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Sample records for minimum pool boiling

  1. Minimum heat flux (MHF) point in pool and external-flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Shigefumi

    1983-01-01

    As for the boiling phenomena near a minimum heat flux (MHF) point to which attention has been paid recently concerning the safety analysis of LWR cores, the results of research have not been put in order sufficiently. Therefore in this explanation, the object is limited to pool boiling and external flow boiling, and it is attempted to rearrange the present knowledge on the phenomena near a MHF point from the viewpoint of the relation to the state of solid-liquid contact, the effect of various factors on a MHF point and the modeling of a MHF point. The heat transfer characteristics in boiling phenomena are represented by a curve with one maximum and one minimum points. The MHF point is called also minimum film boiling point. In a heat flux-controlled heating surface, temperature jump arises when heat flux is decreased at a MHF point. The phenomena near a MHF point and the technological background when a MHF point becomes a problem are explained. Near a MHF point, only partial, intermittent solid-liquid contact is maintained. The effects of solid-liquid contact mode, the geometry of a heating surface, pressure and others on a MHF point are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  2. Prediction technique for minimum-heat-flux (MHF)- point condition of saturated pool boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Shigefumi

    1987-01-01

    The temperature-controlled hypothesis for the minimum-heat-flux (MHF)-point condition, in which the MHF-point temperature is regarded as the controlling factor and is expected to be independent of surface configuration and dimensions, is inductively investigated for saturated pool-boiling. In this paper such features of the MHF-point condition are experimentally proved first. Secondly, a correlation of the MHF-point temperature is developed for the effect of system pressure. Finally, a simple technique based on this correlation is presented to estimate the effects of surface configuration, dimensions and system pressure on the minimum heat flux. (author)

  3. Pool film boiling heat transfer, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, A.; Shiotsu, M.; Hata, K.

    1981-01-01

    Steady minimum film boiling heat flux and temperature were experimentally studied for a horizontal cylinder test heater in a pool of saturated water under pressures ranging from 0.1 to 2 MPa. Minimum temperature of film boiling may be determined by hydrodynamic Taylor instability for the pressures lower than around 1.0 MPa and by homogeneous nucleation temperature for the higher pressures. However, conventional correlations of minimum heat flux based on the hydrodynamic Taylor instability cannot at all predict the pressure dependency of the experimental data in the lower pressure region. Semi-empirical equation of the minimum heat flux based on the hydrodynamic Taylor instability was given. (author)

  4. Dry patch formed boiling and burnout in potassium pool boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michiyoshi, I.; Takenaka, N.; Takahashi, O.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on dry patch formed boiling and burnout in saturated potassium pool boiling on a horizontal plane heater for system pressures from 30 to 760 torr and liquid levels from 5 to 50 mm. The dry patch formation occurs in the intermittent boiling which is often encountered when liquid alkali metals are used under relatively low pressure conditions. Burnout is caused from both continuous nucleate and dry patch formed boiling. The burnout heat flux together with nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficients are empirically correlated with system pressures. A model is also proposed to predict the minimum heat flux to form the dry patch. (author)

  5. Study on minimum heat-flux point during boiling heat transfer on horizontal plates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Shigefumi

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of boiling heat transfer are usually shown by the boiling curve of N-shape having the maximum and minimum points. As for the limiting heat flux point, that is, the maximum point, there have been many reports so far, as it is related to the physical burn of heat flux-controlling type heating surfaces. But though the minimum heat flux point is related to the quench point as the problems in steel heat treatment, the core safety of LWRs, the operational stability of superconducting magnets, the start-up characteristics of low temperature machinery, the condition of vapor explosion occurrence and so on, the systematic information has been limited. In this study, the effects of transient property and the heat conductivity of heating surfaces on the minimum heat flux condition in the pool boiling on horizontal planes were experimentally examined by using liquid nitrogen. The experimental apparatuses for steady boiling, for unsteady boiling with a copper heating surface, and for unsteady boiling with a heating surface other than copper were employed. The boiling curves obtained with these apparatuses and the minimum heat flux point condition are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  6. Nucleate pool-boiling heat transfer - I. Review of parametric effects of boiling surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pioro, I.L.; Rohsenow, W.; Doerffer, S.S.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the state-of-the-art of heat transfer in nucleate pool-boiling. Therefore, the paper consists of two parts: part I reviews and examines the effects of major boiling surface parameters affecting nucleate-boiling heat transfer, and part II reviews and examines the existing prediction methods to calculate the nucleate pool-boiling heat transfer coefficient (HTC). A literature review of the parametric trends points out that the major parameters affecting the HTC under nucleate pool-boiling conditions are heat flux, saturation pressure, and thermophysical properties of a working fluid. Therefore, these effects on the HTC under nucleate pool-boiling conditions have been the most investigated and are quite well established. On the other hand, the effects of surface characteristics such as thermophysical properties of the material, dimensions, thickness, surface finish, microstructure, etc., still cannot be quantified, and further investigations are needed. Particular attention has to be paid to the characteristics of boiling surfaces. (author)

  7. Flow dynamics of volume-heated boiling pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, T.; Jones, O.C.; Chen, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Safety analyses of fast breeder reactors require understanding of the two-phase fluid dynamic and heat transfer characteristics of volume-heated boiling pool systems. Design of direct contact three-phase boilers, of practical interest in the chemical industries also requires understanding of the fundamental two-phase flow and heat transfer behavior of volume boiling systems. Several experiments have been recently reported relevant to the boundary heat-loss mechanisms of boiling pool systems. Considerably less is known about the two-phase fluid dynamic behavior of such systems. This paper describes an experimental investigation of the steady-state flow dynamics of volume-heated boiling pool systems

  8. Pool Boiling CHF in Inclined Narrow Annuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    2010-01-01

    Pool boiling heat transfer has been studied extensively since it is frequently encountered in various heat transfer equipment. Recently, it has been widely investigated in nuclear power plants for application to the advanced light water reactors designs. Through the review on the published results it can be concluded that knowledge on the combined effects of the surface orientation and a confined space on pool boiling heat transfer is of great practical importance and also of great academic interest. Fujita et al. investigated pool boiling heat transfer, from boiling inception to the critical heat flux (CHF, q' CHF ), in a confined narrow space between heated and unheated parallel rectangular plates. They identified that both the confined space and the surface orientation changed heat transfer much. Kim and Suh changed the surface orientation angles of a downward heating rectangular channel having a narrow gap from the downward-facing position (180 .deg.) to the vertical position (90 .deg.). They observed that the CHF generally decreased as the inclination angle (θ ) increased. Yao and Chang studied pool boiling heat transfer in a confined heat transfer for vertical narrow annuli with closed bottoms. They observed that when the gap size ( s ) of the annulus was decreased the effect of space confinement to boiling heat transfer increased. The CHF was occurred at much lower value for the confined space comparing to the unconfined pool boiling. Pool boiling heat transfer in narrow horizontal annular crevices was studied by Hung and Yao. They concluded that the CHF decreased with decreasing gap size of the annuli and described the importance of the thin film evaporation to explain the lower CHF of narrow crevices. The effect of the inclination angle on the CHF on countercurrent boiling in an inclined uniformly heated tube with closed bottoms was also studied by Liu et al. They concluded that the CHF reduced with the inclination angle decrease. A study was carried out

  9. Effect of subcooling and wall thickness on pool boiling from downward-facing curved surfaces in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Genk, M.S.; Glebov, A.G. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Quenching experiments were performed to investigate the effects of water subcooling and wall thickness on pool boiling from a downward-facing curved surface. Experiments used three copper sections of the same diameter (50.8 mm) and surface radius (148 mm), but different thickness (12.8, 20 and 30 mm). Local and average pool boiling curves were obtained at saturation and 5 K, 10 K, and 14 K subcooling. Water subcooling increased the maximum heat flux, but decreased the corresponding wall superheat. The minimum film boiling heat flux and the corresponding wall superheat, however, increased with increased subcooling. The maximum and minimum film boiling heat fluxes were independent of wall thickness above 20 mm and Biot Number > 0.8, indicating that boiling curves for the 20 and 30 thick sections were representative of quasi steady-state, but not those for the 12.8 mm thick section. When compared with that for a flat surface section of the same thickness, the data for the 12.8 mm thick section showed significant increases in both the maximum heat flux (from 0.21 to 0.41 MW/m{sup 2}) and the minimum film boiling heat flux (from 2 to 13 kW/m{sup 2}) and about 11.5 K and 60 K increase in the corresponding wall superheats, respectively.

  10. Numerical simulation of pool boiling of a Lennard-Jones liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Inaoka, Hajime; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2013-01-01

    We performed a numerical simulation of pool boiling by a molecular dynamics model. In the simulation, a liquid composed of Lennard-Jones particles in a uniform gravitational field is heated by a heat source at the bottom of the system. The model successfully reproduces the change in regimes of boiling from nucleate boiling to film boiling with the increase of the heat source temperature. We present the pool boiling curve by the model, whose general behavior is consistent with those observed in experiments of pool boiling. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Numerical simulation of pool boiling of a Lennard-Jones liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Inaoka, Hajime

    2013-09-01

    We performed a numerical simulation of pool boiling by a molecular dynamics model. In the simulation, a liquid composed of Lennard-Jones particles in a uniform gravitational field is heated by a heat source at the bottom of the system. The model successfully reproduces the change in regimes of boiling from nucleate boiling to film boiling with the increase of the heat source temperature. We present the pool boiling curve by the model, whose general behavior is consistent with those observed in experiments of pool boiling. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Research progresses and future directions on pool boiling heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the previous work carried on pool boiling heat transfer during heating of various liquids and commodities categorized as refrigerants and dielectric fluids, pure liquids, nanofluids, hydrocarbons and additive mixtures, as well as natural and synthetic colloidal solutions. Nucleate pool boiling is an efficient and effective method of boiling because high heat fluxes are possible with moderate temperature differences. It is characterized by the growth of bubbles on a heated surface. It occurs during boiling of liquids for excess temperature ranging from 5 to 30 °C in various processes related to high vaporization of liquid for specific purposes like sugarcane juice heating for jaggery making, milk heating for khoa making, steam generation, cooling of electronic equipments, refrigeration and etcetera. In this review paper, pool boiling method during heating of liquids for specific purpose is depicted. It is inferred that enhancement in pool boiling heat transfer is a challenging and complex task. Also, recent research and use of various correlations for natural convection pool boiling is reviewed.

  13. Investigation of pool boiling dynamics on a rectangular heater using nano-thermocouples: is it chaotic or stochastic?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathyamurthi, Vijaykumar; Banerjee, Debjyoti [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], e-mail: dbanerjee@tamu.edu

    2009-07-01

    The non-linear dynamical model of pool boiling on a horizontal rectangular heater is assessed from experimental results in this study. Pool boiling experiments are conducted over a horizontal rectangular silicon substrate measuring 63 mm x 35 mm with PF-5060 as the test fluid. Novel nano-thermocouples, micro-machined in-situ on the silicon substrate are used to measure the surface temperature fluctuations for steady state pool boiling. The acquisition frequency for temperature data from the nano-thermocouples is 1 k Hz. The surface temperature fluctuations are analyzed using the TISEAN{sup c} package. A time-delay embedding is employed to generate higher dimensional phase-space vectors from the temperature time series record. The optimal delay is determined from the first minimum of the mutual information function. Techniques such as recurrence plots, and false nearest neighbors tests are employed to assess the presence of deterministic chaotic dynamics. Chaos quantifiers such as correlation dimensions are found for various pool boiling regimes using the raw data as well as noise-reduced data. Additionally, pseudo-phase spaces are used to reconstruct the 'attractors'. The results after non-linear noise reduction shows definitive presence of low-dimensional (d {<=} 7) chaos in fully developed nucleate boiling, at critical heat flux and in film boiling. (author)

  14. Investigation of pool boiling dynamics on a rectangular heater using nano-thermocouples: is it chaotic or stochastic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyamurthi, Vijaykumar; Banerjee, Debjyoti

    2009-01-01

    The non-linear dynamical model of pool boiling on a horizontal rectangular heater is assessed from experimental results in this study. Pool boiling experiments are conducted over a horizontal rectangular silicon substrate measuring 63 mm x 35 mm with PF-5060 as the test fluid. Novel nano-thermocouples, micro-machined in-situ on the silicon substrate are used to measure the surface temperature fluctuations for steady state pool boiling. The acquisition frequency for temperature data from the nano-thermocouples is 1 k Hz. The surface temperature fluctuations are analyzed using the TISEAN c package. A time-delay embedding is employed to generate higher dimensional phase-space vectors from the temperature time series record. The optimal delay is determined from the first minimum of the mutual information function. Techniques such as recurrence plots, and false nearest neighbors tests are employed to assess the presence of deterministic chaotic dynamics. Chaos quantifiers such as correlation dimensions are found for various pool boiling regimes using the raw data as well as noise-reduced data. Additionally, pseudo-phase spaces are used to reconstruct the 'attractors'. The results after non-linear noise reduction shows definitive presence of low-dimensional (d ≤ 7) chaos in fully developed nucleate boiling, at critical heat flux and in film boiling. (author)

  15. A comprehensive review on pool boiling of nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciloglu, Dogan; Bolukbasi, Abdurrahim

    2015-01-01

    Nanofluids are nanoparticle suspensions of small particle size and low concentration dispersed in base fluids such as water, oil and ethylene glycol. These fluids have been considered by researchers as a unique heat transfer carrier because of their thermophysical properties and a great number of potential benefits in traditional thermal engineering applications, including power generation, transportation, air conditioning, electronics devices and cooling systems. Many attempts have been made in the literature on nanofluid boiling; however, data on the boiling heat transfer coefficient (HTC) and the critical heat flux (CHF) have been inconsistent. This paper presents a review of recent researches on the pool boiling heat transfer behaviour of nanofluid. First, the development of nanofluids and their potential applications are briefly given. Then, the effects of various parameters on nanofluids pool boiling are discussed in detail. - Highlights: • A review on the pool boiling heat transfer of nanofluid is presented and discussed. • Nanoparticle deposition considerably affects the boiling heat transfer. • The HTC decreases due to the low contact angle and the high adhesion energy. • The HTC increases due to the formation of the new cavities and liquid suction. • The CHF increases due to the increase in roughness, wettability and capillarity

  16. Feedback stabilisation of pool-boiling systems : for application in thermal management schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, van R.W.

    2012-01-01

    The research scope of this thesis is the stabilisation of unstable states in a pool-boiling system. Thereto, a compact mathematical model is employed. Pool-boiling systems serve as physical model for practical applications of boiling heat transfer in industry. Boiling has advantages over

  17. Direct Numerical Simulation and Visualization of Subcooled Pool Boiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoaki Kunugi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A direct numerical simulation of the boiling phenomena is one of the promising approaches in order to clarify their heat transfer characteristics and discuss the mechanism. During these decades, many DNS procedures have been developed according to the recent high performance computers and computational technologies. In this paper, the state of the art of direct numerical simulation of the pool boiling phenomena during mostly two decades is briefly summarized at first, and then the nonempirical boiling and condensation model proposed by the authors is introduced into the MARS (MultiInterface Advection and Reconstruction Solver developed by the authors. On the other hand, in order to clarify the boiling bubble behaviors under the subcooled conditions, the subcooled pool boiling experiments are also performed by using a high speed and high spatial resolution camera with a highly magnified telescope. Resulting from the numerical simulations of the subcooled pool boiling phenomena, the numerical results obtained by the MARS are validated by being compared to the experimental ones and the existing analytical solutions. The numerical results regarding the time evolution of the boiling bubble departure process under the subcooled conditions show a very good agreement with the experimental results. In conclusion, it can be said that the proposed nonempirical boiling and condensation model combined with the MARS has been validated.

  18. Local pool boiling heat transfer on a 3 Degree inclined tube surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms of pool boiling heat transfer have been studied for a long time. Recently, it has been widely investigated in nuclear power plants for the purpose of acquiring inherent safety functions in case of no power supply. To design more efficient heat exchangers, effects of several parameters on heat transfer must be studied in detail. One of the major issues is variation in local heat transfer coefficients on a tube. Lance and Myers reported that the type of boiling liquid can change the trend of local heat transfer coefficients along the tube periphery. Lance and Myers said that as the liquid is methanol the maximum local heat transfer coefficient was observed at the tube bottom while the maximum was at the tube sides as the boiling liquid was n hexane. Corn well and Einarsson reported that the maximum local heat transfer coefficient was observed at the tube bottom, as the boiling liquid was R113. Corn well and Houston explained the reason of the difference in local heat transfer coefficients along the tube circumference with introducing effects of sliding bubbles on heat transfer. According to Gu pta et al., the maximum and the minimum local heat transfer coefficients were observed at the bottom and top regions of the tube circumference, respectively, using a tube bundle and water. Kang also reported the similar results using a single horizontal tube and water. However, the maximum heat transfer coefficient was observed at the angle of 45 deg. Sateesh et al. investigated variations in local heat transfer coefficients along a tube periphery as the inclination angle was changed. Summarizing the published results, some parts are still remaining to be investigated in detail. Although pool boiling analysis on a nearly horizontal tube is necessary for the design of the advanced power reactor plus, no previous results are published yet. Therefore, the present study is aimed to study variations in local pool boiling heat transfer coefficients for a 3 degree inclined

  19. Research progresses and future directions on pool boiling heat transfer

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kumar; V. Bhutani; P. Khatak

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the previous work carried on pool boiling heat transfer during heating of various liquids and commodities categorized as refrigerants and dielectric fluids, pure liquids, nanofluids, hydrocarbons and additive mixtures, as well as natural and synthetic colloidal solutions. Nucleate pool boiling is an efficient and effective method of boiling because high heat fluxes are possible with moderate temperature differences. It is characterized by the growth of bubbles on a heated s...

  20. A high-fidelity approach towards simulation of pool boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, Miad; Radcliff, Thomas; Soteriou, Marios; Alahyari, Abbas A. [United Technologies Research Center, East Hartford, Connecticut 06108 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    A novel numerical approach is developed to simulate the multiscale problem of pool-boiling phase change. The particular focus is to develop a simulation technique that is capable of predicting the heat transfer and hydrodynamic characteristics of nucleate boiling and the transition to critical heat flux on surfaces of arbitrary shape and roughness distribution addressing a critical need to design enhanced boiling heat transfer surfaces. The macro-scale of the phase change and bubble dynamics is addressed through employing off-the-shelf Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods for interface tracking and interphase mass and energy transfer. The micro-scale of the microlayer, which forms at early stage of bubble nucleation near the wall, is resolved through asymptotic approximation of the thin-film theory which provides a closed-form solution for the distribution of the micro-layer and its influence on the evaporation process. In addition, the sub-grid surface roughness is represented stochastically through probabilistic density functions and its role in bubble nucleation and growth is then represented based on the thermodynamics of nucleation process. This combination of deterministic CFD, local approximation, and stochastic representation allows the simulation of pool boiling on any surface with known roughness and enhancement characteristics. The numerical model is validated for dynamics and hydrothermal characteristics of a single nucleated bubble on a flat surface against available literature data. In addition, the prediction of pool-boiling heat transfer coefficient is verified against experimental measurements as well as reputable correlations for various roughness distributions and different surface orientations. Finally, the model is employed to demonstrate pool-boiling phenomenon on enhanced structures with reentrance cavities and to explore the effect of enhancement feature design on thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of these surfaces.

  1. A high-fidelity approach towards simulation of pool boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazdani, Miad; Radcliff, Thomas; Soteriou, Marios; Alahyari, Abbas A.

    2016-01-01

    A novel numerical approach is developed to simulate the multiscale problem of pool-boiling phase change. The particular focus is to develop a simulation technique that is capable of predicting the heat transfer and hydrodynamic characteristics of nucleate boiling and the transition to critical heat flux on surfaces of arbitrary shape and roughness distribution addressing a critical need to design enhanced boiling heat transfer surfaces. The macro-scale of the phase change and bubble dynamics is addressed through employing off-the-shelf Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods for interface tracking and interphase mass and energy transfer. The micro-scale of the microlayer, which forms at early stage of bubble nucleation near the wall, is resolved through asymptotic approximation of the thin-film theory which provides a closed-form solution for the distribution of the micro-layer and its influence on the evaporation process. In addition, the sub-grid surface roughness is represented stochastically through probabilistic density functions and its role in bubble nucleation and growth is then represented based on the thermodynamics of nucleation process. This combination of deterministic CFD, local approximation, and stochastic representation allows the simulation of pool boiling on any surface with known roughness and enhancement characteristics. The numerical model is validated for dynamics and hydrothermal characteristics of a single nucleated bubble on a flat surface against available literature data. In addition, the prediction of pool-boiling heat transfer coefficient is verified against experimental measurements as well as reputable correlations for various roughness distributions and different surface orientations. Finally, the model is employed to demonstrate pool-boiling phenomenon on enhanced structures with reentrance cavities and to explore the effect of enhancement feature design on thermal and hydrodynamic characteristics of these surfaces

  2. Numerical investigation of nucleate pool boiling heat transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Andrijana D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Multidimensional numerical simulation of the atmospheric saturated pool boiling is performed. The applied modelling and numerical methods enable a full representation of the liquid and vapour two-phase mixture behaviour on the heated surface, with included prediction of the swell level and heated wall temperature field. In this way the integral behaviour of nucleate pool boiling is simulated. The micro conditions of bubble generation at the heated wall surface are modelled by the bubble nucleation site density, the liquid wetting contact angle and the bubble grow time. The bubble nucleation sites are randomly located within zones of equal size, where the number of zones equals the nucleation site density. The conjugate heat transfer from the heated wall to the liquid is taken into account in wetted heated wall areas around bubble nucleation sites. The boiling curve relation between the heat flux and the heated wall surface temperature in excess of the saturation temperature is predicted for the pool boiling conditions reported in the literature and a good agreement is achieved with experimentally measured data. The influence of the nucleation site density on the boiling curve characteristic is confirmed. In addition, the influence of the heat flux intensity on the spatial effects of vapour generation and two-phase flow are shown, such as the increase of the swell level position and the reduced wetting of the heated wall surface by the heat flux increase. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33018 i br. OI-174014

  3. Saturated Pool Boiling in Vertical Annulus with Reduced Outflow Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms of pool boiling heat transfer have been studied extensively to design efficient heat transfer devices or to assure the integrity of safety related systems. However, knowledge on pool boiling heat transfer in a confined space is still quite limited. The confined nucleate boiling is an effective technique to enhance heat transfer. Improved heat transfer might be attributed to an increase in the heat transfer coefficient due to vaporization from the thin liquid film on the heating surface or increased bubble activity. According to Cornwell and Houston, the bubbles sliding on the heated surface agitate environmental liquid. In a confined space a kind of pulsating flow due to the bubbles is created and, as a result very active liquid agitation is generated. The increase in the intensity of liquid agitation results in heat transfer enhancement. Sometimes a deterioration of heat transfer appears at high heat fluxes for confined boiling. The cause of the deterioration is suggested as active bubble coalescence. Recently, Kang published inflow effects on pool boiling heat transfer in a vertical annulus with closed bottoms. Kang regulated the gap size at the upper regions of the annulus and identified that effects of the reduced gaps on heat transfer become evident as the heat flux increases. This kind of geometry is found in an in-pile test section. Since more detailed analysis is necessary, effects of the outflow area on nucleate pool boiling heat transfer are investigated in this study. Up to the author's knowledge, no previous results concerning to this effect have been published yet

  4. Gravity and Heater Size Effects on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungho; Raj, Rishi

    2014-01-01

    The current work is based on observations of boiling heat transfer over a continuous range of gravity levels between 0g to 1.8g and varying heater sizes with a fluorinert as the test liquid (FC-72/n-perfluorohexane). Variable gravity pool boiling heat transfer measurements over a wide range of gravity levels were made during parabolic flight campaigns as well as onboard the International Space Station. For large heaters and-or higher gravity conditions, buoyancy dominated boiling and heat transfer results were heater size independent. The power law coefficient for gravity in the heat transfer equation was found to be a function of wall temperature under these conditions. Under low gravity conditions and-or for smaller heaters, surface tension forces dominated and heat transfer results were heater size dependent. A pool boiling regime map differentiating buoyancy and surface tension dominated regimes was developed along with a unified framework that allowed for scaling of pool boiling over a wide range of gravity levels and heater sizes. The scaling laws developed in this study are expected to allow performance quantification of phase change based technologies under variable gravity environments eventually leading to their implementation in space based applications.

  5. A dry-spot model of critical heat flux and transition boiling in pool and subcooled forced convection boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Sang Jun

    1998-02-01

    A new dry-spot model for critical heat flux (CHF) is proposed. The new concept for dry area formation based on Poisson distribution of active nucleation sites and the critical active site number is introduced. The model is based on the boiling phenomena observed in nucleate boiling such as Poisson distribution of active nucleation sites and formation of dry spots on the heating surface. It is hypothesized that when the number of bubbles surrounding one bubble exceeds a critical number, the surrounding bubbles restrict the feed of liquid to the microlayer under the bubble. Then a dry spot of vapor will form on the heated surface. As the surface temperature is raised, more and more bubbles will have a population of surrounding active sites over the critical number. Consequently, the number of the spots will increase and the size of dry areas will increase due to merger of several dry spots. If this trend continues, the number of effective sites for heat transport through the wall will diminish, and CHF and transition boiling occur. The model is applicable to pool and subcooled forced convection boiling conditions, based on the common mechanism that CHF and transition boiling are caused by the accumulation and coalescences of dry spots. It is shown that CHF and heat flux in transition boiling can be determined without any empirical parameter based on information on the boiling parameters such as active site density and bubble diameter, etc., in nucleate boiling. It is also shown that the present model well represents actual phenomena on CHF and transition boiling and explains the mechanism on how parameters such as flow modes (pool or flow) and surface wettability influence CHF and transition boiling. Validation of the present model for CHF and transition boiling is achieved without any tuning parameter always present in earlier models. It is achieved by comparing the predictions of CHF and heat flux in transition boiling using measured boiling parameters in nucleate

  6. Development of surface wettability characteristics for enhancing pool boiling heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Moo Hwan; Jo, Hang Jin

    2010-05-01

    For several centuries, many boiling experiments have been conducted. Based on literature survey, the characteristic of heating surface in boiling condition played as an important role which mainly influenced to boiling performance. Among many surface factor, the fact that wettability effect is significant to not only the enhancement of critical heat flux(CHF) but also the nucleate boiling heat transfer is also supported by other kinds of boiling experiments. In this regard, the excellent boiling performance (a high CHF and heat transfer performance) in pool boiling could be achieved through some favorable surface modification which satisfies the optimized wettability condition. To find the optimized boiling condition, we design the special heaters to examine how two materials, which have different wettability (e.g. hydrophilic and hydrophobic), affect the boiling phenomena. The special heaters have hydrophobic dots on hydrophilic surface. The contact angle of hydrophobic surface is 120 .deg. to water at the room temperature. The contact angle of hydrophilic surface is 60 .deg. at same conditions. To conduct the experiment with new surface condition, we developed new fabrication method and design the pool boiling experimental apparatus. Through this facility, we can the higher CHF on pattern surface than that on hydrophobic surface, and the higher boiling heat transfer performance on pattern surface than that on hydrophilic surface. Based on this experimental results, we concluded that we proposed new heating surface condition and surface fabrication method to realize the best boiling condition by modified heating surface condition

  7. Nucleate pool boiling: High gravity to reduced gravity; liquid metals to cryogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merte, Herman, Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Requirements for the proper functioning of equipment and personnel in reduced gravity associated with space platforms and future space station modules introduce unique problems in temperature control; power generation; energy dissipation; the storage, transfer, control and conditioning of fluids; and liquid-vapor separation. The phase change of boiling is significant in all of these. Although both pool and flow boiling would be involved, research results to date include only pool boiling because buoyancy effects are maximized for this case. The effective application of forced convection boiling heat transfer in the microgravity of space will require a well grounded and cogent understanding of the mechanisms involved. Experimental results are presented for pool boiling from a single geometrical configuration, a flat surface, covering a wide range of body forces from a/g = 20 to 1 to a/g = 0 to -1 for a cryogenic liquid, and from a/g = 20 to 1 for water and a liquid metal. Similarities in behavior are noted for these three fluids at the higher gravity levels, and may reasonably be expected to continue at reduced gravity levels.

  8. Experimental Study on Boiling Crisis in Pool Boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Satbyoul; Kim, Hyungdae [Kyung Hee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    They postulated that failure in re-wetting of a dry patch by a cooling liquid is governed by microhydrodynamics near the wall. Chu et al. commonly observed that active coalescence of newly generated bubbles with preexisting bubbles results in a residual dry patch and prevents the complete rewetting of the dry patch, leading to CHF. In this work, to reveal the key physical mechanism of CHF during the rewetting process of a dry patch, dynamics of dry patches and thermal pattern of a boiling surface are simultaneously observed using TR and IR thermometry techniques. Local dynamics of dry patch and thermal pattern on a boiling surface in synchronized manner for both space and time using TR and IR thermometry were measured during pool boiling of water. Observation and quantitative examination of CHF was performed. - The hydrodynamic and thermal behaviors of irreversible dry patch were observed. The dry patches coalesce into a large dry patch and it locally dried out. Due to the failure of liquid rewetting, the dry patch is not completely rewetted, resulting in the burn out at which temperature is -140°C. - When temperature of a dry patch rises beyond the instantaneous nucleation temperature, several bubbles nucleate at the head of the advancing liquid meniscus and prevents the liquid front, and eventually the overheated dry patch remains alive after the departure of the massive bubble.

  9. Pool Boiling Characteristics on the Microstructure surfaces with Both Rectangular Cavities and Channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Eok; Myung, Byung-Soo [Kyungpook Nat’l Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Park, Su Cheong; Yu, Dong In [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moo Hwan [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Ho Seon [Incheon Nat’l Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Based on a surface design with rectangular cavities and channels, we investigated the effects of gravity and capillary pressure on pool-boiling Critical Heat Flux (CHF). The microcavity structures could prevent liquid flow by the capillary pressure effect. In addition, the microchannel structures contributed to induce one-dimensional liquid flow on the boiling surface. The relationship between the CHF and capillary flow was clearly established. The driving potentials for the liquid supply into a boiling surface can be generated by the gravitational head and capillary pressure. Through an analysis of pool boiling and visualization data, we reveal that the liquid supplement to maintain the nucleate boiling condition on a boiling surface is closely related to the gravitational pressure head and capillary pressure effect.

  10. Burnout in boiling heat transfer. part I: pool boiling systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergles, A.E.

    1977-01-01

    Recent experimental and analytical developments in pool-boiling burnout are reviewed, and results are summarized that clarify the dependence of critical heat flux on heater geometry and fluid properties. New analytical interpretations of burnout are discussed, and the effects of surface condition, aging, acceleration, and transient heating (or cooling) are described. The relation of sound to burnout and new techniques for stabilizing electric heaters at burnout are also considered

  11. CHF enhancement in pool boiling of nanofluid : effect of nanoparticle-coating on heating surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Dae; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2005-01-01

    Recently researches to enhance CHF using the nanofluid, a new kind of heat transfer fluid in which nano-particles are uniformly and stably dispersed, were attempted. You showed that nanofluid, containing only 0.005 g/l of alumina nanoparticle, make the dramatic increase (∼200%) in CHF in pool boiling at the pressure of 2.89 psia (Tsat=60 .deg. C). They concluded that the abnormal CHF enhancement of nanofluid cannot be explained with any existing models of CHF. Vassallo performed the experimental studies on pool boiling heat transfer in water-SiO 2 nanofluid under atmospheric pressure. They showed a remarkable increase in CHF for nanofluid and also found that the stable film boiling at temperatures close to the melting point of the boiling surface are achievable with the nanofluid. After the experiments, they observed that the formation of the thin silica coating on the wire heater was occurred. This paper focuses on the experimental study of the effect of nanoparticle-coating on CHF enhancement in pool boiling of nanofluid. In this regard, pool boiling CHF values are measured and compared (a) from bare heater immersed in nanofluid and (b) from nanoparticle-coated heater, which is generated by deposition of suspended nanoparticles during pool boiling of nanofluid, immersed in pure water, and (c) from nanoparticle-coated heater immersed in nanofluid. And the microstructure of each heating surface is investigated from photography taken using SEM

  12. Natural convection heat transfer characteristics of the molten metal pool with solidification by boiling coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Seon; Suh, Kune Yull; Chung, Chang Hyun [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paark, Rae Joon; Kim, Sang Baik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents results of experimental studies on the heat transfer and solidification of the molten metal pool with overlying coolant with boiling. The metal pool is heated from the bottom surface and coolant is injected onto the molten metal pool. Ad a result, the crust, which is a solidified layer, may form at the top of the molten metal pool. Heat transfer is accomplished by a conjugate mechanism, which consists of the natural convection of the molten metal pool, the conduction in the crust layer and the convective boiling heat transfer in the coolant. This work examines the crust formation and the heat transfer rate on the molten metal pool with boiling coolant. The simulant molten pool material is tin (Sn) with the melting temperature of 232 deg C. Demineralized water is used as the working coolant. The crust layer thickness was ostensibly varied by the heated bottom surface temperature of the test section, but not much affected by the coolant injection rate. The correlation between the Nusselt number and the Rayleigh number in the molten metal pool region of this study is compared against the crust formation experiment without coolant boiling and the literature correlations. The present experimental results are higher than those from the experiment without coolant boiling, but show general agreement with the Eckert correlation, with some deviations in the high and low ends of the Rayleigh number. This discrepancy is currently attributed to concurrent rapid boiling of the coolant on top of the metal layer. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  13. Natural convection heat transfer characteristics of the molten metal pool with solidification by boiling coolant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Jae Seon; Suh, Kune Yull; Chung, Chang Hyun [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Paark, Rae Joon; Kim, Sang Baik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents results of experimental studies on the heat transfer and solidification of the molten metal pool with overlying coolant with boiling. The metal pool is heated from the bottom surface and coolant is injected onto the molten metal pool. Ad a result, the crust, which is a solidified layer, may form at the top of the molten metal pool. Heat transfer is accomplished by a conjugate mechanism, which consists of the natural convection of the molten metal pool, the conduction in the crust layer and the convective boiling heat transfer in the coolant. This work examines the crust formation and the heat transfer rate on the molten metal pool with boiling coolant. The simulant molten pool material is tin (Sn) with the melting temperature of 232 deg C. Demineralized water is used as the working coolant. The crust layer thickness was ostensibly varied by the heated bottom surface temperature of the test section, but not much affected by the coolant injection rate. The correlation between the Nusselt number and the Rayleigh number in the molten metal pool region of this study is compared against the crust formation experiment without coolant boiling and the literature correlations. The present experimental results are higher than those from the experiment without coolant boiling, but show general agreement with the Eckert correlation, with some deviations in the high and low ends of the Rayleigh number. This discrepancy is currently attributed to concurrent rapid boiling of the coolant on top of the metal layer. 10 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  14. Natural convection heat transfer characteristics of the molten metal pool with solidification by boiling coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jae Seon; Suh, Kune Yull; Chung, Chang Hyun; Park, Rae Joon; Kim, Sang Baik

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents results of experimental studies on the heat transfer and solidifcation of the molten metal pool with overlying coolant with boiling. The metal pool is heated from the bottom surface and coolant is injected onto the molten metal pool. As a result, the crust, which is a solidified layer, may form at the top of the molten metal pool. Heat transfer is accomplished by a conjugate mechanism, which consists of the natural convection of the molten metal pool, the conduction in the crust layer and the convective boiling heat transfer in the coolant. This work examines the crust formation and the heat transfer rate on the molten metal pool with boiling coolant. The simulant molten pool material is tin (Sn) with the melting temperature of 232 .deg. C. Demineralized water is used as the working coolant. The crust layer thickness was ostensibly varied by the heated bottom surface temperature of the test section, but not much affected by the coolant injection rate. The correlation between the Nusselt number and the Rayleight number in the molten metal pool region of this study is compared against the crust formation experiment without coolant boiling and the literature correlations. The present experimental results are higher than those from the experiment without coolant boiling, but show general agreement with the Eckert correlation, with some deviations in the high and low ends of the Rayleigh number. This discrepancy is currently attributed to concurrent rapid boiling of the coolant on top of the metal layer

  15. Theoretical modeling of CHF for near-saturated pool boiling and flow boiling from short heaters using the interfacial lift-off criterion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mudawar, I.; Galloway, J.E.; Gersey, C.O.

    1995-01-01

    Pool boiling and flow boiling were examined for near-saturated bulk conditions in order to determine the critical heat flux (CHF) trigger mechanism for each. Photographic studies of the wall region revealed features common to both situations. At fluxes below CHF, the vapor coalesces into a wavy layer which permits wetting only in wetting fronts, the portions of the liquid-vapor interface which contact the wall as a result of the interfacial waviness. Close examination of the interfacial features revealed the waves are generated from the lower edge of the heater in pool boiling and the heater's upstream region in flow boiling. Wavelengths follow predictions based upon the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability criterion. Critical heat flux in both cases occurs when the pressure force exerted upon the interface due to interfacial curvature, which tends to preserve interfacial contact with the wall prior to CHF, is overcome by the momentum of vapor at the site of the first wetting front, causing the interface to lift away from the wall. It is shown this interfacial lift-off criterion facilitates accurate theoretical modeling of CHF in pool boiling and in flow boiling in both straight and curved channels

  16. Theoretical modeling of CHF for near-saturated pool boiling and flow boiling from short heaters using the interfacial lift-off criterion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudawar, I.; Galloway, J.E.; Gersey, C.O. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    Pool boiling and flow boiling were examined for near-saturated bulk conditions in order to determine the critical heat flux (CHF) trigger mechanism for each. Photographic studies of the wall region revealed features common to both situations. At fluxes below CHF, the vapor coalesces into a wavy layer which permits wetting only in wetting fronts, the portions of the liquid-vapor interface which contact the wall as a result of the interfacial waviness. Close examination of the interfacial features revealed the waves are generated from the lower edge of the heater in pool boiling and the heater`s upstream region in flow boiling. Wavelengths follow predictions based upon the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability criterion. Critical heat flux in both cases occurs when the pressure force exerted upon the interface due to interfacial curvature, which tends to preserve interfacial contact with the wall prior to CHF, is overcome by the momentum of vapor at the site of the first wetting front, causing the interface to lift away from the wall. It is shown this interfacial lift-off criterion facilitates accurate theoretical modeling of CHF in pool boiling and in flow boiling in both straight and curved channels.

  17. Volume-heated boiling pool behavior and application to transition phase accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, T.; Jones, O.C. Jr.; Chen, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of two-phase flow fields in volume-heated boiling pools are reported. Photographic observations, together with pool-average void fraction measurements are presented. Flow regime transition criterial derived from the measurements are discussed. The churn-turbulent flow regime was the dominant regime for superficial vapor velocity. Within this range of conditions, a churn-turbulent drift flux model provides a reasonable prediction of the pool-average void fraction data. The results of the experiment and analysis are extrapolated to transition phase conditions. It is shown that intense pool boil-up could occur where the pool-average void fraction would be greater than 0.6 for steel vaporization rates equivalent to power levels greater than one percent of nominal LMFBR power density. (author)

  18. Experiments of Pool Boiling Performance (Boiling Heat Transfer and Critical Heat Flux) on Designed Micro-Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seol Ha; Kang, Jun Young; Lee, Gi Chol; Kiyofumia, Moriyama; Kim, Moo Hwan; Park, Hyun Sun

    2015-01-01

    In general, the evaluation of the boiling performance mainly focuses on two physical parameters: boiling heat transfer (BHT) and critical heat flux (CHF). In the nuclear power plants, both BHT and CHF contribute the nuclear system efficiency and safety, respectively. In this study, BHT and CHF of the pool boiling on well-organized fabricated structured (micro scaled) surface has been evaluated. As a results, BHT change on microstructured surface shows strongly dependent on Pin-fin effect analysis. In terms of CHF, critical size of micro structure for CHF enhancement has been observed and analyzed based on the capillary wicking effect. In this study, BHT and CHF of the pool boiling on well-organized fabricated structured (micro scaled) surface has been evaluated. As a results, BHT change on microstructured surface shows strongly dependent on the roughness ratio. The extended heat transfer area contributes the boiling heat transfer increase on the structured surface, and its quantitative analysis has been performed. In terms of CHF, the critical size of micro structure for CHF enhancement has been observed and analyzed based on the capillary wicking effect. We suggested a capillary limit to CHF delay for modeling capillary induced liquid inflow through microstructured surfaces. The critical size of the capillary limit on the prepared structured surface, determined by a model, could be reasonable explanation points for the experimental results (optimal size for CHF delay). The present experimental results also showed clearly the critical size (10 - 20 μm) for CHF delay, predicted by capillary limit analysis. This study provides fundamental insight into BHT and CHF enhancement of structured surfaces, and an optimal design guide for the required CHF and boiling heat-transfer performance. Finally, this study can contribute the basic understanding of the boiling on designed microstructure surface, and it also suggest the optimal micro scaled structured surface of boiling

  19. An Experimental study of Fullerene (C60) Nano-fluids on Pool Boiling Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melani, Ai; Shin, Byoong Su; Chang, Soon Heung

    2009-01-01

    Critical heat flux (CHF) is directly related to the performance of the system since CHF limits the heat transfer of a heat transfer system. Significant enhancement of CHF allows reliable operation of equipment with more margins to operational limit and more economic cost saving. The previous results show that the nano-fluids significantly enhanced pool boiling CHF compared to pure water. It was supposed that CHF enhancement was due to increased thermal conductivity of fluids, change of bubble shape and behavior, and nano-particle coating of the boiling surface. The previous researches also show that mainly the pool boiling experiment was employed metal particles. Fullerene (C 60 ) is a novel carbon allotrope that was first discovered in 1985 by a winner noble 'Sir Harold W.Kroto, Richard E. Smalley and Robert F.Curl Jr'. In this study we report the first CHF experiment in pool boiling conditions using Fullerene (C 60 ) nanofluids

  20. One component, volume heated, boiling pool thermohydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bede, M.; Perret, C.; Pretrel, H.; Seiler, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Prior work on boiling pools provided heat exchange correlations valid for bubbly flow with laminar or turbulent boundary layers. New experiments performed with water (SEBULON) and UO 2 (SCARABEE BF2) in a churn-turbulent flow configuration show unexpected heat flux distributions for which the maximum heat flux may be situated well below the pool surface. The origin of this behaviour is attributed to condensation effects, very unstable boundary layer flow and surface oscillation. A calculation model is discussed which permits to approach the experimental heat flux distribution with reasonable accuracy. (authors). 7 figs., 2 appendix., 14 refs

  1. Water inventory management in condenser pool of boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gluntz, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    An improved system for managing the water inventory in the condenser pool of a boiling water reactor has means for raising the level of the upper surface of the condenser pool water without adding water to the isolation pool. A tank filled with water is installed in a chamber of the condenser pool. The water-filled tank contains one or more holes or openings at its lowermost periphery and is connected via piping and a passive-type valve (e.g., squib valve) to a high-pressure gas-charged pneumatic tank of appropriate volume. The valve is normally closed, but can be opened at an appropriate time following a loss-of-coolant accident. When the valve opens, high-pressure gas inside the pneumatic tank is released to flow passively through the piping to pressurize the interior of the water-filled tank. In so doing, the initial water contents of the tank are expelled through the openings, causing the water level in the condenser pool to rise. This increases the volume of water available to be boiled off by heat conducted from the passive containment cooling heat exchangers. 4 figs

  2. The role of graphite foam pore structure on saturated pool boiling enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pranoto, I.; Leong, K.C.; Jin, L.W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study of the pool boiling phenomena and performance of porous graphite foam evaporators of different structures and thermophysical properties. Two dielectric liquids viz. FC-72 and HFE-7000 were used as working fluids. Block and fin evaporators of different fin-to-block-surface-area ratios (AR) were designed to study the role of the internal pore structure of graphite foams in a compact air-cooled thermosyphon under saturated pool boiling condition for high heat flux electronics cooling applications. The wall temperatures were measured and the boiling heat transfer coefficients were calculated to analyze the boiling performance. It was found that both fin structures with AR = 3.70 and 2.73 result in reduced boiling heat transfer performances and higher wall temperatures. The experimental results show that the boiling heat transfer coefficients of the block structures are about 1.2–1.6 times higher than those of the fin structures. The total internal surface area to volume ratio (β) and the total exposed areas (A T ) of the graphite foams were calculated in this study. The results show that the values of β and A T of the block structures are much higher than the fin structures for both tested “Pocofoam” 61% porosity and “Kfoam” 78% porosity evaporators which resulted in higher boiling heat transfer coefficient and lower wall temperature of the block structures. A visualization study shows that more bubbles were generated from the block structures compared to the fin structures due to the larger number of nucleation sites from the block structures. It was also found that use of FC-72 resulted in better boiling heat transfer performance compared to HFE-7000. - Highlights: ► We studied the pool boiling performance of a thermosyphon with graphite foam evaporators of block and fin structures. ► FC-72 and HFE-7000 were used as the working fluids. ► The boiling heat transfer coefficients of the block structures are 1.2

  3. A new correlation for nucleate pool boiling of aqueous mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, J.R.; Shakir, S.

    1987-01-01

    A new mixture boiling correlation was developed for nucleate pool boiling of aqueous mixtures on plain, smooth tubes. The semi-empirical correlation models the rise in the local bubble point temperature in a mixture caused by the preferential evaporation of the more volatile component during bubble growth. This rise varies from zero at low heat fluxes (where only single-phase natural convection is present) up to nearly the entire boiling range at the peak heat flux (where latent heat transport is dominant). The boiling range, which is the temperature difference between the dew point and bubble point of a mixture, is used to characterize phase equilibrium effects. An exponential term models the rise in the local bubble point temperature as a function of heat flux. The correlation was compared against binary mixture boiling data for ethanol-water, methanol-water, n-propanol-water, and acetone-water. The majority of the data was predicted to within 20%. Further experimental research is currently underway to obtain multicomponent boiling data for aqueous mixtures with up to five components and for wider boiling ranges

  4. Volume-heated boiling pool flow behavior and application to transition phase accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, T.; Jones, O.C. Jr.; Chen, J.C.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of two-phase flow fields in volume-heated boiling pools are reported. Photographic observations, together with pool-average void fraction measurements are presented. Flow regime transition criteria derived from the measurements are discussed. The churn-turbulent flow regime was the dominant regime for superficial vapor velocities up to nearly five times the Kutateladze dispersal velocity. Within this range of conditions, a churn-turbulent drift flux model provides a reasonable prediction of the pool-average void fraction data. The results of the experiment and analyses are extrapolated to transition phase conditions. It is shown that intense pool boil-up could occur where the pool-average void fraction would be greater than 0.6 for steel vaporization rates equivalent to power levels greater than one percent of nominal LMFBR power density

  5. Numerical analysis on pool boiling using user defined function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Sung Uk; Jeon, Byong Guk; Kim, Seok; Euh, Dong-Jin [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    PAFS (passive auxiliary feedwater system) adopted in the APR+ (Advanced Power Reactor Plus) of Korea is one such application. When PAFS is activated with an actuation signal, steam from the steam generator passes through heat exchanger tubes submerged in a water tank of the PAFS. Outside these heat exchanger tubes, nucleate boiling phenomena appears. In the present work, a numerical study is reported on three-dimensional transient state pool boiling of water having an immersed heat source. The velocity vector fields during the decrease in the water level are numerically investigated in a pool, and the accuracy of the results is checked by comparing the experimental results conducted using the PIV techniques by Kim et al. These numerical results can be used as basic research data for an analysis and prediction of the natural circulation phenomena in the cooling tank of the passive safety system in a nuclear power plant.

  6. Pool Boiling Enhancement of R-123 Using Perforated Plates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nae-Hyun [Incheon Nat’l Univ., Incheon(Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In this study, we investigate the pool boiling enhancement caused by perforated plates on top of a smooth surface. We conduct tests using R-123 at atmospheric pressure. It was shown that perforated plates significantly enhanced the pool boiling of the smooth surface. The reason may be attributed to the increased bubble contact area between the plates. The results showed that the enhancement ratio was dependent on the heat flux. At high heat flux, the enhancement ratio increased as the porosity increased. However, at low heat flux, the enhancement ratio decreased as the porosity increased. For the present investigation, the optimum configuration had a pore diameter of 2.0 mm, pore pitch of 2.5 mm×5.0 mm or 5.0 mm×5.0 mm, and a gap width of 0.5 mm, which yielded heat-transfer coefficients that are close to those of GEWA-T. The optimum porosity for R-123 was significantly larger than that of water or ethanol. The reason for this may be the large liquid-to-vapor density ratio along with the small latent heat of vaporization of R-123. The perforated plates yielded smaller boiling hysteresis compared with that of the smooth surface.

  7. Pool boiling of water on nano-structured micro wires at sub-atmospheric conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, Mahendra; Khandekar, Sameer; Pratap, Dheeraj; Ramakrishna, S. Anantha

    2016-09-01

    Past decades have seen active research in enhancement of boiling heat transfer by surface modifications. Favorable surface modifications are expected to enhance boiling efficiency. Several interrelated mechanisms such as capillarity, surface energy alteration, wettability, cavity geometry, wetting transitions, geometrical features of surface morphology, etc., are responsible for change in the boiling behavior of modified surfaces. Not much work is available on pool boiling at low pressures on microscale/nanoscale geometries; low pressure boiling is attractive in many applications wherein low operating temperatures are desired for a particular working fluid. In this background, an experimental setup was designed and developed to investigate the pool boiling performance of water on (a) plain aluminum micro wire (99.999 % pure) and, (b) nano-porous alumina structured aluminum micro wire, both having diameter of 250 µm, under sub-atmospheric pressure. Nano-structuring on the plain wire surface was achieved via anodization. Two samples, A and B of anodized wires, differing by the degree of anodization were tested. The heater length scale (wire diameter) was much smaller than the capillary length scale. Pool boiling characteristics of water were investigated at three different sub-atmospheric pressures of 73, 123 and 199 mbar (corresponding to T sat = 40, 50 and 60 °C). First, the boiling characteristics of plain wire were measured. It was noticed that at sub-atmospheric pressures, boiling heat transfer performance for plain wire was quite low due to the increased bubble sizes and low nucleation site density. Subsequently, boiling performance of nano-structured wires (both Sample A and Sample B) was compared with plain wire and it was noted that boiling heat transfer for the former was considerably enhanced as compared to the plain wire. This enhancement is attributed to increased nucleation site density, change in wettability and possibly due to enhanced pore scale

  8. Pool boiling visualization on open microchannel surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniowski Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents visualization investigations into pool boiling heat transfer for open minichannel surfaces. The experiments were carried out wih saturated water at atmospheric pressure. Parallel microchannels fabricated by machining were about 0.3 mm wide and 0.2 to 0.4 mm deep. High-speed videos were used as an aid to understanding the heat transfer mechanism. The visualization study aimed at identifying nucleation sites of the departing bubbles and determining their diameters and frequency at various superheats.

  9. Film boiling heat transfer from a hot sphere falling in two-phase pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, K. H.; Kim, K. Y.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to experimentally investigate film boiling heat trasfer from a hot sphere falling in steam-water two-phase pool, which is the key heat transfer mode in molten fuel and coolant mixing. To measure film boiling heat transfer coefficients on a spere falling in two-phase pool, a heated sphere with a thermocouple embedded at the center is dropped in a vertical tube filled with steam-water mixture. The present experiment is unique in making the heated sphere fall through the two-phase pool while the previous experiments were performed with stationary spheres in flowing fluid. The falling speed of the sphere is measured using a set of magnet pickup coils distributed along the tube. The ranges of the experimental conditions are: spere fall speed 0-0.5 m/s, average void fraction 0-25,% steam superficial velocity 0-0.25 m/s. The results show that the forced convection film boiling heat transfer coefficient decrease slightly as the steam superficial velocity (void fraction) is increased

  10. Experimental Investigation of Pool Boiling for Single and Double Heaters Using Printed Circuit Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Won Seok; Lee, Jae Young

    2012-01-01

    Over the past several decades, a considerable number of studies have been conducted on boiling heat transfer in pool boiling. Boiling heat transfer is used in a variety of cooling applications, such as heat exchangers, high powered electronics, and nuclear reactors. Nucleate boiling is one of the most efficient heat transfer mechanisms in boiling regime, but it is imperative that the critical heat flux(CHF) should not be exceeded. CHF phenomenon leads to a dramatic rise in wall temperature, decreased heat transfer, and material failure. Although numerous attempts have been made by researchers to demonstrate the CHF, there is little agreement with the CHF mechanism. In recent years, many researchers have been focusing on surface condition using nanoparticles and surface enhancements, such as a micro structure and artificial cavities, due to enhancement of the CHF point. Cooke and Kandlikar used chips etched with microchannels to prove that these structure has the most enhancement effect. They found that the most efficient boiling surface is with a larger channel size and deep etch. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the heat transfer and CHF of double heaters on printed circuit board(PCB) in pool boiling. In addition, bubble dynamics of nucleate boiling were observed with high speed observation on single and double heaters using PCB heater

  11. Experiments on HFE-7100 pool boiling at atmospheric pressure in horizontal narrow spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guglielmini, G.; Misale, M.; Priarone, A. [Universita degli Studi di Genova (Italy). DIPTEM - Sezione di Termoenergetica e Condizionamento Ambientale

    2009-07-01

    Experiments were performed to examine the pool boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux on a smooth copper circular surface, confined by a face-to-face parallel unheated surface, by changing the gap between the surfaces and the unheated surface diameter. Pool boiling data at atmospheric pressure were obtained for saturated HFE-7100. The gap values investigated, between the boiling surface and the adiabatic one, were s 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 3.5 mm. To confine the boiling surface, two different Plexiglas plates were used: the former characterised by a diameter D = 60 mm, large as the overall test section support, the latter characterised by a diameter D = 30 mm, large to cover only copper boiling surface (d = 30 mm). For each configuration, boiling curves were obtained up to the thermal crisis. For both different types of confinement, it was observed that the boiling curves match at low wall superheat, except for s = 0.5 mm, 1 mm. However, at high wall superheat, a drastic reduction in heat transfer as well as CHF appears decreasing the channel width s; for all gap sizes, this reduction is less pronounced for the smaller confinement wall (D = 30 mm). Instead, at low wall superheat for gap of 0.5 and 1.0 mm, the heat transfer coefficient is higher for diameter disc of 60 mm. CHF data were also compared with a literature correlation (Misale and al., 2009). (author)

  12. Parametric investigation on transient boiling heat transfer of metal rod cooled rapidly in water pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chi Young [Department of Fire Protection Engineering, Pukyong National University, 45, Yongso-ro, Nam-gu, Busan 48513 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sunwoo, E-mail: swkim@alaska.edu [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Alaska Fairbanks, P. O. Box 755905, Fairbanks, AK 99775-5905 (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Effects of liquid subcooling, surface coating, material property, and surface oxidation are examined. • Liquid subcooling affects remarkably the quenching phenomena. • Cr-coated surfaces for ATF might extend the quenching duration. • Solids with low heat capacity shorten the quenching duration. • Surface oxidation can affect strongly the film boiling heat transfer and MFB point. - Abstract: In this work, the effects of liquid subcooling, surface coating, material property, and surface oxidation on transient pool boiling heat transfer were investigated experimentally using the vertical metal rod and quenching method. The change in rod temperature was measured with time during quenching, and the visualization of boiling around the test specimen was performed using the high-speed video camera. As the test materials, the zircaloy (Zry), stainless steel (SS), niobium (Nb), and copper (Cu) were tested. In addition, the chromium-coated niobium (Cr-Nb) and chromium-coated stainless steel (Cr-SS) were prepared for accident tolerant fuel (ATF) application. Low liquid subcooling and Cr-coating shifted the quenching curve to the right, which indicates a prolongation of quenching duration. On the other hand, the material with small heat capacity and surface oxidation caused the quenching curve to move to the left. To examine the influence of the material property and surface oxidation on the film boiling heat transfer performance and minimum film boiling (MFB) point in more detail, the wall temperature and heat flux were calculated from the present transient temperature profile using the inverse heat transfer analysis, and then the curves of wall temperature and heat flux in the film boiling regime were obtained. In the present experimental conditions, the effect of material property on the film boiling heat transfer performance and MFB point seemed to be minor. On the other hand, based on the experimental results of the Cu test specimen, the surface

  13. Pool-Boiling Heat-Transfer Enhancement on Cylindrical Surfaces with Hybrid Wettable Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar C S, Sujith; Chang, Yao Wen; Chen, Ping-Hei

    2017-04-10

    In this study, pool-boiling heat-transfer experiments were performed to investigate the effect of the number of interlines and the orientation of the hybrid wettable pattern. Hybrid wettable patterns were produced by coating superhydrophilic SiO2 on a masked, hydrophobic, cylindrical copper surface. Using de-ionized (DI) water as the working fluid, pool-boiling heat-transfer studies were conducted on the different surface-treated copper cylinders of a 25-mm diameter and a 40-mm length. The experimental results showed that the number of interlines and the orientation of the hybrid wettable pattern influenced the wall superheat and the HTC. By increasing the number of interlines, the HTC was enhanced when compared to the plain surface. Images obtained from the charge-coupled device (CCD) camera indicated that more bubbles formed on the interlines as compared to other parts. The hybrid wettable pattern with the lowermost section being hydrophobic gave the best heat-transfer coefficient (HTC). The experimental results indicated that the bubble dynamics of the surface is an important factor that determines the nucleate boiling.

  14. New pool boiling data for water with copper-foam metal at sub-atmospheric pressures: Experiments and correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choon, Ng Kim; Chakraborty, Anutosh; Aye, Sai Maung; Xiaolin, Wang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260 (Singapore)

    2006-08-15

    Over the past decades, pool boiling heat transfer of water has been investigated extensively by many scientists and researchers at system pressures varying from atmospheric to near critical pressure. However, at sub-atmospheric pressures conditions there is a dearth of data, particularly when the vapour pressures are less than 10kPa. The authors have conducted a detailed study of pool boiling of water in an evaporator where its system pressure was about 1.8kPa. The heat flux for pool boiling was derived from an uniform radiant heaters up to 5W/cm{sup 2} (or a total heating rate of 125W within an area of 25cm{sup 2}), a region that is of interest for the cooling of CPUs. (author)

  15. The influence of film-forming amines on heat transfer during saturated pool boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Topp, Holger [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Mechanical Engineering; Steinbrecht, Dieter [Rostock Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Power and Environmental Technologies; Hater, Wolfgang [BK Giulini GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany); BK Giulini, Ludwigshafen (Germany). Water Solutions; Bache, Andre de [BK Giulini, Ludwigshafen (Germany). Water Solutions

    2010-07-15

    The heat transfer coefficients during pool boiling of water at steel heating surfaces are subject to irreversible temporal changes. The influence of the responsible physicochemical processes on the steel surface was investigated by thermo-technical measurements in a special apparatus using conditioned water. For this purpose an oxide layer, whose surface structure, composition and thickness vary with the respective kind of treatment, was generated on steel tube samples under specified conditions. Due to their surface activity, film-forming amine-based organic corrosion inhibitors feature a theoretical improvement potential regarding the heat transfer in nucleate boiling at steel heating surfaces. The intensifying impact of these filming agents on bubble evaporation during pool boiling compared to a classic water treatment was quantified in long-term tests. The impact of the corresponding conditioning program was examined and characterised by means of analytical methods. Significantly higher heat transmission coefficients were determined for film-forming amine treated tubes as compared to classic conditioning. (orig.)

  16. Heat transfer in nucleate pool boiling of aqueous SDS and triton X-100 solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasekar, Vivek M. [Tata Steel Limited, Department of Research and Development, Jamshedpur (India)

    2009-09-15

    Variation in degree of surface wettability is presented through the application of Cooper's correlative approach (h{proportional_to}M{sup -0.5}q{sub w}''0.67) for computing enhancement ({phi}) in nucleate pool boiling of aqueous solutions of SDS and Triton X-100 and its presentation with Marangoni parameter ({chi}) that represents the dynamic convection effects due to surface tension gradients. Dynamic spreading coefficient defined as {sigma} {sub dyn}N{sub a}, which relates spreading and wetting characteristics with the active nucleation site density on the heated surface and bubble evolution process, represents cavity filling and activation process and eliminates the concentration dependence of nucleate pool boiling heat transfer in boiling of aqueous surfactant solutions. Using the dynamic spreading coefficient ({sigma}{sub dyn}N{sub a}=0.09q{sub w}''0.71), correlation predictions within {+-}15% for both SDS and triton X-100 solutions for low heat flux boiling condition (q{sub w}''{<=} 100 kW/m {sup 2}) characterised primarily by isolated bubble regime are presented. (orig.)

  17. THE PREDICTION OF VOID VOLUME IN SUBCOOLED NUCLEATE POOL BOILING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duke, E. E. [General Dynamics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1963-11-15

    A three- step equation was developed that adequately describes the average volume of vapor occurring on a horizontal surface due to nucleate pool boiling of subcooled water. Since extensive bubble frequency data are lacking, the data of others were combined with experimental observations to make predictions of void volume at ambient pressure with various degrees of subcooling. (auth)

  18. Contribution to the boiling curve of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schins, H.E.J.

    1975-01-01

    Sodium in a pool was preheated to saturation temperatures at system pressures of 200, 350 and 500 torr. A test section of normal stainless steel was then extra heated by means of the conical fitting condenser zone of a heat pipe. Measurements were made of heat transfer fluxes, q in W/cm 2 , as a function of wall excess temperature above saturation, THETA = Tsub(w) - Tsub(s) in 0 C, both, in natural convection and in boiling regimes. These measurements make it possible to select the Subbotin natural convection and nucleate boiling curves among other variants proposed in literature. Further it is empirically demonstrated on water that the minimum film boiling point corresponds to the homogeneous nucleation temperature calculated by the Doering formula. Assuming that the minimum film boiling point of sodium can be obtained in the same manner, it is then possible to give an appoximate boiling curve of sodium for the use in thermal interaction studies. At 1 atm the heat transfer fluxes q versus wall temperatures THETA are for a point on the natural convection curve 0.3 W/cm 2 and 2 0 C; for start of boiling 1.6 W/cm 2 and 6 0 C; for peak heat flux 360 W/cm 2 and 37 0 C; for minimum film boiling 30 W/cm 2 and 905 0 C and for a point on the film boiling curve 160 W/cm 2 and 2,000 0 C. (orig.) [de

  19. Applications of Artificial Neural Network for the Prediction of Pool Boiling Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, Guanghui; Fukuda, K.; Morita, K.

    2002-01-01

    Artificial neural network (ANN) has the advantage that the best-fit correlations of experimental data will no longer be necessary for predicting unknowns from the known parameters. The ANN was applied to predict the pool boiling curves in this paper. The database of experimental data presented by Berenson, Dhuga et al., and Bui and Dhir etc. were used in the analysis. The database is subdivided in two subsets. The first subset is used to train the network and the second one is used to test the network after the training process. The input parameters of the ANN are: wall superheat ΔT w , surface roughness, steady/transient heating/transient cooling, subcooling, Surface inclination and pressure. The output parameter is heat flux q. The proposed methodology allows us to achieve the accuracy that satisfies the user's convergence criterion and it is suitable for pool boiling curve data processing. (authors)

  20. Effects of carbon nanotube arrays on nucleate pool boiling

    OpenAIRE

    Ujereh, Sebastine; Fisher, Timothy; Mudawar, Issam

    2007-01-01

    Experiments were performed to assess the impact coating silicon and copper substrates with nanotubes (CNTs) have on pool boiling performance. Different CNT array densities and area coverages were tested on 1.27 1.27 mm2 samples in FC-72. The CNT preparation techniques used provided strong adherence of CNTs to both substrate materials. Very small contact angle enabled deep penetration of FC-72 liquid inside surface cavities of smooth uncoated silicon surfaces, requiring unusually high surface...

  1. Investigation on the minimum film boiling temperature on metallic and ceramic heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ladisch, R.

    1980-06-01

    The minimum film boiling temperature on ceramic and metallic heaters has been experimentally studied. The knowledge of this temperature boundary is important in safety considerations on all liquid cooled nuclear reactors. The experiments have been carried out by quenching a hot metal cylinder with and without ceramic coating of aluminium in water. Results show that the minimum film boiling temperature Tsub(min) increases with water subcooling and is dependend upon the thermophysical properties of the heating surface. The roughness of the heater does not affect Tsub(min). At low subcoolings the vapour film is more stable and seems to break down when the specific heatflux upon liquid solid contact is lower than a threshold value above which film boiling can be reestablished. At higher subcoolings instead the vapour film is thinner and more stable. In this case the surface temperature decreases beyond the value by which the specific heatflux upon liquid solid contact would be lower than the threshold value. As soon as the vapour film becomes unstable, it collapses. (orig.) [de

  2. Experiments on the effects of nanoparticles on subcooled nucleate pool boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangude, Prasad; Bhatt, Dhairya; Srivastava, Atul

    2018-05-01

    The effect of nanoparticles on a single bubble-based nucleate pool boiling phenomenon under subcooled conditions has been studied. Water (as the base fluid) and two different concentrations of water-silica nanofluids (0.005% and 0.01% V/V) have been employed as the working fluids. The boiling experiments have been conducted in a specially designed chamber, wherein an ITO-coated heater substrate has been used to induce single bubble nucleation. Measurements have been performed in a completely non-intrusive manner using one of the refractive index-based diagnostics techniques, namely, rainbow schlieren deflectometry. Thus, the thermal gradients prevailing in the boiling chamber have directly been mapped as a two-dimensional distribution of hue values that are recorded in the form of rainbow schlieren images. The schlieren-based measurements clearly revealed the plausible influence of nanoparticles on the strength of temperature gradients prevailing in the boiling chamber. As compared to the base fluid, the experiments with dilute nanofluids showed that the suspended nanoparticles tend to diffuse (homogenize) the strength of temperature gradients, both in the vicinity of the heated substrate and in the thermal boundary layer enveloping the vapor bubble. An overall reduction in the bubble volume and dynamic contact angle was seen with increasing concentrations of dilute nanofluids. In addition, the vapor bubble was found to assume a more spherical shape at higher concentrations of dilute nanofluids in comparison to its shape with water-based experiments. Clear oscillations of the vapor bubble in the subcooled pool of liquids (water and/or nanofluids) were observed, the frequency of which was found to be significantly reduced as the nanoparticle concentration was increased from 0% (water) to 0.01% (V/V). A force balance analysis has been performed to elucidate the plausible mechanisms explaining the observed trends of the oscillation frequencies of the vapor bubble.

  3. Bubble Departure from Metal-Graphite Composite Surfaces and Its Effects on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, David F.; Sankovic, John M.; Motil, Brian J.; Yang, W-J.; Zhang, Nengli

    2010-01-01

    The formation and growth processes of a bubble in the vicinity of graphite micro-fiber tips on metal-graphite composite boiling surfaces and their effects on boiling behavior are investigated. It is discovered that a large number of micro bubbles are formed first at the micro scratches and cavities on the metal matrix in pool boiling. By virtue of the non-wetting property of graphite, once the growing micro bubbles touch the graphite tips, the micro bubbles are sucked by the tips and merged into larger micro bubbles sitting on the end of the tips. The micro bubbles grow rapidly and coalesce to form macro bubbles, each spanning several tips. The necking process of a detaching macro bubble is analyzed. It is revealed that a liquid jet is produced by sudden break-off of the bubble throat. The composite surfaces not only have higher temperatures in micro- and macrolayers but also make higher frequency of the bubble departure, which increase the average heat fluxes in both the bubble growth stage and in the bubble departure period. Based on these analyses, the enhancement mechanism of pool boiling heat transfer on composite surfaces is clearly revealed.

  4. Investigation on Minimum Film Boiling Point of Highly Heated Vertical Metal Rod in Aqueous Surfactant Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chi Young; Kim, Jae Han [Pukyong Nat’l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    In this study, experiments were conducted on the MFB(minimum film boiling) point of highly heated vertical metal rod quenched in aqueous surfactant solution at various temperature conditions. The aqueous Triton X-100 solution(100 wppm) and pure water were used as the liquid pool. Their temperatures ranged from 77 °C to 100 °C. A stainless steel vertical rod of initial center temperature of 500 °C was used as a test specimen. In both liquid pools, as the liquid temperature decreased, the time to reach the MFB point decreased with a parallel increase in the temperature and heat flux of the MFB point. However, over the whole present temperature range, in the aqueous Triton X-100 solution, the time to reach the MFB point was longer, while the temperature and heat flux of the MFB point were reduced when compared with pure water. Based on the present experimental data, this study proposed the empirical correlations to predict the MFB temperature of a high temperature vertical metal rod in pure water and in aqueous Triton X-100 solution.

  5. Single-bubble dynamics in pool boiling of one-component fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng; Qian, Tiezheng

    2014-01-01

    We numerically investigate the pool boiling of one-component fluids with a focus on the effects of surface wettability on the single-bubble dynamics. We employed the dynamic van der Waals theory [Phys. Rev. E 75, 036304 (2007)], a diffuse-interface model for liquid-vapor flows involving liquid-vapor transition in nonuniform temperature fields. We first perform simulations for bubbles on homogeneous surfaces. We find that an increase in either the contact angle or the surface superheating can enhance the bubble spreading over the heating surface and increase the bubble departure diameter as well and therefore facilitate the transition into film boiling. We then examine the dynamics of bubbles on patterned surfaces, which incorporate the advantages of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. The central hydrophobic region increases the thermodynamic probability of bubble nucleation while the surrounding hydrophilic region hinders the continuous bubble spreading by pinning the contact line at the hydrophobic-hydrophilic intersection. This leads to a small bubble departure diameter and therefore prevents the transition from nucleate boiling into film boiling. With the bubble nucleation probability increased and the bubble departure facilitated, the efficiency of heat transfer on such patterned surfaces is highly enhanced, as observed experimentally [Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 57, 733 (2013)]. In addition, the stick-slip motion of contact line on patterned surfaces is demonstrated in one-component fluids, with the effect weakened by surface superheating.

  6. Single-bubble dynamics in pool boiling of one-component fluids

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, Xinpeng

    2014-06-04

    We numerically investigate the pool boiling of one-component fluids with a focus on the effects of surface wettability on the single-bubble dynamics. We employed the dynamic van der Waals theory [Phys. Rev. E 75, 036304 (2007)], a diffuse-interface model for liquid-vapor flows involving liquid-vapor transition in nonuniform temperature fields. We first perform simulations for bubbles on homogeneous surfaces. We find that an increase in either the contact angle or the surface superheating can enhance the bubble spreading over the heating surface and increase the bubble departure diameter as well and therefore facilitate the transition into film boiling. We then examine the dynamics of bubbles on patterned surfaces, which incorporate the advantages of both hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces. The central hydrophobic region increases the thermodynamic probability of bubble nucleation while the surrounding hydrophilic region hinders the continuous bubble spreading by pinning the contact line at the hydrophobic-hydrophilic intersection. This leads to a small bubble departure diameter and therefore prevents the transition from nucleate boiling into film boiling. With the bubble nucleation probability increased and the bubble departure facilitated, the efficiency of heat transfer on such patterned surfaces is highly enhanced, as observed experimentally [Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 57, 733 (2013)]. In addition, the stick-slip motion of contact line on patterned surfaces is demonstrated in one-component fluids, with the effect weakened by surface superheating.

  7. Preliminary results of the US pool-boiling coils from the IFSMTF full-array tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, J.W.; Dresner, L.; Lubell, M.S.; Luton, J.N.; McManamy, T.J.; Shen, S.S.

    1986-01-01

    The Large Coil Task to develop superconducting magnets for fusion reactors, is now in the midst of full-array tests in the International Fusion Superconducting Magnet Test Facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Included in the test array are two pool-boiling coils designed and fabricated by US manufacturers, General Dynamics/Convair Division and General Electric/Union Carbide Corporation. So far, both coils have been energized to full design currents in the single-coil tests, and the General Dynamics coil has reached the design point in the first Standard-I full-array test. Both coils performed well in the charging experiments. Extensive heating tests and the heavy instrumentation of these coils have, however, revealed some generic limitations of large pool-boiling superconducting coils. Details of these results and their analyses are reported

  8. Enhancement of pool boiling heat transfer coefficients using carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ki Jung; Jung, Dong Soo

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the effect of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on nucleate boiling heat transfer is investigated. Three refrigerants of R22, R123, R134a, and water were used as working fluids and 1.0 vol.% of CNTs was added to the working fluids to examine the effect of CNTs. Experimental apparatus was composed of a stainless steel vessel and a plain horizontal tube heated by a cartridge heater. All data were obtained at the pool temperature of 7 .deg. C for all refrigerants and 100 .deg. C for water in the heat flux range of 10∼80 kW/m 2 . Test results showed that CNTs increase nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficients for all fluids. Especially, large enhancement was observed at low heat fluxes of less than 30 kW/m 2 . With increasing heat flux, however, the enhancement was suppressed due to vigorous bubble generation. Fouling on the heat transfer surface was not observed during the course of this study. Optimum quantity and type of CNTs and their dispersion should be examined for their commercial application to enhance nucleate boiling heat transfer in many applications

  9. A study on the upward and downward facing pool boiling heat transfer characteristics of graphene-modified surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hoon; Ahn, Ho Seon; Kim, Ji Min

    2016-01-01

    Recently, graphene, carbon in two dimensions, were highlighted as a good heat transfer materials, according to its high thermal conductivity. Lateral conduction and water absorption into the structure helped graphene films to inhibit the formation of hot spots, which means increasing of critical heat flux (CHF) and boiling heat transfer coefficient (BHTC) performances. In this study, we report a promising increase of CHF and BHTC results with 2D graphene films. Furthermore, we tried to observe bubble behavior via high-speed visualization to investigate a relationship between bubble behavior and pool boiling performances in downward facing boiling. The effect of graphene film coating on the pool boiling performances of upward and downward facing heater surface were examined. 2D- and 3D- graphene film showed good enhancement results on the CHF (by 111% and 60%) and BHTC (by 40% and 20-25%) performances. Bubble behavior change was significant factor on the CHF and BHTC performances in downward facing boiling. The amount of evaporation heat flux was calculated from the velocity, bubble diameter, frequency, orientation angle and superheat that the post-products of the high-speed visualization

  10. Pool boiling with high heat flux enabled by a porous artery structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lizhan; Zhang, Lianpei; Lin, Guiping; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-06-01

    A porous artery structure utilizing the concept of "phase separation and modulation" is proposed to enhance the critical heat flux of pool boiling. A series of experiments were conducted on a range of test articles in which multiple rectangular arteries were machined directly into the top surface of a 10.0 mm diameter copper rod. The arteries were then covered by a 2.0 mm thickness microporous copper plate through silver brazing. The pool wall was fabricated from transparent Pyrex glass to allow a visualization study, and water was used as the working fluid. Experimental results confirmed that the porous artery structure provided individual flow paths for the liquid supply and vapor venting, and avoided the detrimental effects of the liquid/vapor counter flow. As a result, a maximum heat flux of 610 W/cm2 over a heating area of 0.78 cm2 was achieved with no indication of dryout, prior to reaching the heater design temperature limit. Following the experimental tests, the mechanisms responsible for the boiling critical heat flux and performance enhancement of the porous artery structure were analyzed.

  11. Interfacial energies of aqueous mixtures and porous coverings for enhancing pool boiling heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melendez, Elva [CIICAp, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Morelos, 62210 (Mexico); Reyes, Rene [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Alimentos, Universidad de las Americas Puebla, Santa Catarina Martir Cholula, Puebla 72820 (Mexico)

    2006-08-15

    The interfacial energies effects on pool boiling were measured for combinations of aqueous ethanol mixtures and cationic surfactants. The mixture with 16% ethanol by weight had the lowest contact angle (associated to the highest wettability) and produced the highest convective heat transfer coefficient, h, among the aqueous ethanol mixtures. The surfactant sodium-lauryl-sulfate added at 100 ppm (its calculated critical micelle concentration CMC) to the 16% ethanol aqueous mixture produced an additional increment of the wettability of the mixture and of the h values; other concentrations of the surfactant reduced de contact angle and h values. The effect of these interfacial energies represents a mass-transfer contribution to pool boiling and the proposal of mixture effects both as increased spreadability and as micelle states. Several randomly constructed porous coverings, contributing to the breakage of vapor slugs around the heater, were tested; produced the highest h values for average pore diameters of 0.5 mm, and covering thickness of 0.972 mm. The synergistic effect on h of the interfacial energies of mixtures at their critical micelle concentration, and porous coverings was measured. Therefore, the independent driving forces combined in this study for increasing pool boiling heat transfer are (a) spreadability of the liquid on the solid; (b) the bubble's size reduction, achieved by micelle states; and (c) the bubble's breakage, induced by the porous coverings, for vapor flow not under pressure drop control. (author)

  12. Pool boiling performance of NovecTM 649 engineered fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, Eric; Buongiorno, Jacopo; McKrell, Thomas; Hu, Lin-Wen

    2009-01-01

    A new fluorinated ketone, C 2 F 5 C(O)CF(CF 3 ) 2 , is currently being considered as an environmentally friendly alternative for power electronics cooling applications due to its high dielectric strength and low global warming potential (GWP). Sold commercially by the 3M Company as Novec TM 649 Engineered Fluid, C 2 F 5 C(O)CF(CF 3 ) 2 exhibits very low acute toxicity while maintaining long-term stability. To assess the general two-phase heat transfer performance of Novec TM 649, pool boiling tests were conducted by resistively heating a 0.01 in. diameter nickel wire at the fluid's atmospheric saturation temperature of 49 deg C. The nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficient and critical heat flux (CHF) obtained for the fluorinated ketone compare favorably with results obtained for FC-72, a fluorocarbon widely used for the direct cooling of electronic devices. Initial results indicate that Novec TM 649 may prove to be a viable alternative to FC-72 and other halo alkanes for the cooling of high power density electronic devices. (author)

  13. Visualization of nucleate pool boiling of freon 113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afify, M.A.; Fruman, D.H.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to give a fine description of the behaviour of vapour bubbles in nucleate pool boiling at sites of known sizes using high speed photography. The shapes and growth history of isolated bubbles were determined for a variety of experimental conditions. Coalescence effects between two adjacent or consecutive bubbles were also visualized and the occurrence of vapour patches and continuous vapour columns was demonstrated. Quantitative analysis of the films allows to determine the history and nucleation characteristics of bubbles as a function of various parameters such as heat flux, liquid subcooling and size and nature of nucleation sites. These results are in good agreement with those found in the literature

  14. Heat transfer in pool boiling liquid neon, deuterium and hydrogen, and critical heat flux in forced convection of liquid neon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Astruc, J.M.

    1967-12-01

    In the first part, free-convection and nucleate pool boiling heat transfer (up to burn-out heat flux) between a platinum wire of 0.15 mm in diameter in neon, deuterium and hydrogen has been studied at atmospheric pressure. These measurements were continued in liquid neon up to 23 bars (Pc ≅ 26.8 b). Film boiling heat transfer coefficients have been measured in pool boiling liquid neon at atmospheric pressure with three heating wires (diameters 0.2, 0.5, 2 mm). All the results have been compared with existing correlations. The second part is devoted to measurements of the critical heat flux limiting heat transfer with small temperature differences between the wall and the liquid neon flowing inside a tube (diameters 3 x 3.5 mm) heated by joule effect on 30 cm of length. Influences of flow stability, nature of electrical current, pressure, mass flow rate and subcooling are shown. In conclusion, the similarity of the heat transfer characteristics in pool boiling as well as in forced convection of liquid neon and hydrogen is emphasized. (author) [fr

  15. Pool boiling from rotating and stationary spheres in liquid nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuan, Winston M.; Schwartz, Sidney H.

    1988-01-01

    Results are presented for a preliminary experiment involving saturated pool boiling at 1 atm from rotating 2 and 3 in. diameter spheres which were immersed in liquid nitrogen (LN2). Additional results are presented for a stationary, 2 inch diameter sphere, quenched in LN2, which were obtained utilizing a more versatile and complete experimental apparatus that will eventually be used for additional rotating sphere experiments. The speed for the rotational tests was varied from 0 to 10,000 rpm. The stationary experiments parametrically varied pressure and subcooling levels from 0 to 600 psig and from 0 to 50 F, respectively. During the rotational tests, a high speed photographic analysis was undertaken to measure the thickness of the vapor film surrounding the sphere. The average Nusselt number over the cooling period was plotted against the rotational Reynolds number. Stationary sphere results included local boiling heat transfer coefficients at different latitudinal locations, for various pressure and subcooling levels.

  16. Neutralized wettability effect of superhydrophilic Cr-layered surface on pool boiling critical heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Hong Hyun; Jeong, Ui Ju; Seo, Gwang Hyeok; Jeun, Gyoo Dong; Kim, Sung Joong

    2016-01-01

    The former method is deemed challenging due to longer development period and license issue. In this regard, FeCrAl, Cr, and SiC have been received positive attention as ATF coating materials because they are highly resistant to high temperature steam reaction causing massive hydrogen generation. In this study, Cr was selected as a target deposition material on the metal substrate because we found that Cr-layered surface becomes superhydrophilic, favorable to delaying the triggering of the critical heat flux (CHF). Thus in order to investigate the effect of Cr-layered superhydrophilic surfaces (under explored coating conditions) on pool boiling heat transfer, pool boiling experiment was conducted in the saturated deionized water under atmospheric pressure. As a physical vapor deposition (PVD) method, the DC magnetron sputtering technique was introduced to develop Cr-layered nanostructure. As a control variable of DC sputtering, substrate temperature was selected. Surface wettability and nanostructure were analyzed as major surface parameters on the CHF. We believe that highly dense micro/nano structure without nucleation cavities and inner pores neutralized the wettability effect on the CHF. Moreover, superhydrophilic surface with deficient cavity density rather hinders active nucleation. This emphasizes the importance of micro/nano structure surface for enhanced boiling heat transfer.

  17. Measurement of key pool boiling parameters in nanofluids for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, In Cheol; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-Wen; Wang, Hsin

    2007-01-01

    Nanofluids, colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in a base fluid such as water, can afford very significant Critical Heat Flux (CHF) enhancement. Such engineered fluids potentially could be employed in reactors as advanced coolants in safety systems with significant safety and economic advantages. However, a satisfactory explanation of the CHF enhancement mechanism in nanofluids is lacking. To close this gap, we have identified the important boiling parameters to be measured and have deployed a pool boiling facility to measure them. The facility is equipped with a thin indium-tin-oxide heater deposited over a sapphire substrate. An intra-red high-speed camera and an optical probe are used to measure the temperature distribution on the heater and the hydrodynamics above the heater, respectively. The first data generated with this facility already provide some clue on the CHF enhancement mechanism in nanofluids. (author)

  18. A theoretical prediction of critical heat flux in subcooled pool boiling during power transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Nelson, R.A.; Gunnerson, F.S.

    1988-01-01

    Understanding and predicting critical heat flux (CHF) behavior during steady-state and transient conditions are of fundamenatal interest in the design, operation, safety of boiling and two-phase flow devices. This paper discusses the results of a comprehensive theoretical study made specifically to model transient CHF behavior in subcooled pool boiling. This study is based upon a simplified steady-state CHF model in terms of the vapor mass growth period. The results obtained from this theory indicate favorable agreement with the experimental data from cylindrical heaters with small radii. The statistical nature of the vapor mass behavior in transient boiling also is considered and upper and lower limits for the current theory are established. Various factors that affect the discrepancy between the data and the theory are discussed

  19. Heat transfer coefficient in pool boiling for an electrically heated tube at various inclinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, A.S.A.; Mariy, A.H.; Mahmoud, S.I.; Ibrahim, N.A.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental investigation is carried out study the behaviour of heat transfer in pool boiling from a vertical and inclined heated tube at atmospheric pressure. An imperial correlation joining the different parameters affecting the heat transfer coefficient in pool boiling for an electrically heated tube at various inclinations is developed. Two test sections (zircaloy-4 and stainless steel) of 16 n n outer diameter and 120 nm length are investigated. Four levels of heat flux are used for heating the two lest sections (e.g. 381, 518, 721 and 929 k.watt/n 2). The maximum surface temperature achieved is 146.5 degree c for both materials, and the maximum bulk temperature is 95 degree C. It is found that the average heat transfer coefficient is inversely proportional with heated length l, where it reaches a constant value in the horizontal position. The heat transfer coefficient curves at various inclinations with respect to the heated tube length pass around one point which is defined as limit length

  20. Influence of the Particle Length of Carbon Nanotube for Pool Boiling Critical Heat Flux Enhancement of Nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sung Seek; Kim, Yong Hwan; Kim, Nam Jin

    2013-01-01

    The results of this experiment were that the CHF of the two nanofluids increased along with the volumetric fraction until 0.001 vol%, and the two types of nanofluids are the highest CHF at 0.001 vol%. Also, the results show clearly that the rate of CHF increase of the CM-100 MWCNT nanofluid with longer-length nanoparticles is higher than that of the CM-95 MWNCT nanofluid. These results indicate that the length of carbon nanotube influences the pool boiling CHF of carbon nanotube nanofluid and that long-length MWCNT, as above-noted, offers a superior effect in this regard. Boiling heat transfer is used in a variety of industrial processes and applications, such as refrigeration, power generation, heat exchangers, cooling of high-power electronics components and cooling of nuclear reactors. The critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon is the thermal limit during a boiling heat transfer phase change; at the CHF point the heat transfer is maximised, followed by a drastic degradation after the CHF point. The consequence is a substantial increase in wall temperature which may result in physical failure phenomenon of heat transfer systems. Therefore, the CHF is important being considered in the cooling device design, such as nuclear reactor and nuclear fuels, steam generators, high-density electronic component, etc. And, CHF enhancement is essential for safety of heat transfer system. Recently, CHF reported increased when applied to the nanofluids, with its high (higher-than-base-fluid) thermal characteristic in the nuclear power plant system. Therefore, in this study, carried out the pool boiling CHF experiments by the particle length using carbon nanotube nanofluids, and the results are compared and analyzed for the CHF enhancement. The pool boiling CHF of experiments of carbon nanotube nanofluids carried out by the length of particles and the various concentrations

  1. Liquid-solid contact measurements using a surface thermocouple temperature probe in atmospheric pool boiling water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, L.Y.W.; Chen, J.C.; Nelson, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Objective was to apply the technique of using a microthermocouple flush-mounted at the boiling surface for the measurement of the local-surface-temperature history in film and transition boiling on high temperature surfaces. From this measurement direct liquid-solid contact in film and transition boiling regimes was observed. In pool boiling of saturated, distilled, deionized water on an aluminum-coated copper surface, the time-averaged, local-liquid-contact fraction increased with decreasing surface superheat. Average contact duration increased monotonically with decreasing surface superheat, while frequency of liquid contact reached a maximum of approx. 50 contacts/s at a surface superheat of approx. 100 K and decreased gradually to 30 contacts/s near the critical heat flux. The liquid-solid contact duration distribution was dominated by short contacts 4 ms at low surface superheats, passing through a relatively flat contact duration distribution at about 80 0 K. Results of this paper indicate that liquid-solid contacts may be the dominant mechanism for energy transfer in the transition boiling process

  2. Pool boiling characteristics and critical heat flux mechanisms of microporous surfaces and enhancement through structural modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Minseok; Graham, Samuel

    2017-08-01

    Experimental studies have shown that microporous surfaces induce one of the highest enhancements in critical heat flux (CHF) during pool boiling. However, microporous surfaces may also induce a very large surface superheat (>100 °C) which is not desirable for applications such as microelectronics cooling. While the understanding of the CHF mechanism is the key to enhancing boiling heat transfer, a comprehensive understanding is not yet available. So far, three different theories for the CHF of microporous surfaces have been suggested: viscous-capillary model, hydrodynamic instability model, and dryout of the porous coatings. In general, all three theories account for some aspects of boiling phenomena. In this study, the theories are examined through their correlations with experimental data on microporous surfaces during pool boiling using deionized (DI) water. It was found that the modulation of the vapor-jet through the pore network enables a higher CHF than that of a flat surface based on the hydrodynamic instability theory. In addition, it was found that as the heat flux increases, a vapor layer grows in the porous coatings described by a simple thermal resistance model which is responsible for the large surface superheat. Once the vapor layer grows to fill the microporous structure, transition to film boiling occurs and CHF is reached. By disrupting the formation of this vapor layer through the fabrication of channels to allow vapor escape, an enhancement in the CHF and heat transfer coefficient was observed, allowing CHF greater than 3500 kW/m2 at a superheat less than 50 °C.

  3. Pool Boiling of Hydrocarbon Mixtures on Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boee, R.

    1996-09-01

    In maritime transport of liquefied natural gas (LNG) there is a risk of spilling cryogenic liquid onto water. The present doctoral thesis discusses transient boiling experiments in which liquid hydrocarbons were poured onto water and left to boil off. Composition changes during boiling are believed to be connected with the initiation of rapid phase transition in LNG spilled on water. 64 experimental runs were carried out, 14 using pure liquid methane, 36 using methane-ethane, and 14 using methane-propane binary mixtures of different composition. The water surface was open to the atmosphere and covered an area of 200 cm{sup 2} at 25 - 40{sup o}C. The heat flux was obtained by monitoring the change of mass vs time. The void fraction in the boiling layer was measured with a gamma densitometer, and a method for adapting this measurement concept to the case of a boiling cryogenic liquid mixture is suggested. Significant differences in the boil-off characteristics between pure methane and binary mixtures revealed by previous studies are confirmed. Pure methane is in film boiling, whereas the mixtures appear to enter the transitional boiling regime with only small amounts of the second component added. The results indicate that the common assumption that LNG will be in film boiling on water because of the high temperature difference, may be questioned. Comparison with previous work shows that at this small scale the results are influenced by the experimental apparatus and procedures. 66 refs., 76 figs., 28 tabs.

  4. The influence of surface roughness and solution concentration on pool boiling process in Diethanolamine aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoshechin, Mohsen; Salimi, Farhad; Jahangiri, Alireza

    2018-04-01

    In this research, the effect of surface roughness and concentration of solution on bubble departing frequency and nucleation site density for pool boiling of water/diethanolamine (DEA) binary solution were investigated experimentally. In this investigation, boiling heat transfer coefficient, bubble departing frequency and nucleation site density have been experimentally investigated in various concentrations and heat fluxes. Microstructured surfaces with a wide range of well-defined surface roughness were fabricated, and a heat flux between 1.5-86 kW/m2 was achieved under atmospheric conditions. The Results indicated that surface roughness and concentration of solution increase the bubble departing frequency and nucleation site density with increasing heat flux. The boiling heat transfer coefficient in mixtures of water/DEA increases with increasing concentration of DEA in water. The experimental results were compared with predictions of several used correlations in the literatures. Results showed that the boiling heat transfer coefficients of this case study are much higher than the predicted values by major existing correlations and models. The excellent agreement for bubble departing frequency found between the models of Jackob and Fritz (1966) and experimental data and also the nucleation site density were in close agreement with the model of Paul (1983) data. f bubble departure frequency, 1/s or Hz N Number of nucleation sites per area per time R c Minimum cavity size, m D c critical diameter, m g gravitational acceleration, m/s2 ρ density, kg/m3 T temperature, °c ΔT temperature difference, °c d d vapor bubble diameter, m h fg enthalpy of vaporization, J/kg R Roughness, μm Ja Jakob number cp specific heat, J/kg °c Pr Prandtl number Ar Archimedes number h Heat transfer coefficient, J/(m2 °c) tg time it takes to grow a bubble, s q/A heat flux (kW/m2) tw time required to heat the layer, s gc Correction coefficient of incompatible units R a Surface

  5. A New Correlation to Predict Nucleate Pool Boiling Heat Transfer in Vertical Annuli with Closed Bottoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    2012-01-01

    It is important to find a way of enhancing heat transfer coefficients if the space for heat exchanger installation is limited, as it is in advanced light water reactors. One of the effective methods to increase heat transfer coefficients ( h b ) of pool boiling is to consider a confined space. It is well known from the literature that the confined boiling is an effective technique to enhance heat transfer. Once the flow inlet at the tube bottom is closed, a very rapid increase in heat transfer coefficient is observed at low heat fluxes ( q ' ). The similar tendency is observed regardless of the geometric shape. Yao and Chang and Kang investigated a vertical annulus while Rops et al. investigated a confined plate. Fujita et al., in other wise, used parallel plates with side and bottom inflow is restricted. Around the upper region of the annulus with closed bottoms the downward liquid interrupts the upward movement of the bubble slugs. Thereafter, bubbles are coalescing into much bigger bubbles while fluctuating up and down in the annular space. As the heat flux increases (1) the isolate bubble region, (2) the coalesced big size bubble region, and (3) the dryout region is observed in series. The major causes of the heat transfer enhancement are related with the liquid film evaporation and active liquid agitation. Literature review on the previous studies about crevice effects on pool boiling denotes that heat transfer is highly dependent on the geometric parameters. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify the effect of each geometric parameter to estimate heat transfer coefficients accurately. Although some correlations were developed to predict pool boiling heat transfer in confined spaces based on open bottoms, the application of them to a confined space with closed bottoms could result in much error. To overcome the limits of the published correlations, Kang developed a correlation to predict pool boiling heat transfer in annuli with closed bottoms. However, the

  6. Development of Empirical Correlation to Calculate Pool Boiling Heat Transfer of Tandem Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myeong-Gie [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The heat exchanging tubes are in vertical alignment. For the cases, the upper tube is affected by the lower tube. Since heat transfer is closely related to the conditions of tube surface, bundle geometry, and liquid, lots of studies have been carried out for the several decades to investigate the combined effects of those factors on pool boiling heat transfer. One of the most important parameters in the analysis of a tube array is the pitch ( P ) between tubes. Many researchers have been investigated its effect on heat transfer enhancement for the tube bundles and the tandem tubes. The effect of a tube array on heat transfer enhancement was also studied for application to the flooded evaporators. Cornwell and Schuller studied the sliding bubbles by high speed photography to account the enhancement of heat transfer observed at the upper tubes of a bundle. The study by Memory et al. shows the effects of the enhanced surface and oil adds to the heat transfer of tube bundles. They identified that, for the structured and porous bundles, oil addition leads to a steady decrease in performance. The flow boiling of n-pentane across a horizontal tube bundle was investigated experimentally by Roser et al. They identified that convective evaporation played a significant part of the total heat transfer. The fouling of the tube bundle under pool boiling was also studied by Malayeri et al. They identified that the mechanisms of fouling on the middle and top heater substantially differ from those at the bottom heater.

  7. Pool boiling of nanoparticle-modified surface with interlaced wettability

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Chin-Chi; Su, Tsung-Wen; Chen, Ping-Hei

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the pool boiling heat transfer under heating surfaces with various interlaced wettability. Nano-silica particles were used as the coating element to vary the interlaced wettability of the surface. The experimental results revealed that when the wettability of a surface is uniform, the critical heat flux increases with the more wettable surface; however, when the wettability of a surface is modified interlacedly, regardless of whether the modified region becomes more hydrophilic or hydrophobic, the critical heat flux is consistently higher than that of the isotropic surface. In addition, this study observed that critical heat flux was higher when the contact angle difference between the plain surface and the modified region was smaller. © 2012 Hsu et al.

  8. Pool boiling performance of Novec{sup TM} 649 engineered fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forrest, Eric; Buongiorno, Jacopo; McKrell, Thomas [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering; Hu, Lin-Wen [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge (United States). Nuclear Reactor Lab.], e-mail: lwhu@mit.edu

    2009-07-01

    A new fluorinated ketone, C{sub 2}F{sub 5}C(O)CF(CF{sub 3}){sub 2}, is currently being considered as an environmentally friendly alternative for power electronics cooling applications due to its high dielectric strength and low global warming potential (GWP). Sold commercially by the 3M Company as Novec{sup TM} 649 Engineered Fluid, C{sub 2}F{sub 5}C(O)CF(CF{sub 3}){sub 2} exhibits very low acute toxicity while maintaining long-term stability. To assess the general two-phase heat transfer performance of Novec{sup TM} 649, pool boiling tests were conducted by resistively heating a 0.01 in. diameter nickel wire at the fluid's atmospheric saturation temperature of 49 deg C. The nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficient and critical heat flux (CHF) obtained for the fluorinated ketone compare favorably with results obtained for FC-72, a fluorocarbon widely used for the direct cooling of electronic devices. Initial results indicate that Novec{sup TM} 649 may prove to be a viable alternative to FC-72 and other halo alkanes for the cooling of high power density electronic devices. (author)

  9. Pool boiling performance of lithium bromide solution on enhanced tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Yong Sub; Kim, Nae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, pool boiling heat transfer coefficients of LiBr solution were obtained for smooth, corrugated, floral and low fin tubes. Test range covered saturation pressure from 7.38 kPa to 101.3 kPa, LiBr concentration from 0% to 50%. Low fin tube yielded the highest heat transfer coefficient followed by floral, corrugated and smooth tube. The sequence was the same independent of saturation pressure or LiBr concentration. For the low fin tube, the heat transfer enhancement ratio ranged from 1.34 to 2.37. Those of floral tube are 1.16 to 1.64 and those of corrugated tube are 0.90 to 1.43. The enhancement ratio decreased as LiBr concentration increased. No general trend is observed for the effect of saturation pressure. Exceptionally high heat transfer coefficient was obtained for the low fin tube in pure water. The reason may be attributed to many small bubbles at high frequency due to the existence of low fins. Boiling heat transfer correlations were developed which are applicable for saturation pressure from 7.38 kPa to 101.3 kPa and LiBr concentration from 0% to 50%.

  10. Flow behavior of volume-heated boiling pools: implications with respect to transition phase accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ginsberg, T.; Jones, O.C. Jr.; Chen, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Observations of two-phase flow fields in single-component volume-heated boiling pools were made. Photographic observations, together with pool-average void fraction measurements, indicate that the churn-turbulent flow regime is stable for superficial vapor velocities up to nearly five times the Kutateladze dispersal limit. Within this range of conditions, a churn-turbulent drift flux model provides a reasonable prediction of the pool-average void fraction data. An extrapolation of the data to transition phase accident conditions suggests that intense boilup could occur where the pool-average void fraction would be >0.6 for steel vaporization rates equivalent to power levels >1% of nominal liquid-metal fast breeder reactor power density. The extended stability of bubbly flow to unusually large vapor fluxes and void fractions, observed in some experiments, is a major unresolved issue

  11. An experimental study on pool boiling characteristics of carbon nano tube (CNT) and fullerene (C-60) nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ai, Melani

    2009-02-01

    In recent years, it was found that pool boiling critical heat flux (CHF) increases in nanofluids. The CHF conditions are important for safe and economic design of many heat transfer units including nuclear reactor. In this study, our objective is to evaluate the impact of Carbone Nano Tubes (Singlewalled CNTs and Multiwalled CNTs) and Fullerene (C-60) nanofluids at different particle concentration on pool boiling critical heat flux experimentally at saturated conditions. Multiwalled CNT and fullerene (C-60) added in the pure water at three volume concentrations (0.01%, 0.001%, and 0.0001%). Singlewalled CNT nanoparticles added in the pure water at two volume concentrations (0.0005%, and 0.0001%). For the dispersion of nanoparticles in pure water, several treatments were performed. Multiwalled CNTs and Fullerene (C-60) prepared using acid treatment, meanwhile two treatment are using for Singlewalled CNTs: (1)Singlewalled CNTs prepared using polymer treatment, (2)Singlewalled CNTs prepared using pre polymerization of micelle treatment. The zeta potential of CNTs and Fullerene nanofluids were in the range of 13-71 mV. The zeta potential of nanofluids was constant for more than one month. It concludes that the treatment has been succeeded produces water dispersible CNTs and Fullerene nanofluids with good stability. The critical heat flux (CHFs) of the solution is enhanced greatly for all nanofluids. Enhanced (∼167.9%) CHF was observed for solutions with Multiwalled CNT nanoparticles with concentration 0.01 vol%. Enhanced (∼109.4%) CHF was observed for solutions with Singlewalled CNT nanoparticles with concentration 0.0005 vol%. Enhanced (∼108.9%) CHF was observed for solutions with Fullerene nanoparticles with concentration 0.01 vol%. The pool boiling Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTCs) of the CNTs nanofluids are lower than those of pure water in the entire nucleate boiling regime. On the other hand, the pool boiling HTCs of Fullerene nanofluids are higher than

  12. Numerical modeling of the effect of surface topology on the saturated pool nucleate boiling curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, C.; Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.

    1993-01-01

    A numerical study of saturated pool nucleate boiling with an emphasis on the effect of surface topography is presented. The numerical model consisted of solving the three-dimensional transient heat conduction equation within the heater subjected to nucleate boiling over its upper surface. The surface topography model considered the distribution of the cavity and cavity angles based on exponential and normal probability functions. Parametric results showed that the saturated nucleate boiling curve shifted left and became steeper with an increase in the mean cavity radius. The boiling curve was found to be sensitive to the selection of how many cavities were selected for each octagonal cell. A small variation in the statistical parameters, especially cavity radii for smooth surfaces, resulted in noticeable differences in wall superheat for a given heat flux. This result indicated that while the heat transfer coefficient increased with cavity radii, the cavity radii or height alone was not sufficient to characterize the boiling curve. It also suggested that statistical experimental data should consider large samples to characterize the surface topology. The boiling curve shifted to the right when the cavity angle was obtained using a normal distribution. This effect became less important when the number of cavities for each cell was increasing because the probability of the potential cavity with a larger radius in each cell was increased. When the contact angle of the fluid decreased for a given mean cavity radii, the boiling curve shifted to the right. This shift was more pronounced at smaller mean cavity radii and decreased with increasing mean cavity radii

  13. A theoretical prediction of critical heat flux in saturated pool boiling during power transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Nelson, R.A.; Gunnerson, F.S.

    1987-01-01

    Understanding and predicting critical heat flux (CHF) behavior during steady-state and transient conditions is of fundamental interest in the design, operation, and safety of boiling and two-phase flow devices. Presented within this paper are the results of a comprehensive theoretical study specifically conducted to model transient CHF behavior in saturated pool boiling. Thermal energy conduction within a heating element and its influence on the CHF are also discussed. The resultant theory provides new insight into the basic physics of the CHF phenomenon and indicates favorable agreement with the experimental data from cylindrical heaters with small radii. However, the flat-ribbon heater data compared poorly with the present theory, although the general trend was predicted. Finally, various factors that affect the discrepency between the data and the theory are listed

  14. Investigation of the minimum film boiling temperature of water during rewetting under forced convective conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.C.; Bartsch, G.; Wang, B.X.

    1992-01-01

    The minimum film boiling temperature of water has been measured on a copper hollow cylinder of 50 mm length with the mass flux rate ranging from 25 to 500 kg/m 2 s and the pressure from 0.1 to 1.0 MPa at subcoolings of 5 to 50 K. Film boiling is established with help of a temperature-controlled system. Rewetting can be initiated by cutting off or very gradually reducing the power supply to the test section. A numerical method for solving the two-dimensional nonlinear inverse heat conduction problem is utilized in the data reduction, taking into account the axial heat conduction. The results are compared with the steady-state maximum transition boiling temperatures measured on the same test section and with the true quench temperatures available in the literature so far. (4 figures, 1 table) (Author)

  15. Subcooled Pool Boiling from Two Tubes of 6 Degree Included Angle in Vertical Alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myeong-Gie [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    One of the major issues in the design of a heat exchanger is the heat transfer in a tube bundle. The passive condensation heat exchanger (PCHX) adopted in APR+ has U-type tube. The PCHX is submerged in the passive condensation cooling tank (PCCT). The heat exchanging tubes are in vertical alignment and inclined at 3 degrees to prevent water hammer as shown in Fig. 1. For the cases, the upper tube is affected by the lower tube. Therefore, the results for a single tube are not applicable to the design of the PCHX. However, the passive heat exchangers are submerged in the subcooled water under atmospheric pressure. The water temperature in the PCCT rises according to the PAFS actuation and reaches the saturation temperature after more than 2.5 hours. Since this period is very important to maintain reactor integrity, the exact evaluation of heat transfer on the tube bundle is indispensable. Although an experimental study on both subcooled and saturated pool boiling of water was performed to obtain local heat transfer coefficients on a 3 degree inclined tube at atmospheric pressure by Kang, no previous results were treating the bundle effect in the subcooled liquid. The heat transfer on the upper tube is enhanced compared with the single tube. The enhancement of the heat transfer on the upper tube is estimated by the bundle effect ( h{sub r} ). It is defined as the ratio of the heat transfer coefficient ( h{sub b} ) for an upper tube in a bundle with lower tubes activated to that for the same tube activated alone in the bundle. The upper tube within a tube bundle can significantly increase nucleated boiling heat transfer compared to the lower tubes at moderate heat fluxes. Summarizing the published results, it is still necessary to identify effects of liquid subcooling on inclined tubes for application to the PCHX design. Therefore, the present study is aimed to study the variations of pool boiling heat transfer on a tube bundle having a 6 degree included angle in

  16. Fouling of Structured Surfaces during Pool Boiling of Aqueous Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esawy, M.

    2011-01-01

    Bubble characteristics in terms of density, size, frequency and motion are key factors that contribute to the superiority of nucleate pool boiling over the other modes of heat transfer. Nevertheless, if heat transfer occurs in an environment which is prone to fouling, the very same parameters may lead to accelerated deposit formation due to concentration effects beneath the growing bubbles. This has led heat exchanger designers frequently to maintain the surface temperature below the boiling point if fouling occurs, e.g. in thermal seawater desalination plants. The present study investigates the crystallization fouling of various structured surfaces during nucleate pool boiling of CaSO 4 solutions to shed light into their fouling behaviour compared with that of plain surfaces for the same operating conditions. As for the experimental part, a comprehensive set of clean and fouling experiments was performed rigorously. The structured tubes included low finned tubes of different fin densities, heights and materials and re-entrant cavity Turbo-B tube types.The fouling experiments were carried out at atmospheric pressure for different heat fluxes ranging from 100 to 300 k W/m 2 and CaSO 4 concentrations of 1.2 and 1.6 g/L. For the sake of comparison, similar runs were performed on plain stainless steel and copper tubes.Overall for the finned tubes, the experimental results showed a significant reduction of fouling resistances of up to 95% compared to those of the stainless steel and copper plain tubes. In addition, the scale formation that occurred on finned tubes was primarily a scattered and thin crystalline layer which differs significantly from those of plain tubes which suffered from a thick and homogenous layer of deposit with strong adhesion. Higher fin densities and lower fin heights always led to better antifouling performance for all investigated finned tubes. It was also shown that the surface material strongly affects the scale formation of finned tubes i

  17. Experimental investigation of tube length effect on nucleate pool boiling heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong-Gie

    1998-01-01

    The effect of a vertically installed tube length on the nucleate pool boiling heat transfer coefficient under atmospheric pressure has been empirically obtained using various combination of major parameters for application to advanced light water reactor design. The experimental data for q'' versus ΔT test are counted as 1,063 points and can cover the extent of D = 9.7 ∼ 25.4 mm, ε = 15.1 ∼ 60.9 nm, H = 5.25 ∼ 30.93, and q'' ≤ 160 kW/m 2 . The experimental results show that a shorter tube is more efficient to increase heat transfer rate due to smaller bubble slug formation on the tube surface. The effect of tube length is greatly observed before H(= L/D) gets 50. After that, the heat flux decreases linearly with H increase. To quantify tube length effect, a new empirical correlation has been developed based on the experimental data bank for pool boiling heat transfer and some parametric studies have been done using the newly developed empirical correlation to broaden its applicability. The newly developed empirical correlation has the form of q'' 0.019ε 0.570 ΔT 4.676 /(D 1.238 H 0.072 ) and can predict the experimental data within ± 20% bound. Heat transfer characteristics can be changed with tube length variation and the transition point is H ∼ 50. Before the transition point, bubble coalescence is active and heat transfer rate gets rapidly decreased with increasing tube length. After that, heat transfer gets somewhat slowly decreased since bubble coalescence effect gets nearly equilibrium with liquid agitation effect

  18. Experimental investigation of time and repeated cycles in nucleate pool boiling of alumina/water nanofluid on polished and machined surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajabzadeh Dareh, F.; Haghshenasfard, M.; Nasr Esfahany, M.; Salimi Jazi, H.

    2018-06-01

    Pool boiling heat transfer of pure water and nanofluids on a copper block has been studied experimentally. Nanofluids with various concentrations of 0.0025, 0.005 and 0.01 vol.% are employed and two simple surfaces (polished and machined copper surface) are used as the heating surfaces. The results indicated that the critical heat flux (CHF) in boiling of fluids on the polished surface is 7% higher than CHF on the machined surface. In the case of machined surface, the heat transfer coefficient (HTC) of 0.01 vol.% nanofluid is about 37% higher than HTC of base fluid, while in the polished surface the average HTC of 0.01% nanofluid is about 19% lower than HTC of the pure water. The results also showed that the boiling time and boiling cycles on the polished surface changes the heat transfer performance. By increasing the boiling time from 5 to 10 min, the roughness enhances about 150%, but by increasing the boiling time to 15 min, the roughness enhancement is only 8%.

  19. Steady-state pool boiling heat transfer on nicr wire surface submerged in Al2O3 nano-fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dereje Shiferaw; Hyun Sun Park; Bal Raj Sehgal

    2005-01-01

    found in similar experiments with distilled water. The experiments have also shown that if some nano-particles stick to the surface of the hot sphere (in the event that the surface is not washed in-between the experiments), film boiling practically disappears and the quench proceeds very rapidly. Both of these results offer possibilities: the greater stability of film could suppress steam explosions or decrease the range where they occur; the rapid quenching could provide faster coolability of a degraded core in the early part of the severe accident, when most fuel bundles are still standing but are close to the Zircaloy oxidation temperature. In this study, pool boiling heat transfer of Al 2 O 3 nano-fluids is investigated. The experiment was performed in a pool boiling test facility which consists of a test vessel, a NiCr wire, a DC power supply with variable current up to 20 A, a data acquisition system for the measurement of temperatures and a CCD high-speed camera (up to 8000 fps). The Al 2 O 3 particles with an average size of 33 nm are dispersed by Ultrasonic vibrator into distilled water to prepare the nano-fluids having very dilute concentrations of 0.01 to 1.0 g/liter. In this paper, the nucleate pool boiling heat transfer process on a thin wire surface at atmospheric pressure in dilute Al 2 O 3 nano-fluids is observed and carefully analyzed. In addition, the effects of different parameters contributing to CHF are investigated to understand the CHF enhancement in nano-fluids. Pictures taken with a high-speed CCD camera for the vapor characteristics such as vapor formation, departure and accumulation rates are analyzed. (authors)

  20. Surface wettability and subcooling on nucleate pool boiling heat transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suroto, Bambang Joko; Kohno, Masamichi; Takata, Yasuyuki

    2018-02-01

    The effect of varying surface wettabilities and subcooling on nucleate pool boiling heat transfer at intermediate heat flux has been examined and investigated. The experiments were performed using pure water as the working fluid and subcooling ranging from 0, 5 and 10 K, respectively. The three types of heat transfer block were used that are bare surface/hydrophilic (polished copper), superhydrophilic/TiO2-coated on copper and hydrophobic/PTFE surface. The experimental results will be examined by the existing model. The results show that the heat transfer performance of surfaces with PTFE coating is better at low heat flux. While for an intermediate heat flux, superhydrophilic surface (TiO2) is superior compared to hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. It is observed that the heat transfer performance is decreasing when the sub cooling degree is increased.

  1. Study of heat transfer in the heating wall during nucleate pool boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergez, W.

    1991-12-01

    The subject of this these is to show the role of heat transfer in the wall during saturated pool boiling. This effect, usually neglected in the modelizations of boiling, can explain some behaviours of the ebullition cycle and of the activities of nucleation sites. Il has been found that the ebullition cycle can be described by two steps: (1) during bubble growth, the wall temperature decreases due to the evaporation of the micro-layer at the base of the bubble; (2) initial superheat is re-established mainly by radial heat conduction in the wall. It is then possible to account for the variations of the wall temperature displayed by liquid crystals put a the bottom of the heating surface, and for the influence of the contact angle on the heat transfer. In the case of the infinitely thick wall the main results are that the thermal transfer during the growth of the bubble depends on the thermal properties of both wall and liquid and that the time separating the detachment of a bubble and its replacement by a new one is proportional to the cross-section of the bubble and to the thermal diffusivity of the wall

  2. Investigation on Active Thermal Control Method with Pool Boiling Heat Transfer at Low Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chuang; Guo, Dong; Wang, Zhengyu; Sun, Fengxian

    2018-06-01

    In order to maintain a desirable temperature level of electronic equipment at low pressure, the thermal control performance with pool boiling heat transfer of water was examined based on experimental measurement. The total setup was designed and performed to accomplish the experiment with the pressure range from 4.5 kPa to 20 kPa and the heat flux between 6 kW/m2 and 20 kW/m2. The chosen material of the heat surface was aluminium alloy and the test cavity had the capability of varying the direction for the heat surface from vertical to horizontal directions. Through this study, the steady and transient temperature of the heat surface at different pressures and directions were obtained. Although the temperature non-uniformity of the heat surface from the centre to the edge could reach 10°C for the aluminium alloy due to the varying pressures, the whole temperature results successfully satisfied with the thermal control requirements for electronic equipment, and the temperature control effect of the vertically oriented direction was better than that of the horizontally oriented direction. Moreover, the behaviour of bubbles generating and detaching from the heat surface was recorded by a high-resolution camera, so as to understand the pool boiling heat transfer mechanism at low-load heat flux. These pictures showed that the bubbles departure diameter becomes larger, and departure frequency was slower at low pressure, in contrast to 1.0 atm.

  3. Transient pool boiling heat transfer due to increasing heat inputs in subcooled water at high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, K.; Shiotsu, M.; Sakurai, A.

    1995-01-01

    Understanding of transient boiling phenomenon caused by increasing heat inputs in subcooled water at high pressures is necessary to predict correctly a severe accident due to a power burst in a water-cooled nuclear reactor. Transient maximum heat fluxes, q max , on a 1.2 mm diameter horizontal cylinder in a pool of saturated and subcooled water for exponential heat inputs, q o e t/T , with periods, τ, ranging from about 2 ms to 20 s at pressures from atmospheric up to 2063 kPa for water subcoolings from 0 to about 80 K were measured to obtain the extended data base to investigate the effect of high subcoolings on steady-state and transient maximum heat fluxes, q max . Two main mechanisms of q max exist depending on the exponential periods at low subcoolings. One is due to the time lag of the hydrodynamic instability which starts at steady-state maximum heat flux on fully developed nucleate boiling (FDNB), and the other is due to the heterogenous spontaneous nucleations (HSN) in flooded cavities which coexist with vapor bubbles growing up from active cavities. The shortest period corresponding to the maximum q max for long period range belonging to the former mechanism becomes longer and the q max mechanism for long period range shifts to that due the HSN on FDNB with the increase of subcooling and pressure. The longest period corresponding to the minimum q max for the short period range belonging to the latter mechanism becomes shorter with the increase in saturated pressure. On the contrary, the longest period becomes longer with the increase in subcooling at high pressures. Correlations for steady-state and transient maximum heat fluxes were presented for a wide range of pressure and subcooling

  4. Transient pool boiling heat transfer due to increasing heat inputs in subcooled water at high pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuda, K. [Kobe Univ. of Mercantile Marine (Japan); Shiotsu, M.; Sakurai, A. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Understanding of transient boiling phenomenon caused by increasing heat inputs in subcooled water at high pressures is necessary to predict correctly a severe accident due to a power burst in a water-cooled nuclear reactor. Transient maximum heat fluxes, q{sub max}, on a 1.2 mm diameter horizontal cylinder in a pool of saturated and subcooled water for exponential heat inputs, q{sub o}e{sup t/T}, with periods, {tau}, ranging from about 2 ms to 20 s at pressures from atmospheric up to 2063 kPa for water subcoolings from 0 to about 80 K were measured to obtain the extended data base to investigate the effect of high subcoolings on steady-state and transient maximum heat fluxes, q{sub max}. Two main mechanisms of q{sub max} exist depending on the exponential periods at low subcoolings. One is due to the time lag of the hydrodynamic instability which starts at steady-state maximum heat flux on fully developed nucleate boiling (FDNB), and the other is due to the heterogenous spontaneous nucleations (HSN) in flooded cavities which coexist with vapor bubbles growing up from active cavities. The shortest period corresponding to the maximum q{sub max} for long period range belonging to the former mechanism becomes longer and the q{sub max}mechanism for long period range shifts to that due the HSN on FDNB with the increase of subcooling and pressure. The longest period corresponding to the minimum q{sub max} for the short period range belonging to the latter mechanism becomes shorter with the increase in saturated pressure. On the contrary, the longest period becomes longer with the increase in subcooling at high pressures. Correlations for steady-state and transient maximum heat fluxes were presented for a wide range of pressure and subcooling.

  5. Generalized multidemensional propagation velocity equations for pool-boiling superconducting windings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, E.H.; O'Loughlin, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    Several finite difference, finite element detailed analyses of propagation velocities in up to three dimensions in pool-boiling windings have been conducted for different electromagnetic and cryogenic environments. Likewise, a few full scale simulated winding and magnet tests have measured propagation velocities. These velocity data have been correlated in terms of winding thermophysical parameters. This analysis expresses longitudinal and transverse propagation velocities in the form of power function regression equations for a wide variety of windings and electromagnetic and thermohydraulic environments. The generalized velocity equations are considered applicable to well-ventilated, monolithic conductor windings. These design equations are used piecewise in a gross finite difference mode as functions of field to predict the rate of normal zone growth during quench conditions. A further check of the validity of these predictions is available through total predicted quench durations correlated with actual quench durations of large magnets

  6. Effects of Angle of Rotation on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer of V-shape Tube Bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myeong-Gie [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The most important facility for the systems is a passive heat exchanger that transfers core decay heat to the cold water in a water storage tank under atmospheric pressure. Since the space for the installation of the heat exchanger is usually limited, developing more efficient heat exchangers is important. In general, pool boiling is generated on the surface of the heat exchanging tube. The major design parameter of the heat exchanger is a tube arrangement. The upper tube is affected by the lower tube and the enhancement of the heat transfer on the upper tube is estimated by the bundle effect. Since heat transfer is related to the conditions of a tube surface, bundle geometries, and a liquid type, lots of studies have been carried out for the combinations of those parameters. An experimental study was performed to investigate the effects of the angle of rotation on pool boiling heat transfer of a V-shape tube bundle. For the test, two smooth stainless steel tubes of 19 mm outside diameter and the water at atmospheric pressure were used. The enhancement of the heat transfer is clearly observed when the angle becomes to 90° where the upper tube has the maximum region of influence by the lower tube. The convective flow and liquid agitation enhance heat transfer while the coalescence of the bubbles deteriorates heat transfer.

  7. Peak pool boiling heat flux from horizontal cylinders in subcooled liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkassabgi, Y.

    1986-01-01

    The peak pool boiling heat flux is observed on horizontal cylindrical heaters in acetone, Freon-113, methanol, and isopropanol over ranges of subcooling from zero to 120 0 C. Photographs, and the data themselves, reveal that there are three distinct burnout mechanisms at different levels of subcooling. Three interpretive models provide the basis for accurate correlations of the present data, and data from the literature, in each of the three regimes. Burnout is dictated by condensation on the walls of the vapor jets and columns at low subcooling. In the intermediate regime, burnout is limited by natural convection which becomes very effective as vapor near the heater reduces boundary layer resistance. Burnout in the high-subcooling regime is independent of the level of subcoooling and is limited by the process of molecular effusion

  8. Nucleate pool boiling, film boiling and single-phase free convection at pressures up to the critical state. Part I: Integral heat transfer for horizontal copper cylinders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorenflo, Dieter; Baumhoegger, Elmar; Windmann, Thorsten; Herres, Gerhard [Institut fuer Energie- und Verfahrenstechnik, Universitaet Paderborn, Warburger Str. 100, D-33098 Paderborn (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Transcritical working cycles for refrigerants have led to increased interest in heat transfer near the Critical State. In general, experimental results for this region differ significantly from those far from it because some fluid properties vary much more there than at a greater distance. In this paper, measurements for two-phase and single-phase free convective heat transfer from an electrically heated copper tube with 25 mm O.D. to refrigerant R125 are discussed for fluid states very close to the Critical Point and far from it. It is shown that heat transfer for film boiling slightly below and for free convection slightly above the critical pressure is very similar. The new - and also previous - experimental data for nucleate boiling, film boiling, and single-phase free convection are compared with calculated results between atmospheric and critical pressure. It can be concluded that the Principle of Corresponding States in its simplest form is very well suited to transfer the results to other refrigerants. In Part II, particular attention will be given to a minimum superheat for nucleate boiling and a maximum superheat for film boiling and single-phase free convection within the circumferential variation of the isobaric wall superheat on the lower parts of the tube. (author)

  9. A Review of Wettability Effect on Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Gwang Hyeok; Jeun, Gyoo Dong; Kim, Sung Joong

    2012-01-01

    Critical heat flux (CHF) and nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficient (NBHTC) are the key parameters characterizing pool boiling heat transfer. These variables are complicatedly related to thermal-hydraulic parameters of surface wettability, nucleation site density, bubble departure diameter and frequency, to mention a few. In essence, wettability effect on pool boiling heat transfer has been a major fuel to enhance the CHF. Often, however, the improved wettability effect hinders the nucleate boiling. Thus a comprehensive review of such wettability effect may enlighten a further study in this boiling heat transfer area. Phan et al. described surface wettability effects on boiling heat transfer

  10. Effects of Dihedral Angle on Pool Boiling Heat Transfer from Two Tubes in Vertical Alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Myeong-Gie [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    One of the major issues in pool boiling heat transfer is a tube arrangement. The upper tube is affected by the lower tube and the enhancement of the heat transfer on the upper tube is estimated by the bundle effect ( h{sub r} ). It is defined as the ratio of the heat transfer coefficient ( h{sub b} ) for an upper tube in a bundle with lower tubes activated to that for the same tube activated alone in the bundle. Since heat transfer is related with the conditions of a tube surface, bundle geometries, and a liquid type, lots of studies have been carried out for the combinations of those parameters. The most effective parameter must be the tube pitch. Many researchers have been investigated its effect on heat transfer enhancement for the tube bundles and the tandem tubes. The heat transfer on the upper tube of the tubes is enhanced compared with the single tube. The upper tube within a tube bundle can significantly increase nucleate boiling heat transfer compared to the lower tubes at moderate heat fluxes. At high heat fluxes these influences disappear and the data merge onto the pool boiling curve of a single tube. It was explained that the major influential factor is the convective effects due to the fluid velocity and the rising bubbles. They used microstructure-R134a or FC-3184 combinations and identified that the increase in the heat flux of the lower tube decreased the superheat ( ∆T{sub sat} ) of the upper tube. The passive condensers adopted in SWR1000 and APR+ has U-type tubes. Those tubes are slightly inclined from the horizontal to prevent the occurrence of the water hammer. Since the pitch between the upper and lower tubes is varying along the tube length, the results for the fixed pitch are not applicable to the analysis of these condensers. Although there are lots of studies introducing results for the effects of inclination angle on pool boiling heat transfer, no results are treating the angle between two tubes. Therefore, the present study is aimed

  11. Some effects of favorable and adverse electric fields on pool boiling in dielectric fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masson, Viviana

    2001-01-01

    The effects of the application of an electric field on pool boiling in dielectric fluids were studied in this work.Two different geometries were used: one which is favorable to the bubble detachment (favorable electric field) and other which attract the bubbles toward the heater (adverse electric field).In the favorable electric field experiments, the void fraction and impact rate were calculated from the measured indicator function.Those parameters were obtained varying the probe-heater distance and the power to the heater.The results show a reduction of the void fraction with increasing applied voltage, probably caused by the combination of the dielectrophoretic force and a smaller bubble size due to the electric field application. Also, the impact rate decreases when a voltage is applied and the heat fluxes are close to the critical heat flux (CHF).On the other hand, the impact rate increases with voltage for moderate heat fluxes.Another interesting result is the approximately exponential decay of the void fraction and impact rate with the distance to the heater. Both the void fraction and the impact rate grow with heat flux if the heat fluxes are moderate, with or without applied voltage.For highest heat fluxes the void fraction still grows with heat flux if there are no applied electric fields while decreases with heat flux when there is an applied voltage. Similar behavior is observed in the impact rate.The boiling regimes was measured with adverse electric fields using two techniques.The heat transfer in the nucleate boiling regime was measured on an electrically powered heater.The results in these experiments show a reduction in the CHF of 10 % for saturation conditions and 10 kV of applied voltage, and a reduction of up to 40 % for 20 oC of liquid subcooling.The boiling curve corresponding to the transition and film boiling was performed with quenching experiments.An increase in the heat flux was achieved when an electric field was applied in spite of the

  12. Experimental study of nucleate pool boiling heat transfer of water on silicon oxide nanoparticle coated copper heating surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sudev; Kumar, D.S.; Bhaumik, Swapan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • EBPVD approach was employed for fabrication of well-ordered nanoparticle coated micro/nanostructure on metal surface. • Nucleate boiling heat transfer performance on nanoparticle coated micro/nanostructure surface was experimentally studied. • Stability of nanoparticle coated surface under boiling environment was systematically studied. • 58% enhancement of boiling heat transfer coefficient was found. • Present experimental results are validated with well known boiling correlations. - Abstract: Electron beam physical vapor deposition (EBPVD) coating approach was employed for fabrication of well-ordered of nanoparticle coated micronanostructures on metal surfaces. This paper reports the experimental study of augmentation of pool boiling heat transfer performance and stabilities of silicon oxide nanoparticle coated surfaces with water at atmospheric pressure. The surfaces were characterized with respect to dynamic contact angle, surface roughness, topography, and morphology. The results were found that there is a reduction of about 36% in the incipience superheat and 58% enhancement in heat transfer coefficient for silicon oxide coated surface over the untreated surface. This enhancement might be the reason of enhanced wettability, enhanced surface roughness and increased number of a small artificial cavity on a heating surface. The performance and stability of nanoparticle coated micro/nanostructure surfaces were examined and found that after three runs of experiment the heat transfer coefficient with heat flux almost remain constant.

  13. The mechanism of heat transfer in transition boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin Pan; Hwang, J.Y.; Lin, T.L.

    1989-01-01

    Liquid-solid contact in transition boiling is modelled by involving transient conduction, boiling incipience, macrolayer evaporation and vapour film boiling. The prediction of liquid contact duration and time fraction agrees reasonably well with experimental data, and the model is able to predict both of the boiling curve transitions - the critical and minimum heat fluxes. The study concludes that the liquid turbulence due to buoyancy forces and bubble agitation is an important parameter for transition boiling. It is found that surface coating (oxidation or deposition) tends to improve the transition boiling heat transfer and elevate the wall superheats at both the critical heat flux and the minimum film boiling points, which agrees with the experimental observations. (author)

  14. Experimental Investigation of the Combined Effects of Heat Exchanger Geometries on Nucleate Pool Boiling Heat Transfer in a Scaled IRWST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie; Chun, Moon Hyun

    1996-01-01

    In an effort to determine the combined effects of major parameters of heat exchanger tubes on the nucleate pool boiling heat transfer in the scaled in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST), a total of 1,966 data for q v ersus ΔT has been obtained using various combinations of tube diameters, surface roughness, and tube orientations. The experimental results show that (1) increased surface roughness enhances heat transfer for both horizontal and vertical tubes, (2) the two heat transfer mechanisms, i.e.,enhanced heat transfer for both horizontal and vertical tubes, (2) the two heat transfer mechanisms, i.e., enhanced heat transfer due to liquid agitation by bubbles generated and reduced heat transfer by the formation of large vapor slugs and bubble coalescence are different in two regions of low heat fluxes (q ≤ 50kW/m 2 ) and high heat fluxes (q > 50kW/m 2 ) depending on the orientation of tubes and the degree of surface roughness, and (3) the heat transfer rate decreases as the tube diameter is increased for both horizontal and vertical tubes, but the effect of tube diameter on the nucleate pool boiling heat transfer for vertical tubes is greater than that for horizontal tubes. Two empirical heat transfer correlations for q , one for horizontal tubes and the other for vertical tubes, are obtained in terms of surface roughness (ε) and tube diameter (D). In addition, a simple empirical correlation for nucleate pool boiling heat transfer coefficient (h b ) is obtained as a function of heat flux (q ) only. 9 figs., 4 tabs., 15 refs. (Author)

  15. Effects of a FeCrAl layer fabricated by sputtering process on pool boiling critical heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Gwang Hyeok; Son, Hong Hyun; Jeun, Gyoodong; Kim, Sung Joong

    2016-01-01

    The thermal safety margin of a FeCrAl-layered heater was investigated measuring pool boiling critical heat flux (CHF). Boiling experiments were conducted in a pool of deionized water at atmospheric pressure. For a comparison work, bare and FeCrAl-layered heater samples were prepared. The sputtering technique was employed to fabricate the FeCrAl layer. It was confirmed that the key sputtering parameters on the surface structure were substrate temperature and deposition time. As compared to the bare sample, surface wettability and roughness increased. Higher values of the surface roughness were observed at temperatures of 150degC and 600degC. The FeCrAl-layered heaters showed improved CHF up to ∼40%. The highest enhancement of 42% was observed for the heater sample fabricated at a substrate temperature of 150degC. With employing recent CHF models that incorporate the surface effects, it was evaluated that increased roughness at the micrometer scale mainly contributed to the CHF enhancement. Furthermore, visual observations showed at least 2 msec reduction in the rewetting times for the FeCrAl-layered heaters, and the improved CHF may be attributed to the suppressed hot dry spots due to the rewetting phenomena. (author)

  16. Exploring the Limits of Boiling and Evaporative Heat Transfer Using Micro/Nano Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Ming-Chang

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation presents a study exploring the limits of phase-change heat transfer with the aim of enhancing critical heat flux (CHF) in pool boiling and enhancing thermal conductance in heat pipes. The state-of-the-art values of the CHF in pool boiling and the thermal conductance in heat pipes are about two orders of magnitudes smaller than the limits predicted by kinetic theory. Consequently, there seems to be plenty of room for improvement. Pool boiling refers to boiling at a surface im...

  17. Experimental Investigation of Pool Boiling Heat Transfer Enhancement in Microgravity in the Presence of Electric Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Cila

    1996-01-01

    compared to values obtained for the same system without electric fields. Imposing an external electric field holds the promise to improve pool boiling heat transfer in low gravity, since a phase separation force other than gravity is introduced. The goal of our research is to experimentally investigate the potential of EHD and the mechanisms responsible for EHD heat transfer enhancement in boiling in low gravity conditions.

  18. Measurement of key pool boiling parameters in nanofluids for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, In Cheol; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-Wen; Wang, Hsin

    2008-01-01

    Nanofluids, colloidal dispersions of nanoparticles in a base fluid such as water, can afford very significant Critical Heat Flux (CHF) enhancement. Such engineered fluids potentially could be employed in reactors as advanced coolants in safety systems with significant safety and economic advantages. However, a satisfactory explanation of the CHF enhancement mechanism in nanofluids is lacking. To close this gap, we have identified the important boiling parameters to be measured. These are the properties (e.g., density, viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, vaporization enthalpy, surface tension), hydrodynamic parameters (i.e., bubble size, bubble velocity, departure frequency, hot/dry spot dynamics) and surface conditions (i.e., contact angle, nucleation site density). We have also deployed a pool boiling facility in which many such parameters can be measured. The facility is equipped with a thin indium-tin-oxide heater deposited over a sapphire substrate. An infra-red high-speed camera and an optical probe are used to measure the temperature distribution on the heater and the hydrodynamics above the heater, respectively. The first data generated with this facility already provide some clue on the CHF enhancement mechanism in nanofluids. Specifically, the progression to burnout in a pure fluid (ethanol in this case) is characterized by a smoothly-shaped and steadily-expanding hot spot. By contrast, in the ethanol-based nanofluid the hot spot pulsates and the progression to burnout lasts longer, although the nanofluid CHF is higher than the pure fluid CHF. The presence of a nanoparticle deposition layer on the heater surface seems to enhance wettability and aid hot spot dissipation, thus delaying burnout. (author)

  19. Measurement of wetted area fraction in subcooled pool boiling of water using infrared thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyungdae; Park, Youngjae; Buongiorno, Jacopo

    2013-01-01

    The wetted area fraction in subcooled pool boiling of water at atmospheric pressure is measured using the DEPIcT (DEtection of Phase by Infrared Thermography) technique. DEPIcT exploits the contrast in infrared (IR) light emissions between wet and dry areas on the surface of an IR-transparent heater to visualize the instantaneous distribution of the liquid and gas phases in contact with the heater surface. In this paper time-averaged wetted area fraction data in nucleate boiling are reported as functions of heat flux (from 30% up to 100% of the Critical Heat Flux) and subcooling (ΔT sub = 0, 5, 10, 30 and 50 °C). The results show that the wetted area fraction monotonically decreases with increasing heat flux and increases with increasing subcooling: both trends are expected. The range of time-averaged wetted area fractions is from 90%, at low heat flux and high subcooling, to 50% at high heat flux (right before CHF) and low subcooling. It is also shown that the dry areas are periodically rewetted by liquid sloshing on the surface at any subcooling and heat flux; however, the dry areas expand irreversibly at CHF

  20. Feedback stabilization of transition boiling states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gils, van R.W.; Speetjens, M.F.M.; Nijmeijer, H.

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinear one-dimensional heat-transfer model for pool boiling systems is considered. The model involves only the temperature distribution within the heater and models the heat exchange with the boiling medium via a nonlinear boundary condition imposed at the fluid-heater interface. This compact

  1. Effect of coolant flow rate on the power at onset of nucleate boiling in a swimming pool type research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, L.A.; Ahmad, N.; Ahmad, S.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of flow rate of coolant on power of Onset Nucleate Boiling (ONB) in a reference core of a swimming pool type research reactor has been studied using a as standard computer code PARET. It has been found that the decrease in the coolant flow rate results in a corresponding decrease in power at ONB. (author)

  2. Migration of carbon nanotubes from liquid phase to vapor phase in the refrigerant-based nanofluid pool boiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Hao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The migration characteristics of carbon nanotubes from liquid phase to vapor phase in the refrigerant-based nanofluid pool boiling were investigated experimentally. Four types of carbon nanotubes with the outside diameters from 15 to 80 nm and the lengths from 1.5 to 10 μm were used in the experiments. The refrigerants include R113, R141b and n-pentane. The oil concentration is from 0 to 10 wt.%, the heat flux is from 10 to 100 kW·m-2, and the initial liquid-level height is from 1.3 to 3.4 cm. The experimental results indicate that the migration ratio of carbon nanotube increases with the increase of the outside diameter or the length of carbon nanotube. For the fixed type of carbon nanotube, the migration ratio decreases with the increase of the oil concentration or the heat flux, and increases with the increase of the initial liquid-level height. The migration ratio of carbon nanotube increases with the decrease of dynamic viscosity of refrigerant or the increase of liquid phase density of refrigerant. A model for predicting the migration ratio of carbon nanotubes in the refrigerant-based nanofluid pool boiling is proposed, and the predictions agree with 92% of the experimental data within a deviation of ±20%.

  3. An Enhanced VOF Method Coupled with Heat Transfer and Phase Change to Characterise Bubble Detachment in Saturated Pool Boiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Georgoulas

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The present numerical investigation identifies quantitative effects of fundamental controlling parameters on the detachment characteristics of isolated bubbles in cases of pool boiling in the nucleate boiling regime. For this purpose, an improved Volume of Fluid (VOF approach, developed previously in the general framework of OpenFOAM Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD Toolbox, is further coupled with heat transfer and phase change. The predictions of the model are quantitatively verified against an existing analytical solution and experimental data in the literature. Following the model validation, four different series of parametric numerical experiments are performed, exploring the effect of the initial thermal boundary layer (ITBL thickness for the case of saturated pool boiling of R113 as well as the effects of the surface wettability, wall superheat and gravity level for the cases of R113, R22 and R134a refrigerants. It is confirmed that the ITBL is a very important parameter in the bubble growth and detachment process. Furthermore, for all of the examined working fluids the bubble detachment characteristics seem to be significantly affected by the triple-line contact angle (i.e., the wettability of the heated plate for equilibrium contact angles higher than 45°. As expected, the simulations revealed that the heated wall superheat is very influential on the bubble growth and detachment process. Finally, besides the novelty of the numerical approach, a last finding is the fact that the effect of the gravity level variation in the bubble detachment time and the volume diminishes with the increase of the ambient pressure.

  4. An analytic model of pool boiling critical heat flux on an immerged downward facing curved surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Hui; Pan, Liang-ming; Wu, Yao; Chen, De-qi

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thin liquid film and supplement of liquid contribute to the CHF. • CHF increases from the bottom to the upper of the lowerhead. • Evaporation of thin liquid film is dominant nearby bottom region. • The subcooling has significant effects on the CHF. - Abstract: In this paper, an analytical model of the critical heat flux (CHF) on the downward facing curved surface for pool boiling has been proposed, which hypothesizes that the CHF on the downward facing curved is composed of two parts, i.e. the evaporation of the thin liquid film underneath the elongated bubble adhering to the lower head outer surface and the depletion of supplement of liquid due to the relative motion of vapor bubbles along with the downward facing curved. The former adopts the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability analysis of vapor–liquid interface of the vapor jets which penetrating in the thin liquid film. When the heat flux closing to the CHF point, the vapor–liquid interface becomes highly distorted, which block liquid to feed the thin liquid film and the thin liquid film will dry out gradually. While the latter considers that the vapor bubbles move along with the downward facing curved surface, and the liquid in two-phase boundary layer enter the liquid film that will be exhausted when the CHF occurs. Based on the aforementioned mechanism and the energy balance between the thin liquid film evaporation and water feeding, and taking the subcooling of the bulk water into account, the mathematic model about the downward facing curved surface CHF has been proposed. The CHF of the downward facing curved surface for pool boiling increases along with the downward facing orientation except in the vicinity of bottom center region, because in this region the vapor bubble almost stagnates and the evaporation of the thin liquid film is dominant. In addition, the subcooling has significant effect on the CHF. Comparing the result of this model with the published experimental results show

  5. A numerical investigation of the effect of surface wettability on the boiling curve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua-Yi Hsu

    Full Text Available Surface wettability is recognized as playing an important role in pool boiling and the corresponding heat transfer curve. In this work, a systematic study of pool boiling heat transfer on smooth surfaces of varying wettability (contact angle range of 5° - 180° has been conducted and reported. Based on numerical simulations, boiling curves are calculated and boiling dynamics in each regime are studied using a volume-of-fluid method with contact angle model. The calculated trends in critical heat flux and Leidenfrost point as functions of surface wettability are obtained and compared with prior experimental and theoretical predictions, giving good agreement. For the first time, the effect of contact angle on the complete boiling curve is shown. It is demonstrated that the simulation methodology can be used for studying pool boiling and related dynamics and providing more physical insights.

  6. Enhancement of pool boiling heat transfer in water using sintered copper microporous coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Seong Chul; KIm, Jin Sub; You, Seung M. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson (United States); Son, Dong Gun; KIm, Hwan Yeol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-08-15

    Pool boiling heat transfer of water saturated at atmospheric pressure was investigated experimentally on Cu surfaces with high-temperature, thermally-conductive, microporous coatings (HTCMC). The coatings were created by sintering Cu powders on Cu surfaces in a nitrogen gas environment. A parametric study of the effects of particle size and coating thickness was conducted using three average particle sizes (APSs) of 10 μm, 25 μm, and 67 μm and various coating thicknesses. It was found that nucleate boiling heat transfer (NBHT) and critical heat flux (CHF) were enhanced significantly for sintered microporous coatings. This is believed to have resulted from the random porous structures that appear to include reentrant type cavities. The maximum NBHT coefficient was measured to be approximately 400 kW/m2k with APS 67 μm and 296 μm coating thicknesses. This value is approximately eight times higher than that of a plain Cu surface. The maximum CHF observed was 2.1 MW/m2 at APS 67 μm and 428 μm coating thicknesses, which is approximately double the CHF of a plain Cu surface. The enhancement of NBHT and CHF appeared to increase as the particle size increased in the tested range. However, two larger particle sizes (25 μm and 67 μm) showed a similar level of enhancement.

  7. Loss of spent fuel pool cooling PRA: Model and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siu, N.; Khericha, S.; Conroy, S.; Beck, S.; Blackman, H.

    1996-09-01

    This letter report documents models for quantifying the likelihood of loss of spent fuel pool cooling; models for identifying post-boiling scenarios that lead to core damage; qualitative and quantitative results generated for a selected plant that account for plant design and operational practices; a comparison of these results and those generated from earlier studies; and a review of available data on spent fuel pool accidents. The results of this study show that for a representative two-unit boiling water reactor, the annual probability of spent fuel pool boiling is 5 x 10 -5 and the annual probability of flooding associated with loss of spent fuel pool cooling scenarios is 1 x 10 -3 . Qualitative arguments are provided to show that the likelihood of core damage due to spent fuel pool boiling accidents is low for most US commercial nuclear power plants. It is also shown that, depending on the design characteristics of a given plant, the likelihood of either: (a) core damage due to spent fuel pool-associated flooding, or (b) spent fuel damage due to pool dryout, may not be negligible

  8. Heat transfer under transition and film boiling of liquids at dimpled spheres and cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, V. M.; Kuzma-Kichta, Yu. A.; Lavrikov, A. V.; Belov, K. I.; Len’kov, V. A.

    2018-03-01

    The article presents the results of studies of heat transfer and film and transition boiling mechanism of nitrogen, Refrigerant R-113, and water at spheres and vertical cylinders, which surfaces are covered with spherical dimples.. The data were obtained under the conditions of pool boiling and natural circulation in vertical 1.0 and 2.5 mm wide annular channels. Hemispherical dimples of 3 mm diameter (h/d = 0.17) were made on sample surfaces. The dimples occupied 45% of the sphere surface and 37% of the cylinder surface. In some tests, the dimpled surface was additionally covered with low-conductive coating (10 µm film). Minimal cooling time for the sphere with dimples and low-conductive coating took place under natural circulation in 2.5 mm annular gap and it was almost 2.5 times lower than that for a smooth sphere under pool boiling. It is shown that at pool boiling the presence of dimples and low-conductive coating leads to heat transfer enhancement at transition and film boiling regimes, while at natural circulation such an enhancement occurs at film boiling with high temperature differences. The tests at natural circulation in vertical annular channels of different width showed that in this case an intensity of boiling heat transfer is higher than that at pool boiling. High-speed filming of film boiling process on the surfaces with dimples was conducted.

  9. An experimental investigation of untriggered film boiling collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naylor, P.

    1985-03-01

    Film boiling has been investigated in a stagnant pool, using polished brass or anodised aluminium alloy rods in water. Experimental boiling curves were obtained, and pronounced ripples on the vapour/liquid interface were photographed. A criterion for untriggered film boiling collapse is proposed, consistent with experimental results. Application of the results to molten fuel coolant interaction studies is discussed. (U.K.)

  10. Effect of diameter of metal nanowires on pool boiling heat transfer with FC-72

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar G., Udaya; S., Suresh; M. R., Thansekhar; Babu P., Dinesh

    2017-11-01

    Effect of varying diameter of metal nanowires on pool boiling heat transfer performance is presented in this study. Copper nanowires (CuNWs) of four different diameters (∼35 nm, ∼70 nm, ∼130 nm and ∼200 nm) were grown directly on copper specimen using template-based electrodeposition technique. Both critical heat flux (CHF) and boiling heat transfer coefficient (h) were found to be improved in surfaces with nanowires as compared to the bare copper surface. Moreover, both the parameters were found to increase with increasing diameter of the nanowires. The percentage increases observed in CHF for the samples with nanowires were 38.37%, 40.16%, 48.48% and 45.57% whereas the percentage increase in the heat transfer coefficient were 86.36%, 95.45%, 184.1% and 131.82% respectively as compared to the bare copper surface. Important reasons believed for this enhancement were improvement in micron scale cavity density and cavity size which arises as a result of the coagulation and grouping of nanowires during the drying process. In addition to this, superhydrophilic nature, capillary effect, and enhanced bubble dynamics parameters (bubble frequency, bubble departure diameter, and nucleation site density) were found to be the concurring mechanisms responsible for this enhancement in heat transfer performance. Qualitative bubble dynamics analysis was done for the surfaces involved and the visual observations are provided to support the results presented and discussed.

  11. The mechanisms of transitions from natural convection and nucleate boiling to nucleate boiling or film boiling caused by rapid depressurization in highly subcooled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Akira; Shiotsu, Masahiro; Hata, Koichi; Fukuda, Katsuya

    1999-01-01

    The mechanisms of transient boiling process including the transitions to nucleate boiling or film boiling from initial heat fluxes, q in , in natural convection and nucleate boiling regimes caused by exponentially decreasing system pressure with various decreasing periods, τ p on a horizontal cylinder in a pool of highly subcooled water were clarified. The transient boiling processes with different characteristics were divided into three groups for low and intermediate q in in natural convection regime, and for high q in in nucleate boiling regime. The transitions at maximum heat fluxes from low q in in natural convection regime to stable nucleate boiling regime occurred independently of the τ p values. The transitions from intermediate and high q in values in natural convection and nucleate boiling to stable film boiling occurred for short τ p values, although those to stable nucleate boiling occurred for tong τ p values. The CHF and corresponding surface superheat values at which the transition to film boiling occurred were considerably lower and higher than the steady-state values at the corresponding pressure during the depressurization respectively. It was suggested that the transitions to stable film boiling at transient critical heat fluxes from intermediate q in in natural convection and from high q in in nucleate boiling for short τ p occur due to explosive-like heterogeneous spontaneous nucleation (HSN). The photographs of typical vapor behavior due to the HSN during depressurization from natural convection regime for short τ p were shown. (author)

  12. Boiling Heat Transfer to Halogenated Hydrocarbon Refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Suguru; Fujita, Yasunobu

    The current state of knowledge on heat transfer to boiling refrigerants (halogenated hydrocarbons) in a pool and flowing inside a horizontal tube is reviewed with an emphasis on information relevant to the design of refrigerant evaporators, and some recommendations are made for future research. The review covers two-phase flow pattern, heat transfer characteristics, correlation of heat transfer coefficient, influence of oil, heat transfer augmentation, boiling from tube-bundle, influence of return bend, burnout heat flux, film boiling, dryout and post-dryout heat transfer.

  13. Vortex-Induced Vapor Explosion during Drop Impact on a Superheated Pool

    KAUST Repository

    Alchalabi, M.A.

    2017-04-18

    Ultra high-speed imaging is used to investigate the vapor explosion when a drop impacts onto a high-temperature pool. The two liquids are immiscible, a low boiling-temperature perfluorohexane drop, at room temperature, which impacts a high boiling-temperature soybean-oil pool, which is heated well above the boiling temperature of the drop. We observe different regimes: weak and strong nucleate boiling, film boiling or Leidenfrost regime and entrainment followed by vapor explosion. The vapor explosions were seen to depend on the formation of a rotational flow at the edge of the impact crater, near the pool surface, which resembles a vortex ring. This rotational motion entrains a thin sheet of the drop liquid, to become surrounded by the oil. In that region, the vapor explosion starts at a point after which it propagates azimuthally along the entire periphery at high speed.

  14. Vortex-Induced Vapor Explosion during Drop Impact on a Superheated Pool

    KAUST Repository

    Alchalabi, M.A.; Kouraytem, Nadia; Li, Erqiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2017-01-01

    Ultra high-speed imaging is used to investigate the vapor explosion when a drop impacts onto a high-temperature pool. The two liquids are immiscible, a low boiling-temperature perfluorohexane drop, at room temperature, which impacts a high boiling-temperature soybean-oil pool, which is heated well above the boiling temperature of the drop. We observe different regimes: weak and strong nucleate boiling, film boiling or Leidenfrost regime and entrainment followed by vapor explosion. The vapor explosions were seen to depend on the formation of a rotational flow at the edge of the impact crater, near the pool surface, which resembles a vortex ring. This rotational motion entrains a thin sheet of the drop liquid, to become surrounded by the oil. In that region, the vapor explosion starts at a point after which it propagates azimuthally along the entire periphery at high speed.

  15. Experimental investigation of heat transfer of R134a in pool boiling on stainless steel and aluminum tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengler, C.; Addy, J.; Luke, A.

    2018-03-01

    Due to high energy demand required for chemical processes, refrigeration and process industries the increase of efficiency and performance of thermal systems especially evaporators is indispensable. One of the possibilities to meet this purpose are investigations in enhancement of the heat transfer in nucleate boiling where high heat fluxes at low superheat are transferred. In the present work, the heat transfer in pool boiling is investigated with pure R134a over wide ranges of reduced pressures and heat fluxes. The heating materials of the test tubes are aluminum and stainless steel. The influence of the thermal conductivity on the heat transfer coefficients is analysed by the surface roughness of sandblasted surfaces. The heat transfer coefficient increases with increasing thermal conductivity, surface roughness and reduced pressures. The experimental results show a small degradation of the heat transfer coefficients between the two heating materials aluminum and stainless steel. In correlation with the VDI Heat Atlas, the experimental results are matching well with the predictions but do not accurately consider the stainless steel material reference properties.

  16. Steady-state nucleate pool boiling mechanism at low heat fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastos, L.E.G.

    1979-01-01

    Heat is transfered in the steady state to a horizontal cooper disc inmersed in water at saturation temperature. Levels of heat flux are controlled so that convection and the nucleate boiling can be observed. The value of heat flux is determined experimentally and high speed film is used to record bubble growth. In order to explain the phenomenon the oretical model is proposed in which part of the heat is transfered by free convection during nucleate boiling regime. Agreement between the experiments and the theoretical model is good. (Author) [pt

  17. Study on boiling heat transfer of high temperature liquid sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Akira

    1978-01-01

    In the Intitute of Atomic Energy, Kyoto University, fundamental studies on steady state and non-steady state heat flow are underway in connection with reactor design and the safety in a critical accident in a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. First, the experimental apparatus for sodium heat transfer and the testing system are described in detail. The apparatus is composed of sodium-purifying section including the plugging meter for measuring purity and cold trap, the pool boiling test section for experimenting natural convection boiling heat transfer, the forced convection boiling test section for experimenting forced convection boiling heat transfer, and gas system. Next, the experimental results by the author and the data obtained so far are compared regarding heat transfer in sodium natural convection and stable nucleating boiling and critical heat flux. The effect of liquid head on a heater on boiling heat transfer coefficient and critical heat flux under the condition of low system pressure in most fundamental pool boiling was elucidated quantitatively, which has been overlooked in previous studies. It was clarified that this is the essentially important problem that can not be overlooked. From this point of view, expressions on heat transfer were also re-investigated. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Some observations on boiling heat transfer with surface oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, H.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of surface oscillation on pool boiling heat transfer are experimentally studied. Experiments were performed in saturated ethanol and distilled water, covering the range from nucleate to film boiling except in the transition region. Two different geometries were employed as the heating surface with the same wetting area, stainless steel pipe and molybdenum ribbon. The results confirm earlier work on the effect of surface oscillation especially in lower heat flux region of nucleate boiling. Interesting boiling behavior during surface oscillation is observed, which was not referred to in previous work. (2 figures) (Author)

  19. Experimental investigation of pool boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux on a downward facing surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gocmanac, M.; Luxat, J.C.

    2012-01-01

    A separate effects experimental study of heat transfer and Critical Heat Flux (CHF) on a downward facing plate in subcooled water pool boiling is described. Two geometries of downwards facing surfaces are studied. The first is termed the 'confined' study in which bubble motion is restricted to the heated surface. The second is termed the 'unconfined' study where individual bubbles are free to move along the heated surface and vent in any direction. The method used in the confined study is novel and involves the placement of a lip surrounding the heated surface. The CHF as a function of angle of inclination of the surface is presented and is in good agreement with other experimental data from somewhat different test geometries. (author)

  20. Sloshing of water in annular pressure-suppression pool of boiling water reactors under earthquake ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.; Godden, W.G.; Scalise, D.T.

    1979-10-01

    This report presents an analytical investigation of the sloshing response of water in annular-circular as well as simple-circular tanks under horizontal earthquake ground motions, and the results are verified with tests. This study was motivated because of the use of annular tanks for pressure-suppression pools in Boiling Water Reactors. Such a pressure-suppression pool would typically have 80 ft and 120 ft inside and outside diameters and a water depth of 20 ft. The analysis was based upon potential flow theory and a computer program was written to obtain time-history plots of sloshing displacements of water and the dynamic pressures. Tests were carried out on 1/80th and 1/15th scale models under sinusoidal as well as simulated earthquake ground motions. Tests and analytical results regarding the natural frequencies, surface water displacements, and dynamic pressures were compared and a good agreement was found for relatively small displacements. The computer program gave satisfactory results as long as the maximum water surface displacements were less than 30 in., which is roughly the value obtained under full intensity of El Centro earthquake

  1. An analytical and experimental study of pool boiling with particular reference to additives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, W.L. Jr.

    1963-05-01

    An experimental investigation of nucleate boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux is presented for water and various aqueous solutions boiling from horizontal stainless steel tubes and flat strips at atmospheric pressure. An integral method solution for film boiling is given and compared with existing experimental data. Analytical solutions are also obtained for the temperature profiles with periodic internal heating of a flat plate and a cylinder. (author)

  2. Experiments on nucleate boiling heat transfer with a highly-wetting dielectric fluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, S.M.; Simon, T.W.; Bar-Cohen, A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on experiments on pool boiling heat transfer in an electronic cooling fluid (Fluorinert, FC-72) that were conducted using a 0.51 mm diameter cylindrical heater. The effects of pressure, subcooling and dissolved gas content on nucleate boiling heat transfer are investigated. When boiling with dissolved gas in the bulk fluid, the fluid in the vicinity of the heating element appears to be liberated of dissolved gas by boiling. Thus, boiling under these conditions appears to be similar to subcooled boiling without dissolved gas. Nucleate boiling hysteresis is observed for subcooled and gassy-subcooled situations

  3. Influence of surface topography in the boiling mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moita, A.S.; Teodori, E.; Moreira, A.L.N.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Pool boiling heat transfer. • Use of micro-textured surfaces to enhance heat transfer. • Importance of the bubble dynamics and of the interaction mechanisms in the overall heat transfer efficiency. • Effect of the micro-textures on bubble dynamics as a way to enhance pool boiling heat transfer. - Abstract: The present paper addresses the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the pool boiling heat transfer over micro-structured surfaces. The surfaces are made from silicon chips, in the context of pool boiling heat transfer enhancement of immersion liquid cooling schemes for electronic components. The first part of the analysis deals with the effect of the liquid properties. Then the effect of surface micro-structuring is discussed, covering different configurations, from cavities to pillars being the latter used to infer on the potential profit of a fin-like configuration. The use of rough surfaces to enhance pool boiling mainly stands on the arguments that the surface roughness will increase the liquid–solid contact area, thus enhancing the convection heat transfer coefficient and will promote the generation of nucleation sites. However, one should not disregard bubble dynamics. Indeed, the results show a strong effect of bubble dynamics and particularly of the interaction mechanisms in the overall cooling performance of the pair liquid–surface. The inaccurate control of these mechanisms leads to the formation of large bubbles and strong vertical and horizontal coalescence effects promote the very fast formation of a vapor blanket, which causes a steep decrease of the heat transfer coefficient. This effect can be strong enough to prevail over the benefit of increasing the contact area by roughening the surface. For the micro-patterns used in the present work, the results evidence that one can reasonably determine guiding pattern characteristics to evaluate the intensity of the interaction mechanisms and take out the most of the

  4. Enhanced Natural Convection in a Metal Layer Cooled by Boiling Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jae-Seon; Suh, Kune Y.; Chung, Chang-Hyun; Park, Rae-Joon; Kim, Sang-Baik

    2004-01-01

    An experimental study is performed to investigate the natural convection heat transfer characteristics and the solidification of the molten metal pool concurrently with forced convective boiling of the overlying coolant to simulate a severe accident in a nuclear power plant. The relationship between the Nusselt number (Nu) and the Rayleigh number (Ra) in the molten metal pool region is determined and compared with the correlations in the literature and experimental data with subcooled water. Given the same Ra condition, the present experimental results for Nu of the liquid metal pool with coolant boiling are found to be higher than those predicted by the existing correlations or measured from the experiment with subcooled boiling. To quantify the observed effect of the external cooling on the natural convection heat transfer rate from the molten pool, it is proposed to include an additional dimensionless group characterizing the temperature gradients in the molten pool and in the external coolant region. Starting from the Globe and Dropkin correlation, engineering correlations are developed for the enhancement of heat transfer in the molten metal pool when cooled by an overlying coolant. The new correlations for predicting natural convection heat transfer are applicable to low-Prandtl-number (Pr) materials that are heated from below and solidified by the external coolant above. Results from this study may be used to modify the current model in severe accident analysis codes

  5. A study on the CHF enhancement of pool boiling using nano-fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Won Joon

    2009-02-01

    The understanding of CHF phenomenon and an accurate prediction of the CHF condition are important for safe and economic design of many heat transfer units including nuclear reactors, fossil fuel boilers, fusion reactors, electronic chips, etc. The phenomenon has been investigated extensively over the world since Nukiyama (1934) first characterized it. In particular, a large amount of significant work has been done during the last four decades with the development of water cooled nuclear reactors. The wettability of the heated surface under pool boiling of surfactant solutions and nano-fluids has been investigated. Tri-sodium phosphate (TSP, Na 3 PO 4 ) solutions and Aluminum oxide nano-fluids were prepared for experiments. Contact angles of pure water and the solutions on the quenched surface and fresh surface were measured. Surfaces deposited TSP and nano-particle could affect surface energy of the strips and enhance hydrophilicity of the surfaces. Several implications of the experimental results on the pool boiling CHF model and CHF enhancement using TSP and NF were discussed. A increase of CHF was observed with nano-fluid. The addition of nano-particle helped to increase the wettability by reducing the surface tension. This happens with the decrease in bubble diameter, breakup of bubbles and avoidance of bubble coalescence. CHF increase or decrease depends upon competition between high wettability and high instability. An optimum nano-fluid concentration is needed which must have high crystalline content. When the concentration reaches at a critical value, CHF will tend to a constant value. As the results of previous study, surface tension effect the results of CHF. And it is same to nano-fluids, because surface tension change the dynamics of mixture fluids at two phase and means the instability of thermal hydraulics. Contact angle which be in the limelight at recent research means wettability of heated surface. However, in case of nano-fluids, both are

  6. An Experimental Study on the Pool Boiling Heat Transfer on a Square Surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Kwang

    2000-02-01

    An experimental study was carried out to identify the various regimes of natural convective boiling and to determine the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) on a square surface. The basic knowledge on the boiling heat transfer and CHF on the square surface is necessary for various engineering problems, such as the design of compact heat exchangers, cooling of CPU chips, and design of the external cooling mechanism for the reactor during the severe accidents in the nuclear power plants. The heater block made of copper with cartridge heaters in it is submerged in a water tank with windows for visualization. The heater surface has dimension of 70mm x 70mm and the maximum heat flux capacity is about 1.8MW/m 2 . The boiling heat transfer coefficient for the various flow regimes up to CHF has been measured for upward facing surface, vertical surface, and nearly horizontal downward facing surfaces. The temperatures of the heater block are measured by the thermocouples imbedded in the heater block. As the heat flux increases from 100kW/m 2 to 1.0MW/m 2 , the heat-transfer regime changes from the nucleate boiling to the CHF. Near 1.0MW/m 2 , the heat transfer regime suddenly changed from nucleate boiling to film boiling and it resulted in a rapid heat up of the heater block. The various boiling patterns on the vertical surface, upward facing surface, and downward facing surface are observed by a high speed video camera whose frame rate is 1000fps. An explosive vapor generation on the heated surface, whose size and frequency are characterized by the heat flux and inclination angle, is observed

  7. Sloshing of water in torus pressure-suppression pool of boiling water reactors under earthquake ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.; Godden, W.G.; Scalise, D.T.

    1978-08-01

    This report presents an analytical and experimental investigation into the sloshing of water in torus tanks under horizontal earthquake ground motions. This study was motivated because of the use of torus tanks for pressure-suppression pools in Boiling Water Reactors. Such a pressure-suppression pool would typically have 80 ft and 140 ft inside and outside diameters, a 30 ft diameter section, and a water depth of 15 ft. A general finite element analysis was developed for all axisymmetric tanks and a computer program was written to obtain time-history plots of sloshing displacements of water and dynamic pressures. Tests were carried out on a 1/60th scale model under sinusoidal as well as simulated earthquake ground motions. Tests and analytical results regarding natural frequencies, surface water displacements, and dynamic pressures were compared and a good agreement was found within the range of displacements studied. The computer program gave satisfactory results within a maximum range of sloshing displacements in the full-size prototype of 30 in. which is greater than the value obtained under the full intensity of the El Centro earthquake (N-S component 1940). The range of linear behavior was studied experimentally by subjecting the torus model to increasing intensities of the El Centro earthquake

  8. Basic Study for Active Nucleation Site Density Evaluation in Subcooled Flow Boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, In Cheol; Song, Chul Hwa

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have been performed on a active nucleation site density (ANSD) due to its governing influence on a heat transfer. However, most of the studies were focused on pool boiling conditions. Kocamustafaogullari and Ishii developed an ANSD correlation from a parametric study of the existing pool boiling data. Also, they extended the correlation to a convective flow boiling condition by adopting the nucleation suppression factor of Chen's heat transfer correlation. However, the appropriateness of applying the Chen's suppression factor to an ANSD correlation was not fully validated because there was not enough experimental data on ANSD in the forced convective flow boiling. Basu et al. performed forced convective boiling experiments and proposed a correlation of ANSD which is the only correlation based on experimental data for a forced convective boiling. They concluded that the ANSD is only dependent on the static contact angle and the wall superheat, and is independent of the flow rate and the subcooling, which contradict the general acceptance of the nucleation suppression in the forced convective boiling. It seems that no reliable ANSD correlation or model is available for a forced convective boiling. In the present study, the effect of the flow velocity on the suppression of the nucleation site was examined, and the effectiveness of a Brewster reflection technique for the identification of the nucleation site was also examined

  9. Film boiling heat transfer in liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inai, Nobuhiko

    1979-01-01

    The experimental data on the film boiling heat transfer in liquid helium are required for investigating the stability of superconducting wires. On the other hand, liquid helium has the extremely different physical properties as compared with the liquids at normal temperature such as water. In this study, the experiments on pool boiling were carried out, using the horizontal top surface of a 20 mm diameter copper cylinder in liquid helium. For observing individual bubbles, the experiments on film boiling from a horizontal platinum wire were performed separately in liquid nitrogen and liquid helium, and photographs of floating-away bubbles were taken. The author pointed out the considerable upward shift of the boiling curve near the least heat flux point in film boiling from the one given by the Berenson's equation which has been said to agree comparatively well with the data on the film boiling of the liquids at normal temperature, and the reason was investigated. Consequently, a model for film boiling heat transfer was presented. Also one equation expressing the film boiling at low heat flux for low temperature liquids was proposed. It represents well the tendency to shift from Berenson's equation of the experimental data on film boiling at the least heat flux point for liquid helium, liquid nitrogen and water having extremely different physical properties. Some discussions are added at the end of the paper. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  10. Boiling water reactor liquid radioactive waste processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The standard sets forth minimum design, construction and performance requirements with due consideration for operation of the liquid radioactive waste processing system for boiling water reactor plants for routine operation including design basis fuel leakage and design basis occurrences. For the purpose of this standard, the liquid radioactive waste processing system begins at the interfaces with the reactor coolant pressure boundary, at the interface valve(s) in lines from other systems and at those sumps and floor drains provided for liquid waste with the potential of containing radioactive material. The system terminates at the point of controlled discharge to the environment, at the point of interface with the waste solidification system and at the point of recycle back to storage for reuse. The standard does not include the reactor coolant clean-up system, fuel pool clean-up system, sanitary waste system, any nonaqueous liquid system or controlled area storm drains

  11. Optical studies of boiling heat transfer: insights and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenning, David B.R.

    2004-01-01

    Optical studies provide valuable insights into the complex mechanisms of boiling heat transfer but the large gradients of temperature (and therefore of refractive index) deflect light and multiple reflections at interfaces limit the distance over which observations can be made. Optical measurements are thought of as non-intrusive but this is rarely true. Because they are difficult and time consuming, they constrain the design of boiling experiments and are applied to limited ranges of conditions. There is a risk that deductions from the observations will be applied (not necessarily by the authors) more generally than is justified. These characteristics of optical studies are illustrated by examples from forced convective film boiling on spheres and pool nucleate boiling

  12. High-speed infrared thermography for the measurement of microscopic boiling parameters on micro- and nano-structured surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Youngjae; Kim, Hyungdae; Kim, Hyungmo; Kim, Joonwon

    2014-01-01

    Micro- and nano-scale structures on boiling surfaces can enhance nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficient (HTC) and critical heat flux (CHF). A few studies were conducted to explain the enhancements of HTC and CHF using the microscopic boiling parameters. Quantitative measurements of microscopic boiling parameters are needed to understand the physical mechanism of the boiling heat transfer augmentation on structured surfaces. However, there is no existing experimental techniques to conveniently measure the boiling parameters on the structured surfaces because of the small (pool boiling on micro- and nano-structured surfaces. The visualization results are analyzed to obtain the microscopic boiling parameters. Finally, quantitative microscopic boiling parameters are used to interpret the enhancement of HTC and CHF. In this study, liquid-vapor phase distributions of each surface were clearly visualized by IR thermography during the nucleate boiling phenomena. From the visualization results, following microscopic boiling parameters were quantitatively measured by image processing. - Number density of dry patch, NDP IR thermography technique was demonstrated by nucleate pool boiling experiments with M- and N surfaces. The enhancement of HTC and CHF could be explained by microscopic boiling parameters

  13. Condensation of vapor bubble in subcooled pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, K.; Koiwa, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Ueno, I.

    2017-02-01

    We focus on condensation process of vapor bubble exposed to a pooled liquid of subcooled conditions. Two different geometries are employed in the present research; one is the evaporation on the heated surface, that is, subcooled pool boiling, and the other the injection of vapor into the subcooled pool. The test fluid is water, and all series of the experiments are conducted under the atmospheric pressure condition. The degree of subcooling is ranged from 10 to 40 K. Through the boiling experiment, unique phenomenon known as microbubble emission boiling (MEB) is introduced; this phenomenon realizes heat flux about 10 times higher than the critical heat flux. Condensation of the vapor bubble is the key phenomenon to supply ambient cold liquid to the heated surface. In order to understand the condensing process in the MEB, we prepare vapor in the vapor generator instead of the evaporation on the heated surface, and inject the vapor to expose the vapor bubble to the subcooled liquid. Special attention is paid to the dynamics of the vapor bubble detected by the high-speed video camera, and on the enhancement of the heat transfer due to the variation of interface area driven by the condensation.

  14. Temperature dependent fission product removal efficiency due to pool scrubbing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uchida, Shunsuke, E-mail: suchida@iae.or.jp [Institute of Applied Energy, 1-14-2, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0003 (Japan); Itoh, Ayumi; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki [Institute of Applied Energy, 1-14-2, Nishi-Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-0003 (Japan); Hanamoto, Yukio [KAKEN, Inc., 1044, Hori-machi, Mito 310-0903 (Japan); Osakabe, Masahiro [Tokyo University of Marine Science & Technology, Koutou-ku, Tokyo 135-8533 (Japan); Fujikawa, Masahiro [Japan Broadcasting Corporation, 2-2-1, Jinnan, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 150-8001 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Pool temperature effects on the FP removal were not clearly concluded in the previous publications. • It was confirmed that the removal efficiency decreased with temperature around the boiling point. • A modified empirical formula for FP removal was proposed as a function of sub-cooling temperature. • DF could be predicted with an accuracy within a factor of 2 with the proposed formula. - Abstract: The wet-well of boiling water reactors plays important roles not only to suppress the pressure in the primary containment vessel due to steam scrubbing effects during severe accidents but also to mitigate release of radioactive fission products (FP), aerosols and particulates, into the environment. The effects of steam scrubbing in the wet-well on FP removal have been well studied and reported by changing major parameters determining the removal efficiencies, e.g., aerosol diameters, submergence (depth of scrubbing nozzles) and steam/non-condensable gas volume fraction. Unfortunately, the effects of pool temperature on the FP removal were not clearly concluded in the previous publications, though it would be easily expected that boiling in the pool resulted in reduced aerosol removal efficiency. In order to determine the temperature effects on FP removal efficiency, amounts of cesium in aerosols released from scrubbing pool were measured by changing pool temperature in mini and medium scale scrubbing experiments, and then, it was confirmed that the removal efficiency clearly decreased with temperature around the boiling point. Then, a modified empirical formula to express the FP removal around the boiling point temperature was proposed as a function of sub-cooling temperature by applying the effective steam volume fraction, which was designated as the volume ratio of condensed steam in the pool versus the sum of input steam and non-condensable gas. By comparing the measured removal efficiency with the calculated, it was validated that the

  15. Temperature dependent fission product removal efficiency due to pool scrubbing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, Shunsuke; Itoh, Ayumi; Naitoh, Masanori; Okada, Hidetoshi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Hanamoto, Yukio; Osakabe, Masahiro; Fujikawa, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Pool temperature effects on the FP removal were not clearly concluded in the previous publications. • It was confirmed that the removal efficiency decreased with temperature around the boiling point. • A modified empirical formula for FP removal was proposed as a function of sub-cooling temperature. • DF could be predicted with an accuracy within a factor of 2 with the proposed formula. - Abstract: The wet-well of boiling water reactors plays important roles not only to suppress the pressure in the primary containment vessel due to steam scrubbing effects during severe accidents but also to mitigate release of radioactive fission products (FP), aerosols and particulates, into the environment. The effects of steam scrubbing in the wet-well on FP removal have been well studied and reported by changing major parameters determining the removal efficiencies, e.g., aerosol diameters, submergence (depth of scrubbing nozzles) and steam/non-condensable gas volume fraction. Unfortunately, the effects of pool temperature on the FP removal were not clearly concluded in the previous publications, though it would be easily expected that boiling in the pool resulted in reduced aerosol removal efficiency. In order to determine the temperature effects on FP removal efficiency, amounts of cesium in aerosols released from scrubbing pool were measured by changing pool temperature in mini and medium scale scrubbing experiments, and then, it was confirmed that the removal efficiency clearly decreased with temperature around the boiling point. Then, a modified empirical formula to express the FP removal around the boiling point temperature was proposed as a function of sub-cooling temperature by applying the effective steam volume fraction, which was designated as the volume ratio of condensed steam in the pool versus the sum of input steam and non-condensable gas. By comparing the measured removal efficiency with the calculated, it was validated that the

  16. Enhanced pool boiling critical heat flux induced by capillary wicking effect of a Cr-sputtered superhydrophilic surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Hong Hyun; Seo, Gwang Hyeok; Kim, Sung Joong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    In light of boiling heat transfer, the smooth surface potentially reduces active nucleation of bubbles and rewetting of dry spots near the critical heat flux (CHF). This kind of process is highly likely to deteriorate the CHF. Thus, it is essential to produce appropriate microstructures on the surface for the enhancement of the CHF. In this study, to investigate the microstructural effect of thin film-fabricated surfaces on the pool boiling CHF, we controlled the surface roughness in a narrow range of 0.1-0.25 μm and its morphologies, in the form of micro-scratches using PVD sputtering technique. Specifically for DC magnetron sputtering, pure chromium (Cr) was selected as a target material owing to its high oxidation resistance. In order to analyze the CHF trend with changes in roughness, we introduced existing capillary wicking-based models because superhydrophilic characteristics of microstructures are highly related to the capillary wicking behaviors in micro-flow channels. After Cr sputtering under given conditions, the Cr-sputtered surfaces showed superhydrophilic characteristics and its capability became more enhanced with an increase of surface roughness. Judging from spreading behavior of a liquid droplet, the presence of micro-wicking channels, coupled with Cr nanostructures, effectively enhanced the advancing rate of drop base diameter. The CHF exhibited an increasing trend with increasing surface roughness. However, the enhancement ratio agreed poorly with the predictions of the roughness factor-based models, all of which originated from a conventional static force balance.

  17. Study of the hovering period and bubble size in fully developed pool nucleate boiling of saturated liquid with a time-dependent heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasamehmetoglu, K.O.; Nelson, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    In this paper, the bubble behavior in saturated pool boiling with a time-dependent heat source is analyzed. The study is restricted to the period from fully developed nucleate boiling until critical heat flux occurs. The hovering period and the departure volume of the bubble are selected as the characteristic parameters for bubble behavior. These parameters are quantified by solving the equation of motion for an idealized bubble. This equation is solved for cases in which the surface heat flux changes linearly and exponentially as a function of time. After nondimensionalization, the results are compared directly with the results of the steady-state problem. The comparison shows that the transient heat input has practically no effect on the hovering period. However, the transient heat flux causes a decreased volume at bubble departure. The volume decrease is dependent on the severity of the transient. These results are in qualitative agreement with the experimental observation quoted in the literature

  18. Optimum allocation of imaging time and minimum detectable activity in dual isotope blood pool subtraction indium-111 platelet imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machac, J.; Horowitz, S.F.; Goldsmith, S.J.; Fuster, V.

    1984-01-01

    Indium-111 labeled platelet imaging is a tool for detection of thrombus formation in vascular spaces. Dual isotope blood pool subtraction may help differentiate focal platelet accumulation from blood pool activity. This study used a computer model to calculate the minimum excess-to-blood pool platelet ratio (EX/BP) and the optimum dual isotope imaging times under varied conditions of lesion size. The model simulated usual human imaging doses of 500 μCi of In-111 platelets and 5mCi of Tc-99m labeled RBCs giving a reference cardiac blood pool region (100cc) of 10000 cpm for Tc-99m and 500 cpm for In-111. The total imaging time was fixed at 20 minutes, while the two isotope imaging times (TIn/TTc) were varied, as were the simulated lesion size (cc) and EX/BP. The relative error of the excess counts was calculated using propagation of error theory. At the critical level of detection, where the excess lesion counts equal 3 times the standard deviation, the optimum TIn/TTc and minimum Ex/BP were determined for each lesion size. For the smallest lesion size (0.1cc), the minimum detectable EX/BP ratio was 1.6, with the best TIn/TTC ratio of 18/2 minutes, and for large lesions, an EX/BP of 0.1, with a TIn/TTc of 16/4. This model provides an estimate of the sensitivity and optimizes imaging times in dual isotope subtraction platelet imaging. The model is adaptable to varying isotope doses, total imaging times and lesion size. This information will be helpful in future in- vivo imaging studies of intravascular thrombi in humans

  19. Burnout in a high heat-flux boiling system with an impinging jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monde, M.; Katto, Y.

    1978-01-01

    An experimental study has been made on the fully-developed nucleate boiling at atmospheric pressure in a simple forced-convection boiling system, which consists of a heated flat surface and a small, high-speed jet of water or of freon-113 impinging on the heated surface. A generalized correlation for burnout heat flux data, that is applied to either water or freon-113 is successfully evolved, and it is shown that surface tension has an important role for the onset of burnout phenomenon, not only in the ordinary pool boiling, but also in the present boiling system with a forced flow. (author)

  20. Boiling heat transfer to LN2 and LH2 - Influence of surface orientation and reduced body forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merte, H., Jr.; Oker, E.; Littles, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    The quantitative determination of the influence of heater surface orientation and gravity on nucleate pool boiling of liquid nitrogen and liquid hydrogen is described. A transient calorimeter technique, well suited for obtaining pool boiling data under reduced gravity and used earlier by Clark and Merte (1963), was employed after being adapted to flat a surface whose orientation could be varied. The obtained determination results are reviewed.

  1. Critical heat flux in subcooled and low quality boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroti, L.

    1976-06-01

    A semi-empirical relationship for critical heat flux prediction in a light water cooled power reactor core is developed. The method of developing this relationship is the extension of the analysis of pool boiling crisis for forced convective boiling. In the calculations the energy conservation equation is used together with additional condition for the crisis. Assuming that in the vicinity of the crisis the heat is transported only by the latent heat of the vapour this condition for the crisis can be characterized by the maximum departure velocity of the vapour. Because only flow boiling crisis associating with bubbling at the heating surface is considered the model could be applied only for low quality boiling crisis. The calculated results are compared to the available experimental ones. (Sz.N.Z.)

  2. Correlation development of natural convection heat transfer in consideration of aspect ratio change and coolant boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, L. J.; Cho, Y. L.; Kang, K. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, H. D.; Cho, J. S.; Jung, C. H.

    1999-01-01

    A new correlation on natural convection heat transfer with crust formation in the molten metal pool has been developed in consideration of coolant boiling effect and of aspect ratio change by an increase in crust thickness. Two test results of the convection cooling case, natural and forced convection cooling cases, and of the boiling case were used in the present study. The experimental results have shown that the Nusselt number of the case with boiling condition in the molten metal pool is greater than that of the case with non-boiling condition at the same Rayleigh number. Even though the Rayleigh number rapidly decreases due to an increase of the crust thickness, the Nusselt number does not rapidly decrease because of the aspect ratio effect. From the experimental results, the new correlation between the Nusselt number and Rayleigh number in the molten metal pool with the crust formation has been developed as Nu 0.051(Ra) 1/3 (AR) . 0 .2441 (Φ) 0.025 using Globe and Dropkin correlation

  3. Stability analysis of NbTi-Ta-based high field conductor cooled by pool boiling below 4 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.Y.; Alcorn, J.S.; Hsu, Y.H.; Purcell, J.R.

    1980-09-01

    Stability analysis has been performed for cabled NbTi-Ta-based superconductors intended for the high field (12 T) toroidal field coils for a large scale tokamak device such as ETF. Ternary NbTi-Ta was selected as the superconductor because of its superior critical current density at high field as compared to the binary alloy NbTi. The operating temperature was chosen to be 2.5 K or below to optimize the performance of the superconductor. A cabled conductor was selected to minimize the pulsed field losses. The conductor is cooled by pool boiling in a subcooled (approx. 2.5 K, 0.25 atm) bath, or in a superfluid helium (He-II) bath (approx. 1.8 K, 0.02 atm). The analysis was based on numerically simulating the evolution of a normal zone in the conductor. Appropriate superconductor properties and heat transfer characteristics were utilized in the simulation

  4. Mechanisms of convective and boiling heat transfer enhancement via ultrasonic vibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yi Gu; Kim, Ho Young; Kang, Seoung Min; Kang, Byung Ha; Lee, Jin Ho

    2003-01-01

    This work experimentally studies the fundamental mechanisms by which the ultrasonic vibration enhances convection and pool boiling heat transfer. A thin platinum wire is used as both a heat source and a temperature sensor. A high speed video imaging system is employed to observe the behavior of cavitation and thermal bubbles. It is found that when the liquid temperature is below its boiling point, cavitation takes place due to ultrasonic vibration while cavitation disappears when the liquid reaches the boiling point. Moreover, when the gas dissolved in liquid is removed by pre-degassing, the cavitation arises only locally. Depending on the liquid temperature, heat transfer rates in convection, subcooled boiling and saturated boiling regimes are examined. In convection heat transfer regime, fully agitated cavitation is the most efficient heat transfer enhancement mechanism. Subcooled boiling is most enhanced when the local cavitation is induced after degassing. In saturated boiling regime, acoustic pressure is shown to be a dominant heat transfer enhancement mechanism

  5. Flow boiling heat transfer at low liquid Reynolds number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weizhong Zhang; Takashi Hibiki; Kaichiro Mishima

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In view of the significance of a heat transfer correlation of flow boiling at conditions of low liquid Reynolds number or liquid laminar flow, and very few existing correlations in principle suitable for such flow conditions, this study is aiming at developing a heat transfer correlation of flow boiling at low liquid Reynolds number conditions. The obtained results are as follows: 1. A new heat transfer correlation has been developed for saturated flow boiling at low liquid Reynolds number conditions based on superimposition of two boiling mechanisms, namely convective boiling and nucleate boiling. In the new correlation, two terms corresponding to the mechanisms of nucleate boiling and convective boiling are obtained from the pool boiling correlation by Forster and Zuber and the analytical annular flow model by Hewitt and Hall-Taylor, respectively. 2. An extensive database was collected for saturated flow boiling heat transfer at low liquid Reynolds number conditions, including data for different channels geometries (circular and rectangular), flow orientations (vertical and horizontal), and working fluids (water, R11, R12, R113). 3. An extensive comparison of the new correlation with the collected database shows that the new correlation works satisfactorily with the mean deviation of 16.6% for saturated flow boiling at low liquid Reynolds number conditions. 4. The detailed discussion reveals the similarity of the newly developed correlation for flow boiling at low liquid Reynolds number to the Chen correlation for flow boiling at high liquid Reynolds number. The Reynolds number factor F can be analytically deduced in this study. (authors)

  6. Pool boiling CHF enhancement by micro/nanoscale modification of zircaloy-4 surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Ho Seon; Lee, Chan; Kim, Hyungdae; Jo, HangJin; Kang, SoonHo; Kim, Joonwon; Shin, Jeongseob; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2010-01-01

    Consideration of the critical heat flux (CHF) requires difficult compromises between economy and safety in many types of thermal systems, including nuclear power plants. Much research has been directed towards enhancing the CHF, and many recent studies have revealed that the significant CHF enhancement in nanofluids is due to surface deposition of nanoparticles. The surface deposition of nanoparticles influenced various surface characteristics. This fact indicated that the surface wettability is a key parameter for CHF enhancement and so is the surface morphology. In this study, surface wettability of zircaloy-4 used as cladding material of fuel rods in nuclear power plants was modified using surface treatment technique (i.e. anodization). Pool boiling experiments of distilled water on the prepared surfaces was conducted at atmospheric and saturated conditions to examine effects of the surface modification on CHF. The experimental results showed that CHF of zircaloy-4 can be significantly enhanced by the improvement in surface wettability using the surface modification, but only the wettability effect cannot explain the CHF increase on the treated zircaloy-4 surfaces completely. It was found that below a critical value of contact angle (10 o ), micro/nanostructures created by the surface treatment increased spreadability of liquid on the surface, which could lead to further increase in CHF even beyond the prediction caused only by the wettability improvement. These micro/nanostructures with multiscale on heated surface induced more significant CHF enhancement than it based on the wettability effect, due to liquid spreadability.

  7. Flow Boiling Critical Heat Flux in Reduced Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudawar, Issam; Zhang, Hui; Hasan, Mohammad M.

    2004-01-01

    This study provides systematic method for reducing power consumption in reduced gravity systems by adopting minimum velocity required to provide adequate CHF and preclude detrimental effects of reduced gravity . This study proves it is possible to use existing 1 ge flow boiling and CHF correlations and models to design reduced gravity systems provided minimum velocity criteria are met

  8. A study of the rates of heat transfer and bubble site density for nucleate boiling on an inclined heating surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonamy, S.E.; Symons, J.G.

    1974-08-01

    Nucleate pool boiling of distilled water from an electrically heated surface at atmospheric pressure is studied for varying heating surface inclinations. The constants of the accepted boiling equation phi = K Tsup(B) and the Rohsenow Correlation Coefficient are found to be dependent on surface orientation. Convection cooling is observed to play a major role in pool boiling phenomena and causes large changes in the heat transfer rates for a given excess of temperature of the heated surface. Active nucleation site density is studied and found to be independent of surface inclination. Empirical relations are presented to provide an understanding of the effects of inclination on other boiling parameters. (author)

  9. Boiling Heat Transfer Coefficients of Nanofluids Containing Carbon Nanotubes up to Critical Heat Fluxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ki Jung; Lee, Yohan; Jung, Dong Soo; Shim, Sang Eun

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the nucleate pool boiling heat transfer coefficients (HTCs) and critical heat flux (CHF) for a smooth and square flat heater in a pool of pure water with and without carbon nanotubes (CNTs) dispersed at 60 .deg. C were measured. Tested aqueous nanofluids were prepared using CNTs with volume concentrations of 0.0001%, 0.001%, and 0.01%. The CNTs were dispersed by chemically treating them with an acid in the absence of any polymers. The results showed that the pool boiling HTCs of the nanofluids are higher than those of pure water in the entire nucleate boiling regime. The acid-treated CNTs led to the deposition of a small amount of CNTs on the surface, and the CNTs themselves acted as heat-transfer-enhancing particles, owing to their very high thermal conductivity. There was a significant increase in the CHF- up to 150%-when compared to that of pure water containing CNTs with a volume concentration of 0.001%. This is attributed to the change in surface characteristics due to the deposition of a very thin layer of CNTs on the surface. This layer delays nucleate boiling and causes a reduction in the size of the large vapor canopy around the CHF. This results in a significant increase in the CHF

  10. Fundamental study of FC-72 pool boiling surface temperature fluctuations and bubble behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Alison R.

    A heater designed to monitor surface temperature fluctuations during pool boiling experiments while the bubbles were simultaneously being observed has been fabricated and tested. The heat source was a transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) layer commercially deposited on a fused quartz substrate. Four copper-nickel thin film thermocouples (TFTCs) on the heater surface measured the surface temperature, while a thin layer of sapphire or fused silica provided electrical insulation between the TFTCs and the ITO. The TFTCs were micro-fabricated using the liftoff process to deposit the nickel and copper metal films. The TFTC elements were 50 mum wide and overlapped to form a 25 mum by 25 mum junction. TFTC voltages were recorded by a DAQ at a sampling rate of 50 kHz. A high-speed CCD camera recorded bubble images from below the heater at 2000 frames/second. A trigger sent to the camera by the DAQ synchronized the bubble images and the surface temperature data. As the bubbles and their contact rings grew over the TFTC junction, correlations between bubble behavior and surface temperature changes were demonstrated. On the heaters with fused silica insulation layers, 1--2°C temperature drops on the order of 1 ms occurred as the contact ring moved over the TFTC junction during bubble growth and as the contact ring moved back over the TFTC junction during bubble departure. These temperature drops during bubble growth and departure were due to microlayer evaporation and liquid rewetting the heated surface, respectively. Microlayer evaporation was not distinguished as the primary method of heat removal from the surface. Heaters with sapphire insulation layers did not display the measurable temperature drops observed with the fused silica heaters. The large thermal diffusivity of the sapphire compared to the fused silica was determined as the reason for the absence of these temperature drops. These findings were confirmed by a comparison of temperature drops in a 2-D simulation of

  11. Convective heat transfer the molten metal pool heated from below and cooled by two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, J. S.; Suh, K. Y.; Chung, C. H.; Park, R. J.; Kim, S. B.

    1998-01-01

    During a hypothetical servere accident in the nuclear power plant, a molten core material may form stratified fluid layers. These layers may be composed of high temperature molten debris pool and water coolant in the lower plenum of the reactor vessel or in the reactor cavity. This study is concerned with the experimental test and numerical analysis on the heat transfer and solidification of the molten metal pool with overlying coolant with boiling. This work examines the crust formation and the heat transfer characteristics of the molten metal pool immersed in the boiling coolant. The metal pool is heated from the bottom surface and coolant is injected onto the molten metal pool. The simulant molten pool material is tin (Sn) with the melting temperature of 232 .deg. C. Demineralized water is used as the working coolant. Tests were performed under the condition of the bottom surface heating in the test section and the forced convection of the coolant being injected onto the molten metal pool. The constant temperature and constant heat flux conditions are adopted for the bottom heating. The test parameters included the heated bottom surface temperature of the molten metal pool, the input power to the heated bottom surface of the test section, and the coolant injection rate. Numerical analyses were simultaneously performed in a two-dimensional rectangular domain of the molten metal pool to check on the measured data. The numerical program has been developed using the enthalpy method, the finite volume method and the SIMPLER algorithm. The experimental results of the heat transfer show general agreement with the calculated values. In this study, the relationship between the Nusselt number and Rayleigh number in the molten metal pool region was estimated and compared with the dry experiment without coolant nor solidification of the molten metal pool, and with the crust formation experiment with subcooled coolant, and against other correlations. In the experiments, the

  12. Computational Fluid Dynamic Simulation of Single Bubble Growth under High-Pressure Pool Boiling Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janani Murallidharan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Component-scale modeling of boiling is predominantly based on the Eulerian–Eulerian two-fluid approach. Within this framework, wall boiling is accounted for via the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI model and, within this model, the bubble is characterized using three main parameters: departure diameter (D, nucleation site density (N, and departure frequency (f. Typically, the magnitudes of these three parameters are obtained from empirical correlations. However, in recent years, efforts have been directed toward mechanistic modeling of the boiling process. Of the three parameters mentioned above, the departure diameter (D is least affected by the intrinsic uncertainties of the nucleate boiling process. This feature, along with its prominence within the RPI boiling model, has made it the primary candidate for mechanistic modeling ventures. Mechanistic modeling of D is mostly carried out through solving of force balance equations on the bubble. Forces incorporated in these equations are formulated as functions of the radius of the bubble and have been developed for, and applied to, low-pressure conditions only. Conversely, for high-pressure conditions, no mechanistic information is available regarding the growth rates of bubbles and the forces acting on them. In this study, we use direct numerical simulation coupled with an interface tracking method to simulate bubble growth under high (up to 45 bar pressure, to obtain the kind of mechanistic information required for an RPI-type approach. In this study, we compare the resulting bubble growth rate curves with predictions made with existing experimental data.

  13. Boiling and burnout phenomena under transient heat input, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigebumi; Kozawa, Yoshiyuki; Iwasaki, Hideaki.

    1976-01-01

    In order to simulate the thermo-hydrodynamic conditions at reactor power excursions, a test piece was placed in a forced convective channel and heated with exponential power inputs. The boiling heat transfer and the burnout heat flux under the transient heat input were measured, and pressure and water temperature changes in the test section were recorded at the same time. Following experimental results were obtained; (1) Transient boiling heat transfer characteristics at high heat flux stayed on the stationary nucleate boiling curve of each flow condition, or extrapolated line of the curves. (2) Transient burnout heat flux increased remarkably with decreasing heating-time-constant, when the flow rate was lower and the subcooling was higher. (3) Transient burnout phenomena were expressed with the relation of (q sub(max) - q sub(sBO)) tau = constant at several flow conditions. This relation was derived from the stationary burnout mechanism of pool boiling. (auth.)

  14. Critical heat flux for free convection boiling in thin rectangular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Lap Y.; Tichler, P.R.

    1991-01-01

    A review of the experimental data on free convection boiling critical heat flux (CHF) in vertical rectangular channels reveals three mechanisms of burnout. They are the pool boiling limit, the circulation limit, and the flooding limit associated with a transition in flow regime from churn to annular flow. The dominance of a particular mechanism depends on the dimensions of the channel. Analytical models were developed for each free convection boiling limit. Limited agreement with data is observed. A CHF correlation, which is valid for a wide range of gap sizes, was constructed from the CHFs calculated according to the three mechanisms of burnout. 17 refs., 7 figs

  15. Experiments on melt droplets falling into a water pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okkonen, T.; Sehgal, B.R. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents experimental data and analysis related to melt droplets falling into a water pool. A binary CaO-B{sub 2}O{sub 3} melt mixture is used to study the influence of melt superheat and water subcooling on droplet deformation and fragmentation. For the conditions studied (We {<=} 1000), the surface tension of the melt droplet and the film boiling stability greatly affect the fragmentation behaviour. If the melt temperature is between the liquidus and solidus point (mushy zone) or if the film boiling is stable due to a relatively low subcooling, the droplet deformation and fragmentation are mitigated. This behaviour can be related to the effective Weber number (We) of the melt droplet upon entry into the water pool. Similar phenomena can be expected also for interactions of corium (UO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2}) and water, which are characterized by a potentially fast transformation of melt into the mushy zone and by particularly stable film boiling. (author)

  16. Preliminary Calculation on a Spent Fuel Pool Accident using GOTHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jaehwan; Choi, Yu Jung; Hong, Tae Hyub; Kim, Hyeong-Taek [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The probability of an accident happening at the spent fuel pool was believed to be quite low until the 2011 Fukushima accident occurred. Notably, large amount of spent fuel are normally stored in the spent fuel pool for a long time compared to the amount of fuel in the reactor core and the total heat released from the spent fuel is high enough to boil the water of the spent fuel pool when the cooling system does not operate. In addition, the enrichment and the burnup of the fuel have both increased in the past decade and heat generation from the spent fuel thereby has also increased. The failure of the cooling system at the spent fuel pool (hereafter, a loss-of-cooling accident) is one of the principal hypothetical causes of an accident that could occur at the spent fuel pool. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of-cooling accident was performed. In this paper, the preliminary calculation of a loss-of cooling accident was performed with GOTHIC. The calculation results show boiling away of water in the spent fuel pool due to the loss-of-cooling accident and similar thermal performance of the spent fuel pool with previous research results.

  17. Experimental study on forced convection boiling heat transfer on molten alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Satoshi; Ueda, Nobuyuki; Nishi, Yoshihisa; Furuya, Masahiro; Kinoshita, Izumi

    1999-01-01

    In order to clarify the characteristics of forced convection boiling heat transfer on molten metal, basic experiments have been carried out with subcooled water flowing on molten Wood's alloy pool surface. In these experiments, water flows horizontally in a rectangular duct. A cavity filled with Wood's alloy is present in a portion of the bottom of the duct. Wood's alloy is heated by a copper conductor at the bottom of the cavity. The experiments have been carried out with various velocities and subcoolings of water, and temperature of Wood's alloy. Boiling curves on the molten alloy surface were obtained and compared with that on a solid heat transfer surface. It is observed that the boiling curve on molten alloy is in a lower superheat region than the boiling curve on a solid surface. This indicates that the heat transfer performance of forced convection boiling on molten alloy is enhanced by increase of the heat transfer area, due to oscillation of the surface and fragmentation of molten alloy

  18. Bubble Dynamics, Two-Phase Flow, and Boiling Heat Transfer in Microgravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jacob N.

    1998-01-01

    This report contains two independent sections. Part one is titled "Terrestrial and Microgravity Pool Boiling Heat Transfer and Critical heat flux phenomenon in an acoustic standing wave." Terrestrial and microgravity pool boiling heat transfer experiments were performed in the presence of a standing acoustic wave from a platinum wire resistance heater using degassed FC-72 Fluorinert liquid. The sound wave was created by driving a half wavelength resonator at a frequency of 10.15 kHz. Microgravity conditions were created using the 2.1 second drop tower on the campus of Washington State University. Burnout of the heater wire, often encountered with heat flux controlled systems, was avoided by using a constant temperature controller to regulate the heater wire temperature. The amplitude of the acoustic standing wave was increased from 28 kPa to over 70 kPa and these pressure measurements were made using a hydrophone fabricated with a small piezoelectric ceramic. Cavitation incurred during experiments at higher acoustic amplitudes contributed to the vapor bubble dynamics and heat transfer. The heater wire was positioned at three different locations within the acoustic field: the acoustic node, antinode, and halfway between these locations. Complete boiling curves are presented to show how the applied acoustic field enhanced boiling heat transfer and increased critical heat flux in microgravity and terrestrial environments. Video images provide information on the interaction between the vapor bubbles and the acoustic field. Part two is titled, "Design and qualification of a microscale heater array for use in boiling heat transfer." This part is summarized herein. Boiling heat transfer is an efficient means of heat transfer because a large amount of heat can be removed from a surface using a relatively small temperature difference between the surface and the bulk liquid. However, the mechanisms that govern boiling heat transfer are not well understood. Measurements of

  19. Film boiling heat transfer and vapour film collapse for various geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouhara, H.I.; Axcell, B.P.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Film boiling heat transfer has application to the safe operation of water-cooled nuclear reactors under fault conditions and it has been studied using nickel-plated copper specimens in transient and steady state experiments. In the transient tests the specimens were held in a water flow; in the steady state investigation a specimen was mounted in an essentially quiescent pool of water. The transient investigation was conducted on two spheres with different diameters, two cylindrical specimens of different lengths in parallel flow, a short cylinder in cross flow and two flat plates with different lengths. The heat transfer coefficient, vapour film thickness (which was estimated from the heat transfer coefficient) and heat flux followed a similar behaviour with changing experimental conditions for all specimens studied. The heat transfer coefficient increased and the vapour film thickness and heat flux decreased as the specimen temperature decreased. As the water subcooling increased the heat transfer coefficient and the heat flux increased while the vapour film thickness decreased. The water velocity was found to have little influence on the film boiling heat transfer results except for the short cylinder in cross flow. The sphere diameter was found to affect the heat transfer results; the heat transfer coefficient and the heat flux were larger, for the larger sphere. No significant effect of the cylinder length on the heat transfer data was observed. However, the heat transfer coefficient was higher (and the average vapour film thinner) for the longer plate than for the shorter plate. Three vapour/liquid interface types were observed namely: 'smooth', 'rippled' and 'turbulent' depending largely on specimen and water temperatures. For all specimens, the maximum heat transfer coefficient, minimum heat flux and minimum film boiling temperature, occurring just before vapour film collapse, were found to increase as the water subcooling

  20. Flow visualization and critical heat flux measurement of a boundary layer pool boiling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, F.B.; Haddad, K.H.; Liu, Y.C.; Shiah, S.W.

    1998-01-01

    As part of the effort to evaluate the concept of external passive cooling of core melt by cavity flooding under severe accident conditions, a subscale boundary layer boiling (SBLB) facility, consisting of a pressurized water tank with a condenser unit, a heated hemispherical test vessel, and a data acquisition/photographic system, was developed to simulate the boiling process on the external bottom surface of a fully submerged reactor vessel. Transient quenching and steady-state boiling experiments were conducted in the facility to measure the local critical heat flux (CHF) and observe the underlying mechanisms under well controlled saturated and subcooled conditions. Large elongated vapor slugs were observed in the bottom region of the vessel which gave rise to strong upstream influences in the resulting two-phase liquid-vapor boundary layer flow along the vessel outer surface. The local CHF values deduced from the transient quenching data appeared to be very close to those obtained in the steady-state boiling experiments. Comparison of the SBLB data was made with available 2-D full-scale data and the differences were found to be rather small except in a region near the bottom center of the vessel. The angular position of the vessel outer surface and the degree of subcooling of water had dominant effects on the local critical heat flux. They totally dwarfed the effect of the physical dimensions of the test vessels. (author)

  1. A model of film boiling in the presence of electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrica, P.M.; Masson, V.; Clausse, A. [Centro Atomico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro, Barilochi (Argentina)

    1995-09-01

    Recently it was found that, when a strong electric field is applied around a heated wire, two distinct film boiling heat transfer regimes are observed. In this paper, a semi-empirical model is derived to analyze the pool boiling process in the presence of non uniform electric field. The model takes into account the dielectrophoretic force acting on the bubbles as they grow and the effect of the electric field on the most dangerous wavelength. It is shown how the transition between the two film boiling regimes is possible for high strength electric fields. The threshold voltage for transition, transition heat fluxes and hysteresis values are compared with experimental outcomes showing a satisfactory agreement.

  2. Improvement of boiling heat transfer by radiation induced boiling enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Yasuyuki; Okamoto, Koji; Madarame, Haruki; Takamasa, Tomoji

    2003-01-01

    For nuclear reactor systems, the critical heat flux (CHF) data is very important because it limits reactor efficiency. Improvement of CHF requires that the cooling liquid can contact the heating surface, or a high-wettability, highly hydrophilic heating surface, even if a vapor bubble layer is generated on the surface. In our previous study, we confirmed that the surface wettability changed significantly or that highly hydrophilic conditions were achieved, after irradiation of 60 Co gamma ray, by the Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) phenomenon. To delineate the effect of RISA on boiling phenomena, surface wettability in a high-temperature environment and critical heat flux (CHF) of metal oxides irradiated by gamma rays were investigated. A CHF experiment in the pool boiling condition was carried out under atmospheric pressure. The heating test section made of titanium was 0.2 mm in thickness, 3 mm in height, and 60 mm in length. Oxidation of the surface was carried out by plasma jetting for 40 seconds. The test section was irradiated by 60 Co gamma ray with predetermined radiation intensity and period. The CHF of oxidized titanium was improved up to 100 percent after 800 kGy 60 Co gamma ray irradiation. We call this effect Radiation Induced Boiling Enhancement (RIBE). Before we conducted the CHF experiment, contact angles of the test pieces were measured to show the relationship between wettability and CHF. The CHF in the present experiment increases will surface wettability in the same manner as shown by Liaw and Dhir's results. (author)

  3. Improvement of boiling heat transfer by radiation induced boiling enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imai, Y.; Okamoto, K.; Madarame, H.; Takamasa, T.

    2003-01-01

    For nuclear reactor systems, the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) data is very important because it limits reactor efficiency. Improvement of CHF requires that the cooling liquid can contact the heating surface, or a high-wettability, highly hydrophilic heating surface, even if a vapor bubble layer is generated on the surface. In our previous study, we confirmed that the surface wettability changed significantly or that highly hydrophilic conditions were achieved, after irradiation of 60Co gamma ray, by the Radiation Induced Surface Activation (RISA) phenomenon. To delineate the effect of RISA on boiling phenomena, surface wettability in a high-temperature environment and Critical Heat Flux (CHF) of metal oxides irradiated by gamma rays were investigated. A CHF experiment in the pool boiling condition was carried out under atmospheric pressure. The heating test section made of titanium was 0.2mm in thickness, 3mm in height, and 60mm in length. Oxidation of the surfaces was carried out by plasma jetting for 40 seconds. The test section was irradiated by 60Co gamma ray with predetermined radiation intensity and period. The CHF of oxidized titanium was improved up to 100 percent after 800kGy 60Co gamma ray irradiation. We call this effect Radiation Induced Boiling Enhancement (RIBE). Before we conducted the CHF experiment, contact angles of the test pieces were measured to show the relationship between wettability and CHF. The CHF in the present experiment increases with surface wettability in the same manner as shown by Liaw and Dhir's results

  4. Experimental study of the effect of the reduced graphene oxide films on nucleate boiling performances of inclined surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji Hoon; Kong, Byeong Tak; Kim, Ji Min

    2016-01-01

    For the enhancing the CHF, surface coating techniques are available. Yang et al. performed small scale boiling experiments for the vessel lower head, which was coated by aluminum/copper micro particles. Recently, graphene has received much attention for applications in thermal engineering due to its large thermal conductivity. Ahn et al. used a silicon dioxide substrate, which was coated graphene films, as a heating surface during pool boiling experiments. The graphene films inhibited the formation of hot spots, increasing the CHF. For applying novel material 'Graphene' in nuclear industry, here we investigated the effects of graphene film coatings on boiling performances. The experimental pool boiling facility, copying the geometry of lower head of reactor, was designed for verifying orientation effects. The effects of graphene films coating on varied inclined heater surfaces were investigated. The CHF values were increased at every case, but the increased amounts were decreased for downward heater surfaces. At the downward-facing region, however, coating the RGO films would change the CHF mechanisms and boiling heat transfer performances. Generally, RGO films, made by colloidal fabrication, has defects on each flakes.

  5. Post-CHF low-void heat transfer of water: measurements in the complete transition boiling region at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johannsen, K.; Meinen, W.

    1984-01-01

    An experimental investigation of low-void heat transfer of water has been performed in the range of CHF and the minimum stable film boiling temperature. The heat transfer system used consists of a vertically mounted copper tube of 1 cm I.D. and 5 cm length with surface-temperature controlled, indirect Joule heating. Results are presented for upflowing water at inverted annular flow conditions in the inlet subcooling range of 2.5 - 40 0 C and mass flux range of 137-600 kg/m 2 s in terms of boiling curves and heat transfer coefficients versus wall temperature. Heat transfer in the stationary rewetting front, which occurs within the test section during operation in the transition boiling mode, is also dealt with. At high mass flux, occurrence of an inverse rewetting front has been observed. It is also noted that, at fixed location, minimum heat flux observed is usually not associated with the minimum stable film boiling temperature

  6. Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States); Olewski, Tomasz; Vechot, Luc [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center - Qatar, Texas A and M University at Qatar, PO Box 23874, Doha (Qatar); Mannan, M. Sam, E-mail: mannan@tamu.edu [Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center, Artie McFerrin Department of Chemical Engineering, Texas A and M University System, College Station, TX 77843-3122 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Reveal the existence of blocking effect of high expansion foam on an LNG pool. • Study the blanketing effect of high expansion foam quantitatively. • Correlate heat flux for vaporization with foam breaking rate. • Propose the physical mechanism of blanketing effect. - Abstract: With increasing consumption of natural gas, the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) utilization has become an issue that requires a comprehensive study on the risk of LNG spillage in facilities with mitigation measures. The immediate hazard associated with an LNG spill is the vapor hazard, i.e., a flammable vapor cloud at the ground level, due to rapid vaporization and dense gas behavior. It was believed that high expansion foam mitigated LNG vapor hazard through warming effect (raising vapor buoyancy), but the boil-off effect increased vaporization rate due to the heat from water drainage of foam. This work reveals the existence of blocking effect (blocking convection and radiation to the pool) to reduce vaporization rate. The blanketing effect on source term (vaporization rate) is a combination of boil-off and blocking effect, which was quantitatively studied through seven tests conducted in a wind tunnel with liquid nitrogen. Since the blocking effect reduces more heat to the pool than the boil-off effect adds, the blanketing effect contributes to the net reduction of heat convection and radiation to the pool by 70%. Water drainage rate of high expansion foam is essential to determine the effectiveness of blanketing effect, since water provides the boil-off effect.

  7. Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi; Olewski, Tomasz; Vechot, Luc; Mannan, M. Sam

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Reveal the existence of blocking effect of high expansion foam on an LNG pool. • Study the blanketing effect of high expansion foam quantitatively. • Correlate heat flux for vaporization with foam breaking rate. • Propose the physical mechanism of blanketing effect. - Abstract: With increasing consumption of natural gas, the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) utilization has become an issue that requires a comprehensive study on the risk of LNG spillage in facilities with mitigation measures. The immediate hazard associated with an LNG spill is the vapor hazard, i.e., a flammable vapor cloud at the ground level, due to rapid vaporization and dense gas behavior. It was believed that high expansion foam mitigated LNG vapor hazard through warming effect (raising vapor buoyancy), but the boil-off effect increased vaporization rate due to the heat from water drainage of foam. This work reveals the existence of blocking effect (blocking convection and radiation to the pool) to reduce vaporization rate. The blanketing effect on source term (vaporization rate) is a combination of boil-off and blocking effect, which was quantitatively studied through seven tests conducted in a wind tunnel with liquid nitrogen. Since the blocking effect reduces more heat to the pool than the boil-off effect adds, the blanketing effect contributes to the net reduction of heat convection and radiation to the pool by 70%. Water drainage rate of high expansion foam is essential to determine the effectiveness of blanketing effect, since water provides the boil-off effect

  8. Thermal analysis and design of a passive reflux condenser for the simplified boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bijlani, C.; Patti, F.; Prasad, V.

    1993-01-01

    At present, the advanced light water reactors (ALWRS) in the United States are being designed to remove reactor decay heat for a period of 72 h following a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The water in the pools external to the containment is evaporated or boiled off to remove the decay heat. It is presumed that the water in the pools can be replenished within 72 h through operator actions or outside assistance. Some countries in Europe require that the plant be designed to remove the reactor decay heat for a much longer duration than 72 h without external assistance. This paper presents an analysis and design of a passive heat exchanger called a reflux condenser (RC), which was considered for an ALWR-the 600-MW(electric) simplified boiling water reactor. The RC is required to condense the steam formed when the water in the pool in which the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) is immersed boils following a LOCA. The RCs are nuclear non-safety related. This paper presents steady-state performance of an RC at various outdoor air dry-bulb temperatures under still air conditions

  9. Sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver on-sun test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andraka, C E; Moreno, J B; Diver, R B; Moss, T A [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-06-01

    The efficient operation of a Stirling engine requires the application of a high heat flux to the relatively small area occupied by the heater head tubes. Previous attempts to couple solar energy to Stirling engines generally involved directly illuminating the heater head tubes with concentrated sunlight. In this study, operation of a 75-kW{sub t} sodium reflux pool-boiler solar receiver has been demonstrated and its performance characterized on Sandia's nominal 75-kW{sub t} parabolic-dish concentrator, using a cold-water gas-gap calorimeter to simulate Stirling engine operation. The pool boiler (and more generally liquid-metal reflux receivers) supplies heat to the engine in the form of latent heat released from condensation of the metal vapor on the heater head tubes. The advantages of the pool boiler include uniform tube temperature, leading to longer life and higher temperature available to the engine, and decoupling of the design of the solar absorber from the engine heater head. The two-phase system allows high input thermal flux, reducing the receiver size and losses, therefore improving system efficiency. The receiver thermal efficiency was about 90% when operated at full power and 800{degree}C. Stable sodium boiling was promoted by the addition of 35 equally spaced artificial cavities in the wetted absorber surface. High incipient boiling superheats following cloud transients were suppressed passively by the addition of small amounts of xenon gas to the receiver volume. Stable boiling without excessive incipient boiling superheats was observed under all operating conditions. The receiver developed a leak during performance evaluation, terminating the testing after accumulating about 50 hours on sun. The receiver design is reported here along with test results including transient operations, steady-state performance evaluation, operation at various temperatures, infrared thermography, x-ray studies of the boiling behavior, and a postmortem analysis.

  10. Estimation of Minimum DNBR Using Cascaded Fuzzy Neural Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Yeong; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Na, Man Gyun

    2015-01-01

    This phenomenon of boiling crisis is called a departure from nucleate boiling (DNB). The DNB phenomena can influence the fuel cladding and fuel pellets. The DNB ratio (DNBR) is defined as the ratio of the expected DNB heat flux to the actual fuel rod heat flux. Since it is very important to monitor and predict the minimum DNBR in a reactor core to prevent the boiling crisis and clad melting, a number of researches have been conducted to predict DNBR values. The aim of this study is to estimate the minimum DNBR in a reactor core using the measured signals of the reactor coolant system (RCS) by applying cascaded fuzzy neural networks (CFNN) according to operating conditions. Reactor core monitoring and protection systems require minimum DNBR prediction. The CFNN can be used to optimize the minimum DNBR value through the process of adding fuzzy neural networks (FNN) repeatedly. The proposed algorithm is trained by using the data set prepared for training (development data) and verified by using another data set different (independent) from the development data. The developed CFNN models were applied to the first fuel cycle of OPR1000. The RMS errors are 0.23% and 0.12% for the positive and negative ASI, respectively

  11. Development of natural convection heat transfer correlation for liquid metal with overlying boiling coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jae Seon; Suh, Kune Y.; Chung, Chang Hyun; Park, Rae Joon; Kim, Sang Baik

    1999-01-01

    Experimental study was performed to investigate the natural convection heat transfer characteristics and the crust formation of the molten metal pool concurrent with forced convective boiling of the overlying coolant. Tests were performed under the condition of the bottom surface heating in the test section and the forced convection of the coolant being injected onto the molten metal pool. The constant temperature and constant heater input power conditions were adopted for the bottom heating. Test results showed that the temperature distribution and crust layer thickness in the metal layer are appreciably affected by the heated bottom surface temperature of the test section, but not much by the coolant injection rate. The relationship between the Nu number and Ra number in the molten metal pool region is determined and compared with the correlations in the literature, and the experiment without coolant boiling. A new correlation on the relationship between the Nu number and Ra number in the molten metal pool with crust formation is developed from the experimental data

  12. Steam blowdown experiments with the condensation pool test rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purhonen, H.; Puustinen, M.; Laine, J.; Raesaenen, A.; Kyrki-Rajamaeki, R.; Vihavainen, J.

    2005-01-01

    During a possible loss-of-coolant accident (Local) a large amount of non-condensable (nitrogen) and condensable (steam) gas is blown from the upper drywell of the containment to the condensation pool through the blowdown pipes at the boiling water reactors (BWRs). The wet well pool serves as the major heat sink for condensation of steam. The blowdown causes both dynamic and structural loads to the condensation pool. There might also be a risk that the gas discharging to the pool could push its way to the emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) and undermine their performance. (author)

  13. Some observations on simulated molten debris-coolant layer dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, G.A.; Klein, J.; Klages, J.; Schwarz, E.; Sanborn, Y.

    1983-04-01

    Experiments are being performed to investigate high temperature liquid-liquid film boiling between a pool of liquid metal and an overlying coolant pool of R-11 or water. Film boiling has been observed to be stable for R-11; however, considerable liquid-liquid contact has been observed with water well beyond the minimum film boiling temperature. Unstable liquid-liquid film boiling of water has been observed to escalate into dispersive, non-energetic vapor explosions when the interface contact temperature exceeded the spontaneous nucleation temperature. Other parametric trends in the data are discussed

  14. Experimental study of the effect of the reduced graphene oxide films on nucleate boiling performances of inclined surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ji Hoon; Kong, Byeong Tak [Incheon National University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Min [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2016-05-15

    For the enhancing the CHF, surface coating techniques are available. Yang et al. performed small scale boiling experiments for the vessel lower head, which was coated by aluminum/copper micro particles. Recently, graphene has received much attention for applications in thermal engineering due to its large thermal conductivity. Ahn et al. used a silicon dioxide substrate, which was coated graphene films, as a heating surface during pool boiling experiments. The graphene films inhibited the formation of hot spots, increasing the CHF. For applying novel material 'Graphene' in nuclear industry, here we investigated the effects of graphene film coatings on boiling performances. The experimental pool boiling facility, copying the geometry of lower head of reactor, was designed for verifying orientation effects. The effects of graphene films coating on varied inclined heater surfaces were investigated. The CHF values were increased at every case, but the increased amounts were decreased for downward heater surfaces. At the downward-facing region, however, coating the RGO films would change the CHF mechanisms and boiling heat transfer performances. Generally, RGO films, made by colloidal fabrication, has defects on each flakes.

  15. Boiling heat transfer on single phosphor bronze and copper mesh microstructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orman Łukasz J.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental results of boiling heat transfer of distilled water and ethyl alcohol on surfaces covered with single layers of wire mesh structures made of phosphor bronze and copper. For each material two kinds of structures have been considered (higher and lower in order to determine the impact of the height of the structure on boiling heat transfer. The wire diameter of the copper meshes was 0,25 mm and 0,32 mm, while of the bronze meshes: 0,20 mm and 0,25 mm. The structures had the same mesh aperture (distance between the wires – 0,50 mm for copper and 0,40 for bronze but different wire diameter and, consequently, different height of the layers. The tests have been performed under ambient pressure in the pool boiling mode. The obtained results indicate a visible impact of the layer height on the boiling heat transfer performance of the analysed microstructures.

  16. Boiling and fragmentation behaviour during fuel-sodium interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schins, H.; Gunnerson, F.S.

    1986-01-01

    A selection of the results and subsequent analysis of molten fuel-sodium interaction experiments conducted within the JRC BETULLA I and II facilities are reported. The fuels were copper and stainless steel, at initial temperatures far above their melting points; or urania and alumina, initially at their melting points. For each test, the molten fuel masses were in lower kilogram range and the subcooled pool mass was either 160 or 4 kg. The sodium pool was instrumented continually monitor the system temperature and pressure. Post-test examination results of the fragmented fuel debris sizes, shape and crystalline structure are given. The results of this study suggest the following: Transition boiling is the dominant boiling mode for the tested fuels in subcooled sodium. Two fragmentation mechanisms, vapour bubble formation/collapse and thermal stress shrinkage cracking prevailed for the oxide fuels. This was evidenced by the presence of both smooth and fractured particulate. In contrast, all metal fuel debris was smooth, suggesting fragmentation by the vapour bubble formation/collapse mechanism only during the molten state and for each test, there was no evidence of an energetic fuel-coolant interaction. (orig.)

  17. An investigation of transition boiling mechanisms of subcooled water under forced convective conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwang-Won, Lee; Sang-Yong, Lee

    1995-09-01

    A mechanistic model for forced convective transition boiling has been developed to investigate transition boiling mechanisms and to predict transition boiling heat flux realistically. This model is based on a postulated multi-stage boiling process occurring during the passage time of the elongated vapor blanket specified at a critical heat flux (CHF) condition. Between the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) and the departure from film boiling (DFB) points, the boiling heat transfer is established through three boiling stages, namely, the macrolayer evaporation and dryout governed by nucleate boiling in a thin liquid film and the unstable film boiling characterized by the frequent touches of the interface and the heated wall. The total heat transfer rates after the DNB is weighted by the time fractions of each stage, which are defined as the ratio of each stage duration to the vapor blanket passage time. The model predictions are compared with some available experimental transition boiling data. The parametric effects of pressure, mass flux, inlet subcooling on the transition boiling heat transfer are also investigated. From these comparisons, it can be seen that this model can identify the crucial mechanisms of forced convective transition boiling, and that the transition boiling heat fluxes including the maximum heat flux and the minimum film boiling heat flux are well predicted at low qualities/high pressures near 10 bar. In future, this model will be improved in the unstable film boiling stage and generalized for high quality and low pressure situations.

  18. The maximum and minimum values of the heat Q transmitted from metal to boiling water under atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nukiyama, S.

    1991-01-01

    The quantity of heat transmitted from a metal surface to boiling water increases as the temperature difference ΔT is increased, but after the ΔT has reached a certain limit, quantity Q decreases with further increase in ΔT. This turning point is the maximum value of heat transmitted. The existence of this point was actually observed in the experiment. Under atmospheric pressure, ΔT corresponding to the maximum value of heat transfer for water at 100 degrees C falls between 20-40 degrees C, and Q is between 1,080,000 and 1,800,000 kcal/m 2 h (i.e. between 2,000 and 3,000 kg/m 2 h, if expressed in constant evaporation rate at 100 degrees C); this figure is larger than the maximum value of heat transfer as was previously considered. In this paper the minimum value of heat transfer was obtained, and in the Q-ΔT curve for the high temperature region, the burn-out effect is discussed

  19. An experimental study of forced convective flow boiling CHF in nanofluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Hoseon; Kim, Seontae; Jo, Hangjin; Kim, Dongeok; Kang, Soonho; Kim, Moohwan

    2008-01-01

    Recently the enhancement of CHF (critical heat flux) in nanofluids under the pool boiling condition is known as a result of nanoparticle deposition on the heating surface. The deposition phenomenon of nanoparticles on the heating surface is induced dominantly by the vigorous boiling on the heating surface. Considering the importance of flow boiling conditions in various practical heat transfer applications, an experimental study was performed to verify whether or not the enhancement of CHF in nanofluids exists in a forced convective flow boiling condition. The nanofluid used in this research was Al 2 O 3 -water dispersed by the ultra-sonic vibration method in very low concentration (0.01% Vol). A heater specimen was made of a copper block easily detachable to look into the surface condition after the experiment. The heating method was a thermal-heating made with a conductive material. The flow channel took a rectangular type (10mm x 10mm) and had a length of 1.2 m to assure a hydrodynamically fully-developed region. In result, CHF in the nanofluid under the forced convective flow boiling condition has been enhanced distinctively along with the effect of flow rates. To reason the CHF increase in the nanofluids, the boiling surface was investigated thoroughly with the SEM image. (author)

  20. Surface wettability effects on critical heat flux of boiling heat transfer using nanoparticle coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Chin-Chi; Chen, Ping-Hei

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of surface wettability on pool boiling heat transfer. Nano-silica particle coatings were used to vary the wettability of the copper surface from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic by modifying surface topography

  1. Studies on boiling heat transfer on a hemispherical downward heating surface supposing IVR-AM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Kenji; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Tadayoshi; Kataoka, Isao

    2006-01-01

    The scale-down experiments supposing the IVR-AM were made on the pool boiling heat transfer from hemispherical downward facing heating surface. The boiling phenomena were realized by flooding the heated hemispherical vessel into the sub-cooled water or saturated water under the atmospheric pressure. The hemispherical vessel supposing the scale-down pressure vessel was made of SUS304 stainless steel. Molten lead, which was preheated up to about 500 degrees Celsius, was put into the vessel and used as the heat source. The vessel was cooled down by flooding into the water to realize the quenching process. The direct observation by using the digital video camera was performed and made clear the special characteristics of boiling phenomena such as the film boiling, the transition boiling and the nucleate boiling taking place in order during the cooling process. The measurement for the wall superheat and heat flux by using thermocouples was also carried out to make clear the boiling heat transfer characteristics during the cooling process. Fifteen thermocouples are inserted in the wall of the hemispherical bowl to measure the temperature distributions and heat flux in the hemispherical bowl. (author)

  2. Electric fields effect on the rise of single bubbles during boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siedel, Samuel; Cioulachtjian, Serge; Bonjour, Jocelyn

    2009-01-01

    An experimental study of saturated pool boiling on a single artificial nucleation site without and with the application of an electric field on the boiling surface has been conducted. N-pentane is boiling on a copper surface and is recorded with a high speed camera providing high quality pictures and movies. The accuracy of the visualization allowed establishing an experimental bubble growth law from a large number of experiments. This law shows that the evaporation rate is decreasing during the bubble growth, and underlines the importance of liquid motion induced by the preceding bubble. Bubble rise is therefore studied: once detached, bubbles accelerate vertically until reaching a maximum velocity in good agreement with a correlation from literature. The bubbles then turn to another direction. The effect of applying an electric field on the boiling surface in finally studied. In addition to changes of the bubble shape, changes are also shown in the liquid plume and the convective structures above the surface. Lower maximum rising velocities were measured in the presence of electric fields, especially with a negative polarity. (author)

  3. FARO tests corium-melt cooling in water pool: Roles of melt superheat and sintering in sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Gisuk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS 67260 (United States); Kaviany, Massoud [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Division of Advance Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Moriyama, Kiyofumi [Division of Advance Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun Sun, E-mail: hejsunny@postech.ac.kr [Division of Advance Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Byoungcheol; Lee, Mooneon; Kim, Eunho; Park, Jin Ho [Division of Advance Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang, Gyeongbuk 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Nasersharifi, Yahya [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Wichita State University, Wichita, KS 67260 (United States)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • The numerical approach for FARO experimental data is suggested. • The cooling mechanism of ex-vessel corium is suggested. • The predicted minimum pool depth for no cake formation is suggested. - Abstract: The FARO tests have aimed at understanding an important severe accident mitigation action in a light water reactor when the accident progresses from the reactor pressure vessel boundary. These tests have aimed to measure the coolability of a molten core material (corium) gravity dispersed as jet into a water pool, quantifying the loose particle diameter distribution and fraction converted to cake under range of initial melt superheat and pool temperature and depth. Under complete hydrodynamic breakup of corium and consequent sedimentation in the pool, the initially superheated corium can result in debris bed consisting of discrete solid particles (loose debris) and/or a solid cake at the bottom of the pool. The success of the debris bed coolability requires cooling of the cake, and this is controlled by the large internal resistance. We postulate that the corium cake forms when there is a remelting part in the sediment. We show that even though a solid shell forms around the melt particles transiting in the water pool due to film-boiling heat transfer, the superheated melt allows remelting of the large particles in the sediment (depending on the water temperature and the transit time) using the COOLAP (Coolability Analysis with Parametric fuel-cooant interaction models) code. With this remelting and its liquid-phase sintering of the non-remelted particles, we predict the fraction of the melt particles converting to a cake through liquid sintering. Our predictions are in good agreement with the existing results of the FARO experiments. We address only those experiments with pool depths sufficient/exceeding the length required for complete breakup of the molten jet. Our analysis of the fate of molten corium aimed at devising the effective

  4. Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Coolant Concentration on Sub-Cooled Boiling and Crud Deposition on Reactor Cladding at Prototypical PWR Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultis, J., Kenneth; Fenton, Donald, L.

    2006-10-20

    Increasing demand for energy necessitates nuclear power units to increase power limits. This implies significant changes in the design of the core of the nuclear power units, therefore providing better performance and safety in operations. A major hindrance to the increase of nuclear reactor performance especially in Pressurized Deionized water Reactors (PWR) is Axial Offset Anomaly (AOA)--the unexpected change in the core axial power distribution during operation from the predicted distribution. This problem is thought to be occur because of precipitation and deposition of lithiated compounds like boric acid (H{sub 2}BO{sub 3}) and lithium metaborate (LiBO{sub 2}) on the fuel rod cladding. Deposited boron absorbs neutrons thereby affecting the total power distribution inside the reactor. AOA is thought to occur when there is sufficient build-up of crud deposits on the cladding during subcooled nucleate boiling. Predicting AOA is difficult as there is very little information regarding the heat and mass transfer during subcooled nucleate boiling. An experimental investigation was conducted to study the heat transfer characteristics during subcooled nucleate boiling at prototypical PWR conditions. Pool boiling tests were conducted with varying concentrations of lithium metaborate (LiBO{sub 2}) and boric acid (H{sub 2}BO{sub 3}) solutions in deionized water. The experimental data collected includes the effect of coolant concentration, subcooling, system pressure and heat flux on pool the boiling heat transfer coefficient. The analysis of particulate deposits formed on the fuel cladding surface during subcooled nucleate boiling was also performed. The results indicate that the pool boiling heat transfer coefficient degrades in the presence of boric acid and lithium metaborate compared to pure deionized water due to lesser nucleation. The pool boiling heat transfer coefficients decreased by about 24% for 5000 ppm concentrated boric acid solution and by 27% for 5000 ppm

  5. Coolant material effect on the heat transfer rates of the molten metal pool with solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Jae Seon; Suh, Kune Y.; Chung, Chang Hyun; Park, Rae Joon; Kim, Sang Baik

    1998-01-01

    Experimental studies on heat transfer and solidification of the molten metal pool with overlying coolant with boiling were performed. The simulant molten pool material is tin (Sn) with the melting temperature of 232 degree C. Demineralized water and R113 are used as the working coolant. This work examines the crust formation and the heat transfer characteristics of the molten metal pool immersed in the boiling coolant. The Nusselt number and the Rayleigh number in the molten metal pool region of this study are compared between the water coolant case and the R113 coolant case. The experimental results for the water coolant are higher than those for R113. Also, the empirical relationship of the Nusselt number and the Rayleigh number is compared with the literature correlations measured from mercury. The present experimental results are higher than the literature correlations. It is believed that this discrepancy is caused by the effect of the heat loss to the environment on the natural convection heat transfer in the molten pool

  6. Boiling phenomenon and heat transfer in bead-packed porous structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaojie; ZHu Yanlei; Bai Bofeng; Yan Xiao; Xiao Zejun

    2009-01-01

    A visual study on pool boiling behavior and phase distribution was conducted on the porous structures made of staggered glass beads at atmospheric pressure. The bead-packed structure was heated on the bottom. The investigations were carried out respectively at different glass bead diameters which were 4 mm, 6 mm and 8 mm. The results show that during subcooled boiling, small isolated bubbles are formed on the heated surface and combine into main-bubbles, the dispersion frequency of the main-bubbles is low and the small bubbles scatter in the bead-packed porous structures. At the initial stage of saturated boiling, the bubble growth rate, the volume of main-bubbles and the range of continuous vapor phase increase. The dispersion frequency of main-bubbles increases with the increasing of heat flux. During film boiling, the heated surface is absolutely covered with vapor film and the porous structure is full of liquid. The larger the diameter of beads is, the higher heat flux is needed for the same phenomenon, and the higher maximum value of heat transfer coefficient will be. During the whole saturated boiling, and the heat transfer enhanced firstly and then weakened. Being opposite to that of the diameters of 4 mm and 8 mm, the heat transfer coefficient in the 6 mm-bead-packed porous structure decreases with the increasing of the heat flux. (authors)

  7. Study on characteristic points of boiling curve by using wavelet analysis and genetic algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Huiming; Su Guanghui; Qiu Suizheng; Yang Xingbo

    2009-01-01

    Based on the wavelet analysis theory of signal singularity detection,the critical heat flux (CHF) and minimum film boiling starting point (q min ) of boiling curves can be detected and analyzed by using the wavelet multi-resolution analysis. To predict the CHF in engineering, empirical relations were obtained based on genetic algorithm. The results of wavelet detection and genetic algorithm prediction are consistent with experimental data very well. (authors)

  8. Nucleate Boiling Heat Transfer Studied Under Reduced-Gravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, David F.; Hasan, Mohammad M.

    2000-01-01

    Boiling is known to be a very efficient mode of heat transfer, and as such, it is employed in component cooling and in various energy-conversion systems. In space, boiling heat transfer may be used in thermal management, fluid handling and control, power systems, and on-orbit storage and supply systems for cryogenic propellants and life-support fluids. Recent interest in the exploration of Mars and other planets and in the concept of in situ resource utilization on the Martian and Lunar surfaces highlights the need to understand how gravity levels varying from the Earth's gravity to microgravity (1g = or > g/g(sub e) = or > 10(exp -6)g) affect boiling heat transfer. Because of the complex nature of the boiling process, no generalized prediction or procedure has been developed to describe the boiling heat transfer coefficient, particularly at reduced gravity levels. Recently, Professor Vijay K. Dhir of the University of California at Los Angeles proposed a novel building-block approach to investigate the boiling phenomena in low-gravity to microgravity environments. This approach experimentally investigates the complete process of bubble inception, growth, and departure for single bubbles formed at a well-defined and controllable nucleation site. Principal investigator Professor Vijay K. Dhir, with support from researchers from the NASA Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field, is performing a series of pool boiling experiments in the low-gravity environments of the KC 135 microgravity aircraft s parabolic flight to investigate the inception, growth, departure, and merger of bubbles from single- and multiple-nucleation sites as a function of the wall superheat and the liquid subcooling. Silicon wafers with single and multiple cavities of known characteristics are being used as test surfaces. Water and PF5060 (an inert liquid) were chosen as test liquids so that the role of surface wettability and the magnitude of the effect of interfacial tension on boiling in reduced

  9. Minimum Quench Energy and Early Quench Development in NbTi Superconducting Strands

    CERN Document Server

    Breschi, M; Boselli, M; Bottura, Luca; Devred, Arnaud; Ribani, P L; Trillaud, F

    2007-01-01

    The stability of superconducting wires is a crucial task in the design of safe and reliable superconducting magnets. These magnets are prone to premature quenches due to local releases of energy. In order to simulate these energy disturbances, various heater technologies have been developed, such as coated tips, graphite pastes, and inductive coils. The experiments studied in the present work have been performed using a single-mode diode laser with an optical fiber to illuminate the superconducting strand surface. Minimum quench energies and voltage traces at different magnetic flux densities and transport currents have been measured on an LHC-type, Cu/NbTi wire bathed in pool boiling helium I. This paper deals with the numerical analysis of the experimental data. In particular, a coupled electromagnetic and thermal model has been developed to study quench development and propagation, focusing on the influence of heat exchange with liquid helium.

  10. Corium quench in deep pool mixing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.W.; McUmber, L.; Gregorash, D.; Aeschlimann, R.; Sienicki, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The results of two recent corium-water thermal interaction (CWTI) tests are described in which a stream of molten corium was poured into a deep pool of water in order to determine the mixing behavior, the corium-to-water heat transfer rates, and the characteristic sizes of the quenched debris. The corium composition was 60% UO 2 , 16% ZrO 2 , and 24% stainless steel by weight; its initial temperature was 3080 K, approx.160 K above the oxide phase liquidus temperature. The corium pour stream was a single-phase 2.2 cm dia liquid column which entered the water pool in film boiling at approx.4 m/s. The water subcooling was 6 and 75C in the two tests. Test results showed that with low subcooling, rapid steam generation caused the pool to boil up into a high void fraction regime. In contrast, with large subcooling no net steam generation occurred, and the pool remained relatively quiescent. Breakup of the jet appeared to occur by surface stripping. In neither test was the breakup complete during transit through the 32 cm deep water pool, and molten corium channeled to the base where it formed a melt layer. The characteristic heat transfer rates measured 3.5 MJ/s and 2.7 MJ/s during the fall stage for small and large subcooling, respectively; during the initial stage of bed quench, the surface heat fluxes measured 2.4 MW/m 2 and 3.7 MW/m 2 , respectively. A small mass of particles was formed in each test, measuring typically 0.1 to 1 mm and 1 to 5 mm dia for the large and small subcooling conditions, respectively. 9 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  11. Application of neutron noise analysis to a swimming pool research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behringer, K.; Lescano, V.H.; Meier, F.; Phildius, J.; Winkler, H.

    1982-01-01

    This work is part of a programme of establishing practical applications of neutron noise techniques to a swimming pool research reactor and deals with two different items: (1) The identification of local boiling caused e.g. by a partial blockage of the coolant flow in a fuel element. Local boiling can easily lead to a burn-out situation. The onset of boiling can be detected by neutron noise analysis and a boiling detection system is presently under development. (2) The measurement of the time evolution of the reactivity induced by xenon after reactor shut-down by an on-line reactivity meter based on neutron noise analysis. From the data, the prompt neutron decay constant at delayed critical, the equilibrium xenon reactivity worth, and an estimate of the average steady-state power flux in the core before reactor shut-down were obtained. (author)

  12. Analysis of closed-pool boilup using the TRANSIT-HYDRO code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graff, D.L.

    1983-01-01

    The benign termination of the transition phase of a hypothetical LMFBR accident rests on the avoidance of highly energetic recriticalities prior to escape of bottled molten core materials from the active core region. In scenarios where molten fuel is trapped due to axial blockages, the maintenance of subcritical configurations until radial flow paths develop requires stable boil-up of the molten fuel/steel mixture. This paper describes the analysis of an experiment investigating the behavior of closed boiling pools using the two-fluid hydrodynamics module of TRANSIT-HYDRO, a deterministic transition-phase analysis code

  13. Studies in boiling heat transfer in two phase flow through tube arrays: nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficient and maximum heat flux as a function of velocity and quality of Freon-113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmani, R.

    1983-01-01

    The nucleate boiling heat-transfer coefficient and the maximum heat flux were studied experimentally as functions of velocity, quality and heater diameter for single-phase flow, and two-phase flow of Freon-113 (trichlorotrifluorethane). Results show: (1) peak heat flux: over 300 measured peak heat flux data from two 0.875-in. and four 0.625-in.-diameter heaters indicated that: (a) for pool boiling, single-phase and two-phase forced convection boiling the only parameter (among hysteresis, rate of power increase, aging, presence and proximity of unheated rods) that has a statistically significant effect on the peak heat flux is the velocity. (b) In the velocity range (0 0 position or the point of impact of the incident fluid) and the top (180 0 position) of the test element, respectively

  14. Experimental and theoretical study on transition boiling concerning downward-facing horizontal surface in confined space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, D.W.; Su, G.H.; Tian, W.X.; Sugiyama, K.; Qiu, S.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental study has been conducted to examine the pool boiling occurs on a relative large downward-facing round surface with a diameter of 300 mm in confined water pool at atmospheric pressure. An artificial neural network (ANN) has been trained successfully based on the experimental data for predicting Nusselt number of transition boiling in the present study. The input parameters of the ANN are wall superheat, ΔT w , the ratio of the gap size to the diameter of the heated surface, δ/D, Prandtl number and Rayleigh number. The output is Nusselt number, Nu. The results show that: Nu decreases with increasing ΔT w , and increases generally with an increase of δ/D. Nu increases with increasing Pr when gap size is smaller than 4.0 mm. And Nu decreases initially and then increases with increasing Pr as gap size bigger than 5.0 mm. The results also indicate that the influence of Grashof number, Gr, could be negligible. Finally, a new correlation was proposed to predict the transition boiling heat transfer under the present condition. The comparisons between the prediction of the new correlation and experimental data show a reasonable agreement

  15. Flow boiling test of GDP replacement coolants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.H.

    1995-01-01

    The tests were part of the CFC replacement program to identify and test alternate coolants to replace CFC-114 being used in the uranium enrichment plants at Paducah and Portsmouth. The coolants tested, C 4 F 10 and C 4 F 8 , were selected based on their compatibility with the uranium hexafluoride process gas and how well the boiling temperature and vapor pressure matched that of CFC-114. However, the heat of vaporization of both coolants is lower than that of CFC-114 requiring larger coolant mass flow than CFC-114 to remove the same amount of heat. The vapor pressure of these coolants is higher than CFC-114 within the cascade operational range, and each coolant can be used as a replacement coolant with some limitation at 3,300 hp operation. The results of the CFC-114/C 4 F 10 mixture tests show boiling heat transfer coefficient degraded to a minimum value with about 25% C 4 F 10 weight mixture in CFC-114 and the degree of degradation is about 20% from that of CFC-114 boiling heat transfer coefficient. This report consists of the final reports from Cudo Technologies, Ltd

  16. Measurement of pool boiling CHF for SUS 304 and SA 508 flat plate under downward-facing and atmospheric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, Dong Hoon; Park, Hae Min; Choi, Young Jae; Jeong, Yong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Heat transfer performance of downward-facing conditions are important especially in severe accident mitigation strategy (IVR-ERVC and Core-catcher). Heat transfer limit, in other word, critical heat flux (CHF) is important value in this basis to guarantee the integrity of the system. For the application point of view in nuclear power plant, carbon steel surface should also be considered since reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in IVR-ERVC strategy consists of carbon steel, and core-catcher in EU-APR1400 is also composed of carbon steel. In this perspective, carbon steel surface was used in previous studies. In this study, CHF of both stainless steel and carbon steel material were measured under pool boiling condition with various inclination angles and dimensions. There was a width effect as angle increases, but it disappeared as approached to horizontally downward condition. Besides, there was almost no length effect for both of the width since the size of coalesced bubble was far smaller than the length of short test section (100 mm). SA 508 showed enhanced results at high angles for 40 mm-width case even though no oxidation occurred on the surface during the experiments

  17. An experimental study on the effect of low fin tube geometry on pool boiling of a LiBr solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Pool boiling heat transfer coefficients of a LiBr solution were obtained for seven low fin tubes having different fin pitch and fin height. The test range covered saturation pressure from 7.38kPa to 101.3kPa, heat flux from 20 kW/m 2 to 40 kW/m 2 and LiBr concentration from 0% to 50%. The optimum fin geometry for the present experimental range turned out to be 26 fpi with 0.18 mm fin height.The advantage of added heat transfer area and the disadvantage of slower bubble growth and departure appear to have yielded an optimum fin pitch. The heat transfer coefficient decreased as saturation pressure decreased and Libr concentration increased. The reason may be attributed to the low saturation pressure, which increased the bubble departure diameter and decreased the bubble departure frequency. As the LiBr concen reation increased, the saturation temperature increased and the mass diffusion rate decreased, which resulted in a reduced heat transfer coefficient. The heat transfer coefficients of the low fin tube were greater than those of the smooth tube. Correlations were developed based on the present data

  18. Measurement of pool boiling CHF for SUS 304 and SA 508 flat plate under downward-facing and atmospheric conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kam, Dong Hoon; Park, Hae Min; Choi, Young Jae; Jeong, Yong Hoon [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Heat transfer performance of downward-facing conditions are important especially in severe accident mitigation strategy (IVR-ERVC and Core-catcher). Heat transfer limit, in other word, critical heat flux (CHF) is important value in this basis to guarantee the integrity of the system. For the application point of view in nuclear power plant, carbon steel surface should also be considered since reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in IVR-ERVC strategy consists of carbon steel, and core-catcher in EU-APR1400 is also composed of carbon steel. In this perspective, carbon steel surface was used in previous studies. In this study, CHF of both stainless steel and carbon steel material were measured under pool boiling condition with various inclination angles and dimensions. There was a width effect as angle increases, but it disappeared as approached to horizontally downward condition. Besides, there was almost no length effect for both of the width since the size of coalesced bubble was far smaller than the length of short test section (100 mm). SA 508 showed enhanced results at high angles for 40 mm-width case even though no oxidation occurred on the surface during the experiments.

  19. Analysis of heat transfer under high heat flux nucleate boiling conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.; Dinh, N. [3145 Burlington Laboratories, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Analysis was performed for a heater infrared thermometric imaging temperature data obtained from high heat flux pool boiling and liquid film boiling experiments BETA. With the OpenFOAM solver, heat flux distribution towards the coolant was obtained by solving transient heat conduction of heater substrate given the heater surface temperature data as boundary condition. The so-obtained heat flux data was used to validate them against the state-of-art wall boiling model developed by D. R. Shaver (2015) with the assumption of micro-layer hydrodynamics. Good agreement was found between the model prediction and data for conditions away from the critical heat flux (CHF). However, the data indicate a different heat transfer pattern under CHF, which is not captured by the current model. Experimental data strengthen the notion of burnout caused by the irreversible hot spot due to failure of rewetting. The observation forms a basis for a detailed modeling of micro-layer hydrodynamics under high heat flux.

  20. Analysis of heat transfer under high heat flux nucleate boiling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Dinh, N.

    2016-01-01

    Analysis was performed for a heater infrared thermometric imaging temperature data obtained from high heat flux pool boiling and liquid film boiling experiments BETA. With the OpenFOAM solver, heat flux distribution towards the coolant was obtained by solving transient heat conduction of heater substrate given the heater surface temperature data as boundary condition. The so-obtained heat flux data was used to validate them against the state-of-art wall boiling model developed by D. R. Shaver (2015) with the assumption of micro-layer hydrodynamics. Good agreement was found between the model prediction and data for conditions away from the critical heat flux (CHF). However, the data indicate a different heat transfer pattern under CHF, which is not captured by the current model. Experimental data strengthen the notion of burnout caused by the irreversible hot spot due to failure of rewetting. The observation forms a basis for a detailed modeling of micro-layer hydrodynamics under high heat flux.

  1. Recent developments in the modeling of boiling heat transfer mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podowski, M.Z.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the importance of boiling for the analysis of operation and safety of nuclear reactors, extensive efforts have been made in the past to develop a variety of methods and tools to study boiling heat transfer for various geometries and operating conditions. Recent progress in the computational multiphase fluid dynamics (CMFD) methods of two- and multiphase flows has already started opening up new exciting possibilities for using complete multidimensional models to predict the operation of boiling systems under both steady-state and transient conditions. However, such models still require closure laws and boundary conditions, the accuracy of which determines the predictive capabilities of the overall models and the associated CMFD simulations. Because of the complexity of the underlying physical phenomena, boiling heat transfer has traditionally been quantified using phenomenological models and correlations obtained by curve-fitting extensive experimental data. Since simple heuristic formulae are not capable of capturing the effect of various specific experimental conditions and the associated wide scattering of data points, most existing correlations are characterized by large uncertainties which are typically hidden behind the 'logarithmic scale' format of plots. Furthermore, such an approach provides only limited insight into the local phenomena of: nucleation, heated surface material properties, temperature fluctuations, and others. The objectives of this paper are two-fold. First, the state of the art is reviewed in the area of modeling concepts for both pool boiling and forced-convection (bulk and subcooled) boiling. Then, new results are shown concerning the development of new mechanistic models and their validation against experimental data. It is shown that a combination of the proposed theoretical approach with advanced computational methods leads to a dramatic improvement in both our understanding of the physics of boiling and the predictive

  2. Assessment of a magnet system combining the advantages of cable-in-conduit forced-flow and pool-boiling magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slack, D.; Hassenzahl, W.; Felker, B.; Chaplin, M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an idea for a magnet system that could be used to advantage in tokamaks and other fusion engineering devices. Higher performance designs, specifically newer tokamaks such as those for the international Tokamak Engineering Reactor (ITER) and Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) use Cable in Conduit Conductor (CICC) forced flow coils to advantage to meet field and current density requirements. Pool boiling magnets lack structural integrity to resist high magnetic forces since helium cooling areas must surround each conductor. A second problem is that any leak can threaten the voltage standoff integrity of the magnet system. This is because a leak can result in low-pressure helium gas becoming trapped by limited conductance in the magnet bundle and low-pressure helium has poor dielectric strength. The system proposed here is basically a CICC system, with it's inherent advantages, but bathed in higher pressure supercritical helium to eliminate the leak and voltage break-down problems. Schemes to simplify helium coolant plumbing with the proposed system are discussed. A brief historical review of related magnet systems is included. The advantages and disadvantages of using higher pressure, supercritical helium in combination with solid electrical insulation in a CICC system are discussed. Related electrical data from some previous works are compiled and discussed

  3. Cavitational boiling of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostyuk, V.V.; Berlin, I.I.; Borisov, N.N.; Karpyshev, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    Transition boiling is a term usually denoting the segment of boiling curve 1-2, where the heat flux, q, decreases as the temperature head, ΔT/sub w/=T/sub w/-T/sub s/, increases. Transition boiling is the subject of numerous papers. Whereas most researchers have studied transition boiling of saturated liquids the authors studied for many years transition boiling of liquids subcooled to the saturation temperature. At high values of subcooling, ΔT/sub sub/=T/sub s/-T/sub 1/, an anomalous dependence of the heat flux density on the temperature head was detected. Unlike a conventional boiling curve, where a single heat flux maximum occurs, another maximum is seen in the transition boiling segment, the boiling being accompanied by strong noise. The authors refer to this kind of boiling as cavitational. This process is largely similar to noisy boiling of helium-II. This article reports experimental findings for cavitational boiling of water, ethanol, freon-113 and noisy boiling of helium-II

  4. Feedwater line break accident analysis for SMART in the view point of minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Soo Hyoung; Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Chung, Young Jong; Kim, Keung Koo

    2012-01-01

    KAERI and KEPCO consortium had performed standard design of SMART(System integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) from 2009 to 2011 and obtained standard design approval in July 2012. To confirm the safety of SMART design, all of the safety related design basis events were analyzed. A feedwater line break (FLB) is a postulated accident and is a limiting accident for a decrease in the heat removal by the secondary system in the view point of the peak RCS pressure. It is well known that departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) increases with the increase of the system pressure for conventional nuclear power plants. But SMART has comparatively lower RCS flow rate, and there is a possibility to show different DNBR behavior depending on the system pressure. To confirm that SMART is safe in case of FLB accident, the Korean nuclear regulatory body required to perform the safety analysis in the view point of minimum DNBR (MDNBR) during the licensing review process for standard design approval (SDA) of SMART design. In this paper, the safety analysis results of the FLB accident for SMART in the view point of MDNBR is described

  5. Feedwater line break accident analysis for SMART in the view point of minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim Soo Hyoung; Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Chung, Young Jong; Kim, Keung Koo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    KAERI and KEPCO consortium had performed standard design of SMART(System integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) from 2009 to 2011 and obtained standard design approval in July 2012. To confirm the safety of SMART design, all of the safety related design basis events were analyzed. A feedwater line break (FLB) is a postulated accident and is a limiting accident for a decrease in the heat removal by the secondary system in the view point of the peak RCS pressure. It is well known that departure from nucleate boiling ratio (DNBR) increases with the increase of the system pressure for conventional nuclear power plants. But SMART has comparatively lower RCS flow rate, and there is a possibility to show different DNBR behavior depending on the system pressure. To confirm that SMART is safe in case of FLB accident, the Korean nuclear regulatory body required to perform the safety analysis in the view point of minimum DNBR (MDNBR) during the licensing review process for standard design approval (SDA) of SMART design. In this paper, the safety analysis results of the FLB accident for SMART in the view point of MDNBR is described.

  6. Direct numerical simulation of bubble dynamics in subcooled and near-saturated convective nucleate boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lal, Sreeyuth; Sato, Yohei; Niceno, Bojan

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We simulate convective nucleate pool boiling with a novel phase-change model. • We simulate four cases at different sub-cooling and wall superheat levels. • We investigate the flow structures around the growing bubble and analyze the accompanying physics. • We accurately simulate bubble shape elongation and enhanced wall cooling due to the sliding and slanting motions of bubbles. • Bubble cycle durations show good agreement with experimental observations. - Abstract: With the long-term objective of Critical Heat Flux (CHF) prediction, bubble dynamics in convective nucleate boiling flows has been studied using a Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). A sharp-interface phase change model which was originally developed for pool boiling flows is extended to convective boiling flows. For physical scales smaller than the smallest flow scales (smaller than the grid size), a micro-scale model was used. After a grid dependency study and a parametric study for the contact angle, four cases of simulation were carried out with different wall superheat and degree of subcooling. The flow structures around the growing bubble were investigated together with the accompanying physics. The relation between the heat flux evolution and the bubble growth was studied, along with investigations of bubble diameter and bubble base diameter evolutions across the four cases. As a validation, the evolutions of bubble diameter and bubble base diameter were compared to experimental observations. The bubble departure period and the bubble shapes show good agreement between the experiment and the simulation, although the Reynolds number of the simulation cases is relatively low

  7. Experimental investigations of heat transfer during sodium boiling in fuel assembly model in justification of advanced fast reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khafizov, R.R.; Poplavskij, V.M.; Rachkov, V.I.; Sorokin, A.P.; Ashurko, Yu.M.; Volkov, A.V.; Ivanov, E.F.; Privezentsev, V.V.

    2015-01-01

    The experimental facility is built up and investigation of heat exchange during sodium boiling in simulated fast reactor core assembly in conditions of natural and forced circulation with sodium plenum and upper end shield model are conducted. It is shown that in the presence of sodium plenum there is possibility to provide long-term cooling of fuel assembly when heat flux density on the surface of fuel element simulator up to 140 and 170 kW/m 2 in conditions of natural and forced circulation, respectively. The obtained data is used for improving calculational model of sodium boiling process in fuel assembly and calculational code COREMELT verification. It is pointed out that heat transfer coefficients in the case of liquid metal boiling in fuel assemblies are slightly over the ones in the case of liquid metals boiling in pipes and pool boiling [ru

  8. Velocity field measurement in micro-bubble emission boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Daisuke; Saito, Yasushi; Natazuka, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Liquid inlet behavior to a heat surface in micro-bubble emission boiling (MEB) was investigated by flow measurement using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Subcooled pool boiling experiments under atmospheric pressure were carried out using a heat surface with a diameter of 10 mm. An upper end of a heater block made of copper was used as the heat surface. Working fluid was the deionized water and the subcooling was varied from 40 K to 70 K. Three K-type thermocouples were installed in the copper block to measure the temperature gradient, and the heat flux and wall superheat were estimated from these temperature data to make a boiling curve. The flow visualization around the heat surface was carried out using a high-speed video camera and a light sheet. The microbubbles generated in the MEB were used as tracer particles and the velocity field was obtained by PIV analysis of the acquired image sequence. As a result, the higher heat fluxes than the critical heat flux could be obtained in the MEB region. In addition, the distribution characteristics of the velocity in MEB region were studied using the PIV results and the location of the stagnation point in the velocity fields was discussed. (author)

  9. Heat Transfer in Boiling Dilute Emulsion with Strong Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeburg, Eric Thomas

    Little attention has been given to the boiling of emulsions compared to that of boiling in pure liquids. The advantages of using emulsions as a heat transfer agent were first discovered in the 1970s and several interesting features have since been studied by few researchers. Early research focuses primarily on pool and flow boiling and looks to determine a mechanism by which the boiling process occurs. This thesis looks at the boiling of dilute emulsions in fluids with strong buoyant forces. The boiling of dilute emulsions presents many favorable characteristics that make it an ideal agent for heat transfer. High heat flux electronics, such as those seen in avionics equipment, produce high heat fluxes of 100 W/cm2 or more, but must be maintained at low temperatures. So far, research on single phase convection and flow boiling in small diameter channels have yet to provide an adequate solution. Emulsions allow the engineer to tailor the solution to the specific problem. The fluid can be customized to retain the high thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of the continuous phase while enhancing the heat transfer coefficient through boiling of the dispersed phase component. Heat transfer experiments were carried out with FC-72 in water emulsions. FC-72 has a saturation temperature of 56 °C, far below that of water. The parameters were varied as follows: 0% ≤ epsilon ≤ 1% and 1.82 x 1012 ≤ RaH ≤ 4.42 x 1012. Surface temperatures along the heated surface reached temperature that were 20 °C in excess of the dispersed phase saturation temperature. An increase of ˜20% was seen in the average Nusselt numbers at the highest Rayleigh numbers. Holography was used to obtain images of individual and multiple FC-72 droplets in the boundary layer next to the heated surface. The droplet diameters ranged from 0.5 mm to 1.3 mm. The Magnus effect was observed when larger individual droplets were injected into the boundary layer, causing the droplets to be pushed

  10. Burnout in a high heat flux boiling system with forced supply of liquid through a plane jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katto, Yoshiro; Ishii, Kazunori.

    1978-01-01

    As for pool boiling, the non-dimensional formula for the burnout heat flux of a simple, basic boiling system has been obtained. On the other hand, in forced convection boiling, the studies on the burnout in forced flow boiling in a channel have been continued, but the derivation of a non-dimensional formula applicable generally is far away from the realization because the phenomena are too complex. Accordingly, in this study, the result of the experiment on the burnout of a boiling system to which liquid is supplied by the plane jet flowing out of a thin rectangular nozzle installed near the front edge of a rectangular heating surface is reported. The experimental apparatus is described, and the experiment was carried out in the ranges of two jet thicknesses at the nozzle outlet, two incident angles of jet and from 1.5 to 15 m/s of jet velocity. Burnout occurs under the situation of sufficiently developed nuclear boiling. A part of the liquid supplied from a plane jet is blown apart by the vapor blowing out of the nuclear boiling liquid layer covering the heating surface in the nuclear boiling with sufficiently developed high heat flux. However, the nuclear boiling liquid layer itself continues to exist on the heating surface till burnout occurs. Only the entering velocity of the plane jet affects burnout heat flux. (Kako, I.)

  11. Nucleate and film pool boiling in R11: the effects of orientation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venart, J.E.S.; Sousa, A.C.M.; Jung, D.S.

    1985-01-01

    In order to understand and model the behaviour of LPG tanks in fires [1] it is necessary to characterize the internal flow and specify its boundary conditions. Tank storage and transport normally utilize horizontal cylinders or spheres and hence the interior fluid sees a variety of surfaces inclinations and heat fluxes. The purpose of this paper is to present results obtained in R11 as a function of heat flux (1-180 kW/m 2 ) and angle (0-80 o ) at pressures from 1 to 2 bars in the free convective, nucleate and film boiling regions. (author)

  12. Mechanistic modeling of pool film-boiling and quench on a Candu calandria tube following a critical break LOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, J.T.; Luxat, J.C. [McMaster University, A315 JHE Building, 1280 Main St.W. Hamilton, ON, L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Following a postulated critical LBLOCA a pressure tube (PT) can experience creep deformation and balloon uniformly into contact with the calandria tube (CT). The resultant heat flux to CT is high as stored heat is transferred out of the hot PT. This heat flux can cause dryout on the outer surface of the CT and establish film boiling. This paper presents a model of buoyancy-driven natural convection film boiling on the outside of a horizontal tube with diameter relevant to a Candu CT (approximately 13 cm). A second order, non-linear and non-homogeneous ODE for vapour film thickness has been derived. The variation of steady state vapour film thickness prior to quench as a function of subcooling temperature, wall superheat, and incident heat flux is examined. The CT outer surface heatup rate and effective film boiling heat transfer coefficient from the model are in good agreement with available experimental data. (authors)

  13. Mechanistic modeling of pool film-boiling and quench on a Candu calandria tube following a critical break LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, J.T.; Luxat, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Following a postulated critical LBLOCA a pressure tube (PT) can experience creep deformation and balloon uniformly into contact with the calandria tube (CT). The resultant heat flux to CT is high as stored heat is transferred out of the hot PT. This heat flux can cause dryout on the outer surface of the CT and establish film boiling. This paper presents a model of buoyancy-driven natural convection film boiling on the outside of a horizontal tube with diameter relevant to a Candu CT (approximately 13 cm). A second order, non-linear and non-homogeneous ODE for vapour film thickness has been derived. The variation of steady state vapour film thickness prior to quench as a function of subcooling temperature, wall superheat, and incident heat flux is examined. The CT outer surface heatup rate and effective film boiling heat transfer coefficient from the model are in good agreement with available experimental data. (authors)

  14. Nuclear boiling heat transfer and critical heat flux in titanium dioxide-water nanofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okawa, Tomio; Takamura, Masahiro; Kamiya, Takahito

    2011-01-01

    Nucleate boiling heat transfer was experimentally studied for saturated pool boiling of water-based nanofluids. Since significant nanoparticle deposition on the heated surface was observed after the nucleate boiling in nanofluids, measurement of CHF was also carried out using the nanoparticle deposited heated surface; pure water was used in the CHF measurement. In the present work, the heated surface was a 20 mm diameter cupper surface, and titanium-dioxide was selected as the material of nanoparticles. Experiments were performed for upward- and downward-facing surfaces. Although the CHFs for the downward-facing surface were generally lower than those for the upward-facing surface, the CHFs for the nanoparticle deposited surface were about 1.9 times greater than those for the bare surface in both the configurations. The CHF improvement corresponded well to the reduction of the surface contact angle. During the nucleate boiling in nanofluids, the boiling heat transfer showed peculiar behavior; it was first deteriorated, then improved, and finally approached to an equilibrium state. This observation indicated that the present nanofluid had competing effects to deteriorate and improve the nucleate boiling heat transfer. It was assumed that the wettability and the roughness of the heated surface were influenced by the deposited nanoparticles to cause complex variation of the number of active nucleation sites. During the nucleate boiling of pure water using the downward-facing surface, a sudden increase in the wall temperature was observed stochastically probably due to the accumulation of bubbles beneath the heated surface. Such behavior was not observed when the pure water was replaced by the nanofluid. (author)

  15. Preliminary Study on CHF Enhancement of Cellulose Nano Fiber (CNF) Fluid with Wire Pool Boiling Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Won Ki; Lee, Yun Seok; Lim, Dong Young; Song, Sub Lee; Lee, Jae Young; Lee, Kwon Yeong [Hanyang Global University, Pohang (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Dong Soo [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Critical heat flux (CHF) is enhancement of a boiling system will make more compact and effective cooling systems, for examples, nuclear reactors, and air conditioning units. For decades, researchers have been trying to develop more efficient working fluid for heat transfer. This is where nano-fluid could play a key role. There have been a lot of researches for CHF enhancements in nucleate boiling by using nano-fluid which are composed of metal such as copper, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and ceramic. And a critical factor of the enhancement is deposition of nano-particles on heating surface, although some results of recent studies are contrary. Also, previous nano-fluid are expensive and have a problem in mass production, so they are difficult to apply to practical industries. Therefore we chose a new material, cellulose nano fiber (CNF) as a solution. CNF can be applied to real situation because it has some advantages which are cost-effectiveness, easiness to get and to make it in nano scale. CHF performance of CNF fluid was different from that of distilled water. Compared to CHF of distilled water, CHF of the CNF fluid which had 0.001V%, 0.01V%, and 0.1V% volumetric concentrations were enhanced to 1%, 104%, and 13% respectively. Likewise other nano-fluid, deposition phenomena was observed in this CNF fluid boiling experiment.

  16. Preliminary Study on CHF Enhancement of Cellulose Nano Fiber (CNF) Fluid with Wire Pool Boiling Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Ki; Lee, Yun Seok; Lim, Dong Young; Song, Sub Lee; Lee, Jae Young; Lee, Kwon Yeong; Hwang, Dong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Critical heat flux (CHF) is enhancement of a boiling system will make more compact and effective cooling systems, for examples, nuclear reactors, and air conditioning units. For decades, researchers have been trying to develop more efficient working fluid for heat transfer. This is where nano-fluid could play a key role. There have been a lot of researches for CHF enhancements in nucleate boiling by using nano-fluid which are composed of metal such as copper, Al_2O_3 and ceramic. And a critical factor of the enhancement is deposition of nano-particles on heating surface, although some results of recent studies are contrary. Also, previous nano-fluid are expensive and have a problem in mass production, so they are difficult to apply to practical industries. Therefore we chose a new material, cellulose nano fiber (CNF) as a solution. CNF can be applied to real situation because it has some advantages which are cost-effectiveness, easiness to get and to make it in nano scale. CHF performance of CNF fluid was different from that of distilled water. Compared to CHF of distilled water, CHF of the CNF fluid which had 0.001V%, 0.01V%, and 0.1V% volumetric concentrations were enhanced to 1%, 104%, and 13% respectively. Likewise other nano-fluid, deposition phenomena was observed in this CNF fluid boiling experiment.

  17. Influence of surface conditions in nucleate boiling--the concept of bubble flux density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoukri, M.; Judd, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    A study of the influence of surface conditions in nucleate pool boiling is presented. The surface conditions are represented by the number and distribution of the active nucleation sites as well as the size and size distribution of the cavities that constitute the nucleation sites. The heat transfer rate during nucleate boiling is shown to be influenced by the surface condition through its effect on the number and distribution of the active nucleation sites as well as the frequency of bubble departure from each of these different size cavities. The concept of bubble flux density, which is a function of both the active site density and frequency of bubble departure, is introduced. A method of evaluating the bubble flux density is proposed and a uniform correlation between the boiling heat flux and the bubble flux density is found to exist for a particular solid-liquid combination irrespective of the surface finish within the region of isolated bubbles

  18. Numerical simulation of flow boiling for organic fluid with high saturation temperature in vertical porous coated tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Dong, E-mail: dyang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710049 (China); Pan Jie; Wu Yanhua; Chen Tingkuan [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Flow in Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi Province 710049 (China); Zhou, Chenn Q. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University Calumet, Hammond, IN 46323 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > A model is developed for the prediction of flow boiling in vertical porous tubes. > The model assumes that the nucleate boiling plays an important role. > The present model can predict most of the experimental values within {+-}20%. > The results indicate the nucleate boiling contribution decreases from 50% to 15%. - Abstract: A semi-analytical model is developed for the prediction of flow boiling heat transfer inside vertical porous coated tubes. The model assumes that the forced convection and nucleate boiling coexist together in the annular flow regime. Conservations of mass, momentum, and energy are used to solve for the liquid film thickness and temperature. The heat flux due to nucleate boiling consists of those inside and outside micro-tunnels. To close the equations, a detailed analysis of various forces acting on the bubble is presented to predict its mean departure diameter. The active nucleation site density of porous layer is determined from the pool boiling correlation by introducing suppression factor. The flow boiling heat transfer coefficients of organic fluid (cumene) with high saturation temperature in a vertical flame-spraying porous coated tube are studied numerically. It is shown that the present model can predict most of the experimental values within {+-}20%. The numerical results also indicate that the nucleate boiling contribution to the overall heat transfer coefficient decreases from 50% to 15% with vapor quality increasing from 0.1 to 0.5.

  19. 48 CFR 28.304 - Risk-pooling arrangements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS BONDS AND INSURANCE Insurance 28.304 Risk-pooling arrangements. Agencies may establish risk-pooling arrangements. These arrangements are designed to use the services of the insurance industry for safety engineering and the handling of claims at minimum cost to the Government. The agency...

  20. Flow boiling heat transfer on nanowire-coated surfaces with highly wetting liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Sangwoo; Choi, Geehong; Kim, Beom Seok; Cho, Hyung Hee

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the recent advances in nanotechnology, one significant progress in energy technology is increased cooling ability. It has recently been shown that nanowires can improve pool boiling heat transfer due to the unique features such as enhanced wetting and enlarged nucleation sites. Applying such nanowires on a flow boiling, which is another major class of boiling phenomenon that is associated with forced convection, is yet immature and scarce despite its importance in various applications such as liquid cooling of energy, electronics and refrigeration systems. Here, we investigate flow boiling heat transfer on surfaces that are coated with SiNWs (silicon nanowires). Also, we use highly-wetting dielectric liquid, FC-72, as a working fluid. An interesting wetting behavior is observed where the presence of SiNWs reduces wetting and wicking that in turn leads to significant decrease of CHF (critical heat flux) compared to the plain surface, which opposes the current consensus. Also, the effects of nanowire length and Reynolds number on the boiling heat transfer are shown to be highly nonmonotonic. We attempt to explain such an unusual behavior on the basis of wetting, nucleation and forced convection, and we show that such factors are highly coupled in a way that lead to unusual behavior. - Highlights: • Observation of suppressed wettability in the presence of surface roughness (nanowires). • Significant reduction of critical heat flux in the presence of nanowires. • Nonmonotonic behavior of heat transfer coefficient vs. nanowire length and Reynolds number

  1. Acoustic emissions of a boiling liquid - an experimental survey in water and extrapolation to SFRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderhaegen, M.; Paumel, K.; Tourin, A.

    2013-06-01

    The acoustic detection of sodium boiling is seen as a promising and innovative surveillance technique for sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). It could be especially useful to detect in-core boiling that are the consequence of initiating accidents or whilst the mean subassembly temperature is very close to the nominal value. This latter is a consequence of the fuel assembly design of SFRs. Furthermore, it is a technique that has been proven to be successful in the past to follow the boiling behavior during SFR experiments that were aimed at simulating accidental conditions. However its effectiveness as in-core instrumentation still has to be demonstrated. In that aim, the acoustic emissions of sodium boiling in subassemblies are studied. Experimental studies are however limited to the boiling of common coolants due to the complications that arise when boiling liquid metals. As such, simple water experiments are performed. And although the results of these experiments are not completely representative for sodium boiling due to the incomplete thermo-hydraulic similarities between sodium and water, they can provide an interesting knowledge of the many influences that control the acoustic pressure field. In this article we'll specifically show how the condensation of vapor in subcooled liquid, the principal contribution to the acoustic emissions during boiling and hence the acoustic spectrum, is influenced by a pin-bundle geometry. We study this influence by comparing pool boiling experimental acoustic recordings with those of a simple pin-bundle geometry boiling experiment. The qualitative link, between this relatively simple pin-bundle experiment and the condensation phenomena that take place during sodium boiling inside SFR subassemblies, is used as a basis for this analysis. This simple experimental evidence, together with other theoretical arguments based on a thorough analysis of the sodium material properties, enables us to deduce that simple sodium

  2. Suppression pool dynamics. Annual report, 1 July 1976--30 June 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, C.K.; Chiou, H.H.; Lee, B.K.C.; Dhir, V.K.; Liu, C.Y.; Catton, I.

    1978-02-01

    The work performed at UCLA to study the transient thermal-hydraulic phenomena induced by the motion of submerged air and steam bubbles in a boiling water reactor (BWR) pressure suppression pool, following a loss-of-coolant accident is described. The air transients, which include vent clearing, bubble growth, and pool swelling, were investigated by a series of air-water tests. These tests were performed in a cylindrical plexiglas test chamber. Gas was injected downward through different-diameter pipes, placed in the middle of the test chamber, which was filled with water at room temperature

  3. Core disruptive accident and recriticality analysis with FX2-POOL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramson, P.B.

    1976-01-01

    The current state of development of FX2-POOL, a two-dimensional hydrodynamic, thermodynamic and neutronic scoping model for Hypothetical Core Disruptive Accident analysis is described. Checkout comparisons to VENUS for prompt burst conditions were good. Use of FX2-POOL to examine the importance of fuel to steel heat transfer during a prompt burst indicates that heat transfer plays no important role on that time scale. Scoping studies of material thermohydrodynamics for about 20 to 30 milliseconds following the prompt burst indicate that heat transfer is important on the time scale necessary for the CDA bubble to grow to the size of the original core. Preliminary results are presented for energetics of boiling fuel steel pools which are forced recritical by local surface pressurization

  4. Flow Boiling on a Downward-Facing Inclined Plane Wall of Core Catcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyoung Tak; Bang, Kwang Hyun; Suh, Jung Soo

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate boiling behavior on downward-facing inclined heated wall prior to the CHF condition, an experiment was carried out with 1.2 m long rectangular channel, inclined by 10 .deg. from the horizontal plane. High speed video images showed that the bubbles were sliding along the heated wall, continuing to grow and combining with the bubbles growing at their nucleation sites in the downstream. These large bubbles continued to slide along the heated wall and formed elongated slug bubbles. Under this slug bubble thin liquid film layer on the heated wall was observed and this liquid film prevents the wall from dryout. The length, velocity and frequency of slug bubbles sliding on the heated wall were measured as a function of wall heat flux and these parameters were used to develop wall boiling model for inclined, downward-facing heated wall. One approach to achieve coolable state of molten core in a PWR-like reactor cavity during a severe accident is to retain the core melt on a so-called core catcher residing on the reactor cavity floor after its relocation from the reactor pressure vessel. The core melt retained in the core catcher is cooled by water coolant flowing in an inclined cooling channel underneath as well as the water pool overlaid on the melt layer. Two-phase flow boiling with downward-facing heated wall such as this core catcher cooling channel has drawn a special attention because this orientation of heated wall may reach boiling crisis at lower heat flux than that of a vertical or upward-facing heated wall. Nishikawa and Fujita, Howard and Mudawar, Qiu and Dhir have conducted experiments to study the effect of heater orientation on boiling heat transfer and CHF. SULTAN experiment was conducted to study inclined large-scale structure coolability by water in boiling natural convection. In this paper, high-speed visualization of boiling behavior on downward-facing heated wall inclined by 10 .deg. is presented and wall boiling model for the

  5. Influence of subcooled boiling on out-of-phase oscillations in boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz-Cobo, J.L.; Chiva, S.; Escriva, A.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a reduced order model with modal kinetics for the study of the dynamic behavior of boiling water reactors. This model includes the subcooled boiling in the lower part of the reactor channels. New additional equations have been obtained for the following dynamics magnitudes: the effective inception length for subcooled boiling, the average void fraction in the subcooled boiling region, the average void fraction in the bulk-boiling region, the mass fluxes at the boiling boundary and the channel exit, respectively, and so on. Each channel has three nodes, one of liquid, one with subcooled boiling, and one with bulk boiling. The reduced order model includes also a modal kinetics with the fundamental mode and the first subcritical one, and two channels representing both halves of the reactor core. Also, in this paper, we perform a detailed study of the way to calculate the feedback reactivity parameters. The model displays out-of-phase oscillations when enough feedback gain is provided. The feedback gain that is necessary to self-sustain these oscillations is approximately one-half the gain that is needed when the subcooled boiling node is not included

  6. Measurement of nucleation site density, bubble departure diameter and frequency in pool boiling of water using high-speed infrared and optical cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerardi, Craig; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-wen; McKrell, Thomas [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)], e-mail: jacopo@mit.edu

    2009-07-01

    A high-speed video and IR thermometry based technique has been used to obtain time and space resolved information on bubble nucleation and boiling heat transfer. This approach provides a fundamental and systematic method for investigating nucleate boiling in a very detailed fashion. Data on bubble departure diameter and frequency, growth and wait times, and nucleation site density are measured with relative ease. The data have been compared to the traditional decades-old and poorly-validated nucleate-boiling models and correlations. The agreement between the data and the models is relatively good. This study also shows that new insights into boiling heat transfer mechanisms can be obtained with the present technique. For example, our data and analysis suggest that a large contribution to bubble growth comes from heat transfer through the superheated liquid layer in addition to micro layer evaporation. (author)

  7. Measurement of nucleation site density, bubble departure diameter and frequency in pool boiling of water using high-speed infrared and optical cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerardi, Craig; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu, Lin-wen; McKrell, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    A high-speed video and IR thermometry based technique has been used to obtain time and space resolved information on bubble nucleation and boiling heat transfer. This approach provides a fundamental and systematic method for investigating nucleate boiling in a very detailed fashion. Data on bubble departure diameter and frequency, growth and wait times, and nucleation site density are measured with relative ease. The data have been compared to the traditional decades-old and poorly-validated nucleate-boiling models and correlations. The agreement between the data and the models is relatively good. This study also shows that new insights into boiling heat transfer mechanisms can be obtained with the present technique. For example, our data and analysis suggest that a large contribution to bubble growth comes from heat transfer through the superheated liquid layer in addition to micro layer evaporation. (author)

  8. When water does not boil at the boiling point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hasok

    2007-03-01

    Every schoolchild learns that, under standard pressure, pure water always boils at 100 degrees C. Except that it does not. By the late 18th century, pioneering scientists had already discovered great variations in the boiling temperature of water under fixed pressure. So, why have most of us been taught that the boiling point of water is constant? And, if it is not constant, how can it be used as a 'fixed point' for the calibration of thermometers? History of science has the answers.

  9. Study of sodium film-boiling heat transfer from a high-temperature sphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le-Belguet, A.

    2013-01-01

    During a severe accident in a sodium-cooled fast reactor, molten fuel may come into contact with the surrounding liquid sodium, resulting in a so-called Fuel-Coolant Interaction. This work aims at providing a better understanding and knowledge of the associated heat transfer, likely to be in the film-boiling regime and required to study the risks related to a vapor explosion. Scarce literature has been found on sodium film boiling, both from an experimental and a theoretical point of view. Only one experiment has been conducted to investigate sodium pool film-boiling heat transfer. In our analysis of the experiment, two film-boiling regimes have been identified: a stable film boiling regime, without liquid-solid contact, and an unstable film-boiling regime, with contacts. Besides, the only theoretical model dedicated to sodium film boiling has shown some weaknesses. First, a scaling analysis of the problem has been proposed for free and forced convection, considering the two extreme cases of saturated and highly subcooled liquid. This simplified approach, which shows a good agreement with the experimental data, provides the dimensionless numbers which should be used to build correlations. A theoretical model has been developed to describe sodium film-boiling heat transfer from a hot sphere in free and forced convection, whatever the liquid subcooling. It is based on a two-phase laminar boundary layer integral method and includes the inertial and convective terms in the vapor momentum and energy equations, usually neglected. The radiation has been taken into account in the interfacial energy balance and contributes directly to produce vapor. This model enables to predict the heat lost from a hot body within an acceptable error compared to the tests results especially when the experimental uncertainties are considered. The heat partition between liquid heating and vaporization, essential to study the vapor explosion phenomenon, is also estimated. The influence of

  10. Subcooled flow boiling heat transfer of dilute alumina, zinc oxide, and diamond nanofluids at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Joong; McKrell, Tom; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Hu Linwen

    2010-01-01

    A nanofluid is a colloidal suspension of nano-scale particles in water, or other base fluids. Previous pool boiling studies have shown that nanofluids can improve the critical heat flux (CHF) by as much as 200%. In a previous paper, we reported on subcooled flow boiling CHF experiments with low concentrations of alumina, zinc oxide, and diamond nanoparticles in water (≤0.1% by volume) at atmospheric pressure, which revealed a substantial CHF enhancement (∼40-50%) at the highest mass flux (G = 2500 kg/m 2 s) and concentration (0.1 vol.%) for all nanoparticle materials (). In this paper, we focus on the flow boiling heat transfer coefficient data collected in the same tests. It was found that for comparable test conditions the values of the nanofluid and water heat transfer coefficient are similar (within ±20%). The heat transfer coefficient increased with mass flux and heat flux for water and nanofluids alike, as expected in flow boiling. A confocal microscopy-based examination of the test section revealed that nanoparticle deposition on the boiling surface occurred during nanofluid boiling. Such deposition changes the number of micro-cavities on the surface, but also changes the surface wettability. A simple model was used to estimate the ensuing nucleation site density changes, but no definitive correlation between the nucleation site density and the heat transfer coefficient data could be found.

  11. Physical modeling of the boiling crisis: theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolayev, Vadim; Beysens, Daniel; Chatain, Denis

    2008-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In this presentation we describe a physical approach to the boiling crisis called also the critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon. This approach is based on the hypothesis that the boiling crisis is triggered by spreading of individual vapor bubbles over the heater or equivalently by the growth of individual dry spots under the bubbles. The role of bubble coalescence is assumed to be secondary. The spreading is due to forces acting at the microscopic scale, in the neighborhood of the line of triple contact of liquid, vapor and heater where the local heat fluxes are the strongest. This picture is supposed to be independent on boiling conditions. It is confirmed by the pool boiling experiments carried out at extremely high pressures close to the gas-liquid critical point. Such unusual conditions are chosen to slow down the bubble growth sufficiently to be able to observe the dryout dynamics. In the above experiments it lasted during about a minute. To keep the usual bubble geometry, it is necessary to perform such experiments under reduced gravity. The numerical simulations are carried out for high pressures. They show two regimes of bubble growth. When the heat flux is smaller than a threshold value associated with the CHF, a vapor bubble grows and then leaves the heater by buoyancy. When the heat flux is larger than the CHF, the bubble spreads over the heater without leaving it in agreement with the experimental data. This occurs because the vapor recoil force causes both bubble spreading and strong adhesion to the heater. The CHF variation with system parameters predicted by simulations is briefly discussed. (authors) [fr

  12. SBWR: A simplified boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.D.; Sawyer, C.D.; Lagache, M.P.

    1987-01-01

    An advanced light water reactor concept is being developed for possible application in the 1990's. The concept, known as SBWR is a boiling water reactor which uses natural circulation to provide flow to the reactor core. In an emergency, a gravity driven core cooling system is used. The reactor is depressurized and water from an elevated suppression pool flows by gravity to the reactor vessel to keep the reactor core covered. The concept also features a passive containment cooling system in which water flows by gravity to cool the suppression pool wall. No operator action is required for a period of at least three days. Use of these and other passive systems allows the elimination of emergency diesel generators, core cooling pumps and heat removal pumps which is expected to simplify the plant design, reduce costs and simplify licensing. The concept is being developed by General Electric, Bechtel and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology supported by the Electric Power Research Institute and the United States Department of Energy in the United States. In Japan, The Japan Atomic Power Company has a great interest in this concept

  13. Influence of the heater material on the critical heat load at boiling of liquids on surfaces with different sizes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhina, E. V.

    2010-05-01

    Data on critical heat loads q cr for the saturated and unsaturated pool boiling of water and ethanol under atmospheric pressure are reported. It is found experimentally that the critical heat load does not necessarily coincide with the heat load causing burnout of the heater, which should be taken into account. The absolute values of q cr for the boiling of water and ethanol on copper surfaces 65, 80, 100, 120, and 200 μm in diameter; tungsten surface 100 μm in diameter; and nichrome surface 100 μm in diameter are obtained experimentally.

  14. Interaction of the nucleation phenomena at adjacent sites in nucleate boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultan, M.; Judd, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    The present investigation is an original study in nucleate pool boiling heat transfer combining theory and experiment in which water boiling at atmospheric pressure on a single copper surface at two different levels of heat and different levels of subcooling was studied. Cross spectral analysis of the signals generated by the emission of bubbles at adjacent nucleation sites was used to determine the relationship of the time elapsed between the start of bubble growth at the two neighbouring active sites with the distance separating them. The experimental results obtained indicated that for the lower level of heat flux at three different levels of subcooling, the elapsed time and distance were directly related. Theoretical predictions of a temperature disturbance propagating through the heating surface in the radial direction gave good agreement with the experimental findings, suggesting that this is the mechanism responsible for the activation of the surrounding nucleation sites

  15. A CHF Model in Narrow Gaps under Saturated Boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Suki; Kim, Hyeonil; Park, Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Many researchers have paid a great attention to the CHF in narrow gaps due to enormous industrial applications. Especially, a great number of researches on the CHF have been carried out in relation to nuclear safety issues such as in-vessel retention for nuclear power plants during a severe accident. Analytical studies to predict the CHF in narrow gaps have been also reported. Yu et al. (2012) developed an analytical model to predict the CHF on downward facing and inclined heaters based on the model of Kandlikar et al. (2001) for an upward facing heater. A new theoretical model is developed to predict the CHF in narrow gaps under saturated pool boiling. This model is applicable when one side of coolant channels or both sides are heated including the effects of heater orientation. The present model is compared with the experimental CHF data obtained in narrow gaps. A new analytical CHF model is proposed to predict CHF for narrow gaps under saturated pool boiling. This model can be applied to one-side or two-sides heating surface and also consider the effects of heater orientation on CHF. The present model is compared with the experimental data obtained in narrow gaps with one heater. The comparisons indicate that the present model shows a good agreement with the experimental CHF data in the horizontal annular tubes. However, it generally under-predicts the experimental data in the narrow rectangular gaps except the data obtained in the gap thickness of 10 mm and the horizontal downward facing heater

  16. A study on boiling heat transfer with mixture boiling from vertical rod fin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, M.C.

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is concerned with the boiling characteristic of variations of the length-diameter ratio on the heat transfer rate where the nucleate boiling and natural convection occurred simultaneously. Circular fins were made with copper rod 32 mm in diameter, and those surfaces were mirror finished. The length-diameter ratio was varied 1 to 6. As a boiling liquid, the distilled water was used in this experiment. The results of this experiment were obtained as below. 1) From the observations, it was confirmed that nucleate boiling and natural convection occurred simultaneously. 2) As the length-diameter ratio increased, the boiling heat transfer rate also augmented. (author)

  17. Theory of boiling-up jump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labuntsov, D.A.; Avdeev, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    Concept of boiling-up jump representing a zone of intense volume boiling-up separating overtaking flow of overheated metastable liquid from an area of equilibrium flow located below along the flow is introduced. It is shown that boiling-up jump is a shock wave of rarefaction. It is concluded that entropy increment occurs on the jump. Characteristics of adiabatic shock wave curve of boiling- up in ''pressure-specific volume'' coordinates have been found and its form has been investigated. Stability of boiling-up jump has been analyzed as well. On the basis of approach developed analysis is carried out on the shock adiobatic curve of condensation. Concept of boiling-up jump may be applied to the analysis of boiling-up processes when flowing liquid through packings during emergency pressure drop etc [ru

  18. Prediction of pool void fraction by new drift flux correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, I.; Ishii, M.

    1986-06-01

    A void fraction for a bubbling or boiling pool system is one of the important parameters in analyzing heat and mass transfer processes. Using the drift flux formulation, correlations for the pool void fraction have been developed in collaboration with a large number of experimental data. It has been found that the drift velocity in a pool system depends upon vessel diameter, system pressure, gas flux and fluid physical properties. The results show that the relative velocity and void fraction can be quite different from those predicted by conventional correlations. In terms of the rise velocity, four different regimes are identified. These are bubbly, churn-turbulent, slug and cap bubble regimes. The present correlations are shown to agree with the experimental data over wide ranges of parameters such as vessel diameter, system pressure, gas flux and physical properties. 39 refs., 41 figs

  19. Nucleate pool boiling investigation on a silicon test section with micro-fabricated cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanna, A.; Kenning, D.B.R.; Karayiannis, T.G.; Hutter, C.; Sefiane, K.; Nelson, R.A.

    2009-01-01

    The basic mechanisms of nucleate boiling are still not completely understood, in spite of the many numerical and experimental studies dedicated to the topic. The use of a hybrid code allows reasonable computational times for simulations of a solid plate with a large population of artificial micro-cavities with fixed distribution. This paper analyses the guidelines for the design, through numerical simulations, of the location and sizes of micro-fabricated cavities on a new silicon test section immersed in FC-72 at the saturation temperature for different pressures with an imposed heat flux applied at the back of the plate. Particular focus is on variations of wall temperature around nucleation sites. (author)

  20. A Study on the Violent Interactions of an Immiscible Drop impacting on a Superheated Pool

    KAUST Repository

    Alchalabi, Mohamad

    2014-05-01

    ABSTRACT A Study on the Violent Interactions of an Immiscible Drop Impacting on a Superheated Pool Mohamad Alchalabi The interactions between two immiscible liquids of different temperatures can be violent to the extent of causing harm to individuals, or damage to equipment, especially when used in the industry. Only a few studies investigated these interactions but they could not produce the violent interactions often reported by the industry, and therefore their results did not help much to develop clear understanding of the dynamics of these interactions. In this work, a high speed imaging system operated at 100,000 frames per second was utilized to record the events and phenomena taking place upon the impact of Perfluorohexane droplet at room temperature onto a hot soybean oil pool at temperatures as high as 300 ºC. The impact velocity was varied by varying the height of the droplet before it pinches off under its own weight. The recorded events identified the occurrence of vortex ring vapor explosions, weak and strong nucleate boiling, and film boiling. An impact velocity vs. oil temperature diagram identifying the regions in which each of these phenomena takes place was generated, and the dynamics driving their occurrences were explored. The vortex ring vapor explosions were found to become less violent as the impact velocity was increased, which was attributed to the existence of a smaller amount of liquid Perfluorohexane within the rings at high speed impacts, which does evaporate but does not expand violently. Weak nucleate boiling occurred at very high impact velocities relatively. As the temperature is increased, however, they start 5 turning into strong nucleate boiling. The strong nucleate boiling usually starts right upon impact, and when the temperature of the oil at one impact velocity is increased, it starts turning into film boiling, in which the liquid Perfluorohexane is covered by a vapor layer of its own vapor.

  1. CHF Enhancement in Flow Boiling using Al2O3 Nano-Fluid and Al2O3 Nano-Particle Deposited Tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Il; Chun, T. H.; Chang, S. H.

    2010-01-01

    Nano-fluids are considered to have strong ability to enhance CHF. Most CHF experiments using nano-fluids were conducted in pool boiling conditions. However there are very few CHF experiments with nano-fluids in flow boiling condition. In the present study, flow boiling CHF experiments using bare round tube with Al 2 O 3 nano-fluid and Al 2 O 3 nano-particle deposited tube with DI water were conducted under atmospheric pressure. CHFs were enhanced up to ∼ 80% with Al 2 O 3 nano-fluid and CHFs with Al 2 O 3 nano-particle deposited tube were also enhanced up to ∼ 80%. Inner surface of test section tube were observed by SEM and AFM after CHF experiments

  2. Air scaling and modeling studies for the 1/5-scale mark I boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1978-01-04

    Results of table-top model experiments performed to investigate pool dynamics effects due to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) for the Peach Bottom Mark I boiling water reactor containment system guided subsequent conduct of the 1/5-scale torus experiment and provided new insight into the vertical load function (VLF). Pool dynamics results were qualitatively correct. Experiments with a 1/64-scale fully modeled drywell and torus showed that a 90/sup 0/ torus sector was adequate to reveal three-dimensional effects; the 1/5-scale torus experiment confirmed this.

  3. Air scaling and modeling studies for the 1/5-scale mark I boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1978-01-01

    Results of table-top model experiments performed to investigate pool dynamics effects due to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) for the Peach Bottom Mark I boiling water reactor containment system guided subsequent conduct of the 1/5-scale torus experiment and provided new insight into the vertical load function (VLF). Pool dynamics results were qualitatively correct. Experiments with a 1/64-scale fully modeled drywell and torus showed that a 90 0 torus sector was adequate to reveal three-dimensional effects; the 1/5-scale torus experiment confirmed this

  4. Boiling in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This conference day of the French society of thermal engineers was devoted to the analysis of heat transfers and fluid flows during boiling phenomena in porous media. This book of proceedings comprises 8 communications entitled: 'boiling in porous medium: effect of natural convection in the liquid zone'; 'numerical modeling of boiling in porous media using a 'dual-fluid' approach: asymmetrical characteristic of the phenomenon'; 'boiling during fluid flow in an induction heated porous column'; 'cooling of corium fragment beds during a severe accident. State of the art and the SILFIDE experimental project'; 'state of knowledge about the cooling of a particulates bed during a reactor accident'; 'mass transfer analysis inside a concrete slab during fire resistance tests'; 'heat transfers and boiling in porous media. Experimental analysis and modeling'; 'concrete in accidental situation - influence of boundary conditions (thermal, hydric) - case studies'. (J.S.)

  5. A dry-spot model for the prediction of critical heat flux in water boiling in bubbly flow regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Sang Jun; No, Hee Cheon

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) in bubbly flow regime using dry-spot model proposed recently by authors for pool and flow boiling CHF and existing correlations for forced convective heat transfer coefficient, active site density and bubble departure diameter in nucleate boiling region. Without any empirical constants always present in earlier models, comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data for upward flow of water in vertical, uniformly-heated round tubes are performed and show a good agreement. The parametric trends of CHF have been explored with respect to variation in pressure, tube diameter and length, mass flux and inlet subcooling

  6. Investigation on the applicability of Piety's on-line PSD-pattern recognition algorithm to boiling detection by neutron-noise at a swimming-pool reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behringer, K.; Spiekerman, G.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1984-11-01

    The neutron noise signal of an initiation-of-boiling experiment performed at the SAPHIR reactor has been analyzed by the PSD-pattern recognition algorithm of Piety (1977); the results indicate that the onset of boiling can be detected by this method. Improved confidence statements for the statistical decision discriminants are given. (Auth.)

  7. An assessment of in-tube flow boiling correlations for ammonia-water mixtures and their influence on heat exchanger size

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Modi, Anish; Jensen, Jonas Kjær

    2016-01-01

    on the required heat exchanger size (surface area)is investigated during numerical design. For this purpose, two case studies related to the use of the Kalina cycle are considered: a flue gas based heat recovery boiler for acombined cycle power plant and a hot oil based boiler for a solar thermal power plant......Heat transfer correlations for pool and flow boiling are indispensable for boiler design. The correlations for predicting in-tube flow boiling heat transfer ofammonia-water mixtures are not well established in the open literature and there is a lack of experimental measurements for the full range...... of composition, vapor qualities, fluid conditions, etc. This paper presents a comparison of several flow boiling heat transfer prediction methods (correlations) for ammonia-water mixtures. Firstly, these methods are reviewed and compared at various fluid conditions. The methods include: (1) the ammonia...

  8. Dual-zone boiling process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.L.; Schwarz, A.; Thorogood, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes a process for boiling flowing liquids in a heat exchanger wherein the flowing liquids is heated in a single heat exchanger to vaporize the liquid. The improvement described here comprises: (a) passing the boiling flowing liquid through a first heat transfer zone of the heat exchanger comprising a surface with a high-convective-heat-transfer characteristic and a higher pressure drop characteristic; and then (b) passing the boiling flowing liquid through a second heat transfer zone of the heat exchanger comprising an essentially open channel with only minor obstructions by secondary surfaces, with an enhanced nucleate boiling heat transfer surface and a lower pressure drop characteristic

  9. Converting high boiling hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrisse, H; DuFour, L

    1929-02-12

    A process is given for converting high boiling hydrocarbons into low boiling hydrocarbons, characterized in that the high boiling hydrocarbons are heated to 200 to 500/sup 0/C in the presence of ferrous chloride and of such gases as hydrogen, water gas, and the like gases under a pressure of from 5 to 40 kilograms per square centimeter. The desulfurization of the hydrocarbons occurs simultaneously.

  10. Boiling on a tube bundle: heat transfer, pressure drop and flow patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royen Van, E.

    2011-11-01

    utilised to generate improved prediction methods for pool boiling and bundle boiling, including a method for predicting the onset of dryout. (author)

  11. Nucleate boiling heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiz Jabardo, J.M. [Universidade da Coruna (Spain). Escola Politecnica Superior], e-mail: mjabardo@cdf.udc.es

    2009-07-01

    Nucleate boiling heat transfer has been intensely studied during the last 70 years. However boiling remains a science to be understood and equated. In other words, using the definition given by Boulding, it is an 'insecure science'. It would be pretentious of the part of the author to explore all the nuances that the title of the paper suggests in a single conference paper. Instead the paper will focus on one interesting aspect such as the effect of the surface microstructure on nucleate boiling heat transfer. A summary of a chronological literature survey is done followed by an analysis of the results of an experimental investigation of boiling on tubes of different materials and surface roughness. The effect of the surface roughness is performed through data from the boiling of refrigerants R-134a and R-123, medium and low pressure refrigerants, respectively. In order to investigate the extent to which the surface roughness affects boiling heat transfer, very rough surfaces (4.6 {mu}m and 10.5 {mu}m ) have been tested. Though most of the data confirm previous literature trends, the very rough surfaces present a peculiar behaviour with respect to that of the smoother surfaces (Ra<3.0 {mu}m). (author)

  12. Nucleate boiling heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiz Jabardo, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Nucleate boiling heat transfer has been intensely studied during the last 70 years. However boiling remains a science to be understood and equated. In other words, using the definition given by Boulding, it is an 'insecure science'. It would be pretentious of the part of the author to explore all the nuances that the title of the paper suggests in a single conference paper. Instead the paper will focus on one interesting aspect such as the effect of the surface microstructure on nucleate boiling heat transfer. A summary of a chronological literature survey is done followed by an analysis of the results of an experimental investigation of boiling on tubes of different materials and surface roughness. The effect of the surface roughness is performed through data from the boiling of refrigerants R-134a and R-123, medium and low pressure refrigerants, respectively. In order to investigate the extent to which the surface roughness affects boiling heat transfer, very rough surfaces (4.6 μm and 10.5 μm ) have been tested. Though most of the data confirm previous literature trends, the very rough surfaces present a peculiar behaviour with respect to that of the smoother surfaces (Ra<3.0 μm). (author)

  13. Establishment and validation of the model of molten pool in fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shufeng; Luo Rui; Wang Zhou; Shi Xiaobo; Yang Xianyong

    2007-01-01

    Running under the beyond design base accidental condition, sodium boiling and dry-out will soon be brought about in LMFBR. If not stopped timely, the fuel pins of the subassembly will be melt and broken to form a molten pool at the bottom of the subassembly. to present a reasonable analysis about the molten pool accident, a method of establishing model according to the mechanism is selected, by which an integral model of the molten pool is established. Validated on the three power groups of BF1 experiments which belong to the France SCARABEE series experimenters, the model shows good results. After compared with the models of GEYSER and BF2 experiments which had been validated before, some conclusions about mechanism of molten pool are derived. Moreover, through comparing the relative parameters such as the discharged heat and the increment of temperature etc., a reasonable analysis about the type of heat transfer is present, on the basis of which some conclusions are derived as well. (authors)

  14. Boiling curve in high quality flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiralkar, B.S.; Hein, R.A.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1980-01-01

    The post dry-out heat transfer regime of the flow boiling curve was investigated experimentally for high pressure water at high qualities. The test section was a short round tube located downstream of a hot patch created by a temperature controlled segment of tubing. Results from the experiment showed that the distance from the dryout point has a significant effect on the downstream temperatures and there was no unique boiling curve. The heat transfer coefficients measured sufficiently downstream of the dryout point could be correlated using the Heineman correlation for superheated steam, indicating that the droplet deposition effects could be neglected in this region

  15. Effect of power oscillations on suppression pool heating during ATWS [Anticipated Transients Without Scram] conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Mallen, A.N.

    1990-01-01

    Nine selected Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) have been simulated on the BNL Engineering Plant Analyzer (EPA), to determine how power and flow oscillations, similar to those that did or could have occurred at the LaSalle-2 boiling Water Reactor (BWR), could affect the rate of Pressure Suppression Pool heating. It has been determined that the pool can reach its temperature limit of 80 degree C in 4.3 min. after Turbine Trip without Bypass, if the feedwater pumps are not tripped. The pool will not reach its limit, if Boron is injected, even when oscillations are encountered. Simultaneous turbine and recirculation pump trips, introduced under stable conditions, can lead to instability. 2 refs., 17 figs., 9 tabs

  16. Survey of Thermal-Fluids Evaluation and Confirmatory Experimental Validation Requirements of Accident Tolerant Cladding Concepts with Focus on Boiling Heat Transfer Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Nicholas R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wysocki, Aaron J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Terrani, Kurt A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ali, Amir [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Liu, Maolong [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Blandford, Edward [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) is working closely with the nuclear industry to develop fuel and cladding candidates with potentially enhanced accident tolerance, also known as accident tolerant fuel (ATF). Thermal-fluids characteristics are a vital element of a holistic engineering evaluation of ATF concepts. One vital characteristic related to boiling heat transfer is the critical heat flux (CHF). CHF plays a vital role in determining safety margins during normal operation and also in the progression of potential transient or accident scenarios. This deliverable is a scoping survey of thermal-fluids evaluation and confirmatory experimental validation requirements of accident tolerant cladding concepts with a focus on boiling heat transfer characteristics. The key takeaway messages of this report are: 1. CHF prediction accuracy is important and the correlations may have significant uncertainty. 2. Surface conditions are important factors for CHF, primarily the wettability that is characterized by contact angle. Smaller contact angle indicates greater wettability, which increases the CHF. Surface roughness also impacts wettability. Results in the literature for pool boiling experiments indicate changes in CHF by up to 60% for several ATF cladding candidates. 3. The measured wettability of FeCrAl (i.e., contact angle and roughness) indicates that CHF should be investigated further through pool boiling and flow boiling experiments. 4. Initial measurements of static advancing contact angle and surface roughness indicate that FeCrAl is expected to have a higher CHF than Zircaloy. The measured contact angle of different FeCrAl alloy samples depends on oxide layer thickness and composition. The static advancing contact angle tends to decrease as the oxide layer thickness increases.

  17. Enhanced Boiling on Micro-Configured Composite Surfaces Under Microgravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Nengli; Chai, An-Ti

    1999-01-01

    bubble detachment manifests itself by a necking process which should not be weakened by reduced gravity. In addition, the composite surfaces introduce no extra pressure drop, no fouling and do not impose significant primary or maintenance costs. All of these suggest that this type of composite is an ideal material for the challenge of accounting for both reliability and economy of the relevant components applied in the ATCSs, the DPSs and other devices in future space missions. The aim of the proposed work is to experimentally investigate high nucleate pool boiling performance on a micro-configured metal-graphite composite surface and to determine the mechanisms of the nucleate boiling heat transfer both experimentally and theoretically. Freon-113 and water will be used as the test liquids to investigate wettability effects on boiling characteristics. The Cu-Gr and Al-Gr composites with various volume fractions of graphite fibers will be tested to obtain the heat transfer characteristic data in the nucleate boiling region and in the CHF regime. In the experiments, the bubble emission and coalescence processes will be recorded by a video camera with a magnifying borescope probe immersed in the working fluid. The temperature profile in the thermal boundary layer on the composite surfaces will be measured by a group of micro thermocouples consisting of four ultra fine micro thermocouples. This instrument was developed and successfully used to measure the temperature profile of evaporating liquid thin layers by the proposers in a study performed at the NASA/Lewis Research Center. A two tier model to explain the nucleate boiling process and the performance enhancement on the composite surfaces has been suggested by the authors. According to the model, the thicknesses of the microlayer and the macrolayer underneath the bubbles and mushrooms, can be estimated by the geometry of the composite surface. The experimental results will be compared to the predictions from the model

  18. A dry-spot model for the prediction of critical heat flux in water boiling in bubbly flow regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Sang Jun; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    This paper presents a prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) in bubbly flow regime using dry-spot model proposed recently by authors for pool and flow boiling CHF and existing correlations for forced convective heat transfer coefficient, active site density and bubble departure diameter in nucleate boiling region. Without any empirical constants always present in earlier models, comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data for upward flow of water in vertical, uniformly-heated round tubes are performed and show a good agreement. The parametric trends of CHF have been explored with respect to variations in pressure, tube diameter and length, mass flux and inlet subcooling. 16 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  19. A dry-spot model for the prediction of critical heat flux in water boiling in bubbly flow regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Sang Jun; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents a prediction of critical heat flux (CHF) in bubbly flow regime using dry-spot model proposed recently by authors for pool and flow boiling CHF and existing correlations for forced convective heat transfer coefficient, active site density and bubble departure diameter in nucleate boiling region. Without any empirical constants always present in earlier models, comparisons of the model predictions with experimental data for upward flow of water in vertical, uniformly-heated round tubes are performed and show a good agreement. The parametric trends of CHF have been explored with respect to variations in pressure, tube diameter and length, mass flux and inlet subcooling. 16 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  20. Simulation of boiling flow in evaporator of separate type heat pipe with low heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang, Y.W.; Wang, Wen; Zhuan, Rui; Yi, C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A boiling flow model in a separate type heat pipe with 65 mm diameter tube. • Nucleate boiling is the dominant mechanism in large pipes at low mass and heat flux. • The two-phase heat transfer coefficient is less sensitive to the total mass flux. - Abstract: The separate type heat pipe heat exchanger is considered to be a potential selection for developing passive cooling spent fuel pool – for the passive pressurized water reactor. This paper simulates the boiling flow behavior in the evaporator of separate type heat pipe, consisting of a bundle of tubes of inner diameter 65 mm. It displays two-phase characteristic in the evaporation section of the heat pipe working in low heat flux. In this study, the two-phase flow model in the evaporation section of the separate type heat pipe is presented. The volume of fluid (VOF) model is used to consider the interaction between the ammonia gas and liquid. The flow patterns and flow behaviors are studied and the agitated bubbly flow, churn bubbly flow are obtained, the slug bubble is likely to break into churn slug or churn froth flow. In addition, study on the heat transfer coefficients indicates that the nucleate boiling is the dominant mechanism in large pipes at low mass and heat flux, with the heat transfer coefficient being less sensitive to the total mass flux

  1. Size-exclusion chromatography for the determination of the boiling point distribution of high-boiling petroleum fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boczkaj, Grzegorz; Przyjazny, Andrzej; Kamiński, Marian

    2015-03-01

    The paper describes a new procedure for the determination of boiling point distribution of high-boiling petroleum fractions using size-exclusion chromatography with refractive index detection. Thus far, the determination of boiling range distribution by chromatography has been accomplished using simulated distillation with gas chromatography with flame ionization detection. This study revealed that in spite of substantial differences in the separation mechanism and the detection mode, the size-exclusion chromatography technique yields similar results for the determination of boiling point distribution compared with simulated distillation and novel empty column gas chromatography. The developed procedure using size-exclusion chromatography has a substantial applicability, especially for the determination of exact final boiling point values for high-boiling mixtures, for which a standard high-temperature simulated distillation would have to be used. In this case, the precision of final boiling point determination is low due to the high final temperatures of the gas chromatograph oven and an insufficient thermal stability of both the gas chromatography stationary phase and the sample. Additionally, the use of high-performance liquid chromatography detectors more sensitive than refractive index detection allows a lower detection limit for high-molar-mass aromatic compounds, and thus increases the sensitivity of final boiling point determination. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. An evaluation of analytical heat transfer area with various boiling heat transfer correlations in steam generator thermal sizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, B. R.; Park, H. S.; Chung, D. M.; Baik, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    The computer program SAFE has been used to size and analyze the performance of a steam generator which has two types of heat transfer regions in Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants (KSNP) and Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) design. The SAFE code calculates the analytical boiling heat transfer area using the modified form of the saturated nucleate pool boiling correlation suggested by Rohsenow. The predicted heat transfer area in the boiling region is multiplied by a constant to obtain a final analytical heat transfer area. The inclusion of the multiplier in the analytical calculation has some disadvantage of loss of complete correlation by the governing heat transfer equation. Several comparative analyses have been performed quantitatively to evaluate the possibility of removing the multiplier in the analytical calculation in the SAFE code. The evaluation shows that the boiling correlation and multiplier used in predicting the boiling region heat transfer area can be replaced with other correlations predicting nearly the same heat transfer area. The removal of multiplier included in the analytical calculation will facilitate a direct use of a set of concerned analytical sizing values that can be exactly correlated by the governing heat transfer equation. In addition this will provide more reasonable basis for the steam generator thermal sizing calculation and enhance the code usability without loss of any validity of the current sizing procedure. (author)

  3. Heat transfer enhancement on nucleate boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang, M.; Guibai, L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on enhancement of nucleate boiling heat transfer with additives that was investigated experimentally. More than fifteen kinds of additives were chosen and tested. Eight kinds of effective additives which can enhance nucleate boiling heat transfer were selected. Experimental results showed that boiling heat transfer coefficient of water was increased by 1 to 5 times and that of R-113 was increased by 1 to 4 times when trace amount additives were put in the two boiling liquids. There exist optimum concentrations for the additives, respectively, which can enhance nucleate boiling heat transfer rate best. In order to analyze the mechanism of the enhancement of boiling heat transfer with additives, the surface tension and the bubble departure diameter were measured. The nucleation sites were investigated by use of high-speed photograph. Experimental results showed that nucleation sites increase with additive amount increasing and get maximum. Increasing nucleation sites is one of the most important reason why nucleate boiling heat transfer can be enhanced with additives

  4. Steam CFD simulation of injection in suppression pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naveen Samad, A.M.; Ghosh, Sumana

    2015-01-01

    Boiling water reactor (BWR) is one of the common types of electricity generating nuclear reactor. Suppression pool system is a major component of the BWR which has to be designed efficiently for the safe operations. During some accidents like Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) large amount of steam are injected to the pressure suppression system resulting in increase in temperature of the pool and thereby increasing the pressure. The present work discuss about the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation of steam injected to the wet well of BWR through the blow down pipes and there by investigating the hydrodynamic and thermal characteristics of the system. The simulations were carried out for three different steam injection velocities. The numerical simulations were performed with ANSYS FLUENT using multiphase 3D Volume of Fluid (VOF) model and k-ε model was adopted for modelling turbulence flow. (author)

  5. Boiling of the Interface between Two Immiscible Liquids below the Bulk Boiling Temperatures of Both Components

    OpenAIRE

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V.; Goldobin, Denis S.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of boiling of the direct contact of two immiscible liquids. An intense vapour formation at such a direct contact is possible below the bulk boiling points of both components, meaning an effective decrease of the boiling temperature of the system. Although the phenomenon is known in science and widely employed in technology, the direct contact boiling process was thoroughly studied (both experimentally and theoretically) only for the case where one of liquids is becomin...

  6. The myth of the boiling point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hasok

    2008-01-01

    Around 1800, many reputable scientists reported significant variations in the temperature of pure water boiling under normal atmospheric pressure. The reported variations included a difference of over 1 degree C between boiling in metallic and glass vessels (Gay-Lussac), and "superheating" up to 112 degrees C on extracting dissolved air out of water (De Luc). I have confirmed most of these observations in my own experiments, many of which are described in this paper. Water boils at the "boiling point" only under very particular circumstances. Our common-sense intuition about the fixedness of the boiling point is only sustained by our limited experience.

  7. Boiling heat transfer on horizontal tube bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    Nucleate boiling heat transfer characteristics for a tube in a bundle differ from that for a single tube in a pool and this difference is known as 'tube bundle effect.' There exist two bundle effects, positive and negative. The positive bundle effect enhances heat transfer due to convective flow induced by rising bubbles generated from the lower tubes, while the negative bundle effect deteriorates heat transfer due to vapor blanketing caused by accumulation of bubbles. Staggered tube bundles tested and found that the upper tubes in bundles have higher heat transfer coefficients than the lower tubes. The effects of various parameters such as pressure, tube geometry and oil contamination on heat transfer have been examined. Some workers attempted to clarify the mechanism of occurrence of 'bundle effect' by testing tube arrangements of small scale. All reported only enhancement in heat transfer but results showed the symptom of heat transfer deterioration at higher heat fluxes. As mentioned above, it has not been clarified so far even whether the 'tube bundle effect' should serve as enhancement or deterioration of heat transfer in nucleate boiling. In this study, experiments are performed in detail by using bundles of small scale, and effects of heat flux distribution, pressure and tube location are clarified. Furthermore, some consideration on the mechanisms of occurrence of 'tube bundle effect' is made and a method for prediction of heat transfer rate is proposed

  8. Minimum Wages and the Economic Well-Being of Single Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabia, Joseph J.

    2008-01-01

    Using pooled cross-sectional data from the 1992 to 2005 March Current Population Survey (CPS), this study examines the relationship between minimum wage increases and the economic well-being of single mothers. Estimation results show that minimum wage increases were ineffective at reducing poverty among single mothers. Most working single mothers…

  9. Spreaders for immersion nucleate boiling cooling of a computer chip with a central hot spot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Amir F.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The paper introduces a spreader concept for cooling high power chip with a hot spot. ► Spreader is comprised of a Cu substrate and copper micro-porous surface. ► Spreaders surface is cooled by nucleate boiling of PF-5060 dielectric liquid. ► Analysis demonstrated spreader effectiveness for mitigating hot spot effect. - Abstract: This paper numerically investigates the performance of composite spreaders comprised of Cu substrates and Cu micro-porous surfaces of different thicknesses for immersion cooling of 10 × 10 mm underlying computer chip with a 2 × 2 mm central hot spot. The local heat flux at the hot spot is three times the chip’s surface average outside the hot spot. The thickness of the Cu substrate changes from 1.6 to 3.2 mm and that of the Cu micro-porous surface changes from 80 to 197 μm. The spreaders are cooled by saturation nucleate boiling of PF-5060 dielectric liquid. The local values of the nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficients on the various Cu micro-porous surfaces are based on pool boiling experimental measurements. Results demonstrated the effectiveness of immersion cooling nucleate boiling for mitigating the effect of the hot spot. The spreaders decrease the maximum surface temperature and the temperature gradient on the chip surface and increase the dissipated thermal power by the chip and removed from the spreader surface. Increasing the thickness of the Cu substrate and/or decreasing the thickness of the Cu micro-porous surface increases the total thermal power removed, the chip surface temperature and the spreader’s footprint area.

  10. Experimental investigation and mechanistic modelling of dilute bubbly bulk boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutnjak, Josip

    2013-01-01

    During evaporation the geometric shape of the vapour is not described using thermodynamics. In bubbly flows the bubble shape is considered spheric with small diameters and changing into various shapes upon growth. The heat and mass transfer happens at the interfacial area. The forces acting on the bubbles depend on the bubble diameter and shape. In this work the prediction of the bubble diameter and/or bubble number density in bulk boiling was considered outside the vicinity of the heat input area. Thus the boiling effects that happened inside the nearly saturated bulk were under investigation. This situation is relevant for nuclear safety analysis concerning a stagnant coolant in the spent fuel pool. In this research project a new experimental set-up to investigate was built. The experimental set-up consists of an instrumented, partly transparent, high and slender boiling container for visual observation. The direct visual observation of the boiling phenomena is necessary for the identification of basic mechanisms, which should be incorporated in the simulation model. The boiling process has been recorded by means of video images and subsequently was evaluated by digital image processing methods, and by that data concerning the characteristics of the boiling process were generated for the model development and validation. Mechanistic modelling is based on the derivation of relevant mechanisms concluded from observation, which is in line with physical knowledge. In this context two mechanisms were identified; the growth/-shrink mechanism (GSM) of the vapour bubbles and sudden increases of the bubble number density. The GSM was implemented into the CFD-Code ANSYS-CFX using the CFX Expression Language (CEL) by calculation of the internal bubble pressure using the Young-Laplace-Equation. This way a hysteresis is realised as smaller bubbles have an increased internal pressure. The sudden increases of the bubble number density are explainable by liquid super

  11. Experimental investigation and mechanistic modelling of dilute bubbly bulk boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutnjak, Josip

    2013-06-27

    During evaporation the geometric shape of the vapour is not described using thermodynamics. In bubbly flows the bubble shape is considered spheric with small diameters and changing into various shapes upon growth. The heat and mass transfer happens at the interfacial area. The forces acting on the bubbles depend on the bubble diameter and shape. In this work the prediction of the bubble diameter and/or bubble number density in bulk boiling was considered outside the vicinity of the heat input area. Thus the boiling effects that happened inside the nearly saturated bulk were under investigation. This situation is relevant for nuclear safety analysis concerning a stagnant coolant in the spent fuel pool. In this research project a new experimental set-up to investigate was built. The experimental set-up consists of an instrumented, partly transparent, high and slender boiling container for visual observation. The direct visual observation of the boiling phenomena is necessary for the identification of basic mechanisms, which should be incorporated in the simulation model. The boiling process has been recorded by means of video images and subsequently was evaluated by digital image processing methods, and by that data concerning the characteristics of the boiling process were generated for the model development and validation. Mechanistic modelling is based on the derivation of relevant mechanisms concluded from observation, which is in line with physical knowledge. In this context two mechanisms were identified; the growth/-shrink mechanism (GSM) of the vapour bubbles and sudden increases of the bubble number density. The GSM was implemented into the CFD-Code ANSYS-CFX using the CFX Expression Language (CEL) by calculation of the internal bubble pressure using the Young-Laplace-Equation. This way a hysteresis is realised as smaller bubbles have an increased internal pressure. The sudden increases of the bubble number density are explainable by liquid super

  12. Revision of nucleated boiling mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Converti, J.; Balino, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The boiling occurrence plays an important role in the power reactors energy transfer. But still, there is not a final theory on the boiling mechanisms. This paper presents a critical analysis of the most important nucleated boiling models that appear in literature. The conflicting points are identified and experiments are proposed to clear them up. Some of these experiments have been performed at the Thermohydraulics laboratory (Bariloche Atomic Center). (Author)

  13. Odd-Boiled Eggs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Kenneth; Scheman, Naomi

    2010-01-01

    At a Shabbat lunch in Madrid not long ago, the conversation turned to the question of boiling eggs. One of the guests mentioned that a Dutch rabbi he knew had heard that in order to make it more likely that boiled eggs be kosher, you should add an egg to the pot if the number you began with was even. According to the laws of Kashruth, Jews may not…

  14. Boiling Suppression in Convective Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aounallah, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The development of convective boiling heat transfer correlations and analytical models has almost exclusively been based on measurements of the total heat flux, and therefore on the overall two-phase heat transfer coefficient, when the well-known heat transfer correlations have often assumed additive mechanisms, one for each mode of heat transfer, convection and boiling. While the global performance of such correlations can readily be assessed, the predictive capability of the individual components of the correlation has usually remained elusive. This becomes important when, for example, developing mechanistic models for subcooled void formation based on the partitioning of the wall heat flux into a boiling and a convective component, or when extending a correlation beyond its original range of applications where the preponderance of the heat transfer mechanisms involved can be significantly different. A new examination of existing experimental heat transfer data obtained under fixed hydrodynamic conditions, whereby the local flow conditions are decoupled from the local heat flux, has allowed the unequivocal isolation of the boiling contribution over a broad range of thermodynamic qualities (0 to 0.8) for water at 7 MPa. Boiling suppression, as the quality increases, has consequently been quantified, thus providing valuable new insights on the functionality and contribution of boiling in convective flows. (author)

  15. Analysis of boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, N.I.

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the author's results in boiling analysis obtained in the last 17 years. It demonstrates that more information can be extracted from the analysis by incorporating even of gross turbulence characteristics consistently in the analysis and appropriate local volume and time averaging. The main findings are: Even in large scale analysis (no direct numerical simulation) the steady and transient averaged turbulence characteristics are necessary to increase the quality of predicting heat and mass transfer. It allows simulating the heat transfer change behind spacer grids analytically which is not the practice up to now. This allows also to simulate the change of the deposition behind the spacer grid and therefore this bring us closer to the mechanistic prediction of dry out. Accurate boiling heat transfer predictions require knowledge on the nucleation characteristics of each particular surface. The pulsation characteristics at the wall controlling the heat transfer are associated with the bubble departure frequencies but not identical with them. Considering the mutual interactions of the bubbles leads to the surprising analytical prediction of the departure from nucleate boiling just by using the mechanisms acting during flow boiling only. The performance of the author's analytical two-phase convection model combined with its analytical nuclide boiling model is proven to have the accuracy of the empirical Chen's model by having the advantage of predicting analytically the internal characteristics of the flow each of it validated by experiment. This is also important for the future use in multiphase CFD where details about the flow field generation have to be also predicted by constitutive relation as summarized in this paper. (author)

  16. Analysis of boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolev, Nikolay Ivanov

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes the author's results in boiling analysis obtained in the last 17 years. It demonstrates that more information can be extracted from the analysis by incorporating even of gross turbulence characteristics consistently in the analysis and appropriate local volume and time averaging. The main findings are: Even in large scale analysis (no direct numerical simulation) the steady and transient averaged turbulence characteristics are necessary to increase the quality of predicting heat and mass transfer. It allows to simulate the heat transfer change behind spacer grids analytically which is not the practice up to now. This allows also to simulate the change of the deposition behind the spacer grid and therefore this bring us closer to the mechanistic prediction of dry out. Accurate boiling heat transfer predictions require knowledge on the nucleation characteristics of each particular surface. The pulsation characteristics at the wall controlling the heat transfer are associated with the bubble departure frequencies but not identical with them. Considering the mutual interactions of the bubbles leads to the surprising analytical prediction of the departure from nucleate boiling just by using the mechanisms acting during flow boiling only. The performance of the author's analytical two-phase convection model combined with its analytical nuclide boiling model is proven to have the accuracy of the empirical Chen's model by having the advantage of predicting analytically the internal characteristics of the flow each of it validated by experiment. This is also important for the future use in multiphase CFD where details about the flow field generation have to be also predicted by constitutive relation as summarized in this paper. (author)

  17. Minimum weight passive insulation requirements for hypersonic cruise vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardema, M. D.

    1972-01-01

    Analytical solutions are derived for two representative cases of the transient heat conduction equation to determine the minimum weight requirements for passive insulation systems of hypersonic cruise vehicles. The cases discussed are the wet wall case with the interior wall temperature held to that of the boiling point of the fuel throughout the flight, and the dry wall case where the heat transferred through the insulation is absorbed by the interior structure whose temperature is allowed to rise.

  18. Acoustic phenomena during boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorofeev, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    Applied and theoretical significance of investigation into acoustic phenomena on boiling is discussed. Effect of spatial and time conditions on pressure vapour bubble has been elucidated. Collective effects were considered: acoustic interaction of bubbles, noise formation ion developed boiling, resonance and hydrodynamic autooscillations. Different methods for predicting heat transfer crisis using changes of accompanying noise characteristics were analysed. Principle peculiarities of generation mechanism of thermoacoustic autooscillations were analysed as well: formation of standing waves; change of two-phase medium contraction in a channel; relation of alternating pressure with boiling process as well as with instantaneous and local temperatures of heat transfer surface and liquid in a boundary layer

  19. Recovering low-boiling hydrocarbons, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pier, M

    1934-10-03

    A process is described for the recovery of low-boiling hydrocarbons of the nature of benzine through treatment of liquid carbonaceous materials with hydrogen under pressure at raised temperature, suitably in the presence of catalysts. Middle oils (practically saturated with hydrogen) or higher boiling oils at a temperature above 500/sup 0/ (with or without the addition of hydrogen) containing cyclic hydrocarbons not saturated with hydrogen are changed into low boiling hydrocarbons of the nature of benzine. The cracking takes place under strongly hydrogenating conditions (with the use of a strongly active hydrogenating catalyst or high pressure) at temperatures below 500/sup 0/. If necessary, the constituents boiling below 200/sup 0/ can be reconverted into cyclic hydrocarbons partially saturated with hydrogen. (BLM)

  20. Prediction of Heat Removal Capacity of Horizontal Condensation Heat Exchanger submerged in Pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Seong-Su; Hong, Soon-Joon [FNC Tech., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyoung-Kyu [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl [KEPCO International Nuclear Graduate School, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    As representative passive safety systems, there are the passive containment cooling system (PCCS) of ESBWR, the emergency condenser system (ECS) of the SWR-1000, the passive auxiliary feed-water system (PAFS) of the APR+ and etc. During the nuclear power plant accidents, these passive safety systems can cool the nuclear system effectively via the heat transfer through the steam condensation, and then mitigate the accidents. For the optimum design and the safety analysis of the passive safety system, it is essential to predict the heat removal capacity of the heat exchanger well. The heat removal capacity of the horizontal condensation heat exchanger submerged in a pool is determined by a combination of a horizontal in-tube condensation heat transfer and a boiling heat transfer on the horizontal tube. Since most correlations proposed in the previous nuclear engineering field were developed for the vertical tube, there is a certain limit to apply these correlations to the horizontal tube. Therefore, this study developed the heat transfer model for the horizontal Ushaped condensation heat exchanger submerged in a pool to predict well the horizontal in-tube condensation heat transfer, the boiling heat transfer on the horizontal tube and the overall heat removal capacity of the heat exchanger using the best-estimate system analysis code, MARS.

  1. Experimental study and modelling of transient boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baudin, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    A failure in the control system of the power of a nuclear reactor can lead to a Reactivity Initiated Accident in a nuclear power plant. Then, a power peak occurs in some fuel rods, high enough to lead to the coolant film boiling. It leads to an important increase of the temperature of the rod. The possible risk of the clad failure is a matter of interest for the Institut de Radioprotection et de Securite Nucleaire. The transient boiling heat transfer is not yet understood and modelled. An experimental set-up has been built at the Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse (IMFT). Subcooled HFE-7000 flows vertically upward in a semi annulus test section. The inner half cylinder simulates the clad and is made of a stainless steel foil, heated by Joule effect. Its temperature is measured by an infrared camera, coupled with a high speed camera for the visualization of the flow topology. The whole boiling curve is studied in steady state and transient regimes: convection, onset of boiling, nucleate boiling, critical heat flux, film boiling and rewetting. The steady state heat transfers are well modelled by literature correlations. Models are suggested for the transient heat flux: the convection and nucleate boiling evolutions are self-similar during a power step. This observation allows to model more complex evolutions, as temperature ramps. The transient Hsu model well represents the onset of nucleate boiling. When the intensity of the power step increases, the film boiling begins at the same temperature but with an increasing heat flux. For power ramps, the critical heat flux decreases while the corresponding temperature increases with the heating rate. When the wall is heated, the film boiling heat transfer is higher than in steady state but it is not understood. A two-fluid model well simulates the cooling film boiling and the rewetting. (author)

  2. Fragmentation of molten metal drop with instantaneous contact temperature below the boiling point of Na

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inukai, S.; Sugiyama, K.; Nishimura, S.; Kinoshita, I.

    2001-01-01

    The consequence of the core disruptive accidents in metallic-fueled Na-cooled reactors is strongly affected by the feedback reactivity originating in the boiling of Na and the dispersion of molten fuel due to fuel-coolant interactions. The design of the core configuration to promote the dispersion of molten fuel is therefore very important for social acceptance. It has been recognized in this context that metallic fuel has a potentiality to make liquefied fuel with fuel pin tube even in the temperature range below the boiling point of Na. If the liquefied fuel solidified without fuel-coolant interactions in the core region, this event leads the core condition to a pessimistic scenario of re-criticality. As a basic study related to this problem, the present experimental study investigates the possibility of fragmentation of metal drop with instantaneous contact temperature below the boiling point of Na (883 C). The molten Al drop, which has a melting point of 660 C above the operational temperature range of core, was selected as a simulant of liquefied fuel in the present study. Al particles of 5 g or 0.56 g were heated up to the initial temperature ranging from 850 C to 1113 C in a crucible by using an electric heater. The molten Al drop was dropped into a sodium pool adjusted the temperature from 280 C to 499 C. The Al drop at initial temperature sufficiently higher that the boiling point of Na was observed to fragment into pieces under the condition of instantaneous contact temperature below the boiling point of Na. It is confirmed that the fragmentation is caused due to the thermal interactions between the molten Al and the Na entrapped into the drop. (author)

  3. Fragmentation of molten metal drop with instantaneous contact temperature below the boiling point of Na

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inukai, S.; Sugiyama, K. [Hokkaido Univ., Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Sapporo (Japan); Nishimura, S.; Kinoshita, I. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    The consequence of the core disruptive accidents in metallic-fueled Na-cooled reactors is strongly affected by the feedback reactivity originating in the boiling of Na and the dispersion of molten fuel due to fuel-coolant interactions. The design of the core configuration to promote the dispersion of molten fuel is therefore very important for social acceptance. It has been recognized in this context that metallic fuel has a potentiality to make liquefied fuel with fuel pin tube even in the temperature range below the boiling point of Na. If the liquefied fuel solidified without fuel-coolant interactions in the core region, this event leads the core condition to a pessimistic scenario of re-criticality. As a basic study related to this problem, the present experimental study investigates the possibility of fragmentation of metal drop with instantaneous contact temperature below the boiling point of Na (883 C). The molten Al drop, which has a melting point of 660 C above the operational temperature range of core, was selected as a simulant of liquefied fuel in the present study. Al particles of 5 g or 0.56 g were heated up to the initial temperature ranging from 850 C to 1113 C in a crucible by using an electric heater. The molten Al drop was dropped into a sodium pool adjusted the temperature from 280 C to 499 C. The Al drop at initial temperature sufficiently higher that the boiling point of Na was observed to fragment into pieces under the condition of instantaneous contact temperature below the boiling point of Na. It is confirmed that the fragmentation is caused due to the thermal interactions between the molten Al and the Na entrapped into the drop. (author)

  4. Modeling vertical loads in pools resulting from fluid injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1978-01-01

    Table-top model experiments were performed to investigate pressure suppression pool dynamics effects due to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) for the Peachbottom Mark I boiling water reactor containment system. The results guided subsequent conduct of experiments in the 1 / 5 -scale facility and provided new insight into the vertical load function (VLF). Model experiments show an oscillatory VLF with the download typically double-spiked followed by a more gradual sinusoidal upload. The load function contains a high frequency oscillation superimposed on a low frequency one; evidence from measurements indicates that the oscillations are initiated by fluid dynamics phenomena

  5. SAS3A analysis of natural convection boiling behavior in the Sodium Boiling Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of natural convection boiling behavior in the Sodium Boiling Test (SBT) Facility has been performed using the SAS3A computer code. The predictions from this analysis indicate that stable boiling can be achieved for extensive periods of time for channel powers less than 1.4 kW and indicate intermittent dryout at higher powers up to at least 1.7 kW. The results of this anaysis are in reasonable agreement with the SBT Facility test results

  6. Evaporation, Boiling and Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Evaporation and boiling are both terms applied to the change of a liquid to the vapour/gaseous state. This article argues that it is the formation of bubbles of vapour within the liquid that most clearly differentiates boiling from evaporation although only a minority of chemistry textbooks seems to mention bubble formation in this context. The…

  7. Enabling Highly Effective Boiling from Superhydrophobic Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allred, Taylor P.; Weibel, Justin A.; Garimella, Suresh V.

    2018-04-01

    A variety of industrial applications such as power generation, water distillation, and high-density cooling rely on heat transfer processes involving boiling. Enhancements to the boiling process can improve the energy efficiency and performance across multiple industries. Highly wetting textured surfaces have shown promise in boiling applications since capillary wicking increases the maximum heat flux that can be dissipated. Conversely, highly nonwetting textured (superhydrophobic) surfaces have been largely dismissed for these applications as they have been shown to promote formation of an insulating vapor film that greatly diminishes heat transfer efficiency. The current Letter shows that boiling from a superhydrophobic surface in an initial Wenzel state, in which the surface texture is infiltrated with liquid, results in remarkably low surface superheat with nucleate boiling sustained up to a critical heat flux typical of hydrophilic wetting surfaces, and thus upends this conventional wisdom. Two distinct boiling behaviors are demonstrated on both micro- and nanostructured superhydrophobic surfaces based on the initial wetting state. For an initial surface condition in which vapor occupies the interstices of the surface texture (Cassie-Baxter state), premature film boiling occurs, as has been commonly observed in the literature. However, if the surface texture is infiltrated with liquid (Wenzel state) prior to boiling, drastically improved thermal performance is observed; in this wetting state, the three-phase contact line is pinned during vapor bubble growth, which prevents the development of a vapor film over the surface and maintains efficient nucleate boiling behavior.

  8. Heat transfer in a spent fuel pool concept containing PWR, Hybrid ADS-Fission, and VHTR spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, Fernando P.; Cardoso, Fabiano; Salomé, Jean A.D.; Velasquez, Carlos E.; Pereira, Claubia, E-mail: fernandopereirabh@gmail.com, E-mail: fabinuclear@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: jadsalome@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: carlosvelcab@hotmail.com, E-mail: claubia@nuclear.ufmg.br [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Thermal evaluation under wet storage conditions of spent fuels (SF) of the types UO{sub 2} discharged from Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) and Very High-temperature Reactor (VHTR), and (Th,TRU)O{sub 2} from Accelerator-Driven Subcritical Reactor System (ADS) and VHTR are presented. The analyzes are in the absence of an external cooling system of the pool, and the goal is to compare the water boiling time of the pool storing these different types of SF, at time t=0 year after reactor discharge. Two techniques were implemented. In the first one, all the materials of the fuel elements are considered. In the second, the SF is treated as holes inside the pool, assuming the heat transfer directly from the SF to the water. Results from first technique show that the boiling time (T{sub b}) ranged from 23 minutes for (Th,TRU)O{sub 2} from VHTR to 3 hours for UO{sub 2} from VHTR, while for the second technique, T{sub b} ranged from 10 minutes for (Th,TRU)O{sub 2} from VHTR to 2.7 hours for UO{sub 2} from VHTR. The discrepancies between Tb from both techniques reveal that the pathways considered for the heat transfer are crucial to the results. The thermal studies used the module CFX of the ANSYS Workbench 16.2 - student version. (author)

  9. Numerical simulation of nucleate boiling and heat transfer using MPL-MAFL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han Young Yoon, Hee Cheol Kim [Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Koshizuka, Seiichi; Oka, Yoshiaki [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab

    2000-10-01

    A mesh-free numerical method is presented for direct calculation of bubble growth. It is a combination of particle and gridless methods where the terms, 'particle' and 'gridless', refer to Lagrangian and Eulerian schemes respectively. Thus, an arbitrary-Lagrangian-Eulerian calculation is possible, in this method, with a cloud of computing points that are equivalent to the computing cells in mesh-based methods. The moving interface is traced through the Lagrangian motion of the computing points using a particle method and, at the fixed computing points, convection is calculated using a gridless method. The particle interaction model of the moving-particle semi-implicit (MPS) method is applied to the differential operators and the meshless-advection using a flow-directional local-grid (MAFL) scheme is utilized for the gridless method. A complex moving interface problems can be effectively analyzed by MPS-MAFL since the mesh is no longer used. The present method is applied to the calculation of gas-liquid two-phase flow with and without the phase change in two dimensions. The pressure and temperature gradients are ignored for the vapor region and the phase interface is treated as a free boundary. As an isothermal flow, a gas bubble rising in viscous liquids is simulated numerically and the results are compared with the empirical correlation. The energy equation is coupled with the equation of motion for the calculation of nucleate pool boiling. The numerical results are provided for the bubble growth rate, departure radius, and the heat transfer rate, which show good agreement with the experimental observations. The heat transfer mechanism associated with nucleate pool boiling is quantitatively evaluated and discussed with previous empirical studies. (author)

  10. Boiling experiments in DFR and PFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Judd, A.M.

    1994-01-01

    At the end of its life, in 1975-1977, a series of Special Experiments was conducted in the Dounreay Fast Reactor. Fuel pins were deliberately subjected to overheating, up to the coolant boiling point, for periods of several hours at a time. The boiling was monitored by acoustic sensors and thermocouples, and after the tests the fuel pins were examined to determine the extent of damage. The results of these experiments have been widely reported. The present paper summarises the results as a reminder of their significance. The outstanding conclusion was that coolant boiling had no severe consequences. In some, but not all, cases the pins failed, but little fuel was released, no local blockages were formed, and there was no fuel melting. At around the same time PFR was being commissioned, and for a time the primary coolant circuit was operated with a dummy core, containing no nuclear fuel. An electrically-heated boiling rig was deployed in the dummy core, and observed by acoustic monitors. The data gathered enabled the noise of boiling to be compared with the background noise, and provided valuable support for the design of acoustic boiling noise detection systems. (author)

  11. Correlations for developing film boiling effect in tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Y.; Leung, L.K.H.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Reducing uncertainties in predicting film-boiling heat transfer can provide improved margins in reactor safety analysis, hence improved operating margins in nuclear power plants. Most reactor safety codes employed the tube-based prediction method for the fully developed film-boiling heat transfer coefficient. This approach tends to underpredict the heat-transfer coefficient and over-predict the sheath temperature at post-dryout conditions close to the CHF point. The under-prediction is due mainly to the droplet impingement on the heated surface and vapour superheating. This heat-transfer regime is referred to as the developing film boiling, which is associated with an enhancement in heat transfer compared to the fully developed film boiling. An improvement in the prediction accuracy is achievable by accounting for the effect of vapour-film development on film boiling heat transfer. In addition to system safety analyses, the prediction of developing film boiling heat transfer is required in subchannel analyses for fuel bundles. A tube-data-based prediction method is particularly relevant for subchannel applications. The objective of this study is to derive a correlation for the developing film boiling effect in tubes. The current CANDU R . system safety and subchannel analyses codes apply the look-up table approach to predict the film boiling heat transfer. The post-dryout look-up table provides the fully developed film boiling heat transfer in an 8-mm vertical tube, and has been extended to other tube sizes using a diameter modification factor. In this study, a modification factor has been developed to account for the developing film-boiling effect, and is expressed in the following non-dimensional form: K = (h FB - h FD )/(h NB - h FD ) = f ((T W - T sat )/T CHF - T sat )) where h FB is the film boiling heat transfer coefficient, h FD is the fully developed film-boiling heat transfer coefficient, which is evaluated using the film-boiling

  12. Geochemical and geo-electrical study of mud pools at the Mutnovsky volcano (South Kamchatka, Russia): Behavior of elements, structures of feeding channels and a model of origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessonova, E.P.; Bortnikova, S.B.; Gora, M.P.; Manstein, Yu.A.; Shevko, A.Ya.; Panin, G.L.; Manstein, A.K.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents data on the geochemical composition of boiling mud pools at the Mutnovsky volcano. The physicochemical characteristics of the pools and the concentrations of major, minor and trace elements in pool solutions vary widely. A comparison of the geochemical compositions of host rocks and solutions indicates that leaching from rocks is not the only source of chemicals in thermal solutions. Geophysical studies reveal the inner structure of thermal fields, which reflect the shapes of the underground reservoirs and feed channels. Using geophysical methods (electrical resistivity tomography and frequency domain investigations), it was shown that the vertical structure and complex geochemical zonation of the feed channels leads to a high contrast in the compositions of the mud solutions. These findings answer questions about the origin and composition of surface manifestations. To elucidate the mechanisms of solution formation, an attempt was made to describe the magmatic fluid evolution and the resulting mixing of waters by physical and mathematical models. The model illustrates fluid migration from a magma chamber to the surface. It is shown that the formation of brines corresponding to the mud pool composition is possible during secondary boiling.

  13. Parametric study of boiling heat transfer in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, B.; Jones, B.G.; Pan, C.

    1996-01-01

    Detailed numerical modeling and parametric variation studies were conducted on boiling heat transfer processes in porous deposits with emphasis on applications associated with light water nuclear power reactor systems. The processes of boiling heat transfer in the porous corrosion deposits typically involve phase changes in finite volumetric regions in the porous media. The study examined such processes in two porous media configurations, without chimneys (homogeneous porous structures) and with chimneys (heterogeneous porous structures). A 1-D model and a 2-D model were developed to simulate two-phase flows with phase changes, without dry-out, inside the porous media for both structural configurations. For closure of the governing equations, an empirical correlation of the evaporation rate for phase changes inside the porous media was introduced. In addition, numerical algorithms were developed to solve the coupled nonlinear equations of mass, momentum, energy, capillary pressure, and evaporation rate. The distributions of temperature, thermodynamic saturation, liquid pressure, vapor pressure, liquid velocity, and vapor velocity were predicted. Furthermore, the effects of heat flux, system pressure, porosity, particle diameter, chimney population density, chimney radius, and crud thickness on the all superheat, critical heat flux, and minimum saturation were examined. The predictions were found to be in good agreement with the available experimental results

  14. Basic Boiling Experiments with An Inclined Narrow Gap Associated With In-Vessel Retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazu, Kuninobu; Watanabe, Fukashi; Iwaki, Chikako; Yokobori, Seiichi; Akinaga, Makoto; Hamazaki, Ryoichi; SATO, Ken-ichi

    2002-01-01

    In the case of a severe accident with relocation of the molten corium into the lower plenum of reactor pressure vessel (RPV), the successful in-vessel corium retention (IVR) can prevent the progress to ex-vessel events with uncertainties and avoid the containment failure. One of the key phenomena governing the possibility of IVR would be the gap formation and cooling between a corium crust and the RPV wall, and for the achievement of IVR, it would be necessary to supply cooling water to RPV as early as possible. The BWR features relative to IVR behavior are a deep and massive water pool in the lower plenum, and many of control rod drive guide tubes (CRDGT) installed in the lower head of RPV, in which water is injected continuously except in the case of station blackout scenario. The present paper describes the basic boiling experiment conducted in order to investigate the boiling characteristics in an inclined narrow gap simulating a part of the lower head curvature. The boiling experiments were composed of visualization tests and heat transfer tests. In the visualization tests, two types of inclined gap were constructed using the parallel plate and the V-shaped parallel plate with heating from the top plate, and the boiling flow pattern was observed with various gap width and heat flux. These observation results showed that water was easily supplied from the gap bottom of parallel plate even in a very narrow gap with smaller width than 1 mm, and water could flow continuously in the narrow gap by the geometric and thermal imbalance from the experiment results using the V-shaped parallel plate. In the heat transfer tests, the critical heat flux (CHF) data in an inclined narrow channel formed by the parallel plates were measured in terms of the parameters of gap width, heated length and inclined angle of a channel, and the effect of inclination was incorporated into the existing CHF correlation for a narrow gap. The CHF correlation modified for an inclined narrow gap

  15. Boiling characteristics of dilute polymer solutions and implications for the suppression of vapor explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K.H.; Kim, M.H. [Univ. of Science and Technology, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-01

    Quenching experiments of hot solid spheres in dilute aqueous solutions of polyethylene oxide polymer have been conducted for the purpose of investigating the physical mechanisms of the suppression of vapor explosions in this polymer solutions. Two spheres of 22.2mm and 9.5mm-diameter were tested in the polymer solutions of various concentrations at 30{degrees}C. Minimum film boiling temperature ({Delta}T{sub MFB}) in this highly-subcooled liquid rapidly decreased from over 700{degrees}c for pure water to about 150{degrees}C as the polymer concentration was increased up to 300ppm for 22.2mm sphere, and it decreased to 350{degrees}C for 9.5mm sphere. This rapid reduction of minimum film boiling temperature in the PEO aqueous solutions can explain its ability of the suppression of spontaneous vapor explosions. The ability of suppression of vapor explosions by dilute polyethylene oxide solutions against an external trigger pressure was tested by dropping molten tin into the polymer solutions at 25{degrees}C. It was observed that in 50ppm solutions more mass fragmented than in pure water, but produced weaker explosion pressures. The explosion was completely suppressed in 300ppm solutions with the external trigger. The debris size distributions of fine fragments smaller than 0.7mm were shown almost identical regardless of the polymer concentrations.

  16. Research progress on microgravity boiling heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zejun; Chen Bingde

    2003-01-01

    Microgravity boiling heat transfer is one of the most basic research topics in aerospace technology, which is important for both scientific research and engineering application. Research progress on microgravity boiling heat transfer is presented, including terrestrial simulation technique, terrestrial simulation experiment, microgravity experiment, and flow boiling heat transfer

  17. A one-dimensional semi-empirical model considering transition boiling effect for dispersed flow film boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu-Jou [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Pan, Chin, E-mail: cpan@ess.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China); Low Carbon Energy Research Center, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Seven heat transfer mechanisms are studied numerically by the model. • A semi-empirical method is proposed to account for the transition boiling effect. • The parametric effects on the heat transfer mechanisms are investigated. • The thermal non-equilibrium phenomenon between vapor and droplets is investigated. - Abstract: The objective of this paper is to develop a one-dimensional semi-empirical model for the dispersed flow film boiling considering transition boiling effects. The proposed model consists of conservation equations, i.e., vapor mass, vapor energy, droplet mass and droplet momentum conservation, and a set of closure relations to address the interactions among wall, vapor and droplets. The results show that the transition boiling effect is of vital importance in the dispersed flow film boiling regime, since the flowing situation in the downstream would be influenced by the conditions in the upstream. In addition, the present paper, through evaluating the vapor temperature and the amount of heat transferred to droplets, investigates the thermal non-equilibrium phenomenon under different flowing conditions. Comparison of the wall temperature predictions with the 1394 experimental data in the literature, the present model ranging from system pressure of 30–140 bar, heat flux of 204–1837 kW/m{sup 2} and mass flux of 380–5180 kg/m{sup 2} s, shows very good agreement with RMS of 8.80% and standard deviation of 8.81%. Moreover, the model well depicts the thermal non-equilibrium phenomenon for the dispersed flow film boiling.

  18. Critical heat flux enhancement regarding to the thickness of graphene films under pool boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Man; Park, Hyun Sun; Park, Youngjae; Kim, Hyungdae; Kim, Dong Eok; Kim, Moo Hwan; Ahn, Ho Seon

    2014-01-01

    The large thermal conductivity of the graphene films inhibits the formation of hot spots, thereby increasing the CHF. An infrared high-speed visualization showed graphene effect on boiling characteristics during operation. The graphene-coated heater showed an increase in BHT and CHF. As the thickness of the graphene films increased, the CHF also increased up to an asymptotic limit when the graphene layer was approximately 150 nm thick. The increased BHT was explained by the slight decrease in the wettability and the folded edges of the RGO flakes, which led to a decrease in the diameter of the departing bubbles, a larger bubble generation frequency, and an increase in the areal density of the bubble nucleation sites. The increase in the CHF was explained by considering the thermal activity of the graphene films, and the dependence thereof on the thickness and thermal properties of the layer, which was calculated based on high-speed IR visualization data

  19. Instability in flow boiling in microchannels

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Sujoy Kumar

    2016-01-01

    This Brief addresses the phenomena of instability in flow boiling in microchannels occurring in high heat flux electronic cooling. A companion edition in the SpringerBrief Subseries on Thermal Engineering and Applied Science to “Critical Heat Flux in Flow Boiling in Microchannels,” and "Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Flow Boiling in Microchannels,"by the same author team, this volume is idea for professionals, researchers, and graduate students concerned with electronic cooling.

  20. Heat Transfer Characteristics during Boiling of Immiscible Liquids Flowing in Narrow Rectangular Heated Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhisa Shinmoto

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of immiscible liquids for cooling of surfaces with high heat generation density is proposed based on the experimental verification of its superior cooling characteristics in fundamental systems of pool boiling and flow boiling in a tube. For the purpose of practical applications, however, heat transfer characteristics due to flow boiling in narrow rectangular channels with different small gap sizes need to be investigated. The immiscible liquids employed here are FC72 and water, and the gap size is varied as 2, 1, and 0.5 mm between parallel rectangular plates of 30 mm × 175 mm, where one plate is heated. To evaluate the effect of gap size, the heat transfer characteristics are compared at the same inlet velocity. The generation of large flattened bubbles in a narrow gap results in two opposite trends of the heat transfer enhancement due to thin liquid film evaporation and of the deterioration due to the extension of dry patch in the liquid film. The situation is the same as that observed for pure liquids. The latter negative effect is emphasized for extremely small gap sizes if the flow rate ratio of more-volatile liquid to the total is not reduced. The addition of small flow rate of less-volatile liquid can increase the critical heat flux (CHF of pure more-volatile liquid, while the surface temperature increases at the same time and assume the values between those for more-volatile and less-volatile liquids. By the selection of small flow rate ratio of more-volatile liquid, the surface temperature of pure less-volatile liquid can be decreased without reducing high CHF inherent in the less-volatile liquid employed. The trend of heat transfer characteristics for flow boiling of immiscible mixtures in narrow channels is more sensitive to the composition compared to the flow boiling in a round tube.

  1. Boiling point of volatile liquids at various pressures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Maria Valencia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Water, under normal conditions, tends to boil at a “normal boiling temperature” at which the atmospheric pressure fixes the average amount of kinetic energy needed to reach its boiling point. Yet, the normal boiling temperature of different substances varies depending on their nature, for which substances like alcohols, known as volatile, boil faster than water under same conditions. In response to this phenomenon, an investigation on the coexistence of both gas and liquid phases of a volatile substance in a closed system was made, establishing vapor pressure as the determining tendency of a substance to vaporize, which increases exponentially with temperature until a critical point is reached. Since atmospheric pressure is fixed, the internal pressure of the system was varied to determine its relationship with vapor pressure and thus with the boiling point of the substance, concluding that the internal pressure and boiling point of a volatile liquid in a closed system are negatively proportional.

  2. Analysis of the loss of pool cooling accident in a PWR spent fuel pool with MAAP5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Xiaoli; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yapei; Tian, Wenxi; Su, Guanghui; Qiu, Suizheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A PWR spent fuel pool was modeled by using MAAP5. • Loss of pool cooling severe accident scenarios were studied. • Loss of pool cooling accidents with two mitigation measures were analyzed. - Abstract: The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident shows that it is necessary to study potential severe accidents and corresponding mitigation measures for the spent fuel pool (SFP) of a nuclear power plant (NPP). This paper presents the analysis of loss of pool cooling accident scenarios and the discussion of mitigation measures for the SFP at a pressurized water reactor (PWR) NPP with the MAAP5 code. Analysis of uncompensated loss of water due to the loss of pool cooling with different initial pool water levels of 12.2 m (designated as a reference case) and 10.7 m have been performed based on a MAAP5 input model. Scenarios of the accident such as overheating of uncovered fuel assemblies, oxidation of claddings and hydrogen generation, loss of intactness of fuel rod claddings, and release of radioactive fission products were predicted with the assumption that mitigation measures were unavailable. The results covered a broad spectrum of severe accident evaluations in the SFP. Furthermore, as important mitigation measures, the effects of recovering the SFP cooling system and makeup water in SFP on the accident progressions have also been investigated respectively based on the events of pool water boiling and spent fuels uncovery. Based upon the reference case, three cases with the recovery of SFP cooling system and three other cases with makeup water in SFP have been studied. The results showed that, severe accident might happen if SFP cooling system was not restored timely before the spent fuels started to become uncovered; spent fuels could be completely submerged and severe accident might be avoided if SFP makeup water system provided water with a mass flow rate larger than the average evaporation rate defined as the division of pool water mass above the

  3. New set of convective heat transfer coefficients established for pools and validated against CLARA experiments for application to corium pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michel, B., E-mail: benedicte.michel@irsn.fr

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • A new set of 2D convective heat transfer correlations is proposed. • It takes into account different horizontal and lateral superficial velocities. • It is based on previously established correlations. • It is validated against recent CLARA experiments. • It has to be implemented in a 0D MCCI (molten core concrete interaction) code. - Abstract: During an hypothetical Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) or Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) severe accident with core meltdown and vessel failure, corium would fall directly on the concrete reactor pit basemat if no water is present. The high temperature of the corium pool maintained by the residual power would lead to the erosion of the concrete walls and basemat of this reactor pit. The thermal decomposition of concrete will lead to the release of a significant amount of gases that will modify the corium pool thermal hydraulics. In particular, it will affect heat transfers between the corium pool and the concrete which determine the reactor pit ablation kinetics. A new set of convective heat transfer coefficients in a pool with different lateral and horizontal superficial gas velocities is modeled and validated against the recent CLARA experimental program. 155 tests of this program, in two size configurations and a high range of investigated viscosity, have been used to validate the model. Then, a method to define different lateral and horizontal superficial gas velocities in a 0D code is proposed together with a discussion about the possible viscosity in the reactor case when the pool is semi-solid. This model is going to be implemented in the 0D ASTEC/MEDICIS code in order to determine the impact of the convective heat transfer in the concrete ablation by corium.

  4. PSI-BOIL, a building block towards the multi-scale modeling of flow boiling phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niceno, Bojan; Andreani, Michele; Prasser, Horst-Michael

    2008-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In these work we report the current status of the Swiss project Multi-scale Modeling Analysis (MSMA), jointly financed by PSI and Swissnuclear. The project aims at addressing the multi-scale (down to nano-scale) modelling of convective boiling phenomena, and the development of physically-based closure laws for the physical scales appropriate to the problem considered, to be used within Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes. The final goal is to construct a new computational tool, called Parallel Simulator of Boiling phenomena (PSI-BOIL) for the direct simulation of processes all the way down to the small-scales of interest and an improved CFD code for the mechanistic prediction of two-phase flow and heat transfer in the fuel rod bundle of a nuclear reactor. An improved understanding of the physics of boiling will be gained from the theoretical work as well as from novel small- and medium scale experiments targeted to assist the development of closure laws. PSI-BOIL is a computer program designed for efficient simulation of turbulent fluid flow and heat transfer phenomena in simple geometries. Turbulence is simulated directly (DNS) and its efficiency plays a vital role in a successful simulation. Having high performance as one of the main prerequisites, PSIBOIL is tailored in such a way to be as efficient a tool as possible, relying on well-established numerical techniques and sacrificing all the features which are not essential for the success of this project and which might slow down the solution procedure. The governing equations are discretized in space with orthogonal staggered finite volume method. Time discretization is performed with projection method, the most obvious a the most widely used choice for DNS. Systems of linearized equation, stemming from the discretization of governing equations, are solved with the Additive Correction Multigrid (ACM). methods. Two distinguished features of PSI-BOIL are the possibility to

  5. An investigation of decreasing reactor coolant inventory as a mechanism to reduce power during a boiling water reactor anticipated transient without scram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, C.E.; Chexal, V.K.; Gose, G.C.; Hentzen, R.D.; Layman, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    Under certain anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) sequences for a boiling water reactor, it would be desirable to reduce system power, particularly where the primary system has been isolated by closure of all main steam isolation valves and is discharging steam through its safety/relief valve system to the suppression pool. Reducing reactor power increases the time available to shut down the reactor by minimizing the heat dumped to the suppression pool and by helping to keep the suppression pool temperature within limits. Under proposed emergency procedure guidelines for the ATWS event, the reactor water level would be lowered to reduce reactor power. The analyses provide an assessment of the power level that would be attained, assuming the reactor operators were to reduce the the downcomer level down to the top of the active fuel

  6. Characteristic of onset of nucleate boiling in natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tao; Yang Ruichang; Liu Ruolei

    2006-01-01

    Two kinds of thermodynamics quality at onset of nucleate boiling with sub-cooled boiling were calculated for force circulation by using Bergles and Rohesenow method or Davis and Anderson method, and natural circulation by using Tsinghua University project group's empirical equations suggested in our natural circulation experiment at same condition. The characteristic of onset of nucleate boiling with subcooled boiling in natural circulation were pointed out. The research result indicates that the thermodynamics quality at onset of nucleate boiling with subcooled boiling in natural circulation is more sensitive for heat and inlet temperature and system pressure. Producing of onset of nucleate boiling with subcooled boiling is early at same condition. The research result also indicates more from microcosmic angle of statistical physics that the phenomena are caused by the effects of characteristic of dissipative structure of natural circulation in self organization, fluctuation force and momentum force of dynamics on thermodynamics equilibrium. these can lay good basis for study and application on sub-cooled boiling in natural circulation in future. (authors)

  7. Modelling of subcooled boiling and DNB-type boiling crisis in forced convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricard, Patrick

    1995-01-01

    This research thesis aims at being a contribution to the modelling of two phenomena occurring during a forced convection: the axial evolution of the vacuum rate, and the boiling crisis. Thus, the first part of this thesis addresses the prediction of the vacuum rate, and reports the development of a modelling of under-saturated convection in forced convection. The author reports the development and assessment of two-fluid one-dimensional model, the development of a finer analysis based on an averaging of local equations of right cross-sections in different areas. The second part of this thesis addresses the prediction of initiation of a boiling crisis. The author presents generalities and motivations for this study, reports a bibliographical study and a detailed analysis of mechanistic models present in this literature. A mechanism of boiling crisis is retained, and then further developed in a numerical modelling which is used to assess some underlying hypotheses [fr

  8. Steady state thermal hydraulic analysis of a boiling water reactor core, for various power distributions, using computer code THABNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venkat Raj, V.; Saha, D.

    1976-01-01

    The core of a boiling water reactor may see different power distributions during its operational life. How some of the typical power distributions affect some of the thermal hydraulic parameters such as pressure drop minimum critical heat flux ratio, void distribution etc. has been studied using computer code THABNA. The effect of an increase in the leakage flow has also been analysed. (author)

  9. Suppression of saturated nucleate boiling by forced convective flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.L.; Davis, M.W.; Hertzler, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    Tube-side forced convective boiling nitrogen and oxygen and thin film shell-side forced convective boiling R-11 data demonstrate a reduction in the heat transfer coefficient associated with nucleate boiling as the two-phase friction pressure drop increases. Techniques proposed in the literature to account for nucleate boiling during forced convective boiling are discussed. The observed suppression of nucleate boiling for the tube-side data is compared against the Chen correlation. Although general agreement is exhibited, supporting the interactive heat transfer mechanism theory, better agreement is obtained by defining a bubble growth region within the thermal boundary layer. The data suggests that the size of the bubble growth region is independent of the friction drop, but is only a function of the physical properties of the boiling liquid. 15 refs

  10. Little low-power boiling never hurt anybody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, F.E.

    1985-01-01

    Failures in the shutdown heat removal system of an LMFBR might lead to flow stagnation and coolant boiling in the reactor core. At normal operating power, the onset of sodium boiling will lead to film dryout and melting of the cladding and fuel within a few seconds. On the other hand, both calculations and currently available experimental data indicate that at heat fluxes corresponding to decay heat power levels, boiling leads to improved heat removal; and it limits the temperature rise in the fuel pins. Therefore, when setting safety criteria for decay heat removal systems, there is no reason to preclude sodium boiling per se because of heat removal considerations. As an example that illustrates the beneficial impact of coolant boiling, a case involving temporary loss of feedwater and staggered pump failures in a hypothetical, 1000-MWe loop-type reactor was run in the SASSYS-1 code

  11. Detection of the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) in nuclear fuel rod simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mesquita, Amir Z.; Rezende, Hugo C.; Santos, Andre Augusto C.; Silva, Vitor Vasconcelos A.; Campolina, Daniel de Almeida M.

    2013-01-01

    In the thermal hydraulic experiments to determinate parameters of heat transfer, where fuel rod simulators are heated by electric current, the preservation of the simulators are essential when the heat flux goes to the critical point. One of the most important limits in the design of cooling water reactors is the condition in which the heat transfer coefficient by boiling in the core deteriorates itself. The departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) happens in the area of low steam quality when there is nucleus formation of bubbles. This result in a departure from nucleate boiling in which steam bubbles no longer break away from the solid surface of the channel, bubbles dominate the channel or surface, and the heat flux dramatically decreases. Vapor essentially insulates the bulk liquid from the hot surface. At this time, the small increase in the heat flux or in the inlet temperature of the cooler in the core, or the small decrease in the inlet flux of cooling, results in changes in the heat transfer mechanism. This causes increases in the surface temperature of the fuel elements causing failures at the fuel (burnout). This paper describes the experiments conducted to detection of critical heat flux in nuclear fuel element simulators carried out in the thermal-hydraulic laboratory of Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN). It is concluded that the use of displacement transducer is the most efficient technique for detecting of critical heat flux in nuclear simulators heated by electric current in open pool. (author)

  12. Detection of the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) in nuclear fuel rod simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Amir Z.; Rezende, Hugo C.; Santos, Andre Augusto C.; Silva, Vitor Vasconcelos A.; Campolina, Daniel de Almeida M., E-mail: amir@cdtn.br, E-mail: hcr@cdtn.br, E-mail: aacs@cdtn.br, E-mail: vitors@cdtn.br, E-mail: campolina@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Servico de Tecnologia de Reatores; Palma, Daniel Artur P., E-mail: dapalma@cnen.gov.br [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In the thermal hydraulic experiments to determinate parameters of heat transfer, where fuel rod simulators are heated by electric current, the preservation of the simulators are essential when the heat flux goes to the critical point. One of the most important limits in the design of cooling water reactors is the condition in which the heat transfer coefficient by boiling in the core deteriorates itself. The departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) happens in the area of low steam quality when there is nucleus formation of bubbles. This result in a departure from nucleate boiling in which steam bubbles no longer break away from the solid surface of the channel, bubbles dominate the channel or surface, and the heat flux dramatically decreases. Vapor essentially insulates the bulk liquid from the hot surface. At this time, the small increase in the heat flux or in the inlet temperature of the cooler in the core, or the small decrease in the inlet flux of cooling, results in changes in the heat transfer mechanism. This causes increases in the surface temperature of the fuel elements causing failures at the fuel (burnout). This paper describes the experiments conducted to detection of critical heat flux in nuclear fuel element simulators carried out in the thermal-hydraulic laboratory of Nuclear Technology Development Centre (CDTN). It is concluded that the use of displacement transducer is the most efficient technique for detecting of critical heat flux in nuclear simulators heated by electric current in open pool. (author)

  13. Gamma heated subassembly for sodium boiling experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artus, S.C.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a system to boil sodium in an LMFBR is examined. This design should be regarded as a first step in a series of boiling experiments. The reactor chosen for the design of the boiling apparatus is the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), located at the National Reactor Testing Station in Idaho. Criteria broadly classified as design objectives and design requirements are discussed

  14. Gamma heated subassembly for sodium boiling experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artus, S.C.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a system to boil sodium in an LMFBR is examined. This design should be regarded as a first step in a series of boiling experiments. The reactor chosen for the design of the boiling apparatus is the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), located at the National Reactor Testing Station in Idaho. Criteria broadly classified as design objectives and design requirements are discussed.

  15. Detection of boiling by Piety's on-line PSD-pattern recognition algorithm applied to neutron noise signals in the SAPHIR reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spiekerman, G.

    1988-09-01

    A partial blockage of the cooling channels of a fuel element in a swimming pool reactor could lead to vapour generation and to burn-out. To detect such anomalies, a pattern recognition algorithm based on power spectra density (PSD) proposed by Piety was further developed and implemented on a PDP 11/23 for on-line applications. This algorithm identifies anomalies by measuring the PSD on the process signal and comparing them with a standard baseline previously formed. Up to 8 decision discriminants help to recognize spectral changes due to anomalies. In our application, to detect boiling as quickly as possible with sufficient sensitivity, Piety's algorithm was modified using overlapped Fast-Fourier-Transform-Processing and the averaging of the PSDs over a large sample of preceding instantaneous PSDs. This processing allows high sensitivity in detecting weak disturbances without reducing response time. The algorithm was tested with simulation-of-boiling experiments where nitrogen in a cooling channel of a mock-up of a fuel element was injected. Void fractions higher than 30 % in the channel can be detected. In the case of boiling, it is believed that this limit is lower because collapsing bubbles could give rise to stronger fluctuations. The algorithm was also tested with a boiling experiment where the reactor coolant flow was actually reduced. The results showed that the discriminant D5 of Piety's algorithm based on neutron noise obtained from the existing neutron chambers of the reactor control system could sensitively recognize boiling. The detection time amounts to 7-30 s depending on the strength of the disturbances. Other events, which arise during a normal reactor run like scrams, removal of isotope elements without scramming or control rod movements and which could lead to false alarms, can be distinguished from boiling. 49 refs., 104 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Prediction of flow boiling curves based on artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Junmei; Xi'an Jiaotong Univ., Xi'an; Su Guanghui

    2007-01-01

    The effects of the main system parameters on flow boiling curves were analyzed by using an artificial neural network (ANN) based on the database selected from the 1960s. The input parameters of the ANN are system pressure, mass flow rate, inlet subcooling, wall superheat and steady/transition boiling, and the output parameter is heat flux. The results obtained by the ANN show that the heat flux increases with increasing inlet sub cooling for all heat transfer modes. Mass flow rate has no significant effects on nucleate boiling curves. The transition boiling and film boiling heat fluxes will increase with an increase of mass flow rate. The pressure plays a predominant role and improves heat transfer in whole boiling regions except film boiling. There are slight differences between the steady and the transient boiling curves in all boiling regions except the nucleate one. (authors)

  17. Liquid--liquid surface impaction. Annual progress report, July 1, 1975--June 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankoff, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    The critical Weber number for coalescence, when a droplet of Freon-22 or pentane falls on a pool of hot (80-180 0 C) silicone oil or glycerine, has been determined as a function of pool temperature and droplet size. Using this information, a splash theory for local propagation of a vapor explosion has been formulated, which agrees with intermediate-scale peak pressure data of Henry, et al. A hydrodynamic theory has been constructed for the minimum thickness of the gas film in the approach phase. The Board-Hall theory for fuel-coolant detonation waves has been modified to take into account the presence of a swarm of drops, rather than a single drop. On this basis the existence of a steady-state Chapman-Jouguet wave in either the tin-water or UO 2 -sodium systems seems highly unlikely. Scoping experiments on Leidenfrost boiling of droplets and pool boiling from liquid metal surfaces have been initiated

  18. Procedures and instrumentation for sodium boiling experiments in EBR-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, R.D.

    1976-01-01

    The development of instrumentation capable of detecting localized coolant boiling in a liquid metal cooled breeder reactor (LMFBR) has a high priority in fast reactor safety. The detection must be rapid enough to allow corrective action to be taken before significant damage occurs to the core. To develop and test a method of boiling detection, it is desirable to produce boiling in a reactor and thereby introduce a condition in the reactor the original design concepts were chosen to preclude. The proposed boiling experiments are designed to safely produce boiling in the subassembly of a fast reactor and provide the information to develop boiling detection instrumentation without core damage or safety compromise. The experiment consists of the operation of two separate subassemblies, first, a gamma heated boiling subassembly which produces non-typical but highly conservative boiling and then a fission heated subassembly which simulates a prototypical boiling event. The two boiling subassemblies are designed to operate in the instrumentation subassembly test facility (INSAT) of Experiment Breeder Reactor II

  19. Flow boiling in microgap channels experiment, visualization and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, Tamanna; Jin, Li-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Flow Boiling in Microgap Channels: Experiment, Visualization and Analysis presents an up-to-date summary of the details of the confined to unconfined flow boiling transition criteria, flow boiling heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics, instability characteristics, two phase flow pattern and flow regime map and the parametric study of microgap dimension. Advantages of flow boiling in microgaps over microchannels are also highlighted. The objective of this Brief is to obtain a better fundamental understanding of the flow boiling processes, compare the performance between microgap and c

  20. Preliminary results from film boiling destabilisation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naylor, P.

    1984-05-01

    A series of experiments to investigate the triggered destabilisation of film boiling has been undertaken. Film boiling was established on a polished brass rod immersed in water and the effects of various triggers were investigated. Preliminary results are presented and two thresholds have been observed: an impulse threshold below which triggered destabilisation will not occur and a thermal threshold above which film boiling will re-establish following triggered destabilisation. (author)

  1. POOL WATER TREATMENT AND COOLING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, V.

    2000-01-01

    The Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System is located in the Waste Handling Building (WHB), and is comprised of various process subsystems designed to support waste handling operations. This system maintains the pool water temperature within an acceptable range, maintains water quality standards that support remote underwater operations and prevent corrosion, detects leakage from the pool liner, provides the capability to remove debris from the pool, controls the pool water level, and helps limit radiological exposure to personnel. The pool structure and liner, pool lighting, and the fuel staging racks in the pool are not within the scope of the Pool Water Treatment and Cooling System. Pool water temperature control is accomplished by circulating the pool water through heat exchangers. Adequate circulation and mixing of the pool water is provided to prevent localized thermal hotspots in the pool. Treatment of the pool water is accomplished by a water treatment system that circulates the pool water through filters, and ion exchange units. These water treatment units remove radioactive and non-radioactive particulate and dissolved solids from the water, thereby providing the water clarity needed to conduct waste handling operations. The system also controls pool water chemistry to prevent advanced corrosion of the pool liner, pool components, and fuel assemblies. Removal of radioactivity from the pool water contributes to the project ALARA (as low as is reasonably achievable) goals. A leak detection system is provided to detect and alarm leaks through the pool liner. The pool level control system monitors the water level to ensure that the minimum water level required for adequate radiological shielding is maintained. Through interface with a demineralized water system, adequate makeup is provided to compensate for loss of water inventory through evaporation and waste handling operations. Interface with the Site Radiological Monitoring System provides continuous

  2. Investigation of Body Force Effects on Flow Boiling Critical Heat Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Mudawar, Issam; Hasan, Mohammad M.

    2002-01-01

    The bubble coalescence and interfacial instabilities that are important to modeling critical heat flux (CHF) in reduced-gravity systems can be sensitive to even minute body forces. Understanding these complex phenomena is vital to the design and safe implementation of two-phase thermal management loops proposed for space and planetary-based thermal systems. While reduced gravity conditions cannot be accurately simulated in 1g ground-based experiments, such experiments can help isolate the effects of the various forces (body force, surface tension force and inertia) which influence flow boiling CHF. In this project, the effects of the component of body force perpendicular to a heated wall were examined by conducting 1g flow boiling experiments at different orientations. FC-72 liquid was boiled along one wall of a transparent rectangular flow channel that permitted photographic study of the vapor-liquid interface at conditions approaching CHF. High-speed video imaging was employed to capture dominant CHF mechanisms. Six different CHF regimes were identified: Wavy Vapor Layer, Pool Boiling, Stratification, Vapor Counterflow, Vapor Stagnation, and Separated Concurrent Vapor Flow. CHF showed great sensitivity to orientation for flow velocities below 0.2 m/s, where very small CHF values where measured, especially with downflow and downward-facing heated wall orientations. High flow velocities dampened the effects of orientation considerably. Figure I shows representative images for the different CHF regimes. The Wavy Vapor Layer regime was dominant for all high velocities and most orientations, while all other regimes were encountered at low velocities, in the downflow and/or downward-facing heated wall orientations. The Interfacial Lift-off model was modified to predict the effects of orientation on CHF for the dominant Wavy Vapor Layer regime. The photographic study captured a fairly continuous wavy vapor layer travelling along the heated wall while permitting liquid

  3. Boiling of subcooled water in forced convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricque, R.; Siboul, R.

    1970-01-01

    As a part of a research about water cooled high magnetic field coils, an experimental study of heat transfer and pressure drop is made with the following conditions: local boiling in tubes of small diameters (2 and 4 mm), high heat fluxes (about 1000 W/cm 2 ), high coolant velocities (up to 25 meters/s), low outlet absolute pressures (below a few atmospheres). Wall temperatures are determined with a good accuracy, because very thin tubes are used and heat losses are prevented. Two regimes of boiling are observed: the establishment regime and the established boiling regime and the inception of each regime is correlated. Important delays on boiling inception are also observed. The pressure drop is measured; provided the axial temperature distribution of the fluid and the axial distributions of the wall temperatures, in other words the axial distribution of the heat transfer coefficients under boiling and non boiling conditions, at the same heat flux or the same wall temperatures, are taken in account, then total pressure drop can be correlated, but probably under certain limits of void fraction only. Using the same parameters, it seems possible to correlate the experimental values on critical heat flux obtained previously, which show very important effect of length and hydraulic diameter of the test sections. (authors) [fr

  4. Post-accident cooling capacity analysis of the AP1000 passive spent fuel pool cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Xia

    2013-01-01

    The passive design is used in AP1000 spent fuel pool cooling system. The decay heat of the spent fuel is removed by heating-boiling method, and makeup water is provided passively and continuously to ensure the safety of the spent fuel. Based on the analysis of the post-accident cooling capacity of the spent fuel cooling system, it is found that post-accident first 72-hour cooling under normal refueling condition and emergency full-core offload condition can be maintained by passive makeup from safety water source; 56 hours have to be waited under full core refueling condition to ensure the safety of the core and the spent fuel pool. Long-term cooling could be conducted through reserved safety interface. Makeup measure is available after accident and limited operation is needed. Makeup under control could maintain the spent fuel at sub-critical condition. Compared with traditional spent fuel pool cooling system design, the AP1000 design respond more effectively to LOCA accidents. (authors)

  5. Surface wettability effects on critical heat flux of boiling heat transfer using nanoparticle coatings

    KAUST Repository

    Hsu, Chin-Chi

    2012-06-01

    This study investigates the effects of surface wettability on pool boiling heat transfer. Nano-silica particle coatings were used to vary the wettability of the copper surface from superhydrophilic to superhydrophobic by modifying surface topography and chemistry. Experimental results show that critical heat flux (CHF) values are higher in the hydrophilic region. Conversely, CHF values are lower in the hydrophobic region. The experimental CHF data of the modified surface do not fit the classical models. Therefore, this study proposes a simple model to build the nexus between the surface wettability and the growth of bubbles on the heating surface. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Thermal-hydraulic performance of convective boiling jet array impingement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, R; De Brún, C; Kempers, R; Lupoi, R; Robinson, A J

    2016-01-01

    Jet impingement boiling is investigated with regard to heat transfer and pressure drop performance using a novel laser sintered 3D printed jet impingement manifold design. Water was the working fluid at atmospheric pressure with inlet subcooling of 7 o C. The convective boiling performance of the impinging jet system was investigated for a flat copper target surface for 2700≤Re≤5400. The results indicate that the heat transfer performance of the impinging jet is independent of Reynolds number for fully developed boiling. Also, the investigation of nozzle to plate spacing shows that low spacing delays the onset of nucleate boiling causing a superheat overshoot that is not observed with larger gaps. However, no sensitivity to the gap spacing was measured once boiling was fully developed. The assessment of the pressure drop performance showed that the design effectively transfers heat with low pumping power requirements. In particular, owing to the insensitivity of the heat transfer to flow rate during fully developed boiling, the coefficient of performance of jet impingement boiling in the fully developed boiling regime deteriorates with increased flow rate due to the increase in pumping power flux. (paper)

  7. Encyclopedia of two-phase heat transfer and flow IV modeling methodologies, boiling of CO₂, and micro-two-phase cooling

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    Set IV is a new addition to the previous Sets I, II and III. It contains 23 invited chapters from international specialists on the topics of numerical modeling of pulsating heat pipes and of slug flows with evaporation; lattice Boltzmann modeling of pool boiling; fundamentals of boiling in microchannels and microfin tubes, CO2 and nanofluids; testing and modeling of micro-two-phase cooling systems for electronics; and various special topics (flow separation in microfluidics, two-phase sensors, wetting of anisotropic surfaces, ultra-compact heat exchangers, etc.). The invited authors are leading university researchers and well-known engineers from leading corporate research laboratories (ABB, IBM, Nokia Bell Labs). Numerous "must read" chapters are also included here for the two-phase community. Set IV constitutes a "must have" engineering and research reference together with previous Sets I, II and III for thermal engineering researchers and practitioners.

  8. Return to nucleate boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumway, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a collection of TMIN (temperature of return to nucleate boiling) correlations, evaluates them under several conditions, and compares them with a wide range of data. Purpose is to obtain the best one for use in a water reactor safety computer simulator known as TRAC-B. Return to nucleate boiling can occur in a reactor accident at either high or low pressure and flow rates. Most of the correlations yield unrealistic results under some conditions. A new correlation is proposed which overcomes many of the deficiencies

  9. Design and optimization of a novel organic Rankine cycle with improved boiling process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jesper Graa; Larsen, U.; Knudsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    to improve the boiling process. Optimizations are carried out for eight hydrocarbon mixtures for hot fluid inlet temperatures at 120 °C and 90 °C, using a genetic algorithm to determine the cycle conditions for which the net power output is maximized. The most promising mixture is an isobutane....../pentane mixture which, for the 90 °C hot fluid inlet temperature case, achieves a 14.5% higher net power output than an optimized organic Rankine cycle using the same mixture. Two parameter studies suggest that optimum conditions for the organic split-cycle are when the temperature profile allows the minimum...

  10. Signal processing techniques for sodium boiling noise detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-05-01

    At the Specialists' Meeting on Sodium Boiling Detection organized by the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) of the International Atomic Energy Agency at Chester in the United Kingdom in 1981 various methods of detecting sodium boiling were reported. But, it was not possible to make a comparative assessment of these methods because the signal condition in each experiment was different from others. That is why participants of this meeting recommended that a benchmark test should be carried out in order to evaluate and compare signal processing methods for boiling detection. Organization of the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on signal processing techniques for sodium boiling noise detection was also recommended at the 16th meeting of the IWGFR. The CRP on Signal Processing Techniques for Sodium Boiling Noise Detection was set up in 1984. Eight laboratories from six countries have agreed to participate in this CRP. The overall objective of the programme was the development of reliable on-line signal processing techniques which could be used for the detection of sodium boiling in an LMFBR core. During the first stage of the programme a number of existing processing techniques used by different countries have been compared and evaluated. In the course of further work, an algorithm for implementation of this sodium boiling detection system in the nuclear reactor will be developed. It was also considered that the acoustic signal processing techniques developed for boiling detection could well make a useful contribution to other acoustic applications in the reactor. This publication consists of two parts. Part I is the final report of the co-ordinated research programme on signal processing techniques for sodium boiling noise detection. Part II contains two introductory papers and 20 papers presented at four research co-ordination meetings since 1985. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these 22 papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  11. Advanced Wall Boiling Model with Wide Range Applicability for the Subcooled Boiling Flow and its Application into the CFD Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, B. J.; Song, C. H.; Splawski, A.; Lo, S.

    2010-01-01

    Subcooled boiling is one of the crucial phenomena for the design, operation and safety analysis of a nuclear power plant. It occurs due to the thermally nonequilibrium state in the two-phase heat transfer system. Many complicated phenomena such as a bubble generation, a bubble departure, a bubble growth, and a bubble condensation are created by this thermally nonequilibrium condition in the subcooled boiling flow. However, it has been revealed that most of the existing best estimate safety analysis codes have a weakness in the prediction of the subcooled boiling phenomena in which multi-dimensional flow behavior is dominant. In recent years, many investigators are trying to apply CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) codes for an accurate prediction of the subcooled boiling flow. In the CFD codes, evaporation heat flux from heated wall is one of the key parameters to be modeled for an accurate prediction of the subcooled boiling flow. The evaporate heat flux for the CFD codes is expressed typically as follows, q' e = πD 3 d /6 ρ g h fg fN' where, D d , f ,N' are bubble departure size, bubble departure frequency and active nucleation site density, respectively. In the most of the commercial CFD codes, Tolubinsky bubble departure size model, Kurul and Podowski active nucleation site density model and Ceumem-Lindenstjerna bubble departure frequency model are adopted as a basic wall boiling model. However, these models do not consider their dependency on the flow, pressure and fluid type. In this paper, an advanced wall boiling model was proposed in order to improve subcooled boiling model for the CFD codes

  12. 1995 national heat transfer conference: Proceedings. Volume 12: Falling films; Fundamentals of subcooled flow boiling; Compact heat exchanger technology for the process industry; HTD-Volume 314

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sernas, V.; Boyd, R.D.; Jensen, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    The papers in the first section cover falling films and heat transfer. Papers in the second section address issues associated with heat exchangers, such as: plate-and-frame heat exchanger technology; thermal design issues; condensation; and single-phase flows. The papers in the third section deal with studies related to: the turbulent velocity field in a vertical annulus; the effects of curvature and a dissolved noncondensable gas on nucleate boiling heat transfer; the effects of flow obstruction on the onset of a Ledinegg-type flow instability; pool boiling from a large-diameter tube; and two-dimensional wall temperature distributions and convection in a single-sided heated vertical tube. Separate abstracts were prepared for most papers in this volume

  13. Natural Circulation with Boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathisen, R P

    1967-09-15

    A number of parameters with dominant influence on the power level at hydrodynamic instability in natural circulation, two-phase flow, have been studied experimentally. The geometrical dependent quantities were: the system driving head, the boiling channel and riser dimensions, the single-phase as well as the two phase flow restrictions. The parameters influencing the liquid properties were the system pressure and the test section inlet subcooling. The threshold of instability was determined by plotting the noise characteristics in the mass flow records against power. The flow responses to artificially obtained power disturbances at instability conditions were also measured in order to study the nature of hydrodynamic instability. The results presented give a review over relatively wide ranges of the main parameters, mainly concerning the coolant performance in both single and parallel boiling channel flow. With regard to the power limits the experimental results verified that the single boiling channel performance was intimately related to that of the parallel channels. In the latter case the additional inter-channel factors with attenuating effects were studied. Some optimum values of the parameters were observed.

  14. Research on boiling liquid expanding vapour explosions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDevitt, C.A.; Steward, F.R.; Venart, J.E.S.

    A boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE) is due to rapid boiling and expansion, with no ignition or chemical reaction involved. Research is being conducted to examine such questions as under what conditions tanks and their contents undergo BLEVE, what are the characteristics of tanks affected by BLEVE, and what alterations in tank design can be made to minimize the likelihood of BLEVEs. Experiments have been done with both propane and freon, using commercially available one-liter propane cylinders. Outdoor tests were conducted and designed to have the tank fail at a particular set of internal conditions. High speed photography was used to record the explosion, and computerized monitoring equipment to record temperature and pressure data. Tests were run to attempt to determine the relationship between temperature and BLEVEs, and to test the possibility that the occurrence of a BLEVE depends on the amount of vapor that could be produced when the tank was ruptured. Discussion is made of the role of pressure waves and rarefaction waves in the explosion. It is concluded that the superheat temperature limit, theorized as the minimum temperature below which no BLEVE can occur, cannot be used to predict BLEVEs. It has been shown that BLEVEs can occur below this temperature. There appears to be a relationship between liquid temperature, liquid volume, and the energy required to drive the BLEVE. Fireballs may occur after a BLEVE of flammable material, but are not part of the tank destruction. Rupture location (vapor vs liquid space) appears to have no effect on whether a container will undergo a BLEVE. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. On the heat transfer in the pool boiling at tightly finned steel tubes; Zum Waermeuebergang beim Behaeltersieden an eng berippten Stahlrohren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bujok, Patrick; Wang, Yabai; Luke, Andrea [Kassel Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Technische Thermodynamik

    2012-07-01

    from the laboratory scale (single tube, mini-bundle) to the technical scales. On this occasion, the authors investigate the impact of tightly finned steel tubes with trapezoidal cross-sectional ribs on the heat transfer during the boiling in case of free convection over a wide range of pressures from the beginning up to the fully developed nucleate boiling. Hydrocarbons such as n-pentane and i-octane as a natural refrigerant in the process industry are used as a boiling fluid. The results of the investigations at an electrically heated and horizontally placed test tube consisting of structural steel are compared with correlations from the literature. First results from a mixture of both hydrocarbons show that the heat transfer deteriorates if only a little amount of the heavier boiling component is added.

  16. Experimental study on transient boiling heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visentini, R.

    2012-01-01

    Boiling phenomena can be found in the everyday life, thus a lot of studies are devoted to them, especially in steady state conditions. Transient boiling is less known but still interesting as it is involved in the nuclear safety prevention. In this context, the present work was supported by the French Institute of Nuclear Safety (IRSN). In fact, the IRSN wanted to clarify what happens during a Reactivity-initiated Accident (RIA). This accident occurs when the bars that control the nuclear reactions break down and a high power peak is passed from the nuclear fuel bar to the surrounding fluid. The temperature of the nuclear fuel bar wall increases and the fluid vaporises instantaneously. Previous studies on a fuel bar or on a metal tube heated by Joule effect were done in the past in order to understand the rapid boiling phenomena during a RIA. However, the measurements were not really accurate because the measurement techniques were not able to follow rapid phenomena. The main goal of this work was to create an experimental facility able to simulate the RIA boiling conditions but at small scale in order to better understand the boiling characteristics when the heated-wall temperature increases rapidly. Moreover, the experimental set-up was meant to be able to produce less-rapid transients as well, in order to give information on transient boiling in general. The facility was built at the Fluid-Mechanics Institute of Toulouse. The core consists of a metal half-cylinder heated by Joule effect, placed in a half-annulus section. The inner half cylinder is made of a 50 microns thick stainless steel foil. Its diameter is 8 mm, and its length 200 mm. The outer part is a 34 mm internal diameter glass half cylinder. The semi-annular section is filled with a coolant, named HFE7000. The configuration allows to work in similarity conditions. The heated part can be place inside a loop in order to study the flow effect. The fluid temperature influence is taken into account as

  17. Study on onset of nucleate boiling and net vapor generation point in subcooled flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Hiroyasu; Wada, Noriyoshi; Koizumi, Yasuo

    2002-01-01

    The onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) and the point of net vapor generation on subcooled flow boiling, focusing on liquid subcooling and liquid velocity were investigated experimentally and analytically. Experiments were conducted using a copper thin-film (35μm) and subcooled water in a range of the liquid velocity from 0.27 to 4.6 m/s at 0.10MPa. The liquid subcoolings were 20, 30 and 40K, respectively. Temperatures at the onset of nucleate boiling obtained in the experiments increased with the liquid subcoolings and the liquid velocities. The increases in the temperature of ONB were represented with the classical stability theory of preexisting nuclei. The measured results of the net vapor generation agreed well with the results of correlation by Saha and Zuber in the range of the present experiments. (J.P.N.)

  18. Minimum DNBR Prediction Using Artificial Intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Su; Kim, Ju Hyun; Na, Man Gyun [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The minimum DNBR (MDNBR) for prevention of the boiling crisis and the fuel clad melting is very important factor that should be consistently monitored in safety aspects. Artificial intelligence methods have been extensively and successfully applied to nonlinear function approximation such as the problem in question for predicting DNBR values. In this paper, support vector regression (SVR) model and fuzzy neural network (FNN) model are developed to predict the MDNBR using a number of measured signals from the reactor coolant system. Also, two models are trained using a training data set and verified against test data set, which does not include training data. The proposed MDNBR estimation algorithms were verified by using nuclear and thermal data acquired from many numerical simulations of the Yonggwang Nuclear Power Plant Unit 3 (YGN-3)

  19. Signal processing for boiling noise detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledwidge, T.J.; Black, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The present paper deals with investigations of acoustic signals from a boiling experiment performed on the KNS I loop at KfK Karlsruhe. Signals have been analysed in frequency as well as in time domain. Signal characteristics successfully used to detect the boiling process have been found in time domain. (author). 6 refs, figs

  20. Association between clean delivery kit use, clean delivery practices, and neonatal survival: pooled analysis of data from three sites in South Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Seward

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis accounts for up to 15% of an estimated 3.3 million annual neonatal deaths globally. We used data collected from the control arms of three previously conducted cluster-randomised controlled trials in rural Bangladesh, India, and Nepal to examine the association between clean delivery kit use or clean delivery practices and neonatal mortality among home births.Hierarchical, logistic regression models were used to explore the association between neonatal mortality and clean delivery kit use or clean delivery practices in 19,754 home births, controlling for confounders common to all study sites. We tested the association between kit use and neonatal mortality using a pooled dataset from all three sites and separately for each site. We then examined the association between individual clean delivery practices addressed in the contents of the kit (boiled blade and thread, plastic sheet, gloves, hand washing, and appropriate cord care and neonatal mortality. Finally, we examined the combined association between mortality and four specific clean delivery practices (boiled blade and thread, hand washing, and plastic sheet. Using the pooled dataset, we found that kit use was associated with a relative reduction in neonatal mortality (adjusted odds ratio 0.52, 95% CI 0.39-0.68. While use of a clean delivery kit was not always accompanied by clean delivery practices, using a plastic sheet during delivery, a boiled blade to cut the cord, a boiled thread to tie the cord, and antiseptic to clean the umbilicus were each significantly associated with relative reductions in mortality, independently of kit use. Each additional clean delivery practice used was associated with a 16% relative reduction in neonatal mortality (odds ratio 0.84, 95% CI 0.77-0.92.The appropriate use of a clean delivery kit or clean delivery practices is associated with relative reductions in neonatal mortality among home births in underserved, rural populations.

  1. Coupled thermo-mechanical creep analysis for boiling water reactor pressure vessel lower head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva, Walter; Tran, Chi-Thanh; Kudinov, Pavel

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We consider a severe accident in a BWR with melt pool formation in the lower head. ► We study the influence of pool depth on vessel failure mode with creep analysis. ► There are two modes of failure; ballooning of vessel bottom and a localized creep. ► External vessel cooling can suppress creep and subsequently prevent vessel failure. - Abstract: In this paper we consider a hypothetical severe accident in a Nordic-type boiling water reactor (BWR) at the stage of relocation of molten core materials to the lower head and subsequent debris bed and then melt pool formation. Nordic BWRs rely on reactor cavity flooding as a means for ex-vessel melt coolability and ultimate termination of the accident progression. However, different modes of vessel failure may result in different regimes of melt release from the vessel, which determine initial conditions for melt coolant interaction and eventually coolability of the debris bed. The goal of this study is to define if retention of decay-heated melt inside the reactor pressure vessel is possible and investigate modes of the vessel wall failure otherwise. The mode of failure is contingent upon the ultimate mechanical strength of the vessel structures under given mechanical and thermal loads and applied cooling measures. The influence of pool depth and respective transient thermal loads on the reactor vessel failure mode is studied with coupled thermo-mechanical creep analysis. Efficacy of control rod guide tube (CRGT) cooling and external vessel wall cooling as potential severe accident management measures is investigated. First, only CRGT cooling is considered in simulations revealing two different modes of vessel failure: (i) a ‘ballooning’ of the vessel bottom and (ii) a ‘localized creep’ concentrated within the vicinity of the top surface of the melt pool. Second, possibility of in-vessel retention with CRGT and external vessel cooling is investigated. We found that the external vessel

  2. Computational study of the mixed cooling effects on the in-vessel retention of a molten pool in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Seok; Sohn, Chang Hyun; Ahn, Kwang Il

    2004-01-01

    The retention of a molten pool vessel cooled by internal vessel reflooding and/or external vessel reactor cavity flooding has been considered as one of severe accident management strategies. The present numerical study investigates the effect of both internal and external vessel mixed cooling on an internally heated molten pool. The molten pool is confined in a hemispherical vessel with reference to the thermal behavior of the vessel wall. In this study, our numerical model used a scaled-down reactor vessel of a KSNP (Korea Standard Nuclear Power) reactor design of 1000 MWe (a pressurized water reactor with a large and dry containment). Well-known temperature-dependent boiling heat transfer curves are applied to the internal and external vessel cooling boundaries. Radiative heat transfer has been considered in the case of dry internal vessel boundary condition. Computational results show that the external cooling vessel boundary conditions have better effectiveness than internal vessel cooling in the retention of the melt pool vessel failure

  3. CO{sub 2} flooding performance prediction for Alberta oil pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, J.C. [Adams Pearson Associates Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Bachu, S. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    An advanced technical screening program was used to successfully screen and rank a very large number of Alberta oil pools for enhanced oil recovery using carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flooding. This paper is a continuation paper describing the results of using the Microsoft Excel program with VBA to estimate production forecasts for several candidate pools in Alberta. A total of 6 ranking parameters were used, including API gravity of oil, residual oil saturation, ratio between reservoir pressure and minimum miscibility pressure, reservoir temperature, net pay thickness and porosity. The screening program provides a technical ranking of approximately 8,000 Alberta pools. After compilation of the Alberta oil pools, it was determined that most of the deep carbonate oil pools are excellent candidates for CO{sub 2} miscible flooding. Other Devonian carbonate pools are also ranked as having high potential for the process. An environmental benefit of CO{sub 2} miscible flooding process is that carbon sequestration has the potential to reduce anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions from reaching the atmosphere. Ongoing studies are currently addressing CO{sub 2} capture and transportation, making EOR technology viable for maintaining light oil production in western Canada. 11 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  4. Void fraction and incipient point of boiling during the subcooled nucleate flow boiling of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    Void fraction has been determined with high-speed photography for subcooled nucleate flow boiling of water. The data obtained and the data of various investigators for adiabatic flow of stream-water mixtures and saturated bulk boiling of water have yielded a correlation which covers the following conditions: geometry: vertically orientated circular tubes, rectangular channels and annuli; pressure: 2 to 15.9 MN/m 2 ; mass velocity: 388 to 3500 kg/m 2 s; void fraction: 0 to 99%; hydraulic diameter: 0.0047 to 0.0343 m; heat flux: adiabatic and 0.01 to 2.0 MW/m 2 . The accuracy of the correlation is estimated to be 12.5%. The value of the so-called distribution (or flow) parameter has been experimentally determined and found to be equal to 1 for a vertical small-diameter circular tube. The incipient point of boiling for subcooled nucleate flow boiling of water has been determined with high-speed photography. The data obtained and the data available in the literature have yielded a correlation which covers the following conditions: geometry: plate, circular tube and inner tube-heated, outer tube-heated and inner - and outer tube heated annulus; pressure: 0.15 to 15.9 MN/m 2 ; mass velocity: 470 to 17355 kg/m 2 s; hydraulic diameter: 0.00239 to 0.032 m; heat flux: 0.13 to 9.8 MW/m 2 ; subcooling: 2.6 to 108 K; material of heating surface: stainless steel and nickel. The accuracy of the correlation is estimated to be 27.5%. Maximum bubble diameters have been measured at the incipient point of boiling. These data and the data from literature have been correlated for the pressure range of 0.1 to 15.9 MN/m 2 . (author)

  5. Heat transfer phenomena related to the boiling crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groenveld, D.C.

    1981-03-01

    This report contains a state-of-the-art review of critical heat flux (CHF) and post-CHF heat transfer. Part I reviews the mechanisms controlling the boiling crisis. The observed parametric trends of the CHF in a heat flux controlled system are discussed in detail, paying special attention to parameters pertaining to nuclear fuel. The various methods of predicting the critical power are described. Part II reviews the published information on transition boiling and film boiling heat transfer under forced convective conditions. Transition boiling data were found to be available only within limited ranges of conditions. The data did not permit the derivation of a correlation; however, the parametric trends were isolated from these data. (author)

  6. Refrigeration. Heat Transfer. Part I: Evaporators and Condensers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Hans-Jørgen Høgaard

    2002-01-01

    The note gives an introduction to heat transfer with phase shift. Pool Boiling, Flow Boiling, Condensation.......The note gives an introduction to heat transfer with phase shift. Pool Boiling, Flow Boiling, Condensation....

  7. Pressure suppression pool mixing in passive advanced BWR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, Robert E.; Nguyen, Thuy T.; Shiralkar, Bharat S.; Peterson, Per F.; Greif, Ralph; Tabata, H.

    2001-01-01

    In the SBWR passive boiling water reactor, the long-term post-accident containment pressure is determined by the combination of noncondensible gas pressure and steam pressure in the wetwell gas space. The suppression pool (SP) surface temperature, which determines the vapor partial pressure, is very important to overall containment performance. Therefore, the thermal stratification of the SP due to blowdown is of primary importance. This work looks at the various phases and phenomena present during the blowdown event and identifies those that are important to thermal stratification, and the scaling necessary to model them in reduced size tests. This is important in determining which of the large body of blowdown to SP data is adequate for application to the stratification problem. The mixing by jets from the main vents is identified as the key phenomena influencing the thermal response of the suppression pool and analytical models are developed to predict the jet influence on thermal stratification. The analytical models are implemented into a system simulation code, TRACG, and used to model thermal stratification behavior in a scaled test facility. The results show good general agreement with the test data

  8. Boiling detection using signals of self-powered neutron detectors and thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozma, R.

    1989-01-01

    A specially-equipped simulated fuel assembly has been placed into the core of the 2 MW research reactor of the IRI, Delft. In this paper the recent results concerning the detection of coolant boiling in the simulated fuel assembly are introduced. Applying the theory of boiling temperature noise, different stages of boiling, i.e. one-phase flow, subcooled boiling, volume boiling, were identified in the measurements using the low-frequency noise components of the thermocouple signals. It has been ascertained that neutron noise spectra remained unchanged when subcooled boiling appeared, and that they changed reasonably only when developed volume boiling took place in the channels. At certain neutron detector positions neutron spectra did not vary at all, although developed volume boiling occurred at a distance of 3-4 cm from these neutron detectors. This phenomenon was applied in studying the field-of-view of neutron detectors

  9. Transformation and fragmentation behavior of molten aluminum in sodium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, S.; Kinoshita, I.; Ueda, N.; Sugiyama, K. I.

    2003-01-01

    In order to investigate the possibility of fragmentation of the metallic alloy fuel on liquid phase formed by metallurgical reactions, which is important in evaluating the sequence of core disruptive accidents for metallic fuel fast reactors, a series of experiments was carried out using molten aluminum and sodium under the condition that the boiling of sodium on the surface of the melt does not occur. The melting point of aluminum (933K) is roughly equivalent to the liquefaction temperature between the U-Pu-Zr alloy fuel and the SUS cladding (about 923K). The thermal fragmentation of a molten aluminum with a solid crust in the sodium pool is caused by the transient pressurization within the melt confined by the solid crust even under the condition that the instantaneous contact interface temperature between the melt and the sodium is below the boiling point of sodium. This indicates the possibility that the metallic alloy fuel on liquid phase formed by metallurgical reactions can be fragmented without occurring the boiling of sodium on the surface of the melt. The transient pressurization within the melt is considered to be caused by following two mechanisms. i) the overheating of the coolant entrapped hydrodynamically inside the aluminum melt confined by solid crust ii) the progression of solid crust inward and the squeeze of inner liquid part of the aluminum melt confined by solid crust It is found that the degree of fragmentation defined by mass median diameter has the same tendency for different dropping modes (drop or jet) with different mass and ambient Weber number of the melt in the present experimental conditions

  10. Boiling in microchannels: a review of experiment and theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, John R.

    2004-01-01

    A summary of recent research on boiling in microchannels is presented. The review addresses the topics of macroscale versus microscale heat transfer, two-phase flow regimes, flow boiling heat transfer results for microchannels, heat transfer mechanisms in microchannels and flow boiling models for microchannels. In microchannels, the most dominant flow regime appears to be the elongated bubble mode that can persist up to vapor qualities as high as 60-70% in microchannels, followed by annular flow. Flow boiling heat transfer coefficients have been shown experimentally to be dependent on heat flux and saturation pressure while only slightly dependent on mass velocity and vapor quality. Hence, these studies have concluded that nucleate boiling controls evaporation in microchannels. Instead, a recent analytical study has shown that transient evaporation of the thin liquid films surrounding elongated bubbles is the dominant heat transfer mechanism as opposed to nucleate boiling and is able to predict these trends in the experimental data. Newer experimental studies have further shown that there is in fact a significant effect of mass velocity and vapor quality on heat transfer when covering a broader range of conditions, including a sharp peak at low vapor qualities at high heat fluxes. Furthermore, it is concluded that macroscale models are not realistic for predicting flowing boiling coefficients in microchannels as the controlling mechanism is not nucleate boiling nor turbulent convection but is transient thin film evaporation (also, microchannel flows are typically laminar and not turbulent as assumed by macroscopic models). A more advanced three-zone flow boiling model for evaporation of elongated bubbles in microchannels is currently under development that so far qualitatively describes all these trends. Numerous fundamental aspects of two-phase flow and evaporation remain to be better understood and some of these aspects are also discussed

  11. Applications of artificial neutral network for the prediction of flow boiling curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Guanghui; Jia Dounan; Fukuda, Kenji; Morita, Koji; Pidduck, Mark; Matsumoto, Tatsuya; Akasaka, Ryo

    2002-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) was applied successfully to predict flow boiling curves. The databases used in the analysis are from the 1960's, including 1,305 data points which cover these parameter ranges: pressure P=100-1,000 kPa, mass flow rate G=40-500 kg/m 2 ·s, inlet subcooling ΔT sub =0-35degC, wall superheat ΔT w =10-300degC and heat flux Q=20-8,000 kW/m 2 . The proposed methodology allows us to achieve accurate results, thus it is suitable for the processing of the boiling curve data. The effects of the main parameters on flow boiling curves were analyzed using the ANN. The heat flux increases with increasing inlet subcooling for all heat transfer modes. Mass flow rate has no significant effects on nucleate boiling curves. The transition boiling and film boiling heat fluxes will increase with an increase in the mass flow rate. Pressure plays a predominant role and improves heat transfer in all boiling regions except the film boiling region. There are slight differences between the steady and the transient boiling curves in all boiling regions except the nucleate region. The transient boiling curve lies below the corresponding steady boiling curve. (author)

  12. Development of Flow Boiling and Condensation Experiment on the International Space Station- Normal and Low Gravity Flow Boiling Experiment Development and Test Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahra, Henry K.; Hall, Nancy R.; Hasan, Mohammad M.; Wagner, James D.; May, Rochelle L.; Mackey, Jeffrey R.; Kolacz, John S.; Butcher, Robert L.; Frankenfield, Bruce J.; Mudawar, Issam; hide

    2013-01-01

    Flow boiling and condensation have been identified as two key mechanisms for heat transport that are vital for achieving weight and volume reduction as well as performance enhancement in future space systems. Since inertia driven flows are demanding on power usage, lower flows are desirable. However, in microgravity, lower flows are dominated by forces other than inertia (like the capillary force). It is of paramount interest to investigate limits of low flows beyond which the flow is inertial enough to be gravity independent. One of the objectives of the Flow Boiling and Condensation Flight Experiment sets to investigate these limits for flow boiling and condensation. A two-phase flow loop consisting of a Flow Boiling Module and two Condensation Modules has been developed to experimentally study flow boiling condensation heat transfer in the reduced gravity environment provided by the reduced gravity platform. This effort supports the development of a flow boiling and condensation facility for the International Space Station (ISS). The closed loop test facility is designed to deliver the test fluid, FC-72 to the inlet of any one of the test modules at specified thermodynamic and flow conditions. The zero-g-aircraft tests will provide subcooled and saturated flow boiling critical heat flux and flow condensation heat transfer data over wide range of flow velocities. Additionally, these tests will verify the performance of all gravity sensitive components, such as evaporator, condenser and accumulator associated with the two-phase flow loop. We will present in this paper the breadboard development and testing results which consist of detailed performance evaluation of the heater and condenser combination in reduced and normal gravity. We will also present the design of the reduced gravity aircraft rack and the results of the ground flow boiling heat transfer testing performed with the Flow Boiling Module that is designed to investigate flow boiling heat transfer and

  13. Transition from boiling to two-phase forced convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maroti, L.

    1985-01-01

    The paper presents a method for the prediction of the boundary points of the transition region between fully developed boiling and two-phase forced convection. It is shown that the concept for the determination of the onset of fully developed boiling can also be applied for the calculation of the point where the heat transfer is effected again by the forced convection. Similarly, the criterion for the onset of nucleate boiling can be used for the definition of the point where boiling is completely suppressed and pure two-phase forced convection starts. To calculate the heat transfer coefficient for the transition region, an equation is proposed that applies the boundary points and a relaxation function ensuring the smooth transition of the heat transfer coefficient at the boundaries

  14. ENERGY SAVING AT OPERATION OF OUTDOOR SWIMMING POOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Ivin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Energy saving is a major problem in modern power engineering and various energy-consuming devices. They include outdoor swimming pools. In order to maintain them in working condition, especially in winter period, it takes significant amount of thermal energy. Task of heat loss substantial decrease in open swimming pools is considered in the article (on DNURT example. Methodology. The method of determining the mass and heat loss on the basis of criteria equations of heat and mass transfer theory is used. Findings. Calculations of the actual DNURT pool heat loss for different seasons, as for natural convection both for air forced motion above the free water surface are performed. It is shown that for the adiabatic evaporation conditions of water from the pool in winter during blow-off with wind the heat loss can be up to 2 kW/m2 on surface. To reduce these losses it is offered to cover water surface in a pool with a special material with low thermal conductivity on the basis of porous polyethylene during the time when the pool is not used for other purposes. It is shown that the implementation of these standards will reduce the actual heat loss, at least 5-6 times. Originality. The solution of important environmental and energy problem thanks to reducing heat losses by the pool in different times of a year and correspondingly lower emissions of power generating enterprises. Practical value. It is shown that the coating surface of the pool with poorly heat-conducting and easy to install coating will let, at a minimum, to reduce the actual heat loss on 5-6 times and reduce the emissions of power plants generating energy for pool heating.

  15. Greenland Tidal Pools as Hot Spots for Ecosystem Metabolism and Calcification

    KAUST Repository

    Duarte, Carlos M.; Krause-Jensen, Dorte

    2018-01-01

    The hypothesis that Arctic tidal pools provide environmental conditions suitable for calcifiers during summer, thereby potentially providing refugia for calcifiers in an acidifying Arctic Ocean, was tested on the basis of measurements conducted during two midsummers (2014 and 2016) in tidal pools colonised by a community composed of macroalgae and calcifiers in Disko Bay, Greenland (69° N). The tidal pools exhibited steep diurnal variations in temperature from a minimum of about 6 °C during the night to a maximum of almost 18 °C in the afternoon, while the temperature of the surrounding shore water was much lower, typically in the range 3 to 8 °C. O2 concentrations in the tidal pools were elevated relative to those in the adjacent open waters, by up to 11 mg O2 L−1, and exhibited heavy super-saturation (up to > 240%) during daytime emersion, reflecting intense and sustained photosynthetic rates of the tidal macroalgae. The intense photosynthetic activity of the seaweeds resulted in the drawdown of pCO2 concentrations in the pools during the day to levels down to average (±SE) values of 66 ± 18 ppm, and a minimum recorded value of 14.7 ppm, corresponding to pH levels as high as 8.69 ± 0.08, as compared to CO2 levels of 256 ± 4 and pH levels of 8.14 ± 0.01 in the water flooding the pools during high tide. The corresponding Ωarag reached 5.04 ± 0.49 in the pools as compared to 1.55 ± 0.02 in the coastal waters flooding the pools. Net calcification averaged 9.6 ± 5.6 μmol C kg−1 h−1 and was strongly and positively correlated with calculated net ecosystem production rates, which averaged 27.5 ± 8.6 μmol C kg−1 h−1. Arctic tidal pools promote intense metabolism, creating conditions suitable for calcification during the Arctic summer, and can, therefore, provide refugia from ocean acidification to vulnerable calcifiers as extended periods of continuous light during summer are conducive to suitable conditions

  16. Greenland Tidal Pools as Hot Spots for Ecosystem Metabolism and Calcification

    KAUST Repository

    Duarte, Carlos M.

    2018-01-18

    The hypothesis that Arctic tidal pools provide environmental conditions suitable for calcifiers during summer, thereby potentially providing refugia for calcifiers in an acidifying Arctic Ocean, was tested on the basis of measurements conducted during two midsummers (2014 and 2016) in tidal pools colonised by a community composed of macroalgae and calcifiers in Disko Bay, Greenland (69° N). The tidal pools exhibited steep diurnal variations in temperature from a minimum of about 6 °C during the night to a maximum of almost 18 °C in the afternoon, while the temperature of the surrounding shore water was much lower, typically in the range 3 to 8 °C. O2 concentrations in the tidal pools were elevated relative to those in the adjacent open waters, by up to 11 mg O2 L−1, and exhibited heavy super-saturation (up to > 240%) during daytime emersion, reflecting intense and sustained photosynthetic rates of the tidal macroalgae. The intense photosynthetic activity of the seaweeds resulted in the drawdown of pCO2 concentrations in the pools during the day to levels down to average (±SE) values of 66 ± 18 ppm, and a minimum recorded value of 14.7 ppm, corresponding to pH levels as high as 8.69 ± 0.08, as compared to CO2 levels of 256 ± 4 and pH levels of 8.14 ± 0.01 in the water flooding the pools during high tide. The corresponding Ωarag reached 5.04 ± 0.49 in the pools as compared to 1.55 ± 0.02 in the coastal waters flooding the pools. Net calcification averaged 9.6 ± 5.6 μmol C kg−1 h−1 and was strongly and positively correlated with calculated net ecosystem production rates, which averaged 27.5 ± 8.6 μmol C kg−1 h−1. Arctic tidal pools promote intense metabolism, creating conditions suitable for calcification during the Arctic summer, and can, therefore, provide refugia from ocean acidification to vulnerable calcifiers as extended periods of continuous light during summer are conducive to suitable conditions

  17. Estimation of boiling point of radon by radiogas chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, N.; Otozai, K.

    1986-01-01

    The retention volume of radon was measured by means of radiogas chromatography. The boiling point of radon was estimated from the retention volume by the use of the semi-empirical formula relating the boiling point to the retention volume. The obtained boiling point (198+-2)K was lower by 13 K than that measured by Gray and Ramsay. (author)

  18. Converting higher to lower boiling hydrocarbons. [Australian patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1937-06-16

    To transform or convert higher boiling hydrocarbons into lower boiling hydrocarbons for the production of motor fuel, the hydrocarbons are maintained in vapor phase until the desired conversion has been effected and the separation of the high from low boiling hydrocarbons is carried out by utilization of porous contact material with a preferential absorption for the former. The vapor is passed by supply line to a separator containing the porous material and heated to 750 to 950/sup 0/F for a few seconds, the higher boiling parts being retained by the porous material and the lower passing to a vent line. The latter is closed and the vapor supply cut off and an ejecting medium is passed through a line to carry the higher boiling parts to an outlet line from which it may be recycled through the apparatus. The porous mass may be regenerated by introducing medium from a line that carries off impurities to another line. A modified arrangement shows catalytic cracking apparatus through which the vaporized material is passed on the way to the separators.

  19. Integrated conjugate heat transfer analysis method for in-vessel retention with external reactor vessel cooling - 15477

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.W.; Bae, J.H.; Seol, W.C.

    2015-01-01

    An integrated conjugate heat transfer analysis method for the thermal integrity of a reactor vessel under external reactor vessel cooling conditions is developed to resolve light metal layer focusing effect issue. The method calculates steady-state 3-dimensional temperature distribution of a reactor vessel using coupled conjugate heat transfer between in-vessel 3-layered stratified corium (metallic pool, oxide pool and heavy metal) and polar-angle dependent boiling heat transfer at the outer surface of a reactor vessel. The 3-layer corium heat transfer model is utilizing lumped-parameter thermal-resistance circuit method and ex-vessel boiling regimes are parametrically considered. The thermal integrity of a reactor vessel is addressed in terms of un-molten thickness profile. The vessel 3-dimensional heat conduction is validated against a commercial code. It is found that even though the internal heat flux from the metal layer goes far beyond critical heat flux (CHF) the heat flux from the outermost nodes of the vessel may be maintained below CHF due to massive vessel heat diffusion. The heat diffusion throughout the vessel is more pronounced for relatively low heat generation rate in an oxide pool. Parametric calculations are performed considering thermal conditions such as peak heat flux from a light metal layer, heat generation in an oxide pool and external boiling conditions. The major finding is that the most crucial factor for success of in-vessel retention is not the mass of the molten light metal above the oxide pool but the heat generation rate inside the oxide pool and the 3-dimensional vessel heat transfer provides a much larger minimum vessel wall thickness. (authors)

  20. Flow boiling in expanding microchannels

    CERN Document Server

    Alam, Tamanna

    2017-01-01

    This Brief presents an up to date summary of details of the flow boiling heat transfer, pressure drop and instability characteristics; two phase flow patterns of expanding microchannels. Results obtained from the different expanding microscale geometries are presented for comparison and addition to that, comparison with literatures is also performed. Finally, parametric studies are performed and presented in the brief. The findings from this study could help in understanding the complex microscale flow boiling behavior and aid in the design and implementation of reliable compact heat sinks for practical applications.

  1. Development of an experimental apparatus for boiling analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, A.J.A. de.

    1984-04-01

    The nucleate boiling is the most interesting boiling regime for practical appliccations, including nuclear reactor engineering. such regime is characterized by very high heat transfer rates with only small surface superheating. An experimental apparatus is developed for studying parameters which affect nucleate boiling. The following parameters are analysed: pressure, fluid velocity and the fluid temperature at the test section entrance. The performance of experimental apparatus is analysed by results and by problems raised by the oeration of setup. (Author) [pt

  2. Minimum number of transfer units and reboiler duty for multicomponent distillation columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleşu, Valentin; Bonet Ruiz, Alexandra Elena; Bonet, Jordi; Llorens, Joan; Iancu, Petrica

    2013-01-01

    Some guidelines to evaluate distillation columns, considering only basic thermodynamic data and principles, are provided in this paper. The method allows a first insight to the problem by simple calculations, without requiring column variables to ensure rational use of energy and low environmental impact. The separation system is approached by two complementary ways: minimum and infinite reflux flow rate. The minimum reflux provides the minimum energy requirements, and the infinite reflux provides the feasibility conditions. The difficulty of separation can be expressed in terms of number of transfer units (NTU). The applicability of the method is not mathematically limited by the number of components in the mixture. It is also applicable to reactive distillation. Several mixtures, including reactive distillation, are rigorously simulated as illustrative examples, to verify the applicability of the approach. The separation of the mixtures, performed by distillation columns, is feasible if a minimum NTU can be calculated between the distillate and bottom products. Once verified the feasibility of the separation, the maximum thermal efficiency depends only on boiling point of bottom and distillate streams. The minimum energy requirements corresponding to the reboiler can be calculated from the maximum thermal efficiency, and the variation of entropy and enthalpy of mixing between distillate and bottom streams. -- Highlights: • Feasibility analysis complemented with difficulty of separation parameters • Minimum and infinite reflux simplified models for distillation columns • Minimum number of transfer units (NTU) for packed columns at early design stages • Calculation of minimum energy distillation requirements at early design stages • Thermodynamic cycle approach and efficiency for distillation columns

  3. Method for estimating boiling temperatures of crude oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, R.K.

    1996-01-01

    Evaporation is often the dominant mechanism for mass loss during the first few days following an oil spill. The initial boiling point of the oil and the rate at which the boiling point changes as the oil evaporates are needed to initialize some computer models used in spill response. The lack of available boiling point data often limits the usefulness of these models in actual emergency situations. A new computational method was developed to estimate the temperature at which a crude oil boils as a function of the fraction evaporated using only standard distillation data, which are commonly available. This method employs established thermodynamic rules and approximations, and was designed to be used with automated spill-response models. Comparisons with measurements show a strong correlation between results obtained with this method and measured values

  4. Experimental and Thermalhydraulic Code Assessment of the Transient Behavior of the Passive Condenser System in an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.T. Revankar; W. Zhou; Gavin Henderson

    2008-07-08

    The main goal of the project was to study analytically and experimentally the condensation heat transfer for the passive condenser system such as GE Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR). The effect of noncondensable gas in condenser tube and the reduction of secondary pool water level to the condensation heat transfer coefficient was the main focus in this research. The objectives of this research were to : 1) obtain experimental data on the local and tube averaged condensation heat transfer rates for the PCCS with non-condensable and with change in the secondary pool water, 2) assess the RELAP5 and TRACE computer code against the experimental data, and 3) develop mathematical model and ehat transfer correlation for the condensation phenomena for system code application. The project involves experimentation, theoretical model development and verification, and thermal- hydraulic codes assessment.

  5. Experimental and Thermalhydraulic Code Assessment of the Transient Behavior of the Passive Condenser System in an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.T. Revankar; W. Zhou; Gavin Henderson

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of the project was to study analytically and experimentally the condensation heat transfer for the passive condenser system such as GE Economic Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (ESBWR). The effect of noncondensable gas in condenser tube and the reduction of secondary pool water level to the condensation heat transfer coefficient was the main focus in this research. The objectives of this research were to: (1) obtain experimental data on the local and tube averaged condensation heat transfer rates for the PCCS with non-condensable and with change in the secondary pool water, (2) assess the RELAP5 and TRACE computer code against the experimental data, and (3) develop mathematical model and heat transfer correlation for the condensation phenomena for system code application. The project involves experimentation, theoretical model development and verification, and thermal-hydraulic codes assessment

  6. Interactions between bubble formation and heating surface in nucleate boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luke, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    The heat transfer and bubble formation is investigated in pool boiling of propane. Size distributions of active nucleation sites on single horizontal copper and steel tubes with different diameter and surface finishes have been calculated from heat transfer measurements over wide ranges of heat flux and selected pressure. The model assumptions of Luke and Gorenflo for the heat transfer near growing and departing bubbles, which were applied in the calculations, have been slightly modified and the calculated results have been compared to experimental investigations by high speed video techniques. The calculated number of active sites shows a good coincidence for the tube with smaller diameter, while the results for the tube with larger diameter describe the same relative increase of the active sites. The comparison of the cumulative size distribution of the active and potential nucleation sites demonstrates the same slope of the curve and that the critical radius of a stable bubble nuclei is smaller than the average cavity size. (author)

  7. Interactions between bubble formation and heating surface in nucleate boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luke, Andrea [Leibniz University, Hannover (Denmark). Inst. of Thermodynamics], e-mail: ift@ift.uni-hannover.de

    2009-07-01

    The heat transfer and bubble formation is investigated in pool boiling of propane. Size distributions of active nucleation sites on single horizontal copper and steel tubes with different diameter and surface finishes have been calculated from heat transfer measurements over wide ranges of heat flux and selected pressure. The model assumptions of Luke and Gorenflo for the heat transfer near growing and departing bubbles, which were applied in the calculations, have been slightly modified and the calculated results have been compared to experimental investigations by high speed video techniques. The calculated number of active sites shows a good coincidence for the tube with smaller diameter, while the results for the tube with larger diameter describe the same relative increase of the active sites. The comparison of the cumulative size distribution of the active and potential nucleation sites demonstrates the same slope of the curve and that the critical radius of a stable bubble nuclei is smaller than the average cavity size. (author)

  8. Boiling hysteresis of impinging circular submerged jets with highly wetting liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, D.W.; Ma, C.F.; Yu, J.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental study was carried out to characterize the boiling hysteresis of impinging circular submerged jets with highly wetting liquids. The effects of noncondensable gases and surface aging on boiling curves were considered. The present study focused on the effects of jet parameters (jet exit velocity, radial distance from the stagnation point and nozzle diameter) and fluid subcooling on incipient boiling superheat and superheat excursion, as well as the physical mechanism of boiling hysteresis. Results show that the incipient boiling superheat decreases only with fluid subcooling regardless of jet parameters, and that the superheat excursion increases with nozzle diameter and radial distance from the stagnation point and decreasing jet exit velocity and fluid subcooling. Boiling hysteresis occurs due to deactivation of vapor embryos within larger cavities. Three anomalous phenomena at boiling inception are recorded and discussed in terms of irregular activation of vapor embryos

  9. Conjugate heat transfer analysis for in-vessel retention with external reactor vessel cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong-Woon; Bae, Jae-ho; Song, Hyuk-Jin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A conjugate heat transfer analysis method is applied for in-vessel corium retention. • 3D heat diffusion has a formidable effect in alleviating focusing heat load from metallic layer. • The focusing heat load is decreased by about 2.5 times on the external surface. - Abstract: A conjugate heat transfer analysis method for the thermal integrity of a reactor vessel under external reactor vessel cooling conditions is developed to resolve light metal layer focusing effect issue for in-vessel retention. The method calculates steady-state three-dimensional temperature distribution of a reactor vessel using coupled conjugate heat transfer between in-vessel three-layered stratified corium (metallic pool, oxide pool and heavy metal and polar-angle dependent boiling heat transfer at the outer surface of a reactor vessel). The three-layer corium heat transfer model is utilizing lumped-parameter thermal-resistance circuit method. For the ex-vessel boiling boundary conditions, nucleate, transition and film boiling are considered. The thermal integrity of a reactor vessel is addressed in terms of heat flux at the outer-most nodes of the vessel and remaining thickness profile. The vessel three-dimensional heat conduction is validated against a commercial code. It is found that even though the internal heat flux from the metal layer goes far beyond critical heat flux (CHF) the heat flux from the outermost nodes of the vessel may be maintained below CHF due to massive vessel heat diffusion. The heat diffusion throughout the vessel is more pronounced for relatively low heat generation rate in an oxide pool. Parametric calculations are performed considering thermal conditions such as peak heat flux from a light metal layer, heat generation in an oxide pool and external boiling conditions. The major finding is that the most crucial factor for success of in-vessel retention is not the mass of the molten light metal above the oxide pool but the heat generation rate

  10. Two-phase flow boiling pressure drop in small channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardeshpande, Madhavi V.; Shastri, Parikshit; Ranade, Vivek V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Study of typical 19 mm steam generator tube has been undertaken in detail. • Study of two phase flow boiling pressure drop, flow instability and identification of flow regimes using pressure fluctuations is the main focus of present work. • Effect of heat and mass flux on pressure drop and void fraction was studied. • Flow regimes identified from pressure fluctuations data using FFT plots. • Homogeneous model predicted pressure drop well in agreement. - Abstract: Two-phase flow boiling in small channels finds a variety of applications in power and process industries. Heat transfer, boiling flow regimes, flow instabilities, pressure drop and dry out are some of the key issues related to two-phase flow boiling in channels. In this work, the focus is on pressure drop in two-phase flow boiling in tubes of 19 mm diameter. These tubes are typically used in steam generators. Relatively limited experimental database is available on 19 mm ID tube. Therefore, in the present work, the experimental set-up is designed for studying flow boiling in 19 mm ID tube in such a way that any of the different flow regimes occurring in a steam generator tube (from pre-heating of sub-cooled water to dry-out) can be investigated by varying inlet conditions. The reported results cover a reasonable range of heat and mass flux conditions such as 9–27 kW/m 2 and 2.9–5.9 kg/m 2 s respectively. In this paper, various existing correlations are assessed against experimental data for the pressure drop in a single, vertical channel during flow boiling of water at near-atmospheric pressure. A special feature of these experiments is that time-dependent pressures are measured at four locations along the channel. The steady-state pressure drop is estimated and the identification of boiling flow regimes is done with transient characteristics using time series analysis. Experimental data and corresponding results are compared with the reported correlations. The results will be

  11. Onset of nucleate boiling and onset of fully developed subcooled boiling detection using pressure transducers signals spectral analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maprelian, Eduardo; Castro, Alvaro Alvim de; Ting, Daniel Kao Sun

    1999-01-01

    The experimental technique used for detection of subcooled boiling through analysis of the fluctuation contained in pressure transducers signals is presented. The experimental part of this work was conducted at the Institut fuer Kerntechnik und zertoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren von Hannover (IKPH, Germany) in a thermal-hydraulic circuit with one electrically heated rod with annular geometry test section. Piezo resistive pressure sensors are used for onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) and onset of fully developed boiling (OFDB) detection using spectral analysis/signal correlation techniques. Experimental results are interpreted by phenomenological analysis of these two points and compared with existing correlation. The results allows us to conclude that this technique is adequate for the detection and monitoring of the ONB and OFDB. (author)

  12. Acoustic analysis of sodium boiling stability tests using THORS bundle 6A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheen, S.H.; Bobis, J.P.; Carey, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Acoustic data from boiling stability tests on the THORS (Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety) facility are presented and discussed. The THORS sodium loop is a high temperature test facility that contains the bundle 6A, a full length stimulated fuel subassembly with nineteen electrically heated pins. Boiling stability tests on the THORS facility were designed to determine if a stable boiling region exists during the thermal hydraulic test at normal and off-normal conditions. Boiling was observed and the stable boiling region was determined. The acoustic data observed by three ANL sodium-immersible microphones have provided the following information: (1) the boiling signal is clearly observed and shows a correlation with the inlet flow fluctuations; (2) the signal level and the repetition rate of the boiling signal are directly related to the applied heat flux; (3) a typical boiling pulse consists of a high frequency signal due mainly to the bubble collapse and a low frequency (approximately 75 Hz) void oscillation; (4) a boiling pulse yields a frequency spectrum with significant amplitudes up to 80 KHz as compared with 4 KHz for background pulses; and (5) the frequency content of a boiling pulse can be mostly explained in terms of various resonance frequencies of the loop. The characterization of these data is pertinent to the design of sodium boiling detection systems

  13. Boiling Patterns of Iso-asymmetric Nuclear Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tõke, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Limits of thermodynamic metastability of self-bound neutron-rich nuclear matter are explored within the framework of microcanonical thermodynamics of interacting Fermi Gas model in Thomas-Fermi approximation. It is found that as the excitation energy per nucleon of the system is increased beyond a certain limiting value, the system loses metastability and becomes unstable with respect to joint fluctuations in excitation energy per nucleon and in isospin per nucleon. As a result, part of the system is forced to boil off in a form of iso-rich non-equilibrated vapors. Left behind in such a process, identifiable with distillation, is a more iso-symmetric metastable residue at a temperature characteristic of its residual isospin content. With a progressing increase in the initial excitation energy per nucleon, more neutron-rich matter is boiled off and a more iso-symmetric residue is left behind with progressively increasing characteristic temperature. Eventually, when all excess neutrons are shed, the system boils uniformly with a further supply of excitation energy, leaving behind a smaller and smaller residue at a characteristic boiling-point temperature of iso-symmetric matter.

  14. Transient heat transfer phenomena of the liquid metal layer cooled by overlying R113 coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, J. S.; Seo, K. R.; Jung, C. H.; Park, R. J.; Kim, S. B.

    1999-01-01

    To understand the fundamental relationship of the natural convection heat transfer in the molten metal pool and the boiling mechanism of the overlying coolant, experiments were performed for the transient heat transfer of the liquid metal pool with overlying R113 coolant with boiling. The simulant molten pool material is tin (Sn) with the melting temperature of 232 deg C. The metal pool is heated from the bottom surface and the coolant is injected onto the molten metal pool. Tests were conducted by changing the bottom surface boundary condition. The bottom heating condition was varied from 8kW to 14kW. As a result the boiling mechanism of the R113 coolant is changed from the nuclear boiling to film boiling. The Nusselt number and the Rayleigh number in the molten metal pool region obtained as functions of time. Analysis was made for the relationship between the heat flux and the temperature difference of the metal layer surface temperature and the boiling coolant bulk temperature

  15. Above and below boiling thermal loading strategies for large waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.L.

    1994-01-01

    A simplified repository thermal model was developed with the Mathcad computer code which indicates that large waste packages may be compatible with both above and below boiling repository thermal loading strategies. Minimum spent fuel decay time of at least 20 to 30 years was shown to be important for both thermal loading strategies. Constant isothermal boundary conditions are assumed at the ground surface (296 K) and 305 meters below the water table (309.7 K) with a uniform temperature change of 1.55 10 -2 K/meter. Homogeneous tuff properties are assumed: conductivity (2.1 watt/m-k); density (2.22 gm/cm 3 ); and thermal capacitance (2.17 joule/cm 3 K). Based on these properties, the tuff thermal diffusion coefficient is 9.68 x 10 -7 m 2 /sec

  16. Water Boiling inside Carbon Nanotubes: Towards Efficient Drug Release

    OpenAIRE

    Chaban, Vitaly V.; Prezhdo, Oleg V.

    2012-01-01

    We show using molecular dynamics simulation that spatial confinement of water inside carbon nanotubes (CNT) substantially increases its boiling temperature and that a small temperature growth above the boiling point dramatically raises the inside pressure. Capillary theory successfully predicts the boiling point elevation down to 2 nm, below which large deviations between the theory and atomistic simulation take place. Water behaves qualitatively different inside narrow CNTs, exhibiting trans...

  17. Characteristics of phenomenon and sound in microbubble emission boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Guangyu; Sun Licheng; Tang Jiguo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nowadays, the efficient heat transfer technology is required in nuclear energy. Therefore, micro-bubble emission boiling (MEB) is getting more attentions from many researchers due to its extremely high heat-transfer dissipation capability. Purpose: An experimental setup was built up to study the correspondences between the characteristics on the amplitude spectrum of boiling sound in different boiling modes. Methods: The heat element was a copper block heated by four Si-C heaters. The upper of the copper block was a cylinder with the diameter of 10 mm and height of 10 mm. Temperature data were measured by three T-type sheathed thermocouples fitted on the upper of the copper block and recorded by NI acquisition system. The temperature of the heating surface was estimated by extrapolating the temperature distribution. Boiling sound data were acquired by hydrophone and processed by Fourier transform. Bubble behaviors were captured by high-speed video camera with light system. Results: In nucleate boiling region, the boiling was not intensive and as a result, the spectra didn't present any peak. While the MEB fully developed on the heating surface, an obvious peak came into being around the frequency of 300 Hz. This could be explained by analyzing the video data. The periodic expansion and collapse into many extremely small bubbles of the vapor film lead to MEB presenting an obvious characteristic peak in its amplitude spectrum. Conclusion: The boiling mode can be distinguished by its amplitude spectrum. When the MEB fully developed, it presented a characteristic peak in its amplitude spectrum around the frequency between 300-400 Hz. This proved that boiling sound of MEB has a close relation with the behavior of vapor film. (authors)

  18. An analytical model for particulate deposition on vertical heat transfer surfaces in a boiling environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefer, R.H.; Rider, J.L.; Waldman, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    A frequent problem in heat exchange equipment is the deposition of particulates entrained in the working fluid onto heat transfer surfaces. These deposits increase the overall heat transfer resistance and can significantly degrade the performance of the heat exchanger. Accurate prediction of the deposition rate is necessary to ensure that the design and specified operating conditions of the heat exchanger adequately address the effects of this deposit layer. Although the deposition process has been studied in considerable detail, much of the work has focused on investigating individual aspects of the deposition process. This paper consolidates this previous research into a mechanistically based analytical prediction model for particulate deposition from a boiling liquid onto vertical heat transfer surfaces. Consistent with the well known Kern-Seaton approach, the model postulates net particulate accumulation to depend on the relative contributions of deposition and reentrainment processes. Mechanisms for deposition include boiling, momentum, and diffusion effects. Reentrainment is presumed to occur via an intermittent erosion process, with the energy for particle removal being supplied by turbulent flow instabilities. The contributions of these individual mechanisms are integrated to obtain a single equation for the deposit thickness versus time. The validity of the resulting model is demonstrated by comparison with data published in the open literature. Model estimates show good agreement with data obtained over a range of thermal-hydraulic conditions in both flow and pool boiling environments. The utility of the model in performing parametric studies (e.g. to determine the effect of flow velocity on net deposition) is also demonstrated. The initial success of the model suggests that it could prove useful in establishing a range of heat exchanger. operating conditions to minimize deposition

  19. Thermal behavior in the transition region between nucleate and film boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adiutori, E.F.

    1991-01-01

    The prediction of post Critical Heat Flux (CHF) behavior is complicated by the highly nonlinear thermal behavior of boiling interfaces--ie by the nonlinear nature of the boiling curve. Nonlinearity in the boiling curve can and does cause thermal instability, resulting in temperature discontinuities. Thus the prediction of post CHF behavior requires the analysis of thermal stability. This in turn requires an accurate description of thermal behavior in transition boiling. This paper determines thermal behavior in transition boiling by analysis of literature data. It also describes design features which improve post CHF performance and are reported in the literature

  20. Study on water boiling noises in a large volume

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masagutov, R.F.; Krivtsov, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Presented are the results of measurement of the noise spectra during boiling of water in a large volume at the pressure of 1 at. Boiling of the distilled water has been accomplished with the use of the heaters made of the Kh18N10T steel, 50 mm in length, 2 mm in the outside diameter, with the wall thickness of 0.1 mm. The degree of water under heating changed during the experiments from 0 to 80 deg C, and the magnitude of the specific heat flux varied from o to 0.7 - 0.9 qsup(x), where qsup(x) was the specific heat flux of the tube burn-out. The noise spectrum of the boiling water was analyzed at frequencies of 0.5 to 200 kHz. The submerge-type pressure-electric transmitters were used for measurements. At underheating boiling during the experiment the standing waves have formed which determine the structure of the measured spectra. During saturated boiling of water no standing waves were revealed. At underheating over 15 - 20 deg C the water boiling process is accompanied by the noises within the ultrasonic frequency range. The maximum upper boundary of the noise in the experiments amounts to 90 - 100 kHz

  1. Research on the fundamental process of thermal-hydraulic behaviors in severe accident. Heat transfer on the liquid-liquid interface between molten core pool and coolant. JAERI's nuclear research promotion program, H10-027-6. Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Kaichiro; Saito, Yasushi

    2002-03-01

    Heat transfer experiments under steady and transient conditions were performed using molten Wood's metal and distilled water to study heat transfer on the liquid-liquid interface between molten fuel pool and coolant under severe accident conditions. In the steady state experiment, boiling curve was measured over the range from natural convection region to film boiling region. The boiling behavior was observed using a high-speed video camera. In the transient experiment, distilled water was poured onto the hot molten metal surface, and the boiling curve was obtained in the cooling process. Comparing the measured boiling curve with existing correlations and experimental data for solid-liquid and liquid-liquid systems, the following conclusions were drawn: (a) When the interface surge is negligible and oxide layer is formed on the interface, the boiling curve at the liquid-liquid surface could be approximately reproduced by the heat transfer correlations for nucleate boiling and film boiling regions and the critical heat flux correlation for a liquid-solid system. (b) When no oxide layer is formed on the interface, the boiling curve at the liquid-liquid surface moved towards higher wall superheat than that at the liquid-solid surface, as Novakovic et al. observed in their experiment using mercury. (c) Transient heat transfer coefficient for film boiling at the liquid-liquid surface was about 100% higher than that predicted by the heat transfer correlation for a solid-liquid system. (author)

  2. Numerical issues for liquid-metal boiling transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rowe, D.S.

    1986-01-01

    The large liquid-to-vapor density ratio of a boiling liquid-metal leads to a very abrupt change of the two-phase mixture density at the inception of boiling. Unfortunately, the strong dependence of mixture density on pressure leads to a key numerical issue that adversely affects the behavior of numerical solutions. The difficulties can be reduced by using techniques that acknowledge this functional behavior at the start of boiling. Some of the methods used include a spatially averaged density function, mathematical smoothing, and under relaxation. Nonequilibrium two-fluid models also seem to offer aid in obtaining reliable numerical solutions. (author)

  3. Effects of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles deposition on critical heat flux of R-123 in flow boiling heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Seok Bin; Bang, In Cheol [School of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology (UNIST), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    In this study, R-123 flow boiling experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of nanoparticle deposition on heater surfaces on flow critical heat flux (CHF) and boiling heat transfer. It is known that CHF enhancement by nanoparticles results from porous structures that are very similar to layers of Chalk River unidentified deposit formed on nuclear fuel rod surfaces during the reactor operation period. Although previous studies have investigated the surface effects through surface modifications, most studies are limited to pool boiling conditions, and therefore, the effects of porous surfaces on flow boiling heat transfer are still unclear. In addition, there have been only few reports on suppression of wetting for decoupled approaches of reasoning. In this study, bare and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticle-coated surfaces were prepared for the study experiments. The CHF of each surface was measured with different mass fluxes of 1,600 kg/m{sup 2}s, 1,800 kg/m{sup 2}s, 2,100 kg/m{sup 2}s, 2,400 kg/m{sup 2}s, and 2,600 kg/m{sup 2}s. The nanoparticle-coated tube showed CHF enhancement up to 17% at a mass flux of 2,400 kg/m{sup 2}s compared with the bare tube. The factors for CHF enhancement are related to the enhanced rewetting process derived from capillary action through porous structures built-up by nanoparticles while suppressing relative wettability effects between two sample surfaces as a highly wettable R-123 refrigerant was used as a working fluid.

  4. The CEA program on boiling noise detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Guillou, G.; Brunet, M.; Girard, J.P.; Flory, D.

    1982-01-01

    The research program on the application of noise analysis on boiling detection in a fast subassembly began 10 years ago at the CEA, mainly in the Nuclear Center of Cadarache. Referring exclusively to the aspects of premature detection of the boiling phenomenon it can be said that this program is organized around the following three detection techniques: acoustic noise analysis; neutron noise analysis; temperature noise analysis. Its development is in conjunction with in-pile experiments in Phenix or Rapsodie as well as 'ex-pile' (boiling experiments through electric heating). Three detection techniques were developed independent of each other, but that they were regrouped during the execution of the most important experiments and with the 'Super Phenix' project. The noise analysis system ANABEL with which Superphenix will be equipped with shows the industrial interest in detection methods based on noises. One of the results of the CEA program today is the possibility to evaluate the potential capacity for boiling detection in the subassembly. But in order to obtain the necessary funds from the commercial nuclear plant operators it is mandatory to have successful demonstrations which will be the objective of the future program

  5. Simulation of pool scrubbing experiments using BUSCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dehbi, A.; Guentay, S.

    1994-01-01

    BUSCA-PSI is a computer code which predicts the aerosol scrubbing taking place when gas bubbles containing fission products rise through stagnant pools of water after a postulated severe accident. A Lagrangian formulation is adopted to follow the path of a bubble as it rises toward the surface of the pool. The BUSCA model includes most aerosol removal mechanisms which are thought to be significant, namely: Jet Impaction at tile orifice, Convection/Diffusiophoresis during steam condensation, Thermophoresis, Sedimentation, Centrifugal Impaction during bubble rise, and Brownian Diffusion. The hydraulic modelling offers a variety of options for the initial globule volume, the stable bubble size, tile bubble rise velocity, and the bubble shape. The heat and mass transfer part of tile model uses correlations found in the relevant literature. BUSCA simulations were performed to determine the decontamination factor (DF) dependence on key aerosol and thermal hydraulic parameters. The decontamination factor increases with height, pool temperature subcooling, and steam content. The decontamination factor exhibits a parabolic dependence on the particle radius. At low particle sizes, the DF is high due to Brownian Diffusion which is the dominant removal mechanism. The DF hits a minimum and then increases with particle size as Centrifugal Impaction and Sedimentation become important. In separate calculations, BUSCA was used to the simulate the aerosol scrubbing experiments performed by EPRI. For cold pool tests, the predicted scrubbing efficiencies were in a good, conservative agreement with the data for both Tin and CsI, and the discrepancies were within the reported measurement errors. For hot pool tests, the code systematically underpredicted the scrubbing DF's; this is potentially due to condensation in the gas space above the pool, a situation not currently modelled by BUSCA. The code was also tested against data produced by the Tepco-Toshiba-Hitachi experiments. The

  6. LMFBR safety and sodium boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkle, W.D.; Tschamper, P.M.; Fontana, M.H.; Henry, R.E.; Padilla, A. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Within the U.S. Fast Breeder Reactor Safety R and D Work Breakdown Structure for Line of Assurance 2, Limit Core Damage, the influence of sodium boiling upon the progression and termination of accidents is being studied in loss of flow, transient overpower, loss of piping integrity, loss of shutdown heat removal system and local fault situations. The pertinent analytical and experimental results of this research to date are surveyed and compared with the requirements for demonstrating the effectiveness of this line of assurance. A discussion of specific technical issues concerned with sodium boiling and the need for future development work is also presented.

  7. Physical quality of Simental Ongole crossbred silverside meat at various boiling times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto, J.; Cahyadi, M.; Guntari, W. S.

    2018-03-01

    This study aims to determine the physical quality of silverside beef meat at various boiling times. Samples that have been used are the back thigh or silverside meat. Treatment of boiling meat included TR (meat without boiled), R15 (boiled 15 minutes), and R30 (boiled for 30 minutes). The experimental design using Completely Randomized Design with 3 replications. Each replication was done in triple physical quality test. Determination of physical quality was performed at the Livestock Industry and Processing Laboratory at Sebelas Maret University Surakarta and the Meat Technology Laboratory at the Faculty of Animal Husbandry of Gadjah Mada University. The result of variance analysis showed that boiling affect cooking loss (P≥0.05) and but did not affect (P≤0,05) pH, water holding capacity and meat tenderness. The conclusions of the study showed that boiling for 15 minutes and 30 minutes decreased the cooking loss of Simental Ongole Crossbred silverside meat. Meat physical quality of pH, water holding capacity and the value of tenderness is not affected by boiling for 15 and 30 minutes.

  8. Study of the initiation of subcooled boiling during power transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanVleet, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation of boiling initiation during power transients has been conducted for horizontal-cylinder heating elements in degassed distilled water. Platinum elements, 0.127 and 0.250 mm in diameter, were internally heated electrically at a controlled superficial heat flux (power applied divided by surface area) increasing linearly with time at rates of 0.035 and 0.35 MW/m 2 s and corresponding test durations of 20 and 2 seconds. Tests were carried out at saturation temperatures from 100 to 195 0 C with bulk fluid subcooling from 0 to 30 K. During the course of a power transient, element temperature and superficial heat flux were measured electrically and the boiling initiation time was determined optically. It was found that the conditions for boiling initiation depended strongly on the pressure-temperature history of the heating element and surround fluid prior to the transient. Boiling initiation times were found to agree qualitatively with predictions of a model based on the contact-angle hysteresis concept. Brief prepressurization prior to a transient was found to increase dramatically the temperature and heat flux required for boiling initiation because of deactivation of boiling initiation sites. However, sites were re-activated during the transient and, in subsequent tests without prepressurization, no elevation in boiling initiation conditions was observed and results were in quantitative agreement with predictions of the model

  9. Critical heat flux for downward-facing pool boiling on CANDU calandria tube surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behdadi, Azin, E-mail: behdada@mcmaster.ca; Talebi, Farshad; Luxat, John

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Pressure tube-calandria tube contact may challenge fuel channel integrity in CANDU. • Critical heat flux variation is predicted on the outer surface of CANDU calandria tube. • A two-phase boundary layer flow driven by buoyancy is modeled on the surface. • Different slip ratios and flow regimes are considered inside the boundary layer. • Subcooling effects are added to the model using wall heat flux partitioning. - Abstract: One accident scenario in CANDU reactors that can challenge the integrity of the primary pressure boundary is a loss of coolant accident, referred to as critical break LOCA, in which the pressure tube (PT) can undergo thermal creep strain deformation and contact its calandria tube (CT). In such case, rapid redistribution of stored heat from PT to CT, leads to a large spike in heat flux to the moderator which can cause bubble accumulation and dryout on the CT surface. A challenge to fuel channel integrity is posed if critical heat flux occurs on the surface of the CT and results in sustained film boiling. If the post-dryout temperature becomes sufficiently high then continued creep strain of the PT and CT may lead to fuel channel failure. In this study, a mechanistic model is developed to predict the critical heat flux variations along the downward facing outer surface of CT. The hydrodynamic model considers a liquid macrolayer beneath an elongated vapor slug on the surface. Local dryout is postulated to occur whenever the fresh liquid supply to the macrolayer is not sufficient to compensate for the liquid depletion. A boundary layer analysis is performed, treating the two phase motion as an external buoyancy driven flow. The model shows good agreement with the available experimental data and has been modified to take into account the effect of subcooling.

  10. Cryostatic stability equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sydoriak, S.G.

    1976-01-01

    Although criteria for cryostatic stability of superconducting magnets cooled by pool boiling of liquid helium have been widely discussed the same cannot be said for magnets cooled by natural convection or forced flow boiling in channels. Boiling in narrow channels is shown to be qualitatively superior to pool boiling because the recovery heat flux equals the breakaway flux for narrow channels, whereas the two are markedly different in pool boiling. A second advantage of channel boiling is that it is well understood and calculable; pool peak nucleate boiling heat flux has been adequately measured only for boiling from the top of an immersed heated body. Peak boiling from the bottom is much less and (probably) depends strongly on the extent of the bottom surface. Equations are presented by which one can calculate the critical boiling heat flux for parallel wall vertical channels subject to either natural convection or forced flow boiling, with one or both walls heated. The one-heated-wall forced flow equation is discussed with regard to design of a spiral wound solenoid (pancake magnet) having a slippery insulating tape between the windings

  11. 13 CFR 120.611 - Pools backing Pool Certificates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pools backing Pool Certificates. 120.611 Section 120.611 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION BUSINESS LOANS Secondary Market Certificates § 120.611 Pools backing Pool Certificates. (a) Pool characteristics. As set...

  12. Dynamic model for a boiling water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscettola, M.

    1963-07-01

    A theoretical formulation is derived for the dynamics of a boiling water reactor of the pressure tube and forced circulation type. Attention is concentrated on neutron kinetics, fuel element heat transfer dynamics, and the primary circuit - that is the boiling channel, riser, steam drum, downcomer and recirculating pump of a conventional La Mont loop. Models for the steam and feedwater plant are not derived. (author)

  13. Chemical composition and nutritional value of boiled Christmas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and the nutritive value of boiled Christmas bush (Alchornea cordifolia) for starter broiler chickens. Dried Christmas bush fruits (Capsules + seed) were boiled for 30 minutes, sundried and ground into meal. The meal was analyzed for proximate composition and ...

  14. CONTINUOUS ANALYZER UTILIZING BOILING POINT DETERMINATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, W.S.

    1963-03-19

    A device is designed for continuously determining the boiling point of a mixture of liquids. The device comprises a distillation chamber for boiling a liquid; outlet conduit means for maintaining the liquid contents of said chamber at a constant level; a reflux condenser mounted above said distillation chamber; means for continuously introducing an incoming liquid sample into said reflux condenser and into intimate contact with vapors refluxing within said condenser; and means for measuring the temperature of the liquid flowing through said distillation chamber. (AEC)

  15. Reentrainment of aerosols during the filtered venting after a severe core melt accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.

    1997-01-01

    The major objective of this project is the experimental determination of the aerosol reentrainment from boiling pool during controlled filtered venting of the containment vessel after a severe core melt accident. For this reason a linear downscaled (1:20) model containment with an inner free volume of 5 m 3 is provided. Both, water soluble and unsoluble model substances are used as fission product simulants. The major advantage of the pilot plant is the ability to run it at steady state conditions of any period of time. Further, modelling of the aerosol reentrainment from boiling pool allows upscaling of results on nuclear power plants. The deterministic aerosol reentrainment model can also be used to calculate entrainment phenomena in the process industries such at distillation columns or at flash evaporators. Steady state experiments with water soluble model substances clearly reveal enhanced aerosol reentrainment from boiling pool due to increasing boiling pool concentration of fission product simulants and due to increasing gas velocities above the boiling pool surface. But there can be seen no influence of corium concrete interactions on the aerosol reentrainment. Compared to the steam production due to the decay heat the resulting gas volume flux is negligible. Next, there can be seen aerosol reentrainment from boiling pool only above boiling pool areas. Further, experiments under steady state conditions with unsoluble fission product simulants show on the one hand scrubbing effects in the boiling pool, on the other hand no aerosol reentrainment of solid particles 3 μm. The so called reentrainment factor - ratio between fission product simulant in the venting system and in the boiling pool - is for water soluble model substances in the range of 10 -5 , for unsoluble fission product simulants in the range of 10 -6 . (author) figs., tabs., 57 refs

  16. Study on model of onset of nucleate boiling in natural circulation with subcooled boiling using unascertained mathematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Tao [Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)]. E-mail: zhoutao@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn; Wang Zenghui [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang Ruichang [Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2005-10-01

    Experiment data got from onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) in natural circulation is analyzed using unascertained mathematics. Unitary mathematics model of the relation between the temperature and onset of nucleate boiling is built up to analysis ONB. Multiple unascertained mathematics models are also built up with the onset of natural circulation boiling equation based on the experiment. Unascertained mathematics makes that affirmative results are a range of numbers that reflect the fluctuation of experiment data more truly. The fluctuating value with the distribution function F(x) is the feature of unascertained mathematics model and can express fluctuating experimental data. Real status can be actually described through using unascertained mathematics. Thus, for calculation of ONB point, the description of unascertained mathematics model is more precise than common mathematics model. Based on the unascertained mathematics, a new ONB model is developed, which is important for advanced reactor safety analysis. It is conceivable that the unascertained mathematics could be applied to many other two-phase measurements as well.

  17. Study on model of onset of nucleate boiling in natural circulation with subcooled boiling using unascertained mathematics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Tao; Wang Zenghui; Yang Ruichang

    2005-01-01

    Experiment data got from onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) in natural circulation is analyzed using unascertained mathematics. Unitary mathematics model of the relation between the temperature and onset of nucleate boiling is built up to analysis ONB. Multiple unascertained mathematics models are also built up with the onset of natural circulation boiling equation based on the experiment. Unascertained mathematics makes that affirmative results are a range of numbers that reflect the fluctuation of experiment data more truly. The fluctuating value with the distribution function F(x) is the feature of unascertained mathematics model and can express fluctuating experimental data. Real status can be actually described through using unascertained mathematics. Thus, for calculation of ONB point, the description of unascertained mathematics model is more precise than common mathematics model. Based on the unascertained mathematics, a new ONB model is developed, which is important for advanced reactor safety analysis. It is conceivable that the unascertained mathematics could be applied to many other two-phase measurements as well

  18. Experimental and theoretical studies on subcooled flow boiling of pure liquids and multicomponent mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamialahmadi, M.; Abdollahi, H.; Shariati, A. [The University of Petroleum Industry, Ahwaz (Iran); Mueller-Steinhagen, H. [Institute of Technical Thermodynamics, German Aerospace Center (Germany); Institute of Thermodynamics and Thermal Engineering, University of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2008-05-15

    To improve the design of modern industrial reboilers, accurate knowledge of boiling heat transfer coefficients is essential. In this study flow boiling heat transfer coefficients for binary and ternary mixtures of acetone, isopropanol and water were measured over a wide range of heat flux, subcooling, flow velocity and composition. The measurements cover the regimes of convective heat transfer, transitional boiling and fully developed subcooled flow boiling. Two models are presented for the prediction of flow boiling heat transfer coefficients. The first model is the combination of the Chen model with the Gorenflo correlation and the Schluender model for single and multicomponent boiling, respectively. This model predicts flow boiling heat transfer coefficients with acceptable accuracy, but fails to predict the nucleate boiling fraction NBF reasonably well. The second model is based on the asymptotic addition of forced convective and nucleate boiling heat transfer coefficients. The benefit of this model is a further improvement in the accuracy of flow boiling heat transfer coefficient over the Chen type model, simplicity and the more realistic prediction of the nucleate boiling fraction NBF. (author)

  19. Geysering in boiling channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aritomi, Masanori; Takemoto, Takatoshi [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Chiang, Jing-Hsien [Japan NUS Corp. Ltd., Toyko (Japan)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    A concept of natural circulation BWRs such as the SBWR has been proposed and seems to be promising in that the primary cooling system can be simplified. The authors have been investigating thermo-hydraulic instabilities which may appear during the start-up in natural circulation BWRs. In our previous works, geysering was investigated in parallel boiling channels for both natural and forced circulations, and its driving mechanism and the effect of system pressure on geysering occurrence were made clear. In this paper, geysering is investigated in a vertical column and a U-shaped vertical column heated in the lower parts. It is clarified from the results that the occurrence mechanism of geysering and the dependence of system pressure on geysering occurrence coincide between parallel boiling channels in circulation systems and vertical columns in non-circulation systems.

  20. On-line system for monitoring of boiling in nuclear reactor fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuerkcan, E.; Kozma, R.; Nabeshima, K.; Verhoef, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    The performance of the boiling detection system has been tested on boiling signals coming from the research reactor HOR during experiments with the NIOBE boiling setup. Several detection methods utilizing frequency domain analysis have been tested both on- and off-line. Results of these methods indicate that boiling detection is possible in real-time even in the incipient stage of the boiling. Both DC and AC components of the in-core and ex-core neutron detector signals can be used for boiling detection; these two components provide complementary information. Advanced signal analysis application to the DC signals may give information about the dynamic changes of the reactor, provided that the changes of the signal exceed the inherent noise of the measured channel. At the same time, AC signal analysis will characterize the changes even in the inherent signal fluctuation level. Boiling experiments of HOR and the methods implemented for signal analysis validates the techniques used for these experiments. (orig./HP)

  1. Numerical simulation of single bubble boiling behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie Liu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The phenomena of a single bubble boiling process are studied with numerical modeling. The mass, momentum, energy and level set equations are solved using COMSOL multi-physics software. The bubble boiling dynamics, the transient pressure field, velocity field and temperature field in time are analyzed, and reasonable results are obtained. The numeral model is validated by the empirical equation of Fritz and could be used for various applications.

  2. The boiling point of stratospheric aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, J. M.

    1971-01-01

    A photoelectric particle counter was used for the measurement of aerosol boiling points. The operational principle involves raising the temperature of the aerosol by vigorously heating a portion of the intake tube. At or above the boiling point, the particles disintegrate rather quickly, and a noticeable effect on the size distribution and concentration is observed. Stratospheric aerosols appear to have the same volatility as a solution of 75% sulfuric acid. Chemical analysis of the aerosols indicates that there are other substances present, but that the sulfate radical is apparently the major constituent.

  3. Study of film boiling collapse behavior during vapor explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, Masahiro; Yamano, Norihiro; Sugimoto, Jun; Abe, Yutaka; Adachi, Hiromichi; Kobayashi, Tomoyoshi.

    1996-06-01

    Possible large scale vapor explosions are safety concern in nuclear power plants during severe accident. In order to identify the occurrence of the vapor explosion and to estimate the magnitude of the induced pressure pulse, it is necessary to investigate the triggering condition for the vapor explosion. As a first step of this study, scooping analysis was conducted with a simulation code based on thermal detonation model. It was found that the pressure at the collapse of film boiling much affects the trigger condition of vapor explosion. Based on this analytical results, basic experiments were conducted to clarify the collapse conditions of film boiling on a high temperature solid ball surface. Film boiling condition was established by flooding water onto a high temperature stainless steel ball heated by a high frequency induction heater. After the film boiling was established, the pressure pulse generated by a shock tube was applied to collapse the steam film on the ball surface. As the experimental boundary conditions, materials and size of the balls, magnitude of pressure pulse and initial temperature of the carbon and stainless steel balls were varied. The transients of pressure and surface temperature were measured. It was found that the surface temperature on the balls sharply decreased when the pressure wave passed through the film on balls. Based on the surface temperature behavior, the film boiling collapse pattern was found to be categorized into several types. Especially, the pattern for stainless steel ball was categorized into three types; no collapse, collapse and reestablishment after collapse. It was thus clarified that the film boiling collapse behavior was identified by initial conditions and that the pressure required to collapse film boiling strongly depended on the initial surface temperature. The present results will provide a useful information for the analysis of vapor explosions based on the thermal detonation model. (J.P.N.)

  4. Surface roughness effects on onset of nucleate boiling and net vapor generation point in subcooled flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, Hiroyasu; Wada, Noriyoshi; Koizumi, Yasuo

    2003-01-01

    The ability to predict void formation and void fraction in subcooled flow boiling is of importance to the nuclear reactor technology because the presence of voids affects the steady state and transient response of a reactor. The onset of nucleate boiling and the point of net vapor generation on subcooled flow boiling, focusing on surface roughness, liquid subcooling and liquid velocity were investigated experimentally and analytically. Experiments were conducted using a copper thin-film and subcooled water in a range of the liquid velocity from 0.27 to 4.6 m/s at 0.10MPa; the liquid subcoolings were 20, 30 and 40K, respectively. The surface roughness on the test heater was observed by SEM. Experimental results showed that temperatures at the onset nucleate boiling increased with increasing the liquid subcoolings or the liquid velocities. The trend of increase in the temperature at the ONB was in good agreement with the present analytical result based on the stability theory of preexisting nuclei. The measured results for the net vapor generation point agreed well with the results of correlation by Saha and Zuber in the range of the present experiments. The temperature at the ONB decreased with an increasing size of surface roughness, while the NVG-point was independent on the surface roughness. The dependence on the ONB temperature of the roughness size was also represented well by the present analytical model

  5. A generic study of phenomena affecting two-phase mixing in BWR suppression pools during passive decay-heat removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B. L.; Milelli, M.; Shepel, S.; Lakehal, D.

    2003-01-01

    The paper describes some advancements made in the use of two-phase Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), sometimes called Computational Multi-Fluid Dynamics (CMFD), techniques in simulating the phenomena occurring in pressure suppression pools in Advanced Boiling Water Reactors which utilise passive containment cooling systems. An interface tracking procedure based on the Level-Set approach has been implemented into a commercial CFD code with the specific purpose of providing a computational environment for the development of suitable models to describe the inter-phase mass and energy transport processes which would take place when a large gas bubble is discharged into a pool. Details of the implementation and validation of the tracking algorithm are described, together with some illustrations of how the method is utilised. The paper also reports on the progress which is being made in the use of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) to describe turbulent mixing in such plumes. The research efforts are aimed at ultimately combining the approaches to develop a mechanistic tool for fully describing the pool dynamics and steam condensation phenomena

  6. Experimental study on CHF characteristics of water-TiO2 nano-fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Dae; Kim Moo Hwan; Kim, Jeong Bae

    2006-01-01

    CHF characteristics of nano-fluids were investigated with different volumetric concentrations of TiO 2 nanoparticles. Pool boiling experiments indicated that the application of nano-fluids, instead of pure water, as a cooling liquid significantly increased the CHF. SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) observations subsequent to the pool boiling experiments revealed that nanoparticles were coated on the heating surface during pool boiling of nano-fluids. In order to investigate the roles of nanoparticles in CHF enhancement of nano-fluids, pool boiling experiments were performed using (a) a nanoparticle-coated heater, prepared by pool boiling of nano-fluids, immersed in pure water and (b) a nanoparticle-coated heater immersed in nano-fluids. The results demonstrated two different roles of nanoparticles in CHF enhancement using nano-fluids: the effect of nanoparticles coated on the heater surface and the effect of nanoparticles suspended in nano-fluids

  7. Critical superheats upon boiling of dissociating liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolykhan, L.I.; Solov'ev, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    The experimental data on critical superheats of dissociating liquids, i.e. nitrogen tetroxide and nitrine are presented (nitrine is the solution of nitrogen oxide in nitrogen tetroxide). The experiments with boiling N 2 O 4 have been carried out in the pressure range 0.1-3.0 MPa and with boiling nitrine within the pressure range 0.2-9.0 MPa. The experiments have revealed an anomalous dependence of critical superheats on pressure P, thus at P>=2.5 MPa the critical superheat values exceed the limiting ones, and at P=4.5 MPa this excess amounts to more than 16 K, essentially exceeding the errors of the experiments. The results for N 2 O 4 critical superheats agree with experimental data of other authors. Complex phenomena observed upon boiling of dissociating liquids require further theoretical and experimental studies

  8. A stability analysis of ventilated boiling channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Podowski, M.Z.; Lahey, R.T. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A mathematical model has been developed for the linear stability analysis of a system of ventilated parallel boiling channels. This model accounts for subcooled boiling, an arbitrary heat flux distribution, distributed and local hydraulic losses, heated wall dynamics, slip flow, turbulent mixing and arbitrary flow paths for transverse ventilation. The digital computer program MAZDA-NF was written for numerical evaluation of the mathematical model. Comparison of MAZDA-NF results with those obtained form both a closed form analytical solution and experiment, showed good agreement. A parametric study revealed that such phenomena as subcooled boiling, the transverse coupling between channels (due to cross-flow and mixing) and power skewing can have a significant impact on predicted stability margins. An analysis of an advanced BWR fuel, of the ASEA-ATOM SVEA design, has indicated that transverse ventilation may considerably improve channel stability. (orig.)

  9. An experimental investigation of triggered film boiling destabilisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naylor, P.

    1985-03-01

    Film boiling was established on a polished brass rod in water, collapse being initiated by either a pressure pulse or a transient bulk water flow. This work is relevant to the triggering stage of a molten fuel-coolant interaction, and a criterion is proposed for triggered film boiling collapse with pressure pulse. (U.K.)

  10. MRI monitoring of lesions created at temperature below the boiling point and of lesions created above the boiling point using high intensity focused ultrasound

    OpenAIRE

    Damianou, C.; Ioannides, K.; Hadjisavvas, V.; Mylonas, N.; Couppis, A.; Iosif, D.; Kyriacou, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was utilized to monitor lesions created at temperature below the boiling point and lesions created at temperature above the boiling point using High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) in freshly excised kidney, liver and brain and in vivo rabbit kidney and brain. T2-weighted fast spin echo (FSE) was proven as an excellent MRI sequence that can detect lesions with temperature above the boiling point in kidney. This advantage is attributed to the significant di...

  11. Development of thermohydraulic codes for modeling liquid metal boiling in LMR fuel subassemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorokin, G.A.; Avdeev, E.F.; Zhukov, A.V.; Bogoslovskaya, G.P.; Sorokin, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    An investigation into the reactor core accident cooling, which are associated with the power grow up or switch off circulation pumps in the event of the protective equipment comes into action, results in the problem of liquid metal boiling heat transfer. Considerable study has been given over the last 30 years to alkaline metal boiling including researches of heat transfer, boiling patterns, hydraulic resistance, crisis of heat transfer, initial heating up, boiling onset and instability of boiling. The results of these investigations have shown that the process of liquid metal boiling has substantial features in comparison with water boiling. Mathematical modeling of two phase flows in fast reactor fuel subassemblies have been developed intensively. Significant success has been achieved in formulation of two phase flow through the pin bundle and in their numerical realization. Currently a set of codes for thermohydraulic analysis of two phase flows in fast reactor subassembly have been developed with 3D macrotransfer governing equations. These codes are used for analysis of boiling onset and liquid metals boiling in fuel subassemblies during loss-of-coolant accidents, of warming up of reactor core, of blockage of some part of flow cross section in fuel subassembly. (author)

  12. A look-up table for fully developed film-boiling heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeneveld, D.C.; Leung, L.K.H.; Vasic, A.Z.; Guo, Y.J.; Cheng, S.C.

    2003-01-01

    An improved look-up table for film-boiling heat-transfer coefficients has been derived for steam-water flow inside vertical tubes. Compared to earlier versions of the look-up table, the following improvements were made: - The database has been expanded significantly. The present database contains 77,234 film-boiling data points obtained from 36 sources. - The upper limit of the thermodynamic quality range was increased from 1.2 to 2.0. The wider range was needed as non-equilibrium effects at low flows can extend well beyond the point where the thermodynamic quality equals unity. - The surface heat flux has been replaced by the surface temperature as an independent parameter. - The new look-up table is based only on fully developed film-boiling data. - The table entries at flow conditions for which no data are available is based on the best of five different film-boiling prediction methods. The new film-boiling look-up table predicts the database for fully developed film-boiling data with an overall rms error in heat-transfer coefficient of 10.56% and an average error of 1.71%. A comparison of the prediction accuracy of the look-up table with other leading film-boiling prediction methods shows that the look-up table results in a significant improvement in prediction accuracy

  13. Modeling a forced to natural convection boiling test with the program LOOP-W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbajo, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    Extensive testing has been conducted in the Simulant Boiling Flow Visualization (SBFV) loop in which water is boiled in a vertical transparent tube by circulating hot glycerine in an annulus surrounding the tube. Tests ranged from nonboiling forced convection to oscillatory boiling natural convection. The program LOOP-W has been developed to analyze these tests. This program is a multi-leg, one-dimensional, two-phase equilibrium model with slip between the phases. In this study, a specific test, performed at low power where non-boiling forced convection was changed to boiling natural convection and then to non-boiling again, has been modeled with the program LOOP-W

  14. Downflow film boiling in a rod bundle at low pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochreiter, L.E.; Rosal, E.R.; Fayfich, R.R.

    1978-01-01

    A series of low pressure downflow film boiling heat transfer experiments were conducted in a 14-foot (4.27 m) long electrically heater rod bundle containing 336 heater rods. The resulting data was compared with the Dougall-Rohsenow dispersed flow film boiling correlation. The data was found to lie below this correlation as the quality was increased. It is believed that buoyancy effects decreased the heat transfer in downflow film boiling. (author)

  15. Minimum and Full Fluidization Velocity for Alumina Used in the Aluminum Smelter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Douglas S. de Vasconcelos

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Fluidization is an engineering unit operation that occurs when a fluid (liquid or gas ascends through a bed of particles, and these particles get a velocity of minimum fluidization enough to stay in suspension, but without carrying them in the ascending flow. As from this moment the powder behaves as liquid at boiling point, hence the term “fluidization”. This operation is widely used in the aluminum smelter processes, for gas dry scrubbing (mass transfer and in a modern plant for continuous alumina pot feeding (particles’ momentum transfer. The understanding of the alumina fluoride rheology is of vital importance in the design of fluidized beds for gas treatment and fluidized pipelines for pot feeding. This paper shows the results of the experimental and theoretical values of the minimum and full fluidization velocities for the alumina fluoride used to project the state of the art round non‐metallic air‐fluidized conveyor of multiples outlets.

  16. Burnout in subcooled flow boiling of water. A visual experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celata, G.P.; Mariani, A.; Zummo, G. [ENEA, Engineering Div., National Institute of Thermal Fluid-Dynamics, Rome (Italy); Cumo, M. [University of Rome la Sapienza, Rome (Italy)

    2000-12-01

    The objective of the present work is to perform a photographic study of the burnout in highly subcooled flow boiling, in order to provide a qualitative description of the flow pattern under different conditions of boiling regime: ONB (onset of nucleate boiling), subcooled flow boiling and thermal crisis. In particular, the flow visualisation is focused on the phenomena occurring on the heated wall during the thermal crisis up to the physical burnout of the heater. Vapour bubble parameters are measured from flow images recorded, while the wall temperature is measured with an indirect method, by recording the heater elongation during all flow regimes studied. The combination of bubble parameters and wall temperature measurements as well as direct observations of the flow pattern, for all flow regimes, are collected in graphs which provide a useful global point of view of boiling phenomena, especially during boiling crisis. Under these conditions, a detailed analysis of the mechanisms leading to the critical heat flux is reported, and the so called events sequence, from thermal crisis occurrence up to heater burnout, is illustrated. (authors)

  17. Burnout in subcooled flow boiling of water. A visual experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, G.P.; Mariani, A.; Zummo, G.; Cumo, M.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to perform a photographic study of the burnout in highly subcooled flow boiling, in order to provide a qualitative description of the flow pattern under different conditions of boiling regime: ONB (onset of nucleate boiling), subcooled flow boiling and thermal crisis. In particular, the flow visualisation is focused on the phenomena occurring on the heated wall during the thermal crisis up to the physical burnout of the heater. Vapour bubble parameters are measured from flow images recorded, while the wall temperature is measured with an indirect method, by recording the heater elongation during all flow regimes studied. The combination of bubble parameters and wall temperature measurements as well as direct observations of the flow pattern, for all flow regimes, are collected in graphs which provide a useful global point of view of boiling phenomena, especially during boiling crisis. Under these conditions, a detailed analysis of the mechanisms leading to the critical heat flux is reported, and the so called events sequence, from thermal crisis occurrence up to heater burnout, is illustrated. (authors)

  18. Numerical and Experimental Study of Mechanisms Involved in Boiling Histotripsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahk, Ki Joo; Gélat, Pierre; Sinden, David; Dhar, Dipok Kumar; Saffari, Nader

    2017-12-01

    The aim of boiling histotripsy is to mechanically fractionate tissue as an alternative to thermal ablation for therapeutic applications. In general, the shape of a lesion produced by boiling histotripsy is tadpole like, consisting of a head and a tail. Although many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of boiling histotripsy for fractionating solid tumors, the exact mechanisms underpinning this phenomenon are not yet well understood, particularly the interaction of a boiling vapor bubble with incoming incident shockwaves. To investigate the mechanisms involved in boiling histotripsy, a high-speed camera with a passive cavitation detection system was used to observe the dynamics of bubbles produced in optically transparent tissue-mimicking gel phantoms exposed to the field of a 2.0-MHz high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) transducer. We observed that boiling bubbles were generated in a localized heated region and cavitation clouds were subsequently induced ahead of the expanding bubble. This process was repeated with HIFU pulses and eventually resulted in a tadpole-shaped lesion. A simplified numerical model describing the scattering of the incident ultrasound wave by a vapor bubble was developed to help interpret the experimental observations. Together with the numerical results, these observations suggest that the overall size of a lesion induced by boiling histotripsy is dependent on the sizes of (i) the heated region at the HIFU focus and (ii) the backscattered acoustic field by the original vapor bubble. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Single-bubble boiling under Earth's and low gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khusid, Boris; Elele, Ezinwa; Lei, Qian; Tang, John; Shen, Yueyang

    2017-11-01

    Miniaturization of electronic systems in terrestrial and space applications is challenged by a dramatic increase in the power dissipation per unit volume with the occurrence of localized hot spots where the heat flux is much higher than the average. Cooling by forced gas or liquid flow appears insufficient to remove high local heat fluxes. Boiling that involves evaporation of liquid in a hot spot and condensation of vapor in a cold region can remove a significantly larger amount of heat through the latent heat of vaporization than force-flow cooling can carry out. Traditional methods for enhancing boiling heat transfer in terrestrial and space applications focus on removal of bubbles from the heating surface. In contrast, we unexpectedly observed a new boiling regime of water under Earth's gravity and low gravity in which a bubble was pinned on a small heater up to 270°C and delivered a heat flux up to 1.2 MW/m2 that was as high as the critical heat flux in the classical boiling regime on Earth .Low gravity measurements conducted in parabolic flights in NASA Boeing 727. The heat flux in flight and Earth's experiments was found to rise linearly with increasing the heater temperature. We will discuss physical mechanisms underlying heat transfer in single-bubble boiling. The work supported by NASA Grants NNX12AM26G and NNX09AK06G.

  20. Some fundamental aspects of boiling in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondin, H.; Lavigne, P.; Semeria, R.

    1964-01-01

    The main results obtained at Grenoble during the last four years in the field of boiling mechanisms and related phenomena in nuclear reactors are reported. 1 - Observation Of Boiling: By the use of photography and ultrafast cinematography (8000 frames per second maximum), boiling in a vessel or a tube was observed up to 140 kg/cm 2 . The populations of bubble-generating seeds (sites) were counted, and a correlation established giving their number per unit of surface area as a function of the thermal flux and the pressure. The diameter of the bubbles breaking of from the wall was studied up to 140 kg/cm 2 : three types of bubble have been shown to exist: - those in equilibrium, their diameter following the formula of Fritz and Ende, - bubbles found by boiling, the diameters of which decrease rapidly with the pressure (1/100 mm to 140 kg/cm 2 ), - the coalescences which appear in saturated liquid above 15 W/cm 2 , their proportion being independent of the pressure. Strioscopic observations were made of the movements of the thermal film associated with the generation of the seeds, at the initiation and condensation of the bubbles, the mechanisms responsible for the highly efficient heat transfer could thus be defined. 2 - Pressure Losses In Two-Phase Flow: A physical model of the continuous variation of the free space content in a boiling channel has been proposed by means of which the pressure losses can be calculated without invoking a break in the coefficient of friction when free boiling begins. Agreement between theory and experiment is satisfactory. The various forms which total pressure loss in a boiling tube may present as a function of flow rate have been studied. Special features are observed at very low and very high speeds. 3 - Burn-Out: Under steady operating conditions, it is shown that in a uniformly heated channel the burn-out flux as a function of output rate is generally independent of the length. When burn-out is a result of output oscillation, the

  1. Investigation of contact line dynamics under a vapor bubble at boiling on the transparent heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surtaev, A. S.; Serdyukov, V. S.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental study of dynamics of vapor bubble growth and departure at pool boiling, obtained with the use of high-speed video recording and IR thermography. The study was carried out at saturated water boiling under the atmospheric pressure in the range of heat fluxes of 30-150 kW/m2. To visualize the process and determine the growth rates of the outer bubble diameter, microlayer region and dry spot area, transpa-rent thin film heater with the thickness of 1 μm deposited on sapphire substrate was used in the experiments, and video recording was performed from the bottom side of the heating surface. To study integral heat transfer as well as local non-stationary thermal characteristics, high-speed infrared thermography with a frequency of up to 1000 FPS was used. High-speed video recording showed that after formation of vapor bubble and microlayer region, dry spot appears in a short time (up to 1 ms) under the vapor bubble. Various stages of contact line boundary propagation were ob-served. It was shown that at the initial stage before the development of small-scale perturbations, the dry spot propaga-tion rate is constant. It was also showed that the bubble departure stage begins after complete evaporation of liquid in the microlayer region.

  2. Screening and ranking Alberta oil pools for CO{sub 2} flooding and sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, J.C. [Adams Pearson Associates Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada); Bachu, S. [Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2001-06-01

    This paper presented the results of a technical screening program using Excel VBA to successfully screen and rank a very large number of oil pools for enhanced oil recovery using carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) flooding. A total of 6 ranking parameters were used, including API gravity of oil, residual oil saturation, ratio between reservoir pressure and minimum miscibility pressure, reservoir temperature, net pay thickness and porosity. The screening program provided a technical ranking of approximately 8,800 Alberta pools in less than 2 minutes. After compilation of the Alberta oil pools, it was determined that most of the deep carbonate oil pools are excellent candidates for CO{sub 2} miscible flooding. Other Devonian carbonate pools were also ranked as having high potential for the process. An environmental benefit of CO{sub 2} miscible flooding process is that carbon sequestration has the potential to reduce anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions from reaching the atmosphere. Ongoing studies are currently addressing CO{sub 2} capture and transportation, making EOR technology viable for maintaining light oil production in western Canada. 11 refs., 7 tabs., 1 fig.

  3. MTD-MFC: unified framework for investigation of diversity of boiling heat transfer curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shekriladze, I.G. [Georgian Technical University, Tbilisi (Georgia)], e-mail: shekri@geo.net.ge

    2009-07-01

    A keynote paper presents just the next attempt to promote a discussion of modern state of art in the field of boiling heat transfer research. It is shown how longstanding disregard of internal contradictions of applicable approaches has resulted theoretical deadlock. Alternatively, it also is shown how resolution of these contradictions opens the ways to breakthrough in boiling heat transfer theory. Basic experimental facts, physical models and correlations are reconsidered. Principal contradictions between experimental knowledge and traditional model of 'the theatre of actors' (MTA) are discussed. Crucial role of pumping effect of growing bubble (PEGB) in boiling heat transfer and hydrodynamics is shown. Basic role of control of HTC by thermodynamic conditions on nucleation sites is demonstrated and consequent model of 'the theatre of director' (MTD) is discussed. Universal MTD-based correlation of boiling HTC of all types of liquids is considered. Unified consistent research framework for developed boiling heat transfer and diverse specific boiling heat transfer regimes is outlined through supplementing MTD by so-called multifactoring concept (MFC). The latter links transition from developed boiling mode to diverse boiling curves to a phenomenon of multiplication of factors influencing HTC. The ways of further research of the boiling problem are discussed. (author)

  4. MTD-MFC: unified framework for investigation of diversity of boiling heat transfer curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shekriladze, I.G.

    2009-01-01

    A keynote paper presents just the next attempt to promote a discussion of modern state of art in the field of boiling heat transfer research. It is shown how longstanding disregard of internal contradictions of applicable approaches has resulted theoretical deadlock. Alternatively, it also is shown how resolution of these contradictions opens the ways to breakthrough in boiling heat transfer theory. Basic experimental facts, physical models and correlations are reconsidered. Principal contradictions between experimental knowledge and traditional model of 'the theatre of actors' (MTA) are discussed. Crucial role of pumping effect of growing bubble (PEGB) in boiling heat transfer and hydrodynamics is shown. Basic role of control of HTC by thermodynamic conditions on nucleation sites is demonstrated and consequent model of 'the theatre of director' (MTD) is discussed. Universal MTD-based correlation of boiling HTC of all types of liquids is considered. Unified consistent research framework for developed boiling heat transfer and diverse specific boiling heat transfer regimes is outlined through supplementing MTD by so-called multifactoring concept (MFC). The latter links transition from developed boiling mode to diverse boiling curves to a phenomenon of multiplication of factors influencing HTC. The ways of further research of the boiling problem are discussed. (author)

  5. Evaluation of forced-convection nucleate boiling detection by acoustic emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, R.P.; Paterson, J.A.

    1981-10-01

    Acoustic Emission techniques are being investigated for use as protection systems in neutral beam accelerators and water cooled beam dumps. For this purpose, the characteristics of the boiling curve for forced-convection surface boiling have been compared to the Acoustic Emission (AE) produced. Results indicate that AE, in the form of count-rate, is a sensitive indicator of nucleate boiling incipience and is relatively insensitive to flow velocity in the 0 to 12 m/s range

  6. Critical heat flux in flow boiling in microchannels

    CERN Document Server

    Saha, Sujoy Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This Brief concerns the important problem of critical heat flux in flow boiling in microchannels. A companion edition in the SpringerBrief Subseries on Thermal Engineering and Applied Science to “Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Flow Boiling in Microchannels,” by the same author team, this volume is idea for professionals, researchers, and graduate students concerned with electronic cooling.

  7. Flow film boiling heat transfer in water and Freon-113

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Qiusheng; Shiotsu, Masahiro; Sakurai, Akira

    2002-01-01

    Experimental apparatus and method for film boiling heat transfer measurement on a horizontal cylinder in forced flow of water and Freon-113 under pressurized and subcooled conditions were developed. The experiments of film boiling heat transfer from single horizontal cylinders with diameters ranging from 0.7 to 5 mm in saturated and subcooled water and Freon-113 flowing upward perpendicular to the cylinders were carried out for the flow velocities ranging from 0 to 1 m/s under system pressures ranging from 100 to 500 kPa. Liquid subcoolings ranged from 0 to 50 K, and the cylinder surface superheats were raised up to 800 K for water and 400 K for Freon-113. The film boiling heat transfer coefficients obtained were depended on surface superheats, flow velocities, liquid subcoolings, system pressures and cylinder diameters. The effects of these parameters were systematically investigated under wider ranges of experimental conditions. It was found that the heat transfer coefficients are higher for higher flow velocities, subcoolings, system pressures, and for smaller cylinder diameters. The observation results of film boiling phenomena were obtained by a high-speed video camera. A new correlation for subcooled flow film boiling heat transfer was derived by modifying authors' correlation for saturated flow film boiling heat transfer with authors' experimental data under wide subcooled conditions. (author)

  8. A highly stable microchannel heat sink for convective boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Chun Ting; Pan Chin

    2009-01-01

    To develop a highly stable two-phase microchannel heat sink, we experimented with convective boiling in diverging, parallel microchannels with different distributions of laser-etched artificial nucleation sites. Each microchannel had a mean hydraulic diameter of 120 µm. The two-phase flow visualization and the magnitudes of pressure drop and inlet temperature oscillations under boiling conditions demonstrated clearly the merits of using artificial nucleation sites to further stabilize the flow boiling in diverging, parallel microchannels. The stability map showed the plane of subcooling number versus phase change number. It illustrated that diverging, parallel microchannels with artificial nucleation cavities have a much wider stable region than parallel microchannels with uniform cross-sections or diverging, parallel microchannels without artificial nucleation cavities. In addition, the results revealed that the design with cavities distributed uniformly along the downstream half of the channel presented the best stability performance among the three distributions of nucleation sites. This particular design can be regarded as a highly stable microchannel heat sink for convective boiling

  9. Film Boiling on Downward Quenching Hemisphere of Varying Sizes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan S. Kim; Kune Y. Suh; Joy L. Rempe; Fan-Bill Cheung; Sang B. Kim

    2004-04-01

    Film boiling heat transfer coefficients for a downward-facing hemispherical surface are measured from the quenching tests in DELTA (Downward-boiling Experimental Laminar Transition Apparatus). Two test sections are made of copper to maintain low Biot numbers. The outer diameters of the hemispheres are 120 mm and 294 mm, respectively. The thickness of all the test sections is 30 mm. The effect of diameter on film boiling heat transfer is quantified utilizing results obtained from the test sections. The measured data are compared with the numerical predictions from laminar film boiling analysis. The measured heat transfer coefficients are found to be greater than those predicted by the conventional laminar flow theory on account of the interfacial wavy motion incurred by the Helmholtz instability. Incorporation of the wavy motion model considerably improves the agreement between the experimental and numerical results in terms of heat transfer coefficient. In addition, the interfacial wavy motion and the quenching process are visualized through a digital camera.

  10. Subcooled film boiling heat transfer on a high temperature sphere in very dilute Al2O3 nano-fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun Sun Park; Dereje Shiferaw; Bal Raj Sehgal

    2005-01-01

    found in similar experiments with distilled water. The experiments have also shown that if some nano-particles stick to the surface of the hot sphere (in the event that the surface is not washed in-between the experiments), film boiling practically disappears and the quench proceeds very rapidly. In this study, a series of quenching experiments with a high temperature sphere in subcooled Al 2 O 3 nano-fluids with the very dilute concentrations of 0.01 to 0.05 g/liter are conducted to investigate the characteristics of film boiling and compare to those in pure water tests. One stainless steel sphere of 10 mm in diameter is heated to the initial sphere temperature up to 1100 K in the induction furnace and plunged by a pneumatic actuator into a pool of the dilute nano-fluid at the liquid subcooling of about 20 K by a pneumatic actuator. The transient center temperature is continually recorded and monitored with a data acquisition system. The center temperature data is analyzed to obtain sphere wall heat fluxes and the corresponding heat transfer coefficients. The test results are carefully compared with our previous experimental results for nano-fluids with the higher concentrations of nano-particles in water. (authors)

  11. Acceleration of two-phase flow by boiling, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Toshitsugu; Uchida, Motokazu; Mitani, Akio; Mori, Yasuo; Hijikata, Kunio.

    1975-01-01

    This paper reports on the experimental results concerning the acceleration mechanism of the liquid used for liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic power generation. The experiment simulated two-component flow by injecting low boiling point liquid (R113) which is not soluble in main high temperature flow (hot water). From the boiling of this two component flow, the relations among the acceleration performance of the liquid, the number and frequency of bubbles generated from liquid drops, and the growth velocity of the bubbles have been investigated. All the injected liquid drops did not necessarily boil even if they were heated above the saturation temperature. The probability of boiling of the liquid drops becomes larger as the temperature difference between two liquids becomes larger. The bubble generation frequency distributed around the mean elapsed time of the liquid drops. The larger temperature difference between two liquids presents sharper distribution. The radius of bubbles increased proportionally to the two-thirds power of the elapsed time and also to two-thirds power of the temperature difference. The liquid acceleration performance by bubbles increased as the bubble generation frequency distribution becomes sharpe. (Tai, I.)

  12. Boiling process in oil coolers on porous elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genbach Alexander A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Holography and high-speed filming were used to reveal movements and deformations of the capillary and porous material, allowing to calculate thermo-hydraulic characteristics of boiling liquid in the porous structures. These porous structures work at the joint action of capillary and mass forces, which are generalised in the form of dependences used in the calculation for oil coolers in thermal power plants (TPP. Furthermore, the mechanism of the boiling process in porous structures in the field of mass forces is explained. The development process of water steam formation in the mesh porous structures working at joint action of gravitational and capillary forces is investigated. Certain regularities pertained to the internal characteristics of boiling in cells of porous structure are revealed, by means of a holographic interferometry and high-speed filming. Formulas for calculation of specific thermal streams through thermo-hydraulic characteristics of water steam formation in mesh structures are obtained, in relation to heat engineering of thermal power plants. This is the first calculation of heat flow through the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of the boiling process in a reticulated porous structure obtained by a photo film and holographic observations.

  13. On the Application of Image Processing Methods for Bubble Recognition to the Study of Subcooled Flow Boiling of Water in Rectangular Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Paz

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work introduces the use of machine vision in the massive bubble recognition process, which supports the validation of boiling models involving bubble dynamics, as well as nucleation frequency, active site density and size of the bubbles. The two algorithms presented are meant to be run employing quite standard images of the bubbling process, recorded in general-purpose boiling facilities. The recognition routines are easily adaptable to other facilities if a minimum number of precautions are taken in the setup and in the treatment of the information. Both the side and front projections of subcooled flow-boiling phenomenon over a plain plate are covered. Once all of the intended bubbles have been located in space and time, the proper post-process of the recorded data become capable of tracking each of the recognized bubbles, sketching their trajectories and size evolution, locating the nucleation sites, computing their diameters, and so on. After validating the algorithm’s output against the human eye and data from other researchers, machine vision systems have been demonstrated to be a very valuable option to successfully perform the recognition process, even though the optical analysis of bubbles has not been set as the main goal of the experimental facility.

  14. Direct numerical simulations of nucleate boiling flows of binary mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Didier Jamet; Celia Fouillet

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Better understand the origin and characteristics of boiling crisis is still a scientific challenge despite many years of valuable studies. One of the reasons why boiling crisis is so difficult to understand is that local and coupled physical phenomena are believed to play a key role in the trigger of instabilities which lead to the dry out of large portions of the heated solid phase. Nucleate boiling of a single bubble is fairly well understood compared to boiling crisis. Therefore, the numerical simulation of a single bubble growth during nucleate boiling is a good candidate to evaluate the capabilities of a numerical method to deal with complex liquid-vapor phenomena with phase-change and eventually to tackle the boiling crisis problem. In this paper, we present results of direct numerical simulations of nucleate boiling. The numerical method used is the second gradient method, which is a diffuse interface method dedicated to liquid vapor flows with phase-change. This study is not intended to provide quantitative results, partly because all the simulations are two-dimensional. However, particular attention is paid to the influence of some parameters on the main features of nucleate boiling, i.e. the radius of departure and the frequency of detachment of bubbles. In particular, we show that, as the contact angle increases, the radius of departure increases whereas the frequency of detachment decreases. Moreover, the influence of the existence of quasi non-condensable gas is studied. Numerical results show an important decrease of the heat exchange coefficient when a small amount of a quasi non-condensable gas is added to the pure liquid-vapor water system. This result is in agreement with experimental observations. Beyond these qualitative results, this numerical study allows to get insight into some important physical phenomena and to confirm that during nucleate boiling, large scale quantities are influenced by small scale

  15. Micro transport phenomena during boiling

    CERN Document Server

    Peng, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    "Micro Transport Phenomena During Boiling" reviews the new achievements and contributions in recent investigations at microscale. It presents some original research results and discusses topics at the frontier of thermal and fluid sciences.

  16. Subcooled boiling effect on dissolved gases behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zmitko, M.; Sinkule, J.; Linek, V.

    1999-01-01

    A model describing dissolved gasses (hydrogen, nitrogen) and ammonia behaviour in subcooled boiling conditions of WWERs was developed. Main objective of the study was to analyse conditions and mechanisms leading to formation of a zone with different concentration of dissolved gases, eg. a zone depleted in dissolved hydrogen in relation to the bulk of coolant. Both, an equilibrium and dynamic approaches were used to describe a depletion of the liquid surrounding a steam bubble in the gas components. The obtained results show that locally different water chemistry conditions can be met in the subcooled boiling conditions, especially, in the developed subcooled boiling regime. For example, a 70% hydrogen depletion in relation to the bulk of coolant takes about 1 ms and concerns a liquid layer of 1 μn surrounding the steam bubble. The locally different concentration of dissolved gases can influence physic-chemical and radiolytic processes in the reactor system, eg. Zr cladding corrosion, radioactivity transport and determination of the critical hydrogen concentration. (author)

  17. Out-of-pile experiments with an electrical boiler for Acoustic Boiling Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberle, J.; Bartholomay, R.; Reimann, G.; Rohrbacher, H.A.; Schleisiek, K.

    1978-03-01

    This report contains the experimental results of boiling tests obtained during the first testing phase in spring 1977 with an electrically heated 18-rod boiling generator installed in the sodium tank facility (NABEA) of IRE. The layout and performance of the boiling facility together with its instrumentation and criteria of selection of acoustic sensors for the detection of sodium boiling are described and discussed. The report provides information about the thermodynamics, blockage design and thermal conduction within the range of installation of the electric connecting head. The evaluation of the acoustic signals shows that boiling is indicated promptly and with a sufficiently high signal-to-noise ratio both by solid-born sensors and by high temperature microphones placed in the sodium

  18. A separate-effect-based new appraisal of convective boiling and its suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aounallah, Yacine

    2008-01-01

    The development of convective boiling heat transfer correlations and analytical models has been based almost exclusively on the knowledge of global heat transfer coefficients, while the predictive capabilities of the correlation constituting components (typically additive convection and boiling) have remained usually elusive. This becomes important when, for example, developing a mechanistic subcooled void model based on wall heat flux partitioning, or when applying a correlation beyond its developmental range. In the latter case, the preponderance of the individual heat transfer mechanisms, through the phenomenon of boiling suppression, can become significantly different, thus leading to uncharted uncertainty extrapolations. An examination of existing experimental data, obtained under fixed hydrodynamic conditions, has allowed the isolation of the boiling heat transfer contribution over a broad range of thermodynamic qualities (0 to 0.8) and mass fluxes (1,100 to 3,900 kg/(m 2 ·s)) for water at 7.2 MPa. Boiling suppression has been quantified, thus providing valuable new insights on the basic functional relationships of boiling in convective flows. This work has allowed a new interpretation and representation of the standard flow 'boiling map' (Collier's) to be developed. The convection enhancement and boiling suppression components (F and S) of the well-known Chen's correlation - an important constitutive relationship implemented in several best-estimate (realistic) thermal-hydraulics codes - have been individually determined, showing the pitfall of splitting the correlation for mechanistic boiling heat transfer modelling, and the important role of compensating errors in uncertainty extrapolation. An initial attempt to formulate a new correlation, based for the first time on segregated heat transfer components, is also included. (author)

  19. Fission product concentration evolution in sodium pool following a fuel subassembly failure in an LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.; Velusamy, K.; Selvaraj, P.; Kasinathan, N.; Chellapandi, P.; Chetal, S.; Bhoje, S.

    2003-01-01

    During a fuel element failure in a liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor, the fission products originating from the failed pins mix into the sodium pool. Delayed Neutron Detectors (DND) are provided in the sodium pool to detect such failures by way of detection of delayed neutrons emitted by the fission products. The transient evolution of fission product concentration is governed by the sodium flow distribution in the pool. Transient hydraulic analysis has been carried out using the CFD code PHOENICS to estimate fission product concentration evolution in hot pool. k- ε turbulence model and zero laminar diffusivity for the fission product concentration have been considered in the analysis. Times at which the failures of various fuel subassemblies (SA) are detected by the DND are obtained. It has been found that in order to effectively detect the failure of every fuel SA, a minimum of 8 DND in hot pool are essential

  20. Critical heat flux for flow boiling of water in mini-channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Weizhong; Mishima, Kaichiro; Hibiki, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Critical heat flux (CHF) is a limiting factor when flow boiling is applied to dissipate high heat flux in mini-channels. In view of practical importance of critical heat flux correlations in engineering design and prediction, this study presents an evaluation of existing CHF correlations for flow boiling of water with available databases taken from small-diameter tubes, and then develops a new, simple CHF correlation for flow boiling in mini-channel. Three correlations by Bowring, Katto and Shah are evaluated with available CHF data in the literature for saturated flow boiling, and three correlations by Inasaka-Nariai, Celata et al. and Hall-Mudawar evaluated with the CHF data for subcooled flow boiling. The Hall-Mudawar correlation and the Shah correlation appear to be the most reliable tools for CHF prediction in the subcooled and saturated flow boiling regions, respectively. In order to avoid the defect of predictive discontinuities often encountered when applying previous correlations, a simple, nondimensional, inlet conditions dependent CHF correlation for saturated flow boiling has been formulated. Its functional form is determined by application of the artificial neural network and parametric trend analyses to the collected database. Superiority of this new correlation has been verified by the collected database. It has a mean deviation of 16.8% for this collected databank, smallest among all tested correlations. Compared to many inordinately complex correlations, this new correlation consists only of one single equation. (author)

  1. Peak capacity, peak-capacity production rate, and boiling point resolution for temperature-programmed GC with very high programming rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grall; Leonard; Sacks

    2000-02-01

    Recent advances in column heating technology have made possible very fast linear temperature programming for high-speed gas chromatography. A fused-silica capillary column is contained in a tubular metal jacket, which is resistively heated by a precision power supply. With very rapid column heating, the rate of peak-capacity production is significantly enhanced, but the total peak capacity and the boiling-point resolution (minimum boiling-point difference required for the separation of two nonpolar compounds on a nonpolar column) are reduced relative to more conventional heating rates used with convection-oven instruments. As temperature-programming rates increase, elution temperatures also increase with the result that retention may become insignificant prior to elution. This results in inefficient utilization of the down-stream end of the column and causes a loss in the rate of peak-capacity production. The rate of peak-capacity production is increased by the use of shorter columns and higher carrier gas velocities. With high programming rates (100-600 degrees C/min), column lengths of 6-12 m and average linear carrier gas velocities in the 100-150 cm/s range are satisfactory. In this study, the rate of peak-capacity production, the total peak capacity, and the boiling point resolution are determined for C10-C28 n-alkanes using 6-18 m long columns, 50-200 cm/s average carrier gas velocities, and 60-600 degrees C/min programming rates. It was found that with a 6-meter-long, 0.25-mm i.d. column programmed at a rate of 600 degrees C/min, a maximum peak-capacity production rate of 6.1 peaks/s was obtained. A total peak capacity of about 75 peaks was produced in a 37-s long separation spanning a boiling-point range from n-C10 (174 degrees C) to n-C28 (432 degrees C).

  2. Subcooled boiling heat transfer to R 12 in an annular vertical channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuer, H.; Mayinger, F.

    1988-10-01

    Detailed knowledge of the physical phenomena involved in subcooled boiling is of great importance for the design of liquid-cooled heat generating systems with high heat fluxes. Experimental heat transfer data were obtained for forced convective boiling of dichloro-difluoroethane (R 12). The flow is circulated upwards through a concentric annular vertical channel. The inner and outer diameters of the annulus are 0.016 m and 0.03 m respectively. The reduced pressures studied were 0.24 less than or equal to p/p/sub crit/ less than or equal to 0.8, inlet subcooling varied from 10 to 75 K and mass fluxes from 500 to 3000 kg/m/sup 2/s, which corresponds to Re numbers from 30 000 to 300 000. The experiments, described in this study, demonstrate that liquid fluorocarbons show certain unusual boiling characteristics in the subcooled flow, such as hysteresis of the boiling curve. These characteristics are attributed to the properties of the fluid, mainly the Pr number and the very low surface tension. The pronounced boiling curve hysteresis can be explained by the fact that large nucleation sites may have been flooded prior to incipient boiling. A dimensionless regression formula is presented which predicts the onset of subcooled boiling as a function of reduced pressure (p/p/sub crit/), Boiling-(Bo), Reynolds-(Re), and a modified Jacob Number (Ja), over the whole range of parameters studied, with a good accuracy, including water data from literature.

  3. New Departure from Nucleate Boiling model relying on first principle energy balance at the boiling surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarly, Etienne; Baglietto, Emilio

    2017-11-01

    Predictions of Departure from Nucleate Boiling have been a longstanding challenge when designing heat exchangers such as boilers or nuclear reactors. Many mechanistic models have been postulated over more than 50 years in order to explain this phenomenon but none is able to predict accurately the conditions which trigger the sudden change of heat transfer mode. This work aims at demonstrating the pertinence of a new approach for detecting DNB by leveraging recent experimental insights. The new model proposed departs from all the previous models by making the DNB inception come from an energy balance instability at the heating surface rather than a hydrodynamic instability of the bubbly layer above the surface (Zuber, 1959). The main idea is to modulate the amount of heat flux being exchanged via the nucleate boiling mechanism by the wetted area fraction on the surface, thus allowing a completely automatic trigger of DNB that doesn't require any parameter prescription. This approach is implemented as a surrogate model in MATLAB in order to validate the principles of the model in a simple and controlled geometry. Good agreement is found with the experimental data leveraged from the MIT Flow Boiling at various flow regimes. Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL).

  4. Simulation of Thermal Stratification in BWR Suppression Pools with One Dimensional Modeling Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Ling Zou; Hongbin Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The suppression pool in a boiling water reactor (BWR) plant not only is the major heat sink within the containment system, but also provides the major emergency cooling water for the reactor core. In several accident scenarios, such as a loss-of-coolant accident and extended station blackout, thermal stratification tends to form in the pool after the initial rapid venting stage. Accurately predicting the pool stratification phenomenon is important because it affects the peak containment pressure; the pool temperature distribution also affects the NPSHa (available net positive suction head) and therefore the performance of the Emergency Core Cooling System and Reactor Core Isolation Cooling System pumps that draw cooling water back to the core. Current safety analysis codes use zero dimensional (0-D) lumped parameter models to calculate the energy and mass balance in the pool; therefore, they have large uncertainties in the prediction of scenarios in which stratification and mixing are important. While three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods can be used to analyze realistic 3-D configurations, these methods normally require very fine grid resolution to resolve thin substructures such as jets and wall boundaries, resulting in a long simulation time. For mixing in stably stratified large enclosures, the BMIX++ code (Berkeley mechanistic MIXing code in C++) has been developed to implement a highly efficient analysis method for stratification where the ambient fluid volume is represented by one-dimensional (1-D) transient partial differential equations and substructures (such as free or wall jets) are modeled with 1-D integral models. This allows very large reductions in computational effort compared to multi-dimensional CFD modeling. One heat-up experiment performed at the Finland POOLEX facility, which was designed to study phenomena relevant to Nordic design BWR suppression pool including thermal stratification and mixing, is used for

  5. Heat transfer properties of organic coolants containing high boiling residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debbage, A.G.; Driver, M.; Waller, P.R.

    1964-01-01

    Heat transfer measurements were made in forced convection with Santowax R, mixtures of Santowax R and pyrolytic high boiling residue, mixtures of Santowax R and CMRE Radiolytic high boiling residue, and OMRE coolant, in the range of Reynolds number 10 4 to 10 5 . The data was correlated with the equation Nu = 0.015 Re b 0.85 Pr b 0.4 with an r.m.s. error of ± 8.5%. The total maximum error arising from the experimental method and inherent errors in the physical property data has been estimated to be less than ± 8.5%. From the correlation and physical property data, the decrease in heat transfer coefficient with increasing high boiling residue concentration has been determined. It has been shown that subcooled boiling in organic coolants containing high boiling residues is a complex phenomenon and the advantages to be gained by operating a reactor in this region may be marginal. Gas bearing pumps used initially in these experiments were found to be unsuitable; a re-designed ball bearing system lubricated with a terphenyl mixture was found to operate successfully. (author)

  6. Experimental study of conjugate heat transfer from liquid metal layer cooled by overlying freon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, J.S.; Suh, K.Y.; Chung, C.H.; Park, R.J.; Kim, S.B.

    2001-01-01

    Steady-state and transient experiments were performed for the heat transfer from the liquid metal pool with overlying Freon (R113) coolant in the process of boiling. The simulant molten pool material is tin (Sn) with the melting temperature of 232 Celsius degrees. The metal pool is heated from the bottom surface and the coolant is injected onto the molten metal pool. Tests were conducted under the condition of the bottom surface heating in the test section and the forced convection of the R113 coolant being injected onto the molten metal pool. The bottom heating condition was varied from 8 kW to 14 kW. The temperature distributions of the metal layer and coolant were obtained in the steady-state experiment. The boiling mechanism of the R113 coolant was changed from the nucleate boiling to film boiling in the transient experiment. The critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon was observed during the transition from the nucleate boiling to the film boiling. Also, the Nusselt (Nu) number and the Rayleigh (Ra) number in the molten metal pool region were obtained as functions of time. Analysis was done for the relationship between the heat flux and the temperature difference between the metal layer surface and the boiling coolant. In this experiment, the heat transfer is achieved with accompanying solidification in the molten metal pool by the boiling R113 coolant there above. The present test results of the natural convection heat transfer on the molten metal pool are higher than those of the liquid metal natural convection heat transfer without coolant boiling. It can be interpreted that the heat transfer rate is enhanced by the overlying boiling coolant having the high heat removal rate. Analysis of the relationship between the heat flux and the difference between the metal layer surface temperature and the coolant bulk boiling temperature revealed that the CHF occurs when the temperature difference reaches a neighborhood of 50 Celsius degrees. Also, if the temperature

  7. Comparative analysis of heat transfer correlations for forced convection boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guglielmini, G.; Nannei, E.; Pisoni, C.

    1978-01-01

    A critical survey was conducted of the most relevant correlations of boiling heat transfer in forced convection flow. Most of the investigations carried out on partial nucleate boiling and fully developed nucleate boiling have led to the formulation of correlations that are not able to cover a wide range of operating conditions, due to the empirical approach of the problem. A comparative analysis is therefore required in order to delineate the relative accuracy of the proposed correlations, on the basis of the experimental data presently available. The survey performed allows the evaluation of the accuracy of the different calculating procedure; the results obtained, moreover, indicate the most reliable heat transfer correlations for the different operating conditions investigated. This survey was developed for five pressure range (up to 180bar) and for both saturation and subcooled boiling condition

  8. Hawaii ESI: POOLS (Anchialine Pool Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anchialine pools in Hawaii. Anchialine pools are small, relatively shallow coastal ponds that occur...

  9. Early detection of coolant boiling in research reactors with MTR-type fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozma, R.; Turkcan, E.; Verhoef, J.P.

    1992-10-01

    A reactor core monitoring system having the function of early detection of boiling in the coolant channels of research reactors with MTR-type fuel is introduced. The system is based on the on-line analysis of signals of various ex-core and in-core neutron detectors. Early detection of coolant boiling cannot be accomplished by the evaluation of the DC components of these detectors in a number of practically important cases of boiling anomaly. It is shown that the noise component of the available neutron detector signals can be used for the detection of boiling in these cases. Experiments have been carried out at a boiling setup in the research reactor HOR of the Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Technical University of Delft, The Netherlands. (author). 8 refs., 11 figs

  10. Experimental investigation of nucleate boiling on heated surfaces under subcooled conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, C.; Hampel, R.; Traichel, A.; Hurtado, A.; Meissner, S.; Koch, E.

    2011-01-01

    In case of an accident at pressurized water reactors (PWR), critical boiling conditions can appear at the transition from bubble- to film boiling. During full power operation, heat transfer phenomena of sub cooled nucleate boiling occur on the surface of the fuel rods. To investigate the microscopic processes in nucleate boiling, a test facility with optical measuring methods was constructed. This allows analyzing the effects on a single bubble system at different parameters. For the generation of nucleate boiling, an optically transparent, electrically conductive coating was applied as a heating surface on a borosilicate substrate. The so-called ITO (Indium-Tin-Oxide) coating with a sheet resistance of 20 ohms enables an electrical heating at an optical transparent surface. These properties are prerequisites for the study of microscopic phenomena in the bubble formation with optical coherence tomography (OCT). OCT, generally used in medical diagnostics, is an imaging modality providing cross sectional and volumetric high resolution images. To make sure that the bubble formation takes place at a specific site, artificial nucleation sites in form of micro cavity will be inserted into the surface. Furthermore a small test facility was constructed to dedicate the wall temperature of a heated metal foil during subcooled boiling in non degassed water, which is the content of this paper. (author)

  11. Mechanism of flow choking at shock boiling-up of a liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labuntsov, D.A.; Avdeev, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The theory of the outflow of a saturated or non-heated liquid with thermodynamic parameters reaching the critical point from diaphragms and short nozzles has been developed basing on the concept of the boiling-up jump. Three characteristic flow conditions have been revealed: hydraulic, conditions when boiling-up jump is formed, and conditions of radial expansion of the flow. If the initial flow's parameters are low, the hydraulic conditions are realized. The expansion of the flow-passage cross-section of flow small jets by the final value takes place when the spinoidal overheating is reached near the exit cut-off at a small distance equal to the thickness of the boiling-up zone; and that causes the intensive jet dispersion in the radial direction. In case of overheatings close to the thermodynamic critical point, a boiling-up jump is formed inside the channel. The mechanism of flow choking has been analyzed; recommendations on calculation of the critical flow rate of a boiling-up liquid are given. The studied mechanism of flow choking at shock boiling-up of the flow permits to draw a rather detailed physical picture of the phenomenon and to give an explanation of the majority of experimentally-observed effects

  12. Cash pooling

    OpenAIRE

    Lozovaya, Karina

    2009-01-01

    This work makes a mention of cash management. At next chapter describes two most known theoretical models of cash management -- Baumol Model and Miller-Orr Model. Principal part of work is about cash pooling, types of cash pooling, cash pooling at Czech Republic and influence of cash pooling over accounting and taxes.

  13. Results of KNS-1 acoustic boiling noise benchmark test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, K.; Arnaoutis, N.; Voss, J.

    1989-01-01

    The present paper deals with investigations of acoustic signals from a boiling experiment performed on the KNS I loop at KfK Karlsruhe. Signals have been analysed in frequency as well as in time domain. Signal characteristics successfully used to detect the boiling process have been found in time domain. (author). 13 figs, 1 tab

  14. Boiling point measurements on liquid UO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bober, M.; Singer, J.; Trapp, M.

    1986-01-01

    In analogy to the classic boiling point method, a quasi-stationary millisecond laser-heating technique was applied to measure the saturated-vapour pressure curve of liquid UO 2 in the temperature range of 3500 to 4500 K. The result is represented by log p(MPa) 5.049 -23042/T(K) according to an average heat of vaporization of 441 kJ/mol and a normal boiling point of 3808 K. Besides, spectral emissivities of liquid UO 2 were measured at the pyrometer wavelengths of 752 and 1064 nm. (author)

  15. Boiling process modelling peculiarities analysis of the vacuum boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slobodina, E. N.; Mikhailov, A. G.

    2017-06-01

    The analysis of the low and medium powered boiler equipment development was carried out, boiler units possible development directions with the purpose of energy efficiency improvement were identified. Engineering studies for the vacuum boilers applying are represented. Vacuum boiler heat-exchange processes where boiling water is the working body are considered. Heat-exchange intensification method under boiling at the maximum heat- transfer coefficient is examined. As a result of the conducted calculation studies, heat-transfer coefficients variation curves depending on the pressure, calculated through the analytical and numerical methodologies were obtained. The conclusion about the possibility of numerical computing method application through RPI ANSYS CFX for the boiling process description in boiler vacuum volume was given.

  16. Low-Flow Film Boiling Heat Transfer on Vertical Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munthe Andersen, J. G.; Dix, G. E.; Leonard, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The phenomenon of film boiling heat transfer for high wall temperatures has been investigated. Based on the assumption of laminar flow for the film, the continuity, momentum, and energy equations for the vapor film are solved and a Bromley-type analytical expression for the heat transfer...... length, an average film boiling heat transfer coefficient is obtained....

  17. Microchannel boiling mechanisms leading to burnout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landram, C.S.; Riddle, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The authors are analyzing the thermal performance of microchannel heat sinks to extend their applied heat loads beyond coolant single-phase limits. This is the first investigation of boiling in the narrow (50-μm) microchannels having typically high-aspect-ratio (of order 10/1) flow cross-sections. The prescription of local, wall-coolant, interfacial, two-phase correlations first required development of a validated, approximate, thermal-model accounting for conjugate heat transfer. The strongest mechanism for heat transfer in two-phase microchannel flow was found to be saturated boiling in a channel region near the heated base. When this region dried out, burnout occurred, both in the computations and in the experiment

  18. Longevity of Wood-Forced Pools in an Old-Growth Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, J. M.; Woodsmith, R. D.; Johnson, A. C.

    2009-12-01

    Wood debris plays an important role in scouring pools in forest channels and providing resultant habitat for aquatic organisms. We investigated the longevity of such pools in a gravel-bed river flowing through old-growth forest in southeastern Alaska by aging trees and “bear’s bread” fungi (Ganoderma applanatum, Fomitopsis pinicola) growing on pool-forming wood debris. Ages were determined by counting annual growth rings from cores and cross sections of trees and fungi growing on the wood debris. These ages are minimum values because they do not account for lag time between debris recruitment and seedling/spore establishment on the debris, nor do they account for flood scour that may periodically reset tree and fungi growth on the debris. The study stream has a gradient of about 1%, bankfull width and depth of 13.3 and 0.78 m, respectively, median grain size of 18 mm, a high wood loading (0.8 pieces/m), and a correspondingly low pool spacing (0.3 bankfull widths/pool), with 81% of the pools forced by wood debris. The size of wood debris in the study stream is large relative to the channel (average log length of 7.6 m and diameter of 0.35 m), rendering most debris immobile. Eighty-one pool-forming pieces of wood were dated over 1.2 km of stream length, with 28% of these pieces causing scour of more than one pool. In all, 122 wood-forced pools were dated, accounting for 38% of all pools at the site and 47% of the wood-forced pools. Fifty-three percent of the wood-forced pools lacked datable wood because these pieces either: were newly recruited; had been scoured by floods; or were contained below the active channel elevation, prohibiting vegetation establishment on the wood debris (the most common cause). The debris age distribution declined exponentially from 2 to 113 yrs., with a median value of 18 yrs. Similar exponential residence time distributions have been reported in other studies, but our analysis focused specifically on the ages of pool-forming wood

  19. Acceleration of a two-phase flow by boiling, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Yasuo; Hijikata, Kunio; Iwata, Shoichiro

    1976-01-01

    Acceleration of two-component, two-phase flow has been studied, and a method using the volume expansion by boiling for accelerating fluid has been investigated. In this study, the phenomena of atomizing and boiling were separated, and the liquid with low boiling point was injected into water at lower than the saturation temperature, and was atomized. Then, this was mixed with high temperature liquid and was boiled. The uniform buffle flow was produced, and the phenomena were observed with a high speed camera. The process of acceleration and the acceleration performance were compared with the results of theoretical analysis described in the second report. The experiment was carried out with liquid R113, and at first, the mechanism of atomizing was studied. The atomizing was caused when the relative velocity between R113 and water was more than 4 m/s irrespective of water velocity. The distribution of the diameter of fine liquid drops was almost normal distribution. When the fine drops of R113 were mixed with the high temperature water, bubbles were produced, and the production rate showed definite dependence on the degree of overheating. The flow of bubbles was uniform. However, some of R113 did not become bubbles. The efficiency of acceleration was 1.0 which was independent of the degree of overheating. A further problem is to reduce the quantity of the liquid which does not boil. (Kato, T.)

  20. Experimental study of mass boiling in a porous medium model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This manuscript presents a pore-scale experimental study of convective boiling heat transfer in a two-dimensional porous medium. The purpose is to deepen the understanding of thermohydraulics of porous media saturated with multiple fluid phases, in order to enhance management of severe accidents in nuclear reactors. Indeed, following a long-lasting failure in the cooling system of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) or a boiling water reactor (BWR) and despite the lowering of the control rods that stops the fission reaction, residual power due to radioactive decay keeps heating up the core. This induces water evaporation, which leads to the drying and degradation of the fuel rods. The resulting hot debris bed, comparable to a porous heat-generating medium, can be cooled down by reflooding, provided a water source is available. This process involves intense boiling mechanisms that must be modelled properly. The experimental study of boiling in porous media presented in this thesis focuses on the influence of different pore-scale boiling regimes on local heat transfer. The experimental setup is a model porous medium made of a bundle of heating cylinders randomly placed between two ceramic plates, one of which is transparent. Each cylinder is a resistance temperature detector (RTD) used to give temperature measurements as well as heat generation. Thermal measurements and high-speed image acquisition allow the effective heat exchanges to be characterized according to the observed local boiling regimes. This provides precious indications precious indications for the type of correlations used in the non-equilibrium macroscopic model used to model reflooding process. (author) [fr

  1. An Analytical Approach for Relating Boiling Points of Monofunctional Organic Compounds to Intermolecular Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Jef

    2011-01-01

    The boiling point of a monofunctional organic compound is expressed as the sum of two parts: a contribution to the boiling point due to the R group and a contribution due to the functional group. The boiling point in absolute temperature of the corresponding RH hydrocarbon is chosen for the contribution to the boiling point of the R group and is a…

  2. Evaluation of onset of nucleate boiling models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, LiDong [Heat Transfer Research, Inc., College Station, TX (United States)], e-mail: lh@htri.net

    2009-07-01

    This article discusses available models and correlations for predicting the required heat flux or wall superheat for the Onset of Nucleate Boiling (ONB) on plain surfaces. It reviews ONB data in the open literature and discusses the continuing efforts of Heat Transfer Research, Inc. in this area. Our ONB database contains ten individual sources for ten test fluids and a wide range of operating conditions for different geometries, e.g., tube side and shell side flow boiling and falling film evaporation. The article also evaluates literature models and correlations based on the data: no single model in the open literature predicts all data well. The prediction uncertainty is especially higher in vacuum conditions. Surface roughness is another critical criterion in determining which model should be used. However, most models do not directly account for surface roughness, and most investigators do not provide surface roughness information in their published findings. Additional experimental research is needed to improve confidence in predicting the required wall superheats for nucleation boiling for engineering design purposes. (author)

  3. Evaluation of onset of nucleate boiling models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, LiDong

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses available models and correlations for predicting the required heat flux or wall superheat for the Onset of Nucleate Boiling (ONB) on plain surfaces. It reviews ONB data in the open literature and discusses the continuing efforts of Heat Transfer Research, Inc. in this area. Our ONB database contains ten individual sources for ten test fluids and a wide range of operating conditions for different geometries, e.g., tube side and shell side flow boiling and falling film evaporation. The article also evaluates literature models and correlations based on the data: no single model in the open literature predicts all data well. The prediction uncertainty is especially higher in vacuum conditions. Surface roughness is another critical criterion in determining which model should be used. However, most models do not directly account for surface roughness, and most investigators do not provide surface roughness information in their published findings. Additional experimental research is needed to improve confidence in predicting the required wall superheats for nucleation boiling for engineering design purposes. (author)

  4. Numerical investigation of boiling heat transfer on hydrocarbon mixture refrigerant in vertical rectangular minichannel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huixing Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the characteristics of boiling heat transfer for hydrocarbon mixture refrigerant in plate-fin heat exchanger which is used in the petrochemical industry field, a model was established on boiling heat transfer in vertical rectangular channel. The simulated results were compared with the experimental data from literature. The results show that the deviation between the simulated results and experimental data is within ±15%. Meanwhile, the characteristic of boiling heat transfer was investigated in vertical rectangular minichannel of plate-fin heat exchanger. The results show that the boiling heat transfer coefficient increases with the increase in quality and mass flux and is slightly impacted by the heat flux. This is because that the main boiling mechanism is forced convective boiling while the contribution of nucleate boiling is slight. The correlation of Liu and Winterton is in good agreement with the simulation results. The deviation between correlation calculations and simulation results is mostly less than ±15%. These results will provide some constructive instructions for the understanding of saturated boiling mechanism in a vertical rectangular minichannel and the prediction of heat transfer performance in plate-fin heat exchanger.

  5. Modeling of subcooled boiling in the vertical flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncar, B.; Mavko, B.

    1999-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of subcooled boiling in a vertical channel was developed. Its basic idea is that the vapor phase generation has a similar effect on the flow field as a hypothetical liquid phase generation. The bubble volume, generated due to evaporation process, was filled with liquid and included as a source term in the continuity equation for the liquid phase. Thus, the single-phase from of transport equations was preserved and bubbles were retained in the boundary layer near the heated surface. Time development of subcooled boiling was simulated and effects of governing physical mechanisms (evaporation, condensation, vapor-phase convection, vapor-phase diffusion) on the flow field and pressure drop were analyzed. The Results of the proposed two-dimensional model were compared with experimental data and RELAP5/MOD3.2 calculations. The presented model represents a contribution to the two-dimensional simulation of the subcooled boiling phenomenon.(author)

  6. CFD simulation of subcooled flow boiling at low pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koncar, B.; Mavko, B.

    2001-01-01

    An increased interest to numerically simulate the subcooled flow boiling at low pressures (1 to 10 bar) has been aroused in recent years, pursued by the need to perform safety analyses of research nuclear reactors and to investigate the sump cooling concept for future light water reactors. In this paper the subcooled flow boiling has been simulated with a multidimensional two-fluid model used in a CFX-4.3 computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. The existing model was adequately modified for low pressure conditions. It was shown that interfacial forces, which are usually used for adiabatic flows, need to be modeled to simulate subcooled boiling at low pressure conditions. Simulation results are compared against published experimental data [1] and agree well with experiments.(author)

  7. Dependence of bubble behavior in subcooled boiling on surface wettability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Takahiro; Nagakura, Hiroshi; Okawa, Tomio

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of visualization experiments that were carried out to investigate the dynamics of vapor bubbles generated in water pool boiling. In the experiments, vapor bubbles were generated on a vertical circular surface of a copper block containing nine cartridge heaters, and the contact angle of the heated surface was used as a main experimental parameter. The experiments were performed under subcooled as well as nearly saturated conditions. To enable clear observation of individual bubbles with a high speed camera, the heat flux was kept low enough to eliminate significant overlapping of bubbles. When the contact angle was small, the bubbles were lifted-off the vertical heated surface within a short period