Tempered stable laws as random walk limits
Chakrabarty, Arijit; Meerschaert, Mark M.
2010-01-01
Stable laws can be tempered by modifying the L\\'evy measure to cool the probability of large jumps. Tempered stable laws retain their signature power law behavior at infinity, and infinite divisibility. This paper develops random walk models that converge to a tempered stable law under a triangular array scheme. Since tempered stable laws and processes are useful in statistical physics, these random walk models can provide a basic physical model for the underlying physical phenomena.
On the joint statistics of stable random processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hopcraft, K I; Jakeman, E
2011-01-01
A utilitarian continuous bi-variate random process whose first-order probability density function is a stable random variable is constructed. Results paralleling some of those familiar from the theory of Gaussian noise are derived. In addition to the joint-probability density for the process, these include fractional moments and structure functions. Although the correlation functions for stable processes other than Gaussian do not exist, we show that there is coherence between values adopted by the process at different times, which identifies a characteristic evolution with time. The distribution of the derivative of the process, and the joint-density function of the value of the process and its derivative measured at the same time are evaluated. These enable properties to be calculated analytically such as level crossing statistics and those related to the random telegraph wave. When the stable process is fractal, the proportion of time it spends at zero is finite and some properties of this quantity are evaluated, an optical interpretation for which is provided. (paper)
MINIMUM ENTROPY DECONVOLUTION OF ONE-AND MULTI-DIMENSIONAL NON-GAUSSIAN LINEAR RANDOM PROCESSES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
程乾生
1990-01-01
The minimum entropy deconvolution is considered as one of the methods for decomposing non-Gaussian linear processes. The concept of peakedness of a system response sequence is presented and its properties are studied. With the aid of the peakedness, the convergence theory of the minimum entropy deconvolution is established. The problem of the minimum entropy deconvolution of multi-dimensional non-Gaussian linear random processes is first investigated and the corresponding theory is given. In addition, the relation between the minimum entropy deconvolution and parameter method is discussed.
Minimum spanning trees and random resistor networks in d dimensions.
Read, N
2005-09-01
We consider minimum-cost spanning trees, both in lattice and Euclidean models, in d dimensions. For the cost of the optimum tree in a box of size L , we show that there is a correction of order L(theta) , where theta or =1 . The arguments all rely on the close relation of Kruskal's greedy algorithm for the minimum spanning tree, percolation, and (for some arguments) random resistor networks. The scaling of the entropy and free energy at small nonzero T , and hence of the number of near-optimal solutions, is also discussed. We suggest that the Steiner tree problem is in the same universality class as the minimum spanning tree in all dimensions, as is the traveling salesman problem in two dimensions. Hence all will have the same value of theta=-3/4 in two dimensions.
25 CFR 547.14 - What are the minimum technical standards for electronic random number generation?
2010-04-01
... random number generation? 547.14 Section 547.14 Indians NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF... CLASS II GAMES § 547.14 What are the minimum technical standards for electronic random number generation...) Unpredictability; and (3) Non-repeatability. (b) Statistical Randomness.(1) Numbers produced by an RNG shall be...
77 FR 75896 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2013
2012-12-26
...-11213, Notice No. 16] Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2013...., Washington, DC 20590, (telephone 202-493- 1342); or Kathy Schnakenberg, FRA Alcohol/Drug Program Specialist... from FRA's Management Information System, the rail industry's random drug testing positive rate has...
75 FR 79308 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2011
2010-12-20
...-11213, Notice No. 14] Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2011... random testing positive rates were .037 percent for drugs and .014 percent for alcohol. Because the... effective December 20, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lamar Allen, Alcohol and Drug Program Manager...
75 FR 1547 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2010
2010-01-12
...-11213, Notice No. 13] RIN 2130-AA81 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing... percent for alcohol. Because the industry-wide random drug testing positive rate has remained below 1.0... effective upon publication. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lamar Allen, Alcohol and Drug Program Manager...
SIMPLE ESTIMATOR AND CONSISTENT STRONGLY OF STABLE DISTRIBUTIONS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cira E. Guevara Otiniano
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Stable distributions are extensively used to analyze earnings of financial assets, such as exchange rates and stock prices assets. In this paper we propose a simple and strongly consistent estimator for the scale parameter of a symmetric stable L´evy distribution. The advantage of this estimator is that your computational time is minimum thus it can be used to initialize intensive computational procedure such as maximum likelihood. With random samples of sized n we tested the efficacy of these estimators by Monte Carlo method. We also included applications for three data sets.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Todinov, M.T.
2004-01-01
A new reliability measure is proposed and equations are derived which determine the probability of existence of a specified set of minimum gaps between random variables following a homogeneous Poisson process in a finite interval. Using the derived equations, a method is proposed for specifying the upper bound of the random variables' number density which guarantees that the probability of clustering of two or more random variables in a finite interval remains below a maximum acceptable level. It is demonstrated that even for moderate number densities the probability of clustering is substantial and should not be neglected in reliability calculations. In the important special case where the random variables are failure times, models have been proposed for determining the upper bound of the hazard rate which guarantees a set of minimum failure-free operating intervals before the random failures, with a specified probability. A model has also been proposed for determining the upper bound of the hazard rate which guarantees a minimum availability target. Using the models proposed, a new strategy, models and reliability tools have been developed for setting quantitative reliability requirements which consist of determining the intersection of the hazard rate envelopes (hazard rate upper bounds) which deliver a minimum failure-free operating period before random failures, a risk of premature failure below a maximum acceptable level and a minimum required availability. It is demonstrated that setting reliability requirements solely based on an availability target does not necessarily mean a low risk of premature failure. Even at a high availability level, the probability of premature failure can be substantial. For industries characterised by a high cost of failure, the reliability requirements should involve a hazard rate envelope limiting the risk of failure below a maximum acceptable level
Shared Care in Monitoring Stable Glaucoma Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Holtzer-Goor, Kim M.; van Vliet, Ellen J.; van Sprundel, Esther; Plochg, Thomas; Koopmanschap, Marc A.; Klazinga, Niek S.; Lemij, Hans G.
2016-01-01
Comparing the quality of care provided by a hospital-based shared care glaucoma follow-up unit with care as usual. This randomized controlled trial included stable glaucoma patients and patients at risk for developing glaucoma. Patients in the Usual Care group (n=410) were seen by glaucoma
76 FR 80781 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2012
2011-12-27
...-11213, Notice No. 15] RIN 2130-AA81 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing...: Lamar Allen, Alcohol and Drug Program Manager, Office of Safety Enforcement, Mail Stop 25, Federal... Kathy Schnakenberg, FRA Alcohol/Drug Program Specialist, (telephone (719) 633-8955). Issued in...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Egstrup, K
1988-01-01
In a randomized double-blind study, treatment with either metoprolol, nifedipine, or their combination was compared for effects on ischemic variables and heart rate obtained during ambulatory monitoring in 42 patients with chronic stable angina. All patients had severe chronic stable angina...... could be detected during nifedipine monotherapy. It is concluded that metoprolol monotherapy, as well as its combination with nifedipine, effectively reduces total ischemic activity compared with placebo and nifedipine monotherapy. Control of ischemic activity in chronic stable angina may have...
78 FR 78275 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2014
2013-12-26
...-11213, Notice No. 17] Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2014... December 26, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jerry Powers, FRA Drug and Alcohol Program Manager, W38...-493-6313); or Sam Noe, FRA Drug and Alcohol Program Specialist, (telephone 615-719- 2951). Issued in...
Numerically Stable Evaluation of Moments of Random Gram Matrices With Applications
Elkhalil, Khalil; Kammoun, Abla; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim
2017-01-01
This paper focuses on the computation of the positive moments of one-side correlated random Gram matrices. Closed-form expressions for the moments can be obtained easily, but numerical evaluation thereof is prone to numerical stability, especially in high-dimensional settings. This letter provides a numerically stable method that efficiently computes the positive moments in closed-form. The developed expressions are more accurate and can lead to higher accuracy levels when fed to moment based-approaches. As an application, we show how the obtained moments can be used to approximate the marginal distribution of the eigenvalues of random Gram matrices.
Numerically Stable Evaluation of Moments of Random Gram Matrices With Applications
Elkhalil, Khalil
2017-07-31
This paper focuses on the computation of the positive moments of one-side correlated random Gram matrices. Closed-form expressions for the moments can be obtained easily, but numerical evaluation thereof is prone to numerical stability, especially in high-dimensional settings. This letter provides a numerically stable method that efficiently computes the positive moments in closed-form. The developed expressions are more accurate and can lead to higher accuracy levels when fed to moment based-approaches. As an application, we show how the obtained moments can be used to approximate the marginal distribution of the eigenvalues of random Gram matrices.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Stankovic
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The distributions of random variables are of interest in many areas of science. In this paper, ascertaining on the importance of multi-hop transmission in contemporary wireless communications systems operating over fading channels in the presence of cochannel interference, the probability density functions (PDFs of minimum of arbitrary number of ratios of Rayleigh, Rician, Nakagami-m, Weibull and α-µ random variables are derived. These expressions can be used to study the outage probability as an important multi-hop system performance measure. Various numerical results complement the proposed mathematical analysis.
Split-plot fractional designs: Is minimum aberration enough?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kulahci, Murat; Ramirez, Jose; Tobias, Randy
2006-01-01
Split-plot experiments are commonly used in industry for product and process improvement. Recent articles on designing split-plot experiments concentrate on minimum aberration as the design criterion. Minimum aberration has been criticized as a design criterion for completely randomized fractional...... factorial design and alternative criteria, such as the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions, are suggested (Wu and Hamada (2000)). The need for alternatives to minimum aberration is even more acute for split-plot designs. In a standard split-plot design, there are several types of two...... for completely randomized designs. Consequently, we provide a modified version of the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions design criterion to be used for split-plot designs....
Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Hong; Yang, Chao; Dai, Jiangyun; Yin, Jiajia; Xue, Hongyan; Feng, Guoying; Zhou, Shouhuan
2018-02-01
Construction of ultra-photo-stable coherent random laser based on liquid waveguide gain channels doped with boehmite nanosheets has been demonstrated. An Al plate uniformly coated with boehmite nanosheets was prepared by an alkali-treatment method and used as a scattering surface for the coherent random laser. Microcavity may be formed between these boehmite nanosheets owing to the strong optical feedback induced by the multiple light scattering. Many sharp peaks are observed in the emission spectra, and their laser thresholds are different, which confirms the feedback mechanism is coherent. The linewidth of the main peak at 571.74 nm is 0.28 nm, and the threshold of the main peak is about 4.96 mJ/cm2. Due to the fluidity of liquid waveguide gain medium, the photostability of this coherent random laser is better than the conventional solid state dye random lasers. The emission direction is well constrained by the waveguide effect within a certain angular range (±30°). This kind of coherent random laser can be applied in optical fluid lasers and photonic devices.
THE COVARIATION FUNCTION FOR SYMMETRIC &ALPHA;-STABLE RANDOM VARIABLES WITH FINITE FIRST MOMENTS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dedi Rosadi
2012-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we discuss a generalized dependence measure which is designed to measure dependence of two symmetric α-stable random variables with finite mean(1<α<=2 and contains the covariance function as the special case (when α=2. Weshortly discuss some basic properties of the function and consider several methods to estimate the function and further investigate the numerical properties of the estimatorusing the simulated data. We show how to apply this function to measure dependence of some stock returns on the composite index LQ45 in Indonesia Stock Exchange.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brodsky, A.
1985-01-01
An approach to defining minimum detectable amount (MDA) of radioactivity in a sample will be discussed, with the aim of obtaining comments helpful in developing a formulation of MDA that will be broadly applicable to all kinds of radiobioassay measurements, and acceptable to the scientists who make these measurements. Also, the influence of random and systematic errors on the defined MDA are examined
Solid phase stability of a double-minimum interaction potential system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suematsu, Ayumi; Yoshimori, Akira; Saiki, Masafumi; Matsui, Jun; Odagaki, Takashi
2014-01-01
We study phase stability of a system with double-minimum interaction potential in a wide range of parameters by a thermodynamic perturbation theory. The present double-minimum potential is the Lennard-Jones-Gauss potential, which has a Gaussian pocket as well as a standard Lennard-Jones minimum. As a function of the depth and position of the Gaussian pocket in the potential, we determine the coexistence pressure of crystals (fcc and bcc). We show that the fcc crystallizes even at zero pressure when the position of the Gaussian pocket is coincident with the first or third nearest neighbor site of the fcc crystal. The bcc crystal is more stable than the fcc crystal when the position of the Gaussian pocket is coincident with the second nearest neighbor sites of the bcc crystal. The stable crystal structure is determined by the position of the Gaussian pocket. These results show that we can control the stability of the solid phase by tuning the potential function
Calcipotriol versus coal tar: a prospective randomized study in stable plaque psoriasis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharma, V.; Kaur, I.; Kumar, B. [Postgraduate Institute of Medicinal Education & Research, Chandigarh (India)
2003-10-01
Topical therapies are the first line of treatment for patients with stable plaque psoriasis (SPP) affecting a limited body surface area. Very few trials comparing newer agents, such as 0.005% topical calcipotriol, with conventional modes of therapy, such as coal tar ointment, have been reported. A prospective, right-left randomized, investigator-blinded study with a 12-week treatment period and an 8-week follow-up period was performed. It was found that 0.005% calcipotriol ointment produced a faster initial response and had better cosmetic acceptability in patients, although after a long period of treatment, i.e. 12 weeks, 5% coal tar ointment had comparable efficacy. There was no statistically significant difference in the relapse rates between the two modalities.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matthews, J O; Hopcraft, K I; Jakeman, E [Applied Mathematics Division, School of Mathematical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom)
2003-11-21
Some properties of classical population processes that comprise births, deaths and multiple immigrations are investigated. The rates at which the immigrants arrive can be tailored to produce a population whose steady state fluctuations are described by a pre-selected distribution. Attention is focused on the class of distributions with a discrete stable law, which have power-law tails and whose moments and autocorrelation function do not exist. The separate problem of monitoring and characterizing the fluctuations is studied, analysing the statistics of individuals that leave the population. The fluctuations in the size of the population are transferred to the times between emigrants that form an intermittent time series of events. The emigrants are counted with a detector of finite dynamic range and response time. This is modelled through clipping the time series or saturating it at an arbitrary but finite level, whereupon its moments and correlation properties become finite. Distributions for the time to the first counted event and for the time between events exhibit power-law regimes that are characteristic of the fluctuations in population size. The processes provide analytical models with which properties of complex discrete random phenomena can be explored, and in addition provide generic means by which random time series encompassing a wide range of intermittent and other discrete random behaviour may be generated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matthews, J O; Hopcraft, K I; Jakeman, E
2003-01-01
Some properties of classical population processes that comprise births, deaths and multiple immigrations are investigated. The rates at which the immigrants arrive can be tailored to produce a population whose steady state fluctuations are described by a pre-selected distribution. Attention is focused on the class of distributions with a discrete stable law, which have power-law tails and whose moments and autocorrelation function do not exist. The separate problem of monitoring and characterizing the fluctuations is studied, analysing the statistics of individuals that leave the population. The fluctuations in the size of the population are transferred to the times between emigrants that form an intermittent time series of events. The emigrants are counted with a detector of finite dynamic range and response time. This is modelled through clipping the time series or saturating it at an arbitrary but finite level, whereupon its moments and correlation properties become finite. Distributions for the time to the first counted event and for the time between events exhibit power-law regimes that are characteristic of the fluctuations in population size. The processes provide analytical models with which properties of complex discrete random phenomena can be explored, and in addition provide generic means by which random time series encompassing a wide range of intermittent and other discrete random behaviour may be generated
Zhang, Zhe; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Yang; Du, Yi; Zhang, Huiyong; Kong, Dezhao; Liu, Yue; Yang, Guanlin
2014-10-30
Stable angina pectoris is experienced as trans-sternal or retro-sternal pressure or pain that may radiate to the left arm, neck or back. Although available evidence relating to its effectiveness and mechanism are weak, traditional Chinese medicine is used as an alternative therapy for stable angina pectoris. We report a protocol of a randomized controlled trial using traditional Chinese medicine to investigate the effectiveness, mechanism and safety for patients with stable angina pectoris. This is a north-east Chinese, multi-center, multi-blinded, placebo-controlled and superiority randomized trail. A total of 240 patients with stable angina pectoris will be randomly assigned to three groups: two treatment groups and a control group. The treatment groups will receive Chinese herbal medicine consisting of Yi-Qi-Jian-Pi and Qu-Tan-Hua-Zhuo granule and Yi-Qi-Jian-Pi and Qu-Tan-Hua-Yu granule, respectively, and conventional medicine. The control group will receive placebo medicine in addition to conventional medicine. All 3 groups will undergo a 12-week treatment and 2-week follow-up. Four visits in sum will be scheduled for each subject: 1 visit each in week 0, week 4, week 12 and week 14. The primary outcomes include: the frequency of angina pectoris attack; the dosage of nitroglycerin; body limited dimension of Seattle Angina Questionnaire. The secondary outcomes include: except for the body limited dimension of SAQ, traditional Chinese medicine pattern questionnaire and so on. Therapeutic mechanism outcomes, safety outcomes and endpoint outcomes will be also assessed. The primary aim of this trial is to develop a standard protocol to utilize high-quality EBM evidence for assessing the effectiveness and safety of SAP via TCM pattern differentiation as well as exploring the efficacy mechanism and regulation with the molecular biology and systems biology. ChiCTR-TRC-13003608, registered 18 June 2013.
Peng, Song; Zhao, Min; Wan, Jing; Fang, Qi; Fang, Dong; Li, Kaiyong
2014-12-20
This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficacy of trimetazidine in combination with other anti-anginal drugs versus other anti-anginal drugs in the treatment of stable angina pectoris (SAP). Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published in English and Chinese were retrieved from computerized databases: Embase, PubMed, and CNKI. Primary outcomes consist of clinical parameters (numbers of weekly angina attacks and nitroglycerin use) and ergometric parameters (time to 1mm ST-segment depression, and total work (in Mets) and exercise duration (in seconds) at peak exercise) in stable angina pectoris treated by trimetazidine or not. The quality of studies was evaluated using Jadad score. Data analysis of 13 studies was performed using Stata 12.0 software. Results showed that treatment of trimetazidine and other anti-anginal drugs was associated with a smaller weekly mean number of angina attacks (WMD=-0.95, 95%CI: -1.30 to -0.61, Z=5.39, Pangina pectoris. Sensitivity analysis was performed. Sub-group analysis showed that treatment duration was not a significant moderator and patients treated within 8 weeks and above 12 weeks had no difference in the outcomes addressed in this meta-analysis. No publish bias was detected. This meta-analysis confirms the efficacy of trimetazidine in the treatment of stable angina pectoris, in comparison with conventional antianginal agents, regardless of treatment duration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
A method for minimum risk portfolio optimization under hybrid uncertainty
Egorova, Yu E.; Yazenin, A. V.
2018-03-01
In this paper, we investigate a minimum risk portfolio model under hybrid uncertainty when the profitability of financial assets is described by fuzzy random variables. According to Feng, the variance of a portfolio is defined as a crisp value. To aggregate fuzzy information the weakest (drastic) t-norm is used. We construct an equivalent stochastic problem of the minimum risk portfolio model and specify the stochastic penalty method for solving it.
Gao, Jian-Wei; Gao, Xue-Min; Zou, Ting; Zhao, Tian-Meng; Wang, Dong-Hua; Wu, Zong-Gui; Ren, Chang-Jie; Wang, Xing; Geng, Nai-Zhi; Zhao, Ming-Jun; Liang, Qiu-Ming; Feng, Xing; Yang, Bai-Song; Shi, Jun-Ling; Hua, Qi
2018-03-01
To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Xinling Wan on patients with stable angina pectoris, a randomized, double-blinded, placebo parallel-controlled, multicenter clinical trial was conducted. A total of 232 subjects were enrolled and randomly divided into experiment group and placebo group. The experiment group was treated with Xinling Wan (two pills each time, three times daily) for 4 weeks, and the placebo group was treated with placebo. The effectiveness evaluation showed that Xinling Wan could significantly increase the total duration of treadmill exercise among patients with stable angina pectoris. FAS analysis showed that the difference value of the total exercise duration was between experiment group (72.11±139.32) s and placebo group (31.25±108.32) s. Xinling Wan could remarkably increase the total effective rate of angina pectoris symptom score, and the analysis showed that the total effective rate was 78.95% in experiment group and 42.61% in placebo group. The reduction of nitroglycerin dose was (2.45±2.41) tablets in experiment group and (0.50±2.24) tablets in placebo group on the basis of FAS analysis. The decrease of symptom integral was (4.68±3.49) in experiment group and (3.19±3.31) in placebo group based on FAS analysis. Besides, Xinling Wan could decrease the weekly attack time and the duration of angina pectoris. PPS analysis results were similar to those of FAS analysis. In conclusion, Xinling Wan has an obvious therapeutic effect in treating stable angina pectoris, with a good safety and a low incidence of adverse event and adverse reaction in experiment group. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.
Output Feedback Adaptive Control of Non-Minimum Phase Systems Using Optimal Control Modification
Nguyen, Nhan; Hashemi, Kelley E.; Yucelen, Tansel; Arabi, Ehsan
2018-01-01
This paper describes output feedback adaptive control approaches for non-minimum phase SISO systems with relative degree 1 and non-strictly positive real (SPR) MIMO systems with uniform relative degree 1 using the optimal control modification method. It is well-known that the standard model-reference adaptive control (MRAC) cannot be used to control non-SPR plants to track an ideal SPR reference model. Due to the ideal property of asymptotic tracking, MRAC attempts an unstable pole-zero cancellation which results in unbounded signals for non-minimum phase SISO systems. The optimal control modification can be used to prevent the unstable pole-zero cancellation which results in a stable adaptation of non-minimum phase SISO systems. However, the tracking performance using this approach could suffer if the unstable zero is located far away from the imaginary axis. The tracking performance can be recovered by using an observer-based output feedback adaptive control approach which uses a Luenberger observer design to estimate the state information of the plant. Instead of explicitly specifying an ideal SPR reference model, the reference model is established from the linear quadratic optimal control to account for the non-minimum phase behavior of the plant. With this non-minimum phase reference model, the observer-based output feedback adaptive control can maintain stability as well as tracking performance. However, in the presence of the mismatch between the SPR reference model and the non-minimum phase plant, the standard MRAC results in unbounded signals, whereas a stable adaptation can be achieved with the optimal control modification. An application of output feedback adaptive control for a flexible wing aircraft illustrates the approaches.
Arrow, Peter; Klobas, Elizabeth
2015-12-01
A pragmatic randomized control trial was undertaken to compare the minimum intervention dentistry (MID) approach, based on the atraumatic restorative treatment procedures (MID-ART: Test), against the standard care approach (Control) to treat early childhood caries in a primary care setting. Consenting parent/child dyads were allocated to the Test or Control group using stratified block randomization. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied. Participants were examined at baseline and at follow-up by two calibrated examiners blind to group allocation status (κ = 0.77), and parents completed a questionnaire at baseline and follow-up. Dental therapists trained in MID-ART provided treatment to the Test group and dentists treated the Control group using standard approaches. The primary outcome of interest was the number of children who were referred for specialist pediatric care. Secondary outcomes were the number of teeth treated, changes in child oral health-related quality of life and dental anxiety and parental perceptions of care received. Data were analyzed on an intention to treat basis; risk ratio for referral for specialist care, test of proportions, Wilcoxon rank test and logistic regression were used. Three hundred and seventy parents/carers were initially screened; 273 children were examined at baseline and 254 were randomized (Test = 127; Control = 127): mean age = 3.8 years, SD 0.90; 59% male, mean dmft = 4.9, SD 4.0. There was no statistically significant difference in age, sex, baseline caries experience or child oral health-related quality of life between the Test and Control group. At follow-up (mean interval 11.4 months, SD 3.1 months), 220 children were examined: Test = 115, Control = 105. Case-notes review of 231 children showed Test = 6 (5%) and Control = 53 (49%) were referred for specialist care, P < 0.0001. More teeth were filled in the Test group (mean = 2.93, SD 2.48) than in the Control group (mean = 1.54, SD
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiong Gang; Sun Zhouzhou; Wang Xiangrong
2007-01-01
We generalize a simple model for superlattices to include the effect of differential capacitance. It is shown that the model always has a stable steady-state solution (SSS) if all differential capacitances are positive. On the other hand, when negative differential capacitance is included, the model can have no stable SSS and be in a self-sustained current oscillation behavior. Therefore, we find a possible minimum toy model with both negative differential resistance and negative differential capacitance which can include the phenomena of both self-sustained current oscillation and I-V oscillation of stable SSSs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xin Ma
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The prediction of RNA-binding proteins is one of the most challenging problems in computation biology. Although some studies have investigated this problem, the accuracy of prediction is still not sufficient. In this study, a highly accurate method was developed to predict RNA-binding proteins from amino acid sequences using random forests with the minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR method, followed by incremental feature selection (IFS. We incorporated features of conjoint triad features and three novel features: binding propensity (BP, nonbinding propensity (NBP, and evolutionary information combined with physicochemical properties (EIPP. The results showed that these novel features have important roles in improving the performance of the predictor. Using the mRMR-IFS method, our predictor achieved the best performance (86.62% accuracy and 0.737 Matthews correlation coefficient. High prediction accuracy and successful prediction performance suggested that our method can be a useful approach to identify RNA-binding proteins from sequence information.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwee, Regina
2010-01-01
Since the restart of the LHC in November 2009, ATLAS has collected inelastic pp collisions to perform first measurements on charged particle densities. These measurements will help to constrain various models describing phenomenologically soft parton interactions. Understanding the trigger efficiencies for different event types are therefore crucial to minimize any possible bias in the event selection. ATLAS uses two main minimum bias triggers, featuring complementary detector components and trigger levels. While a hardware based first trigger level situated in the forward regions with 2.2 < |η| < 3.8 has been proven to select pp-collisions very efficiently, the Inner Detector based minimum bias trigger uses a random seed on filled bunches and central tracking detectors for the event selection. Both triggers were essential for the analysis of kinematic spectra of charged particles. Their performance and trigger efficiency measurements as well as studies on possible bias sources will be presented. We also highlight the advantage of these triggers for particle correlation analyses. (author)
Stability of the minimum of a SO(N)-invariant Higgs potential with reducible Higgs fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thornburg, R.J.
1986-01-01
The present work takes up the problem of finding the absolute minimum of a SO(N)-invariant Higgs potential for the reducible representation of Higgs fields consisting of the antisymmetric (A) and symmetric (S) traceless second-rank tensors. The stability of the minimum under changes on the potential's parameters is also investigated. Potentials containing S alone, both A and S coupled by a positive semi-definite term are minimized. Eigenstates of the Higgs mass matrix are calculated and related to the behavior of the SO(N)-action. Previous results relying on the absence of pseudo-Goldstone models and a new application of the geometry of the action show that the minimum is stable under small changes of the parameters. It is thus stable in an open region of the full eleven-dimensional parameter space of the most general potential of its kind. The isotropy group of the minimum is found to be either SO(N-p) x SO(p-2) x SO(2) or U({N-p}/2) x U(p/2), and the relative magnitudes of the vacuum expectation values of A and S are not constrained. For SO(10), U(3) x U(2) contains the standard model. One-loop Renormalization Group β-functions are calculated for all parameters of the model
Newell, Felicia D; Williams, Patricia L; Watt, Cynthia G
2014-05-09
This paper aims to assess the affordability of a nutritious diet for households earning minimum wage in Nova Scotia (NS) from 2002 to 2012 using an economic simulation that includes food costing and secondary data. The cost of the National Nutritious Food Basket (NNFB) was assessed with a stratified, random sample of grocery stores in NS during six time periods: 2002, 2004/2005, 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2012. The NNFB's cost was factored into affordability scenarios for three different household types relying on minimum wage earnings: a household of four; a lone mother with three children; and a lone man. Essential monthly living expenses were deducted from monthly net incomes using methods that were standardized from 2002 to 2012 to determine whether adequate funds remained to purchase a basic nutritious diet across the six time periods. A 79% increase to the minimum wage in NS has resulted in a decrease in the potential deficit faced by each household scenario in the period examined. However, the household of four and the lone mother with three children would still face monthly deficits ($44.89 and $496.77, respectively, in 2012) if they were to purchase a nutritiously sufficient diet. As a social determinant of health, risk of food insecurity is a critical public health issue for low wage earners. While it is essential to increase the minimum wage in the short term, adequately addressing income adequacy in NS and elsewhere requires a shift in thinking from a focus on minimum wage towards more comprehensive policies ensuring an adequate livable income for everyone.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Przemyslaw Kardas
2007-05-01
Full Text Available Przemyslaw KardasThe First Department of Family Medicine, Medical University of LodzBackground: A randomized, controlled trial was conducted in an outpatient setting to examine the effect of beta-blocker dosing frequency on patient compliance, clinical outcome, and health-related quality of life in patients with stable angina pectoris.Methods: One hundred and twelve beta-blockers-naive outpatients with stable angina pectoris were randomized to receive betaxolol, 20 mg once daily or metoprolol tartrate, 50 mg twice daily for 8 weeks. The principal outcome measure was overall compliance measured electronically, whereas secondary outcome measures were drug effectiveness and health-related quality of life.Results: The overall compliance was 86.5 ± 21.3% in the betaxolol group versus 76.1 ± 26.3% in the metoprolol group (p < 0.01, and the correct number of doses was taken on 84.4 ± 21.6% and 64.0 ± 31.7% of treatment days, respectively (p < 0.0001. The percentage of missed doses was 14.5 ± 21.5% in the once-daily group and 24.8 ± 26.4% in the twice-daily group (p < 0.01. The percentage of doses taken in the correct time window (58.6% vs 42.0%, p = 0.01, correct interdose intervals (77.4% v 53.1%, p < 0.0001, and therapeutic coverage (85.6% vs 73.7%, p < 0.001 were significantly higher in the once-daily group. Both studied drugs had similar antianginal effectiveness. Health-related quality of life improved in both groups, but this increase was more pronounced in the betaxolol arm in some dimensions.Conclusions: The study demonstrates that patient compliance with once-daily betaxolol is significantly better than with twice daily metoprolol. Similarly, this treatment provides better quality of life. These results demonstrate possible therapeutic advantages of once-daily over twice-daily beta-blockers in the treatment of stable angina pectoris.Keywords: patient compliance, quality of life, stable angina pectoris, randomized controlled trial
Very early feeding in stable small for gestational age preterm infants: a randomized clinical trial.
Arnon, Shmuel; Sulam, Daniella; Konikoff, Fred; Regev, Rivka H; Litmanovitz, Ita; Naftali, Timna
2013-01-01
To examine the effect of initiating very early feeding on time-to-reach full feeding in stable, small for gestational age (SGA) preterm infants. Preterm infants with gestational age below 37 weeks and birth weight below the 10(th) percentile were randomly allocated to a very early (within 24 hours of birth) feeding regimen or delayed (after 24 hours of birth) feeding. All infants had in utero evidence of absent or reverse diastolic flow. Infants unable to start early feeding were excluded. Time-to-reach full feeding, feeding progression, and related morbidity were compared. Electrogastrography (EGG) was used to measure pre- and postprandial gastric motility on the second and seventh day after feeding initiation. Sixty infants were included in the study, 30 in each group. Infants included in the very early feeding regimen achieved full enteral feeding sooner than controls (98±80-157 vs. 172±123-261 hours of age, respectively; p= 0.004) and were discharged home earlier (p=0.04). No necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) was documented in both study groups. Gastric motility was improved at day seven after feeding initiation in both study groups, with no difference between groups. Stable SGA preterm infants on a very early feeding regimen achieved full enteral feeding and were discharged home significantly earlier than those on a delayed regimen, with no excess morbidity. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Uribe, Brandon P; Coburn, Jared W; Brown, Lee E; Judelson, Daniel A; Khamoui, Andy V; Nguyen, Diamond
2010-04-01
The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a stable surface (bench) vs. an unstable surface (Swiss ball) on muscle activation when performing the dumbbell chest press and shoulder press. Sixteen healthy men (24.19 +/- 2.17 years) performed 1 repetition maximum (1RM) tests for the chest press and shoulder press on a stable surface. A minimum of 48 hours post 1RM, subjects returned to perform 3 consecutive repetitions each of the chest press and shoulder press at 80% 1RM under 4 different randomized conditions (chest press on bench, chest press on Swiss ball, shoulder press on bench, shoulder press on Swiss ball). Electromyography was used to assess muscle activation of the anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, and rectus abdominus. The results revealed no significant difference in muscle activation between surface types for either exercise. This suggests that using an unstable surface neither improves nor impairs muscle activation under the current conditions. Coaches and other practitioners can expect similar muscle activation when using a Swiss ball vs. a bench.
Investigation on the minimum film boiling temperature on metallic and ceramic heaters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ladisch, R.
1980-06-01
The minimum film boiling temperature on ceramic and metallic heaters has been experimentally studied. The knowledge of this temperature boundary is important in safety considerations on all liquid cooled nuclear reactors. The experiments have been carried out by quenching a hot metal cylinder with and without ceramic coating of aluminium in water. Results show that the minimum film boiling temperature Tsub(min) increases with water subcooling and is dependend upon the thermophysical properties of the heating surface. The roughness of the heater does not affect Tsub(min). At low subcoolings the vapour film is more stable and seems to break down when the specific heatflux upon liquid solid contact is lower than a threshold value above which film boiling can be reestablished. At higher subcoolings instead the vapour film is thinner and more stable. In this case the surface temperature decreases beyond the value by which the specific heatflux upon liquid solid contact would be lower than the threshold value. As soon as the vapour film becomes unstable, it collapses. (orig.) [de
Nagaev, Alexander; Zaigraev, Alexander
2005-01-01
A class of absolutely continuous distributions in Rd is considered. Each distribution belongs to the domain of normal attraction of an α-stable law. The limit law is characterized by a spectral measure which is absolutely continuous with respect to the spherical Lebesgue measure. The large-deviation problem for sums of independent and identically distributed random vectors when the underlying distribution belongs to that class is studied. At the focus of attention are the deviations in the di...
Tijs, S.H.; Moretti, S.; Brânzei, R.; Norde, H.W.
2005-01-01
A new way is presented to define for minimum cost spanning tree (mcst-) games the irreducible core, which is introduced by Bird in 1976.The Bird core correspondence turns out to have interesting monotonicity and additivity properties and each stable cost monotonic allocation rule for mcst-problems
Stable and efficient retrospective 4D-MRI using non-uniformly distributed quasi-random numbers
Breuer, Kathrin; Meyer, Cord B.; Breuer, Felix A.; Richter, Anne; Exner, Florian; Weng, Andreas M.; Ströhle, Serge; Polat, Bülent; Jakob, Peter M.; Sauer, Otto A.; Flentje, Michael; Weick, Stefan
2018-04-01
The purpose of this work is the development of a robust and reliable three-dimensional (3D) Cartesian imaging technique for fast and flexible retrospective 4D abdominal MRI during free breathing. To this end, a non-uniform quasi random (NU-QR) reordering of the phase encoding (k y –k z ) lines was incorporated into 3D Cartesian acquisition. The proposed sampling scheme allocates more phase encoding points near the k-space origin while reducing the sampling density in the outer part of the k-space. Respiratory self-gating in combination with SPIRiT-reconstruction is used for the reconstruction of abdominal data sets in different respiratory phases (4D-MRI). Six volunteers and three patients were examined at 1.5 T during free breathing. Additionally, data sets with conventional two-dimensional (2D) linear and 2D quasi random phase encoding order were acquired for the volunteers for comparison. A quantitative evaluation of image quality versus scan times (from 70 s to 626 s) for the given sampling schemes was obtained by calculating the normalized mutual information (NMI) for all volunteers. Motion estimation was accomplished by calculating the maximum derivative of a signal intensity profile of a transition (e.g. tumor or diaphragm). The 2D non-uniform quasi-random distribution of phase encoding lines in Cartesian 3D MRI yields more efficient undersampling patterns for parallel imaging compared to conventional uniform quasi-random and linear sampling. Median NMI values of NU-QR sampling are the highest for all scan times. Therefore, within the same scan time 4D imaging could be performed with improved image quality. The proposed method allows for the reconstruction of motion artifact reduced 4D data sets with isotropic spatial resolution of 2.1 × 2.1 × 2.1 mm3 in a short scan time, e.g. 10 respiratory phases in only 3 min. Cranio-caudal tumor displacements between 23 and 46 mm could be observed. NU-QR sampling enables for stable 4D
Zhang, Jing; Song, Yuan-lin; Bai, Chun-xue
2013-01-01
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common disease that leads to huge economic and social burden. Efficient and effective management of stable COPD is essential to improve quality of life and reduce medical expenditure. The Internet of Things (IoT), a recent breakthrough in communication technology, seems promising in improving health care delivery, but its potential strengths in COPD management remain poorly understood. We have developed a mobile phone-based IoT (mIoT) platform and initiated a randomized, multicenter, controlled trial entitled the ‘MIOTIC study’ to investigate the influence of mIoT among stable COPD patients. In the MIOTIC study, at least 600 patients with stable GOLD group C or D COPD and with a history of at least two moderate-to-severe exacerbations within the previous year will be randomly allocated to the control group, which receives routine follow-up, or the intervention group, which receives mIoT management. Endpoints of the study include (1) frequency and severity of acute exacerbation; (2) symptomatic evaluation; (3) pre- and post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) measurement; (4) exercise capacity; and (5) direct medical cost per year. Results from this study should provide direct evidence for the suitability of mIoT in stable COPD patient management. PMID:24082784
Zhang, Jing; Song, Yuan-Lin; Bai, Chun-Xue
2013-01-01
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common disease that leads to huge economic and social burden. Efficient and effective management of stable COPD is essential to improve quality of life and reduce medical expenditure. The Internet of Things (IoT), a recent breakthrough in communication technology, seems promising in improving health care delivery, but its potential strengths in COPD management remain poorly understood. We have developed a mobile phone-based IoT (mIoT) platform and initiated a randomized, multicenter, controlled trial entitled the 'MIOTIC study' to investigate the influence of mIoT among stable COPD patients. In the MIOTIC study, at least 600 patients with stable GOLD group C or D COPD and with a history of at least two moderate-to-severe exacerbations within the previous year will be randomly allocated to the control group, which receives routine follow-up, or the intervention group, which receives mIoT management. Endpoints of the study include (1) frequency and severity of acute exacerbation; (2) symptomatic evaluation; (3) pre- and post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) measurement; (4) exercise capacity; and (5) direct medical cost per year. Results from this study should provide direct evidence for the suitability of mIoT in stable COPD patient management.
Connectivity ranking of heterogeneous random conductivity models
Rizzo, C. B.; de Barros, F.
2017-12-01
To overcome the challenges associated with hydrogeological data scarcity, the hydraulic conductivity (K) field is often represented by a spatial random process. The state-of-the-art provides several methods to generate 2D or 3D random K-fields, such as the classic multi-Gaussian fields or non-Gaussian fields, training image-based fields and object-based fields. We provide a systematic comparison of these models based on their connectivity. We use the minimum hydraulic resistance as a connectivity measure, which it has been found to be strictly correlated with early time arrival of dissolved contaminants. A computationally efficient graph-based algorithm is employed, allowing a stochastic treatment of the minimum hydraulic resistance through a Monte-Carlo approach and therefore enabling the computation of its uncertainty. The results show the impact of geostatistical parameters on the connectivity for each group of random fields, being able to rank the fields according to their minimum hydraulic resistance.
Sheikhmoonesi, Fatemeh; Zarghami, Mehran; Mamashli, Shima; Yazdani Charati, Jamshid; Hamzehpour, Romina; Fattahi, Samineh; Azadbakht, Rahil; Kashi, Zahra; Ala, Shahram; Moshayedi, Mona; Alinia, Habibollah; Hendouei, Narjes
2016-01-01
In this study, the aim was to determine whether adding vitamin D to the standard therapeutic regimen of schizophrenic male patients with inadequate vitamin D status could improve some aspects of the symptom burden or not. This study was an open parallel label randomized clinical trial. Eighty patients with chronic stable schizophrenia with residual symptoms and Vitamin D deficiency were recruited randomly and then received either 600000 IU Vitamin D injection once along with their antipsychotic regimen or with their antipsychotic regimen only. Serum vitamin D was measured twice: first at the baseline and again on the fourth month. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was assessed at the baseline and on the fourth month. During the study, the vitamin D serum changes in vitamin group and control group were 22.1 ± 19.9(95%CI = 15.9-28.8) and 0.2 ± 1.7(95%CI = 0.2-0.8) (ng/mL) (pvitamin D and control group respectively (p=0.5). The changes of PANSS negative subscale score (N) were -0.1 ± 0.7 (95%CI = -0.3-0.05) and -0.1 ± 0.5 (95%CI = -0.2-0.04) in vitamin D and control group respectively (p = 0.7) and there was a negative but not significant correlation between serum vitamin D level changes and PANSS negative subscale score (r = -0.04, p = 0.7). We did not find a relationship between serum vitamin D level changes and the improvement of negative and positive symptoms in schizophrenic patients and more randomized clinical trials are required to confirm our findings.
Ebisawa, Soichiro; Kurita, Tairo; Tanaka, Nobuyoshi; Nasu, Kenya; Kimura, Masashi; Ito, Tatsuya; Kinoshita, Yoshihisa; Tsuchikane, Etsuo; Terashima, Mitsuyasu; Suzuki, Takahiko
2016-01-01
Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is an important complication following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The clinical importance of a minimum contrast media volume (CMV) for PCI to prevent CIN has not been well evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of minimum CMV to prevent CIN after PCI. In this study, 2052 consecutive patients who underwent elective PCI in our institute were analyzed. We divided patients into two groups according to CMV: a minimum CMV PCI group [CMV ≤50 ml (n = 94)] and a non-minimum CMV PCI group [CMV >50 ml (n = 1958)]. CIN occurred in 160 (7.8 %) patients. The incidence of CIN was significantly lower in the minimum CMV PCI group than in the non-minimum CMV PCI group (2.1 vs. 8.1 %; P = 0.03). According to multivariate analysis, elderly patients and diabetes mellitus patients were at high risk of developing CIN in this study population. When analyzing only high-risk patients, the incidence of CIN was also significantly lower in the minimum CMV group than in the non-minimum CMV group (2.6 vs. 10.3 %; P = 0.03). Minimum CMV PCI could reduce the incidence of CIN, particularly in high-risk patients; as such, defining the minimum CMV clinical cut-off values may be useful for the prevention of CIN.
Nonlinear density waves in a marginally stable gravitating disk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korchagin, V.I.
1986-01-01
The evolution of short nonlinear density waves in a disk at the stability limit is studied for arbitrary values of the radial wave number k/sub r/. For waves with wave numbers that do not lie at the minimum of the dispersion curve, the behavior of the amplitude is described by a nonlinear parabolic equation; however, stationary soliton solutions cannot exist in such a system since there is no dispersion spreading of a packet. For wave numbers lying at the minimum of the dispersion curve, soliton structures with determined amplitude are possible. In stable gravitating disks and in a disk at the stability limit, two physically different types of soliton can exist
A parallel approach to the stable marriage problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Jesper
1997-01-01
This paper describes two parallel algorithms for the stable marriage problem implemented on a MIMD parallel computer. The algorithms are tested against sequential algorithms on randomly generated and worst-case instances. The results clearly show that the combination fo a very simple problem...... and a commercial MIMD system results in parallel algorithms which are not competitive with sequential algorithms wrt. practical performance. 1 Introduction In 1962 the Stable Marriage Problem was....
Portfolio optimization and the random magnet problem
Rosenow, B.; Plerou, V.; Gopikrishnan, P.; Stanley, H. E.
2002-08-01
Diversification of an investment into independently fluctuating assets reduces its risk. In reality, movements of assets are mutually correlated and therefore knowledge of cross-correlations among asset price movements are of great importance. Our results support the possibility that the problem of finding an investment in stocks which exposes invested funds to a minimum level of risk is analogous to the problem of finding the magnetization of a random magnet. The interactions for this "random magnet problem" are given by the cross-correlation matrix C of stock returns. We find that random matrix theory allows us to make an estimate for C which outperforms the standard estimate in terms of constructing an investment which carries a minimum level of risk.
Li, Jing; Zhang, Zhong-ping; Li, Chun-wang
2018-03-01
This paper modified an Armstrong-Frederick-type plasticity model for investigating the stable cyclic deformation behavior of metallic materials with different sensitivity to nonproportional loadings. In the modified model, the nonproportionality factor and nonproportional cyclic hardening coefficient coupled with the Jiang-Sehitoglu incremental plasticity model were used to estimate the stable stress-strain responses of the two materials (1045HR steel and 304 stainless steel) under various tension-torsion strain paths. A new equation was proposed to calculate the nonproportionality factor on the basis of the minimum normal strain range. Procedures to determine the minimum normal strain range were presented for general multiaxial loadings. Then, the modified model requires only the cyclic strain hardening exponent and cyclic strength coefficient to determine the material constants. It is convenient for predicting the stable stress-strain responses of materials in engineering application. Comparisons showed that the modified model can reflect the effect of nonproportional cyclic hardening well.
Effectiveness of Ivabradine in Treating Stable Angina Pectoris.
Ye, Liwen; Ke, Dazhi; Chen, Qingwei; Li, Guiqiong; Deng, Wei; Wu, Zhiqin
2016-04-01
Many studies show that ivabradine is effective for stable angina.This meta-analysis was performed to determine the effect of treatment duration and control group type on ivabradine efficacy in stable angina pectoris.Relevant articles in the English language in the PUBMED and EMBASE databases and related websites were identified by using the search terms "ivabradine," "angina," "randomized controlled trials," and "Iva." The final search date was November 2, 2015.Articles were included if they were published randomized controlled trials that related to ivabradine treatment of stable angina pectoris.Patients with stable angina pectoris were included.The patients were classified according to treatment duration (Angina outcomes were heart rate at rest or peak, exercise duration, and time to angina onset.Seven articles were selected. There were 3747 patients: 2100 and 1647 were in the ivabradine and control groups, respectively. The ivabradine group had significantly longer exercise duration when they had been treated for at least 3 months, but not when treatment time was less than 3 months. Ivabradine significantly improved time to angina onset regardless of treatment duration. Control group type did not influence the effect of exercise duration (significant) or time to angina onset (significant).Compared with beta-blocker and placebo, ivabradine improved exercise duration and time to onset of angina in patients with stable angina. However, its ability to improve exercise duration only became significant after at least 3 months of treatment.
Stable limits for sums of dependent infinite variance random variables
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bartkiewicz, Katarzyna; Jakubowski, Adam; Mikosch, Thomas
2011-01-01
The aim of this paper is to provide conditions which ensure that the affinely transformed partial sums of a strictly stationary process converge in distribution to an infinite variance stable distribution. Conditions for this convergence to hold are known in the literature. However, most of these...
On The Roman Domination Stable Graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hajian Majid
2017-11-01
Full Text Available A Roman dominating function (or just RDF on a graph G = (V,E is a function f : V → {0, 1, 2} satisfying the condition that every vertex u for which f(u = 0 is adjacent to at least one vertex v for which f(v = 2. The weight of an RDF f is the value f(V (G = Pu2V (G f(u. The Roman domination number of a graph G, denoted by R(G, is the minimum weight of a Roman dominating function on G. A graph G is Roman domination stable if the Roman domination number of G remains unchanged under removal of any vertex. In this paper we present upper bounds for the Roman domination number in the class of Roman domination stable graphs, improving bounds posed in [V. Samodivkin, Roman domination in graphs: the class RUV R, Discrete Math. Algorithms Appl. 8 (2016 1650049].
Parameters Tuning of Model Free Adaptive Control Based on Minimum Entropy
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chao Ji; Jing Wang; Liulin Cao; Qibing Jin
2014-01-01
Dynamic linearization based model free adaptive control(MFAC) algorithm has been widely used in practical systems, in which some parameters should be tuned before it is successfully applied to process industries. Considering the random noise existing in real processes, a parameter tuning method based on minimum entropy optimization is proposed,and the feature of entropy is used to accurately describe the system uncertainty. For cases of Gaussian stochastic noise and non-Gaussian stochastic noise, an entropy recursive optimization algorithm is derived based on approximate model or identified model. The extensive simulation results show the effectiveness of the minimum entropy optimization for the partial form dynamic linearization based MFAC. The parameters tuned by the minimum entropy optimization index shows stronger stability and more robustness than these tuned by other traditional index,such as integral of the squared error(ISE) or integral of timeweighted absolute error(ITAE), when the system stochastic noise exists.
45-110 GHz Quad-Ridge Horn With Stable Gain and Symmetric Beam
Manafi, Sara; Al-Tarifi, Muhannad; Filipovic, Dejan S.
2017-09-01
A quad-ridge horn antenna with stabilized gain and minimum difference between Eand H-plane half-power beamwidths (HPBWs) is demonstrated for operation over 45-110 GHz bandwidth. Multistep flaring and corrugations on a finite ground plane are applied to obtain stable radiation patterns with 16-dBi minimum gain over the entire range. The computational studies are validated through measurements of a 3-D printed prototype using the direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) process. Accurate fabrication with achieved surface roughness of DMLS is a viable fabrication process for wideband horn antennas at millimeter-wave frequencies.
A minimum-size tokamak concept for conditions near ignition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, B.
1983-01-01
Based on a combination of Alcator scaling and a recent theory on the Murakami density limit, a minimum-size tokamak concept (Minitor) is proposed. Even if this concept does not aim at alpha particle containment, it has the important goal of reaching plasma core temperatures and Lawson parameter values required for ignition, by ohmic heating alone and under macroscopically stable conditions. The minimized size, and the associated enhancement of the plasma current density, are found to favour high plasma temperatues, average densities, and beta values. The goal of this concept appears to be realizable by relatively modest technical means. (author)
Exact simulation of max-stable processes.
Dombry, Clément; Engelke, Sebastian; Oesting, Marco
2016-06-01
Max-stable processes play an important role as models for spatial extreme events. Their complex structure as the pointwise maximum over an infinite number of random functions makes their simulation difficult. Algorithms based on finite approximations are often inexact and computationally inefficient. We present a new algorithm for exact simulation of a max-stable process at a finite number of locations. It relies on the idea of simulating only the extremal functions, that is, those functions in the construction of a max-stable process that effectively contribute to the pointwise maximum. We further generalize the algorithm by Dieker & Mikosch (2015) for Brown-Resnick processes and use it for exact simulation via the spectral measure. We study the complexity of both algorithms, prove that our new approach via extremal functions is always more efficient, and provide closed-form expressions for their implementation that cover most popular models for max-stable processes and multivariate extreme value distributions. For simulation on dense grids, an adaptive design of the extremal function algorithm is proposed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shaobo Xie
2017-09-01
Full Text Available When developing a real-time energy management strategy for a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle, it is still a challenge for the Equivalent Consumption Minimum Strategy to achieve near-optimal energy consumption, because the optimal equivalence factor is not readily available without the trip information. With the help of realistic speeding profiles sampled from a plug-in hybrid electric bus running on a fixed commuting line, this paper proposes a convenient and effective approach of determining the equivalence factor for an adaptive Equivalent Consumption Minimum Strategy. Firstly, with the adaptive law based on the feedback of battery SOC, the equivalence factor is described as a combination of the major component and tuning component. In particular, the major part defined as a constant is applied to the inherent consistency of regular speeding profiles, while the second part including a proportional and integral term can slightly tune the equivalence factor to satisfy the disparity of daily running cycles. Moreover, Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle is employed and solved by using the shooting method to capture the co-state dynamics, in which the Secant method is introduced to adjust the initial co-state value. And then the initial co-state value in last shooting is taken as the optimal stable constant of equivalence factor. Finally, altogether ten successive driving profiles are selected with different initial SOC levels to evaluate the proposed method, and the results demonstrate the excellent fuel economy compared with the dynamic programming and PMP method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masanori Fujii
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Objectives. To determine the minimum lateral bone coverage required for securing stable fixation of the porous-coated acetabular components (cups in hip dysplasia. Methods. In total, 215 primary total hip arthroplasties in 199 patients were reviewed. The average follow-up period was 49 months (range: 24–77 months. The lateral bone coverage of the cups was assessed by determining the cup center-edge (cup-CE angle and the bone coverage index (BCI from anteroposterior pelvic radiographs. Further, cup fixation was determined using the modified DeLee and Charnley classification system. Results. All cups were judged to show stable fixation by bone ingrowth. The cup-CE angle was less than 0° in 7 hips (3.3% and the minimum cup-CE angle was −9.2° (BCI: 48.8%. Thin radiolucent lines were observed in 5 hips (2.3%, which were not associated with decreased lateral bone coverage. Loosening, osteolysis, dislocation, or revision was not observed in any of the cases during the follow-up period. Conclusion. A cup-CE angle greater than −10° (BCI > 50% was acceptable for stable bony fixation of the cup. Considering possible errors in manual implantation, we recommend that the cup position be planned such that the cup-CE angle is greater than 0° (BCI > 60%.
Self-similar anomalous diffusion and Levy-stable laws
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uchaikin, Vladimir V
2003-01-01
Stochastic principles for constructing the process of anomalous diffusion are considered, and corresponding models of random processes are reviewed. The self-similarity and the independent-increments principles are used to extend the notion of diffusion process to the class of Levy-stable processes. Replacing the independent-increments principle with the renewal principle allows us to take the next step in generalizing the notion of diffusion, which results in fractional-order partial space-time differential equations of diffusion. Fundamental solutions to these equations are represented in terms of stable laws, and their relationship to the fractality and memory of the medium is discussed. A new class of distributions, called fractional stable distributions, is introduced. (reviews of topical problems)
Centered Differential Waveform Inversion with Minimum Support Regularization
Kazei, Vladimir
2017-05-26
Time-lapse full-waveform inversion has two major challenges. The first one is the reconstruction of a reference model (baseline model for most of approaches). The second is inversion for the time-lapse changes in the parameters. Common model approach is utilizing the information contained in all available data sets to build a better reference model for time lapse inversion. Differential (Double-difference) waveform inversion allows to reduce the artifacts introduced into estimates of time-lapse parameter changes by imperfect inversion for the baseline-reference model. We propose centered differential waveform inversion (CDWI) which combines these two approaches in order to benefit from both of their features. We apply minimum support regularization commonly used with electromagnetic methods of geophysical exploration. We test the CDWI method on synthetic dataset with random noise and show that, with Minimum support regularization, it provides better resolution of velocity changes than with total variation and Tikhonov regularizations in time-lapse full-waveform inversion.
Random packing of colloids and granular matter
Wouterse, A.
2008-01-01
This thesis deals with the random packing of colloids and granular matter. A random packing is a stable disordered collection of touching particles, without long-range positional and orientational order. Experimental random packings of particles with the same shape but made of different materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burikham, Piyabut; Cheamsawat, Krai; Harko, Tiberiu; Lake, Matthew J.
2016-01-01
We obtain bounds for the minimum and maximum mass/radius ratio of a stable, charged, spherically symmetric compact object in a D-dimensional space-time in the framework of general relativity, and in the presence of dark energy. The total energy, including the gravitational component, and the stability of objects with minimum mass/radius ratio is also investigated. The minimum energy condition leads to a representation of the mass and radius of the charged objects with minimum mass/radius ratio in terms of the charge and vacuum energy only. As applied to the electron in the four-dimensional case, this procedure allows one to re-obtain the classical electron radius from purely general relativistic considerations. By combining the lower mass bound, in four space-time dimensions, with minimum length uncertainty relations (MLUR) motivated by quantum gravity, we obtain an alternative bound for the maximum charge/mass ratio of a stable, gravitating, charged quantum mechanical object, expressed in terms of fundamental constants. Evaluating this limit numerically, we obtain again the correct order of magnitude value for the charge/mass ratio of the electron, as required by the stability conditions. This suggests that, if the electron were either less massive (with the same charge) or if its charge were any higher (for fixed mass), a combination of electrostatic and dark energy repulsion would destabilize the Compton radius. In other words, the electron would blow itself apart. Our results suggest the existence of a deep connection between gravity, the presence of the cosmological constant, and the stability of fundamental particles. (orig.)
A Systematic and Numerically Efficient Procedure for Stable Dynamic Model Inversion of LTI Systems
George, K.; Verhaegen, M.; Scherpen, J.M.A.
1999-01-01
Output tracking via the novel Stable Dynamic model Inversion (SDI) technique, applicable to non-minimum phase systems, and which naturally takes into account the presence of noise in target time histories, is considered here. We are motivated by the typical need to replicate time signals in the
Kiyohara, Shin; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu
2018-03-01
Grain boundary segregation of dopants plays a crucial role in materials properties. To investigate the dopant segregation behavior at the grain boundary, an enormous number of combinations have to be considered in the segregation of multiple dopants at the complex grain boundary structures. Here, two data mining techniques, the random-forests regression and the genetic algorithm, were applied to determine stable segregation sites at grain boundaries efficiently. Using the random-forests method, a predictive model was constructed from 2% of the segregation configurations and it has been shown that this model could determine the stable segregation configurations. Furthermore, the genetic algorithm also successfully determined the most stable segregation configuration with great efficiency. We demonstrate that these approaches are quite effective to investigate the dopant segregation behaviors at grain boundaries.
Do Minimum Wages Fight Poverty?
David Neumark; William Wascher
1997-01-01
The primary goal of a national minimum wage floor is to raise the incomes of poor or near-poor families with members in the work force. However, estimates of employment effects of minimum wages tell us little about whether minimum wages are can achieve this goal; even if the disemployment effects of minimum wages are modest, minimum wage increases could result in net income losses for poor families. We present evidence on the effects of minimum wages on family incomes from matched March CPS s...
Khodaie-Ardakani, Mohammad-Reza; Seddighi, Sahar; Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Rezaei, Farzin; Salehi, Bahman; Ashrafi, Mandana; Shams-Alizadeh, Narges; Mohammad-Karimi, Maryam; Esfandiari, Gholam-Reza; Hajiaghaee, Reza; Akhondzadeh, Shahin
2013-04-01
Some 5-HT3 antagonists such as ondansetron have shown beneficial effects on negative symptoms of patients with schizophrenia. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of granisetron (another 5-HT3 antagonist) add-on therapy in the treatment of negative symptoms of patients with stable schizophrenia. In a randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study, forty stable patients with schizophrenia (DSM-IV-TR), were randomized to either granisetron (1 mg twice daily) or placebo (twice daily) in addition to risperidone up to 6 mg/day for eight weeks. The patients were assessed using positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS) and extrapyramidal symptom rating scale (ESRS) at baseline, week 4 and 8. Hamilton depression rating scale (HDRS) was used to assess depression at baseline and week 8. Thirty-eight patients completed the trial. Granisetron group showed a significantly greater improvement on negative subscale than the placebo group at endpoint [t(38) = 6.046, mean difference (±95% CI) = 3.2(1.8-3.7), P granisetron groups did not differ in their reduction of positive and general psychopathology symptoms scores. HDRS scores and its changes did not differ between the two groups. The ESRS score at week 4 was significantly lower in the granisetron than the placebo group while the two groups showed similar ESRS score at week 8. Frequency of other side effects was similar between the two groups. In summary, granisetron add-on can safely and effectively reduce the primary negative symptoms of patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rivaroxaban with or without Aspirin in Stable Cardiovascular Disease
Eikelboom, John W.; Connolly, Stuart J.; Bosch, Jackie; Dagenais, Gilles R.; Hart, Robert G.; Shestakovska, Olga; Diaz, Rafael; Alings, Marco; Lonn, Eva M.; Anand, Sonia S.; Widimsky, Petr; Hori, Masatsugu; Avezum, Alvaro; Piegas, Leopoldo S.; Branch, Kelley R. H.; Probstfield, Jeffrey; Bhatt, Deepak L.; Zhu, Jun; Liang, Yan; Maggioni, Aldo P.; Lopez-Jaramillo, Patricio; O'Donnell, Martin; Kakkar, Ajay K.; Fox, Keith A. A.; Parkhomenko, Alexander N.; Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan; Keltai, Matyas; Ryden, Lars; Pogosova, Nana; Dans, Antonio L.; Lanas, Fernando; Commerford, Patrick J.; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Guzik, Tomek J.; Verhamme, Peter B.; Vinereanu, Dragos; Kim, Jae-Hyung; Tonkin, Andrew M.; Lewis, Basil S.; Felix, Camilo; Yusoff, Khalid; Steg, P. Gabriel; Metsarinne, Kaj P.; Cook Bruns, Nancy; Misselwitz, Frank; Chen, Edmond; Leong, Darryl; Hashimoto, S.; Maas, M.
2017-01-01
We evaluated whether rivaroxaban alone or in combination with aspirin would be more effective than aspirin alone for secondary cardiovascular prevention. In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 27,395 participants with stable atherosclerotic vascular disease to receive rivaroxaban (2.5 mg
Dissecting the circle, at random*
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Curien Nicolas
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Random laminations of the disk are the continuous limits of random non-crossing configurations of regular polygons. We provide an expository account on this subject. Initiated by the work of Aldous on the Brownian triangulation, this field now possesses many characters such as the random recursive triangulation, the stable laminations and the Markovian hyperbolic triangulation of the disk. We will review the properties and constructions of these objects as well as the close relationships they enjoy with the theory of continuous random trees. Some open questions are scattered along the text.
Application of random number generators in genetic algorithms to improve rainfall-runoff modelling
Chlumecký, Martin; Buchtele, Josef; Richta, Karel
2017-10-01
The efficient calibration of rainfall-runoff models is a difficult issue, even for experienced hydrologists. Therefore, fast and high-quality model calibration is a valuable improvement. This paper describes a novel methodology and software for the optimisation of a rainfall-runoff modelling using a genetic algorithm (GA) with a newly prepared concept of a random number generator (HRNG), which is the core of the optimisation. The GA estimates model parameters using evolutionary principles, which requires a quality number generator. The new HRNG generates random numbers based on hydrological information and it provides better numbers compared to pure software generators. The GA enhances the model calibration very well and the goal is to optimise the calibration of the model with a minimum of user interaction. This article focuses on improving the internal structure of the GA, which is shielded from the user. The results that we obtained indicate that the HRNG provides a stable trend in the output quality of the model, despite various configurations of the GA. In contrast to previous research, the HRNG speeds up the calibration of the model and offers an improvement of rainfall-runoff modelling.
Dorband, J. E.
2017-12-01
The D-Wave 2X has successfully been used for regression analysis to derive carbon flux data from OCO-2 CO2 concentration using neural networks. The samples returned from the D-Wave should represent the minimum of an objective function presented to it. An accurate as possible minimum function value is needed for this analysis. Samples from the D-Wave are near minimum, but seldom are the global minimum of the function due to quantum noise. Two methods for improving the accuracy of minimized values represented by the samples returned from the D-Wave are presented. The first method finds a new sample with a minimum value near each returned D-Wave sample. The second method uses all the returned samples to find a more global minimum sample. We present three use-cases performed using the former method. In the first use case, it is demonstrated that an objective function with random qubits and coupler coefficients had an improved minimum. In the second use case, the samples corrected by the first method can improve the training of a Boltzmann machine neural network. The third use case demonstrated that using the first method can improve virtual qubit accuracy.The later method was also performed on the first use case.
Nitrates for stable angina: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials.
Wei, Jiafu; Wu, Taixiang; Yang, Qing; Chen, Mao; Ni, Juan; Huang, Dejia
2011-01-07
To assess the effect (harms and benefits) of nitrates for stable angina. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE. Randomized controlled trials with both parallel and crossover design were included. The following outcome measures were evaluated: number of angina attacks weekly and nitroglycerin consumption, quality of life, total exercise duration, time to onset of angina and time to 1 mm ST depression. Fifty-one trials with 3595 patients meeting inclusion criteria were analyzed. Both intermittent and continuous regimens of nitrates lengthened exercise duration significantly by 31 and 53 s respectively. The number of angina attacks was significantly reduced by 2.89 episodes weekly for continuous administration and 1.5 episodes weekly for intermittent administration. With intermittent administration, increased dose provided with 21 s more length of exercise duration. With continuous administration, exercise duration was pronged more in low-dose group. Quality of life was not improved by continuous application of GTN patches and was similar between continuous and intermittent groups. In addition, 51.6% patients receiving nitrates complained with headache. Long-term administration of nitrates was beneficial for angina prophylaxis and improved exercise performance but might be ineffective for improving quality of life. With continuous regimen, low-dose nitrates were more effective than high-dose ones for improving exercise performance. By contrast, with intermittent regimen, high-dose nitrates were more effective. In addition, intermittent administration could bring zero-hour effect. Copyright Â© 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shelf-stable food through high dose irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Placek, V.; Svobodova, V.; Bartonicek, B.; Rosmus, J.; Camra, M.
2004-01-01
Irradiation of food with high doses (radappertization) is a way, how to prepare shelf-stable ready-to-eat food. The radappertization process requires that the food be heated at first to an internal temperature of at least 75 deg. C to inactivate autolytic enzyme, which could cause the spoilage during storage without refrigeration. In order to prevent radiation induced changes in sensory properties (off flavors, odors, undesirable color change, etc.) the food was vacuum packed and irradiated in frozen state at -30 deg. C or less to a minimum dose of 35 kGy. Such products have characteristics of fresh food prepared for eating even if they are stored for long time under tropical conditions. The wholesomeness (safety for consumption) has been confirmed during 40 years of testing. Within the NRI Rez 10 kinds of shelf-stable meat products have been prepared. The meat was cooked, vacuum packed in SiO x -containing pouch, freezed in liquid nitrogen and irradiated with electron beam accelerator. The microbial, chemical, and organoleptic properties have been tested
Shelf-stable food through high dose irradiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Placek, V. E-mail: pla@ujv.cz; Svobodova, V.; Bartonicek, B.; Rosmus, J.; Camra, M
2004-10-01
Irradiation of food with high doses (radappertization) is a way, how to prepare shelf-stable ready-to-eat food. The radappertization process requires that the food be heated at first to an internal temperature of at least 75 deg. C to inactivate autolytic enzyme, which could cause the spoilage during storage without refrigeration. In order to prevent radiation induced changes in sensory properties (off flavors, odors, undesirable color change, etc.) the food was vacuum packed and irradiated in frozen state at -30 deg. C or less to a minimum dose of 35 kGy. Such products have characteristics of fresh food prepared for eating even if they are stored for long time under tropical conditions. The wholesomeness (safety for consumption) has been confirmed during 40 years of testing. Within the NRI Rez 10 kinds of shelf-stable meat products have been prepared. The meat was cooked, vacuum packed in SiO{sub x}-containing pouch, freezed in liquid nitrogen and irradiated with electron beam accelerator. The microbial, chemical, and organoleptic properties have been tested.
Generation and monitoring of a discrete stable random process
Hopcraft, K I; Matthews, J O
2002-01-01
A discrete stochastic process with stationary power law distribution is obtained from a death-multiple immigration population model. Emigrations from the population form a random series of events which are monitored by a counting process with finite-dynamic range and response time. It is shown that the power law behaviour of the population is manifested in the intermittent behaviour of the series of events. (letter to the editor)
Can households earning minimum wage in Nova Scotia afford a nutritious diet?
Williams, Patricia L; Johnson, Christine P; Kratzmann, Meredith L V; Johnson, C Shanthi Jacob; Anderson, Barbara J; Chenhall, Cathy
2006-01-01
To assess the affordability of a nutritious diet for households earning minimum wage in Nova Scotia. Food costing data were collected in 43 randomly selected grocery stores throughout NS in 2002 using the National Nutritious Food Basket (NNFB). To estimate the affordability of a nutritious diet for households earning minimum wage, average monthly costs for essential expenses were subtracted from overall income to see if enough money remained for the cost of the NNFB. This was calculated for three types of household: 1) two parents and two children; 2) lone parent and two children; and 3) single male. Calculations were also made for the proposed 2006 minimum wage increase with expenses adjusted using the Consumer Price Index (CPI). The monthly cost of the NNFB priced in 2002 for the three types of household was 572.90 dollars, 351.68 dollars, and 198.73 dollars, respectively. Put into the context of basic living, these data showed that Nova Scotians relying on minimum wage could not afford to purchase a nutritious diet and meet their basic needs, placing their health at risk. These basic expenses do not include other routine costs, such as personal hygiene products, household and laundry cleaners, and prescriptions and costs associated with physical activity, education or savings for unexpected expenses. People working at minimum wage in Nova Scotia have not had adequate income to meet basic needs, including a nutritious diet. The 2006 increase in minimum wage to 7.15 dollars/hr is inadequate to ensure that Nova Scotians working at minimum wage are able to meet these basic needs. Wage increases and supplements, along with supports for expenses such as childcare and transportation, are indicated to address this public health problem.
Ba 5s photoionization in the region of the second Cooper minimum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Whitfield, S B; Wehlitz, R; Dolmatov, V K
2011-01-01
We investigate the 5s angular distribution parameter and partial photoionization cross section of atomic Ba in the region of the second Cooper minimum covering a photon energy region from 120 to 260 eV. We observe a strong drop in the Ba 5s β value from 2.0, reaching a minimum of 1.57 ± 0.07 at a photon energy of 150 eV. The β value then slowly rises back towards its nominal value of 2.0 at photon energies beyond the minimum. Our measured 5s partial cross section also shows a pronounced dip around 170 eV due to interchannel coupling with the Ba 4d photoelectrons. After combining our measurements with previous experimental values at lower photon energies, we obtain a consistent data set spanning the photon energy range prior to the onset of the partial cross section maximum and through the cross section minimum. We also calculate the 5s partial cross section under several different levels of approximation. We find that the generalized random-phase approximation with exchange calculation models the shape and position of the combined experimental cross section data set rather well after incorporating experimental ionization energies and a shift in the photon energy scale.
How milk-fed dairy calves perform in stable versus dynamic groups
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Rikke Engelbrecht; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Skjøth, F
2009-01-01
The objective of the present field trial was to compare calf performance among pre-weaned calves in two different group housing systems, stable groups ("all in-all out") and dynamic groups (continuous introduction). Performance data was collected from 484 calves randomly assigned to the two syste....../days). The prevalence of both diarrhoea and respiratory disease were more than twice as high among calves in dynamic groups compared to calves in stable groups....
Rising above the Minimum Wage.
Even, William; Macpherson, David
An in-depth analysis was made of how quickly most people move up the wage scale from minimum wage, what factors influence their progress, and how minimum wage increases affect wage growth above the minimum. Very few workers remain at the minimum wage over the long run, according to this study of data drawn from the 1977-78 May Current Population…
Nonparametric Estimation of Distributions in Random Effects Models
Hart, Jeffrey D.
2011-01-01
We propose using minimum distance to obtain nonparametric estimates of the distributions of components in random effects models. A main setting considered is equivalent to having a large number of small datasets whose locations, and perhaps scales, vary randomly, but which otherwise have a common distribution. Interest focuses on estimating the distribution that is common to all datasets, knowledge of which is crucial in multiple testing problems where a location/scale invariant test is applied to every small dataset. A detailed algorithm for computing minimum distance estimates is proposed, and the usefulness of our methodology is illustrated by a simulation study and an analysis of microarray data. Supplemental materials for the article, including R-code and a dataset, are available online. © 2011 American Statistical Association.
Maximum Kolmogorov-Sinai Entropy Versus Minimum Mixing Time in Markov Chains
Mihelich, M.; Dubrulle, B.; Paillard, D.; Kral, Q.; Faranda, D.
2018-01-01
We establish a link between the maximization of Kolmogorov Sinai entropy (KSE) and the minimization of the mixing time for general Markov chains. Since the maximisation of KSE is analytical and easier to compute in general than mixing time, this link provides a new faster method to approximate the minimum mixing time dynamics. It could be interesting in computer sciences and statistical physics, for computations that use random walks on graphs that can be represented as Markov chains.
Employment effects of minimum wages
Neumark, David
2014-01-01
The potential benefits of higher minimum wages come from the higher wages for affected workers, some of whom are in low-income families. The potential downside is that a higher minimum wage may discourage employers from using the low-wage, low-skill workers that minimum wages are intended to help. Research findings are not unanimous, but evidence from many countries suggests that minimum wages reduce the jobs available to low-skill workers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seyyed Mehdi Mirhashemi
2016-09-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Limited data are present that have assessed the effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 intake on cardiometabolic markers in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary heart disease (CHD. This study was done to determine the effects of CoQ10 administration on cardiometabolic markers in overweight diabetic patients with stable myocardial infarction. METHODS: This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was done among 60 diabetic patients with CHD aged 45-75 years old. Subjects were randomly allocated into two groups to receive either 100 mg/day CoQ10 supplements (n = 30 or placebo (n = 30 for 8 weeks. RESULTS: Compared with the placebo, CoQ10 intake led to a significant reduction in serum interleukin 6 (IL-6 (-1.7 ± 1.6 vs. 0.8 ± 1.7 ng/l, P < 0.001 and protein carbonyl (PCO levels (-0.2 ± 0.3 vs. 0.1 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein, P < 0.001. Supplementation with CoQ10 did not affect serum lipoprotein(a, advanced glycation end-products and thiol concentrations compared with the placebo. CONCLUSION: Overall, this study indicated that CoQ10 intake after 8 weeks among diabetic patients with the stable CHD had beneficial effects on serum IL-6 and PCO levels, but did not alter other cardiometabolic markers.
Expedite random structure searching using objects from Wyckoff positions
Wang, Shu-Wei; Hsing, Cheng-Rong; Wei, Ching-Ming
2018-02-01
Random structure searching has been proved to be a powerful approach to search and find the global minimum and the metastable structures. A true random sampling is in principle needed yet it would be highly time-consuming and/or practically impossible to find the global minimum for the complicated systems in their high-dimensional configuration space. Thus the implementations of reasonable constraints, such as adopting system symmetries to reduce the independent dimension in structural space and/or imposing chemical information to reach and relax into low-energy regions, are the most essential issues in the approach. In this paper, we propose the concept of "object" which is either an atom or composed of a set of atoms (such as molecules or carbonates) carrying a symmetry defined by one of the Wyckoff positions of space group and through this process it allows the searching of global minimum for a complicated system to be confined in a greatly reduced structural space and becomes accessible in practice. We examined several representative materials, including Cd3As2 crystal, solid methanol, high-pressure carbonates (FeCO3), and Si(111)-7 × 7 reconstructed surface, to demonstrate the power and the advantages of using "object" concept in random structure searching.
Fields, Gary S.; Kanbur, Ravi
2005-01-01
Textbook analysis tells us that in a competitive labor market, the introduction of a minimum wage above the competitive equilibrium wage will cause unemployment. This paper makes two contributions to the basic theory of the minimum wage. First, we analyze the effects of a higher minimum wage in terms of poverty rather than in terms of unemployment. Second, we extend the standard textbook model to allow for incomesharing between the employed and the unemployed. We find that there are situation...
Estimating minimum polycrystalline aggregate size for macroscopic material homogeneity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovac, M.; Simonovski, I.; Cizelj, L.
2002-01-01
During severe accidents the pressure boundary of reactor coolant system can be subjected to extreme loadings, which might cause failure. Reliable estimation of the extreme deformations can be crucial to determine the consequences of severe accidents. Important drawback of classical continuum mechanics is idealization of inhomogenous microstructure of materials. Classical continuum mechanics therefore cannot predict accurately the differences between measured responses of specimens, which are different in size but geometrical similar (size effect). A numerical approach, which models elastic-plastic behavior on mesoscopic level, is proposed to estimate minimum size of polycrystalline aggregate above which it can be considered macroscopically homogeneous. The main idea is to divide continuum into a set of sub-continua. Analysis of macroscopic element is divided into modeling the random grain structure (using Voronoi tessellation and random orientation of crystal lattice) and calculation of strain/stress field. Finite element method is used to obtain numerical solutions of strain and stress fields. The analysis is limited to 2D models.(author)
A belief-based evolutionarily stable strategy
Deng, Xinyang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Qi; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran
2014-01-01
As an equilibrium refinement of the Nash equilibrium, evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a key concept in evolutionary game theory and has attracted growing interest. An ESS can be either a pure strategy or a mixed strategy. Even though the randomness is allowed in mixed strategy, the selection probability of pure strategy in a mixed strategy may fluctuate due to the impact of many factors. The fluctuation can lead to more uncertainty. In this paper, such uncertainty involved in mixed st...
Self-organisation of random oscillators with Lévy stable distributions
Moradi, Sara; Anderson, Johan
2017-08-01
A novel possibility of self-organized behaviour of stochastically driven oscillators is presented. It is shown that synchronization by Lévy stable processes is significantly more efficient than that by oscillators with Gaussian statistics. The impact of outlier events from the tail of the distribution function was examined by artificially introducing a few additional oscillators with very strong coupling strengths and it is found that remarkably even one such rare and extreme event may govern the long term behaviour of the coupled system. In addition to the multiplicative noise component, we have investigated the impact of an external additive Lévy distributed noise component on the synchronisation properties of the oscillators.
What is the minimum value of the safety factor on the magnetic axis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bussac, M.N.; Pellat, R.; Edery, D.; Soule, J.L.
This paper is presented in the following way: in chapter 2 the main stability properties in the vicinity of the magnetic axis with respect to the localized modes is recalled. The possibility of decreasing the minimum value of the safety factor q below unity, without violating Mercier's criterion is emphasized. In chapter 3 the ideal internal kink in cylindrical geometry for non-circular cross-sections is studied. The main findings are the small destabilizing effect of an elliptical deformation and the larger stabilizing effect of a triangular deformation. In chapter 4 the previous analysis is completed by toroidal corrections and the complete result for the ideal internal kink for circular magnetic surfaces is given. This mode may be stable in toroidal geometry provided the minimum value of q remains larger than 1/2. In chapter 5 the resistive internal kink and its collisionless high temperature limit is discussed. Toroidal effects and non-linear effects in the non-linear development of the tearing modes are compared
2010-02-08
... capital and reserve requirements to be issued by order or regulation with respect to a product or activity... minimum capital requirements. Section 1362(a) establishes a minimum capital level for the Enterprises... entities required under this section.\\6\\ \\3\\ The Bank Act's current minimum capital requirements apply to...
A Pareto-Improving Minimum Wage
Eliav Danziger; Leif Danziger
2014-01-01
This paper shows that a graduated minimum wage, in contrast to a constant minimum wage, can provide a strict Pareto improvement over what can be achieved with an optimal income tax. The reason is that a graduated minimum wage requires high-productivity workers to work more to earn the same income as low-productivity workers, which makes it more difficult for the former to mimic the latter. In effect, a graduated minimum wage allows the low-productivity workers to benefit from second-degree pr...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dam, H. van; Leege, P.F.A. de
1987-01-01
An analysis is presented of thermal systems with minimum critical mass, based on the use of materials with optimum neutron moderating and reflecting properties. The optimum fissile material distributions in the systems are obtained by calculations with standard computer codes, extended with a routine for flat fuel importance search. It is shown that in the minimum critical mass configuration a considerable part of the fuel is positioned in the reflector region. For 239 Pu a minimum critical mass of 87 g is found, which is the lowest value reported hitherto. (author)
Safety of nifedipine GITS in stable angina: The ACTION trial
P. Poole-Wilson (Philip); B.A. Kirwan (Bridget Anne); Z. Vokó (Zoltán); S. de Brouwer (Sophie); F.J. van Dalen (Frederik); J. Lubsen (Jacob)
2006-01-01
textabstractAim: We describe the safety profile of nifedipine GITS as assessed from adverse events reported in the ACTION trial in which 7,665 patients with stable, symptomatic coronary artery disease were randomly assigned nifedipine GITS or placebo and followed for a mean of 4.9 years. Methods:
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for all...
Weak convergence to isotropic complex [Formula: see text] random measure.
Wang, Jun; Li, Yunmeng; Sang, Liheng
2017-01-01
In this paper, we prove that an isotropic complex symmetric α -stable random measure ([Formula: see text]) can be approximated by a complex process constructed by integrals based on the Poisson process with random intensity.
Eich, H-J; Mach, H; Werner, C; Hesse, S
2004-09-01
To evaluate the immediate and long-term effects of aerobic treadmill plus Bobath walking training in subacute stroke survivors compared with Bobath walking training alone. Randomized controlled trial. Rehabilitation unit. Fifty patients, first-time supratentorial stroke, stroke interval less than six weeks, Barthel Index (0-100) from 50 to 80, able to walk a minimum distance of 12 m with either intermittent help or stand-by while walking, cardiovascular stable, minimum 50 W in the bicycle ergometry, randomly allocated to two groups, A and B. Group A 30 min of treadmill training, harness secured and minimally supported according to patients' needs, and 30 min of physiotherapy, every workday for six weeks, speed and inclination of the treadmill were adjusted to achieve a heart rate of HR: (Hrmax-HRrest)*0.6+HRrest; in group B 60 min of daily physiotherapy for six weeks. Primary outcome variables were the absolute improvement of walking velocity (m/s) and capacity (m), secondary were gross motor function including walking ability (score out of 13) and walking quality (score out of 41), blindly assessed before and after the intervention, and at follow-up three months later. Patients tolerated the aerobic training well with no side-effects, significantly greater improvement of walking velocity and capacity both at study end (p =0.001 versus p =0.002) and at follow-up (p Bobath walking training in moderately affected stroke patients was better than Bobath walking training alone with respect to the improvement of walking velocity and capacity. The treatment approach is recommended in patients meeting the inclusion criteria. A multicentre trial should follow to strengthen the evidence.
Exact simulation of Brown-Resnick random fields at a finite number of locations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dieker, Ton; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin
2015-01-01
We propose an exact simulation method for Brown-Resnick random fields, building on new representations for these stationary max-stable fields. The main idea is to apply suitable changes of measure.......We propose an exact simulation method for Brown-Resnick random fields, building on new representations for these stationary max-stable fields. The main idea is to apply suitable changes of measure....
Chen, A-Di; Wang, Chun-Ling; Qin, Yang; Tian, Liang; Chen, Li-Bin; Yuan, Xiao-Ming; Ma, Lin-Xiu; Wang, Yu-Feng; Sun, Ji-Rong; Wang, Hao-Sen; Dai, Neng
2017-12-20
Lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A 2 (Lp-PLA 2 ), a biomarker of oxidation and inflammation, has been associated with increased coronary artery disease risk. To date, very few studies have examined the Chinese herbal drug Danshen or its extract on Lp-PLA 2 in patients with stable angina pectoris. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of Danshen extract on Lp-PLA 2 level in patients with stable angina. This is a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, adaptive clinical trial. A total of 156 patients meeting the eligibility criteria will be randomly assigned to either the Danshen extract (DanshenDuofensuanyan injection and Danshen drop spill) group or the placebo group in a 1:1 ratio. Participants will then undergo treatment with DanshenDuofensuanyan injection or placebo (glucose) during hospitalization, followed by open-label Danshen drop spill (30 pills/day) in Danshen extract group for 60 days after discharge. Because this is an adaptive trial, two interim analyses are prospectively planned. These will be performed after one-third and two-thirds of the patients, respectively, have completed the trial. On the basis of the results of these interim analyses, a data monitoring committee will determine how to modify aspects of the study without undermining the validity and integrity of the trial. The primary outcome measure is the serum level of Lp-PLA 2 in the Danshen extract group and the placebo group. The secondary outcomes include the proportion of patients who show a clinically significant change, which is defined as at least a 20-point improvement in angina frequency score on the Seattle Angina Questionnaire and the carotid intima-media thickness, which will be measured using ultrasound. Other secondary efficacy and safety outcomes will also be assessed. This study will provide evidence that Danshen extract is beneficial for stable angina and may establish a possible mechanism of Danshen treatment effects on cardiovascular disease. This
Ranking stability and super-stable nodes in complex networks.
Ghoshal, Gourab; Barabási, Albert-László
2011-07-19
Pagerank, a network-based diffusion algorithm, has emerged as the leading method to rank web content, ecological species and even scientists. Despite its wide use, it remains unknown how the structure of the network on which it operates affects its performance. Here we show that for random networks the ranking provided by pagerank is sensitive to perturbations in the network topology, making it unreliable for incomplete or noisy systems. In contrast, in scale-free networks we predict analytically the emergence of super-stable nodes whose ranking is exceptionally stable to perturbations. We calculate the dependence of the number of super-stable nodes on network characteristics and demonstrate their presence in real networks, in agreement with the analytical predictions. These results not only deepen our understanding of the interplay between network topology and dynamical processes but also have implications in all areas where ranking has a role, from science to marketing.
Stable convergence and stable limit theorems
Häusler, Erich
2015-01-01
The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...
Taguchi, Isao; Iimuro, Satoshi; Iwata, Hiroshi; Takashima, Hiroaki; Abe, Mitsuru; Amiya, Eisuke; Ogawa, Takanori; Ozaki, Yukio; Sakuma, Ichiro; Nakagawa, Yoshihisa; Hibi, Kiyoshi; Hiro, Takafumi; Fukumoto, Yoshihiro; Hokimoto, Seiji; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Yamazaki, Tsutomu; Ito, Hiroshi; Otsuji, Yutaka; Kimura, Kazuo; Takahashi, Jun; Hirayama, Atsushi; Yokoi, Hiroyoshi; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Urabe, Takao; Okada, Yasushi; Terayama, Yasuo; Toyoda, Kazunori; Nagao, Takehiko; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Ohashi, Yasuo; Kaneko, Tetsuji; Fujita, Retsu; Ohtsu, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Hisao; Daida, Hiroyuki; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Saito, Yasushi; Kimura, Takeshi; Inoue, Teruo; Matsuzaki, Masunori; Nagai, Ryozo
2018-05-08
Current guidelines call for high-intensity statin therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease on the basis of several previous "more versus less statins" trials. However, no clear evidence for more versus less statins has been established in an Asian population. In this prospective, multicenter, randomized, open-label, blinded end point study, 13 054 Japanese patients with stable coronary artery disease who achieved low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) fashion to high-dose (pitavastatin 4 mg/d; n=6526) or low-dose (pitavastatin 1 mg/d; n=6528) statin therapy. The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal ischemic stroke, or unstable angina requiring emergency hospitalization. The secondary composite end point was a composite of the primary end point and clinically indicated coronary revascularization excluding target-lesion revascularization at sites of prior percutaneous coronary intervention. The mean age of the study population was 68 years, and 83% were male. The mean LDL-C level before enrollment was 93 mg/dL with 91% of patients taking statins. The baseline LDL-C level after the run-in period on pitavastatin 1 mg/d was 87.7 and 88.1 mg/dL in the high-dose and low-dose groups, respectively. During the entire course of follow-up, LDL-C in the high-dose group was lower by 14.7 mg/dL than in the low-dose group ( P Japanese patients with stable coronary artery disease. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01042730. © 2018 The Authors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Larry W. Burggraf
2013-07-01
Full Text Available To find low energy SinCn structures out of hundreds to thousands of isomers we have developed a general method to search for stable isomeric structures that combines Stochastic Potential Surface Search and Pseudopotential Plane-Wave Density Functional Theory Car-Parinello Molecular Dynamics simulated annealing (PSPW-CPMD-SA. We enhanced the Sunders stochastic search method to generate random cluster structures used as seed structures for PSPW-CPMD-SA simulations. This method ensures that each SA simulation samples a different potential surface region to find the regional minimum structure. By iterations of this automated, parallel process on a high performance computer we located hundreds to more than a thousand stable isomers for each SinCn cluster. Among these, five to 10 of the lowest energy isomers were further optimized using B3LYP/cc-pVTZ method. We applied this method to SinCn (n = 4–12 clusters and found the lowest energy structures, most not previously reported. By analyzing the bonding patterns of low energy structures of each SinCn cluster, we observed that carbon segregations tend to form condensed conjugated rings while Si connects to unsaturated bonds at the periphery of the carbon segregation as single atoms or clusters when n is small and when n is large a silicon network spans over the carbon segregation region.
A stable boundary layer perspective on global temperature trends
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McNider, R T; Christy, J R; Biazar, A
2010-01-01
temperatures in the stable boundary layer are not very robust measures of the heat content in the deep atmosphere and climate models do not predict minimum temperatures well, minimum temperatures should not be used as a surrogate for measures of deep atmosphere global warming.
Collapse of the random-phase approximation: Examples and counter-examples from the shell model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, Calvin W.; Stetcu, Ionel
2009-01-01
The Hartree-Fock approximation to the many-fermion problem can break exact symmetries, and in some cases by changing a parameter in the interaction one can drive the Hartree-Fock minimum from a symmetry-breaking state to a symmetry-conserving state (also referred to as a 'phase transition' in the literature). The order of the transition is important when one applies the random-phase approximation (RPA) to the of the Hartree-Fock wave function: if first order, RPA is stable through the transition, but if second-order, then the RPA amplitudes become large and lead to unphysical results. The latter is known as 'collapse' of the RPA. While the difference between first- and second-order transitions in the RPA was first pointed out by Thouless, we present for the first time nontrivial examples of both first- and second-order transitions in a uniform model, the interacting shell-model, where we can compare to exact numerical results.
Ruin probability with claims modeled by a stationary ergodic stable process
Mikosch, T.; Samorodnitsky, G.
2000-01-01
For a random walk with negative drift we study the exceedance probability (ruin probability) of a high threshold. The steps of this walk (claim sizes) constitute a stationary ergodic stable process. We study how ruin occurs in this situation and evaluate the asymptotic behavior of the ruin
Minimum income protection in the Netherlands
van Peijpe, T.
2009-01-01
This article offers an overview of the Dutch legal system of minimum income protection through collective bargaining, social security, and statutory minimum wages. In addition to collective agreements, the Dutch statutory minimum wage offers income protection to a small number of workers. Its
Super-stable Poissonian structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eliazar, Iddo
2012-01-01
In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics. (paper)
Super-stable Poissonian structures
Eliazar, Iddo
2012-10-01
In this paper we characterize classes of Poisson processes whose statistical structures are super-stable. We consider a flow generated by a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation, and an ensemble of particles ‘surfing’ the flow. The particles start from random initial positions, and are propagated along the flow by stochastic ‘wave processes’ with general statistics and general cross correlations. Setting the initial positions to be Poisson processes, we characterize the classes of Poisson processes that render the particles’ positions—at all times, and invariantly with respect to the wave processes—statistically identical to their initial positions. These Poisson processes are termed ‘super-stable’ and facilitate the generalization of the notion of stationary distributions far beyond the realm of Markov dynamics.
On the Wigner law in dilute random matrices
Khorunzhy, A.; Rodgers, G. J.
1998-12-01
We consider ensembles of N × N symmetric matrices whose entries are weakly dependent random variables. We show that random dilution can change the limiting eigenvalue distribution of such matrices. We prove that under general and natural conditions the normalised eigenvalue counting function coincides with the semicircle (Wigner) distribution in the limit N → ∞. This can be explained by the observation that dilution (or more generally, random modulation) eliminates the weak dependence (or correlations) between random matrix entries. It also supports our earlier conjecture that the Wigner distribution is stable to random dilution and modulation.
Instability in time-delayed switched systems induced by fast and random switching
Guo, Yao; Lin, Wei; Chen, Yuming; Wu, Jianhong
2017-07-01
In this paper, we consider a switched system comprising finitely or infinitely many subsystems described by linear time-delayed differential equations and a rule that orchestrates the system switching randomly among these subsystems, where the switching times are also randomly chosen. We first construct a counterintuitive example where even though all the time-delayed subsystems are exponentially stable, the behaviors of the randomly switched system change from stable dynamics to unstable dynamics with a decrease of the dwell time. Then by using the theories of stochastic processes and delay differential equations, we present a general result on when this fast and random switching induced instability should occur and we extend this to the case of nonlinear time-delayed switched systems as well.
Log-stable concentration distributions of trace elements in biomedical samples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kubala-Kukus, A.; Kuternoga, E.; Braziewicz, J.; Pajek, M.
2004-01-01
In the present paper, which follows our earlier observation that the asymmetric and long-tailed concentration distributions of trace elements in biomedical samples, measured by the X-ray fluorescence techniques, can be modeled by the log-stable distributions, further specific aspects of this observation are discussed. First, we demonstrate that, typically, for a quite substantial fraction (10-20%) of trace elements studied in different kinds of biomedical samples, the measured concentration distributions are described in fact by the 'symmetric' log-stable distributions, i.e. the asymmetric distributions which are described by the symmetric stable distributions. This observation is, in fact, expected for the random multiplicative process, which models the concentration distributions of trace elements in the biomedical samples. The log-stable nature of concentration distribution of trace elements results in several problems of statistical nature, which have to be addressed in XRF data analysis practice. Consequently, in the present paper, the following problems, namely (i) the estimation of parameters for stable distributions and (ii) the testing of the log-stable nature of the concentration distribution by using the Anderson-Darling (A 2 ) test, especially for symmetric stable distributions, are discussed in detail. In particular, the maximum likelihood estimation and Monte Carlo simulation techniques were used, respectively, for estimation of stable distribution parameters and calculation of the critical values for the Anderson-Darling test. The discussed ideas are exemplified by the results of the study of trace element concentration distributions in selected biomedical samples, which were obtained by using the X-ray fluorescence (XRF, TXRF) methods
Birner, Christoph; Series, Frederic; Lewis, Keir; Benjamin, Amit; Wunderlich, Silke; Escourrou, Pierre; Zeman, Florian; Luigart, Ruth; Pfeifer, Michael; Arzt, Michael
2014-01-01
Systolic heart failure (HF) is frequently accompanied by diastolic dysfunction and sleep-disordered breathing (SDB). The objective of this subset analysis was to determine effect sizes of auto-servo ventilation (ASV and biphasic positive airway pressure ASV) on echocardiographic measures of diastolic function in patients with systolic HF and SDB. Thirty-two patients with stable systolic HF, concomitant diastolic dysfunction [age 66 ± 9 years old, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction: 30 ± 7% and New York Heart Association class II: 72%] and SDB (apnea-hypopnea index, AHI: 48 ± 19/h; 53% had predominantly obstructive sleep apnea) receiving either ASV (n = 19) or optimal medical treatment (control, n = 13) were analyzed in a randomized controlled clinical trial. Polysomnographic and echocardiographic measurements were obtained at baseline and after 12 weeks. AHI significantly improved in the ASV group compared to the control group (-39 ± 18 vs. -0.2 ± 13.2/h, p control visit, diastolic function assessed by the isovolumetric relaxation time (-10.3 ± 26.1 vs. 9.3 ± 49.1, p = 0.48) and deceleration time (-43.9 ± 88.8 vs. 12.4 ± 68.8, p = 0.40) tended to improve after ASV treatment, but did not reach statistical significance. Likewise, the proportion of patients whose diastolic dysfunction improved was nonsignificantly higher in the ASV than in the control group, respectively (37 vs. 15%, p = 0.25). ASV treatment efficiently abolishes SDB in patients with stable systolic HF and concomitant diastolic dysfunction, and was associated with a statistically nonsignificant improvement in measures of diastolic dysfunction. Thus, these data provide estimates of effect size and justify the evaluation of the effects of ASV on diastolic function in larger randomized controlled trials. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
The tempered one-sided stable density: a universal model for hydrological transport?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cvetkovic, Vladimir
2011-01-01
A generalized distribution for the water residence time in hydrological transport is proposed in the form of the tempered one-sided stable (TOSS) density. It is shown that limiting cases of the TOSS distribution recover virtually all distributions that have been considered in the literature for hydrological transport, from plug flow to flow reactor, the advection-dispersion model, and the gamma and Levy densities. The stable property of TOSS is particularly important, enabling a seamless transition between a time-domain random walk, and the Lagrangian (trajectory) approach along hydrological transport pathways.
Wang, Zhi-Quan; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Peng-Pai; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Sun, Jian; Wang, Jun; Feng, Xiang-Fei; Lu, Qiu-Fen; Li, Yi-Gang
2015-04-01
Warfarin is yet the most widely used oral anticoagulant for thromboembolic diseases, despite the recently emerged novel anticoagulants. However, difficulty in maintaining stable dose within the therapeutic range and subsequent serious adverse effects markedly limited its use in clinical practice. Pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithm is a recently emerged strategy to predict the initial and maintaining dose of warfarin. However, whether this algorithm is superior over conventional clinically guided dosing algorithm remains controversial. We made a comparison of pharmacogenetics-based versus clinically guided dosing algorithm by an updated meta-analysis. We searched OVID MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library for relevant citations. The primary outcome was the percentage of time in therapeutic range. The secondary outcomes were time to stable therapeutic dose and the risks of adverse events including all-cause mortality, thromboembolic events, total bleedings, and major bleedings. Eleven randomized controlled trials with 2639 participants were included. Our pooled estimates indicated that pharmacogenetics-based dosing algorithm did not improve percentage of time in therapeutic range [weighted mean difference, 4.26; 95% confidence interval (CI), -0.50 to 9.01; P = 0.08], but it significantly shortened the time to stable therapeutic dose (weighted mean difference, -8.67; 95% CI, -11.86 to -5.49; P pharmacogenetics-based algorithm significantly reduced the risk of major bleedings (odds ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.98; P = 0.04), but it did not reduce the risks of all-cause mortality, total bleedings, or thromboembolic events. Our results suggest that pharmacogenetics-based warfarin dosing algorithm significantly improves the efficiency of International Normalized Ratio correction and reduces the risk of major hemorrhage.
Bayesian Modeling of Air Pollution Extremes Using Nested Multivariate Max-Stable Processes
Vettori, Sabrina; Huser, Raphaë l; Genton, Marc G.
2018-01-01
Capturing the potentially strong dependence among the peak concentrations of multiple air pollutants across a spatial region is crucial for assessing the related public health risks. In order to investigate the multivariate spatial dependence properties of air pollution extremes, we introduce a new class of multivariate max-stable processes. Our proposed model admits a hierarchical tree-based formulation, in which the data are conditionally independent given some latent nested $\\alpha$-stable random factors. The hierarchical structure facilitates Bayesian inference and offers a convenient and interpretable characterization. We fit this nested multivariate max-stable model to the maxima of air pollution concentrations and temperatures recorded at a number of sites in the Los Angeles area, showing that the proposed model succeeds in capturing their complex tail dependence structure.
Bayesian Modeling of Air Pollution Extremes Using Nested Multivariate Max-Stable Processes
Vettori, Sabrina
2018-03-18
Capturing the potentially strong dependence among the peak concentrations of multiple air pollutants across a spatial region is crucial for assessing the related public health risks. In order to investigate the multivariate spatial dependence properties of air pollution extremes, we introduce a new class of multivariate max-stable processes. Our proposed model admits a hierarchical tree-based formulation, in which the data are conditionally independent given some latent nested $\\\\alpha$-stable random factors. The hierarchical structure facilitates Bayesian inference and offers a convenient and interpretable characterization. We fit this nested multivariate max-stable model to the maxima of air pollution concentrations and temperatures recorded at a number of sites in the Los Angeles area, showing that the proposed model succeeds in capturing their complex tail dependence structure.
Prezel, Elea; Elie, Auréliane; Delaroche, Julie; Stoppin-Mellet, Virginie; Bosc, Christophe; Serre, Laurence; Fourest-Lieuvin, Anne; Andrieux, Annie; Vantard, Marylin; Arnal, Isabelle
2018-01-15
In neurons, microtubule networks alternate between single filaments and bundled arrays under the influence of effectors controlling their dynamics and organization. Tau is a microtubule bundler that stabilizes microtubules by stimulating growth and inhibiting shrinkage. The mechanisms by which tau organizes microtubule networks remain poorly understood. Here, we studied the self-organization of microtubules growing in the presence of tau isoforms and mutants. The results show that tau's ability to induce stable microtubule bundles requires two hexapeptides located in its microtubule-binding domain and is modulated by its projection domain. Site-specific pseudophosphorylation of tau promotes distinct microtubule organizations: stable single microtubules, stable bundles, or dynamic bundles. Disease-related tau mutations increase the formation of highly dynamic bundles. Finally, cryo-electron microscopy experiments indicate that tau and its variants similarly change the microtubule lattice structure by increasing both the protofilament number and lattice defects. Overall, our results uncover novel phosphodependent mechanisms governing tau's ability to trigger microtubule organization and reveal that disease-related modifications of tau promote specific microtubule organizations that may have a deleterious impact during neurodegeneration. © 2018 Prezel, Elie, et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).
Adaptive Sniping for Volatile and Stable Continuous Double Auction Markets
Toft, I. E.; Bagnall, A. J.
This paper introduces a new adaptive sniping agent for the Continuous Double Auction. We begin by analysing the performance of the well known Kaplan sniper in two extremes of market conditions. We generate volatile and stable market conditions using the well known Zero Intelligence-Constrained agent and a new zero-intelligence agent Small Increment (SI). ZI-C agents submit random but profitable bids/offers and cause high volatility in prices and individual trader performance. Our new zero-intelligence agent, SI, makes small random adjustments to the outstanding bid/offer and hence is more cautious than ZI-C. We present results for SI in self-play and then analyse Kaplan in volatile and stable markets. We demonstrate that the non-adaptive Kaplan sniper can be configured to suit either market conditions, but no single configuration is performs well across both market types. We believe that in a dynamic auction environment where current or future market conditions cannot be predicted a viable sniping strategy should adapt its behaviour to suit prevailing market conditions. To this end, we propose the Adaptive Sniper (AS) agent for the CDA. AS traders classify sniping opportunities using a statistical model of market activity and adjust their classification thresholds using a Widrow-Hoff adapted search. Our AS agent requires little configuration, and outperforms the original Kaplan sniper in volatile and stable markets, and in a mixed trader type scenario that includes adaptive strategies from the literature.
Understanding the Minimum Wage: Issues and Answers.
Employment Policies Inst. Foundation, Washington, DC.
This booklet, which is designed to clarify facts regarding the minimum wage's impact on marketplace economics, contains a total of 31 questions and answers pertaining to the following topics: relationship between minimum wages and poverty; impacts of changes in the minimum wage on welfare reform; and possible effects of changes in the minimum wage…
Youth minimum wages and youth employment
Marimpi, Maria; Koning, Pierre
2018-01-01
This paper performs a cross-country level analysis on the impact of the level of specific youth minimum wages on the labor market performance of young individuals. We use information on the use and level of youth minimum wages, as compared to the level of adult minimum wages as well as to the median
Duan, Xiaofeng F; Burggraf, Larry W; Huang, Lingyu
2013-07-22
To find low energy Si(n)C(n) structures out of hundreds to thousands of isomers we have developed a general method to search for stable isomeric structures that combines Stochastic Potential Surface Search and Pseudopotential Plane-Wave Density Functional Theory Car-Parinello Molecular Dynamics simulated annealing (PSPW-CPMD-SA). We enhanced the Sunders stochastic search method to generate random cluster structures used as seed structures for PSPW-CPMD-SA simulations. This method ensures that each SA simulation samples a different potential surface region to find the regional minimum structure. By iterations of this automated, parallel process on a high performance computer we located hundreds to more than a thousand stable isomers for each Si(n)C(n) cluster. Among these, five to 10 of the lowest energy isomers were further optimized using B3LYP/cc-pVTZ method. We applied this method to Si(n)C(n) (n = 4-12) clusters and found the lowest energy structures, most not previously reported. By analyzing the bonding patterns of low energy structures of each Si(n)C(n) cluster, we observed that carbon segregations tend to form condensed conjugated rings while Si connects to unsaturated bonds at the periphery of the carbon segregation as single atoms or clusters when n is small and when n is large a silicon network spans over the carbon segregation region.
Discretization of space and time: determining the values of minimum length and minimum time
Roatta , Luca
2017-01-01
Assuming that space and time can only have discrete values, we obtain the expression of the minimum length and the minimum time interval. These values are found to be exactly coincident with the Planck's length and the Planck's time but for the presence of h instead of ħ .
Minimum wage development in the Russian Federation
Bolsheva, Anna
2012-01-01
The aim of this paper is to analyze the effectiveness of the minimum wage policy at the national level in Russia and its impact on living standards in the country. The analysis showed that the national minimum wage in Russia does not serve its original purpose of protecting the lowest wage earners and has no substantial effect on poverty reduction. The national subsistence minimum is too low and cannot be considered an adequate criterion for the setting of the minimum wage. The minimum wage d...
Unbiased All-Optical Random-Number Generator
Steinle, Tobias; Greiner, Johannes N.; Wrachtrup, Jörg; Giessen, Harald; Gerhardt, Ilja
2017-10-01
The generation of random bits is of enormous importance in modern information science. Cryptographic security is based on random numbers which require a physical process for their generation. This is commonly performed by hardware random-number generators. These often exhibit a number of problems, namely experimental bias, memory in the system, and other technical subtleties, which reduce the reliability in the entropy estimation. Further, the generated outcome has to be postprocessed to "iron out" such spurious effects. Here, we present a purely optical randomness generator, based on the bistable output of an optical parametric oscillator. Detector noise plays no role and postprocessing is reduced to a minimum. Upon entering the bistable regime, initially the resulting output phase depends on vacuum fluctuations. Later, the phase is rigidly locked and can be well determined versus a pulse train, which is derived from the pump laser. This delivers an ambiguity-free output, which is reliably detected and associated with a binary outcome. The resulting random bit stream resembles a perfect coin toss and passes all relevant randomness measures. The random nature of the generated binary outcome is furthermore confirmed by an analysis of resulting conditional entropies.
Minimum emittance of three-bend achromats
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Xiaoyu; Xu Gang
2012-01-01
The calculation of the minimum emittance of three-bend achromats (TBAs) made by Mathematical software can ignore the actual magnets lattice in the matching condition of dispersion function in phase space. The minimum scaling factors of two kinds of widely used TBA lattices are obtained. Then the relationship between the lengths and the radii of the three dipoles in TBA is obtained and so is the minimum scaling factor, when the TBA lattice achieves its minimum emittance. The procedure of analysis and the results can be widely used in achromats lattices, because the calculation is not restricted by the actual lattice. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mihalache, D.; Mazilu, D.; Lederer, F.; Malomed, B.A.; Crasovan, L.-C.; Kartashov, Y.V.; Torner, L.
2005-01-01
The existence and stability of solitons in Bose-Einstein condensates with attractive interatomic interactions, described by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a three-dimensional (3D) periodic potential, are investigated in a systematic form. We find a one-parameter family of stable 3D solitons in a certain interval of values of their norm, provided that the strength of the potential exceeds a threshold value. The minimum number of 7 Li atoms in the stable solitons is 60, and the energy of the soliton at the stability threshold is ≅6 recoil energies in the lattice. The respective energy versus norm diagram features two cuspidal points, resulting in a typical swallowtail pattern, which is a generic feature of 3D solitons supported by quasi-two-dimensional or fully dimensional lattice potentials
30 CFR 57.19021 - Minimum rope strength.
2010-07-01
... feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.001L) For rope lengths 3,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×4.0. (b) Friction drum ropes. For rope lengths less than 4,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.0005L) For rope lengths 4,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×5.0. (c) Tail...
30 CFR 56.19021 - Minimum rope strength.
2010-07-01
... feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0-0.001L) For rope lengths 3,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×4.0 (b) Friction drum ropes. For rope lengths less than 4,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0-0.0005L) For rope lengths 4,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×5.0 (c) Tail ropes...
Random nanolasing in the Anderson localized regime
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Jin; Garcia, P. D.; Ek, Sara
2014-01-01
The development of nanoscale optical devices for classical and quantum photonics is affected by unavoidable fabrication imperfections that often impose performance limitations. However, disorder may also enable new functionalities, for example in random lasers, where lasing relies on random...... multiple scattering. The applicability of random lasers has been limited due to multidirectional emission, lack of tunability, and strong mode competition with chaotic fluctuations due to a weak mode confinement. The regime of Anderson localization of light has been proposed for obtaining stable multimode...... random lasing, and initial work concerned macroscopic one-dimensional layered media. Here, we demonstrate on-chip random nanolasers where the cavity feedback is provided by the intrinsic disorder. The strong confinement achieved by Anderson localization reduces the spatial overlap between lasing modes...
NEBIVOLOL IN TREATMENT OF STABLE EXERTIONAL ANGINA PECTORIS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. V. Gavrilov
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Aim. To evaluate antianginal and antiischemic efficiency of nebivolol in patients with stable angina pectoris.Material and methods. 100 patients with ischemic heart disease showing stable exertional angina pectoris and having no contraindications to beta-blockers were studied. After 5-7 days of control period 50 randomly selected patients began to take nebivolol in initial dose of 5mg once daily and 50 patients started to take metoprolol in initial dose of 50 mg twice daily. Duration of treatment was 8 weeks. Efficiency of treatment was assessed according to the results of control treadmill assessment and control daily ECG monitoring.Results. 56-day therapy with nebivolol at a dose of 7,5 mg per day results in increase in duration of treadmill test before angina or ST depression (p<0.05. Antianginal and antiischemic effect of nebivolol 7.5 mg once daily is rather similar with that of metoprolol in average daily dose of 175 mg. Nebivolol compared to metoprolol significantly (p<0.05 more effectively reduces the number of silent myocardial ischemia.Conclusion. Nebivolol is an efficient antianginal and antiischemic drug for patients with stable exertional angina pectoris.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gluud, Christian; Als-Nielsen, Bodil; Damgaard, Morten
2008-01-01
Objectives: We have reported increased 2.6-year mortality in clarithromycin- versus placebo-exposed stable coronary heart disease patients, but meta-analysis of randomized trials in coronary heart disease patients showed no significant effect of antibiotics on mortality. Here we report the 6-year...... disease versus placebo/no intervention (17 trials, 25,271 patients, 1,877 deaths) showed a significantly increased relative risk of death from antibiotics of 1.10 (1.01-1.20) without heterogeneity. Conclusions: Our results stress the necessity to consider carefully the strength of the indication before...... administering antibiotics to patients with coronary heart disease....
30 CFR 77.1431 - Minimum rope strength.
2010-07-01
... feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.001L) For rope lengths 3,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×4.0 (b) Friction drum ropes. For rope lengths less than 4,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.0005L) For rope lengths 4,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×5.0 (c) Tail ropes...
Random matrix theories and chaotic dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bohigas, O.
1991-01-01
A review of some of the main ideas, assumptions and results of the Wigner-Dyson type random matrix theories (RMT) which are relevant in the general context of 'Chaos and Quantum Physics' is presented. RMT are providing interesting and unexpected clues to connect classical dynamics with quantum phenomena. It is this aspect which will be emphasised and, concerning the main body of RMT, the author will restrict himself to a minimum. However, emphasis will be put on some generalizations of the 'canonical' random matrix ensembles that increase their flexibility, rendering the incorporation of relevant physical constraints possible. (R.P.) 112 refs., 35 figs., 5 tabs
A Phosphate Minimum in the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) off Peru
Paulmier, A.; Giraud, M.; Sudre, J.; Jonca, J.; Leon, V.; Moron, O.; Dewitte, B.; Lavik, G.; Grasse, P.; Frank, M.; Stramma, L.; Garcon, V.
2016-02-01
The Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) off Peru is known to be associated with the advection of Equatorial SubSurface Waters (ESSW), rich in nutrients and poor in oxygen, through the Peru-Chile UnderCurrent (PCUC), but this circulation remains to be refined within the OMZ. During the Pelágico cruise in November-December 2010, measurements of phosphate revealed the presence of a phosphate minimum (Pmin) in various hydrographic stations, which could not be explained so far and could be associated with a specific water mass. This Pmin, localized at a relatively constant layer ( 20minimum with a mean vertical phosphate decrease of 0.6 µM but highly variable between 0.1 and 2.2 µM. In average, these Pmin are associated with a predominant mixing of SubTropical Under- and Surface Waters (STUW and STSW: 20 and 40%, respectively) within ESSW ( 25%), complemented evenly by overlying (ESW, TSW: 8%) and underlying waters (AAIW, SPDW: 7%). The hypotheses and mechanisms leading to the Pmin formation in the OMZ are further explored and discussed, considering the physical regional contribution associated with various circulation pathways ventilating the OMZ and the local biogeochemical contribution including the potential diazotrophic activity.
Fluctuation theory for radiative transfer in random media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bal, Guillaume; Jing Wenjia
2011-01-01
We consider the effect of small scale random fluctuations of the constitutive coefficients on boundary measurements of solutions to radiative transfer equations. As the correlation length of the random oscillations tends to zero, the transport solution is well approximated by a deterministic, averaged, solution. In this paper, we analyze the random fluctuations to the averaged solution, which may be interpreted as a central limit correction to homogenization. With the inverse transport problem in mind, we characterize the random structure of the singular components of the transport measurement operator. In regimes of moderate scattering, such components provide stable reconstructions of the constitutive parameters in the transport equation. We show that the random fluctuations strongly depend on the decorrelation properties of the random medium.
Pre-bent elastic stable intramedullary nail fixation for distal radial shaft fractures in children.
Ge, Yi-hua; Wang, Zhi-gang; Cai, Hai-qing; Yang, Jie; Xu, Yun-lan; Li, Yu-chan; Zhang, Yu-chen; Chen, Bo-chang
2010-08-01
To investigate the functional and radiographic outcomes of pre-bent elastic stable intramedullary nail in treatment of distal radial shaft fractures in children. From January 2006 to December 2008, 18 children with distal radial shaft fracture were treated by close reduction and internal fixation with a pre-bent elastic stable intramedullary nail. The age range was from 5 years to 15 years, with an average of 9 years and 8 months. The minimum follow-up was 12 months. All fractures maintained good alignment postoperatively, and 94.4% (17/18) of the patients regained a full range of rotation of the forearm. One patient has limitation of rotation to less than 10°, this had improved by final follow-up. Complications included soft tissue irritation at the site of nail insertion in one patient and transient scar hypersensitivity in another. Fixation with a pre-bent elastic stable intramedullary nail is an effective, safe and convenient method for treating distal radial shaft fractures in children. © 2010 Tianjin Hospital and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Statistics for Ratios of Rayleigh, Rician, Nakagami-m, and Weibull Distributed Random Variables
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dragana Č. Pavlović
2013-01-01
Full Text Available The distributions of ratios of random variables are of interest in many areas of the sciences. In this brief paper, we present the joint probability density function (PDF and PDF of maximum of ratios μ1=R1/r1 and μ2=R2/r2 for the cases where R1, R2, r1, and r2 are Rayleigh, Rician, Nakagami-m, and Weibull distributed random variables. Random variables R1 and R2, as well as random variables r1 and r2, are correlated. Ascertaining on the suitability of the Weibull distribution to describe fading in both indoor and outdoor environments, special attention is dedicated to the case of Weibull random variables. For this case, analytical expressions for the joint PDF, PDF of maximum, PDF of minimum, and product moments of arbitrary number of ratios μi=Ri/ri, i=1,…,L are obtained. Random variables in numerator, Ri, as well as random variables in denominator, ri, are exponentially correlated. To the best of the authors' knowledge, analytical expressions for the PDF of minimum and product moments of {μi}i=1L are novel in the open technical literature. The proposed mathematical analysis is complemented by various numerical results. An application of presented theoretical results is illustrated with respect to performance assessment of wireless systems.
Li, Shengyao; Guo, Ming; Mao, Huimin; Gao, Zhuye; Xu, Hao; Shi, Dazhuo
2016-09-15
Recurrent cardiovascular event remains high in stable coronary artery disease (SCAD), especially in patients with multiple risk factors, despite a high rate of use conventional treatment. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is a promising complementary and alternative medicine for treating SCAD, while evidence for its effect on long-term survival is limited. This study was designed to test if Chinese herbal medicine in addition to conventional treatment is more effective than conventional treatment alone in reducing major adverse cardiac event (MACE) for SCAD patients with multiple risk factors during a 1-year follow-up. This is a multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, randomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 1500 patients are randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive the Qing-Xin-Jie-Yu Granules (QXJYG) or the placebo granules, twice daily for 6 months. The primary outcome is the combined outcomes including cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and revascularization. The secondary outcome is the combined outcomes including all-cause mortality, re-admission for acute coronary syndrome (ACS), heart failure, malignant supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmia influencing hemodynamics, ischemic stroke, and other thromboembolic events during 1-year follow-up. The assessment is performed at baseline (before randomization), 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after randomization. This is the first multicenter trial sponsored by the national funding of China to evaluate TCM in combination with conventional treatment on 1-year survival in high-risk SCAD patients. If successful, it will provide an evidence-based complementary therapeutic approach for reducing MACE from SCAD. The trial was registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry on December 28, 2013. The registration number is ChiCTR-TRC-13004370 .
Classically and quantum stable emergent universe from conservation laws
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Campo, Sergio del; Herrera, Ramón [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Avenida Brasil 2950, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Guendelman, Eduardo I. [Physics Department, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel); Labraña, Pedro, E-mail: guendel@bgu.ac.il, E-mail: ramon.herrera@ucv.cl, E-mail: plabrana@ubiobio.cl [Departamento de Física, Universidad del Bío Bío and Grupo de Cosmología y Gravitación-UBB, Avenida Collao 1202, Casilla 5-C, Concepción (Chile)
2016-08-01
It has been recently pointed out by Mithani-Vilenkin [1-4] that certain emergent universe scenarios which are classically stable are nevertheless unstable semiclassically to collapse. Here, we show that there is a class of emergent universes derived from scale invariant two measures theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking (s.s.b) of the scale invariance, which can have both classical stability and do not suffer the instability pointed out by Mithani-Vilenkin towards collapse. We find that this stability is due to the presence of a symmetry in the 'emergent phase', which together with the non linearities of the theory, does not allow that the FLRW scale factor to be smaller that a certain minimum value a {sub 0} in a certain protected region.
Zhou, Luqian; Li, Xiaoying; Guan, Lili; Chen, Jianhua; Guo, Bingpeng; Wu, Weiliang; Huo, Yating; Zhou, Ziqing; Liang, Zhenyu; Zhou, Yuqi; Tan, Jie; Chen, Xin; Song, Yuanlin; Chen, Rongchang
2017-01-01
The benefits of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in patients with hypercapnic COPD are controversial. It is presumed that methodology and appropriate use of NIV ventilator might be crucial for the outcomes. With the new built-in software, the performance of NIV can be monitored at home, which can guarantee the compliance and appropriate use. This study investigated effects of home use of NIV in hypercapnia in COPD patients using the NIV ventilator with built-in software for monitoring. The current multicenter prospective, randomized, controlled trial enrolled patients with stable GOLD stages III and IV hypercapnic COPD. Patients were randomly assigned via a computer-generated randomization sequence, with a block size of four patients, to continue optimized treatment (control group) or to receive additional NPPV (intervention group) for 3 months. The primary outcome was arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO 2 ). Data were derived from built-in software and analyzed every 4 weeks. Analysis was carried out with the intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02499718. Patients were recruited from 20 respiratory units in China from October 1, 2015, and recruitment was terminated with a record of the vital statistics on May 31, 2016. A total of 115 patients were randomly assigned to the NPPV group (n=57) or the control group (n=58). Patients complied well with NPPV therapy (mean [± standard deviation] day use 5.6±1.4 h). The mean estimation of leaks was 37.99±13.71 L/min. The changes in PaCO 2 (-10.41±0.97 vs -4.32±0.68 mmHg, P =0.03) and 6-min walk distance (6MWD) (38.2% vs 18.2%, P =0.02) were statistically significant in the NPPV group versus the control group. COPD assessment test (CAT) showed a positive trend ( P =0.06) in favor of the NPPV group. Pulmonary function and dyspnea were not different between groups. Ventilators equipped with built-in software provided methodology for monitoring NIV use at home
Schur, W. W.
2004-01-01
Excess in skin material of a pneumatic envelope beyond what is required for minimum enclosure of a gas bubble is a necessary but by no means sufficient condition for the existence of multiple equilibrium configurations for that pneumatic envelope. The very design of structurally efficient super-pressure balloons of the pumpkin shape type requires such excess. Undesired stable equilibria in pumpkin shape balloons have been observed on experimental pumpkin shape balloons. These configurations contain regions with stress levels far higher than those predicted for the cyclically symmetric design configuration under maximum pressurization. Successful designs of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons do not allow such undesired stable equilibria under full pressurization. This work documents efforts made so far and describes efforts still underway by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Balloon Program Office to arrive on guidance on the design of pumpkin shape super-pressure balloons that guarantee full and proper deployment.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bjerre, Mette; Hilden, Jørgen; Kastrup, Jens
2014-01-01
OBJECTIVES: To elucidate the prognostic power of serum osteoprotegerin (OPG) in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). METHODS: Serum OPG levels were measured in the CLARICOR trial cohort of 4063 patients with stable CAD on blood samples drawn at randomization. The follow-up was 2...... predictor for all-cause mortality. Importantly, OPG remained an independent predictor of mortality even after adjustment for both clinical and conventional cardiovascular risk markers (HR 2.5 [95% CI 1.6-3.9, p power as to all...
Isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration reduction by fentanyl.
McEwan, A I; Smith, C; Dyar, O; Goodman, D; Smith, L R; Glass, P S
1993-05-01
Isoflurane is commonly combined with fentanyl during anesthesia. Because of hysteresis between plasma and effect site, bolus administration of fentanyl does not accurately describe the interaction between these drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine the MAC reduction of isoflurane by fentanyl when both drugs had reached steady biophase concentrations. Seventy-seven patients were randomly allocated to receive either no fentanyl or fentanyl at several predetermined plasma concentrations. Fentanyl was administered using a computer-assisted continuous infusion device. Patients were also randomly allocated to receive a predetermined steady state end-tidal concentration of isoflurane. Blood samples for fentanyl concentration were taken at 10 min after initiation of the infusion and before and immediately after skin incision. A minimum of 20 min was allowed between the start of the fentanyl infusion and skin incision. The reduction in the MAC of isoflurane by the measured fentanyl concentration was calculated using a maximum likelihood solution to a logistic regression model. There was an initial steep reduction in the MAC of isoflurane by fentanyl, with 3 ng/ml resulting in a 63% MAC reduction. A ceiling effect was observed with 10 ng/ml providing only a further 19% reduction in MAC. A 50% decrease in MAC was produced by a fentanyl concentration of 1.67 ng/ml. Defining the MAC reduction of isoflurane by all the opioids allows their more rational administration with inhalational anesthetics and provides a comparison of their relative anesthetic potencies.
12 CFR 564.4 - Minimum appraisal standards.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 564.4 Section 564.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.4 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally related transactions, all appraisals shall, at a minimum: (a...
The minimum wage in the Czech enterprises
Eva Lajtkepová
2010-01-01
Although the statutory minimum wage is not a new category, in the Czech Republic we encounter the definition and regulation of a minimum wage for the first time in the 1990 amendment to Act No. 65/1965 Coll., the Labour Code. The specific amount of the minimum wage and the conditions of its operation were then subsequently determined by government regulation in February 1991. Since that time, the value of minimum wage has been adjusted fifteenth times (the last increase was in January 2007). ...
MORIKAWA Masayuki
2013-01-01
This paper, using prefecture level panel data, empirically analyzes 1) the recent evolution of price-adjusted regional minimum wages and 2) the effects of minimum wages on firm profitability. As a result of rapid increases in minimum wages in the metropolitan areas since 2007, the regional disparity of nominal minimum wages has been widening. However, the disparity of price-adjusted minimum wages has been shrinking. According to the analysis of the effects of minimum wages on profitability us...
41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.
2010-07-01
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum wages. 50-201... Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published in the Federal Register by the...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yurie Okabe-Oho
2009-08-01
Full Text Available Precise patterning of morphogen molecules and their accurate reading out are of key importance in embryonic development. Recent experiments have visualized distributions of proteins in developing embryos and shown that the gradient of concentration of Bicoid morphogen in Drosophila embryos is established rapidly after fertilization and remains stable through syncytial mitoses. This stable Bicoid gradient is read out in a precise way to distribute Hunchback with small fluctuations in each embryo and in a reproducible way, with small embryo-to-embryo fluctuation. The mechanisms of such stable, precise, and reproducible patterning through noisy cellular processes, however, still remain mysterious. To address these issues, here we develop the one- and three-dimensional stochastic models of the early Drosophila embryo. The simulated results show that the fluctuation in expression of the hunchback gene is dominated by the random arrival of Bicoid at the hunchback enhancer. Slow diffusion of Hunchback protein, however, averages out this intense fluctuation, leading to the precise patterning of distribution of Hunchback without loss of sharpness of the boundary of its distribution. The coordinated rates of diffusion and transport of input Bicoid and output Hunchback play decisive roles in suppressing fluctuations arising from the dynamical structure change in embryos and those arising from the random diffusion of molecules, and give rise to the stable, precise, and reproducible patterning of Bicoid and Hunchback distributions.
Exponentially Stable Stationary Solutions for Stochastic Evolution Equations and Their Perturbation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caraballo, Tomas; Kloeden, Peter E.; Schmalfuss, Bjoern
2004-01-01
We consider the exponential stability of stochastic evolution equations with Lipschitz continuous non-linearities when zero is not a solution for these equations. We prove the existence of anon-trivial stationary solution which is exponentially stable, where the stationary solution is generated by the composition of a random variable and the Wiener shift. We also construct stationary solutions with the stronger property of attracting bounded sets uniformly. The existence of these stationary solutions follows from the theory of random dynamical systems and their attractors. In addition, we prove some perturbation results and formulate conditions for the existence of stationary solutions for semilinear stochastic partial differential equations with Lipschitz continuous non-linearities
Minimum Wage Laws and the Distribution of Employment.
Lang, Kevin
The desirability of raising the minimum wage long revolved around just one question: the effect of higher minimum wages on the overall level of employment. An even more critical effect of the minimum wage rests on the composition of employment--who gets the minimum wage job. An examination of employment in eating and drinking establishments…
29 CFR 505.3 - Prevailing minimum compensation.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevailing minimum compensation. 505.3 Section 505.3 Labor... HUMANITIES § 505.3 Prevailing minimum compensation. (a)(1) In the absence of an alternative determination...)(2) of this section, the prevailing minimum compensation required to be paid under the Act to the...
Recent results for random networks of automata
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Flyvbjerg, H.
1987-05-01
After a very brief historical and contextual introduction to random networks of automata we review recent numerical and analytical results. Open questions and unsolved problems are pointed out and discussed. One such question is also answered: it is shown that the size of the stable core can be used as order parameter for a transition between phases of frozen and chaotic network behavior. A mean-field-like but exact selfconsistency equation for the size of the stable core is given. A new derivation of critical parameter values follows from it. (orig.)
Do Some Workers Have Minimum Wage Careers?
Carrington, William J.; Fallick, Bruce C.
2001-01-01
Most workers who begin their careers in minimum-wage jobs eventually gain more experience and move on to higher paying jobs. However, more than 8% of workers spend at least half of their first 10 working years in minimum wage jobs. Those more likely to have minimum wage careers are less educated, minorities, women with young children, and those…
Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?
Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane
2005-01-01
Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…
29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards...
The Shark Random Swim - (Lévy Flight with Memory)
Businger, Silvia
2018-05-01
The Elephant Random Walk (ERW), first introduced by Schütz and Trimper (Phys Rev E 70:045101, 2004), is a one-dimensional simple random walk on Z having a memory about the whole past. We study the Shark Random Swim, a random walk with memory about the whole past, whose steps are α -stable distributed with α \\in (0,2] . Our aim in this work is to study the impact of the heavy tailed step distributions on the asymptotic behavior of the random walk. We shall see that, as for the ERW, the asymptotic behavior of the Shark Random Swim depends on its memory parameter p, and that a phase transition can be observed at the critical value p=1/α.
Discrimination of ginseng cultivation regions using light stable isotope analysis.
Kim, Kiwook; Song, Joo-Hyun; Heo, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Jin-Hee; Jung, In-Woo; Min, Ji-Sook
2015-10-01
Korean ginseng is considered to be a precious health food in Asia. Today, thieves frequently compromise ginseng farms by pervasive theft. Thus, studies regarding the characteristics of ginseng according to growth region are required in order to deter ginseng thieves and prevent theft. In this study, 6 regions were selected on the basis of Korea regional criteria (si, gun, gu), and two ginseng-farms were randomly selected from each of the 6 regions. Then 4-6 samples of ginseng were acquired from each ginseng farm. The stable isotopic compositions of H, O, C, and N of the collected ginseng samples were analyzed. As a result, differences in the hydrogen isotope ratios could be used to distinguish regional differences, and differences in the nitrogen isotope ratios yielded characteristic information regarding the farms from which the samples were obtained. Thus, stable isotope values could be used to differentiate samples according to regional differences. Therefore, stable isotope analysis serves as a powerful tool to discriminate the regional origin of Korean ginseng samples from across Korea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, D.K.
1986-01-01
Seventy-five percent of the world's stable isotope supply comes from one producer, Oak Ridge Nuclear Laboratory (ORNL) in the US. Canadian concern is that foreign needs will be met only after domestic needs, thus creating a shortage of stable isotopes in Canada. This article describes the present situation in Canada (availability and cost) of stable isotopes, the isotope enrichment techniques, and related research programs at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL)
First steps towards a state classification in the random-field Ising model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Basso, Vittorio; Magni, Alessandro; Bertotti, Giorgio
2006-01-01
The properties of locally stable states of the random-field Ising model are studied. A map is defined for the dynamics driven by the field starting from a locally stable state. The fixed points of the map are connected with the limit hysteresis loops that appear in the classification of the states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Addai, Emmanuel Kwasi, E-mail: emmanueladdai41@yahoo.com; Gabel, Dieter; Krause, Ulrich
2016-04-15
Highlights: • Ignition sensitivity of a highly flammable dust decreases upon addition of inert dust. • Minimum ignition temperature of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • Minimum ignition energy of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%. - Abstract: The risks associated with dust explosions still exist in industries that either process or handle combustible dust. This explosion risk could be prevented or mitigated by applying the principle of inherent safety (moderation). This is achieved by adding an inert material to a highly combustible material in order to decrease the ignition sensitivity of the combustible dust. The presented paper deals with the experimental investigation of the influence of adding an inert dust on the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of the combustible/inert dust mixtures. The experimental investigation was done in two laboratory scale equipment: the Hartmann apparatus and the Godbert-Greenwald furnace for the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature test respectively. This was achieved by mixing various amounts of three inert materials (magnesium oxide, ammonium sulphate and sand) and six combustible dusts (brown coal, lycopodium, toner, niacin, corn starch and high density polyethylene). Generally, increasing the inert materials concentration increases the minimum ignition energy as well as the minimum ignition temperatures until a threshold is reached where no ignition was obtained. The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Addai, Emmanuel Kwasi; Gabel, Dieter; Krause, Ulrich
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Ignition sensitivity of a highly flammable dust decreases upon addition of inert dust. • Minimum ignition temperature of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • Minimum ignition energy of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%. - Abstract: The risks associated with dust explosions still exist in industries that either process or handle combustible dust. This explosion risk could be prevented or mitigated by applying the principle of inherent safety (moderation). This is achieved by adding an inert material to a highly combustible material in order to decrease the ignition sensitivity of the combustible dust. The presented paper deals with the experimental investigation of the influence of adding an inert dust on the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of the combustible/inert dust mixtures. The experimental investigation was done in two laboratory scale equipment: the Hartmann apparatus and the Godbert-Greenwald furnace for the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature test respectively. This was achieved by mixing various amounts of three inert materials (magnesium oxide, ammonium sulphate and sand) and six combustible dusts (brown coal, lycopodium, toner, niacin, corn starch and high density polyethylene). Generally, increasing the inert materials concentration increases the minimum ignition energy as well as the minimum ignition temperatures until a threshold is reached where no ignition was obtained. The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%.
Lin, Geng; Guan, Jian; Feng, Huibin
2018-06-01
The positive influence dominating set problem is a variant of the minimum dominating set problem, and has lots of applications in social networks. It is NP-hard, and receives more and more attention. Various methods have been proposed to solve the positive influence dominating set problem. However, most of the existing work focused on greedy algorithms, and the solution quality needs to be improved. In this paper, we formulate the minimum positive influence dominating set problem as an integer linear programming (ILP), and propose an ILP based memetic algorithm (ILPMA) for solving the problem. The ILPMA integrates a greedy randomized adaptive construction procedure, a crossover operator, a repair operator, and a tabu search procedure. The performance of ILPMA is validated on nine real-world social networks with nodes up to 36,692. The results show that ILPMA significantly improves the solution quality, and is robust.
Performance of Power Systems under Sustained Random Perturbations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Humberto Verdejo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper studies linear systems under sustained additive random perturbations. The stable operating point of an electric power system is replaced by an attracting stationary solution if the system is subjected to (small random additive perturbations. The invariant distribution of this stationary solution gives rise to several performance indices that measure how well the system copes with the randomness. These indices are introduced, showing how they can be used for the optimal tuning of system parameters in the presence of noise. Results on a four-generator two-area system are presented and discussed.
Multiwavelength ytterbium-Brillouin random Rayleigh feedback fiber laser
Wu, Han; Wang, Zinan; Fan, Mengqiu; Li, Jiaqi; Meng, Qingyang; Xu, Dangpeng; Rao, Yunjiang
2018-03-01
In this letter, we experimentally demonstrate the multiwavelength ytterbium-Brillouin random fiber laser for the first time, in the half-open cavity formed by a fiber loop mirror and randomly distributed Rayleigh mirrors. With a cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped fiber and a long TrueWave fiber, the narrow linewidth Brillouin pump can generate multiple Brillouin Stokes lines with hybrid ytterbium-Brillouin gain. Up to six stable channels with a spacing of about 0.06 nm are obtained. This work extends the operation wavelength of the multiwavelength Brillouin random fiber laser to the 1 µm band, and has potential in various applications.
Elango, Rajavel; Humayun, Mohammad A; Turner, Justine M; Rafii, Mahroukh; Langos, Veronika; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B
2017-10-01
Background: The total sulfur amino acid (TSAA) and minimum Met requirements have been previously determined in healthy children. TSAA metabolism is altered in kidney disease. Whether TSAA requirements are altered in children with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) is unknown. Objective: We sought to determine the TSAA (Met in the absence of Cys) requirements and minimum Met (in the presence of excess Cys) requirements in children with CRI. Methods: Five children (4 boys, 1 girl) aged 10 ± 2.6 y with CRI were randomly assigned to receive graded intakes of Met (0, 5, 10, 15, 25, and 35 mg · kg -1 · d -1 ) with no Cys in the diet. Four of the children (3 boys, 1 girl) were then randomly assigned to receive graded dietary intakes of Met (0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, and 15 mg · kg -1 · d -1 ) with 21 mg · kg -1 · d -1 Cys. The mean TSAA and minimum Met requirements were determined by measuring the oxidation of l-[1- 13 C]Phe to 13 CO 2 (F 13 CO 2 ). A 2-phase linear-regression crossover analysis of the F 13 CO 2 data identified a breakpoint at minimal F 13 CO 2 Urine samples collected from all study days and from previous studies of healthy children were measured for sulfur metabolites. Results: The mean and population-safe (upper 95% CI) intakes of TSAA and minimum Met in children with CRI were determined to be 12.6 and 15.9 mg · kg -1 · d -1 and 7.3 and 10.9 mg · kg -1 · d -1 , respectively. In healthy school-aged children the mean and upper 95% CI intakes of TSAA and minimum Met were determined to be 12.9 and 17.2 mg · kg -1 · d -1 and 5.8 and 7.3 mg · kg -1 · d -1 , respectively. A comparison of the minimum Met requirements between healthy children and children with CRI indicated significant ( P < 0.05) differences. Conclusion: These results suggest that children with CRI have a similar mean and population-safe TSAA to that of healthy children, suggesting adequate Cys synthesis via transsulfuration, but higher minimum Met requirement, suggesting reduced
New Minimum Wage Research: A Symposium.
Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; And Others
1992-01-01
Includes "Introduction" (Ehrenberg); "Effect of the Minimum Wage [MW] on the Fast-Food Industry" (Katz, Krueger); "Using Regional Variation in Wages to Measure Effects of the Federal MW" (Card); "Do MWs Reduce Employment?" (Card); "Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages" (Neumark,…
Weak convergence to isotropic complex S α S $S\\alpha S$ random measure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jun Wang
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract In this paper, we prove that an isotropic complex symmetric α-stable random measure ( 0 < α < 2 $0<\\alpha<2$ can be approximated by a complex process constructed by integrals based on the Poisson process with random intensity.
Understanding repetitive travel mode choices in a stable context: A panel study approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thøgersen, John
2006-01-01
It is argued that most travel mode choices are repetitive and made in a stable context. As an example, the everyday use of public transport is analyzed based on a panel survey with a random sample of about 1300 Danish residents interviewed up to three times in the period 1998-2000. The use...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Tissue samples (skin, bone, blood, muscle) are analyzed for stable carbon, stable nitrogen, and stable sulfur analysis. Many samples are used in their entirety for...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The code in the stableGP package implements Gaussian process calculations using efficient and numerically stable algorithms. Description of the algorithms is in the...
Teaching the Minimum Wage in Econ 101 in Light of the New Economics of the Minimum Wage.
Krueger, Alan B.
2001-01-01
Argues that the recent controversy over the effect of the minimum wage on employment offers an opportunity for teaching introductory economics. Examines eight textbooks to determine topic coverage but finds little consensus. Describes how minimum wage effects should be taught. (RLH)
Probability on graphs random processes on graphs and lattices
Grimmett, Geoffrey
2018-01-01
This introduction to some of the principal models in the theory of disordered systems leads the reader through the basics, to the very edge of contemporary research, with the minimum of technical fuss. Topics covered include random walk, percolation, self-avoiding walk, interacting particle systems, uniform spanning tree, random graphs, as well as the Ising, Potts, and random-cluster models for ferromagnetism, and the Lorentz model for motion in a random medium. This new edition features accounts of major recent progress, including the exact value of the connective constant of the hexagonal lattice, and the critical point of the random-cluster model on the square lattice. The choice of topics is strongly motivated by modern applications, and focuses on areas that merit further research. Accessible to a wide audience of mathematicians and physicists, this book can be used as a graduate course text. Each chapter ends with a range of exercises.
Meta-analysis of acupuncture therapy for the treatment of stable angina pectoris.
Zhang, Ze; Chen, Min; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Zhe; Wu, Wensheng; Liu, Jun; Yan, Jun; Yang, Guanlin
2015-01-01
Angina pectoris is a common symptom imperiling patients' life quality. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture for stable angina pectoris. Clinical randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the efficacy of acupuncture to conventional drugs in patients with stable angina pectoris were searched using the following database of PubMed, Medline, Wanfang and CNKI. Overall odds ratio (ORs) and weighted mean difference (MD) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated by using fixed- or random-effect models depending on the heterogeneity of the included trials. Total 8 RCTs, including 640 angina pectoris cases with 372 patients received acupuncture therapy and 268 patients received conventional drugs, were included. Overall, our result showed that acupuncture significantly increased the clinical curative effects in the relief of angina symptoms (OR=2.89, 95% CI=1.87-4.47, Pacupuncture therapy was superior to conventional drugs. Although there was no significant difference in overall effective rate relating reduction of nitroglycerin between two groups (OR=2.13, 95% CI=0.90-5.07, P=0.09), a significant reduction on nitroglycerin consumption in acupuncture group was found (MD=-0.44, 95% CI=-0.64, -0.24, Pacupuncture therapy than for traditional medicines (MD=2.44, 95% CI=1.64-3.24, Pacupuncture therapy were found. Acupuncture may be an effective therapy for stable angina pectoris. More clinical trials are needed to systematically assess the role of acupuncture in angina pectoris.
30 CFR 75.1431 - Minimum rope strength.
2010-07-01
..., including rotation resistant). For rope lengths less than 3,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.001L) For rope lengths 3,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×4.0 (b) Friction drum ropes. For rope lengths less than 4,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.0005L) For rope lengths 4,000 feet...
Shelf-stable foods through irradiation processing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1995-11-01
This survey has been produced from a database on analytical reference materials of biological and environmental origin, which is maintained at the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is an updated version of earlier reports, the last published in 1990. The information presented refers mostly to reference materials for trace element constituents; however, information is also included on a number of other selected measurands of relevance to IAEA programmes, i.e. radionuclides, stable isotopes, anions, cations, organometallic compounds and organic contaminants. The database presently contains over 10,000 analyte values for 455 measurands in 650 reference materials produced by 30 different suppliers. Additional information on the cost of the materials, the unit size supplied, and recommended minimum weight of material for analysis is also provided, if this information is available to the authors. It is expected that this survey will help analysts to select reference materials for quality assurance purposes that match as closely as possible, with respect to matrix type and concentrations of the measurands of interest, their samples to be analyzed. 22 refs, 2 tabs.
Shelf-stable foods through irradiation processing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1995-11-01
This survey has been produced from a database on analytical reference materials of biological and environmental origin, which is maintained at the International Atomic Energy Agency. It is an updated version of earlier reports, the last published in 1990. The information presented refers mostly to reference materials for trace element constituents; however, information is also included on a number of other selected measurands of relevance to IAEA programmes, i.e. radionuclides, stable isotopes, anions, cations, organometallic compounds and organic contaminants. The database presently contains over 10,000 analyte values for 455 measurands in 650 reference materials produced by 30 different suppliers. Additional information on the cost of the materials, the unit size supplied, and recommended minimum weight of material for analysis is also provided, if this information is available to the authors. It is expected that this survey will help analysts to select reference materials for quality assurance purposes that match as closely as possible, with respect to matrix type and concentrations of the measurands of interest, their samples to be analyzed. 22 refs, 2 tabs
Features of Random Metal Nanowire Networks with Application in Transparent Conducting Electrodes
Maloth, Thirupathi
2017-01-01
in terms of sheet resistance and optical transmittance. However, as the electrical properties of such random networks are achieved thanks to a percolation network, a minimum size of the electrodes is needed so it actually exceeds the representative volume
30 CFR 281.30 - Minimum royalty.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 281.30 Section 281.30 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Financial Considerations § 281.30 Minimum royalty...
The graph-theoretic minimum energy path problem for ionic conduction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ippei Kishida
2015-10-01
Full Text Available A new computational method was developed to analyze the ionic conduction mechanism in crystals through graph theory. The graph was organized into nodes, which represent the crystal structures modeled by ionic site occupation, and edges, which represent structure transitions via ionic jumps. We proposed a minimum energy path problem, which is similar to the shortest path problem. An effective algorithm to solve the problem was established. Since our method does not use randomized algorithm and time parameters, the computational cost to analyze conduction paths and a migration energy is very low. The power of the method was verified by applying it to α-AgI and the ionic conduction mechanism in α-AgI was revealed. The analysis using single point calculations found the minimum energy path for long-distance ionic conduction, which consists of 12 steps of ionic jumps in a unit cell. From the results, the detailed theoretical migration energy was calculated as 0.11 eV by geometry optimization and nudged elastic band method. Our method can refine candidates for possible jumps in crystals and it can be adapted to other computational methods, such as the nudged elastic band method. We expect that our method will be a powerful tool for analyzing ionic conduction mechanisms, even for large complex crystals.
2013-12-20
... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... the minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2014, through... Federal Regulations Title 14, section 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing...
Evolution of the bi-stable wake of a square-back automotive shape
Pavia, Giancarlo; Passmore, Martin; Sardu, Costantino
2018-01-01
Square-back shapes are popular in the automotive market for their high level of practicality. These geometries, however, are usually characterised by high drag and their wake dynamics present aspects, such as the coexistence of a long-time bi-stable behaviour and short-time global fluctuating modes that are not fully understood. In the present paper, the unsteady behaviour of the wake of a generic square-back car geometry is characterised with an emphasis on identifying the causal relationship between the different dynamic modes in the wake. The study is experimental, consisting of balance, pressure, and stereoscopic PIV measurements. Applying wavelet and cross-wavelet transforms to the balance data, a quasi-steady correlation is demonstrated between the forces and bi-stable modes. This is investigated by applying proper orthogonal decomposition to the pressure and velocity data sets and a new structure is proposed for each bi-stable state, consisting of a hairpin vortex that originates from one of the two model's vertical trailing edges and bends towards the opposite side as it merges into a single streamwise vortex downstream. The wake pumping motion is also identified and for the first time linked with the motion of the bi-stable vortical structure in the streamwise direction, resulting in out-of-phase pressure variations between the two vertical halves of the model base. A phase-averaged low-order model is also proposed that provides a comprehensive description of the mechanisms of the switch between the bi-stable states. It is demonstrated that, during the switch, the wake becomes laterally symmetric and, at this point, the level of interaction between the recirculating structures and the base reaches a minimum, yielding, for this geometry, a 7% reduction of the base drag compared to the time-averaged result.
State cigarette minimum price laws - United States, 2009.
2010-04-09
Cigarette price increases reduce the demand for cigarettes and thereby reduce smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption, and youth initiation of smoking. Excise tax increases are the most effective government intervention to increase the price of cigarettes, but cigarette manufacturers use trade discounts, coupons, and other promotions to counteract the effects of these tax increases and appeal to price-sensitive smokers. State cigarette minimum price laws, initiated by states in the 1940s and 1950s to protect tobacco retailers from predatory business practices, typically require a minimum percentage markup to be added to the wholesale and/or retail price. If a statute prohibits trade discounts from the minimum price calculation, these laws have the potential to counteract discounting by cigarette manufacturers. To assess the status of cigarette minimum price laws in the United States, CDC surveyed state statutes and identified those states with minimum price laws in effect as of December 31, 2009. This report summarizes the results of that survey, which determined that 25 states had minimum price laws for cigarettes (median wholesale markup: 4.00%; median retail markup: 8.00%), and seven of those states also expressly prohibited the use of trade discounts in the minimum retail price calculation. Minimum price laws can help prevent trade discounting from eroding the positive effects of state excise tax increases and higher cigarette prices on public health.
Three Phase Power Imbalance Decomposition into Systematic Imbalance and Random Imbalance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kong, Wangwei; Ma, Kang; Wu, Qiuwei
2017-01-01
Uneven load allocations and random load behaviors are two major causes for three-phase power imbalance. The former mainly cause systematic imbalance, which can be addressed by low-cost phase swapping; the latter contribute to random imbalance, which requires relatively costly demand...... minimum phase, or both. Then, this paper proposes a new method to decompose three-phase power series into a systematic imbalance component and a random imbalance component as the closed-form solutions of quadratic optimization models that minimize random imbalance. A degree of power imbalance...... is calculated based on the systematic imbalance component to guide phase swapping. Case studies demonstrate that 72.8% of 782 low voltage substations have systematic imbalance components. The degree of power imbalance results reveal the maximum need for phase swapping and the random imbalance components reveal...
Random close packing of hard spheres and disks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berryman, J.G.
1983-01-01
A simple definition of random close packing of hard spheres is presented, and the consequences of this definition are explored. According to this definition, random close packing occurs at the minimum packing fraction eta for which the median nearest-neighbor radius equals the diameter of the spheres. Using the radial distribution function at more dilute concentrations to estimate median nearest-neighbor radii, lower bounds on the critical packing fraction eta/sub RCP/ are obtained and the value of eta/sub RCP/ is estimated by extrapolation. Random close packing is predicted to occur for eta/sub RCP/ = 0.64 +- 0.02 in three dimensions and eta/sub RCP/ = 0.82 +- 0.02 in two dimensions. Both of these predictions are shown to be consistent with the available experimental data
9 CFR 147.51 - Authorized laboratory minimum requirements.
2010-01-01
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorized laboratory minimum requirements. 147.51 Section 147.51 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Authorized Laboratories and Approved Tests § 147.51 Authorized laboratory minimum requirements. These minimum...
Apparatus to detect stable fractional charges on matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vanderspek, R.
1980-04-01
The construction of an apparatus designed to detect stable fractional charges on matter, if they exist, to the level of 10 -24 per nucleon is reported and discussed. The charges on a stream of highly consistent droplets produced by the apparatus are determined by accurate measurement of the deflection of the droplets in falling through a static electric field. Maintenance of certain parameters of operation calculated to limit the random effects of electrical and aerodynamical disturbances on the droplets indicate a precision in the measurement of the charge on a droplet of 0.02e can be attained. 7 figures
Addai, Emmanuel Kwasi; Gabel, Dieter; Krause, Ulrich
2016-04-15
The risks associated with dust explosions still exist in industries that either process or handle combustible dust. This explosion risk could be prevented or mitigated by applying the principle of inherent safety (moderation). This is achieved by adding an inert material to a highly combustible material in order to decrease the ignition sensitivity of the combustible dust. The presented paper deals with the experimental investigation of the influence of adding an inert dust on the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of the combustible/inert dust mixtures. The experimental investigation was done in two laboratory scale equipment: the Hartmann apparatus and the Godbert-Greenwald furnace for the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature test respectively. This was achieved by mixing various amounts of three inert materials (magnesium oxide, ammonium sulphate and sand) and six combustible dusts (brown coal, lycopodium, toner, niacin, corn starch and high density polyethylene). Generally, increasing the inert materials concentration increases the minimum ignition energy as well as the minimum ignition temperatures until a threshold is reached where no ignition was obtained. The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Sampling large random knots in a confined space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arsuaga, J; Blackstone, T; Diao, Y; Hinson, K; Karadayi, E; Saito, M
2007-01-01
DNA knots formed under extreme conditions of condensation, as in bacteriophage P4, are difficult to analyze experimentally and theoretically. In this paper, we propose to use the uniform random polygon model as a supplementary method to the existing methods for generating random knots in confinement. The uniform random polygon model allows us to sample knots with large crossing numbers and also to generate large diagrammatically prime knot diagrams. We show numerically that uniform random polygons sample knots with large minimum crossing numbers and certain complicated knot invariants (as those observed experimentally). We do this in terms of the knot determinants or colorings. Our numerical results suggest that the average determinant of a uniform random polygon of n vertices grows faster than O(e n 2 )). We also investigate the complexity of prime knot diagrams. We show rigorously that the probability that a randomly selected 2D uniform random polygon of n vertices is almost diagrammatically prime goes to 1 as n goes to infinity. Furthermore, the average number of crossings in such a diagram is at the order of O(n 2 ). Therefore, the two-dimensional uniform random polygons offer an effective way in sampling large (prime) knots, which can be useful in various applications
Sampling large random knots in a confined space
Arsuaga, J.; Blackstone, T.; Diao, Y.; Hinson, K.; Karadayi, E.; Saito, M.
2007-09-01
DNA knots formed under extreme conditions of condensation, as in bacteriophage P4, are difficult to analyze experimentally and theoretically. In this paper, we propose to use the uniform random polygon model as a supplementary method to the existing methods for generating random knots in confinement. The uniform random polygon model allows us to sample knots with large crossing numbers and also to generate large diagrammatically prime knot diagrams. We show numerically that uniform random polygons sample knots with large minimum crossing numbers and certain complicated knot invariants (as those observed experimentally). We do this in terms of the knot determinants or colorings. Our numerical results suggest that the average determinant of a uniform random polygon of n vertices grows faster than O(e^{n^2}) . We also investigate the complexity of prime knot diagrams. We show rigorously that the probability that a randomly selected 2D uniform random polygon of n vertices is almost diagrammatically prime goes to 1 as n goes to infinity. Furthermore, the average number of crossings in such a diagram is at the order of O(n2). Therefore, the two-dimensional uniform random polygons offer an effective way in sampling large (prime) knots, which can be useful in various applications.
Sampling large random knots in a confined space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arsuaga, J [Department of Mathematics, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Ave, San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Blackstone, T [Department of Computer Science, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Ave., San Francisco, CA 94132 (United States); Diao, Y [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Hinson, K [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, NC 28223 (United States); Karadayi, E [Department of Mathematics, University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States); Saito, M [Department of Mathematics, University of South Florida, 4202 E Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL 33620 (United States)
2007-09-28
DNA knots formed under extreme conditions of condensation, as in bacteriophage P4, are difficult to analyze experimentally and theoretically. In this paper, we propose to use the uniform random polygon model as a supplementary method to the existing methods for generating random knots in confinement. The uniform random polygon model allows us to sample knots with large crossing numbers and also to generate large diagrammatically prime knot diagrams. We show numerically that uniform random polygons sample knots with large minimum crossing numbers and certain complicated knot invariants (as those observed experimentally). We do this in terms of the knot determinants or colorings. Our numerical results suggest that the average determinant of a uniform random polygon of n vertices grows faster than O(e{sup n{sup 2}}). We also investigate the complexity of prime knot diagrams. We show rigorously that the probability that a randomly selected 2D uniform random polygon of n vertices is almost diagrammatically prime goes to 1 as n goes to infinity. Furthermore, the average number of crossings in such a diagram is at the order of O(n{sup 2}). Therefore, the two-dimensional uniform random polygons offer an effective way in sampling large (prime) knots, which can be useful in various applications.
2010-12-07
... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2011, through December... Regulations Title 14, section 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in...
2012-12-03
... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... the minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2013, through... Regulations Title 14, Sec. Sec. 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in...
2011-12-01
... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Random Drug and Alcohol Testing... the minimum random drug and alcohol testing percentage rates for the period January 1, 2012, through... Regulations Title 14, Sec. 120.109(b) (for drug testing), and 120.217(c) (for alcohol testing). Issued in...
Minimum Price Guarantees In a Consumer Search Model
M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); A. Parakhonyak (Alexei)
2009-01-01
textabstractThis paper is the first to examine the effect of minimum price guarantees in a sequential search model. Minimum price guarantees are not advertised and only known to consumers when they come to the shop. We show that in such an environment, minimum price guarantees increase the value of
Stable non-Gaussian self-similar processes with stationary increments
Pipiras, Vladas
2017-01-01
This book provides a self-contained presentation on the structure of a large class of stable processes, known as self-similar mixed moving averages. The authors present a way to describe and classify these processes by relating them to so-called deterministic flows. The first sections in the book review random variables, stochastic processes, and integrals, moving on to rigidity and flows, and finally ending with mixed moving averages and self-similarity. In-depth appendices are also included. This book is aimed at graduate students and researchers working in probability theory and statistics.
Stable Lévy motion with inverse Gaussian subordinator
Kumar, A.; Wyłomańska, A.; Gajda, J.
2017-09-01
In this paper we study the stable Lévy motion subordinated by the so-called inverse Gaussian process. This process extends the well known normal inverse Gaussian (NIG) process introduced by Barndorff-Nielsen, which arises by subordinating ordinary Brownian motion (with drift) with inverse Gaussian process. The NIG process found many interesting applications, especially in financial data description. We discuss here the main features of the introduced subordinated process, such as distributional properties, existence of fractional order moments and asymptotic tail behavior. We show the connection of the process with continuous time random walk. Further, the governing fractional partial differential equations for the probability density function is also obtained. Moreover, we discuss the asymptotic distribution of sample mean square displacement, the main tool in detection of anomalous diffusion phenomena (Metzler et al., 2014). In order to apply the stable Lévy motion time-changed by inverse Gaussian subordinator we propose a step-by-step procedure of parameters estimation. At the end, we show how the examined process can be useful to model financial time series.
Wage inequality, minimum wage effects and spillovers
Stewart, Mark B.
2011-01-01
This paper investigates possible spillover effects of the UK minimum wage. The halt in the growth in inequality in the lower half of the wage distribution (as measured by the 50:10 percentile ratio) since the mid-1990s, in contrast to the continued inequality growth in the upper half of the distribution, suggests the possibility of a minimum wage effect and spillover effects on wages above the minimum. This paper analyses individual wage changes, using both a difference-in-differences estimat...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Magashima, K. [Railway Technical Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Iwasa, Y. [Francis Bitter Magnet Laboratory, Canbridge (United States); Sawa, K. [keio University, Tokyo (Japan); Murakami, M. [Superconductivity research Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)
1999-11-25
The levitation of bulk Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors can be controlled using a Bi-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (Bi2223) superconducting electromagnet. It was found that stable levitation without tilting could be obtained only when the sample trapped a certain amount of fields, the minimum of which depended on the external field and sample dimensions. We employed a novel analysis method for levitation based on the total energy balance, which is much simpler than the force method and could be applied to understanding general levitation behavior. Numerical analyses thus developed showed that stable levitation of superconductors with large dimensions cen only be achieved when the induced currents can flow with three-dimensional freedom. (author)
Greedy Local Search and Vertex Cover in Sparse Random Graphs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Witt, Carsten
2009-01-01
. This work starts with a rigorous explanation for this claim based on the refined analysis of the Karp-Sipser algorithm by Aronson et al. Subsequently, theoretical supplements are given to experimental studies of search heuristics on random graphs. For c 1, a greedy and randomized local-search heuristic...... finds an optimal cover in polynomial time with a probability arbitrarily close to 1. This behavior relies on the absence of a giant component. As an additional insight into the randomized search, it is shown that the heuristic fails badly also on graphs consisting of a single tree component of maximum......Recently, various randomized search heuristics have been studied for the solution of the minimum vertex cover problem, in particular for sparse random instances according to the G(n, c/n) model, where c > 0 is a constant. Methods from statistical physics suggest that the problem is easy if c
Minimum Variance Portfolios in the Brazilian Equity Market
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandre Rubesam
2013-03-01
Full Text Available We investigate minimum variance portfolios in the Brazilian equity market using different methods to estimate the covariance matrix, from the simple model of using the sample covariance to multivariate GARCH models. We compare the performance of the minimum variance portfolios to those of the following benchmarks: (i the IBOVESPA equity index, (ii an equally-weighted portfolio, (iii the maximum Sharpe ratio portfolio and (iv the maximum growth portfolio. Our results show that the minimum variance portfolio has higher returns with lower risk compared to the benchmarks. We also consider long-short 130/30 minimum variance portfolios and obtain similar results. The minimum variance portfolio invests in relatively few stocks with low βs measured with respect to the IBOVESPA index, being easily replicable by individual and institutional investors alike.
Minimum Covers of Fixed Cardinality in Weighted Graphs.
White, Lee J.
Reported is the result of research on combinatorial and algorithmic techniques for information processing. A method is discussed for obtaining minimum covers of specified cardinality from a given weighted graph. By the indicated method, it is shown that the family of minimum covers of varying cardinality is related to the minimum spanning tree of…
Nicol, Andrew J; Navsaria, Pradeep H; Hommes, Martijn; Ball, Chad G; Edu, Sorin; Kahn, Delawir
2014-03-01
To determine if stable patients with a hemopericardium detected after penetrating chest trauma can be safely managed with pericardial drainage alone. The current international practice is to perform a sternotomy and cardiac repair if a hemopericardium is detected after penetrating chest trauma. The experience in Cape Town, South Africa, on performing a mandatory sternotomy in hemodynamically stable patients was that a sternotomy was unnecessary and the cardiac injury, if present, had sealed. A single-center parallel-group randomized controlled study was completed. All hemodynamically stable patients with a hemopericardium confirmed at subxiphoid pericardial window (SPW), and no active bleeding, were randomized. The primary outcome measure was survival to discharge from hospital. Secondary outcomes were complications and postoperative hospital stay. Fifty-five patients were randomized to sternotomy and 56 to pericardial drainage and wash-out only. Fifty-one of the 55 patients (93%) randomized to sternotomy had either no cardiac injury or a tangential injury. There were only 4 patients with penetrating wounds to the endocardium and all had sealed. There was 1 death postoperatively among the 111 patients (0.9%) and this was in the sternotomy group. The mean intensive care unit (ICU) stay for a sternotomy was 2.04 days (range, 0-25 days) compared with 0.25 days (range, 0-2) for the drainage (P drainage group (95% CI: 0.8-2.7). Total hospital stay was significantly shorter in the SPW group (P drainage is effective and safe in the stable patient with a hemopericardium after penetrating chest trauma, with no increase in mortality and a shorter ICU and hospital stay. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00823160).
Validation of ICD-9 Codes for Stable Miscarriage in the Emergency Department.
Quinley, Kelly E; Falck, Ailsa; Kallan, Michael J; Datner, Elizabeth M; Carr, Brendan G; Schreiber, Courtney A
2015-07-01
International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) diagnosis codes have not been validated for identifying cases of missed abortion where a pregnancy is no longer viable but the cervical os remains closed. Our goal was to assess whether ICD-9 code "632" for missed abortion has high sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) in identifying patients in the emergency department (ED) with cases of stable early pregnancy failure (EPF). We studied females ages 13-50 years presenting to the ED of an urban academic medical center. We approached our analysis from two perspectives, evaluating both the sensitivity and PPV of ICD-9 code "632" in identifying patients with stable EPF. All patients with chief complaints "pregnant and bleeding" or "pregnant and cramping" over a 12-month period were identified. We randomly reviewed two months of patient visits and calculated the sensitivity of ICD-9 code "632" for true cases of stable miscarriage. To establish the PPV of ICD-9 code "632" for capturing missed abortions, we identified patients whose visits from the same time period were assigned ICD-9 code "632," and identified those with actual cases of stable EPF. We reviewed 310 patient records (17.6% of 1,762 sampled). Thirteen of 31 patient records assigned ICD-9 code for missed abortion correctly identified cases of stable EPF (sensitivity=41.9%), and 140 of the 142 patients without EPF were not assigned the ICD-9 code "632"(specificity=98.6%). Of the 52 eligible patients identified by ICD-9 code "632," 39 cases met the criteria for stable EPF (PPV=75.0%). ICD-9 code "632" has low sensitivity for identifying stable EPF, but its high specificity and moderately high PPV are valuable for studying cases of stable EPF in epidemiologic studies using administrative data.
Who Benefits from a Minimum Wage Increase?
John W. Lopresti; Kevin J. Mumford
2015-01-01
This paper addresses the question of how a minimum wage increase affects the wages of low-wage workers. Most studies assume that there is a simple mechanical increase in the wage for workers earning a wage between the old and the new minimum wage, with some studies allowing for spillovers to workers with wages just above this range. Rather than assume that the wages of these workers would have remained constant, this paper estimates how a minimum wage increase impacts a low-wage worker's wage...
SPDEs with α-Stable Lévy Noise: A Random Field Approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Raluca M. Balan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is dedicated to the study of a nonlinear SPDE on a bounded domain in Rd, with zero initial conditions and Dirichlet boundary, driven by an α-stable Lévy noise Z with α∈(0,2, α≠1, and possibly nonsymmetric tails. To give a meaning to the concept of solution, we develop a theory of stochastic integration with respect to this noise. The idea is to first solve the equation with “truncated” noise (obtained by removing from Z the jumps which exceed a fixed value K, yielding a solution uK, and then show that the solutions uL,L>K coincide on the event t≤τK, for some stopping times τK converging to infinity. A similar idea was used in the setting of Hilbert-space valued processes. A major step is to show that the stochastic integral with respect to ZK satisfies a pth moment inequality. This inequality plays the same role as the Burkholder-Davis-Gundy inequality in the theory of integration with respect to continuous martingales.
The minimum wage in the Czech enterprises
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eva Lajtkepová
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Although the statutory minimum wage is not a new category, in the Czech Republic we encounter the definition and regulation of a minimum wage for the first time in the 1990 amendment to Act No. 65/1965 Coll., the Labour Code. The specific amount of the minimum wage and the conditions of its operation were then subsequently determined by government regulation in February 1991. Since that time, the value of minimum wage has been adjusted fifteenth times (the last increase was in January 2007. The aim of this article is to present selected results of two researches of acceptance of the statutory minimum wage by Czech enterprises. The first research makes use of the data collected by questionnaire research in 83 small and medium-sized enterprises in the South Moravia Region in 2005, the second one the data of 116 enterprises in the entire Czech Republic (in 2007. The data have been processed by means of the standard methods of descriptive statistics and of the appropriate methods of the statistical analyses (Spearman correlation coefficient of sequential correlation, Kendall coefficient, χ2 - independence test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and others.
How unprecedented a solar minimum was it?
Russell, C T; Jian, L K; Luhmann, J G
2013-05-01
The end of the last solar cycle was at least 3 years late, and to date, the new solar cycle has seen mainly weaker activity since the onset of the rising phase toward the new solar maximum. The newspapers now even report when auroras are seen in Norway. This paper is an update of our review paper written during the deepest part of the last solar minimum [1]. We update the records of solar activity and its consequent effects on the interplanetary fields and solar wind density. The arrival of solar minimum allows us to use two techniques that predict sunspot maximum from readings obtained at solar minimum. It is clear that the Sun is still behaving strangely compared to the last few solar minima even though we are well beyond the minimum phase of the cycle 23-24 transition.
Minimum-Cost Reachability for Priced Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Behrmann, Gerd; Fehnker, Ansgar; Hune, Thomas Seidelin
2001-01-01
This paper introduces the model of linearly priced timed automata as an extension of timed automata, with prices on both transitions and locations. For this model we consider the minimum-cost reachability problem: i.e. given a linearly priced timed automaton and a target state, determine...... the minimum cost of executions from the initial state to the target state. This problem generalizes the minimum-time reachability problem for ordinary timed automata. We prove decidability of this problem by offering an algorithmic solution, which is based on a combination of branch-and-bound techniques...
Minimum Q Electrically Small Antennas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kim, O. S.
2012-01-01
Theoretically, the minimum radiation quality factor Q of an isolated resonance can be achieved in a spherical electrically small antenna by combining TM1m and TE1m spherical modes, provided that the stored energy in the antenna spherical volume is totally suppressed. Using closed-form expressions...... for a multiarm spherical helix antenna confirm the theoretical predictions. For example, a 4-arm spherical helix antenna with a magnetic-coated perfectly electrically conducting core (ka=0.254) exhibits the Q of 0.66 times the Chu lower bound, or 1.25 times the minimum Q....
Stochastic variational approach to minimum uncertainty states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Illuminati, F.; Viola, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Padova Univ. (Italy)
1995-05-21
We introduce a new variational characterization of Gaussian diffusion processes as minimum uncertainty states. We then define a variational method constrained by kinematics of diffusions and Schroedinger dynamics to seek states of local minimum uncertainty for general non-harmonic potentials. (author)
Granacher, Urs; Schellbach, Jörg; Klein, Katja; Prieske, Olaf; Baeyens, Jean-Pierre; Muehlbauer, Thomas
2014-01-01
It has been demonstrated that core strength training is an effective means to enhance trunk muscle strength (TMS) and proxies of physical fitness in youth. Of note, cross-sectional studies revealed that the inclusion of unstable elements in core strengthening exercises produced increases in trunk muscle activity and thus provide potential extra training stimuli for performance enhancement. Thus, utilizing unstable surfaces during core strength training may even produce larger performance gains. However, the effects of core strength training using unstable surfaces are unresolved in youth. This randomized controlled study specifically investigated the effects of core strength training performed on stable surfaces (CSTS) compared to unstable surfaces (CSTU) on physical fitness in school-aged children. Twenty-seven (14 girls, 13 boys) healthy subjects (mean age: 14 ± 1 years, age range: 13-15 years) were randomly assigned to a CSTS (n = 13) or a CSTU (n = 14) group. Both training programs lasted 6 weeks (2 sessions/week) and included frontal, dorsal, and lateral core exercises. During CSTU, these exercises were conducted on unstable surfaces (e.g., TOGU© DYNAIR CUSSIONS, THERA-BAND© STABILITY TRAINER). Significant main effects of Time (pre vs. post) were observed for the TMS tests (8-22%, f = 0.47-0.76), the jumping sideways test (4-5%, f = 1.07), and the Y balance test (2-3%, f = 0.46-0.49). Trends towards significance were found for the standing long jump test (1-3%, f = 0.39) and the stand-and-reach test (0-2%, f = 0.39). We could not detect any significant main effects of Group. Significant Time x Group interactions were detected for the stand-and-reach test in favour of the CSTU group (2%, f = 0.54). Core strength training resulted in significant increases in proxies of physical fitness in adolescents. However, CSTU as compared to CSTS had only limited additional effects (i.e., stand-and-reach test). Consequently, if the
Minimum entropy production principle
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel
2013-01-01
Roč. 8, č. 7 (2013), s. 9664-9677 ISSN 1941-6016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MINEP Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Minimum_entropy_production_principle
Random matrix approach to cross correlations in financial data
Plerou, Vasiliki; Gopikrishnan, Parameswaran; Rosenow, Bernd; Amaral, Luís A.; Guhr, Thomas; Stanley, H. Eugene
2002-06-01
We analyze cross correlations between price fluctuations of different stocks using methods of random matrix theory (RMT). Using two large databases, we calculate cross-correlation matrices C of returns constructed from (i) 30-min returns of 1000 US stocks for the 2-yr period 1994-1995, (ii) 30-min returns of 881 US stocks for the 2-yr period 1996-1997, and (iii) 1-day returns of 422 US stocks for the 35-yr period 1962-1996. We test the statistics of the eigenvalues λi of C against a ``null hypothesis'' - a random correlation matrix constructed from mutually uncorrelated time series. We find that a majority of the eigenvalues of C fall within the RMT bounds [λ-,λ+] for the eigenvalues of random correlation matrices. We test the eigenvalues of C within the RMT bound for universal properties of random matrices and find good agreement with the results for the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble of random matrices-implying a large degree of randomness in the measured cross-correlation coefficients. Further, we find that the distribution of eigenvector components for the eigenvectors corresponding to the eigenvalues outside the RMT bound display systematic deviations from the RMT prediction. In addition, we find that these ``deviating eigenvectors'' are stable in time. We analyze the components of the deviating eigenvectors and find that the largest eigenvalue corresponds to an influence common to all stocks. Our analysis of the remaining deviating eigenvectors shows distinct groups, whose identities correspond to conventionally identified business sectors. Finally, we discuss applications to the construction of portfolios of stocks that have a stable ratio of risk to return.
Widmer, Mariana; Piaggio, Gilda; Abdel-Aleem, Hany; Carroli, Guillermo; Chong, Yap-Seng; Coomarasamy, Arri; Fawole, Bukola; Goudar, Shivaprasad; Hofmeyr, G Justus; Lumbiganon, Pisake; Mugerwa, Kidza; Nguyen, Thi My Huong; Qureshi, Zahida; Souza, Joao Paulo; Gülmezoglu, A Metin
2016-03-17
Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality in low-income countries and contributes to nearly a quarter of maternal deaths globally. The current available interventions for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage, oxytocin and carbetocin, are limited by their need for refrigeration to maintain potency, as the ability to maintain a cold chain across the drug distribution and storage network is inconsistent, thus restricting their use in countries with the highest burden of maternal mortality. We describe a randomized, double-blind non-inferiority trial comparing a newly developed room temperature stable formulation of carbetocin to the standard intervention (oxytocin) for the prevention of PPH after vaginal birth. Approximately 30,000 women delivering vaginally will be recruited across 22 centres in 10 countries. The primary objectives are to evaluate the non-inferiority of room temperature stable carbetocin (100 μg intramuscular) versus oxytocin (10 IU intramuscular) in the prevention of PPH and severe PPH after vaginal birth. The primary endpoints are blood loss ≥500 mL or the use of additional uterotonics (composite endpoint required by drug regulatory authorities) and blood loss ≥1,000 mL (WHO requirement). Non-inferiority will be assessed using a two-sided 95 % confidence interval for the relative risk of the above endpoints for room temperature stable carbetocin versus oxytocin. The upper limit of the two-sided 95 % confidence interval for the relative risk for the composite endpoint of blood loss ≥500 mL or the use of additional uterotonics, and for the endpoint of blood loss ≥1,000 mL, will be compared to a non-inferiority margin of 1.16 and 1.23, respectively. If the upper limit is below the corresponding margin, non-inferiority will have been demonstrated. The safety analysis will include all women receiving treatment. Safety and tolerability will be assessed by a review of adverse events, by conducting inferential testing
Vijayakumar, Maniyal; Vasudevan, D M; Sundaram, K R; Krishnan, Sajitha; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Nandakumar, Sandya; Chandrasekhar, Rajiv; Mathew, Navin
2016-01-01
Coronary artery disease (CAD) and its pathological atherosclerotic process are closely related to lipids. Lipids levels are in turn influenced by dietary oils and fats. Saturated fatty acids increase the risk for atherosclerosis by increasing the cholesterol level. This study was conducted to investigate the impact of cooking oil media (coconut oil and sunflower oil) on lipid profile, antioxidant mechanism, and endothelial function in patients with established CAD. In a single center randomized study in India, patients with stable CAD on standard medical care were assigned to receive coconut oil (Group I) or sunflower oil (Group II) as cooking media for 2 years. Anthropometric measurements, serum, lipids, Lipoprotein a, apo B/A-1 ratio, antioxidants, flow-mediated vasodilation, and cardiovascular events were assessed at 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years. Hundred patients in each arm completed 2 years with 98% follow-up. There was no statistically significant difference in the anthropometric, biochemical, vascular function, and in cardiovascular events after 2 years. Coconut oil even though rich in saturated fatty acids in comparison to sunflower oil when used as cooking oil media over a period of 2 years did not change the lipid-related cardiovascular risk factors and events in those receiving standard medical care. Copyright © 2015 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A Robust Statistics Approach to Minimum Variance Portfolio Optimization
Yang, Liusha; Couillet, Romain; McKay, Matthew R.
2015-12-01
We study the design of portfolios under a minimum risk criterion. The performance of the optimized portfolio relies on the accuracy of the estimated covariance matrix of the portfolio asset returns. For large portfolios, the number of available market returns is often of similar order to the number of assets, so that the sample covariance matrix performs poorly as a covariance estimator. Additionally, financial market data often contain outliers which, if not correctly handled, may further corrupt the covariance estimation. We address these shortcomings by studying the performance of a hybrid covariance matrix estimator based on Tyler's robust M-estimator and on Ledoit-Wolf's shrinkage estimator while assuming samples with heavy-tailed distribution. Employing recent results from random matrix theory, we develop a consistent estimator of (a scaled version of) the realized portfolio risk, which is minimized by optimizing online the shrinkage intensity. Our portfolio optimization method is shown via simulations to outperform existing methods both for synthetic and real market data.
Minimum emittance in TBA and MBA lattices
Xu, Gang; Peng, Yue-Mei
2015-03-01
For reaching a small emittance in a modern light source, triple bend achromats (TBA), theoretical minimum emittance (TME) and even multiple bend achromats (MBA) have been considered. This paper derived the necessary condition for achieving minimum emittance in TBA and MBA theoretically, where the bending angle of inner dipoles has a factor of 31/3 bigger than that of the outer dipoles. Here, we also calculated the conditions attaining the minimum emittance of TBA related to phase advance in some special cases with a pure mathematics method. These results may give some directions on lattice design.
Minimum emittance in TBA and MBA lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Gang; Peng Yuemei
2015-01-01
For reaching a small emittance in a modern light source, triple bend achromats (TBA), theoretical minimum emittance (TME) and even multiple bend achromats (MBA) have been considered. This paper derived the necessary condition for achieving minimum emittance in TBA and MBA theoretically, where the bending angle of inner dipoles has a factor of 3 1/3 bigger than that of the outer dipoles. Here, we also calculated the conditions attaining the minimum emittance of TBA related to phase advance in some special cases with a pure mathematics method. These results may give some directions on lattice design. (authors)
Territorial dynamics and stable home range formation for central place foragers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonathan R Potts
Full Text Available Uncovering the mechanisms behind territory formation is a fundamental problem in behavioural ecology. The broad nature of the underlying conspecific avoidance processes are well documented across a wide range of taxa. Scent marking in particular is common to a large range of terrestrial mammals and is known to be fundamental for communication. However, despite its importance, exact quantification of the time-scales over which scent cues and messages persist remains elusive. Recent work by the present authors has begun to shed light on this problem by modelling animals as random walkers with scent-mediated interaction processes. Territories emerge as dynamic objects that continually change shape and slowly move without settling to a fixed location. As a consequence, the utilisation distribution of such an animal results in a slowly increasing home range, as shown for urban foxes (Vulpes vulpes. For certain other species, however, home ranges reach a stable state. The present work shows that stable home ranges arise when, in addition to scent-mediated conspecific avoidance, each animal moves as a central place forager. That is, the animal's movement has a random aspect but is also biased towards a fixed location, such as a den or nest site. Dynamic territories emerge but the probability distribution of the territory border locations reaches a steady state, causing stable home ranges to emerge from the territorial dynamics. Approximate analytic expressions for the animal's probability density function are derived. A programme is given for using these expressions to quantify both the strength of the animal's movement bias towards the central place and the time-scale over which scent messages persist. Comparisons are made with previous theoretical work modelling central place foragers with conspecific avoidance. Some insights into the mechanisms behind allometric scaling laws of animal space use are also given.
Continuous-Time Mean-Variance Portfolio Selection with Random Horizon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, Zhiyong
2013-01-01
This paper examines the continuous-time mean-variance optimal portfolio selection problem with random market parameters and random time horizon. Treating this problem as a linearly constrained stochastic linear-quadratic optimal control problem, I explicitly derive the efficient portfolios and efficient frontier in closed forms based on the solutions of two backward stochastic differential equations. Some related issues such as a minimum variance portfolio and a mutual fund theorem are also addressed. All the results are markedly different from those in the problem with deterministic exit time. A key part of my analysis involves proving the global solvability of a stochastic Riccati equation, which is interesting in its own right
Continuous-Time Mean-Variance Portfolio Selection with Random Horizon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yu, Zhiyong, E-mail: yuzhiyong@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong University, School of Mathematics (China)
2013-12-15
This paper examines the continuous-time mean-variance optimal portfolio selection problem with random market parameters and random time horizon. Treating this problem as a linearly constrained stochastic linear-quadratic optimal control problem, I explicitly derive the efficient portfolios and efficient frontier in closed forms based on the solutions of two backward stochastic differential equations. Some related issues such as a minimum variance portfolio and a mutual fund theorem are also addressed. All the results are markedly different from those in the problem with deterministic exit time. A key part of my analysis involves proving the global solvability of a stochastic Riccati equation, which is interesting in its own right.
41 CFR 50-202.2 - Minimum wage in all industries.
2010-07-01
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum wage in all... Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 202-MINIMUM WAGE DETERMINATIONS Groups of Industries § 50-202.2 Minimum wage in all industries. In all industries, the minimum wage applicable to...
Inflation with a graceful exit in a random landscape
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pedro, F.G.; Westphal, A.
2016-11-01
We develop a stochastic description of small-field inflationary histories with a graceful exit in a random potential whose Hessian is a Gaussian random matrix as a model of the unstructured part of the string landscape. The dynamical evolution in such a random potential from a small-field inflation region towards a viable late-time de Sitter (dS) minimum maps to the dynamics of Dyson Brownian motion describing the relaxation of non-equilibrium eigenvalue spectra in random matrix theory. We analytically compute the relaxation probability in a saddle point approximation of the partition function of the eigenvalue distribution of the Wigner ensemble describing the mass matrices of the critical points. When applied to small-field inflation in the landscape, this leads to an exponentially strong bias against small-field ranges and an upper bound N<<10 on the number of light fields N participating during inflation from the non-observation of negative spatial curvature.
Inflation with a graceful exit in a random landscape
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pedro, F.G. [Univ. Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica y Inst. de Fisica Teorica UAM/CSIC; Westphal, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group
2016-11-15
We develop a stochastic description of small-field inflationary histories with a graceful exit in a random potential whose Hessian is a Gaussian random matrix as a model of the unstructured part of the string landscape. The dynamical evolution in such a random potential from a small-field inflation region towards a viable late-time de Sitter (dS) minimum maps to the dynamics of Dyson Brownian motion describing the relaxation of non-equilibrium eigenvalue spectra in random matrix theory. We analytically compute the relaxation probability in a saddle point approximation of the partition function of the eigenvalue distribution of the Wigner ensemble describing the mass matrices of the critical points. When applied to small-field inflation in the landscape, this leads to an exponentially strong bias against small-field ranges and an upper bound N<<10 on the number of light fields N participating during inflation from the non-observation of negative spatial curvature.
Inflation with a graceful exit in a random landscape
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pedro, F.G. [Departamento de Física Teórica and Instituto de Física Teórica UAM/CSIC,Universidad Autónoma de Madrid,Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Westphal, A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Theory Group,D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)
2017-03-30
We develop a stochastic description of small-field inflationary histories with a graceful exit in a random potential whose Hessian is a Gaussian random matrix as a model of the unstructured part of the string landscape. The dynamical evolution in such a random potential from a small-field inflation region towards a viable late-time de Sitter (dS) minimum maps to the dynamics of Dyson Brownian motion describing the relaxation of non-equilibrium eigenvalue spectra in random matrix theory. We analytically compute the relaxation probability in a saddle point approximation of the partition function of the eigenvalue distribution of the Wigner ensemble describing the mass matrices of the critical points. When applied to small-field inflation in the landscape, this leads to an exponentially strong bias against small-field ranges and an upper bound N≪10 on the number of light fields N participating during inflation from the non-observation of negative spatial curvature.
29 CFR 525.13 - Renewal of special minimum wage certificates.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Renewal of special minimum wage certificates. 525.13... minimum wage certificates. (a) Applications may be filed for renewal of special minimum wage certificates.... (c) Workers with disabilities may not continue to be paid special minimum wages after notice that an...
An Empirical Analysis of the Relationship between Minimum Wage ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
An Empirical Analysis of the Relationship between Minimum Wage, Investment and Economic Growth in Ghana. ... In addition, the ratio of public investment to tax revenue must increase as minimum wage increases since such complementary changes are more likely to lead to economic growth. Keywords: minimum wage ...
12 CFR 3.6 - Minimum capital ratios.
2010-01-01
... should have well-diversified risks, including no undue interest rate risk exposure; excellent control... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum capital ratios. 3.6 Section 3.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE...
12 CFR 615.5330 - Minimum surplus ratios.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum surplus ratios. 615.5330 Section 615.5330 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Surplus and Collateral Requirements § 615.5330 Minimum...
Non-random mating for selection with restricted rates of inbreeding and overlapping generations
Sonesson, A.K.; Meuwissen, T.H.E.
2002-01-01
Minimum coancestry mating with a maximum of one offspring per mating pair (MC1) is compared with random mating schemes for populations with overlapping generations. Optimum contribution selection is used, whereby $\\\\\\\\Delta F$ is restricted. For schemes with $\\\\\\\\Delta F$ restricted to 0.25% per
5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.
2010-01-01
... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year... subject to its child labor provisions, with certain exceptions not applicable here. (b) 18-year minimum... occupation found and declared by the Secretary of Labor to be particularly hazardous for the employment of...
12 CFR 932.8 - Minimum liquidity requirements.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum liquidity requirements. 932.8 Section... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.8 Minimum liquidity requirements. In addition to meeting the deposit liquidity requirements contained in § 965.3 of this chapter, each Bank...
[Hospitals failing minimum volumes in 2004: reasons and consequences].
Geraedts, M; Kühnen, C; Cruppé, W de; Blum, K; Ohmann, C
2008-02-01
In 2004 Germany introduced annual minimum volumes nationwide on five surgical procedures: kidney, liver, stem cell transplantation, complex oesophageal, and pancreatic interventions. Hospitals that fail to reach the minimum volumes are no longer allowed to perform the respective procedures unless they raise one of eight legally accepted exceptions. The goal of our study was to investigate how many hospitals fell short of the minimum volumes in 2004, whether and how this was justified, and whether hospitals that failed the requirements experienced any consequences. We analysed data on meeting the minimum volume requirements in 2004 that all German hospitals were obliged to publish as part of their biannual structured quality reports. We performed telephone interviews: a) with all hospitals not achieving the minimum volumes for complex oesophageal, and pancreatic interventions, and b) with the national umbrella organisations of all German sickness funds. In 2004, one quarter of all German acute care hospitals (N=485) performed 23,128 procedures where minimum volumes applied. 197 hospitals (41%) did not meet at least one of the minimum volumes. These hospitals performed N=715 procedures (3.1%) where the minimum volumes were not met. In 43% of these cases the hospitals raised legally accepted exceptions. In 33% of the cases the hospitals argued using reasons that were not legally acknowledged. 69% of those hospitals that failed to achieve the minimum volumes for complex oesophageal and pancreatic interventions did not experience any consequences from the sickness funds. However, one third of those hospitals reported that the sickness funds addressed the issue and partially announced consequences for the future. The sickness funds' umbrella organisations stated that there were only sparse activities related to the minimum volumes and that neither uniform registrations nor uniform proceedings in case of infringements of the standards had been agreed upon. In spite of the
Relativistic effects in photoionization time delay near the Cooper minimum of noble-gas atoms
Saha, Soumyajit; Mandal, Ankur; Jose, Jobin; Varma, Hari R.; Deshmukh, P. C.; Kheifets, A. S.; Dolmatov, V. K.; Manson, S. T.
2014-11-01
Time delay of photoemission from valence n s , n p3 /2 , and n p1 /2 subshells of noble-gas atoms is theoretically scrutinized within the framework of the dipole relativistic random phase approximation. The focus is on the variation of time delay in the vicinity of the Cooper minima in photoionization of the outer subshells of neon, argon, krypton, and xenon, where the corresponding dipole matrix element changes its sign while passing through a node. It is revealed that the presence of the Cooper minimum in one photoionization channel has a strong effect on time delay in other channels. This is shown to be due to interchannel coupling.
The Distribution of the Sample Minimum-Variance Frontier
Raymond Kan; Daniel R. Smith
2008-01-01
In this paper, we present a finite sample analysis of the sample minimum-variance frontier under the assumption that the returns are independent and multivariate normally distributed. We show that the sample minimum-variance frontier is a highly biased estimator of the population frontier, and we propose an improved estimator of the population frontier. In addition, we provide the exact distribution of the out-of-sample mean and variance of sample minimum-variance portfolios. This allows us t...
Interplay of Determinism and Randomness: From Irreversibility to Chaos, Fractals, and Stochasticity
Tsonis, A.
2017-12-01
We will start our discussion into randomness by looking exclusively at our formal mathematical system to show that even in this pure and strictly logical system one cannot do away with randomness. By employing simple mathematical models, we will identify the three possible sources of randomness: randomness due to inability to find the rules (irreversibility), randomness due to inability to have infinite power (chaos), and randomness due to stochastic processes. Subsequently we will move from the mathematical system to our physical world to show that randomness, through the quantum mechanical character of small scales, through chaos, and because of the second law of thermodynamics, is an intrinsic property of nature as well. We will subsequently argue that the randomness in the physical world is consistent with the three sources of randomness suggested from the study of simple mathematical systems. Many examples ranging from purely mathematical to natural processes will be presented, which clearly demonstrate how the combination of rules and randomness produces the world we live in. Finally, the principle of least effort or the principle of minimum energy consumption will be suggested as the underlying principle behind this symbiosis between determinism and randomness.
24 CFR 891.145 - Owner deposit (Minimum Capital Investment).
2010-04-01
... General Program Requirements § 891.145 Owner deposit (Minimum Capital Investment). As a Minimum Capital... Investment shall be one-half of one percent (0.5%) of the HUD-approved capital advance, not to exceed $25,000. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Owner deposit (Minimum Capital...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Thomas; Yan, Jun; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen
2011-01-01
We calculate the potential energy surfaces for graphene adsorbed on Cu(111), Ni(111), and Co(0001) using density functional theory and the random phase approximation (RPA). For these adsorption systems covalent and dispersive interactions are equally important and while commonly used approximations...... for exchange-correlation functionals give inadequate descriptions of either van der Waals or chemical bonds, RPA accounts accurately for both. It is found that the adsorption is a delicate competition between a weak chemisorption minimum close to the surface and a physisorption minimum further from the surface....
Minimum Wages and the Distribution of Family Incomes
Dube, Arindrajit
2017-01-01
Using the March Current Population Survey data from 1984 to 2013, I provide a comprehensive evaluation of how minimum wage policies influence the distribution of family incomes. I find robust evidence that higher minimum wages shift down the cumulative distribution of family incomes at the bottom, reducing the share of non-elderly individuals with incomes below 50, 75, 100, and 125 percent of the federal poverty threshold. The long run (3 or more years) minimum wage elasticity of the non-elde...
7 CFR 1610.5 - Minimum Bank loan.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum Bank loan. 1610.5 Section 1610.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN POLICIES § 1610.5 Minimum Bank loan. A Bank loan will not be made unless the applicant qualifies for a Bank...
Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run
Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena
2007-01-01
Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…
Features of Random Metal Nanowire Networks with Application in Transparent Conducting Electrodes
Maloth, Thirupathi
2017-05-01
Among the alternatives to conventional Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) used in making transparent conducting electrodes, the random metal nanowire (NW) networks are considered to be superior offering performance at par with ITO. The performance is measured in terms of sheet resistance and optical transmittance. However, as the electrical properties of such random networks are achieved thanks to a percolation network, a minimum size of the electrodes is needed so it actually exceeds the representative volume element (RVE) of the material and the macroscopic electrical properties are achieved. There is not much information about the compatibility of this minimum RVE size with the resolution actually needed in electronic devices. Furthermore, the efficiency of NWs in terms of electrical conduction is overlooked. In this work, we address the above industrially relevant questions - 1) The minimum size of electrodes that can be made based on the dimensions of NWs and the material coverage. For this, we propose a morphology based classification in defining the RVE size and we also compare the same with that is based on macroscopic electrical properties stabilization. 2) The amount of NWs that do not participate in electrical conduction, hence of no practical use. The results presented in this thesis are a design guide to experimentalists to design transparent electrodes with more optimal usage of the material.
29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26). Although...
12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank, both...
Minimum-Cost Reachability for Priced Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Behrmann, Gerd; Fehnker, Ansgar; Hune, Thomas Seidelin
2001-01-01
This paper introduces the model of linearly priced timed automata as an extension of timed automata, with prices on both transitions and locations. For this model we consider the minimum-cost reachability problem: i.e. given a linearly priced timed automaton and a target state, determine...... the minimum cost of executions from the initial state to the target state. This problem generalizes the minimum-time reachability problem for ordinary timed automata. We prove decidability of this problem by offering an algorithmic solution, which is based on a combination of branch-and-bound techniques...... and a new notion of priced regions. The latter allows symbolic representation and manipulation of reachable states together with the cost of reaching them....
Adaptive Mean Queue Size and Its Rate of Change: Queue Management with Random Dropping
Karmeshu; Patel, Sanjeev; Bhatnagar, Shalabh
2016-01-01
The Random early detection (RED) active queue management (AQM) scheme uses the average queue size to calculate the dropping probability in terms of minimum and maximum thresholds. The effect of heavy load enhances the frequency of crossing the maximum threshold value resulting in frequent dropping of the packets. An adaptive queue management with random dropping (AQMRD) algorithm is proposed which incorporates information not just about the average queue size but also the rate of change of th...
Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages. Recent Evidence.
Neumark, David
Using a specially constructed panel data set on state minimum wage laws and labor market conditions, Neumark and Wascher (1992) presented evidence that countered the claim that minimum wages could be raised with no cost to employment. They concluded that estimates indicating that minimum wages reduced employment on the order of 1-2 percent for a…
Minimum Wage Effects on Educational Enrollments in New Zealand
Pacheco, Gail A.; Cruickshank, Amy A.
2007-01-01
This paper empirically examines the impact of minimum wages on educational enrollments in New Zealand. A significant reform to the youth minimum wage since 2000 has resulted in some age groups undergoing a 91% rise in their real minimum wage over the last 10 years. Three panel least squares multivariate models are estimated from a national sample…
Brogioli, Doriano
2013-02-07
I recently reported some examples of mass-action equations that have a continuous manifold of marginally stable stationary states [Brogioli, D., 2010. Marginally stable chemical systems as precursors of life. Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 058102; Brogioli, D., 2011. Marginal stability in chemical systems and its relevance in the origin of life. Phys. Rev. E 84, 031931]. The corresponding chemical reaction networks show nonclassical effects, i.e. a violation of the mass-action equations, under the effect of the concentration fluctuations: the chemical system drifts along the marginally stable states. I proposed that this effect is potentially involved in abiogenesis. In the present paper, I analyze the mathematical properties of mass-action equations of marginally stable chemical reaction networks. The marginal stability implies that the mass-action equations obey some conservation law; I show that the mathematical properties of the conserved quantity characterize the motion along the marginally stable stationary state manifold, i.e. they allow to predict if the fluctuations give rise to a random walk or a drift under the effect of concentration fluctuations. Moreover, I show that the presence of the drift along the manifold of marginally stable stationary-states is a critical property, i.e. at least one of the reaction constants must be fine tuned in order to obtain the drift. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zero forcing parameters and minimum rank problems
Barioli, F.; Barrett, W.; Fallat, S.M.; Hall, H.T.; Hogben, L.; Shader, B.L.; Driessche, van den P.; Holst, van der H.
2010-01-01
The zero forcing number Z(G), which is the minimum number of vertices in a zero forcing set of a graph G, is used to study the maximum nullity/minimum rank of the family of symmetric matrices described by G. It is shown that for a connected graph of order at least two, no vertex is in every zero
Minimum bias measurement at 13 TeV
Orlando, Nicola; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
The modelling of Minimum Bias (MB) is a crucial ingredient to learn about the description of soft QCD processes and to simulate the environment at the LHC with many concurrent pp interactions (pile-up). We summarise the ATLAS minimum bias measurements with proton-proton collision at 13 TeV center-of-mass-energy at the Large Hadron Collider.
One-dimensional stable distributions
Zolotarev, V M
1986-01-01
This is the first book specifically devoted to a systematic exposition of the essential facts known about the properties of stable distributions. In addition to its main focus on the analytic properties of stable laws, the book also includes examples of the occurrence of stable distributions in applied problems and a chapter on the problem of statistical estimation of the parameters determining stable laws. A valuable feature of the book is the author's use of several formally different ways of expressing characteristic functions corresponding to these laws.
Minimum area requirements for an at-risk butterfly based on movement and demography.
Brown, Leone M; Crone, Elizabeth E
2016-02-01
Determining the minimum area required to sustain populations has a long history in theoretical and conservation biology. Correlative approaches are often used to estimate minimum area requirements (MARs) based on relationships between area and the population size required for persistence or between species' traits and distribution patterns across landscapes. Mechanistic approaches to estimating MAR facilitate prediction across space and time but are few. We used a mechanistic MAR model to determine the critical minimum patch size (CMP) for the Baltimore checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas phaeton), a locally abundant species in decline along its southern range, and sister to several federally listed species. Our CMP is based on principles of diffusion, where individuals in smaller patches encounter edges and leave with higher probability than those in larger patches, potentially before reproducing. We estimated a CMP for the Baltimore checkerspot of 0.7-1.5 ha, in accordance with trait-based MAR estimates. The diffusion rate on which we based this CMP was broadly similar when estimated at the landscape scale (comparing flight path vs. capture-mark-recapture data), and the estimated population growth rate was consistent with observed site trends. Our mechanistic approach to estimating MAR is appropriate for species whose movement follows a correlated random walk and may be useful where landscape-scale distributions are difficult to assess, but demographic and movement data are obtainable from a single site or the literature. Just as simple estimates of lambda are often used to assess population viability, the principles of diffusion and CMP could provide a starting place for estimating MAR for conservation. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.
Are there long-term benefits in following stable heart failure patients in a heart failure clinic?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Leetmaa, Tina; Villadsen, Henrik; Mikkelsen, Kirsten
2008-01-01
Objectives and Design. This study describes the long-term outcome of 163 patients with stable mild to moderate heart failure (NYHA II-III), who already were enrolled in a heart failure clinic and now were randomized to continued follow-up in the heart failure (HF) clinic or else to usual care (UC...
Minimum airflow reset of single-duct VAV terminal boxes
Cho, Young-Hum
Single duct Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems are currently the most widely used type of HVAC system in the United States. When installing such a system, it is critical to determine the minimum airflow set point of the terminal box, as an optimally selected set point will improve the level of thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) while at the same time lower overall energy costs. In principle, this minimum rate should be calculated according to the minimum ventilation requirement based on ASHRAE standard 62.1 and maximum heating load of the zone. Several factors must be carefully considered when calculating this minimum rate. Terminal boxes with conventional control sequences may result in occupant discomfort and energy waste. If the minimum rate of airflow is set too high, the AHUs will consume excess fan power, and the terminal boxes may cause significant simultaneous room heating and cooling. At the same time, a rate that is too low will result in poor air circulation and indoor air quality in the air-conditioned space. Currently, many scholars are investigating how to change the algorithm of the advanced VAV terminal box controller without retrofitting. Some of these controllers have been found to effectively improve thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency. However, minimum airflow set points have not yet been identified, nor has controller performance been verified in confirmed studies. In this study, control algorithms were developed that automatically identify and reset terminal box minimum airflow set points, thereby improving indoor air quality and thermal comfort levels, and reducing the overall rate of energy consumption. A theoretical analysis of the optimal minimum airflow and discharge air temperature was performed to identify the potential energy benefits of resetting the terminal box minimum airflow set points. Applicable control algorithms for calculating the ideal values for the minimum airflow reset were developed and
Stable Graphical Model Estimation with Random Forests for Discrete, Continuous, and Mixed Variables
Fellinghauer, Bernd; Bühlmann, Peter; Ryffel, Martin; von Rhein, Michael; Reinhardt, Jan D.
2011-01-01
A conditional independence graph is a concise representation of pairwise conditional independence among many variables. Graphical Random Forests (GRaFo) are a novel method for estimating pairwise conditional independence relationships among mixed-type, i.e. continuous and discrete, variables. The number of edges is a tuning parameter in any graphical model estimator and there is no obvious number that constitutes a good choice. Stability Selection helps choosing this parameter with respect to...
Holdener, Fred R.; Boyd, Robert D.
2000-01-01
The present invention is a bi-stable optical actuator device that is depowered in both stable positions. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition from one state to another. The optical actuator device may be maintained in a stable position either by gravity or a restraining device.
Verification of Egg Farming Systems from The Netherlands and New Zealand Using Stable Isotopes.
Rogers, Karyne M; van Ruth, Saskia; Alewijn, Martin; Philips, Andy; Rogers, Pam
2015-09-30
Stable isotopes were used to develop authentication criteria of eggs laid under cage, barn, free range, and organic farming regimens from The Netherlands and New Zealand. A training set of commercial poultry feeds and egg albumen from 49 poultry farms across The Netherlands was used to determine the isotopic variability of organic and conventional feeds and to assess trophic effects of these corresponding feeds and barn, free range, and organic farming regimens on corresponding egg albumen. A further 52 brands of New Zealand eggs were sampled from supermarket shelves in 2008 (18), 2010 (30), and 2014 (4) to characterize and monitor changes in caged, barn, free range, and organic egg farming regimens. Stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotopes of 49 commercial poultry feeds and their corresponding egg albumens reveals that Dutch poultry are fed exclusively on a plant-based feed and that it is possible to discriminate between conventional and organic egg farming regimens in The Netherlands. Similarly, it is possible to discriminate between New Zealand organic and conventional egg farming regimens, although in the initial screening in 2008, results showed that some organic eggs had isotope values similar to those of conventional eggs, suggesting hens were not exclusively receiving an organic diet. Dutch and New Zealand egg regimens were shown to have a low isotopic correlation between both countries, because of different poultry feed compositions. In New Zealand, both conventional and organic egg whites have higher δ(15)N values than corresponding Dutch egg whites, due to the use of fishmeal or meat and bone meal (MBM), which is banned in European countries. This study suggests that stable isotopes (specifically nitrogen) show particular promise as a screening and authentication tool for organically farmed eggs. Criteria to assess truthfulness in labeling of organic eggs were developed, and we propose that Dutch organic egg whites should have a minimum
Minimum wall pressure coefficient of orifice plate energy dissipater
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wan-zheng Ai
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Orifice plate energy dissipaters have been successfully used in large-scale hydropower projects due to their simple structure, convenient construction procedure, and high energy dissipation ratio. The minimum wall pressure coefficient of an orifice plate can indirectly reflect its cavitation characteristics: the lower the minimum wall pressure coefficient is, the better the ability of the orifice plate to resist cavitation damage is. Thus, it is important to study the minimum wall pressure coefficient of the orifice plate. In this study, this coefficient and related parameters, such as the contraction ratio, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate diameter to the flood-discharging tunnel diameter; the relative thickness, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate thickness to the tunnel diameter; and the Reynolds number of the flow through the orifice plate, were theoretically analyzed, and their relationships were obtained through physical model experiments. It can be concluded that the minimum wall pressure coefficient is mainly dominated by the contraction ratio and relative thickness. The lower the contraction ratio and relative thickness are, the larger the minimum wall pressure coefficient is. The effects of the Reynolds number on the minimum wall pressure coefficient can be neglected when it is larger than 105. An empirical expression was presented to calculate the minimum wall pressure coefficient in this study.
Zhou, Yanling; Li, Guannan; Li, Dan; Cui, Hongmei; Ning, Yuping
2018-05-01
The long-term effects of dose reduction of atypical antipsychotics on cognitive function and symptomatology in stable patients with schizophrenia remain unclear. We sought to determine the change in cognitive function and symptomatology after reducing risperidone or olanzapine dosage in stable schizophrenic patients. Seventy-five stabilized schizophrenic patients prescribed risperidone (≥4 mg/day) or olanzapine (≥10 mg/day) were randomly divided into a dose-reduction group ( n=37) and a maintenance group ( n=38). For the dose-reduction group, the dose of antipsychotics was reduced by 50%; for the maintenance group, the dose remained unchanged throughout the whole study. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Negative Symptom Assessment-16, Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects, and Measurement and Treatment Research to Improve Cognition in Schizophrenia (MATRICS) Consensus Cognitive Battery were measured at baseline, 12, 28, and 52 weeks. Linear mixed models were performed to compare the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Negative Symptom Assessment-16, Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects and MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery scores between groups. The linear mixed model showed significant time by group interactions on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale negative symptoms, Negative Symptom Assessment-16, Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects, speed of processing, attention/vigilance, working memory and total score of MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (all pNegative Syndrome Scale negative subscale, Negative Symptom Assessment-16, Rating Scale for Extrapyramidal Side Effects, speed of processing, working memory and total score of MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery for the dose reduction group compared with those for the maintenance group (all pnegative symptoms in patients with stabilized schizophrenia.
Schulman-Marcus, Joshua; Weintraub, William S; Boden, William E
2017-10-15
Major randomized clinical trials over the last decade support the role of optimal medical therapy for the initial management approach for patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD), whereas percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) ought to be reserved for patients with persistent symptoms despite optimal medical therapy. Likewise, several studies have continued to demonstrate the superiority of coronary artery bypass grafting surgery over PCI in many patients with extensive multivessel CAD, especially those with diabetes. Nevertheless, the decision-making paradigm for patients with stable CAD often continues to propagate the upfront use of "ad hoc PCI" and disadvantages alternative therapeutic approaches. In our editorial, we discuss how multiple systemic and interpersonal factors continue to favor early revascularization with PCI in stable patients. We discuss whether the interventional cardiologist can be an unbiased "gatekeeper" for the use of PCI or whether other physicians should also be involved with the patient in decision-making. Finally, we offer suggestions that can redefine the gatekeeper role to facilitate an evidence-based approach that embraces shared decision-making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
da Luz, Marcos G. E.; Grosberg, Alexander; Raposo, Ernesto P.; Viswanathan, Gandhi M.
2009-10-01
`I can't find my keys!' Who hasn't gone through this experience when leaving, in a hurry, to attend to some urgent matter? The keys could be in many different places. Unless one remembers where he or she has left the keys, the only solution is to look around, more or less randomly. Random searches are common because in many cases the locations of the specific targets are not known a priori. Indeed, such problems have been discussed in diverse contexts, attracting the interest of scientists from many fields, for example: the dynamical or stochastic search for a stable minimum in a complex energy landscape, relevant to systems such as glasses, protein (folding), and others; oil recovery from mature reservoirs; proteins searching for their specific target sites on DNA; animal foraging; survival at the edge of extinction due to low availability of energetic resources; automated searches of registers in high-capacity databases, search engine (e.g., `crawlers') that explore the internet; and even pizza delivery in a jammed traffic system of a medium-size town. In this way, the subject is interesting, challenging and has recently become an important scientific area of investigation. Although the applications are diverse, the underlying physical mechanisms are the same which will become clear in this special issue. Moreover, the inherent complexity of the problem, the abundance of ideas and methods found in this growing interdisciplinary field of research is studied in many areas of physics. In particular, the concepts and methods of statistical mechanics are particularly useful to the study of random searches. On one hand, it centres on how to find the global or local maxima of search efficiency functions with incomplete information. This is, of course, related to the long tradition in physics of using different conceptual and mathematical tools, such as variational methods, to extremize relevant quantities, e.g., energy, entropy and action. Such ideas and approaches are
Remarks on stable and quasi-stable k-strings at large N
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Armoni, A.; Shifman, M.
2003-01-01
We discuss k-strings in the large-N Yang-Mills theory and its supersymmetric extension. Whereas the tension of the bona fide (stable) QCD string is expected to depend only on the N-ality of the representation, tensions that depend on specific representation R are often reported in the lattice literature. In particular, adjoint strings are discussed and found in certain simulations. We clarify this issue by systematically exploiting the notion of the quasi-stable strings which becomes well-defined at large N. The quasi-stable strings with representation-dependent tensions decay, but the decay rate (per unit length per unit time) is suppressed as Λ 2 F(N) where F(N) falls off as a function of N. It can be determined on the case-by-case basis. The quasi-stable strings eventually decay into stable strings whose tension indeed depends only on the N-ality. We also briefly review large-N arguments showing why the Casimir formula for the string tension cannot be correct, and present additional arguments in favor of the sine formula. Finally, we comment on the relevance of our estimates to Euclidean lattice measurements
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 9. Evolutionary Stable Strategy: Application of Nash Equilibrium in Biology. General Article Volume 21 Issue 9 September 2016 pp 803- ... Keywords. Evolutionary game theory, evolutionary stable state, conflict, cooperation, biological games.
76 FR 15368 - Minimum Security Devices and Procedures
2011-03-21
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Minimum Security Devices and Procedures... concerning the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Minimum Security Devices and Procedures... security devices and procedures to discourage robberies, burglaries, and larcenies, and to assist in the...
Magnetic flux conversion and relaxation toward a minimum-energy state in S-1 spheromak plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janos, A.
1985-09-01
S-1 Spheromak currents and magnetic fluxes have been measured with Rogowski coils and flux loops external to the plasma. Toroidal plasma currents up to 350 kA and spheromak configuration lifetimes over 1.0 msec have been achieved at moderate power levels. The plasma formation in the S-1 Spheromak device is based on an inductive transfer of poloidal and toroidal magnetic flux from a toroidal ''flux core'' to the plasma. Formation is programmed to guide the configuration into a force-free, minimum-energy Taylor state. Properly detailed programming of the formation process is found not to be essential since plasmas adjust themselves during formation to a final equilibrium near the Taylor state. After formation, if the plasma evolves away from the stable state, then distinct relaxation oscillation events occur which restore the configuration to that stable state. The relaxation process involves reconnection of magnetic field lines, and conversion of poloidal to toroidal magnetic flux (and vice versa) has been observed and documented. The scaling of toroidal plasma current and toroidal magnetic flux in the plasma with externally applied currents is consistent with the establishment of a Taylor state after formation. In addition, the magnetic helicity is proportional to that injected from the flux core, independent of how that helicity is generated
Ivabradine in stable coronary artery disease without clinical heart failure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fox, Kim; Ford, Ian; Steg, Philippe Gabriel
2014-01-01
minute or more. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ivabradine, added to standard background therapy, in 19,102 patients who had both stable coronary artery disease without clinical heart failure and a heart rate of 70 beats per minute or more (including 12......,049 patients with activity-limiting angina [class ≥II on the Canadian Cardiovascular Society scale, which ranges from I to IV, with higher classes indicating greater limitations on physical activity owing to angina]). We randomly assigned patients to placebo or ivabradine, at a dose of up to 10 mg twice daily......, with the dose adjusted to achieve a target heart rate of 55 to 60 beats per minute. The primary end point was a composite of death from cardiovascular causes or nonfatal myocardial infarction. RESULTS: At 3 months, the mean (±SD) heart rate of the patients was 60.7±9.0 beats per minute in the ivabradine group...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matheswaran Saravanan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Wireless sensor network (WSN consists of sensor nodes that need energy efficient routing techniques as they have limited battery power, computing, and storage resources. WSN routing protocols should enable reliable multihop communication with energy constraints. Clustering is an effective way to reduce overheads and when this is aided by effective resource allocation, it results in reduced energy consumption. In this work, a novel hybrid evolutionary algorithm called Bee Algorithm-Simulated Annealing Weighted Minimal Spanning Tree (BASA-WMST routing is proposed in which randomly deployed sensor nodes are split into the best possible number of independent clusters with cluster head and optimal route. The former gathers data from sensors belonging to the cluster, forwarding them to the sink. The shortest intrapath selection for the cluster is selected using Weighted Minimum Spanning Tree (WMST. The proposed algorithm computes the distance-based Minimum Spanning Tree (MST of the weighted graph for the multihop network. The weights are dynamically changed based on the energy level of each sensor during route selection and optimized using the proposed bee algorithm simulated annealing algorithm.
A belief-based evolutionarily stable strategy.
Deng, Xinyang; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Qi; Deng, Yong; Mahadevan, Sankaran
2014-11-21
As an equilibrium refinement of the Nash equilibrium, evolutionarily stable strategy (ESS) is a key concept in evolutionary game theory and has attracted growing interest. An ESS can be either a pure strategy or a mixed strategy. Even though the randomness is allowed in mixed strategy, the selection probability of pure strategy in a mixed strategy may fluctuate due to the impact of many factors. The fluctuation can lead to more uncertainty. In this paper, such uncertainty involved in mixed strategy has been further taken into consideration: a belief strategy is proposed in terms of Dempster-Shafer evidence theory. Furthermore, based on the proposed belief strategy, a belief-based ESS has been developed. The belief strategy and belief-based ESS can reduce to the mixed strategy and mixed ESS, which provide more realistic and powerful tools to describe interactions among agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wiegand, U K; Zhdanov, A; Stammwitz, E; Crozier, I; Claessens, R J; Meier, J; Bos, R J; Bode, F; Potratz, J
1999-06-01
The aim of this multicenter study was to investigate the performance of a new cardiac pacemaker lead with a titanium nitride cathode coated with a copolymer membrane. In particular, the electrophysiological effect of steroid dissolved in this ion-exchange membrane was evaluated by randomized comparison. Ninety-five patients were randomized either to the 1450 T (n = 51) or the 1451 T ventricular lead (n = 45) and received telemeteral VVI(R) pacemakers with identical diagnostic features. Both leads were bipolar, were passively affixed, and had a porous titanium nitride tip with a surface area of 3.5 mm2. The only difference between the two electrodes was 13 micrograms of dexamethasone added to the 1450 Ts membrane coating. Voltage thresholds (VTH) at pulse durations of 0.25, 0.37, and 0.5 ms, lead impedance, and sensing thresholds were measured at discharge, 2 weeks, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after implantation. Mean amplitude and the slew rate from three telemetered intracardiac electrograms, chronaxie-rheobase product, and minimum energy consumption were calculated. After a 6-month follow-up, mean voltage thresholds of 0.65 +/- 0.20 V and 0.63 +/- 0.34 were achieved for the 1450 T lead and 1451 T lead, respectively. As a result, a VTH < 1.0 V was obtained in all patients with 1450 T electrodes and in 97.7% of patients with 1451 T leads after 6 months follow-up. In both electrodes, stable VTH was reached 2 weeks after implantation, and no transient rise in threshold was observed. No differences were observed between the steroid and the nonsteroid group in respect to VTH, chronaxie-rheobase product, minimum energy consumption, and potential amplitude and slew rate. In conclusion, safe and efficient pacing at low pulse amplitudes were achieved with both leads. The tip design, independently of the steroid additive, prevented any energy-consuming increases in the voltage threshold.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Avidan Michael S
2009-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of intraoperative awareness with explicit recall is 1-2/1000 cases in the United States. The Bispectral Index monitor is an electroencephalographic method of assessing anesthetic depth that has been shown in one prospective study to reduce the incidence of awareness in the high-risk population. In the B-Aware trial, the number needed to treat in order to prevent one case of awareness in the high-risk population was 138. Since the number needed to treat and the associated cost of treatment would be much higher in the general population, the efficacy of the Bispectral Index monitor in preventing awareness in all anesthetized patients needs to be clearly established. This is especially true given the findings of the B-Unaware trial, which demonstrated no significant difference between protocols based on the Bispectral Index monitor or minimum alveolar concentration for the reduction of awareness in high risk patients. Methods/Design To evaluate efficacy in the general population, we are conducting a prospective, randomized, controlled trial comparing the Bispectral Index monitor to a non-electroencephalographic gauge of anesthetic depth. The total recruitment for the study is targeted for 30,000 patients at both low and high risk for awareness. We have developed a novel algorithm that is capable of real-time analysis of our electronic perioperative information system. In one arm of the study, anesthesia providers will receive an electronic page if the Bispectral Index value is >60. In the other arm of the study, anesthesia providers will receive a page if the age-adjusted minimum alveolar concentration is Discussion Awareness during general anesthesia is a persistent problem and the role of the Bispectral Index monitor in its prevention is still unclear. The Michigan Awareness Control Study is the largest prospective trial of awareness prevention ever conducted. Trial Registration Clinical Trial NCT00689091
76 FR 30243 - Minimum Security Devices and Procedures
2011-05-24
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Minimum Security Devices and Procedures.... Title of Proposal: Minimum Security Devices and Procedures. OMB Number: 1550-0062. Form Number: N/A... respect to the installation, maintenance, and operation of security devices and procedures to discourage...
Does increasing the minimum wage reduce poverty in developing countries?
Gindling, T. H.
2014-01-01
Do minimum wage policies reduce poverty in developing countries? It depends. Raising the minimum wage could increase or decrease poverty, depending on labor market characteristics. Minimum wages target formal sector workers—a minority of workers in most developing countries—many of whom do not live in poor households. Whether raising minimum wages reduces poverty depends not only on whether formal sector workers lose jobs as a result, but also on whether low-wage workers live in poor househol...
The SME gauge sector with minimum length
Belich, H.; Louzada, H. L. C.
2017-12-01
We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory.
The SME gauge sector with minimum length
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belich, H.; Louzada, H.L.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)
2017-12-15
We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory. (orig.)
Akibat Hukum Bagi Bank Bila Kewajiban Modal Inti Minimum Tidak Terpenuhi
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Indira Retno Aryatie
2012-02-01
Full Text Available As an implementation of the Indonesian Banking Architecture policy, the government issues Bank Indonesia Regulation No. 9/16/ PBI/2007 on Minimum Tier One Capital that increases the minimum capital to 100 billion rupiah. This writing discusses the legal complication that a bank will face should it fail to fulfil the minimum ratio. Sebagai tindak lanjut dari kebijakan Arsitektur Perbankan Indonesia, pemerintah mengeluarkan Peraturan Bank Indonesia 9/16/PBI/2007 tentang Kewajiban Modal Inti Minimum Bank yang menaikkan modal inti minimum bank umum menjadi 100 miliar rupiah. Tulisan ini membahas akibat hukum yang akan dialami bank bila kewajiban modal minimum tersebut gagal dipenuhi.
The impact of minimum wage adjustments on Vietnamese wage inequality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John; Torm, Nina
Using Vietnamese Labour Force Survey data we analyse the impact of minimum wage changes on wage inequality. Minimum wages serve to reduce local wage inequality in the formal sectors by decreasing the gap between the median wages and the lower tail of the local wage distributions. In contrast, local...... wage inequality is increased in the informal sectors. Overall, the minimum wages decrease national wage inequality. Our estimates indicate a decrease in the wage distribution Gini coefficient of about 2 percentage points and an increase in the 10/50 wage ratio of 5-7 percentage points caused...... by the adjustment of the minimum wages from 2011to 2012 that levelled the minimum wage across economic sectors....
Risk control and the minimum significant risk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seiler, F.A.; Alvarez, J.L.
1996-01-01
Risk management implies that the risk manager can, by his actions, exercise at least a modicum of control over the risk in question. In the terminology of control theory, a management action is a control signal imposed as feedback on the system to bring about a desired change in the state of the system. In the terminology of risk management, an action is taken to bring a predicted risk to lower values. Even if it is assumed that the management action taken is 100% effective and that the projected risk reduction is infinitely well known, there is a lower limit to the desired effects that can be achieved. It is based on the fact that all risks, such as the incidence of cancer, exhibit a degree of variability due to a number of extraneous factors such as age at exposure, sex, location, and some lifestyle parameters such as smoking or the consumption of alcohol. If the control signal is much smaller than the variability of the risk, the signal is lost in the noise and control is lost. This defines a minimum controllable risk based on the variability of the risk over the population considered. This quantity is the counterpart of the minimum significant risk which is defined by the uncertainties of the risk model. Both the minimum controllable risk and the minimum significant risk are evaluated for radiation carcinogenesis and are shown to be of the same order of magnitude. For a realistic management action, the assumptions of perfectly effective action and perfect model prediction made above have to be dropped, resulting in an effective minimum controllable risk which is determined by both risk limits. Any action below that effective limit is futile, but it is also unethical due to the ethical requirement of doing more good than harm. Finally, some implications of the effective minimum controllable risk on the use of the ALARA principle and on the evaluation of remedial action goals are presented
42 CFR 84.197 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.197... Cartridge Respirators § 84.197 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Respirators shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type and...
42 CFR 84.174 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.174... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.174 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (a) Except..., durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type of respirator it contains...
Design of a minimum emittance nBA lattice
Lee, S. Y.
1998-04-01
An attempt to design a minimum emittance n-bend achromat (nBA) lattice has been made. One distinct feature is that dipoles with two different lengths were used. As a multiple bend achromat, five bend achromat lattices with six superperiod were designed. The obtained emittace is three times larger than the theoretical minimum. Tunes were chosen to avoid third order resonances. In order to correct first and second order chromaticities, eight family sextupoles were placed. The obtained emittance of five bend achromat lattices is almost equal to the minimum emittance of five bend achromat lattice consisting of dipoles with equal length.
Quantum mechanics the theoretical minimum
Susskind, Leonard
2014-01-01
From the bestselling author of The Theoretical Minimum, an accessible introduction to the math and science of quantum mechanicsQuantum Mechanics is a (second) book for anyone who wants to learn how to think like a physicist. In this follow-up to the bestselling The Theoretical Minimum, physicist Leonard Susskind and data engineer Art Friedman offer a first course in the theory and associated mathematics of the strange world of quantum mechanics. Quantum Mechanics presents Susskind and Friedman’s crystal-clear explanations of the principles of quantum states, uncertainty and time dependence, entanglement, and particle and wave states, among other topics. An accessible but rigorous introduction to a famously difficult topic, Quantum Mechanics provides a tool kit for amateur scientists to learn physics at their own pace.
Minimum resolvable power contrast model
Qian, Shuai; Wang, Xia; Zhou, Jingjing
2018-01-01
Signal-to-noise ratio and MTF are important indexs to evaluate the performance of optical systems. However,whether they are used alone or joint assessment cannot intuitively describe the overall performance of the system. Therefore, an index is proposed to reflect the comprehensive system performance-Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast (MRP) model. MRP is an evaluation model without human eyes. It starts from the radiance of the target and the background, transforms the target and background into the equivalent strips,and considers attenuation of the atmosphere, the optical imaging system, and the detector. Combining with the signal-to-noise ratio and the MTF, the Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast is obtained. Finally the detection probability model of MRP is given.
Stable Parameter Estimation for Autoregressive Equations with Random Coefficients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. B. Goryainov
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In recent yearsthere has been a growing interest in non-linear time series models. They are more flexible than traditional linear models and allow more adequate description of real data. Among these models a autoregressive model with random coefficients plays an important role. It is widely used in various fields of science and technology, for example, in physics, biology, economics and finance. The model parameters are the mean values of autoregressive coefficients. Their evaluation is the main task of model identification. The basic method of estimation is still the least squares method, which gives good results for Gaussian time series, but it is quite sensitive to even small disturbancesin the assumption of Gaussian observations. In this paper we propose estimates, which generalize the least squares estimate in the sense that the quadratic objective function is replaced by an arbitrary convex and even function. Reasonable choice of objective function allows you to keep the benefits of the least squares estimate and eliminate its shortcomings. In particular, you can make it so that they will be almost as effective as the least squares estimate in the Gaussian case, but almost never loose in accuracy with small deviations of the probability distribution of the observations from the Gaussian distribution.The main result is the proof of consistency and asymptotic normality of the proposed estimates in the particular case of the one-parameter model describing the stationary process with finite variance. Another important result is the finding of the asymptotic relative efficiency of the proposed estimates in relation to the least squares estimate. This allows you to compare the two estimates, depending on the probability distribution of innovation process and of autoregressive coefficients. The results can be used to identify an autoregressive process, especially with nonGaussian nature, and/or of autoregressive processes observed with gross
Random catalytic reaction networks
Stadler, Peter F.; Fontana, Walter; Miller, John H.
1993-03-01
We study networks that are a generalization of replicator (or Lotka-Volterra) equations. They model the dynamics of a population of object types whose binary interactions determine the specific type of interaction product. Such a system always reduces its dimension to a subset that contains production pathways for all of its members. The network equation can be rewritten at a level of collectives in terms of two basic interaction patterns: replicator sets and cyclic transformation pathways among sets. Although the system contains well-known cases that exhibit very complicated dynamics, the generic behavior of randomly generated systems is found (numerically) to be extremely robust: convergence to a globally stable rest point. It is easy to tailor networks that display replicator interactions where the replicators are entire self-sustaining subsystems, rather than structureless units. A numerical scan of random systems highlights the special properties of elementary replicators: they reduce the effective interconnectedness of the system, resulting in enhanced competition, and strong correlations between the concentrations.
Calculation of the minimum critical mass of fissile nuclides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wright, R.Q.; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell
2008-01-01
The OB-1 method for the calculation of the minimum critical mass of fissile actinides in metal/water systems was described in a previous paper. A fit to the calculated minimum critical mass data using the extended criticality parameter is the basis of the revised method. The solution density (grams/liter) for the minimum critical mass is also obtained by a fit to calculated values. Input to the calculation consists of the Maxwellian averaged fission and absorption cross sections and the thermal values of nubar. The revised method gives more accurate values than the original method does for both the minimum critical mass and the solution densities. The OB-1 method has been extended to calculate the uncertainties in the minimum critical mass for 12 different fissile nuclides. The uncertainties for the fission and capture cross sections and the estimated nubar uncertainties are used to determine the uncertainties in the minimum critical mass, either in percent or grams. Results have been obtained for U-233, U-235, Pu-236, Pu-239, Pu-241, Am-242m, Cm-243, Cm-245, Cf-249, Cf-251, Cf-253, and Es-254. Eight of these 12 nuclides are included in the ANS-8.15 standard.
Minimum pressure for sustained combustion in AN-based emulsions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldthorp, S.; Turcotte, R.; Badeen, C.M. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Canadian Explosives Research Laboratory; Chan, S.K. [Orica Canada Inc., Brownsburg-Chatham, PQ (Canada)
2008-04-15
AN-based emulsions have been involved in a relatively high number of accidental explosions related to pumping operations during their manufacture, transfer and handling. The minimum burning pressure (MBP) of emulsions is used to estimate safe operating pressures for pumping and mixing equipment. This study examined testing protocols conducted to measure MBP values. Factors contributing to uncertainties in MBP data were examined, and a measurement methodology designed to incorporate the uncertainties was presented. MBP measurements obtained for 5 different AN-based emulsions in high pressure vessels were also provided, and the impact of various ingredients on MBP values was discussed. Bench-scale experiments and time current pulse tests were conducted to examine thermal ignition behaviour. The emulsions exhibited MBP values that ranged from 580 to 6510 kPa. Results of the study suggested that ingredients play a significant role on MBP values. A relatively high energy flux was required to induce stable combustion fronts in the emulsions. Large air voids containing flammable atmospheres were able to provide sufficient energy to ignite the emulsions. It was concluded that a knowledge of the MBP of emulsions is needed to ensure that corresponding pumping operations are conducted at pressures below the MBP. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.
42 CFR 84.134 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.134... Respirators § 84.134 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Supplied-air respirators shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type and...
42 CFR 84.1134 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84... Combination Gas Masks § 84.1134 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section each respirator shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container...
42 CFR 84.74 - Apparatus containers; minimum requirements.
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Apparatus containers; minimum requirements. 84.74...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.74 Apparatus containers; minimum requirements. (a) Apparatus may be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type...
Minimum K-S estimator using PH-transform technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Somchit Boonthiem
2016-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an improvement of the Minimum Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S estimator using proportional hazards transform (PH-transform technique. The data of experiment is 47 fire accidents data of an insurance company in Thailand. This experiment has two operations, the first operation, we minimize K-S statistic value using grid search technique for nine distributions; Rayleigh distribution, gamma distribution, Pareto distribution, log-logistic distribution, logistic distribution, normal distribution, Weibull distribution, lognormal distribution, and exponential distribution and the second operation, we improve K-S statistic using PHtransform. The result appears that PH-transform technique can improve the Minimum K-S estimator. The algorithms give better the Minimum K-S estimator for seven distributions; Rayleigh distribution, logistic distribution, gamma distribution, Pareto distribution, log-logistic distribution, normal distribution, Weibull distribution, log-normal distribution, and exponential distribution while the Minimum K-S estimators of normal distribution and logistic distribution are unchanged
The Einstein-Hilbert gravitation with minimum length
Louzada, H. L. C.
2018-05-01
We study the Einstein-Hilbert gravitation with the deformed Heisenberg algebra leading to the minimum length, with the intention to find and estimate the corrections in this theory, clarifying whether or not it is possible to obtain, by means of the minimum length, a theory, in D=4, which is causal, unitary and provides a massive graviton. Therefore, we will calculate and analyze the dispersion relationships of the considered theory.
Reducing tobacco use and access through strengthened minimum price laws.
McLaughlin, Ian; Pearson, Anne; Laird-Metke, Elisa; Ribisl, Kurt
2014-10-01
Higher prices reduce consumption and initiation of tobacco products. A minimum price law that establishes a high statutory minimum price and prohibits the industry's discounting tactics for tobacco products is a promising pricing strategy as an alternative to excise tax increases. Although some states have adopted minimum price laws on the basis of statutorily defined price "markups" over the invoice price, existing state laws have been largely ineffective at increasing the retail price. We analyzed 3 new variations of minimum price laws that hold great potential for raising tobacco prices and reducing consumption: (1) a flat rate minimum price law similar to a recent enactment in New York City, (2) an enhanced markup law, and (3) a law that incorporates both elements.
Random-phase approximation and broken symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, E.D.; Heiss, W.D.
1986-01-01
The validity of the random-phase approximation (RPA) in broken-symmetry bases is tested in an appropriate many-body system for which exact solutions are available. Initially the regions of stability of the self-consistent quasiparticle bases in this system are established and depicted in a 'phase' diagram. It is found that only stable bases can be used in an RPA calculation. This is particularly true for those RPA modes which are not associated with the onset of instability of the basis; it is seen that these modes do not describe any excited state when the basis is unstable, although from a formal point of view they remain acceptable. The RPA does well in a stable broken-symmetry basis provided one is not too close to a point where a phase transition occurs. This is true for both energies and matrix elements. (author)
Study of RNA structures with a connection to random matrix theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bhadola, Pradeep; Deo, Nivedita
2015-01-01
This manuscript investigates the level of complexity and thermodynamic properties of the real RNA structures and compares the properties with the random RNA sequences. A discussion on the similarities of thermodynamical properties of the real structures with the non linear random matrix model of RNA folding is presented. The structural information contained in the PDB file is exploited to get the base pairing information. The complexity of an RNA structure is defined by a topological quantity called genus which is calculated from the base pairing information. Thermodynamic analysis of the real structures is done numerically. The real structures have a minimum free energy which is very small compared to the randomly generated sequences of the same length. This analysis suggests that there are specific patterns in the structures which are preserved during the evolution of the sequences and certain sequences are discarded by the evolutionary process. Further analyzing the sequences of a fixed length reveal that the RNA structures exist in ensembles i.e. although all the sequences in the ensemble have different series of nucleotides (sequence) they fold into structures that have the same pairs of hydrogen bonding as well as the same minimum free energy. The specific heat of the RNA molecule is numerically estimated at different lengths. The specific heat curve with temperature shows a bump and for some RNA, a double peak behavior is observed. The same behavior is seen in the study of the random matrix model with non linear interaction of RNA folding. The bump in the non linear matrix model can be controlled by the change in the interaction strength.
12 CFR 567.2 - Minimum regulatory capital requirement.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum regulatory capital requirement. 567.2... Regulatory Capital Requirements § 567.2 Minimum regulatory capital requirement. (a) To meet its regulatory capital requirement a savings association must satisfy each of the following capital standards: (1) Risk...
29 CFR 525.24 - Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages. 525.24 Section 525.24 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Special Minimum Wages. The Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages, the members of which are appointed...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Zhifan; Msezane, Alfred Z.; Amusia, M. Ya.
1999-01-01
We have investigated the generalized oscillator strength (GOS) for a transition of the type np→(n+1)s, where n is the principal quantum number of the outermost filled shell of the atomic ground state, using the random-phase approximation with exchange. We find that the influence of correlation and exchange effects on the position of the characteristic minimum in the GOS of Ar(n=3) is insignificant. Also, our first Born approximation predicts the position of the minimum accurately provided that accurate target wave functions are employed. Our results agree excellently with measurements and are expected to be applicable equally to the corresponding subshells of Ne(n=2), Kr(n=4), and Xe(n=5). (c) 1999 The American Physical Society
Statistical physics when the minimum temperature is not absolute zero
Chung, Won Sang; Hassanabadi, Hassan
2018-04-01
In this paper, the nonzero minimum temperature is considered based on the third law of thermodynamics and existence of the minimal momentum. From the assumption of nonzero positive minimum temperature in nature, we deform the definitions of some thermodynamical quantities and investigate nonzero minimum temperature correction to the well-known thermodynamical problems.
42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.
2010-10-01
... that CMS considers appropriate to reduce, control or eliminate start-up administrative costs. (b) After... section. (c) Calculation of the minimum net worth amount—(1) Cash requirement. (i) At the time of application, the organization must maintain at least $750,000 of the minimum net worth amount in cash or cash...
Minimum Competencies in Undergraduate Motor Development. Guidance Document
National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2004
2004-01-01
The minimum competency guidelines in Motor Development described herein at the undergraduate level may be gained in one or more motor development course(s) or through other courses provided in an undergraduate curriculum. The minimum guidelines include: (1) Formulation of a developmental perspective; (2) Knowledge of changes in motor behavior…
Steeneveld, G.J.
2012-01-01
Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The development of robust stable boundary layer parameterizations for use in NWP and climate models is hampered by the multiplicity of processes and their unknown interactions. As a result, these models suffer ...
The Unusual Minimum of Cycle 23: Observations and Interpretation
Martens, Petrus C.; Nandy, D.; Munoz-Jaramillo, A.
2009-05-01
The current minimum of cycle 23 is unusual in its long duration, the very low level to which Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) has fallen, and the small flux of the open polar fields. The deep minimum of TSI seems to be related to an unprecedented dearth of polar faculae, and hence to the small amount of open flux. Based upon surface flux transport models it has been suggested that the causes of these phenomena may be an unusually vigorous meridional flow, or even a deviation from Joy's law resulting in smaller Joy angles than usual for emerging flux in cycle 23. There is also the possibility of a connection with the recently inferred emergence in polar regions of bipoles that systematically defy Hale's law. Much speculation has been going on as to the consequences of this exceptional minimum: are we entering another global minimum, is this the end of the 80 year period of exceptionally high solar activity, or is this just a statistical hiccup? Dynamo simulations are underway that may help answer this question. As an aside it must be mentioned that the current minimum of TSI puts an upper limit in the TSI input for global climate simulations during the Maunder minimum, and that a possible decrease in future solar activity will result in a very small but not insignificant reduction in the pace of global warming.
Minimum Wages and Skill Acquisition: Another Look at Schooling Effects.
Neumark, David; Wascher, William
2003-01-01
Examines the effects of minimum wage on schooling, seeking to reconcile some of the contradictory results in recent research using Current Population Survey data from the late 1970s through the 1980s. Findings point to negative effects of minimum wages on school enrollment, bolstering the findings of negative effects of minimum wages on enrollment…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kang, Li; Tang, Sanyi
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The discrete single species and multiple species models with random perturbation are proposed. • The complex dynamics and interesting bifurcation behavior have been investigated. • The reverse effects of random perturbation on discrete systems have been discussed and revealed. • The main results can be applied for pest control and resources management. - Abstract: The natural species are likely to present several interesting and complex phenomena under random perturbations, which have been confirmed by simple mathematical models. The important questions are: how the random perturbations influence the dynamics of the discrete population models with multiple steady states or multiple species interactions? and is there any different effects for single species and multiple species models with random perturbation? To address those interesting questions, we have proposed the discrete single species model with two stable equilibria and the host-parasitoid model with Holling type functional response functions to address how the random perturbation affects the dynamics. The main results indicate that the random perturbation does not change the number of blurred orbits of the single species model with two stable steady states compared with results for the classical Ricker model with same random perturbation, but it can strength the stability. However, extensive numerical investigations depict that the random perturbation does not influence the complexities of the host-parasitoid models compared with the results for the models without perturbation, while it does increase the period of periodic orbits doubly. All those confirm that the random perturbation has a reverse effect on the dynamics of the discrete single and multiple population models, which could be applied in reality including pest control and resources management.
14 CFR 91.155 - Basic VFR weather minimums.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic VFR weather minimums. 91.155 Section...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules Visual Flight Rules § 91.155 Basic VFR weather minimums. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section and...
Minimum Wages and Teen Employment: A Spatial Panel Approach
Charlene Kalenkoski; Donald Lacombe
2011-01-01
The authors employ spatial econometrics techniques and Annual Averages data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics for 1990-2004 to examine how changes in the minimum wage affect teen employment. Spatial econometrics techniques account for the fact that employment is correlated across states. Such correlation may exist if a change in the minimum wage in a state affects employment not only in its own state but also in other, neighboring states. The authors show that state minimum wages negat...
Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature
Savage, M. J.
2016-02-01
Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass
Wall-crossing between stable and co-stable ADHM data
Ohkawa, Ryo
2018-06-01
We prove formula between Nekrasov partition functions defined from stable and co-stable ADHM data for the plane following method by Nakajima and Yoshioka (Kyoto J Math 51(2):263-335, 2011) based on the theory of wall-crossing formula developed by Mochizuki (Donaldson type invariants for algebraic surfaces: transition of moduli stacks, Lecture notes in mathematics, vol 1972, Springer, Berlin, 2009). This formula is similar to conjectures by Ito et al. [J High Energy Phys 2013(5):045, 2013, (4.1), (4.2)] for A1 singularity.
A note on minimum-variance theory and beyond
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng Jianfeng [Department of Informatics, Sussex University, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Tartaglia, Giangaetano [Physics Department, Rome University ' La Sapienza' , Rome 00185 (Italy); Tirozzi, Brunello [Physics Department, Rome University ' La Sapienza' , Rome 00185 (Italy)
2004-04-30
We revisit the minimum-variance theory proposed by Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780-4), discuss the implications of the theory on modelling the firing patterns of single neurons and analytically find the optimal control signals, trajectories and velocities. Under the rate coding assumption, input control signals employed in the minimum-variance theory should be Fitts processes rather than Poisson processes. Only if information is coded by interspike intervals, Poisson processes are in agreement with the inputs employed in the minimum-variance theory. For the integrate-and-fire model with Fitts process inputs, interspike intervals of efferent spike trains are very irregular. We introduce diffusion approximations to approximate neural models with renewal process inputs and present theoretical results on calculating moments of interspike intervals of the integrate-and-fire model. Results in Feng, et al (2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 7287-304) are generalized. In conclusion, we present a complete picture on the minimum-variance theory ranging from input control signals, to model outputs, and to its implications on modelling firing patterns of single neurons.
A note on minimum-variance theory and beyond
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Jianfeng; Tartaglia, Giangaetano; Tirozzi, Brunello
2004-01-01
We revisit the minimum-variance theory proposed by Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780-4), discuss the implications of the theory on modelling the firing patterns of single neurons and analytically find the optimal control signals, trajectories and velocities. Under the rate coding assumption, input control signals employed in the minimum-variance theory should be Fitts processes rather than Poisson processes. Only if information is coded by interspike intervals, Poisson processes are in agreement with the inputs employed in the minimum-variance theory. For the integrate-and-fire model with Fitts process inputs, interspike intervals of efferent spike trains are very irregular. We introduce diffusion approximations to approximate neural models with renewal process inputs and present theoretical results on calculating moments of interspike intervals of the integrate-and-fire model. Results in Feng, et al (2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 7287-304) are generalized. In conclusion, we present a complete picture on the minimum-variance theory ranging from input control signals, to model outputs, and to its implications on modelling firing patterns of single neurons
Applicability of the minimum entropy generation method for optimizing thermodynamic cycles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cheng Xue-Tao; Liang Xin-Gang
2013-01-01
Entropy generation is often used as a figure of merit in thermodynamic cycle optimizations.In this paper,it is shown that the applicability of the minimum entropy generation method to optimizing output power is conditional.The minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number do not correspond to the maximum output power when the total heat into the system of interest is not prescribed.For the cycles whose working medium is heated or cooled by streams with prescribed inlet temperatures and prescribed heat capacity flow rates,it is theoretically proved that both the minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number correspond to the maximum output power when the virtual entropy generation induced by dumping the used streams into the environment is considered.However,the minimum principle of entropy generation is not tenable in the case that the virtual entropy generation is not included,because the total heat into the system of interest is not fixed.An irreversible Carnot cycle and an irreversible Brayton cycle are analysed.The minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number do not correspond to the maximum output power if the heat into the system of interest is not prescribed.
Applicability of the minimum entropy generation method for optimizing thermodynamic cycles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng Xue-Tao; Liang Xin-Gang
2013-01-01
Entropy generation is often used as a figure of merit in thermodynamic cycle optimizations. In this paper, it is shown that the applicability of the minimum entropy generation method to optimizing output power is conditional. The minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number do not correspond to the maximum output power when the total heat into the system of interest is not prescribed. For the cycles whose working medium is heated or cooled by streams with prescribed inlet temperatures and prescribed heat capacity flow rates, it is theoretically proved that both the minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number correspond to the maximum output power when the virtual entropy generation induced by dumping the used streams into the environment is considered. However, the minimum principle of entropy generation is not tenable in the case that the virtual entropy generation is not included, because the total heat into the system of interest is not fixed. An irreversible Carnot cycle and an irreversible Brayton cycle are analysed. The minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number do not correspond to the maximum output power if the heat into the system of interest is not prescribed. (general)
Minimum Moduli in Von Neumann Algebras | Gopalraj | Quaestiones ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper we answer a question raised in [12] in the affirmative, namely that the essential minimum modulus of an element in a von. Neumann algebra, relative to any norm closed two-sided ideal, is equal to the minimum modulus of the element perturbed by an element from the ideal. As a corollary of this result, we ...
Subjective well-being and minimum wages: Evidence from U.S. states.
Kuroki, Masanori
2018-02-01
This paper investigates whether increases in minimum wages are associated with higher life satisfaction by using monthly-level state minimum wages and individual-level data from the 2005-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The magnitude I find suggests that a 10% increase in the minimum wage is associated with a 0.03-point increase in life satisfaction for workers without a high school diploma, on a 4-point scale. Contrary to popular belief that higher minimum wages hurt business owners, I find little evidence that higher minimum wages lead to the loss of well-being among self-employed people. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina)
... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Angina Pectoris (Stable Angina) Updated:Aug 21,2017 You may have heard the term “angina pectoris” or “stable angina” in your doctor’s office, ...
Six months into Myanmar's minimum wage: Reflecting on progress ...
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
2016-04-25
Apr 25, 2016 ... Participants examined recent results from an IDRC-funded enterprise survey, ... of a minimum wage, and how they have coped with the new situation.” ... Debate on the impact of minimum wages on employment continues ...
Do minimum wages reduce poverty? Evidence from Central America ...
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
2010-12-16
Dec 16, 2010 ... Raising minimum wages has traditionally been considered a way to protect poor ... However, the effect of raising minimum wages remains an empirical question ... More than 70 of Vietnamese entrepreneurs choose to start a ...
Effects of acupuncture in moderate, stable angina pectoris
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ballegaard, Søren; Pedersen, F; Pietersen, A
1990-01-01
In order to evaluate the effects of acupuncture in moderate, stable angina pectoris, 49 patients were randomized to either genuine or sham acupuncture. In sham acupuncture needles were inserted into points within the same spinal segment as in genuine acupuncture, but outside the Chinese meridian...... system. The effect was evaluated from exercise tests, anginal attack rate and nitroglycerin consumption. There were no significant differences between the effects of genuine and sham acupuncture either on exercise test variables or on subjective variables. In patients receiving genuine acupuncture...... there was a significant increase in exercise tolerance (median 9%) and in delay of onset to pain (median 10%). No significant changes were observed in patients receiving sham acupuncture. Within both groups there was a median reduction of 50% in anginal attack rate and nitroglycerin consumption...
Nezhadhaghighi, Mohsen Ghasemi
2017-08-01
Here, we present results of numerical simulations and the scaling characteristics of one-dimensional random fluctuations with heavy-tailed probability distribution functions. Assuming that the distribution function of the random fluctuations obeys Lévy statistics with a power-law scaling exponent, we investigate the fractional diffusion equation in the presence of μ-stable Lévy noise. We study the scaling properties of the global width and two-point correlation functions and then compare the analytical and numerical results for the growth exponent β and the roughness exponent α. We also investigate the fractional Fokker-Planck equation for heavy-tailed random fluctuations. We show that the fractional diffusion processes in the presence of μ-stable Lévy noise display special scaling properties in the probability distribution function (PDF). Finally, we numerically study the scaling properties of the heavy-tailed random fluctuations by using the diffusion entropy analysis. This method is based on the evaluation of the Shannon entropy of the PDF generated by the random fluctuations, rather than on the measurement of the global width of the process. We apply the diffusion entropy analysis to extract the growth exponent β and to confirm the validity of our numerical analysis.
Nezhadhaghighi, Mohsen Ghasemi
2017-08-01
Here, we present results of numerical simulations and the scaling characteristics of one-dimensional random fluctuations with heavy-tailed probability distribution functions. Assuming that the distribution function of the random fluctuations obeys Lévy statistics with a power-law scaling exponent, we investigate the fractional diffusion equation in the presence of μ -stable Lévy noise. We study the scaling properties of the global width and two-point correlation functions and then compare the analytical and numerical results for the growth exponent β and the roughness exponent α . We also investigate the fractional Fokker-Planck equation for heavy-tailed random fluctuations. We show that the fractional diffusion processes in the presence of μ -stable Lévy noise display special scaling properties in the probability distribution function (PDF). Finally, we numerically study the scaling properties of the heavy-tailed random fluctuations by using the diffusion entropy analysis. This method is based on the evaluation of the Shannon entropy of the PDF generated by the random fluctuations, rather than on the measurement of the global width of the process. We apply the diffusion entropy analysis to extract the growth exponent β and to confirm the validity of our numerical analysis.
Decision trees with minimum average depth for sorting eight elements
AbouEisha, Hassan M.
2015-11-19
We prove that the minimum average depth of a decision tree for sorting 8 pairwise different elements is equal to 620160/8!. We show also that each decision tree for sorting 8 elements, which has minimum average depth (the number of such trees is approximately equal to 8.548×10^326365), has also minimum depth. Both problems were considered by Knuth (1998). To obtain these results, we use tools based on extensions of dynamic programming which allow us to make sequential optimization of decision trees relative to depth and average depth, and to count the number of decision trees with minimum average depth.
Quantitative characterisation of an engineering write-up using random walk analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sunday A. Oke
2008-02-01
Full Text Available This contribution reports on the investigation of correlation properties in an English scientific text (engineering write-up by means of a random walk. Though the idea to use a random walk to characterise correlations is not new (it was used e.g. in the genome analysis and in the analysis of texts, a random walk approach to the analysis of an English scientific text is still far from being exploited in its full strength as demonstrated in this paper. A method of high-dimensional embedding is proposed. Case examples were drawn arbitrarily from four engineering write-ups (Ph.D. synopsis of three engineering departments in the Faculty of Technology, University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Thirteen additional analyses of non-engineering English texts were made and the results compared to the engineering English texts. Thus, a total of seventeen write-ups of eight Faculties and sixteen Departments of the University of Ibadan were considered. The characterising exponents which relate the average distance of random walkers away from a known starting position to the elapsed time steps were estimated for the seventeen cases according to the power law and in three different dimensional spaces. The average characteristic exponent obtained for the seventeen cases and over three different dimensional spaces studied was 1.42 to 2-decimal with a minimum and a maximum coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.9495 and 0.9994 respectively. This is found to be 284% of the average characterising exponent value (0.5, as supported by the literature for random walkers based on the pseudo-random number generator. The average characteristic exponent obtained for the four cases that were engineering-based and over the three different dimensional studied spaces was 1.41 to 2-decimal (closer by 99.3% to 1.42 with a minimum and a maximum coefficient of determination (R2 of 0.9507 and 0.9974 respectively. This is found to be 282% of the average characterising exponent value (0.5, as
Coupling between minimum scattering antennas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, J.; Lessow, H; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans
1974-01-01
Coupling between minimum scattering antennas (MSA's) is investigated by the coupling theory developed by Wasylkiwskyj and Kahn. Only rotationally symmetric power patterns are considered, and graphs of relative mutual impedance are presented as a function of distance and pattern parameters. Crossed...
Normal modified stable processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.
2002-01-01
Gaussian (NGIG) laws. The wider framework thus established provides, in particular, for added flexibility in the modelling of the dynamics of financial time series, of importance especially as regards OU based stochastic volatility models for equities. In the special case of the tempered stable OU process......This paper discusses two classes of distributions, and stochastic processes derived from them: modified stable (MS) laws and normal modified stable (NMS) laws. This extends corresponding results for the generalised inverse Gaussian (GIG) and generalised hyperbolic (GH) or normal generalised inverse...
29 CFR 510.23 - Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. Agriculture activities eligible for an extended phase-in of the minimum...
Is a Minimum Wage an Appropriate Instrument for Redistribution?
A.A.F. Gerritsen (Aart); B. Jacobs (Bas)
2016-01-01
textabstractWe analyze the redistributional (dis)advantages of a minimum wage over income taxation in competitive labor markets, without imposing assumptions on the (in)efficiency of labor rationing. Compared to a distributionally equivalent tax change, a minimum-wage increase raises involuntary
The impact of the minimum wage on health.
Andreyeva, Elena; Ukert, Benjamin
2018-03-07
This study evaluates the effect of minimum wage on risky health behaviors, healthcare access, and self-reported health. We use data from the 1993-2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and employ a difference-in-differences strategy that utilizes time variation in new minimum wage laws across U.S. states. Results suggest that the minimum wage increases the probability of being obese and decreases daily fruit and vegetable intake, but also decreases days with functional limitations while having no impact on healthcare access. Subsample analyses reveal that the increase in weight and decrease in fruit and vegetable intake are driven by the older population, married, and whites. The improvement in self-reported health is especially strong among non-whites, females, and married.
Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California.
S Barnert, Elizabeth; S Abrams, Laura; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka
2017-03-13
Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one.
A method simulating random magnetic field in interplanetary space by an autoregressive method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kato, Masahito; Sakai, Takasuke
1985-01-01
With an autoregressive method, we tried to generate the random noise fitting in with the power spectrum which can be analytically Fouriertransformed into an autocorrelation function. Although we can not directly compare our method with FFT by Owens (1978), we can only point out the following; FFT method should determine at first the number of data points N, or the total length to be generated and we cannot generate random data more than N. Because, beyond the NΔy, the generated data repeats the same pattern as below NΔy, where Δy = minimum interval for random noise. So if you want to change or increase N after generating the random noise, you should start the generation from the first step. The characteristic of the generated random number may depend upon the number of N, judging from the generating method. Once the prediction error filters are determined, our method can produce successively the random numbers, that is, we can possibly extend N to infinite without any effort. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Axente, Damian
1998-01-01
The most important fields of stable isotope use with examples are presented. These are: 1. Isotope dilution analysis: trace analysis, measurements of volumes and masses; 2. Stable isotopes as tracers: transport phenomena, environmental studies, agricultural research, authentication of products and objects, archaeometry, studies of reaction mechanisms, structure and function determination of complex biological entities, studies of metabolism, breath test for diagnostic; 3. Isotope equilibrium effects: measurement of equilibrium effects, investigation of equilibrium conditions, mechanism of drug action, study of natural processes, water cycle, temperature measurements; 4. Stable isotope for advanced nuclear reactors: uranium nitride with 15 N as nuclear fuel, 157 Gd for reactor control. In spite of some difficulties of stable isotope use, particularly related to the analytical techniques, which are slow and expensive, the number of papers reporting on this subject is steadily growing as well as the number of scientific meetings organized by International Isotope Section and IAEA, Gordon Conferences, and regional meeting in Germany, France, etc. Stable isotope application development on large scale is determined by improving their production technologies as well as those of labeled compound and the analytical techniques. (author)
47 CFR 25.205 - Minimum angle of antenna elevation.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum angle of antenna elevation. 25.205 Section 25.205 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.205 Minimum angle of antenna elevation. (a) Earth station...
An Experimental study on a Method of Computing Minimum flow rate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Yeon Sik; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Chang Hyun
2009-01-01
Many pump reliability problems in the Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) are being attributed to the operation of the pump at flow rates well below its best efficiency point(BEP). Generally, the manufacturer and the user try to avert such problems by specifying a minimum flow, below which the pump should not be operated. Pump minimum flow usually involves two considerations. The first consideration is normally termed the 'thermal minimum flow', which is that flow required to prevent the fluid inside the pump from reaching saturation conditions. The other consideration is often referred to as 'mechanical minimum flow', which is that flow required to prevent mechanical damage. However, the criteria for specifying such a minimum flow are not clearly understood by all parties concerned. Also various factor and information for computing minimum flow are not easily available as considering for the pump manufacturer' proprietary. The objective of this study is to obtain experimental data for computing minimum flow rate and to understand the pump performances due to low flow operation. A test loop consisted of the pump to be used in NPPs, water tank, flow rate measurements and piping system with flow control devices was established for this study
Road networks as collections of minimum cost paths
Wegner, Jan Dirk; Montoya-Zegarra, Javier Alexander; Schindler, Konrad
2015-10-01
We present a probabilistic representation of network structures in images. Our target application is the extraction of urban roads from aerial images. Roads appear as thin, elongated, partially curved structures forming a loopy graph, and this complex layout requires a prior that goes beyond standard smoothness and co-occurrence assumptions. In the proposed model the network is represented as a union of 1D paths connecting distant (super-)pixels. A large set of putative candidate paths is constructed in such a way that they include the true network as much as possible, by searching for minimum cost paths in the foreground (road) likelihood. Selecting the optimal subset of candidate paths is posed as MAP inference in a higher-order conditional random field. Each path forms a higher-order clique with a type of clique potential, which attracts the member nodes of cliques with high cumulative road evidence to the foreground label. That formulation induces a robust PN -Potts model, for which a global MAP solution can be found efficiently with graph cuts. Experiments with two road data sets show that the proposed model significantly improves per-pixel accuracies as well as the overall topological network quality with respect to several baselines.
Parameterization of ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doyle, Barney L.
2016-03-15
A MS Excel program has been written that calculates ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields in cubic bcc, fcc and diamond lattice crystals. All of the tables and graphs in the three Ion Beam Analysis Handbooks that previously had to be manually looked up and read from were programed into Excel in handy lookup tables, or parameterized, for the case of the graphs, using rather simple exponential functions with different power functions of the arguments. The program then offers an extremely convenient way to calculate axial and planar half-angles, minimum yields, effects on half-angles and minimum yields of amorphous overlayers. The program can calculate these half-angles and minimum yields for 〈u v w〉 axes and [h k l] planes up to (5 5 5). The program is open source and available at (http://www.sandia.gov/pcnsc/departments/iba/ibatable.html).
Fluctuations around equilibrium laws in ergodic continuous-time random walks.
Schulz, Johannes H P; Barkai, Eli
2015-06-01
We study occupation time statistics in ergodic continuous-time random walks. Under thermal detailed balance conditions, the average occupation time is given by the Boltzmann-Gibbs canonical law. But close to the nonergodic phase, the finite-time fluctuations around this mean are large and nontrivial. They exhibit dual time scaling and distribution laws: the infinite density of large fluctuations complements the Lévy-stable density of bulk fluctuations. Neither of the two should be interpreted as a stand-alone limiting law, as each has its own deficiency: the infinite density has an infinite norm (despite particle conservation), while the stable distribution has an infinite variance (although occupation times are bounded). These unphysical divergences are remedied by consistent use and interpretation of both formulas. Interestingly, while the system's canonical equilibrium laws naturally determine the mean occupation time of the ergodic motion, they also control the infinite and Lévy-stable densities of fluctuations. The duality of stable and infinite densities is in fact ubiquitous for these dynamics, as it concerns the time averages of general physical observables.
Studies in astronomical time series analysis: Modeling random processes in the time domain
Scargle, J. D.
1979-01-01
Random process models phased in the time domain are used to analyze astrophysical time series data produced by random processes. A moving average (MA) model represents the data as a sequence of pulses occurring randomly in time, with random amplitudes. An autoregressive (AR) model represents the correlations in the process in terms of a linear function of past values. The best AR model is determined from sampled data and transformed to an MA for interpretation. The randomness of the pulse amplitudes is maximized by a FORTRAN algorithm which is relatively stable numerically. Results of test cases are given to study the effects of adding noise and of different distributions for the pulse amplitudes. A preliminary analysis of the optical light curve of the quasar 3C 273 is given.
Stable isotopes labelled compounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1982-09-01
The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme
Steeneveld, G.J.
2012-01-01
Understanding and prediction of the stable atmospheric boundary layer is a challenging task. Many physical processes are relevant in the stable boundary layer, i.e. turbulence, radiation, land surface coupling, orographic turbulent and gravity wave drag, and land surface heterogeneity. The
26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-4 - Minimum investment of lessor.
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum investment of lessor. 5c.168(f)(8)-4....168(f)(8)-4 Minimum investment of lessor. (a) Minimum investment. Under section 168(f)(8)(B)(ii), an... has a minimum at risk investment which, at the time the property is placed in service under the lease...
30 CFR 18.97 - Inspection of machines; minimum requirements.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection of machines; minimum requirements... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Field Approval of Electrically Operated Mining Equipment § 18.97 Inspection of machines; minimum...
Elemental GCR Observations during the 2009-2010 Solar Minimum Period
Lave, K. A.; Israel, M. H.; Binns, W. R.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; Davis, A. J.; deNolfo, G. A.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.;
2013-01-01
Using observations from the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) onboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), we present new measurements of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) elemental composition and energy spectra for the species B through Ni in the energy range approx. 50-550 MeV/nucleon during the record setting 2009-2010 solar minimum period. These data are compared with our observations from the 1997-1998 solar minimum period, when solar modulation in the heliosphere was somewhat higher. For these species, we find that the intensities during the 2009-2010 solar minimum were approx. 20% higher than those in the previous solar minimum, and in fact were the highest GCR intensities recorded during the space age. Relative abundances for these species during the two solar minimum periods differed by small but statistically significant amounts, which are attributed to the combination of spectral shape differences between primary and secondary GCRs in the interstellar medium and differences between the levels of solar modulation in the two solar minima. We also present the secondary-to-primary ratios B/C and (Sc+Ti+V)/Fe for both solar minimum periods, and demonstrate that these ratios are reasonably well fit by a simple "leaky-box" galactic transport model that is combined with a spherically symmetric solar modulation model.
Platelet reactivity in response to loading dose of atorvastatin or rosuvastatin in patients with stable coronary disease before percutaneous coronary intervention: The STATIPLAT randomized study.
Godino, Cosmo; Pavon, Anna Giulia; Mangieri, Antonio; Salerno, Anna; Cera, Michela; Monello, Alberto; Chieffo, Alaide; Magni, Valeria; Cappelletti, Alberto; Margonato, Alberto; Colombo, Antonio
2017-08-01
The acute effects of statin loading dose (LD) on platelet reactivity in patients with chronic stable angina (CSA) are not completely clear. We hypothesized that LDs of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin have different pharmacodynamic acute effects on platelet aggregability in CSA patients with baseline normal platelet reactivity while on dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). From September 2011 to February 2014, all consecutive CSA patients on chronic DAPT (aspirin and clopidogrel) were evaluated before elective percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). An initial assessment of platelet reactivity in response to thrombin receptor agonist, ADP, and ASP (respectively, indicative of the response to clopidogrel and aspirin) was performed with impedance aggregometry. Patients with high platelet reactivity to ADP test (area under the curve >47) were excluded. The remaining patients were randomized into 3 treatment groups: Group A, atorvastatin LD 80 mg; Group B, rosuvastatin LD 40 mg; and Group C, no statin LD (control group). A second assessment of platelet reactivity was performed ≥12 hours after statin LD. 682 patients were screened and 145 were randomized into the 3 groups. At baseline and after statin LD, no significant difference was found in platelet reactivity in response to 3 different agonists between the 3 groups. Subgroup analysis showed that platelet reactivity to ADP test was significantly lower in patients chronically treated with low-dose statins (n = 94) compared with statin-naïve patients (n = 51; 15.32 ± 1.50 vs 18.59 ± 1.30; P = 0.007). Loading dose of atorvastatin (80 mg) or rosuvastatin (40 mg) did not induce significant variation in platelet reactivity in CSA patients with baseline reduced platelet reactivity as in chronic DAPT. Our data confirm that chronic concomitant treatment with low-dose statins and clopidogrel resulted in significantly lower platelet reactivity compared with clopidogrel alone. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Minimum qualifications for nuclear criticality safety professionals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ketzlach, N.
1990-01-01
A Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Training Committee has been established within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Criticality Safety and Technology Project to review and, if necessary, develop standards for the training of personnel involved in nuclear criticality safety (NCS). The committee is exploring the need for developing a standard or other mechanism for establishing minimum qualifications for NCS professionals. The development of standards and regulatory guides for nuclear power plant personnel may serve as a guide in developing the minimum qualifications for NCS professionals
A minimum achievable PV electrical generating cost
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabisky, E.S.
1996-01-01
The role and share of photovoltaic (PV) generated electricity in our nation's future energy arsenal is primarily dependent on its future production cost. This paper provides a framework for obtaining a minimum achievable electrical generating cost (a lower bound) for fixed, flat-plate photovoltaic systems. A cost of 2.8 $cent/kWh (1990$) was derived for a plant located in Southwestern USA sunshine using a cost of money of 8%. In addition, a value of 22 $cent/Wp (1990$) was estimated as a minimum module manufacturing cost/price
Pal, Partha S; Kar, R; Mandal, D; Ghoshal, S P
2015-11-01
This paper presents an efficient approach to identify different stable and practically useful Hammerstein models as well as unstable nonlinear process along with its stable closed loop counterpart with the help of an evolutionary algorithm as Colliding Bodies Optimization (CBO) optimization algorithm. The performance measures of the CBO based optimization approach such as precision, accuracy are justified with the minimum output mean square value (MSE) which signifies that the amount of bias and variance in the output domain are also the least. It is also observed that the optimization of output MSE in the presence of outliers has resulted in a very close estimation of the output parameters consistently, which also justifies the effective general applicability of the CBO algorithm towards the system identification problem and also establishes the practical usefulness of the applied approach. Optimum values of the MSEs, computational times and statistical information of the MSEs are all found to be the superior as compared with those of the other existing similar types of stochastic algorithms based approaches reported in different recent literature, which establish the robustness and efficiency of the applied CBO based identification scheme. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California
Barnert, Elizabeth S.; Abrams, Laura S.; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka
2018-01-01
Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one. Paper type Conceptual paper PMID:28299968
Structure of acid-stable carmine.
Sugimoto, Naoki; Kawasaki, Yoko; Sato, Kyoko; Aoki, Hiromitsu; Ichi, Takahito; Koda, Takatoshi; Yamazaki, Takeshi; Maitani, Tamio
2002-02-01
Acid-stable carmine has recently been distributed in the U.S. market because of its good acid stability, but it is not permitted in Japan. We analyzed and determined the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine, in order to establish an analytical method for it. Carminic acid was transformed into a different type of pigment, named acid-stable carmine, through amination when heated in ammonia solution. The features of the structure were clarified using a model compound, purpurin, in which the orientation of hydroxyl groups on the A ring of the anthraquinone skeleton is the same as that of carminic acid. By spectroscopic means and the synthesis of acid-stable carmine and purpurin derivatives, the structure of the major pigment in acid-stable carmine was established as 4-aminocarminic acid, a novel compound.
Stable switching of resistive random access memory on the nanotip array electrodes
Tsai, Kun-Tong
2016-09-13
The formation/rupture of conducting filaments (CFs) in resistive random access memory (ReRAM) materials tune the electrical conductivities non-volatilely and are largely affected by its material composition [1], internal configurations [2] and external environments [3,4]. Therefore, controlling repetitive formation/rupture of CF as well as the spatial uniformity of formed CF are fundamentally important for improving the resistive switching (RS) performance. In this context, we have shown that by adding a field initiator, typically a textured electrode, both performance and switching uniformity of ReRAMs can be improved dramatically [5]. In addition, despite its promising characteristics, the scalable fabrication and structural homogeneity of such nanostructured electrodes are still lacking or unattainable, making miniaturization of ReRAM devices an exceeding challenge. Here, we employ nanostructured electrode (nanotip arrays, extremely uniform) formed spontaneously via a self-organized process to improve the ZnO ReRAM switching characteristics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Zhifan [Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, and Department of Physics, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia 30314 (United States); Msezane, Alfred Z. [Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, and Department of Physics, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia 30314 (United States); Amusia, M. Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, (Israel)
1999-12-01
We have investigated the generalized oscillator strength (GOS) for a transition of the type np{yields}(n+1)s, where n is the principal quantum number of the outermost filled shell of the atomic ground state, using the random-phase approximation with exchange. We find that the influence of correlation and exchange effects on the position of the characteristic minimum in the GOS of Ar(n=3) is insignificant. Also, our first Born approximation predicts the position of the minimum accurately provided that accurate target wave functions are employed. Our results agree excellently with measurements and are expected to be applicable equally to the corresponding subshells of Ne(n=2), Kr(n=4), and Xe(n=5). (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.
Planetary tides during the Maunder sunspot minimum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smythe, C.M.; Eddy, J.A.
1977-01-01
Sun-centered planetary conjunctions and tidal potentials are here constructed for the AD1645 to 1715 period of sunspot absence, referred to as the 'Maunder Minimum'. These are found to be effectively indistinguishable from patterns of conjunctions and power spectra of tidal potential in the present era of a well established 11 year sunspot cycle. This places a new and difficult restraint on any tidal theory of sunspot formation. Problems arise in any direct gravitational theory due to the apparently insufficient forces and tidal heights involved. Proponents of the tidal hypothesis usually revert to trigger mechanisms, which are difficult to criticise or test by observation. Any tidal theory rests on the evidence of continued sunspot periodicity and the substantiation of a prolonged period of solar anomaly in the historical past. The 'Maunder Minimum' was the most drastic change in the behaviour of solar activity in the last 300 years; sunspots virtually disappeared for a 70 year period and the 11 year cycle was probably absent. During that time, however, the nine planets were all in their orbits, and planetary conjunctions and tidal potentials were indistinguishable from those of the present era, in which the 11 year cycle is well established. This provides good evidence against the tidal theory. The pattern of planetary tidal forces during the Maunder Minimum was reconstructed to investigate the possibility that the multiple planet forces somehow fortuitously cancelled at the time, that is that the positions of the slower moving planets in the 17th and early 18th centuries were such that conjunctions and tidal potentials were at the time reduced in number and force. There was no striking dissimilarity between the time of the Maunder Minimum and any period investigated. The failure of planetary conjunction patterns to reflect the drastic drop in sunspots during the Maunder Minimum casts doubt on the tidal theory of solar activity, but a more quantitative test
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dongyan Chen
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the optimal Kalman filtering problem for a class of discrete stochastic systems with multiplicative noises and random two-step sensor delays. Three Bernoulli distributed random variables with known conditional probabilities are introduced to characterize the phenomena of the random two-step sensor delays which may happen during the data transmission. By using the state augmentation approach and innovation analysis technique, an optimal Kalman filter is constructed for the augmented system in the sense of the minimum mean square error (MMSE. Subsequently, the optimal Kalman filtering is derived for corresponding augmented system in initial instants. Finally, a simulation example is provided to demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed filtering method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guais, J C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires
1967-07-01
After a brief survey of classical techniques for static optimization, we present a Random seeking method for any function, of an arbitrary number of variables, with constraints. The resulting program is shown and illustrated by some examples. The comparison with classical methods points out the advantages of Random in some cases where analytic procedures fail or require too much calculation time. (author) [French] Apres une rapide revue des differents procedes actuels d'optimisation statique, on expose une methode de recherche aleatoire du minimum (ou du maximum) d'une fonction quelconque, definie sur un nombre theoriquement illimite de parametres independants, avec contraintes. Le programme resultant est presente. Il est illustre par quelques exemples simples et compare a des methodes d'optimisation classiques; Ceci montre en particulier que le programme RANDOM permet une recherche aisee d'extrema dans certains cas ou d'autres programmes ne conduisent pas a des solutions satisfaisantes ou bien demandent un temps calcul prohibitif. (auteur)
Applications of stable isotopes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Letolle, R.; Mariotti, A.; Bariac, T.
1991-06-01
This report reviews the historical background and the properties of stable isotopes, the methods used for their measurement (mass spectrometry and others), the present technics for isotope enrichment and separation, and at last the various present and foreseeable application (in nuclear energy, physical and chemical research, materials industry and research; tracing in industrial, medical and agronomical tests; the use of natural isotope variations for environmental studies, agronomy, natural resources appraising: water, minerals, energy). Some new possibilities in the use of stable isotope are offered. A last chapter gives the present state and forecast development of stable isotope uses in France and Europe
29 CFR 510.22 - Industries eligible for minimum wage phase-in.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Industries eligible for minimum wage phase-in. 510.22... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Classification of Industries § 510.22 Industries eligible for minimum wage phase-in...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang, C.S.; Coplin, B.; Wellington, K.
1985-01-01
Using a double-blind, crossover design, the comparative efficacy and safety of nifedipine and isosorbide dinitrate in the treatment of stable angina were studied in 34 patients. The study included a 2-week placebo washout period and two 6-week periods during which patients were randomized to either nifedipine or isosorbide dinitrate. The doses were titrated for each patient, and mean doses of the 2 drugs were comparable. A time-limited thallium treadmill test was performed at the end of each phase. Ischemic zone count rates were normalized to those of the nonischemic zone, and the change in this ratio with redistribution was calculated as reversible thallium defect. Two patients were discontinued from the study within 1 week after initiation of isosorbide dinitrate because of severe, intolerable headache. Two patients were withdrawn while receiving nifedipine: one had new congestive heart failure and the other had increasing angina. Of the remaining 30 patients who tolerated both drugs for at least 1 week, 4 patients from the isosorbide dinitrate group were either prematurely crossed over or discontinued from the study because of headache. One patient suffered headache from both drugs and was discontinued from the study. In the 30 patients, only nifedipine significantly reduced resting arterial pressure compared with baseline. Further, only nifedipine therapy resulted in significant decreases in the rate-pressure product and systolic pressure at a given workload. However, significant decreases in angina frequency, nitroglycerin consumption and exercise-induced maximum ST-segment depression and reversible thallium perfusion defect were produced by both nifedipine and isosorbide dinitrate
13 CFR 107.830 - Minimum duration/term of financing.
2010-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum duration/term of financing... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Structuring Licensee's Financing of An Eligible Small Business: Terms and Conditions of Financing § 107.830 Minimum duration/term of financing. (a...
42 CFR 84.117 - Gas mask containers; minimum requirements.
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. 84.117... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.117 Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. (a) Gas masks shall be equipped with a substantial...
Do Minimum Wages in Latin America and the Caribbean Matter? Evidence from 19 Countries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Nicolai; Cunningham, Wendy
of if and how minimum wages affect wage distributions in LAC countries. Although there is no single minimum wage institution in the LAC region, we find regional trends. Minimum wages affect the wage distribution in both the formal and, especially, the informal sector, both at the minimum wage and at multiples...... of the minimum. The minimum does not uniformly benefit low-wage workers: in countries where the minimum wage is relatively low compared to mean wages, the minimum wage affects the more disadvantaged segments of the labor force, namely informal sector workers, women, young and older workers, and the low skilled...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javier Royuela-del-Val
2017-06-01
Full Text Available α-stable distributions are a family of well-known probability distributions. However, the lack of closed analytical expressions hinders their application. Currently, several tools have been developed to numerically evaluate their density and distribution functions or to estimate their parameters, but available solutions either do not reach sufficient precision on their evaluations or are excessively slow for practical purposes. Moreover, they do not take full advantage of the parallel processing capabilities of current multi-core machines. Other solutions work only on a subset of the α-stable parameter space. In this paper we present an R package and a C/C++ library with a MATLAB front-end that permit parallelized, fast and high precision evaluation of density, distribution and quantile functions, as well as random variable generation and parameter estimation of α-stable distributions in their whole parameter space. The described library can be easily integrated into third party developments.
29 CFR 552.100 - Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. 552... § 552.100 Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. (a)(1) Domestic service employees must receive for employment in any household a minimum wage of not less than that required by section 6(a) of...
Mosley, Craig A E; Dyson, Doris; Smith, Dale A
2003-06-01
To determine minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in green iguanas and effects of butorphanol on MAC. Prospective randomized trial. 10 healthy mature iguanas. in each iguana, MAC was measured 3 times: twice after induction of anesthesia with isoflurane and once after induction of anesthesia with isoflurane and IM administration of butorphanol (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb]). A blood sample was collected from the tail vein for blood-gas analysis at the beginning and end of the anesthetic period. The MAC was determined with a standard bracketing technique; an electrical current was used as the supramaximal stimulus. Animals were artificially ventilated with a ventilator set to deliver a tidal volume of 30 mL/kg (14 mL/lb) at a rate of 4 breaths/min. Mean +/- SD MAC values during the 3 trials (2 without and 1 with butorphanol) were 2.0 +/- 0.6, 2.1 +/- 0.6, and 1.7 +/- 0.7%, respectively, which were not significantly different from each other. Heart rate and end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 were also not significantly different among the 3 trials. Mean +/- SD heart rate was 48 +/- 10 beats/min; mean end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 was 22 +/- 10 mm Hg. There were no significant differences in blood-gas values for samples obtained at the beginning versus the end of the anesthetic period. Results suggest that the MAC of isoflurane in green iguanas is 2.1% and that butorphanol does not have any significant isoflurane-sparing effects.
Patterns in Stable Isotope Values of Nitrogen and Carbon in ...
Stable isotope measurements of nitrogen and carbon (15N, 13ddC) are often used to characterize estuarine, nearshore, and open ocean ecosystems. Reliable information about the spatial distribution of base-level stable isotope values, often represented by primary producers, is critical to interpreting values in these ecosystems. While base-level isotope data are generally readily available for estuaries, nearshore coastal waters, and the open ocean, the continental shelf is less studied. To address this, and as a first step toward developing a surrogate for base-level isotopic signature in this region, we collected surface and deep water samples from the United States’ eastern continental shelf in the Western Atlantic Ocean, from the Gulf of Maine to Cape Hatteras, periodically between 2000 and 2013. During the study, particulate matter 15dN values ranged from 0.8 to 17.4‰, and 13dC values from −26.4 to −15.6‰over the region. We used spatial autocorrelation analysis and random forest modeling to examine the spatial trends and potential environmental drivers of the stable isotope values. We observed general trends toward lower values for both nitrogen and carbon isotopes at the seaward edge of the shelf. Conversely, higher 15dN and 13dC values were observed on the landward edge of the shelf, in particular in the southern portion of the sampling area. Across all sites, the magnitude of the difference between the 15dN of subsurface and surface particulate m
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herzog, Ulrike; Bergou, Janos A.
2004-01-01
We consider two different optimized measurement strategies for the discrimination of nonorthogonal quantum states. The first is ambiguous discrimination with a minimum probability of inferring an erroneous result, and the second is unambiguous, i.e., error-free, discrimination with a minimum probability of getting an inconclusive outcome, where the measurement fails to give a definite answer. For distinguishing between two mixed quantum states, we investigate the relation between the minimum-error probability achievable in ambiguous discrimination, and the minimum failure probability that can be reached in unambiguous discrimination of the same two states. The latter turns out to be at least twice as large as the former for any two given states. As an example, we treat the case where the state of the quantum system is known to be, with arbitrary prior probability, either a given pure state, or a uniform statistical mixture of any number of mutually orthogonal states. For this case we derive an analytical result for the minimum probability of error and perform a quantitative comparison with the minimum failure probability
Minimum alcohol pricing policies in practice: A critical examination of implementation in Canada.
Thompson, Kara; Stockwell, Tim; Wettlaufer, Ashley; Giesbrecht, Norman; Thomas, Gerald
2017-02-01
There is an interest globally in using Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) of alcohol to promote public health. Canada is the only country to have both implemented and evaluated some forms of minimum alcohol prices, albeit in ways that fall short of MUP. To inform these international debates, we describe the degree to which minimum alcohol prices in Canada meet recommended criteria for being an effective public health policy. We collected data on the implementation of minimum pricing with respect to (1) breadth of application, (2) indexation to inflation and (3) adjustments for alcohol content. Some jurisdictions have implemented recommended practices with respect to minimum prices; however, the full harm reduction potential of minimum pricing is not fully realised due to incomplete implementation. Key concerns include the following: (1) the exclusion of minimum prices for several beverage categories, (2) minimum prices below the recommended minima and (3) prices are not regularly adjusted for inflation or alcohol content. We provide recommendations for best practices when implementing minimum pricing policy.
19 CFR 144.33 - Minimum quantities to be withdrawn.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum quantities to be withdrawn. 144.33 Section 144.33 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Warehouse § 144.33 Minimum quantities to be withdrawn. Unless by special authority of the Commissioner of...
A Minimum Spanning Tree Representation of Anime Similarities
Wibowo, Canggih Puspo
2016-01-01
In this work, a new way to represent Japanese animation (anime) is presented. We applied a minimum spanning tree to show the relation between anime. The distance between anime is calculated through three similarity measurements, namely crew, score histogram, and topic similarities. Finally, the centralities are also computed to reveal the most significance anime. The result shows that the minimum spanning tree can be used to determine the similarity anime. Furthermore, by using centralities c...
Start of Eta Car's X-ray Minimum
Corcoran, Michael F.; Liburd, Jamar; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Gull, Theodore; Madura, Thomas; Teodoro, Mairan; Moffat, Anthony; Richardson, Noel; Russell, Chris; Pollock, Andrew;
2014-01-01
Analysis of Eta Car's X-ray spectrum in the 2-10 keV band using quicklook data from the XRay Telescope on Swift shows that the flux on July 30, 2014 was 4.9 plus or minus 2.0×10(exp-12) ergs s(exp-1)cm(exp-2). This flux is nearly equal to the X-ray minimum flux seen by RXTE in 2009, 2003.5, and 1998, and indicates that Eta Car has reached its X-ray minimum, as expected based on the 2024-day period derived from previous 2-10 keV observations with RXTE.
The Impact Of Minimum Wage On Employment Level And ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This research work has been carried out to analyze the critical impact of minimum wage of employment level and productivity in Nigeria. A brief literature on wage and its determination was highlighted. Models on minimum wage effect are being look into. This includes research work done by different economist analyzing it ...
30 CFR 77.606-1 - Rubber gloves; minimum requirements.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. 77.606-1... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606-1 Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. (a) Rubber gloves (lineman's gloves) worn while handling high-voltage trailing cables shall be rated at least 20,000 volts and shall...
Do minimum wages reduce poverty? Evidence from Central America ...
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
In all three countries, these multiple minimum wages are negotiated among representatives of the central government, labour unions and the chambers of commerce. Minimum wage legislation applies to all private-sector employees, but in all three countries a large part of the work force is self-employed or works as unpaid ...
The Minimum Wage, Restaurant Prices, and Labor Market Structure
Aaronson, Daniel; French, Eric; MacDonald, James
2008-01-01
Using store-level and aggregated Consumer Price Index data, we show that restaurant prices rise in response to minimum wage increases under several sources of identifying variation. We introduce a general model of employment determination that implies minimum wage hikes cause prices to rise in competitive labor markets but potentially fall in…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luna, M.; Chavez, I.; Cajas, D.; Santos, R.
2015-01-01
The study of thermal-hydraulic performance of a fixed bed nuclear reactor (FBNR) core and the effect of the porosity was studied by the CFD method with 'SolidWorks' software. The representative sections of three different packed beds arrangements were analyzed: face-centered cubic (FCC), body-centered cubic (BCC), and a pseudo-random, with values of porosity of 0.28, 0.33 and 0.53 respectively. The minimum coolant flow required to avoid the phase change for each one of the configurations was determined. The results show that the heat transfer rate increases when the porosity value decreases, and consequently the minimum coolant flow in each configuration. The results of minimum coolant flow were: 728.51 kg/s for the FCC structure, 372.72 kg/s for the BCC, and 304.96 kg/s for the pseudo-random. Meanwhile, the heat transfer coefficients in each packed bed were 6480 W/m 2 *K, 3718 W/m 2 *K and 3042 W/m 2 *K respectively. Finally the pressure drop was calculated, and the results were 0.588 MPa for FCC configuration, 0.033 MPa for BCC and 0.017 MPa for the pseudo-random one. This means that with a higher porosity, the fluid can circulate easier because there are fewer obstacles to cross, so there are fewer energy losses. (authors)
Statistical theory of dislocation configurations in a random array of point obstacles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Labusch, R.
1977-01-01
The stable configurations of a dislocation in an infinite random array of point obstacles are analyzed using the mathematical methods of statistical mechanics. The theory provides exact distribution functions of the forces on pinning points and of the link lengths between points on the line. The expected number of stable configurations is a function of the applied stress. This number drops to zero at the critical stress. Due to a degeneracy problem in the line count, the value of the flow stress cannot be determined rigorously, but we can give a good approximation that is very close to the empirical value
Population Games, Stable Games, and Passivity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael J. Fox
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The class of “stable games”, introduced by Hofbauer and Sandholm in 2009, has the attractive property of admitting global convergence to equilibria under many evolutionary dynamics. We show that stable games can be identified as a special case of the feedback-system-theoretic notion of a “passive” dynamical system. Motivated by this observation, we develop a notion of passivity for evolutionary dynamics that complements the definition of the class of stable games. Since interconnections of passive dynamical systems exhibit stable behavior, we can make conclusions about passive evolutionary dynamics coupled with stable games. We show how established evolutionary dynamics qualify as passive dynamical systems. Moreover, we exploit the flexibility of the definition of passive dynamical systems to analyze generalizations of stable games and evolutionary dynamics that include forecasting heuristics as well as certain games with memory.
Construction of Protograph LDPC Codes with Linear Minimum Distance
Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Jones, Christopher
2006-01-01
A construction method for protograph-based LDPC codes that simultaneously achieve low iterative decoding threshold and linear minimum distance is proposed. We start with a high-rate protograph LDPC code with variable node degrees of at least 3. Lower rate codes are obtained by splitting check nodes and connecting them by degree-2 nodes. This guarantees the linear minimum distance property for the lower-rate codes. Excluding checks connected to degree-1 nodes, we show that the number of degree-2 nodes should be at most one less than the number of checks for the protograph LDPC code to have linear minimum distance. Iterative decoding thresholds are obtained by using the reciprocal channel approximation. Thresholds are lowered by using either precoding or at least one very high-degree node in the base protograph. A family of high- to low-rate codes with minimum distance linearly increasing in block size and with capacity-approaching performance thresholds is presented. FPGA simulation results for a few example codes show that the proposed codes perform as predicted.
Quantitative Research on the Minimum Wage
Goldfarb, Robert S.
1975-01-01
The article reviews recent research examining the impact of minimum wage requirements on the size and distribution of teenage employment and earnings. The studies measure income distribution, employment levels and effect on unemployment. (MW)
Application of Minimum-time Optimal Control System in Buck-Boost Bi-linear Converters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. M. M. Shariatmadar
2017-08-01
Full Text Available In this study, the theory of minimum-time optimal control system in buck-boost bi-linear converters is described, so that output voltage regulation is carried out within minimum time. For this purpose, the Pontryagin's Minimum Principle is applied to find optimal switching level applying minimum-time optimal control rules. The results revealed that by utilizing an optimal switching level instead of classical switching patterns, output voltage regulation will be carried out within minimum time. However, transient energy index of increased overvoltage significantly reduces in order to attain minimum time optimal control in reduced output load. The laboratory results were used in order to verify numerical simulations.
Disk Density Tuning of a Maximal Random Packing.
Ebeida, Mohamed S; Rushdi, Ahmad A; Awad, Muhammad A; Mahmoud, Ahmed H; Yan, Dong-Ming; English, Shawn A; Owens, John D; Bajaj, Chandrajit L; Mitchell, Scott A
2016-08-01
We introduce an algorithmic framework for tuning the spatial density of disks in a maximal random packing, without changing the sizing function or radii of disks. Starting from any maximal random packing such as a Maximal Poisson-disk Sampling (MPS), we iteratively relocate, inject (add), or eject (remove) disks, using a set of three successively more-aggressive local operations. We may achieve a user-defined density, either more dense or more sparse, almost up to the theoretical structured limits. The tuned samples are conflict-free, retain coverage maximality, and, except in the extremes, retain the blue noise randomness properties of the input. We change the density of the packing one disk at a time, maintaining the minimum disk separation distance and the maximum domain coverage distance required of any maximal packing. These properties are local, and we can handle spatially-varying sizing functions. Using fewer points to satisfy a sizing function improves the efficiency of some applications. We apply the framework to improve the quality of meshes, removing non-obtuse angles; and to more accurately model fiber reinforced polymers for elastic and failure simulations.
Melnikov processes and chaos in randomly perturbed dynamical systems
Yagasaki, Kazuyuki
2018-07-01
We consider a wide class of randomly perturbed systems subjected to stationary Gaussian processes and show that chaotic orbits exist almost surely under some nondegenerate condition, no matter how small the random forcing terms are. This result is very contrasting to the deterministic forcing case, in which chaotic orbits exist only if the influence of the forcing terms overcomes that of the other terms in the perturbations. To obtain the result, we extend Melnikov’s method and prove that the corresponding Melnikov functions, which we call the Melnikov processes, have infinitely many zeros, so that infinitely many transverse homoclinic orbits exist. In addition, a theorem on the existence and smoothness of stable and unstable manifolds is given and the Smale–Birkhoff homoclinic theorem is extended in an appropriate form for randomly perturbed systems. We illustrate our theory for the Duffing oscillator subjected to the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck process parametrically.
On the Minimum Cable Tensions for the Cable-Based Parallel Robots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peng Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the minimum cable tension distributions in the workspace for cable-based parallel robots to find out more information on the stability. First, the kinematic model of a cable-based parallel robot is derived based on the wrench matrix. Then, a noniterative polynomial-based optimization algorithm with the proper optimal objective function is presented based on the convex optimization theory, in which the minimum cable tension at any pose is determined. Additionally, three performance indices are proposed to show the distributions of the minimum cable tensions in a specified region of the workspace. An important thing is that the three performance indices can be used to evaluate the stability of the cable-based parallel robots. Furthermore, a new workspace, the Specified Minimum Cable Tension Workspace (SMCTW, is introduced, within which all the minimum tensions exceed a specified value, therefore meeting the specified stability requirement. Finally, a camera robot parallel driven by four cables for aerial panoramic photographing is selected to illustrate the distributions of the minimum cable tensions in the workspace and the relationship between the three performance indices and the stability.
Energy and environmental norms on Minimum Vital Flux
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maran, S.
2008-01-01
By the end of the year will come into force the recommendations on Minimum Vital flow and operators of hydroelectric power plants will be required to make available part of water of their derivations in order to protect river ecosystems. In this article the major energy and environmental consequences of these rules, we report some quantitative evaluations and are discusses the proposals for overcoming the weaknesses of the approach in the estimation of Minimum Vital Flux [it
MINIMUM BRACING STIFFNESS FOR MULTI-COLUMN SYSTEMS: THEORY
ARISTIZÁBAL-OCHOA, J. DARÍO
2011-01-01
A method that determines the minimum bracing stiffness required by a multi-column elastic system to achieve non-sway buckling conditions is proposed. Equations that evaluate the required minimum stiffness of the lateral and torsional bracings and the corresponding “braced" critical buckling load for each column of the story level are derived using the modified stability functions. The following effects are included: 1) the types of end connections (rigid, semirigid, and simple); 2) the bluepr...
Towards a mathematical foundation of minimum-variance theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng Jianfeng [COGS, Sussex University, Brighton (United Kingdom); Zhang Kewei [SMS, Sussex University, Brighton (United Kingdom); Wei Gang [Mathematical Department, Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)
2002-08-30
The minimum-variance theory which accounts for arm and eye movements with noise signal inputs was proposed by Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780-4). Here we present a detailed theoretical analysis of the theory and analytical solutions of the theory are obtained. Furthermore, we propose a new version of the minimum-variance theory, which is more realistic for a biological system. For the new version we show numerically that the variance is considerably reduced. (author)
Minimum Wage Policy and Country’s Technical Efficiency
Karim, Mohd Zaini Abd; Chan, Sok-Gee; Hassan, Sallahuddin
2016-01-01
Recently, the government has decided that Malaysia would introduce a minimum wage policy. However, some quarters argued against the idea of a nationwide minimum wage asserting that it will lead to an increase in the cost of doing business and thus will hurt Malaysian competitiveness. Although standard economic theory unambiguously implies that wage floors have a negative impact on employment, the existing empirical literature is not so clear. Some studies have found the expected negative impa...
Anesthesiologists' perceptions of minimum acceptable work habits of nurse anesthetists.
Logvinov, Ilana I; Dexter, Franklin; Hindman, Bradley J; Brull, Sorin J
2017-05-01
Work habits are non-technical skills that are an important part of job performance. Although non-technical skills are usually evaluated on a relative basis (i.e., "grading on a curve"), validity of evaluation on an absolute basis (i.e., "minimum passing score") needs to be determined. Survey and observational study. None. None. The theme of "work habits" was assessed using a modification of Dannefer et al.'s 6-item scale, with scores ranging from 1 (lowest performance) to 5 (highest performance). E-mail invitations were sent to all consultant and fellow anesthesiologists at Mayo Clinic in Florida, Arizona, and Minnesota. Because work habits expectations can be generational, the survey was designed for adjustment based on all invited (responding or non-responding) anesthesiologists' year of graduation from residency. The overall mean±standard deviation of the score for anesthesiologists' minimum expectations of nurse anesthetists' work habits was 3.64±0.66 (N=48). Minimum acceptable scores were correlated with the year of graduation from anesthesia residency (linear regression P=0.004). Adjusting for survey non-response using all N=207 anesthesiologists, the mean of the minimum acceptable work habits adjusted for year of graduation was 3.69 (standard error 0.02). The minimum expectations for nurse anesthetists' work habits were compared with observational data obtained from the University of Iowa. Among 8940 individual nurse anesthetist work habits scores, only 2.6% were habits scores were significantly greater than the Mayo estimate (3.69) for the minimum expectations; all Phabits of nurse anesthetists within departments should not be compared with an appropriate minimum score (i.e., of 3.69). Instead, work habits scores should be analyzed based on relative reporting among anesthetists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fermat and the Minimum Principle
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Arguably, least action and minimum principles were offered or applied much earlier. This (or these) principle(s) is/are among the fundamental, basic, unifying or organizing ones used to describe a variety of natural phenomena. It considers the amount of energy expended in performing a given action to be the least required ...
Second Law Analysis of the Optimal Fin by Minimum Entropy Generation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
Based on the entropy generation concept of thermodynamics, this paper established a general theoretical model for the analysis of entropy generation to optimize fms, in which the minimum entropy generation was selected as the object to be studied. The irreversibility due to heat transfer and friction was taken into account so that the minimum entropygeneration number has been analyzed with respect to second law of thermodynamics in the forced cross-flow. The optimum dimensions of cylinder pins were discussed. It's found that the minimum entropy generation number depends on parameters related to the fluid and fin physical parameters. Variations of the minimum entropy generation number with different parameters were analyzed.
The Effect of Minimum Wages on Adolescent Fertility: A Nationwide Analysis.
Bullinger, Lindsey Rose
2017-03-01
To investigate the effect of minimum wage laws on adolescent birth rates in the United States. I used a difference-in-differences approach and vital statistics data measured quarterly at the state level from 2003 to 2014. All models included state covariates, state and quarter-year fixed effects, and state-specific quarter-year nonlinear time trends, which provided plausibly causal estimates of the effect of minimum wage on adolescent birth rates. A $1 increase in minimum wage reduces adolescent birth rates by about 2%. The effects are driven by non-Hispanic White and Hispanic adolescents. Nationwide, increasing minimum wages by $1 would likely result in roughly 5000 fewer adolescent births annually.
The debate on the economic effects of minimum wage legislation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Santos Miguel Ruesga-Benito
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The minimum wage establishment has its origin in the first third of the last century. Since its creation has been a focus of continuing controversy and an unfinished debate on economics field. This work reviews the effects of the minimum wage on employment and other macroeconomic variables, from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. The method is based on the revision of the literature and the main economic indicators. The central contribution of this paper is providing a general reflection on theoretical and empirical analysis about the debate on minimum wage and its effects. The results showed that some labor policies are taking account the effects of austerity strategies, shifting the attention towards the implementation of minimum wages or their updating, in order to reduce the growing inequalities in the distribution of income, and even poverty levels.
Stooksbury, David E.; Idso, Craig D.; Hubbard, Kenneth G.
1999-05-01
Gaps in otherwise regularly scheduled observations are often referred to as missing data. This paper explores the spatial and temporal impacts that data gaps in the recorded daily maximum and minimum temperatures have on the calculated monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures. For this analysis 138 climate stations from the United States Historical Climatology Network Daily Temperature and Precipitation Data set were selected. The selected stations had no missing maximum or minimum temperature values during the period 1951-80. The monthly mean maximum and minimum temperatures were calculated for each station for each month. For each month 1-10 consecutive days of data from each station were randomly removed. This was performed 30 times for each simulated gap period. The spatial and temporal impact of the 1-10-day data gaps were compared. The influence of data gaps is most pronounced in the continental regions during the winter and least pronounced in the southeast during the summer. In the north central plains, 10-day data gaps during January produce a standard deviation value greater than 2°C about the `true' mean. In the southeast, 10-day data gaps in July produce a standard deviation value less than 0.5°C about the mean. The results of this study will be of value in climate variability and climate trend research as well as climate assessment and impact studies.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stief, Peter; Lundgaard, Ann Sofie Birch; Morales Ramirez, Alvaro
2017-01-01
Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the ocean are of key importance for pelagic fixed-nitrogen loss (N-loss) through microbial denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). Recent studies document that zooplankton is surprisingly abundant in and around OMZs and that the microbial community...... associated with carcasses of a large copepod species mediates denitrification. Here, we investigate the complex N-cycling associated with sinking zooplankton carcasses exposed to the steep O2 gradient in a coastal OMZ (Golfo Dulce, Costa Rica). 15N-stable-isotope enrichment experiments revealed...... that the carcasses of abundant copepods and ostracods provide anoxic microbial hotspots in the pelagic zone by hosting intense anaerobic N-cycle activities even in the presence of ambient O2. Carcass-associated anaerobic N-cycling was clearly dominated by dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) at up...
Effect of ionization, bedding, and feeding on air quality in a horse stable.
Siegers, Esther Willemijn; Anthonisse, Milou; van Eerdenburg, Frank J C M; van den Broek, Jan; Wouters, Inge M; Westermann, Cornélie Martine
2018-05-01
Organic dust is associated with Equine asthma. Ionization should reduce airborne dust levels. To determine the effect of ionization of air, type of bedding, and feed on the levels of airborne dust, endotoxin, and fungal colonies in horse stables. 24 healthy University-owned horses occupied the stables. A randomized controlled cross-over study. Four units with 6 stables were equipped with an ionization installation (25 VA, 5000 Volt Direct Current). Horses were kept either on wood shavings and fed haylage (2 units), or on straw and fed dry hay (2 units). Measurements were performed with and without activated ionization, during daytime and nighttime, repeatedly over the course of a week and repeatedly during 4-6 weeks. Statistical analysis was performed using a mixed effect model with Akaike's Information Criterion for model reduction and 95% profile (log) likelihood confidence intervals (CI). Ionization did not alter concentrations of dust, endotoxin, or fungi, fewer. In the units with straw and hay, the concentration of dust, endotoxin, and fungi (difference in logarithmic mean 1.92 (95%CI 1.71-2.12); 2.86 (95%CI 2.59-3.14); 1.75 (95%CI 1.13-2.36)) were significantly higher compared to wood shavings and haylage. The installation of a negative air-ionizer in the horse stable did not reduce concentrations of dust, endotoxin, and viable fungal spores. The substantial effect of low dust bedding and feed is confirmed. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.
Do minimum wages improve early life health? Evidence from developing countries.
Majid, Muhammad Farhan; Mendoza Rodríguez, José M; Harper, Sam; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit
2016-06-01
The impact of legislated minimum wages on the early-life health of children living in low and middle-income countries has not been examined. For our analyses, we used data from the Demographic and Household Surveys (DHS) from 57 countries conducted between 1999 and 2013. Our analyses focus on height-for-age z scores (HAZ) for children under 5 years of age who were surveyed as part of the DHS. To identify the causal effect of minimum wages, we utilized plausibly exogenous variation in the legislated minimum wages during each child's year of birth, the identifying assumption being that mothers do not time their births around changes in the minimum wage. As a sensitivity exercise, we also made within family comparisons (mother fixed effect models). Our final analysis on 49 countries reveal that a 1% increase in minimum wages was associated with 0.1% (95% CI = -0.2, 0) decrease in HAZ scores. Adverse effects of an increase in the minimum wage were observed among girls and for children of fathers who were less than 35 years old, mothers aged 20-29, parents who were married, parents who were less educated, and parents involved in manual work. We also explored heterogeneity by region and GDP per capita at baseline (1999). Adverse effects were concentrated in lower-income countries and were most pronounced in South Asia. By contrast, increases in the minimum wage improved children's HAZ in Latin America, and among children of parents working in a skilled sector. Our findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that increases in the minimum wage unconditionally improve child health in lower-income countries, and highlight heterogeneity in the impact of minimum wages around the globe. Future work should involve country and occupation specific studies which can explore not only different outcomes such as infant mortality rates, but also explore the role of parental investments in shaping these effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bank supervision using the Threshold-Minimum Dominating Set
Gogas, Periklis; Papadimitriou, Theophilos; Matthaiou, Maria-Artemis
2016-06-01
An optimized, healthy and stable banking system resilient to financial crises is a prerequisite for sustainable growth. Minimization of (a) the associated systemic risk and (b) the propagation of contagion in the case of a banking crisis are necessary conditions to achieve this goal. Central Banks are in charge of this significant undertaking via a close and detailed monitoring of the banking network. In this paper, we propose the use of an auxiliary supervision/monitoring system that is both efficient with respect to the required resources and can promptly identify a set of banks that are in distress so that immediate and appropriate action can be taken by the supervising authority. We use the network defined by the interrelations between banking institutions employing tools from Complex Networks theory for an efficient management of the entire banking network. In doing so, we introduce the Threshold Minimum Dominating Set (T-MDS). The T-MDS is used to identify the smallest and most efficient subset of banks that can be used as (a) sensors of distress of a manifesting banking crisis and (b) provide a path of possible contagion. We propose the use of this method as a supplementary monitoring tool in the arsenal of a Central Bank. Our dataset includes the 122 largest American banks in terms of their interbank loans. The empirical results show that when the T-MDS methodology is applied, we can have an efficient supervision of the whole banking network, by monitoring just a subset of 47 banks.
General Exact Solution to the Problem of the Probability Density for Sums of Random Variables
Tribelsky, Michael I.
2002-07-01
The exact explicit expression for the probability density pN(x) for a sum of N random, arbitrary correlated summands is obtained. The expression is valid for any number N and any distribution of the random summands. Most attention is paid to application of the developed approach to the case of independent and identically distributed summands. The obtained results reproduce all known exact solutions valid for the, so called, stable distributions of the summands. It is also shown that if the distribution is not stable, the profile of pN(x) may be divided into three parts, namely a core (small x), a tail (large x), and a crossover from the core to the tail (moderate x). The quantitative description of all three parts as well as that for the entire profile is obtained. A number of particular examples are considered in detail.
77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards
2012-07-24
... NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Part 543 addresses minimum internal control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming operations. The regulations require tribes to establish controls and implement...
Consistent errors in first strand cDNA due to random hexamer mispriming.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas P van Gurp
Full Text Available Priming of random hexamers in cDNA synthesis is known to show sequence bias, but in addition it has been suggested recently that mismatches in random hexamer priming could be a cause of mismatches between the original RNA fragment and observed sequence reads. To explore random hexamer mispriming as a potential source of these errors, we analyzed two independently generated RNA-seq datasets of synthetic ERCC spikes for which the reference is known. First strand cDNA synthesized by random hexamer priming on RNA showed consistent position and nucleotide-specific mismatch errors in the first seven nucleotides. The mismatch errors found in both datasets are consistent in distribution and thermodynamically stable mismatches are more common. This strongly indicates that RNA-DNA mispriming of specific random hexamers causes these errors. Due to their consistency and specificity, mispriming errors can have profound implications for downstream applications if not dealt with properly.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carlsson, Axel C; Ruge, Toralph; Kjøller, Erik
2018-01-01
BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the associations and predictive powers between the soluble receptors for tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (TNFR1 and TNFR2) and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with stable coronary heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: CLARICOR (Effect of Clarithromycin on Mortality...... and Morbidity in Patients With Ischemic Heart Disease) is a randomized clinical trial comparing clarithromycin with placebo in patients with stable coronary heart disease. The primary outcome was a composite of nonfatal acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina pectoris, cerebrovascular disease, and all...... factors improved prediction only modestly (concentrations of circulating TNFR1 and TNFR2 were associated with increased risks of cardiovascular events and mortality in patients with stable coronary heart disease. Yet, the utility of measuring TNFR1 and TNFR2 to improve risk...
Minimum-error discrimination of entangled quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, Y.; Coish, N.; Kaltenbaek, R.; Hamel, D. R.; Resch, K. J.; Croke, S.
2010-01-01
Strategies to optimally discriminate between quantum states are critical in quantum technologies. We present an experimental demonstration of minimum-error discrimination between entangled states, encoded in the polarization of pairs of photons. Although the optimal measurement involves projection onto entangled states, we use a result of J. Walgate et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4972 (2000)] to design an optical implementation employing only local polarization measurements and feed-forward, which performs at the Helstrom bound. Our scheme can achieve perfect discrimination of orthogonal states and minimum-error discrimination of nonorthogonal states. Our experimental results show a definite advantage over schemes not using feed-forward.
UPGMA and the normalized equidistant minimum evolution problem
Moulton, Vincent; Spillner, Andreas; Wu, Taoyang
2017-01-01
UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) is a widely used clustering method. Here we show that UPGMA is a greedy heuristic for the normalized equidistant minimum evolution (NEME) problem, that is, finding a rooted tree that minimizes the minimum evolution score relative to the dissimilarity matrix among all rooted trees with the same leaf-set in which all leaves have the same distance to the root. We prove that the NEME problem is NP-hard. In addition, we present some heurist...
Pay equity, minimum wage and equality at work
Rubery, Jill
2003-01-01
Reviews the underlying causes of pay discrimination embedded within the organization of the labour market and structures of pay and reward. Discusses the need to focus on pay equity as part of a general strategy of promoting equity and decent work and examines the case for using minimum wage policies in comparison to more targeted equal pay policies to reduce gender pay equity. Identifies potential obstacles to or support for such policies and describes experiences of the use of minimum wages...
A theory of compliance with minimum wage legislation
Jellal, Mohamed
2012-01-01
In this paper, we introduce firm heterogeneity in the context of a model of non-compliance with minimum wage legislation. The introduction of heterogeneity in the ease with which firms can be monitored for non compliance allows us to show that non-compliance will persist in sectors which are relatively difficult to monitor, despite the government implementing non stochastic monitoring. Moreover, we show that the incentive not to comply is an increasing function of the level of the minimum wag...
The minimum yield in channeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uguzzoni, A.; Gaertner, K.; Lulli, G.; Andersen, J.U.
2000-01-01
A first estimate of the minimum yield was obtained from Lindhard's theory, with the assumption of a statistical equilibrium in the transverse phase-space of channeled particles guided by a continuum axial potential. However, computer simulations have shown that this estimate should be corrected by a fairly large factor, C (approximately equal to 2.5), called the Barrett factor. We have shown earlier that the concept of a statistical equilibrium can be applied to understand this result, with the introduction of a constraint in phase-space due to planar channeling of axially channeled particles. Here we present an extended test of these ideas on the basis of computer simulation of the trajectories of 2 MeV α particles in Si. In particular, the gradual trend towards a full statistical equilibrium is studied. We also discuss the introduction of this modification of standard channeling theory into descriptions of the multiple scattering of channeled particles (dechanneling) by a master equation and show that the calculated minimum yields are in very good agreement with the results of a full computer simulation
The Effects of Minimum Wage Throughout the Wage Distribution in Indonesia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sri Gusvina Dewi
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The global financial crisis in 2007 followed by Indonesia’s largest labor demonstration in 2013 encouraged turmoils on Indonesia labor market. This paper examines the effect of the minimum wage on wage distribution in 2007 and 2014 and how the minimum wage increases in 2014 affected the distribution of wage differences between 2007 and 2014. This study employs recentered influence function (RIF regression method to estimate the wage function by using unconditional quantile regression. Furthermore, to measure the effect of the minimum wage increase in 2014 on the distribution of wage differences, it uses the Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition method. Using balanced panel data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS, it found that the minimum wage mitigates wage disparity in 2007 and 2014. The minimum wage policy in 2014 leads to an increase in the wage difference between 2007 and 2014, with the largest wage difference being in the middle distribution.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v7i2.6125
Non-symmetric bi-stable flow around the Ahmed body
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meile, W.; Ladinek, T.; Brenn, G.; Reppenhagen, A.; Fuchs, A.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The non-symmetric bi-stable flow around the Ahmed body is investigated experimentally. • Bi-stability, described for symmetric flow by Cadot and co-workers, was found in nonsymmetric flow also. • The flow field randomly switches between two states. • The flow is subject to a spanwise instability identified by Cadot and co-workers for symmetric flow. • Aerodynamic forces fluctuate strongly due to the bi-stability. - Abstract: The flow around the Ahmed body at varying Reynolds numbers under yawing conditions is investigated experimentally. The body geometry belongs to a regime subject to spanwise flow instability identified in symmetric flow by Cadot and co-workers (Grandemange et al., 2013b). Our experiments cover the two slant angles 25° and 35° and Reynolds numbers up to 2.784 × 10"6. Special emphasis lies on the aerodynamics under side wind influence. For the 35° slant angle, forces and moments change significantly with the yawing angle in the range 10° ≤ |β| ≤ 15°. The lift and the pitching moment exhibit strong fluctuations due to bi-stable flow around a critical angle β of ±12.5°, where the pitching moment changes sign. Time series of the forces and moments are studied and explained by PIV measurements in the flow field near the rear of the body.
Decision trees with minimum average depth for sorting eight elements
AbouEisha, Hassan M.; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail
2015-01-01
We prove that the minimum average depth of a decision tree for sorting 8 pairwise different elements is equal to 620160/8!. We show also that each decision tree for sorting 8 elements, which has minimum average depth (the number of such trees
Nursing Minimum Data Set Based on EHR Archetypes Approach.
Spigolon, Dandara N; Moro, Cláudia M C
2012-01-01
The establishment of a Nursing Minimum Data Set (NMDS) can facilitate the use of health information systems. The adoption of these sets and represent them based on archetypes are a way of developing and support health systems. The objective of this paper is to describe the definition of a minimum data set for nursing in endometriosis represent with archetypes. The study was divided into two steps: Defining the Nursing Minimum Data Set to endometriosis, and Development archetypes related to the NMDS. The nursing data set to endometriosis was represented in the form of archetype, using the whole perception of the evaluation item, organs and senses. This form of representation is an important tool for semantic interoperability and knowledge representation for health information systems.
Sinikumpu, J-J; Keränen, J; Haltia, A-M; Serlo, W; Merikanto, J
2013-01-01
Operative treatment is often indicated in unstable pediatric diaphyseal forearm fractures. Recently minimally invasive reduction and elastic stable intramedullary nailing have been of increasing interest, instead of open reduction and internal fixation with plates. There are several disadvantages of metallic intramedullary implants, such as soft-tissue irritation and a risk of disturbing later imaging. Thus, they are generally removed in later operations. We aimed to develop a new technique to stabilize pediatric forearm fractures by the bioabsorbable intramedullary nailing. We developed a new, two-stage mini-invasive surgical technique to stabilize the unstable diaphyseal fractures in children. The procedure is bioabsorbable elastic stable intramedullary nailing. Ultra-high-strength bioabsorbable intramedullary nails of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) were manufactured for our purpose. The material has been widely proven to be biocompatible and stable enough for fracture treatment as screws and pins. We have used the new technique in the unstable both-bone diaphyseal forearm fractures in children between the ages of 5 and 15 years. We report the technique and our clinical experience in the series of those three cases that have been followed up for at least 12 months. The present series has been randomized for the procedure instead for titanium elastic stable intramedullary nailing, and the series represents a part of ongoing randomized trial. The reported cases operated by the new technique referred good union in the fractured bones and acceptable alignment in the follow-up. Removal of the implants was not required. No troubles with the procedure or implant per se were noticed, indicating good feasibility. One high-energy refracture occurred half year after the primary trauma. Traditional titanium implants were used to control the refracture. We report our preliminary experience of a new surgical mini-invasive procedure to stabilize the unstable pediatric forearm shaft
Recent Immigrants as Labor Market Arbitrageurs: Evidence from the Minimum Wage*
Cadena, Brian C.
2014-01-01
This paper investigates the local labor supply effects of changes to the minimum wage by examining the response of low-skilled immigrants’ location decisions. Canonical models emphasize the importance of labor mobility when evaluating the employment effects of the minimum wage; yet few studies address this outcome directly. Low-skilled immigrant populations shift toward labor markets with stagnant minimum wages, and this result is robust to a number of alternative interpretations. This mobility provides behavior-based evidence in favor of a non-trivial negative employment effect of the minimum wage. Further, it reduces the estimated demand elasticity using teens; employment losses among native teens are substantially larger in states that have historically attracted few immigrant residents. PMID:24999288
Recent Immigrants as Labor Market Arbitrageurs: Evidence from the Minimum Wage.
Cadena, Brian C
2014-03-01
This paper investigates the local labor supply effects of changes to the minimum wage by examining the response of low-skilled immigrants' location decisions. Canonical models emphasize the importance of labor mobility when evaluating the employment effects of the minimum wage; yet few studies address this outcome directly. Low-skilled immigrant populations shift toward labor markets with stagnant minimum wages, and this result is robust to a number of alternative interpretations. This mobility provides behavior-based evidence in favor of a non-trivial negative employment effect of the minimum wage. Further, it reduces the estimated demand elasticity using teens; employment losses among native teens are substantially larger in states that have historically attracted few immigrant residents.
EFFECTS DISTRIBUTIVE THE WAGE MINIMUM IN MARKET OF LABOR CEARENSE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joyciane Coelho Vasconcelos
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This paper analyses the contribution of the minimum wage (MW for the devolution of income from the labor market at Ceará in the period 2002-2012. This research was based on National Sample Survey (PNAD of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE.It was used the simulation methodology proposed in DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux (1996 from the estimated counterfactual Kernel density functions. The simulations were performed for females and males. The results revealed by the decompositions than the minimum wage, the degree of formalization and the personal attributes had impacts not concentrators to workers female and male. However, for women, the de-concentrating effect of the minimum wage is more intense in the sample compared to men. In summary, the simulations indicate the importance of the minimum wage to reduce the dispersion of labor income in recent years.
USING GENETIC ALGORTIHM TO SOLVE STEINER MINIMUM SPANNING TREE PROBLEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Öznur İŞÇİ
2006-03-01
Full Text Available Genetic algorithms (GA are a stochastic research methods, and they produce solutions that are close to optimum or near optimum. In addition to GA's successful application to traveling salesman problem, square designation, allocation, workshop table, preparation of lesson/examination schedules, planning of communication networks, assembling line balanced, minimum spanning tree type many combinatorial optimization problems it would be applicable to make the best comparison in optimization. In this study a Java program is developed to solve Steiner minimum spanning tree problem by genetic algorithm and its performance is examined. According to the tests carried out on the problems that were given before in the literature, results that are close to optimum are obtained in by GA approach that is recommended in this study. For the predetermined points in the study, length and gain are calculated for Steiner minimum spanning tree problem and minimum spanning tree problem.
Optimal random search for a single hidden target.
Snider, Joseph
2011-01-01
A single target is hidden at a location chosen from a predetermined probability distribution. Then, a searcher must find a second probability distribution from which random search points are sampled such that the target is found in the minimum number of trials. Here it will be shown that if the searcher must get very close to the target to find it, then the best search distribution is proportional to the square root of the target distribution regardless of dimension. For a Gaussian target distribution, the optimum search distribution is approximately a Gaussian with a standard deviation that varies inversely with how close the searcher must be to the target to find it. For a network where the searcher randomly samples nodes and looks for the fixed target along edges, the optimum is either to sample a node with probability proportional to the square root of the out-degree plus 1 or not to do so at all.
On the Fractional Poisson Process and the Discretized Stable Subordinator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rudolf Gorenflo
2015-08-01
Full Text Available We consider the renewal counting number process N = N(t as a forward march over the non-negative integers with independent identically distributed waiting times. We embed the values of the counting numbers N in a “pseudo-spatial” non-negative half-line x ≥ 0 and observe that for physical time likewise we have t ≥ 0. Thus we apply the Laplace transform with respect to both variables x and t. Applying then a modification of the Montroll-Weiss-Cox formalism of continuous time random walk we obtain the essential characteristics of a renewal process in the transform domain and, if we are lucky, also in the physical domain. The process t = t(N of accumulation of waiting times is inverse to the counting number process, in honour of the Danish mathematician and telecommunication engineer A.K. Erlang we call it the Erlang process. It yields the probability of exactly n renewal events in the interval (0; t]. We apply our Laplace-Laplace formalism to the fractional Poisson process whose waiting times are of Mittag-Leffler type and to a renewal process whose waiting times are of Wright type. The process of Mittag-Leffler type includes as a limiting case the classical Poisson process, the process of Wright type represents the discretized stable subordinator and a re-scaled version of it was used in our method of parametric subordination of time-space fractional diffusion processes. Properly rescaling the counting number process N(t and the Erlang process t(N yields as diffusion limits the inverse stable and the stable subordinator, respectively.
29 CFR 510.24 - Governmental entities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Governmental entities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. (a) The Commonwealth government of Puerto Rico has been determined to...
Random and non-random mating populations: Evolutionary dynamics in meiotic drive.
Sarkar, Bijan
2016-01-01
Game theoretic tools are utilized to analyze a one-locus continuous selection model of sex-specific meiotic drive by considering nonequivalence of the viabilities of reciprocal heterozygotes that might be noticed at an imprinted locus. The model draws attention to the role of viability selections of different types to examine the stable nature of polymorphic equilibrium. A bridge between population genetics and evolutionary game theory has been built up by applying the concept of the Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection. In addition to pointing out the influences of male and female segregation ratios on selection, configuration structure reveals some noted results, e.g., Hardy-Weinberg frequencies hold in replicator dynamics, occurrence of faster evolution at the maximized variance fitness, existence of mixed Evolutionarily Stable Strategy (ESS) in asymmetric games, the tending evolution to follow not only a 1:1 sex ratio but also a 1:1 different alleles ratio at particular gene locus. Through construction of replicator dynamics in the group selection framework, our selection model introduces a redefining bases of game theory to incorporate non-random mating where a mating parameter associated with population structure is dependent on the social structure. Also, the model exposes the fact that the number of polymorphic equilibria will depend on the algebraic expression of population structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
On the road again: traffic fatalities and auto insurance minimums
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pavel A. Yakovlev
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Prior research on policy-induced moral hazard effects in the auto insurance market has focused on the impact of compulsory insurance, no-fault liability, and tort liability laws on traffic fatalities. In contrast, this paper examines the moral hazard effect of a previously overlooked policy variable: minimum auto insurance coverage. We hypothesize that state-mandated auto insurance minimums may “over-insure” some drivers, lowering their incentives to drive carefully. Using a longitudinal panel of American states from 1982 to 2006, we find that policy-induced increases in auto insurance minimums are associated with higher traffic fatality rates, ceteris paribus.
What's So Peculiar about the Cycle 23/24 Solar Minimum?
Sheeley, N. R., Jr.
2010-06-01
Traditionally, solar physicists become anxious around solar minimum, as they await the high-latitude sunspot groups of the new cycle. Now, we are in an extended sunspot minimum with conditions not seen in recent memory, and interest in the sunspot cycle has increased again. In this paper, I will describe some of the characteristics of the current solar minimum, including its great depth, its extended duration, its weak polar magnetic fields, and its small amount of open flux. Flux transport simulations suggest that these characteristics are a consequence of temporal variations of the Sun's large-scale meridional circulation.
Migliorati, G.
2013-05-30
In this work we consider the random discrete L^2 projection on polynomial spaces (hereafter RDP) for the approximation of scalar quantities of interest (QOIs) related to the solution of a partial differential equation model with random input parameters. In the RDP technique the QOI is first computed for independent samples of the random input parameters, as in a standard Monte Carlo approach, and then the QOI is approximated by a multivariate polynomial function of the input parameters using a discrete least squares approach. We consider several examples including the Darcy equations with random permeability, the linear elasticity equations with random elastic coefficient, and the Navier--Stokes equations in random geometries and with random fluid viscosity. We show that the RDP technique is well suited to QOIs that depend smoothly on a moderate number of random parameters. Our numerical tests confirm the theoretical findings in [G. Migliorati, F. Nobile, E. von Schwerin, and R. Tempone, Analysis of the Discrete $L^2$ Projection on Polynomial Spaces with Random Evaluations, MOX report 46-2011, Politecnico di Milano, Milano, Italy, submitted], which have shown that, in the case of a single uniformly distributed random parameter, the RDP technique is stable and optimally convergent if the number of sampling points is proportional to the square of the dimension of the polynomial space. Here optimality means that the weighted $L^2$ norm of the RDP error is bounded from above by the best $L^\\\\infty$ error achievable in the given polynomial space, up to logarithmic factors. In the case of several random input parameters, the numerical evidence indicates that the condition on quadratic growth of the number of sampling points could be relaxed to a linear growth and still achieve stable and optimal convergence. This makes the RDP technique very promising for moderately high dimensional uncertainty quantification.
A derivation of the stable cavitation threshold accounting for bubble-bubble interactions.
Guédra, Matthieu; Cornu, Corentin; Inserra, Claude
2017-09-01
The subharmonic emission of sound coming from the nonlinear response of a bubble population is the most used indicator for stable cavitation. When driven at twice their resonance frequency, bubbles can exhibit subharmonic spherical oscillations if the acoustic pressure amplitude exceeds a threshold value. Although various theoretical derivations exist for the subharmonic emission by free or coated bubbles, they all rest on the single bubble model. In this paper, we propose an analytical expression of the subharmonic threshold for interacting bubbles in a homogeneous, monodisperse cloud. This theory predicts a shift of the subharmonic resonance frequency and a decrease of the corresponding pressure threshold due to the interactions. For a given sonication frequency, these results show that an optimal value of the interaction strength (i.e. the number density of bubbles) can be found for which the subharmonic threshold is minimum, which is consistent with recently published experiments conducted on ultrasound contrast agents. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Preference of small molecules for local minimum conformations when binding to proteins.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qi Wang
2007-09-01
Full Text Available It is well known that small molecules (ligands do not necessarily adopt their lowest potential energy conformations when binding to proteins. Analyses of protein-bound ligand crystal structures have reportedly shown that many of them do not even adopt the conformations at local minima of their potential energy surfaces (local minimum conformations. The results of these analyses raise a concern regarding the validity of virtual screening methods that use ligands in local minimum conformations. Here we report a normal-mode-analysis (NMA study of 100 crystal structures of protein-bound ligands. Our data show that the energy minimization of a ligand alone does not automatically stop at a local minimum conformation if the minimum of the potential energy surface is shallow, thus leading to the folding of the ligand. Furthermore, our data show that all 100 ligand conformations in their protein-bound ligand crystal structures are nearly identical to their local minimum conformations obtained from NMA-monitored energy minimization, suggesting that ligands prefer to adopt local minimum conformations when binding to proteins. These results both support virtual screening methods that use ligands in local minimum conformations and caution about possible adverse effect of excessive energy minimization when generating a database of ligand conformations for virtual screening.
Minimum-B mirrors plus EBT principles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshikawa, S.
1983-01-01
Electrons are heated at the minimum B location(s) created by the multipole field and the toroidal field. Resulting hot electrons can assist plasma confinement by (1) providing mirror, (2) creating azimuthally symmetric toroidal confinement, or (3) creating modified bumpy torus
Minimum Wage and Community College Attendance: How Economic Circumstances Affect Educational Choices
Williams, Betsy
2013-01-01
How do changes in minimum wages affect community college enrollment and employment? In particular, among adults without associate's or bachelor's degrees who may earn near the minimum wage, do endowment effects of a higher minimum wage encourage school attendance? Among adults without associate's or bachelor's degrees who may earn near the minimum…
Predicting non-linear dynamics by stable local learning in a recurrent spiking neural network.
Gilra, Aditya; Gerstner, Wulfram
2017-11-27
The brain needs to predict how the body reacts to motor commands, but how a network of spiking neurons can learn non-linear body dynamics using local, online and stable learning rules is unclear. Here, we present a supervised learning scheme for the feedforward and recurrent connections in a network of heterogeneous spiking neurons. The error in the output is fed back through fixed random connections with a negative gain, causing the network to follow the desired dynamics. The rule for Feedback-based Online Local Learning Of Weights (FOLLOW) is local in the sense that weight changes depend on the presynaptic activity and the error signal projected onto the postsynaptic neuron. We provide examples of learning linear, non-linear and chaotic dynamics, as well as the dynamics of a two-link arm. Under reasonable approximations, we show, using the Lyapunov method, that FOLLOW learning is uniformly stable, with the error going to zero asymptotically.
22 CFR 151.4 - Minimum limits for motor vehicle insurance.
2010-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum limits for motor vehicle insurance. 151.4 Section 151.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE DIPLOMATIC PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES COMPULSORY LIABILITY INSURANCE FOR DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS AND PERSONNEL § 151.4 Minimum limits for motor vehicle...
Reference respiratory waveforms by minimum jerk model analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anetai, Yusuke, E-mail: anetai@radonc.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Sumida, Iori; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yagi, Masashi; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Yamadaoka 2-2, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ota, Seiichi [Department of Medical Technology, Osaka University Hospital, Yamadaoka 2-15, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)
2015-09-15
Purpose: CyberKnife{sup ®} robotic surgery system has the ability to deliver radiation to a tumor subject to respiratory movements using Synchrony{sup ®} mode with less than 2 mm tracking accuracy. However, rapid and rough motion tracking causes mechanical tracking errors and puts mechanical stress on the robotic joint, leading to unexpected radiation delivery errors. During clinical treatment, patient respiratory motions are much more complicated, suggesting the need for patient-specific modeling of respiratory motion. The purpose of this study was to propose a novel method that provides a reference respiratory wave to enable smooth tracking for each patient. Methods: The minimum jerk model, which mathematically derives smoothness by means of jerk, or the third derivative of position and the derivative of acceleration with respect to time that is proportional to the time rate of force changed was introduced to model a patient-specific respiratory motion wave to provide smooth motion tracking using CyberKnife{sup ®}. To verify that patient-specific minimum jerk respiratory waves were being tracked smoothly by Synchrony{sup ®} mode, a tracking laser projection from CyberKnife{sup ®} was optically analyzed every 0.1 s using a webcam and a calibrated grid on a motion phantom whose motion was in accordance with three pattern waves (cosine, typical free-breathing, and minimum jerk theoretical wave models) for the clinically relevant superior–inferior directions from six volunteers assessed on the same node of the same isocentric plan. Results: Tracking discrepancy from the center of the grid to the beam projection was evaluated. The minimum jerk theoretical wave reduced the maximum-peak amplitude of radial tracking discrepancy compared with that of the waveforms modeled by cosine and typical free-breathing model by 22% and 35%, respectively, and provided smooth tracking for radial direction. Motion tracking constancy as indicated by radial tracking discrepancy
Reference respiratory waveforms by minimum jerk model analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anetai, Yusuke; Sumida, Iori; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yagi, Masashi; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Ota, Seiichi
2015-01-01
Purpose: CyberKnife"® robotic surgery system has the ability to deliver radiation to a tumor subject to respiratory movements using Synchrony"® mode with less than 2 mm tracking accuracy. However, rapid and rough motion tracking causes mechanical tracking errors and puts mechanical stress on the robotic joint, leading to unexpected radiation delivery errors. During clinical treatment, patient respiratory motions are much more complicated, suggesting the need for patient-specific modeling of respiratory motion. The purpose of this study was to propose a novel method that provides a reference respiratory wave to enable smooth tracking for each patient. Methods: The minimum jerk model, which mathematically derives smoothness by means of jerk, or the third derivative of position and the derivative of acceleration with respect to time that is proportional to the time rate of force changed was introduced to model a patient-specific respiratory motion wave to provide smooth motion tracking using CyberKnife"®. To verify that patient-specific minimum jerk respiratory waves were being tracked smoothly by Synchrony"® mode, a tracking laser projection from CyberKnife"® was optically analyzed every 0.1 s using a webcam and a calibrated grid on a motion phantom whose motion was in accordance with three pattern waves (cosine, typical free-breathing, and minimum jerk theoretical wave models) for the clinically relevant superior–inferior directions from six volunteers assessed on the same node of the same isocentric plan. Results: Tracking discrepancy from the center of the grid to the beam projection was evaluated. The minimum jerk theoretical wave reduced the maximum-peak amplitude of radial tracking discrepancy compared with that of the waveforms modeled by cosine and typical free-breathing model by 22% and 35%, respectively, and provided smooth tracking for radial direction. Motion tracking constancy as indicated by radial tracking discrepancy affected by respiratory
Mid-infrared optical parametric oscillator pumped by an amplified random fiber laser
Shang, Yaping; Shen, Meili; Wang, Peng; Li, Xiao; Xu, Xiaojun
2017-01-01
Recently, the concept of random fiber lasers has attracted a great deal of attention for its feature to generate incoherent light without a traditional laser resonator, which is free of mode competition and insure the stationary narrow-band continuous modeless spectrum. In this Letter, we reported the first, to the best of our knowledge, optical parametric oscillator (OPO) pumped by an amplified 1070 nm random fiber laser (RFL), in order to generate stationary mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser. The experiment realized a watt-level laser output in the mid-IR range and operated relatively stable. The use of the RFL seed source allowed us to take advantage of its respective stable time-domain characteristics. The beam profile, spectrum and time-domain properties of the signal light were measured to analyze the process of frequency down-conversion process under this new pumping condition. The results suggested that the near-infrared (near-IR) signal light `inherited' good beam performances from the pump light. Those would be benefit for further develop about optical parametric process based on different pumping circumstances.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samios, N.P.
1993-01-01
I have been asked to review the subject of stable particles, essentially the particles that eventually comprised the meson and baryon octets. with a few more additions -- with an emphasis on the contributions made by experiments utilizing the bubble chamber technique. In this activity, much work had been done by the photographic emulsion technique and cloud chambers-exposed to cosmic rays as well as accelerator based beams. In fact, many if not most of the stable particles were found by these latter two techniques, however, the forte of the bubble chamber (coupled with the newer and more powerful accelerators) was to verify, and reinforce with large statistics, the existence of these states, to find some of the more difficult ones, mainly neutrals and further to elucidate their properties, i.e., spin, parity, lifetimes, decay parameters, etc
29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the schedule...
On the stochastic quantization of gauge theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jona-Lasinio, G.; Parrinello, C.
1988-11-03
The non-gradient stochastic quantization scheme for gauge theories proposed by Zwanziger is analyzed in the semiclassical limit. Using ideas from the theory of small random perturbations of dynamical systems we derive a lower bound for the equilibrium distribution in a neighbourhood of a stable critical point of the drift. In this approach the calculation of the equilibrium distribution is reduced to the problem of finding a minimum for the large fluctuation functional associated to the Langevin equation. Our estimate follows from a simple upper bound for this minimum; in addition to the Yang-Mills action a gauge-fixing term which tends to suppress Gribov copies appears.
Comments on the 'minimum flux corona' concept
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antiochos, S.K.; Underwood, J.H.
1978-01-01
Hearn's (1975) models of the energy balance and mass loss of stellar coronae, based on a 'minimum flux corona' concept, are critically examined. First, it is shown that the neglect of the relevant length scales for coronal temperature variation leads to an inconsistent computation of the total energy flux F. The stability arguments upon which the minimum flux concept is based are shown to be fallacious. Errors in the computation of the stellar wind contribution to the energy budget are identified. Finally we criticize Hearn's (1977) suggestion that the model, with a value of the thermal conductivity modified by the magnetic field, can explain the difference between solar coronal holes and quiet coronal regions. (orig.) 891 WL [de
Minimum wakefield achievable by waveguide damped cavity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, X.E.; Kroll, N.M.
1995-01-01
The authors use an equivalent circuit to model a waveguide damped cavity. Both exponentially damped and persistent (decay t -3/2 ) components of the wakefield are derived from this model. The result shows that for a cavity with resonant frequency a fixed interval above waveguide cutoff, the persistent wakefield amplitude is inversely proportional to the external Q value of the damped mode. The competition of the two terms results in an optimal Q value, which gives a minimum wakefield as a function of the distance behind the source particle. The minimum wakefield increases when the resonant frequency approaches the waveguide cutoff. The results agree very well with computer simulation on a real cavity-waveguide system
UBV photometry of dwarf novae in the brightness minimum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voloshina, I.B.; Lyutyj, V.M.
1983-01-01
Photoelectric one-night observations of the dwarf novae SS Cyg at minimum light evidence for the existence of eclipses in this system at the moments of conjuctions. The orbital inclination of the system is estimated to be i approximately 70 deg C. The components of this system are low-massive (white and red dwarf stars) and low-luminous objects. As the optical luminosity of the dwarf novae at the minimum light is dependent on the accretion disk and hot spot at its periphery, where the substance jet run out from a nondegenerated component falls, eclipses should be associated with the disk and hot spot. The white dwarf star contributes greatly to the luminosity at the minimum light, but its eclipses are possible only at i approximately 90 deg
CONSEQUENCES OF INCREASING THE MINIMUM WAGE IN UKRAINE TWICE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Volodymyr Boreiko
2017-03-01
Full Text Available In the article the views of scientists on the role of incomes of the poorest people in providing of economic development of the country and consequences of increasing the minimum wage in Ukraine twice are investigated; the dynamics of change in Ukraine minimum wage during a decade are analyzed and decline in living standards of population during this period is shown; measures, which should be taken for non-inflationary growth in incomes of the population, are grounded; it is disclosed that such measures should include unification of income tax for individuals and single social contribution and restoration of a progressive taxation of incomes of the working population. Key words: minimum wage, household income, the poorest part of the population, the economy of country, tax system.
Minimum Time Path Planning for Robotic Manipulator in Drilling/ Spot Welding Tasks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiang Zhang
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a minimum time path planning strategy is proposed for multi points manufacturing problems in drilling/spot welding tasks. By optimizing the travelling schedule of the set points and the detailed transfer path between points, the minimum time manufacturing task is realized under fully utilizing the dynamic performance of robotic manipulator. According to the start-stop movement in drilling/spot welding task, the path planning problem can be converted into a traveling salesman problem (TSP and a series of point to point minimum time transfer path planning problems. Cubic Hermite interpolation polynomial is used to parameterize the transfer path and then the path parameters are optimized to obtain minimum point to point transfer time. A new TSP with minimum time index is constructed by using point-point transfer time as the TSP parameter. The classical genetic algorithm (GA is applied to obtain the optimal travelling schedule. Several minimum time drilling tasks of a 3-DOF robotic manipulator are used as examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Influence of horse stable environment on human airways
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pringle John
2009-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many people spend considerable amount of time each day in equine stable environments either as employees in the care and training of horses or in leisure activity. However, there are few studies available on how the stable environment affects human airways. This study examined in one horse stable qualitative differences in indoor air during winter and late summer conditions and assessed whether air quality was associated with clinically detectable respiratory signs or alterations to selected biomarkers of inflammation and lung function in stable personnel. Methods The horse stable environment and stable-workers (n = 13 in one stable were investigated three times; first in the winter, second in the interjacent late summer and the third time in the following winter stabling period. The stable measurements included levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, total and respirable dust, airborne horse allergen, microorganisms, endotoxin and glucan. The stable-workers completed a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, underwent nasal lavage with subsequent analysis of inflammation markers, and performed repeated measurements of pulmonary function. Results Measurements in the horse stable showed low organic dust levels and high horse allergen levels. Increased viable level of fungi in the air indicated a growing source in the stable. Air particle load as well as 1,3-β-glucan was higher at the two winter time-points, whereas endotoxin levels were higher at the summer time-point. Two stable-workers showed signs of bronchial obstruction with increased PEF-variability, increased inflammation biomarkers relating to reported allergy, cold or smoking and reported partly work-related symptoms. Furthermore, two other stable-workers reported work-related airway symptoms, of which one had doctor's diagnosed asthma which was well treated. Conclusion Biomarkers involved in the development of airway diseases have been studied in relation to
Influence of horse stable environment on human airways.
Elfman, Lena; Riihimäki, Miia; Pringle, John; Wålinder, Robert
2009-05-25
Many people spend considerable amount of time each day in equine stable environments either as employees in the care and training of horses or in leisure activity. However, there are few studies available on how the stable environment affects human airways. This study examined in one horse stable qualitative differences in indoor air during winter and late summer conditions and assessed whether air quality was associated with clinically detectable respiratory signs or alterations to selected biomarkers of inflammation and lung function in stable personnel. The horse stable environment and stable-workers (n = 13) in one stable were investigated three times; first in the winter, second in the interjacent late summer and the third time in the following winter stabling period. The stable measurements included levels of ammonia, hydrogen sulphide, total and respirable dust, airborne horse allergen, microorganisms, endotoxin and glucan. The stable-workers completed a questionnaire on respiratory symptoms, underwent nasal lavage with subsequent analysis of inflammation markers, and performed repeated measurements of pulmonary function. Measurements in the horse stable showed low organic dust levels and high horse allergen levels. Increased viable level of fungi in the air indicated a growing source in the stable. Air particle load as well as 1,3-beta-glucan was higher at the two winter time-points, whereas endotoxin levels were higher at the summer time-point. Two stable-workers showed signs of bronchial obstruction with increased PEF-variability, increased inflammation biomarkers relating to reported allergy, cold or smoking and reported partly work-related symptoms. Furthermore, two other stable-workers reported work-related airway symptoms, of which one had doctor's diagnosed asthma which was well treated. Biomarkers involved in the development of airway diseases have been studied in relation to environmental exposure levels in equine stables. Respirable dust and 1
Minimum wage hikes and the wage growth of low-wage workers
Joanna K Swaffield
2012-01-01
This paper presents difference-in-differences estimates of the impact of the British minimum wage on the wage growth of low-wage employees. Estimates of the probability of low-wage employees receiving positive wage growth have been significantly increased by the minimum wage upratings or hikes. However, whether the actual wage growth of these workers has been significantly raised or not depends crucially on the magnitude of the minimum wage hike considered. Findings are consistent with employ...
Eigenvalue and Entropy Statistics for Products of Conjugate Random Quantum Channels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Benoît Collins
2010-06-01
Full Text Available Using the graphical calculus and integration techniques introduced by the authors, we study the statistical properties of outputs of products of random quantum channels for entangled inputs. In particular, we revisit and generalize models of relevance for the recent counterexamples to the minimum output entropy additivity problems. Our main result is a classification of regimes for which the von Neumann entropy is lower on average than the elementary bounds that can be obtained with linear algebra techniques.
Stable configurations in social networks
Bronski, Jared C.; DeVille, Lee; Ferguson, Timothy; Livesay, Michael
2018-06-01
We present and analyze a model of opinion formation on an arbitrary network whose dynamics comes from a global energy function. We study the global and local minimizers of this energy, which we call stable opinion configurations, and describe the global minimizers under certain assumptions on the friendship graph. We show a surprising result that the number of stable configurations is not necessarily monotone in the strength of connection in the social network, i.e. the model sometimes supports more stable configurations when the interpersonal connections are made stronger.
Development of Stable Isotope Technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jeong, Do Young; Kim, Cheol Jung; Han, Jae Min
2009-03-01
KAERI has obtained an advanced technology with singular originality for laser stable isotope separation. Objectives for this project are to get production technology of Tl-203 stable isotope used for medical application and are to establish the foundation of the pilot system, while we are taking aim at 'Laser Isotope Separation Technology to make resistance to the nuclear proliferation'. And we will contribute to ensuring a nuclear transparency in the world society by taking part in a practical group of NSG and being collaboration with various international groups related to stable isotope separation technology
Vempala, Santosh S
2005-01-01
Random projection is a simple geometric technique for reducing the dimensionality of a set of points in Euclidean space while preserving pairwise distances approximately. The technique plays a key role in several breakthrough developments in the field of algorithms. In other cases, it provides elegant alternative proofs. The book begins with an elementary description of the technique and its basic properties. Then it develops the method in the context of applications, which are divided into three groups. The first group consists of combinatorial optimization problems such as maxcut, graph coloring, minimum multicut, graph bandwidth and VLSI layout. Presented in this context is the theory of Euclidean embeddings of graphs. The next group is machine learning problems, specifically, learning intersections of halfspaces and learning large margin hypotheses. The projection method is further refined for the latter application. The last set consists of problems inspired by information retrieval, namely, nearest neig...
Calcium stable isotope geochemistry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gausonne, Nikolaus [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Mineralogie; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree [Strasbourg Univ. (France). LHyGeS/EOST; Heuser, Alexander [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Steinmann-Inst. fuer Geologie, Mineralogie und Palaeontologie; Wombacher, Frank [Koeln Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Geologie und Mineralogie; Dietzel, Martin [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Angewandte Geowissenschaften; Tipper, Edward [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Schiller, Martin [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Natural History Museum of Denmark
2016-08-01
This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.
Calcium stable isotope geochemistry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gausonne, Nikolaus; Schmitt, Anne-Desiree; Heuser, Alexander; Wombacher, Frank; Dietzel, Martin; Tipper, Edward; Schiller, Martin
2016-01-01
This book provides an overview of the fundamentals and reference values for Ca stable isotope research, as well as current analytical methodologies including detailed instructions for sample preparation and isotope analysis. As such, it introduces readers to the different fields of application, including low-temperature mineral precipitation and biomineralisation, Earth surface processes and global cycling, high-temperature processes and cosmochemistry, and lastly human studies and biomedical applications. The current state of the art in these major areas is discussed, and open questions and possible future directions are identified. In terms of its depth and coverage, the current work extends and complements the previous reviews of Ca stable isotope geochemistry, addressing the needs of graduate students and advanced researchers who want to familiarize themselves with Ca stable isotope research.
FM-AM Conversion Induced by Polarization Mode Dispersion in Fiber Systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiao-Dong, Huang; Sheng-Zhi, Zhao; Jian-Jun, Wang; Ming-Zhong, Li; Dang-Peng, Xu; Hong-Huan, Lin; Rui, Zhang; Ying, Deng; Xiao-Min, Zhang
2010-01-01
The conversion of the frequency modulated pulse induced from frequency modulation (FM) to amplitude modulation (AM) by the polarization mode dispersion (PMD) is theoretically and experimentally investigated. When there is no polarizer at the output end of a fiber system, the amplitude modulation depth is stable by 8%. Random amplitude modulation is observed when a polarizer is placed at the output end of the fiber system. The observed minimum and maximum modulation depths in our experiment are 5% and 80%, respectively. Simulation results show that the amplitude modulation is stable by 4% induced mainly by group velocity dispersion (GVD) when there is no polarizer, and the amplitude modulation depth displays the random variation character induced by the GVD and PMD. Lastly, a new fiber system scheme is proposed and little amplitude modulation is observed at the top of the output pulse
30 CFR 77.1706 - First aid training program; minimum requirements.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid training program; minimum... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 77.1706 First aid training program; minimum requirements. (a) All first aid training programs required under the provisions of §§ 77.1703 and 77.1704 shall...
30 CFR 77.1707 - First aid equipment; location; minimum requirements.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid equipment; location; minimum... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 77.1707 First aid equipment; location; minimum requirements. (a) Each operator of a surface coal mine shall maintain a supply of the first aid equipment set forth...
13 CFR 108.210 - Minimum capital requirements for NMVC Companies.
2010-01-01
... NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.210 Minimum capital requirements for NMVC Companies. You must have Regulatory Capital of at... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum capital requirements for...
The impact of minimum wage adjustments on Vietnamese wage inequality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John; Torm, Nina
Using Vietnamese Labour Force Survey data we analyse the impact of minimum wage changes on wage inequality. Minimum wages serve to reduce local wage inequality in the formal sectors by decreasing the gap between the median wages and the lower tail of the local wage distributions. In contrast, local...
A new neural network model for solving random interval linear programming problems.
Arjmandzadeh, Ziba; Safi, Mohammadreza; Nazemi, Alireza
2017-05-01
This paper presents a neural network model for solving random interval linear programming problems. The original problem involving random interval variable coefficients is first transformed into an equivalent convex second order cone programming problem. A neural network model is then constructed for solving the obtained convex second order cone problem. Employing Lyapunov function approach, it is also shown that the proposed neural network model is stable in the sense of Lyapunov and it is globally convergent to an exact satisfactory solution of the original problem. Several illustrative examples are solved in support of this technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The Effect of the Minimum Compensating Cash Balance on School District Investments.
Dembowski, Frederick L.
Banks are usually reimbursed for their checking account services either by a fixed service charge or by requiring a minimum or minimum-average compensating cash balance. This paper demonstrates how to determine the optimal minimum balance for a school district to maintain in its account. It is assumed that both the bank and the school district use…
Minimum number of transfer units and reboiler duty for multicomponent distillation columns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pleşu, Valentin; Bonet Ruiz, Alexandra Elena; Bonet, Jordi; Llorens, Joan; Iancu, Petrica
2013-01-01
Some guidelines to evaluate distillation columns, considering only basic thermodynamic data and principles, are provided in this paper. The method allows a first insight to the problem by simple calculations, without requiring column variables to ensure rational use of energy and low environmental impact. The separation system is approached by two complementary ways: minimum and infinite reflux flow rate. The minimum reflux provides the minimum energy requirements, and the infinite reflux provides the feasibility conditions. The difficulty of separation can be expressed in terms of number of transfer units (NTU). The applicability of the method is not mathematically limited by the number of components in the mixture. It is also applicable to reactive distillation. Several mixtures, including reactive distillation, are rigorously simulated as illustrative examples, to verify the applicability of the approach. The separation of the mixtures, performed by distillation columns, is feasible if a minimum NTU can be calculated between the distillate and bottom products. Once verified the feasibility of the separation, the maximum thermal efficiency depends only on boiling point of bottom and distillate streams. The minimum energy requirements corresponding to the reboiler can be calculated from the maximum thermal efficiency, and the variation of entropy and enthalpy of mixing between distillate and bottom streams. -- Highlights: • Feasibility analysis complemented with difficulty of separation parameters • Minimum and infinite reflux simplified models for distillation columns • Minimum number of transfer units (NTU) for packed columns at early design stages • Calculation of minimum energy distillation requirements at early design stages • Thermodynamic cycle approach and efficiency for distillation columns
SU-E-T-578: On Definition of Minimum and Maximum Dose for Target Volume
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gong, Y; Yu, J; Xiao, Y [Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose: This study aims to investigate the impact of different minimum and maximum dose definitions in radiotherapy treatment plan quality evaluation criteria by using tumor control probability (TCP) models. Methods: Dosimetric criteria used in RTOG 1308 protocol are used in the investigation. RTOG 1308 is a phase III randomized trial comparing overall survival after photon versus proton chemoradiotherapy for inoperable stage II-IIIB NSCLC. The prescription dose for planning target volume (PTV) is 70Gy. Maximum dose (Dmax) should not exceed 84Gy and minimum dose (Dmin) should not go below 59.5Gy in order for the plan to be “per protocol” (satisfactory).A mathematical model that simulates the characteristics of PTV dose volume histogram (DVH) curve with normalized volume is built. The Dmax and Dmin are noted as percentage volumes Dη% and D(100-δ)%, with η and d ranging from 0 to 3.5. The model includes three straight line sections and goes through four points: D95%= 70Gy, Dη%= 84Gy, D(100-δ)%= 59.5 Gy, and D100%= 0Gy. For each set of η and δ, the TCP value is calculated using the inhomogeneously irradiated tumor logistic model with D50= 74.5Gy and γ50=3.52. Results: TCP varies within 0.9% with η; and δ values between 0 and 1. With η and η varies between 0 and 2, TCP change was up to 2.4%. With η and δ variations from 0 to 3.5, maximum of 8.3% TCP difference is seen. Conclusion: When defined maximum and minimum volume varied more than 2%, significant TCP variations were seen. It is recommended less than 2% volume used in definition of Dmax or Dmin for target dosimetric evaluation criteria. This project was supported by NIH grants U10CA180868, U10CA180822, U24CA180803, U24CA12014 and PA CURE Grant.
SU-E-T-578: On Definition of Minimum and Maximum Dose for Target Volume
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gong, Y; Yu, J; Xiao, Y
2015-01-01
Purpose: This study aims to investigate the impact of different minimum and maximum dose definitions in radiotherapy treatment plan quality evaluation criteria by using tumor control probability (TCP) models. Methods: Dosimetric criteria used in RTOG 1308 protocol are used in the investigation. RTOG 1308 is a phase III randomized trial comparing overall survival after photon versus proton chemoradiotherapy for inoperable stage II-IIIB NSCLC. The prescription dose for planning target volume (PTV) is 70Gy. Maximum dose (Dmax) should not exceed 84Gy and minimum dose (Dmin) should not go below 59.5Gy in order for the plan to be “per protocol” (satisfactory).A mathematical model that simulates the characteristics of PTV dose volume histogram (DVH) curve with normalized volume is built. The Dmax and Dmin are noted as percentage volumes Dη% and D(100-δ)%, with η and d ranging from 0 to 3.5. The model includes three straight line sections and goes through four points: D95%= 70Gy, Dη%= 84Gy, D(100-δ)%= 59.5 Gy, and D100%= 0Gy. For each set of η and δ, the TCP value is calculated using the inhomogeneously irradiated tumor logistic model with D50= 74.5Gy and γ50=3.52. Results: TCP varies within 0.9% with η; and δ values between 0 and 1. With η and η varies between 0 and 2, TCP change was up to 2.4%. With η and δ variations from 0 to 3.5, maximum of 8.3% TCP difference is seen. Conclusion: When defined maximum and minimum volume varied more than 2%, significant TCP variations were seen. It is recommended less than 2% volume used in definition of Dmax or Dmin for target dosimetric evaluation criteria. This project was supported by NIH grants U10CA180868, U10CA180822, U24CA180803, U24CA12014 and PA CURE Grant
Rivaroxaban with or without aspirin in stable cardiovascular disease
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eikelboom, John W; Connolly, Stuart J; Bosch, Jackie
2017-01-01
BACKGROUND: We evaluated whether rivaroxaban alone or in combination with aspirin would be more effective than aspirin alone for secondary cardiovascular prevention. METHODS: In this double-blind trial, we randomly assigned 27,395 participants with stable atherosclerotic vascular disease to receive...... rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) plus aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg once daily). The primary outcome was a composite of cardiovascular death, stroke, or myocardial infarction. The study was stopped for superiority of the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group after...... a mean follow-up of 23 months. RESULTS: The primary outcome occurred in fewer patients in the rivaroxaban-plus-aspirin group than in the aspirin-alone group (379 patients [4.1%] vs. 496 patients [5.4%]; hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 0.86; P
Minimum emittance of isochronus rings for synchrotron light source
Shoji, Y
1999-01-01
Theoretically achievable minimum emittances of isochronus rings for synchrotron light source are calculated. The rings discussed in this paper consist of isochronus and achromatic bending cells, isochronus TBA (triple bend achromat) cells with negative dispersion, isochronus TBA cells with inverse bends or isochronus QBA (four bend achromat) cells. We show that the minimum emittances of these rings are roughly 2 or 3 times of those of the optimized non-isochronus rings.
Colacium Minimum (Euglenophyta, A New Epiphytic Species For Asia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wołowski Konrad
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Colacium minimum Fott & Komárek, known so far from a few localities in Central Europe (Czech Republic, is reported here for the first time from Asia (Thailand. This epiphytic species was found growing on eight taxa of loricated euglenoids. The process of surface colonization of Trachelomonas Ehrenb. and Strombomonas Deflandre taxa by C. minimum in natural populations is briefly discussed and originally documented using LM and SEM.
The generation of 68 Gbps quantum random number by measuring laser phase fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nie, You-Qi; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei; Huang, Leilei; Payne, Frank
2015-01-01
The speed of a quantum random number generator is essential for practical applications, such as high-speed quantum key distribution systems. Here, we push the speed of a quantum random number generator to 68 Gbps by operating a laser around its threshold level. To achieve the rate, not only high-speed photodetector and high sampling rate are needed but also a very stable interferometer is required. A practical interferometer with active feedback instead of common temperature control is developed to meet the requirement of stability. Phase fluctuations of the laser are measured by the interferometer with a photodetector and then digitalized to raw random numbers with a rate of 80 Gbps. The min-entropy of the raw data is evaluated by modeling the system and is used to quantify the quantum randomness of the raw data. The bias of the raw data caused by other signals, such as classical and detection noises, can be removed by Toeplitz-matrix hashing randomness extraction. The final random numbers can pass through the standard randomness tests. Our demonstration shows that high-speed quantum random number generators are ready for practical usage
A theory of solving TAP equations for Ising models with general invariant random matrices
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Opper, Manfred; Çakmak, Burak; Winther, Ole
2016-01-01
We consider the problem of solving TAP mean field equations by iteration for Ising models with coupling matrices that are drawn at random from general invariant ensembles. We develop an analysis of iterative algorithms using a dynamical functional approach that in the thermodynamic limit yields...... the iteration dependent on a Gaussian distributed field only. The TAP magnetizations are stable fixed points if a de Almeida–Thouless stability criterion is fulfilled. We illustrate our method explicitly for coupling matrices drawn from the random orthogonal ensemble....
Sodemann, Harald; Aemisegger, Franziska; Pfahl, Stephan; Bitter, Mark; Corsmeier, Ulrich; Feuerle, Thomas; Graf, Pascal; Hankers, Rolf; Hsiao, Gregor; Schulz, Helmut; Wieser, Andreas; Wernli, Heini
2017-05-01
Stable isotopes of water vapour are powerful indicators of meteorological processes on a broad range of scales, reflecting evaporation, condensation, and air mass mixing processes. With the recent advent of fast laser-based spectroscopic methods, it has become possible to measure the stable isotopic composition of atmospheric water vapour in situ at a high temporal resolution. Here we present results from such comprehensive airborne spectroscopic isotope measurements in water vapour over the western Mediterranean at a high spatial and temporal resolution. Measurements have been acquired by a customized Picarro L2130-i cavity-ring down spectrometer deployed onboard the Dornier 128 D-IBUF aircraft together with a meteorological flux measurement package during the HyMeX SOP1 (Hydrological cycle in Mediterranean Experiment special observation period 1) field campaign in Corsica, France, during September and October 2012. Taking into account memory effects of the air inlet pipe, the typical time resolution of the measurements was about 15-30 s, resulting in an average horizontal resolution of about 1-2 km. Cross-calibration of the water vapour measurements from all humidity sensors showed good agreement under most flight conditions but the most turbulent ones. In total 21 successful stable isotope flights with 59 flight hours have been performed. Our data provide quasi-climatological autumn average conditions and vertical profiles of the stable isotope parameters δD, δ18O, and d-excess during the study period. A d-excess minimum in the overall average profile is reached in the region of the boundary-layer top, possibly caused by precipitation evaporation. This minimum is bracketed by higher d-excess values near the surface caused by non-equilibrium fractionation, and a maximum above the boundary layer related to the increasing d-excess in very depleted and dry high-altitude air masses. Repeated flights along the same pattern reveal pronounced day-to-day variability
Minimum Benefits for HIV/AIDS in South African Medical Schemes ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... to the Minister of Health in respect of the extent of prescribed minimum benefits for HIV/AIDS. Medical schemes are required to provide the PMBs to their members without limits or co-payments. Keywords: Medical schemes; HIV; AIDS; benefits; prescribed minimum benefits. South African Actuarial Journal: 2003 3: 77-112 ...
7 CFR 4290.835 - Exceptions to minimum term of Financing.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exceptions to minimum term of Financing. 4290.835... (âRBICâ) PROGRAM Financing of Enterprises by RBICs Structuring Rbic Financing of Eligible Enterprises-Types of Financings § 4290.835 Exceptions to minimum term of Financing. You may make a Financing with a...
42 CFR 84.145 - Motor-operated blower test; minimum requirements.
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor-operated blower test; minimum requirements... Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.145 Motor-operated blower test; minimum requirements. (a) Motor-operated... connection between the motor and the blower shall be so constructed that the motor may be disengaged from the...
Minimum Wages and the Economic Well-Being of Single Mothers
Sabia, Joseph J.
2008-01-01
Using pooled cross-sectional data from the 1992 to 2005 March Current Population Survey (CPS), this study examines the relationship between minimum wage increases and the economic well-being of single mothers. Estimation results show that minimum wage increases were ineffective at reducing poverty among single mothers. Most working single mothers…
The Effect of Minimum Wage Rates on High School Completion
Warren, John Robert; Hamrock, Caitlin
2010-01-01
Does increasing the minimum wage reduce the high school completion rate? Previous research has suffered from (1. narrow time horizons, (2. potentially inadequate measures of states' high school completion rates, and (3. potentially inadequate measures of minimum wage rates. Overcoming each of these limitations, we analyze the impact of changes in…
29 CFR 780.620 - Minimum wage for livestock auction work.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum wage for livestock auction work. 780.620 Section 780.620 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... for Exemption § 780.620 Minimum wage for livestock auction work. The application of the exemption is...
Minimum critical masses for uranium at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tayloe, R.W. Jr.; Davis, T.C.
1994-06-01
This report presents a tabulation of safe masses and minimum critical masses for uranium (U). These minimum critical mass and safe mass tables were obtained by interpolating between the values reported in the literature to obtain values as a function of enrichment within the 1.5 percent to 100 percent range. Equivalent mass values for uranium-235 (U 235 ), uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ), and uranyl fluoride (UO 2 F 2 ) have been generated from the safe mass and minimum critical masses for uranium
Weintraub, William S.; Boden, William E.
2017-01-01
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) continues to be performed frequently for patients with stable ischemic heart disease, despite uncertain efficacy. Individual randomized trial data and meta-analyses have not demonstrated that PCI in addition to optimal medical therapy reduces the incidence of death or myocardial infarction in patients with stable disease. The Clinical Outcomes Utilizing Revascularization and Aggressive Drug Evaluation (COURAGE) Trial did not show benefit for cardiovascular outcomes or mortality but did find a modest improvement in quality of life that did not persist at 3 years. Long-term follow-up from COURAGE (up to 15 years) found no differences in mortality, consistent with other published literature. How PCI could reduce long-term mortality or prevent myocardial infarction is not clear because sites of future plaque rupture leading to myocardial infarction are unpredictable and PCI can only treat localized anatomic segments of obstructive atherosclerosis. In addition, PCI is expensive, and the value to society of PCI for stable disease has not been demonstrated. The ISCHEMIA trial will assess the role of PCI for stable ischemic heart disease using newer technology and in patients with greater ischemic burden than in COURAGE. After nearly a decade, the COURAGE trial and other studies have given us pause to critically reexamine the role of PCI for patients with stable ischemic heart disease. Until further research can show that PCI can reduce cardiovascular events in these patients, a first-line strategy of optimal medical therapy is known to be safe, effective, and noninferior to PCI, and our practice should more closely follow this strategy. PMID:27380178
49 CFR 639.27 - Minimum criteria.
2010-10-01
... dollar value to any non-financial factors that are considered by using performance-based specifications..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Cost-Effectiveness § 639.27 Minimum criteria. In making the... used where possible and appropriate: (a) Operation costs; (b) Reliability of service; (c) Maintenance...
Minimum reporting standards for clinical research on groin pain in athletes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Delahunt, Eamonn; Thorborg, Kristian; Khan, Karim M
2015-01-01
Groin pain in athletes is a priority area for sports physiotherapy and sports medicine research. Heterogeneous studies with low methodological quality dominate research related to groin pain in athletes. Low-quality studies undermine the external validity of research findings and limit the ability...... to generalise findings to the target patient population. Minimum reporting standards for research on groin pain in athletes are overdue. We propose a set of minimum reporting standards based on best available evidence to be utilised in future research on groin pain in athletes. Minimum reporting standards...... are provided in relation to: (1) study methodology, (2) study participants and injury history, (3) clinical examination, (4) clinical assessment and (5) radiology. Adherence to these minimum reporting standards will strengthen the quality and transparency of research conducted on groin pain in athletes...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Failla, Virgilio; Melillo, Francesca; Reichstein, Toke
2014-01-01
Is entrepreneurship a more stable career choice for high employment turnover individuals? We find that a transition to entrepreneurship induces a shift towards stayer behavior and identify job matching, job satisfaction and lock-in effects as main drivers. These findings have major implications...
Estimation of Minimum DNBR Using Cascaded Fuzzy Neural Networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Dong Yeong; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Na, Man Gyun
2015-01-01
This phenomenon of boiling crisis is called a departure from nucleate boiling (DNB). The DNB phenomena can influence the fuel cladding and fuel pellets. The DNB ratio (DNBR) is defined as the ratio of the expected DNB heat flux to the actual fuel rod heat flux. Since it is very important to monitor and predict the minimum DNBR in a reactor core to prevent the boiling crisis and clad melting, a number of researches have been conducted to predict DNBR values. The aim of this study is to estimate the minimum DNBR in a reactor core using the measured signals of the reactor coolant system (RCS) by applying cascaded fuzzy neural networks (CFNN) according to operating conditions. Reactor core monitoring and protection systems require minimum DNBR prediction. The CFNN can be used to optimize the minimum DNBR value through the process of adding fuzzy neural networks (FNN) repeatedly. The proposed algorithm is trained by using the data set prepared for training (development data) and verified by using another data set different (independent) from the development data. The developed CFNN models were applied to the first fuel cycle of OPR1000. The RMS errors are 0.23% and 0.12% for the positive and negative ASI, respectively
Optimal heliocentric trajectories for solar sail with minimum area
Petukhov, Vyacheslav G.
2018-05-01
The fixed-time heliocentric trajectory optimization problem is considered for planar solar sail with minimum area. Necessary optimality conditions are derived, a numerical method for solving the problem is developed, and numerical examples of optimal trajectories to Mars, Venus and Mercury are presented. The dependences of the minimum area of the solar sail from the date of departure from the Earth, the time of flight and the departing hyperbolic excess of velocity are analyzed. In particular, for the rendezvous problem (approaching a target planet with zero relative velocity) with zero departing hyperbolic excess of velocity for a flight duration of 1200 days it was found that the minimum area-to-mass ratio should be about 12 m2/kg for trajectory to Venus, 23.5 m2/kg for the trajectory to Mercury and 25 m2/kg for trajectory to Mars.
Multilevel variance estimators in MLMC and application for random obstacle problems
Chernov, Alexey
2014-01-06
The Multilevel Monte Carlo Method (MLMC) is a recently established sampling approach for uncertainty propagation for problems with random parameters. In this talk we present new convergence theorems for the multilevel variance estimators. As a result, we prove that under certain assumptions on the parameters, the variance can be estimated at essentially the same cost as the mean, and consequently as the cost required for solution of one forward problem for a fixed deterministic set of parameters. We comment on fast and stable evaluation of the estimators suitable for parallel large scale computations. The suggested approach is applied to a class of scalar random obstacle problems, a prototype of contact between deformable bodies. In particular, we are interested in rough random obstacles modelling contact between car tires and variable road surfaces. Numerical experiments support and complete the theoretical analysis.
Multilevel variance estimators in MLMC and application for random obstacle problems
Chernov, Alexey; Bierig, Claudio
2014-01-01
The Multilevel Monte Carlo Method (MLMC) is a recently established sampling approach for uncertainty propagation for problems with random parameters. In this talk we present new convergence theorems for the multilevel variance estimators. As a result, we prove that under certain assumptions on the parameters, the variance can be estimated at essentially the same cost as the mean, and consequently as the cost required for solution of one forward problem for a fixed deterministic set of parameters. We comment on fast and stable evaluation of the estimators suitable for parallel large scale computations. The suggested approach is applied to a class of scalar random obstacle problems, a prototype of contact between deformable bodies. In particular, we are interested in rough random obstacles modelling contact between car tires and variable road surfaces. Numerical experiments support and complete the theoretical analysis.
Impact of the Minimum Wage on Compression.
Wolfe, Michael N.; Candland, Charles W.
1979-01-01
Assesses the impact of increases in the minimum wage on salary schedules, provides guidelines for creating a philosophy to deal with the impact, and outlines options and presents recommendations. (IRT)
How do minimum cigarette price laws affect cigarette prices at the retail level?
Feighery, E C; Ribisl, K M; Schleicher, N C; Zellers, L; Wellington, N
2005-04-01
Half of US states have minimum cigarette price laws that were originally passed to protect small independent retailers from unfair price competition with larger retailers. These laws prohibit cigarettes from being sold below a minimum price that is set by a formula. Many of these laws allow cigarette company promotional incentives offered to retailers, such as buydowns and master-type programmes, to be calculated into the formula. Allowing this provision has the potential to lower the allowable minimum price. This study assesses whether stores in states with minimum price laws have higher cigarette prices and lower rates of retailer participation in cigarette company promotional incentive programmes. Retail cigarette prices and retailer participation in cigarette company incentive programmes in 2001 were compared in eight states with minimum price laws and seven states without them. New York State had the most stringent minimum price law at the time of the study because it excluded promotional incentive programmes in its price setting formula; cigarette prices in New York were compared to all other states included in the study. Cigarette prices were not significantly different in our sample of US states with and without cigarette minimum price laws. Cigarette prices were significantly higher in New York stores than in the 14 other states combined. Most existing minimum cigarette price laws appear to have little impact on the retail price of cigarettes. This may be because they allow the use of promotional programmes, which are used by manufacturers to reduce cigarette prices. New York's strategy to disallow these types of incentive programmes may result in higher minimum cigarette prices, and should also be explored as a potential policy strategy to control cigarette company marketing practices in stores. Strict cigarette minimum price laws may have the potential to reduce cigarette consumption by decreasing demand through increased cigarette prices and reduced
Minimum energy control and optimal-satisfactory control of Boolean control network
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Fangfei; Lu, Xiwen
2013-01-01
In the literatures, to transfer the Boolean control network from the initial state to the desired state, the expenditure of energy has been rarely considered. Motivated by this, this Letter investigates the minimum energy control and optimal-satisfactory control of Boolean control network. Based on the semi-tensor product of matrices and Floyd's algorithm, minimum energy, constrained minimum energy and optimal-satisfactory control design for Boolean control network are given respectively. A numerical example is presented to illustrate the efficiency of the obtained results.
The Effect of the Minimum Wage on the Fast Food Industry.
Lawrence F. Katz; Alan B. Krueger
1992-01-01
Using data from a longitudinal survey of fast food restaurants in Texas, the authors examine the impact of recent changes in the federal minimum wage on a low-wage labor market The authors draw four main conclusions. First, the survey results indicate that less than 5 percent of fast food restaurants use the new youth subminimum wage even though the vast majority paid a starting wage below the new hourly minimum wage immediately before the new minimum went into effect. Second, although some r...
Measurement of Minimum Bias Observables with ATLAS
Kvita, Jiri; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
The modelling of Minimum Bias (MB) is a crucial ingredient to learn about the description of soft QCD processes. It has also a significant relevance for the simulation of the environment at the LHC with many concurrent pp interactions (“pileup”). The ATLAS collaboration has provided new measurements of the inclusive charged particle multiplicity and its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity in special data sets with low LHC beam currents, recorded at center of mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The measurements cover a wide spectrum using charged particle selections with minimum transverse momentum of both 100 MeV and 500 MeV and in various phase space regions of low and high charged particle multiplicities.
7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantity. 35.13 Section 35.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination, a shipment of 25 packages or...
The impact of minimum wages on youth employment in Portugal
S.C. Pereira
2003-01-01
textabstractFrom January 1, 1987, the legal minimum wage for workers aged 18 and 19 in Portugal was uprated to the full adult rate, generating a 49.3% increase between 1986 and 1987 in the legal minimum wage for this age group. This shock is used as a ?natural experiment? to evaluate the impact of
Stable configurations of graphene on silicon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Javvaji, Brahmanandam; Shenoy, Bhamy Maithry [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Mahapatra, D. Roy, E-mail: droymahapatra@aero.iisc.ernet.in [Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Ravikumar, Abhilash [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal 575025 (India); Hegde, G.M. [Center for Nano Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Rizwan, M.R. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal 575025 (India)
2017-08-31
Highlights: • Simulations of epitaxial growth process for silicon–graphene system is performed. • Identified the most favourable orientation of graphene sheet on silicon substrate. • Atomic local strain due to the silicon–carbon bond formation is analyzed. - Abstract: Integration of graphene on silicon-based nanostructures is crucial in advancing graphene based nanoelectronic device technologies. The present paper provides a new insight on the combined effect of graphene structure and silicon (001) substrate on their two-dimensional anisotropic interface. Molecular dynamics simulations involving the sub-nanoscale interface reveal a most favourable set of temperature independent orientations of the monolayer graphene sheet with an angle of ∽15° between its armchair direction and [010] axis of the silicon substrate. While computing the favorable stable orientations, both the translation and the rotational vibrations of graphene are included. The possible interactions between the graphene atoms and the silicon atoms are identified from their coordination. Graphene sheet shows maximum bonding density with bond length 0.195 nm and minimum bond energy when interfaced with silicon substrate at 15° orientation. Local deformation analysis reveals probability distribution with maximum strain levels of 0.134, 0.047 and 0.029 for 900 K, 300 K and 100 K, respectively in silicon surface for 15° oriented graphene whereas the maximum probable strain in graphene is about 0.041 irrespective of temperature. Silicon–silicon dimer formation is changed due to silicon–carbon bonding. These results may help further in band structure engineering of silicon–graphene lattice.
The Minimum Core for Numeracy Audit and Test
Patmore, Mark
2008-01-01
This book supports trainee teachers in the Lifelong Learning Sector in the assessment of their numeracy knowledge. A self-audit section is included to help trainees understand their level of competence and confidence in numeracy and will help them identify any gaps in their knowledge and skills. This is followed by exercises and activities to support and enhance learning. The book covers all the content of the LLUK standards for the minimum core for numeracy. Coverage and assessment of the minimum core have to be embedded in all Certificate and Diploma courses leading to QTLS and ATLS status.
Minimum Wage in the RMG Sector of Bangladesh: Definition, Determination Method and Levels
Khondaker Golam Moazzem; Saifa Raz
2014-01-01
Minimum wage in the RMG sector of Bangladesh is a debated issue, mainly due to lack of operational definition and method for calculation. This study is undertaken to come up with a definition and method for calculation of the minimum wage based on the ILO Minimum Wage Fixing Convention, 1970 (No. 131). The underlying principle of this definition is that minimum wage should be sufficient enough to meet the basic needs of workers and their families, and should provide some discretionary income....
LDPC Codes with Minimum Distance Proportional to Block Size
Divsalar, Dariush; Jones, Christopher; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy
2009-01-01
Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes characterized by minimum Hamming distances proportional to block sizes have been demonstrated. Like the codes mentioned in the immediately preceding article, the present codes are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. The previously mentioned codes have low decoding thresholds and reasonably low error floors. However, the minimum Hamming distances of those codes do not grow linearly with code-block sizes. Codes that have this minimum-distance property exhibit very low error floors. Examples of such codes include regular LDPC codes with variable degrees of at least 3. Unfortunately, the decoding thresholds of regular LDPC codes are high. Hence, there is a need for LDPC codes characterized by both low decoding thresholds and, in order to obtain acceptably low error floors, minimum Hamming distances that are proportional to code-block sizes. The present codes were developed to satisfy this need. The minimum Hamming distances of the present codes have been shown, through consideration of ensemble-average weight enumerators, to be proportional to code block sizes. As in the cases of irregular ensembles, the properties of these codes are sensitive to the proportion of degree-2 variable nodes. A code having too few such nodes tends to have an iterative decoding threshold that is far from the capacity threshold. A code having too many such nodes tends not to exhibit a minimum distance that is proportional to block size. Results of computational simulations have shown that the decoding thresholds of codes of the present type are lower than those of regular LDPC codes. Included in the simulations were a few examples from a family of codes characterized by rates ranging from low to high and by thresholds that adhere closely to their respective channel capacity thresholds; the simulation results from these examples showed that the codes in question have low
12 CFR 3.11 - Standards for determination of appropriate individual minimum capital ratios.
2010-01-01
.../or affiliate(s); (d) The bank's liquidity, capital, risk asset and other ratios compared to the... individual minimum capital ratios. 3.11 Section 3.11 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Establishment of Minimum Capital...
29 CFR 4.5 - Contract specification of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Contract specification of determined minimum wages and... of determined minimum wages and fringe benefits. (a) Any contract in excess of $2,500 shall contain, as an attachment, the applicable, currently effective wage determination specifying the minimum wages...
The migratory impact of minimum wage legislation: Puerto Rico, 1970-1987.
Santiago, C E
1993-01-01
"This study examines the impact of minimum wage setting on labor migration. A multiple time series framework is applied to monthly data for Puerto Rico from 1970-1987. The results show that net emigration from Puerto Rico to the United States fell in response to significant changes in the manner in which minimum wage policy was conducted, particularly after 1974. The extent of commuter type labor migration between Puerto Rico and the United States is influenced by minimum wage policy, with potentially important consequences for human capital investment and long-term standards of living." excerpt
Solving the minimum flow problem with interval bounds and flows
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... with crisp data. In this paper, the idea of Ghiyasvand was extended for solving the minimum ﬂow problem with interval-valued lower, upper bounds and ﬂows. This problem can be solved using two minimum ﬂow problems with crisp data. Then, this result is extended to networks with fuzzy lower, upper bounds and ﬂows.
The Minimum Wage and the Employment of Teenagers. Recent Research.
Fallick, Bruce; Currie, Janet
A study used individual-level data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth to examine the effects of changes in the federal minimum wage on teenage employment. Individuals in the sample were classified as either likely or unlikely to be affected by these increases in the federal minimum wage on the basis of their wage rates and industry of…
A Bayesian sequential design with adaptive randomization for 2-sided hypothesis test.
Yu, Qingzhao; Zhu, Lin; Zhu, Han
2017-11-01
Bayesian sequential and adaptive randomization designs are gaining popularity in clinical trials thanks to their potentials to reduce the number of required participants and save resources. We propose a Bayesian sequential design with adaptive randomization rates so as to more efficiently attribute newly recruited patients to different treatment arms. In this paper, we consider 2-arm clinical trials. Patients are allocated to the 2 arms with a randomization rate to achieve minimum variance for the test statistic. Algorithms are presented to calculate the optimal randomization rate, critical values, and power for the proposed design. Sensitivity analysis is implemented to check the influence on design by changing the prior distributions. Simulation studies are applied to compare the proposed method and traditional methods in terms of power and actual sample sizes. Simulations show that, when total sample size is fixed, the proposed design can obtain greater power and/or cost smaller actual sample size than the traditional Bayesian sequential design. Finally, we apply the proposed method to a real data set and compare the results with the Bayesian sequential design without adaptive randomization in terms of sample sizes. The proposed method can further reduce required sample size. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Great expectations: Reservation wages and the minimum wage reform
Fedorets, Alexandra; Filatov, Alexey; Shupe, Cortnie
2018-01-01
We use the German Socio-Economic Panel to show that introducing a high-impact statutory minimum wage causes an increase in reservation wages of approximately 4 percent at the low end of the distribution. The shifts in reservation wages and observed wages due to the minimum wage reform are comparable in their magnitude. Additional results show that German citizens adjust their reservation wages more than immigrants. Moreover, suggestive evidence points to a compensation mechanism in which immi...
Stable rotating dipole solitons in nonlocal media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lopez-Aguayo, Servando; Skupin, Stefan; Desyatnikov, Anton S.
2006-01-01
We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons.......We present the first example of stable rotating two-soliton bound states in nonlinear optical media with nonlocal response. We show that, in contrast to media with local response, nonlocality opens possibilities to generate stable azimuthons....
Vianelli, Nicola; Palandri, Francesca; Polverelli, Nicola; Stasi, Roberto; Joelsson, Joel; Johansson, Eva; Ruggeri, Marco; Zaja, Francesco; Cantoni, Silvia; Catucci, Angelo Emanuele; Candoni, Anna; Morra, Enrica; Björkholm, Magnus; Baccarani, Michele; Rodeghiero, Francesco
2013-01-01
The treatment of choice in steroid-resistant immune thrombocytopenia is still controversial due to the recent advent of new drugs (anti-CD20 antibodies and thrombopoietin mimetics) that have encouraged a generalized tendency to delay splenectomy. Consequently, it is extremely importance to define the efficacy and safety of splenectomy in the long term. We retrospectively analyzed the data of 233 patients affected by immune thrombocytopenia who underwent splenectomy between 1959 and 2001 in 6 European hematologic institutions and who have now a minimum follow up of ten years from surgery. Of the 233 patients, 180 (77%) achieved a complete response and 26 (11%) a response. Sixty-eight of 206 (33%) responsive patients relapsed, mostly (75%) within four years from first response. In 92 patients (39.5%), further treatment was required after splenectomy that was effective in 76 cases (83%). In 138 patients (59%), response was maintained free of any treatment at last contact. No significant association between baseline characteristics and likelihood of stable response was found. Overall, 73 (31%) and 58 (25%) patients experienced at least one infectious or hemorrhagic complication, which was fatal in 2 and 3 patients, respectively. A stable response to splenectomy was associated with a lower rate of infections (P=0.004) and hemorrhages (PSplenectomy achieved a long-term stable response in approximately 60% of cases. Complications mainly affected non-responding patients and were fatal in a minority. PMID:23144195
Flow Convergence Caused by a Salinity Minimum in a Tidal Channel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John C. Warner
2006-12-01
Full Text Available Residence times of dissolved substances and sedimentation rates in tidal channels are affected by residual (tidally averaged circulation patterns. One influence on these circulation patterns is the longitudinal density gradient. In most estuaries the longitudinal density gradient typically maintains a constant direction. However, a junction of tidal channels can create a local reversal (change in sign of the density gradient. This can occur due to a difference in the phase of tidal currents in each channel. In San Francisco Bay, the phasing of the currents at the junction of Mare Island Strait and Carquinez Strait produces a local salinity minimum in Mare Island Strait. At the location of a local salinity minimum the longitudinal density gradient reverses direction. This paper presents four numerical models that were used to investigate the circulation caused by the salinity minimum: (1 A simple one-dimensional (1D finite difference model demonstrates that a local salinity minimum is advected into Mare Island Strait from the junction with Carquinez Strait during flood tide. (2 A three-dimensional (3D hydrodynamic finite element model is used to compute the tidally averaged circulation in a channel that contains a salinity minimum (a change in the sign of the longitudinal density gradient and compares that to a channel that contains a longitudinal density gradient in a constant direction. The tidally averaged circulation produced by the salinity minimum is characterized by converging flow at the bed and diverging flow at the surface, whereas the circulation produced by the constant direction gradient is characterized by converging flow at the bed and downstream surface currents. These velocity fields are used to drive both a particle tracking and a sediment transport model. (3 A particle tracking model demonstrates a 30 percent increase in the residence time of neutrally buoyant particles transported through the salinity minimum, as compared to