CFD-DEM Simulation of Minimum Fluidisation Velocity in Two Phase Medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H Khawaja
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this work, CFD-DEM (computational fluid dynamics - discrete element method has been used to model the 2 phase flow composed of solid particle and gas in the fluidised bed. This technique uses the Eulerian and the Langrangian methods to solve fluid and particles respectively. Each particle is treated as a discrete entity whose motion is governed by Newton's laws of motion. The particle-particle and particle-wall interaction is modelled using the classical contact mechanics. The particles motion is coupled with the volume averaged equations of the fluid dynamics using drag law. In fluidised bed, particles start experiencing drag once the fluid is passing through. The solid particles response to it once drag experienced is just equal to the weight of the particles. At this moment pressure drop across the bed is just equal to the weight of particles divide by the cross-section area. This is the first regime of fluidization, also referred as ‘the regime of minimum fluidization’. In this study, phenomenon of minimum fluidization is studied using CFD-DEM simulation with 4 different sizes of particles 0.15 mm, 0.3 mm, 0.6 mm, and 1.2 mm diameters. The results are presented in the form of pressure drop across the bed with the fluid superficial velocity. The achieved results are found in good agreement with the experimental and theoretical data available in literature.
experimental investigation of sand minimum transport velocity
African Journals Online (AJOL)
user
The production of reservoir fluid through long tiebacks/pipelines has emerged as one of ... transport in multiphase flows, the investigation of the ... Nigerian Journal of Technology ... associated with water-gas-oil-solid flow in pipeline in ... The mixture was well agitated using a .... operational conditions the limit deposit velocity.
CFD study of the minimum bubbling velocity of Geldart A particles in gas-fluidized beds
Wang, Junwu; Hoef, van der M.A.; Kuipers, J.A.M.
2010-01-01
The minimum bubbling velocity, which demarcates the homogeneous and heterogeneous fluidization regimes, plays a pivotal role in gas fluidization of Geldart A particles. We systematically study the effect of gas and particle properties on the minimum bubbling velocity of Geldart A particles in
Effect of Phase Transformations on Seismic Velocities
Weidner, D. J.; Li, L.; Whitaker, M.; Triplett, R.
2017-12-01
The radial velocity structure of the Earth consists of smooth variations of velocities with depth punctuated by abrupt changes of velocity, which are typically due to multivariant phase transformations, where high - low pressure phases can coexist. In this mixed phase region, both the effective shear and bulk moduli will be significantly reduced by the dynamic interaction of the propagating wave and the phase transition if the period of the wave is long enough relative to the kinetic time so that some of the transition can take place. In this presentation, we will give examples from both laboratory studies of phases transitions of Earth minerals and the calculated velocity profile based on our models. We focus on understanding the time limiting factor of the phase transformation in order to extrapolate laboratory results to Earth observations. Both the olivine to ringwoodite transition and KLB-1 partial melting are explored. We find that when the transformation requires diffusion, the kinetics are often slowed down considerably and as a result the diffusivity of atoms become the limiting factor of characteristic time. Specifically Fe-Mg exchange rate in the olivine-ringwoodite phase transition becomes the limiting factor that seismic waves are likely to sample. On the other hand, partial melting is an extremely fast phase transformation at seismic wave periods. We present evidence that ultrasonic waves, with a period of a few tens of nanoseconds, are slowed by the reduction of the effective elastic moduli in this case.
Minimum acceptable face velocities of laboratory fume hoods and guidelines for their classification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bolton, N.E.; Porter, W.E.; Alcorn, S.P.; Everett, W.S.; Hunt, J.B.; Morehead, J.F.; Higdon, H.F.
1978-06-01
Data developed to support the requirement of a 100 LFM minimum face velocity requirement for laboratory fume hoods are summarized. Also included is a description of the Y-12 test hood as well as guidelines for a hood classification scheme
Minimum Cost Nanosatellite Launch System, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Delta Velocity Corporation proposes the development of a very low cost, highly responsive nanosat launch system. We propose to develop an integrated propulsion...
Prasitmeeboon, Pitcha
repetitive control FIR compensator. The aim is to reduce the final error level by using real time frequency response model updates to successively increase the cutoff frequency, each time creating the improved model needed to produce convergence zero error up to the higher cutoff. Non-minimum phase systems present a difficult design challenge to the sister field of Iterative Learning Control. The third topic investigates to what extent the same challenges appear in RC. One challenge is that the intrinsic non-minimum phase zero mapped from continuous time is close to the pole of repetitive controller at +1 creating behavior similar to pole-zero cancellation. The near pole-zero cancellation causes slow learning at DC and low frequencies. The Min-Max cost function over the learning rate is presented. The Min-Max can be reformulated as a Quadratically Constrained Linear Programming problem. This approach is shown to be an RC design approach that addresses the main challenge of non-minimum phase systems to have a reasonable learning rate at DC. Although it was illustrated that using the Min-Max objective improves learning at DC and low frequencies compared to other designs, the method requires model accuracy at high frequencies. In the real world, models usually have error at high frequencies. The fourth topic addresses how one can merge the quadratic penalty to the Min-Max cost function to increase robustness at high frequencies. The topic also considers limiting the Min-Max optimization to some frequencies interval and applying an FIR zero-phase low-pass filter to cutoff the learning for frequencies above that interval.
Droplet squeezing through a narrow constriction: Minimum impulse and critical velocity
Zhang, Zhifeng; Drapaca, Corina; Chen, Xiaolin; Xu, Jie
2017-07-01
Models of a droplet passing through narrow constrictions have wide applications in science and engineering. In this paper, we report our findings on the minimum impulse (momentum change) of pushing a droplet through a narrow circular constriction. The existence of this minimum impulse is mathematically derived and numerically verified. The minimum impulse happens at a critical velocity when the time-averaged Young-Laplace pressure balances the total minor pressure loss in the constriction. Finally, numerical simulations are conducted to verify these concepts. These results could be relevant to problems of energy optimization and studies of chemical and biomedical systems.
Minimum and Full Fluidization Velocity for Alumina Used in the Aluminum Smelter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paulo Douglas S. de Vasconcelos
2011-11-01
Full Text Available Fluidization is an engineering unit operation that occurs when a fluid (liquid or gas ascends through a bed of particles, and these particles get a velocity of minimum fluidization enough to stay in suspension, but without carrying them in the ascending flow. As from this moment the powder behaves as liquid at boiling point, hence the term “fluidization”. This operation is widely used in the aluminum smelter processes, for gas dry scrubbing (mass transfer and in a modern plant for continuous alumina pot feeding (particles’ momentum transfer. The understanding of the alumina fluoride rheology is of vital importance in the design of fluidized beds for gas treatment and fluidized pipelines for pot feeding. This paper shows the results of the experimental and theoretical values of the minimum and full fluidization velocities for the alumina fluoride used to project the state of the art round non‐metallic air‐fluidized conveyor of multiples outlets.
Minimum 1D P wave velocity model for the Cordillera Volcanica de Guanacaste, Costa Rica
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Araya, Maria C.; Linkimer, Lepolt; Taylor, Waldo
2016-01-01
A minimum velocity model is derived from 475 local earthquakes registered by the Observatorio Vulcanologico y Sismologico Arenal Miravalles (OSIVAM) for the Cordillera Volcanica de Guanacaste, between January 2006 and July 2014. The model has consisted of six layers from the surface up to 80 km the depth. The model has presented speeds varying between 3,96 and 7,79 km/s. The corrections obtained from the seismic stations have varied between -0,28 to 0,45, and they have shown a trend of positive values on the volcanic arc and negative on the forearc, in concordance with the crustal thickness. The relocation of earthquakes have presented three main groups of epicenters that could be associated with activity in inferred failures. The minimum ID velocity model has provided a simplified idea of the crustal structure and aims to contribute with the improvement of the routine location of earthquakes performed by OSIVAM. (author) [es
Minimum-phase distribution of cosmic source brightness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gal'chenko, A.A.; Malov, I.F.; Mogil'nitskaya, L.F.; Frolov, V.A.
1984-01-01
Minimum-phase distributions of brightness (profiles) for cosmic radio sources 3C 144 (the wave lambda=21 cm), 3C 338 (lambda=3.5 m), and 3C 353 (labda=31.3 cm and 3.5 m) are obtained. A real possibility for the profile recovery from module fragments of its Fourier-image is shown
Design of Linear - and Minimum-phase FIR-equalizers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bysted, Tommy Kristensen; Jensen, K.J.; Gaunholt, Hans
1996-01-01
an error function which is quadratic in the filtercoefficients. The advantage of the quadratic function is the ability to find the optimal coefficients solving a system of linear equations without iterations.The transformation to a minimum-phase equalizer is carried out by homomorphic deconvolution...
Wave Tank Studies of Phase Velocities of Short Wind Waves
Ermakov, S.; Sergievskaya, I.; Shchegolkov, Yu.
Wave tank studies of phase velocities of short wind waves have been carried out using Ka-band radar and an Optical Spectrum Analyser. The phase velocities were retrieved from measured radar and optical Doppler shifts, taking into account measurements of surface drift velocities. The dispersion relationship was studied in centimetre (cm)- and millimetre(mm)-scale wavelength ranges at different fetches and wind speeds, both for a clean water surface and for water covered with surfactant films. It is ob- tained that the phase velocities do not follow the dispersion relation of linear capillary- gravity waves, increasing with fetch and, therefore, depending on phase velocities of dominant decimetre (dm)-centimetre-scale wind waves. One thus can conclude that nonlinear cm-mm-scale harmonics bound to the dominant wind waves and propagat- ing with the phase velocities of the decimetric waves are present in the wind wave spectrum. The resulting phase velocities of short wind waves are determined by re- lation between free and bound waves. The relative intensity of the bound waves in the spectrum of short wind waves is estimated. It is shown that this relation depends strongly on the surfactant concentration, because the damping effect due to films is different for free and bound waves; this results to changes of phase velocities of wind waves in the presence of surfactant films. This work was supported by MOD, UK via DERA Winfrith (Project ISTC 1774P) and by RFBR (Project 02-05-65102).
Passivity Based Stabilization of Non-minimum Phase Nonlinear Systems
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Travieso-Torres, J.C.; Duarte-Mermoud, M.A.; Zagalak, Petr
2009-01-01
Roč. 45, č. 3 (2009), s. 417-426 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/07/1596 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : nonlinear systems * stabilisation * passivity * state feedback Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 0.445, year: 2009 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2009/AS/zagalak-passivity based stabilization of non-minimum phase nonlinear systems.pdf
Speedup of minimum discontinuity phase unwrapping algorithm with a reference phase distribution
Liu, Yihang; Han, Yu; Li, Fengjiao; Zhang, Qican
2018-06-01
In three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement based on phase analysis, the phase analysis process usually produces a wrapped phase map ranging from - π to π with some 2 π discontinuities, and thus a phase unwrapping algorithm is necessary to recover the continuous and nature phase map from which 3D height distribution can be restored. Usually, the minimum discontinuity phase unwrapping algorithm can be used to solve many different kinds of phase unwrapping problems, but its main drawback is that it requires a large amount of computations and has low efficiency in searching for the improving loop within the phase's discontinuity area. To overcome this drawback, an improvement to speedup of the minimum discontinuity phase unwrapping algorithm by using the phase distribution on reference plane is proposed. In this improved algorithm, before the minimum discontinuity phase unwrapping algorithm is carried out to unwrap phase, an integer number K was calculated from the ratio of the wrapped phase to the nature phase on a reference plane. And then the jump counts of the unwrapped phase can be reduced by adding 2K π, so the efficiency of the minimum discontinuity phase unwrapping algorithm is significantly improved. Both simulated and experimental data results verify the feasibility of the proposed improved algorithm, and both of them clearly show that the algorithm works very well and has high efficiency.
Propagation of the Semidiurnal Internal Tide: Phase Velocity Versus Group Velocity
Zhao, Zhongxiang
2017-12-01
The superposition of two waves of slightly different wavelengths has long been used to illustrate the distinction between phase velocity and group velocity. The first-mode M2 and S2 internal tides exemplify such a two-wave model in the natural ocean. The M2 and S2 tidal frequencies are 1.932 and 2 cycles per day, respectively, and their superposition forms a spring-neap cycle in the semidiurnal band. The spring-neap cycle acts like a wave, with its frequency, wave number, and phase being the differences of the M2 and S2 internal tides. The spring-neap cycle and energy of the semidiurnal internal tide propagate at the group velocity. Long-range propagation of M2 and S2 internal tides in the North Pacific is observed by satellite altimetry. Along a 3,400 km beam spanning 24°-54°N, the M2 and S2 travel times are 10.9 and 11.2 days, respectively. For comparison, it takes the spring-neap cycle 21.1 days to travel over this distance. Spatial maps of the M2 phase velocity, the S2 phase velocity, and the group velocity are determined from phase gradients of the corresponding satellite observed internal tide fields. The observed phase and group velocities agree with theoretical values estimated using the World Ocean Atlas 2013 annual-mean ocean stratification.
29 CFR 510.23 - Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. Agriculture activities eligible for an extended phase-in of the minimum...
MR flow velocity measurement using 2D phase contrast, assessment of imaging parameters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akata, Soichi; Fukushima, Akihiro; Abe, Kimihiko; Darkanzanli, A.; Gmitro, A.F.; Unger, E.C.; Capp, M.P.
1999-01-01
The two-dimensional (2D) phase contrast technique using balanced gradient pulses is utilized to measure flow velocities of cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Various imaging parameters affect the accuracy of flow velocity measurements to varying degrees. Assessment of the errors introduced by changing the imaging parameters are presented and discussed in this paper. A constant flow phantom consisting of a pump, a polyethylene tube and a flow meter was assembled. A clinical 1.5 Tesla MR imager was used to perform flow velocity measurements. The phase contrast technique was used to estimate the flow velocity of saline through the phantom. The effects of changes in matrix size, flip angle, flow compensation, and velocity encoding (VENC) value were tested in the pulse sequence. Gd-DTPA doped saline was used to study the effect of changing T1 on the accuracy of flow velocity measurement. Matrix size (within practical values), flip angle, and flow compensation had minimum impact on flow velocity measurements. T1 of the solution also had no effect on the accuracy of measuring the flow velocity. On the other hand, it was concluded that errors as high as 20% can be expected in the flow velocity measurements if the VENC value is not properly chosen. (author)
MR flow velocity measurement using 2D phase contrast, assessment of imaging parameters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akata, Soichi; Fukushima, Akihiro; Abe, Kimihiko [Tokyo Medical Coll. (Japan); Darkanzanli, A.; Gmitro, A.F.; Unger, E.C.; Capp, M.P.
1999-11-01
The two-dimensional (2D) phase contrast technique using balanced gradient pulses is utilized to measure flow velocities of cerebrospinal fluid and blood. Various imaging parameters affect the accuracy of flow velocity measurements to varying degrees. Assessment of the errors introduced by changing the imaging parameters are presented and discussed in this paper. A constant flow phantom consisting of a pump, a polyethylene tube and a flow meter was assembled. A clinical 1.5 Tesla MR imager was used to perform flow velocity measurements. The phase contrast technique was used to estimate the flow velocity of saline through the phantom. The effects of changes in matrix size, flip angle, flow compensation, and velocity encoding (VENC) value were tested in the pulse sequence. Gd-DTPA doped saline was used to study the effect of changing T1 on the accuracy of flow velocity measurement. Matrix size (within practical values), flip angle, and flow compensation had minimum impact on flow velocity measurements. T1 of the solution also had no effect on the accuracy of measuring the flow velocity. On the other hand, it was concluded that errors as high as 20% can be expected in the flow velocity measurements if the VENC value is not properly chosen. (author)
Phase velocity enhancement of linear explosive shock tubes
Loiseau, Jason; Serge, Matthew; Szirti, Daniel; Higgins, Andrew; Tanguay, Vincent
2011-06-01
Strong, high density shocks can be generated by sequentially detonating a hollow cylinder of explosives surrounding a thin-walled, pressurized tube. Implosion of the tube results in a pinch that travels at the detonation velocity of the explosive and acts like a piston to drive a shock into the gas ahead of it. In order to increase the maximum shock velocities that can be obtained, a phase velocity generator can be used to drag an oblique detonation wave along the gas tube at a velocity much higher than the base detonation velocity of the explosive. Since yielding and failure of the gas tube is the primary limitation of these devices, it is desirable to retain the dynamic confinement effects of a heavy-walled tamper without interfering with operation of the phase velocity generator. This was accomplished by cutting a slit into the tamper and introducing a phased detonation wave such that it asymmetrically wraps around the gas tube. This type of configuration has been previously experimentally verified to produce very strong shocks but the post-shock pressure and shock velocity limits have not been investigated. This study measured the shock trajectory for various fill pressures and phase velocities to ascertain the limiting effects of tube yield, detonation obliquity and pinch aspect ratio.
Characteristics of low-mass-velocity vertical gas-liquid two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adachi, Hiromichi; Abe, Yutaka; Kimura, Ko-ji
1995-01-01
In the present paper, characteristics of low mass velocity two-phase flow was analyzed based on a concept that pressure energy of two-phase flow is converted into acceleration work, gravitational work and frictional work, and the pressure energy consumption rate should be minimum at the stable two-phase flow condition. Experimental data for vertical upward air-water two-phase flow at atmospheric pressure was used to verify this concept and the turbulent model used in this method is optimized with the data. (author)
Railgun armature velocity improvement, SBIR phase 2
Thurmond, Leo E.; Bauer, David P.
1992-08-01
Railgun hypervelocity performance has not been repeatably demonstrated at velocities over 6 km/s. A significant performance limiting phenomena is the formation of secondary current paths in parallel with the main projectile accelerating plasma. A confined plasma armature technique was developed to prevent secondary armature formation. Confinement prevents loss of ionized material from the plasma armature and thereby prevents formation of a low rail-to-rail conductance. We controlled pressure in the confined armature via controlled venting through ports in the rails. Railgun tests with the confined armature show that sealing at the rail-confinement vessel interface is critical and difficult to achieve. Our tests show that during low seal leakage operation secondaries are prevented. However, maintaining good seal for the entire launch is very difficult.
Reconfigurable Wave Velocity Transmission Lines for Phased Arrays
Host, Nick; Chen, Chi-Chih; Volakis, John L.; Miranda, Felix
2013-01-01
Phased array antennas showcase many advantages over mechanically steered systems. However, they are also more complex, heavy and most importantly costly. This presentation paper presents a concept which overcomes these detrimental attributes by eliminating all of the phase array backend (including phase shifters). Instead, a wave velocity reconfigurable transmission line is used in a series fed array arrangement to allow phase shifting with one small (100mil) mechanical motion. Different configurations of the reconfigurable wave velocity transmission line are discussed and simulated and experimental results are presented.
Background velocity inversion by phase along reflection wave paths
Yu, Han; Guo, Bowen; Schuster, Gerard T.
2014-01-01
A background velocity model containing the correct lowwavenumber information is desired for both the quality of the migration image and the success of waveform inversion. We propose to invert for the low-wavenumber part of the velocity model by minimizing the phase difference between predicted and observed reflections. The velocity update is exclusively along the reflection wavepaths and, unlike conventional FWI, not along the reflection ellipses. This allows for reconstructing the smoothly varying parts of the background velocity model. Tests with synthetic data show both the benefits and limitations of this method.
Background velocity inversion by phase along reflection wave paths
Yu, Han
2014-08-05
A background velocity model containing the correct lowwavenumber information is desired for both the quality of the migration image and the success of waveform inversion. We propose to invert for the low-wavenumber part of the velocity model by minimizing the phase difference between predicted and observed reflections. The velocity update is exclusively along the reflection wavepaths and, unlike conventional FWI, not along the reflection ellipses. This allows for reconstructing the smoothly varying parts of the background velocity model. Tests with synthetic data show both the benefits and limitations of this method.
Minimum pickup velocity (U{sub pu}) of nanoparticles in gas–solid pneumatic conveying
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anantharaman, Aditya [Nanyang Technological University, School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (Singapore); Ommen, J. Ruud van [Delft University of Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering (Netherlands); Chew, Jia Wei, E-mail: JChew@ntu.edu.sg [Nanyang Technological University, School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering (Singapore)
2015-12-15
This paper is the first systematic study of the pneumatic conveying of nanoparticles. The minimum pickup velocity, U{sub pu}, of six nanoparticle species of different materials [i.e., silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}), aluminum oxide (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2})] and surfaces (i.e., apolar and polar) was determined by the weight loss method. Results show that (1) due to relative lack of hydrogen bonding, apolar nanoparticles had higher mass loss values at the same velocities, mass loss curves with accentuated S-shaped profiles, and lower U{sub pu} values, (2) among the three species, SiO{sub 2}, which has the lowest Hamaker coefficient, exhibited the greatest discrepancy between apolar and polar surfaces with respect to both mass loss curves and U{sub pu} values, (3) U{sub mf,polar}/U{sub mf,apolar} was between 1 and 3.5 times that of U{sub pu,polar}/U{sub pu,apolar} due to greater extents of hydrogen bonding associated with U{sub mf}, (4) U{sub pu} values were at least an order-of-magnitude lower than that expected from the well-acknowledged U{sub pu} correlation (Kalman et al., Powder Technol 160:103–113, 2005) due to agglomeration, (5) although nanoparticles should be categorized as Zone III (Kalman et al. 2005) (or Geldart group C, Powder Technol 7:285–292, 1973), the nanoparticles, and primary and complex agglomerates agreed more with the Zone I (or Geldart group B) correlation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thayla Morandi Ridolfi de Carvalho
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate different minimum ventilation systems, in relation to air quality and thermal comfort using geostatistics in brooding phase. The minimum ventilation systems were: Blue House I: exhaust fans + curtain management (end of the building; Blue House II: exhaust fans + side curtain management; and Dark House: exhaust fans + flag. The climate variables evaluated were: dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, carbon dioxide and ammonia concentration, during winter time, at 9 a.m., in 80 equidistant points in brooding area. Data were evaluated by geostatistic technique. The results indicate that Wider broiler houses (above 15.0 m width present the greatest ammonia and humidity concentration. Blue House II present the best results in relation to air quality. However, none of the studied broiler houses present an ideal thermal comfort.
Phased-array vector velocity estimation using transverse oscillations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pihl, Michael Johannes; Marcher, Jønne; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2012-01-01
.79 to 0.92, indicating a correlation between the performance metrics of the TO spectrum and the velocity estimates. Because these performance metrics are much more readily computed, the TO fields can be optimized faster for improved velocity estimation of both simulations and measurements. For simulations......, but with a poorer performance compared with a 128-element transducer. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the TO method is suitable for use in conjunction with a phased-array transducer, and that 2-D vector velocity estimation is possible down to a depth of 15 cm....
Transverse Oscillations for Phased Array Vector Velocity Imaging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pihl, Michael Johannes; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2010-01-01
of superficial blood vessels. To broaden the usability of the method, it should be expanded to a phased array geometry enabling vector velocity imaging of the heart. Therefore, the scan depth has to be increased to 10-15 cm. This paper presents suitable pulse echo fields (PEF). Two lines are beamformed...... (correlation coefficient, R: -0.76), and therefore predict estimator performance. CV is correlated with the standard deviation (R=0.74). The results demonstrate the potential for using a phased array for vector velocity imaging at larger depths, and potentially for imaging the heart....
Spatiotemporal Signal Analysis via the Phase Velocity Transform
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mattor, Nathan
2000-01-01
The phase velocity transform (PVT) is an integral transform that divides a function of space and time into components that propagate at uniform phase velocities without distortion. This paper examines the PVT as a method to analyze spatiotemporal fluctuation data. The transform is extended to systems with discretely sampled data on a periodic domain, and applied to data from eight azimuthally distributed probes on the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX). This reveals features not shown by Fourier analysis, particularly regarding nonsinusoidal mode structure. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Interferometric phase velocity measurements in the auroral electrojet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Labelle, J.; Kinter, P.M.; Kelley, M.C.
1986-01-01
A double-probe electric field detector and two spatially separated fixed-bias Langmuir probes were flown on a Taurus-Tomahawk sounding rocket launched from Poker Flat Research Range in March 1982. Interesting wave data have been obtained from about 10 s of the downleg portion of the flight during which the rocket passed through the auroral electrojet. Here the electric field receiver and both density fluctuation (deltan/n) receivers responded to a broad band of turbulence centered at 105 km altitude and at frequencies generally below 4 kHz. Closer examination of the two deltan/n turbulent waveforms reveals that they are correlated, and from the phase difference between the two signals, the phase velocity of the waves in the rocket reference frame is inferred. The magnitude and direction of the observed phase velocity are consistent either with waves which travel at the ion sound speed (Csub(s)) or with waves which travel at the electron drift velocity. The observed phase velocity varies by about 50% over a 5 km altitude range - an effect which probably results from shear in the zonal neutral wind, although unfortunately no simultaneous neutral wind measurements exist to confirm this. (author)
29 CFR 510.22 - Industries eligible for minimum wage phase-in.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Industries eligible for minimum wage phase-in. 510.22... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Classification of Industries § 510.22 Industries eligible for minimum wage phase-in...
29 CFR Appendix D to Part 510 - Municipalities Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Municipalities Eligible for Minimum Wage Phase-In D... OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR... Minimum Wage Phase-In This appendix contains a listing of the municipalities in Puerto Rico and the tier...
29 CFR 510.24 - Governmental entities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Governmental entities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. (a) The Commonwealth government of Puerto Rico has been determined to...
Control of group velocity by phase-changing collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goren, C.; Rosenbluh, M.; Wilson-Gordon, A.D.; Friedmann, H.
2005-01-01
We discuss the influence of phase-changing collisions on the group velocities in Doppler-broadened, cycling, degenerate two-level systems where F e =F g +1 and F g >0, interacting with pump and probe lasers, that exhibit electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA). Two model systems are considered: the N system where the pump and probe are polarized perpendicularly, and EIA is due to transfer of coherence (TOC), and the double two-level system (TLS) where both lasers have the same polarization, and EIA is due to transfer of population (TOP). For the case of Doppler-broadened EIA TOC, which occurs at low pump intensity, there is a switch from positive to negative dispersion and group velocity, as the rate of phase-changing collisions is increased. For the case of EIA TOP at low pump intensity, the dispersion and group velocity remain negative even when the collision rate is increased. Pressure-induced narrowing, accompanied by an increase in the magnitude of the negative dispersion and a decrease in the magnitude of the negative group velocity, occurs in both EIA TOC and EIA TOP, at low pump intensity. When the pump intensity is increased, a switch from negative to positive dispersion and group velocity, with increasing collision rate, also occurs in the double TLS system. However, the effect is far smaller than in the case of the N system at low pump intensity
Surface wave phase velocities between Bulgaria and the Czech Republic
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Gaždová, Renata; Kolínský, Petr; Popova, I.; Dimitrova, L.
2011-01-01
Roč. 18, č. 2 (2011), s. 16-23 ISSN 1803-1447. [OVA´11 – New Knowledge and Measurements in Seismology, Engineering Geophysics and Geotechnics. Ostrava, 12.04.2011-14.04.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1244 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : surface waves * phase velocity * shear wave velocity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure http://www.caag.cz/egrse/2011-2/03%20gazdova_ova.pdf
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kolínský, Petr; Málek, Jiří; Brokešová, J.
2011-01-01
Roč. 15, č. 1 (2011), s. 81-104 ISSN 1383-4649 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA300460602; GA AV ČR IAA300460705; GA ČR(CZ) GA205/06/1780 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30460519 Keywords : love waves * phase velocity dispersion * frequency-time analysis Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.326, year: 2011 www.springerlink.com/content/w3149233l60111t1/
Circumferential-wave phase velocities for empty, fluid-immersed spherical metal shells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Überall, Herbert; Claude Ahyi, A.; Raju, P. K.
2001-01-01
Our earlier studies regarding acoustic scattering resonances and the dispersive phase velocities of the surface waves that generate them, have demonstrated the effectiveness of obtaining phase velocity dispersion curves from the known acoustic resonance frequencies, and their accuracy. This possi...
Models for assessing the relative phase velocity in a two-phase flow. Status report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaffrath, A.; Ringel, H.
2000-06-01
The knowledge of slip or drift flux in two phase flow is necessary for several technical processes (e.g. two phase pressure losses, heat and mass transfer in steam generators and condensers, dwell period in chemical reactors, moderation effectiveness of two phase coolant in BWR). In the following the most important models for two phase flow with different phase velocities (e.g. slip or drift models, analogy between pressure loss and steam quality, ε - ε models and models for the calculation of void distribution in reposing fluids) are classified, described and worked up for a further comparison with own experimental data. (orig.)
Dispersion theory and sum rules for the non-minimum phase problem in optical spectroscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peiponen, Kai-Erik
2009-01-01
Dispersion relations and sum rules for integer powers of an optical response function are given in the case of the non-minimum phase problem. These relations were obtained using the concept of the Hilbert transform and Blaschke product. The theory presented in this paper is useful both in basic and applied studies of non-minimum phase functions in optics, and also other fields of physics such as high energy physics.
Visualization of velocity field and phase distribution in gas-liquid two-phase flow by NMR imaging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsui, G.; Monji, H.; Obata, J.
2004-01-01
NMR imaging has been applied in the field of fluid mechanics, mainly single phase flow, to visualize the instantaneous flow velocity field. In the present study, NMR imaging was used to visualize simultaneously both the instantaneous phase structure and velocity field of gas-liquid two-phase flow. Two methods of NMR imaging were applied. One is useful to visualize both the one component of liquid velocity and the phase distribution. This method was applied to horizontal two-phase flow and a bubble rising in stagnant oil. It was successful in obtaining some pictures of velocity field and phase distribution on the cross section of the pipe. The other is used to visualize a two-dimensional velocity field. This method was applied to a bubble rising in a stagnant water. The velocity field was visualized after and before the passage of a bubble at the measuring cross section. Furthermore, the distribution of liquid velocity was obtained. (author)
Output Feedback Adaptive Control of Non-Minimum Phase Systems Using Optimal Control Modification
Nguyen, Nhan; Hashemi, Kelley E.; Yucelen, Tansel; Arabi, Ehsan
2018-01-01
This paper describes output feedback adaptive control approaches for non-minimum phase SISO systems with relative degree 1 and non-strictly positive real (SPR) MIMO systems with uniform relative degree 1 using the optimal control modification method. It is well-known that the standard model-reference adaptive control (MRAC) cannot be used to control non-SPR plants to track an ideal SPR reference model. Due to the ideal property of asymptotic tracking, MRAC attempts an unstable pole-zero cancellation which results in unbounded signals for non-minimum phase SISO systems. The optimal control modification can be used to prevent the unstable pole-zero cancellation which results in a stable adaptation of non-minimum phase SISO systems. However, the tracking performance using this approach could suffer if the unstable zero is located far away from the imaginary axis. The tracking performance can be recovered by using an observer-based output feedback adaptive control approach which uses a Luenberger observer design to estimate the state information of the plant. Instead of explicitly specifying an ideal SPR reference model, the reference model is established from the linear quadratic optimal control to account for the non-minimum phase behavior of the plant. With this non-minimum phase reference model, the observer-based output feedback adaptive control can maintain stability as well as tracking performance. However, in the presence of the mismatch between the SPR reference model and the non-minimum phase plant, the standard MRAC results in unbounded signals, whereas a stable adaptation can be achieved with the optimal control modification. An application of output feedback adaptive control for a flexible wing aircraft illustrates the approaches.
Energy Demodulation Algorithm for Flow Velocity Measurement of Oil-Gas-Water Three-Phase Flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yingwei Li
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Flow velocity measurement was an important research of oil-gas-water three-phase flow parameter measurements. In order to satisfy the increasing demands for flow detection technology, the paper presented a gas-liquid phase flow velocity measurement method which was based on energy demodulation algorithm combing with time delay estimation technology. First, a gas-liquid phase separation method of oil-gas-water three-phase flow based on energy demodulation algorithm and blind signal separation technology was proposed. The separation of oil-gas-water three-phase signals which were sampled by conductance sensor performed well, so the gas-phase signal and the liquid-phase signal were obtained. Second, we used the time delay estimation technology to get the delay time of gas-phase signals and liquid-phase signals, respectively, and the gas-phase velocity and the liquid-phase velocity were derived. At last, the experiment was performed at oil-gas-water three-phase flow loop, and the results indicated that the measurement errors met the need of velocity measurement. So it provided a feasible method for gas-liquid phase velocity measurement of the oil-gas-water three-phase flow.
Two-phase modeling of DDT: Structure of the velocity-relaxation zone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kapila, A.K.; Son, S.F.; Bdzil, J.B.; Menikoff, R.; Stewart, D.S.
1997-01-01
The structure of the velocity relaxation zone in a hyperbolic, nonconservative, two-phase model is examined in the limit of large drag, and in the context of the problem of deflagration-to-detonation transition in a granular explosive. The primary motivation for the study is the desire to relate the end states across the relaxation zone, which can then be treated as a discontinuity in a reduced, equivelocity model, that is computationally more efficient than its parent. In contrast to a conservative system, where end states across thin zones of rapid variation are determined principally by algebraic statements of conservation, the nonconservative character of the present system requires an explicit consideration of the structure. Starting with the minimum admissible wave speed, the structure is mapped out as the wave speed increases. Several critical wave speeds corresponding to changes in the structure are identified. The archetypal structure is partly dispersed, monotonic, and involves conventional hydrodynamic shocks in one or both phases. The picture is reminiscent of, but more complex than, what is observed in such (simpler) two-phase media as a dusty gas. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics
Simultaneous Temperature and Velocity Diagnostic for Reacting Flows, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A diagnostic technique is proposed for measuring temperature and velocity simultaneously in a high temperature reacting flow for aiding research in propulsion. The...
Efficient Minimum-Phase Prefilter Computation Using Fast QL-Factorization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Morten; Christensen, Lars P.B.
2009-01-01
This paper presents a novel approach for computing both the minimum-phase filter and the associated all-pass filter in a computationally efficient way using the fast QL-factorization. A desirable property of this approach is that the complexity is independent on the size of the matrix which is QL...
Computing the Minimum-Phase Filter using the QL-Factorization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Morten; Christensen, Lars P.B.; Winther, Ole
2010-01-01
We investigate the QL-factorization of a time-invariant convolutive filtering matrix and show that this factorization not only provides the finite length equivalent to the minimum-phase filter, but also gives the associated all-pass filter. The convergence properties are analyzed and we derive...
Velocity-dependent quantum phase slips in 1D atomic superfluids.
Tanzi, Luca; Scaffidi Abbate, Simona; Cataldini, Federica; Gori, Lorenzo; Lucioni, Eleonora; Inguscio, Massimo; Modugno, Giovanni; D'Errico, Chiara
2016-05-18
Quantum phase slips are the primary excitations in one-dimensional superfluids and superconductors at low temperatures but their existence in ultracold quantum gases has not been demonstrated yet. We now study experimentally the nucleation rate of phase slips in one-dimensional superfluids realized with ultracold quantum gases, flowing along a periodic potential. We observe a crossover between a regime of temperature-dependent dissipation at small velocity and interaction and a second regime of velocity-dependent dissipation at larger velocity and interaction. This behavior is consistent with the predicted crossover from thermally-assisted quantum phase slips to purely quantum phase slips.
Transverse Oscillation Vector Velocity Estimation using a Phased Array Transducer
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Marcher, Jønne; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Seerup, Gert
2012-01-01
greater than 100 mm. Tests at depths of 72 mm and 82 mm with a peak velocity of 0.5 m/s, showed a relative mean bias ~Bvx that varied from 0 % and to 21 % and a relative mean standard deviation ~vx that varied from 18 % and to 51 %. The investigation showed an increasing bias with respect to depth, which...
Functional analysis of third ventriculostomy patency with phase-contrast MRI velocity measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lev, S.; Bhadelia, R.A.; Estin, D.; Heilman, C.B.; Wolpert, S.M.
1997-01-01
Our purpose was to explore the utility of cine phase-contrast MRI velocity measurements in determining the functional status of third ventriculostomies, and to correlate the quantitative velocity data with clinical follow-up. We examined six patients with third ventriculostomies and 12 normal subjects by phase-contrast MRI. The maximum craniocaudal to maximum caudocranial velocity range was measured at regions of interest near the third ventricular floor, and in cerebrospinal fluid anterior to the upper pons and spinal cord on midline sagittal images. Ratios of the velocities of both the third ventricle and prepontine space to the space anterior to the spinal cord were obtained. The velocities near the third ventricular floor and in the pontine cistern were significantly higher in patients than in normal subjects, but the velocity anterior to the spinal cord was similar between the groups. The velocity ratios, used to normalize individual differences, were also higher in patients than in controls. Two patients had lower velocity ratios than their fellows at the third ventricular floor and in the pontine cistern; one required a shunt 11 months later, while in the other, who had a third ventricular/thalamic tumor, the lower values probably reflect distortion of the third ventricular floor. We conclude that phase-contrast MR velocity measurements, specifically the velocity ratio between the high pontine cistern and the space anterior to the spinal cord, can help determine the functional status of third ventriculostomies. (orig.)
Power spectral density of velocity fluctuations estimated from phase Doppler data
Jicha Miroslav; Lizal Frantisek; Jedelsky Jan
2012-01-01
Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and its modifications such as PhaseDoppler Particle Anemometry (P/DPA) is point-wise method for optical nonintrusive measurement of particle velocity with high data rate. Conversion of the LDA velocity data from temporal to frequency domain – calculation of power spectral density (PSD) of velocity fluctuations, is a non trivial task due to nonequidistant data sampling in time. We briefly discuss possibilities for the PSD estimation and specify limitations caused...
Rayleigh and Love Wave Phase Velocities in the Northern Gulf Coast of the United States
Li, A.; Yao, Y.
2017-12-01
The last major tectonic event in the northern Gulf Coast of the United States is Mesozoic continental rifting that formed the Gulf of Mexico. This area also experienced igneous activity and local uplifts during Cretaceous. To investigate lithosphere evolution associated with the rifting and igneous activity, we construct Rayleigh and Love wave phase velocity models at the periods of 6 s to 125 s in the northern Gulf Coast from Louisiana to Alabama including the eastern Ouachita and southern Appalachian orogeny. The phase velocities are derived from ambient noise and earthquake data recorded at the 120 USArray Transportable Array stations. At periods below 20 s, phase velocity maps are characterized by significant low velocities in the Interior Salt Basin and Gulf Coast Basin, reflecting the effects of thick sediments. The northern Louisiana and southern Arkansas are imaged as a low velocity anomaly in Rayleigh wave models but a high velocity anomaly of Love wave at the periods of 14 s to 30 s, indicating strong lower crust extension to the Ouachita front. High velocity is present in the Mississippi Valley Graben from period 20 s to 35 s, probably reflecting a thin crust or high-velocity lower crust. At longer periods, low velocities are along the Mississippi River to the Gulf Coast Basin, and high velocity anomaly mainly locates in the Black Warrior Basin between the Ouachita Belt and Appalachian Orogeny. The magnitude of anomalies in Love wave images is much smaller than that in Rayleigh wave models, which is probably due to radial anisotropy in the upper mantle. A 3-D anisotropic shear velocity model will be developed from the phase velocities and will provide more details for the crust and upper mantle structure beneath the northern Gulf of Mexico continental margin.
Phase Resolved Angular Velocity Control of Cross Flow Turbines
Strom, Benjamin; Brunton, Steven; Polagye, Brian
2015-11-01
Cross flow turbines have a number of operational advantages for the conversion of kinetic energy in marine or fluvial currents, but they are often less efficient than axial flow devices. Here a control scheme is presented in which the angular velocity of a cross flow turbine with two straight blades is prescribed as a function of azimuthal blade position, altering the time-varying effective angle of attack. Flume experiments conducted with a scale model turbine show approximately an 80% increase in turbine efficiency versus optimal constant angular velocity and constant resistive torque control schemes. Torque, drag, and lateral forces on one- and two-bladed turbines are analyzed and interpreted with bubble flow visualization to develop a simple model that describes the hydrodynamics responsible for the observed increase in mean efficiency. Challenges associated with implementing this control scheme on commercial-scale devices are discussed. If solutions are found, the performance increase presented here may impact the future development of cross flow turbines.
Experimental study on liquid velocity in upward and downward two-phase flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, X.; Paranjape, S.; Kim, S.; Ozar, B.; Ishii, M.
2003-01-01
Local characteristics of the liquid phase in upward and downward air-water two-phase flows were experimentally investigated in a 50.8-mm inner-diameter round pipe. An integral Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) system was used to measure the axial liquid velocity and its fluctuations. No effect of the flow direction on the liquid velocity radial profile was observed in single-phase liquid benchmark experiments. Local multi-sensor conductivity probes were used to measure the radial profiles of the bubble velocity and the void fraction. The measurement results in the upward and downward two-phase flows are compared and discussed. The results in the downward flow demonstrated that the presence of the bubbles tended to flatten the liquid velocity radial profile, and the maximum liquid velocity could occur off the pipe centerline, in particular at relatively low flow rates. However, the maximum liquid velocity always occurred at the pipe center in the upward flow. Also, noticeable turbulence enhancement due to the bubbles in the two-phase flows was observed in the current experimental flow conditions. Furthermore, the distribution parameter and the void weighted area-averaged drift velocity were obtained based on the definitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, Ming-Hui; Feng, Liang; Liu, Xiao-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Kang; Chen, Yan-Feng; Zhu, Yong-Yuan; Mao, Yi-Wei; Zi, Jian
2007-01-01
Both negative and positive phase velocities for acoustic waves have been experimentally established in a two-dimensional triangular sonic crystal (SC) consisting of steel cylinders embedded in air at first. With the increase of the SCs thickness layer by layer in the experiments, phase shifts decrease in the second band but increase in the first band, showing the negative and the positive phase velocities, respectively. Moreover, the dispersion relation of the SC is constructed by the phase information, which is consistent well with the theoretical results. These abundant characteristics of acoustic wave propagation in the SC might be useful for the device applications
Cai, N.; Chen, T.; Qi, X.; Inoue, T.; Li, B.
2017-12-01
Dense hydrous phases are believed to play an important role in transporting water back into the deep interior of the Earth. Recently, a new Al-bearing hydrous Mg-silicate, named the 23 Å phase (ideal composition Mg12Al2Si4O16(OH)14), was reported (Cai et al., 2015), which could be a very important hydrous phase in subducting slabs. Here for the first time we report the measurements of the compressional and shear wave velocities of the 23 Å phase under applied pressures up to 14 GPa and room temperature, using a bulk sample with a grain size of less than 20 μm and density of 2.947 g/cm3. The acoustic measurements were conducted in a 1000-ton uniaxial split-cylinder multi-anvil apparatus using ultrasonic interferometry techniques (Li et al., 1996). The pressures were determined in situ by using an alumina buffer rod as the pressure marker (Wang et al., 2015). A dual-mode piezoelectric transducer enabled us to measure P and S wave travel times simultaneously, which in turn allowed a precise determination of the sound velocities and elastic bulk and shear moduli at high pressures. A fit to the acoustic data using finite strain analysis combined with a Hashin-Shtrikman (HS) bounds calculation yields: Ks0 = 113.3 GPa, G0 = 42.8 GPa, and K' = 3.8, G' = 1.9 for the bulk and shear moduli and their pressure derivatives. The velocities (especially for S wave) of this 23 Å phase (ambient Vp = 7.53 km/s, Vs = 3.72 km/s) are lower than those of phase A, olivine, pyrope, etc., while the Vp/Vs ratio (from 2.02 to 1.94, decreasing with increasing pressure) is quite high. These results suggest that a hydrous assemblage containing 23 Å phase should be distinguishable from a dry one at high pressure and temperature conditions relevant to Al-bearing subducted slabs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leavell, W.H.; Mullens, J.A.
1981-01-01
A computational algorithm has been developed to measure transient, phase-interface velocity in two-phase, steam-water systems. The algorithm will be used to measure the transient velocity of steam-water mixture during simulated PWR reflood experiments. By utilizing signals produced by two, spatially separated impedance probes immersed in a two-phase mixture, the algorithm computes the average transit time of mixture fluctuations moving between the two probes. This transit time is computed by first, measuring the phase shift between the two probe signals after transformation to the frequency domain and then computing the phase shift slope by a weighted least-squares fitting technique. Our algorithm, which has been tested with both simulated and real data, is able to accurately track velocity transients as fast as 4 m/s/s
Solid phase stability of a double-minimum interaction potential system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suematsu, Ayumi; Yoshimori, Akira; Saiki, Masafumi; Matsui, Jun; Odagaki, Takashi
2014-01-01
We study phase stability of a system with double-minimum interaction potential in a wide range of parameters by a thermodynamic perturbation theory. The present double-minimum potential is the Lennard-Jones-Gauss potential, which has a Gaussian pocket as well as a standard Lennard-Jones minimum. As a function of the depth and position of the Gaussian pocket in the potential, we determine the coexistence pressure of crystals (fcc and bcc). We show that the fcc crystallizes even at zero pressure when the position of the Gaussian pocket is coincident with the first or third nearest neighbor site of the fcc crystal. The bcc crystal is more stable than the fcc crystal when the position of the Gaussian pocket is coincident with the second nearest neighbor sites of the bcc crystal. The stable crystal structure is determined by the position of the Gaussian pocket. These results show that we can control the stability of the solid phase by tuning the potential function
Seafloor age dependence of Rayleigh wave phase velocities in the Indian Ocean
Godfrey, Karen E.; Dalton, Colleen A.; Ritsema, Jeroen
2017-05-01
Variations in the phase velocity of fundamental-mode Rayleigh waves across the Indian Ocean are determined using two inversion approaches. First, variations in phase velocity as a function of seafloor age are estimated using a pure-path age-dependent inversion method. Second, a two-dimensional parameterization is used to solve for phase velocity within 1.25° × 1.25° grid cells. Rayleigh wave travel time delays have been measured between periods of 38 and 200 s. The number of measurements in the study area ranges between 4139 paths at a period of 200 s and 22,272 paths at a period of 40 s. At periods Rodriguez Triple Junction and the Australian-Antarctic Discordance and anomalously low velocities immediately to the west of the Central Indian Ridge.
Velocity Profile measurements in two-phase flow using multi-wave sensors
Biddinika, M. K.; Ito, D.; Takahashi, H.; Kikura, H.; Aritomi, M.
2009-02-01
Two-phase flow has been recognized as one of the most important phenomena in fluid dynamics. In addition, gas-liquid two-phase flow appears in various industrial fields such as chemical industries and power generations. In order to clarify the flow structure, some flow parameters have been measured by using many effective measurement techniques. The velocity profile as one of the important flow parameter, has been measured by using ultrasonic velocity profile (UVP) technique. This technique can measure velocity distributions along a measuring line, which is a beam formed by pulse ultrasounds. Furthermore, a multi-wave sensor can measure the velocity profiles of both gas and liquid phase using UVP method. In this study, two types of multi-wave sensors are used. A sensor has cylindrical shape, and another one has square shape. The piezoelectric elements of each sensor have basic frequencies of 8 MHz for liquid phase and 2 MHz for gas phase, separately. The velocity profiles of air-water bubbly flow in a vertical rectangular channel were measured by using these multi-wave sensors, and the validation of the measuring accuracy was performed by the comparison between the velocity profiles measured by two multi-wave sensors.
Velocity Profile measurements in two-phase flow using multi-wave sensors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biddinika, M K; Ito, D; Takahashi, H; Kikura, H; Aritomi, M
2009-01-01
Two-phase flow has been recognized as one of the most important phenomena in fluid dynamics. In addition, gas-liquid two-phase flow appears in various industrial fields such as chemical industries and power generations. In order to clarify the flow structure, some flow parameters have been measured by using many effective measurement techniques. The velocity profile as one of the important flow parameter, has been measured by using ultrasonic velocity profile (UVP) technique. This technique can measure velocity distributions along a measuring line, which is a beam formed by pulse ultrasounds. Furthermore, a multi-wave sensor can measure the velocity profiles of both gas and liquid phase using UVP method. In this study, two types of multi-wave sensors are used. A sensor has cylindrical shape, and another one has square shape. The piezoelectric elements of each sensor have basic frequencies of 8 MHz for liquid phase and 2 MHz for gas phase, separately. The velocity profiles of air-water bubbly flow in a vertical rectangular channel were measured by using these multi-wave sensors, and the validation of the measuring accuracy was performed by the comparison between the velocity profiles measured by two multi-wave sensors.
Circumferential-wave phase velocities for empty, fluid-immersed spherical metal shells
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Überall, Herbert; Ahyi, A. C.; Raju, P. K.
2002-01-01
In earlier studies of acoustic scattering resonances and of the dispersive phase velocities of surface waves that generate them [see, e.g., Talmant et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 86, 278–289 (1989) for spherical aluminum shells] we have demonstrated the effectiveness and accuracy of obtaining phase ...
Lossy effects on the lateral shifts in negative-phase-velocity medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
You Yuan
2009-01-01
Theoretical investigations of the lateral shifts of the reflected and transmitted beams were performed, using the stationary-phase approach, for the planar interface of a conventional medium and a lossy negative-phase-velocity medium. The lateral shifts exhibit different behaviors beyond and below a certain angle, for both incident p-polarized and incident s-polarized plane waves. Loss in the negative-phase-velocity medium affects lateral shifts greatly, and may cause changes from negative to positive values for p-polarized incidence
Two-phase velocity measurements around cylinders using particle image velocimetry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hassan, Y.A.; Philip, O.G.; Schmidl, W.D. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others
1995-09-01
The particle Image Velocimetry flow measurement technique was used to study both single-phase flow and two-phase flow across a cylindrical rod inserted in a channel. First, a flow consisting of only a single-phase fluid was studied. The experiment consisted of running a laminar flow over four rods inserted in a channel. The water flow rate was 126 cm{sup 3}/s. Then a two-phase flow was studied. A mixture of water and small air bubbles was used. The water flow rate was 378 cm{sup 3}/s and the air flow rate was approximately 30 cm{sup 3}/s. The data are analyzed to obtain the velocity fields for both experiments. After interpretation of the velocity data, forces acting on a bubble entrained by the vortex were calculated successfully. The lift and drag coefficients were calculated using the velocity measurements and the force data.
Phase velocity of nonlinear plasma waves in the laser beat-wave accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spence, W.L.
1985-01-01
The suggested plasma-laser accelerator is an attempt to achieve a very high energy gradient by resonantly exciting a longitudinal wave traveling at close to the speed of light in cold plasma by means of the beat-wave generated by the transverse fields in two laser beams. Previous calculations to all orders in v/sub z/ have been done essentially from the laboratory frame point of view and have treated the plasma wave as having sharply defined phase velocity equal to the speed of light. However a high energy particle beam undergoing acceleration sees the plasma wave from a nearly light-like frame of reference and hence is very sensitive to small deviations in its phase velocity. Here the authors introduce a calculational scheme that includes all orders in v/sub z/ and in the plasma density, and additionally takes into account the influence of plasma nonlinearities on the wave's phase velocity. The main assumption is that the laser frequencies are very large compared to the plasma frequency - under which they are able to in essence formally sum up all orders of forward Raman scattering. They find that the nonlinear plasma wave does not have simply a single phase velocity - it is really a superposition of many - but that the beat-wave which drives it is usefully described by a non-local effective phase velocity function
Determination of drift-flux velocity as a function of two-phase flow patterns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Austregesilo Filho, H.
1986-01-01
A method is suggested for the calculation of drift-flux velocity as a function of two-phase flow patterns determined analytically. This model can be introduced in computer codes for thermal hydraulic analyses based mainly on homogeneous assumptions, in order to achieve a more realis tic description of two-phase flow phenomena, which is needed for the simulation of accidents in nuclear power plants for which phase separation effects are dominant, e.g., small break accidents. (Author) [pt
Liu, Xiaofei; Doub, William H.; Guo, Changning
2011-01-01
Droplet velocity is an important parameter that can be used to characterize nasal spray products. In this study, a phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA) system was used to measure the droplet velocities of nasal sprays. A survey of seven commercial nasal spray products showed a range of droplet velocities from 6.7 to 19.2 m/s, all significantly different from each other. A three-level, four-factor Box–Behnken design of experiments (DOE) methodology were applied to investigate the influences of actua...
Melting along the Hugoniot and solid phase transition for Sn via sound velocity measurements
Song, Ping; Cai, Ling-cang; Tao, Tian-jiong; Yuan, Shuai; Chen, Hong; Huang, Jin; Zhao, Xin-wen; Wang, Xue-jun
2016-11-01
It is very important to determine the phase boundaries for materials with complex crystalline phase structures to construct their corresponding multi-phase equation of state. By measuring the sound velocity of Sn with different porosities, different shock-induced melting pressures along the solid-liquid phase boundary could be obtained. The incipient shock-induced melting of porous Sn samples with two different porosities occurred at a pressure of about 49.1 GPa for a porosity of 1.01 and 45.6 GPa for a porosity of 1.02, based on measurements of the sound velocity. The incipient shock-induced melting pressure of solid Sn was revised to 58.1 GPa using supplemental measurements of the sound velocity. Trivially, pores in Sn decreased the shock-induced melting pressure. Based on the measured longitudinal sound velocity data, a refined solid phase transition and the Hugoniot temperature-pressure curve's trend are discussed. No bcc phase transition occurs along the Hugoniot for porous Sn; further investigation is required to understand the implications of this finding.
High-velocity two-phase flow two-dimensional modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathes, R.; Alemany, A.; Thilbault, J.P.
1995-01-01
The two-phase flow in the nozzle of a LMMHD (liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic) converter has been studied numerically and experimentally. A two-dimensional model for two-phase flow has been developed including the viscous terms (dragging and turbulence) and the interfacial mass, momentum and energy transfer between the phases. The numerical results were obtained by a finite volume method based on the SIMPLE algorithm. They have been verified by an experimental facility using air-water as a simulation pair and a phase Doppler particle analyzer for velocity and droplet size measurement. The numerical simulation of a lithium-cesium high-temperature pair showed that a nearly homogeneous and isothermal expansion of the two phases is possible with small pressure losses and high kinetic efficiencies. In the throat region a careful profiling is necessary to reduce the inertial effects on the liquid velocity field
Liu, Xiaofei; Doub, William H; Guo, Changning
2011-03-01
Droplet velocity is an important parameter that can be used to characterize nasal spray products. In this study, a phase-Doppler anemometry (PDA) system was used to measure the droplet velocities of nasal sprays. A survey of seven commercial nasal spray products showed a range of droplet velocities from 6.7 to 19.2 m/s, all significantly different from each other. A three-level, four-factor Box-Behnken design of experiments (DOE) methodology were applied to investigate the influences of actuation parameters and formulation properties on nasal spray droplet velocity using a set of placebo formulations. The DOE study shows that all four input factors (stroke length, actuation velocity, concentration of the gelling agent, and concentration of the surfactant) have significant influence on droplet velocity. An optimized quadratic model generated from the DOE results describes the inherent relationships between the input factors and droplet velocity thus providing a better understanding of the input factor influences. Overall, PDA provides a new in vitro characterization method for the evaluation of inhalation drugs through assessment of spray velocity and may assist in product development to meet drug delivery equivalency requirements. © 2011 American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists
Sadeghisorkhani, Hamzeh; Gudmundsson, Ólafur
2017-04-01
Graphical software for phase-velocity dispersion measurements of surface waves in noise-correlation traces, called GSpecDisp, is presented. It is an interactive environment for the measurements and presentation of the results. It measures phase-velocity dispersion curves in the frequency domain based on matching of the real part of the cross-correlation spectrum with the appropriate Bessel function. The inputs are time-domain cross-correlations in SAC format. It can measure two types of phase-velocity dispersion curves; 1- average phase-velocity of a region, and 2- single-pair phase velocity. The average phase-velocity dispersion curve of a region can be used as a reference curve to automatically select the dispersion curves from each single-pair cross-correlation in that region. It also allows the users to manually refine the selections. Therefore, no prior knowledge is needed for an unknown region. GSpecDisp can measure the phase velocity of Rayleigh and Love waves from all possible components of the noise correlation tensor, including diagonal and off-diagonal components of the tensor. First, we explain how GSpecDisp is applied to measure phase-velocity dispersion curves. Then, we demonstrate measurement results on synthetic and real data from the Swedish National Seismic Network (SNSN). We compare the results with two other methods of phase-velocity dispersion measurements. Finally, we compare phase-velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves obtained from different components of the correlation tensor.
Phase and group velocities for Lamb waves in DOP-26 iridium alloy sheet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simpson, W.A.; McGuire, D.J.
1994-07-01
The relatively coarse grain structure of iridium weldments limits the ultrasonic inspection of these structures to frequencies in the low megahertz range. As the material thickness is nominally 0.635 mm for clad vent set capsules, the low frequencies involved necessarily entail the generation of Lamb waves m the specimen. These waves are, of course, dispersive and detailed knowledge of both the phase and group velocities is required in order to determine accurately the location of flaws detected using Lamb waves. Purpose of this study is to elucidate the behavior of Lamb waves propagating in the capsule alloy and to quantify the velocities so that accurate flaw location is ensured. We describe a numerical technique for computing the phase velocities of Lamb waves (or of any other type of guided wave) and derive the group velocities from this information. A frequency-domain method is described for measuring group velocity when multiple Lamb modes are present and mutually interfering in the time domain, and experimental confirmation of the group velocity is presented for the capsule material
Sun, Li; Li, Donghai; Gao, Zhiqiang; Yang, Zhao; Zhao, Shen
2016-09-01
Control of the non-minimum phase (NMP) system is challenging, especially in the presence of modelling uncertainties and external disturbances. To this end, this paper presents a combined feedforward and model-assisted Active Disturbance Rejection Control (MADRC) strategy. Based on the nominal model, the feedforward controller is used to produce a tracking performance that has minimum settling time subject to a prescribed undershoot constraint. On the other hand, the unknown disturbances and uncertain dynamics beyond the nominal model are compensated by MADRC. Since the conventional Extended State Observer (ESO) is not suitable for the NMP system, a model-assisted ESO (MESO) is proposed based on the nominal observable canonical form. The convergence of MESO is proved in time domain. The stability, steady-state characteristics and robustness of the closed-loop system are analyzed in frequency domain. The proposed strategy has only one tuning parameter, i.e., the bandwidth of MESO, which can be readily determined with a prescribed robustness level. Some comparative examples are given to show the efficacy of the proposed method. This paper depicts a promising prospect of the model-assisted ADRC in dealing with complex systems. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Radhakrishnan, Srinivasan; Duvvuru, Arjun; Sultornsanee, Sivarit; Kamarthi, Sagar
2016-02-01
The cross correlation coefficient has been widely applied in financial time series analysis, in specific, for understanding chaotic behaviour in terms of stock price and index movements during crisis periods. To better understand time series correlation dynamics, the cross correlation matrices are represented as networks, in which a node stands for an individual time series and a link indicates cross correlation between a pair of nodes. These networks are converted into simpler trees using different schemes. In this context, Minimum Spanning Trees (MST) are the most favoured tree structures because of their ability to preserve all the nodes and thereby retain essential information imbued in the network. Although cross correlations underlying MSTs capture essential information, they do not faithfully capture dynamic behaviour embedded in the time series data of financial systems because cross correlation is a reliable measure only if the relationship between the time series is linear. To address the issue, this work investigates a new measure called phase synchronization (PS) for establishing correlations among different time series which relate to one another, linearly or nonlinearly. In this approach the strength of a link between a pair of time series (nodes) is determined by the level of phase synchronization between them. We compare the performance of phase synchronization based MST with cross correlation based MST along selected network measures across temporal frame that includes economically good and crisis periods. We observe agreement in the directionality of the results across these two methods. They show similar trends, upward or downward, when comparing selected network measures. Though both the methods give similar trends, the phase synchronization based MST is a more reliable representation of the dynamic behaviour of financial systems than the cross correlation based MST because of the former's ability to quantify nonlinear relationships among time
Some issues in the simulation of two-phase flows: The relative velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gräbel, J.; Hensel, S.; Ueberholz, P.; Farber, P.; Zeidan, D.
2016-01-01
In this paper we compare numerical approximations for solving the Riemann problem for a hyperbolic two-phase flow model in two-dimensional space. The model is based on mixture parameters of state where the relative velocity between the two-phase systems is taken into account. This relative velocity appears as a main discontinuous flow variable through the complete wave structure and cannot be recovered correctly by some numerical techniques when simulating the associated Riemann problem. Simulations are validated by comparing the results of the numerical calculation qualitatively with OpenFOAM software. Simulations also indicate that OpenFOAM is unable to resolve the relative velocity associated with the Riemann problem.
Some issues in the simulation of two-phase flows: The relative velocity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gräbel, J.; Hensel, S.; Ueberholz, P.; Farber, P. [Niederrhein University of Applied Sciences, Institute for Modelling and High Performance Computing, Reinarzstraße 49, 47805 Krefeld (Germany); Zeidan, D. [School of Basic Sciences and Humanities, German Jordanian University, Amman (Jordan)
2016-06-08
In this paper we compare numerical approximations for solving the Riemann problem for a hyperbolic two-phase flow model in two-dimensional space. The model is based on mixture parameters of state where the relative velocity between the two-phase systems is taken into account. This relative velocity appears as a main discontinuous flow variable through the complete wave structure and cannot be recovered correctly by some numerical techniques when simulating the associated Riemann problem. Simulations are validated by comparing the results of the numerical calculation qualitatively with OpenFOAM software. Simulations also indicate that OpenFOAM is unable to resolve the relative velocity associated with the Riemann problem.
Group-velocity dispersion effects on quantum noise of a fiber optical soliton in phase space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ju, Heongkyu; Lee, Euncheol
2010-01-01
Group-velocity dispersion (GVD) effects on quantum noise of ultrashort pulsed light are theoretically investigated at the soliton energy level, using Gaussian-weighted pseudo-random distribution of phasors in phase space for the modeling of quantum noise properties including phase noise, photon number noise, and quantum noise shape in phase space. We present the effects of GVD that mixes the different spectral components in time, on the self-phase modulation(SPM)-induced quantum noise properties in phase space such as quadrature squeezing, photon-number noise, and tilting/distortion of quantum noise shape in phase space, for the soliton that propagates a distance of the nonlinear length η NL = 1/( γP 0 ) (P 0 is the pulse peak power and γ is the SPM parameter). The propagation dependence of phase space quantum noise properties for an optical soliton is also provided.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Xiulu [Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, P.O. Box 919-102, 621900 Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Laboratory for Extreme Conditions Matter Properties, Southwest University of Science and Technology, 621010 Mianyang, Sichuan (China); Liu, Zhongli [Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, P.O. Box 919-102, 621900 Mianyang, Sichuan (China); College of Physics and Electric Information, Luoyang Normal University, 471022 Luoyang, Henan (China); Jin, Ke; Xi, Feng; Yu, Yuying; Tan, Ye; Dai, Chengda; Cai, Lingcang [Laboratory for Shock Wave and Detonation Physics Research, Institute of Fluid Physics, P.O. Box 919-102, 621900 Mianyang, Sichuan (China)
2015-02-07
The high-pressure solid phase stability of molybdenum (Mo) has been the center of a long-standing controversy on its high-pressure melting. In this work, experimental and theoretical researches have been conducted to check its solid phase stability under compression. First, we performed sound velocity measurements from 38 to 160 GPa using the two-stage light gas gun and explosive loading in backward- and forward-impact geometries, along with the high-precision velocity interferometry. From the sound velocities, we found no solid-solid phase transition in Mo before shock melting, which does not support the previous solid-solid phase transition conclusion inferred from the sharp drops of the longitudinal sound velocity [Hixson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 637 (1989)]. Then, we searched its structures globally using the multi-algorithm collaborative crystal structure prediction technique combined with the density functional theory. By comparing the enthalpies of body centered cubic structure with those of the metastable structures, we found that bcc is the most stable structure in the range of 0–300 GPa. The present theoretical results together with previous ones greatly support our experimental conclusions.
On measuring surface wave phase velocity from station–station cross-correlation of ambient signal
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boschi, Lapo; Weemstra, Cornelis; Verbeke, Julie
2012-01-01
We apply two different algorithms to measure surface wave phase velocity, as a function of frequency, from seismic ambient noise recorded at pairs of stations from a large European network. The two methods are based on consistent theoretical formulations, but differ in the implementation: one met...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovalenko, K. V.; Krivokhizha, S. V.; Chaban, I. A.; Chaikov, L. L.
2008-01-01
Theoretical analysis revealed that experimental results obtained in our studies on hypersound propagation in a guaiacol-glycerol solution in the vicinity of the closed phase-separation region, double critical point, and special point, as well as the origin of these regions, can be explained by the presence of two different phases (I and II) of the solution with phase-transition temperature T 0 . Temperature T 0 coincides with the temperature at the center of closed phase-separation regions, as well as with the double critical point and with the special point. In (Frenkel) phase I, molecules are in potential wells whose depth exceeds the thermal energy of a molecule, while thermal energy in (gaslike) phase II is higher than the potential well depth. At the lower critical point, the thermodynamic potential of phase I is equal to the thermodynamic potential of the phase-separated solution. At the upper critical point, the thermodynamic potential of phase II is equal to the thermodynamic potential of the phase-separated solution. The observed broad dome of the hypersound absorption coefficient near T 0 can be explained by the contribution associated with fluctuations of the order parameter corresponding to the transition from phase I to phase II. The difference in the temperature coefficients of hypersound velocity on different sides of T 0 and some other effects are also explained
Modelling of two-phase flow based on separation of the flow according to velocity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Narumo, T. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Nuclear Energy
1997-12-31
The thesis concentrates on the development work of a physical one-dimensional two-fluid model that is based on Separation of the Flow According to Velocity (SFAV). The conventional way to model one-dimensional two-phase flow is to derive conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy over the regions occupied by the phases. In the SFAV approach, the two-phase mixture is divided into two subflows, with as distinct average velocities as possible, and momentum conservation equations are derived over their domains. Mass and energy conservation are treated equally with the conventional model because they are distributed very accurately according to the phases, but momentum fluctuations follow better the flow velocity. Submodels for non-uniform transverse profile of velocity and density, slip between the phases within each subflow and turbulence between the subflows have been derived. The model system is hyperbolic in any sensible flow conditions over the whole range of void fraction. Thus, it can be solved with accurate numerical methods utilizing the characteristics. The characteristics agree well with the used experimental data on two-phase flow wave phenomena Furthermore, the characteristics of the SFAV model are as well in accordance with their physical counterparts as of the best virtual-mass models that are typically optimized for special flow regimes like bubbly flow. The SFAV model has proved to be applicable in describing two-phase flow physically correctly because both the dynamics and steady-state behaviour of the model has been considered and found to agree well with experimental data This makes the SFAV model especially suitable for the calculation of fast transients, taking place in versatile form e.g. in nuclear reactors. 45 refs. The thesis includes also five previous publications by author.
Modelling of two-phase flow based on separation of the flow according to velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narumo, T.
1997-01-01
The thesis concentrates on the development work of a physical one-dimensional two-fluid model that is based on Separation of the Flow According to Velocity (SFAV). The conventional way to model one-dimensional two-phase flow is to derive conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy over the regions occupied by the phases. In the SFAV approach, the two-phase mixture is divided into two subflows, with as distinct average velocities as possible, and momentum conservation equations are derived over their domains. Mass and energy conservation are treated equally with the conventional model because they are distributed very accurately according to the phases, but momentum fluctuations follow better the flow velocity. Submodels for non-uniform transverse profile of velocity and density, slip between the phases within each subflow and turbulence between the subflows have been derived. The model system is hyperbolic in any sensible flow conditions over the whole range of void fraction. Thus, it can be solved with accurate numerical methods utilizing the characteristics. The characteristics agree well with the used experimental data on two-phase flow wave phenomena Furthermore, the characteristics of the SFAV model are as well in accordance with their physical counterparts as of the best virtual-mass models that are typically optimized for special flow regimes like bubbly flow. The SFAV model has proved to be applicable in describing two-phase flow physically correctly because both the dynamics and steady-state behaviour of the model has been considered and found to agree well with experimental data This makes the SFAV model especially suitable for the calculation of fast transients, taking place in versatile form e.g. in nuclear reactors
On-line velocity measurements using phase probes at the SuperHILAC
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feinberg, B.; Meaney, D.; Thatcher, R.; Timossi, C.
1987-12-01
Phase probes have been placed in several external beam lines at the LBL heavy ion linear accelerator (SuperHILAC) to provide non- destructive velocity measurements independent of the ion being accelerated. The system uses three probes in each line to obtain accurate velocity measurements at all beam energies. Automatic gain control and signal analysis are performed so that the energy/nucleon along with up to three probe signals are displayed on a vector graphics display with a refresh rate better than twice per second. The system uses a sensitive pseudo-correlation technique to pick out the signal from the noise, features simultaneous measurements of up to four ion velocities when more than one beam is being accelerated, and is controlled by a touch-screen operator interface. It is accurate to within /+-/0.25% and has provisions for on-line calibration tests. The phase probes thus provide a velocity measurement independent of the mass defect associated with the use of crystal detectors, which can become significant for heavy elements. They are now used as a routine tuning aid to ensure proper bunch structure, and as a beam velocity monitor. 3 refs., 5 figs
On The Ion Drift Contribution To The Phase Velocity of Electrojet Irregularities
Uspensky, M.; Koustov, A.; Janhunen, P.; Pellinen, R.; Danskin, D.; Nozawa, S.
The ion drift effect is often ignored in the interpretation of VHF Doppler measure- ments. For example, in the STARE experiment it is assumed that the line-of-sight velocity measured at large flow angles is simply a cosine component of the true elec- tron drift. Previous studies seem to support this assumption, though only to a certain degree. In this study we consider a 3.5-hour morning event of joint STARE-EISCAT observa- tions for which the STARE-Finland radar velocity was mainly larger than the EISCAT convection component. A moderate 5-20 deg offset between the EISCAT convection azimuth and its STARE estimate was also observed. We show that both the STARE- Finland radar velocity "over-speed" and the azimuthal offset between the EISCAT and STARE convection vectors can be explained by fluid plasma theory arguments if the ion drift contribution to the irregularity phase velocity under the condition of moder- ate backscatter off-orthogonality is taken into account. The ion effects were enhanced because of a lifting up of the entire E-region seen by the EISCAT. It perhaps resulted in an increase of the STARE echo heights and aspect angles. The latter are of the order of 1 deg at the top of the electrojet layer. We also compare STARE convection magni- tudes and true velocities measured by the EISCAT to study the potential impact of the ion motions on the STARE velocity estimates.
3D Vector Velocity Estimation using a 2D Phased Array
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pihl, Michael Johannes; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2011-01-01
of using the TO method for estimation 3D velocity vectors, and the proposed decoupling is demonstrated. A 64x64 and a 32x32 elements transducer are emulated using Field II. Plug flow with a speed of 1 m/s in a small region is rotated in the XY -plane. A binary flow example with [vx,vy]=[1,0] and [0,1] m......A method to estimate the three dimensional (3D) velocity vector is presented is this paper. 3D velocity vector techniques are needed to measure the full velocity and characterize the complicated flow patterns in the human body. The Transverse Oscillation (TO) method introduces oscillations...... matrix transducer. For the 32x32 transducer, the mean and standard deviation for the speed are 0.94 0.11 m/s and for the angle bias -0.487.7. The simulation study clearly demonstrates, that the new method can be used to estimate the 3D velocity vector using a 2D phased matrix array, and that the velocity...
Effect of particle velocity fluctuations on the inertia coupling in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drew, D.A.
1989-01-01
Consistent forms for the interfacial force, the interfacial pressure, the Reynolds stresses and the particle stress have been derived for the inviscid, irrotational incompressible flow of fluid in a dilute suspension of spheres. The particles are assumed to have a velocity distribution, giving rise to an effective pressure and stress in the particle phase. The velocity fluctuations also contribute in the fluid Reynolds stress and in the (elastic) stress field inside the spheres. The relation of these constitutive equations to the force on an individual sphere is discussed
Correlations of drift velocity for gas-liquid two-phase flow in rod bundle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kataoka, Isao; Matsuura, Keizo; Serizawa, Akimi
2004-01-01
A new correlation was developed for the drift velocity for low inlet liquid flux in rod bundle. Based on authors' previous analysis of drift velocity for large diameter pipe, an analysis was made on the drift velocity in rod bundle. It is assumed that the large bubble of which size is several subchannel diameter behaves as slug bubble. Under this assumption, it becomes very important how to define equivalent diameter for rod bundle. In view of physical consideration of slug bubble behavior and previous analysis, an equivalent diameter based on the wetted perimeter was found to be most appropriate. Using this equivalent diameter, experimental data of drift velocity in rod bundle were correlated with dimensional analysis. It was found out that for small diameter (dimensionless diameter less than 48) drift velocity increased with square root of diameter which is same dependency of ordinary slug flow correlation. For larger diameter (dimensionless diameter is more than 48), drift velocity is almost constant and same as that of dimensionless diameter of 48. The physical meaning of this result was considered to be the instability of interface of large slug bubble. The density ratio between gas and liquid and viscosity of liquid phase were found to be the main parameters which affect the drift velocity. This is physically reasonable because density ratio is related to the buoyancy force and liquid viscosity is related to shear force near solid wall. The experimental data were correlated by density ratio and dimensionless liquid viscosity. The obtained dimensionless correlation for the drift velocity in rod bundle successfully correlated experimental data for various rod bundles (equivalent diameters), pressures, liquid fluxes etc. It is also consistent with the drift flux correlation for round tube. (author)
Disturbance zonal and vertical plasma drifts in the Peruvian sector during solar minimum phases
Santos, A. M.; Abdu, M. A.; Souza, J. R.; Sobral, J. H. A.; Batista, I. S.
2016-03-01
In the present work, we investigate the behavior of the equatorial F region zonal plasma drifts over the Peruvian region under magnetically disturbed conditions during two solar minimum epochs, one of them being the recent prolonged solar activity minimum. The study utilizes the vertical and zonal components of the plasma drifts measured by the Jicamarca (11.95°S; 76.87°W) incoherent scatter radar during two events that occurred on 10 April 1997 and 24 June 2008 and model calculation of the zonal drift in a realistic ionosphere simulated by the Sheffield University Plasmasphere-Ionosphere Model-INPE. Two main points are focused: (1) the connection between electric fields and plasma drifts under prompt penetration electric field during a disturbed periods and (2) anomalous behavior of daytime zonal drift in the absence of any magnetic storm. A perfect anticorrelation between vertical and zonal drifts was observed during the night and in the initial and growth phases of the magnetic storm. For the first time, based on a realistic low-latitude ionosphere, we will show, on a detailed quantitative basis, that this anticorrelation is driven mainly by a vertical Hall electric field induced by the primary zonal electric field in the presence of an enhanced nighttime E region ionization. It is shown that an increase in the field line-integrated Hall-to-Pedersen conductivity ratio (∑H/∑P), which can arise from precipitation of energetic particles in the region of the South American Magnetic Anomaly, is capable of explaining the observed anticorrelation between the vertical and zonal plasma drifts. Evidence for the particle ionization is provided from the occurrence of anomalous sporadic E layers over the low-latitude station, Cachoeira Paulista (22.67°S; 44.9°W)—Brazil. It will also be shown that the zonal plasma drift reversal to eastward in the afternoon two hours earlier than its reference quiet time pattern is possibly caused by weakening of the zonal wind
Rayleigh Wave Phase Velocities Beneath the Central and Southern East African Rift System
Adams, A. N.; Miller, J. C.
2017-12-01
This study uses the Automated Generalized Seismological Data Function (AGSDF) method to develop a model of Rayleigh wave phase velocities in the central and southern portions of the East African Rift System (EARS). These phase velocity models at periods of 20-100s lend insight into the lithospheric structures associated with surficial rifting and volcanism, as well as basement structures that pre-date and affect the course of rifting. A large dataset of >700 earthquakes is used, comprised of Mw=6.0+ events that occurred between the years 1995 and 2016. These events were recorded by a composite array of 176 stations from twelve non-contemporaneous seismic networks, each with a distinctive array geometry and station spacing. Several first-order features are resolved in this phase velocity model, confirming findings from previous studies. (1) Low velocities are observed in isolated regions along the Western Rift Branch and across the Eastern Rift Branch, corresponding to areas of active volcanism. (2) Two linear low velocity zones are imaged trending southeast and southwest from the Eastern Rift Branch in Tanzania, corresponding with areas of seismic activity and indicating possible incipient rifting. (3) High velocity regions are observed beneath both the Tanzania Craton and the Bangweulu Block. Furthermore, this model indicates several new findings. (1) High velocities beneath the Bangweulu Block extend to longer periods than those found beneath the Tanzania Craton, perhaps indicating that rifting processes have not altered the Bangweulu Block as extensively as the Tanzania Craton. (2) At long periods, the fast velocities beneath the Bangweulu Block extend eastwards beyond the surficial boundaries, to and possibly across the Malawi Rift. This may suggest the presence of older, thick blocks of lithosphere in regions where they are not exposed at the surface. (3) Finally, while the findings of this study correspond well with previous studies in regions of overlapping
Kästle, Emanuel D.; Soomro, Riaz; Weemstra, C.; Boschi, Lapo; Meier, Thomas
2016-01-01
Phase velocities derived from ambient-noise cross-correlation are compared with phase velocities calculated from cross-correlations of waveform recordings of teleseismic earthquakes whose epicentres are approximately on the station–station great circle. The comparison is conducted both for Rayleigh
Liu, Xiaofei; Doub, William H; Guo, Changning
2010-03-30
To determine aerosol deposition during the inhalation drug delivery, it is important to understand the combination of velocity and droplet size together. In this study, phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) was used to simultaneously characterize the aerosol velocity and droplet size distribution (DSD) of three nasal spray pumps filled with water. Thirteen sampling positions were located in the horizontal cross-sectional area of the nasal spray plumes at a distance of 3cm from the pump orifice. The results showed droplet velocities near the center of the spray plume were higher and more consistent than those near the edge. The pumps examined showed significant differences in their aerosol velocity at the center of the spray plume, which suggest that this metric might be used as a discriminating parameter for in vitro testing of nasal sprays. Droplet size measurements performed using PDA were compared with results from laser light scattering measurements. The ability of PDA to provide simultaneous measurements of aerosol velocity and size makes it a powerful tool for the detailed investigation of nasal spray plume characteristics. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Evaluation of metered dose inhaler spray velocities using phase Doppler anemometry (PDA).
Liu, Xiaofei; Doub, William H; Guo, Changning
2012-02-28
Droplet velocity is an important parameter which can significantly influence inhalation drug delivery performance. Together with the droplet size, this parameter determines the efficiency of the deposition of MDI products at different sites within the lungs. In this study, phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) was used to investigate the instantaneous droplet velocity emitted from MDIs as well as the corresponding droplet size distribution. The nine commercial MDI products surveyed showed significantly different droplet velocities, indicating that droplet velocity could be used as a discriminating parameter for in vitro testing of MDI products. The droplet velocity for all tested MDI products decreased when the testing distance was increased from 3 cm to 6 cm from the front of mouthpiece, with CFC formulations showing a larger decrease than HFA formulations. The mean droplet diameters of the nine MDIs were also significantly different from one-another. Droplet size measurements made using PDA (a number-based technique) could not be directly compared to results obtained using laser light scattering measurements (a volume-based technique). This work demonstrates that PDA can provide unique information useful for characterizing MDI aerosol plumes and evaluating MDI drug delivery efficiency. PDA could also aid the evaluation of in vitro equivalence in support of formulation or manufacturing changes and in evaluation of abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for MDIs. Published by Elsevier B.V.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fitremann, J.M.; Guilpin, C.; Postaire, J.
1976-01-01
The measurement of the interface velocity in a two-phase gas-liquid flow is a difficult problem, owing to the dispersion of the velocity components of individual bubbles, gas-slugs, droplets, waves, etc. An entirely automatic method is presented, it gives the velocity of slugs and bubbles independently, by discrimination of local phase probe signals into a 'slug' signal and a 'bubble' signal feeding a shape-recognition program. Both discriminated void fractions are also calculated by the apparatus [fr
New sensor for measurement of low air flow velocity. Phase I final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hashemian, H.M.; Hashemian, M.; Riggsbee, E.T.
1995-08-01
The project described here is the Phase I feasibility study of a two-phase program to integrate existing technologies to provide a system for determining air flow velocity and direction in radiation work areas. Basically, a low air flow sensor referred to as a thermocouple flow sensor has been developed. The sensor uses a thermocouple as its sensing element. The response time of the thermocouple is measured using an existing in-situ method called the Loop Current Step Response (LCSR) test. The response time results are then converted to a flow signal using a response time-versus-flow correlation. The Phase I effort has shown that a strong correlation exists between the response time of small diameter thermocouples and the ambient flow rate. As such, it has been demonstrated that thermocouple flow sensors can be used successfully to measure low air flow rates that can not be measured with conventional flow sensors. While the thermocouple flow sensor developed in this project was very successful in determining air flow velocity, determining air flow direction was beyond the scope of the Phase I project. Nevertheless, work was performed during Phase I to determine how the new flow sensor can be used to determine the direction, as well as the velocity, of ambient air movements. Basically, it is necessary to use either multiple flow sensors or move a single sensor in the monitoring area and make flow measurements at various locations sweeping the area from top to bottom and from left to right. The results can then be used with empirical or physical models, or in terms of directional vectors to estimate air flow patterns. The measurements can be made continuously or periodically to update the flow patterns as they change when people and objects are moved in the monitoring area. The potential for using multiple thermocouple flow sensors for determining air flow patterns will be examined in Phase II
Lee, Kang Il
2013-01-01
The present study aims to investigate the influence of the pore fluid on the phase velocity in bovine trabecular bone in vitro. The frequency-dependent phase velocity was measured in 20 marrow-filled and water-filled bovine femoral trabecular bone samples. The mean phase velocities at frequencies between 0.6 and 1.2 MHz exhibited significant negative dispersions for both the marrow-filled and the water-filled samples. The magnitudes of the dispersions showed no significant differences between the marrow-filled and the water-filled samples. In contrast, replacement of marrow by water led to a mean increase in the phase velocity of 27 m/s at frequencies from 0.6 to 1.2 MHz. The theoretical phase velocities of the fast wave predicted by using the Biot model for elastic wave propagation in fluid-saturated porous media showed good agreements with the measurements.
Governing equations for a seriated continuum: an unequal velocity model for two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solbrig, C.W.; Hughes, E.D.
1975-05-01
The description of the flow of two-phase fluids is important in many engineering devices. Unexpected transient conditions which occur in these devices cannot, in general, be treated with single-component momentum equations. Instead, the use of momentum equations for each phase is necessary in order to describe the varied transient situations which can occur. These transient conditions can include phases moving in the opposite directions, such as steam moving upward and liquid moving downward, as well as phases moving in the same direction. The derivation of continuity and momentum equations for each phase and an overall energy equation for the mixture are presented. Terms describing interphase forces are described. A seriated (series of) continuum is distinguished from an interpenetrating medium by the representation of interphase friction with velocity differences in the former and velocity gradients in the latter. The seriated continuum also considers imbedded stationary solid surfaces such as occur in nuclear reactor cores. These stationary surfaces are taken into account with source terms. Sufficient constitutive equations are presented to form a complete set of equations. Methods are presented to show that all these coefficients are determinable from microscopic models and well known experimental results. Comparison of the present deviation with previous work is also given. The equations derived here may also be employed in certain multiphase, multicomponent flow applications. (U.S.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nassenstein, Kai; Schlosser, Thomas; Orzada, Stephan; Ladd, Mark E.; Maderwald, Stefan; Haering, Lars; Czylwik, Andreas; Jensen, Christoph; Bruder, Oliver
2012-01-01
To assess the diagnostic accuracy of phonocardiogram (PCG) gated velocity-encoded phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Flow quantification above the aortic valve was performed in 68 patients by acquiring a retrospectively PCG- and a retrospectively ECG-gated velocity-encoded GE-sequence at 1.5 T. Peak velocity (PV), average velocity (AV), forward volume (FV), reverse volume (RV), net forward volume (NFV), as well as the regurgitant fraction (RF) were assessed for both datasets, as well as for the PCG-gated datasets after compensation for the PCG trigger delay. PCG-gated image acquisition was feasible in 64 patients, ECG-gated in all patients. PCG-gated flow quantification overestimated PV (Δ 3.8 ± 14.1 cm/s; P = 0.037) and underestimated FV (Δ -4.9 ± 15.7 ml; P = 0.015) and NFV (Δ -4.5 ± 16.5 ml; P = 0.033) compared with ECG-gated imaging. After compensation for the PCG trigger delay, differences were only observed for PV (Δ 3.8 ± 14.1 cm/s; P = 0.037). Wide limits of agreement between PCG- and ECG-gated flow quantification were observed for all variables (PV: -23.9 to 31.4 cm/s; AV: -4.5 to 3.9 cm/s; FV: -35.6 to 25.9 ml; RV: -8.0 to 7.2 ml; NFV: -36.8 to 27.8 ml; RF: -10.4 to 10.2 %). The present study demonstrates that PCG gating in its current form is not reliable enough for flow quantification based on velocity-encoded phase contrast gradient echo (GE) sequences. (orig.)
Inversion of Surface Wave Phase Velocities for Radial Anisotropy to an Depth of 1200 km
Xing, Z.; Beghein, C.; Yuan, K.
2012-12-01
This study aims to evaluate three dimensional radial anisotropy to an depth of 1200 km. Radial anisotropy describes the difference in velocity between horizontally polarized Rayleigh waves and vertically polarized Love waves. Its presence in the uppermost 200 km mantle has well been documented by different groups, and has been regarded as an indicator of mantle convection which aligns the intrinsically anisotropic minerals, largely olivine, to form large scale anisotropy. However, there is no global agreement on whether anisotropy exists in the region below 200 km. Recent models also associate a fast vertically polarized shear wave with vertical upwelling mantle flow. The data used in this study is the globally isotropic phase velocity models of fundamental and higher mode Love and Rayleigh waves (Visser, 2008). The inclusion of higher mode surface wave phase velocity provides sensitivities to structure at depth that extends to below the transition zone. While the data is the same as used by Visser (2008), a quite different parameterization is applied. All the six parameters - five elastic parameters A, C, F, L, N and density - are now regarded as independent, which rules out possible biased conclusions induced by scaling relation method used in several previous studies to reduce the number of parameters partly due to limited computing resources. The data need to be modified by crustal corrections (Crust2.0) as we want to look at the mantle structure only. We do this by eliminating the perturbation in surface wave phase velocity caused by the difference in crustal structure with respect to the referent model PREM. Sambridge's Neighborhood Algorithm is used to search the parameter space. The introduction of such a direct search technique pales the traditional inversion method, which requires regularization or some unnecessary priori restriction on the model space. On the contrary, the new method will search the full model space, providing probability density
Power spectral density of velocity fluctuations estimated from phase Doppler data
Jedelsky, Jan; Lizal, Frantisek; Jicha, Miroslav
2012-04-01
Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) and its modifications such as PhaseDoppler Particle Anemometry (P/DPA) is point-wise method for optical nonintrusive measurement of particle velocity with high data rate. Conversion of the LDA velocity data from temporal to frequency domain - calculation of power spectral density (PSD) of velocity fluctuations, is a non trivial task due to nonequidistant data sampling in time. We briefly discuss possibilities for the PSD estimation and specify limitations caused by seeding density and other factors of the flow and LDA setup. Arbitrary results of LDA measurements are compared with corresponding Hot Wire Anemometry (HWA) data in the frequency domain. Slot correlation (SC) method implemented in software program Kern by Nobach (2006) is used for the PSD estimation. Influence of several input parameters on resulting PSDs is described. Optimum setup of the software for our data of particle-laden air flow in realistic human airway model is documented. Typical character of the flow is described using PSD plots of velocity fluctuations with comments on specific properties of the flow. Some recommendations for improvements of future experiments to acquire better PSD results are given.
Power spectral density of velocity fluctuations estimated from phase Doppler data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jicha Miroslav
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA and its modifications such as PhaseDoppler Particle Anemometry (P/DPA is point-wise method for optical nonintrusive measurement of particle velocity with high data rate. Conversion of the LDA velocity data from temporal to frequency domain – calculation of power spectral density (PSD of velocity fluctuations, is a non trivial task due to nonequidistant data sampling in time. We briefly discuss possibilities for the PSD estimation and specify limitations caused by seeding density and other factors of the flow and LDA setup. Arbitrary results of LDA measurements are compared with corresponding Hot Wire Anemometry (HWA data in the frequency domain. Slot correlation (SC method implemented in software program Kern by Nobach (2006 is used for the PSD estimation. Influence of several input parameters on resulting PSDs is described. Optimum setup of the software for our data of particle-laden air flow in realistic human airway model is documented. Typical character of the flow is described using PSD plots of velocity fluctuations with comments on specific properties of the flow. Some recommendations for improvements of future experiments to acquire better PSD results are given.
Ghiyas Ud Din; Imran Rafiq Chughtai; Hameed Inayat, Mansoor; Hussain Khan, Iqbal
2009-01-01
Axial mixing, holdup and slip velocity of dispersed phase which are parameters of fundamental importance in the design and operation of liquid-liquid extraction pulsed sieve plate columns have been investigated. Experiments for residence time distribution (RTD) analysis have been carried out for a range of pulsation frequency and amplitude in a liquid-liquid extraction pulsed sieve plate column with water as dispersed and kerosene as continuous phase using radiotracer technique. The column was operated in emulsion region and (99m)Tc in the form of sodium pertechnetate eluted from a (99)Mo/(99m)Tc generator was used to trace the dispersed phase. Axial dispersed plug flow model with open-open boundary condition and two points measurement method was used to simulate the hydrodynamics of dispersed phase. It has been observed that the axial mixing and holdup of dispersed phase increases with increase in pulsation frequency and amplitude until a maximum value is achieved while slip velocity decreases with increase in pulsation frequency and amplitude until it approaches a minimum value. Short lived and low energy radiotracer (99m)Tc in the form of sodium pertechnetate was found to be a good water tracer to study the hydrodynamics of a liquid-liquid extraction pulsed sieve plate column operating with two immiscible liquids, water and kerosene. Axial dispersed plug flow model with open-open boundary condition was found to be a suitable model to describe the hydrodynamics of dispersed phase in the pulsed sieve plate extraction column.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghiyas Ud Din; Imran Rafiq Chughtai; Mansoor Hameed Inayat; Iqbal Hussain Khan
2009-01-01
Axial mixing, holdup and slip velocity of dispersed phase which are parameters of fundamental importance in the design and operation of liquid-liquid extraction pulsed sieve plate columns have been investigated. Experiments for residence time distribution (RTD) analysis have been carried out for a range of pulsation frequency and amplitude in a liquid-liquid extraction pulsed sieve plate column with water as dispersed and kerosene as continuous phase using radiotracer technique. The column was operated in emulsion region and 99m Tc in the form of sodium pertechnetate eluted from a 99 Mo/ 99m Tc generator was used to trace the dispersed phase. Axial dispersed plug flow model with open-open boundary condition and two points measurement method was used to simulate the hydrodynamics of dispersed phase. It has been observed that the axial mixing and holdup of dispersed phase increases with increase in pulsation frequency and amplitude until a maximum value is achieved while slip velocity decreases with increase in pulsation frequency and amplitude until it approaches a minimum value. Short lived and low energy radiotracer 99m Tc in the form of sodium pertechnetate was found to be a good water tracer to study the hydrodynamics of a liquid-liquid extraction pulsed sieve plate column operating with two immiscible liquids, water and kerosene. Axial dispersed plug flow model with open-open boundary condition was found to be a suitable model to describe the hydrodynamics of dispersed phase in the pulsed sieve plate extraction column.
Picosecond phase-velocity dispersion of hypersonic phonons imaged with ultrafast electron microscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cremons, Daniel R.; Du, Daniel X.; Flannigan, David J.
2017-01-01
We describe the direct imaging—with four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy—of the emergence, evolution, dispersion, and decay of photoexcited, hypersonic coherent acoustic phonons in nanoscale germanium wedges. Coherent strain waves generated via ultrafast in situ photoexcitation were imaged propagating with initial phase velocities of up to 35 km/s across discrete micrometer-scale crystal regions. We then observe that, while each wave front travels at a constant velocity, the entire wave train evolves with a time-varying phase-velocity dispersion, displaying a single-exponential decay to the longitudinal speed of sound (5 km/s) and with a mean lifetime of 280 ps. We also find that the wave trains propagate along a single in-plane direction oriented parallel to striations introduced during specimen preparation, independent of crystallographic direction. Elastic-plate modeling indicates the dynamics arise from excitation of a single, symmetric (dilatational) guided acoustic mode. Further, by precisely determining the experiment time-zero position with a plasma-lensing method, we find that wave-front emergence occurs approximately 100 ps after femtosecond photoexcitation, which matches well with Auger recombination times in germanium. We conclude by discussing the similarities between the imaged hypersonic strain-wave dynamics and electron/hole plasma-wave dynamics in strongly photoexcited semiconductors.
Picosecond phase-velocity dispersion of hypersonic phonons imaged with ultrafast electron microscopy
Cremons, Daniel R.; Du, Daniel X.; Flannigan, David J.
2017-12-01
Here, we describe the direct imaging—with four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy—of the emergence, evolution, dispersion, and decay of photoexcited, hypersonic coherent acoustic phonons in nanoscale germanium wedges. Coherent strain waves generated via ultrafast in situ photoexcitation were imaged propagating with initial phase velocities of up to 35 km/s across discrete micrometer-scale crystal regions. We observe that, while each wave front travels at a constant velocity, the entire wave train evolves with a time-varying phase-velocity dispersion, displaying a single-exponential decay to the longitudinal speed of sound (5 km/s) and with a mean lifetime of 280 ps. We also find that the wave trains propagate along a single in-plane direction oriented parallel to striations introduced during specimen preparation, independent of crystallographic direction. Elastic-plate modeling indicates the dynamics arise from excitation of a single, symmetric (dilatational) guided acoustic mode. Further, by precisely determining the experiment time-zero position with a plasma-lensing method, we find that wave-front emergence occurs approximately 100 ps after femtosecond photoexcitation, which matches well with Auger recombination times in germanium. We conclude by discussing the similarities between the imaged hypersonic strain-wave dynamics and electron/hole plasma-wave dynamics in strongly photoexcited semiconductors.
Struzik, Artur; Konieczny, Grzegorz; Grzesik, Kamila; Stawarz, Mateusz; Winiarski, Sławomir; Rokita, Andrzej
2015-01-01
The aim of the study was to determine the relationships between time of running over a 15-25 m section of a 30-meter run along a straight line and changes in the angle and angular velocity observed in ankle, knee and hip joints. Therefore, the authors attempted to answer the question of whether a technique of lower limbs movement during the phase of sprint maximum velocity significantly correlates with the time of running over this section. A group of 14 young people from the Lower Silesia Voivodeship Team participated in the experiment. A Fusion Smart Speed System was employed for running time measurements. The kinematic data were recorded using Noraxon MyoMotion system. There were observed statistically significant relationships between sprint time over a section from 15 to 25 m and left hip rotation (positive) and between this time and left and right ankle joint dorsi-plantar flexion (negative). During the maximum velocity phase of a 30 m sprint, the effect of dorsi-plantar flexion performed in the whole range of motion was found to be beneficial. This can be attributed to the use of elastic energy released in the stride cycle. Further, hip rotation should be minimized, which makes the stride aligned more along a line of running (a straight line) instead of from side to side.
Fast simulated annealing inversion of surface waves on pavement using phase-velocity spectra
Ryden, N.; Park, C.B.
2006-01-01
The conventional inversion of surface waves depends on modal identification of measured dispersion curves, which can be ambiguous. It is possible to avoid mode-number identification and extraction by inverting the complete phase-velocity spectrum obtained from a multichannel record. We use the fast simulated annealing (FSA) global search algorithm to minimize the difference between the measured phase-velocity spectrum and that calculated from a theoretical layer model, including the field setup geometry. Results show that this algorithm can help one avoid getting trapped in local minima while searching for the best-matching layer model. The entire procedure is demonstrated on synthetic and field data for asphalt pavement. The viscoelastic properties of the top asphalt layer are taken into account, and the inverted asphalt stiffness as a function of frequency compares well with laboratory tests on core samples. The thickness and shear-wave velocity of the deeper embedded layers are resolved within 10% deviation from those values measured separately during pavement construction. The proposed method may be equally applicable to normal soil site investigation and in the field of ultrasonic testing of materials. ?? 2006 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Pollitz, F.F.; Snoke, J. Arthur
2010-01-01
We utilize two-and-three-quarter years of vertical-component recordings made by the Transportable Array (TA) component of Earthscope to constrain three-dimensional (3-D) seismic shear wave velocity structure in the upper 200 km of the western United States. Single-taper spectral estimation is used to compile measurements of complex spectral amplitudes from 44 317 seismograms generated by 123 teleseismic events. In the ﬁrst step employed to determine the Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity structure, we implement a new tomographic method, which is simpler and more robust than scattering-based methods (e.g. multi-plane surface wave tomography). The TA is effectively implemented as a large number of local arrays by deﬁning a horizontal Gaussian smoothing distance that weights observations near a given target point. The complex spectral-amplitude measurements are interpreted with the spherical Helmholtz equation using local observations about a succession of target points, resulting in Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps at periods over the range of 18–125 s. The derived maps depend on the form of local ﬁts to the Helmholtz equation, which generally involve the nonplane-wave solutions of Friederich et al. In a second step, the phase-velocity maps are used to derive 3-D shear velocity structure. The 3-D velocity images conﬁrm details witnessed in prior body-wave and surface-wave studies and reveal new structures, including a deep (>100 km deep) high-velocity lineament, of width ∼200 km, stretching from the southern Great Valley to northern Utah that may be a relic of plate subduction or, alternatively, either a remnant of the Mojave Precambrian Province or a mantle downwelling. Mantle seismic velocity is highly correlated with heat ﬂow, Holocene volcanism, elastic plate thickness and seismicity. This suggests that shallow mantle structure provides the heat source for associated magmatism, as well as thinning of the thermal lithosphere, leading to relatively high
Velocity and phase distribution measurements in vertical air-water annular flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vassallo, P.
1997-07-01
Annular flow topology for three air-water conditions in a vertical duct is investigated through the use of a traversing double-sensor hot-film anemometry probe and differential pressure measurements. Near wall measurements of mean and fluctuating velocities, as well as local void fraction, are taken in the liquid film, with the highest turbulent fluctuations occurring for the flow condition with the largest pressure drop. A modified law-of-the-wall formulation for wall shear is presented which, using near wall values of mean velocity and kinetic energy, agrees reasonably well with the average stress obtained from direct pressure drop measurements. The linear profile using wall coordinates in the logarithmic layer is preserved in annular flow; however, the slope and intercept of the profile differ from the single-phase values for the annular flow condition which has a thicker, more turbulent, liquid film
The influence of gas phase velocity fluctuations on primary atomization and droplet deformation
Kourmatzis, A.; Masri, A. R.
2014-02-01
The effects of grid-generated velocity fluctuations on the primary atomization and subsequent droplet deformation of a range of laminar liquid jets are examined using microscopic high-speed backlit imaging of the break-up zone and laser Doppler anemometry of the gas phase separately. This is done for fixed gas mean flow conditions in a miniature wind tunnel experiment utilizing a selection of fuels, turbulence-generating grids and two syringe sizes. The constant mean flow allows for an isolated study of velocity fluctuation effects on primary atomization in a close approximation to homogeneous decaying turbulence. The qualitative morphology of the primary break-up region is examined over a range of turbulence intensities, and spectral analysis is performed in order to ascertain the break-up frequency which, for a case of no grid, compares well with the existing literature. The addition of velocity fluctuations tends to randomize the break-up process. Slightly downstream of the break-up region, image processing is conducted in order to extract a number of metrics, which do not depend on droplet sphericity, and these include droplet aspect ratio and orientation, the latter quantity being somewhat unconventional in spray characterization. A turbulent Weber number which takes into account gas phase fluctuations is utilized to characterize the resulting droplet shapes, in addition to a mean Weber number . Above a a clear positive relationship exists between the mean aspect ratio of droplets and the turbulent Weber number where is varied by altering all relevant variables including the velocity root mean square, the initial droplet diameter, the surface tension and the density.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grammatikos, S.A.; Kordatos, E.Z.; Matikas, T.E.; David, C.; Paipetis, A.S.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A novel Current injection phase thermography NDE method has been developed. • Blind impact damage has been successfully detected in composite laminates. • Carbon nanotubes enhance detection by improving of through thickness conductivity. • Detection is feasible with considerably less energy than for IR excited thermography. - Abstract: An innovative non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique is presented based on current stimulated thermography. Modulated electric current is injected to Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) laminates as an external source of thermal excitation. Pulsed Phase Thermography (PPT) is concurrently employed to identify low velocity impact induced (LVI) damage. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated for both plain and with Carbon Nanotubes (CNTs) modified laminates, which are subjected to low-velocity impact damaged composite laminates at different energy levels. The presence of the nano reinforcing phase is important in achieving a uniform current flow along the laminate, as it improves the through thickness conductivity. The acquired thermographs are compared with optical PPT, C-scan images and Computer Tomography (CT) representations. The typical energy input for successful damage identification with current injection is three to four orders of magnitude less compared to the energy required for optical PPT
Magnetic resonance velocity imaging of liquid and gas two-phase flow in packed beds.
Sankey, M H; Holland, D J; Sederman, A J; Gladden, L F
2009-02-01
Single-phase liquid flow in porous media such as bead packs and model fixed bed reactors has been well studied by MRI. To some extent this early work represents the necessary preliminary research to address the more challenging problem of two-phase flow of gas and liquid within these systems. In this paper, we present images of both the gas and liquid velocities during stable liquid-gas flow of water and SF(6) within a packing of 5mm spheres contained within columns of diameter 40 and 27 mm; images being acquired using (1)H and (19)F observation for the water and SF(6), respectively. Liquid and gas flow rates calculated from the velocity images are in agreement with macroscopic flow rate measurements to within 7% and 5%, respectively. In addition to the information obtained directly from these images, the ability to measure liquid and gas flow fields within the same sample environment will enable us to explore the validity of assumptions used in numerical modelling of two-phase flows.
McDonell, VG; Samuelsen, GS
1989-01-01
The application of two-component interferometry is described for the spatially-resolved measurement of particle size, velocity and mass flux as well as continuous phase velocity. Such a capability is important to develop an understanding of the physical processes attendant to two-phase flow systems, especially those involving liquid atomization typical of a wide class of combustion systems. Adapted from laser anemometry, the technique (phase Doppler interferometry) measures single particle ev...
Sadeghisorkhani, Hamzeh; Gudmundsson, Ólafur; Tryggvason, Ari
2018-01-01
We present a graphical user interface (GUI) package to facilitate phase-velocity dispersion measurements of surface waves in noise-correlation traces. The package, called GSpecDisp, provides an interactive environment for the measurements and presentation of the results. The selection of a dispersion curve can be done automatically or manually within the package. The data are time-domain cross-correlations in SAC format, but GSpecDisp measures phase velocity in the spectral domain. Two types of phase-velocity dispersion measurements can be carried out with GSpecDisp; (1) average velocity of a region, and (2) single-pair phase velocity. Both measurements are done by matching the real part of the cross-correlation spectrum with the appropriate Bessel function. Advantages of these two types of measurements are that no prior knowledge about surface-wave dispersion in the region is needed, and that phase velocity can be measured up to that period for which the inter-station distance corresponds to one wavelength. GSpecDisp can measure the phase velocity of Rayleigh and Love waves from all possible components of the noise correlation tensor. First, we briefly present the theory behind the methods that are used, and then describe different modules of the package. Finally, we validate the developed algorithms by applying them to synthetic and real data, and by comparison with other methods. The source code of GSpecDisp can be downloaded from: https://github.com/Hamzeh-Sadeghi/GSpecDisp
Van Houwelingen, Josje; Roerdink, Melvyn; Huibers, Alja V.; Evers, Lotte L.W.; Beek, Peter J.
2017-01-01
In swimming propelling efficiency is partly determined by intra-cyclic velocity fluctuations. The higher these fluctuations are at a given average swimming velocity, the less efficient is the propulsion. This study explored whether the leg-arm coordination (i.e. phase relation ϕ) within the
Benning, Martin; Gladden, Lynn; Holland, Daniel; Schö nlieb, Carola-Bibiane; Valkonen, Tuomo
2014-01-01
for the reconstruction of phase-encoded magnetic resonance velocity images from sub-sampled k-space data. We are particularly interested in regularisers that correctly treat both smooth and geometric features of the image. These features are common to velocity imaging
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Farra, V.; Pšenčík, Ivan
2016-01-01
Roč. 60, č. 3 (2016), s. 403-418 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : weak anisotropy * P-wave * phase velocity * ray velocity Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.764, year: 2016
Dyverfeldt, Petter; Sigfridsson, Andreas; Kvitting, John-Peder Escobar; Ebbers, Tino
2006-10-01
Turbulent flow, characterized by velocity fluctuations, is a contributing factor to the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular diseases. A clinical noninvasive tool for assessing turbulence is lacking, however. It is well known that the occurrence of multiple spin velocities within a voxel during the influence of a magnetic gradient moment causes signal loss in phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI). In this paper a mathematical derivation of an expression for computing the standard deviation (SD) of the blood flow velocity distribution within a voxel is presented. The SD is obtained from the magnitude of PC-MRI signals acquired with different first gradient moments. By exploiting the relation between the SD and turbulence intensity (TI), this method allows for quantitative studies of turbulence. For validation, the TI in an in vitro flow phantom was quantified, and the results compared favorably with previously published laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) results. This method has the potential to become an important tool for the noninvasive assessment of turbulence in the arterial tree.
Local measurement of interfacial area, interfacial velocity and liquid turbulence in two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hibiki, T.; Hogsett, S.; Ishii, M.
1998-01-01
Double sensor probe and hotfilm anemometry methods were developed for measuring local flow characteristics in bubbly flow. The formulation for the interfacial area concentration measurement was obtained by improving the formulation derived by Kataoka and Ishii. The assumptions used in the derivation of the equation were verified experimentally. The interfacial area concentration measured by the double sensor probe agreed well with one by the photographic method. The filter to validate the hotfilm anemometry for measuring the liquid velocity and turbulent intensity in bubbly flow was developed based on removing the signal due to the passing bubbles. The local void fraction, interfacial area concentration, interfacial velocity, Sauter mean diameter, liquid velocity, and turbulent intensity of vertical upward air-water flow in a round tube with inner diameter of 50.8 mm were measured by using these methods. A total of 54 data sets were acquired consisting of three superficial gas flow rates, 0.039, 0.067, and 0.147 m/s, and three superficial liquid flow rates, 0.60, 1.00, and 1.30 m/s. The measurements were performed at the three locations: L/D=2, 32, and 62. This data is expected to be used for the development of reliable constitutive relations which reflect the true transfer mechanisms in two-phase flow. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Qi; Wang, Huaxiang; Xin, Shan
2011-01-01
The flow regimes are important characteristics to describe two-phase flows, and measurement of two-phase flow parameters is becoming increasingly important in many industrial processes. Computerized tomography (CT) has been applied to two-phase/multi-phase flow measurement in recent years. Image reconstruction of CT often involves repeatedly solving large-dimensional matrix equations, which are computationally expensive, especially for the case of online flow regime identification. In this paper, minimum cross entropy reconstruction based on multi-resolution processing (MRMCE) is presented for oil–gas two-phase flow regime identification. A regularized MCE solution is obtained using the simultaneous multiplicative algebraic reconstruction technique (SMART) at a coarse resolution level, where important information on the reconstructed image is contained. Then, the solution in the finest resolution is obtained by inverse fast wavelet transformation. Both computer simulation and static/dynamic experiments were carried out for typical flow regimes. Results obtained indicate that the proposed method can dramatically reduce the computational time and improve the quality of the reconstructed image with suitable decomposition levels compared with the single-resolution maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM), alternating minimization (AM), Landweber, iterative least square technique (ILST) and minimum cross entropy (MCE) methods. Therefore, the MRMCE method is suitable for identification of dynamic two-phase flow regimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh, C.H.; Cho, Z.H.; California Univ., Irvine
1986-01-01
A new phase coding method using a selection gradient for high speed NMR flow velocity measurements is introduced and discussed. To establish a phase-velocity relationship of flow under the slice selection gradient and spin-echo RF pulse, the Bloch equation was numerically solved under the assumption that only one directional flow exists, i.e. in the direction of slice selection. Details of the numerical solution of the Bloch equation and techniques related to the numerical computations are also given. Finally, using the numerical calculation, high speed flow velocity measurement was attempted and found to be in good agreement with other complementary controlled measurements. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mark, A.S.; Feinberg, D.A.
1986-01-01
The direction of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow in the foramen of Monro (FOM) and aqueduct was determined in 15 normal volunteers (5 of whom had also been studied with gated spin-echo sequences) using a cardiac-gated Fourier transform velocity imaging technique (VMR). The VMR showed that the periodic pattern of flow void seen in the aqueduct and FOM on the gated spin-echo images was due to antegrade CSF flow from the lateral ventricles into the third ventricle and aqueduct during systole and retrograde flow from the aqueduct into the third ventricle and lateral ventricles during late diastole. These findings could not be explained if the CSF pulsations originated in the third ventricle, as had been previously proposed, and suggest the lateral ventricles play an important role in the pulsatile motion of CSF
Faroughi, S. A.; Huber, C.
2015-12-01
Crystal settling and bubbles migration in magmas have significant effects on the physical and chemical evolution of magmas. The rate of phase segregation is controlled by the force balance that governs the migration of particles suspended in the melt. The relative velocity of a single particle or bubble in a quiescent infinite fluid (melt) is well characterized; however, the interplay between particles or bubbles in suspensions and emulsions and its effect on their settling/rising velocity remains poorly quantified. We propose a theoretical model for the hindered velocity of non-Brownian emulsions of nondeformable droplets, and suspensions of spherical solid particles in the creeping flow regime. The model is based on three sets of hydrodynamic corrections: two on the drag coefficient experienced by each particle to account for both return flow and Smoluchowski effects and a correction on the mixture rheology to account for nonlocal interactions between particles. The model is then extended for mono-disperse non-spherical solid particles that are randomly oriented. The non-spherical particles are idealized as spheroids and characterized by their aspect ratio. The poly-disperse nature of natural suspensions is then taken into consideration by introducing an effective volume fraction of particles for each class of mono-disperse particles sizes. Our model is tested against new and published experimental data over a wide range of particle volume fraction and viscosity ratios between the constituents of dispersions. We find an excellent agreement between our model and experiments. We also show two significant applications for our model: (1) We demonstrate that hindered settling can increase mineral residence time by up to an order of magnitude in convecting magma chambers. (2) We provide a model to correct for particle interactions in the conventional hydrometer test to estimate the particle size distribution in soils. Our model offers a greatly improved agreement with
High speed ultrasonic system to measure bubbles velocities in a horizontal two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cunha Filho, Jurandyr S.; Jian Su; Farias, Marcos S.; Faccini, Jose L.H.; Lamy, Carlos A.
2009-01-01
In this work, a non invasive technique consisting of a high speed ultrasonic multitransducer pulse-echo system was developed to characterize gas-liquid two-phase flow parameters that are important in the study of the primary refrigeration circuit of nuclear reactors. The high speed ultrasonic system consists of two transducers (10 MHz/φ 6.35 mm), a generator/multiplexer board, and software that selects and has a data acquisition system of the ultrasonic signals. The resolutions of the system and the pulse time generated from each transducer are, respectively, 10 ns and 1.06 ms. The system initially was used in the local instantaneous measurement of gas-liquid interface in a circular horizontal pipe test section made of a 5 m long stainless steel pipe of 51.2 mm inner diameter, where the elongated bubbles velocity was measured (Taylor bubbles). The results show that the high speed ultrasonic pulse-echo system provides good results for the determination of elongated bubbles velocities. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Monir, C.
1991-02-01
A two-dimensional procedure, VANTACY-II, describing the turbulent velocity and temperature fields for single phase flow in tight lattices is presented and validated. The flow is assumed to be steady, incrompressible and hydraulic and thermal fully developed. First, the state of art of turbulent momentum and heat transport in tight lattices is documented. It is shown that there is a necessity for experimental investigations in the field of turbulent heat transport. The presented new procedure is based on the turbulence model VELASCO-TUBS by NEELEN. The numerical solution of the balance equations is done by the finite element method code VANTACY by KAISER. The validation of the new procedure VANTACY-II is done by comparing the numerically calculated data for the velocity and temperature fields and for natural mixing with the experimental data of SEALE. The comparison shows a good agreement of experimental and numerically computed data. The observed differences can be mainly attributed to the model of the turbulent PRANDTL number used in the new procedure. (orig.) [de
THE ROCKSTAR PHASE-SPACE TEMPORAL HALO FINDER AND THE VELOCITY OFFSETS OF CLUSTER CORES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Behroozi, Peter S.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Wu, Hao-Yi
2013-01-01
We present a new algorithm for identifying dark matter halos, substructure, and tidal features. The approach is based on adaptive hierarchical refinement of friends-of-friends groups in six phase-space dimensions and one time dimension, which allows for robust (grid-independent, shape-independent, and noise-resilient) tracking of substructure; as such, it is named ROCKSTAR (Robust Overdensity Calculation using K-Space Topologically Adaptive Refinement). Our method is massively parallel (up to 10 5 CPUs) and runs on the largest current simulations (>10 10 particles) with high efficiency (10 CPU hours and 60 gigabytes of memory required per billion particles analyzed). A previous paper has shown ROCKSTAR to have excellent recovery of halo properties; we expand on these comparisons with more tests and higher-resolution simulations. We show a significant improvement in substructure recovery compared to several other halo finders and discuss the theoretical and practical limits of simulations in this regard. Finally, we present results that demonstrate conclusively that dark matter halo cores are not at rest relative to the halo bulk or substructure average velocities and have coherent velocity offsets across a wide range of halo masses and redshifts. For massive clusters, these offsets can be up to 350 km s –1 at z = 0 and even higher at high redshifts. Our implementation is publicly available at http://code.google.com/p/rockstar.
Internal structure and interfacial velocity development for bubbly two-phase flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kocamustafaogullari, G.; Huang, W.D.
1994-01-01
This paper describes an experimental study of the internal structure of air-water flowing horizontally. The double-sensor resistivity probe technique was applied for measurements of local interfacial parameters, including void fraction, interfacial area concentration, bubble size distributions, bubble passing frequency and bubble interface velocity. Bubbly flow patterns at several flow conditions were examined at three axial locations, L/D=25, 148 and 253, in which the first measurement represents the entrance region where the flow develops, and the second and third may represent near fully developed bubbly flow patterns. The experimental results are presented in three-dimensional perspective plots of the interfacial parameters over the cross-section. These multi-dimensional presentations showed that the local values of the void fraction, interfacial area concentration and bubble passing frequency were nearly constant over the cross-section at L/D=25, with slight local peaking close to the channel wall. Although similar local peakings were observed at the second and third locations, the internal flow structure segregation due to buoyancy appeared to be very strong in the axial direction. A simple comparison of profiles of the interfacial parameters at the three locations indicated that the flow pattern development was a continuous process. Finally, it was shown that the so-called ''fully developed'' bubbly two-phase flow pattern cannot be established in a horizontal pipe and that there was no strong correspondence between void fraction and interface velocity profiles. ((orig.))
Angular beam width of a slit-diffracted wave with noncollinear group and phase velocities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lock, Edwin H
2012-01-01
Taking magnetostatic surface wave diffraction as an example, this paper theoretically investigates the 2D diffraction pattern arising in the far-field region of a ferrite slab in the case of a plane wave with noncollinear group and phase velocities incident on a wide, arbitrarily oriented slit in an opaque screen. A universal analytical formula for the angular width of a diffracted beam is derived, which is valid for magnetostatic and other types of waves in anisotropic media and structures (including metamaterials) in 2D geometries. It is shown that the angular width of a diffracted beam in an anisotropic medium can not only take values greater or less than λ 0 /D (where λ 0 is the incident wavelength, and D is the slit width), but can also be zero under certain conditions. (methodological notes)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jullien, Pierre
2013-01-01
This work deals with the use of NMR to measure velocity and its fluctuations in single-phase and two-phase flows. PGSE and imaging sequences have been used to determine the velocity distributions in upward turbulent pipe flows. NMR signals have been analysed in detail and the main artifacts have been characterized and suppressed. The measuring technique has been validated by comparison with a reference published data. A first comparison to 'homemade' hot-wire results in single-phase flow of water is presented and is very promising. Preliminary NMR results in two-phase flows emphasize the interest of NMR to benchmark velocity measurements in two-phase flows. Prospects of research have been identified, which will pave the way for the sequel of this research. (author) [fr
Fault diagnosis for non-minimum phase systems using ℋ∞ optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niemann, Hans Henrik; Stoustrup, Jakob
2001-01-01
The analysis and design algorithms for residual generators for nonminimum phase systems are given. It is shown that the ℋ∞ optimization of residual generators applied directly to systems including nonminimum phase zeros can be very conservative. To remove this conservatism in the &Hscr...
Din, Ghiyas Ud; Chughtai, Imran Rafiq; Inayat, Mansoor Hameed; Khan, Iqbal Hussain
2008-12-01
Axial dispersion, holdup and slip velocity of dispersed phase have been investigated for a range of dispersed and continuous phase superficial velocities in a pulsed sieve plate extraction column using radiotracer residence time distribution (RTD) analysis. Axial dispersion model (ADM) was used to simulate the hydrodynamics of the system. It has been observed that increase in dispersed phase superficial velocity results in a decrease in its axial dispersion and increase in its slip velocity while its holdup increases till a maximum asymptotic value is achieved. An increase in superficial velocity of continuous phase increases the axial dispersion and holdup of dispersed phase until a maximum value is obtained, while slip velocity of dispersed phase is found to decrease in the beginning and then it increases with increase in superficial velocity of continuous phase.
One-dimensional transient unequal velocity two-phase flow by the method of characteristics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rasouli, F.
1981-01-01
An understanding of two-phase flow is important when one is analyzing the accidental loss of coolant or when analyzing industrial processes. If a pipe in the steam generator of a nuclear reactor breaks, the flow will remain critical (or choked) for almost the entire blowdown. For this reason the knowledge of the two-phase maximum (critical) flow rate is important. A six-equation model--consisting of two continuity equations, two energy equations, a mixture momentum equation, and a constitutive relative velocity equation--is solved numerically by the method of characteristics for one-dimensional, transient, two-phase flow systems. The analysis is also extended to the special case of transient critical flow. The six-equation model is used to study the flow of a nonequilibrium sodium-argon system in a horizontal tube in which the nonequilibrium sodium-argon system in a horizontal tube in which the critical flow condition is at the entrance. A four-equation model is used to study the pressure-pulse propagation rate in an isothermal air-water system, and the results that are found are compared with the experimental data. Proper initial and boundary conditions are obtained for the blowdown problem. The energy and mass exchange relations are evaluated by comparing the model predictions with results of void-fraction and heat-transfer experiments. A simplified two-equation model is obtained for the special case of two incompressible phases. This model is used in the preliminary analysis of batch sedimentation. It is also used to predict the shock formation in the gas-solid fluidized bed
Lee, Kang Il
2012-08-01
The present study aims to provide insight into the relationships of the phase velocity with the microarchitectural parameters in bovine trabecular bone in vitro. The frequency-dependent phase velocity was measured in 22 bovine femoral trabecular bone samples by using a pair of transducers with a diameter of 25.4 mm and a center frequency of 0.5 MHz. The phase velocity exhibited positive correlation coefficients of 0.48 and 0.32 with the ratio of bone volume to total volume and the trabecular thickness, respectively, but a negative correlation coefficient of -0.62 with the trabecular separation. The best univariate predictor of the phase velocity was the trabecular separation, yielding an adjusted squared correlation coefficient of 0.36. The multivariate regression models yielded adjusted squared correlation coefficients of 0.21-0.36. The theoretical phase velocity predicted by using a stratified model for wave propagation in periodically stratified media consisting of alternating parallel solid-fluid layers showed reasonable agreements with the experimental measurements.
High-efficiency toroidal current drive using low-phase-velocity kinetic Alfven waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Puri, S.
1991-09-01
A method for obtaining efficient current drive in Tokamaks using low-phase-velocity (v ρ = ω/K parallel ∝ 0.1v te ) kinetic Alfen wave is proposed. The wave momentum, imparted primarily to the trapped electrons by Landau damping, is stored as the canonical angular momentum via the Ware pinch. In steady state, collisions restore the pinched electrons to their original phase-space configuration, in the process releasing the stored canonical angular momentum to the background ions and electrons in proportion to the respective collision frequencies. Despite the loss of a part of the original impulse to the plasma ions, well over half the wave momentum is ultimately delivered to the bulk-plasma electrons, resulting in an efficient current drive. A normalized current-drive efficiency γ = R 0 20 > I/P ∝ 2 would be feasible using the subthermal kinetic-Alfen-wave current drive in a Tokamak of reactor parameters. Optimum antenna loading conditions are described. The problem of accessibility is discussed. In an elongated, high-β plasma with a density dependence n e ∝ (1-ρ 2 ) Χn , accessibility is restricted to ρ > or approx. 3/(4A Χn ), where A is the aspect ratio. For current drive at still lower values of ρ, operation in conjunction with fast-wave current drive is suggested. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Josje van Houwelingen
Full Text Available In swimming propelling efficiency is partly determined by intra-cyclic velocity fluctuations. The higher these fluctuations are at a given average swimming velocity, the less efficient is the propulsion. This study explored whether the leg-arm coordination (i.e. phase relation ϕ within the breaststroke cycle can be influenced with acoustic pacing, and whether the so induced changes are accompanied by changes in intra-cyclic velocity fluctuations. Twenty-six participants were asked to couple their propulsive leg and arm movements to a double-tone metronome beat and to keep their average swimming velocity constant over trials. The metronome imposed five different phase relations ϕi (90, 135, 180, 225 and 270° of leg-arm coordination. Swimmers adjusted their technique under the influence of the metronome, but failed to comply to the velocity requirement for ϕ = 90 and 135°. For imposed ϕ = 180, 225 and 270°, the intra-cyclic velocity fluctuations increased with increasing ϕ, while average swimming velocity did not differ. This suggests that acoustic pacing may be used to adjust ϕ and thereby performance of breaststroke swimming given the dependence of propelling efficiency on ϕ.
TNX GeoSiphon Cell (TGSC-1) Phase II Minimum Flushing Velocity Deployment/Demonstration Final Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Phifer, M.A.
1999-10-25
The TNX Area is a semi-works facility for the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), which is located one-quarter mile from the Savannah river at the Savannah River Site. As the result of TNX operation, groundwater contamination has occurred. The predominant contaminants detected in the flood plain downgradient from TNX are trichloroethylene (TCE) and nitrate.Treatability studies into the applicability of a groundwater remediation system combining GeoSiphon Cell and zero-valent iron technologies for treatment of the TCE-contaminated groundwater at TNX have been conducted. These treatability studies have been conducted by SRTC under the sponsorship of the Environmental Restoration Department.
TNX GeoSiphon Cell (TGSC-1) Phase II Minimum Flushing Velocity Deployment/Demonstration Final Report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Phifer, M.A.
1999-01-01
The TNX Area is a semi-works facility for the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), which is located one-quarter mile from the Savannah river at the Savannah River Site. As the result of TNX operation, groundwater contamination has occurred. The predominant contaminants detected in the flood plain downgradient from TNX are trichloroethylene (TCE) and nitrate.Treatability studies into the applicability of a groundwater remediation system combining GeoSiphon Cell and zero-valent iron technologies for treatment of the TCE-contaminated groundwater at TNX have been conducted. These treatability studies have been conducted by SRTC under the sponsorship of the Environmental Restoration Department
Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS), Phase I: Soil washing final report
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1995-08-01
As a result of the U.S. Department of Energy's environmental restoration and technology development activities, GTS Duratek, Inc., and its subcontractors have demonstrated an integrated thermal waste treatment system at Fernald, OH, as part the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS) Program. Specifically, MAWS integrates soil washing, vitrification of mixed waste streams, and ion exchange to recycle and remediate process water to achieve, through a synergistic effect, a reduction in waste volume, increased waste loading, and production of a durable, leach-resistant, stable waste form suitable for disposal. This report summarizes the results of the demonstration/testing of the soil washing component of the MAWS system installed at Fernald (Plant 9). The soil washing system was designed to (1) process contaminated soil at a rate of 0.25 cubic yards per hour; (2) reduce overall waste volume and provide consistent-quality silica sand and contaminant concentrates as raw material for vitrification; and (3) release clean soil with uranium levels below 35 pCi/g. Volume reductions expected ranged from 50-80 percent; the actual volume reduction achieved during the demonstration reached 66.5 percent. The activity level of clean soil was reduced to as low as 6 pCi/g from an initial average soil activity level of 17.6 pCi/g (the highest initial level of soil provided for testing was 41 pCi/g). Although the throughput of the soil washing system was inconsistent throughout the testing period, the system was online for sufficient periods to conclude that a rate equivalent to 0.25 cubic yards per hour was achieved
van Amerom, Joshua F P; Kellenberger, Christian J; Yoo, Shi-Joon; Macgowan, Christopher K
2009-01-01
An automated method was evaluated to detect blood flow in small pulmonary arteries and classify each as artery or vein, based on a temporal correlation analysis of their blood-flow velocity patterns. The method was evaluated using velocity-sensitive phase-contrast magnetic resonance data collected in vitro with a pulsatile flow phantom and in vivo in 11 human volunteers. The accuracy of the method was validated in vitro, which showed relative velocity errors of 12% at low spatial resolution (four voxels per diameter), but was reduced to 5% at increased spatial resolution (16 voxels per diameter). The performance of the method was evaluated in vivo according to its reproducibility and agreement with manual velocity measurements by an experienced radiologist. In all volunteers, the correlation analysis was able to detect and segment peripheral pulmonary vessels and distinguish arterial from venous velocity patterns. The intrasubject variability of repeated measurements was approximately 10% of peak velocity, or 2.8 cm/s root-mean-variance, demonstrating the high reproducibility of the method. Excellent agreement was obtained between the correlation analysis and radiologist measurements of pulmonary velocities, with a correlation of R2=0.98 (P<.001) and a slope of 0.99+/-0.01.
Hernández-Davó, J L; Sabido, R; Behm, D G; Blazevich, A J
2018-02-01
The aims of this study were to compare both eccentric- and concentric-phase adaptations in highly trained handball players to 4 weeks of twice-weekly rebound bench press throw training with varying loads (30%, 50% and 70% of one-repetition maximum [1-RM]) using either known (KL) or unknown (UL) loads and to examine the relationship between changes in eccentric- and concentric-phase performance. Twenty-eight junior team handball players were divided into two experimental groups (KL or UL) and a control group. KL subjects were told the load prior each repetition, while UL were blinded. For each repetition, the load was dropped and then a rebound bench press at maximum velocity was immediately performed. Both concentric and eccentric velocity as well as eccentric kinetic energy and musculo-articular stiffness prior to the eccentric-concentric transition were measured. Results showed similar increases in both eccentric velocity and kinetic energy under the 30% 1-RM but greater improvements under 50% and 70% 1-RM loads for UL than KL. UL increased stiffness under all loads (with greater magnitude of changes). KL improved concentric velocity only under the 30% 1-RM load while UL also improved under 50% and 70% 1-RM loads. Improvements in concentric movement velocity were moderately explained by changes in eccentric velocity (R 2 =.23-.62). Thus, UL led to greater improvements in concentric velocity, and the improvement is potentially explained by increases in the speed (as well as stiffness and kinetic energy) of the eccentric phase. Unknown load training appears to have significant practical use for the improvement of multijoint stretch-shortening cycle movements. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
On the phase velocity of plasma waves in a self-modulated laser wake-field accelerator
Andreev, N. E.; Kirsanov, V. I.; Sakharov, A. S.; van Amersfoort, P. W.; Goloviznin, V. V.
1996-01-01
The properties of the wake field excited by a flattop laser pulse with a sharp leading edge and a power below the critical one for relativistic self-focusing are studied analytically and numerically with emphasis on the phase velocity of the plasma wave. The paraxial model describing modulation of
Li, Guoliang; Niu, Fenglin; Yang, Yingjie; Xie, Jun
2018-02-01
The time-frequency domain phase-weighted stacking (tf-PWS) technique based on the S transform has been employed in stacking empirical Green's functions (EGFs) derived from ambient noise data, mainly due to its superior power in enhancing weak signals. Questions such as the induced waveform distortion and the feasibility of phase-velocity extraction are yet to be thoroughly explored. In this study, we investigate these issues by conducting extensive numerical tests with both synthetic data and USArray transportable array (TA) ambient noise data. We find that the errors in the measured phase velocities associated with waveform distortion caused by the tf-PWS depend largely on the way of how the inverse S transform (IST) is implemented. If frequency IST is employed in tf-PWS, the corresponding errors are generally less than 0.1 per cent, sufficiently small that the measured phase velocities can be safely used in regular surface wave tomography. On the other hand, if a time IST is used in tf-PWS, then the extracted phase velocities are systematically larger than those measured from linearly stacked ones, and the discrepancy can reach as much as ˜0.4 per cent at some periods. Therefore, if tf-PWS is used in stacking EGFs, then frequency IST is preferred to transform the stacked S spectra back to the time domain for the stacked EGFs.
Reliability of Phase Velocity Measurements of Flexural Acoustic Waves in the Human Tibia In-Vivo.
Vogl, Florian; Schnüriger, Karin; Gerber, Hans; Taylor, William R
2016-01-01
Axial-transmission acoustics have shown to be a promising technique to measure individual bone properties and detect bone pathologies. With the ultimate goal being the in-vivo application of such systems, quantification of the key aspects governing the reliability is crucial to bring this method towards clinical use. This work presents a systematic reliability study quantifying the sources of variability and their magnitudes of in-vivo measurements using axial-transmission acoustics. 42 healthy subjects were measured by an experienced operator twice per week, over a four-month period, resulting in over 150000 wave measurements. In a complementary study to assess the influence of different operators performing the measurements, 10 novice operators were trained, and each measured 5 subjects on a single occasion, using the same measurement protocol as in the first part of the study. The estimated standard error for the measurement protocol used to collect the study data was ∼ 17 m/s (∼ 4% of the grand mean) and the index of dependability, as a measure of reliability, was Φ = 0.81. It was shown that the method is suitable for multi-operator use and that the reliability can be improved efficiently by additional measurements with device repositioning, while additional measurements without repositioning cannot improve the reliability substantially. Phase velocity values were found to be significantly higher in males than in females (p < 10-5) and an intra-class correlation coefficient of r = 0.70 was found between the legs of each subject. The high reliability of this non-invasive approach and its intrinsic sensitivity to mechanical properties opens perspectives for the rapid and inexpensive clinical assessment of bone pathologies, as well as for monitoring programmes without any radiation exposure for the patient.
Wurtzite-Phased InP Micropillars Grown on Silicon with Low Surface Recombination Velocity.
Li, Kun; Ng, Kar Wei; Tran, Thai-Truong D; Sun, Hao; Lu, Fanglu; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J
2015-11-11
The direct growth of III-V nanostructures on silicon has shown great promise in the integration of optoelectronics with silicon-based technologies. Our previous work showed that scaling up nanostructures to microsize while maintaining high quality heterogeneous integration opens a pathway toward a complete photonic integrated circuit and high-efficiency cost-effective solar cells. In this paper, we present a thorough material study of novel metastable InP micropillars monolithically grown on silicon, focusing on two enabling aspects of this technology-the stress relaxation mechanism at the heterogeneous interface and the microstructure surface quality. Aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy studies show that InP grows directly on silicon without any amorphous layer in between. A set of periodic dislocations was found at the heterointerface, relaxing the 8% lattice mismatch between InP and Si. Single crystalline InP therefore can grow on top of the fully relaxed template, yielding high-quality micropillars with diameters expanding beyond 1 μm. An interesting power-dependence trend of carrier recombination lifetimes was captured for these InP micropillars at room temperature, for the first time for micro/nanostructures. By simply combining internal quantum efficiency with carrier lifetime, we revealed the recombination dynamics of nonradiative and radiative portions separately. A very low surface recombination velocity of 1.1 × 10(3) cm/sec was obtained. In addition, we experimentally estimated the radiative recombination B coefficient of 2.0 × 10(-10) cm(3)/sec for pure wurtzite-phased InP. These values are comparable with those obtained from InP bulk. Exceeding the limits of conventional nanowires, our InP micropillars combine the strengths of both nanostructures and bulk materials and will provide an avenue in heterogeneous integration of III-V semiconductor materials onto silicon platforms.
Luhmann, Janet G.; Petrie, Gordon; Riley, Pete
2012-01-01
The solar wind was originally envisioned using a simple dipolar corona/polar coronal hole sources picture, but modern observations and models, together with the recent unusual solar cycle minimum, have demonstrated the limitations of this picture. The solar surface fields in both polar and low-to-mid-latitude active region zones routinely produce coronal magnetic fields and related solar wind sources much more complex than a dipole. This makes low-to-mid latitude coronal holes and their associated streamer boundaries major contributors to what is observed in the ecliptic and affects the Earth. In this paper we use magnetogram-based coronal field models to describe the conditions that prevailed in the corona from the decline of cycle 23 into the rising phase of cycle 24. The results emphasize the need for adopting new views of what is ‘typical’ solar wind, even when the Sun is relatively inactive. PMID:25685422
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Keylock, Christopher J [Sheffield Fluid Mechanics Group and Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Nishimura, Kouichi, E-mail: c.keylock@sheffield.ac.uk [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)
2016-04-15
Scale-dependent phase analysis of velocity time series measured in a zero pressure gradient boundary layer shows that phase coupling between longitudinal and vertical velocity components is strong at both large and small scales, but minimal in the middle of the inertial regime. The same general pattern is observed at all vertical positions studied, but there is stronger phase coherence as the vertical coordinate, y, increases. The phase difference histograms evolve from a unimodal shape at small scales to the development of significant bimodality at the integral scale and above. The asymmetry in the off-diagonal couplings changes sign at the midpoint of the inertial regime, with the small scale relation consistent with intense ejections followed by a more prolonged sweep motion. These results may be interpreted in a manner that is consistent with the action of low speed streaks and hairpin vortices near the wall, with large scale motions further from the wall, the effect of which penetrates to smaller scales. Hence, a measure of phase coupling, when combined with a scale-by-scale decomposition of perpendicular velocity components, is a useful tool for investigating boundary-layer structure and inferring process from single-point measurements. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keylock, Christopher J; Nishimura, Kouichi
2016-01-01
Scale-dependent phase analysis of velocity time series measured in a zero pressure gradient boundary layer shows that phase coupling between longitudinal and vertical velocity components is strong at both large and small scales, but minimal in the middle of the inertial regime. The same general pattern is observed at all vertical positions studied, but there is stronger phase coherence as the vertical coordinate, y, increases. The phase difference histograms evolve from a unimodal shape at small scales to the development of significant bimodality at the integral scale and above. The asymmetry in the off-diagonal couplings changes sign at the midpoint of the inertial regime, with the small scale relation consistent with intense ejections followed by a more prolonged sweep motion. These results may be interpreted in a manner that is consistent with the action of low speed streaks and hairpin vortices near the wall, with large scale motions further from the wall, the effect of which penetrates to smaller scales. Hence, a measure of phase coupling, when combined with a scale-by-scale decomposition of perpendicular velocity components, is a useful tool for investigating boundary-layer structure and inferring process from single-point measurements. (paper)
Heat transfer and velocity characteristics of single- and two-phase flows in a subsonic model gun
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bicen, A.F.; Khezzar, L.; Schmidt, M.; Whitelaw, J.H.
1989-01-01
Heat transfer and velocity measurements are reported for single- and two-phase flows in the wake of an in-bore projectile propelled by an inert gas at an initial gauge pressure of 8 bars to an exit velocity over 40 m/s in ∼ 33 ms. The results show that with the single phase the turbulent velocity boundary layers occupy over 20% of the barrel radius and that the wall heat transfer increases with distance from the breech and decreases with time during the shot. In the initial chamber, and later in the shot, the heat transfer results are close to those obtained from a convection correlation for a steady turbulent boundary layer, contrary to those at locations swept by the projectile, which are higher by up to 50% throughout the shot. The two-phase flow results show that 55-μm particles with loadings of 1.3% and 4% by volume initially lag the fluid and this lag increases with distance from the breech. Later in the shot the particles catch up and lead the decelerating fluid by an amount that is greater, with the higher particle loading and with a tendency for the particle velocity to increase around the edge of the boundary layer
Colyer, Steffi L; Stokes, Keith A; Bilzon, James L J; Salo, Aki I T
2018-06-01
The development of velocity across the skeleton start is critical to performance, yet poorly understood. We aimed to understand which components of the sled velocity profile determine performance and how physical abilities influence these components. Thirteen well-trained skeleton athletes (>85% of athletes in the country) performed dry-land push-starts alongside countermovement jump and sprint tests at multiple time-points. A magnet encoder attached to the sled wheel provided velocity profiles, which were characterised using novel performance descriptors. Stepwise regression revealed four variables (pre-load velocity, pre-load distance, load effectiveness, velocity drop) to explain 99% variance in performance (β weights: 1.70, -0.81, 0.25, -0.07, respectively). Sprint times and jump ability were associated (r ± 90% CI) with pre-load velocity (-0.70 ± 0.27 and 0.88 ± 0.14, respectively) and distance (-0.48 ± 0.39 and 0.67 ± 0.29, respectively), however, unclear relationships between both physical measures and load effectiveness (0.33 ± 0.44 and -0.35 ± 0.48, respectively) were observed. Athletes should develop accelerative ability to attain higher velocity earlier on the track. Additionally, the loading phase should not be overlooked and may be more influenced by technique than physical factors. Future studies should utilise this novel approach when evaluating skeleton starts or interventions to enhance performance.
Benning, Martin
2014-01-01
In recent years there has been significant developments in the reconstruction of magnetic resonance velocity images from sub-sampled k-space data. While showing a strong improvement in reconstruction quality compared to classical approaches, the vast number of different methods, and the challenges in setting them up, often leaves the user with the difficult task of choosing the correct approach, or more importantly, not selecting a poor approach. In this paper, we survey variational approaches for the reconstruction of phase-encoded magnetic resonance velocity images from sub-sampled k-space data. We are particularly interested in regularisers that correctly treat both smooth and geometric features of the image. These features are common to velocity imaging, where the flow field will be smooth but interfaces between the fluid and surrounding material will be sharp, but are challenging to represent sparsely. As an example we demonstrate the variational approaches on velocity imaging of water flowing through a packed bed of solid particles. We evaluate Wavelet regularisation against Total Variation and the relatively recent second order Total Generalised Variation regularisation. We combine these regularisation schemes with a contrast enhancement approach called Bregman iteration. We verify for a variety of sampling patterns that Morozov\\'s discrepancy principle provides a good criterion for stopping the iterations. Therefore, given only the noise level, we present a robust guideline for setting up a variational reconstruction scheme for MR velocity imaging. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
2-D blood vector velocity estimation using a phase shift estimator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Udesen, Jesper
are presented. Here the TO method is tested both in simulations using the Field II program and in flow phantom experiments using the RASMUS scanner. Both simulations and flow phantom experiments indicate that the TO method can estimate the 2-D vector velocity with an acceptable low bias and standard deviation...... velocity estimation is discussed. The TO method is introduced, and the basic theory behind the method is explained. This includes the creation of the acoustic fields, beamforming, echo-canceling and the velocity estimator. In the second part of the thesis the eight papers produced during this PhD project...... when the angle between the blood and the ultrasound beam is above $50^\\circ$. Furthermore, the TO method is tested in-vivo where the scannings are performed by skilled sonographers. The in-vivo scannings resulted in a sequence of 2-D vector CFM images which showed 2-D flow patterns in the bifurcation...
Observer-based attitude controller for lifting re-entry vehicle with non-minimum phase property
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wenming Nie
2017-05-01
Full Text Available This article concentrates on the attitude control problem for the lifting re-entry vehicle with non-minimum phase property. A novel attitude control method is proposed for this kind of lifting re-entry vehicle without assuming the internal dynamics to be measurable. First, an internal dynamics extended state observer is developed to deal with the unmeasurable problem of the internal dynamics. And then, the control scheme which adopts output feedback method is proposed by modifying the traditional output redefinition technique with internal dynamics extended state observer. This control scheme only requires the system output to be measurable, and it can still stabilize the unstable internal dynamics and track attitude commands. Besides, because of the inherent property of extended state observer in rejecting uncertainties and disturbances, the control precision of the proposed controller is higher than the controller designed with traditional output redefinition technique. Finally, the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed attitude controller are demonstrated by the simulation results.
Adaptive Control of Non-Minimum Phase Modal Systems Using Residual Mode Filters2. Parts 1 and 2
Balas, Mark J.; Frost, Susan
2011-01-01
Many dynamic systems containing a large number of modes can benefit from adaptive control techniques, which are well suited to applications that have unknown parameters and poorly known operating conditions. In this paper, we focus on a direct adaptive control approach that has been extended to handle adaptive rejection of persistent disturbances. We extend this adaptive control theory to accommodate problematic modal subsystems of a plant that inhibit the adaptive controller by causing the open-loop plant to be non-minimum phase. We will modify the adaptive controller with a Residual Mode Filter (RMF) to compensate for problematic modal subsystems, thereby allowing the system to satisfy the requirements for the adaptive controller to have guaranteed convergence and bounded gains. This paper will be divided into two parts. Here in Part I we will review the basic adaptive control approach and introduce the primary ideas. In Part II, we will present the RMF methodology and complete the proofs of all our results. Also, we will apply the above theoretical results to a simple flexible structure example to illustrate the behavior with and without the residual mode filter.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsu, C.T.; Keshock, E.G.; McGill, R.N.
1983-01-01
A flag type electrical impedance probe has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Lab (ORNL) to measure liquid- and vapor-phase velocities in steam-water mixtures flowing through rod bundles. Measurements are made by utilizing the probes in pairs, installed in line, parallel to the flow direction, and extending out into the flow channel. The present study addresses performance difficulties by examining from a fundamental point of view the two-phase flow system which the impedance probes typically operate in. Specifically, the governing equations (continuity, momentum, energy) were formulated for both air-water and steam-water systems, and then subjected to a scaling analysis. The scaling analysis yielded the appropriate dimensionless parameters of significance in both kinds of systems. Additionally, with the aid of experimental data obtained at ORNL, those parameters of significant magnitude were established. As a result, a generalized correlation was developed for liquid and vapor phase velocities that makes it possible to employ the impedance probe velocity measurement technique in a wide variety of test configurations and fluid combinations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aarons, Y.; Wightman, F.; Roxby, P.; Kron, T.
2011-01-01
Full text: Respiratory gated radiotherapy is a high-precision technique where the treatment beam is turned on during a predetermined phase of the breathing cycle in order to minimise dose to surrounding healthy dose sensitive structures. We aim to compare inspiration and expiration phases to determine which is more stable in the breathing cycle to perform respiratory gating. Methods Nine patients underwent a planning time resolved 4DCT (Philips Brilliance 16-multislice widebore) and repeat 4DCT during weeks I, 3 and 5 of a radical course of radiotherapy for lung cancer. Inspiration scans were co-registered to the same phase image of the original planning CT using rigid and then deformable registration with Velocity software. The process was repeated for scans at exhalation phase. The deformation matrix for the diaphragm was used to compare the reproducibility of breathing phases. In the majority of patients (seven of nine) the expiration phase was found to be the more stable compared with inspiration. The maximum diaphragm displacement exceeded 3 cm in one case for the registered inhalation images while the deformation was typically half of that in the exhalation images. Interestingly, several patients showed significant differences in deformation for the left and right diaphragm. Conclusions In a group of lung cancer patients we found the expiration phase to be more reproducible for delivering respiratory gated RT, when compared with inspiration.
Heat transfer to a dispersed two-phase flow and detailed quench front velocity research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boer, T.C. de; Molen, S.B. van der
1985-01-01
A programme to obtain a data base for 'Boildown and Reflood' computer code development and to obtain information on the influence of non-uniform temperature and/or power profile on the quench front velocity and prequench heat transfer, including unheated wall and grid effects, has been undertaken. It is in two parts. In the first (for the tube, annulus and a 4-rod bundle) an early wetting of the unheated shroud is shown. This leads to an increase in quench front velocity and in liquid transport downstream from the quench front. For the inverted annular flow regime the extended Bromley correlation gives good agreement with the experimental data. In the second part (36-rod bundle reflood test programme) the wall-temperature differences in the radial direction gives rise to heat transfer processes which are described and explained. (U.K.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiri eHammer
2013-11-01
Full Text Available In neuronal population signals, including the electroencephalogram (EEG and electrocorticogram (ECoG, the low-frequency component (LFC is particularly informative about motor behavior and can be used for decoding movement parameters for brain-machine interface (BMI applications. An idea previously expressed, but as of yet not quantitatively tested, is that it is the LFC phase that is the main source of decodable information. To test this issue, we analyzed human ECoG recorded during a game-like, one-dimensional, continuous motor task with a novel decoding method suitable for unfolding magnitude and phase explicitly into a complex-valued, time-frequency signal representation, enabling quantification of the decodable information within the temporal, spatial and frequency domains and allowing disambiguation of the phase contribution from that of the spectral magnitude. The decoding accuracy based only on phase information was substantially (at least 2 fold and significantly higher than that based only on magnitudes for position, velocity and acceleration. The frequency profile of movement-related information in the ECoG data matched well with the frequency profile expected when assuming a close time-domain correlate of movement velocity in the ECoG, e.g., a (noisy copy of hand velocity. No such match was observed with the frequency profiles expected when assuming a copy of either hand position or acceleration. There was also no indication of additional magnitude-based mechanisms encoding movement information in the LFC range. Thus, our study contributes to elucidating the nature of the informative low-frequency component of motor cortical population activity and may hence contribute to improve decoding strategies and BMI performance.
Alatrash, Abubaker; Matida, Edgar
2016-12-01
Particle size and velocity are two of the most significant factors that impact the deposition of pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) sprays in the mouth cavity. pMDIs are prominently used around the world in the treatment of patients suffering from a variety of lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Since their introduction in the field, and as a result of their effectiveness and simplicity of usage, pMDIs are considered to be the most widely prescribed medical aerosol delivery system. In the current study, particle velocity and size distribution were measured at three different locations along the centerline of a pMDI spray using Phase Doppler Anemometry. pMDIs from four different pharmaceutical companies were tested, each using salbutamol sulfate as the medication. Measurements along at the pMDI centerline (at 0, 75, and 100 mm downstream of the inhaler mouthpiece) showed that the spray velocities were bimodal in time for all four pMDI brands. The first peak occurred as the spray was leaving the mouthpiece, while the second peak (at the same location, 0 mm) occurred at around 60, 95, 95, and 115 milliseconds later, respectively, for the four tested inhalers, with a drop in the velocity between the two peaks. Three probability density functions (PDFs) were tested, and the Rosin-Rammler PDF best fit the empirical data, as determined using a chi-squared test. These results suggest that there is a difference in the mean particle velocities at the centerline for the tested pMDIs and the diameter of released particles varied statistically for each brand.
Interfacial area, velocity and void fraction in two-phase slug flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kojasoy, G.; Riznic, J.R.
1997-01-01
The internal flow structure of air-water plug/slug flow in a 50.3 mm dia transparent pipeline has been experimentally investigated by using a four-sensor resistivity probe. Liquid and gas volumetric superficial velocities ranged from 0.55 to 2.20 m/s and 0.27 to 2.20 m/s, respectively, and area-averaged void fractions ranged from about 10 to 70%. The local distributions of void fractions, interfacial area concentration and interface velocity were measured. Contributions from small spherical bubbles and large elongated slug bubbles toward the total void fraction and interfacial area concentration were differentiated. It was observed that the small bubble void contribution to the overall void fraction was small indicating that the large slug bubble void fraction was a dominant factor in determining the total void fraction. However, the small bubble interfacial area contribution was significant in the lower and upper portions of the pipe cross sections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polat, Orhan; Özer, Çaglar
2016-01-01
In this study; we examined one dimensional crustal velocity structure of Izmir gulf and surroundings. We used nearly one thousand high quality (A and B class) earthquake data which recorded by Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) [1], Bogazici University (BU-KOERI) [2] and National Observatory of Athens (NOA) [3,4]. We tried several synthetic tests to understand power of new velocity structure, and examined phase residuals, RMS values and shifting tests. After evaluating these tests; we decided one dimensional velocity structure and minimum 1-D P wave velocities, hypocentral parameter and earthquake locations from VELEST algorithm. Distribution of earthquakes was visibly improved by using new minimum velocity structure.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Polat, Orhan, E-mail: orhan.polat@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Engineering, Geophysical Engineering Department, Izmir (Turkey); Özer, Çaglar, E-mail: caglar.ozer@deu.edu.tr [Dokuz Eylul University, Faculty of Engineering, Geophysical Engineering Department, Izmir (Turkey); Dokuz Eylul University, The Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Department of Geophysical Engineering, Izmir-Turkey (Turkey)
2016-04-18
In this study; we examined one dimensional crustal velocity structure of Izmir gulf and surroundings. We used nearly one thousand high quality (A and B class) earthquake data which recorded by Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency (AFAD) [1], Bogazici University (BU-KOERI) [2] and National Observatory of Athens (NOA) [3,4]. We tried several synthetic tests to understand power of new velocity structure, and examined phase residuals, RMS values and shifting tests. After evaluating these tests; we decided one dimensional velocity structure and minimum 1-D P wave velocities, hypocentral parameter and earthquake locations from VELEST algorithm. Distribution of earthquakes was visibly improved by using new minimum velocity structure.
Void fraction and interfacial velocity in gas-liquid upward two-phase flow across tube bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ueno, T.; Tomomatsu, K.; Takamatsu, H.; Nishikawa, H.
1997-01-01
Tube failures due to flow-induced vibration are a major problem in heat exchangers and many studies on the problem of such vibration have been carried out so far. Most studies however, have not focused on two-phase flow behavior in tube bundles, but have concentrated mainly on tube vibration behavior like fluid damping, fluid elastic instability and so on. Such studies are not satisfactory for understanding the design of heat exchangers. Tube vibration behavior is very complicated, especially in the case of gas-liquid two-phase flow, so it is necessary to investigate two-phase flow behavior as well as vibration behavior before designing heat exchangers. This paper outlines the main parameters that characterize two-phase behavior, such as void fraction and interfacial velocity. The two-phase flow analyzed here is gas-liquid upward flow across a horizontal tube bundle. The fluids tested were HCFC-123 and steam-water. HCFC-123 stands for Hydrochlorofluorocarbon. Its chemical formula is CHCl 2 CF 3 , which has liquid and gas densities of 1335 and 23.9 kg/m 3 at a pressure of 0.40 MPa and 1252 and 45.7 kg/m 3 at a pressure of 0.76 MPa. The same model tube bundle was used in the two tests covered in this paper, to examine the similarity law of two-phase flow behavior in tube bundles using HCFC-123 and steam-water two-phase flow. We also show numerical simulation results for the two fluid models in this paper. We do not deal with vibration behavior and the relationship between vibration behavior and two-phase flow behavior. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, Yasushi; Suzuki, Tohru; Matsubayashi, Masahito
2000-01-01
In a core melt accident of a fast breeder reactor, a possibility of re-criticality is anticipated in the molten fuel-steel mixture pool. One of the mechanisms to suppress the re-criticality is the boiling of steel in the molten fuel-steel mixture pool because of the negative void reactivity effect. To evaluate the reactivity change due to boiling, it is necessary to know the characteristics of gas-liquid two-phase flow in the molten fuel-steel mixture pool. For this purpose, boiling bubbles in a molten fuel-steel mixture pool were simulated by adiabatic gas bubbles in a liquid metal pool to study the basic characteristics of gas-liquid metal two-phase mixture. Visualization of the two-phase mixture and measurements of liquid phase velocity and void fraction were conducted by using neutron radiography and image processing techniques. From these measurements, the basic characteristics of gas-liquid metal two-phase mixture were clarified. (author)
Magnetic phase diagram of Ba3CoSb2O9 as determined by ultrasound velocity measurements
Quirion, G.; Lapointe-Major, M.; Poirier, M.; Quilliam, J. A.; Dun, Z. L.; Zhou, H. D.
2015-07-01
Using high-resolution sound velocity measurements we have obtained a very precise magnetic phase diagram of Ba3CoSb2O9 , a material that is considered to be an archetype of the spin-1/2 triangular-lattice antiferromagnet. Results obtained for the field parallel to the basal plane (up to 18 T) show three phase transitions, consistent with predictions based on simple two-dimensional isotropic Heisenberg models and previous experimental investigations. The phase diagram obtained for the field perpendicular to the basal plane clearly reveals an easy-plane character of this compound and, in particular, our measurements show a single first-order phase transition at Hc 1=12.0 T which can be attributed to a spin flop between an umbrella-type configuration and a coplanar V -type order where spins lie in a plane perpendicular to the a b plane. At low temperatures, softening of the lattice within some of the ordered phases is also observed and may be a result of residual spin fluctuations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naganawa, Shinji; Cooper, T.G.; Jenner, G.; Potchen, E.J.; Ishigaki, Takeo.
1994-01-01
The flow velocity and volume of the superior and inferior mesenteric arteries (SMA, IMA) were measured with cine phase contrast magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in five healthy volunteers. Each volunteer was first measured in a fasting state, and then one, two, and three hours after a meal. The average SMA flow volume of the volunteers was 230.3±46.8 ml/min (mean±standard error) during the fasting state, and 714.7±207.7 ml/min, 339.2±85.7 ml/min, and 263.8±21.0 ml/min, respectively, at one, two, and three hours postmeal. The increase at one hour postmeal was statistically significant (p<0.05). The corresponding flow measurements in the IMA were 63.1±11.2 ml/min, 67.6±11.2 ml/min, 57.9±8.6 ml/min, and 53.2±6.8 ml/min. These values do not represent a statistically significant flow volume change in the IMA. In all volunteers, the SMA volumetric flow increased the most one hour after the food challenge (72-400% relative to baseline). Diastolic velocity in the SMA increased significantly one hour postmeal, but systolic velocity did not change significantly. The IMA did not demonstrate a significant change in either systolic or diastolic velocity. The difference between the SMA and IMA in the way of reacting against the food challenge is thought to represent the difference between the requirements of small and large intestine for blood supply after the food challenge. These data demonstrate the possibility of this modality for the assessment of conditions such as chronic mesenteric ischemia. (author)
Direct Observation of Bloch Harmonics and Negative Phase Velocity in Photonic Crystal Waveguides
Gersen, H.; Karle, T.J.; Engelen, R.J.P.; Engelen, R.J.P.; Bogaerts, W.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; van Hulst, N.F.; Krauss, T.F.; Kuipers, L.
2005-01-01
The eigenfield distribution and the band structure of a photonic crystal waveguide have been measured with a phase-sensitive near-field scanning optical microscope. Bloch modes, which consist of more than one spatial frequency, are visualized in the waveguide. In the band structure, multiple
Kuriakose, Maju; Raetz, Samuel; Hu, Qing Miao; Nikitin, Sergey M.; Chigarev, Nikolay; Tournat, Vincent; Bulou, Alain; Lomonosov, Alexey; Djemia, Philippe; Gusev, Vitalyi E.; Zerr, Andreas
2017-10-01
Water ice is a molecular solid whose behavior under compression reveals the interplay of covalent bonding in molecules and forces acting between them. This interplay determines high-pressure phase transitions, the elastic and plastic behavior of H2O ice, which are the properties needed for modeling the convection and internal structure of the giant planets and moons of the solar system as well as H2O -rich exoplanets. We investigated experimentally and theoretically elastic properties and phase transitions of cubic H2O ice at room temperature and high pressures between 10 and 82 GPa. The time-domain Brillouin scattering (TDBS) technique was used to measure longitudinal sound velocities (VL) in polycrystalline ice samples compressed in a diamond anvil cell. The high spatial resolution of the TDBS technique revealed variations of VL caused by elastic anisotropy, allowing us to reliably determine the fastest and the slowest sound velocity in a single crystal of cubic H2O ice and thus to evaluate existing equations of state. Pressure dependencies of the single-crystal elastic moduli Ci j(P ) of cubic H2O ice to 82 GPa have been obtained which indicate its hardness and brittleness. These results were compared with ab initio calculations. It is suggested that the transition from molecular ice VII to ionic ice X occurs at much higher pressures than proposed earlier, probably above 80 GPa.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scherrer, Arne [Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Institut für Chemie, von-Danckelmann-Platz 4, 06120 Halle (Germany); Département de Chimie, École Normale supérieure, PSL Research University, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, PASTEUR, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, ENS, CNRS, PASTEUR, 75005 Paris (France); Vuilleumier, Rodolphe, E-mail: rodolphe.vuilleumier@ens.fr [Département de Chimie, École Normale supérieure, PSL Research University, UPMC Univ Paris 06, CNRS, PASTEUR, 24 rue Lhomond, 75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, ENS, CNRS, PASTEUR, 75005 Paris (France); Sebastiani, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.sebastiani@chemie.uni-halle.de [Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Institut für Chemie, von-Danckelmann-Platz 4, 06120 Halle (Germany)
2016-08-28
We report the first fully ab initio calculation of dynamical vibrational circular dichroism spectra in the liquid phase using nuclear velocity perturbation theory (NVPT) derived electronic currents. Our approach is rigorous and general and thus capable of treating weak interactions of chiral molecules as, e.g., chirality transfer from a chiral molecule to an achiral solvent. We use an implementation of the NVPT that is projected along the dynamics to obtain the current and magnetic dipole moments required for accurate intensities. The gauge problem in the liquid phase is resolved in a twofold approach. The electronic expectation values are evaluated in a distributed origin gauge, employing maximally localized Wannier orbitals. In a second step, the gauge invariant spectrum is obtained in terms of a scaled molecular moments, which allows to systematically include solvent effects while keeping a significant signal-to-noise ratio. We give a thorough analysis and discussion of this choice of gauge for the liquid phase. At low temperatures, we recover the established double harmonic approximation. The methodology is applied to chiral molecules ((S)-d{sub 2}-oxirane and (R)-propylene-oxide) in the gas phase and in solution. We find an excellent agreement with the theoretical and experimental references, including the emergence of signals due to chirality transfer from the solute to the (achiral) solvent.
2017-05-01
area ratio φ angle of rod density of liquid phase (kg/m3) density of vapor phase (kg/m3) ...heat transfer in order to manage the ever-increasing airframe and engine heat loads. Two-phase liquid -vapor refrigerant systems are one solution for...the heat removal from these systems. However, they require more study before implementation. This study examines the velocities of two-phase liquid
Color-coded MR imaging phase velocity mapping with the Pixar image processor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singleton, H.R.; Cranney, G.B.; Pohost, G.M.
1989-01-01
The authors have developed a graphic interaction technique in which a mouse and cursor are used to assign colors to phase-sensitive MR images of the heart. Two colors are used, one for flow in the positive direction, another for flow in the negative direction. A lookup table is generated interactively by manipulating lines representing ramps superimposed on an intensity histogram. Intensity is made to vary with flow magnitude in each color's direction. Coded series of the ascending and descending aorta, and of two- and four-chamber views of the heart, have been generated. In conjunction with movie display, flow dynamics, especially changes in direction, are readily apparent
Heat transfer to a dispersed two phase flow and detailed quench front velocity research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Boer, T.C.; Van der Molen, S.B.
1985-01-01
During the blow-down phase of a loss-off coolant accident (LOCA) in a pressurized water reactor the core will heat up dramatically. Water will be injected in the system, and by bottom flooding the core will be cooled. The use of one-dimensional computer models for the calculation of the reflood process in a bundle needs a better justification. The influence of an unheated shroud on prequench heat transfer is investigated in a tube, an annulus and a 4 rod bundle. By using a glass shroud for the annulus, optical analysis of the dispersed two-phase flow regime has been performed. The ECN 36-rod bundle tests as performed with axial uniform power profile are reflood and boil-down at 0.2 MPa pressure executed for different conditions. The experiment yield a data base suitable for code validation and development. Better understanding is obtained for the influence of the radial non-uniform temperature and/or power distributions on the reflood process. Heat transfer improvement induced by the presence of spacer grids is observed. 72 refs.; 220 figs.
An improved phase-control system for superconducting low-velocity accelerating structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Shepard, K.W.; Zinkann, G.P.
1989-01-01
Microphonic fluctuations in the rf eigenfrequency of superconducting (SC) slow-wave structures must be compensated by a fast-tuning system in order to control the rf phase. The tuning system must handle a reactive power proportional to the product of the tuning range and the rf energy content of the resonant cavity. The accelerating field level of many of the SC cavities forming the ATLAS linac has been limited by the rf power capacity of the presently used PIN-diode based fast-tuner. A new system has been developed, utilizing PIN diodes operating immersed in liquid nitrogen, with the diodes controlled by a high-voltage VMOS FET driver. The system has operated at reactive power levels above 20 KVA, a factor of four increase over an earlier design. 7 refs., 2 figs
An improved phase-controlled system for superconducting low-velocity accelerating structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Shepard, K.W.; Zinkann, G.P.
1989-01-01
Microphonic fluctuations in the RF eigenfrequency of supeconducting (SC) slow-wave structures must be compensated by a fast-tuning system in order to control the RF phase. The tuning system must handle a reactive power proportional to the product of the tuning range and the RF energy content of the resonant cavity. The accelerating field level of many of the SC cavities forming the ATLAS linac has been limited by the RF power capacity of the presently used PIN-diode based fast-tuner. A new system has been developed, utilizing PIN diodes operating immersed in liquid nitrogen, with the diodes controlled by a high-voltage VMOS FET driver. The system has operated at reactive power levels above 20 KVA, a factor of four increase over an earlier design. 7 refs., 2 figs
An improved phase-control system for superconducting low-velocity accelerating structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Shepard, K.W.; Zinkann, G.P.
1989-01-01
Microphonic fluctuations in the rf eigenfrequency of superconducting (SC) slow-wave structures must be compensated by a fast-tuning system in order to control the rf phase. The tuning system must handle a reactive power proportional to the product of the tuning range and the rf energy content of the resonant cavity. The accelerating field level of many of the SC cavities forming the ATLAS linac has been limited by the rf power capacity of the presently used PIN-diode based fast-tuner. A new system has been developed, utilizing PIN diodes operating immersed in liquid nitrogen, with the diodes controlled by a high-voltage VMOS FET driver. The system has operated at reactive power levels above 20 KVA, a factor of four increase over an earlier design. 7 refs., 2 figs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. O. Akala
2013-11-01
Full Text Available GPS-TEC data were observed at the same local time at two equatorial stations on both longitudes: Lagos (6.52° N, 3.4° E, 3.04° S magnetic latitude, Nigeria; and Pucallpa (8.38° S, 74.57° W, 4.25° N magnetic latitude, Peru during the minimum (2009, 2010 and ascending (2011 phases of solar cycle 24. These data were grouped into daily, seasonal and solar activity sets. The day-to-day variations in vertical TEC (VTEC recorded the maximum during 14:00–16:00 LT and minimum during 04:00–06:00 LT at both longitudes. Seasonally, during solar minimum, maximum VTEC values were observed during March equinox and minimum during solstices. However, during the ascending phase of the solar activity, the maximum values were recorded during the December solstice and minimum during the June solstice. VTEC also increased with solar activity at both longitudes. On longitude by longitude comparison, the African GPS station generally recorded higher VTEC values than the American GPS station. Furthermore, harmonic analysis technique was used to extract the annual and semi-annual components of the amplitudes of the TEC series at both stations. The semi-annual variations dominated the TEC series over the African equatorial station, while the annual variations dominated those over the American equatorial station. The GPS-TEC-derived averages for non-storm days were compared with the corresponding values derived by the IRI-2007 with the NeQuick topside option. The NeQuick option of IRI-2007 showed better performance at the American sector than the African sector, but generally underestimating TEC during the early morning hours at both longitudes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Julia, J; Nyblade, A; Hansen, S; Rodgers, A; Matzel, E
2009-07-06
In this project, we are developing models of lithospheric structure for a wide variety of tectonic regions throughout Eurasia and the Middle East by regionalizing 1D velocity models obtained by jointly inverting P-wave and S-wave receiver functions with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities. We expect the regionalized velocity models will improve our ability to predict travel-times for local and regional phases, such as Pg, Pn, Sn and Lg, as well as travel-times for body-waves at upper mantle triplication distances in both seismic and aseismic regions of Eurasia and the Middle East. We anticipate the models will help inform and strengthen ongoing and future efforts within the NNSA labs to develop 3D velocity models for Eurasia and the Middle East, and will assist in obtaining model-based predictions where no empirical data are available and for improving locations from sparse networks using kriging. The codes needed to conduct the joint inversion of P-wave receiver functions (PRFs), S-wave receiver functions (SRFs), and dispersion velocities have already been assembled as part of ongoing research on lithospheric structure in Africa. The methodology has been tested with synthetic 'data' and case studies have been investigated with data collected at an open broadband stations in South Africa. PRFs constrain the size and S-P travel-time of seismic discontinuities in the crust and uppermost mantle, SRFs constrain the size and P-S travel-time of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary, and dispersion velocities constrain average S-wave velocity within frequency-dependent depth-ranges. Preliminary results show that the combination yields integrated 1D velocity models local to the recording station, where the discontinuities constrained by the receiver functions are superimposed to a background velocity model constrained by the dispersion velocities. In our first year of this project we will (i) generate 1D velocity models for open broadband seismic stations
Upgraded phase control system for superconducting low-velocity accelerating structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Added, N [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil); Clifft, B E; Shepard, K W [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)
1992-11-01
Microphonic-induced fluctuations in the RF eigenfrequency of superconducting (SC) slow-wave structures must be compensated by a fast-tuning system in order to control the RF phase. The tuning system must handle a reactive power proportional to the product of the frequency range and the RF energy content of the RF cavity. The fast tuner for the SC resonators in the ATLAS heavy-ion linac is a voltage-controlled reactance based on an array of PIN diodes operating immersed in liquid nitrogen. This paper discusses recent upgrades to the ATLAS fast tuner which can now provide as much as 30 KVA of reactive tuning capability with a real RF power loss of less than 300 watts. The design was guided by numerical modeling of all elements of the device. Also discussed is the RF coupler which can couple 30 KW from 77 K tuner to a 4.2 K resonant cavity with less than 2 W of RF loss into 4.2 K. (Author) 6 refs., 2 figs.
Upgraded phase control system for superconducting low-velocity accelerating structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Added, N.; Clifft, B.E.; Shepard, K.W.
1992-01-01
Microphonic-induced fluctuations in the RF eigenfrequency of superconducting (SC) slow-wave structures must be compensated by a fast-tuning system in order to control the RF phase. The tuning system must handle a reactive power proportional to the product of the frequency range and the RF energy content of the RF cavity. The fast tuner for the SC resonators in the ATLAS heavy-ion linac is a voltage-controlled reactance based on an array of PIN diodes operating immersed in liquid nitrogen. This paper discusses recent upgrades to the ATLAS fast tuner which can now provide as much as 30 KVA of reactive tuning capability with a real RF power loss of less than 300 watts. The design was guided by numerical modeling of all elements of the device. Also discussed is the RF coupler which can couple 30 KW from 77 K tuner to a 4.2 K resonant cavity with less than 2 W of RF loss into 4.2 K. (Author) 6 refs., 2 figs
Upgraded phase control system for superconducting low-velocity accelerating structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Added, N.
1992-01-01
Microphonic-induced fluctuations in the RF eigenfrequency of superconducting (SC) slow-wave structures must be compensated by a fast-tuning system in order to control the RF phase. The tuning system must handle a reactive power proportional to the product of the frequency range and the RF energy content of the Rf cavity. The fast tuner for the SC resonators in the ATLAS heavy-ion linac is a voltage-controlled reactance based on an array of PIN diodes operating immersed in liquid nitrogen. This paper discusses recent upgrades to the ATLAS fast tuner which can now provide as much as 30 KVA of reactive tuning capability with a real RF power loss of less than 300 watts. The design was guided by numerical modeling of all elements of the device. Also discussed is the RF coupler which can couple 30 KW from 77 K tuner to a 42 K resonant cavity with less than 2 W of RF loss into 4.2 K
Upgraded phase control system for superconducting low-velocity accelerating structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Added, N. (Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Nuclear); Clifft, B.E.; Shepard, K.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States))
1992-01-01
Microphonic-induced fluctuations in the RF eigenfrequency of superconducting (SC) slow-wave structures must be compensated by a fast-tuning system in order to control the RF phase. The tuning system must handle a reactive power proportional to the product of the frequency range and the RF energy content of the Rf cavity. The fast tuner for the SC resonators in the ATLAS heavy-ion linac is a voltage-controlled reactance based on an array of PIN diodes operating immersed in liquid nitrogen. This paper discusses recent upgrades to the ATLAS fast tuner which can now provide as much as 30 KVA of reactive tuning capability with a real RF power loss of less than 300 watts. The design was guided by numerical modeling of all elements of the device. Also discussed is the RF coupler which can couple 30 KW from 77 K tuner to a 42 K resonant cavity with less than 2 W of RF loss into 4.2 K.
Upgraded phase control system for superconducting low-velocity accelerating structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Added, N. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica Nuclear; Clifft, B.E.; Shepard, K.W. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)
1992-09-01
Microphonic-induced fluctuations in the RF eigenfrequency of superconducting (SC) slow-wave structures must be compensated by a fast-tuning system in order to control the RF phase. The tuning system must handle a reactive power proportional to the product of the frequency range and the RF energy content of the Rf cavity. The fast tuner for the SC resonators in the ATLAS heavy-ion linac is a voltage-controlled reactance based on an array of PIN diodes operating immersed in liquid nitrogen. This paper discusses recent upgrades to the ATLAS fast tuner which can now provide as much as 30 KVA of reactive tuning capability with a real RF power loss of less than 300 watts. The design was guided by numerical modeling of all elements of the device. Also discussed is the RF coupler which can couple 30 KW from 77 K tuner to a 42 K resonant cavity with less than 2 W of RF loss into 4.2 K.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Kang Il [Kangwon National University, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)
2012-08-15
The present study aims to provide insight into the relationships of the phase velocity with the micro architectural parameters in bovine trabecular bone in vitro. The frequency-dependent phase velocity was measured in 22 bovine femoral trabecular bone samples by using a pair of transducers with a diameter of 25.4 mm and a center frequency of 0.5 MHz. The phase velocity exhibited positive correlation coefficients of 0.48 and 0.32 with the ratio of bone volume to total volume and the trabecular thickness, respectively, but a negative correlation coefficient of -0.62 with the trabecular separation. The best univariate predictor of the phase velocity was the trabecular separation, yielding an adjusted squared correlation coefficient of 0.36. The multivariate regression models yielded adjusted squared correlation coefficients of 0.21 - 0.36. The theoretical phase velocity predicted by using a stratified model for wave propagation in periodically stratified media consisting of alternating parallel solid-fluid layers showed reasonable agreements with the experimental measurements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Kang Il
2012-01-01
The present study aims to provide insight into the relationships of the phase velocity with the micro architectural parameters in bovine trabecular bone in vitro. The frequency-dependent phase velocity was measured in 22 bovine femoral trabecular bone samples by using a pair of transducers with a diameter of 25.4 mm and a center frequency of 0.5 MHz. The phase velocity exhibited positive correlation coefficients of 0.48 and 0.32 with the ratio of bone volume to total volume and the trabecular thickness, respectively, but a negative correlation coefficient of -0.62 with the trabecular separation. The best univariate predictor of the phase velocity was the trabecular separation, yielding an adjusted squared correlation coefficient of 0.36. The multivariate regression models yielded adjusted squared correlation coefficients of 0.21 - 0.36. The theoretical phase velocity predicted by using a stratified model for wave propagation in periodically stratified media consisting of alternating parallel solid-fluid layers showed reasonable agreements with the experimental measurements.
Precise zero-sound velocity measurements in the A and A1 phases of 3He near T/sub c/
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berg, R.F.; Ihas, G.G.
1983-01-01
The authors have made phase-velocity change measurements for 5 and 15 MHz zero sound within a few microkelvin of the 3 He superfluid transition, T/sub c/, at 31.1 bar. The results show no marked feature at homega = 2Δ(T). However, there is a marked reduction in the slope of dc/dT upon passing from the A-phase into the Al-phase. 2 references
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malykin, Grigorii B
2010-01-01
In 1909, Arnold Sommerfeld used geometric calculations to show that the relativistic addition of two noncollinear velocities on an imaginary-radius sphere is a noncommutative operation. Sommerfeld was the first to use the geometric phase method to calculate the angle between the resulting velocities depending on the order in which they are added. For this, he related the value of this angle to the excess of the spherical triangle formed by the two original velocities and their sum. In 1931, Sommerfeld applied his method to analyze the Thomas precession. (from the history of physics)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Analytis, G.Th.; Luebbesmeyer, D.
1982-11-01
An extensive and detailed investigation of two-phase flow velocity measurements by cross-correlating noise signals of information carriers (neutrons, gammas, visible light) modulated by the two-phase flow and registered by two axially placed detectors outside the flow is pursued. To this end, a detailed analysis of velocity measurements in experimental loops and a large number of velocity measurements in a commercial BWR is undertaken, and the applicability and limitations of the drift flux model for their interpretation is investigated. On the basis of this extensive analysis, the authors propose a physically plausible explanation for the deviations in the upper part of the core, expound on why the drift flux model is, to a great extent, not suitable for interpreting two-phase flow velocity measurements by cross-correlation techniques reported in the present work, and conclude that due to the large number of uncertainties and the lack of detailed knowledge about the kind of microstructures of the flow which the detectors prefer to ''sample'', one can safely assume that at least in the lower half of the core the velocity measured can be well approximated by the velocity of the centre of volume, from which the mass fluxes can readily be computed. (Auth.)
Melching, Charles S.; Meno, Michael W.
1998-01-01
As part of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) project Intercomparison of Principal Hydrometric Instruments, Third Phase, a questionnaire was prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) on the application of Ultrasonic Velocity Meters (UVM's) for flowmeasurement in streams, canals, and estuaries. In 1996, this questionnaire was distributed internationally by the WMO and USGS, and distributed within the United States by the USGS. Completed questionnaires were returned by 26 agencies in 7 countries (Canada, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States). The completed questionnaires described geometric and streamflow conditions, system configurations, and reasons for applying UVM systems for 260 sites, thus providing information on the applicability of UVM systems throughout the world. The completed questionnaires also provided information on operational issues such as (1) methods used to determine and verify UVM ratings, (2) methods used to determine the mean flow velocity for UVM systems, (3) operational reliability of UVM systems, (4) methods to estimate missing data, (5) common problems with UVM systems and guidelines to mitigate these problems, and (6) personnel training issues. The completed questionnaires also described a few unique or novel applications of UVM systems. In addition to summarizing the completed questionnaires, this report includes a brief overview of UVM application and operation, and a short summary of current (1998) information from UVM system manufacturers regarding system cost and capabilities. On the basis of the information from the completed questionnaires and provided by the manufacturers, the general applicability of UVM systems is discussed. In the finalisation of this report the financial support provided by the US National Committee for Scientific Hydrology is gratefully acknowledged.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Groh, J. H.; Damineli, A.; Hillier, D. J.; Whitelock, P. A.; Marang, F.; Rossi, C.
2009-01-01
We present a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the luminous blue variable (LBV) AG Carinae (AG Car) during the last two visual minimum phases of its S-Dor cycle (1985-1990 and 2000-2003). The analysis reveals an overabundance of He, N, and Na, and a depletion of H, C, and O, on the surface of the AG Car, indicating the presence of a CNO-processed material. Furthermore, the ratio N/O is higher on the stellar surface than in the nebula. We found that the minimum phases of AG Car are not equal to each other, since we derived a noticeable difference between the maximum effective temperature achieved during 1985-1990 (22, 800 K) and 2000-2001 (17,000 K). Significant differences between the wind parameters in these two epochs were also noticed. While the wind terminal velocity was 300 km s -1 in 1985-1990, it was as low as 105 km s -1 in 2001. The mass-loss rate, however, was lower from 1985-1990 (1.5 x 10 -5 M sun yr -1 ) than from 2000-2001 (3.7 x 10 -5 M sun yr -1 ). We found that the wind of AG Car is significantly clumped (f ≅ 0.10-0.25) and that clumps must be formed deep in the wind. We derived a bolometric luminosity of 1.5 x 10 6 L sun during both minimum phases which, contrary to the common assumption, decreases to 1.0 x 10 6 L sun as the star moves toward the maximum flux in the V band. Assuming that the decrease in the bolometric luminosity of AG Car is due to the energy used to expand the outer layers of the star, we found that the expanding layers contain roughly 0.6-2 M sun . Such an amount of mass is an order of magnitude lower than the nebular mass around AG Car, but is comparable to the nebular mass found around lower-luminosity LBVs and to that of the Little Homunculus of Eta Car. If such a large amount of mass is indeed involved in the S Dor-type variability, we speculate that such instability could be a failed Giant Eruption, with several solar masses never becoming unbound from the star.
Tada, T.; Cho, I.; Shinozaki, Y.
2005-12-01
We have invented a Two-Radius (TR) circular array method of microtremor exploration, an algorithm that enables to estimate phase velocities of Love waves by analyzing horizontal-component records of microtremors that are obtained with an array of seismic sensors placed around circumferences of two different radii. The data recording may be done either simultaneously around the two circles or in two separate sessions with sensors distributed around each circle. Both Rayleigh and Love waves are present in the horizontal components of microtremors, but in the data processing of our TR method, all information on the Rayleigh waves ends up cancelled out, and information on the Love waves alone are left to be analyzed. Also, unlike the popularly used frequency-wavenumber spectral (F-K) method, our TR method does not resolve individual plane-wave components arriving from different directions and analyze their "vector" phase velocities, but instead directly evaluates their "scalar" phase velocities --- phase velocities that contain no information on the arrival direction of waves --- through a mathematical procedure which involves azimuthal averaging. The latter feature leads us to expect that, with our TR method, it is possible to conduct phase velocity analysis with smaller numbers of sensors, with higher stability, and up to longer-wavelength ranges than with the F-K method. With a view to investigating the capabilities and limitations of our TR method in practical implementation to real data, we have deployed circular seismic arrays of different sizes at a test site in Japan where the underground structure is well documented through geophysical exploration. Ten seismic sensors were placed equidistantly around two circumferences, five around each circle, with varying combinations of radii ranging from several meters to several tens of meters, and simultaneous records of microtremors around circles of two different radii were analyzed with our TR method to produce
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Torosyan, O.S.; Mkrtchyan, A.R.
2003-01-01
The amplification of acoustic waves due to the transfer of thermal energy from electrons to the neutral component of a glow discharge plasma is studied theoretically. It is shown that, in order for acoustic instability (sound amplification) to occur, the amount of energy transferred should exceed the threshold energy, which depends on the plasma parameters and the acoustic wave frequency. The energy balance equation for an electron gas in the positive column of a glow discharge is analyzed for conditions typical of experiments in which acoustic wave amplification has been observed. Based on this analysis, one can affirm that, first, the energy transferred to neutral gas in elastic electron-atom collisions is substantially lower than the threshold energy for acoustic wave amplification and, second, that the energy transferred from electrons to neutral gas in inelastic collisions is much higher than that transferred in elastic collisions and thus may exceed the threshold energy. It is also shown that, for amplification to occur, there should exist some heat dissipation mechanism more efficient than gas heat conduction. It is suggested that this may be convective radial mixing within a positive column due to acoustic streaming in the field of an acoustic wave. The features of the phase velocity of sound waves in the presence of acoustic instability are investigated
Rai, Man Mohan
2018-05-01
The near wake of a flat plate is investigated via direct numerical simulations. Many earlier experimental investigations have used thin plates with sharp trailing edges and turbulent boundary layers to create the wake. This results in large θ/DTE values (θ is the boundary layer momentum thickness toward the end of the plate and DTE is the trailing edge thickness). In the present study, the emphasis is on relatively thick plates with circular trailing edges (CTEs) resulting in θ/D values less than one (D is the plate thickness and the diameter of the CTE) and vigorous vortex shedding. The Reynolds numbers based on the plate length and D are 1.255 × 106 and 10 000, respectively. Two cases are computed: one with turbulent boundary layers on both the upper and lower surfaces of the plate (statistically the same, symmetric wake, Case TT) and the other with turbulent and laminar boundary layers on the upper and lower surfaces, respectively (asymmetric case, Case TL). The data and understanding obtained are of considerable engineering interest, particularly in turbomachinery where the pressure side of an airfoil can remain laminar or transitional because of a favorable pressure gradient and the suction side is turbulent. Shed-vortex structure and phase-averaged velocity statistics obtained in the two cases are compared here. The upper negative shed vortices in Case TL (turbulent separating boundary layer) are weaker than the lower positive ones (laminar separating boundary layer) at inception (a factor of 1.27 weaker in terms of peak phase-averaged spanwise vorticity at the first appearance of a peak). The upper vortices weaken rapidly as they travel downstream. A second feature of interest in Case TL is a considerable increase in the peak phase-averaged, streamwise normal intensity (random component) with increasing streamwise distance (x/D) that occurs near the positive vortex cores. This behavior is observed for a few diameters in the near wake. This is counter to
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shintaro Hisatake
2008-01-01
Full Text Available We estimate the phase velocity of a modulation microwave in a quasi-velocity-matched (QVM electro-optic (EO phase modulator (QVM-EOM using EO sampling which is accurate and the most reliable technique for measuring voltage waveforms at an electrode. The substrate of the measured QVM-EOM is a stoichiometric periodically domain-inverted LiTaO3 crystal. The electric field of a standing wave in a resonant microstrip line (width: 0.5 mm, height: 0.5 mm is measured by employing a CdTe crystal as an EO sensor. The wavelength of the traveling microwave at 16.0801 GHz is determined as 3.33 mm by fitting the theoretical curve to the measured electric field distribution. The phase velocity is estimated as vm=5.35×107 m/s, though there exists about 5% systematic error due to the perturbation by the EO sensor. Relative dielectric constant of εr=41.5 is led as the maximum likelihood value that derives the estimated phase velocity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andreev, A. G.; Bazelyan, E. M.; Bulatov, M. U.; Kuzhekin, I. P.; Makalsky, L. M.; Sukharevskij, D. I.; Syssoev, V. S.
2008-01-01
A positive leader in air at gap lengths of up to 8 m was studied experimentally on an open experimental stand. The voltage source was a 6-MV pulsed voltage generator or an artificial charged aerosol cloud. The dependence of the leader velocity on the current in the range 0.2-8 A was determined by simultaneously recording the optical picture and electric parameters of the discharge. Particular attention was paid to the final-jump phase of the discharge, when the gap was completely bridged by the streamer zone of the leader. It is shown that the character of the dependence of the leader velocity on the current in this phase remains unchanged; hence, the final-jump phase can be used in experiments in which the current has to be varied within a wide range. For this purpose, one can use a damping resistance, which is inefficient in the initial phase. The parameters of the power-law dependence of the leader velocity on the current at currents of a few amperes are established reliably. It is found that the power-law dependence with constant parameters is inapplicable to calculate the leader velocity at currents of about 0.1 A, which correspond to the lower limit of the leader viability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wan, X; Xu, G H; Tao, T F; Zhang, Q; Tse, P W
2016-01-01
Most previous studies on nonlinear Lamb waves are conducted using mode pairs that satisfying strict phase velocity matching and non-zero power flux criteria. However, there are some limitations in existence. First, strict phase velocity matching is not existed in the whole frequency bandwidth; Second, excited center frequency is not always exactly equal to the true phase-velocity-matching frequency; Third, mode pairs are isolated and quite limited in number; Fourth, exciting a single desired primary mode is extremely difficult in practice and the received signal is quite difficult to process and interpret. And few attention has been paid to solving these shortcomings. In this paper, nonlinear S0 mode Lamb waves at low-frequency range satisfying approximate phase velocity matching is proposed for the purpose of overcoming these limitations. In analytical studies, the secondary amplitudes with the propagation distance considering the fundamental frequency, the maximum cumulative propagation distance (MCPD) with the fundamental frequency and the maximum linear cumulative propagation distance (MLCPD) using linear regression analysis are investigated. Based on analytical results, approximate phase velocity matching is quantitatively characterized as the relative phase velocity deviation less than a threshold value of 1%. Numerical studies are also conducted using tone burst as the excitation signal. The influences of center frequency and frequency bandwidth on the secondary amplitudes and MCPD are investigated. S1–S2 mode with the fundamental frequency at 1.8 MHz, the primary S0 mode at the center frequencies of 100 and 200 kHz are used respectively to calculate the ratios of nonlinear parameter of Al 6061-T6 to Al 7075-T651. The close agreement of the computed ratios to the actual value verifies the effectiveness of nonlinear S0 mode Lamb waves satisfying approximate phase velocity matching for characterizing the material nonlinearity. Moreover, the ratios derived
Cho, I.; Tada, T.; Shinozaki, Y.
2005-12-01
We have developed a Centerless Circular Array (CCA) method of microtremor exploration, an algorithm that enables to estimate phase velocities of Rayleigh waves by analyzing vertical-component records of microtremors that are obtained with an array of three or five seismic sensors placed around a circumference. Our CCA method shows a remarkably high performance in long-wavelength ranges because, unlike the frequency-wavenumber spectral method, our method does not resolve individual plane-wave components in the process of identifying phase velocities. Theoretical considerations predict that the resolving power of our CCA method in long-wavelength ranges depends upon the SN ratio, or the ratio of power of the propagating components to that of the non-propagating components (incoherent noise) contained in the records from the seismic array. The applicability of our CCA method to small-sized arrays on the order of several meters in radius has already been confirmed in our earlier work (Cho et al., 2004). We have deployed circular seismic arrays of different sizes at test sites in Japan where the underground structure is well documented through geophysical exploration, and have applied our CCA method to microtremor records to estimate phase velocities of Rayleigh waves. The estimates were then checked against "model" phase velocities that are derived from theoretical calculations. For arrays of 5, 25, 300 and 600 meters in radii, the estimated and model phase velocities demonstrated fine agreement within a broad wavelength range extending from a little larger than 3r (r: the array radius) up to at least 40r, 14r, 42r and 9r, respectively. This demonstrates the applicability of our CCA method to arrays on the order of several to several hundreds of meters in radii, and also illustrates, in a typical way, the markedly high performance of our CCA method in long-wavelength ranges. We have also invented a mathematical model that enables to evaluate the SN ratio in a given
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. S. Kuo
2007-02-01
Full Text Available The wave packets of atmospheric gravity waves were numerically generated, with a given characteristic wave period, horizontal wave length and projection mean wind along the horizontal wave vector. Their projection phase and group velocities along the oblique radar beam (vpr and vgr, with different zenith angle θ and azimuth angle φ, were analyzed by the method of phase- and group-velocity tracing. The results were consistent with the theoretical calculations derived by the dispersion relation, reconfirming the accuracy of the method of analysis. The RTI plot of the numerical wave packets were similar to the striation patterns of the QP echoes from the FAI irregularity region. We propose that the striation range rate of the QP echo is equal to the radial phase velocity vpr, and the slope of the energy line across the neighboring striations is equal to the radial group velocity vgr of the wave packet; the horizontal distance between two neighboring striations is equal to the characteristic wave period τ. Then, one can inversely calculate all the properties of the gravity wave responsible for the appearance of the QP echoes. We found that the possibility of some QP echoes being generated by the gravity waves originated from lower altitudes cannot be ruled out.
Duong, Minh V; Nguyen, Hieu T; Mai, Tam V-T; Huynh, Lam K
2018-01-03
Master equation/Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (ME/RRKM) has shown to be a powerful framework for modeling kinetic and dynamic behaviors of a complex gas-phase chemical system on a complicated multiple-species and multiple-channel potential energy surface (PES) for a wide range of temperatures and pressures. Derived from the ME time-resolved species profiles, the macroscopic or phenomenological rate coefficients are essential for many reaction engineering applications including those in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. Therefore, in this study, a least-squares-based approach named Global Minimum Profile Error (GMPE) was proposed and implemented in the MultiSpecies-MultiChannel (MSMC) code (Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 2015, 47, 564) to extract macroscopic rate coefficients for such a complicated system. The capability and limitations of the new approach were discussed in several well-defined test cases.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khan, A.; Zunino, Andrea; Deschamps, F.
2013-01-01
Here we discuss the nature of velocity heterogeneities seen in seismic tomography images of Earth's mantle whose origins and relation to thermochemical variations are yet to be understood. We illustrate this by inverting fundamental-mode and higher-order surface-wave phase velocities for radial....../Fe and Mg/Si values relative to surrounding mantle. Correlated herewith are thermal variations that closely follow surface tectonics. We also observe a strong contribution to lateral variations in structure and topography across the “410 km” seismic discontinuity from thermochemically induced phase......-wave tomography models with other regional models is encouraging. Radial anisotropy is strongest at 150/200 km depth beneath oceanic/continental areas, respectively, and appears weak and homogeneous below. Finally, geoid anomalies are computed for a subset of sampled model and compared to observations....
Silva, Leonardo W. T.; Barros, Vitor F.; Silva, Sandro G.
2014-01-01
In launching operations, Rocket Tracking Systems (RTS) process the trajectory data obtained by radar sensors. In order to improve functionality and maintenance, radars can be upgraded by replacing antennas with parabolic reflectors (PRs) with phased arrays (PAs). These arrays enable the electronic control of the radiation pattern by adjusting the signal supplied to each radiating element. However, in projects of phased array radars (PARs), the modeling of the problem is subject to various combinations of excitation signals producing a complex optimization problem. In this case, it is possible to calculate the problem solutions with optimization methods such as genetic algorithms (GAs). For this, the Genetic Algorithm with Maximum-Minimum Crossover (GA-MMC) method was developed to control the radiation pattern of PAs. The GA-MMC uses a reconfigurable algorithm with multiple objectives, differentiated coding and a new crossover genetic operator. This operator has a different approach from the conventional one, because it performs the crossover of the fittest individuals with the least fit individuals in order to enhance the genetic diversity. Thus, GA-MMC was successful in more than 90% of the tests for each application, increased the fitness of the final population by more than 20% and reduced the premature convergence. PMID:25196013
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Won, Woo Yeon; Lee, Yeon Gun; Lee, Bo An; Koc, Min Seok; Kim, Sin
2016-01-01
The information for the flow pattern is also required to measure the void fraction. In order to solve this problems, Ko et al. proposed the void fraction measurement sensor according to the flow pattern using a three-electrode. The sensor system applied for a horizontal flow loop, and its measured performance for the void fraction was evaluated. In this study, a dual sensor was suggested to improve the measurement accuracy of the void fraction and the velocity. We applied the sensor to the inclined pipe simulating the PAFS heat exchanger. In order to verify the void fraction and velocity measurements, we used the wire-mesh sensor and the high-speed camera. In this study, an improved electrical conductance sensor for void fraction and velocity in inclined pipes has been designed. For minimizing between the sensor electrode interference, the numerical analysis has been performed. The loop experiments were conducted for several flow conditions and the experimental results for the void fractions and velocity measured by the proposed sensor were compared with those of a wiremesh sensor and high-speed camera.
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Heverhagen, J.T. E-mail: heverhag@post.med.uni-marburg.de; Hoppe, M.; Klose, K.-J.; Wagner, H.-J
2002-10-01
Introduction/objective: To evaluate the potential influence of various concentrations of gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA on magnetic resonance phase contrast (MR PC) velocimetry. Material and methods: Imaging was done with a 1.0 T scanner using a standard Flash 2D sequence and a circular polarized extremity coil. In a validated flow phantom with a defined 75% area stenosis different concentrations of Gd-DTPA, diluted in a 10:1 water-yogurt mixture, MR PC measurements were correlated with a Doppler guide wire as gold standard. Results: MR PC measurements correlated well with the Doppler derived data (r=0.99; P<0.01; maximum pre-stenotic velocity: 21.6{+-}0.5 cm/s; maximum intra-stenotic velocity: 81.7{+-}0.6 cm/s). Following Gd-DTPA administration no significant (P>0.05; Student's t-test) flow measurement changes were noted (maximum pre-stenotic velocity: 21.3{+-}1.3 cm/s; maximum intra-stenotic velocity: 84.0{+-}3.6 cm/s). However, delineation of the perfused lumen was enhanced after the application of Gd-DTPA. Discussions and conclusion: The application of Gd-DTPA does not affect MR PC velocimetry. However, the application of contrast media allowed a more accurate vessel segmentation. MR PC measurements can be reliably carried out after application of Gd-DTPA.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
March, N.H.
2006-08-01
Motivated by the theoretical work of Boyer [J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 (2006) 3455] plus the quite recent interferometric experiment of Shinohara, Aoki and Morinaga [Phys. Rev. A66 (2002) 042106] in which the scalar Aharonov-Bohm effect was studied, we re-open the extension to neutral particles carrying a magnetic moment and passing through a region of intense electric field, treated theoretically by Aharonov and Casher (AC) and independently by Anandan. An alternative interpretation of results on (a) neutrons and (b) TlF molecules to that afforded by AC is shown to involve only (i) the de Broglie wavelength of matter waves and (ii) the prediction from Maxwell's equations for the change in velocity of a neutral moving magnet as it enters or leaves an electric field. The exquisite sensitivity of experiment (b) allows a fractional change in velocity of order 10 -15 to be quantitatively determined. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kawamura, S [Nippon Geophysical Prospecting Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
1996-10-01
Smoothness-constrained least-squares technique with ABIC minimization was applied to the inversion of phase velocity of surface waves during geophysical exploration, to confirm its usefulness. Since this study aimed mainly at the applicability of the technique, Love wave was used which is easier to treat theoretically than Rayleigh wave. Stable successive approximation solutions could be obtained by the repeated improvement of velocity model of S-wave, and an objective model with high reliability could be determined. While, for the inversion with simple minimization of the residuals squares sum, stable solutions could be obtained by the repeated improvement, but the judgment of convergence was very hard due to the smoothness-constraint, which might make the obtained model in a state of over-fitting. In this study, Love wave was used to examine the applicability of the smoothness-constrained least-squares technique with ABIC minimization. Applicability of this to Rayleigh wave will be investigated. 8 refs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shanfang Huang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Multiphase flow measurements have become increasingly important in a wide range of industrial fields. In the present study, a dual needle-contact capacitance probe was newly designed to measure local void fractions and bubble velocity in a vertical channel, which was verified by digital high-speed camera system. The theoretical analyses and experiments show that the needle-contact capacitance probe can reliably measure void fractions with the readings almost independent of temperature and salinity for the experimental conditions. In addition, the trigger-level method was chosen as the signal processing method for the void fraction measurement, with a minimum relative error of −4.59%. The bubble velocity was accurately measured within a relative error of 10%. Meanwhile, dynamic response of the dual needle-contact capacitance probe was analyzed in detail. The probe was then used to obtain raw signals for vertical pipe flow regimes, including plug flow, slug flow, churn flow, and bubbly flow. Further experiments indicate that the time series of the output signals vary as the different flow regimes and are consistent with each flow structure.
Du, Tao-Yuan; Huang, Xiao-Huan; Bian, Xue-Bin
2018-01-01
We study numerically the Bloch electron wave-packet dynamics in periodic potentials to simulate laser-solid interactions. We introduce an alternative perspective in the coordinate space combined with the motion of the Bloch electron wave packets moving at group and phase velocities under the laser fields. This model interprets the origins of the two contributions (intra- and interband transitions) in the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) processes by investigating the local and global behaviours of the wave packets. It also elucidates the underlying physical picture of the HHG intensity enhancement by means of carrier-envelope phase, chirp, and inhomogeneous fields. It provides a deep insight into the emission of high-order harmonics from solids. This model is instructive for experimental measurements and provides an alternative avenue to distinguish mechanisms of the HHG from solids in different laser fields.
Xiong, Yuan
2014-04-28
Spurious current emerging in the vicinity of phase interfaces is a well-known disadvantage of the lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) for two-phase flows. Previous analysis shows that this unphysical phenomenon comes from the force imbalance at discrete level inherited in LBE (Guo et al 2011 Phys. Rev. E 83 036707). Based on the analysis of the LBE free of checkerboard effects, in this work we further show that the force imbalance is caused by the different discretization stencils: the implicit one from the streaming process and the explicit one from the discretization of the force term. Particularly, the total contribution includes two parts, one from the difference between the intrinsically discretized density (or ideal gas pressure) gradient and the explicit ones in the force term, and the other from the explicit discretized chemical potential gradients in the intrinsically discretized force term. The former contribution is a special feature of LBE which was not realized previously.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marcelino, M.A.; Silva, G.B.S.; Grandinetti, F.J. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia; Universidade de Taubate (UNITAU), SP (Brazil)], Emails: abud@feg.unesp.br, gabonini@yahoo.com.br, grandinetti@unitau.br
2009-07-01
This paper presents a technique for speed control three-phase induction motor using the pulse width modulation (PWM), in open loop while maintaining the tension for constant frequency. The technique is adapted from a thesis entitled 'Control of the three-phase induction motor, using discrete PWM generation, optimized and synchronized', where studies are presented aimed at their application in home appliances, to eliminate mechanical parts, replaced by low cost electronic control, thus having a significant reduction in power consumption. Initially the experiment was done with the Intel 80C31 micro controller. In this paper, the PWM modulation is implemented using a PIC micro controller, and the speed control kept a low profile, based on tables, synchronized with transitions and reduced generation of harmonics in the network. Confirmations were made using the same process of building tables, but takes advantage of the program of a RISC device.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, D.H.; Yoo, Y.J.; Kim, K.K.
1998-08-01
A linear model, named ALFS, is developed for the analysis of two-phase flow instabilities caused by density wave oscillation and flow excursion in a vertical boiling channel with constant pressure drop conditions. The ALFS code can take into account the effect of the phase velocity difference and the thermally non-equilibrium phenomena, and the neutral boundary of the two-phase flow instability was analyzed by D-partition method. Three representative two-phase flow models ( i.e. HEM, DEM, and DNEM) were examined to investigate the effects on the stability analysis. As the results, it reveals that HEM shows the most conservative prediction of heat flux at the onset of flow instability. three linear models, Ishiis DEM, Sahas DNEM, and ALFS model, were applied to Sahas experimental data of density wave oscillation, and as the result, the mean and standard deviation of the predicted-to-measured heat flux at the onset of instability were calculated as 0.93/0.162, 0.79/0.112, and 0.95/0.143, respectively. For the long test section, however, ALFS model tends to predict the heat fluxes about 30 % lower than the measured values. (author). 14 refs
Ma, Z.; Dalton, C. A.
2017-12-01
It has been long observed that the rate of seafloor subsidence in the Pacific Ocean is lower than predicted by half-space cooling at ages older than 70 Myr. The magnitude, geographical distribution, onset time, and physical origin of the flattening are fundamental to our understanding of the evolution of oceanic lithosphere, and give important constraints on the Earth's heat budget and ocean volume throughout its history. However, none of these quantities is well established even after a long history of debates. Here, we present evidence from bathymetry and seismic tomography for the wide-scale operation of small-scale convection in the Pacific and Atlantic upper mantle. We track the temporal evolution of surface wave phase velocity and seafloor topography along age trajectories, which connect each piece of seafloor with the ridge segment that created it. The half-space cooling model (HSCM) and plate cooling model are used to predict the age dependence of phase velocity and bathymetry and to identify, for each age trajectory, the age at which the HSCM fails to explain the observations. The phase velocity and bathymetry are analyzed independently and yet yield identical results for more than 80% of points. We observe a wide range of ages at which the HSCM fails in the Atlantic and a much narrower range in the Pacific. We find that the age at which the HSCM fails is anti-correlated with the present-day depth of the ridge axis, with younger failure ages corresponding to deeper ridge axes and therefore colder mantle beneath the ridge.Such dependence is best explained by the small-scale convection model in which the effective viscosity of the lithosphere is regulated by the dehydration process that happens at the mid-ocean ridges. Decompression melting at a ridge removes water from the mantle and generates a depleted, dehydrated, and viscous layer. Since high mantle potential temperatures cause decompression melting to begin at greater depths, the thickness of the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heverhagen, J.T.; Hoppe, M.; Klose, K.-J.; Wagner, H.-J.
2002-01-01
Introduction/objective: To evaluate the potential influence of various concentrations of gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA on magnetic resonance phase contrast (MR PC) velocimetry. Material and methods: Imaging was done with a 1.0 T scanner using a standard Flash 2D sequence and a circular polarized extremity coil. In a validated flow phantom with a defined 75% area stenosis different concentrations of Gd-DTPA, diluted in a 10:1 water-yogurt mixture, MR PC measurements were correlated with a Doppler guide wire as gold standard. Results: MR PC measurements correlated well with the Doppler derived data (r=0.99; P 0.05; Student's t-test) flow measurement changes were noted (maximum pre-stenotic velocity: 21.3±1.3 cm/s; maximum intra-stenotic velocity: 84.0±3.6 cm/s). However, delineation of the perfused lumen was enhanced after the application of Gd-DTPA. Discussions and conclusion: The application of Gd-DTPA does not affect MR PC velocimetry. However, the application of contrast media allowed a more accurate vessel segmentation. MR PC measurements can be reliably carried out after application of Gd-DTPA
Monari, G.; Famaey, B.; Minchev, I.; Antoja, T.; Bienaymé, O.; Gibson, B. K.; Grebel, E. K.; Kordopatis, G.; McMillan, P.; Navarro, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Quillen, A. C.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G.; Siebert, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Wyse, R. F. G.; Zwitter, T.
2018-05-01
Before the publication of the Gaia DR2 we confirmed with RAVE and TGAS an observation recently made with the GALAH survey by Quillen ey al. concerning the Coma Berenices moving group in the Solar neighbourhood, namely that it is only present at negative Galactic latitudes. This allowed us to show that it is coherent in vertical velocity, providing a first evidence for incomplete vertical phase-mixing. We estimated for the first time from dynamical arguments that the moving group must have formed at most ~ 1.5 Gyr ago, and related this to a pericentric passage of the Sagittarius dwarf satellite galaxy. The present note is a rewritten version of the original arXiv post on this result now also including a confirmation of our finding with Gaia DR2.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahmani, R.
1983-01-01
The nucleate boiling heat-transfer coefficient and the maximum heat flux were studied experimentally as functions of velocity, quality and heater diameter for single-phase flow, and two-phase flow of Freon-113 (trichlorotrifluorethane). Results show: (1) peak heat flux: over 300 measured peak heat flux data from two 0.875-in. and four 0.625-in.-diameter heaters indicated that: (a) for pool boiling, single-phase and two-phase forced convection boiling the only parameter (among hysteresis, rate of power increase, aging, presence and proximity of unheated rods) that has a statistically significant effect on the peak heat flux is the velocity. (b) In the velocity range (0 0 position or the point of impact of the incident fluid) and the top (180 0 position) of the test element, respectively
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Correia de Verdier, Maria; Wikstroem, Johan
2016-01-01
The purpose of the present study was to investigate normal ranges and test-retest reproducibility of phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI)-measured flow and velocity parameters in intracranial arteries. Highest flow (HF), lowest flow (LF), peak systolic velocity (PSV), and end diastolic velocity (EDV) were measured at two dates in the anterior (ACA), middle (MCA), and posterior (PCA) cerebral arteries of 30 healthy volunteers using two-dimensional PC-MRI at 3 T. Least detectable difference (LDD) was calculated. In the left ACA, HF was (mean (range, LDD)) 126 ml/min (36-312, 59 %), LF 61 ml/min (0-156, 101 %), PSV 64 cm/s (32-141, 67 %), and EDV 35 cm/s (18-55, 42 %); in the right ACA, HF was 154 ml/min (42-246, 49 %), LF 77 ml/min (0-156, 131 %), PSV 75 cm/s (26-161, 82 %), and EDV 39 cm/s (7-59, 67 %). In the left MCA, HF was 235 ml/min (126-372, 35 %), LF 116 ml/min (42-186, 48 %), PSV 90 cm/s (55-183, 39 %), and EDV 46 cm/s (20-66, 28 %); in the right MCA, HF was 238 ml/min (162-342, 44 %), LF 120 ml/min (72-216, 48 %), PSV 88 cm/s (55-141, 35 %), and EDV 45 cm/s (26-67, 23 %). In the left PCA, HF was 108 ml/min (42-168, 54 %), LF 53 ml/min (18-108, 64 %), PSV 50 cm/s (24-77, 63 %), and EDV 28 cm/s (14-40, 45 %); in the right PCA, HF was 98 ml/min (30-162, 49 %), LF 49 ml/min (12-84, 55 %), PSV 47 cm/s (27-88, 59 %), and EDV 27 cm/s (16-41, 45 %). PC-MRI-measured flow and velocity parameters in the main intracranial arteries have large normal ranges. Reproducibility is highest in MCA. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Correia de Verdier, Maria; Wikstroem, Johan [Uppsala University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala (Sweden)
2016-05-15
The purpose of the present study was to investigate normal ranges and test-retest reproducibility of phase-contrast MRI (PC-MRI)-measured flow and velocity parameters in intracranial arteries. Highest flow (HF), lowest flow (LF), peak systolic velocity (PSV), and end diastolic velocity (EDV) were measured at two dates in the anterior (ACA), middle (MCA), and posterior (PCA) cerebral arteries of 30 healthy volunteers using two-dimensional PC-MRI at 3 T. Least detectable difference (LDD) was calculated. In the left ACA, HF was (mean (range, LDD)) 126 ml/min (36-312, 59 %), LF 61 ml/min (0-156, 101 %), PSV 64 cm/s (32-141, 67 %), and EDV 35 cm/s (18-55, 42 %); in the right ACA, HF was 154 ml/min (42-246, 49 %), LF 77 ml/min (0-156, 131 %), PSV 75 cm/s (26-161, 82 %), and EDV 39 cm/s (7-59, 67 %). In the left MCA, HF was 235 ml/min (126-372, 35 %), LF 116 ml/min (42-186, 48 %), PSV 90 cm/s (55-183, 39 %), and EDV 46 cm/s (20-66, 28 %); in the right MCA, HF was 238 ml/min (162-342, 44 %), LF 120 ml/min (72-216, 48 %), PSV 88 cm/s (55-141, 35 %), and EDV 45 cm/s (26-67, 23 %). In the left PCA, HF was 108 ml/min (42-168, 54 %), LF 53 ml/min (18-108, 64 %), PSV 50 cm/s (24-77, 63 %), and EDV 28 cm/s (14-40, 45 %); in the right PCA, HF was 98 ml/min (30-162, 49 %), LF 49 ml/min (12-84, 55 %), PSV 47 cm/s (27-88, 59 %), and EDV 27 cm/s (16-41, 45 %). PC-MRI-measured flow and velocity parameters in the main intracranial arteries have large normal ranges. Reproducibility is highest in MCA. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miyakoshi, K; Okada, H; Ling, S [Hokkaido University, Sapporo (Japan)
1996-05-01
To specify the maximum wavelength of the phase velocities that can be estimated by the spatial autocorrelation (SPAC) method or F-K method in microtremor exploration, investigations were conducted using numerical simulation. In view of feasibility, an equilateral triangle array was employed, the maximum radius of the array having 7 observation points being 0.10km. The dispersion curve of the Rayleigh wave basic mode was calculated from an underground structure model. White noise was used as the incident wave, and, in case the waves came in from multiple directions, a different phase spectrum was assigned to each direction. In searching for the maximum wave length of phase velocities that could be estimated, a limit was imposed upon estimation, and it was prescribed that the wavelength be the limit if the difference between the theoretical value and estimated phase velocity was 5% or higher. As the result, it was found that it is possible to estimate the phase velocity when the wavelength is up to approximately 10 times longer than the array maximum radius in the SPAC method, and up to approximately 5 times longer in case of the F-K method. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.
Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Koulexidis, Stylianos; Gketzenis, Panagiotis; Tzouras, Grigoris
2018-03-01
Gourgoulis, V, Koulexidis, S, Gketzenis, P, and Tzouras, G. Intra-cyclic velocity variation of the center of mass and hip in breaststroke swimming with maximal intensity. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 830-840, 2018-The aim of the study was to compare the center of mass (CM) and hip (HIP) intracyclic velocity variation in breaststroke swimming using 3-dimensional kinematic analysis. Nine male breaststrokes, of moderate performance level, swam 25-m breaststroke with maximal intensity, and their movements were recorded, both under and above the water surface, using 8 digital cameras. Their CM and HIP velocities and their intracyclic variations were estimated after manual digitization of 28 selected points on the body in a complete arm and leg breaststroke cycle. Paired sample t-tests or Wilcoxon tests, when the assumption of normality was broken, were used for statistical analyses. In both, CM and HIP velocity-time curves, the results revealed a similar pattern of 2 clear peaks associated with the leg and arm propulsive phases and 2 minimal velocities that corresponded to the arm and leg recovery phase and the lag time between the leg and arm propulsive phases, respectively. However, despite this similar general pattern, the HIP minimum resultant velocity was significantly lower, whereas its maximal value was significantly greater, than the corresponding CM values. Consequently, the HIP intracyclic swimming velocity fluctuation significantly overestimates the actual variation of the swimmer's velocity in breaststroke swimming.
Fogel, Mark A; Li, Christine; Nicolson, Susan C; Spray, Thomas L; Gaynor, J William; Fuller, Stephanie; Keller, Marc S; Harris, Matthew A; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Whitehead, Kevin K
2014-12-15
Pulse-wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness, is a known independent risk factor for cardiovascular events. Patients with single ventricle who undergo aortic to pulmonary anastomosis (recon) have noncompliant patch material inserted into the neoaorta, possibly increasing vessel stiffness and afterload. The purpose of this study is to determine if PWV in patients with single ventricle differed between those who did and those who did not undergo aortic reconstruction (nonrecon). We retrospectively reviewed cardiac magnetic resonance anatomic, cine, and phase contrast evaluations in the ascending aorta and descending aorta (DAo) at the level of the diaphragm data from 126 patients with single ventricle (8.6 ± 8.0 years) from January 2012 to May 2013. Significance = p 13 years old had a higher PWV than those 13 years old, PWV of those with recon was higher than nonrecon DAo distensibility was similar between both groups. There was no difference in age, body surface area, or cardiac index between recon and nonrecon. No correlations between various hemodynamic and ventricular function parameters with PWV were noted. In conclusion, PWV in recon is higher than in nonrecon with similar DAo distensibility implicating the aortic reconstruction as a possible cause of increased afterload; older recon patients have stiffer aortas than younger ones, possibly imposing an additional cardiovascular risk in the future. Other biomaterials may potentially moderate PWV if clinical outcome is adversely affected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fogel, Mark A.; Li, Christine; Nicolson, Susan C; Spray, Thomas L; Gaynor, J William; Fuller, Stephanie; Keller, Marc S.; Harris, Matthew A.; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Whitehead, Kevin K.
2015-01-01
Pulse wave velocity (PWV), a measure of arterial stiffness, is a known independent risk factor for cardiovascular events. Single ventricle patients who undergo aortic to pulmonary anastomosis (recon) have non-compliant patch material inserted into the neo-aorta, possibly increasing vessel stiffness and afterload. The purpose of this study is to determine if PWV differed in single ventricle patients who did and did not undergo aortic reconstruction (no-recon). We retrospectively reviewed cardiac magnetic resonance anatomic, cine and phase contrast evaluations in the ascending (AAo) and descending aorta (DAo) at the level of the diaphragm data from 126 single ventricle patients (8.6±8.0 years) from January 2012 to May, 2013. Significance = P 13 years had a higher PWV than those < 7 years (4.5±0.6 vs 3.5±0.7 m/s, P=0.004). DAo distensibility was similar between both groups. There was no difference in age, body surface area or cardiac index between recon and no-recon. No correlations between various hemodynamic and ventricular function parameters with PWV were noted. In conclusion, PWV in recon is higher than in no-recon with similar DAo distensibility implicating the aortic reconstruction as a possible cause of increased afterload; older recon have stiffer aortas than younger ones possibly imposing an additional cardiovascular risk in the future. Other biomaterials may potentially moderate PWV if clinical outcome is adversely affected. PMID:25432153
Mean-field theory for the Tsub(c2)-minimum in the phase diagram of Ersub(1-x)Hosub(x)Rh4B4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schuh, B.; Grewe, N.
1981-01-01
The experimentally observed shape of the phase boundary between the superconducting and the ferromagnetically ordered state in the reentrant ferromagnetic superconductor compound Ersub(1-x)Hosub(x)Rh 4 B 4 is explained within a simple Ginsburg-Landau mean field theory as resulting from a competition of two order parameters corresponding to the magnetic Ho- and Er-moments respectively. (author)
Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Kim, Dong-Wook; Turkina, Anna G; Masszi, Tamas; Assouline, Sarit; Durrant, Simon; Kantarjian, Hagop M; Khoury, H Jean; Zaritskey, Andrey; Shen, Zhi-Xiang; Jin, Jie; Vellenga, Edo; Pasquini, Ricardo; Mathews, Vikram; Cervantes, Francisco; Besson, Nadine; Turnbull, Kathleen; Leip, Eric; Kelly, Virginia; Cortes, Jorge E
Bosutinib is an orally active, dual Src/Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitor for treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) following resistance/intolerance to prior therapy. Here, we report the data from the 2-year follow-up of a phase 1/2 open-label study evaluating the efficacy and safety of bosutinib
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kudo, Sumio; Wachi, Akihiko; Sato, Kiyoshi; Sumie, Hirotoshi.
1992-01-01
The to-and-fro velocity of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at C-1 and C-2 spinal-cord levels was measured by means of MR velocity-imaging technique, and the correlation of changes in velocity and various biophysical factors influencing the intracranial pressure environment were analyzed. Eight hydrocephalic patients, male and female, of different ages (both infants and adults), and 11 normal volunteers with a similar age range were investigated. The to-and-fro CSF movement was measured by means of phase-shift techniques with a bipolar gradient pulse. The cerebrospinal opening pressure was also recorded in 6 of the 8 hydrocephalic patients, either through a ventricular catheter reservoir or a spinal catheter inserted in the lumbosacral subarachnoid space; the CSF pulse amplitude, the pressure volume index (PVI), and the CSF outflow resistance (Ro) were also evaluated during the procedure. CSF flowed towards caudally in the early systolic phase of a cardiac stroke, but the flow direction was reversed in the early diastolic phase when the maximum flow rate was reached. Although such a flow pattern was commonly observed in all normal and hydrocephalic subjects, whatever the age, there was a marked difference in flow rate between the infants and the pediatric-adults groups, -i.e., it was 5-10 mm/sec for the former and 10-20 mm/sec for the latter. An abnormally high flow rate (33.0 mm/sec) was observed in the hydrocephalic patients when there was a malfunction of the ventriculoperitoneal shunt. A close correlation was found to exist among the changes in the CSF flow velocity, the CSF pressure amplitude, and the CSF outflow resistance (Ro), but not in the PVI. The measurement of the CSF flow velocity by MR velocity imaging appears to have an important role not only in the investigation of CSF dynamics, but also in the diagnosis and treatment of such pathologies as hydrocephalus and ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunction. (author)
Minimum emittance of three-bend achromats
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Xiaoyu; Xu Gang
2012-01-01
The calculation of the minimum emittance of three-bend achromats (TBAs) made by Mathematical software can ignore the actual magnets lattice in the matching condition of dispersion function in phase space. The minimum scaling factors of two kinds of widely used TBA lattices are obtained. Then the relationship between the lengths and the radii of the three dipoles in TBA is obtained and so is the minimum scaling factor, when the TBA lattice achieves its minimum emittance. The procedure of analysis and the results can be widely used in achromats lattices, because the calculation is not restricted by the actual lattice. (authors)
Fields, Gary S.; Kanbur, Ravi
2005-01-01
Textbook analysis tells us that in a competitive labor market, the introduction of a minimum wage above the competitive equilibrium wage will cause unemployment. This paper makes two contributions to the basic theory of the minimum wage. First, we analyze the effects of a higher minimum wage in terms of poverty rather than in terms of unemployment. Second, we extend the standard textbook model to allow for incomesharing between the employed and the unemployed. We find that there are situation...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Analytis, G.Th.; Luebbesmeyer, D.
1984-04-01
The authors present an as precise as possible interpretation of velocity measurements in BWRs by the cross-correlation technique, which is based on the radially non-uniform quality and velocity distribution in BWR type bundles, as well as on our knowledge about the spatial 'field of view' of the in-core neutron detectors. After formulating the three-dimensional two-fluid model volume/time averaged equations and pointing out some problems associated with averaging, they expound a little on the turbulence mixing and void drift effects, as well as on the way they are modelled in advanced subchannel analysis codes like THERMIT or COBRA-TF. Subsequently, some comparisons are made between axial velocities measured in a commercial BWR by neutron noise analysis, and the steam velocities of the four subchannels nearest to the instrument tube of one of the four bundles as predicted by COBRA-III and by THERMIT. Although as expected, for well-known reasons, COBRA-III predicts subchannel steam velocities which are close to each other, THERMIT correctly predicts in the upper half of the core three largely different steam velocities in the three different types of BW0 subchannels (corner, edge and interior). (Auth.)
Grindle, Laurie; Hackenberg, Davis L.
2016-01-01
UAS Integration in the NAS Project has: a) Developed Technical Challenges that are crucial to UAS integration, aligned with NASA's Strategic Plan and Thrusts, and support FAA standards development. b) Demonstrated rigorous project management processes through the execution of previous phases. c) Defined Partnership Plans. d) Established path to KDP-C. Request approval of Technical Challenges, execution of partnerships and plans, and execution of near-term FY17 activities. There is an increasing need to fly UAS in the NAS to perform missions of vital importance to National Security and Defense, Emergency Management, and Science. There is also an emerging need to enable commercial applications such as cargo transport (e.g. FedEx). Unencumbered NAS Access for Civil/Commercial UAS. Provide research findings, utilizing simulation and flight tests, to support the development and validation of DAA and C2 technologies necessary for integrating Unmanned Aircraft Systems into the National Airspace System.
Calibration of the CMS Drift Tube Chambers and Measurement of the Drift Velocity with Cosmic Rays
Chatrchyan, S; Sirunyan, A M; Adam, W; Arnold, B; Bergauer, H; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Eichberger, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hammer, J; Hänsel, S; Hoch, M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kasieczka, G; Kastner, K; Krammer, M; Liko, D; Magrans de Abril, I; Mikulec, I; Mittermayr, F; Neuherz, B; Oberegger, M; Padrta, M; Pernicka, M; Rohringer, H; Schmid, S; Schöfbeck, R; Schreiner, T; Stark, R; Steininger, H; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Teischinger, F; Themel, T; Uhl, D; Wagner, P; Waltenberger, W; Walzel, G; Widl, E; Wulz, C E; Chekhovsky, V; Dvornikov, O; Emeliantchik, I; Litomin, A; Makarenko, V; Marfin, I; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Solin, A; Stefanovitch, R; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Tikhonov, A; Fedorov, A; Karneyeu, A; Korzhik, M; Panov, V; Zuyeuski, R; Kuchinsky, P; Beaumont, W; Benucci, L; Cardaci, M; De Wolf, E A; Delmeire, E; Druzhkin, D; Hashemi, M; Janssen, X; Maes, T; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Rougny, R; Selvaggi, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Adler, V; Beauceron, S; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; De Weirdt, S; Devroede, O; Heyninck, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Maes, J; Maes, M; Mozer, M U; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; Bouhali, O; Chabert, E C; Charaf, O; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Dero, V; Elgammal, S; Gay, A P R; Hammad, G H; Marage, P E; Rugovac, S; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wickens, J; Grunewald, M; Klein, B; Marinov, A; Ryckbosch, D; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Vanelderen, L; Verwilligen, P; Basegmez, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, J; Delaere, C; Demin, P; Favart, D; Giammanco, A; Grégoire, G; Lemaitre, V; Militaru, O; Ovyn, S; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Schul, N; Beliy, N; Daubie, E; Alves, G A; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Carvalho, W; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Mundim, L; Oguri, V; Santoro, A; Silva Do Amaral, S M; Sznajder, A; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Ferreira Dias, M A; Gregores, E M; Novaes, S F; Abadjiev, K; Anguelov, T; Damgov, J; Darmenov, N; Dimitrov, L; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Trayanov, R; Vankov, I; Dimitrov, A; Dyulendarova, M; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Marinova, E; Mateev, M; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Toteva, Z; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Guan, W; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liu, B; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, J; Wang, Z; Xue, Z; Zhang, Z; Ban, Y; Cai, J; Ge, Y; Guo, S; Hu, Z; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Teng, H; Zhu, B; Avila, C; Baquero Ruiz, M; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Gomez, A; Gomez Moreno, B; Ocampo Rios, A A; Osorio Oliveros, A F; Reyes Romero, D; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, K; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Dzelalija, M; Brigljevic, V; Duric, S; Kadija, K; Morovic, S; Fereos, R; Galanti, M; Mousa, J; Papadakis, A; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Tsiakkouri, D; Zinonos, Z; Hektor, A; Kadastik, M; Kannike, K; Müntel, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Anttila, E; Czellar, S; Härkönen, J; Heikkinen, A; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Klem, J; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Nysten, J; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Ungaro, D; Wendland, L; Banzuzi, K; Korpela, A; Tuuva, T; Nedelec, P; Sillou, D; Besancon, M; Chipaux, R; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Descamps, J; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Gentit, F X; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Marionneau, M; Millischer, L; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Rousseau, D; Titov, M; Verrecchia, P; Baffioni, S; Bianchini, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Dobrzynski, L; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Paganini, P; Sirois, Y; Thiebaux, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J L; Besson, A; Bloch, D; Bodin, D; Brom, J M; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Gross, L; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A C; Patois, Y; Speck, J; Van Hove, P; Baty, C; Bedjidian, M; Blaha, J; Boudoul, G; Brun, H; Chanon, N; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; Dupasquier, T; El Mamouni, H; Fassi, F; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Le Grand, T; Lethuillier, M; Lumb, N; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Djaoshvili, N; Roinishvili, N; Roinishvili, V; Amaglobeli, N; Adolphi, R; Anagnostou, G; Brauer, R; Braunschweig, W; Edelhoff, M; Esser, H; Feld, L; Karpinski, W; Khomich, A; Klein, K; Mohr, N; Ostaptchouk, A; Pandoulas, D; Pierschel, G; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schultz von Dratzig, A; Schwering, G; Sprenger, D; Thomas, M; Weber, M; Wittmer, B; Wlochal, M; Actis, O; Altenhöfer, G; Bender, W; Biallass, P; Erdmann, M; Fetchenhauer, G; Frangenheim, J; Hebbeker, T; Hilgers, G; Hinzmann, A; Hoepfner, K; Hof, C; Kirsch, M; Klimkovich, T; Kreuzer, P; Lanske, D; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Philipps, B; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Sowa, M; Steggemann, J; Szczesny, H; Teyssier, D; Zeidler, C; Bontenackels, M; Davids, M; Duda, M; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Giffels, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hermanns, T; Heydhausen, D; Kalinin, S; Kress, T; Linn, A; Nowack, A; Perchalla, L; Poettgens, M; Pooth, O; Sauerland, P; Stahl, A; Tornier, D; Zoeller, M H; Aldaya Martin, M; Behrens, U; Borras, K; Campbell, A; Castro, E; Dammann, D; Eckerlin, G; Flossdorf, A; Flucke, G; Geiser, A; Hatton, D; Hauk, J; Jung, H; Kasemann, M; Katkov, I; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, H; Knutsson, A; Kuznetsova, E; Lange, W; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Marienfeld, M; Meyer, A B; Miglioranzi, S; Mnich, J; Ohlerich, M; Olzem, J; Parenti, A; Rosemann, C; Schmidt, R; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Volyanskyy, D; Wissing, C; Zeuner, W D; Autermann, C; Bechtel, F; Draeger, J; Eckstein, D; Gebbert, U; Kaschube, K; Kaussen, G; Klanner, R; Mura, B; Naumann-Emme, S; Nowak, F; Pein, U; Sander, C; Schleper, P; Schum, T; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Thomsen, J; Wolf, R; Bauer, J; Blüm, P; Buege, V; Cakir, A; Chwalek, T; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Dirkes, G; Feindt, M; Felzmann, U; Frey, M; Furgeri, A; Gruschke, J; Hackstein, C; Hartmann, F; Heier, S; Heinrich, M; Held, H; Hirschbuehl, D; Hoffmann, K H; Honc, S; Jung, C; Kuhr, T; Liamsuwan, T; Martschei, D; Mueller, S; Müller, Th; Neuland, M B; Niegel, M; Oberst, O; Oehler, A; Ott, J; Peiffer, T; Piparo, D; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Ratnikov, F; Ratnikova, N; Renz, M; Saout, C; Sartisohn, G; Scheurer, A; Schieferdecker, P; Schilling, F P; Schott, G; Simonis, H J; Stober, F M; Sturm, P; Troendle, D; Trunov, A; Wagner, W; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Zeise, M; Zhukov, V; Ziebarth, E B; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Karafasoulis, K; Kyriakis, A; Loukas, D; Markou, A; Markou, C; Mavrommatis, C; Petrakou, E; Zachariadou, A; Gouskos, L; Katsas, P; Panagiotou, A; Evangelou, I; Kokkas, P; Manthos, N; Papadopoulos, I; Patras, V; Triantis, F A; Bencze, G; Boldizsar, L; Debreczeni, G; Hajdu, C; Hernath, S; Hidas, P; Horvath, D; Krajczar, K; Laszlo, A; Patay, G; Sikler, F; Toth, N; Vesztergombi, G; Beni, N; Christian, G; Imrek, J; Molnar, J; Novak, D; Palinkas, J; Szekely, G; Szillasi, Z; Tokesi, K; Veszpremi, V; Kapusi, A; Marian, G; Raics, P; Szabo, Z; Trocsanyi, Z L; Ujvari, B; Zilizi, G; Bansal, S; Bawa, H S; Beri, S B; Bhatnagar, V; Jindal, M; Kaur, M; Kaur, R; Kohli, J M; Mehta, M Z; 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Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Gartner, J; Holmes, D; Kim, B; Klimenko, S; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Madorsky, A; Matchev, K; Mitselmakher, G; Pakhotin, Y; Piedra Gomez, J; Prescott, C; Rapsevicius, V; Remington, R; Schmitt, M; Scurlock, B; Wang, D; Yelton, J; Ceron, C; Gaultney, V; Kramer, L; Lebolo, L M; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Baer, H; Bertoldi, M; Chen, J; Dharmaratna, W G D; Gleyzer, S V; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Jenkins, M; Johnson, K F; Prettner, E; Prosper, H; Sekmen, S; Baarmand, M M; Guragain, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Mermerkaya, H; Ralich, R; Vodopiyanov, I; Abelev, B; Adams, M R; Anghel, I M; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Callner, J; Castro, M A; Cavanaugh, R; Dragoiu, C; Garcia-Solis, E J; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatian, S; Mironov, C; Shabalina, E; Smoron, A; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Ayan, A S; Bilki, B; Briggs, R; Cankocak, K; Chung, K; Clarida, W; Debbins, P; Duru, F; Ingram, F D; Lae, C K; McCliment, E; Merlo, J P; Mestvirishvili, A; Miller, M J; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Norbeck, E; Olson, J; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Parsons, J; Schmidt, I; Sen, S; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bonato, A; Chien, C Y; Fehling, D; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Guo, Z J; Maksimovic, P; Rappoccio, S; Swartz, M; Tran, N V; Zhang, Y; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Grachov, O; Murray, M; Radicci, V; Sanders, S; Wood, J S; Zhukova, V; Bandurin, D; Bolton, T; Kaadze, K; Liu, A; Maravin, Y; Onoprienko, D; Svintradze, I; Wan, Z; Gronberg, J; Hollar, J; Lange, D; Wright, D; Baden, D; Bard, R; Boutemeur, M; Eno, S C; Ferencek, D; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kirn, M; Kunori, S; Rossato, K; Rumerio, P; Santanastasio, F; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Toole, T; Twedt, E; Alver, B; Bauer, G; Bendavid, J; Busza, W; Butz, E; Cali, I A; Chan, M; D'Enterria, D; Everaerts, P; Gomez Ceballos, G; Hahn, K A; Harris, P; Jaditz, S; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lee, Y J; Li, W; Loizides, C; Ma, T; Miller, M; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Rudolph, M; Stephans, G; Sumorok, K; Sung, K; Vaurynovich, S; Wenger, E A; Wyslouch, B; Xie, S; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Bailleux, D; Cooper, S I; Cushman, P; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Dolgopolov, A; Dudero, P R; Egeland, R; Franzoni, G; Haupt, J; Inyakin, A; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Mirman, N; Petyt, D; Rekovic, V; Rusack, R; Schroeder, M; Singovsky, A; Zhang, J; Cremaldi, L M; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Sonnek, P; Summers, D; Bloom, K; Bockelman, B; Bose, S; Butt, J; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Keller, J; Kelly, T; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Lundstedt, C; Malbouisson, H; Malik, S; Snow, G R; Baur, U; Iashvili, I; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Smith, K; Strang, M; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Boeriu, O; Eulisse, G; Govi, G; McCauley, T; Musienko, Y; Muzaffar, S; Osborne, I; Paul, T; Reucroft, S; Swain, J; Taylor, L; Tuura, L; Anastassov, A; Gobbi, B; Kubik, A; Ofierzynski, R A; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Velasco, M; Won, S; Antonelli, L; Berry, D; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolberg, T; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Warchol, J; Wayne, M; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Gilmore, J; Gu, J; Killewald, P; Ling, T Y; Williams, G; Adam, N; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Garmash, A; Gerbaudo, D; Halyo, V; Hunt, A; Jones, J; Laird, E; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Wildish, T; Xie, Z; Zuranski, A; Acosta, J G; Bonnett Del Alamo, M; Huang, X T; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Oliveros, S; Ramirez Vargas, J E; Santacruz, N; Zatzerklyany, A; Alagoz, E; Antillon, E; Barnes, V E; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; Everett, A; Garfinkel, A F; Gecse, Z; Gutay, L; Ippolito, N; Jones, M; Koybasi, O; Laasanen, A T; Leonardo, N; Liu, C; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Sedov, A; Shipsey, I; Yoo, H D; Zheng, Y; Jindal, P; Parashar, N; Cuplov, V; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Liu, J H; Maronde, D; Matveev, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Sabbatini, L; Tumanov, A; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Budd, H; Chung, Y S; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Flacher, H; Gotra, Y; Harel, A; Korjenevski, S; Miner, D C; Orbaker, D; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Hatakeyama, K; Lungu, G; Mesropian, C; Yan, M; Atramentov, O; Bartz, E; Gershtein, Y; Halkiadakis, E; Hits, D; Lath, A; Rose, K; Schnetzer, S; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Watts, T L; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Asaadi, J; Aurisano, A; Eusebi, R; Golyash, A; Gurrola, A; Kamon, T; Nguyen, C N; Pivarski, J; Safonov, A; Sengupta, S; Toback, D; Weinberger, M; Akchurin, N; Berntzon, L; Gumus, K; Jeong, C; Kim, H; Lee, S W; Popescu, S; Roh, Y; Sill, A; Volobouev, I; Washington, E; Wigmans, R; Yazgan, E; Engh, D; Florez, C; Johns, W; Pathak, S; Sheldon, P; Andelin, D; Arenton, M W; Balazs, M; Boutle, S; Buehler, M; Conetti, S; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Neu, C; Phillips II, D; Ronquest, M; Yohay, R; Gollapinni, S; Gunthoti, K; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Mattson, M; Sakharov, A; Anderson, M; Bachtis, M; Bellinger, J N; Carlsmith, D; Crotty, I; Dasu, S; Dutta, S; Efron, J; Feyzi, F; Flood, K; Gray, L; Grogg, K S; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Jaworski, M; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Lazaridis, C; Leonard, J; Loveless, R; Magrans de Abril, M; Mohapatra, A; Ott, G; Polese, G; Reeder, D; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Sourkov, A; Swanson, J; Weinberg, M; Wenman, D; Wensveen, M; White, A
2010-01-01
This paper describes the calibration procedure for the drift tubes of the CMS barrel muon system and reports the main results obtained with data collected during a high statistics cosmic ray data-taking period. The main goal of the calibration is to determine, for each drift cell, the minimum time delay for signals relative to the trigger, accounting for the drift velocity within the cell. The accuracy of the calibration procedure is influenced by the random arrival time of cosmic muons. A more refined analysis of the drift velocity was performed during the offline reconstruction phase, which takes into account this feature of cosmic ray events.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koizumi, Yasuo; Shimada, Jun; Ohtake, Hiroyasu
1999-01-01
The velocity of a single air plug rising through a stagnant water column in a pipe with updrifting particles has been examined at atmospheric pressure and room temperature. The particles used were polymer balls with a diameter of 3.18 mm and a density of 0.835 x 10 -3 kg/m 3 . The water velocity in a film around the plug and a wake region behind the plug was measured by a laser Doppler velocimeter. The thickness of the film was also measured with a dye-fluoresce-method by a laser ray. When the updrifting particles were introduced, the rising velocity of the plug became fast a little. However, the velocity was considerably slower than that in the falling particle case and independent on the particle introduction rate. The film around the plug was thicker a little than that in the no particle case, however considerably thinner than that in the falling particle case. The water velocity in the film around the plug was slower a little than that in the no particle case, and not dependent on the particle introduction rate contrary to that in the falling particle case. The vortex size behind the plug was almost the same as that in the no particle case although the vortex region was spread downward in the falling particle case. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dam, H. van; Leege, P.F.A. de
1987-01-01
An analysis is presented of thermal systems with minimum critical mass, based on the use of materials with optimum neutron moderating and reflecting properties. The optimum fissile material distributions in the systems are obtained by calculations with standard computer codes, extended with a routine for flat fuel importance search. It is shown that in the minimum critical mass configuration a considerable part of the fuel is positioned in the reflector region. For 239 Pu a minimum critical mass of 87 g is found, which is the lowest value reported hitherto. (author)
Can, Ibrahim
2018-01-01
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between sprint and jump performance with velocity parameters in the loaded-squat jump exercise (SQ[subscript Loaded]). In accordance with this purpose, a total of 13 athletes competing in martial sports have participated in this study voluntarily. In this study, sprint tests, vertical…
Lee, Yeon-Gun; Won, Woo-Youn; Lee, Bo-An; Kim, Sin
2017-05-08
In this study, a new and improved electrical conductance sensor is proposed for application not only to a horizontal pipe, but also an inclined one. The conductance sensor was designed to have a dual layer, each consisting of a three-electrode set to obtain two instantaneous conductance signals in turns, so that the area-averaged void fraction and structure velocity could be measured simultaneously. The optimum configuration of the electrodes was determined through numerical analysis, and the calibration curves for stratified and annular flow were obtained through a series of static experiments. The fabricated conductance sensor was applied to a 45 mm inner diameter U-shaped downward inclined pipe with an inclination angle of 3° under adiabatic air-water flow conditions. In the tests, the superficial velocities ranged from 0.1 to 3.0 m/s for water and from 0.1 to 18 m/s for air. The obtained mean void fraction and the structure velocity from the conductance sensor were validated against the measurement by the wire-mesh sensor and the cross-correlation technique for the visualized images, respectively. The results of the flow regime classification and the corresponding time series of the void fraction at a variety of flow velocities were also discussed.
Minimum entropy production principle
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel
2013-01-01
Roč. 8, č. 7 (2013), s. 9664-9677 ISSN 1941-6016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MINEP Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Minimum_entropy_production_principle
How unprecedented a solar minimum was it?
Russell, C T; Jian, L K; Luhmann, J G
2013-05-01
The end of the last solar cycle was at least 3 years late, and to date, the new solar cycle has seen mainly weaker activity since the onset of the rising phase toward the new solar maximum. The newspapers now even report when auroras are seen in Norway. This paper is an update of our review paper written during the deepest part of the last solar minimum [1]. We update the records of solar activity and its consequent effects on the interplanetary fields and solar wind density. The arrival of solar minimum allows us to use two techniques that predict sunspot maximum from readings obtained at solar minimum. It is clear that the Sun is still behaving strangely compared to the last few solar minima even though we are well beyond the minimum phase of the cycle 23-24 transition.
Minimum emittance in TBA and MBA lattices
Xu, Gang; Peng, Yue-Mei
2015-03-01
For reaching a small emittance in a modern light source, triple bend achromats (TBA), theoretical minimum emittance (TME) and even multiple bend achromats (MBA) have been considered. This paper derived the necessary condition for achieving minimum emittance in TBA and MBA theoretically, where the bending angle of inner dipoles has a factor of 31/3 bigger than that of the outer dipoles. Here, we also calculated the conditions attaining the minimum emittance of TBA related to phase advance in some special cases with a pure mathematics method. These results may give some directions on lattice design.
Minimum emittance in TBA and MBA lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Gang; Peng Yuemei
2015-01-01
For reaching a small emittance in a modern light source, triple bend achromats (TBA), theoretical minimum emittance (TME) and even multiple bend achromats (MBA) have been considered. This paper derived the necessary condition for achieving minimum emittance in TBA and MBA theoretically, where the bending angle of inner dipoles has a factor of 3 1/3 bigger than that of the outer dipoles. Here, we also calculated the conditions attaining the minimum emittance of TBA related to phase advance in some special cases with a pure mathematics method. These results may give some directions on lattice design. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harra, Louise K.; Matthews, Sarah; Culhane, J. L.; Cheung, Mark C. M.; Kontar, Eduard P.; Hara, Hirohisa
2013-01-01
Non-thermal velocity measurements of the solar atmosphere, particularly from UV and X-ray emission lines have demonstrated over the decades that this parameter is important in understanding the triggering of solar flares. Enhancements have often been observed before intensity enhancements are seen. However, until the launch of Hinode, it has been difficult to determine the spatial location of the enhancements to better understand the source region. The Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer has the spectral and spatial resolution to allow us to probe the early stages of flares in detail. We analyze four events, all of which are GOES M- or X-classification flares, and all are located toward the limb for ease of flare geometry interpretation. Three of the flares were eruptive and one was confined. In all events, pre-flare enhancement in non-thermal velocity at the base of the active region and its surroundings has been found. These enhancements seem to be consistent with the footpoints of the dimming regions, and hence may be highlighting the activation of a coronal flux rope for the three eruptive events. In addition, pre-flare enhancements in non-thermal velocity were found above the looptops for the three eruptive events
Video imaging measurement of interfacial wave velocity in air-water flow through a horizontal elbow
Al-Wazzan, Amir; Than, Cheok F.; Moghavvemi, Mahmoud; Yew, Chia W.
2001-10-01
Two-phase flow in pipelines containing elbows represents a common situation in the oil and gas industries. This study deals with the stratified flow regime between the gas and liquid phase through an elbow. It is of interest to study the change in wave characteristics by measuring the wave velocity and wavelength at the inlet and outlet of the elbow. The experiments were performed under concurrent air-water stratified flow in a horizontal transparent polycarbonate pipe of 0.05m diameter and superficial air and water velocities up to 8.97 and 0.0778 m/s respectively. A non-intrusive video imaging technique was applied to capture the waves. For image analysis, a frame by frame direct overlapping method was used to detect for pulsating flow and a pixel shifting method based on the detection of minimum values in the overlap function was used to determine wave velocity and wavelength. Under superficial gas velocity of less than 4.44 m/s, the results suggest a regular pulsating outflow produced by the elbow. At higher gas velocities, more random pulsation was found and the emergence of localized interfacial waves was detected. Wave velocities measured by this technique were found to produce satisfactory agreement with direct measurements.
The minimum yield in channeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uguzzoni, A.; Gaertner, K.; Lulli, G.; Andersen, J.U.
2000-01-01
A first estimate of the minimum yield was obtained from Lindhard's theory, with the assumption of a statistical equilibrium in the transverse phase-space of channeled particles guided by a continuum axial potential. However, computer simulations have shown that this estimate should be corrected by a fairly large factor, C (approximately equal to 2.5), called the Barrett factor. We have shown earlier that the concept of a statistical equilibrium can be applied to understand this result, with the introduction of a constraint in phase-space due to planar channeling of axially channeled particles. Here we present an extended test of these ideas on the basis of computer simulation of the trajectories of 2 MeV α particles in Si. In particular, the gradual trend towards a full statistical equilibrium is studied. We also discuss the introduction of this modification of standard channeling theory into descriptions of the multiple scattering of channeled particles (dechanneling) by a master equation and show that the calculated minimum yields are in very good agreement with the results of a full computer simulation
Comparison of high group velocity accelerating structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Farkas, Z.D.; Wilson, P.B.
1987-02-01
It is well known that waveguides with no perturbations have phase velocities greater than the velocity of light c. If the waveguide dimensions are chosen so that the phase velocity is only moderately greater than c, only small perturbations are required to reduce the phase velocity to be synchronous with a high energy particle bunch. Such a lightly loaded accelerator structure will have smaller longitudinal and transverse wake potentials and hence will lead to lower emittance growth in an accelerated beam. Since these structures are lightly loaded, their group velocities are only slightly less than c and not in the order of 0.01c, as is the case for the standard disk-loaded structures. To ascertain that the peak and average power requirements for these structures are not prohibitive, we examine the elastance and the Q for several traveling wave structures: phase slip structures, bellows-like structures, and lightly loaded disk-loaded structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsuoka, T; Umezawa, N [Saitama Institute of Environmental Pollution, Saitama (Japan)
1996-05-01
To render the spatial autocorrelation (SAC) method easier to use, a system has been constructed that can be used with ease on the site for the calculation of phase velocities. This system can perform two observation methods of the same frequency characteristics, that is, the simultaneous multi-point observation and one-point independent observation. The pickup is a velocity type seismograph of a natural period of 1 second that has been so electrically adjusted as to work on an apparent natural period of 7 seconds. Among the frequency characteristics, those related to phase are regarded as important because the SAC method is based on the measurement of coherence between two points. The analysis software runs on a waveform processing software DADiSP/WIN designed for personal computers. To know the operability of this system on the site and to accumulate records using the SAC method, observations were made at the depth of 100-500m at 6 locations in Saitama Prefecture where the underground structure was known thanks to prior PS logging. As the result, a dispersion curve was obtained by use of an array of appropriate dimensions at every location agreeing with the underground structure. 9 refs., 10 figs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamamoto, H; Yakuwa, A; Saito, T [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1997-10-22
Three component microtremor array observations were carried out in two locations in the city of Morioka for an attempt of estimating phase velocity and power fraction of Love wave by applying the expanded three component spatial self-correlation method. The microtremors were observed by using a seismograph with a natural period of one second. The arrays were so arranged as to form an equilateral triangle consisted of seven points. The maximum radii were 100 m, 50 m, 25 m and 12.5 m for vertical movements, and 100 m and 30 m for horizontal movements at the Iwate University, and 80 m, 40 m, 20 m and 10 m for vertical movements and 90 m for horizontal movements at the Morioka Technical Highschool. The analysis has used three sections, each with relatively steady state of about 40 seconds as selected from records of observations for about 30 minutes. The result of the discussions revealed that it is possible to derive phase velocity of not only Rayleigh waves but also Love waves by applying the expanded spatial self-correlation method to the observation record. Thus, estimation of underground structures with higher accuracy has become possible by using simultaneously the Rayleigh waves and Love waves. 3 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.
Rising above the Minimum Wage.
Even, William; Macpherson, David
An in-depth analysis was made of how quickly most people move up the wage scale from minimum wage, what factors influence their progress, and how minimum wage increases affect wage growth above the minimum. Very few workers remain at the minimum wage over the long run, according to this study of data drawn from the 1977-78 May Current Population…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wolysson Carvalho Hiyane
2006-12-01
las combinaciones de series predictivas de 2 y 4 km (VC2/4, 2 y 6 km (VC2/6, 4 y 6 km (VC4/6 y 2, 4 y 6km (VC2/4/6. Para la identificación de VLM fue realizada una serie de 2km a máxima velocidad, seguida de 6 series incrementales de 2km con 1 minuto de pausa para dosaje de lac. La VLM fue identificada visualmente (VLMv y aplicando función polinomial (VLMp. No se observaron diferencias entre VLMv (33,3 ± 2,5km.h¹ y VLMp (33,1 ± 2,6km.h¹. A excepción de VC4/6 (34,6 ± 3,5km.h¹, los valores de VC2/4 (38,0 ± 2,2km.h¹, VC2/6 (36,1 ± 2,4km.h¹ y VC2/4/6 (36,1 ± 2,5km.h¹ difirieron de VLMp y VLMv. Concluimos que, a pesar de ser ~1km/h por encima de VLM, la VC identificada a partir de series predictivas de mayor duración (4 y 6km - aproximadamente 6 y 10 min no tienen diferencia estadística y presentan alta correlación y concordancia con VLM. A pesar de esto, es necesario investigar si la VC representa un equilibrio entre remoción y producción de lac durante los ejercicios de larga duración en ciclismo outdoor.The lactate minimum velocity (LMV represents the equilibrium point between blood lactate (lac production and removal. With the purpose of analyzing the validity of critical velocity (CV as a non-invasive method to estimate the LMV on outdoor cycling, 15 cyclists (67.9 ± 5.7 kg; 1.70 ± 0.1 m; 26.7 ± 4.2 years performed all-out tests on distances of 2, 4 and 6 km on velodrome. The CV was identified by distance-time model from combinations of 2 and 4 km (CV2/4, 2 and 6 km (CV2/6, 4 and 6 km (CV4/6 and 2, 4 and 6 km (CV2/4/6. The LMV was identified during 6 x 2 km incremental bouts after a latic acidosis induced by the all-out 2 km. The lower lac during test identified the LMV visually (LMVv and by applying a polynomial function (LMVp. No differences were observed between LMVv (33.3 ± 2.5 km.h¹ and LMVp (33.1 ± 2.6 km.h¹. Apart from CV4/6 (34.6 ± 3.5 km.h¹, the values of CV2/4 (38.0 ± 2.2 km.h¹, CV2/6 (36.1 ± 2.4 km.h¹ and CV2/4/6 (36.1
Characteristic wave velocities in spherical electromagnetic cloaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yaghjian, A D; Maci, S; Martini, E
2009-01-01
We investigate the characteristic wave velocities in spherical electromagnetic cloaks, namely, phase, ray, group and energy-transport velocities. After deriving explicit expressions for the phase and ray velocities (the latter defined as the phase velocity along the direction of the Poynting vector), special attention is given to the determination of group and energy-transport velocities, because a cursory application of conventional formulae for local group and energy-transport velocities can lead to a discrepancy between these velocities if the permittivity and permeability dyadics are not equal over a frequency range about the center frequency. In contrast, a general theorem can be proven from Maxwell's equations that the local group and energy-transport velocities are equal in linear, lossless, frequency dispersive, source-free bianisotropic material. This apparent paradox is explained by showing that the local fields of the spherical cloak uncouple into an E wave and an H wave, each with its own group and energy-transport velocities, and that the group and energy-transport velocities of either the E wave or the H wave are equal and thus satisfy the general theorem.
The Limit Deposit Velocity model, a new approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miedema Sape A.
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In slurry transport of settling slurries in Newtonian fluids, it is often stated that one should apply a line speed above a critical velocity, because blow this critical velocity there is the danger of plugging the line. There are many definitions and names for this critical velocity. It is referred to as the velocity where a bed starts sliding or the velocity above which there is no stationary bed or sliding bed. Others use the velocity where the hydraulic gradient is at a minimum, because of the minimum energy consumption. Most models from literature are one term one equation models, based on the idea that the critical velocity can be explained that way.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
ESTEY, S.D.
1999-01-01
This engineering analysis calculates minimum slurry transport velocities intended to maintain suspensions of solid particulate in slurries. This transport velocity is also known as the slurry flow critical velocity. It is not universally recognized that a transfer line flow velocity in excess of the slurry critical velocity is a requirement to prevent solids deposition and possible line plugging. However, slurry critical velocity seems to be the most prevalent objective measure to prevent solids deposition in transfer lines. The following critical velocity correlations from the literature are investigated: Durand (1953), Spells (1955), Sinclair (1962), Zandi and Gavatos (1967), Babcock (1968), Shook (1969), and Oroskar and Turian (1980). The advantage of these critical velocity correlations is that their use is not reliant upon any measure of bulk slurry viscosity. The input parameters are limited to slurry phase densities and mass fractions, pipe diameter, particle diameter, and viscosity of the pure liquid phase of the slurry. Consequently, the critical velocity calculation does not require determination of system pressure drops. Generalized slurry properties can, therefore, be recommended if the slurry can be adequately described by these variables and if the liquid phase viscosity is known. Analysis of these correlations are presented, indicating that the Oroskar and Turian (1980) models appear to be more conservative for smaller particulate sizes, typically those less than 100 microns diameter. This analysis suggests that the current Tank Farms waste compatibility program criteria may be insufficient to prevent particulate solids settling within slurry composition ranges currently allowed by the waste compatibility program. However, in order to relate a critical velocity associated with a certain slurry composition to a system limit, a means of relating the system capabilities to the slurry composition must be found. Generally, this means expressing the bulk
Optimal heliocentric trajectories for solar sail with minimum area
Petukhov, Vyacheslav G.
2018-05-01
The fixed-time heliocentric trajectory optimization problem is considered for planar solar sail with minimum area. Necessary optimality conditions are derived, a numerical method for solving the problem is developed, and numerical examples of optimal trajectories to Mars, Venus and Mercury are presented. The dependences of the minimum area of the solar sail from the date of departure from the Earth, the time of flight and the departing hyperbolic excess of velocity are analyzed. In particular, for the rendezvous problem (approaching a target planet with zero relative velocity) with zero departing hyperbolic excess of velocity for a flight duration of 1200 days it was found that the minimum area-to-mass ratio should be about 12 m2/kg for trajectory to Venus, 23.5 m2/kg for the trajectory to Mercury and 25 m2/kg for trajectory to Mars.
Velocity dispersion profiles of clusters of galaxies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Struble, M.F.
1979-01-01
Velocity dispersion as a function of radius, called sigma/sub ls/ profiles, is presented for 13 clusters of galaxies having > or =30 radial velocities from both published and unpublished lists. A list of probable new members and possible outlying members for these clusters is also given. chi 2 and Kolmogoroff--Smirnoff one-sample tests for the goodness of fit of power laws to portions of the profiles indicate two significant structures in some profiles: (1) a local minimum corresponding to the local minimum noted in surface density or surface brightness profiles, and (2) a decrease in sigma/sub ls/ toward the cores. Both of these features are discussed in terms of a comparison with Wielen's N-body simulations. The sigma/sub ls/ profiles are placed in a new classification scheme which lends itself to interpreting clusters in a dynamical age sequence. The velocity field of galaxies at large distances from cluster centers is also discussed
Minimum Error Entropy Classification
Marques de Sá, Joaquim P; Santos, Jorge M F; Alexandre, Luís A
2013-01-01
This book explains the minimum error entropy (MEE) concept applied to data classification machines. Theoretical results on the inner workings of the MEE concept, in its application to solving a variety of classification problems, are presented in the wider realm of risk functionals. Researchers and practitioners also find in the book a detailed presentation of practical data classifiers using MEE. These include multi‐layer perceptrons, recurrent neural networks, complexvalued neural networks, modular neural networks, and decision trees. A clustering algorithm using a MEE‐like concept is also presented. Examples, tests, evaluation experiments and comparison with similar machines using classic approaches, complement the descriptions.
Do Minimum Wages Fight Poverty?
David Neumark; William Wascher
1997-01-01
The primary goal of a national minimum wage floor is to raise the incomes of poor or near-poor families with members in the work force. However, estimates of employment effects of minimum wages tell us little about whether minimum wages are can achieve this goal; even if the disemployment effects of minimum wages are modest, minimum wage increases could result in net income losses for poor families. We present evidence on the effects of minimum wages on family incomes from matched March CPS s...
Allen, M. J.; Tatham, D.; Faulkner, D. R.; Mariani, E.; Boulton, C.
2017-08-01
The Alpine Fault, a transpressional plate boundary between the Australian and Pacific plates, is known to rupture quasiperiodically with large magnitude earthquakes (Mw 8). The hydraulic and elastic properties of fault zones are thought to vary over the seismic cycle, influencing the nature and style of earthquake rupture and associated processes. We present a suite of laboratory permeability and P (Vp) and S (Vs) wave velocity measurements performed on fault lithologies recovered during the first phase of the Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP-1), which sampled principal slip zone (PSZ) gouges, cataclasites, and fractured ultramylonites, with all recovered lithologies overprinted by abundant secondary mineralization, recording enhanced fluid-rock interaction. Core material was tested in three orthogonal directions, orientated relative to the down-core axis and, when present, foliation. Measurements were conducted with pore pressure (H2O) held at 5 MPa over an effective pressure (Peff) range of 5-105 MPa. Permeabilities and seismic velocities decrease with proximity to the PSZ with permeabilities ranging from 10-17 to 10-21 m2 and Vp and Vs ranging from 4400 to 5900 m/s in the ultramylonites/cataclasites and 3900 to 4200 m/s at the PSZ. In comparison with intact country rock protoliths, the highly variable cataclastic structures and secondary phyllosilicates and carbonates have resulted in an overall reduction in permeability and seismic wave velocity, as well as a reduction in anisotropy within the fault core. These results concur with other similar studies on other mature, tectonic faults in their interseismic period.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ramirez-Nicolas, M.
2011-07-01
The structure of the Earth is characterized by a number of regions which have different physical properties. For their study one uses models such PREM or IASPEI91. These models describe the internal structure of the Earth providing us the theoretical values of the velocity of the waves that pass through each of these regions. In this paper we focus on the waves that cross the inner core (PKIKP), and the reflected waves on the surface of the inner core (PKiKP). The aim of this study is to identify the PKiKP and PKIKP phases in a seismogram and compare them with the theoretical values obtained from the models. Another objective of this work is to propose an expression for the propagation velocity of seismic waves at the discontinuity between the outer and inner core from the minimization of waste of time (time difference between the arrival of the wave PKIKP and PKiKP). For this study we have selected two earthquakes, one occurred in Colombia, 04/26/1999 (Mw 5.9) and the other in Peru-Ecuador 16/11/2007 (Mw = 6.8). We have analyzed only the seismograms from stations with epicentral distances between 130 degree centigrade and 140 degree centigrade, because of the interference phenomena between the PKIKP and the PKiKP for epicentral distances less than 130 degree centigrade. (Author) 14 refs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Supardiyono; Santosa, Bagus Jaya
2012-01-01
A one-dimensional (1-D) velocity model and station corrections for the West Java zone were computed by inverting P-wave arrival times recorded on a local seismic network of 14 stations. A total of 61 local events with a minimum of 6 P-phases, rms 0.56 s and a maximum gap of 299° were selected. Comparison with previous earthquake locations shows an improvement for the relocated earthquakes. Tests were carried out to verify the robustness of inversion results in order to corroborate the conclusions drawn out from our reasearch. The obtained minimum 1-D velocity model can be used to improve routine earthquake locations and represents a further step toward more detailed seismotectonic studies in this area of West Java.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Supardiyono; Santosa, Bagus Jaya [Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, State University of Surabaya, Surabaya (Indonesia) and Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Surabaya (Indonesia); Physics Department, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, Surabaya (Indonesia)
2012-06-20
A one-dimensional (1-D) velocity model and station corrections for the West Java zone were computed by inverting P-wave arrival times recorded on a local seismic network of 14 stations. A total of 61 local events with a minimum of 6 P-phases, rms 0.56 s and a maximum gap of 299 Degree-Sign were selected. Comparison with previous earthquake locations shows an improvement for the relocated earthquakes. Tests were carried out to verify the robustness of inversion results in order to corroborate the conclusions drawn out from our reasearch. The obtained minimum 1-D velocity model can be used to improve routine earthquake locations and represents a further step toward more detailed seismotectonic studies in this area of West Java.
Plasma flow velocity measurements using a modulated Michelson interferometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Howard, J.
1997-01-01
This paper discusses the possibility of flow velocity reconstruction using passive spectroscopic techniques. We report some preliminary measurements of the toroidal flow velocity of hydrogen atoms in the RTP tokamak using a phase modulated Michelson interferometer. (orig.)
Employment effects of minimum wages
Neumark, David
2014-01-01
The potential benefits of higher minimum wages come from the higher wages for affected workers, some of whom are in low-income families. The potential downside is that a higher minimum wage may discourage employers from using the low-wage, low-skill workers that minimum wages are intended to help. Research findings are not unanimous, but evidence from many countries suggests that minimum wages reduce the jobs available to low-skill workers.
Amodeo, K.; Rathnayaka, S.; Weeraratne, D. S.; Kohler, M. D.
2016-12-01
Continental and oceanic lithosphere, which form in different tectonic environments, are studied in a single amphibious seismic array across the Southern California continental margin. This provides a unique opportunity to directly compare oceanic and continental lithosphere, asthenosphere, and the LAB (Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary) in a single data set. The complex history of the region, including spreading center subduction, block rotation, and Borderland extension, allows us to study limits in the rigidity and strength of the lithosphere. We study Rayleigh wave phase velocities obtained from the ALBACORE (Asthenospheric and Lithospheric Broadband Architecture from the California Offshore Region Experiment) offshore seismic array project and invert for shear wave velocity structure as a function of depth. We divide the study area into several regions: continent, inner Borderland, outer Borderland, and oceanic seafloor categorized by age. A unique starting Vs model is used for each case including layer thicknesses, densities, and P and S velocities which predicts Rayleigh phase velocities and are compared to observed phase velocities in each region. We solve for shear wave velocities with the best fit between observed and predicted phase velocity data in a least square sense. Preliminary results indicate that lithospheric velocities in the oceanic mantle are higher than the continental region by at least 2%. The LAB is observed at 50 ± 20 km beneath 15-35 Ma oceanic seafloor. Asthenospheric low velocities reach a minimum of 4.2 km/s in all regions, but have a steeper positive velocity gradient at the base of the oceanic asthenosphere compared to the continent. Seismic tomography images in two and three dimensions will be presented from each study region.
Flow Convergence Caused by a Salinity Minimum in a Tidal Channel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John C. Warner
2006-12-01
Full Text Available Residence times of dissolved substances and sedimentation rates in tidal channels are affected by residual (tidally averaged circulation patterns. One influence on these circulation patterns is the longitudinal density gradient. In most estuaries the longitudinal density gradient typically maintains a constant direction. However, a junction of tidal channels can create a local reversal (change in sign of the density gradient. This can occur due to a difference in the phase of tidal currents in each channel. In San Francisco Bay, the phasing of the currents at the junction of Mare Island Strait and Carquinez Strait produces a local salinity minimum in Mare Island Strait. At the location of a local salinity minimum the longitudinal density gradient reverses direction. This paper presents four numerical models that were used to investigate the circulation caused by the salinity minimum: (1 A simple one-dimensional (1D finite difference model demonstrates that a local salinity minimum is advected into Mare Island Strait from the junction with Carquinez Strait during flood tide. (2 A three-dimensional (3D hydrodynamic finite element model is used to compute the tidally averaged circulation in a channel that contains a salinity minimum (a change in the sign of the longitudinal density gradient and compares that to a channel that contains a longitudinal density gradient in a constant direction. The tidally averaged circulation produced by the salinity minimum is characterized by converging flow at the bed and diverging flow at the surface, whereas the circulation produced by the constant direction gradient is characterized by converging flow at the bed and downstream surface currents. These velocity fields are used to drive both a particle tracking and a sediment transport model. (3 A particle tracking model demonstrates a 30 percent increase in the residence time of neutrally buoyant particles transported through the salinity minimum, as compared to
2010-02-08
... capital and reserve requirements to be issued by order or regulation with respect to a product or activity... minimum capital requirements. Section 1362(a) establishes a minimum capital level for the Enterprises... entities required under this section.\\6\\ \\3\\ The Bank Act's current minimum capital requirements apply to...
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003927.htm Nerve conduction velocity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Nerve conduction velocity (NCV) is a test to see ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beyer, R.T.
1985-01-01
The paper reviews the work carried out on the velocity of sound in liquid alkali metals. The experimental methods to determine the velocity measurements are described. Tables are presented of reported data on the velocity of sound in lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and caesium. A formula is given for alkali metals, in which the sound velocity is a function of shear viscosity, atomic mass and atomic volume. (U.K.)
Influence of Velocity on Variability in Gait Kinematics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yang, Sylvia X M; Larsen, Peter K; Alkjær, Tine
2014-01-01
the concurrence of joint angles throughout a gait cycle at three different velocities (3.0, 4.5, 6.0 km/h). Six datasets at each velocity were collected from 16 men. A variability range VR throughout the gait cycle at each velocity for each joint angle for each person was calculated. The joint angles at each...... velocity were compared pairwise, and whenever this showed values within the VR of this velocity, the case was positive. By adding the positives throughout the gait cycle, phases with high and low concurrences were located; peak concurrence was observed at mid-stance phase. Striving for the same velocity...
Ultrasonic velocity measurements in expanded liquid mercury
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, K.; Inutake, M.; Fujiwaka, S.
1977-10-01
In this paper we present the first results of the sound velocity measurements in expanded liquid mercury. The measurements were made at temperatures up to 1600 0 C and pressures up to 1700 kg/cm 2 by means of an ultrasonic pulse transmission/echo technique which was newly developed for such high temperature/pressure condition. When the density is larger than 9 g/cm 3 , the observed sound velocity decreases linearly with decreasing density. At densities smaller than 9 g/cm 3 , the linear dependence on the density is no longer observed. The observed sound velocity approaches a minimum near the liquid-gas critical point (rho sub(cr) asymptotically equals 5.5 g/cm 3 ). The existing theories for sound velocity in liquid metals fail to explain the observed results. (auth.)
Appearance of minimum on the curve of cerium melting
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boguslavskij, Yu.Ya.; Grigor'ev, S.B.
1986-01-01
It is shown by means of simple and obvious thermodynamical considerations that the reduced stability line continues up to the solid phase boundary. The existence of this line causes the appearance of minimum on the fcc cerium melting curve
Distinguishing zero-group-velocity modes in photonic crystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghebrebrhan, M.; Ibanescu, M.; Johnson, Steven G.; Soljacic, M.; Joannopoulos, J. D.
2007-01-01
We examine differences between various zero-group-velocity modes in photonic crystals, including those that arise from Bragg diffraction, anticrossings, and band repulsion. Zero-group velocity occurs at points where the group velocity changes sign, and therefore is conceptually related to 'left-handed' media, in which the group velocity is opposite to the phase velocity. We consider this relationship more quantitatively in terms of the Fourier decomposition of the modes, by defining a measure of how much the ''average'' phase velocity is parallel to the group velocity--an anomalous region is one in which they are mostly antiparallel. We find that this quantity can be used to qualitatively distinguish different zero-group-velocity points. In one dimension, such anomalous regions are found never to occur. In higher dimensions, they are exhibited around certain zero-group-velocity points, and lead to unusual enhanced confinement behavior in microcavities
Roberts, C. W.; Smith, D. L.
1970-01-01
Simple, inexpensive drag sphere velocity meter with a zero to 6 ft/sec range measures steady-state flow. When combined with appropriate data acquisition system, it is suited to applications where large numbers of simultaneous measurements are needed for current mapping or velocity profile determination.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2000-01-01
Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...
Accelerated radial Fourier-velocity encoding using compressed sensing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hilbert, Fabian; Han, Dietbert
2014-01-01
Purpose:Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a tool for non-invasive determination of flow velocities inside blood vessels. Because Phase Contrast MRI only measures a single mean velocity per voxel, it is only applicable to vessels significantly larger than the voxel size. In contrast, Fourier Velocity Encoding measures the entire velocity distribution inside a voxel, but requires a much longer acquisition time. For accurate diagnosis of stenosis in vessels on the scale of spatial resolution, it is important to know the velocity distribution of a voxel. Our aim was to determine velocity distributions with accelerated Fourier Velocity Encoding in an acquisition time required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Materials and Methods:We imaged the femoral artery of healthy volunteers with ECG - triggered, radial CINE acquisition. Data acquisition was accelerated by undersampling, while missing data were reconstructed by Compressed Sensing. Velocity spectra of the vessel were evaluated by high resolution Phase Contrast images and compared to spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoding. By means of undersampling, it was possible to reduce the scan time for Fourier Velocity Encoding to the duration required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Results:Acquisition time for a fully sampled data set with 12 different Velocity Encodings was 40 min. By applying a 12.6 - fold retrospective undersampling, a data set was generated equal to 3:10 min acquisition time, which is similar to a conventional Phase Contrast measurement. Velocity spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoded images are in good agreement and show the same maximum velocities as compared to velocity maps from Phase Contrast measurements. Conclusion: Compressed Sensing proved to reliably reconstruct Fourier Velocity Encoded data. Our results indicate that Fourier Velocity Encoding allows an accurate determination of the velocity
Accelerated radial Fourier-velocity encoding using compressed sensing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hilbert, Fabian; Han, Dietbert [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Radiology; Wech, Tobias; Koestler, Herbert [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Radiology; Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Comprehensive Heart Failure Center (CHFC)
2014-10-01
Purpose:Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a tool for non-invasive determination of flow velocities inside blood vessels. Because Phase Contrast MRI only measures a single mean velocity per voxel, it is only applicable to vessels significantly larger than the voxel size. In contrast, Fourier Velocity Encoding measures the entire velocity distribution inside a voxel, but requires a much longer acquisition time. For accurate diagnosis of stenosis in vessels on the scale of spatial resolution, it is important to know the velocity distribution of a voxel. Our aim was to determine velocity distributions with accelerated Fourier Velocity Encoding in an acquisition time required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Materials and Methods:We imaged the femoral artery of healthy volunteers with ECG - triggered, radial CINE acquisition. Data acquisition was accelerated by undersampling, while missing data were reconstructed by Compressed Sensing. Velocity spectra of the vessel were evaluated by high resolution Phase Contrast images and compared to spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoding. By means of undersampling, it was possible to reduce the scan time for Fourier Velocity Encoding to the duration required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Results:Acquisition time for a fully sampled data set with 12 different Velocity Encodings was 40 min. By applying a 12.6 - fold retrospective undersampling, a data set was generated equal to 3:10 min acquisition time, which is similar to a conventional Phase Contrast measurement. Velocity spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoded images are in good agreement and show the same maximum velocities as compared to velocity maps from Phase Contrast measurements. Conclusion: Compressed Sensing proved to reliably reconstruct Fourier Velocity Encoded data. Our results indicate that Fourier Velocity Encoding allows an accurate determination of the velocity
Accelerated radial Fourier-velocity encoding using compressed sensing.
Hilbert, Fabian; Wech, Tobias; Hahn, Dietbert; Köstler, Herbert
2014-09-01
Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a tool for non-invasive determination of flow velocities inside blood vessels. Because Phase Contrast MRI only measures a single mean velocity per voxel, it is only applicable to vessels significantly larger than the voxel size. In contrast, Fourier Velocity Encoding measures the entire velocity distribution inside a voxel, but requires a much longer acquisition time. For accurate diagnosis of stenosis in vessels on the scale of spatial resolution, it is important to know the velocity distribution of a voxel. Our aim was to determine velocity distributions with accelerated Fourier Velocity Encoding in an acquisition time required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. We imaged the femoral artery of healthy volunteers with ECG-triggered, radial CINE acquisition. Data acquisition was accelerated by undersampling, while missing data were reconstructed by Compressed Sensing. Velocity spectra of the vessel were evaluated by high resolution Phase Contrast images and compared to spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoding. By means of undersampling, it was possible to reduce the scan time for Fourier Velocity Encoding to the duration required for a conventional Phase Contrast image. Acquisition time for a fully sampled data set with 12 different Velocity Encodings was 40 min. By applying a 12.6-fold retrospective undersampling, a data set was generated equal to 3:10 min acquisition time, which is similar to a conventional Phase Contrast measurement. Velocity spectra from fully sampled and undersampled Fourier Velocity Encoded images are in good agreement and show the same maximum velocities as compared to velocity maps from Phase Contrast measurements. Compressed Sensing proved to reliably reconstruct Fourier Velocity Encoded data. Our results indicate that Fourier Velocity Encoding allows an accurate determination of the velocity distribution in vessels in the order of the voxel size. Thus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naganawa, Shinji; Koshikawa, Tokiko; Kato, Katsuhiko
2001-01-01
To evaluate the performance of two-dimensional cine phase contrast MRA with multi-velocity encoded values (multi-VENC cine PC) and ECG-gated two-dimensional time-of-flight MRA (ECG-2D-TOF) for the detection of stenoocclusive lesions and aneurysms in the aortoiliac area, when each method was used individually and when the two methods were used together. Forty-one patients were included in this study. Multi-VENC cine PC and ECG-2D-TOF were obtained first, then contrast enhanced three-dimensional magnetic resonance angiography (CE-3D-MRA) was performed as the standard of reference. Two observers reviewed the images separately without knowledge of patients' symptoms or histories. Sensitivities and specificities were obtained separately for stenooclusive lesions and aneurysms by two reviewers. When the two methods were applied together, high sensitivities (93.0 by observer 1 and 91.9% by observer 2) and adequate specificities (87.6 and 82.3%) were obtained for stenoocclusive lesions. For aneurysms, moderate to high sensitivities (91.1 and 71.1%) and high specificities (98.8 and 99.4%) were obtained. These results suggest that the performance of two non-contrast enhanced MRA techniques may be valuable as a screening tool when the two methods are applied together. (author)
Superhilac real-time velocity measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feinberg, B.; Meaney, D.; Thatcher, R.; Timossi, C.
1987-03-01
Phase probes have been placed in several external beam lines at the LBL heavy ion linear accelerator (SuperHILAC) to provide non-destructive velocity measurements independent of the ion being accelerated. The existing system has been improved to provide the following features: a display refresh rate better than twice per second, a sensitive pseudo-correlation technique to pick out the signal from the noise, simultaneous measurements of up to four ion velocities when more than one beam is being accelerated, and a touch-screen operator interface. These improvements allow the system to be used as a routine tuning aid and beam velocity monitor
Measurement of Minimum Bias Observables with ATLAS
Kvita, Jiri; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
The modelling of Minimum Bias (MB) is a crucial ingredient to learn about the description of soft QCD processes. It has also a significant relevance for the simulation of the environment at the LHC with many concurrent pp interactions (“pileup”). The ATLAS collaboration has provided new measurements of the inclusive charged particle multiplicity and its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity in special data sets with low LHC beam currents, recorded at center of mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The measurements cover a wide spectrum using charged particle selections with minimum transverse momentum of both 100 MeV and 500 MeV and in various phase space regions of low and high charged particle multiplicities.
Electron velocity and momentum density
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perkins, G.A.
1978-01-01
A null 4-vector eta + sigma/sub μ/based on Dirac's relativistic electron equation, is shown explicitly for a plane wave and various Coulomb states. This 4-vector constitutes a mechanical ''model'' for the electron in those staes, and expresses the important spinor quantities represented conventionally by n, f, g, m, j, kappa, l, and s. The model for a plane wave agrees precisely with the relation between velocity and phase gradient customarily used in quantum theory, but the models for Coulomb states contradict that relation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chiu Choi
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Transient response such as ringing in a control system can be reduced or removed by velocity feedback. It is a useful control technique that should be covered in the relevant engineering laboratory courses. We developed velocity feedback experiments using two different low cost technologies, viz., operational amplifiers and microcontrollers. These experiments can be easily integrated into laboratory courses on feedback control systems or microcontroller applications. The intent of developing these experiments was to illustrate the ringing problem and to offer effective, low cost solutions for removing such problem. In this paper the pedagogical approach for these velocity feedback experiments was described. The advantages and disadvantages of the two different implementation of velocity feedback were discussed also.
The critical ionization velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Raadu, M.A.
1980-06-01
The critical ionization velocity effect was first proposed in the context of space plasmas. This effect occurs for a neutral gas moving through a magnetized plasma and leads to rapid ionization and braking of the relative motion when a marginal velocity, 'the critical velocity', is exceeded. Laboratory experiments have clearly established the significance of the critical velocity and have provided evidence for an underlying mechanism which relies on the combined action of electron impact ionization and a collective plasma interaction heating electrons. There is experimental support for such a mechanism based on the heating of electrons by the modified two-stream instability as part of a feedback process. Several applications to space plasmas have been proposed and the possibility of space experiments has been discussed. (author)
1988-01-01
A video tape related to orbital debris research is presented. The video tape covers the process of loading a High Velocity Gas Gun and firing it into a mounted metal plate. The process is then repeated in slow motion.
Design for minimum energy in interstellar communication
Messerschmitt, David G.
2015-02-01
Microwave digital communication at interstellar distances is the foundation of extraterrestrial civilization (SETI and METI) communication of information-bearing signals. Large distances demand large transmitted power and/or large antennas, while the propagation is transparent over a wide bandwidth. Recognizing a fundamental tradeoff, reduced energy delivered to the receiver at the expense of wide bandwidth (the opposite of terrestrial objectives) is advantageous. Wide bandwidth also results in simpler design and implementation, allowing circumvention of dispersion and scattering arising in the interstellar medium and motion effects and obviating any related processing. The minimum energy delivered to the receiver per bit of information is determined by cosmic microwave background alone. By mapping a single bit onto a carrier burst, the Morse code invented for the telegraph in 1836 comes closer to this minimum energy than approaches used in modern terrestrial radio. Rather than the terrestrial approach of adding phases and amplitudes increases information capacity while minimizing bandwidth, adding multiple time-frequency locations for carrier bursts increases capacity while minimizing energy per information bit. The resulting location code is simple and yet can approach the minimum energy as bandwidth is expanded. It is consistent with easy discovery, since carrier bursts are energetic and straightforward modifications to post-detection pattern recognition can identify burst patterns. Time and frequency coherence constraints leading to simple signal discovery are addressed, and observations of the interstellar medium by transmitter and receiver constrain the burst parameters and limit the search scope.
Velocity navigator for motion compensated thermometry.
Maier, Florian; Krafft, Axel J; Yung, Joshua P; Stafford, R Jason; Elliott, Andrew; Dillmann, Rüdiger; Semmler, Wolfhard; Bock, Michael
2012-02-01
Proton resonance frequency shift thermometry is sensitive to breathing motion that leads to incorrect phase differences. In this work, a novel velocity-sensitive navigator technique for triggering MR thermometry image acquisition is presented. A segmented echo planar imaging pulse sequence was modified for velocity-triggered temperature mapping. Trigger events were generated when the estimated velocity value was less than 0.2 cm/s during the slowdown phase in parallel to the velocity-encoding direction. To remove remaining high-frequency spikes from pulsation in real time, a Kalman filter was applied to the velocity navigator data. A phantom experiment with heating and an initial volunteer experiment without heating were performed to show the applicability of this technique. Additionally, a breath-hold experiment was conducted for comparison. A temperature rise of ΔT = +37.3°C was seen in the phantom experiment, and a root mean square error (RMSE) outside the heated region of 2.3°C could be obtained for periodic motion. In the volunteer experiment, a RMSE of 2.7°C/2.9°C (triggered vs. breath hold) was measured. A novel velocity navigator with Kalman filter postprocessing in real time significantly improves the temperature accuracy over non-triggered acquisitions and suggests being comparable to a breath-held acquisition. The proposed technique might be clinically applied for monitoring of thermal ablations in abdominal organs.
Low-velocity superconducting accelerating structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delayen, J.R.
1990-01-01
The present paper reviews the status of RF superconductivity as applied to low-velocity accelerating properties. Heavy-ion accelerators must accelerate efficiently particles which travel at a velocity much smaller than that of light particles, whose velocity changes along accelerator, and also different particles which have different velocity profiles. Heavy-ion superconducting accelerators operate at frequencies which are lower than high-energy superconducting accelerators. The present paper first discusses the basic features of heavy-ion superconducting structures and linacs. Design choices are then addressed focusing on structure geometry, materials, frequency, phase control, and focusing. The report also gives an outline of the status of superconducting booster projects currently under way at the Argonne National Laboratory, SUNY Stony Brook, Weizmann Institute, University of Washington, Florida State, Saclay, Kansas State, Daresbury, Japanese Atomic Energy Research Institute, Legnaro, Bombay, Sao Paulo, ANU (Canberra), and Munich. Recent developments and future prospects are also described. (N.K.) 68 refs
Modified circular velocity law
Djeghloul, Nazim
2018-05-01
A modified circular velocity law is presented for a test body orbiting around a spherically symmetric mass. This law exhibits a distance scale parameter and allows to recover both usual Newtonian behaviour for lower distances and a constant velocity limit at large scale. Application to the Galaxy predicts the known behaviour and also leads to a galactic mass in accordance with the measured visible stellar mass so that additional dark matter inside the Galaxy can be avoided. It is also shown that this circular velocity law can be embedded in a geometrical description of spacetime within the standard general relativity framework upon relaxing the usual asymptotic flatness condition. This formulation allows to redefine the introduced Newtonian scale limit in term of the central mass exclusively. Moreover, a satisfactory answer to the galactic escape speed problem can be provided indicating the possibility that one can also get rid of dark matter halo outside the Galaxy.
From Boltzmann equations to steady wall velocities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konstandin, Thomas; Rues, Ingo; Nardini, Germano; California Univ., Santa Barbara, CA
2014-07-01
By means of a relativistic microscopic approach we calculate the expansion velocity of bubbles generated during a first-order electroweak phase transition. In particular, we use the gradient expansion of the Kadanoff-Baym equations to set up the fluid system. This turns out to be equivalent to the one found in the semi-classical approach in the non-relativistic limit. Finally, by including hydrodynamic deflagration effects and solving the Higgs equations of motion in the fluid, we determine velocity and thickness of the bubble walls. Our findings are compared with phenomenological models of wall velocities. As illustrative examples, we apply these results to three theories providing first-order phase transitions with a particle content in the thermal plasma that resembles the Standard Model.
On kinematical minimum principles for rates and increments in plasticity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zouain, N.
1984-01-01
The optimization approach for elastoplastic analysis is discussed showing that some minimum principles related to numerical methods can be derived by means of duality and penalization procedures. Three minimum principles for velocity and plastic multiplier rate fields are presented in the framework of perfect plasticity. The first one is the classical Greenberg formulation. The second one, due to Capurso, is developed here with different motivation, and modified by penalization of constraints so as to arrive at a third principle for rates. The counterparts of these optimization formulations in terms of discrete increments of displacements of displacements and plastic multipliers are discussed. The third one of these minimum principles for finite increments is recognized to be closely related to Maier's formulation of holonomic plasticity. (Author) [pt
Estimating propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor
Xu, Wenyuan; Huizinga, John S.
2010-03-16
Techniques are described for estimating the propagation velocity through a surface acoustic wave sensor. In particular, techniques which measure and exploit a proper segment of phase frequency response of the surface acoustic wave sensor are described for use as a basis of bacterial detection by the sensor. As described, use of velocity estimation based on a proper segment of phase frequency response has advantages over conventional techniques that use phase shift as the basis for detection.
Minimum Q Electrically Small Antennas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kim, O. S.
2012-01-01
Theoretically, the minimum radiation quality factor Q of an isolated resonance can be achieved in a spherical electrically small antenna by combining TM1m and TE1m spherical modes, provided that the stored energy in the antenna spherical volume is totally suppressed. Using closed-form expressions...... for a multiarm spherical helix antenna confirm the theoretical predictions. For example, a 4-arm spherical helix antenna with a magnetic-coated perfectly electrically conducting core (ka=0.254) exhibits the Q of 0.66 times the Chu lower bound, or 1.25 times the minimum Q....
The Prescribed Velocity Method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm
The- velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactory...
Multidisc neutron velocity selector
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rosta, L.; Zsigmond, Gy.; Farago, B.; Mezei, F.; Ban, K.; Perendi, J.
1987-12-01
The prototype of a velocity selector for neutron monochromatization in the 4-20 A wavelength range is presented. The theoretical background of the multidisc rotor system is given together with a description of the mechanical construction and electronic driving system. The first tests and neutron measurements prove easy handling and excellent parameters. (author) 6 refs.; 7 figs.; 2 tabs
Fermat and the Minimum Principle
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Arguably, least action and minimum principles were offered or applied much earlier. This (or these) principle(s) is/are among the fundamental, basic, unifying or organizing ones used to describe a variety of natural phenomena. It considers the amount of energy expended in performing a given action to be the least required ...
Coupling between minimum scattering antennas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, J.; Lessow, H; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans
1974-01-01
Coupling between minimum scattering antennas (MSA's) is investigated by the coupling theory developed by Wasylkiwskyj and Kahn. Only rotationally symmetric power patterns are considered, and graphs of relative mutual impedance are presented as a function of distance and pattern parameters. Crossed...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Souza, E.J.S. Pires de [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Eletrica], E-mail: pires@ele.puc-rio.br
2009-07-01
The dynamic aggregation of coherent generating unit models has been solved as an unconstrained optimization problem. In this process, negative time constants may be obtained, which characterize unstable or non-minimal phase models. The comparison of the solutions of the dynamic aggregation problem of voltage regulator models obtained with both the original formulation and the squared-variable transformation is the objective of this paper. Initial values are within the range from +100% to -90% in relation to the estimated parameters. The New England system including models of the Brazilian system is considered in the studies. (author)
Surface wave velocity tracking by bisection method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maeda, T.
2005-01-01
Calculation of surface wave velocity is a classic problem dating back to the well-known Haskell's transfer matrix method, which contributes to solutions of elastic wave propagation, global subsurface structure evaluation by simulating observed earthquake group velocities, and on-site evaluation of subsurface structure by simulating phase velocity dispersion curves and/or H/V spectra obtained by micro-tremor observation. Recently inversion analysis on micro-tremor observation requires efficient method of generating many model candidates and also stable, accurate, and fast computation of dispersion curves and Raleigh wave trajectory. The original Haskell's transfer matrix method has been improved in terms of its divergence tendency mainly by the generalized transmission and reflection matrix method with formulation available for surface wave velocity; however, root finding algorithm has not been fully discussed except for the one by setting threshold to the absolute value of complex characteristic functions. Since surface wave number (reciprocal to the surface wave velocity multiplied by frequency) is a root of complex valued characteristic function, it is intractable to use general root finding algorithm. We will examine characteristic function in phase plane to construct two dimensional bisection algorithm with consideration on a layer to be evaluated and algorithm for tracking roots down along frequency axis. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hughes, E.D.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; McFadden, J.H.
1976-02-01
A state-of-the-art review was conducted in order to provide the nuclear industry with a publicly available assessment of two velocity thermal-hydraulic models and their applicability to nuclear reactor technology. The two major objectives of this state-of-the-art evaluation were: (1) document the basic theory in a consistent self-contained report; and (2) apply a prototype 'two-velocity' code (UVUT) to a limited number of separate effect tests. The theoretical basis of the two-velocity models given in Volume 2 is divided into three parts; Part I is the derivation of the basic differential equations; Part II describes in detail, the constitutive models required for closure of the system of equations; and Part III presents the numerical solution schemes
Multidisk neutron velocity selectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hammouda, B.
1992-01-01
Helical multidisk velocity selectors used for neutron scattering applications have been analyzed and tested experimentally. Design and performance considerations are discussed along with simple explanation of the basic concept. A simple progression is used for the inter-disk spacing in the 'Rosta' design. Ray tracing computer investigations are presented in order to assess the 'coverage' (how many absorbing layers are stacked along the path of 'wrong' wavelength neutrons) and the relative number of neutrons absorbed in each disk (and therefore the relative amount of gamma radiation emitted from each disk). We discuss whether a multidisk velocity selector can be operated in the 'reverse' configuration (i.e. the selector is turned by 180 0 around a vertical axis with the rotor spun in the reverse direction). Experimental tests and calibration of a multidisk selector are reported together with evidence that a multidisk selector can be operated in the 'reverse' configuration. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McFadden, J.H.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Niederauer, G.F.
1976-02-01
A state-of-the-art review is conducted in order to provide the nuclear industry with a publicly available assessment of two-velocity thermal-hydraulic models and their applicability to nuclear reactor technology. The two major objectives of this state-of-the-art evaluation were: (1) document the basic theory in a consistent self-contained report; and (2) apply a prototype 'two-velocity' code (UVUT) to a limited number of separate effect tests. Volume 3 presents the data comparisons
Unwrapped phase inversion with an exponential damping
Choi, Yun Seok
2015-07-28
Full-waveform inversion (FWI) suffers from the phase wrapping (cycle skipping) problem when the frequency of data is not low enough. Unless we obtain a good initial velocity model, the phase wrapping problem in FWI causes a result corresponding to a local minimum, usually far away from the true solution, especially at depth. Thus, we have developed an inversion algorithm based on a space-domain unwrapped phase, and we also used exponential damping to mitigate the nonlinearity associated with the reflections. We construct the 2D phase residual map, which usually contains the wrapping discontinuities, especially if the model is complex and the frequency is high. We then unwrap the phase map and remove these cycle-based jumps. However, if the phase map has several residues, the unwrapping process becomes very complicated. We apply a strong exponential damping to the wavefield to eliminate much of the residues in the phase map, thus making the unwrapping process simple. We finally invert the unwrapped phases using the back-propagation algorithm to calculate the gradient. We progressively reduce the damping factor to obtain a high-resolution image. Numerical examples determined that the unwrapped phase inversion with a strong exponential damping generated convergent long-wavelength updates without low-frequency information. This model can be used as a good starting model for a subsequent inversion with a reduced damping, eventually leading to conventional waveform inversion.
Quantum mechanics the theoretical minimum
Susskind, Leonard
2014-01-01
From the bestselling author of The Theoretical Minimum, an accessible introduction to the math and science of quantum mechanicsQuantum Mechanics is a (second) book for anyone who wants to learn how to think like a physicist. In this follow-up to the bestselling The Theoretical Minimum, physicist Leonard Susskind and data engineer Art Friedman offer a first course in the theory and associated mathematics of the strange world of quantum mechanics. Quantum Mechanics presents Susskind and Friedman’s crystal-clear explanations of the principles of quantum states, uncertainty and time dependence, entanglement, and particle and wave states, among other topics. An accessible but rigorous introduction to a famously difficult topic, Quantum Mechanics provides a tool kit for amateur scientists to learn physics at their own pace.
Minimum resolvable power contrast model
Qian, Shuai; Wang, Xia; Zhou, Jingjing
2018-01-01
Signal-to-noise ratio and MTF are important indexs to evaluate the performance of optical systems. However,whether they are used alone or joint assessment cannot intuitively describe the overall performance of the system. Therefore, an index is proposed to reflect the comprehensive system performance-Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast (MRP) model. MRP is an evaluation model without human eyes. It starts from the radiance of the target and the background, transforms the target and background into the equivalent strips,and considers attenuation of the atmosphere, the optical imaging system, and the detector. Combining with the signal-to-noise ratio and the MTF, the Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast is obtained. Finally the detection probability model of MRP is given.
Understanding the Minimum Wage: Issues and Answers.
Employment Policies Inst. Foundation, Washington, DC.
This booklet, which is designed to clarify facts regarding the minimum wage's impact on marketplace economics, contains a total of 31 questions and answers pertaining to the following topics: relationship between minimum wages and poverty; impacts of changes in the minimum wage on welfare reform; and possible effects of changes in the minimum wage…
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for all...
Plasma flow velocity measurements using a modulated Michelson interferometer
Howard, J.; Meijer, F. G.
1997-01-01
This paper discusses the possibility of flow velocity reconstruction using passive spectroscopic techniques. We report some preliminary measurements of the toroidal flow velocity of hydrogen atoms in the RTP tokamak using a phase modulated Michelson interferometer. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science S.A.
Liquid velocity in upward and downward air-water flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Xiaodong; Paranjape, Sidharth; Kim, Seungjin; Ozar, Basar; Ishii, Mamoru
2004-01-01
Local characteristics of the liquid phase in upward and downward air-water two-phase flows were experimentally investigated in a 50.8-mm inner-diameter round pipe. An integral laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) system was used to measure the axial liquid velocity and its fluctuations. No effect of the flow direction on the liquid velocity radial profile was observed in single-phase liquid benchmark experiments. Local multi-sensor conductivity probes were used to measure the radial profiles of the bubble velocity and the void fraction. The measurement results in the upward and downward two-phase flows are compared and discussed. The results in the downward flow demonstrated that the presence of the bubbles tended to flatten the liquid velocity radial profile, and the maximum liquid velocity could occur off the pipe centerline, in particular at relatively low flow rates. However, the maximum liquid velocity always occurred at the pipe center in the upward flow. Also, noticeable turbulence enhancement due to the bubbles in the two-phase flows was observed in the current experimental flow conditions. Furthermore, the distribution parameter and the void-weighted area-averaged drift velocity were obtained based on the definitions
RCoronae Borealis at the 2003 light minimum
Kameswara Rao, N.; Lambert, David L.; Shetrone, Matthew D.
2006-08-01
A set of five high-resolution optical spectra of R CrB obtained in 2003 March is discussed. At the time of the first spectrum (March 8), the star was at V = 12.6, a decline of more than six magnitudes. By March 31, the date of the last observation, the star at V = 9.3 was on the recovery to maximum light (V = 6). The 2003 spectra are compared with the extensive collection of spectra from the 1995-1996 minimum presented previously. Spectroscopic features common to the two minima include the familiar ones also seen in spectra of other R Coronae Borealis stars (RCBs) in decline: sharp emission lines of neutral and singly ionized atoms, broad emission lines including HeI, [NII] 6583 Å, Na D and CaII H & K lines, and blueshifted absorption lines of Na D, and KI resonance lines. Prominent differences between the 2003 and 1995-1996 spectra are seen. The broad Na D and Ca H & K lines in 2003 and 1995-1996 are centred approximately on the mean stellar velocity. The 2003 profiles are fit by a single Gaussian, but in 1995-1996 two Gaussians separated by about 200 km s-1 were required. However, the HeI broad emission lines are fit by a single Gaussian at all times; the emitting He and Na-Ca atoms are probably not colocated. The C2 Phillips 2-0 lines were detected as sharp absorption lines and the C2 Swan band lines as sharp emission lines in 2003, but in 1995-1996 the Swan band emission lines were broad and the Phillips lines were undetected. The 2003 spectra show CI sharp emission lines at minimum light with a velocity changing in 5 d by about 20 km s-1 when the velocity of `metal' sharp lines is unchanged; the CI emission may arise from shock-heated gas. Reexamination of spectra obtained at maximum light in 1995 shows extended blue wings to strong lines with the extension dependent on a line's lower excitation potential; this is the signature of a stellar wind, also revealed by published observations of the HeI 10830 Å line at maximum light. Changes in the cores of the
A unified definition of a vortex derived from vortical flow and the resulting pressure minimum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakayama, K [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aichi Institute of Technology, Toyota, Aichi 470–0392 (Japan); Sugiyama, K; Takagi, S, E-mail: nakayama@aitech.ac.jp, E-mail: kazuyasu.sugiyama@riken.jp, E-mail: takagi@mech.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Hongo, Tokyo 113–8656 (Japan)
2014-10-01
This paper presents a novel definition of a vortex that integrates the concepts of the invariant swirling motion, the pressure minimum characteristics induced by the swirling motion and the positive Laplacian of the pressure. The current definition specifies a vortex that has a swirling motion and resulting pressure minimum feature in the swirl plane, which is simply represented by the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the velocity gradient tensor. (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hartantyo, Eddy, E-mail: hartantyo@ugm.ac.id [PhD student, Physics Department, FMIPA, UGM. Sekip Utara Yogyakarta 55281 Indonesia (Indonesia); Brotopuspito, Kirbani S.; Sismanto; Waluyo [Geophysics Laboratory, FMIPA, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Sekip Utara Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia)
2015-04-24
The liquefactions phenomena have been reported after a shocking 6.5Mw earthquake hit Yogyakarta province in the morning at 27 May 2006. Several researchers have reported the damage, casualties, and soil failure due to the quake, including the mapping and analyzing the liquefaction phenomena. Most of them based on SPT test. The study try to draw the liquefaction susceptibility by means the shear velocity profiling using modified Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW). This paper is a preliminary report by using only several measured MASW points. The study built 8-channel seismic data logger with 4.5 Hz geophones for this purpose. Several different offsets used to record the high and low frequencies of surface waves. The phase-velocity diagrams were stacked in the frequency domain rather than in time domain, for a clearer and easier dispersion curve picking. All codes are implementing in Matlab. From these procedures, shear velocity profiling was collected beneath each geophone’s spread. By mapping the minimum depth of shallow water table, calculating PGA with soil classification, using empirical formula for saturated soil weight from shear velocity profile, and calculating CRR and CSR at every depth, the liquefaction characteristic can be identify in every layer. From several acquired data, a liquefiable potential at some depth below water table was obtained.
Predicting vertical jump height from bar velocity.
García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén
2015-06-01
The objective of the study was to assess the use of maximum (Vmax) and final propulsive phase (FPV) bar velocity to predict jump height in the weighted jump squat. FPV was defined as the velocity reached just before bar acceleration was lower than gravity (-9.81 m·s(-2)). Vertical jump height was calculated from the take-off velocity (Vtake-off) provided by a force platform. Thirty swimmers belonging to the National Slovenian swimming team performed a jump squat incremental loading test, lifting 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of body weight in a Smith machine. Jump performance was simultaneously monitored using an AMTI portable force platform and a linear velocity transducer attached to the barbell. Simple linear regression was used to estimate jump height from the Vmax and FPV recorded by the linear velocity transducer. Vmax (y = 16.577x - 16.384) was able to explain 93% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.47 cm. FPV (y = 12.828x - 6.504) was able to explain 91% of jump height variance with a standard error of the estimate of 1.66 cm. Despite that both variables resulted to be good predictors, heteroscedasticity in the differences between FPV and Vtake-off was observed (r(2) = 0.307), while the differences between Vmax and Vtake-off were homogenously distributed (r(2) = 0.071). These results suggest that Vmax is a valid tool for estimating vertical jump height in a loaded jump squat test performed in a Smith machine. Key pointsVertical jump height in the loaded jump squat can be estimated with acceptable precision from the maximum bar velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer.The relationship between the point at which bar acceleration is less than -9.81 m·s(-2) and the real take-off is affected by the velocity of movement.Mean propulsive velocity recorded by a linear velocity transducer does not appear to be optimal to monitor ballistic exercise performance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwee, Regina
2010-01-01
Since the restart of the LHC in November 2009, ATLAS has collected inelastic pp collisions to perform first measurements on charged particle densities. These measurements will help to constrain various models describing phenomenologically soft parton interactions. Understanding the trigger efficiencies for different event types are therefore crucial to minimize any possible bias in the event selection. ATLAS uses two main minimum bias triggers, featuring complementary detector components and trigger levels. While a hardware based first trigger level situated in the forward regions with 2.2 < |η| < 3.8 has been proven to select pp-collisions very efficiently, the Inner Detector based minimum bias trigger uses a random seed on filled bunches and central tracking detectors for the event selection. Both triggers were essential for the analysis of kinematic spectra of charged particles. Their performance and trigger efficiency measurements as well as studies on possible bias sources will be presented. We also highlight the advantage of these triggers for particle correlation analyses. (author)
Examples of Vector Velocity Imaging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Peter M.; Pedersen, Mads M.; Hansen, Kristoffer L.
2011-01-01
To measure blood flow velocity in vessels with conventional ultrasound, the velocity is estimated along the direction of the emitted ultrasound wave. It is therefore impossible to obtain accurate information on blood flow velocity and direction, when the angle between blood flow and ultrasound wa...
Lower bound on the electroweak wall velocity from hydrodynamic instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mégevand, Ariel; Membiela, Federico Agustín; Sánchez, Alejandro D., E-mail: megevand@mdp.edu.ar, E-mail: membiela@mdp.edu.ar, E-mail: sanchez@mdp.edu.ar [IFIMAR (CONICET-UNMdP), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Deán Funes (7600) 3350 Mar del Plata (Argentina)
2015-03-01
The subsonic expansion of bubbles in a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition is a convenient scenario for electroweak baryogenesis. For most extensions of the Standard Model, stationary subsonic solutions (i.e., deflagrations) exist for the propagation of phase transition fronts. However, deflagrations are known to be hydrodynamically unstable for wall velocities below a certain critical value. We calculate this critical velocity for several extensions of the Standard Model and compare with an estimation of the wall velocity. In general, we find a region in parameter space which gives stable deflagrations as well as favorable conditions for electroweak baryogenesis.
Lower bound on the electroweak wall velocity from hydrodynamic instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mégevand, Ariel; Membiela, Federico Agustín; Sánchez, Alejandro D.
2015-01-01
The subsonic expansion of bubbles in a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition is a convenient scenario for electroweak baryogenesis. For most extensions of the Standard Model, stationary subsonic solutions (i.e., deflagrations) exist for the propagation of phase transition fronts. However, deflagrations are known to be hydrodynamically unstable for wall velocities below a certain critical value. We calculate this critical velocity for several extensions of the Standard Model and compare with an estimation of the wall velocity. In general, we find a region in parameter space which gives stable deflagrations as well as favorable conditions for electroweak baryogenesis
Lower bound on the electroweak wall velocity from hydrodynamic instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mégevand, Ariel; Membiela, Federico Agustín; Sánchez, Alejandro D. [IFIMAR (CONICET-UNMdP), Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Deán Funes (7600) 3350 Mar del Plata (Argentina)
2015-03-27
The subsonic expansion of bubbles in a strongly first-order electroweak phase transition is a convenient scenario for electroweak baryogenesis. For most extensions of the Standard Model, stationary subsonic solutions (i.e., deflagrations) exist for the propagation of phase transition fronts. However, deflagrations are known to be hydrodynamically unstable for wall velocities below a certain critical value. We calculate this critical velocity for several extensions of the Standard Model and compare with an estimation of the wall velocity. In general, we find a region in parameter space which gives stable deflagrations as well as favorable conditions for electroweak baryogenesis.
A note on minimum-variance theory and beyond
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng Jianfeng [Department of Informatics, Sussex University, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Tartaglia, Giangaetano [Physics Department, Rome University ' La Sapienza' , Rome 00185 (Italy); Tirozzi, Brunello [Physics Department, Rome University ' La Sapienza' , Rome 00185 (Italy)
2004-04-30
We revisit the minimum-variance theory proposed by Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780-4), discuss the implications of the theory on modelling the firing patterns of single neurons and analytically find the optimal control signals, trajectories and velocities. Under the rate coding assumption, input control signals employed in the minimum-variance theory should be Fitts processes rather than Poisson processes. Only if information is coded by interspike intervals, Poisson processes are in agreement with the inputs employed in the minimum-variance theory. For the integrate-and-fire model with Fitts process inputs, interspike intervals of efferent spike trains are very irregular. We introduce diffusion approximations to approximate neural models with renewal process inputs and present theoretical results on calculating moments of interspike intervals of the integrate-and-fire model. Results in Feng, et al (2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 7287-304) are generalized. In conclusion, we present a complete picture on the minimum-variance theory ranging from input control signals, to model outputs, and to its implications on modelling firing patterns of single neurons.
A note on minimum-variance theory and beyond
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Jianfeng; Tartaglia, Giangaetano; Tirozzi, Brunello
2004-01-01
We revisit the minimum-variance theory proposed by Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780-4), discuss the implications of the theory on modelling the firing patterns of single neurons and analytically find the optimal control signals, trajectories and velocities. Under the rate coding assumption, input control signals employed in the minimum-variance theory should be Fitts processes rather than Poisson processes. Only if information is coded by interspike intervals, Poisson processes are in agreement with the inputs employed in the minimum-variance theory. For the integrate-and-fire model with Fitts process inputs, interspike intervals of efferent spike trains are very irregular. We introduce diffusion approximations to approximate neural models with renewal process inputs and present theoretical results on calculating moments of interspike intervals of the integrate-and-fire model. Results in Feng, et al (2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 7287-304) are generalized. In conclusion, we present a complete picture on the minimum-variance theory ranging from input control signals, to model outputs, and to its implications on modelling firing patterns of single neurons
Size and velocity measurements in combustion systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levy, Y.; Timnat, Y.M.
1986-01-01
Two-phase flow measurements for size and velocity determination in combustion systems are discussed: the pedestal technique and phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) are described in detail. The experimental apparatus for the pedestal method includes the optical laser-Doppler anemometry (LDA) package and the electronic data acquisition system. The latter comprises three channels for recording the Doppler frequency, and the pedestal amplitude as well as the validation pulse. Results of measurements performed in a dump combustor, into which kerosene droplets were injected, are presented. The principle of the PDA technique is explained and validation experiments, using latex particles, are reported. Finally the two methods are compared
Minimum Bias Measurements at the LHC
AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00022031; The ATLAS collaboration
2016-01-01
Inclusive charged particle measurements at hadron colliders probe the low-energy nonperturbative region of QCD. Pseudorapidity distributions of charged-particles produced in pp collisions at 13 TeV have been measured by the CMS experiment. The ATLAS collaboration has measured the inclusive charged particle multiplicity and its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity in special data sets with low LHC beam current, recorded at a center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. The measurements present the first detailed studies in inclusive phase spaces with a minimum transverse momentum of 100 MeV and 500 MeV. The distribution of electromagnetic and hadronic energy in the very forward phase-space has been measured with the CASTOR calorimeters located at a pseudorapidity of -5.2 to -6.6 in the very forward region of CMS. The energy distributions are very powerful benchmarks to study the performance of MPI in hadronic interactions models at 13 TeV collision energy. All measurements are compared with predictions of ...
Experimental Results for Minimum-Time Trajectory Tracking of a Direct-Drive Three-Link Planar Arm
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DRIESSEN,BRIAN; PARKER,GORDON G.
1999-09-01
This work is an experimental investigation of the ability of a real three-link direct-drive arm to track model-based minimum-time trajectories that have been found off-line. Sufficiently large velocity gains in the computed torque control law were not achievable with the velocity sensors described herein. This indicates the critical importance of the velocity sensing when attempting to track trajectories that push the envelope of the system's torque capabilities.
Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection
Lao, Dong
2017-11-09
We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.
Approximating the minimum cycle mean
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krishnendu Chatterjee
2013-07-01
Full Text Available We consider directed graphs where each edge is labeled with an integer weight and study the fundamental algorithmic question of computing the value of a cycle with minimum mean weight. Our contributions are twofold: (1 First we show that the algorithmic question is reducible in O(n^2 time to the problem of a logarithmic number of min-plus matrix multiplications of n-by-n matrices, where n is the number of vertices of the graph. (2 Second, when the weights are nonnegative, we present the first (1 + ε-approximation algorithm for the problem and the running time of our algorithm is ilde(O(n^ω log^3(nW/ε / ε, where O(n^ω is the time required for the classic n-by-n matrix multiplication and W is the maximum value of the weights.
Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection
Lao, Dong
2017-01-08
We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.
Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection
Lao, Dong; Sundaramoorthi, Ganesh
2017-01-01
We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.
Youth minimum wages and youth employment
Marimpi, Maria; Koning, Pierre
2018-01-01
This paper performs a cross-country level analysis on the impact of the level of specific youth minimum wages on the labor market performance of young individuals. We use information on the use and level of youth minimum wages, as compared to the level of adult minimum wages as well as to the median
Do Some Workers Have Minimum Wage Careers?
Carrington, William J.; Fallick, Bruce C.
2001-01-01
Most workers who begin their careers in minimum-wage jobs eventually gain more experience and move on to higher paying jobs. However, more than 8% of workers spend at least half of their first 10 working years in minimum wage jobs. Those more likely to have minimum wage careers are less educated, minorities, women with young children, and those…
Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?
Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane
2005-01-01
Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…
Minimum income protection in the Netherlands
van Peijpe, T.
2009-01-01
This article offers an overview of the Dutch legal system of minimum income protection through collective bargaining, social security, and statutory minimum wages. In addition to collective agreements, the Dutch statutory minimum wage offers income protection to a small number of workers. Its
Optimizing velocities and transports for complex coastal regions and archipelagos
Haley, Patrick J.; Agarwal, Arpit; Lermusiaux, Pierre F. J.
2015-05-01
We derive and apply a methodology for the initialization of velocity and transport fields in complex multiply-connected regions with multiscale dynamics. The result is initial fields that are consistent with observations, complex geometry and dynamics, and that can simulate the evolution of ocean processes without large spurious initial transients. A class of constrained weighted least squares optimizations is defined to best fit first-guess velocities while satisfying the complex bathymetry, coastline and divergence strong constraints. A weak constraint towards the minimum inter-island transports that are in accord with the first-guess velocities provides important velocity corrections in complex archipelagos. In the optimization weights, the minimum distance and vertical area between pairs of coasts are computed using a Fast Marching Method. Additional information on velocity and transports are included as strong or weak constraints. We apply our methodology around the Hawaiian islands of Kauai/Niihau, in the Taiwan/Kuroshio region and in the Philippines Archipelago. Comparisons with other common initialization strategies, among hindcasts from these initial conditions (ICs), and with independent in situ observations show that our optimization corrects transports, satisfies boundary conditions and redirects currents. Differences between the hindcasts from these different ICs are found to grow for at least 2-3 weeks. When compared to independent in situ observations, simulations from our optimized ICs are shown to have the smallest errors.
Development of an optimal velocity selection method with velocity obstacle
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Min Geuk; Oh, Jun Ho [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-08-15
The Velocity obstacle (VO) method is one of the most well-known methods for local path planning, allowing consideration of dynamic obstacles and unexpected obstacles. Typical VO methods separate a velocity map into a collision area and a collision-free area. A robot can avoid collisions by selecting its velocity from within the collision-free area. However, if there are numerous obstacles near a robot, the robot will have very few velocity candidates. In this paper, a method for choosing optimal velocity components using the concept of pass-time and vertical clearance is proposed for the efficient movement of a robot. The pass-time is the time required for a robot to pass by an obstacle. By generating a latticized available velocity map for a robot, each velocity component can be evaluated using a cost function that considers the pass-time and other aspects. From the output of the cost function, even a velocity component that will cause a collision in the future can be chosen as a final velocity if the pass-time is sufficiently long enough.
Minimum wage development in the Russian Federation
Bolsheva, Anna
2012-01-01
The aim of this paper is to analyze the effectiveness of the minimum wage policy at the national level in Russia and its impact on living standards in the country. The analysis showed that the national minimum wage in Russia does not serve its original purpose of protecting the lowest wage earners and has no substantial effect on poverty reduction. The national subsistence minimum is too low and cannot be considered an adequate criterion for the setting of the minimum wage. The minimum wage d...
Wave velocities in a pre-stressed anisotropic elastic medium
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Modiﬁed Christoffel equations are derived for three-dimensional wave propagation in a general anisotropic medium under initial stress.The three roots of a cubic equation deﬁne the phase velocities of three quasi-waves in the medium.Analytical expressions are used to calculate the directional derivatives of phase ...
Amphibious Shear Velocity Structure of the Cascadia Subduction Zone
Janiszewski, H. A.; Gaherty, J. B.; Abers, G. A.; Gao, H.
2017-12-01
The amphibious Cascadia Initiative crosses the coastline of the Cascadia subduction zone (CSZ) deploying seismometers from the Juan de Fuca ridge offshore to beyond the volcanic arc onshore. This allows unprecedented seismic imaging of the CSZ, enabling examination of both the evolution of the Juan de Fuca plate prior to and during subduction as well as the along strike variability of the subduction system. Here we present new results from an amphibious shear velocity model for the crust and upper mantle across the Cascadia subduction zone. The primary data used in this inversion are surface-wave phase velocities derived from ambient-noise Rayleigh-wave data in the 10 - 20 s period band, and teleseismic earthquake Rayleigh wave phase velocities in the 20 - 160 s period band. Phase velocity maps from these data reflect major tectonic structures including the transition from oceanic to continental lithosphere, Juan de Fuca lithosphere that is faster than observations in the Pacific for oceanic crust of its age, slow velocities associated with the accretionary prism, the front of the fast subducting slab, and the Cascades volcanic arc which is associated with slower velocities in the south than in the north. Crustal structures are constrained by receiver functions in the offshore forearc and onshore regions, and by active source constraints on the Juan de Fuca plate prior to subduction. The shear-wave velocities are interpreted in their relationships to temperature, presence of melt or hydrous alteration, and compositional variation of the CSZ.
EVOLUTION OF ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES OF A-TYPE STARS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Wuming; Bi Shaolan; Tian Zhijia; Meng Xiangcun
2013-01-01
The equatorial velocity of A-type stars undergoes an acceleration in the first third of the main sequence (MS) stage, but the velocity decreases as if the stars were not undergoing any redistribution of angular momentum in the external layers in the last stage of the MS phase. Our calculations show that the acceleration and the decrease of the equatorial velocity can be reproduced by the evolution of the differential rotation zero-age MS model with the angular momentum transport caused by hydrodynamic instabilities during the MS stage. The acceleration results from the fact that the angular momentum stored in the interiors of the stars is transported outward. In the last stage, the core and the radiative envelope are uncoupling, and the rotation of the envelope is a quasi-solid rotation; the uncoupling and the expansion of the envelope indicate that the decrease of the equatorial velocity approximately follows the slope for the change in the equatorial velocity of the model without any redistribution of angular momentum. When the fractional age 0.3 ∼ MS ∼< 0.5, the equatorial velocity remains almost constant for stars whose central density increases with age in the early stage of the MS phase, while the velocity decreases with age for stars whose central density decreases with age in the early stage of the MS phase.
Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection
Lao, Dong
2017-05-14
This thesis presents a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves, at some unknown time, differently than the “background” motion, which can be induced from camera motion. The goal of proposed method is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Since motion estimation can be unreliable between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Observing more frames before declaring a detection may lead to a more accurate detection and segmentation, since more motion may be observed leading to a stronger motion cue. However, this leads to greater delay. The proposed method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms, defined as declarations of detection before the object moves or incorrect or inaccurate segmentation at the detection time. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cearley, J.E.; Carruth, J.C.; Dixon, R.C.; Spencer, S.S.; Zuloaga, J.A. Jr.
1986-01-01
This patent describes a velocity control arrangement for a reciprocable, vertically oriented control rod for use in a nuclear reactor in a fluid medium, the control rod including a drive hub secured to and extending from one end therefrom. The control device comprises: a toroidally shaped control member spaced from and coaxially positioned around the hub and secured thereto by a plurality of spaced radial webs thereby providing an annular passage for fluid intermediate the hub and the toroidal member spaced therefrom in coaxial position. The side of the control member toward the control rod has a smooth generally conical surface. The side of the control member away from the control rod is formed with a concave surface constituting a single annular groove. The device also comprises inner and outer annular vanes radially spaced from one another and spaced from the side of the control member away from the control rod and positioned coaxially around and spaced from the hub and secured thereto by spaced radial webs thereby providing an annular passage for fluid intermediate the hub and the vanes. The vanes are angled toward the control member, the outer edge of the inner vane being closer to the control member and the inner edge of the outer vane being closer to the control member. When the control rod moves in the fluid in the direction toward the drive hub the vanes direct a flow of fluid turbulence which provides greater resistance to movement of the control rod in the direction toward the drive hub than in the other direction
Velocity Dispersions Across Bulge Types
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabricius, Maximilian; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Saglia, Roberto; Drory, Niv; Fisher, David
2010-01-01
We present first results from a long-slit spectroscopic survey of bulge kinematics in local spiral galaxies. Our optical spectra were obtained at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope with the LRS spectrograph and have a velocity resolution of 45 km/s (σ*), which allows us to resolve the velocity dispersions in the bulge regions of most objects in our sample. We find that the velocity dispersion profiles in morphological classical bulge galaxies are always centrally peaked while the velocity dispersion of morphologically disk-like bulges stays relatively flat towards the center--once strongly barred galaxies are discarded.
STARE velocities: 2. Evening westward electron flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Uspensky
2004-04-01
Full Text Available Four evening events and one morning event of joint EISCAT/STARE observations during ~22h are considered and the differences between observed STARE line-of-sight (l-o-s velocities and EISCAT electron drift velocities projected onto the STARE beams are studied. We demonstrate that the double-pulse technique, which is currently in use in the STARE routine data handling, typically underestimates the true phase velocity as inferred from the multi-pulse STARE data. We show that the STARE velocities are persistently smaller (1.5–2 times than the EISCAT velocities, even for the multi-pulse data. The effect seems to be more pronounced in the evening sector when the Finland radar observes at large flow angles. We evaluate the performance of the ion-acoustic approach (IAA, Nielsen and Schlegel, 1985 and the off-orthogonal fluid approach (OOFA, Uspensky et al., 2003 techniques to predict the true electron drift velocity for the base event of 12 February 1999. The IAA technique predicts the convection reasonably well for enhanced flows of >~1000m/s, but not so well for slower ones. By considering the EISCAT N(h profiles, we derive the effective aspect angle and effective altitude of backscatter, and use this information for application of the OOFA technique. We demonstrate that the OOFA predictions for the base event are superior over the IAA predictions and thus, we confirm that OOFA predicts the electron velocities reasonably well in the evening sector, in addition to the morning sector, as concluded by Uspensky et al. (2003. To check how "robust" the OOFA model is and how successful it is for convection estimates without the EISCAT support, we analysed three additional evening events and one additional morning event for which information on N(h profiles was intentionally ignored. By accepting the mean STARE/EISCAT velocity ratio of 0.55 and the mean azimuth rotation of 9° (derived for the basic event, we show that the OOFA performs
On linear relationship between shock velocity and particle velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dandache, H.
1986-11-01
We attempt to derive the linear relationship between shock velocity U s and particle velocity U p from thermodynamic considerations, taking into account an ideal gas equation of state and a Mie-Grueneisen equation of state for solids. 23 refs
Solution for Nonlinear Three-Dimensional Intercept Problem with Minimum Energy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Henzeh Leeghim
2013-01-01
a minimum-energy application, which then generates both the desired initial interceptor velocity and the TOF for the minimum-energy transfer. The optimization problem is formulated by using the classical Lagrangian f and g coefficients, which map initial position and velocity vectors to future times, and a universal time variable x. A Newton-Raphson iteration algorithm is introduced for iteratively solving the problem. A generalized problem formulation is introduced for minimizing the TOF as part of the optimization problem. Several examples are presented, and the results are compared with the Hohmann transfer solution approaches. The resulting minimum-energy intercept solution algorithm is expected to be broadly useful as a starting iterative for applications spanning: targeting, rendezvous, interplanetary trajectory design, and so on.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Husen, S.; Clinton, J. F.; Kissling, E.
2011-01-01
One-dimensional (1D) velocity models are still widely used for computing earthquake locations at seismological centers or in regions where three-dimensional (3D) velocity models are not available due to the lack of data of sufficiently high quality. The concept of the minimum 1D model with appropriate station corrections provides a framework to compute initial hypocenter locations and seismic velocities for local earthquake tomography. Since a minimum 1D model represents a solution to the coupled hypocenter-velocity problem it also represents a suitable velocity model for earthquake location and data quality assessment, such as evaluating the consistency in assigning pre-defined weighting classes and average picking error. Nevertheless, the use of a simple 1D velocity structure in combination with station delays raises the question of how appropriate the minimum 1D model concept is when applied to complex tectonic regions with significant three-dimensional (3D) variations in seismic velocities. In this study we compute one regional minimum 1D model and three local minimum 1D models for selected subregions of the Swiss Alpine region, which exhibits a strongly varying Moho topography. We compare the regional and local minimum 1D models in terms of earthquake locations and data quality assessment to measure their performance. Our results show that the local minimum 1D models provide more realistic hypocenter locations and better data fits than a single model for the Alpine region. We attribute this to the fact that in a local minimum 1D model local and regional effects of the velocity structure can be better separated. Consequently, in tectonically complex regions, minimum 1D models should be computed in sub-regions defined by similar structure, if they are used for earthquake location and data quality assessment. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Husen, S.; Clinton, J. F. [Swiss Seismological Service, ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Kissling, E. [Institute of Geophysics, ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland)
2011-10-15
One-dimensional (1D) velocity models are still widely used for computing earthquake locations at seismological centers or in regions where three-dimensional (3D) velocity models are not available due to the lack of data of sufficiently high quality. The concept of the minimum 1D model with appropriate station corrections provides a framework to compute initial hypocenter locations and seismic velocities for local earthquake tomography. Since a minimum 1D model represents a solution to the coupled hypocenter-velocity problem it also represents a suitable velocity model for earthquake location and data quality assessment, such as evaluating the consistency in assigning pre-defined weighting classes and average picking error. Nevertheless, the use of a simple 1D velocity structure in combination with station delays raises the question of how appropriate the minimum 1D model concept is when applied to complex tectonic regions with significant three-dimensional (3D) variations in seismic velocities. In this study we compute one regional minimum 1D model and three local minimum 1D models for selected subregions of the Swiss Alpine region, which exhibits a strongly varying Moho topography. We compare the regional and local minimum 1D models in terms of earthquake locations and data quality assessment to measure their performance. Our results show that the local minimum 1D models provide more realistic hypocenter locations and better data fits than a single model for the Alpine region. We attribute this to the fact that in a local minimum 1D model local and regional effects of the velocity structure can be better separated. Consequently, in tectonically complex regions, minimum 1D models should be computed in sub-regions defined by similar structure, if they are used for earthquake location and data quality assessment. (authors)
Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury
Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.
2011-01-01
The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.
Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1994-02-01
In the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization(MAWS) concept, actual waste streams are utilized as additive resources for vitrification, which may contain the basic components (glass formers and fluxes) for making a suitable glass or glassy slag. If too much glass former is present, then the melt viscosity or temperature will be too high for processing; while if there is too much flux, then the durability may suffer. Therefore, there are optimum combinations of these two important classes of constituents depending on the criteria required. The challenge is to combine these resources in such a way that minimizes the use of non-waste additives yet yields a processable and durable final waste form for disposal. The benefit to this approach is that the volume of the final waste form is minimized (waste loading maximized) since little or no additives are used and vitrification itself results in volume reduction through evaporation of water, combustion of organics, and compaction of the solids into a non-porous glass. This implies a significant reduction in disposal costs due to volume reduction alone, and minimizes future risks/costs due to the long term durability and leach resistance of glass. This is accomplished by using integrated systems that are both cost-effective and produce an environmentally sound waste form for disposal. individual component technologies may include: vitrification; thermal destruction; soil washing; gas scrubbing/filtration; and, ion-exchange wastewater treatment. The particular combination of technologies will depend on the waste streams to be treated. At the heart of MAWS is vitrification technology, which incorporates all primary and secondary waste streams into a final, long-term, stabilized glass wasteform. The integrated technology approach, and view of waste streams as resources, is innovative yet practical to cost effectively treat a broad range of DOE mixed and low-level wastes
Effects of a 6-week junior tennis conditioning program on service velocity.
Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime; Ellenbecker, Todd; Sanz-Rivas, David; Ulbricht, Alexander; Ferrautia, Alexander
2013-01-01
This study examined the effects of a 6-week strength-training program on serve velocity in youth tennis players. Thirty competitive healthy and nationally ranked male junior tennis players (13 years of age) were randomly and equally divided into control and training groups. The training group performed 3 sessions (60-70 min) weekly for 6 weeks, comprising core strength, elastic resistance and medicine ball exercises. Both groups (control and training) also performed a supervised stretching routine at the end of each training session, during the 6 week intervention. Service velocity, service accuracy and shoulder internal/external rotation were assessed initially and at the end of the 6-week conditioning program for both, control and training groups. There was a significant improvement in the serve velocity for the training group (p = 0. 0001) after the intervention, whereas in the control group there were no differences between pre and post-tests (p = 0.29). Serve accuracy was not affected in the training group (p = 0.10), nor in the control group (p = 0.15). Shoulder internal/external rotation ROM significantly improved in both groups, training (p = 0.001) and control (p = 0.0001). The present results showed that a short- term training program for young tennis players, using minimum equipment and effort, can result in improved tennis performance (i.e., serve velocity) and a reduction in the risk of a possible overuse injury, reflected by an improvement in shoulder external/internal range of motion. Key PointsA short-term training program for young tennis players, using minimum equipment and effort, can result in improved tennis performance and a reduction in the risk of a possible overuse injury, reflected by an improvement in shoulder external/internal range of motionA combination of core stabilization, elastic resistance exercises, and upper body plyometric exercises (i.e., medicine ball throws), focussing on the primary muscle groups and stabilizers involved in
MO-DE-207A-12: Toward Patient-Specific 4DCT Reconstruction Using Adaptive Velocity Binning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Morris, E.D.; Glide-Hurst, C.; Klahr, P.
2016-01-01
Purpose: While 4DCT provides organ/tumor motion information, it often samples data over 10–20 breathing cycles. For patients presenting with compromised pulmonary function, breathing patterns can change over the acquisition time, potentially leading to tumor delineation discrepancies. This work introduces a novel adaptive velocity-modulated binning (AVB) 4DCT algorithm that modulates the reconstruction based on the respiratory waveform, yielding a patient-specific 4DCT solution. Methods: AVB was implemented in a research reconstruction configuration. After filtering the respiratory waveform, the algorithm examines neighboring data to a phase reconstruction point and the temporal gate is widened until the difference between the reconstruction point and waveform exceeds a threshold value—defined as percent difference between maximum/minimum waveform amplitude. The algorithm only impacts reconstruction if the gate width exceeds a set minimum temporal width required for accurate reconstruction. A sensitivity experiment of threshold values (0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 12%) was conducted to examine the interplay between threshold, signal to noise ratio (SNR), and image sharpness for phantom and several patient 4DCT cases using ten-phase reconstructions. Individual phase reconstructions were examined. Subtraction images and regions of interest were compared to quantify changes in SNR. Results: AVB increased signal in reconstructed 4DCT slices for respiratory waveforms that met the prescribed criteria. For the end-exhale phases, where the respiratory velocity is low, patient data revealed a threshold of 0.5% demonstrated increased SNR in the AVB reconstructions. For intermediate breathing phases, threshold values were required to be >10% to notice appreciable changes in CT intensity with AVB. AVB reconstructions exhibited appreciably higher SNR and reduced noise in regions of interest that were photon deprived such as the liver. Conclusion: We demonstrated that patient
MO-DE-207A-12: Toward Patient-Specific 4DCT Reconstruction Using Adaptive Velocity Binning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morris, E.D.; Glide-Hurst, C. [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Klahr, P. [Philips Healthcare, Cleveland, Ohio (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: While 4DCT provides organ/tumor motion information, it often samples data over 10–20 breathing cycles. For patients presenting with compromised pulmonary function, breathing patterns can change over the acquisition time, potentially leading to tumor delineation discrepancies. This work introduces a novel adaptive velocity-modulated binning (AVB) 4DCT algorithm that modulates the reconstruction based on the respiratory waveform, yielding a patient-specific 4DCT solution. Methods: AVB was implemented in a research reconstruction configuration. After filtering the respiratory waveform, the algorithm examines neighboring data to a phase reconstruction point and the temporal gate is widened until the difference between the reconstruction point and waveform exceeds a threshold value—defined as percent difference between maximum/minimum waveform amplitude. The algorithm only impacts reconstruction if the gate width exceeds a set minimum temporal width required for accurate reconstruction. A sensitivity experiment of threshold values (0.5, 1, 5, 10, and 12%) was conducted to examine the interplay between threshold, signal to noise ratio (SNR), and image sharpness for phantom and several patient 4DCT cases using ten-phase reconstructions. Individual phase reconstructions were examined. Subtraction images and regions of interest were compared to quantify changes in SNR. Results: AVB increased signal in reconstructed 4DCT slices for respiratory waveforms that met the prescribed criteria. For the end-exhale phases, where the respiratory velocity is low, patient data revealed a threshold of 0.5% demonstrated increased SNR in the AVB reconstructions. For intermediate breathing phases, threshold values were required to be >10% to notice appreciable changes in CT intensity with AVB. AVB reconstructions exhibited appreciably higher SNR and reduced noise in regions of interest that were photon deprived such as the liver. Conclusion: We demonstrated that patient
Introduction to vector velocity imaging
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Udesen, Jesper; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov
Current ultrasound scanners can only estimate the velocity along the ultrasound beam and this gives rise to the cos() factor on all velocity estimates. This is a major limitation as most vessels are close to perpendicular to the beam. Also the angle varies as a function of space and time making ...
Díaz, J.; Gil, A.; Gallart, J.
2013-01-01
In the last 10-15 years, the number of high quality seismic stations monitoring the Euro-Mediterranean region has increased significantly, allowing a corresponding improvement in structural constraints. We present here new images of the seismic velocity and anisotropy variations in the uppermost mantle beneath this complex area, compiled from inversion of Pn and Sn phases sampling the whole region. The method of Hearn has been applied to the traveltime arrivals of the International Seismological Center catalogue for the time period 1990-2010. A total of 579 753 Pn arrivals coming from 12 377 events recorded at 1 408 stations with epicentral distances between 220 km and 1 400 km have been retained after applying standard quality criteria (maximum depth, minimum number of recordings, maximum residual values …). Our results show significant features well correlated with surface geology and evidence the heterogeneous character of the Euro-Mediterranean lithosphere. The station terms reflect the existence of marked variations in crustal thickness, consistent with available Moho depths inferred from active seismic experiments. The highest Pn velocities are observed along a continuous band from the Po Basin to the northern Ionian Sea. Other high velocity zones include the Ligurian Basin, the Valencia Trough, the southern Alboran Sea and central part of the Algerian margin. Most significant low-velocity values are associated to orogenic belts (Betics, Pyrenees, Alps, Apennines and Calabrian Arc, Dinarides-Hellenides), and low-velocity zones are also identified beneath Sardinia and the Balearic Islands. The introduction of an anisotropic term enhances significantly the lateral continuity of the anomalies, in particular in the most active tectonic areas. Pn anisotropy shows consistent orientations subparallel to major orogenic structures, such as Betics, Apennines, Calabrian Arc and Alps. The Sn tomographic image has lower resolution but confirms independently most of the
A Pareto-Improving Minimum Wage
Eliav Danziger; Leif Danziger
2014-01-01
This paper shows that a graduated minimum wage, in contrast to a constant minimum wage, can provide a strict Pareto improvement over what can be achieved with an optimal income tax. The reason is that a graduated minimum wage requires high-productivity workers to work more to earn the same income as low-productivity workers, which makes it more difficult for the former to mimic the latter. In effect, a graduated minimum wage allows the low-productivity workers to benefit from second-degree pr...
The minimum wage in the Czech enterprises
Eva Lajtkepová
2010-01-01
Although the statutory minimum wage is not a new category, in the Czech Republic we encounter the definition and regulation of a minimum wage for the first time in the 1990 amendment to Act No. 65/1965 Coll., the Labour Code. The specific amount of the minimum wage and the conditions of its operation were then subsequently determined by government regulation in February 1991. Since that time, the value of minimum wage has been adjusted fifteenth times (the last increase was in January 2007). ...
Effects of superficial gas velocity and fluid property on the ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In the present study, the influence of superficial gas velocity and fluid properties on gas holdup and liquid circulation velocity in a three-phase external loop airlift column using polystyrene (0.0036 m diameter and 1025.55 kg/m3 density) and nylon-6 (0.0035 m diameter and 1084.24 kg/m3 density) particles with aqueous ...
Diffraction imaging and velocity analysis using oriented velocity continuation
Decker, Luke
2014-08-05
We perform seismic diffraction imaging and velocity analysis by separating diffractions from specular reflections and decomposing them into slope components. We image slope components using extrapolation in migration velocity in time-space-slope coordinates. The extrapolation is described by a convection-type partial differential equation and implemented efficiently in the Fourier domain. Synthetic and field data experiments show that the proposed algorithm is able to detect accurate time-migration velocities by automatically measuring the flatness of events in dip-angle gathers.
Minimum requirements for predictive pore-network modeling of solute transport in micromodels
Mehmani, Yashar; Tchelepi, Hamdi A.
2017-10-01
Pore-scale models are now an integral part of analyzing fluid dynamics in porous materials (e.g., rocks, soils, fuel cells). Pore network models (PNM) are particularly attractive due to their computational efficiency. However, quantitative predictions with PNM have not always been successful. We focus on single-phase transport of a passive tracer under advection-dominated regimes and compare PNM with high-fidelity direct numerical simulations (DNS) for a range of micromodel heterogeneities. We identify the minimum requirements for predictive PNM of transport. They are: (a) flow-based network extraction, i.e., discretizing the pore space based on the underlying velocity field, (b) a Lagrangian (particle tracking) simulation framework, and (c) accurate transfer of particles from one pore throat to the next. We develop novel network extraction and particle tracking PNM methods that meet these requirements. Moreover, we show that certain established PNM practices in the literature can result in first-order errors in modeling advection-dominated transport. They include: all Eulerian PNMs, networks extracted based on geometric metrics only, and flux-based nodal transfer probabilities. Preliminary results for a 3D sphere pack are also presented. The simulation inputs for this work are made public to serve as a benchmark for the research community.
Generation of the auroral electron velocity distribution by stochastic acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bryant, D.A.; Cook, A.C.; Wang, Z.-S.; Angelis, U. de.
1990-07-01
In a further development of the wave theory of the aurora, it is demonstrated, using a Monte-Carlo numerical model, that the characteristic peak in the auroral electron velocity distribution can be generated stochastically through resonant interactions between an initially monotonic distribution and lower-hybrid electrostatic turbulence. The principal requirement is that the velocity spectrum of resonant waves has a sharp cut-off at high velocity. It is then shown that a cut-off is expected as a natural consequence of the difference between the phase and group velocities of lower-hybrid waves. The possibility is considered that a second peak, sometimes observed at lower velocities, is due to the same statistical mechanism, arising from the damping of waves of low phase velocity. An enhancement of wave intensity is found at higher velocities, where momentum flows preferentially from electrons to waves. The relation between the wave theory and the currently prevailing potential-difference theory emerges clearly from the analysis. (author)
Radial velocity asymmetries from jets with variable velocity profiles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cerqueira, A. H.; Vasconcelos, M. J.; Velazquez, P. F.; Raga, A. C.; De Colle, F.
2006-01-01
We have computed a set of 3-D numerical simulations of radiatively cooling jets including variabilities in both the ejection direction (precession) and the jet velocity (intermittence), using the Yguazu-a code. In order to investigate the effects of jet rotation on the shape of the line profiles, we also introduce an initial toroidal rotation velocity profile. Since the Yguazu-a code includes an atomic/ionic network, we are able to compute the emission coefficients for several emission lines, and we generate line profiles for the Hα, [O I]λ6300, [S II]λ6716 and [N II]λ6548 lines. Using initial parameters that are suitable for the DG Tau microjet, we show that the computed radial velocity shift for the medium-velocity component of the line profile as a function of distance from the jet axis is strikingly similar for rotating and non-rotating jet models
Sound dispersion in a spin-1 Ising system near the second-order phase transition point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erdem, Ryza; Keskin, Mustafa
2003-01-01
Sound dispersion relation is derived for a spin-1 Ising system and its behaviour near the second-order phase transition point or the critical point is analyzed. The method used is a combination of molecular field approximation and Onsager theory of irreversible thermodynamics. If we assume a linear coupling of sound wave with the order parameter fluctuations in the system, we find that the dispersion which is the relative sound velocity change with frequency behaves as ω 0 ε 0 , where ω is the sound frequency and ε the temperature distance from the critical point. In the ordered region, one also observes a frequency-dependent velocity or dispersion minimum which is shifted from the corresponding attenuation maxima. These phenomena are in good agreement with the calculations of sound velocity in other magnetic systems such as magnetic metals, magnetic insulators, and magnetic semiconductors
Fractals control in particle's velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Yongping; Liu Shutang; Shen Shulan
2009-01-01
Julia set, a fractal set of the literature of nonlinear physics, has significance for the engineering applications. For example, the fractal structure characteristics of the generalized M-J set could visually reflect the change rule of particle's velocity. According to the real world requirement, the system need show various particle's velocity in some cases. Thus, the control of the nonlinear behavior, i.e., Julia set, has attracted broad attention. In this work, an auxiliary feedback control is introduced to effectively control the Julia set that visually reflects the change rule of particle's velocity. It satisfies the performance requirement of the real world problems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Augensen, H.J.; Buscombe, W.
1978-01-01
Using the model of the Galaxy presented by Eggen, Lynden-Bell and Sandage (1962), plane galactic orbits have been calculated for 800 southern high-velocity stars which possess parallax, proper motion, and radial velocity data. The stars with trigonometric parallaxes were selected from Buscombe and Morris (1958), supplemented by more recent spectroscopic data. Photometric parallaxes from infrared color indices were used for bright red giants studied by Eggen (1970), and for red dwarfs for which Rodgers and Eggen (1974) determined radial velocities. A color-color diagram based on published values of (U-B) and (B-V) for most of these stars is shown. (Auth.)
Stochastic variational approach to minimum uncertainty states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Illuminati, F.; Viola, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Padova Univ. (Italy)
1995-05-21
We introduce a new variational characterization of Gaussian diffusion processes as minimum uncertainty states. We then define a variational method constrained by kinematics of diffusions and Schroedinger dynamics to seek states of local minimum uncertainty for general non-harmonic potentials. (author)
Zero forcing parameters and minimum rank problems
Barioli, F.; Barrett, W.; Fallat, S.M.; Hall, H.T.; Hogben, L.; Shader, B.L.; Driessche, van den P.; Holst, van der H.
2010-01-01
The zero forcing number Z(G), which is the minimum number of vertices in a zero forcing set of a graph G, is used to study the maximum nullity/minimum rank of the family of symmetric matrices described by G. It is shown that for a connected graph of order at least two, no vertex is in every zero
30 CFR 281.30 - Minimum royalty.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 281.30 Section 281.30 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Financial Considerations § 281.30 Minimum royalty...
New Minimum Wage Research: A Symposium.
Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; And Others
1992-01-01
Includes "Introduction" (Ehrenberg); "Effect of the Minimum Wage [MW] on the Fast-Food Industry" (Katz, Krueger); "Using Regional Variation in Wages to Measure Effects of the Federal MW" (Card); "Do MWs Reduce Employment?" (Card); "Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages" (Neumark,…
Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run
Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena
2007-01-01
Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…
Curren, Arthur N.; Palmer, Raymond W.; Force, Dale A.; Dombro, Louis; Long, James A.
A NASA-sponsored research and development contract has been established with the Watkins-Johnson Company to fabricate high-efficiency 20-watt helical traveling wave tubes (TWTs) operating at 8.4 to 8.43 GHz. The TWTs employ dynamic velocity tapers (DVTs) and advanced multistage depressed collectors (MDCs) having electrodes with low secondary electron emission characteristics. The TWT designs include two different DVTs; one for maximum efficiency and the other for minimum distortion and phase shift. The MDC designs include electrodes of untreated and ion-textured graphite as well as copper which has been treated for secondary electron emission suppression. Objectives of the program include achieving at least 55 percent overall efficiency. Tests with the first TWTs (with undepressed collectors) indicate good agreement between predicted and measured RF efficiencies with as high as 30 percent improvement in RF efficiency over conventional helix designs.
Curren, Arthur N.; Palmer, Raymond W.; Force, Dale A.; Dombro, Louis; Long, James A.
1987-01-01
A NASA-sponsored research and development contract has been established with the Watkins-Johnson Company to fabricate high-efficiency 20-watt helical traveling wave tubes (TWTs) operating at 8.4 to 8.43 GHz. The TWTs employ dynamic velocity tapers (DVTs) and advanced multistage depressed collectors (MDCs) having electrodes with low secondary electron emission characteristics. The TWT designs include two different DVTs; one for maximum efficiency and the other for minimum distortion and phase shift. The MDC designs include electrodes of untreated and ion-textured graphite as well as copper which has been treated for secondary electron emission suppression. Objectives of the program include achieving at least 55 percent overall efficiency. Tests with the first TWTs (with undepressed collectors) indicate good agreement between predicted and measured RF efficiencies with as high as 30 percent improvement in RF efficiency over conventional helix designs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ares, Alicia Esther; Gueijman, Sergio Fabian; Schvezov, Carlos E
2004-01-01
Previous studies determined that in directionally solidified lead-tin alloys, the position in which the transition occurs from columnar to equiaxial structure depending on the distribution of temperatures in the system, occurs when a minimum and critical thermal gradient value is attained in the liquid before the interphase that separates the (liquid) phase from the (solid + liquid) phase and this critical gradient value is independent from the solute concentration, natural convection, degree of overheating, the mold geometry and the number of columnar and equiaxial grains that form. The study now includes aluminum-copper alloys, for which the temperature gradient test values in the liquid before the (liquid)/(solid + liquid) interphase and the speeds of the (liquid)/(solid+liquid)/(solid) interphases are determined. The values of interphase gradients and velocities contrast with the values predicted by the Hunt model for the same alloy system. The velocities of the interphases are also compared with those calculated with the Lipton equation and used in the Wang and Beckermann model for dendritic equiaxial growth. The results are compared with those obtained previously in the lead-tin system (CW)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu Gong-Tao; Lü Yong-Jun; Liu Peng-Fei; Li Yi-Ning; Shi Qing-Fan
2012-01-01
The velocity of sound in soap foams at high gas volume fractions is experimentally studied by using the time difference method. It is found that the sound velocities increase with increasing bubble diameter, and asymptotically approach to the value in air when the diameter is larger than 12.5 mm. We propose a simple theoretical model for the sound propagation in a disordered foam. In this model, the attenuation of a sound wave due to the scattering of the bubble wall is equivalently described as the effect of an additional length. This simplicity reasonably reproduces the sound velocity in foams and the predicted results are in good agreement with the experiments. Further measurements indicate that the increase of frequency markedly slows down the sound velocity, whereas the latter does not display a strong dependence on the solution concentration
Settling velocities in batch sedimentation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fricke, A.M.; Thompson, B.E.
1982-10-01
The sedimentation of mixtures containing one and two sizes of spherical particles (44 and 62 μm in diameter) was studied. Radioactive tracing with 57 Co was used to measure the settling velocities. The ratio of the settling velocity U of uniformly sized particles to the velocity predicted to Stokes' law U 0 was correlated to an expression of the form U/U 0 = epsilon/sup α/, where epsilon is the liquid volume fraction and α is an empirical constant, determined experimentally to be 4.85. No effect of viscosity on the ratio U/U 0 was observed as the viscosity of the liquid medium was varied from 1x10 -3 to 5x10 -3 Pa.s. The settling velocities of particles in a bimodal mixture were fit by the same correlation; the ratio U/U 0 was independent of the concentrations of different-sized particles
Online Wavelet Complementary velocity Estimator.
Righettini, Paolo; Strada, Roberto; KhademOlama, Ehsan; Valilou, Shirin
2018-02-01
In this paper, we have proposed a new online Wavelet Complementary velocity Estimator (WCE) over position and acceleration data gathered from an electro hydraulic servo shaking table. This is a batch estimator type that is based on the wavelet filter banks which extract the high and low resolution of data. The proposed complementary estimator combines these two resolutions of velocities which acquired from numerical differentiation and integration of the position and acceleration sensors by considering a fixed moving horizon window as input to wavelet filter. Because of using wavelet filters, it can be implemented in a parallel procedure. By this method the numerical velocity is estimated without having high noise of differentiators, integration drifting bias and with less delay which is suitable for active vibration control in high precision Mechatronics systems by Direct Velocity Feedback (DVF) methods. This method allows us to make velocity sensors with less mechanically moving parts which makes it suitable for fast miniature structures. We have compared this method with Kalman and Butterworth filters over stability, delay and benchmarked them by their long time velocity integration for getting back the initial position data. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Measurement of Minimum Bias Observables with the ATLAS detector
Kvita, Jiri; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
The modelling of Minimum Bias (MB) is a crucial ingredient to learn about the description of soft QCD processes. It has also a significant relevance for the simulation of the environment at the LHC with many concurrent pp interactions (“pileup”). The ATLAS collaboration has provided new measurements of the inclusive charged particle multiplicity and its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity in special data sets with low LHC beam currents, recorded at center of mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The measurements cover a wide spectrum using charged particle selections with minimum transverse momentum of both 100 MeV and 500 MeV and in various phase space regions of low and high charged particle multiplicities.
Absorption in a three-phase fluidized bed I: Hydrodynamic investigations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pejanović Srđan M.
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The hydrodynamic properties of a three phase fluidized bed with low density inert spherical packing, fluidized by the interaction of a gas flowing upwards and a liquid flowing downwards through the column, were investigated. It was found that the pressure drop, liquid hold up and dynamic bed height increase with both increasing liquid and gas flow rate. While the dynamic bed height and minimum fluidization velocity remain unchanged, both the pressure drop and liquid hold up increase with increasing density of the packing. Therefore, an increase in packing density causes more intensive mass transfer between the fluid phases than packed columns. It was shown that increase of the liquid flow rate causes an increase of both the effective liquid and gas velocity through the fluidized bed, which may also improve mass transfer.
Who Benefits from a Minimum Wage Increase?
John W. Lopresti; Kevin J. Mumford
2015-01-01
This paper addresses the question of how a minimum wage increase affects the wages of low-wage workers. Most studies assume that there is a simple mechanical increase in the wage for workers earning a wage between the old and the new minimum wage, with some studies allowing for spillovers to workers with wages just above this range. Rather than assume that the wages of these workers would have remained constant, this paper estimates how a minimum wage increase impacts a low-wage worker's wage...
Wage inequality, minimum wage effects and spillovers
Stewart, Mark B.
2011-01-01
This paper investigates possible spillover effects of the UK minimum wage. The halt in the growth in inequality in the lower half of the wage distribution (as measured by the 50:10 percentile ratio) since the mid-1990s, in contrast to the continued inequality growth in the upper half of the distribution, suggests the possibility of a minimum wage effect and spillover effects on wages above the minimum. This paper analyses individual wage changes, using both a difference-in-differences estimat...
Velocity distribution in snow avalanches
Nishimura, K.; Ito, Y.
1997-12-01
In order to investigate the detailed structure of snow avalanches, we have made snow flow experiments at the Miyanomori ski jump in Sapporo and systematic observations in the Shiai-dani, Kurobe Canyon. In the winter of 1995-1996, a new device to measure static pressures was used to estimate velocities in the snow cloud that develops above the flowing layer of avalanches. Measurements during a large avalanche in the Shiai-dani which damaged and destroyed some instruments indicate velocities increased rapidly to more than 50 m/s soon after the front. Velocities decreased gradually in the following 10 s. Velocities of the lower flowing layer were also calculated by differencing measurement of impact pressure. Both recordings in the snow cloud and in the flowing layer changed with a similar trend and suggest a close interaction between the two layers. In addition, the velocity showed a periodic change. Power spectrum analysis of the impact pressure and the static pressure depression showed a strong peak at a frequency between 4 and 6 Hz, which might imply the existence of either ordered structure or a series of surges in the flow.
Impact of the Minimum Wage on Compression.
Wolfe, Michael N.; Candland, Charles W.
1979-01-01
Assesses the impact of increases in the minimum wage on salary schedules, provides guidelines for creating a philosophy to deal with the impact, and outlines options and presents recommendations. (IRT)
Quantitative Research on the Minimum Wage
Goldfarb, Robert S.
1975-01-01
The article reviews recent research examining the impact of minimum wage requirements on the size and distribution of teenage employment and earnings. The studies measure income distribution, employment levels and effect on unemployment. (MW)
Determining minimum lubrication film for machine parts
Hamrock, B. J.; Dowson, D.
1978-01-01
Formula predicts minimum film thickness required for fully-flooded ball bearings, gears, and cams. Formula is result of study to determine complete theoretical solution of isothermal elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication of fully-flooded elliptical contacts.
Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...
The SME gauge sector with minimum length
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belich, H.; Louzada, H.L.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)
2017-12-15
We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory. (orig.)
The SME gauge sector with minimum length
Belich, H.; Louzada, H. L. C.
2017-12-01
We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory.
Velocity Estimate Following Air Data System Failure
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
McLaren, Scott A
2008-01-01
.... A velocity estimator (VEST) algorithm was developed to combine the inertial and wind velocities to provide an estimate of the aircraft's current true velocity to be used for command path gain scheduling and for display in the cockpit...
Centered Differential Waveform Inversion with Minimum Support Regularization
Kazei, Vladimir
2017-05-26
Time-lapse full-waveform inversion has two major challenges. The first one is the reconstruction of a reference model (baseline model for most of approaches). The second is inversion for the time-lapse changes in the parameters. Common model approach is utilizing the information contained in all available data sets to build a better reference model for time lapse inversion. Differential (Double-difference) waveform inversion allows to reduce the artifacts introduced into estimates of time-lapse parameter changes by imperfect inversion for the baseline-reference model. We propose centered differential waveform inversion (CDWI) which combines these two approaches in order to benefit from both of their features. We apply minimum support regularization commonly used with electromagnetic methods of geophysical exploration. We test the CDWI method on synthetic dataset with random noise and show that, with Minimum support regularization, it provides better resolution of velocity changes than with total variation and Tikhonov regularizations in time-lapse full-waveform inversion.
RR Tel: Determination of Dust Properties During Minimum Obscuration
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jurkić T.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available the ISO infrared spectra and the SAAO long-term JHKL photometry of RR Tel in the epochs during minimum obscuration are studied in order to construct a circumstellar dust model. the spectral energy distribution in the near- and the mid-IR spectral range (1–15 μm was obtained for an epoch without the pronounced dust obscuration. the DUSTY code was used to solve the radiative transfer through the dust and to determine the circumstellar dust properties of the inner dust regions around the Mira component. Dust temperature, maximum grain size, dust density distribution, mass-loss rate, terminal wind velocity and optical depth are determined. the spectral energy distribution and the long-term JHKL photometry during an epoch of minimum obscuration show almost unattenuated stellar source and strong dust emission which cannot be explained by a single dust shell model. We propose a two-component model consisting of an optically thin circmustellar dust shell and optically thick dust outside the line of sight in some kind of a flattened geometry, which is responsible for most of the observed dust thermal emission.
MEDOF - MINIMUM EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE OPTIMAL FILTER
Barton, R. S.
1994-01-01
The Minimum Euclidean Distance Optimal Filter program, MEDOF, generates filters for use in optical correlators. The algorithm implemented in MEDOF follows theory put forth by Richard D. Juday of NASA/JSC. This program analytically optimizes filters on arbitrary spatial light modulators such as coupled, binary, full complex, and fractional 2pi phase. MEDOF optimizes these modulators on a number of metrics including: correlation peak intensity at the origin for the centered appearance of the reference image in the input plane, signal to noise ratio including the correlation detector noise as well as the colored additive input noise, peak to correlation energy defined as the fraction of the signal energy passed by the filter that shows up in the correlation spot, and the peak to total energy which is a generalization of PCE that adds the passed colored input noise to the input image's passed energy. The user of MEDOF supplies the functions that describe the following quantities: 1) the reference signal, 2) the realizable complex encodings of both the input and filter SLM, 3) the noise model, possibly colored, as it adds at the reference image and at the correlation detection plane, and 4) the metric to analyze, here taken to be one of the analytical ones like SNR (signal to noise ratio) or PCE (peak to correlation energy) rather than peak to secondary ratio. MEDOF calculates filters for arbitrary modulators and a wide range of metrics as described above. MEDOF examines the statistics of the encoded input image's noise (if SNR or PCE is selected) and the filter SLM's (Spatial Light Modulator) available values. These statistics are used as the basis of a range for searching for the magnitude and phase of k, a pragmatically based complex constant for computing the filter transmittance from the electric field. The filter is produced for the mesh points in those ranges and the value of the metric that results from these points is computed. When the search is concluded, the
Cosmic string induced peculiar velocities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
van Dalen, A.; Schramm, D.N.
1987-02-01
We calculate analytically the probability distribution for peculiar velocities on scales from 10h -1 to 60h -1 Mpc with cosmic string loops as the dominant source of primordial gravitational perturbations. We consider a range of parameters βGμ appropriate for both hot (HDM) and cold (CDM) dark matter scenarios. An Ω = 1 CDM Universe is assumed with the loops randomly placed on a smooth background. It is shown how the effects can be estimated of loops breaking up and being born with a spectrum of sizes. It is found that to obtain large scale streaming velocities of at least 400 km/s it is necessary that either a large value for βGμ or the effect of loop fissioning and production details be considerable. Specifically, for optimal CDM string parameters Gμ = 10 -6 , β = 9, h = .5, and scales of 60h -1 Mpc, the parent size spectrum must be 36 times larger than the evolved daughter spectrum to achieve peculiar velocities of at least 400 km/s with a probability of 63%. With this scenario the microwave background dipole will be less than 800 km/s with only a 10% probability. The string induced velocity spectrum is relatively flat out to scales of about 2t/sub eq//a/sub eq/ and then drops off rather quickly. The flatness is a signature of string models of galaxy formation. With HDM a larger value of βGμ is necessary for galaxy formation since accretion on small scales starts later. Hence, with HDM, the peculiar velocity spectrum will be larger on large scales and the flat region will extend to larger scales. If large scale peculiar velocities greater than 400 km/s are real then it is concluded that strings plus CDM have difficulties. The advantages of strings plus HDM in this regard will be explored in greater detail in a later paper. 27 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab
Method of statistical estimation of temperature minimums in binary systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mireev, V.A.; Safonov, V.V.
1985-01-01
On the basis of statistical processing of literature data the technique for evaluation of temperature minima on liquidus curves in binary systems with common ion chloride systems being taken as an example, is developed. The systems are formed by 48 chlorides of 45 chemical elements including alkali, alkaline earth, rare earth and transition metals as well as Cd, In, Th. It is shown that calculation error in determining minimum melting points depends on topology of the phase diagram. The comparison of calculated and experimental data for several previously nonstudied systems is given
Angle independent velocity spectrum determination
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2014-01-01
An ultrasound imaging system (100) includes a transducer array (102) that emits an ultrasound beam and produces at least one transverse pulse-echo field that oscillates in a direction transverse to the emitted ultrasound beam and that receive echoes produced in response thereto and a spectral vel...... velocity estimator (110) that determines a velocity spectrum for flowing structure, which flows at an angle of 90 degrees and flows at angles less than 90 degrees with respect to the emitted ultrasound beam, based on the received echoes....
Chounet, Agnès; Vallée, Martin; Causse, Mathieu; Courboulex, Françoise
2018-05-01
Application of the SCARDEC method provides the apparent source time functions together with seismic moment, depth, and focal mechanism, for most of the recent earthquakes with magnitude larger than 5.6-6. Using this large dataset, we have developed a method to systematically invert for the rupture direction and average rupture velocity Vr, when unilateral rupture propagation dominates. The approach is applied to all the shallow (z earthquakes of the catalog over the 1992-2015 time period. After a careful validation process, rupture properties for a catalog of 96 earthquakes are obtained. The subsequent analysis of this catalog provides several insights about the seismic rupture process. We first report that up-dip ruptures are more abundant than down-dip ruptures for shallow subduction interface earthquakes, which can be understood as a consequence of the material contrast between the slab and the overriding crust. Rupture velocities, which are searched without any a-priori up to the maximal P wave velocity (6000-8000 m/s), are found between 1200 m/s and 4500 m/s. This observation indicates that no earthquakes propagate over long distances with rupture velocity approaching the P wave velocity. Among the 23 ruptures faster than 3100 m/s, we observe both documented supershear ruptures (e.g. the 2001 Kunlun earthquake), and undocumented ruptures that very likely include a supershear phase. We also find that the correlation of Vr with the source duration scaled to the seismic moment (Ts) is very weak. This directly implies that both Ts and Vr are anticorrelated with the stress drop Δσ. This result has implications for the assessment of the peak ground acceleration (PGA) variability. As shown by Causse and Song (2015), an anticorrelation between Δσ and Vr significantly reduces the predicted PGA variability, and brings it closer to the observed variability.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nigmatulin, B.I.; Soplenkov, K.I.
1978-01-01
On the basis of the concepts of two-phase dispersive flow with various structures (bubble, vapour-drop etc) in the framework of the two-speed and two-temperature one-dimension stationary model of the current with provision for phase transitions the conditions, under which a critical (maximum) flow rate of two-phase mixture is achieved during its outflowing from a channel with the pre-set geometry, have been determined. It is shown, that for the choosen set of two-phase flow equations with the known parameters of deceleration and structure one of the critical conditions is satisfied: either solution of the set of equations corresponding a critical flow rate is a special one, i.e. passes through a special point locating between minimum and outlet channel sections where the carrying phase velocity approaches the value of decelerated sound speed in the mixture or the determinator of the initial set of equations equals zero for the outlet channel sections, i.e. gradients of the main flow parameters tend to +-infinity in this section, and carrying phase velocity also approaches the value of the decelerated sound velocity in the mixture
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Constantine Anastasios Mantz
2014-11-01
Full Text Available Purpose/Objective(s: Herein, we report the results of an IRB-approved phase II trial of Varian Trilogy/TrueBeam-based SABR monotherapy for low-risk prostate cancer using the Calypso® System to provide real-time electromagnetic tracking of the prostate’s position during treatment delivery. Materials/Methods: A total of 102 low-risk patients completed protocol treatment between January 2007 and May 2009. A total dose of 40.0 Gy in 5 every-other-day fractions of 8.0 Gy was prescribed to the planning target volume. Target setup and tracking procedures were as follows: (1 the Calypso® System was used to achieve target setup prior to each fraction; (2 conebeam CT imaging was then used for correction of setup error and for assessment of target and Organs-at-Risk (OAR deformations; (3 after treatment delivery was initiated, the Calypso® System then provided real-time intrafractional target tracking. The NCI CTCAE v3.0 was used to assess urinary and rectal toxicity during treatment and at defined followup time points. Biochemical response and quality of life measurements were made at concurrent followup points.Results: Urinary toxicities were most common. At 6 months, 19.6%, 2.9% and 4.9% of patients reported grades 1 – 2 urinary frequency, dysuria and retention, respectively. Rectal toxicities were uncommon. By 12 months, 2.9% of patients reported painless rectal bleeding with subsequent symptom resolution without requiring invasive interventions. Quality of life measurements demonstrated a significant decline over baseline in urinary irritative/obstructive scores at 1 month following SABR but otherwise did not demonstrate any difference for bowel, bladder and sexual function scores at any other followup time point. One patient suffered biochemical recurrence at 6 years following SABR.Conclusions: At five years minimum followup for this favorable patient cohort, prostate SABR resulted in favorable toxicity, quality of life and biochemical
Attenuation and velocity dispersion in the exploration seismic frequency band
Sun, Langqiu
In an anelastic medium, seismic waves are distorted by attenuation and velocity dispersion, which depend on petrophysical properties of reservoir rocks. The effective attenuation and velocity dispersion is a combination of intrinsic attenuation and apparent attenuation due to scattering, transmission response, and data acquisition system. Velocity dispersion is usually neglected in seismic data processing partly because of insufficient observations in the exploration seismic frequency band. This thesis investigates the methods of measuring velocity dispersion in the exploration seismic frequency band and interprets the velocity dispersion data in terms of petrophysical properties. Broadband, uncorrelated vibrator data are suitable for measuring velocity dispersion in the exploration seismic frequency band, and a broad bandwidth optimizes the observability of velocity dispersion. Four methods of measuring velocity dispersion in uncorrelated vibrator VSP data are investigated, which are the sliding window crosscorrelation (SWCC) method, the instantaneous phase method, the spectral decomposition method, and the cross spectrum method. Among them, the SWCC method is a new method and has satisfactory robustness, accuracy, and efficiency. Using the SWCC method, velocity dispersion is measured in the uncorrelated vibrator VSP data from three areas with different geological settings, i.e., Mallik gas hydrate zone, McArthur River uranium mines, and Outokumpu crystalline rocks. The observed velocity dispersion is fitted to a straight line with respect to log frequency for a constant (frequency-independent) Q value. This provides an alternative method for calculating Q. A constant Q value does not directly link to petrophysical properties. A modeling study is implemented for the Mallik and McArthur River data to interpret the velocity dispersion observations in terms of petrophysical properties. The detailed multi-parameter petrophysical reservoir models are built according to
ROTATIONAL VELOCITIES FOR M DWARFS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jenkins, J. S.; Ramsey, L. W.; Jones, H. R. A.; Pavlenko, Y.; Barnes, J. R.; Pinfield, D. J.; Gallardo, J.
2009-01-01
We present spectroscopic rotation velocities (v sin i) for 56 M dwarf stars using high-resolution Hobby-Eberly Telescope High Resolution Spectrograph red spectroscopy. In addition, we have also determined photometric effective temperatures, masses, and metallicities ([Fe/H]) for some stars observed here and in the literature where we could acquire accurate parallax measurements and relevant photometry. We have increased the number of known v sin i values for mid M stars by around 80% and can confirm a weakly increasing rotation velocity with decreasing effective temperature. Our sample of v sin is peak at low velocities (∼3 km s -1 ). We find a change in the rotational velocity distribution between early M and late M stars, which is likely due to the changing field topology between partially and fully convective stars. There is also a possible further change in the rotational distribution toward the late M dwarfs where dust begins to play a role in the stellar atmospheres. We also link v sin i to age and show how it can be used to provide mid-M star age limits. When all literature velocities for M dwarfs are added to our sample, there are 198 with v sin i ≤ 10 km s -1 and 124 in the mid-to-late M star regime (M3.0-M9.5) where measuring precision optical radial velocities is difficult. In addition, we also search the spectra for any significant Hα emission or absorption. Forty three percent were found to exhibit such emission and could represent young, active objects with high levels of radial-velocity noise. We acquired two epochs of spectra for the star GJ1253 spread by almost one month and the Hα profile changed from showing no clear signs of emission, to exhibiting a clear emission peak. Four stars in our sample appear to be low-mass binaries (GJ1080, GJ3129, Gl802, and LHS3080), with both GJ3129 and Gl802 exhibiting double Hα emission features. The tables presented here will aid any future M star planet search target selection to extract stars with low v
Reference respiratory waveforms by minimum jerk model analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anetai, Yusuke, E-mail: anetai@radonc.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Sumida, Iori; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yagi, Masashi; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Yamadaoka 2-2, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ota, Seiichi [Department of Medical Technology, Osaka University Hospital, Yamadaoka 2-15, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)
2015-09-15
affected by respiratory phase was improved in the minimum jerk theoretical model by 7.0% and 13% compared with that of the waveforms modeled by cosine and free-breathing model, respectively. Conclusions: The minimum jerk theoretical respiratory wave can achieve smooth tracking by CyberKnife{sup ®} and may provide patient-specific respiratory modeling, which may be useful for respiratory training and coaching, as well as quality assurance of the mechanical CyberKnife{sup ®} robotic trajectory.
Reference respiratory waveforms by minimum jerk model analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anetai, Yusuke; Sumida, Iori; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yagi, Masashi; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Ota, Seiichi
2015-01-01
phase was improved in the minimum jerk theoretical model by 7.0% and 13% compared with that of the waveforms modeled by cosine and free-breathing model, respectively. Conclusions: The minimum jerk theoretical respiratory wave can achieve smooth tracking by CyberKnife"® and may provide patient-specific respiratory modeling, which may be useful for respiratory training and coaching, as well as quality assurance of the mechanical CyberKnife"® robotic trajectory
Optimal velocity in the race over variable slope trace.
Maroński, Ryszard; Samoraj, Piotr
2015-01-01
The minimum-time running problem is reconsidered. The time of covering a given distance is minimized. The function that should be found is the runner's velocity that varies with the distance. The Hill-Keller model of motion is employed. It is based on the Newton second law and an equation of power balance. The new element of the current approach is that the trace slope angle varies with the distance. The problem is formulated and solved in optimal control applying the Chebyshev direct pseudospectral method. The essential finding is that the optimal velocity during the cruise is constant regardless of the local slope of the terrain. Such result is valid if the inequality constraints imposed on the propulsive force or the energy are not active.
Kinematic Modeling of Normal Voluntary Mandibular Opening and Closing Velocity-Initial Study.
Gawriołek, Krzysztof; Gawriołek, Maria; Komosa, Marek; Piotrowski, Paweł R; Azer, Shereen S
2015-06-01
Determination and quantification of voluntary mandibular velocity movement has not been a thoroughly studied parameter of masticatory movement. This study attempted to objectively define kinematics of mandibular movement based on numerical (digital) analysis of the relations and interactions of velocity diagram records in healthy female individuals. Using a computerized mandibular scanner (K7 Evaluation Software), 72 diagrams of voluntary mandibular velocity movements (36 for opening, 36 for closing) for women with clinically normal motor and functional activities of the masticatory system were recorded. Multiple measurements were analyzed focusing on the curve for maximum velocity records. For each movement, the loop of temporary velocities was determined. The diagram was then entered into AutoCad calculation software where movement analysis was performed. The real maximum velocity values on opening (Vmax ), closing (V0 ), and average velocity values (Vav ) as well as movement accelerations (a) were recorded. Additionally, functional (A1-A2) and geometric (P1-P4) analysis of loop constituent phases were performed, and the relations between the obtained areas were defined. Velocity means and correlation coefficient values for various velocity phases were calculated. The Wilcoxon test produced the following maximum and average velocity results: Vmax = 394 ± 102, Vav = 222 ± 61 for opening, and Vmax = 409 ± 94, Vav = 225 ± 55 mm/s for closing. Both mandibular movement range and velocity change showed significant variability achieving the highest velocity in P2 phase. Voluntary mandibular velocity presents significant variations between healthy individuals. Maximum velocity is obtained when incisal separation is between 12.8 and 13.5 mm. An improved understanding of the patterns of normal mandibular movements may provide an invaluable diagnostic aid to pathological changes within the masticatory system. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
The minimum wage in the Czech enterprises
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eva Lajtkepová
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Although the statutory minimum wage is not a new category, in the Czech Republic we encounter the definition and regulation of a minimum wage for the first time in the 1990 amendment to Act No. 65/1965 Coll., the Labour Code. The specific amount of the minimum wage and the conditions of its operation were then subsequently determined by government regulation in February 1991. Since that time, the value of minimum wage has been adjusted fifteenth times (the last increase was in January 2007. The aim of this article is to present selected results of two researches of acceptance of the statutory minimum wage by Czech enterprises. The first research makes use of the data collected by questionnaire research in 83 small and medium-sized enterprises in the South Moravia Region in 2005, the second one the data of 116 enterprises in the entire Czech Republic (in 2007. The data have been processed by means of the standard methods of descriptive statistics and of the appropriate methods of the statistical analyses (Spearman correlation coefficient of sequential correlation, Kendall coefficient, χ2 - independence test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and others.
Daily rhythm of cerebral blood flow velocity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Spielman Arthur J
2005-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background CBFV (cerebral blood flow velocity is lower in the morning than in the afternoon and evening. Two hypotheses have been proposed to explain the time of day changes in CBFV: 1 CBFV changes are due to sleep-associated processes or 2 time of day changes in CBFV are due to an endogenous circadian rhythm independent of sleep. The aim of this study was to examine CBFV over 30 hours of sustained wakefulness to determine whether CBFV exhibits fluctuations associated with time of day. Methods Eleven subjects underwent a modified constant routine protocol. CBFV from the middle cerebral artery was monitored by chronic recording of Transcranial Doppler (TCD ultrasonography. Other variables included core body temperature (CBT, end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2, blood pressure, and heart rate. Salivary dim light melatonin onset (DLMO served as a measure of endogenous circadian phase position. Results A non-linear multiple regression, cosine fit analysis revealed that both the CBT and CBFV rhythm fit a 24 hour rhythm (R2 = 0.62 and R2 = 0.68, respectively. Circadian phase position of CBT occurred at 6:05 am while CBFV occurred at 12:02 pm, revealing a six hour, or 90 degree difference between these two rhythms (t = 4.9, df = 10, p Conclusion In conclusion, time of day variations in CBFV have an approximately 24 hour rhythm under constant conditions, suggesting regulation by a circadian oscillator. The 90 degree-phase angle difference between the CBT and CBFV rhythms may help explain previous findings of lower CBFV values in the morning. The phase difference occurs at a time period during which cognitive performance decrements have been observed and when both cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events occur more frequently. The mechanisms underlying this phase angle difference require further exploration.
Gas-rise velocities during kicks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
White, D.B. (Sedco Forex (FR))
1991-12-01
This paper reports on experiments to examine gas migration rates in drilling muds that were performed in a 15-m-long, 200-mm-ID inclinable flow loop where air injection simulates gas entry during a kick. These tests were conducted using a xanthum gum (a common polymer used in drilling fluids) solution to simulate drilling muds as the liquid phase and air as the gas phase. This work represents a significant extension of existing correlations for gas/liquid flows in large pipe diameters with non- Newtonian fluids. Bubbles rise faster in drilling muds than in water despite the increased viscosity. This surprising result is caused by the change in the flow regime, with large slug-type bubbles forming at lower void fractions. The gas velocity is independent of void fraction, thus simplifying flow modeling. Results show that a gas influx will rise faster in a well than previously believed. This has major implications for kick simulation, with gas arriving at the surface earlier than would be expected and the gas outflow rate being higher than would have been predicted. A model of the two-phase gas flow in drilling mud, including the results of this work, has been incorporated into the joint Schlumberger Cambridge Research (SCR)/BP Intl. kick model.
Velocities of Subducted Sediments and Continents
Hacker, B. R.; van Keken, P. E.; Abers, G. A.; Seward, G.
2009-12-01
The growing capability to measure seismic velocities in subduction zones has led to unusual observations. For example, although most minerals have VP/ VS ratios around 1.77, ratios 1.8 have been observed. Here we explore the velocities of subducted sediments and continental crust from trench to sub-arc depths using two methods. (1) Mineralogy was calculated as a function of P & T for a range of subducted sediment compositions using Perple_X, and rock velocities were calculated using the methodology of Hacker & Abers [2004]. Calculated slab-top temperatures have 3 distinct depth intervals with different dP/dT gradients that are determined by how coupling between the slab and mantle wedge is modeled. These three depth intervals show concomitant changes in VP and VS: velocities initially increase with depth, then decrease beyond the modeled decoupling depth where induced flow in the wedge causes rapid heating, and increase again at depth. Subducted limestones, composed chiefly of aragonite, show monotonic increases in VP/ VS from 1.63 to 1.72. Cherts show large jumps in VP/ VS from 1.55-1.65 to 1.75 associated with the quartz-coesite transition. Terrigenous sediments dominated by quartz and mica show similar, but more-subdued, transitions from ~1.67 to 1.78. Pelagic sediments dominated by mica and clinopyroxene show near-monotonic increases in VP/ VS from 1.74 to 1.80. Subducted continental crust that is too dry to transform to high-pressure minerals has a VP/ VS ratio of 1.68-1.70. (2) Velocity anisotropy calculations were made for the same P-T dependent mineralogies using the Christoffel equation and crystal preferred orientations measured via electron-backscatter diffraction for typical constituent phases. The calculated velocity anisotropies range from 5-30%. For quartz-rich rocks, the calculated velocities show a distinct depth dependence because crystal slip systems and CPOs change with temperature. In such rocks, the fast VP direction varies from slab-normal at
The climate velocity of the contiguous United States during the 20th century
Solomon Z. Dobrowski; John Abatzoglou; Alan K. Swanson; Jonathan A. Greenberg; Alison R. Mynsberge; Zachary A. Holden; Michael K. Schwartz
2013-01-01
Rapid climate change has the potential to affect economic, social, and biological systems. A concern for species conservation is whether or not the rate of on-going climate change will exceed the rate at which species can adapt or move to suitable environments. Here we assess the climate velocity (both climate displacement rate and direction) for minimum temperature,...
The effect of increasing strength and approach velocity on triple jump performance.
Allen, Sam J; Yeadon, M R Fred; King, Mark A
2016-12-08
The triple jump is an athletic event comprising three phases in which the optimal phase ratio (the proportion of each phase to the total distance jumped) is unknown. This study used a planar whole body torque-driven computer simulation model of the ground contact parts of all three phases of the triple jump to investigate the effect of strength and approach velocity on optimal performance. The strength and approach velocity of the simulation model were each increased by up to 30% in 10% increments from baseline data collected from a national standard triple jumper. Increasing strength always resulted in an increased overall jump distance. Increasing approach velocity also typically resulted in an increased overall jump distance but there was a point past which increasing approach velocity without increasing strength did not lead to an increase in overall jump distance. Increasing both strength and approach velocity by 10%, 20%, and 30% led to roughly equivalent increases in overall jump distances. Distances ranged from 14.05m with baseline strength and approach velocity, up to 18.49m with 30% increases in both. Optimal phase ratios were either hop-dominated or balanced, and typically became more balanced when the strength of the model was increased by a greater percentage than its approach velocity. The range of triple jump distances that resulted from the optimisation process suggests that strength and approach velocity are of great importance for triple jump performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Observation and analysis of abrupt changes in the interplanetary plasma velocity and magnetic field.
Martin, R. N.; Belcher, J. W.; Lazarus, A. J.
1973-01-01
This paper presents a limited study of the physical nature of abrupt changes in the interplanetary plasma velocity and magnetic field based on 19 day's data from the Pioneer 6 spacecraft. The period was chosen to include a high-velocity solar wind stream and low-velocity wind. Abrupt events were accepted for study if the sum of the energy density in the magnetic field and velocity changes was above a specified minimum. A statistical analysis of the events in the high-velocity solar wind stream shows that Alfvenic changes predominate. This conclusion is independent of whether steady state requirements are imposed on conditions before and after the event. Alfvenic changes do not dominate in the lower-speed wind. This study extends the plasma field evidence for outwardly propagating Alfvenic changes to time scales as small as 1 min (scale lengths on the order of 20,000 km).
Effects of pressure drop and superficial velocity on the bubbling fluidized bed incinerator.
Wang, Feng-Jehng; Chen, Suming; Lei, Perng-Kwei; Wu, Chung-Hsing
2007-12-01
Since performance and operational conditions, such as superficial velocity, pressure drop, particles viodage, and terminal velocity, are difficult to measure on an incinerator, this study used computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to determine numerical solutions. The effects of pressure drop and superficial velocity on a bubbling fluidized bed incinerator (BFBI) were evaluated. Analytical results indicated that simulation models were able to effectively predict the relationship between superficial velocity and pressure drop over bed height in the BFBI. Second, the models in BFBI were simplified to simulate scale-up beds without excessive computation time. Moreover, simulation and experimental results showed that minimum fluidization velocity of the BFBI must be controlled in at 0.188-3.684 m/s and pressure drop was mainly caused by bed particles.
Risk control and the minimum significant risk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seiler, F.A.; Alvarez, J.L.
1996-01-01
Risk management implies that the risk manager can, by his actions, exercise at least a modicum of control over the risk in question. In the terminology of control theory, a management action is a control signal imposed as feedback on the system to bring about a desired change in the state of the system. In the terminology of risk management, an action is taken to bring a predicted risk to lower values. Even if it is assumed that the management action taken is 100% effective and that the projected risk reduction is infinitely well known, there is a lower limit to the desired effects that can be achieved. It is based on the fact that all risks, such as the incidence of cancer, exhibit a degree of variability due to a number of extraneous factors such as age at exposure, sex, location, and some lifestyle parameters such as smoking or the consumption of alcohol. If the control signal is much smaller than the variability of the risk, the signal is lost in the noise and control is lost. This defines a minimum controllable risk based on the variability of the risk over the population considered. This quantity is the counterpart of the minimum significant risk which is defined by the uncertainties of the risk model. Both the minimum controllable risk and the minimum significant risk are evaluated for radiation carcinogenesis and are shown to be of the same order of magnitude. For a realistic management action, the assumptions of perfectly effective action and perfect model prediction made above have to be dropped, resulting in an effective minimum controllable risk which is determined by both risk limits. Any action below that effective limit is futile, but it is also unethical due to the ethical requirement of doing more good than harm. Finally, some implications of the effective minimum controllable risk on the use of the ALARA principle and on the evaluation of remedial action goals are presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Madeira, A.A.
1985-01-01
It's studied the improvement for the calculation of bubble rise velocity, by adding two different ways to estimate this velocity, one of which more adequate to pressures normally found in the Reactor Cooling System. Additionally, a limitation in bubble rise velocity growth was imposed, to account for the actual behavior of bubble rise in two-phase mixtures. (Author) [pt
Minimum qualifications for nuclear criticality safety professionals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ketzlach, N.
1990-01-01
A Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Training Committee has been established within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Criticality Safety and Technology Project to review and, if necessary, develop standards for the training of personnel involved in nuclear criticality safety (NCS). The committee is exploring the need for developing a standard or other mechanism for establishing minimum qualifications for NCS professionals. The development of standards and regulatory guides for nuclear power plant personnel may serve as a guide in developing the minimum qualifications for NCS professionals
A minimum achievable PV electrical generating cost
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabisky, E.S.
1996-01-01
The role and share of photovoltaic (PV) generated electricity in our nation's future energy arsenal is primarily dependent on its future production cost. This paper provides a framework for obtaining a minimum achievable electrical generating cost (a lower bound) for fixed, flat-plate photovoltaic systems. A cost of 2.8 $cent/kWh (1990$) was derived for a plant located in Southwestern USA sunshine using a cost of money of 8%. In addition, a value of 22 $cent/Wp (1990$) was estimated as a minimum module manufacturing cost/price
Atmospheric kinematics of high velocity long period variables
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Willson, L.A.
1982-01-01
Radial velocities of atomic absorption lines of three long period variables, RT Cyg, Z Oph and S Car, have been analysed in order to understand velocity gradients and discontinuities in their atmospheres. Phase coverage is from five days before maximum to 73 days after maximum for RT Cyg, from 17 days before to 44 days after maximum for Z Oph, and at 9 days before maximum for S Car. On a few spectrograms double lines were seen. All spectrograms were analysed by a four-parameter regression programme to yield the dependence of the radial velocity on the excitation potential, first ionization potential, wavelength and line strength, as indicators of the depth of line formation. The data were analysed to yield the velocity discontinuity across shock waves and velocity gradients between shock waves. Near maximum light the radial velocities cannot be understood by the presence of one shock only but rather require two shocks. The lower shock becomes apparent at the longer wavelengths. Consistent parameters are obtained if these stars are fundamental mode pulsators with total masses in the range of 0.5 to 1.0 solar mass and effective radii in the range of 0.85 to 1.5 x 10 13 cm. (author)
Superconducting accelerating structures for very low velocity ion beams
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Xu
2008-03-01
Full Text Available This paper presents designs for four types of very-low-velocity superconducting (SC accelerating cavity capable of providing several MV of accelerating potential per cavity, and suitable for particle velocities in the range 0.006
Superconducting accelerating structures for very low velocity ion beams
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xu, J.; Shepard, K.W.; Ostroumov, P.N.; Fuerst, J.D.; Waldschmidt, G.; /Argonne; Gonin, I.V.; /Fermilab
2008-01-01
This paper presents designs for four types of very-low-velocity superconducting accelerating cavity capable of providing several MV of accelerating potential per cavity, and suitable for particle velocities in the range 0.006 < v/c < 0.06. Superconducting TEM-class cavities have been widely applied to CW acceleration of ion beams. SC linacs can be formed as an array of independently-phased cavities, enabling a variable velocity profile to maximize the output energy for each of a number of different ion species. Several laboratories in the US and Europe are planning exotic beam facilities based on SC linacs. The cavity designs presented here are intended for the front-end of such linacs, particularly for the post-acceleration of rare isotopes of low charge state. Several types of SC cavities have been developed recently to cover particle velocities above 0.06c. Superconducting four-gap quarter-wave resonators for velocities 0.008 < {beta} = v/c < 0.05 were developed about two decades ago and have been successfully operated at the ATLAS SC linac at Argonne National Laboratory. Since that time, progress in simulation tools, cavity fabrication and processing have increased SC cavity gradients by a factor of 3-4. This paper applies these tools to optimize the design of a four-gap quarter-wave resonator for exotic beam facilities and other low-velocity applications.
The terminal rise velocity of bubble in a liquid column
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mario Ar Talaia
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: As it is know, buoyancy and drag forces govern bubble rising velocity in a liquid column. These forces strongly depend on fluid proprieties and gravity as well as bubble equivalent diameter. The present work reports about a set of experiments bubble rising velocity in a liquid column using liquid with different kinematics viscosity. Records of terminal velocity were obtained, over a wide range of dynamic viscosity. The results show that the terminal rise velocity of bubble is strongly influenced by the effect of kinematics viscosity. The interpretation of physical phenomenon is considered. The set data permit to have a game of terminal velocities of 7.96 - 32.86 cm.s -1 with Reynolds number of 0.8 - 7491. The bubble movement is recorded with a camera video, which will be presented. Our aim goal is to present an original set data and the results are discussed in light of theory of two-phase flow. Prediction of bubble terminal velocity is discussed, so as, the range of applicability. (author)
RADIAL VELOCITY PLANETS DE-ALIASED: A NEW, SHORT PERIOD FOR SUPER-EARTH 55 Cnc e
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dawson, Rebekah I.; Fabrycky, Daniel C.
2010-01-01
Radial velocity measurements of stellar reflex motion have revealed many extrasolar planets, but gaps in the observations produce aliases, spurious frequencies that are frequently confused with the planets' orbital frequencies. In the case of Gl 581 d, the distinction between an alias and the true frequency was the distinction between a frozen, dead planet and a planet possibly hospitable to life. To improve the characterization of planetary systems, we describe how aliases originate and present a new approach for distinguishing between orbital frequencies and their aliases. Our approach harnesses features in the spectral window function to compare the amplitude and phase of predicted aliases with peaks present in the data. We apply it to confirm prior alias distinctions for the planets GJ 876 d and HD 75898 b. We find that the true periods of Gl 581 d and HD 73526 b/c remain ambiguous. We revise the periods of HD 156668 b and 55 Cnc e, which were afflicted by daily aliases. For HD 156668 b, the correct period is 1.2699 days and the minimum mass is (3.1 ± 0.4) M + . For 55 Cnc e, the correct period is 0.7365 days-the shortest of any known planet-and the minimum mass is (8.3 ± 0.3) M + . This revision produces a significantly improved five-planet Keplerian fit for 55 Cnc, and a self-consistent dynamical fit describes the data just as well. As radial velocity techniques push to ever-smaller planets, often found in systems of multiple planets, distinguishing true periods from aliases will become increasingly important.
González-Gaya, Belén; Zúñiga-Rival, Javier; Ojeda, María-José; Jiménez, Begoña; Dachs, Jordi
2014-05-20
The atmospheric dry deposition fluxes of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been measured, for the first time, in the tropical and subtropical Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Depositional fluxes for fine (0.7-2.7 μm) and coarse (>2.7 μm) aerosol fractions were simultaneously determined with the suspended aerosol phase concentrations, allowing the determination of PAH deposition velocities (vD). PAH dry deposition fluxes (FDD) bound to coarse aerosols were higher than those of fine aerosols for 83% of the measurements. Average FDD for total (fine + coarse) Σ16PAHs (sum of 16 individual PAHs) ranged from 8.33 ng m(-2)d(-1) to 52.38 ng m(-2)d(-1). Mean FDD for coarse aerosol's individual PAHs ranged between 0.13 ng m(-2)d(-1) (Perylene) and 1.96 ng m(-2)d(-1) (Methyl Pyrene), and for the fine aerosol fraction these ranged between 0.06 ng m(-2)d(-1) (Dimethyl Pyrene) and 1.25 ng m(-2)d(-1) (Methyl Chrysene). The estimated deposition velocities went from the highest mean vD for Methyl Chrysene (0.17-13.30 cm s(-1)), followed by Dibenzo(ah)Anthracene (0.29-1.38 cm s(-1)), and other high MW PAHs to minimum values of vD for Dimethyl Pyrene (oceans.
Sound velocity in the coolant of boiling nuclear reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Proskuryakov, K.N.; Parshin, D.A.; Novikov, K.S.; Galivec, E.Yu.
2009-01-01
To prevent resonant interaction between acoustic resonance and natural frequencies of FE, FA and RI oscillations, it is necessary to determine the value of EACPO. Based on results of calculations of EACPO and natural frequencies of FR, FA and RI oscillations values, it would be possible to reveal the dynamical loadings on metal that are dangerous for the initiation of cracking process in the early stage of negative condition appearance. To calculate EACPO it is necessary to know the Speed Velocity in Coolant. Now we do not have any data about real values of such important parameter as pressure pulsations propagation velocity in two phase environments, especially in conditions with variations of steam content along the length of FR, with taking into account the type of local resistances, flow geometry etc. While areas of resonant interaction of the single-phase liquid coolant with equipment and internals vibrations are estimated well enough, similar estimations in the conditions of presence of a gas and steam phase in the liquid coolant are inconvenient till now. Paper presents results of calculation of velocity of pressure pulsations distribution in two-phase flow formed in core of RBMK-1000 reactors. Feature of the developed techniques is that not only thermodynamic factors and effect of a speed difference between water and steam in a two phase flow but also geometrical features of core, local resistance, non heterogeneity in the two phase environment and power level of a reactor are considered. Obtained results evidence noticeable decreasing of velocity propagation of pressure pulsations in the presence of steam actions in the liquids. Such estimations for real RC of boiling nuclear reactors with steam-liquid coolant are obtained for the first time. (author)
Confinement of light in periodic structures with negative phase velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Driss Bria; Abdelmajid Essadqui; Bahram Djafari-Rouhani; Mohamed Azizi; Abdellah Daoudi; Abdelkrim Nougaoui
2008-08-01
We discuss unusual features of wave propagation in periodic arrays of slabs made of transparent left-handed metamaterials with simultaneously negative dielectric permittivity and magnetic permeability, and demonstrate the possibility of light confinement due to the appearance of complete photonic band-gaps in such one-dimensional structures. With an appropriate choice of the parameters, we show that it is possible to realize an absolute (or omnidirectional) band gap for either transverse electric (TE) or transverse magnetic (TM) polarizations of the electromagnetic waves. A combination of two multilayer structures composed of right-handed material (RHM) and left-handed metamaterials LHM is proposed to realize, in a certain range of frequency, an omnidirectional reflector of light for both polarizations. (author)
Discretization of space and time: determining the values of minimum length and minimum time
Roatta , Luca
2017-01-01
Assuming that space and time can only have discrete values, we obtain the expression of the minimum length and the minimum time interval. These values are found to be exactly coincident with the Planck's length and the Planck's time but for the presence of h instead of ħ .
One-loop fluctuation-dissipation formula for bubble-wall velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnold, P.
1993-01-01
The limiting bubble wall velocity during a first-order electroweak phase transition is of interest in scenarios for electroweak baryogenesis. Khlebnikov has recently proposed an interesting method for computing this velocity based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. It is demonstrated that at one-loop order this method is identical to simple, earlier techniques for computing the wall velocity based on computing the friction from particles reflecting off or transmitting through the wall in the ideal gas limit
One-loop fluctuation-dissipation formula for bubble-wall velocity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnold, P.
1993-01-01
The limiting bubble-wall velocity during a first-order electroweak phase transition is of interest in scenarios for electroweak baryogenesis. Khlebnikov has recently proposed an interesting method for computing this velocity based on the fluctuation-dissipation theorem. I demonstrate that at one-loop order this method is identical to simple, earlier techniques for computing the wall velocity based on computing the friction from particles reflecting off or transmitting through the wall in the ideal gas (''thin-wall'') limit
Minimum Propellant Low-Thrust Maneuvers near the Libration Points
Marinescu, A.; Dumitrache, M.
equations of the extremals and integrating these differential equations we obtain the desired extremals which characterize the minimum propellant optimal manoeuvres of transfer from libration points to their orbits. By means of Legendre conditions for weak minimum and Weierstrass condition for strong minimum, is demonstrated that variational problem so formulated has sense and is a problem of minimum. The integration of extremal's differential equations system can not lead to analytical solutions easily to obtain and for this we have directed to a numerical integration. The problem is a bilocal one because the motion parameter values are predicted at the beginning and of the maneuver (the manoeuvre duration coincides with the combustion duration) the values of the Lagrange multipliers not being specified at the beginning and end of the manoeuvre. For determination of the velocities at any point on the libration point L4 and L2 has been elaborated the program of calculus on the integration of the motion equations without accelerations due thrust during a revolution period the coordinates and velocities to be equal, with which have been calculated the velocities at the apoapsis A and respectively A'. With these specifications, the final conditions (at the end of the maneuver) could be established, and the determination of optimal transfer parameters in the specified points could be determined. The calculus performed for the transfer from the libration points L4 and L2 to their orbits, shows that the evolution velocities on the orbits are in general small, the velocities on the L2 orbits being greater than the velocities on L 4 orbits having the same semimajor axis. This fact is explicable because the period of evolution on orbits of libration point L4 is greater than the period of orbits of the libration point L2. For the transfer in the apoapsis of both orbits (the points A. and A') on can remarque the fact the accelerations due thrust are greater for orbits around the
Feed chute geometry for minimum belt wear
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Roberts, A W; Wiche, S J [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia). Centre for Bulk Solids and Particulate Technologies
1998-09-01
The paper is concerned with the feeding and transfer of bulk solids in conveyor belt operation. The paper focuses on chute design where the objective is to prevent spillage and minimise both chute and belt wear. It is shown that these objectives may be met through correct dynamic design of the chute and by directing the flow of bulk solids onto the belt at an acceptable incidence angle. The aim is to match the tangential velocity component of the feed velocity as close as possible to the belt velocity. At the same time, it is necessary to limit the impact pressure due to the change in momentum of the bulk solid as it feeds onto the belt. 2 refs., 8 figs.
MINIMUM AREAS FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL BUILDING FACILITIES.
Pennsylvania State Dept. of Public Instruction, Harrisburg.
MINIMUM AREA SPACE REQUIREMENTS IN SQUARE FOOTAGE FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL BUILDING FACILITIES ARE PRESENTED, INCLUDING FACILITIES FOR INSTRUCTIONAL USE, GENERAL USE, AND SERVICE USE. LIBRARY, CAFETERIA, KITCHEN, STORAGE, AND MULTIPURPOSE ROOMS SHOULD BE SIZED FOR THE PROJECTED ENROLLMENT OF THE BUILDING IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE PROJECTION UNDER THE…
Dirac's minimum degree condition restricted to claws
Broersma, Haitze J.; Ryjacek, Z.; Schiermeyer, I.
1997-01-01
Let G be a graph on n 3 vertices. Dirac's minimum degree condition is the condition that all vertices of G have degree at least . This is a well-known sufficient condition for the existence of a Hamilton cycle in G. We give related sufficiency conditions for the existence of a Hamilton cycle or a
7 CFR 33.10 - Minimum requirements.
2010-01-01
... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... ISSUED UNDER AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Regulations § 33.10 Minimum requirements. No person shall... shipment of apples to any foreign destination unless: (a) Apples grade at least U.S. No. 1 or U.S. No. 1...
Minimum Risk Pesticide: Definition and Product Confirmation
Minimum risk pesticides pose little to no risk to human health or the environment and therefore are not subject to regulation under FIFRA. EPA does not do any pre-market review for such products or labels, but violative products are subject to enforcement.
The Minimum Distance of Graph Codes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Høholdt, Tom; Justesen, Jørn
2011-01-01
We study codes constructed from graphs where the code symbols are associated with the edges and the symbols connected to a given vertex are restricted to be codewords in a component code. In particular we treat such codes from bipartite expander graphs coming from Euclidean planes and other...... geometries. We give results on the minimum distances of the codes....
Minimum maintenance solar pump | Assefa | Zede Journal
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A minimum maintenance solar pump (MMSP), Fig 1, has been simulated for Addis Ababa, taking solar meteorological data of global radiation, diffuse radiation and ambient air temperature as input to a computer program that has been developed. To increase the performance of the solar pump, by trapping the long-wave ...
Context quantization by minimum adaptive code length
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren; Wu, Xiaolin
2007-01-01
Context quantization is a technique to deal with the issue of context dilution in high-order conditional entropy coding. We investigate the problem of context quantizer design under the criterion of minimum adaptive code length. A property of such context quantizers is derived for binary symbols....
7 CFR 35.13 - Minimum quantity.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantity. 35.13 Section 35.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... part, transport or receive for transportation to any foreign destination, a shipment of 25 packages or...
Minimum impact house prototype for sustainable building
Götz, E.; Klenner, K.; Lantelme, M.; Mohn, A.; Sauter, S.; Thöne, J.; Zellmann, E.; Drexler, H.; Jauslin, D.
2010-01-01
The Minihouse is a prototupe for a sustainable townhouse. On a site of only 29 sqm it offers 154 sqm of urban life. The project 'Minimum Impact House' adresses two important questions: How do we provide living space in the cities without distroying the landscape? How to improve sustainably the
49 CFR 639.27 - Minimum criteria.
2010-10-01
... dollar value to any non-financial factors that are considered by using performance-based specifications..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CAPITAL LEASES Cost-Effectiveness § 639.27 Minimum criteria. In making the... used where possible and appropriate: (a) Operation costs; (b) Reliability of service; (c) Maintenance...
Computing nonsimple polygons of minimum perimeter
Fekete, S.P.; Haas, A.; Hemmer, M.; Hoffmann, M.; Kostitsyna, I.; Krupke, D.; Maurer, F.; Mitchell, J.S.B.; Schmidt, A.; Schmidt, C.; Troegel, J.
2018-01-01
We consider the Minimum Perimeter Polygon Problem (MP3): for a given set V of points in the plane, find a polygon P with holes that has vertex set V , such that the total boundary length is smallest possible. The MP3 can be considered a natural geometric generalization of the Traveling Salesman
Minimum-B mirrors plus EBT principles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshikawa, S.
1983-01-01
Electrons are heated at the minimum B location(s) created by the multipole field and the toroidal field. Resulting hot electrons can assist plasma confinement by (1) providing mirror, (2) creating azimuthally symmetric toroidal confinement, or (3) creating modified bumpy torus
Completeness properties of the minimum uncertainty states
Trifonov, D. A.
1993-01-01
The completeness properties of the Schrodinger minimum uncertainty states (SMUS) and of some of their subsets are considered. The invariant measures and the resolution unity measures for the set of SMUS are constructed and the representation of squeezing and correlating operators and SMUS as superpositions of Glauber coherent states on the real line is elucidated.
Minimum Description Length Shape and Appearance Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thodberg, Hans Henrik
2003-01-01
The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling is reviewed. It solves the point correspondence problem of selecting points on shapes defined as curves so that the points correspond across a data set. An efficient numerical implementation is presented and made available as open s...
Faster Fully-Dynamic minimum spanning forest
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holm, Jacob; Rotenberg, Eva; Wulff-Nilsen, Christian
2015-01-01
We give a new data structure for the fully-dynamic minimum spanning forest problem in simple graphs. Edge updates are supported in O(log4 n/log logn) expected amortized time per operation, improving the O(log4 n) amortized bound of Holm et al. (STOC’98, JACM’01).We also provide a deterministic data...
Minimum Wage Effects throughout the Wage Distribution
Neumark, David; Schweitzer, Mark; Wascher, William
2004-01-01
This paper provides evidence on a wide set of margins along which labor markets can adjust in response to increases in the minimum wage, including wages, hours, employment, and ultimately labor income. Not surprisingly, the evidence indicates that low-wage workers are most strongly affected, while higher-wage workers are little affected. Workers…
Asymptotics for the minimum covariance determinant estimator
Butler, R.W.; Davies, P.L.; Jhun, M.
1993-01-01
Consistency is shown for the minimum covariance determinant (MCD) estimators of multivariate location and scale and asymptotic normality is shown for the former. The proofs are made possible by showing a separating ellipsoid property for the MCD subset of observations. An analogous property is shown
Planetary tides during the Maunder sunspot minimum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smythe, C.M.; Eddy, J.A.
1977-01-01
Sun-centered planetary conjunctions and tidal potentials are here constructed for the AD1645 to 1715 period of sunspot absence, referred to as the 'Maunder Minimum'. These are found to be effectively indistinguishable from patterns of conjunctions and power spectra of tidal potential in the present era of a well established 11 year sunspot cycle. This places a new and difficult restraint on any tidal theory of sunspot formation. Problems arise in any direct gravitational theory due to the apparently insufficient forces and tidal heights involved. Proponents of the tidal hypothesis usually revert to trigger mechanisms, which are difficult to criticise or test by observation. Any tidal theory rests on the evidence of continued sunspot periodicity and the substantiation of a prolonged period of solar anomaly in the historical past. The 'Maunder Minimum' was the most drastic change in the behaviour of solar activity in the last 300 years; sunspots virtually disappeared for a 70 year period and the 11 year cycle was probably absent. During that time, however, the nine planets were all in their orbits, and planetary conjunctions and tidal potentials were indistinguishable from those of the present era, in which the 11 year cycle is well established. This provides good evidence against the tidal theory. The pattern of planetary tidal forces during the Maunder Minimum was reconstructed to investigate the possibility that the multiple planet forces somehow fortuitously cancelled at the time, that is that the positions of the slower moving planets in the 17th and early 18th centuries were such that conjunctions and tidal potentials were at the time reduced in number and force. There was no striking dissimilarity between the time of the Maunder Minimum and any period investigated. The failure of planetary conjunction patterns to reflect the drastic drop in sunspots during the Maunder Minimum casts doubt on the tidal theory of solar activity, but a more quantitative test
Generation of net sediment transport by velocity skewness in oscillatory sheet flow
Chen, Xin; Li, Yong; Chen, Genfa; Wang, Fujun; Tang, Xuelin
2018-01-01
This study utilizes a qualitative approach and a two-phase numerical model to investigate net sediment transport caused by velocity skewness beneath oscillatory sheet flow and current. The qualitative approach is derived based on the pseudo-laminar approximation of boundary layer velocity and exponential approximation of concentration. The two-phase model can obtain well the instantaneous erosion depth, sediment flux, boundary layer thickness, and sediment transport rate. It can especially illustrate the difference between positive and negative flow stages caused by velocity skewness, which is considerably important in determining the net boundary layer flow and sediment transport direction. The two-phase model also explains the effect of sediment diameter and phase-lag to sediment transport by comparing the instantaneous-type formulas to better illustrate velocity skewness effect. In previous studies about sheet flow transport in pure velocity-skewed flows, net sediment transport is only attributed to the phase-lag effect. In the present study with the qualitative approach and two-phase model, phase-lag effect is shown important but not sufficient for the net sediment transport beneath pure velocity-skewed flow and current, while the asymmetric wave boundary layer development between positive and negative flow stages also contributes to the sediment transport.
Measurement of the velocity of sound in crystals by pulsed neutron diffraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Willis, B.T.M.; Carlile, C.J.; Ward, R.C.; David, W.I.F.; Johnson, M.W.
1986-03-01
The diffraction method of observing elementary excitations in crystals has been applied to the study of one-phonon thermal diffuse scattering from pyrolytic graphite on a high resolution pulsed neutron diffractometer. The variation of the phase velocity of sound as a function of direction in the crystal and efficient method of determining sound velocities in crystals under extreme conditions. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thomsen, C; Ståhlberg, F; Stubgaard, M
1990-01-01
images. The phase information in the resultant image was converted to flow velocity with a calibration curve with the slope 26.5 radian.m-1.sec. The velocity versus time function was Fourier transformed and a continuous curve was fitted to the measured data with use of the first three harmonics...
SLIP VELOCITY IN PULSED DISC AND DOUGHNUT EXTRACTION COLUMN
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Outokesh
2011-09-01
Full Text Available In the present work, slip velocity has been measured in a 76 mm diameter pulsed disc and doughnut extraction column for four different liquid-liquid systems. The effects of operating variables including pulsation intensity and dispersed and continuous phase flow rates on slip velocity have been investigated. The existence of three different operational regimes, namely mixersettler, transition, and emulsion regimes, was observed when the energy input was changed. Empirical correlations are derived for prediction of the slip velocity in terms of operating variables, physical properties of the liquid systems, and column geometry for different regimes. Good agreement between prediction and experiments was found for all operating conditions that were investigated.
Microscopic theory of longitudinal sound velocity in charge ordered manganites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rout, G C; Panda, S
2009-01-01
A microscopic theory of longitudinal sound velocity in a manganite system is reported here. The manganite system is described by a model Hamiltonian consisting of charge density wave (CDW) interaction in the e g band, an exchange interaction between spins of the itinerant e g band electrons and the core t 2g electrons, and the Heisenberg interaction of the core level spins. The magnetization and the CDW order parameters are considered within mean-field approximations. The phonon Green's function was calculated by Zubarev's technique and hence the longitudinal velocity of sound was finally calculated for the manganite system. The results show that the elastic spring involved in the velocity of sound exhibits strong stiffening in the CDW phase with a decrease in temperature as observed in experiments.
Microscopic theory of longitudinal sound velocity in charge ordered manganites
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rout, G C [Condensed Matter Physics Group, PG Department of Applied Physics and Ballistics, FM University, Balasore 756 019 (India); Panda, S, E-mail: gcr@iopb.res.i [Trident Academy of Technology, F2/A, Chandaka Industrial Estate, Bhubaneswar 751 024 (India)
2009-10-14
A microscopic theory of longitudinal sound velocity in a manganite system is reported here. The manganite system is described by a model Hamiltonian consisting of charge density wave (CDW) interaction in the e{sub g} band, an exchange interaction between spins of the itinerant e{sub g} band electrons and the core t{sub 2g} electrons, and the Heisenberg interaction of the core level spins. The magnetization and the CDW order parameters are considered within mean-field approximations. The phonon Green's function was calculated by Zubarev's technique and hence the longitudinal velocity of sound was finally calculated for the manganite system. The results show that the elastic spring involved in the velocity of sound exhibits strong stiffening in the CDW phase with a decrease in temperature as observed in experiments.
Velocity distribution of fragments of catastrophic impacts
Takagi, Yasuhiko; Kato, Manabu; Mizutani, Hitoshi
1992-01-01
Three dimensional velocities of fragments produced by laboratory impact experiments were measured for basalts and pyrophyllites. The velocity distribution of fragments obtained shows that the velocity range of the major fragments is rather narrow, at most within a factor of 3 and that no clear dependence of velocity on the fragment mass is observed. The NonDimensional Impact Stress (NDIS) defined by Mizutani et al. (1990) is found to be an appropriate scaling parameter to describe the overall fragment velocity as well as the antipodal velocity.
On relative velocity in very young asteroid families
Rosaev, A.; Plávalová, E.
2018-04-01
Asteroid families are groups of minor planets that have a common origin in catastrophic breakup events. The very young compact asteroid clusters are a natural laboratory in which to study impact processes and the dynamics of asteroid orbits. In the first part of the paper, we define the term very young asteroid families (VYF), that is to say, younger than 1.6 Myrs, and explain why we have defined this group as being separate from young families (younger than 100 Myr), due to specific characteristics, in particularly, non-gravitational forces which have a very small effect (which could be negligible) on their dynamics and the role of the initial conditions in VYFs as being more significant. Due to these facts, the way we study VYFs may be different relative to young families. For the most part, the calculation of VYFs' normal component of relative velocity using backward numerical integration, exhibited a clear, deep minimum, which was close to the breakup epoch. The age estimations found while employing this method were in excellent agreement with the established age estimations used by other authors. We confirmed our results with the established age estimation of the Hobson family (365 ± 67 kyrs). Concerning the Emilkowalsky family, we confirmed the results of Nesvorný and Vokrouhlický (2006) (220 ± 30 kyrs), obtaining a far clearer result using the relative velocity method rather than single-orbital element convergence. The case of the Datura family is more complex to study, mainly due to its 9:16 resonance with Mars. We have exemplified that the z-component of relative velocity may prove to be a powerful and useful criterion for VYF age estimations. The studied value of relative velocity may contain information about the ejection velocity. As an additional outcome of this paper, we have introduced two new members of two different VYFs; one new member of the Emilkowalsky family and one of the Hobson family.
Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature
Savage, M. J.
2016-02-01
Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass
Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators for Aerodynamic Control, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Flow control is critical to the effective operation of space vehicles where high velocities must be achieved with minimum power consumption. Recent studies at...
Application of the unwrapped phase inversion to land data without source estimation
Choi, Yun Seok
2015-08-19
Unwrapped phase inversion with a strong damping was developed to solve the phase wrapping problem in frequency-domain waveform inversion. In this study, we apply the unwrapped phase inversion to band-limited real land data, for which the available minimum frequency is quite high. An important issue of the data is a strong ambiguity of source-ignition time (or source shift) shown in a seismogram. A source-estimation approach does not fully address the issue of source shift, since the velocity model and the source wavelet are updated simultaneously and interact with each other. We suggest a source-independent unwrapped phase inversion approach instead of relying on source-estimation from this land data. In the source-independent approach, the phase of the modeled data converges not to the exact phase value of the observed data, but to the relative phase value (or the trend of phases); thus it has the potential to solve the ambiguity of source-ignition time in a seismogram and work better than the source-estimation approach. Numerical examples show the validation of the source-independent unwrapped phase inversion, especially for land field data having an ambiguity in the source-ignition time.
Comments on the 'minimum flux corona' concept
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antiochos, S.K.; Underwood, J.H.
1978-01-01
Hearn's (1975) models of the energy balance and mass loss of stellar coronae, based on a 'minimum flux corona' concept, are critically examined. First, it is shown that the neglect of the relevant length scales for coronal temperature variation leads to an inconsistent computation of the total energy flux F. The stability arguments upon which the minimum flux concept is based are shown to be fallacious. Errors in the computation of the stellar wind contribution to the energy budget are identified. Finally we criticize Hearn's (1977) suggestion that the model, with a value of the thermal conductivity modified by the magnetic field, can explain the difference between solar coronal holes and quiet coronal regions. (orig.) 891 WL [de
Minimum wakefield achievable by waveguide damped cavity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, X.E.; Kroll, N.M.
1995-01-01
The authors use an equivalent circuit to model a waveguide damped cavity. Both exponentially damped and persistent (decay t -3/2 ) components of the wakefield are derived from this model. The result shows that for a cavity with resonant frequency a fixed interval above waveguide cutoff, the persistent wakefield amplitude is inversely proportional to the external Q value of the damped mode. The competition of the two terms results in an optimal Q value, which gives a minimum wakefield as a function of the distance behind the source particle. The minimum wakefield increases when the resonant frequency approaches the waveguide cutoff. The results agree very well with computer simulation on a real cavity-waveguide system
Protocol for the verification of minimum criteria
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaggiano, M.; Spiccia, P.; Gaetano Arnetta, P.
2014-01-01
This Protocol has been prepared with reference to the provisions of article 8 of the Legislative Decree of May 26, 2000 No. 187. Quality controls of radiological equipment fit within the larger 'quality assurance Program' and are intended to ensure the correct operation of the same and the maintenance of that State. The pursuit of this objective guarantees that the radiological equipment subjected to those controls also meets the minimum criteria of acceptability set out in annex V of the aforementioned legislative decree establishing the conditions necessary to allow the functions to which each radiological equipment was designed, built and for which it is used. The Protocol is established for the purpose of quality control of radiological equipment of Cone Beam Computer Tomography type and reference document, in the sense that compliance with stated tolerances also ensures the subsistence minimum acceptability requirements, where applicable.
Low Streamflow Forcasting using Minimum Relative Entropy
Cui, H.; Singh, V. P.
2013-12-01
Minimum relative entropy spectral analysis is derived in this study, and applied to forecast streamflow time series. Proposed method extends the autocorrelation in the manner that the relative entropy of underlying process is minimized so that time series data can be forecasted. Different prior estimation, such as uniform, exponential and Gaussian assumption, is taken to estimate the spectral density depending on the autocorrelation structure. Seasonal and nonseasonal low streamflow series obtained from Colorado River (Texas) under draught condition is successfully forecasted using proposed method. Minimum relative entropy determines spectral of low streamflow series with higher resolution than conventional method. Forecasted streamflow is compared to the prediction using Burg's maximum entropy spectral analysis (MESA) and Configurational entropy. The advantage and disadvantage of each method in forecasting low streamflow is discussed.
Minimum Wage Laws and the Distribution of Employment.
Lang, Kevin
The desirability of raising the minimum wage long revolved around just one question: the effect of higher minimum wages on the overall level of employment. An even more critical effect of the minimum wage rests on the composition of employment--who gets the minimum wage job. An examination of employment in eating and drinking establishments…
Minimum intervention dentistry: periodontics and implant dentistry.
Darby, I B; Ngo, L
2013-06-01
This article will look at the role of minimum intervention dentistry in the management of periodontal disease. It will discuss the role of appropriate assessment, treatment and risk factors/indicators. In addition, the role of the patient and early intervention in the continuing care of dental implants will be discussed as well as the management of peri-implant disease. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.
Minimum quality standards and international trade
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Baltzer, Kenneth Thomas
2011-01-01
This paper investigates the impact of a non-discriminating minimum quality standard (MQS) on trade and welfare when the market is characterized by imperfect competition and asymmetric information. A simple partial equilibrium model of an international Cournot duopoly is presented in which a domes...... prefer different levels of regulation. As a result, international trade disputes are likely to arise even when regulation is non-discriminating....
''Reduced'' magnetohydrodynamics and minimum dissipation rates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montgomery, D.
1992-01-01
It is demonstrated that all solutions of the equations of ''reduced'' magnetohydrodynamics approach a uniform-current, zero-flow state for long times, given a constant wall electric field, uniform scalar viscosity and resistivity, and uniform mass density. This state is the state of minimum energy dissipation rate for these boundary conditions. No steady-state turbulence is possible. The result contrasts sharply with results for full three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics before the reduction occurs
Minimum K_2,3-saturated Graphs
Chen, Ya-Chen
2010-01-01
A graph is K_{2,3}-saturated if it has no subgraph isomorphic to K_{2,3}, but does contain a K_{2,3} after the addition of any new edge. We prove that the minimum number of edges in a K_{2,3}-saturated graph on n >= 5 vertices is sat(n, K_{2,3}) = 2n - 3.
Minimum degree and density of binary sequences
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brandt, Stephan; Müttel, J.; Rautenbach, D.
2010-01-01
For d,k∈N with k ≤ 2d, let g(d,k) denote the infimum density of binary sequences (x)∈{0,1} which satisfy the minimum degree condition σ(x+) ≥ k for all i∈Z with xi=1. We reduce the problem of computing g(d,k) to a combinatorial problem related to the generalized k-girth of a graph G which...
Instrument for measuring flow velocities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Griffo, J.
1977-01-01
The design described here means to produce a 'more satisfying instrument with less cost' than comparable instruments known up to now. Instead of one single turbine rotor, two similar ones but with opposite blade inclination and sense of rotation are to be used. A cylindrical measuring body is carrying in its axis two bearing blocks whose shape is offering little flow resistance. On the shaft, supported by them, the two rotors run in opposite direction a relatively small axial distance apart. The speed of each rotor is picked up as pulse recurrence frequency by a transmitter and fed to an electronic measuring unit. Measuring errors as they are caused for single rotors by turbulent flow, profile distortion of the velocity, or viscous flow are to be eliminated by means of the contrarotating turbines and the subsequently added electronic unit, because in these cases the adulterating increase of the angular velocity of one rotor is compensated by a corresponding deceleration of the other rotor. The mean value then indicated by the electronic unit has high accurancy of measurement. (RW) [de
Schenau, S.J.; Slomp, C.P.; Lange, G.J. de
2000-01-01
In this study, porewater chemistry, solid-phase analysis and microscopic observations were combined to evaluate phosphogenesis in three boxcores located within the intensive oxygen minimum zone of the Arabian Sea. Three parameters, namely a decrease of the dissolved phosphate and fluoride
Magnetic field dependence of ultrasound velocity in high-Tc superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Higgins, M.J.; Goshorn, D.P.; Bhattacharya, S.; Johnston, D.C.
1989-01-01
The magnetic field dependence of ultrasound velocity in the superconductor La 1.8 Sr 0.2 CuO 4-y is studied. The sound velocity anomaly near T c is shown to be unambiguously related to superconductivity. Below T c , the sound velocity is found to be sensitive to the dynamics of a pinned flux lattice. A combination of sound velocity and magnetization measurements suggests three regimes of pinning behavior. A generic pinning ''phase diagram'' is obtained in the superconducting state. An anomalous peak effect in the magnetization is also observed at intermediate field strengths
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyoshi, Koji; Nakamura, Akira; Takenaka, Nobuyuki
2016-01-01
Many pipes branch off from a main pipe in industrial plants. The penetration of hot water into the branch pipe causes thermal stratification. The thermal stratification layer fluctuates and causes thermal fatigue. The characteristics of velocity distributions in the branch pipe for inner diameters from D_b=21 mm to 43 mm were investigated by laser Doppler velocimetry in this paper. As for the flow in the branch pipe at L=4D_b, the mean velocity of the spiral flow was a simple forced vortex which indicated a straight velocity distribution. The maximum circumferential velocity U_θ _m_a_x and minimum axial velocity U_z _m_i_n at L=4D_b were expressed with D_b and main flow velocity. Empirical formulas were proposed for estimating the distributions of U_θ _m_a_x and U_z _m_i_n in the axial direction. (author)
Nonclassicality in phase-number uncertainty relations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matia-Hernando, Paloma; Luis, Alfredo
2011-01-01
We show that there are nonclassical states with lesser joint fluctuations of phase and number than any classical state. This is rather paradoxical since one would expect classical coherent states to be always of minimum uncertainty. The same result is obtained when we replace phase by a phase-dependent field quadrature. Number and phase uncertainties are assessed using variance and Holevo relation.
Nonclassicality in phase-number uncertainty relations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matia-Hernando, Paloma; Luis, Alfredo [Departamento de Optica, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid (Spain)
2011-12-15
We show that there are nonclassical states with lesser joint fluctuations of phase and number than any classical state. This is rather paradoxical since one would expect classical coherent states to be always of minimum uncertainty. The same result is obtained when we replace phase by a phase-dependent field quadrature. Number and phase uncertainties are assessed using variance and Holevo relation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vembar, M.; Garcia, M.J.; Heuscher, D.J.; Haberl, R.; Matthews, D.; Boehme, G.E.; Greenberg, N.L.
2003-01-01
In this investigation, we describe a quantitative technique to measure coronary motion, which can be correlated with cardiac image quality using multislice computed tomography (MSCT) scanners. MSCT scanners, with subsecond scanning, thin-slice imaging (sub-millimeter) and volume scanning capabilities have paved the way for new clinical applications like noninvasive cardiac imaging. ECG-gated spiral CT using MSCT scanners has made it possible to scan the entire heart in a single breath-hold. The continuous data acquisition makes it possible for multiple phases to be reconstructed from a cardiac cycle. We measure the position and three-dimensional velocities of well-known landmarks along the proximal, mid, and distal regions of the major coronary arteries [left main (LM), left anterior descending (LAD), right coronary artery (RCA), and left circumflex (LCX)] during the cardiac cycle. A dynamic model (called the 'delay algorithm') is described which enables us to capture the same physiological phase or 'state' of the anatomy during the cardiac cycle as the instantaneous heart rate varies during the spiral scan. The coronary arteries are reconstructed from data obtained during different physiological cardiac phases and we correlate image quality of different parts of the coronary anatomy with phases at which minimum velocities occur. The motion characteristics varied depending on the artery, with the highest motion being observed for RCA. The phases with the lowest mean velocities provided the best visualization. Though more than one phase of relative minimum velocity was observed for each artery, the most consistent image quality was observed during mid-diastole ('diastasis') of the cardiac cycle and was judged to be superior to other reconstructed phases in 92% of the cases. In the process, we also investigated correlation between cardiac arterial states and other measures of motion, such as the left ventricular volume during a cardiac cycle, which earlier has been
Application of Vectors to Relative Velocity
Tin-Lam, Toh
2004-01-01
The topic 'relative velocity' has recently been introduced into the Cambridge Ordinary Level Additional Mathematics syllabus under the application of Vectors. In this note, the results of relative velocity and the 'reduction to rest' technique of teaching relative velocity are derived mathematically from vector algebra, in the hope of providing…
Questions Students Ask: About Terminal Velocity.
Meyer, Earl R.; Nelson, Jim
1984-01-01
If a ball were given an initial velocity in excess of its terminal velocity, would the upward force of air resistance (a function of velocity) be greater than the downward force of gravity and thus push the ball back upwards? An answer to this question is provided. (JN)
Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon
1997-01-01
We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....
Vertical and horizontal extension of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific Ocean
Fuenzalida, Rosalino; Schneider, Wolfgang; Garcés-Vargas, José; Bravo, Luis; Lange, Carina
2009-07-01
Recent hydrographic measurements within the eastern South Pacific (1999-2001) were combined with vertically high-resolution data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, high-resolution profiles and bottle casts from the World Ocean Database 2001, and the World Ocean Atlas 2001 in order to evaluate the vertical and horizontal extension of the oxygen minimum zone (oxygen minimum zone to be 9.82±3.60×10 6 km 2 and 2.18±0.66×10 6 km 3, respectively. The oxygen minimum zone is thickest (>600 m) off Peru between 5 and 13°S and to about 1000 km offshore. Its upper boundary is shallowest (zone in some places. Offshore, the thickness and meridional extent of the oxygen minimum zone decrease until it finally vanishes at 140°W between 2° and 8°S. Moving southward along the coast of South America, the zonal extension of the oxygen minimum zone gradually diminishes from 3000 km (15°S) to 1200 km (20°S) and then to 25 km (30°S); only a thin band is detected at ˜37°S off Concepción, Chile. Simultaneously, the oxygen minimum zone's maximum thickness decreases from 300 m (20°S) to less than 50 m (south of 30°S). The spatial distribution of Ekman suction velocity and oxygen minimum zone thickness correlate well, especially in the core. Off Chile, the eastern South Pacific Intermediate Water mass introduces increased vertical stability into the upper water column, complicating ventilation of the oxygen minimum zone from above. In addition, oxygen-enriched Antarctic Intermediate Water clashes with the oxygen minimum zone at around 30°S, causing a pronounced sub-surface oxygen front. The new estimates of vertical and horizontal oxygen minimum zone distribution in the eastern South Pacific complement the global quantification of naturally hypoxic continental margins by Helly and Levin [2004. Global distribution of naturally occurring marine hypoxia on continental margins. Deep-Sea Research I 51, 1159-1168] and provide new baseline data useful for studies on the
Transition of unsteady velocity profiles with reverse flow
Das, Debopam; Arakeri, Jaywant H.
1998-11-01
This paper deals with the stability and transition to turbulence of wall-bounded unsteady velocity profiles with reverse flow. Such flows occur, for example, during unsteady boundary layer separation and in oscillating pipe flow. The main focus is on results from experiments in time-developing flow in a long pipe, which is decelerated rapidly. The flow is generated by the controlled motion of a piston. We obtain analytical solutions for laminar flow in the pipe and in a two-dimensional channel for arbitrary piston motions. By changing the piston speed and the length of piston travel we cover a range of values of Reynolds number and boundary layer thickness. The velocity profiles during the decay of the flow are unsteady with reverse flow near the wall, and are highly unstable due to their inflectional nature. In the pipe, we observe from flow visualization that the flow becomes unstable with the formation of what appears to be a helical vortex. The wavelength of the instability [simeq R: similar, equals]3[delta] where [delta] is the average boundary layer thickness, the average being taken over the time the flow is unstable. The time of formation of the vortices scales with the average convective time scale and is [simeq R: similar, equals]39/([Delta]u/[delta]), where [Delta]u=(umax[minus sign]umin) and umax, umin and [delta] are the maximum velocity, minimum velocity and boundary layer thickness respectively at each instant of time. The time to transition to turbulence is [simeq R: similar, equals]33/([Delta]u/[delta]). Quasi-steady linear stability analysis of the velocity profiles brings out two important results. First that the stability characteristics of velocity profiles with reverse flow near the wall collapse when scaled with the above variables. Second that the wavenumber corresponding to maximum growth does not change much during the instability even though the velocity profile does change substantially. Using the results from the experiments and the
Calculation of the mean-square velocities of atom oscillations in the Moessbauer experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Semenov, Ya.S.; Lebedev, M.P.
2005-01-01
To study mechanical and physical properties of solid bodies, it is important to know the behavior of rms velocities of atomic oscillations. Binary iron alloys in the vicinity of phase transition temperatures were investigated using the Moessbauer spectroscopy. The rms velocities of atomic oscillations demonstrate that 3d-3p direct chemical bonds for Si and 3d-4p direct chemical bonds for Ge are broken (formed) at the phase transition temperature; as a consequence, the velocities of atomic oscillations increase abruptly [ru
Neutrino Mixing and Masses from a Minimum Principle
Alonso, R; Isidori, G; Maiani, L
2013-01-01
We analyze the structure of quark and lepton mass matrices under the hypothesis that they are determined from a minimum principle applied to a generic potential invariant under the $\\left[SU(3)\\right]^5\\otimes \\mathcal O(3)$ flavor symmetry, acting on Standard Model fermions and right-handed neutrinos. Unlike the quark case, we show that hierarchical masses for charged leptons are naturally accompanied by degenerate Majorana neutrinos with one mixing angle close to maximal, a second potentially large, a third one necessarily small, and one maximal relative Majorana phase. Adding small perturbations the predicted structure for the neutrino mass matrix is in excellent agreement with present observations and could be tested in the near future via neutrino-less double beta decay and cosmological measurements. The generalization of these results to arbitrary sew-saw models is also discussed.
Critical velocities in He II for independently varied superfluid and normal fluid velocities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baehr, M.L.
1984-01-01
Experiments were performed to measure the critical velocity in pure superflow and compare to the theoretical prediction; to measure the first critical velocity for independently varied superfluid and normal fluid velocities; and to investigate the propagation of the second critical velocity from the thermal counterflow line through the V/sub n/,-V/sub s/ quadrant. The experimental apparatus employed a thermal counterflow heater to adjust the normal fluid velocity, a fountain pump to vary the superfluid velocity, and a level sensing capacitor to measure the superfluid velocity. The results of the pure superfluid critical velocity measurements indicate that this velocity is temperature independent contrary to Schwarz's theory. It was found that the first critical velocity for independently varied V/sub n/ and V/sub s/ could be described by a linear function of V/sub n/ and was otherwise temperature independent. It was found that the second critical velocity could only be distinguished near the thermal counterflow line
Numerical calculation of velocity distribution near a vertical flat plate immersed in bubble flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuura, Akihiro; Nakamura, Hajime; Horihata, Hideyuki; Hiraoka, Setsuro; Aragaki, Tsutomu; Yamada, Ikuho; Isoda, Shinji.
1992-01-01
Liquid and gas velocity distributions for bubble flow near a vertical flat plate were calculated numerically by using the SIMPLER method, where the flow was assumed to be laminar, two-dimensional, and at steady state. The two-fluid flow model was used in the numerical analysis. To calculate the drag force on a small bubble, Stokes' law for a rigid sphere is applicable. The dimensionless velocity distributions which were arranged with characteristic boundary layer thickness and maximum liquid velocity were adjusted with a single line and their forms were similar to that for single-phase wall-jet flow. The average wall shear stress derived from the velocity gradient at the plate wall was strongly affected by bubble diameter but not by inlet liquid velocity. The present dimensionless velocity distributions obtained numerically agreed well with previous experimental results, and the proposed numerical algorithm was validated. (author)
Sound velocity of tantalum under shock compression in the 18–142 GPa range
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xi, Feng, E-mail: xifeng@caep.cn; Jin, Ke; Cai, Lingcang, E-mail: cai-lingcang@aliyun.com; Geng, Huayun; Tan, Ye; Li, Jun [National Key Laboratory of Shock Waves and Detonation Physics, Institute of Fluid Physics, CAEP, P.O. Box 919-102 Mianyang, Sichuan 621999 (China)
2015-05-14
Dynamic compression experiments of tantalum (Ta) within a shock pressure range from 18–142 GPa were conducted driven by explosive, a two-stage light gas gun, and a powder gun, respectively. The time-resolved Ta/LiF (lithium fluoride) interface velocity profiles were recorded with a displacement interferometer system for any reflector. Sound velocities of Ta were obtained from the peak state time duration measurements with the step-sample technique and the direct-reverse impact technique. The uncertainty of measured sound velocities were analyzed carefully, which suggests that the symmetrical impact method with step-samples is more accurate for sound velocity measurement, and the most important parameter in this type experiment is the accurate sample/window particle velocity profile, especially the accurate peak state time duration. From these carefully analyzed sound velocity data, no evidence of a phase transition was found up to the shock melting pressure of Ta.
Superluminal velocities. Illusion or reality?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pereyra, P.; Simanjuntak, H.P.
2005-10-01
We study the time-evolution of electromagnetic wave packets through optical superlattices. We follow the time evolution (described by Maxwell equations) of Gaussian packets with centroid in different energy regions. The time spent by the wave packet inside an optical structure agrees extremely well with the superluminal experimental results and the phase time predictions. (author)
Local Times of Galactic Cosmic Ray Intensity Maximum and Minimum in the Diurnal Variation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Su Yeon Oh
2006-06-01
Full Text Available The Diurnal variation of galactic cosmic ray (GCR flux intensity observed by the ground Neutron Monitor (NM shows a sinusoidal pattern with the amplitude of 1sim 2 % of daily mean. We carried out a statistical study on tendencies of the local times of GCR intensity daily maximum and minimum. To test the influences of the solar activity and the location (cut-off rigidity on the distribution in the local times of maximum and minimum GCR intensity, we have examined the data of 1996 (solar minimum and 2000 (solar maximum at the low-latitude Haleakala (latitude: 20.72 N, cut-off rigidity: 12.91 GeV and the high-latitude Oulu (latitude: 65.05 N, cut-off rigidity: 0.81 GeV NM stations. The most frequent local times of the GCR intensity daily maximum and minimum come later about 2sim3 hours in the solar activity maximum year 2000 than in the solar activity minimum year 1996. Oulu NM station whose cut-off rigidity is smaller has the most frequent local times of the GCR intensity maximum and minimum later by 2sim3 hours from those of Haleakala station. This feature is more evident at the solar maximum. The phase of the daily variation in GCR is dependent upon the interplanetary magnetic field varying with the solar activity and the cut-off rigidity varying with the geographic latitude.
Decentralized Pricing in Minimum Cost Spanning Trees
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moulin, Hervé; Østerdal, Lars Peter
In the minimum cost spanning tree model we consider decentralized pricing rules, i.e. rules that cover at least the ecient cost while the price charged to each user only depends upon his own connection costs. We de ne a canonical pricing rule and provide two axiomatic characterizations. First......, the canonical pricing rule is the smallest among those that improve upon the Stand Alone bound, and are either superadditive or piece-wise linear in connection costs. Our second, direct characterization relies on two simple properties highlighting the special role of the source cost....
The Risk Management of Minimum Return Guarantees
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antje Mahayni
2008-05-01
Full Text Available Contracts paying a guaranteed minimum rate of return and a fraction of a positive excess rate, which is specified relative to a benchmark portfolio, are closely related to unit-linked life-insurance products and can be considered as alternatives to direct investment in the underlying benchmark. They contain an embedded power option, and the key issue is the tractable and realistic hedging of this option, in order to rigorously justify valuation by arbitrage arguments and prevent the guarantees from becoming uncontrollable liabilities to the issuer. We show how to determine the contract parameters conservatively and implement robust risk-management strategies.
Iterative Regularization with Minimum-Residual Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Hansen, Per Christian
2007-01-01
subspaces. We provide a combination of theory and numerical examples, and our analysis confirms the experience that MINRES and MR-II can work as general regularization methods. We also demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the same is not true, in general, for GMRES and RRGMRES their success......We study the regularization properties of iterative minimum-residual methods applied to discrete ill-posed problems. In these methods, the projection onto the underlying Krylov subspace acts as a regularizer, and the emphasis of this work is on the role played by the basis vectors of these Krylov...... as regularization methods is highly problem dependent....
Iterative regularization with minimum-residual methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Hansen, Per Christian
2006-01-01
subspaces. We provide a combination of theory and numerical examples, and our analysis confirms the experience that MINRES and MR-II can work as general regularization methods. We also demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the same is not true, in general, for GMRES and RRGMRES - their success......We study the regularization properties of iterative minimum-residual methods applied to discrete ill-posed problems. In these methods, the projection onto the underlying Krylov subspace acts as a regularizer, and the emphasis of this work is on the role played by the basis vectors of these Krylov...... as regularization methods is highly problem dependent....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Zhang
2017-11-01
Full Text Available In view of a dynamic obstacle environment with motion uncertainty, we present a dynamic collision avoidance method based on the collision risk assessment and improved velocity obstacle method. First, through the fusion optimization of forward-looking sonar data, the redundancy of the data is reduced and the position, size and velocity information of the obstacles are obtained, which can provide an accurate decision-making basis for next-step collision avoidance. Second, according to minimum meeting time and the minimum distance between the obstacle and unmanned underwater vehicle (UUV, this paper establishes the collision risk assessment model, and screens key obstacles to avoid collision. Finally, the optimization objective function is established based on the improved velocity obstacle method, and a UUV motion characteristic is used to calculate the reachable velocity sets. The optimal collision speed of UUV is searched in velocity space. The corresponding heading and speed commands are calculated, and outputted to the motion control module. The above is the complete dynamic obstacle avoidance process. The simulation results show that the proposed method can obtain a better collision avoidance effect in the dynamic environment, and has good adaptability to the unknown dynamic environment.
Characterizing the original ejection velocity field of the Koronis family
Carruba, V.; Nesvorný, D.; Aljbaae, S.
2016-06-01
An asteroid family forms as a result of a collision between an impactor and a parent body. The fragments with ejection speeds higher than the escape velocity from the parent body can escape its gravitational pull. The cloud of escaping debris can be identified by the proximity of orbits in proper element, or frequency, domains. Obtaining estimates of the original ejection speed can provide valuable constraints on the physical processes occurring during collision, and used to calibrate impact simulations. Unfortunately, proper elements of asteroids families are modified by gravitational and non-gravitational effects, such as resonant dynamics, encounters with massive bodies, and the Yarkovsky effect, such that information on the original ejection speeds is often lost, especially for older, more evolved families. It has been recently suggested that the distribution in proper inclination of the Koronis family may have not been significantly perturbed by local dynamics, and that information on the component of the ejection velocity that is perpendicular to the orbital plane (vW), may still be available, at least in part. In this work we estimate the magnitude of the original ejection velocity speeds of Koronis members using the observed distribution in proper eccentricity and inclination, and accounting for the spread caused by dynamical effects. Our results show that (i) the spread in the original ejection speeds is, to within a 15% error, inversely proportional to the fragment size, and (ii) the minimum ejection velocity is of the order of 50 m/s, with larger values possible depending on the orbital configuration at the break-up.
Harbor porpoise clicks do not have conditionally minimum time bandwidth product
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beedholm, Kristian
2008-01-01
The hypothesis that odontocete clicks have minimal time frequency product given their delay and center frequency values is tested by using an in-phase averaged porpoise click compared with a pure tone weighted with the same envelope. These signals have the same delay and the same center frequency...... values but the time bandwidth product of the artificial click is only 0.76 that of the original. Therefore signals with the same parameters exist that have a lower time bandwidth product. The observation that porpoise clicks are in fact minimum phase is confirmed for porpoise clicks and this property...... is argued to be incompatible with optimal reception, if auditory filters are also minimum phase....
Feedback brake distribution control for minimum pitch
Tavernini, Davide; Velenis, Efstathios; Longo, Stefano
2017-06-01
The distribution of brake forces between front and rear axles of a vehicle is typically specified such that the same level of brake force coefficient is imposed at both front and rear wheels. This condition is known as 'ideal' distribution and it is required to deliver the maximum vehicle deceleration and minimum braking distance. For subcritical braking conditions, the deceleration demand may be delivered by different distributions between front and rear braking forces. In this research we show how to obtain the optimal distribution which minimises the pitch angle of a vehicle and hence enhances driver subjective feel during braking. A vehicle model including suspension geometry features is adopted. The problem of the minimum pitch brake distribution for a varying deceleration level demand is solved by means of a model predictive control (MPC) technique. To address the problem of the undesirable pitch rebound caused by a full-stop of the vehicle, a second controller is designed and implemented independently from the braking distribution in use. An extended Kalman filter is designed for state estimation and implemented in a high fidelity environment together with the MPC strategy. The proposed solution is compared with the reference 'ideal' distribution as well as another previous feed-forward solution.
Zhou, Lihong; Yuan, Liming; Thomas, Rick; Iannacchione, Anthony
2017-01-01
When there are installations of air velocity sensors in the mining industry for real-time airflow monitoring, a problem exists with how the monitored air velocity at a fixed location corresponds to the average air velocity, which is used to determine the volume flow rate of air in an entry with the cross-sectional area. Correction factors have been practically employed to convert a measured centerline air velocity to the average air velocity. However, studies on the recommended correction fac...
Threshold velocity for environmentally-assisted cracking in low alloy steels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wire, G.L.; Kandra, J.T.
1997-01-01
Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) in low alloy steels is generally believed to be activated by dissolution of MnS inclusions at the crack tip in high temperature LWR environments. EAC is the increase of fatigue crack growth rate of up to 40 to 100 times the rate in air that occurs in high temperature LWR environments. A steady state theory developed by Combrade, suggested that EAC will initiate only above a critical crack velocity and cease below this same velocity. A range of about twenty in critical crack tip velocities was invoked by Combrade, et al., to describe data available at that time. This range was attributed to exposure of additional sulfides above and below the crack plane. However, direct measurements of exposed sulfide densities on cracked specimens were performed herein and the results rule out significant additional sulfide exposure as a plausible explanation. Alternatively, it is proposed herein that localized EAC starting at large sulfide clusters reduces the calculated threshold velocity from the value predicted for a uniform distribution of sulfides. Calculations are compared with experimental results where the threshold velocity has been measured, and the predicted wide range of threshold values for steels of similar sulfur content but varying sulfide morphology is observed. The threshold velocity decreases with the increasing maximum sulfide particle size, qualitatively consistent with the theory. The calculation provides a basis for a conservative minimum velocity threshold tied directly to the steel sulfur level, in cases where no details of sulfide distribution are known
Application of Pontryagin’s Minimum Principle in Optimum Time of Missile Manoeuvring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sari Cahyaningtias
2016-11-01
Full Text Available Missile is a guided weapon and designed to protect outermost island from a thread of other country. It, commonly, is used as self defense. This research presented surface-to-surface missile in final dive manoeuvre for fixed target. Furthermore, it was proposed manoeuvring based on unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, autopilot system, which needs accuration and minimum both time and thrust of missile while attacking object. This paper introduced pontryagin’s Minimum Principle, which is useable to solve the problem. The numerical solution showed that trajectory of the missile is split it up in three sub-intervals; flight, climbing, and diving. The numerical simulation showed that the missile must climb in order to satisfy the final dive condition and the optimum time of a missile depend on initial condition of the altitude and the terminal velocity
Minimum Time Trajectory Optimization of CNC Machining with Tracking Error Constraints
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiang Zhang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available An off-line optimization approach of high precision minimum time feedrate for CNC machining is proposed. Besides the ordinary considered velocity, acceleration, and jerk constraints, dynamic performance constraint of each servo drive is also considered in this optimization problem to improve the tracking precision along the optimized feedrate trajectory. Tracking error is applied to indicate the servo dynamic performance of each axis. By using variable substitution, the tracking error constrained minimum time trajectory planning problem is formulated as a nonlinear path constrained optimal control problem. Bang-bang constraints structure of the optimal trajectory is proved in this paper; then a novel constraint handling method is proposed to realize a convex optimization based solution of the nonlinear constrained optimal control problem. A simple ellipse feedrate planning test is presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the approach. Then the practicability and robustness of the trajectory generated by the proposed approach are demonstrated by a butterfly contour machining example.
Characterization of horizontal air–water two-phase flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kong, Ran; Kim, Seungjin, E-mail: skim@psu.edu
2017-02-15
Highlights: • A visualization study is performed to develop flow regime map in horizontal flow. • Database in horizontal bubbly flow is extended using a local conductivity probe. • Frictional pressure drop analysis is performed in horizontal bubbly flow. • Drift flux analysis is performed in horizontal bubbly flow. - Abstract: This paper presents experimental studies performed to characterize horizontal air–water two-phase flow in a round pipe with an inner diameter of 3.81 cm. A detailed flow visualization study is performed using a high-speed video camera in a wide range of two-phase flow conditions to verify previous flow regime maps. Two-phase flows are classified into bubbly, plug, slug, stratified, stratified-wavy, and annular flow regimes. While the transition boundaries identified in the present study compare well with the existing ones (Mandhane et al., 1974) in general, some discrepancies are observed for bubbly-to-plug/slug, and plug-to-slug transition boundaries. Based on the new transition boundaries, three additional test conditions are determined in horizontal bubbly flow to extend the database by Talley et al. (2015a). Various local two-phase flow parameters including void fraction, interfacial area concentration, bubble velocity, and bubble Sauter mean diameter are obtained. The effects of increasing gas flow rate on void fraction, bubble Sauter mean diameter, and bubble velocity are discussed. Bubbles begin to coalesce near the gas–liquid layer instead of in the highly packed region when gas flow rate increases. Using all the current experimental data, two-phase frictional pressure loss analysis is performed using the Lockhart–Martinelli method. It is found that the coefficient C = 24 yields the best agreement with the data with the minimum average difference. Moreover, drift flux analysis is performed to predict void-weighted area-averaged bubble velocity and area-averaged void fraction. Based on the current database, functional
Geotail observations of FTE velocities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. I. Korotova
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We discuss the plasma velocity signatures expected in association with flux transfer events (FTEs. Events moving faster than or opposite the ambient media should generate bipolar inward/outward (outward/inward flow perturbations normal to the nominal magnetopause in the magnetosphere (magnetosheath. Flow perturbations directly upstream and downstream from the events should be in the direction of event motion. Flows on the flanks should be in the direction opposite the motion of events moving at subsonic and subAlfvénic speeds relative to the ambient plasma. Events moving with the ambient flow should generate no flow perturbations in the ambient plasma. Alfvén waves propagating parallel (antiparallel to the axial magnetic field of FTEs may generate anticorrelated (correlated magnetic field and flow perturbations within the core region of FTEs. We present case studies illustrating many of these signatures. In the examples considered, Alfvén waves propagate along event axes away from the inferred reconnection site. A statistical study of FTEs observed by Geotail over a 3.5-year period reveals that FTEs within the magnetosphere invariably move faster than the ambient flow, while those in the magnetosheath move both faster and slower than the ambient flow.
Reciprocally-Rotating Velocity Obstacles
Giese, Andrew
2014-05-01
© 2014 IEEE. Modern multi-agent systems frequently use highlevel planners to extract basic paths for agents, and then rely on local collision avoidance to ensure that the agents reach their destinations without colliding with one another or dynamic obstacles. One state-of-the-art local collision avoidance technique is Optimal Reciprocal Collision Avoidance (ORCA). Despite being fast and efficient for circular-shaped agents, ORCA may deadlock when polygonal shapes are used. To address this shortcoming, we introduce Reciprocally-Rotating Velocity Obstacles (RRVO). RRVO generalizes ORCA by introducing a notion of rotation for polygonally-shaped agents. This generalization permits more realistic motion than ORCA and does not suffer from as much deadlock. In this paper, we present the theory of RRVO and show empirically that it does not suffer from the deadlock issue ORCA has, permits agents to reach goals faster, and has a comparable collision rate at the cost of performance overhead quadratic in the (typically small) user-defined parameter δ.
High velocity impact experiment (HVIE)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Toor, A.; Donich, T.; Carter, P.
1998-02-01
The HVIE space project was conceived as a way to measure the absolute EOS for approximately 10 materials at pressures up to {approximately}30 Mb with order-of-magnitude higher accuracy than obtainable in any comparable experiment conducted on earth. The experiment configuration is such that each of the 10 materials interacts with all of the others thereby producing one-hundred independent, simultaneous EOS experiments The materials will be selected to provide critical information to weapons designers, National Ignition Facility target designers and planetary and geophysical scientists. In addition, HVIE will provide important scientific information to other communities, including the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization and the lethality and vulnerability community. The basic HVIE concept is to place two probes in counter rotating, highly elliptical orbits and collide them at high velocity (20 km/s) at 100 km altitude above the earth. The low altitude of the experiment will provide quick debris strip-out of orbit due to atmospheric drag. The preliminary conceptual evaluation of the HVIE has found no show stoppers. The design has been very easy to keep within the lift capabilities of commonly available rides to low earth orbit including the space shuttle. The cost of approximately 69 million dollars for 100 EOS experiment that will yield the much needed high accuracy, absolute measurement data is a bargain!
Group Velocity for Leaky Waves
Rzeznik, Andrew; Chumakova, Lyubov; Rosales, Rodolfo
2017-11-01
In many linear dispersive/conservative wave problems one considers solutions in an infinite medium which is uniform everywhere except for a bounded region. In general, localized inhomogeneities of the medium cause partial internal reflection, and some waves leak out of the domain. Often one only desires the solution in the inhomogeneous region, with the exterior accounted for by radiation boundary conditions. Formulating such conditions requires definition of the direction of energy propagation for leaky waves in multiple dimensions. In uniform media such waves have the form exp (d . x + st) where d and s are complex and related by a dispersion relation. A complex s is required since these waves decay via radiation to infinity, even though the medium is conservative. We present a modified form of Whitham's Averaged Lagrangian Theory along with modulation theory to extend the classical idea of group velocity to leaky waves. This allows for solving on the bounded region by representing the waves as a linear combination of leaky modes, each exponentially decaying in time. This presentation is part of a joint project, and applications of these results to example GFD problems will be presented by L. Chumakova in the talk ``Leaky GFD Problems''. This work is partially supported by NSF Grants DMS-1614043, DMS-1719637, and 1122374, and by the Hertz Foundation.
3D shear wave velocity structure revealed with ambient noise tomography on a DAS array
Zeng, X.; Thurber, C. H.; Wang, H. F.; Fratta, D.
2017-12-01
An 8700-m Distributed Acoustic Sensing (DAS) cable was deployed at Brady's Hot Springs, Nevada in March 2016 in a 1.5 by 0.5 km study area. The layout of the DAS array was designed with a zig-zag geometry to obtain relatively uniform areal and varied angular coverage, providing very dense coverage with a one-meter channel spacing. This array continuously recorded signals of a vibroseis truck, earthquakes, and traffic noise during the 15-day deployment. As shown in a previous study (Zeng et al., 2017), ambient noise tomography can be applied to DAS continuous records to image shear wave velocity structure in the near surface. To avoid effects of the vibroseis truck operation, only continuous data recorded during the nighttime was used to compute noise cross-correlation functions for channel pairs within a given linear segment. The frequency band of whitening was set at 5 to 15 Hz and the length of the cross-correlation time window was set to 60 second. The phase velocities were determined using the multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) methodology. The phase velocity dispersion curve was then used to invert for shear wave velocity profiles. A preliminarily velocity model at Brady's Hot Springs (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 2015) was used as the starting model and the sensitivity kernels of Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities were computed with this model. As the sensitivity kernel shows, shear wave velocity in the top 200 m can be constrained with Rayleigh wave group and phase velocities in our frequency band. With the picked phase velocity data, the shear wave velocity structure can be obtained via Occam's inversion (Constable et al., 1987; Lai 1998). Shear wave velocity gradually increases with depth and it is generally faster than the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (2015) model. Furthermore, that model has limiting constraints at shallow depth. The strong spatial variation is interpreted to reflect the different sediments and
Motiwalla, S. K.
1973-01-01
Using the first and the second derivative of flutter velocity with respect to the parameters, the velocity hypersurface is made quadratic. This greatly simplifies the numerical procedure developed for determining the values of the design parameters such that a specified flutter velocity constraint is satisfied and the total structural mass is near a relative minimum. A search procedure is presented utilizing two gradient search methods and a gradient projection method. The procedure is applied to the design of a box beam, using finite-element representation. The results indicate that the procedure developed yields substantial design improvement satisfying the specified constraint and does converge to near a local optimum.
Computing discharge using the index velocity method
Levesque, Victor A.; Oberg, Kevin A.
2012-01-01
Application of the index velocity method for computing continuous records of discharge has become increasingly common, especially since the introduction of low-cost acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) in 1997. Presently (2011), the index velocity method is being used to compute discharge records for approximately 470 gaging stations operated and maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey. The purpose of this report is to document and describe techniques for computing discharge records using the index velocity method. Computing discharge using the index velocity method differs from the traditional stage-discharge method by separating velocity and area into two ratings—the index velocity rating and the stage-area rating. The outputs from each of these ratings, mean channel velocity (V) and cross-sectional area (A), are then multiplied together to compute a discharge. For the index velocity method, V is a function of such parameters as streamwise velocity, stage, cross-stream velocity, and velocity head, and A is a function of stage and cross-section shape. The index velocity method can be used at locations where stage-discharge methods are used, but it is especially appropriate when more than one specific discharge can be measured for a specific stage. After the ADVM is selected, installed, and configured, the stage-area rating and the index velocity rating must be developed. A standard cross section is identified and surveyed in order to develop the stage-area rating. The standard cross section should be surveyed every year for the first 3 years of operation and thereafter at a lesser frequency, depending on the susceptibility of the cross section to change. Periodic measurements of discharge are used to calibrate and validate the index rating for the range of conditions experienced at the gaging station. Data from discharge measurements, ADVMs, and stage sensors are compiled for index-rating analysis. Index ratings are developed by means of regression
Kinematics of the entire East African Rift from GPS velocities
Floyd, M.; King, R. W.
2017-12-01
Through a collaborative effort of the GeoPRISMS East Africa Rift GPS Working Group, we have collected and collated all of the publicly available continuous and survey-mode data for the entire rift system between 1994 and 2017 and processed these data as part of a larger velocity solution for Africa, Arabia and western Eurasia. We present here our velocity solution encompassing the major bounding plates and intervening terranes along the East African Rift from the Red Sea to the Malawi Rift and adjacent regions for GPS sites with data spans of at least 2.4 years, and north and east velocity uncertainties less than 1.5 mm/yr. To obtain realistic uncertainties for the velocity estimates, we attempted at each stage of the analysis to account for the character of the noise: During phase processing, we used an elevation-dependent weighting based on the phase residuals for each station; we then examined each position time series, removing outliers and reweighting appropriately to account for the white noise component of the errors; and e accounted for temporal correlations by estimating an equivalent random-walk magnitude for each continuous site and applying the median value (0.5 mm/√yr) to all survey-mode sites. We rigorously estimate relative rotation rates of Nubia, by choosing subset of well-determined sites such that the effective weights of western, northeastern and southern Africa were roughly equivalent, and Somalia, for which the estimate is dominated by three sites (MALI, RCMN, SEY1) whose uncertainties are a factor of 2-3 smaller than those of the other sites. For both plates, the weighted root-mean-square of the velocity residuals is 0.5 mm/yr. Our unified velocity solution provides a geodetic framework and constraints on the continental-scale kinematics of surface motions as well as more local effects both within and outside of the rift structures. Specific focus areas with denser coverage than previous fields include the Danakil block, the Afar Rift, the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saito, Y.; Mishima, K.; Suzuki, T.; Matsubayashi, M.
2003-01-01
The structures of liquid metal two-phase flow are investigated for analyzing the core meltdown accident of fast reactor. The experiments of high-density ratio two-phase flow for lead-bismuth molten metal and nitrogen gases are conducted to understand in detail. The liquid phase velocity distributions of lead-bismuth molten metal are measured by neutron radiography using Au-Cd tracer particles. The liquid phase velocity distributions are obtained usually by using particle image velocimetry (PIV) on the neutron radiography. The PIV, however is difficult to get the velocity vector distribution quantitatively. An image of neutron radiography is divided into two images of the bubbles and the tracer particles each in particle tracking velocimetry (PTV), which distinguishes tracer contents in the bubble from them in the liquid phase. The locations of tracer particles in the liquid phase are possible to determine by particle mask correlation method, in which the bubble images are separated from the tracer images by Σ-scaling method. The particle tracking velocimetry give a full detail of the velocity vector distributions of the liquid phase in two-phase flow, in comparison with the PIV method. (M. Suetake)
Volumetric velocity measurements in restricted geometries using spiral sampling: a phantom study.
Nilsson, Anders; Revstedt, Johan; Heiberg, Einar; Ståhlberg, Freddy; Bloch, Karin Markenroth
2015-04-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of maximum velocity measurements using volumetric phase-contrast imaging with spiral readouts in a stenotic flow phantom. In a phantom model, maximum velocity, flow, pressure gradient, and streamline visualizations were evaluated using volumetric phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with velocity encoding in one (extending on current clinical practice) and three directions (for characterization of the flow field) using spiral readouts. Results of maximum velocity and pressure drop were compared to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, as well as corresponding low-echo-time (TE) Cartesian data. Flow was compared to 2D through-plane phase contrast (PC) upstream from the restriction. Results obtained with 3D through-plane PC as well as 4D PC at shortest TE using a spiral readout showed excellent agreements with the maximum velocity values obtained with CFD (spiral sequences were respectively 14 and 13 % overestimated compared to CFD. Identification of the maximum velocity location, as well as the accurate velocity quantification can be obtained in stenotic regions using short-TE spiral volumetric PC imaging.
Axial flow velocity patterns in a normal human pulmonary artery model: pulsatile in vitro studies.
Sung, H W; Yoganathan, A P
1990-01-01
It has been clinically observed that the flow velocity patterns in the pulmonary artery are directly modified by disease. The present study addresses the hypothesis that altered velocity patterns relate to the severity of various diseases in the pulmonary artery. This paper lays a foundation for that analysis by providing a detailed description of flow velocity patterns in the normal pulmonary artery, using flow visualization and laser Doppler anemometry techniques. The studies were conducted in an in vitro rigid model in a right heart pulse duplicator system. In the main pulmonary artery, a broad central flow field was observed throughout systole. The maximum axial velocity (150 cm s-1) was measured at peak systole. In the left pulmonary artery, the axial velocities were approximately evenly distributed in the perpendicular plane. However, in the bifurcation plane, they were slightly skewed toward the inner wall at peak systole and during the deceleration phase. In the right pulmonary artery, the axial velocity in the perpendicular plane had a very marked M-shaped profile at peak systole and during the deceleration phase, due to a pair of strong secondary flows. In the bifurcation plane, higher axial velocities were observed along the inner wall, while lower axial velocities were observed along the outer wall and in the center. Overall, relatively low levels of turbulence were observed in all the branches during systole. The maximum turbulence intensity measured was at the boundary of the broad central flow field in the main pulmonary artery at peak systole.
Do minimum wages reduce poverty? Evidence from Central America ...
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
2010-12-16
Dec 16, 2010 ... Raising minimum wages has traditionally been considered a way to protect poor ... However, the effect of raising minimum wages remains an empirical question ... More than 70 of Vietnamese entrepreneurs choose to start a ...
Vector blood velocity estimation in medical ultrasound
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gran, Fredrik; Udesen, Jesper
2006-01-01
Two methods for making vector velocity estimation in medical ultrasound are presented. All of the techniques can find both the axial and transverse velocity in the image and can be used for displaying both the correct velocity magnitude and direction. The first method uses a transverse oscillation...... in the ultrasound field to find the transverse velocity. In-vivo examples from the carotid artery are shown, where complex turbulent flow is found in certain parts of the cardiac cycle. The second approach uses directional beam forming along the flow direction to estimate the velocity magnitude. Using a correlation...... search can also yield the direction, and the full velocity vector is thereby found. An examples from a flow rig is shown....
Algorithms for estimating blood velocities using ultrasound
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
2000-01-01
Ultrasound has been used intensively for the last 15 years for studying the hemodynamics of the human body. Systems for determining both the velocity distribution at one point of interest (spectral systems) and for displaying a map of velocity in real time have been constructed. A number of schemes...... have been developed for performing the estimation, and the various approaches are described. The current systems only display the velocity along the ultrasound beam direction and a velocity transverse to the beam is not detected. This is a major problem in these systems, since most blood vessels...... are parallel to the skin surface. Angling the transducer will often disturb the flow, and new techniques for finding transverse velocities are needed. The various approaches for determining transverse velocities will be explained. This includes techniques using two-dimensional correlation (speckle tracking...