Julie

    2016-08-03

    Queen's Nursing Institute chief executive Crystal Oldman has welcomed the RCN congress resolution urging RCN council to lobby for all district nurses to have a specialist practice qualification. This provides the ideal route for future talent and must be supported.

  10. Floodplain District Permit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — The purpose of a Floodplain District Permit (FPDP) is to control floodplain development in order to protect persons and property from danger and destruction and to...

  11. 115th Congressional Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This layer depicts the 115th Congressional Districts for the United States, with attributes listing the elected officials for the 115th Congress. Elected to a...

  12. Allegheny County Council Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset portrays the boundaries of the County Council Districts in Allegheny County. The dataset is based on municipal boundaries and City of Pittsburgh ward...

  13. ACT250 Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The ACT 250 Districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  14. NM Property Tax Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This layer represents boundaries for New Mexico tax district "OUT" categories and incorporated/municipal "IN" categories as identified on the "Certificate of Tax...

  15. NM School District Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The dataset represents the boundaries of all public school districts in the state of New Mexico. The source for the data layer is the New Mexico Public Education...

  16. Groundwater Managment Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This dataset outlines the location of the five Groundwater Management Districts in Kansas. GMDs are locally formed and elected boards for regional groundwater...

  17. Mining-induced seismicity at the Lucky Friday Mine: Seismic events of magnitude >2.5, 1989--1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whyatt, J.K.; Williams, T.J. [USDOE, Spokane, WA (United States). Spokane Research Center; Blake, W. [Blake (W.), Hayden Lake, ID (United States); Sprenke, K. [Idaho Univ., Moscow, ID (United States); Wideman, C. [Montana Tech, Butte, MT (United States)

    1996-09-01

    An understanding of the types of seismic events that occur in a deep mine provides a foundation for assessing the seismic characteristics of these events and the degree to which initiation of these events can be anticipated or controlled. This study is a first step toward developing such an understanding of seismic events generated by mining in the Coeur d`Alene Mining District of northern Idaho. It is based on information developed in the course of a long-standing rock burst research effort undertaken by the U. S. Bureau of Mines in cooperation with Coeur d`Alene Mining District mines and regional universities. This information was collected for 39 seismic events with local magnitudes greater than 2.5 that occurred between 1989 and 1994. One of these events occurred, on average, every 8 weeks during the study period. Five major types of characteristic events were developed from the data; these five types describe all but two of the 39 events that were studied. The most common types of events occurred, on average, once every 30 weeks. The characteristic mechanisms, first-motion patterns, damage patterns, and relationships to mining and major geologic structures were defined for each type of event. These five types of events need to be studied further to assess their ability to camouflage clandestine nuclear tests as well as the degree to which they can be anticipated and controlled.

  18. Arsenic associated with historical gold mining in the Sierra Nevada foothills: Case study and field trip guide for Empire Mine State Historic Park, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Charles N.; Myers, Perry A; Millsap, Daniel; Regnier, Tamsen B; Bowell, Robert J.; Alpers, Charles N.; Jamieson, Heather E.; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Majzlan, Juraj

    2014-01-01

    The Empire Mine, together with other mines in the Grass Valley mining district, produced at least 21.3 million troy ounces (663 tonnes) of gold (Au) during the 1850s through the 1950s, making it the most productive hardrock Au mining district in California history (Clark 1970). The Empire Mine State Historic Park (Empire Mine SHP or EMSHP), established in 1975, provides the public with an opportunity to see many well-preserved features of the historic mining and mineral processing operations (CDPR 2014a).A legacy of Au mining at Empire Mine and elsewhere is contamination of mine wastes and associated soils, surface waters, and groundwaters with arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and other metals. At EMSHP, As has been the principal contaminant of concern and the focus of extensive remediation efforts over the past several years by the State of California, Department of Parks and Recreation (DPR) and Newmont USA, Ltd. In addition, the site is the main focus of a multidisciplinary research project on As bioavailability and bioaccessibility led by the California Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) and funded by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA’s) Brownfields Program.This chapter was prepared as a guide for a field trip to EMSHP held on June 14, 2014, in conjunction with a short course on “Environmental Geochemistry, Mineralogy, and Microbiology of Arsenic” held in Nevada City, California on June 15–16, 2014. This guide contains background information on geological setting, mining history, and environmental history at EMSHP and other historical Au mining districts in the Sierra Nevada, followed by descriptions of the field trip stops.

  19. Territorial Attractiveness of the Foreign Direct Investment: Empirical Evidence from Panel Data Analysis for the Case of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Saidi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present article aims to evaluate the role of different macroeconomic variables that may promote the entry of the foreign direct investment (FDI in the industrial sector in Tunisia. In recent decades, several researches indicate that despite the significant impact of the FDI as an important catalyst of development, its benefits remain unequally distributed between countries, sectors and communities. For this reason, the competition between countries becomes more intense and depends on a large set of factors having different importance. In the same order of ideas, we try to estimate the impact of these factors on the FDI attractiveness in Tunisia through an econometric modelling with panel data over the period 2000-2014. We found that the traditional economic factors have the greatest and more significant impact. Also, the results imply that the multinational companies adopt essentially the vertical implementation strategy to invest in Tunisia. The findings have a great value for the decision-makers in Tunisia who can concentrate their efforts on the most important variables to develop the competitiveness of Tunisia.

  20. Dengue fatality prediction using data mining | Rahim | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this research is to study the current implementation of dengue outbreak control in Malaysia and predict dengue fever cases using data mining techniques. Real data on dengue fever and weather are collected from the Ministry of Health in its Perak Tengah district office and Perak Meteorological office respectively ...

  1. The relation between district raise in the multiple coal seams and its pillars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, X. [Jiaozuo Institute of Technology, Jiaozuo (China). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2002-02-01

    Based on the geological condition of multiple coal seams mining in No.8 Colliery of Pingdingshan Coal Group, the behaviours of the front abutment pressure in each of the coal seams and the fixed abutment pressure are observed. The main cause of deformation and damage to the galleries is the increasing value of the valid load coefficient of the surrounding rock. The rational pillar width of the district raise is studied when its two side seams have been mined, and the layout question of district raise in the different set of seams is also studied. The conclusions derived from the study are useful guiding reference for the design of district raise layout in deep multiple coal seams mining. 6 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Koenigstein mine. Background information, data and facts on the flooding of the former Koenigstein mine of the Wismut GmbH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    The Koenigstein mine is in the south east of the German state of Sachsen in the 'Saechsische Schweiz' district. The mine comprised an area of 6 km 2 between the towns of Koenigstein/H''utten, Bielatal, Langenhennersdorf and Struppen/Siedlung. The small town of Leupoldishain was completely undermined. The mining site is in a natural reserve, borders on a national park, and the shortes distance from the Elbe river is 600 m. Mining and sanitation work had to take account of the local and regional hydrogeological conditions, especially the 3rd aquifer which supplies freshwater for the region [de

  3. Arsenic pollution and fractionation in sediments and mine waste samples from different mine sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larios, Raquel; Fernandez-Martinez, Rodolfo [Unidad de Espectroscopia, Division de Quimica, Departamento de Tecnologia, CIEMAT. Av. Complutense, 40, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Alvarez, Rodrigo [Dpto. de Explotacion y Prospeccion de Minas, Universidad de Oviedo, ETS de Ingenieros de Minas, C/Independencia, 13, E-33004 Oviedo (Spain); Rucandio, Isabel, E-mail: isabel.rucandio@ciemat.es [Unidad de Espectroscopia, Division de Quimica, Departamento de Tecnologia, CIEMAT. Av. Complutense, 40, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-01

    A characterization of arsenic pollution and its associations with solid mineral phases in sediments and spoil heap samples from four different abandoned mines in Spain is performed. Three of them were mercury mines located in the same mining district, in the province of Asturias, and the other one, devoted to arsenic mining, is in the province of Leon. A sequential extraction procedure, especially developed for arsenic, was applied for the study of arsenic partitioning. Very high total arsenic concentrations ranging 300-67,000 mg{center_dot}kg{sup -1} were found. Arsenic fractionation in each mine is broadly in accordance with the mineralogy of the area and the extent of the mine workings. In almost all the studied samples, arsenic appeared predominantly associated with iron oxyhydroxides, especially in the amorphous form. Sediments from cinnabar roasted piles showed a higher arsenic mobility as a consequence of an intense ore treatment, posing an evident risk of arsenic spread to the surroundings. Samples belonging to waste piles where the mining activity was less intense presented a higher proportion of arsenic associated with structural minerals. Nevertheless, it represents a long-term source of arsenic to the environment. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Arsenic fractionation in sediments from different mining areas is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A sequential extraction scheme especially designed for arsenic partitioning is applied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As associations with mineral pools is in accordance to the mineralogy of each area. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As distribution and mobility in each area depends on the extent of mining activity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer As occurs mainly associated with amorphous iron oxyhydroxides in all samples.

  4. Arsenic pollution and fractionation in sediments and mine waste samples from different mine sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larios, Raquel; Fernández-Martínez, Rodolfo; Álvarez, Rodrigo; Rucandio, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    A characterization of arsenic pollution and its associations with solid mineral phases in sediments and spoil heap samples from four different abandoned mines in Spain is performed. Three of them were mercury mines located in the same mining district, in the province of Asturias, and the other one, devoted to arsenic mining, is in the province of León. A sequential extraction procedure, especially developed for arsenic, was applied for the study of arsenic partitioning. Very high total arsenic concentrations ranging 300–67,000 mg·kg −1 were found. Arsenic fractionation in each mine is broadly in accordance with the mineralogy of the area and the extent of the mine workings. In almost all the studied samples, arsenic appeared predominantly associated with iron oxyhydroxides, especially in the amorphous form. Sediments from cinnabar roasted piles showed a higher arsenic mobility as a consequence of an intense ore treatment, posing an evident risk of arsenic spread to the surroundings. Samples belonging to waste piles where the mining activity was less intense presented a higher proportion of arsenic associated with structural minerals. Nevertheless, it represents a long-term source of arsenic to the environment. - Highlights: ► Arsenic fractionation in sediments from different mining areas is evaluated. ► A sequential extraction scheme especially designed for arsenic partitioning is applied. ► As associations with mineral pools is in accordance to the mineralogy of each area. ► As distribution and mobility in each area depends on the extent of mining activity. ► As occurs mainly associated with amorphous iron oxyhydroxides in all samples.

  5. An evaluation of problems arising from acid mine drainage in the vicinity of Shasta Lake, Shasta County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Richard H.; Shay, J.M.; Ferreira, R.F.; Hoffman, R.J.

    1978-01-01

    Streams draining the mined areas of massive sulfide ore deposits in the Shasta Mining Districts of northern California are generally acidic and contain large concentrations of dissolved metals, including iron, copper, and zinc. The streams, including Flat, Little Backbone, Spring, West Squaw, Horse, and Zinc Creeks, discharge into Shasta Reservoir and the Sacramento River and have caused numerous fish kills. The sources of pollution are discharge from underground mines, streams that flow into open pits, and streams that flow through pyritic mine dumps where the oxidation of pyrite and other sulfide minerals results in the production of acid and the mobilization of metals. Suggested methods of treatment include the use of air and hydraulic seals in the mines, lime neutralization of mine effluent, channeling of runoff and mine effluent away from mine and tailing areas, and the grading and sealing of mine dumps. A comprehensive preabatement and postabatement program is recommended to evaluate the effects of any treatment method used. (Woodard-USGS)

  6. Mining with communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veiga, Marcello M.; Scoble, Malcolm; McAllister, Mary Louise

    2001-01-01

    To be considered as sustainable, a mining community needs to adhere to the principles of ecological sustainability, economic vitality and social equity. These principles apply over a long time span, covering both the life of the mine and post-mining closure. The legacy left by a mine to the community after its closure is emerging as a significant aspect of its planning. Progress towards sustainability is made when value is added to a community with respect to these principles by the mining operation during its life cycle. This article presents a series of cases to demonstrate the diverse potential challenges to achieving a sustainable mining community. These case studies of both new and old mining communities are drawn mainly from Canada and from locations abroad where Canadian companies are now building mines. The article concludes by considering various approaches that can foster sustainable mining communities and the role of community consultation and capacity building. (author)

  7. Radioelement migration in natural and mined phosphate terrains. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmond, J.K.; Cowart, J.B.; Humphreys, C.L.; Wagner, B.E.

    1984-06-01

    The phosphatic strata of the Central Florida Phosphate District are enriched in uranium, along with all of its daughters, including thorium-230 and radium-226. Some of the surface and shallow aquifer waters have higher than average concentrations of radium, this being especially pronounced in the down-flow direction of aquifer water movement. However, most of the shallow and deep aquifer waters of the mining district, as well as surface waters, are within normal range in terms of the radioelement content. In the course of mining operations, it appears that the natural pattern is not greatly altered, except in the immediate pit and spoil areas. As a result of mining and processing operation, most of the radioelements accumulate in the waste clays

  8. Emerging vector-borne diseases in dromedaries in Tunisia: West Nile, bluetongue, epizootic haemorrhagic disease and Rift Valley fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassine, Thameur B; Amdouni, Jihane; Monaco, Federica; Savini, Giovanni; Sghaier, Soufien; Selimen, Imed B; Chandoul, Walid; Hamida, Khaled B; Hammami, Salah

    2017-03-31

    A total of 118 sera were collected during 2016 from two groups of dromedaries from Kebili and Medenine governorates in the south of Tunisia. The aim of this study was to provide the first serological investigation of four emerging vector-borne diseases in two groups of dromedaries in Tunisia. Sera were tested by ELISA and serum neutralisation test to identify West Nile virus (WNV), bluetongue virus (BTV), epizootic haemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). In the first group, the seroprevalence for BTV was 4.6%, while in the second group, it was 25.8% for WNV and 9.7% for BTV. Only serotype 1 was detected for BTV in the two groups. No evidence for circulation of RVF and EHD viruses was revealed. Results indicated that dromedaries can be infected with BTV and WNV, suggesting that this species might play a significant role in the epizootiology of these viral diseases in Tunisia and neighbouring countries.

  9. District Energy Windsor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This paper presents a summary of how District Energy Windsor operates. It includes a system site map and reasons why it is advantageous to get connected to a district heating system. District Energy Windsor is a division of the Windsor Utilities Commission. It was developed in 1996 and was the first in North America to supply both heating and cooling requirements. It supplies nearly 2 million square feet of heating and cooling for Windsor's city centre. The district energy system produces hot water or chilled water at a central plant. Energy is then piped out to buildings in the area, including the Art Gallery of Windsor, the Royal Bank Business Centre, the Windsor Justice Facility, the Windsor Casino, and Northwind Windsor. The energy, which is transferred through heat exchangers, is used for space heating, domestic hot water heating, and air conditioning. The 8 reasons for getting connected are: (1) less management costs, (2) lower energy costs, (3) lower level of risk management, (4) stable energy rates, (5) better use of building space, (6) reliable service, (7) reduced expansion costs, and (8) a cleaner environment. District heating improves air quality through reduced carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions. In addition, fuel delivery and storage are eliminated. figs.

  10. South African mine valuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storrar, C D

    1977-01-01

    This article sets out the basic concepts of mine valuation, with gold mining receiving more space than base minerals and coal. Sampling practice is given special attention. Chapter headings are methods of investigation, sampling, underground sampling, averaging of underground sampling, diamond-drill sampling, mass and mineral content of ore, organization of a sample office, working costs, mining pay limits, ore reserves, ore accounting, maintenance of grade, forecasting operations and life of mine, statistical mine valuation, state's share of profits and taxation, and financial valuation of mining ventures.

  11. Technological highwall mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davison, I. [Highwall Systems (United States)

    2006-09-15

    The paper explores the issues facing highwall mining. Based in Chilhowie, Virginia, American Highwall Systems has developed a highwall mining system that will allow the mining of coal seams from 26 in to 10 ft in thickness. The first production model, AH51, began mining in August 2006. Technologies incorporated into the company's mining machines to improve the performance, enhance the efficiency, and improve the reliability of the highwall mining equipment incorporate technologies from many disciplines. Technology as applied to design engineering, manufacturing and fabrication engineering, control and monitoring computer hardware and software has played an important role in the evolution of the American Highwall Systems design concept. 5 photos.

  12. Late Miocene extensional systems in northern Tunisia and their relation with SE directed delamination of the African subcontinental mantle lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Gaidi, Seif; Melki, Fetheddine; Pérez-Peña, Vicente; Marzougui, Wissem; Azañón, Jose Miguel; Galve, Jorge Pedro

    2017-04-01

    Recent work has proposed the delamination of the subcontinental mantle lithosphere under northern Tunisia during the late Miocene. This process is required to explain the present location of the Tunisian segment of the African slab, imaged by seismic tomography, hanging under the Gulf of Gabes to the south of Tunisia. Thus, having retreated towards the SE several hundred km from its original position under the Tellian-Atlas nappe contact that crops out along the north of Tunisia. However, no tectonic structures have been described which could be related to this mechanism of lithospheric mantle peeling. Here we describe for the first time extensional fault systems in northern Tunisia that strongly thinned the Tellian nappes, exhuming rocks from the Tunisian Atlas in the core of folded extensional detachments. Two normal fault systems with sub-orthogonal extensional transport occur. These were active during the late Miocene associated to the extrusion of 13 Ma granodiorite and 9 Ma rhyodacite in the footwall of the Nefza detachment. We have differentiated an extensional system formed by low-angle normal faults with NE- and SW-directed transport cutting through the Early to Middle Miocene Tellian nappen stack and a later system of low and high-angle normal faults that cuts down into the underlying Tunisian Atlas units with SE-directed transport, which root in the Nefza detachment. Both normal fault systems have been later folded and cut by thrusts during Plio-Quaternary NW-SE directed compression. These findings change the interpretation of the tectonic evolution of Tunisia that has always been framed in a transpressive to compressive setting, manifesting the extensional effects of Late Miocene lithospheric mantle delamination under northern Tunisia.

  13. Mining Act 1968-1983 with regulations and an index (compiled to 1 January, 1984)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    This consolidation of the Queensland Mining Act covers the Mining Act 1968 - 1983, Mining Act Amendment Act 1971 (No.2) No.82: Mining Act Amendment Act 1980, No.13: Mining Acts Amendment Act of 1929, 20 Geo. 5 of No.35: Regulations. The Act is arranged in 13 parts. Part I. Preliminary; II. Meaning of Terms; III. Mining districts and mining fields; IV. Authorities conferring rights to mine and prospect - Division I. Miner's right; IA. Mining claim; II. Authority to prospect; III. Mining Lease; IV. Compensation for damage caused by mining on Crown land; V. Caveats: Part V. Mining on reserves, residence areas and business areas; Part VI. Constructions and carriage through, over, or under alien land; VII. Sludge abatement; VIII. Royalties; IX. Administration - Division I. Appointment of officers; II. Wardens courts; III. Special powers of wardens and wardens courts; IV. Appeals from wardens courts: Part X. General Provisions; XI. Regulations; XII. Mining on private land; XIII. Rights independent of this Act preserved: Schedule.

  14. Renewed mining and reclamation: Imapacts on bats and potential mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, P.E. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Berry, R.D. [Brown-Berry Biological Consulting, Bishop, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Historic mining created new roosting habitat for many bat species. Now the same industry has the potential to adversely impact bats. Contemporary mining operations usually occur in historic districts; consequently the old workings are destroyed by open pit operations. Occasionally, underground techniques are employed, resulting in the enlargement or destruction of the original workings. Even during exploratory operations, historic mine openings can be covered as drill roads are bulldozed, or drills can penetrate and collapse underground workings. Nearby blasting associated with mine construction and operation can disrupt roosting bats. Bats can also be disturbed by the entry of mine personnel to collect ore samples or by recreational mine explorers, since the creation of roads often results in easier access. In addition to roost disturbance, other aspects of renewed mining can have adverse impacts on bat populations, and affect even those bats that do not live in mines. Open cyanide ponds, or other water in which toxic chemicals accumulate, can poison bats and other wildlife. The creation of the pits, roads and processing areas often destroys critical foraging habitat, or change drainage patterns. Finally, at the completion of mining, any historic mines still open may be sealed as part of closure and reclamation activities. The net result can be a loss of bats and bat habitat. Conversely, in some contemporary underground operations, future roosting habitat for bats can be fabricated. An experimental approach to the creation of new roosting habitat is to bury culverts or old tires beneath waste rock. Mining companies can mitigate for impacts to bats by surveying to identify bat-roosting habitat, removing bats prior to renewed mining or closure, protecting non-impacted roost sites with gates and fences, researching to identify habitat requirements and creating new artificial roosts.

  15. Distance-independent individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya [Tetraclinis articulata (VAHL.) MAST.] stands in Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    T. Sghaier; M. Tome; J. Tome; M. Sanchez-Gonzalez; I. Cañellas; R. Calama

    2013-01-01

    Aim of study: The aim of the work was to develop an individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya (Tetraclinis articulata) in Tunisia.Area of study: The natural Tetraclinis articulata stands at Jbel Lattrech in north-eastern of Tunisia.Material and methods:  Data came from 200 trees located in 50 sample plots. The diameter at age t and the diameter increment for the last five years obtained from cores taken at breast height were measured for each tree. Four difference equations derived f...

  16. Detection of Rickettsia in Rhipicephalus sanguineus Ticks and Ctenocephalides felis Fleas from Southeastern Tunisia by Reverse Line Blot Assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khrouf, Fatma; M'Ghirbi, Youmna; Znazen, Abir; Ben Jemaa, Mounir; Hammami, Adnene

    2014-01-01

    Ticks (n = 663) and fleas (n = 470) collected from domestic animals from southeastern Tunisia were screened for Rickettsia infection using reverse line blot assay. Evidence of spotted fever group Rickettsia was obtained. We detected Rickettsia felis in fleas, Rickettsia massiliae Bar 29 and the Rickettsia conorii Israeli spotted fever strain in ticks, and Rickettsia conorii subsp. conorii and Rickettsia spp. in both arthropods. The sensitivity of the adopted technique allowed the identification of a new association between fleas and R. conorii subsp. conorii species. The presence of these vector-borne Rickettsia infections should be considered when diagnosing this disease in humans in Tunisia. PMID:24226919

  17. District heating in Flensburg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prinz, W.

    1981-01-01

    The majority of our population, but also of our authorities, are still skeptical or even disapproving towards district heating. The reasons of this negative attitude are partly psychological - e.g. the individualism of the Swiss and their dislike for too centralised structures and ''forced connections'' - but also the existence of finished gas supply networks and the fear of considerable pre-investments and torn streets over years. The following article - held as a speech on the information meeting ''District heating and the possible contribution of nuclear energy'' organised by the Swiss Association for Atomic Energy in Bern shows a practical problem solving at the example of the district heating in Flensburg and deals with these questions.

  18. Update on the Epidemiology of Scorpion Envenomation in the South of Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroun-Walha, Olfa; Karray, Rim; Jerbi, Mouna; Nasri, Abdennour; Issaoui, Fadhila; Amine, Ben Rebeh; Bahloul, Mabrouk; Bouaziz, Mounir; Ksibi, Hichem; Rekik, Noureddine

    2018-03-01

    Scorpion envenomation is still a frequent occurance in tropical and subtropical regions. In Tunisia, multiple studies on scorpion envenoming have contributed to an improved understanding of cardiac dysfunction and factors predictive of poor prognosis. These previous studies have contributed to the current standardized management of envenomed patients. However, the epidemiology of scorpion envenoming in Tunisia has not been updated for more than 10 years. The aim of this study was to report an update of the epidemiological features of scorpion envenomation in the southern region of Tunisia. This is a retrospective monocentric study including all patients admitted in the emergency room for scorpion envenomation. Cases were collected from emergency medical files during a 3-year period (2013-2015). The diagnosis of scorpion envenomation was made by history of a scorpion sting. All files in which scorpion envenomation was not certain were excluded. Data are presented as mean±SD with range or percentages, as appropriate. We enrolled 282 patients aged 27.4±22.8 years with a 1:1 sex ratio. During surveillance in the emergency room, 39 patients developed cardiac dysfunction. Overall, 42 patients (14.9%) were at stage 3 of severity, and 240 patients (85.1%) had moderate scorpion envenomation (stage 2). Only 1 patient died a few hours after admission. In the remaining cases, the outcome was good. Our results show the improvement in mortality rates even in severe presentations. This study found that the outcome of scorpion-stung patients has clearly improved. This enhancement can be explained by early medical consultation and standardized management of patients with predictive factors for cardiac dysfunction. Copyright © 2017 Wilderness Medical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Women's knowledge, attitudes and practice about breast cancer screening in the region of Monastir (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mhamdi, Sana; Bouanene, Ines; Mhirsi, Amel; Sriha, Asma; Ben Salem, Kamel; Soltani, Mohamed Soussi

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer remains a worldwide public health problem. In Tunisia, it is considered to be the primary women's cancer and causes high morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to investigate female knowledge, attitudes and practice of breast cancer screening in the region of Monastir (Tunisia). We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional design exploring knowledge, attitudes and practices of women in the region of Monastir on breast cancer screening. The study was conducted in health centres of this region from 1 March 2009 to 30 June 2009. Data were collected via a structured questionnaire containing 15 items on demographic status, knowledge of risk factors and screening methods and attitudes towards the relevance and effectiveness of breast cancer screening. A scoring scheme was used to score women's responses. A total of 900 women agreed to take part in the study. Their mean age was 41.6±12.4 years and 64% did not exceed the primary level of education. According to the constructed scores, 92% of participants had poor knowledge of the specific risk factors for breast cancer and 63.2% had poor knowledge of the screening methods. Proper practice of breast cancer screening was observed in 14.3% of cases. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that good knowledge of risk factors and screening methods, higher level of education and positive family history of breast cancer were independently correlated with breast cancer screening practice. This study revealed poor knowledge of breast cancer and the screening methods as well as low levels of practice of breast cancer screening among women in the region of Monastir. Results justify educational programs to raise women's adherence to breast cancer screening programs in Tunisia.

  20. Epidemiological aspects of child abuse and neglect in Sousse, Tunisia: A 10-year retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braham, Mohamed Yassine; Jedidi, Maher; Hmila, Imene; Masmoudi, Tasnim; Souguir, Mohamed Kamel; Ben Dhiab, Mohamed

    2018-02-01

    The aim of our study was to examine epidemiological aspects of child abuse and neglect in Tunisia. We conducted a retrospective and descriptive study over a period of 10 years (January 2006-December 2015), based on the files handled by the Child Protective Services (CPS) agency in the city of Sousse, Tunisia. During the study period, 3736 referrals were received by the CPS agency of Sousse. Of the total, 2212 (59.2%) were screened in and investigated. Of the investigated cases, 317 (14,3%) were substantiated as abuse or neglect. The reports of maltreatment came mostly from parents (37.8%). Neglect was the major type of maltreatment (51.4%) and an association of 2 types of maltreatment was found in 76 cases (24%). Parents were the perpetrators in 221 cases (69.7%). The average age of the victims was 10 years and boys accounted for 56%. In the 257 cases where the marital status of the parents was noted in the files, the parents were divorced in 62 cases (24.1%) and the child lived with a single mother in 35 cases (13.6%). Alcohol addiction was found in 21 parents (6.6%) and one of the parents was incarcerated in 39 cases (12.3%). As for the socio-economic status, it was evaluated in 188 families and was low in 123 cases (65.4%). In the absence of studies related to this scourge in Tunisia, we hope to raise awareness of the abuse and alert those who come into contact with the child on the importance of detecting and reporting early maltreatment and thus to introduce more appropriate care. A comprehensive prevention strategy needs to be established by addressing risk factors, cultural norms conducive to abuse and unwanted pregnancies. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  1. Contract Mining versus Owner Mining – The Way Forward | Suglo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ghana Mining Journal ... By contracting out one or more of their mining operations, the mining companies can concentrate on their core businesses. This paper reviews ... The general trends in the mining industry show that contract mining will be the way forward for most mines under various circumstances in the future.

  2. Optimization of mining design of Hongwei uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Sanmao; Yuan Baixiang

    2012-01-01

    Combined with the mining conditions of Hongwei uranium mine, optimization schemes for hoisting cage, mine drainge,ore transport, mine wastewater treatment, power-supply system,etc are put forward in the mining design of the mine. Optimized effects are analyzed from the aspects of technique, economy, and energy saving and reducing emissions. (authors)

  3. A preliminary report of geochemical investigations in the Blackbird District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canney, F.C.; Hawkes, H.E.; Richmond, G.M.; Vhay, J. S.

    1953-01-01

    This paper reviews an experimental geochemical prospecting survey in the Blackbird cobalt-copper mining district. The district is in east-central Idaho, about 20 miles west-southwest of Salmon. The area is one of deeply weathered nearly flat-topped upland surfaces cut by steep-walled valleys which are tributary to the canyon of Panther Creek. Most of the area has a relatively heavy vegetative cover, and outcrops are scarce except on the sides of the steeper valleys* Because of the importance of the surficial deposits and soils and the physiographic history of the region on the interpretation of the geochemical data, a separate chapter on this subject by Gerald H. Richmond follows the following brief description of the geology of the district.

  4. Paleozoic oil/gas shale reservoirs in southern Tunisia: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soua, Mohamed

    2014-12-01

    During these last years, considerable attention has been given to unconventional oil and gas shale in northern Africa where the most productive Paleozoic basins are located (e.g. Berkine, Illizi, Kufra, Murzuk, Tindouf, Ahnet, Oued Mya, Mouydir, etc.). In most petroleum systems, which characterize these basins, the Silurian played the main role in hydrocarbon generation with two main 'hot' shale levels distributed in different locations (basins) and their deposition was restricted to the Rhuddanian (Lllandovery: early Silurian) and the Ludlow-Pridoli (late Silurian). A third major hot shale level had been identified in the Frasnian (Upper Devonian). Southern Tunisia is characterized by three main Paleozoic sedimentary basins, which are from North to South, the southern Chotts, Jeffara and Berkine Basin. They are separated by a major roughly E-W trending lower Paleozoic structural high, which encompass the Mehrez-Oued Hamous uplift to the West (Algeria) and the Nefusa uplift to the East (Libya), passing by the Touggourt-Talemzane-PGA-Bou Namcha (TTPB) structure close to southern Tunisia. The forementioned major source rocks in southern Tunisia are defined by hot shales with elevated Gamma ray values often exceeding 1400 API (in Hayatt-1 well), deposited in deep water environments during short lived (c. 2 Ma) periods of anoxia. In the course of this review, thickness, distribution and maturity maps have been established for each hot shale level using data for more than 70 wells located in both Tunisia and Algeria. Mineralogical modeling was achieved using Spectral Gamma Ray data (U, Th, K), SopectroLith logs (to acquire data for Fe, Si and Ti) and Elemental Capture Spectroscopy (ECS). The latter technique provided data for quartz, pyrite, carbonate, clay and Sulfur. In addition to this, the Gamma Ray (GR), Neutron Porosity (ΦN), deep Resistivity (Rt) and Bulk Density (ρb) logs were used to model bulk mineralogy and lithology. Biostratigraphic and complete

  5. Lateral extrusion of Tunisia : Contribution of Jeffara Fault (southern branch) and Petroleum Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghedhoui, R.; Deffontaines, B.; Rabia, M. C.

    2012-04-01

    Contrasting to the northward African plate motion toward Eurasia and due to its geographic position in the North African margin, since early cretaceous, Tunisia seems to be submitted to an eastward migration. The aim of this work is to study the southern branch of this inferred tectonic splay that may guide the Tunisian extrusion characterised to the east by the Mediterranean sea as a free eastern boundary. The Jeffara Fault zone (southern Tunisia), represent a case example of such deformation faced by Tunisia. Helped by the results of previous researchers (Bouaziz, 1995 ; Rabiaa, 1998 ; Touati et Rodgers, 1998 ; Sokoutis D. et al., 2000 ; Bouaziz et al., 2002 ; Jallouli et al., 2005 ; Deffontaines et al., 2008…), and new evidences developed in this study, we propose a geodynamic Tunisian east extrusion model, due to such the northern African plate migration to the Eurasian one. In this subject, structural geomorphology is undertaken herein based on both geomorphometric drainage network analysis (Deffontaines et al., 1990), the Digital Terrain Model photo-interpretation (SRTM) combined with photo-interpretation of detailed optical images (Landsat ETM+), and confirmed by field work and numerous seismic profiles at depth. All these informations were then integrated within a GIS (Geodatabase) (Deffontaines 1990 ; Deffontaines et al. 1994 ; Deffontaines, 2000 ; Slama, 2008 ; Deffontaines, 2008) and are coherent with the eastern extrusion of the Sahel block. We infer that the NW-SE Gafsa-Tozeur, which continue to the Jeffara major fault zone acting as a transtensive right lateral motion since early cretaceous is the southern branch of the Sahel block extrusion. Our structural analyses prove the presence of NW-SE right lateral en-echelon tension gashes, NW-SE aligned salt diapirs, numerous folds offsets, en-echelon folds, and so on that parallel this major NW-SE transtensive extrusion fault zone.These evidences confirm the fact that the NW-SE Jeffara faults correspond

  6. Organic Geochemistry of the Cenomanian-Turonian Bahloul Formation Petroleum Source Rock, Central and Northern Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Affouri , Hassene; Montacer , Mabrouk; Disnar , Jean-Robert

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Total organic carbon (TOC) determination, Rock-Eval pyrolysis, extractable organic matter content (EOM) fractionation, gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses, were carried out on 79 samples from eleven outcrop cross sections of the Bahloul Formation in central and northern Tunisia. The TOC content varied between 0.23 to 35.6%, the highest average values (18.73%, 8.46% and 4.02%) being at the east of the study area (at Ain Zakk...

  7. Barley yellow dwarf virus in barley crops in Tunisia: prevalence and molecular characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Asma NAJAR; Imen HAMDI; Arvind VARSANI

    2017-01-01

    A field survey was conducted in Tunisia in the North-Eastern regions (Bizerte, CapBon and Zaghouan), the North-Western region (Kef) and the Central-Eastern region (Kairouan) during the 2011/2012 growing season, in order to determine the incidence and the geographic distribution of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDVs) in barley fields. Tissue blot immunoassays (TBIA) showed that BYDV was most common in Zaghouan (incidence 14%), Cap Bon (14%) and Bizerte (35%), in randomly collected samples from t...

  8. Good practices to promote gender equality in science and physics in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaziri, Sihem

    2015-12-01

    Women represent 47% of researchers in Tunisia but only 12% of senior faculty in scientific fields. This paper describes three areas of activity to promote greater participation of women. The Women in Science group at the University of Tunis has, among other activities, organized an annual conference on women in science since 2005. The COACh project is a multinational effort across northern Africa to promote professional networking and mentoring through partnerships with women in the United States. Finally, an immersive summer school was organized to introduce master's level women to projects and careers in optics and photonics.

  9. Good practices to promote gender equality in science and physics in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaziri, Sihem

    2015-01-01

    Women represent 47% of researchers in Tunisia but only 12% of senior faculty in scientific fields. This paper describes three areas of activity to promote greater participation of women. The Women in Science group at the University of Tunis has, among other activities, organized an annual conference on women in science since 2005. The COACh project is a multinational effort across northern Africa to promote professional networking and mentoring through partnerships with women in the United States. Finally, an immersive summer school was organized to introduce master’s level women to projects and careers in optics and photonics

  10. Description of Marylynnia puncticaudata n. sp. (Nematoda, Cyatholaimidae from Bizerte Lagoon, Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boufahja, F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new free–living marine nematode species of Cyatholaimidae, Marylynnia puncticaudata n. sp. from Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia is morphologically described. Males are characterized by a slightly larger body than females, a cephalic ring followed by ten subcephalic setae, modified cuticular punctuation, caudal lateral differentiation of large dots, and strongly cuticularized gubernaculum with a unique shape and bidenticulated distal half. The cuticle ornamentation of females is similar to the males. However, their caudal lateral differentiation is composed of smaller and more spaced dots. An updated morphological key to species of Marylynnia is given.

  11. Good practices to promote gender equality in science and physics in Tunisia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaziri, Sihem [Faculty of Sciences of Bizerte, University of Carthage (Tunisia)

    2015-12-31

    Women represent 47% of researchers in Tunisia but only 12% of senior faculty in scientific fields. This paper describes three areas of activity to promote greater participation of women. The Women in Science group at the University of Tunis has, among other activities, organized an annual conference on women in science since 2005. The COACh project is a multinational effort across northern Africa to promote professional networking and mentoring through partnerships with women in the United States. Finally, an immersive summer school was organized to introduce master’s level women to projects and careers in optics and photonics.

  12. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_CommunityDevelopmentDistrict

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Community Development Districts (CDDs) are special taxing districts or local units of special-purpose government. A CDD may charge separate non-ad valorem special...

  13. Uranium mining in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    Known uranium deposits and the companies involved in uranium mining and exploration in Australia are listed. The status of the development of the deposits is outlined and reasons for delays to mining are given

  14. Mines and Mineral Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Mines in the United States According to the Homeland Security Infrastructure Program Tiger Team Report Table E-2.V.1 Sub-Layer Geographic Names, a mine is defined as...

  15. Mining Views : database views for data mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockeel, H.; Calders, T.; Fromont, É.; Goethals, B.; Prado, A.

    2008-01-01

    We present a system towards the integration of data mining into relational databases. To this end, a relational database model is proposed, based on the so called virtual mining views. We show that several types of patterns and models over the data, such as itemsets, association rules and decision

  16. Mining Views : database views for data mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blockeel, H.; Calders, T.; Fromont, É.; Goethals, B.; Prado, A.; Nijssen, S.; De Raedt, L.

    2007-01-01

    We propose a relational database model towards the integration of data mining into relational database systems, based on the so called virtual mining views. We show that several types of patterns and models over the data, such as itemsets, association rules, decision trees and clusterings, can be

  17. Uranium mine ventilation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katam, K.; Sudarsono

    1982-01-01

    Uranium mine ventilation system aimed basically to control and decreasing the air radioactivity in mine caused by the radon emanating from uranium ore. The control and decreasing the air ''age'' in mine, with adding the air consumption volume, increasing the air rate consumption, closing the mine-out area; using closed drainage system. Air consumption should be 60m 3 /minute for each 9m 2 uranium ore surfaces with ventilation rate of 15m/minute. (author)

  18. MONITORING OF MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berislav Šebečić

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The way mining was monitored in the past depended on knowledge, interest and the existing legal regulations. Documentary evidence about this work can be found in archives, libraries and museums. In particular, there is the rich archival material (papers and books concerning the work of the one-time Imperial and Royal Mining Captaincies in Zagreb, Zadar, Klagenfurt and Split, A minor part of the documentation has not yet been transferred to Croatia. From mining handbooks and books we can also find out about mining in Croatia. In the context of Austro-Hungary. For example, we can find out that the first governorships in Zagreb and Zadar headed the Ban, Count Jelacic and Baron Mamula were also the top mining authorities, though this, probably from political motives, was suppressed in the guides and inventories or the Mining Captaincies. At the end of the 1850s, Croatia produced 92-94% of sea salt, up to 8.5% of sulphur, 19.5% of asphalt and 100% of oil for the Austro-Hungarian empire. From data about mining in the Split Mining Captaincy, prepared for the Philadephia Exhibition, it can be seen that in the exploratory mining operations in which there were 33,372 independent mines declared in 1925 they were looking mainly for bauxite (60,0%, then dark coal (19,0%, asphalts (10.3% and lignites (62%. In 1931, within the area covered by the same captaincy, of 74 declared mines, only 9 were working. There were five coal mines, three bauxite mines and one for asphalt. I suggest that within state institution, the Mining Captaincy or Authority be renewed, or that a Mining and Geological Authority be set ap, which would lead to the more complete affirmation of Croatian mining (the paper is published in Croatian.

  19. Mine drainage treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Golomeov, Blagoj; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2012-01-01

    Water flowing from underground and surface mines and contains high concentrations of dissolved metals is called mine drainage. Mine drainage can be categorized into several basic types by their alkalinity or acidity. Sulfide rich and carbonate poor materials are expected to produce acidic drainage, and alkaline rich materials, even with significant sulfide concentrations, often produce net alkaline water. Mine drainages are dangerous because pollutants may decompose in the environment. In...

  20. Mining in El Salvador

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pacheco Cueva, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country.......In this guest article, Vladimir Pacheco, a social scientist who has worked on mining and human rights shares his perspectives on a current campaign against mining in El Salvador – Central America’s smallest but most densely populated country....

  1. The mining methods at the Fraisse mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heurley, P.; Vervialle, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    The Fraisse mine is one of the four underground mines of the La Crouzille mining divisions of Cogema. Faced with the necessity to mechanize its workings, this mine also had to satisfy a certain number of stringent demands. This has led to concept of four different mining methods for the four workings at present in active operation at this pit, which nevertheless preserve the basic ideas of the methods of top slicing under concrete slabs (TSS) or horizontal cut-and-fill stopes (CFS). An electric scooptram is utilized. With this type of vehicle the stringent demands for the introduction of means for fire fighting and prevention are reduced to a minimum. Finally, the dimensions of the vehicles and the operation of these methods result in a net-to-gross tonnages of close to 1, i.e. a maximum output, combined with a minimum of contamination [fr

  2. Data Mining for CRM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thearling, Kurt

    Data Mining technology allows marketing organizations to better understand their customers and respond to their needs. This chapter describes how Data Mining can be combined with customer relationship management to help drive improved interactions with customers. An example showing how to use Data Mining to drive customer acquisition activities is presented.

  3. Colombian mining legislation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza Delgado, Eva Isolina

    2004-01-01

    The paper makes a historical recount of the mining legislation in Colombia, it is about the more relevant aspects of the Code of Mines, like they are the title miner, obligations, economic aspects, integration of mining areas and of the benefits contemplated in the law 685 of 2001

  4. Mine waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutchinson, I.P.G.; Ellison, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    This book reports on mine waste management. Topics covered include: Performance review of modern mine waste management units; Mine waste management requirements; Prediction of acid generation potential; Attenuation of chemical constituents; Climatic considerations; Liner system design; Closure requirements; Heap leaching; Ground water monitoring; and Economic impact evaluation

  5. Mining compressing sequential problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoang, T.L.; Mörchen, F.; Fradkin, D.; Calders, T.G.K.

    2012-01-01

    Compression based pattern mining has been successfully applied to many data mining tasks. We propose an approach based on the minimum description length principle to extract sequential patterns that compress a database of sequences well. We show that mining compressing patterns is NP-Hard and

  6. Mined-out land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinsalu, Enno; Toomik, Arvi; Valgma, Ingo

    2002-01-01

    Estonian mineral resources are deposited in low depth and mining fields are large, therefore vast areas are affected by mining. There are at least 800 deposits with total area of 6,000 km 2 and about the same number of underground mines, surface mines, peat fields, quarries, and sand and gravel pits. The deposits cover more than 10% of Estonian mainland. The total area of operating mine claims exceeds 150 km 2 that makes 0.3 % of Estonian area. The book is written mainly for the people who are living or acting in the area influenced by mining. The observations and research could benefit those who are interested in geography and environment, who follow formation and look of mined-out landscapes. The book contains also warnings for careless people on and under the surface of the mined-out land. Part of the book contains results of the research made in 1968-1993 by the first two authors working at the Estonian branch of A.Skochinsky Institute of Mining. Since 1990, Arvi Toomik continued this study at the Northeastern section of the Institute of Ecology of Tallinn Pedagogical University. Enno Reinsalu studied aftereffects of mining at the Mining Department of Tallinn Technical University from 1998 to 2000. Geographical Information System for Mining was studied by Ingo Valgma within his doctoral dissertation, and this book is one of the applications of his study

  7. Mine water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komissarov, S V

    1980-10-01

    This article discusses composition of chemical compounds dissolved or suspended in mine waters in various coal basins of the USSR: Moscow basin, Kuzbass, Pechora, Kizelovsk, Karaganda, Donetsk and Chelyabinsk basins. Percentage of suspended materials in water depending on water source (water from water drainage system of dust suppression system) is evaluated. Pollution of mine waters with oils and coli bacteria is also described. Recommendations on construction, capacity of water settling tanks, and methods of mine water treatment are presented. In mines where coal seams 2 m or thicker are mined a system of two settling tanks should be used: in the upper one large grains are settled, in the lower one finer grains. The upper tank should be large enough to store mine water discharged during one month, and the lower one to store water discharged over two months. Salty waters from coal mines mining thin coal seams should be treated in a system of water reservoirs from which water evaporates (if climatic conditions permit). Mine waters from mines with thin coal seams but without high salt content can be treated in a system of long channels with water plants, which increase amount of oxygen in treated water. System of biological treatment of waste waters from mine wash-houses and baths is also described. Influence of temperature, sunshine and season of the year on efficiency of mine water treatment is also assessed. (In Russian)

  8. Mountaintop mining consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Palmer; E.S. Bernhardt; W.H. Schlesinger; K.N. Eshleman; E. Foufoula-Georgiou; M.S. Hendryx; A.D. Lemly; G.E. Likens; O.L. Loucks; M.E. Power; P.S. White; P.R. Wilcock

    2010-01-01

    There has been a global, 30-year increase in surface mining (1), which is now the dominant driver of land-use change in the central Appalachian ecoregion of the United States (2). One major form of such mining, mountaintop mining with valley fills (MTM/VF) (3), is widespread throughout eastern Kentucky, West Virginia (WV), and southwestern Virginia. Upper elevation...

  9. Ghana Mining Journal: Contact

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Principal Contact. Professor Daniel Mireku-Gyimah Editor-in-Chief University of Mines & Technology Ghana Mining Journal University of Mines & Technology P. O. BOX 237 Tarkwa Ghana Phone: +233 362 20280/20324. Fax: +233 362 20306. Email: dm.gyimah@umat.edu.gh ...

  10. Country reports (Part 2). Country report on mining industry in Sabah Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordin, M S. B.

    1988-06-25

    In Sabah district of Malaysia, only one mining industry exists which is a joint venture between Japan and Malaysia, producing copper by consuming 500,000 tons/year of ore which contains 0.57% of copper and 0.65 gm/ton of gold. Regarding the mining industry, outline of its organization, process, equipments, and capacity are summarized. In addition, main clauses of safety regulation and its practises are explained. Concerning Burma, Governmental organization is shown as a graph and mining industries are divided into seven categories. Products, mining methods and capacities are explained by tables. (6 figs, 3 tables)

  11. Interim district energy implementation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fearnley, R.; Susak, W. [City of Vancouver, BC (Canada); Johnstone, I. [BCG Services Inc., Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    The concept of district energy was introduced in the City of North Vancouver, a city of 45,000, in 1997. A preliminary study was completed in 1997, followed by a tour of some district energy facilities in Finland in the same year. In 1999 a large district energy study was completed by a consultant. The study indicated the need for an investment of $15 million to implement district heating in the City. Lack of sufficient financial resources and immediately connectable heat load, the project was considered a non-starter. Some of the other factors leading to shelving the project included no current significant pricing advantages over competing energy sources and no current opportunity for cogeneration, given the low price that BC Hydro is willing to pay for independently produced power. The project, although shelved for the moment, has not been discarded. Planning and exploration are continuing, aided by the City's commitment to energy efficiency and conservation, its long term planning horizon and its significant influence over the development of some prime real estate.

  12. Jordan Lake Watershed Protection District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Town of Chapel Hill, North Carolina — Polygon representing the area of the Jordan Lake Watershed Protection District. The Watershed Protection District (PDF) is a sensitive area of land that drains to...

  13. New Mexico State Forestry Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains boundaries of the New Mexico Forestry Districts, plus the names of the district offices. It is in a vector digital structure digitized from a...

  14. Chemical composition and non-volatile components of three wild edible mushrooms collected from northwest Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ibtissem Kacem Jedidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Tunisia, many people collect wild edible mushrooms as pickers for their own consumption. The present work aims at contributing to the determination of the chemical composition, non volatile components content (soluble sugars, free amino acids and minerals and trace elements of three popular Tunisian wild edible mushrooms species collected from the northwest of Tunisia (Agaricus campestris, Boletus edulis and Cantharellus cibarius.All investigated mushrooms revealed that these species are rich sources of proteins (123.70 – 374.10 g kg-1 dry weight (DW and carbohydrates (403.3 – 722.40 g kg-1 DW, and low content of fat (28.2 – 39.9 g kg-1 DW; the highest energetic contribution was guaranteed by C. cibarius (1542.71 kJ / 100 g. A. compestris (33.14 mg/g DW showed the highest concentration of essential amino acids. The composition in individual sugars was also determined, mannitol and trehalose being the most abundant sugars. C. cibarius revealed the highest concentrations of carbohydrates (722.4 g kg-1 DW and A. compestris the lowest concentration (403.3 g kg-1 DW. Potassium (K and sodium (Na are the most abundant minerals in analyzed samples (A. compestris showed the highest concentrations of K and Na, 49141.44 and 9263.886 µg/g DW respectively.

  15. ‘This Is Real Misery’: Experiences of Women Denied Legal Abortion in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajri, Selma; Raifman, Sarah; Gerdts, Caitlin; Baum, Sarah; Foster, Diana Greene

    2015-01-01

    Barriers to accessing legal abortion services in Tunisia are increasing, despite a liberal abortion law, and women are often denied wanted legal abortion services. In this paper, we seek to explore the reasons for abortion denial and whether these reasons had a legal or medical basis. We also identify barriers women faced in accessing abortion and make recommendations for improved access to quality abortion care. We recruited women immediately after they had been turned away from legal abortion services at two facilities in Tunis, Tunisia. Thirteen women consented to participate in qualitative interviews two months after they were turned away from the facility. Women were denied abortion care on the day they were recruited due to three main reasons: gestational age, health conditions, and logistical barriers. Nine women ultimately terminated their pregnancies at another facility, and four women carried to term. None of the women attempted illegal abortion services or self-induction. Further research is needed in order to assess abortion denial from the perspective of providers and medical staff. PMID:26684189

  16. The effect of corruption on carbon dioxide emissions and energy consumption in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Sekrafi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the impact of corruption on the environmental quality in Tunisia. Indeed, the post-revolution period is characterized by a remarkable increase in the rates of corruption. Design/methodology/approach – The direct and indirect effects of control corruption on economic growth and CO2 emissions in Tunisia have been examined using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL cointegration framework among corruption, growth and CO2 emissions. Findings – Results substantiate a positive and significant relationship between control of corruption and economic growth, a negative and significant relationship between control of corruption and environmental quality (CO2 and a negative and significant relationship between control of corruption and energy consumption. The findings suggest that while the control of corruption contributes to economic growth, its positive effect could be transposed indirectly via its impacts on environmental quality. Originality/value – A strategy against corruption will reduce CO2 emissions; however, its positive effect on economic growth indirectly contributes to reverse this relationship.

  17. Hydrogeological geochemical and isotopic study of the coastal aquifer of Sousse Eastern, Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Hamouda, M. F.; Carreira, P.; Marques, J. M.; Eggenkamp, H.

    2012-12-01

    At Sahel, near one of the seaside resort available in Tunisia, the water quantity and quality is a major problem ever at southern center of Tunisia. The Oued Laya coastal system is no exception. The levels, a shallow aquifer up to depths of about 60 m whose reservoir is mainly formed by Mio-Pliocnesediments (with some gypsum lenses dispersed within the geological formations) and deep aquifer, situated between 100 and 250 m depth, located in the Miocene sandstone formations. The results of geochemical and isotopic studies have shown that groundwater salinity seems not be linked with the increasing water well's abstraction. In contrast, water mineralization seems to acquired by dissolution of minerals in the aquifer system especially halie and gypsum. Besides ion exchange processes play also an important role in the groundwater mineralization. Therefore, it clearly appears that several sources might contribute with different mineralization to the selenization of the aquifer through the natural recharge and also through the return of water irrigation. The contamination of the Mio-Pliocene shallow aquifer by a mixture with seawater is confirmed, and stable isotopes data do not support the hypothesis of mixing with seawater. (Author)

  18. Does financial development increase energy consumption? The role of industrialization and urbanization in Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Lean, Hooi Hooi

    2012-01-01

    This paper assesses the relationship among energy consumption, financial development, economic growth, industrialization and urbanization in Tunisia from 1971 to 2008. The autoregressive distributed lag bounds testing approach to cointegration and Granger causality tests is employed for the analysis. The result confirms the existence of long-run relationship among energy consumption, economic growth, financial development, industrialization and urbanization in Tunisia. Long-run bidirectional causalities are found between financial development and energy consumption, financial development and industrialization, and industrialization and energy consumption. Hence, sound and developed financial system that can attract investors, boost the stock market and improve the efficiency of economic activities should be encouraged in the country. Nevertheless, promoting industrialization and urbanization can never be left out from the process of development. We add light to policy makers with the role of financial development, industrialization and urbanization in the process of economic development. - Highlights: ► We find the existence of long-run relationship among variables. ► Financial development is positively related to energy consumption. ► Bidirectional causal relationship between financial development and energy consumption. ► Sound and developed financial system should be encouraged.

  19. Rights of people with mental disorders: Realities in healthcare facilities in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhis, Mayssa; Ben Hamouda, Abir; Ouanes, Sami; Rafrafi, Rym

    2017-08-01

    Mental disorders have been associated worldwide with human rights' violations. Controversially, many occur in mental health facilities. This work aimed to assess the rights of people with mental disorders in healthcare facilities in Tunisia. A cross-sectional study, using the World Health Organization (WHO) quality-rights toolkit, assessed the human rights levels of achievement in Elrazi Hospital, the only psychiatric hospital in Tunisia, in comparison with the National Institute of Nutrition (NIN). The framework was the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). The assessment was carried through observation, documentation review, and interviews with service users, staff, and family members. The sample was composed of 113 interviewees. In Elrazi Hospital, three out of the five evaluated rights were assessed as only initiated: the right to an adequate standard of living, to exercise legal capacity and to be free from inhuman treatment. By comparison, these rights were partially achieved in the NIN. The right to enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health was partially achieved and the right to live independently and to be included in the community was not even initiated. These last two rights were at the same level of achievement in the NIN. Significant improvements are needed to adapt the practice in Elrazi Hospital to comply with human rights, especially since the achievement level of these rights is lower than in a non-psychiatric hospital. Our study emphasizes the importance of spreading the CRPD as a standardized framework.

  20. Comparative analysis of climate change vulnerability assessments. Lessons from Tunisia and Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammill, Anne; Bizikova, Livia; Dekens, Julie; McCandless, Matthew

    2013-03-15

    Vulnerability assessments (VAs) are central to shaping climate change adaptation decisions. They help to define the nature and extent of the threat that may harm a given human or ecological system, providing a basis for devising measures that will minimize or avoid this harm. Yet the wide variety of VA approaches can be confusing for practitioners, creating uncertainty about the ''right'' way to assess vulnerability. In an effort to provide some guidance on designing and conducting VAs, this paper reviews and compares VAs undertaken in Indonesia and Tunisia to distill key approaches, components and lessons. It begins with a general overview of definitions, approaches and challenges with conducting VAs, and then proposes a framework for analyzing and comparing them. The framework looks at four components of VAs: (1) Framing: where do we come from? (2) Process of conducting the VAs: how does it work? (3) Inputs: what is needed? (4) Outputs: what does it tell us? The framework is then applied to analyze the assessments carried out in Tunisia and Indonesia, from their respective framings of vulnerability to the outputs of the process. The report then concludes with observations on differences and similarities between the VAs, as well as lessons learned that can inform the design and execution of future assessments.

  1. Comparative analysis of medicinal plants used in traditional medicine in Italy and Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghedira Kamel

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Italy and Tunisia (Africa for the Romans, facing each other on the opposite sides of the Mediterranean Sea, have been historically linked since the ancient times. Over the centuries both countries were mutually dominated so the vestiges and traces of a mutual influence are still present. The aim of the present study is to conduct a comparative analysis of the medicinal species present in the respective Floras in order to explore potential analogies and differences in popular phytotherapy that have come out from those reciprocal exchanges having taken place over the centuries Methods The comparative analysis based on the respective floras of both countries takes into consideration the bulk of medicinal species mutually present in Italy and Tunisia, but it focuses on the species growing in areas which are similar in climate. The medicinal uses of these species are considered in accordance with the ethnobotanical literature. Results A list of 153 medicinal species belonging to 60 families, present in both floras and used in traditional medicine, was drawn. A considerable convergence in therapeutic uses of many species emerged from these data. Conclusion This comparative analysis strengthens the firm belief that ethno-botanical findings represent not only an important shared heritage, developed over the centuries, but also a considerable mass of data that should be exploited in order to provide new and useful knowledge.

  2. THE HYBRID APPROACH OF INFLATION TARGETING: WHAT OPPORTUNITIES FOR AN EMERGING ECONOMY LIKE TUNISIA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hella Guerchi Mehri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available After economic crises happening in many emerging countries, flexible exchange rates became a required theoretical condition helping to target inflation. Many countries stopped using exchange rate as an anchor for monetary policy and started using inflation targeting framework. In emerging countries, monetary authorities work to stabilize the exchange rate because of their “fear of floating”. They are against high volatility of interest rate allowing speculative attacks and causing free fluctuations of their national currency. To avoid uncontrolled market movements, they have to choose between active and public exchange rate management and tight inflation targeting. In the same vein, Central bank of Tunisia follows financial measures linked closely to inflation without focusing especially on monetary aggregates in order to study a possible transition to targeting inflation strategy. It uses a simple Taylor rule where interest rates adjustment are guided by the anticipated inflation deviation from its original target and also by the gap between observed and potential GDP.As an emerging economy with a high degree of financial vulnerability, and facing different shocks, Tunisia should adopt a hybrid rule of inflation targeting in an open economy. This hybrid rule explicitly takes into account the evolution of the exchange rate in the reaction function of the central bank.

  3. Molecular identification of parasitic nematodes (Nematoda: Strongylida) in feces of wild ruminants from Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Yousra; Gharbi, Mohamed; Mhadhbi, Moez; Dhibi, Moktar; Lahmar, Samia

    2017-11-08

    In Tunisia and other North African countries, there is a lack of knowledge about parasite biodiversity within threatened wild ruminants and there are not any studies on their gastrointestinal nematodes. Thus the aim of this study was to identify gastrointestinal fauna in the faecal samples of Tunisian wild ruminants. A total of 262 faecal samples were collected from domestic sheep and goat, and wild ruminants (Addax, Barbary sheep, Barbary red deer, Dorcas gazelle, Slender-horned gazelle and Scimitar-horned Oryx) living in protected areas. Samples were examined with floatation (saturated sodium chloride solution), polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the second internal transcribed spacer region of the rDNA. Microscopic analysis allowed the identification of only Nematodirus genus or molecular tools allowed a first identification of five gastrointestinal nematode species in North African wild ruminants: Chabertia ovina (1.6%), Camelostrongylus mentulatus (1.6%), Marshallagia marshalli (4.7%), Nematodirus helvetianus (62.5%) and Nematodirus spathiger (29.7%). This study reported the first records of C. mentulatus and M. marshalli in Addax and of M. marshalli in Dorcas gazelle and it was the first reported record of N. helvetianus and M. marshalli in Tunisia.

  4. Social class and metabolic syndrome in populations from Tunisia and Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gannar, Fadoua; Cabrera de León, Antonio; Brito Díaz, Buenaventura; Del Cristo Rodríguez Pérez, María; Marcelino Rodríguez, Itahisa; Ben Dahmen, Fatma; Sakly, Mohsen; Attia, Nabil

    2015-01-01

    There is an increasing prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) in developing countries. It has been shown the relationship between social class and MS in developed countries. The objective of our study was to compare the association of social class with the prevalence of MS in a developing country (Tunisia, region of Cap-Bon) and a developed one (Spain, Canary Islands). Cross-sectional study of 6729 Canarian and 393 Tunisian individuals. Social class was measured with the income, crowding and education (ICE) model, which includes family income, household crowding and education level. Logistic regression models adjusted by age estimated the risk by odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval (CI 95 %) of MS according to social class. MS prevalence was higher in Tunisian (50 %) than in Canarian women (29 %; p = 0.002), with no significant differences between men. For Canarian women, being in the highest social class was a protective factor against MS (OR = 0.39; CI 95 % 0.29-0.53) and all its components. The Canarian population and the Tunisian women, showed a significant linear trend (p social class increased. High social class is a protective factor from MS and its components within the Canarian population and the Tunisian women. Our results suggest that the socioeconomic transition in a developing country like Tunisia can improve the population health in a sex-specific manner.

  5. Financial study of an integrated nuclear desalination system in Tunisia: the Tundesal Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouzguenda Benzarti, Neila; Albouy, Michel; Nisan, Simon

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on a case study of financing an integrated nuclear desalination system at la Skhira site in Tunisia. More specifically, it shows the financial characteristics of the study, known as the TUNDESAL project, the main financing mechanisms that can be used, and the principal actions required to attract the potential investors and lenders. The paper describes: - The specific financial considerations corresponding to the particular characteristics of nuclear desalination projects: high capital costs, high level of risks and uncertainties, relatively long construction lead times and social and environmental concerns; - The main risks involved in nuclear energy projects; - The profitability study of the TUNDESAL project with the application of the Discounted Cash Flow Analysis; - The main financing sources for the project; - The financing schemes that can be used for project implementation and comparison between these schemes in terms of benefits generated, after covering project costs and repayment of lenders and investors; - The main actions to be done for making the project financially attractive in order to gain the confidence of investors and international financial institutions (optimal allocation of project risks and uncertainties, a suitable and flexible energy and water tariffs policy). Analysis has shown that in particular conditions of Tunisia, the most attractive financial scheme could be the 'project financing + leasing'. (authors)

  6. Comparative analysis of climate change vulnerability assessments. Lessons from Tunisia and Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammill, Anne; Bizikova, Livia; Dekens, Julie; McCandless, Matthew

    2013-03-01

    Vulnerability assessments (VAs) are central to shaping climate change adaptation decisions. They help to define the nature and extent of the threat that may harm a given human or ecological system, providing a basis for devising measures that will minimize or avoid this harm. Yet the wide variety of VA approaches can be confusing for practitioners, creating uncertainty about the ''right'' way to assess vulnerability. In an effort to provide some guidance on designing and conducting VAs, this paper reviews and compares VAs undertaken in Indonesia and Tunisia to distill key approaches, components and lessons. It begins with a general overview of definitions, approaches and challenges with conducting VAs, and then proposes a framework for analyzing and comparing them. The framework looks at four components of VAs: (1) Framing: where do we come from? (2) Process of conducting the VAs: how does it work? (3) Inputs: what is needed? (4) Outputs: what does it tell us? The framework is then applied to analyze the assessments carried out in Tunisia and Indonesia, from their respective framings of vulnerability to the outputs of the process. The report then concludes with observations on differences and similarities between the VAs, as well as lessons learned that can inform the design and execution of future assessments.

  7. Hydrological characteristics in the Tunisia Sardinia Sicily area during spring 1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammari, C.; Millot, C.; Taupier-Letage, I.; Stefani, A.; Brahim, M.

    1999-10-01

    Within the framework of the Tunisian - EC SALTO/AVICENNE project, four hydrological sections were performed between Tunisia, Sardinia and Sicily with a 10-20 km sampling interval in April-June 1995. To our knowledge, it is the first time that sections were repeated there at such a high frequency. These data significantly increase the number of observations available on the Tunisian side of the Channels of Sardinia and Sicily, and allow reliable specification of the hydrological characteristics of the area. For the first time, and as confirmed by infrared satellite images, these data sets show (i) the large mesoscale variability of the surface flow entering the study area, as expected from the characteristics of the Algerian Current upstream, (ii) the rapid changes it undergoes around northeastern Tunisia, as it shifts roughly from southward to eastward within less than a few weeks. These data also show a large heterogeneity at intermediate levels, clearly associated with waters of very different origins that follow converging routes and mix in both the study area and the southern Tyrrhenian Sea. They finally document the fundamental importance of bathymetric features of relatively small scale such as the Skerki passage.

  8. Particularities of COPD exacerbations in different phenotypes of the disease in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendah, Ines; Ayed, Khadija; Kwas, Hamida; Khattab, Amel; Ghédira, Habib

    2016-03-01

    Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease is defined by a limitation of airflow. This disease is characterized by exacerbations that threaten the patient's life and worsens his prognosis. Moreover, COPD patients are different according to many parameters that define different phenotypes. Characteristics of exacerbations may depend on these phenotypes according to few recent studies. To determine the characteristics and the prognosis of the exacerbations in each phenotype of COPD patients phenotype in Tunisia. Retrospective study including 153 male patients hospitalized for COPD exacerbation from January 2009 to June 2012. Patients were classified into 4 phenotypes according to Burgel's classification. Patients were divided into four phenotypes: phenotype (PH)1: (n=68), PH2: (n=33), PH3: (n=25) and PH4: (n=27). Mean age for PH1, 2, 3 and 4 was: 61, 74, 56 and 72 years. The number of exacerbations per year was higher in PH1. Dyspnea was more important in PH1 and 4. Hypercapnia on admission was higher in PH4. Non invasive ventilation and transfer to resuscitation unit were more frequently mandatory in PH3 and 4.   Death occurred 2% of PH1 and 5% of PH4. Hospitalization duration was more important in PH4. COPD patients are heterogenous and belong to different phenotypes. The characteristics of the exacerbations and their prognosis widely differ according to these different groups. In Tunisia, it seems that patients who had moderate respiratory functional tests impairment are the lowest responders to treatment with a higher frequency of resuscitation unit transfer.

  9. District Consolidation: Rivals Coming Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mart, Dan

    2011-01-01

    District consolidation is a highly emotional process. One key to success is sticking to the facts. In Iowa, school districts facing financial difficulties or enrollment concerns do not have to move directly to consolidation. In many cases, districts begin by developing sharing agreements. These sharing agreements may start with simple sharing of…

  10. Mining planing introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Basic concepts concerning mining parameters, plan establishment and typical procedure methods applied throughout the physical execution of mining operations are here determined, analyzed and discussed. Technological and economic aspects of the exploration phase are presented as well as general mathematical and statistical methods for estimating, analyzing and representing mineral deposits which are virtually essential for good mining project execution. The characterization of important mineral substances and the basic parameters of mining works are emphasized in conjunction with long, medium and short term mining planning. Finally, geological modelling, ore reserves calculations and final economic evaluations are considered using a hypothetical example in order to consolidate the main elaborated ideas. (D.J.M.) [pt

  11. Gold-Mining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaballe, J.; Grundy, B.D.

    2002-01-01

      Based on standard option pricing arguments and assumptions (including no convenience yield and sustainable property rights), we will not observe operating gold mines. We find that asymmetric information on the reserves in the gold mine is a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence...... of operating gold mines. Asymmetric information on the reserves in the mine implies that, at a high enough price of gold, the manager of high type finds the extraction value of the company to be higher than the current market value of the non-operating gold mine. Due to this under valuation the maxim of market...

  12. Improving safety in mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-08-15

    AcuMine is a spin-out company from CRC Mining Australia and the University of Sydney's Australian Centre for Field Robotics (ACFR). Its focus is to provide safety and fatigue management in mining environments. The AcuLine Haul Check system was its first development. Of greater benefit to safety in mines will be the AcuMine Proximity System (APPS) developed to reliably detect and warn drivers when in proximity to other trucks and utility vehicles and to detect personnel near to those heavy vehicles. 6 figs.

  13. 7 CFR 917.14 - District.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... District. (g) Contra Costa District includes and consists of Contra Costa County. (h) Santa Clara District... Ventura County. (l) Stockton District includes and consists of San Joaquin County, Amador County...

  14. Evaluation of soil and water conservation measures in a semi-arid river basin in Tunisia using SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Merguellil catchment (Central Tunisia) is a typical Mediterranean semi-arid basin which suffers from regular water shortage aggravated by current droughts. During the recent decades the continuous construction of small and large dams and Soil and Water Conservation Works (i.e. Contour ridges) ha...

  15. Code Switching in the Classroom: A Case Study of Economics and Management Students at the University of Sfax, Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach Baoueb, Sallouha Lamia; Toumi, Naouel

    2012-01-01

    This case study explores the motivations for code switching (CS) in the interactions of Tunisian students at the faculty of Economics and Management in Sfax, Tunisia. The study focuses on students' (EMSs) classroom conversations and out-of-classroom peer interactions. The analysis of the social motivations of EMSs' CS behaviour shows that…

  16. Distance-independent individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya [Tetraclinis articulata (VAHL. MAST.] stands in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Sghaier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of the work was to develop an individual tree diameter-increment model for Thuya (Tetraclinis articulata in Tunisia.Area of study: The natural Tetraclinis articulata stands at Jbel Lattrech in north-eastern of Tunisia.Material and methods:  Data came from 200 trees located in 50 sample plots. The diameter at age t and the diameter increment for the last five years obtained from cores taken at breast height were measured for each tree. Four difference equations derived from the base functions of Richards, Lundqvist, Hossfeld IV and Weibull were tested using the age-independent formulations of the growth functions. Both numerical and graphical analyses were used to evaluate the performance of the candidate models.Main results: Based on the analysis, the age-independent difference equation derived from the base function Richards model was selected. Two of the three parameters (growth rate and shape parameter of the retained model were related to site quality, represented by a Growth Index, stand density and the basal area in larger trees divided by diameter of the subject tree expressing the inter-tree competition.Research highlights: The proposed model can be useful for predicting the diameter growth of Tetraclinis articulata in Tunisia when age is not available or for trees growing in uneven-aged stands.Keywords: Age-independent growth model; difference equations; Tetraclinis articulata; Tunisia.

  17. Reprint of "Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) from the critically endangered antelope Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boufana, Belgees; Saïd, Yousra; Dhibi, Mokhtar; Craig, Philip S; Lahmar, Samia

    2017-01-01

    Echinococcus granulosus sensu lato (s.l.) is a zoonotic disease highly endemic in Tunisia. Canids including stray and semi-stray dogs, jackals and foxes are known as definitive hosts and a wide range of ungulates have been shown to harbour the metacestode hydatid stage and may serve as intermediate hosts. Fertile hydatid cysts of Echinococcus equinus and E. granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) were recently molecularly identified for the first time from Tunisian donkeys. E. granulosus (s.s.) was also identified from wild boars in Tunisia. Here we report the confirmation of hydatid cysts caused by E. granulosus (s.s.) in the critically endangered antelope, Addax nasomaculatus in Tunisia. DNA-based molecular analysis revealed that A. nasomaculatus was infected with E. granulosus (s.s.) which had a 100% identity with the main globally distributed E. granulosus (s.s.) (EgTu01) haplotype. Cysts of Taenia hydatigena (n=33) were also observed on the liver and in the body cavity. Due to their endangered status and their relatively small numbers, it is unlikely that hydatid infection of A. nasomaculatus will form a major contribution to the epidemiology and transmission of E. granulosus in Tunisia, but infection may result in pathology, morbidity and early mortality, and may still play a role in the perpetuation of the parasite in wildlife cycles. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of global solar radiation to examine the best locations to install a PV system in Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkilani, Kaouther; Ben Othman, Afef; Besbes, Mongi

    2018-02-01

    The study of the solar radiation is the starting point of any investigation for a new energy, to study and search the best location to install a PV system. A very important factor in the assessment of solar potential is the availability of data for global solar radiation that must be coherent and of high quality. In this paper, we analyze the estimation result of the monthly global solar radiation for three different locations, Bizerte in Northern Tunisia, Kairouan in Middle Eastern Tunisia, and Tozeur in Southern Tunisia, measured on the surface by the National Institute of Meteorology and the meteorological year irradiation based on satellite imagery result PVGIS radiation databases. To get the right measurements with minimum error, we propose a numerical model used to calculate the global solar radiation in the indicated three sites. The results show that the model can estimate the global solar radiation (kWh/m²) at a specific station and over most area of Tunisia. The model gives a good estimation for solar radiation where error between the measured values and those calculated are negligible.

  19. Data mining in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharat, Amit T; Singh, Amarjit; Kulkarni, Vilas M; Shah, Digish

    2014-01-01

    Data mining facilitates the study of radiology data in various dimensions. It converts large patient image and text datasets into useful information that helps in improving patient care and provides informative reports. Data mining technology analyzes data within the Radiology Information System and Hospital Information System using specialized software which assesses relationships and agreement in available information. By using similar data analysis tools, radiologists can make informed decisions and predict the future outcome of a particular imaging finding. Data, information and knowledge are the components of data mining. Classes, Clusters, Associations, Sequential patterns, Classification, Prediction and Decision tree are the various types of data mining. Data mining has the potential to make delivery of health care affordable and ensure that the best imaging practices are followed. It is a tool for academic research. Data mining is considered to be ethically neutral, however concerns regarding privacy and legality exists which need to be addressed to ensure success of data mining

  20. VII international district heating conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The proceedings of the 7th International District Heating Conference contain the full texts of the 89 presented papers of which 11 fall under the INIS Subject Scope. The conference met in seven sessions and dealt with the following problem areas: design and optimization of systems of district heating, integration of the power system and the district heating systems, cooperation of nuclear and fossil burning sources in district heating systems, the use of specific nuclear power plants for heating purposes, questions of the control of systems of district heating, the development of components of heating networks, the reliability and design of heat supply pipes. (Z.M.)

  1. Economics of mine water treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořáček, Jaroslav; Vidlář, Jiří; Štěrba, Jiří; Heviánková, Silvie; Vaněk, Michal; Barták, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Mine water poses a significant problem in lignite coal mining. The drainage of mine water is the fundamental prerequisite of mining operations. Under the legislation of the Czech Republic, mine water that discharges into surface watercourse is subject to the permission of the state administration body in the water management sector. The permission also stipulates the limits for mine water pollution. Therefore, mine water has to be purified prior to discharge. Although all...

  2. The flotation tailings of the former Pb-Zn mine of Touiref (NW Tunisia): mineralogy, mine drainage prediction, base-metal speciation assessment and geochemical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othmani, Mohamed Ali; Souissi, Fouad; Bouzahzah, Hassan; Bussière, Bruno; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira; Benzaazoua, Mostafa

    2015-02-01

    The underground extraction of Pb-Zn mineralization in the Touiref area stopped in 1958. A large volume of flotation tailings (more than 500 Mt) containing sulfides were deposited in a tailings impoundment. The goals of this study are to evaluate the neutralization capacity of the unoxidized and oxidized tailings, to assess the speciation of metals between the different components of the tailings material, and to assess the mobility of metals and the secondary minerals' precipitation in pore waters using geochemical modeling. To accomplish these objectives, representative samples from both fresh and oxidized zones were collected along a vertical profile through the tailings pile. Physical, chemical (ICP-MS), and mineralogical characterization (X-ray diffraction (XRD), reflected light microscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM)) of these samples was performed. Grain size analysis shows that the tailings are dominated by silt- to sand-sized fractions. The microscopic observation highlights the presence of pyrite, marcasite, galena, and sphalerite as primary minerals in a carbonated matrix. The study reveals also the presence of secondary minerals represented by cerussite, smithsonite, anglesite, and Fe oxi-hydroxides as important scavengers for trace elements. The static tests show that the presence of calcite in the tailing samples ensures acid-neutralizing capacity (ANC), which is significantly greater than the acidity potential (PA). The geochemical characterization of the unoxidized samples shows higher Cd, Pb, and Zn concentrations than the oxidized samples containing the highest values for Fe and SO4. Sequential extraction tests show that significant percentages of metals are distributed between the acid-soluble fractions (Cd, Pb, and Zn) and the reducible one (Zn). Pore water analysis indicates that Ca is the dominant cation (8,170 and 6,200 mg L(-1), respectively), whereas sulfate is the principal anion (6,900 and 5,100 mg L(-1), respectively). Saturation index (SI) calculations of minerals in pore water extracted from both the oxidized and unoxidized samples are indicative of gypsum (SI >0) and Fe(III) oxides (SI ≫0) precipitation. The latter controls the Fe concentration in solution.

  3. Seismicity induced by mining operations in the surrounding of the uranium ore mine Schlema-Alberoda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallner, Olaf; Hiller, Axel

    2013-01-01

    The uranium mine Schlema-Alberoda of the Wismut GmbH (Chemnitz, Federal Republic of Germany) is situated in the Westerzgebirge between the villages Aue, Schneeberg and Hartenstein. This 22 km 2 large area contains the villages Bad Schlema with the districts Oberschlema, Niederschlema and Wildbach as well as the district Alberode of the village Aue. The most important waters are the Zwickauer Mulde flowing through this territory from the south to the north. This territory can be designated as a densely populated low mountain range landscape being characterized by mining operations for centuries. Subsequently to the year 1945, the former Soviet 'Saxonian mining administration' started the first explorations on uranium ores inter alia in the area around Schneeberg and Schlema. In the year 1946, the intensive exploration and exploitation began in the health resort Oberschlema well-known by the existence of water containing radium. Up to the year 1959, the part deposit Oberschlema was dismantled. The dismantling ranged till to a depth of 750 m. With the expansion of the explorations in north-western direction, in 1948 the first uranium containing corridors of the part deposit Niederschlema-Alberoda was verified. The mining activities began in the year 1949 and culminated in the midst of the 1960ies with an annual production of more than 4,000 tons of uranium. The 1,800 m floor level as the deepest floor level was reached in the year 1986. A total of 49.5 million cubic meters of rocks was dissolved, and a total of 80,500 tons of uranium ores was mined. These were nearly 35% of the total production of the former Soviet-German public limited company Wismut (SDAG Wismut).

  4. Data mining, mining data : energy consumption modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dessureault, S. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2007-09-15

    Most modern mining operations are accumulating large amounts of data on production and business processes. Data, however, provides value only if it can be translated into information that appropriate users can utilize. This paper emphasized that a new technological focus should emerge, notably how to concentrate data into information; analyze information sufficiently to become knowledge; and, act on that knowledge. Researchers at the Mining Information Systems and Operations Management (MISOM) laboratory at the University of Arizona have created a method to transform data into action. The data-to-action approach was exercised in the development of an energy consumption model (ECM), in partnership with a major US-based copper mining company, 2 software companies, and the MISOM laboratory. The approach begins by integrating several key data sources using data warehousing techniques, and increasing the existing level of integration and data cleaning. An online analytical processing (OLAP) cube was also created to investigate the data and identify a subset of several million records. Data mining algorithms were applied using the information that was isolated by the OLAP cube. The data mining results showed that traditional cost drivers of energy consumption are poor predictors. A comparison was made between traditional methods of predicting energy consumption and the prediction formed using data mining. Traditionally, in the mines for which data were available, monthly averages of tons and distance are used to predict diesel fuel consumption. However, this article showed that new information technology can be used to incorporate many more variables into the budgeting process, resulting in more accurate predictions. The ECM helped mine planners improve the prediction of energy use through more data integration, measure development, and workflow analysis. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  5. The Traversella mining site as Piedmont geosite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Emanuele; Benna, Piera; Antonella Dino, Giovanna; Rossetti, Piergiorgio

    2017-04-01

    The multidisciplinary research project PROGEOPiemonte, started in 2012, selected nine strategic geothematic areas that have been and are still investigated as representative of the geodiversity of Piedmont region. The dissemination of the knowledge connected to geological history, climate and environmental changes, natural hazards, soil processes, and georesources, not only of the geosites but also of the museum collections, has been and will be spread, evidencing the mining and quarrying activities, and by means of science exhibits and Nature trails. Among the nine selected geosites, there is the Traversella mining area, object of the present research. Traversella mine is located nearly 50 km north of Torino, and it was (together with the neighbor site of Brosso) one of the most important mining location for iron exploitation. The Traversella orebody was exploited from late medieval age up to the middle XX century. It is a representative contact-metasomatic deposit at the border between granodiorite and preexisting host rocks (micaschists, gneisses and marbles of the Sesia-Lanzo Zone), and the mining district represents the only exploited skarn-type mineralization in the Alps. The iron mineral, exploited from different veins and mass (pertaining to the contact aureola) was primarily magnetite, an iron oxide easy to treat in cast iron even employing the technology locally available before 1900. After the beginning of XX century the extraction involved also pyrite and chalcopyrite (iron and copper-iron sulfide), used mainly for the production of sulfuric acid. The mine, after some interruptions and re-openings, was officially closed in the second half of the XX century, due to the high exploitation costs and the competition of the foreign mine deposits interested by iron extraction. The area still presents several signs of mining and dressing activities (underground pits, explorable under severe restrictions, traces of dressing plant, offices, and miners changing

  6. International developments in uranium mining and mill site remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarch, H.; Kuhlmann, J.; Daroussin, J.L.; Poyser, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    At the end of production, mine sites, mill sites, tailings ponds, heap leaching residues in uranium mining districts world-wide have to be remediated in a responsible and sustainable manner in order to minimize long term environmental impacts. Current practice, regulatory environments and rehabilitation objectives in some of the most important uranium producing countries are briefly characterized as well as applicable radioprotection and geotechnical criteria. Important local and regional variables are outlined which determine optimal site specific solutions. Examples from Europe and North America are shown. Monitoring and control requirements as well as areas of current and necessary research and development are identified

  7. Evaluating the MSG satellite Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimate for extreme rainfall monitoring over northern Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saoussen Dhib

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge and evaluation of extreme precipitation is important for water resources and flood risk management, soil and land degradation, and other environmental issues. Due to the high potential threat to local infrastructure, such as buildings, roads and power supplies, heavy precipitation can have an important social and economic impact on society. At present, satellite derived precipitation estimates are becoming more readily available. This paper aims to investigate the potential use of the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG Multi-Sensor Precipitation Estimate (MPE for extreme rainfall assessment in Tunisia. The MSGMPE data combine microwave rain rate estimations with SEVIRI thermal infrared channel data, using an EUMETSAT production chain in near real time mode. The MPE data can therefore be used in a now-casting mode, and are potentially useful for extreme weather early warning and monitoring. Daily precipitation observed across an in situ gauge network in the north of Tunisia were used during the period 2007–2009 for validation of the MPE extreme event data. As a first test of the MSGMPE product's performance, very light to moderate rainfall classes, occurring between January and October 2007, were evaluated. Extreme rainfall events were then selected, using a threshold criterion for large rainfall depth (>50 mm/day occurring at least at one ground station. Spatial interpolation methods were applied to generate rainfall maps for the drier summer season (from May to October and the wet winter season (from November to April. Interpolated gauge rainfall maps were then compared to MSGMPE data available from the EUMETSAT UMARF archive or from the GEONETCast direct dissemination system. The summation of the MPE data at 5 and/or 15 min time intervals over a 24 h period, provided a basis for comparison. The MSGMPE product was not very effective in the detection of very light and light rain events. Better results were obtained for the slightly

  8. Identification of Social and Environmental Conflicts Resulting from Open-Cast Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górniak-Zimroz, Justyna; Pactwa, Katarzyna

    2016-10-01

    Open-cast mining is related to interference in the natural environment. It also affects human health and quality of life. This influence is, among others, dependent on the type of extracted materials, size of deposit, methods of mining and mineral processing, as well as, equally important, sensitivity of the environment within which mining is planned. The negative effects of mining include deformations of land surface or contamination of soils, air and water. What is more, in many cases, mining for minerals leads to clearing of housing and transport infrastructures located within the mining area, a decrease in values of the properties in the immediate vicinity of a deposit, and an increase in stress levels in local residents exposed to noise. The awareness of negative consequences of taking up open-cast mining activity leads to conflicts between a mining entrepreneur and self-government authorities, society or nongovernment organisations. The article attempts to identify potential social and environmental conflicts that may occur in relation to a planned mining activity. The results of the analyses were interpreted with respect to the deposits which were or have been mined. That enabled one to determine which facilities exclude mineral mining and which allow it. The research took the non-energy mineral resources into consideration which are included in the group of solid minerals located in one of the districts of Lower Silesian Province (SW Poland). The spatial analyses used the tools available in the geographical information systems

  9. Geochemical pollution as a result of ore mining in the Erzgebirge mountains - assessment and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuge, P.; Degner, T.

    2000-01-01

    Mining was, is and will be associated with great influences to the environment. These influences are various in form and extent. In the Ore Mountains, one of the oldest mining districts in Europe, we find a lot of problems due to the mining of various oretypes over several hundred years. The biggest problem is the water pollution by acid mine drainage, another one the enormous land use by tailing dams, pits and dumps. To appraise the degree of water or soil pollution it is necessary to use local higher background values, especially for deposit characteristic elements like arsenic or zinc. Within the mines some types of barriers occur, like the formation of secondary minerals or the precipitation of metal hydroxids. Up to 80% of the primarily mobilised metals can be retarded by these barrier systems. One of the most successful and economical ways to reduce the pollution of the environment caused by mining is to characterise and support such naturally occuring barriers. (orig.)

  10. Collaborative Data Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Steve

    Collaborative Data Mining is a setting where the Data Mining effort is distributed to multiple collaborating agents - human or software. The objective of the collaborative Data Mining effort is to produce solutions to the tackled Data Mining problem which are considered better by some metric, with respect to those solutions that would have been achieved by individual, non-collaborating agents. The solutions require evaluation, comparison, and approaches for combination. Collaboration requires communication, and implies some form of community. The human form of collaboration is a social task. Organizing communities in an effective manner is non-trivial and often requires well defined roles and processes. Data Mining, too, benefits from a standard process. This chapter explores the standard Data Mining process CRISP-DM utilized in a collaborative setting.

  11. Coal mine site reclamation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-02-15

    Coal mine sites can have significant effects on local environments. In addition to the physical disruption of land forms and ecosystems, mining can also leave behind a legacy of secondary detrimental effects due to leaching of acid and trace elements from discarded materials. This report looks at the remediation of both deep mine and opencast mine sites, covering reclamation methods, back-filling issues, drainage and restoration. Examples of national variations in the applicable legislation and in the definition of rehabilitation are compared. Ultimately, mine site rehabilitation should return sites to conditions where land forms, soils, hydrology, and flora and fauna are self-sustaining and compatible with surrounding land uses. Case studies are given to show what can be achieved and how some landscapes can actually be improved as a result of mining activity.

  12. Treating mine water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matlak, E S; Kochegarova, L V; Zaslavskaya, I Yu

    1980-10-01

    Taking into account the negative influence of mine waters with suspended matter on the natural environment on the surface, the maximum treatment of mine water underground, is proposed. It is noted that full treatment of mine water, using conventional filtration methods, would be rather expensive, but a limited treatment of mine water is possible. Such treated mine water can be used in dust suppression and fire fighting systems. Mine water treated underground should be free of any odor, with pH level ranging from 6 to 9.5, with suspended matter content not exceeding 50 mg/l and coli-titre not less than 300 cm$SUP$3. It is suggested that water treatment to produce water characterized by these parameters is possible and economical. Recommendations on construction of underground sedimentation tanks and channels, and a hydraulic system of cleaning sedimentation tanks are proposed. The settling would be stored underground in abandoned workings. (2 refs.) (In Russian)

  13. Treatment of mine-water from decommissioning uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Quanhui

    2002-01-01

    Treatment methods for mine-water from decommissioning uranium mines are introduced and classified. The suggestions on optimal treatment methods are presented as a matter of experience with decommissioned Chenzhou Uranium Mine

  14. Implementation of Paste Backfill Mining Technology in Chinese Coal Mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qingliang; Zhou, Huaqiang; Bai, Jianbiao

    2014-01-01

    Implementation of clean mining technology at coal mines is crucial to protect the environment and maintain balance among energy resources, consumption, and ecology. After reviewing present coal clean mining technology, we introduce the technology principles and technological process of paste backfill mining in coal mines and discuss the components and features of backfill materials, the constitution of the backfill system, and the backfill process. Specific implementation of this technology and its application are analyzed for paste backfill mining in Daizhuang Coal Mine; a practical implementation shows that paste backfill mining can improve the safety and excavation rate of coal mining, which can effectively resolve surface subsidence problems caused by underground mining activities, by utilizing solid waste such as coal gangues as a resource. Therefore, paste backfill mining is an effective clean coal mining technology, which has widespread application. PMID:25258737

  15. A mine of energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallon, M.

    1982-01-01

    In July 1978 the then Union Corporation (which is a wholly-owned Subsidiary of the larger Gencor Group) announced its intention to develop Beisa mine in the Orange Free State. They started up a medium sized uranium mine with gold as a by-product. The main idea was for the processing of uranium. The planning of the uranium recovery plant, the actual mining, and the recovery and extraction of uranium are discussed

  16. Uranium mining in Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scales, M.

    2006-01-01

    The mines of northern Saskatchewan make Canada the worlds leading uranium producer in Canada supplied 29% of global demand, or 11.60 million tonnes of the metal in 2004. Here are two bright ideas - how to mine an orebody by neither pit nor underground method, and how to mine high-grade ore without miners - that Cogema and Cameco are pursuing in the Athabasca Basin

  17. Towards Rare Itemset Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Szathmary , Laszlo; Napoli , Amedeo; Valtchev , Petko

    2007-01-01

    site de la conférence : http://ictai07.ceid.upatras.gr/; International audience; We describe here a general approach for rare itemset mining. While mining literature has been almost exclusively focused on frequent itemsets, in many practical situations rare ones are of higher interest (e.g., in medical databases, rare combinations of symptoms might provide useful insights for the physicians). Based on an examination of the relevant substructures of the mining space, our approach splits the ra...

  18. Partnership in mining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haslam, R

    1988-04-01

    This paper discusses the benefits resulting from mutual cooperation and information exchange between the UK and USA coal industries. The aim of this cooperation is to promote safe and efficient extraction and profitable use of coal. Advanced mining technologies and mechanisation of the coal mines are some of the results of research cooperation between British Coal and the US Bureau of Mines. In addition, Britain has studied and put into good use the management styles, working practices and pay structure, and mining engineering adopted in the USA.

  19. Solution mining economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunkin, G.G.

    1980-01-01

    The field of application of in-situ solution mining of uranium is described and areas of competition with open pit and underground mining identified. The influence of high interest rates and dollar inflation on present values and rate of return is shown to be minimized by low capitalization and short construction lead times typical of in-situ leaching ventures. A scheme of three major project account divisions is presented and basic parameters necessary for mine planning are listed. 1979 cost ranges and useful methods of estimation of capital and operating costs are given for the in-situ uranium mining method

  20. Mining face equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G, Litvinskiy G; Babyuk, G V; Yakovenko, V A

    1981-01-07

    Mining face equipment includes drilling advance wells, drilling using explosives on the contour bore holes, loading and transporting the crushed mass, drilling reinforcement shafts, injecting reinforcement compounds and moving the timber. Camouflet explosives are used to form relaxed rock stress beyond the mining area to decrease costs of reinforcing the mining area by using nonstressed rock in the advance well as support. The strengthening solution is injected through advanced cementing wells before drilling the contour bores as well as through radial cementing wells beyond the timbers following loading and transport of the mining debris. The advance well is 50-80 m.