WorldWideScience

Sample records for minimum effluent process

  1. TBP production plant effluent treatment process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sriniwas, C.; Sugilal, G.; Wattal, P.K.

    2004-06-01

    TBP production facility at Heavy Water Plant, Talcher generates about 2000 litres of effluent per 200 kg batch. The effluent is basically an aqueous solution containing dissolved and dispersed organics such as dibutyl phosphate, butanol etc. The effluent has high salinity, chemical oxygen demand (30-80 g/L) and pungent odour. It requires treatment before discharge. A chemical precipitation process using ferric chloride was developed for quantitative separation of organics from the aqueous part of the effluent. This process facilitates the discharge of the aqueous effluent. Results of the laboratory and bench scale experiments on actual effluent samples are presented in this report. (author)

  2. Liquid effluent processing group. Activity details 1963

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-08-01

    This report first gives a quantitative overview of volumes of effluents of high activity, medium activity and low activity which passed through the department for effluent processing. It also makes the distinction between the shape or type of container of these effluents. A table indicates their origin and another indicates their destination. The β and α decontamination rates are determined, and the assessment of stored aqueous and organic effluents on the 31 December 1963 is given. The next part proposes an assessment of laboratory activities: control operations (input controls, control of processed effluent before discarding), controls related to processing (processing types, radiochemical and chemical dosing performed on effluent mixes before processing). Tables indicate the characteristics of medium activity effluents collected in 1963, the results of high activity liquid analysis, and Beryllium dosing results. A summary of ALEA processing, a table of the characteristics of stored oils and solvents are given. The third part reports data related to transport activities, and various works performed in the Saclay plant to improve exploitation conditions and results

  3. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility Module 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, C.J.

    1995-10-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure lonq-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years

  4. TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS OF EFFLUENTS DEPHENOLYSATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. Трачевський

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The one of the important physical factors impacting on the environmental safety of industrial wastewater generated in the production of paints and varnishes is considered. Identification wastewater formation sources, composition, its amount in a particular type of resin is an essential point for developing methods of cleaning industrial wastewater treatment design and industrial plants. Deep cleaning of wastewater from phenol is a major challenge. Studies that mostly focused on the known methods of disposal of waste waters from phenol have been analyzed. It was shown that the shortcomings of many methods of sewage treatment of phenols by condensation at atmospheric pressure are the long duration of the process, significant cost of heat, and large residual phenol concentration in water, respectively. The most effective method of reducing the concentration of phenol in waste water is its oxidation in MnO2 suspension. The interaction of manganese oxides with sulfuric acid produces oxygen, which can oxidise phenol contained in the waste water. As a result of wastewater treatment of phenolic resins by manganese oxides in acidic sulfate medium phenol concentration  was decreased by 98.6 - 99.6%.

  5. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DAVIS, W.E.

    2000-03-08

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee public safety, or the environment. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan ensures long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and must be updated, as a minimum, every 3 years.

  6. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DAVIS, W.E.

    2000-01-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee public safety, or the environment. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan ensures long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and must be updated, as a minimum, every 3 years

  7. Processes influencing cooling of reactor effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magoulas, V.E.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Discharge of heated reactor cooling water from SRP reactors to the Savannah River is through sections of stream channels into the Savannah River Swamp and from the swamp into the river. Significant cooling of the reactor effluents takes place in both the streams and swamp. The majority of the cooling is through processes taking place at the surface of the water. The major means of heat dissipation are convective transfer of heat to the air, latent heat transfer through evaporation and radiative transfer of infrared radiation. A model was developed which incorporates the effects of these processes on stream and swamp cooling of reactor effluents. The model was used to simulate the effect of modifications in the stream environment on the temperature of water flowing into the river. Environmental effects simulated were the effect of changing radiant heat load, the effect of changes in tree canopy density in the swamp, the effect of total removal of trees from the swamp, and the effect of diverting the heated water from L reactor from Steel Creek to Pen Branch. 6 references, 7 figures

  8. Potential for reuse of effluent from fish-processing industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Morena Rodrigues Vitor Dias Ferraciolli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The most common problems in the fish processing industry relate to high water consumption and the generation of effluents with concentrated organic loads. Given that reuse can represent an alternative for sustainable development, this study sought to assess the potential for recycling effluents produced in a fish-processing plant. In order to do so, the final industrial effluent was analyzed using the American Public Health Association (APHA standard effluent-analysis method (2005. In addition, the study assessed treatments which produce effluents meeting the requirements prescribed by different countries' regulations for reuse and recycling. The results found that effluents with smaller organic loads, such as those from health barriers and monoblock washing, can be treated in order to remove nutrients and solids so that they can be subsequently reused. For effluents produced by the washing and gutting cylinders, it is recommended that large fragments of solid waste be removed beforehand. Effluents can in this way attain a quality compatible with industrial reuse. This study further highlights the possibility of treating effluents so as comply with drinking water standards. This would potentially allow them to be used within the actual fish-processing procedure; in such a case, a revision of standards and measures for controlling use should be considered to prevent microbiological damage to products and risks to handlers and final consumers.

  9. The treatment of liquid effluents of reprocessing plants by a chemical process: French experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, N.; Taillard, D.

    1977-01-01

    The goal of radioactive effluent processing is to obtain a liquid with a residual activity level allowing disposal and a minimum amount of slurries. Insolubilization methods used in France are described to eliminate fission products in reprocessing plants effluents i.e. strontium, cesium, ruthenium and antimony; others radioelements are generally carried away with others precipitates. Evolution of the process is expressed in terms of reprocessing needs and improvements. Decontamination factors better than 100 are now possible with concentration factors between 30 and 50 [fr

  10. High Speed/ Low Effluent Process for Ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Clark Dale

    2006-10-30

    n this project, BPI demonstrated a new ethanol fermentation technology, termed the High Speed/ Low Effluent (HS/LE) process on both lab and large pilot scale as it would apply to wet mill and/or dry mill corn ethanol production. The HS/LE process allows very rapid fermentations, with 18 to 22% sugar syrups converted to 9 to 11% ethanol ‘beers’ in 6 to 12 hours using either a ‘consecutive batch’ or ‘continuous cascade’ implementation. This represents a 5 to 8X increase in fermentation speeds over conventional 72 hour batch fermentations which are the norm in the fuel ethanol industry today. The ‘consecutive batch’ technology was demonstrated on a large pilot scale (4,800 L) in a dry mill corn ethanol plant near Cedar Rapids, IA (Xethanol Biofuels). The pilot demonstrated that 12 hour fermentations can be accomplished on an industrial scale in a non-sterile industrial environment. Other objectives met in this project included development of a Low Energy (LE) Distillation process which reduces the energy requirements for distillation from about 14,000 BTU/gal steam ($0.126/gal with natural gas @ $9.00 MCF) to as low as 0.40 KW/gal electrical requirements ($0.022/gal with electricity @ $0.055/KWH). BPI also worked on the development of processes that would allow application of the HS/LE fermentation process to dry mill ethanol plants. A High-Value Corn ethanol plant concept was developed to produce 1) corn germ/oil, 2) corn bran, 3) ethanol, 4) zein protein, and 5) nutritional protein, giving multiple higher value products from the incoming corn stream.

  11. Petroleum Refinery Effluents Treatment by Advanced Oxidation Process with Methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shoucheng, Wen [Yangtze Univ., HuBei Jingzhou (China)

    2014-02-15

    Petroleum refinery effluents are waste originating from industries primarily engaged in refining crude oil. It is a very complex compound of various oily wastes, water, heavy metals and so on. Conventional processes are unable to effectively remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petroleum refinery effluents. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) was proposed to treat petroleum refinery effluents. In this paper, methanol was used to investigate co-oxidative effect of methanol on petroleum refinery effluents treatment. The results indicated that supercritical water oxidation is an effective process for petroleum refinery effluents treatment. Adding methanol caused an increase in COD removal. When reaction temperature is 440 .deg. C, residence time is 20 min, OE is 0.5 and initial COD is 40000 mg/L, and COD removal increases 8.5%.

  12. Petroleum Refinery Effluents Treatment by Advanced Oxidation Process with Methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoucheng, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Petroleum refinery effluents are waste originating from industries primarily engaged in refining crude oil. It is a very complex compound of various oily wastes, water, heavy metals and so on. Conventional processes are unable to effectively remove the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of petroleum refinery effluents. Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) was proposed to treat petroleum refinery effluents. In this paper, methanol was used to investigate co-oxidative effect of methanol on petroleum refinery effluents treatment. The results indicated that supercritical water oxidation is an effective process for petroleum refinery effluents treatment. Adding methanol caused an increase in COD removal. When reaction temperature is 440 .deg. C, residence time is 20 min, OE is 0.5 and initial COD is 40000 mg/L, and COD removal increases 8.5%

  13. Hanford Site Treated Effluent Disposal Facility process flow sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents a novel method of using precipitation, destruction and recycle factors to prepare a process flow sheet. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) will treat process sewer waste water from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, located near Richland, Washington, and discharge a permittable effluent flow into the Columbia River. When completed and operating, the TEDF effluent water flow will meet or exceed water quality standards for the 300 Area process sewer effluents. A preliminary safety analysis document (PSAD), a preconstruction requirement, needed a process flow sheet detailing the concentrations of radionuclides, inorganics and organics throughout the process, including the effluents, and providing estimates of stream flow quantities, activities, composition, and properties (i.e. temperature, pressure, specific gravity, pH and heat transfer rates). As the facility begins to operate, data from process samples can be used to provide better estimates of the factors, the factors can be entered into the flow sheet and the flow sheet will estimate more accurate steady state concentrations for the components. This report shows how the factors were developed and how they were used in developing a flow sheet to estimate component concentrations for the process flows. The report concludes with how TEDF sample data can improve the ability of the flow sheet to accurately predict concentrations of components in the process

  14. Rework of process effluents from the fabrication of HTR fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasberg, Ingo; Braehler, Georg [NUKEM Technologies GmbH (Germany); Boyes, David [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Pty) Ltd., Centurion (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    HTR fuel facilities require the application of several liquid chemicals and accordingly they produce significant amounts of Uranium contaminated/potentially contaminated effluents. The main effluents are (amounts for a 3 t Uranium/a plant): aqueous solutions including tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol THFA, ammonium hydroxide NH4OH, and ammonium nitrate NH4NO3 (180 m{sup 3}/a), isopropanol IPA/water mixtures (130 m{sup 3}/a); Non-Process Water NPW (300 m{sup 3}/a); methanol (7m{sup 3}/a); additionally off-gas streams, containing ammonia (9 t/a) have to be treated. In an industrial scale facility all such effluents/gases need to be processed for recycling, decontamination prior to release to the environment (as waste or as valuable material). Thermal decomposition is applied to dispose of burnable residues.

  15. Rework of process effluents from the fabrication of HTR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasberg, Ingo; Braehler, Georg; Boyes, David

    2008-01-01

    HTR fuel facilities require the application of several liquid chemicals and accordingly they produce significant amounts of Uranium contaminated/potentially contaminated effluents. The main effluents are (amounts for a 3 t Uranium/a plant): aqueous solutions including tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol THFA, ammonium hydroxide NH4OH, and ammonium nitrate NH4NO3 (180 m 3 /a), isopropanol IPA/water mixtures (130 m 3 /a); Non-Process Water NPW (300 m 3 /a); methanol (7m 3 /a); additionally off-gas streams, containing ammonia (9 t/a) have to be treated. In an industrial scale facility all such effluents/gases need to be processed for recycling, decontamination prior to release to the environment (as waste or as valuable material). Thermal decomposition is applied to dispose of burnable residues.

  16. Using solvent extraction to process nitrate anion exchange column effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarbro, S.L.

    1987-10-01

    Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO), a new organophosphorous extractant, and a new centrifugal mixer-settler both recently developed at Argonne were evaluated for their potential use in the recovery of actinides from nitrate anion exchange column effluents. The performance of the extractant was evaluated by measuring the extraction coefficient values as a function of acid and salt concentration. Additional performance parameters include extraction coefficient behavior as a function of the total metal concentration in the organic phase, and comparison of different stripping and organic scrubbing techniques. A simulated effluent stream was used to evaluate the performance of the centrifugal mixer-settlers by comparing experimental and calculated interstage concentration profiles. Both the CMPO extractant and the centrifugal mixer-settlers have potential for processing nitrate column effluents, particularly if the stripping behavior can be improved. Details of the proposed process are presented in the flowsheet and contactor design analyses

  17. Using solvent extraction to process nitrate anion exchange column effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yarbro, S.L.

    1987-10-01

    Octyl(phenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethylphosphine oxide (CMPO), a new organophosphorous extractant, and a new centrifugal mixer-settler both recently developed at Argonne were evaluated for their potential use in the recovery of actinides from nitrate anion exchange column effluents. The performance of the extractant was evaluated by measuring the extraction coefficient values as a function of acid and salt concentration. Additional performance parameters include extraction coefficient behavior as a function of the total metal concentration in the organic phase, and comparison of different stripping and organic scrubbing techniques. A simulated effluent stream was used to evaluate the performance of the centrifugal mixer-settlers by comparing experimental and calculated interstage concentration profiles. Both the CMPO extractant and the centrifugal mixer-settlers have potential for processing nitrate column effluents, particularly if the stripping behavior can be improved. Details of the proposed process are presented in the flowsheet and contactor design analyses.

  18. Effect of Cassava Processing Effluent on Soil Properties, Growth and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study, comprising a survey, greenhouse and field experiments was conducted to examine the effect of Cassava Processing Effluent (CPE) on soil chemical properties, maize growth performances and grain yield. In the survey, soil samples were taken (0-15 and 15 – 30cm) of CPE contaminated and non contaminated ...

  19. Packaging of radioactive sludges at the Saclay effluent processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerre, Pierre; Mestre, Emile; Bourdrez, Jean; Leconnetable, Jean

    1964-10-01

    The authors describe technical and technological aspects of the packaging workshop for radioactive sludges produced by processes of co-precipitation of Saclay effluents. This facility is an achievement of studies which aimed at improving working conditions for the plant staff. This workshop implements a process of solidification of filtered sludge by mixing with a hydraulic binding agent. After some generalities on the decontamination process applied to effluents produced by the Saclay research centre, the authors present and describe the adopted process, propose a physical description of the facility: building, chemical engineering equipment (filtration, packaging, and handling). They describe facility operation: introduction of a block into the cell, block filling, output of a packaged container. They briefly discuss the first results of facility exploitation [fr

  20. Alternative process for treating radioactive effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puget, Flavia P.; Massarani, Giulio

    2002-01-01

    In this work an alternative process for treating a wastewater containing dissolved uranium is considered. In order to develop this work, a continuous separation unit, characterized by the solvent extraction, carried out inward the ejector is used. Alamina 336 (a mixture of tri-octyl and tri-decyl amines) is used as extractant in this process. The splitting of the amine-water emulsion formed is carried out in a gravitational separation tank. The result showed that it is possible to reach an efficiency of about 95% for the uranium extraction, for metal concentration in the feed of 10 ppm and a Q fa /Q fo ratio around 500. Furthermore, an efficiency of about 50% is reached for metal concentration in the feed of 1 ppm and for aQ fa /Q fo ratio around 1000, when the liquid flow rate is equal 1200 L/h. (author)

  1. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-03-01

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities

  2. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, K.D.; Ballinger, M.Y.

    1999-04-02

    This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements. The RPL at PNNL houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and radioactive mixed waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities within the building include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed radioactive, low-level radioactive, and transuranic wastes generated by PNNL activities.

  3. Inorganic ion exchangers. Application to liquid effluent processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dozol, M.

    1983-10-01

    Main inorganic ion exchangers used for radioactive liquid effluents presented in this report are: synthetic and natural zeolites, in titanium oxides, titanates, niobates, tantalates, zirconates, some insoluble salts of zirconium, molybdenum and tin, heteropolyacids and polyantimonic acid. Properties of these ion exchangers are described: structure, adsoption, radiation effects and thermal stability, application to waste processing, radioactive waste storage uranium and cesium 137 recovery are evoked [fr

  4. Synthesis of zero effluent multipurpose batch processes using effective scheduling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gouws, JF

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available as follows. Given, i) required production over a given time horizon, ii) product recipe and production times, iii) maximum number of processing vessels and storage vessels, and iv) maximum and minimum capacity of processing vessels and storage vessels... the cleaning operation, due to the three different products mixed. Each type of wastewater has the possibility of being stored in a distinct storage vessel. The minimum and maximum capacity of each storage vessel is 500kg and 1500kg, respectively...

  5. Minimum uncertainty and squeezing in diffusion processes and stochastic quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demartino, S.; Desiena, S.; Illuminati, Fabrizo; Vitiello, Giuseppe

    1994-01-01

    We show that uncertainty relations, as well as minimum uncertainty coherent and squeezed states, are structural properties for diffusion processes. Through Nelson stochastic quantization we derive the stochastic image of the quantum mechanical coherent and squeezed states.

  6. Process for the reduction of nitrogen oxides in an effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epperly, W.R.; Sullivan, J.C.; Sprague, B.N.

    1989-07-04

    This patent describes a process for the reduction of the concentration of nitrogen oxides in the effluent from the combustion of a carbonaceous fuel. The process comprises introducing a treatment agent which comprises a composition selected from the group consisting of NH/sub 4/-lignosulfonate, calcium lignosulfonate, 2-furoic acid, 1,3 dioxolane, tetrahydrofuran, furfurylamine, furfurylalcohol, gluconic acid, citric acid, n-butyl acetate, 1,3 butylene glycol, methylal, tetrahydrofuryl alcohol, furan, fish oil, coumalic acid, furfuryl acetate, tetrahydrofuran 2,3,4,5-tetracarboxylic acid, tetrahydrofurylamine, furylacrylic acid, tetrahydropyran, 2,5-furandimethanol, mannitol, hexamethylenediamine, barbituric acid, acetic anhydride, oxalic acid, mucic acid and d-galactose.

  7. Processing of miscellaneous radioactive effluents by continous flocculation decantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundy, D.; Matton, P.; Petteau, J.L.; Roofthooft, R.

    1985-01-01

    In the nuclear power plant of Chooz an installation for flocculation and chemical precipitation has been built to treat miscellaneous radioactive effluents continuously. It is an industrial prototype of 5 m 3 /h resulting of several years of research, first on lab scale in a discontinous system and finally in a continuous pilot plant of small size (500 l/h). The process is based on the adsorption of radioactivity on a floc of copper-ferrocyanide precipitated by ferric chloride. The water is then filtered. After a series of preliminary tests and modifications, it has been possible to develop a technique which satisfies the specified decontamination conditions and to reduce the discharges of radioactivity to the Meuse to only 5 - 10% of the authorized limits. The process aims principally at the treatment of laundry waste, but other effluents such as drains from the rocks, pool water and used decontamination solutions (of the primary pumps) have been treated. A technico-economic evaluation of the process in comparison with evaporation is clearly in favour of the flocculation. 31 figs, 40 tables, 12 refs

  8. Minimum energy consumption process synthesis for energy saving

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao-Ping, Jia [Institute for Petroleum and Chemical Industry, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042, Shandong (China); Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Fang, Wang; Shu-Guang, Xiang; Xin-Sun, Tan; Fang-Yu, Han [Institute for Petroleum and Chemical Industry, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042, Shandong (China)

    2008-05-15

    The paper presents a synthesis strategy for the chemical processes with energy saving. The concept of minimum energy consumption process (MECP) is proposed. Three characteristics of MECP are introduced, including thermodynamic minimum energy demand, energy consumption efficiency and integration degree. These characteristics are evaluated according to quantitative thermodynamic analysis and qualitative knowledge rules. The procedure of synthesis strategy is proposed to support the generation of MECP alternatives, which combine flowsheet integration and heat integration. The cases studies will focus on how integration degrees of a process affect the energy-saving results. The separation sequences of the hydrodealkylation of toluene (HDA) process and ethanol distillation process as case studies are used to illustrate. (author)

  9. The minimum work required for air conditioning process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alhazmy, Majed M.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis based on the second law of thermodynamics to estimate the minimum work required for the air conditioning process. The air conditioning process for hot and humid climates involves reducing air temperature and humidity. In the present analysis the inlet state is the state of the environment which has also been chosen as the dead state. The final state is the human thermal comfort fixed at 20 o C dry bulb temperature and 60% relative humidity. The general air conditioning process is represented by an equivalent path consisting of an isothermal dehumidification followed by a sensible cooling. An exergy analysis is performed on each process separately. Dehumidification is analyzed as a separation process of an ideal mixture of air and water vapor. The variations of the minimum work required for the air conditioning process with the ambient conditions is estimated and the ratio of the work needed for dehumidification to the total work needed to perform the entire process is presented. The effect of small variations in the final conditions on the minimum required work is evaluated. Tolerating a warmer or more humid final condition can be an easy solution to reduce the energy consumptions during critical load periods

  10. Process for processing and conditioning radioactive effluents of low and medium activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taponier, Jean; Pierlas, Rene.

    1979-01-01

    Preferably continuous process for processing radioactive effluents of low and medium activity, comprising an effluent pre-treatment: precipitation of radioactive compounds to form a stable suspension that can be concentrated. Then a mix is made of 0.6 to 2 parts of cement by weight for one part by weight of suspension, from 0.5 to 5% by weight, in relation to the cement, of asbestos fibre and, if necessary, added water for the cement to set, this suspension containing from 15 to 75% by weight of dry extract and a suspension agent. The homogeneous mix achieved is poured into a container [fr

  11. The Effect of Pretreatments on Surfactin Production From Potato Process Effluent by Bacillus Subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, David Neal; Fox, Sandra Lynn; Bala, Greg Alan

    2000-05-01

    Pretreatment of low-solids (LS) potato process effluent was tested for potential to increase surfactin yield. Pretreatments included heat, removal of starch particulates, and acid hydrolysis. Elimination of contaminating vegetative cells was necessary for surfactin production. After autoclaving, 0.40 g/L of surfactin was produced from the effluent in 72 h, versus 0.24 g/L in the purified potato starch control. However, surfactin yields per carbon consumed were 76% lower from process effluent. Removal of starch particulates had little effect on the culture. Acid hydrolysis decreased growth and surfactant production, except 0.5 wt% acid, which increased the yield by 25% over untreated effluent.

  12. The effect of pretreatments on surfactin production from potato process effluent by Bacillus subtilis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. N. Thompson; S. L. Fox; G. A. Bala

    2000-05-07

    Pretreatment of low-solids (LS) potato process effluent was tested for potential to increase surfactin yield. Pretreatments included heat, removal of starch particulates, and acid hydrolysis. Elimination of contaminating vegetative cells was necessary for surfactin production. After autoclaving, 0.40 g/L of surfactin was produced from the effluent in 72 h, versus 0.24 g/L in the purified potato starch control. However, surfactin yields per carbon consumed were 76% lower from process effluent. Removal of starch particulates had little effect on the culture. Acid hydrolysis decreased growth and surfactant production, except 0.5 wt% acid, which increased the yield by 25% over untreated effluent.

  13. Heavy oil processing impacts refinery and effluent treatment operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornthwaite, P. [Nalco Champion, Northwich, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    2013-11-01

    Heavy oils are becoming more common in Europe. The processing of heavier (opportunity or challenge) crudes, although financially attractive, introduce additional challenges to the refiner. These challenges are similar whether they come from imported crudes or in the future possibly from shale oils (tight oils). Without a strategy for understanding and mitigating the processing issues associated with these crudes, the profit potential may be eroded by decreased equipment reliability and run length. This paper focuses on the impacts at the desalter and how to manage them effectively while reducing the risks to downstream processes. Desalters have to deal with an increased viscosity, density (lower API gravity), higher solids loading, potential conductivity issues, and asphaltene stability concerns. All these factors can lead to operational problems impacting downstream of the desalter, both on the process and the water side. The other area of focus is the effluent from the desalter which can significantly impact waste water operations. This can take the form of increased oil under-carry, solids and other contaminants originating from the crudes. Nalco Champion has experience in working with these challenging crudes, not only, Azeri, Urals and African crudes, but also the Canadian oil sands, US Shale oil, heavy South American crudes and crudes containing metal naphthenates. Best practices will be shared and an outlook on the effects of Shale oil will be given. (orig.)

  14. Processing of effluent salt from the direct oxide reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    The production of reactive metals by Direct Oxide Reduction (DOR) process using calcium in a molten calcium salt system generates significant amount of contaminated waste as calcium oxide saturated calcium chloride salt mix with calcium oxide content of up to 15 wt. pct. Fused salt electrolysis of a simulated salt mix has been carried out to electrowin calcium, which can be recycled to the DOR reactor along with the calcium chloride salt or may be used in-situ in a combined DOR and electrowinning process. Many reactive metal oxides could thus be reduced in a one-step process without generating a significant amount of waste. The process has been optimized in terms of the calcium solubility, cell temperature, current density and the cell design to maximize the current efficiency. Based on the information available regarding the solubility of calcium in calcium chloride salt in the presence of calcium oxide, and the back reactions occurring in-situ between the electrowon calcium and other components present in the cell, e.g. carbon, oxygen, carbon dioxide and calcium oxide, it is difficult to recover elemental calcium within the system. However, a liquid cathode or a rising cathode has been used in the past to recover calcium. The solubility has also been found to depend on the use of graphite as the anode material as evidenced by the presence of calcium carbonate in the final salt. The rate of recovery for metallic calcium has to be enhanced to levels that overcome the back reactions in a system where quick removal of anodic gases is achieved. Calcium has been detected by the hydrogen evolution technique and the amount of calcia has been determined by titration. A porous ceramic sheath has been used in the cell to prevent the chemical reaction of electrowon calcium to produce oxide or carbonate and to prevent the contamination of salt by the anodic carbon

  15. ELEX process for tritium separation from aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggeman, A.; Doyen, W.; Leysen, R.; Meynendonckx, L.; Monsecour, M.; Goossens, W.R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Within the framework of the European Communities' indirect action program on management and storage of radioactive waste the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, S.C.K./C.E.N., is developing the ELEX process for tritium separation from aqueous reprocessing effluents. This process is a combination of water electrolysis and tritium exchange between hydrogen and water, the exchange being promoted by a hydrophobic catalyst. For classical electrolysis under normal working conditions with elementary tritium separation factor of 11.6 with a standard deviation of 6% was obtained. As to the exchange step an appropriate hydrophobic catalyst has been developed, and overall tritium exchange rates were measured in a countercurrent packed-bed reactor. Extrapolation of these results to the 3 m 3 per day scale of a reprocessing plant leads to an electrolyser capacity of about 1 MW and to an exchange volume of about 1 m 3 for an ELEX installation that concentrates 90% of the original tritium in 1% of the original volume. At the moment the construction of a small integrated detritiation unit is nearly finished. A larger pilot installation will be built later on

  16. physico-chemical characteristics of effluents from garri processing

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMIN

    0.62ppm all in contrast to World Health Organization maximum admissible limit of 0.07ppm. A two- ... indiscriminate discharge of industrial effluents [Salami and Egwin, 1997]. ..... Wastewater Engineering, Treatment and Refuse,. 4th edition ...

  17. Early Evolution of the Toxicity Identification Evaluation Process: Contributions from the USEPA Effluent Testing Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of its whole effluent testing program, the USEPA developed an effects-directed analysis (EDA) approach to identifying the cause of toxicity in toxic effluents or ambient waters, an EDA process termed a “Toxicity Identification Evaluation” (TIE), which is the focus of this...

  18. Optimization of electrocoagulation process to treat biologically pretreated bagasse effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirugnanasambandham K.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to investigate the efficiency of electrocoagulation process as a post-treatment to treat biologically pretreated bagasse effluent using iron electrodes. The removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD and total suspended solids (TSS were studied under different operating conditions such as amount of dilution, initial pH, applied current and electrolyte dose by using response surface methodology (RSM coupled with four-factor three-level Box-Behnken experimental design (BBD. The experimental results were analyzed by Pareto analysis of variance (ANOVA and second order polynomial mathematical models were developed with high correlation of efficiency (R2 for COD, TSS removal and electrical energy consumption (EEC. The individual and combined effect of variables on responses was studied using three dimensional response surface plots. Under the optimum operating conditions, such as amount of dilution at 30 %, initial pH of 6.5, applied current of 8 mA cm-2 and electrolyte dose of 740 mg l-1 shows the higher removal efficiency of COD (98 % and TSS (93 % with EEC of 2.40 Wh, which were confirmed by validation experiments.

  19. Anammox for ammonia removal from pig manure effluents: Effect of organic matter content on process performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salces, Beatriz Molinuevo; García, M. C.; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov

    2009-01-01

    oxidation) diluted with synthetic wastewater. High ammonium removal was achieved, up to 92.1 +/- 4.9% for diluted UASB-post-digested effluent (95 mg COD L-1) and up to 98.5 +/- 0.8% for diluted partially oxidized effluent (121 mg COD L-1). Mass balance clearly showed that an increase in organic loading......The anammox process, under different organic loading rates (COD), was evaluated using a semi-continous UASB reactor at 37 degrees C. Three different substrates were used: initially, synthetic wastewater, and later, two different pig manure effluents (after UASB-post-digestion and after partial...... improved ammonium removal at high organic matter concentration. Up to threshold organic load concentration of 142 mg COD L-1 of UASB-post-digested effluent and 242 mg COD L-1 of partially oxidized effluent, no effect of organic loading on ammonia removal was registered (ammonium removal was above 80...

  20. Process and device for conditioning low and medium activity radioactive effluents with hydraulic binders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaouen, C.; Magnin, G.; Renault, G.

    1986-01-01

    Chemical processing of borated radioactive effluents is claimed. Tetrahydrated calcium borate crystals are prepared by lime additions, the volume is reduced by evaporation under reduced pressure and the product obtained is mixed with hydraulic binders [fr

  1. Decomposition of organic pollutants in industrial Effluent induced by advanced oxidation process with Electron beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, C.L.; Sampa, M.H.O.; Rela, P.R.; Oikawa, H.; Silveira, C.G.

    2001-01-01

    Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) by electron beam irradiation induce the decomposition of pollutants in industrial effluent. Experiments were conducted using a Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1.5 MeV energy and 37 Kew power. Experiments were conducted using samples from a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) that receives about 20% of industrial wastewater, with the objective of use the electrons beam technology to destroy the refractory organic pollutants. Samples from WTP main Industrial Receiver Unit influent (IRU), Coarse Bar Screens effluent (CBS), Medium Bar Screens effluent (MBS), Primary Sedimentation effluent (PS) and Final Effluent (FE), were collected and irradiated in the electron beam accelerator in a batch system. The delivered doses were 5.0kGy, 10.0kGy and 20.0kGy. The electron beam irradiation showed be efficient on destroying the organic compounds delivered in these effluents mainly chloroform, dichloroethane, methyl isobutyl ketone, benzene, toluene, xylene, phenol. The necessary dose to remove 90% of the most organic compounds from industry effluent was 20 kGy. The removal of organic compounds from this complex mixture were described by the destruction G value (Gd) that were obtained for those compounds in different initial concentration and compared with literature

  2. Anaerobic bio-digestion of concentrate obtained in the process of ultra filtration of effluents from tilapia processing unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Alves de Souza

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficiency of the process of biodigestion of the protein concentrate resulting from the ultrafiltration of the effluent from a slaughterhouse freezer of Nile tilapia. Bench digesters were used with excrements and water (control in comparison with a mixture of cattle manure and effluent from the stages of filleting and bleeding of tilapias. The effluent obtained in the continuous process (bleeding + filleting was the one with highest accumulated population from the 37th day, as well as greatest daily production. Gases composition did not differ between the protein concentrates, but the gas obtained with the use of the effluent from the filleting stage presented highest methane gas average (78.05% in comparison with those obtained in the bleeding stage (69.95% and in the continuous process (70.02% or by the control method (68.59%.

  3. Method and device for processing aqueous effluents containing tritiated water, electrode used in that device and its fabrication process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellanger, G.; Giroux, P.

    1983-01-01

    In this process an electrolyte, such as sodium hydroxide, is added to the effluent and the solution is electrolysed to obtain gaseous tritium. The electrolytic cell includes a cathode made with a metal facilitating tritium diffusion, e.g. Pd-Ag alloy. The cathode constitutes a separation wall between the electrolysed solution and a compartment where tritium is recovered after diffusion through the cathode. Application is made for tritium recovery in effluents coming from spent fuel reprocessing [fr

  4. New treatment facility for low level process effluents at the Savannah River site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebra, M.A.; Bibler, J.P.; Johnston, B.S.; Kilpatrick, L.L.; Poy, F.L.; Wallace, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    A new facility, the F/H Effluent Treatment Facility (F/H ETF) is under construction at the Savannah River site. It will decontaminate process effluents containing low levels of radionuclides and hazardous chemicals prior to discharge to a surface stream. These effluents, which are currently discharged to seepage basins, originate in the chemical separations and high-level radioactive waste processing areas, known as F-Area and H-Area. The new facility will allow closure of the basins in order to meet the provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act by November 1988. A high degree of reliability is expected from this design as a result of extensive process development work that has been conducted at the Savannah River Laboratory. This work has included both bench scale testing of individual unit operations and pilot scale testing of an integrated facility, 150 to 285 L/min (40 to 75 gpm), that contains the major operations

  5. Integrating the Fenton's Process with Biofiltration by to Reduce Chemical Oxygen Demand of Winery Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipolo, Marco; Martins, Rui C; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M; Costa, Raquel

    2017-03-01

    The discharge of poorly decontaminated winery wastewater remains a serious environmental problem in many regions, and the industry is welcoming improved treatment methods. Here, an innovative decontamination approach integrating Fenton's process with biofiltration by Asian clams is proposed. The potential of this approach was assessed at the pilot scale using real effluent and by taking an actual industrial treatment system as a benchmark. Fenton peroxidation was observed to remove 84% of the effluent's chemical oxygen demand (COD), reducing it to 205 mg L. Subsequent biofiltration decreased the effluent's COD to approximately zero, well below the legal discharge limit of 150 mg L, in just 3 d. The reduction of the effluent's organic load through Fenton's process did not decrease its toxicity toward , but the effluent was much less harmful after biofiltration. The performance of the treatment proposed exceeded that of the integrated Fenton's process-sequencing batch reactor design implemented in the winery practice, where a residence time of around 10 d in the biological step typically results in 80 to 90% of COD removal. The method proposed is effective and compatible with typical winery budgets and potentially contributes to the management of a nuisance species. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  6. REMOVAL OF REMAZOL ROSSO RB DYE FROM AQUEOUS EFFLUENTS BY HOMOGENOUS FENTON OXIDATION PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Zaharia

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some data from our laboratory-setup experiments of homogenous oxidative processes with hydrogen peroxide (i.e. advanced Fenton oxidation processes applied for Remazol Rosso RB dye-containing aqueous systems, especially textile effluents. Therefore, some different operating parameters (including pH, concentration of dye, H2O2 and ferrous ions, oxidation time, temperature, stirring regime, among its were tested for determination of the best performance in effluent decoloration and dye removal, meaning the optimal values of each studied parameters for highest decoloration or dye removal.

  7. Controlled decomposition and oxidation: A treatment method for gaseous process effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinley, Roger J. B., Sr.

    1990-01-01

    The safe disposal of effluent gases produced by the electronics industry deserves special attention. Due to the hazardous nature of many of the materials used, it is essential to control and treat the reactants and reactant by-products as they are exhausted from the process tool and prior to their release into the manufacturing facility's exhaust system and the atmosphere. Controlled decomposition and oxidation (CDO) is one method of treating effluent gases from thin film deposition processes. CDO equipment applications, field experience, and results of the use of CDO equipment and technological advances gained from the field experiences are discussed.

  8. Efficiency of combined process of ozone and bio-filtration in the treatment of secondary effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Smriti; Tripathi, B D

    2011-07-01

    The present work was aimed at studying the efficiency of the combined process of biofiltration with ozonation to improve the quality of secondary effluent. The secondary effluent from the Dinapur Sewage Treatment Plant Varanasi, India was used in this work. The process of biofiltration with the plant species of Eichornia crassipes and Lemna minor, at a flow rate of 262 ml min(-1) and plant density of 30 mg L(-1) for 48 h, in combination with the process of ozonation with ozone dose of 10 mg L(-1) and contact time of 5 min was applied. Results revealed that combined process was statistically most suitable for the highest degradation of physico-chemical and microbial parameters with improving BDOC value. The biofiltration process is able to remove highest percentage of toxic heavy metals from the secondary effluent without production of toxicity. This technique is highly recommendable for tropical wastewater where sewage is mixed with industrial effluents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Decolorization and removal of cod and bodfrom raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent through advanced oxidation processes (AOPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Muhammad

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparative study of the treatment of raw and biotreated (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB textile dye bath effluent using advanced oxidation processes (AOPs is presented. The AOPs applied on raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent, after characterization in terms of COD, colour, BOD and pH, were ozone, UV, UV/H2O2 and photo-Fenton. The decolorization of raw dye bath effluent was 58% in the case of ozonation. However it was 98% in the case of biotreated dye bath effluent when exposed to UV/H2O2. It is, therefore, suggested that a combination of biotreatment and AOPs be adopted to decolorize dye bath effluent in order to make the process more viable and effective. Biodegradability was also improved by applying AOPs after biotreatment of dye bath effluent.

  10. Integrated process for the removal of emulsified oils from effluents in the steel industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, J.M.; Rios, G.; Gutierrez, B.; Pazos, C.; Coca, J.

    1999-11-01

    Emulsified oils contained in aqueous effluents from cold-rolling mills of the steel industry can be effectively removed via an integrated process consisting of a coagulation/flocculation stage followed by ultrafiltration of the resulting aqueous phase. The effects of CaCl{sub 2}, NaOH, and lime on the stability of different industrial effluents were studied in the coagulation experiments. The flocculants tested were inorganic prehydrolyzed aluminum salts and quaternary polyamines. Ultrafiltration of the aqueous phase from the coagulation/flocculation stage was carried out in a stirred cell using Amicon PM30 and XM300 organic membranes. Permeate fluxes were measured for industrial effluents to which the indicated coagulants and flocculants had been added. Oil concentrations in the permeate were 75% lower than the limits established by all European Union countries. Complete regeneration of the membrane was accomplished with an aqueous solution of a commercial detergent.

  11. Algal-based immobilization process to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant (WWTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shengbing; Xue Gang

    2010-01-01

    Algal-based immobilization process was applied to treat the effluent from a secondary wastewater treatment plant. Batch test proved that algae could attach onto fiber-bundle carrier in 7 days, and then the algal-based immobilization reactor could reduce TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) significantly within 48 h. Based on the above investigations, the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of the algal-based immobilization reactor in continuous operation mode was determined to be 2 days. During the 91 days of experiment on the treating secondary effluent of Guang-Rao wastewater treatment plant, it was found that the fiber-bundle carrier could collect the heterobacteria and nitrifying bacteria gradually, and thus improved the COD removal efficiency and nitrification performance step by step. Results of the continuous operation indicated that the final effluent could meet the Chinese National First A-level Sewage Discharge Standard when the algal-based immobilization reactor reached steady state.

  12. Reuse of effluent from dyeing process of polyamide fibers modified by double barrier discharge (DBD) plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Fernando Ribeiro; Steffens, F.; Souto, A. Pedro; Zille, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Published online: 27 Feb 2015 Low-temperature plasma technology becomes more and more attractive compared with traditional wet processes in textile preparation and finishing due to its high efficiency and low environmental impact. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of dielectric barrier discharge plasma treatment on the trichromic dyeing process of polyamide 6.6 (PA66) and the reuse of the generated effluents for new dyeing processes. Chemical and physical charact...

  13. New decontamination processes for liquid effluents and solid materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, S.

    2008-01-01

    New decontamination processes are being studied in order to protect workers and to reduce strongly the quantity of secondary wastes produced. 2 decontamination processes for liquid nuclear wastes are under studies. First, the coprecipitation process whose improvement is based on a better control of the 2 coupled mechanisms involved in the process: the formation of adsorbent particles and the uptake of radionuclides. Secondly, the column process whose development focuses on new materials that can be used to absorb cesium in a reversible way. 3 new decontamination processes for solid materials are being developed. First, processes using drying gels are under investigation in order to treat materials like lead, aluminium, iron and stainless steel. Real decontamination of hot cells by drying gel process has been performed and a decontamination factor between 16 and 25 has been obtained on stainless steels. Secondly, new foam decontamination processes have been developed, they are based on the use of new foams stabilized by biodegradable non-ionic surfactants: alkyl-poly-glucosides and viscofiers or nano-particles. The aim is to increase the foam lifetime. Thirdly, new surfactants in solution decontamination processes have been studied, the aim is to decontaminate through degreasing by using acidic surfactants. The idea is to combine emulsification and wetting power. (A.C.)

  14. MINIMUM ENTROPY DECONVOLUTION OF ONE-AND MULTI-DIMENSIONAL NON-GAUSSIAN LINEAR RANDOM PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程乾生

    1990-01-01

    The minimum entropy deconvolution is considered as one of the methods for decomposing non-Gaussian linear processes. The concept of peakedness of a system response sequence is presented and its properties are studied. With the aid of the peakedness, the convergence theory of the minimum entropy deconvolution is established. The problem of the minimum entropy deconvolution of multi-dimensional non-Gaussian linear random processes is first investigated and the corresponding theory is given. In addition, the relation between the minimum entropy deconvolution and parameter method is discussed.

  15. Elementary sulfur in effluent from denitrifying sulfide removal process as adsorbent for zinc(II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuan; Zhou, Xu; Wang, Aijie; Wu, Dong-hai; Liu, Li-hong; Ren, Nanqi; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2012-10-01

    The denitrifying sulfide removal (DSR) process can simultaneously convert sulfide, nitrate and organic compounds into elementary sulfur (S(0)), di-nitrogen gas and carbon dioxide, respectively. However, the S(0) formed in the DSR process are micro-sized colloids with negatively charged surface, making isolation of S(0) colloids from other biological cells and metabolites difficult. This study proposed the use of S(0) in DSR effluent as a novel adsorbent for zinc removal from wastewaters. Batch and continuous tests were conducted for efficient zinc removal with S(0)-containing DSR effluent. At pHremoval rates of zinc(II) were increased with increasing pH. The formed S(0) colloids carried negative charge onto which zinc(II) ions could be adsorbed via electrostatic interactions. The zinc(II) adsorbed S(0) colloids further enhanced coagulation-sedimentation efficiency of suspended solids in DSR effluents. The DSR effluent presents a promising coagulant for zinc(II) containing wastewaters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Processing and monitoring liquid, radioactive effluents from the Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehlein, G.; Huppert, K.L.; Winter, M.

    1977-01-01

    The Wiederaufarbeitungsanlage Karlsruhe (WAK) serves as a demonstration plant for the processing of highly-irradiated uranous oxide. The high active waste concentrates find interim storage at the WAK until they are solidified at a later stage. In contrast to this, the slightly- and the medium-active liquid wastes are transported to the decontamination facility of the Nuclear Research Centre Karlsruhe, where they are immediately processed. These liquid wastes contain about 1 per thousand of the activity inventary of the fuel elements processed. Monitoring of the radioactive waste water of the WAK is carried out by the Nuclear Research Centre's department radiation protection and safety. (orig.) [de

  17. Detoxifying of high strength textile effluent through chemical and bio-oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manekar, Pravin; Patkar, Guarav; Aswale, Pawan; Mahure, Manisha; Nandy, Tapas

    2014-04-01

    Small-scale textile industries (SSTIs) in India struggled for the economic and environmental race. A full-scale common treatment plant (CETP) working on the principle of destabilising negative charge colloidal particles and bio-oxidation of dissolved organic failed to comply with Inland Surface Waters (ISW) standards. Thus, presence of intense colour and organics with elevated temperature inhibited the process stability. Bench scale treatability studies were conducted on chemical and biological processes for its full-scale apps to detoxify a high strength textile process effluent. Colour, SS and COD removals from the optimised chemical process were 88%, 70% and 40%, respectively. Heterotrophic bacteria oxidised COD and BOD more than 84% and 90% at a loading rate 0.0108kgm(-3)d(-1) at 3h HRT. The combined chemical and bio-oxidation processes showed a great promise for detoxifying the toxic process effluent, and implemented in full-scale CETP. The post-assessment of the CETP resulted in detoxify the toxic effluent. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Dry uranium tetrafluoride process preparation using the uranium hexafluoride reconversion process effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Neto, Joao Batista da

    2008-01-01

    It is a well known fact that the use of uranium tetrafluoride allows flexibility in the production of uranium suicide and uranium oxide fuel. To its obtention there are two conventional routes, the one which reduces uranium from the UF 6 hydrolysis solution with stannous chloride, and the hydro fluorination of a solid uranium dioxide. In this work we are introducing a third and a dry way route, mainly utilized to the recovery of uranium from the liquid effluents generated in the uranium hexafluoride reconversion process, at IPEN/CNEN-SP. Working in the liquid phase, this route comprises the recuperation of ammonium fluoride by NH 4 HF 2 precipitation. Working with the solid residues, the crystallized bifluoride is added to the solid UO 2 , which comes from the U mini plates recovery, also to its conversion in a solid state reaction, to obtain UF 4 . That returns to the process of metallic uranium production unity to the U 3 Si 2 obtention. This fuel is considered in IPEN CNEN/SP as the high density fuel phase for IEA-R1m reactor, which will replace the former low density U 3 Si 2 -Al fuel. (author)

  19. Human norovirus in untreated sewage and effluents from primary, secondary and tertiary treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Carlos J A; Avant, Justin; Lowther, James; Till, Dale; Lees, David N

    2016-10-15

    Wastewater treatments are considered important means to control the environmental transmission of human norovirus (NoV). Information about NoV concentrations in untreated and treated effluents, their seasonality and typical removal rates achieved by different treatment processes is required to assess the effectiveness of sewage treatment processes in reducing human exposure to NoV. This paper reports on a characterisation of concentrations of NoV (genogroups I and II) in untreated sewage (screened influent) and treated effluents from five full scale wastewater treatment works (WwTW) in England. Results are shown for effluent samples characteristic of primary- (primary settlement, storm tank overflows), secondary- (activated sludge, trickling filters, humus tanks) and tertiary (UV disinfection) treatments. NoV occurrence in untreated sewage varied between years. This variation was consistent with the annual variation of the virus in the community as indicated by outbreak laboratory reports. Significant differences were found between mean NoV concentrations in effluents subject to different levels of treatment. Primary settlement achieved approximately 1 log10 removal for both genogroups. Concentrations of NoV and Escherichia coli in untreated sewage were of the same order of magnitude of those in storm tank overflows. Of the secondary treatments studied, activated sludge was the most effective in removing NoV with mean log10 removals of 3.11 and 2.34 for GI and GII, respectively. The results of this study provide evidence that monitoring of NoV in raw sewage or treated effluents could provide early warning of an elevated risk for NoV and potentially help prevent outbreaks through environmental exposure. They also provide evidence that elimination of stormwater discharges and improvement of the efficiency of activated sludge for NoV removal would be effective for reducing the risk of environmental transmission. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  20. A process to remove ammonia from PUREX plant effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.D.

    1990-01-01

    Zirconium-clad nuclear fuel from the Hanford N-Reactor is reprocessed in the PUREX (Plutonium Uranium Extraction) Plant operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Comapny. Before dissolution, cladding is chemically removed from the fuel elements with a solution of ammonium fluoride-ammonium nitrate (AFAN). a solution batch with an ammonia equivalent of about 1,100 kg is added to each fuel batch of 10 metric tons. This paper reports on this decladding process, know as the 'Zirflex' process which produces waste streams containing ammonia and ammonium slats. Waste stream treatment, includes ammonia scrubbing, scrub solution evaporation, residual solids dissolution, and chemical neutralization. These processes produce secondary liquid and gaseous waste streams containing varying concentrations of ammonia and low-level concentrations of radionuclides. Until legislative restrictions were imposed in 1987, these secondary streams were released to the soil in a liquid disposal 'crib' and to the atmosphere

  1. Ecosystem protection by effluent bioremediation: silver nanoparticles impregnation in a textile fabrics process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duran, Nelson; Marcato, Priscyla D.; Alves, Oswaldo L.; Silva, Joao P. S. Da; Souza, Gabriel I. H. De; Rodrigues, Flavio A.; Esposito, Elisa

    2010-01-01

    This work studied a bioremediation process of silver nanoparticles with the bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum. These nanoparticles were obtained from several washes of cotton fabrics impregnated with silver nanoparticles produced by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. The optimized growth of C. violaceum for silver nanoparticles bioremediation was obtained. The effluents of wash process of the cotton fabric were efficiently treated with C. violaceum. This treatment was based on biosorption which was very efficient for the elimination of silver nanoparticles remaining in the wash water. The bacteria after biosorption were morphologically transformed, but the normal morphology after a new culture was completely restored. The process also allowed the recovery of silver material that was leached into the effluent for a reutilization avoiding any effect to the eco-environment.

  2. Ecosystem protection by effluent bioremediation: silver nanoparticles impregnation in a textile fabrics process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duran, Nelson, E-mail: duran@iqm.unicamp.br; Marcato, Priscyla D. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Biological Chemistry Laboratory, Instituto de Quimica (Brazil); Alves, Oswaldo L. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Solid State Chemistry Laboratory, Instituto de Quimica (Brazil); Silva, Joao P. S. Da; Souza, Gabriel I. H. De [Universidade de Mogi das Cruzes, Biological Chemistry and Biotechnology Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Center (Brazil); Rodrigues, Flavio A. [Universidade de Mogi das Cruzes, Material Chemistry Laboratory, Biochemical Research Center (Brazil); Esposito, Elisa [Universidade de Mogi das Cruzes, Biological Chemistry and Biotechnology Laboratory, Environmental Sciences Center (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    This work studied a bioremediation process of silver nanoparticles with the bacterium Chromobacterium violaceum. These nanoparticles were obtained from several washes of cotton fabrics impregnated with silver nanoparticles produced by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. The optimized growth of C. violaceum for silver nanoparticles bioremediation was obtained. The effluents of wash process of the cotton fabric were efficiently treated with C. violaceum. This treatment was based on biosorption which was very efficient for the elimination of silver nanoparticles remaining in the wash water. The bacteria after biosorption were morphologically transformed, but the normal morphology after a new culture was completely restored. The process also allowed the recovery of silver material that was leached into the effluent for a reutilization avoiding any effect to the eco-environment.

  3. Opportunities for membrane technologies in the treatment of mining and mineral process streams and effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awadalla, F.T.; Kumar, A.

    1994-01-01

    The membrane separation technologies of microfiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis are suitable for treating many dilute streams and effluents generated in mining and mineral processing. Membrane technologies are capable of treating these dilute streams in order to produce clean permeate water for recycle and a concentrate that can potentially be used for valuable metals recovery. Membrane technologies can be utilized alone, or in combination with other techniques as a polishing step, in these separation processes. A review of potential applications of membranes for the treatment of different process streams and effluents for water recycling and pollution control is given here. Although membranes may not be optimum in all applications, these technologies are recognized in the mining sector for the many potential advantages they can provide. 59 refs

  4. Industrial water and effluent management in the milk processing industry

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Funke, JW

    1970-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important commodities used in any food-processing industry is water which must be of the right quality. Water which comes into direct contact with milk or milk products must meet standards which are even stricter than those for a...

  5. Sono assisted electrocoagulation process for the removal of pollutant from pulp and paper industry effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaithambi, P; Aziz, Abdul Raman Abdul; Sajjadi, Baharak; Daud, Wan Mohd Ashri Bin Wan

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, the efficiency of the sonication, electrocoagulation, and sono-electrocoagulation process for removal of pollutants from the industrial effluent of the pulp and paper industry was compared. The experimental results showed that the sono-electrocoagulation process yielded higher pollutant removal percentage compared to the sonication and electrocoagulation process alone. The effect of the operating parameters in the sono-electrocoagulation process such as electrolyte concentration (1-5 g/L), current density (1-5 A/dm 2 ), effluent pH (3-11), COD concentration (1500-6000 mg/L), inter-electrode distance (1-3 cm), and electrode combination (Fe and Al) on the color removal, COD removal, and power consumption were studied. The maximum color and COD removal percentages of 100 and 95 %, respectively, were obtained at the current density of 4 A/dm 2 , electrolyte concentration of 4 g/L, effluent pH of 7, COD concentration of 3000 mg/L, electrode combination of Fe/Fe, inter-electrode distance of 1 cm, and reaction time of 4 h, respectively. The color and COD removal percentages were analyzed by using an UV/Vis spectrophotometer and closed reflux method. The results showed that the sono-electrocoagulation process could be used as an efficient and environmental friendly technique for complete pollutant removal.

  6. Methodology for Determining Increases in Radionuclide Inventories for the Effluent Treatment Facility Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, A.

    1998-01-01

    A study is currently underway to determine if the Effluent Treatment Facility can be downgraded from a Hazard Category 3 facility to a Radiological Facility per DOE STD-1027-92. This technical report provides a methodology to determine and monitor increases in the radionuclide inventories of the ETF process columns. It also provides guidelines to ensure that other potential increases to the ETF radionuclide inventory are evaluated as required to ensure that the ETF remains a Radiological Facility

  7. Radioactive liquid effluent management - state of art and the role of membrane processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panicker, S.T.; Prabhakar, S.; Misra, B.M.; Ramani, M.P.S.

    1990-01-01

    This report reviews the conventional methods involving filtration, chemical precipitation, evaporation and ion exchange, employed for the treatment of low level radioactive effluents. The role of membrane processes, particularly reverse osmosis and ultrafiltration has been assessed with a view to increase the effectiveness of the existing methods. After overviewing the practices followed in major countries, a possible scheme has been proposed. (author). 66 refs., 4 tabs., figs

  8. Treatment of uranium-containing effluent in the process of metallic uranium parts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Guoqi

    1993-01-01

    The anion exchange method used in treatment of uranium-containing effluent in the process of metallic parts is the subject of the paper. The results of the experiments shows that the uranium concentration in created water remains is less than 10 μg/l when the waste water flowed through 10000 column volume. A small facility with column volume 150 litre was installed and 1500 m 3 of waste water can be cleaned per year. (1 tab.)

  9. Effluent composition prediction of a two-stage anaerobic digestion process: machine learning and stoichiometry techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Luz; Atkinson, John; Guzmán-Fierro, Víctor; Roeckel, Marlene

    2018-05-16

    Computational self-adapting methods (Support Vector Machines, SVM) are compared with an analytical method in effluent composition prediction of a two-stage anaerobic digestion (AD) process. Experimental data for the AD of poultry manure were used. The analytical method considers the protein as the only source of ammonia production in AD after degradation. Total ammonia nitrogen (TAN), total solids (TS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total volatile solids (TVS) were measured in the influent and effluent of the process. The TAN concentration in the effluent was predicted, this being the most inhibiting and polluting compound in AD. Despite the limited data available, the SVM-based model outperformed the analytical method for the TAN prediction, achieving a relative average error of 15.2% against 43% for the analytical method. Moreover, SVM showed higher prediction accuracy in comparison with Artificial Neural Networks. This result reveals the future promise of SVM for prediction in non-linear and dynamic AD processes. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  10. Color, TOC and AOX removals from pulp mill effluent by advanced oxidation processes: A comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catalkaya, Ebru Cokay; Kargi, Fikret

    2007-01-01

    Pulp mill effluent containing toxic chemicals was treated by different advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) consisting of treatments by hydrogen peroxide, Fenton's reagent (H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ ), UV, UV/H 2 O 2 , photo-Fenton (UV/H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ ), ozonation and peroxone (ozone/H 2 O 2 ) in laboratory-scale reactors for color, total organic carbon (TOC) and adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) removals from the pulp mill effluent. Effects of some operating parameters such as the initial pH, oxidant and catalyst concentrations on TOC, color, AOX removals were investigated. Almost every method used resulted in some degree of color removal from the pulp mill effluent. However, the Fenton's reagent utilizing H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ resulted in the highest color, TOC and AOX removals under acidic conditions when compared with the other AOPs tested. Approximately, 88% TOC, 85% color and 89% AOX removals were obtained by the Fenton's reagent at pH 5 within 30 min. Photo-Fenton process yielded comparable TOC (85%), color (82%) and AOX (93%) removals within 5 min due to oxidations by UV light in addition to the Fenton's reagent. Fast oxidation reactions by the photo-Fenton treatment makes this approach more favorable as compared to the others used

  11. The Use of Electrocoagulation Process for Removal of Turbidity, COD, Detergent and Phosphorus from Carwash Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Takdastan

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the efficiency of Electrical coagulation process in removal of COD, turbidity, detergent and phosphate from carwash effluent. An experimental study in laboratory scale was carried out and a glass tank with volume of 3 liters (effective volume of 2 liters containing 4 electrode-page iron and aluminum (AL-AL, AL-Fe, Fe-Fe were used. Electrodes were connected to a power supply with using bipolar method to convert alternative electricity to direct current. Daily samples were collected from different carwash effluents. Initial pH of samples were reported between 7 to 9.At first different tests were performed on primary samples. Percentage of removal was calculated in range pH and electrical potential of 11, 7, 3 and 30, 20, 10 volts respectively. Reaction times were set 90, 60, 30 minutes with middle intervals of 2 cm. The results showed the efficiency of COD removal in the optimum range of  pH=3, voltage of 30 and retention time of 90 minutes removal efficiency in pH of 7 after 90 minutes retention time, voltage of 30, with aluminum electrode reached more than 99%. According to the results obtained electrical energy consumption in aluminum electrodes was less than others. However aluminum is more expensive than iron and the difference in energy consumption between iron and aluminum can be ingnored. Apart from that COD and detergent removal efficiency of iron electrodes is higher than aluminum electrodes therefore, using iron as the electrode is more economical and recommended. Altogether it was found that this method can be use as a safe and convenient method for treating carwash effluent and according to the high removal efficiency of process, effluent can be discharged safely into the environment.

  12. Application of advanced oxidation process by electron beam irradiation in the organic compounds degradation present in industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Celina Lopes

    1999-01-01

    The inefficacy of conventional methods to destroy toxic organic compounds present in industrial effluent has taken the search for new technologies of treatment. he water irradiation is the most efficient process to generate radicals that mineralise these compounds. A study to evaluate the Advanced Oxidation Process by electron beam irradiation to treat industrial effluent with high toxic organic compounds concentration was carried out. Experiments were conducted using a Radiation Dynamics Electron Beam Accelerator with 1,5 MeV energy and 37 power. The effluent samples from a big industrial complex were irradiated using the IPEN's Liquid Effluent Irradiation Pilot Plant and the effluent samples from five steps of a Governmental Wastewater Treatment Plant from SABESP - ETE Suzano (industrial Receiver Unit, Coarse Bar Screens, Medium Bar Screens, Primary Sedimentation and Final Effluent), were irradiated in a batch system. The electron beam irradiation showed be efficient on destroying the organic compounds delivered in these effluents mainly chloroform, dichloroethane, methyl isobutyl ketone, benzene, toluene, xylene, phenol and in the decoloring of dyes present in some samples. To remove 90% of the most organic compounds was necessary a 20 kGy dose for industry's ETE, 20 kGy for IRU, CBS and MBS and 10 kGy to 20 kGy for PS and FE. (author)

  13. Treatment of textile dyehouse effluent using ceramic membrane based process in combination with chemical pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Priyankari; Ghosh, Sourja; Majumdar, Swachchha; Bandyopadhyay, Sibdas

    2013-10-01

    Treatment of highly concentrated dyebath effluent and comparatively dilute composite effluent having mixture of various reactive dyes collected from a cotton fabric dyeing unit was undertaken in the present study. Ceramic microfiltration membrane prepared from a cost effective composition of alumina and clay was used. Prior to microfiltration, a chemical pretreatment was carried out with aluminium sulphate in combination with a polymeric retention aid. An optimum dose of 100 mg/L of aluminium sulphate and 1 ml/L of a commercial flocculant Afilan RAMF was found effective for dye removal (> 98%) from the synthetic solutions of reactive dyes with initial concentration of 150 mg/L in both the single component and two component systems. In the microfiltration study, effect of operating pressure in the permeate flux was observed for both the pretreated and untreated effluents and permeate samples were analyzed for dye concentration, COD, turbidity, TSS, etc. during constant pressure filtration. About 98-99% removal of dyes was obtained in the combined process with COD reduction of 54-64%.

  14. Removal of Zn-65, Mo-99 and I-125 from effluent by coagulation-flocculation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syed Hakimi Sakuma Syed Ahmad

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the efficiency treatment in removing Zn-65, Mo-99 and I-1 25 from an aqueous radioactive effluent. The wastes are currently being produced from hospitals, research institutes, clinics and universities. Effluent was spiked separately with each type of the radioisotope and was treated by the coagulation-flocculation process. By varying the chemical dosages (i.e., alum, soda ash, ferric chloride and coagulant aid) in the treatment, different decontamination factor values were obtained. Optimum dosages and types of chemical used to remove a particular radioisotope was determined. Results indicated that optimum pH value for removing Zn-65 in an effluent was pH 8. The highest decontamination factor value was 61. In removal of 1-125 radioisotope, ferric chloride was suitable as a coagulant that gives the highest decontamination factor value of 5.0. Treatment to remove Mo-99 radioisotopes was conducted in the laboratory and treatment plant scale. For Mo-99 radioisotope treatment by laboratory and Plant scale, the highest decontamination factor obtained was between pH values of 4.0 to 4.5. By extrapolation of both scales, the plant scale treatment does not vary significantly from laboratory scale. This indicated treatment dosages of chemicals for the Low Level Treatment Plant scale be deduced from the laboratory scale

  15. Treatment and processing of the effluents and wastes (other than fuel) produced by a 900 MWe nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giraud

    1983-01-01

    Effluents produced by a 900 MWe power plant, are of three sorts: gaseous, liquid and solid. According to their nature, effluents are either released or stored for decaying before being released to the atmosphere. The non-contaminated reactor coolant effluents are purified (filtration, gas stripping) and treated by evaporation for reuse. Depending upon their radioactive level, liquid waste is either treated by evaporation or discharged after filtration. Solid waste issuing from previous treatments (concentrates, resins, filters) is processed in concrete drums using an encapsulation process. The concrete drum provides biological self-protection consistent with the national and international regulations pertaining to the transport of radioactive substance. Finally, the various low-level radioactive solid waste collected throughout the plant, is compacted into metal drums. Annual estimates of the quantity of effluents (gaseous, liquid) released in the environment and the number of drums (concrete, metal) produced by the plant figure in the conclusion

  16. Characterization of effluent from food processing industries and stillage treatment trial with Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. and Panicum maximum (Jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. Noukeu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effluents from 11 food processing industries from various sectors were characterized through analysis of physical and chemical parameters. In general, effluents pHs are between 4.07 and 7.63. Lead (Pb2+ and cadmium (Cd+ concentrations range from 0.083 to 1.025 mg/l and 0.052–0.158 mg/l respectively. The biodegradability of the effluent is very low. The principal component analysis (PCA grouped industries according to their organic matter levels; thus, stillage, livestock, molasses and sugar refinery effluents show some similarities, as well as confectionery, oil mill, dairy and brewery effluents. Forms of nitrogen measured show low levels of nitrites (NO2−, high levels of nitrates (NO3−, ammonium (NH4+ and Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN. Among these effluents, a treatment trial with Eichhornia crassipes and Panicum maximum was applied to stillage effluent from Fermencam distillery. The results show that Panicum maximum and Eichhornia crassipes reduce pollutant loads of Fermencam's wastewater.

  17. Chemical processing of liquid effluents in reprocessing plants: experience gained in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, N.; Pottier, P.; Taillard, D.

    1977-01-01

    The radionuclides present in radioactive liquid effluents are precipitated for two purposes, viz: 1) to reduce the radioactivity to a level at which the liquids may be discharged; 2) to concentrate the radioactive compounds in the smallest possible volume for storage. The scientific principles of the radionuclide precipitation process are reviewed in the first part, which covers the solubility product, adsorption onto the surface of the precipitates, co-precipitation by isomorphism, ion-exchange on precipitates, etc. The paper goes on to discuss flocculation techniques, flocculation monitoring (zeta potential etc.) and methods of separating the solid and liquid phases. The specific methods for precipitating the main radionuclides are then described, with special reference to Sr, Cs, Ru, Co and Sb. The synergism of certain methods of precipitation is also discussed. The main part of the paper concerns the application of chemical processes for purifying low and medium active effluents in the Marcoule and La Hague centres. Particular emphasis is placed on the development of the processes used and the improvement of performance. Lastly, the paper discusses the possibilities offered in final treatment in such a way as to determine the limits to the effectiveness of the chemical processes. (orig.) [de

  18. Management and Handling of Rejected Fuel of MTR Type and Process Effluents Contained Uranium at FEPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaib Widodo; Bambang Herutomo

    2007-01-01

    Research Reactor Fuel Element Production Installation (FEPI) - Serpong has performed management and handling of all kinds of rejected fuel material during production (solids, liquids, and gases) and process effluents contained uranium. The methods that has been implemented are precipitation, absorption, evaporation, electrolysis, and electrodialysis. By these methods will finally be obtained forms of product which can be used directly as fuel material feed and solid/liquid radioactive waste that fulfil the requirements (uranium contents < 50 ppm) to be send to Radioactive Waste Management Installation. (author)

  19. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium uranium extraction facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiegand, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years.

  20. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the uranium trioxide facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohrasbi, J.; Johnson, D.L.; De Lorenzo, D.S.

    1993-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years

  1. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium uranium extraction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiegand, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years

  2. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the Plutonium Uranium Extraction Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greager, E.M.

    1997-01-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan will ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, at a minimum, every 3 years

  3. Hydrotalcites: a highly efficient ecomaterial for effluent treatment originated from carbon nanotubes chemical processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, O L; Stefani, D; Parizotto, N V; Filho, A G Souza, E-mail: oalves@iqm.unicamp.br [Solid State Chemistry Laboratory, Institute of Chemistry, University of Campinas - UNICAMP, P. O. Box 6154, 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-06

    It has been reported that a mixture of carboxylated carbonaceous fragments (CCFs), so called oxidation debris, are generated during carbon nanotubes chemical processing using oxidant agents such as HNO{sub 3}. The elimination of these fragments from carbon nanotubes surface has been point out to be a crucial step for an effective functionalization of the nanotubes as well as for improving the material. However, this process can introduce a potential environmental problem related water contamination because these CCFs can be viewed as a mixture of carbonaceous polyaromatic systems similar to humic substances and dissolved organic matter (DOM). The negative aspects of humic substances and DOM to water quality and wastewater treatment are well known. Since carbon nanotubes industry expands at high rates it is expected that effluent containing oxidation debris will increase since HNO{sub 3} chemical processing is the most applied method for purification and functionalization of carbon nanotubes. In this work, we have demonstrated that Hydrotalcites (HT) are highly efficient to remove oxidation debris from effluent solution originated from HNO{sub 3}-treated multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The strategy presented here is a contribution towards green chemistry practices and life cycle studies in carbon nanotubes field.

  4. Reuse of Textile Dyeing Effluents Treated with Coupled Nanofiltration and Electrochemical Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Buscio

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The reactive dye Cibacron Yellow S-3R was selected to evaluate the feasibility of combining nanofiltration membranes with electrochemical processes to treat textile wastewater. Synthetic dyeing effluents were treated by means of two nanofiltration membranes, Hydracore10 and Hydracore50. Up to 98% of dye removal was achieved. The influence of salt concentration and pH on membrane treatment was studied. The best dye removal yield was achieved at pH 3 in the presence of 60 g/L of NaCl. After the membrane filtration, the concentrate containing high dye concentration was treated by means of an electrochemical process at three different current densities: 33, 83, and 166 mA/cm2. Results showed a lineal relationship between treatment time and applied current density. Both permeates and electrochemically-decoloured effluents were reused in new dyeing processes (100% of permeate and 70% of decoloured concentrates. Dyed fabrics were evaluated with respect to original dyeing. Colour differences were found to be into the acceptance range.

  5. Treatment of industrial wastewater effluents using hydrodynamic cavitation and the advanced Fenton process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakinala, Anand G; Gogate, Parag R; Burgess, Arthur E; Bremner, David H

    2008-01-01

    For the first time, hydrodynamic cavitation induced by a liquid whistle reactor (LWR) has been used in conjunction with the advanced Fenton process (AFP) for the treatment of real industrial wastewater. Semi-batch experiments in the LWR were designed to investigate the performance of the process for two different industrial wastewater samples. The effect of various operating parameters such as pressure, H2O2 concentration and the initial concentration of industrial wastewater samples on the extent of mineralization as measured by total organic carbon (TOC) content have been studied with the aim of maximizing the extent of degradation. It has been observed that higher pressures, sequential addition of hydrogen peroxide at higher loadings and lower concentration of the effluent are more favourable for a rapid TOC mineralization. In general, the novel combination of hydrodynamic cavitation with AFP results in about 60-80% removal of TOC under optimized conditions depending on the type of industrial effluent samples. The combination described herein is most useful for treatment of bio-refractory materials where the diminution in toxicity can be achieved up to a certain level and then conventional biological oxidation can be employed for final treatment. The present work is the first to report the use of a hydrodynamic cavitation technique for real industrial wastewater treatment.

  6. Biodegradation of CuTETA, an effluent by-product in mineral processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushing, Alexander M L; Kelebek, Sadan; Yue, Siqing; Ramsay, Juliana A

    2018-04-13

    Polyamines such as triethylenetetramine (TETA) and other amine chelators are used in mineral processing applications. Formation of heavy metal complexes of these reagents as a by-product in effluent water is a recent environmental concern. In this study, Paecilomyces sp. was enriched from soil on TETA as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen and was found to degrade > 96 and 90% CuTETA complexes at initial concentrations of 0.32 and 0.79 mM respectively, following 96-h incubation. After destabilization, most of the copper (> 78%) was complexed extracellularly and the rest was associated with the cell. Mass spectroscopy results provided confirmation that copper re-complexed with small, extracellular, and organic molecules. There are no reports in the literature that Paecilomyces or any other organism can grow on TETA or CuTETA. This study is the first to show that biological destabilization of CuTETA complexes in mineral processing effluents is feasible.

  7. Toxicity evaluation of the effluent of the ammonium diuranate process proceeding from the Uranium Reconversion Cycle (IPEN/CNEN-SP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osti, Silvio Cesar de

    2001-01-01

    This project was developed with the objective to evaluate the acute and chronic toxicity of the ammonium diuranate proceeding from the process used to obtain uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ), substance which is necessary to produce fuel used by the IEA-R1-IPEN reactor. Five acute toxicity tests were done with Daphnia similis in which concentration values of EC(I)50;48h, between 0,39% and 0,57% of the effluent were determined, and other five with Danio rerio in which concentration values of EC(I)50;48h, between 0,06% and 0,07% of the effluent were determined. Three chronic toxicity tests with Selenastrum capricornutum were done, having found NOEC values for concentrations below 0,12% of the effluents. To determine the ion fluoride toxicity in the Daphnia similis, five acute toxicity tests were done in which values of EC(I)50;48h, between 263.90 mgL -1 and 292.82 mgL -1 were found. The acute toxicity tests done with D. similis demonstrated that the effluent toxicity persisted during its storage period. The acute toxicity test with D.rerio and chronic ones with S. capricornutum using the effluents after the ionic-replace treatment, which objective is to recover uranium for reuse, demonstrated the effluent toxicity persistency. (author)

  8. The Minimum Data Set Depression Quality Indicator: Does It Reflect Differences in Care Processes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, S.F.; Cadogan, M.P.; Cabrera, G.R.; Al-Samarrai, N.R.; Jorge, J.S.; Levy-Storms, L.; Osterweil, D.; Schnelle, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. The objective of this work was to determine if nursing homes that score differently on prevalence of depression, according to the Minimum Data Set (MDS) quality indicator, also provide different processes of care related to depression. Design and Methods. A cross-sectional study with 396 long-term residents in 14 skilled nursing…

  9. Heterocatalytic Fenton oxidation process for the treatment of tannery effluent: kinetic and thermodynamic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, S; Ezhil Priya, M; Boopathy, R; Velan, M; Mandal, A B; Sekaran, G

    2012-06-01

    BACKGROUND, AIM, SCOPE: Treatment of wastewater has become significant with the declining water resources. The presence of recalcitrant organics is the major issue in meeting the pollution control board norms in India. The theme of the present investigation was on partial or complete removal of pollutants or their transformation into less toxic and more biodegradable products by heterogeneous Fenton oxidation process using mesoporous activated carbon (MAC) as the catalyst. Ferrous sulfate (FeSO(4)·7H(2)O), sulfuric acid (36 N, specific gravity 1.81, 98% purity), hydrogen peroxide (50% v/v) and all other chemicals used in this study were of analytical grade (Merck). Two reactors, each of height 50 cm and diameter 6 cm, were fabricated with PVC while one reactor was packed with MAC of mass 150 g and other without MAC served as control. The oxidation process was presented with kinetic and thermodynamic constants for the removal of COD, BOD, and TOC from the wastewater. The activation energy (Ea) for homogeneous and heterogeneous Fenton oxidation processes were 44.79 and 25.89 kJ/mol, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters ΔG, ΔH, and ΔS were calculated for the oxidation processes using Van't Hoff equation. Furthermore, the degradation of organics was confirmed through FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry. The heterocatalytic Fenton oxidation process efficiently increased the biodegradability index (BOD/COD) of the tannery effluent. The optimized conditions for the heterocatalytic Fenton oxidation of organics in tannery effluent were pH 3.5, reaction time-4 h, and H(2)O(2)/FeSO(4)·7H(2)O in the molar ratio of 2:1.

  10. Seattle's minimum wage ordinance did not affect supermarket food prices by food processing category.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spoden, Amanda L; Buszkiewicz, James H; Drewnowski, Adam; Long, Mark C; Otten, Jennifer J

    2018-06-01

    To examine the impacts of Seattle's minimum wage ordinance on food prices by food processing category. Supermarket food prices were collected for 106 items using a University of Washington Center for Public Health Nutrition market basket at affected and unaffected supermarket chain stores at three times: March 2015 (1-month pre-policy enactment), May 2015 (1-month post-policy enactment) and May 2016 (1-year post-policy enactment). Food items were categorized into four food processing groups, from minimally to ultra-processed. Data were analysed across time using a multilevel, linear difference-in-differences model at the store and price level stratified by level of food processing. Six large supermarket chain stores located in Seattle ('intervention') affected by the policy and six same-chain but unaffected stores in King County ('control'), Washington, USA. One hundred and six food and beverage items. The largest change in average price by food item was +$US 0·53 for 'processed foods' in King County between 1-month post-policy and 1-year post-policy enactment (P food processing level strata in Seattle v. King County stores at 1-month or 1-year post-policy enactment. Supermarket food prices do not appear to be differentially impacted by Seattle's minimum wage ordinance by level of the food's processing. These results suggest that the early implementation of a city-level minimum wage policy does not alter supermarket food prices by level of food processing.

  11. Treatment of Effluent from a Factory of Paints Using Solar Photo-Fenton Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Gustavo Trovó

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the use of Fenton reactions induced by solar radiation in the treatment of effluent from a factory of paints for buildings, after prior removal of the suspended solids. The increase of H2O2 concentration from 100 to 2500 mg L−1 for a [Fe2+] = 105 mg L−1 contributed to the reduction of DOC, COD, and toxicity. Our best results were achieved using 1600 mg L−1 H2O2, with 90% of DOC and COD removal and a complete removal of the toxicity with respect to Artemia salina. Additionally, through increasing Fe2+ concentration from 15 to 45 mg L−1, the DOC removal rate increased 11 times, remaining almost constant in the range above 45 until 105 mg L−1. Under our best experimental conditions, 80% of DOC removal was achieved after an accumulated dose of 130 kJ m−2 of UVA radiation (82±17 min of solar irradiation under an average UVA irradiance of 34.1±7.3 W m−2, while 40% of DOC removal was reached after 150 min under only thermal Fenton reactions. The results suggest the effectiveness of implementation of solar photo-Fenton process in the decontamination and detoxification of effluents from factories of paints for buildings.

  12. Toxicity evaluation of the process effluent streams of a petrochemical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, J L R; Dezotti, M; Sant'Anna, G L

    2007-02-01

    The physico-chemical characteristics and the acute toxicity of several wastewater streams, generated in the industrial production of synthetic rubber, were determined. The acute toxicity was evaluated in bioassays using different organisms: Danio rerio (fish), Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and Brachionus calyciflorus (rotifer). The removal of toxicity attained in the industrial wastewater treatment plant was also determined upstream and downstream of the activated sludge process. The results obtained indicate that the critical streams in terms of acute toxicity are the effluents from the liquid polymer unit and the spent caustic butadiene washing stage. The biological treatment was able to partially remove the toxicity of the industrial wastewater. However, a residual toxicity level persisted in the biotreated wastewater. The results obtained with Lactuca sativa showed a high degree of reproducibility, using root length or germination index as evaluation parameters. The effect of volatile pollutants on the toxicity results obtained with lettuce seeds was assessed, using ethanol as a model compound. Modifications on the assay procedure were proposed. A strong correlation between the toxic responses of Lactuca sativa and Danio rerio was observed for most industrial effluent streams.

  13. Electrochemical advanced oxidation processes as decentralized water treatment technologies to remediate domestic washing machine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Alexsandro Jhones; Costa, Emily Cintia Tossi de Araújo; da Silva, Djalma Ribeiro; Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos Alberto

    2018-03-01

    Water scarcity is one of the major concerns worldwide. In order to secure this appreciated natural resource, management and development of water treatment technologies are mandatory. One feasible alternative is the consideration of water recycling/reuse at the household scale. Here, the treatment of actual washing machine effluent by electrochemical advanced oxidation processes was considered. Electrochemical oxidation and electro-Fenton technologies can be applied as decentralized small-scale water treatment devices. Therefore, efficient decolorization and total organic abatement have been followed. The results demonstrate the promising performance of solar photoelectro-Fenton process, where complete color and organic removal was attained after 240 min of treatment under optimum conditions by applying a current density of 66.6 mA cm -2 . Thus, electrochemical technologies emerge as promising water-sustainable approaches.

  14. UV/H2O2 process performance improvement by ultrafiltration and physicochemical clarification systems for industrial effluent pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Hespanhol

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the removal of TOC from an effluent with high organic load resulted from the treatment of oil-water emulsion by thermal process. Hollow Fiber Ultrafiltration membrane (HF-UF and physicochemical clarification process were used as pretreatment options to assess the influence of feed effluent quality on the UV/H2O2 oxidation process. Results for TOC removals showed HF-UF and physicochemical clarification processes can significantly improve the efficiency of UV/H2O2 oxidation process, when compared with the direct effluent oxidation. Reaction time for obtaining a TOC removal higher than 90% was reduced to approximately half of the time needed when no pretreatment was applied. Considering both pretreatment processes it was not possible to notice any significant difference on the UV/H2O2 oxidation process performance. However, the complexity of physicochemical process due to the use of three different chemicals and sludge production made the HF-UF process the best pretreatment alternative, without increasing the Total Dissolved Solids of the effluent, a very important issue when water reuse is considered.

  15. Acid-curing and ferric-trickle leaching effluent used in closed circuit uranium extractive process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Suoqing; Xiang Qinfang; Guo Jianzheng; Lu Guizhu; Su Yanru

    1998-01-01

    The new uranium ore process consists of crushing ore, mixing crushed ore with strong acid in rotating drums and curing the mixture in piles, trickle-leaching the ore beds with ferric solution, extracting uranium from pregnant solution with tertiary amine, precipitating product and disposing residue tailings. All the process effluent is used in closed circuit. There will be no process water to be discharged in the flowsheet except the tailings carrying off 15% water because during leaching moisture content of the ore rises to 15%. Tailings produced by the process are moist and friable, and can be disposed of on a pile or returned to the mine. Main technical parameters of the process: (a) water consumption is 0.2∼0.3 m 3 /t ore, electric power consumption is 20∼30 kW·h/t ore; (b) ore crushing up to -5∼-7 mm, leaching period is 12∼45 d, U content of residue is 0.01%∼0.02%, producing pregnant solution is 0.3∼0.5 m 3 /t ore, which is 1/5∼1/8 that of conventional agitation leaching process; (c) organic agent consumption is 1/5∼1/8 that of the conventional agitation process. All the research results above are tested by the pilot-plant test and industrial test. The new process has been applied to recovery of uranium in the mine located at northeast of China

  16. Impact of treated effluents released from processing of radioactive mineral on the aquatic environment of Periyar river

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhakrishnan, Sujata; Haridasan, P.P.; Radhakrishna Pillai, K.; Pillai, P.M.B.; Khan, A.H.

    2005-01-01

    The chemical processing of monazite/ thorium concentrate for the separation of thorium, uranium and rare earths results in the generation of effluents, both acidic and alkaline. Indian Rare Earths Ltd (IREL), Udyogamandal was carrying out processing of monazite for nearly 50 years. Presently (since 2004) Indian Rare Earths Ltd, Udyogamandal is processing earlier stocked thorium hydroxide concentrate retrieved from Silos to produce Thorium Oxalate (along with a small percentage of Rare Earth elements), Nuclear Grade Ammonium Di-Uranate (NGADU), and small quantities of Nuclear Grade Thorium Oxide ('THRUST' Project). The treated effluents after monitoring are discharged to river Periyar. River Periyar is the recipient water body for treated effluents from IREL as well as a host of other chemical industries. Indian Rare Earths Ltd, Udyogamandal had been carrying out chemical processing of monazite for the past 50 years. Recently, from 2004, the plant has shifted from monazite processing to processing of thorium concentrate (THRUST Project). The present paper discusses the characteristics of the effluents generated as per this project, their treatment, monitoring methodology, discharge and impact on the aquatic environment of river Periyar. It has been noted that the impact on the aquatic environment by way of enhancing the natural background radioactivity in the river had been insignificant. (author)

  17. Reduction of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater effluent by advanced oxidation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingying; Zhuang, Yao; Geng, Jinju, E-mail: jjgeng@nju.edu.cn; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Ke; Ding, Lili

    2016-04-15

    This study investigated the reduction of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), intI1 and 16S rRNA genes, by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), namely Fenton oxidation (Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process. The ARGs include sul1, tetX, and tetG from municipal wastewater effluent. The results indicated that the Fenton oxidation and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process could reduce selected ARGs effectively. Oxidation by the Fenton process was slightly better than that of the UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} method. Particularly, for the Fenton oxidation, under the optimal condition wherein Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} had a molar ratio of 0.1 and a H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration of 0.01 mol L{sup −1} with a pH of 3.0 and reaction time of 2 h, 2.58–3.79 logs of target genes were removed. Under the initial effluent pH condition (pH = 7.0), the removal was 2.26–3.35 logs. For the UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process, when the pH was 3.5 with a H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration of 0.01 mol L{sup −1} accompanied by 30 min of UV irradiation, all ARGs could achieve a reduction of 2.8–3.5 logs, and 1.55–2.32 logs at a pH of 7.0. The Fenton oxidation and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process followed the first-order reaction kinetic model. The removal of target genes was affected by many parameters, including initial Fe{sup 2+}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} molar ratios, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration, solution pH, and reaction time. Among these factors, reagent concentrations and pH values are the most important factors during AOPs. - Highlights: • AOPs including Fenton oxidation and UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process could reduce ARGs effectively. • Fenton oxidation is slightly more effective than UV/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} process in ARG reduction. • Removal of ARGs by AOPs follows the first-order reaction kinetic model. • Selected ARGs and 16S rRNA genes exhibit similar change trends during AOPs.

  18. Reduction of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater effluent by advanced oxidation processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yingying; Zhuang, Yao; Geng, Jinju; Ren, Hongqiang; Xu, Ke; Ding, Lili

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the reduction of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), intI1 and 16S rRNA genes, by advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), namely Fenton oxidation (Fe"2"+/H_2O_2) and UV/H_2O_2 process. The ARGs include sul1, tetX, and tetG from municipal wastewater effluent. The results indicated that the Fenton oxidation and UV/H_2O_2 process could reduce selected ARGs effectively. Oxidation by the Fenton process was slightly better than that of the UV/H_2O_2 method. Particularly, for the Fenton oxidation, under the optimal condition wherein Fe"2"+/H_2O_2 had a molar ratio of 0.1 and a H_2O_2 concentration of 0.01 mol L"−"1 with a pH of 3.0 and reaction time of 2 h, 2.58–3.79 logs of target genes were removed. Under the initial effluent pH condition (pH = 7.0), the removal was 2.26–3.35 logs. For the UV/H_2O_2 process, when the pH was 3.5 with a H_2O_2 concentration of 0.01 mol L"−"1 accompanied by 30 min of UV irradiation, all ARGs could achieve a reduction of 2.8–3.5 logs, and 1.55–2.32 logs at a pH of 7.0. The Fenton oxidation and UV/H_2O_2 process followed the first-order reaction kinetic model. The removal of target genes was affected by many parameters, including initial Fe"2"+/H_2O_2 molar ratios, H_2O_2 concentration, solution pH, and reaction time. Among these factors, reagent concentrations and pH values are the most important factors during AOPs. - Highlights: • AOPs including Fenton oxidation and UV/H_2O_2 process could reduce ARGs effectively. • Fenton oxidation is slightly more effective than UV/H_2O_2 process in ARG reduction. • Removal of ARGs by AOPs follows the first-order reaction kinetic model. • Selected ARGs and 16S rRNA genes exhibit similar change trends during AOPs.

  19. A study conducted on the impact of effluent waste from machining process on the environment by water analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovoor, Punnose P.; Idris, Mohd Razif [Kuala Lumpur Univ. (Malaysia). Inst. of Product Design and Manufacturing, IPROM; Hassan, Masjuki Haji [Univ. of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Tengku Yahya, Tengku Fazli [Kuala Lumpur Univ., Melaka (Malaysia). Malaysian Inst. of Chemical and Bio Engineering Technology, MICET

    2012-11-01

    Ferrous block metals are used frequently in large quantities in various sectors of industry for making automotive, furniture, electrical and mechanical items, body parts for consumables, and so forth. During the manufacturing stage, the block metals are subjected to some form of material removal process either through turning, grinding, milling, or drilling operations to obtain the final product. Wastes are generated from the machining process in the form of effluent waste, solid waste, atmospheric emission, and energy emission. These wastes, if not recycled or treated properly before disposal, will have a detrimental impact on the environment through air, water, and soil pollution. The purpose of this paper is to determine the impact of the effluent waste from the machining process on the environment through water analysis. A twofold study is carried out to determine the impact of the effluent waste on the water stream. The preliminary study consists of a scenario analysis where five scenarios are drawn out using substances such as spent coolant, tramp oil, solvent, powdered chips, and sludge, which are commonly found in the effluent waste. The wastes are prepared according to the scenarios and are disposed through the Institute of Product Design and Manufacturing (IPROM) storm water drain. Samples of effluent waste are collected at specific locations according to the APHA method and are tested for parameters such as pH, ammoniacal nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, and total suspended solids. A subsequent study is done by collecting 30 samples of the effluent waste from the machining operations from two small- and medium-scale enterprise locations and the IPROM workshop to test the quality of water. The results obtained from the tests showed high values of chemical oxygen demand, ammoniacal nitrogen, and total suspended solids when compared with the Standard B specification for inland water bodies as specified by the

  20. Trend and current practices of palm oil mill effluent polishing: Application of advanced oxidation processes and their future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Mustapha Mohammed; Abdul Raman, Abdul Aziz

    2017-08-01

    Palm oil processing is a multi-stage operation which generates large amount of effluent. On average, palm oil mill effluent (POME) may contain up to 51, 000 mg/L COD, 25,000 mg/L BOD, 40,000 TS and 6000 mg/L oil and grease. Due to its potential to cause environmental pollution, palm oil mills are required to treat the effluent prior to discharge. Biological treatments using open ponding system are widely used for POME treatment. Although these processes are capable of reducing the pollutant concentrations, they require long hydraulic retention time and large space, with the effluent frequently failing to satisfy the discharge regulation. Due to more stringent environmental regulations, research interest has recently shifted to the development of polishing technologies for the biologically-treated POME. Various technologies such as advanced oxidation processes, membrane technology, adsorption and coagulation have been investigated. Among these, advanced oxidation processes have shown potentials as polishing technologies for POME. This paper offers an overview on the POME polishing technologies, with particularly emphasis on advanced oxidation processes and their prospects for large scale applications. Although there are some challenges in large scale applications of these technologies, this review offers some perspectives that could help in overcoming these challenges. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Unit Process Wetlands for Removal of Trace Organic Contaminants and Pathogens from Municipal Wastewater Effluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Justin T.; Nguyen, Mi T.; Jones, Zackary L.; Ismail, Niveen S.; Sedlak, David L.; Sharp, Jonathan O.; Luthy, Richard G.; Horne, Alex J.; Nelson, Kara L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Treatment wetlands have become an attractive option for the removal of nutrients from municipal wastewater effluents due to their low energy requirements and operational costs, as well as the ancillary benefits they provide, including creating aesthetically appealing spaces and wildlife habitats. Treatment wetlands also hold promise as a means of removing other wastewater-derived contaminants, such as trace organic contaminants and pathogens. However, concerns about variations in treatment efficacy of these pollutants, coupled with an incomplete mechanistic understanding of their removal in wetlands, hinder the widespread adoption of constructed wetlands for these two classes of contaminants. A better understanding is needed so that wetlands as a unit process can be designed for their removal, with individual wetland cells optimized for the removal of specific contaminants, and connected in series or integrated with other engineered or natural treatment processes. In this article, removal mechanisms of trace organic contaminants and pathogens are reviewed, including sorption and sedimentation, biotransformation and predation, photolysis and photoinactivation, and remaining knowledge gaps are identified. In addition, suggestions are provided for how these treatment mechanisms can be enhanced in commonly employed unit process wetland cells or how they might be harnessed in novel unit process cells. It is hoped that application of the unit process concept to a wider range of contaminants will lead to more widespread application of wetland treatment trains as components of urban water infrastructure in the United States and around the globe. PMID:23983451

  2. Unit Process Wetlands for Removal of Trace Organic Contaminants and Pathogens from Municipal Wastewater Effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasper, Justin T; Nguyen, Mi T; Jones, Zackary L; Ismail, Niveen S; Sedlak, David L; Sharp, Jonathan O; Luthy, Richard G; Horne, Alex J; Nelson, Kara L

    2013-08-01

    Treatment wetlands have become an attractive option for the removal of nutrients from municipal wastewater effluents due to their low energy requirements and operational costs, as well as the ancillary benefits they provide, including creating aesthetically appealing spaces and wildlife habitats. Treatment wetlands also hold promise as a means of removing other wastewater-derived contaminants, such as trace organic contaminants and pathogens. However, concerns about variations in treatment efficacy of these pollutants, coupled with an incomplete mechanistic understanding of their removal in wetlands, hinder the widespread adoption of constructed wetlands for these two classes of contaminants. A better understanding is needed so that wetlands as a unit process can be designed for their removal, with individual wetland cells optimized for the removal of specific contaminants, and connected in series or integrated with other engineered or natural treatment processes. In this article, removal mechanisms of trace organic contaminants and pathogens are reviewed, including sorption and sedimentation, biotransformation and predation, photolysis and photoinactivation, and remaining knowledge gaps are identified. In addition, suggestions are provided for how these treatment mechanisms can be enhanced in commonly employed unit process wetland cells or how they might be harnessed in novel unit process cells. It is hoped that application of the unit process concept to a wider range of contaminants will lead to more widespread application of wetland treatment trains as components of urban water infrastructure in the United States and around the globe.

  3. Experimental Study on Meso-Scale Milling Process Using Nanofluid Minimum Quantity Lubrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P. H.; Nam, T. S.; Li, Cheng Jun; Lee, S. W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper present the characteristics of micro- and meso-scale milling processes in which compressed cold air, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) and MoS 2 nanofluid MQL are used. For process characterization, the micro and meso-scale milling experiments are conducted using desktop meso-scale machine tool system and the surface roughness is measured. The experimental results show that the use of compressed chilly air and nanofluid MQL in the micro- and meso-scale milling processes is effective in improving the surface finish

  4. Treated effluent disposal system process control computer software requirements and specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, F.A. Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The software requirements for the monitor and control system that will be associated with the effluent collection pipeline system known as the 200 Area Treated Effluent Disposal System is covered. The control logic for the two pump stations and specific requirements for the graphic displays are detailed

  5. Assessing the application of advanced oxidation processes, and their combination with biological treatment, to effluents from pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merayo, Noemí; Hermosilla, Daphne; Blanco, Laura; Cortijo, Luis; Blanco, Angeles

    2013-11-15

    The closure of water circuits within pulp and paper mills has resulted in a higher contamination load of the final mill effluent, which must consequently be further treated in many cases to meet the standards imposed by the legislation in force. Different treatment strategies based on advanced oxidation processes (ozonation and TiO2-photocatalysis), and their combination with biological treatment (MBR), are herein assessed for effluents of a recycled paper mill and a kraft pulp mill. Ozone treatment achieved the highest efficiency of all. The consumption of 2.4 g O3 L(-1) resulted in about a 60% COD reduction treating the effluent from the kraft pulp mill at an initial pH=7; although it only reached about a 35% COD removal for the effluent of the recycled paper mill. Otherwise, photocatalysis achieved about a 20-30% reduction of the COD for both type of effluents. In addition, the effluent from the recycled paper mill showed a higher biodegradability, so combinations of these AOPs with biological treatment were tested. As a result, photocatalysis did not report any significant COD reduction improvement whether being performed as pre- or post-treatment of the biological process; whereas the use of ozonation as post-biological treatment enhanced COD removal a further 10%, summing up a total 90% reduction of the COD for the combined treatment, as well as it also supposed an increase of the presence of volatile fatty acids, which might ultimately enable the resultant wastewater to be recirculated back to further biological treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Control of Effluent Gases from Solid Waste Processing using Impregnated Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Fisher, John; Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai

    2005-01-01

    One of the major problems associated with solid waste processing technologies is effluent contaminants that are released in gaseous forms from the processes. This is a concern in both biological as well as physicochemical solid waste processing. Carbon dioxide (CO2), the major gas released, does not present a serious problem and there are currently in place a number of flight-qualified technologies for CO2 removal. However, a number of other gases, in particular NOx, SO2, NH3, and various hydrocarbons (e.g. CH4) do present health hazards to the crew members in space habitats. In the present configuration of solid waste processing in the International Space Station (ISS), some of these gases are removed by the Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS), demands a major resupply. Reduction of the resupply can be effective by using catalyst impregnated carbon nanotubes. For example, NO decomposition to N2 and O2 is thermodynamically favored. Data showing decomposition of NO on metal impregnated carbon nanotubes is presented. Comparisons are made of the existing TCCS systems with the carbon nanotube based technology for removing NOx based on mass/energy penalties.

  7. Optimization of Electrochemical Treatment Process Conditions for Distillery Effluent Using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Arulmathi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Distillery industry is recognized as one of the most polluting industries in India with a large amount of annual effluent production. In this present study, the optimization of electrochemical treatment process variables was reported to treat the color and COD of distillery spent wash using Ti/Pt as an anode in a batch mode. Process variables such as pH, current density, electrolysis time, and electrolyte dose were selected as operation variables and chemical oxygen demand (COD and color removal efficiency were considered as response variable for optimization using response surface methodology. Indirect electrochemical-oxidation process variables were optimized using Box-Behnken response surface design (BBD. The results showed that electrochemical treatment process effectively removed the COD (89.5% and color (95.1% of the distillery industry spent wash under the optimum conditions: pH of 4.12, current density of 25.02 mA/cm2, electrolysis time of 103.27 min, and electrolyte (NaCl concentration of 1.67 g/L, respectively.

  8. Polishing of treated palm oil mill effluent (POME) from ponding system by electrocoagulation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Mohammed J K; Mau Han, Tham; Jun Wei, Lim; Choon Aun, Ng; Abu Amr, Salem S

    2016-01-01

    As the ponding system used to treat palm oil mill effluent (POME) frequently fails to satisfy the discharge standard in Malaysia, the present study aimed to resolve this problem using an optimized electrocoagulation process. Thus, a central composite design (CCD) module in response surface methodology was employed to optimize the interactions of process variables, namely current density, contact time and initial pH targeted on maximum removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), colour and turbidity with satisfactory pH of discharge POME. The batch study was initially designed by CCD and statistical models of responses were subsequently derived to indicate the significant terms of interactive process variables. All models were verified by analysis of variance showing model significances with Prob > F < 0.01. The optimum performance was obtained at the current density of 56 mA/cm(2), contact time of 65 min and initial pH of 4.5, rendering complete removal of colour and turbidity with COD removal of 75.4%. The pH of post-treated POME of 7.6 was achieved, which is suitable for direct discharge. These predicted outputs were subsequently confirmed by insignificant standard deviation readings between predicted and actual values. This optimum condition also permitted the simultaneous removal of NH3-N, and various metal ions, signifying the superiority of the electrocoagulation process optimized by CCD.

  9. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRAZIER, T.P.

    1999-01-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U. S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. To ensure the long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems, an update to this facility effluent monitoring plan is required whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document is reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and is updated, at a minimum, every 3 years

  10. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the tank farms facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachand, D.D.; Crummel, G.M.

    1995-05-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using specific guidelines. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years.

  11. Development and modelling of a steel slag filter effluent neutralization process with CO2-enriched air from an upstream bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Patricia; Claveau-Mallet, Dominique; Boutet, Étienne; Lida, Félix; Comeau, Yves

    2018-02-01

    The main objective of this project was to develop a steel slag filter effluent neutralization process by acidification with CO 2 -enriched air coming from a bioprocess. Sub-objectives were to evaluate the neutralization capacity of different configurations of neutralization units in lab-scale conditions and to propose a design model of steel slag effluent neutralization. Two lab-scale column neutralization units fed with two different types of influent were operated at hydraulic retention time of 10 h. Tested variables were mode of flow (saturated or percolating), type of media (none, gravel, Bionest and AnoxKaldnes K3), type of air (ambient or CO 2 -enriched) and airflow rate. One neutralization field test (saturated and no media, 2000-5000 ppm CO 2 , sequential feeding, hydraulic retention time of 7.8 h) was conducted for 7 days. Lab-scale and field-scale tests resulted in effluent pH of 7.5-9.5 when the aeration rate was sufficiently high. A model was implemented in the PHREEQC software and was based on the carbonate system, CO 2 transfer and calcite precipitation; and was calibrated on ambient air lab tests. The model was validated with CO 2 -enriched air lab and field tests, providing satisfactory validation results over a wide range of CO 2 concentrations. The flow mode had a major impact on CO 2 transfer and hydraulic efficiency, while the type of media had little influence. The flow mode also had a major impact on the calcite surface concentration in the reactor: it was constant in saturated mode and was increasing in percolating mode. Predictions could be made for different steel slag effluent pH and different operation conditions (hydraulic retention time, CO 2 concentration, media and mode of flow). The pH of the steel slag filter effluent and the CO 2 concentration of the enriched air were factors that influenced most the effluent pH of the neutralization process. An increased concentration in CO 2 in the enriched air reduced calcite precipitation

  12. 200 Area effluent treatment facility process control plan 98-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, E.Q.

    1998-01-01

    This Process Control Plan (PCP) provides a description of the background information, key objectives, and operating criteria defining Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) Campaign 98-02 as required per HNF-IP-0931 Section 37, Process Control Plans. Campaign 98-62 is expected to process approximately 18 millions gallons of groundwater with an assumption that the UP-1 groundwater pump will be shut down on June 30, 1998. This campaign will resume the UP-1 groundwater treatment operation from Campaign 97-01. The Campaign 97-01 was suspended in November 1997 to allow RCRA waste in LERF Basin 42 to be treated to meet the Land Disposal Restriction Clean Out requirements. The decision to utilize ETF as part of the selected interim remedial action of the 200-UP-1 Operable Unit is documented by the Declaration of the Record of Decision, (Ecology, EPA and DOE 1997). The treatment method was chosen in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (known as the Tri-Party Agreement or TPA), and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP)

  13. Impact of urban effluents on summer hypoxia in the highly turbid Gironde Estuary, applying a 3D model coupling hydrodynamics, sediment transport and biogeochemical processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajaunie-Salla, Katixa; Wild-Allen, Karen; Sottolichio, Aldo; Thouvenin, Bénédicte; Litrico, Xavier; Abril, Gwenaël

    2017-10-01

    Estuaries are increasingly degraded due to coastal urban development and are prone to hypoxia problems. The macro-tidal Gironde Estuary is characterized by a highly concentrated turbidity maximum zone (TMZ). Field observations show that hypoxia occurs in summer in the TMZ at low river flow and a few days after the spring tide peak. In situ data highlight lower dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations around the city of Bordeaux, located in the upper estuary. Interactions between multiple factors limit the understanding of the processes controlling the dynamics of hypoxia. A 3D biogeochemical model was developed, coupled with hydrodynamics and a sediment transport model, to assess the contribution of the TMZ and the impact of urban effluents through wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and sewage overflows (SOs) on hypoxia. Our model describes the transport of solutes and suspended material and the biogeochemical mechanisms impacting oxygen: primary production, degradation of all organic matter (i.e. including phytoplankton respiration, degradation of river and urban watershed matter), nitrification and gas exchange. The composition and the degradation rates of each variable were characterized by in situ measurements and experimental data from the study area. The DO model was validated against observations in Bordeaux City. The simulated DO concentrations show good agreement with field observations and satisfactorily reproduce the seasonal and neap-spring time scale variations around the city of Bordeaux. Simulations show a spatial and temporal correlation between the formation of summer hypoxia and the location of the TMZ, with minimum DO centered in the vicinity of Bordeaux. To understand the contribution of the urban watershed forcing, different simulations with the presence or absence of urban effluents were compared. Our results show that in summer, a reduction of POC from SO would increase the DO minimum in the vicinity of Bordeaux by 3% of saturation. Omitting

  14. Using Combined Processes of Filtration and Ultraviolet Irradiation for Effluent Disinfection of Isfahan North Wastewater Treatment Plant in Pilot Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Amin

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to evaluate the secondary effluent disinfection of the Isfahannorth municipal wastewater treatment plant using filtration and UV technology in current operational condition. The combined system was used in series in pilot scale including: Pressure Sand Filter + Low Pressure (LP + Medium Pressure (MP UV Lamps. The UV dose varied according to the initial intensity of lamp, flow rate and influent transmittance. Total coliform (TC, fecal coliform (FC and fecal streptococcus (FS were analyzed as microbiological parameters in all effluent samples. TSS, BOD5, COD, VSS, pH and transmittance (UVT percentage were tested as physicochemical parameters, before and after the units. Results showed that the filtration with loading of 1050 lit/m2.hr, followed by MP lamp with dose of 230 mW.s/cm2 is an effective alternative to reduce the TC/FC and FS in the secondary effluent. The combined disinfection processes that were used in this study, could be met the standards of 1000 TC, and 400FC/100ml for effluent discharge to receiving waters or restricted reuses in the agriculture. This process can also inactivate the FS down to 6-log.Using low-pressure lamps due to low dose radiation for disinfection is not cost-effective. In this study, parasite egg counts due to lack of access to accurate identification techniques for alive cyst detection was not examined.

  15. Multiple response optimization of the coagulation process for upgrading the quality of effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Hu, Yi; Lu, Yong-Ze; Zeng, Raymond J.; Sheng, Guo-Ping

    2016-05-01

    To meet the high quality standard of receiving water, the coagulation process using polyferric chloride (PFC) was used to further improve the water quality of effluent from wastewater treatment plants. Uniform design (UD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM) was adopted to assess the effects of the main influence factors: coagulant dosage, pH and basicity, on the removal of total organic carbon (TOC), NH4+-N and PO43--P. A desirability function approach was used to effectively optimize the coagulation process for the comprehensive removal of TOC, NH4+-N and PO43--P to upgrade the effluent quality in practical application. The optimized operating conditions were: dosage 28 mg/L, pH 8.5 and basicity 0.001. The corresponding removal efficiencies for TOC, NH4+-N and PO43--P were 77.2%, 94.6% and 20.8%, respectively. More importantly, the effluent quality could upgrade to surface water Class V of China through coagulation under optimal region. In addition, grey relational analysis (GRA) prioritized these three factors as: pH > basicity > dosage (for TOC), basicity > dosage > pH (for NH4+-N), pH > dosage > basicity (for PO43--P), which would help identify the most important factor to control the treatment efficiency of various effluent quality indexes by PFC coagulation.

  16. Control of Effluent Gases from Solid Waste Processing Using Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, John; Cinke, Martin; Wignarajab, Kanapathipillai

    2005-01-01

    One of the major problems associated with solid waste processing technologies is the release of effluent gases and contaminants that are in gaseous formed from the processes. A number of other gases, in particular NO(x), SO2, NH3, Hydrocarbons (e.g. CH4) do present hazards to the crew in space habitats. Reduction of mass, power, volume and resupply can be achieved by using catalyst impregnated carbon nanotubes as compared to other catalytic systems. The development and characterization of an innovative approach for the control and elimination of gaseous toxins using single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) promise superior performance over conventional approaches. This is due to the ability to direct the selective uptake of gaseous species based on their controllable pore size, high adsorptive capacity and the effectiveness of carbon nanotubes as catalyst supports for gaseous conversion. For example, SWNTs have high adsorptive capacity for NO and the adsorbed NO can be decomposed to N2 and O2 . Experimental results showing the decomposition of NO on metal impregnated carbon nanotubes is presented. Equivalent System Mass (ESM) comparisons are made of the existing TCCS systems with the carbon nanotube technology for removing NO(x). The potential for methane decomposition using carbon nanotubes catalysts is also discussed.

  17. Reclamation from palm oil mill effluent using an integrated zero discharge membrane-based process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad A.L.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research emphasizes eloquently on membrane technology for treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME as it is the Malaysia’s largest and most important agro based industry. Findings established significant quality improvement with an efficient recovery of water from palm oil mill via innovative membrane application. Conventional bio-methods, whilst adhering to the Department of Environment’s (DOE discharge regulations, produces brownish liquid which pales in comparison to the crystal clear water obtained through membrane treatment. The pre-treatment process consists of coagulation-flocculation using green environmental coagulant bases such as Moringa oleifera (MO seeds. The ultrafiltration polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF and thin film composite (TFC reverse osmosis were vital for the membrane processes. The system gave 99% suspended solids reduction in suspended solid and 78% of water present was successfully recovered. This technology guarantees water recovery with drinking water quality; meeting the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA standard or could be recycled into the plant with sludge utilization for palm oil estates, thus enabling the concept of zero discharge to be executed in the industries. In addition, green and healthy antioxidants such as oil and beta-carotene can be recovered from POME further demonstrate. Silica gel showed better performance in separation of carotenes from oil at temperature 40°C using adsorption chromatography with 1154.55 ppm. The attractiveness of this technology, enabling the utilization of reuse of agricultural waste into potentially value added products.

  18. Membrane Fouling Potential of Secondary Effluent Organic Matter (EfOM) from Conventional Activated Sludge Process

    KAUST Repository

    Wei, Chunhai; Amy, Gary L.

    2012-01-01

    Secondary effluent organic matter (EfOM) from a conventional activated sludge process was filtered through constant-pressure dead-end filtration tests with a sequential ultrafiltration (UF, molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 10k Dalton) and nanofiltration (NF, MWCO of 200 Dalton) array to investigate its membrane fouling potential. Advanced analytical methods including liquid chromatography with online carbon detection (LC-OCD) and fluorescent excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) were employed for EfOM characterization. EfOM consisted of humic substances and building blocks, low molecular weight (LMW) neutrals, biopolymers (mainly proteins) and hydrophobic organics according to the sequence of their organic carbon fractions. The UF rejected only biopolymers and the NF rejected most humics and building blocks and a significant part of LMW neutrals. Simultaneous occurrence of cake layer and standard blocking during the filtration process of both UF and NF was identified according to constant-pressure filtration equations, which was possibly caused by the heterogeneous nature of EfOM with a wide MW distribution (several ten to several million Dalton). Thus the corresponding two fouling indices (kc for cake layer and ks for standard blocking) from UF and NF could characterize the fouling potential of macromolecular biopolymers and low to intermediate MW organics (including humics, building blocks, LMW neutrals), respectively. Compared with macromolecular biopolymers, low to intermediate MW organics exhibited a much higher fouling potential due to their lower molecular weight and higher concentration.

  19. Obtention of uranium tetrafluoride from effluents generated in the hexafluoride conversion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Neto, J.B.; Urano de Carvalho, E.F.; Durazzo, M.; Riella, H.G.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The uranium silicide (U3Si2) fuel is produced from uranium hexafluoride (UF6) as the primary raw material. The uranium tetrafluoride (UF4) and metallic uranium are the two subsequent steps. There are two conventional routes for UF4 production: the first one reduces the uranium from the UF6 hydrolysis solution by adding stannous chloride (SnCl2). The second one is based on the hydrofluorination of solid uranium dioxide (UO2) produced from the ammonium uranyl carbonate (AUC). This work introduces a third route, a dry way route which utilizes the recovering of uranium from liquid effluents generated in the uranium hexafluoride reconversion process adopted at IPEN/CNEN-SP. Working in the liquid phase, this route comprises the recovery of ammonium fluoride by NH4HF2 precipitation. The crystallized bifluoride is added to the solid UO2 to get UF4, which returns to the metallic uranium production process and, finally, to the U3Si2 powder production. The UF4 produced by this new route was chemically and physically characterized and will be able to be used as raw material for metallic uranium production by magnesiothermic reduction. (author)

  20. Biotoxicity assessment and toxicity mechanism on coal gasification wastewater (CGW): A comparative analysis of effluent from different treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Weiwei; Han, Yuxing; Xu, Chunyan; Han, Hongjun; Zhu, Hao; Li, Kun; Zheng, Mengqi

    2018-05-04

    Even though coal gasification wastewater (CGW) treated by various biochemical treatment processes generally met the national discharge standard, its potential biotoxicity was still unknown. Therefore, in this study, bioassay with Tetrahymena thermophila (T. thermophila) was conducted to comprehensively evaluate the variation of biotoxicity in raw CGW and the treated effluent from lab-scale micro-electrolysis integrated with biological reactor (MEBR), single iron-carbon micro-electrolysis (ICME) and conventional activated sludge (CAS) processes. The results illustrated that raw CGW presented intensive acute toxicity with 24 h EC 50 value of 8.401% and toxic unit (TU) value of 11.90. Moreover, it performed significant cell membrane destruction and DNA damage even at 10% dilution concentration. The toxicant identification results revealed that multiple toxic polar compounds such as phenolic, heterocyclic and polycyclic aromatic compounds were the main contributors for biotoxicity. Furthermore, these compounds could accelerate oxidative stress, thereby inducing oxidative damage of cell membrane and DNA. As for treated effluent, TU value was decreased by 90.58% in MEBR process. An effective biotoxicity reduction was achieved in MEBR process owing to high removal efficiency in polar organic toxicants. In contrast, effluent from ICME and CAS processes presented relatively high acute toxicity and genotoxicity, because various heterocyclic and polycyclic aromatic compounds were difficult to be degraded in these processes. Therefore, it was suggested that MEBR was a potential and feasible process for improving CGW treatment and minimizing ecological risk. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Water in the Mendoza, Argentina, food processing industry: water requirements and reuse potential of industrial effluents in agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Elena Duek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper estimates the volume of water used by the Mendoza food processing industry considering different water efficiency scenarios. The potential for using food processing industry effluents for irrigation is also assessed. The methodology relies upon information collected from interviews with qualified informants from different organizations and food-processing plants in Mendoza selected from a targeted sample. Scenarios were developed using local and international secondary information sources. The results show that food processing plants in Mendoza use 19.65 hm3 of water per year; efficient water management practices would make it possible to reduce water use by 64%, i.e., to 7.11 hm3. At present, 70% of the water is used by the fruit and vegetable processing industry, 16% by wineries, 8% by mineral water bottling plants, and the remaining 6% by olive oil, beer and soft drink plants. The volume of effluents from the food processing plants in Mendoza has been estimated at 16.27 hm3 per year. Despite the seasonal variations of these effluents, and the high sodium concentration and electrical conductivity of some of them, it is possible to use them for irrigation purposes. However, because of these variables and their environmental impact, land treatment is required.

  2. A new multiple-stage electrocoagulation process on anaerobic digestion effluent to simultaneously reclaim water and clean up biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiguo; Stromberg, David; Liu, Xuming; Liao, Wei; Liu, Yan

    2015-03-21

    A new multiple-stage treatment process was developed via integrating electrocoagulation with biogas pumping to simultaneously reclaim anaerobic digestion effluent and clean up biogas. The 1st stage of electrocoagulation treatment under the preferred reaction condition led to removal efficiencies of 30%, 81%, 37% and >99.9% for total solids, chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively. Raw biogas was then used as a reactant and pumped into the effluent to simultaneously neutralize pH of the effluent and remove H2S in the biogas. The 2nd stage of electrocoagulation treatment on the neutralized effluent showed that under the selected reaction condition, additional 60% and 10% of turbidity and chemical oxygen demand were further removed. The study concluded a dual-purpose approach for the first time to synergistically combine biogas purification and water reclamation for anaerobic digestion system, which well addresses the downstream challenges of anaerobic digestion technology. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The determination of cyanide in hydrometallurgical process solutions and effluents by ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlandt, C.

    1984-01-01

    Three methods are described for the determination of cyanide species in hydrometallurgical process solutions and in effluents. The determination of excess cyanide in the presence of weak metal cyanide complexes was achieved by the use of a flow-injection system with 0,05mM sodium chloride as the carrier stream. The procedure was found to be fast, precise (S(sub r)0,0142), and reasonably accurate. Free cyanide and cyanide derived from weak metal cyanide complexes were determined by ion chromatography. This method is free from interferences and precise (s(sub r)0,0112), and has a limit of determination of 10μg0l. The 'total' cyanide content of solutions was determined by ion chromatography after the strong metal cyanide complexes had been dissociated in hypophosphorous acid by ultraviolet irradiation. The procedure (of 10 minutes duration) is faster than conventional distillation methods, and is accurate and precise (S(sub r)0,027)

  4. Factorial design of a solar photocatalytic process to treatment of wastewater effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Adriana Ribeiro; Paterniani, Jose Euclides Stipp [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: adriana.francisco@agr.unicamp.br; Kuwakino, Adriana Yuri [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (CESET/UNICAMP), Limeira, SP (Brazil). Centro Superior de Educacao Tecnologica

    2008-07-01

    Advanced treatments are attributed to improving the quality of various types of waste such as the sanitary wastewater. The heterogeneous photocatalysis is an alternative that allows to improve the effluents conditions. This is possible because many chemical compounds of environmental concern can be degraded using UV radiation on a semiconductor. However, to enable the efficiency of the process photocatalytic is necessary to conduct a study of optimization to establish favorable conditions between selected variables. The aim of this work was a reactor solar photocatalytic optimization using factorial design 2{sup k}, depending on variables: mass (TiO{sub 2}), time (min) and flow of air (L min{sup -1}), using as analytical response the removal of color. The experiment was conducted at the Faculty of Agricultural Engineering (FEAGRI) and it was used the sanitary wastewater of there. The results indicated that there were significant efficiency using combinations mass = 1000 mg L{sup -1}, time = 360 min and flow of air = 5 L min{sup -1}. In the calculations of factorial design, the time showed a marked positive effect of 7.76, while the flow of air, when in excess, had an inhibitor behavior, even getting positive effect. (author)

  5. Integrated electrocoagulation-electrooxidation process for the treatment of soluble coffee effluent: Optimization of COD degradation and operation time analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Taquez, Harold N; GilPavas, Edison; Blatchley, Ernest R; Gómez-García, Miguel-Ángel; Dobrosz-Gómez, Izabela

    2017-09-15

    Soluble coffee production generates wastewater containing complex mixtures of organic macromolecules. In this work, a sequential Electrocoagulation-Electrooxidation (EC-EO) process, using aluminum and graphite electrodes, was proposed as an alternative way for the treatment of soluble coffee effluent. Process operational parameters were optimized, achieving total decolorization, as well as 74% and 63.5% of COD and TOC removal, respectively. The integrated EC-EO process yielded a highly oxidized (AOS = 1.629) and biocompatible (BOD 5 /COD ≈ 0.6) effluent. The Molecular Weight Distribution (MWD) analysis showed that during the EC-EO process, EC effectively decomposed contaminants with molecular weight in the range of 10-30 kDa. In contrast, EO was quite efficient in mineralization of contaminants with molecular weight higher than 30 kDa. A kinetic analysis allowed determination of the time required to meet Colombian permissible discharge limits. Finally, a comprehensive operational cost analysis was performed. The integrated EC-EO process was demonstrated as an efficient alternative for the treatment of industrial effluents resulting from soluble coffee production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Reuse of recalcitrant-rich anaerobic effluent as dilution water after enhancement of biodegradability by Fenton processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimi, Milton M; Zhang, Yongjun; Namango, Saul S; Geißen, Sven-Uwe

    2016-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion is used to treat effluents with a lot of organics, such as molasses distillery wastewater (MDW) which is the effluent of bioethanol production from molasses. The raw MDW requires a lot of dilution water before biodigestion, while the digested MDW has high level of recalcitrants which are problematic for its discharge. This study investigated ferric coagulation, Fenton, Fenton-like (with ferric ions as catalyst) processes and their combinations on the biodegradability of digested MDW. The Fenton and Fenton-like processes after coagulation increased the MDW biodegradability defined by (BOD5/COD) from 0.07 to (0.4-0.6) and saved 50% of H2O2 consumed in the classic Fenton process. The effluent from coagulation coupled to a Fenton-like process was used as dilution water for the raw MDW before the anaerobic digestion. The process was stable with volumetric loading of approx. 2.7 g COD/L/d. It resulted in increased overall biogas recovery and significantly decreased the demand for the dilution water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation of TC and TSS Removal Efficiencies at Ahvaz West WTP Effluent Using the Land‒plant Treatment Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Takdastan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the conventional (primary and secondary treatment processes are known to remove up to 95–99% of some micro-organisms, they do not provide adequate treatment to make the effluent suitable for direct reuse, mainly due to the presence of high concentrations of pathogenic microorganisms. Obtaining reusable effluents, therefore, requires the use of processes that can be justified both technical and economic grounds. One such indigenous, low cost option is the land-plant process that can be used for advanced wastewater treatment. It is the objective of the present study to determine the efficiency of the local soil in Ahvaz and that of the vetiver plant in reducing the microbial load in the effluent from municipal wastewater treatment plants. A pilot study was thus carried out including three Lysimeters installed in West Ahvaz Wastewater Treatment Plant. Local soil was used in one Lysimeter, local soil with vetiver plant in the second one, and an artificial assortment of soil comprising local soil, silica sand (0.5-1mm, and sand (15-30mm in the third. In addition, the effluent from the secondary settling outlet at the WTP was transferred by pumping at the three filtration rates of 0.2, 0.6, and 1 ml/min into the system with three replications for each rate and samples were collected from both inlet and outlet flows. The average removal efficiencies of Total Suspended Solids (TSS and Total Coliform (TC in the effluent from the three Lysimeters with local soil with vetiver, local soil without vetiver, and artificial soil assortment for the filtration rate of 0.2 ml/min were: 67.75% and 99.7%, 58.33% and 99.6%, and 56.25% and 99.5%, respectively. For a filtration rate of 0.6 ml/min, these values were: 53.33% and 98.93%, 48.8 and 98.77%, and 47.68% and 98.64%. Finally, the values obtained for a filtration rate of 0.6 ml/min were: 50% and 93.96%, 46.42 and 91.34%, and 44/04% and 88/81%, respectively. The results from the study showed that the

  8. Study of radiation processes for purifying liquid effluent and the design of pilot plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kon'kov, N.G.; Buslaeva, S.P.; Osipov, V.B.; Panin, Yu.A.; Solodikhina, L.D.; Upadyshev, L.B.; Karpukhin, V.F.; Fajngol'd, Z.L.

    1975-01-01

    The possibilities of purifying liquid effluent containing dyestuffs and various organic and biological pollutants with an accelerated electron beam of energy up to 0.7 MeV are examined. A laboratory plant has been erected for the stationary, continuous irradiation - with bubbling of air - of artificial and natural industrial effluent containing organic pollutants in concentrations of up to 2g/litre and the 5 SKh dye in concentrations of up to 220 mg/litre. The results are discussed of the experimental irradiation of artificial mixtures consisting of distilled water, organic pollutants and dyestuffs, and also of natural industrial effluents from an enterprise where antibiotics are produced and from textile mills. The results of the studies indicate that the physicochemical characteristics of effluents are improved. On the basis of these studies pilot plants with electron accelerators are being designed for a daily throughput of 15 000 m 3 of effluent from the production of antibiotics. The electron accelerators are of the transformer type (EhLV-1) with an energy of up to 0.7 MeV and a power of up to 40 kW. In addition, units with a daily throughput of 200 m 3 are being designed for the breakdown of cyanides in effluent by 60 Co. Such a unit consists of three reactors with centro-axial irradiators and solid cast-iron biological shielding. The dose-rate can be measured over a wide range, thanks to the use of spherical source holders. The sources have a total activity of 62 kCi. Calculations of the cost of the radiation treatment of effluent demonstrate the economic feasibility of the method

  9. Analysis of Process Gases and Trace Contaminants in Membrane-Aerated Gaseous Effluent Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Lunn, Griffin Michael; Meyer, Caitlin E.

    2015-01-01

    In membrane-aerated biofilm reactors (MABRs), hollow fibers are used to supply oxygen to the biofilms and bulk fluid. A pressure and concentration gradient between the inner volume of the fibers and the reactor reservoir drives oxygen mass transport across the fibers toward the bulk solution, providing the fiber-adhered biofilm with oxygen. Conversely, bacterial metabolic gases from the bulk liquid, as well as from the biofilm, move opposite to the flow of oxygen, entering the hollow fiber and out of the reactor. Metabolic gases are excellent indicators of biofilm vitality, and can aid in microbial identification. Certain gases can be indicative of system perturbations and control anomalies, or potentially unwanted biological processes occurring within the reactor. In confined environments, such as those found during spaceflight, it is important to understand what compounds are being stripped from the reactor and potentially released into the crew cabin to determine the appropriateness or the requirement for additional mitigation factors. Reactor effluent gas analysis focused on samples provided from Kennedy Space Center's sub-scale MABRs, as well as Johnson Space Center's full-scale MABRs, using infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography techniques. Process gases, such as carbon dioxide, oxygen, nitrogen, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrous oxide, were quantified to monitor reactor operations. Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) GC-MS analysis was used to identify trace volatile compounds. Compounds of interest were subsequently quantified. Reactor supply air was examined to establish target compound baseline concentrations. Concentration levels were compared to average ISS concentration values and/or Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentration (SMAC) levels where appropriate. Based on a review of to-date results, current trace contaminant control systems (TCCS) currently on board the ISS should be able to handle the added load from bioreactor systems without the need

  10. Facility effluent monitoring plan for 242-A evaporator facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crummel, G.M.; Gustavson, R.D.

    1995-02-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could affect employee or public safety or the environment. A facility effluent monitoring plan determination was performed during Calendar Year 1991 and the evaluation showed the need for a facility effluent monitoring plan. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated, as a minimum, every three years

  11. A Decision Processing Algorithm for CDC Location Under Minimum Cost SCM Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, N. K.; Kim, J. Y.; Choi, W. Y.; Tian, Z. M.; Kim, D. J.

    Location of CDC in the matter of network on Supply Chain is becoming on the high concern these days. Present status of methods on CDC has been mainly based on the calculation manually by the spread sheet to achieve the goal of minimum logistics cost. This study is focused on the development of new processing algorithm to overcome the limit of present methods, and examination of the propriety of this algorithm by case study. The algorithm suggested by this study is based on the principle of optimization on the directive GRAPH of SCM model and suggest the algorithm utilizing the traditionally introduced MST, shortest paths finding methods, etc. By the aftermath of this study, it helps to assess suitability of the present on-going SCM network and could be the criterion on the decision-making process for the optimal SCM network building-up for the demand prospect in the future.

  12. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium-uranium extraction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohrasbi, J.; Johnson, D.L.; De Lorenzo, D.S.

    1993-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years

  13. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium-uranium extraction facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.J.; Sontage, S.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years

  14. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 2724-W Protective Equipment Decontamination Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, G.J.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1* for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updates as a minimum every three years

  15. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the plutonium-uranium extraction facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohrasbi, J.; Johnson, D.L. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); De Lorenzo, D.S. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, NM (United States)

    1993-12-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-01. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years.

  16. Attainability and minimum energy of single-stage membrane and membrane/distillation hybrid processes

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Ali

    2014-12-01

    As an energy-efficient separation method, membrane technology has attracted more and more attentions in many challenging separation processes. The attainability and the energy consumption of a membrane process are the two basic fundamental questions that need to be answered. This report aims to use process simulations to find: (1) at what conditions a single-stage membrane process can meet the separation task that is defined by product purity and recovery ratio and (2) what are the most important parameters that determine the energy consumption. To perform a certain separation task, it was found that both membrane selectivity and pressure ratio exhibit a minimum value that is defined only by product purity and recovery ratio. The membrane/distillation hybrid system was used to study the energy consumption. A shortcut method was developed to calculate the minimum practical separation energy (MPSE) of the membrane process and the distillation process. It was found that the MPSE of the hybrid system is only determined by the membrane selectivity and the applied transmembrane pressure ratio in three stages. At the first stage when selectivity is low, the membrane process is not competitive to the distillation process. Adding a membrane unit to a distillation tower will not help in reducing energy. At the second medium selectivity stage, the membrane/distillation hybrid system can help reduce the energy consumption, and the higher the membrane selectivity, the lower is the energy. The energy conservation is further improved as pressure ratio increases. At the third stage when both selectivity and pressure ratio are high, the hybrid system will change to a single-stage membrane unit and this change will cause significant reduction in energy consumption. The energy at this stage keeps decreasing with selectivity at slow rate, but slightly increases with pressure ratio. Overall, the higher the membrane selectivity, the more the energy is saved. Therefore, the two

  17. Development of a lab-scale contaminated organic effluents treatment process using evaporation and supercritical water oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turc, H.A.; Joussot-Dubien, C

    2004-07-01

    The organic liquid waste produced in the ATALANTE facility have to be treated in order to reduce the fire and contamination risks. Therefore, the Mini-DELOS process has been developed, which combines a low pressure evaporator in a shielded enclosure and a continuous supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) reactor in a glovebox. Evaporation makes it possible to evacuate the main organic stream as decontaminated distillates to an industrial incinerator. The remaining residue, concentrating the radioactivity can be converted through SCWO into a contaminated aqueous effluent, fully compatible with the existing outlets of the facility. The preliminary results of the first year of active operation of the Mini- DELOS process are here presented. (authors)

  18. Structural modeling and analysis of an effluent treatment process for electroplating--a graph theoretic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Clement, Shibu; Agrawal, V P

    2010-07-15

    An attempt is made to address a few ecological and environment issues by developing different structural models for effluent treatment system for electroplating. The effluent treatment system is defined with the help of different subsystems contributing to waste minimization. Hierarchical tree and block diagram showing all possible interactions among subsystems are proposed. These non-mathematical diagrams are converted into mathematical models for design improvement, analysis, comparison, storage retrieval and commercially off-the-shelf purchases of different subsystems. This is achieved by developing graph theoretic model, matrix models and variable permanent function model. Analysis is carried out by permanent function, hierarchical tree and block diagram methods. Storage and retrieval is done using matrix models. The methodology is illustrated with the help of an example. Benefits to the electroplaters/end user are identified. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. MICROFILTRATION AS ADVANCED TREATMENT PROCESS FOR AN EFFLUENT OF BEEF CATTLE

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago Osório da Silva; André William Soares Rocha; Francisco Javier Cuba Teran

    2011-01-01

    This work aimed to clarify an effluent of a cattle slaughter industry by means of polmeric membranes ofmicrofiltration (porosity of 0.4 μm) with the purpose of removing its turbidity, COD, total suspended solids,volatile solids, inorganic phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen. And also the characteristics of the flow behaviorand transmembrane pressure, and permeate temperature for this wastewater. It was noted that the efficiencyregarding the removal of physical-chemical parameters was 98%, for Tur...

  20. Biological processes for environmental control of effluent streams in the nuclear fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumate, S.E. II; Hancher, C.W.; Strandberg, G.W.; Scott, C.D.

    1978-01-01

    Nitrates and radioactive heavy metals need to be removed from aqueous effluent streams in the fuel cycle. Biological methods are being developed for reducing nitrate or nitrite to N 2 gas and for decreasing dissolved metal concentration to less than 1 g/m 3 . Fluidized-bed denitrification bioreactors are being tested. Removal of uranium from solution by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was studied

  1. Evaluation of hybrid neutralization/biosorption process for zinc ions removal from automotive battery effluent by dolomite and fish scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, C; Scheufele, F B; Alves, H J; Kroumov, A D; Espinoza-Quiñones, F R; Módenes, A N; Borba, C E

    2018-02-26

    This work focused in the evaluation of Oreochromis niloticus fish scales (FS) as biosorbent material in the removal of Zn from a synthetic effluent based on automotive battery industry effluent and, further, a hybrid neutralization/biosorption process, aiming at a high-quality treated effluent, by a cooperative use of dolomite and FS. For this, a physicochemical and morphological characterization (i.e. SEM-EDX, FTIR, XRD, and TXRF) was performed, which helped to clarify a great heterogeneity of active sites (phosphate, carbonate, amide, and hydroxyl) on the biosorbent; also the inorganic constituents (apatites) leaching from the FS was identified. Biosorption results pointed out to a pH-dependent process due to changes in the functional group's anionic character (i.e. electrostatic interactions), where an initial pH = 3 favored the Zn uptake. Kinetic and equilibrium studies confirmed the heterogeneous surface and cooperative sorption, wherein experimental data were described by Generalized Elovich kinetic model and the favorable isotherm profile by Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm ([Formula: see text] = 15.38 mg g -1 and [Formula: see text]). Speciation diagram of Zn species along with the leached species demonstrated that, for the studied pH range, the biosorption was the most likely phenomena rather than precipitation. Finally, the hybrid neutralization/biosorption process showed great potential since both the Zn concentration levels and the pH reached the legislation standards (C Zn  = 4 mg L -1 ; pH = 5). Hence, based on the characterization and biosorption results, a comprehensive evaluation of the involved mechanisms in such complex system helped to verify the prospective of FS biosorbent for the Zn treatment from solution, in both individual and hybrid processes.

  2. Optimal temperature profiles for minimum residual stress in the cure process of polymer composites

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gopal, AK

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available include the minimum residual stresses, minimum cure cycle lime and full degree of cure. The development of residual stresses during the cure cycle is one of the most important problems as they affect the strength and the mechanical properties of the final...

  3. Modelling nitrite dynamics and associated feedback processes in the Benguela oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashifane, T. B.; Vichi, M.; Waldron, H. N.; Machu, E.; Garçonc, V.

    2016-08-01

    Understanding nitrite dynamics in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) is a challenge as it represents an intermediary nitrogen species with a short turnover time. Nitrite is also reduced to nitrogen in OMZs, preventing its accumulation. This creates difficulties in detecting nitrite with colorimetric methods as concentrations may occur below detection limits in some regions. Nitrite concentrations are key to understanding intermediate nitrogen processes and their implication for nitrogen loss in OMZs. A coupled physical-biogeochemical model is applied in the Benguela OMZ to study nitrite dynamics and its associated feedback processes. Simulated results show occurrence of primary and secondary nitrite maxima in the Benguela shelf waters. The primary nitrite maxima in the Benguela are attributed to nitrification and nitrate assimilation as they occur in association with the nitracline. Secondary nitrite maxima accumulate in the Angola-Benguela Front (ABF) OMZ and are attributed to denitrification. The secondary nitrite maxima are consumed by anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) off Walvis Bay. Nitrite maxima are restricted to the shelf off Walvis Bay and advected offshore in the ABF region. Interchanges between the poleward South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) and the equatorward, well-aerated Eastern South Atlantic Central Water (ESACW) drive the seasonality of nitrogen processes in the Benguela. Subsequent nitrite reduction in the Benguela OMZ leads to nitrous oxide production, with high concentrations occurring in the ABF region as a result of nitrification and denitrification. Off Walvis Bay, nitrous oxide production is low since nitrite is consumed by anammox. Nitrous oxide production occurs in thermocline, intermediate and deeper water masses in the ABF region. High N fluxes in the Benguela are attributed to nitrification as compared to anammox and denitrification. Results from this study demonstrate the role of intermediate nitrogen species in nitrogen feedback

  4. WASTE TREATMENT PLANT (WTP) LIQUID EFFLUENT TREATABILITY EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    A forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be produced by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) was provided by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI 2004). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of Tank Farm waste through the end-of-mission for the WTP. The WTP forecast is provided in the Appendices. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Both facilities are located in the 200 East Area and are operated by Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) for the US. Department of Energy (DOE). The treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERF/ETF was evaluated. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERF/ETF treatability envelope (Aromi 1997), which provides information on the items which determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERF/ETF. The format of the evaluation corresponds directly to the outline of the treatability envelope document. Except where noted, the maximum annual average concentrations over the range of the 27 year forecast was evaluated against the treatability envelope. This is an acceptable approach because the volume capacity in the LERF Basin will equalize the minimum and maximum peaks. Background information on the LERF/ETF design basis is provided in the treatability envelope document

  5. In-line monitoring of effluents from HTGR fuel particle preparation processes using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.A.; Costanzo, D.A.; Stinton, D.P.; Carpenter, J.A.; Rainey, W.T. Jr.; Canada, D.C.; Carter, J.A.

    1976-08-01

    The carbonization, conversion, and coating processes in the manufacture of HTGR fuel particles have been studied with the use of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Non-condensable effluents from these fluidized-bed processes have been monitored continuously from the beginning to the end of the process. The processes which have been monitored are these: uranium-loaded ion exchange resin carbonization, the carbothermic reduction of UO 2 to UC 2 , buffer and low temperature isotropic pyrocarbon coatings of fuel kernels, SiC coating of the kernels, and high-temperature particle annealing. Changes in concentrations of significant molecules with time and temperature have been useful in the interpretation of reaction mechanisms and optimization of process procedures

  6. The Process of Fixing the British National Minimum Wage, 1997-2007

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, W.

    2009-01-01

    The British National Minimum Wage was introduced in 1999 under the guidance of a Low Pay Commission constructed on a basis of ‘social partnership’. The paper analyses its conduct over its first ten years from diary data. Key challenges were for it to be independent of government, to have its advice accepted by government, and to maintain internal unanimity. The changing internal dynamics of the Commission, and its major negotiations over the level of the Minimum Wage, are described and analys...

  7. Treatment of the effluent generated in conversion process of auc by precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, E.F.U. de; Santos, L.R. dos; Riella, H.G.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a description for the treatment of generating effluent from Ammonium Uranyl Carbonate-AUC IPEN/CNEN-SP. This procedure describes the uranium recovery (200 mlU/1) by means of its precipitation with hidrogen peroxide at 50 0 C, pH 8,5 where results a yellow powder thought to be UO 4 2NH 3 2HF and a NH 4 F solution with an uranium concentration of 6-7mgU/1. The powder resulted was characterized by chemical analysis and X- Ray difraction techniques. (author) [pt

  8. Palm Oil Mill Effluent Treatment Through Combined Process Adsorption and Membrane Filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Said

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The growth in palm oil production also leads to an Increase in the production of palm oil mill effluent (POME. Nowadays, POME was treated using an open lagoon but this method is ineffectiveness in complying with the standards for water disposal. Therefore, efficient and cohesive treatment system is highly desired to ensure the final discharge of the treated water meets the effluent discharge standards. Initially, the POME was treated through adsorption, followed by UF membranes roomates were intended to reduce COD, TSS and turbidity up to 88%, 99%, and 98%, while the final treatment of RO membranes can reduce BOD, COD and color up to 92%, 98% and 99%. To determine the optimum condition of the RO membrane, response surface methodology (RSM was used. The results showed there was correlation between all key variables. POME concentration, trans-membrane pressure, pH and time would give significant effects in reducing the parameters in POME treatment with the optimum condition of 15.77% for POME concentration, 3.73 for pH, 0.5 bar trans-membrane pressure and 5 hours for filtration time. To predict COD removal, the results were analyzed by applying the artificial neural network (ANN to derive a mathematical model.

  9. Wetland-based passive treatment systems for gold ore processing effluents containing residual cyanide, metals and nitrogen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, R; Ordóñez, A; Loredo, J; Younger, P L

    2013-10-01

    Gold extraction operations generate a variety of wastes requiring responsible disposal in compliance with current environmental regulations. During recent decades, increased emphasis has been placed on effluent control and treatment, in order to avoid the threat to the environment posed by toxic constituents. In many modern gold mining and ore processing operations, cyanide species are of most immediate concern. Given that natural degradation processes are known to reduce the toxicity of cyanide over time, trials have been made at laboratory and field scales into the feasibility of using wetland-based passive systems as low-cost and environmentally friendly methods for long-term treatment of leachates from closed gold mine tailing disposal facilities. Laboratory experiments on discrete aerobic and anaerobic treatment units supported the development of design parameters for the construction of a field-scale passive system at a gold mine site in northern Spain. An in situ pilot-scale wetland treatment system was designed, constructed and monitored over a nine-month period. Overall, the results suggest that compost-based constructed wetlands are capable of detoxifying cyanidation effluents, removing about 21.6% of dissolved cyanide and 98% of Cu, as well as nitrite and nitrate. Wetland-based passive systems can therefore be considered as a viable technology for removal of residual concentrations of cyanide from leachates emanating from closed gold mine tailing disposal facilities.

  10. Enhanced removal of arsenic from a highly laden industrial effluent using a combined coprecipitation/nano-adsorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yingnan; Hua, Ming; Wu, Bian; Ma, Hongrui; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Quanxing

    2014-05-01

    Effective arsenic removal from highly laden industrial wastewater is an important but challenging task. Here, a combined coprecipitation/nano-adsorption process, with ferric chloride and calcium chloride as coprecipitation agents and polymer-based nanocomposite as selective adsorbent, has been validated for arsenic removal from tungsten-smelting wastewater. On the basis of operating optimization, a binary FeCl3 (520 mg/L)-CaCl2 (300 mg/L) coprecipitation agent could remove more than 93% arsenic from the wastewater. The resulting precipitate has proved environmental safety based on leaching toxicity test. Fixed-bed column packed with zirconium or ferric-oxide-loaded nanocomposite was employed for further elimination of arsenic in coprecipitated effluent, resulting in a significant decrease of arsenic (from 0.96 to less than 0.5 mg/L). The working capacity of zirconium-loaded nanocomposite was 220 bed volumes per run, much higher than that of ferric-loaded nanocomposite (40 bed volumes per run). The exhausted zirconium-loaded nanocomposite could be efficiently in situ regenerated with a binary NaOH-NaCl solution for reuse without any significant capacity loss. The results validated the combinational coprecipitation/nano-adsorption process to be a potential alternative for effective arsenic removal from highly laden industrial effluent.

  11. Pollution control technologies for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) through end-of-pipe processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ta Yeong; Mohammad, Abdul Wahab; Jahim, Jamaliah Md; Anuar, Nurina

    2010-07-01

    Palm oil production is one of the major industries in Malaysia and this country ranks one of the largest productions in the world. In Malaysia, the total production of crude palm oil in 2008 was 17,734,441 tonnes. However, the production of this amount of crude palm oil results in even larger amounts of palm oil mill effluent (POME). In the year 2008 alone, at least 44 million tonnes of POME was generated in Malaysia. Currently, the ponding system is the most common treatment method for POME but other processes such as aerobic and anaerobic digestion, physicochemical treatment and membrane filtration may also provide the palm oil industries with possible insights into the improvement of POME treatment processes. Generally, open ponding offers low capital and operating costs but this conventional method is becoming less attractive because the methane produced is wasted to the atmosphere and the system can not be certified for Carbon Emission Reduction trading. On the other hand, anaerobic digestion of POME provides the fastest payback of investment because the treatment enables biogas recovery for heat generation and treated effluent for land application. Lastly, it is proposed herewith that wastewater management based on the promotion of cleaner production and environmentally sound biotechnologies should be prioritized and included as a part of the POME management in Malaysia for attaining sustainable development. This paper thus discusses and compares state-of-the-art POME treatment methods as well as their individual performances. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. SCARCE WAYS: PROCESSES OF SOCIAL PRODUCTION AND REPRODUCTION IN THE MINIMUM INCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vítor RODRIGUES

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Portugal established in 1996 the Guaranteed Minimum Income (Law Nº 19-A/96, defined as an instrument of social policy with two components: 1 the financial provision to the poor and 2 a socio-professional insertion program for beneficiaries and their households. It is, therefore, fundamental to study and evaluate the impacts and structural constraints that this politics has caused, in the context of a weak Portuguese welfare state, seeking to understand the relationships between the objectives detailed in the law and actual practices in its application. We focus the analysis on beneficiaries, their characteristics and their ways of live, as well as in institutional practices and in their organizational models. But this analysis also requires the study of the factors and processes of vulnerability that tend to perpetuate themselves and remain in the beneficiary populations and the analysis of the forms and models of institutional intervention. It is pertinent to consider whether the policies of integration have or not a unifying role. This will mean that the logic of integration can act as a leveling factor, standardizing practices and social representations as the effect of institutional functioning. Or, rather, the analysis of social practices, ideas and value systems of the beneficiaries and professional actors will distinguish conflicts and oppositions, giving rise to groups that manage the paradoxes of integration policies from different resources. Still, the weakening of the structures, the multiplicity of partners and specific initiatives can be important obstacles, as important as most people hardly know the bureaucratic and administrative channels. This study is held in the empirical area of Vila Nova de Gaia, Porto, Portugal.

  13. Facility effluent monitoring plan for K area spent fuel storage basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunacek, G.S.

    1996-01-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400. 1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document was prepared using the specific guidelines identified in WHC-EP-0438-1, A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the second revision to the original annual report. Long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring system shall be ensured with updates of this report whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated at a minimum of every three years

  14. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP); FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FRAZIER, T.P.

    1999-01-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U. S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether these systems are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. To ensure the long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems, an update to this facility effluent monitoring plan is required whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document is reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and is updated, at a minimum, every 3 years

  15. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 300 Area Fuels Fabrication Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.; Brendel, D.F.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP- 0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring system by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years. The Fuel Fabrication Facility in the Hanford 300 Area supported the production reactors from the 1940's until they were shut down in 1987. Prior to 1987 the Fuel Fabrication Facility released both airborne and liquid radioactive effluents. In January 1987 the emission of airborne radioactive effluents ceased with the shutdown of the fuels facility. The release of liquid radioactive effluents have continued although decreasing significantly from 1987 to 1990

  16. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the N Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, D.J.; Brendel, D.F.; Shields, K.D.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP- 0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years. The primary purpose of the N Reactor Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP), during standby, is to ensure that the radioactive effluents are properly monitored and evaluated for compliance with the applicable DOE orders and regulatory agencies at the federal, state, and local levels. A secondary purpose of the FEMP is to ensure that hazardous wastes are not released, in liquid effluents, to the environment even though the potential to do so is extremely low. The FEMP is to provide a monitoring system that collects representative samples in accordance with industry standards, performs analyses within stringent quality control (QC) requirements, and evaluates the data through the use of comparative analysis with the standards and acceptable environmental models

  17. BIODEGRADATION OF EFFLUENT CONTAMINATED WITH DIESEL OIL AND GASOLINE USING CHITOSAN AS A NATURAL COAGULANT IN A CONTINUOUS PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the effects of aeration (constant aeration, intermittent aeration and a lack of aeration and hydraulic retention time (HRT (2, 3 and 4 days on a continuous process with cell recycling, using chitosan as a natural coagulant for the sedimentation of a C1 mixed culture. This culture was used for the biodegradation of hydrocarbons present in the effluent contaminated with diesel oil and gasoline. The responses monitored included the turbidity removal (TR, total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH removal and volatile suspended solids (VSS. Constant aeration and an HRT of 4 days produced the best results for the continuous process, resulting in the highest TPH removals (94% and 75% reductions in the supernatant and reaction tank, respectively and TR (95%.

  18. Oxygen sensitivity of anammox and coupled N-cycle processes in oxygen minimum zones.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Kalvelage

    Full Text Available Nutrient measurements indicate that 30-50% of the total nitrogen (N loss in the ocean occurs in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs. This pelagic N-removal takes place within only ~0.1% of the ocean volume, hence moderate variations in the extent of OMZs due to global warming may have a large impact on the global N-cycle. We examined the effect of oxygen (O(2 on anammox, NH(3 oxidation and NO(3(- reduction in (15N-labeling experiments with varying O(2 concentrations (0-25 µmol L(-1 in the Namibian and Peruvian OMZs. Our results show that O(2 is a major controlling factor for anammox activity in OMZ waters. Based on our O(2 assays we estimate the upper limit for anammox to be ~20 µmol L(-1. In contrast, NH(3 oxidation to NO(2(- and NO(3(- reduction to NO(2(- as the main NH(4(+ and NO(2(- sources for anammox were only moderately affected by changing O(2 concentrations. Intriguingly, aerobic NH(3 oxidation was active at non-detectable concentrations of O(2, while anaerobic NO(3(- reduction was fully active up to at least 25 µmol L(-1 O(2. Hence, aerobic and anaerobic N-cycle pathways in OMZs can co-occur over a larger range of O(2 concentrations than previously assumed. The zone where N-loss can occur is primarily controlled by the O(2-sensitivity of anammox itself, and not by any effects of O(2 on the tightly coupled pathways of aerobic NH(3 oxidation and NO(3(- reduction. With anammox bacteria in the marine environment being active at O(2 levels ~20 times higher than those known to inhibit their cultured counterparts, the oceanic volume potentially acting as a N-sink increases tenfold. The predicted expansion of OMZs may enlarge this volume even further. Our study provides the first robust estimates of O(2 sensitivities for processes directly and indirectly connected with N-loss. These are essential to assess the effects of ocean de-oxygenation on oceanic N-cycling.

  19. INVESTIGATION OF FLOW BEHAVIOR IN MINIMUM QUANTITY LUBRICATION NOZZLE FOR END MILLING PROCESSES

    OpenAIRE

    M.S. Najiha; M.M.Rahman; A.R. Yusoff; K. Kadirgama

    2012-01-01

    Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) is a sustainable manufacturing technique that has replaced conventional flooded lubrication methods and dry machining. In the MQL technique, the lubricant is sprayed onto the friction surfaces through nozzles through small pneumatically-operated pumps. This paper presents an investigation into the flow behavior of the lubricant and air mixture under certain pressures at the tip of a nozzle specially designed for MQL. The nozzle used is an MQL stainless steel...

  20. In vitro characterization of the effectiveness of enhanced sewage treatment processes to eliminate endocrine activity of hospital effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maletz, Sibylle; Floehr, Tilman; Beier, Silvio; Klümper, Claudia; Brouwer, Abraham; Behnisch, Peter; Higley, Eric; Giesy, John P; Hecker, Markus; Gebhardt, Wilhelm; Linnemann, Volker; Pinnekamp, Johannes; Hollert, Henner

    2013-03-15

    Occurrence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems is related to sewage effluents. Due to the possible adverse effects on wildlife and humans, degradation and removal of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites during wastewater treatment is an increasingly important task. The present study was part of a proof of concept study at a medium sized country hospital in western Germany that investigated efficiency of advanced treatment processes to remove toxic potencies from sewage. Specifically, the efficiency of treatment processes such as a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and ozonation to remove endocrine disruptive potentials was assessed. Estrogenic effects were characterized by use of two receptor-mediated in vitro transactivation assays, the Lyticase Yeast Estrogen Screen (LYES) and the Estrogen Receptor mediated Chemical Activated LUciferase gene eXpression (ER CALUX(®)). In addition, the H295R Steroidogenesis Assay (H295R) was utilized to detect potential disruption of steroidogenesis. Raw sewage contained measurable estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated potency as determined by use of the LYES (28.9 ± 8.6 ng/L, 0.33× concentration), which was reduced after treatment by MBR (2.3 ± 0.3 ng/L) and ozone (1.2 ± 0.4 ng/L). Results were confirmed by use of ER CALUX(®) which measured concentrations of estrogen equivalents (EEQs) of 0.2 ± 0.11 ng/L (MBR) and 0.01 ± 0.02 ng/L (ozonation). In contrast, treatment with ozone resulted in greater production of estradiol and aromatase activity at 3× and greater concentrations in H295R cells. It is hypothesized that this is partly due to formation of active oxidized products during ozonation. Substance-specific analyses demonstrated efficient removal of most of the measured compounds by ozonation. A comparison of the ER-mediated responses measured by use of the LYES and ER CALUX(®) with those from the chemical analysis using a mass-balance approach revealed estrone (E1) to be the main compound that caused the estrogenic effects

  1. 300 Area process sewer piping upgrade and 300 Area treated effluent disposal facility discharge to the City of Richland Sewage System, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is proposing to upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by constructing and operating a new process sewer collection system that would discharge to the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The DOE is also considering the construction of a tie-line from the TEDF to the 300 Area Sanitary Sewer for discharging the process wastewater to the City of Richland Sewage System. The proposed action is needed because the integrity of the old piping in the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System is questionable and effluents might be entering the soil column from leaking pipes. In addition, the DOE has identified a need to reduce anticipated operating costs at the new TEDF. The 300 Area Process Sewer Piping Upgrade (Project L-070) is estimated to cost approximately $9.9 million. The proposed work would involve the construction and operation of a new process sewer collection system. The new system would discharge the effluents to a collection sump and lift station for the TEDF. The TEDF is designed to treat and discharge the process effluent to the Columbia River. The process waste liquid effluent is currently well below the DOE requirements for radiological secondary containment and is not considered a RCRA hazardous waste or a State of Washington Hazardous Waste Management Act dangerous waste. A National Pollutant Discharge Elimination, System (NPDES) permit has been obtained from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for discharge to the Columbia River. The proposed action would upgrade the existing 300 Area Process Sewer System by the construction and operation of a new combined gravity, vacuum, and pressurized process sewer collection system consisting of vacuum collection sumps, pressure pump stations, and buried polyvinyl chloride or similar pipe. Two buildings would also be built to house a main collection station and a satellite collection station.

  2. Treatment of pulp and paper industry bleaching effluent by electrocoagulant process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sridhar, R.; Sivakumar, V.; Prince Immanuel, V.; Prakash Maran, J.

    2011-01-01

    The experiments were carried out in an electrocoagulation reactor with aluminum as sacrificial electrodes. The influence of electrolysis time, current density, pH, NaCl concentration, rotational speed of the stirrer and electrode distance on reduction of color, COD and BOD were studied in detail. From the experimental results, 15 mA/cm 2 current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28 deg, C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance were found to be optimum for maximum reduction of color, COD and BOD. The reduction of color, COD and BOD under the optimum condition were found to be 94%, 90% and 87% respectively. The electrode energy consumption was calculated and found to be varied from 10.1 to 12.9 kWh/m 3 depending on the operating conditions. Under optimal operating condition such as 15 mA/cm 2 current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28 deg, C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance, the operating cost was found to be 1.56 US $/m 3 . The experimental results proved that the electrocoagulation is a suitable method for treating bleaching plant effluents for reuse.

  3. Treatment of pulp and paper industry bleaching effluent by electrocoagulant process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridhar, R., E-mail: sridhar36k@yahoo.co.in [Department of Chemical Engineering, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode 638052, TN (India); Sivakumar, V., E-mail: drvsivakumar@yahoo.com [Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode 638052, TN (India); Prince Immanuel, V., E-mail: princeimmanuel79@yahoo.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, Erode Sengunthar Engineering College, Thudupathi, Erode 638057, TN (India); Prakash Maran, J., E-mail: prakashmaran@gmail.com [Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode 638052, TN (India)

    2011-02-28

    The experiments were carried out in an electrocoagulation reactor with aluminum as sacrificial electrodes. The influence of electrolysis time, current density, pH, NaCl concentration, rotational speed of the stirrer and electrode distance on reduction of color, COD and BOD were studied in detail. From the experimental results, 15 mA/cm{sup 2} current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28 deg, C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance were found to be optimum for maximum reduction of color, COD and BOD. The reduction of color, COD and BOD under the optimum condition were found to be 94%, 90% and 87% respectively. The electrode energy consumption was calculated and found to be varied from 10.1 to 12.9 kWh/m{sup 3} depending on the operating conditions. Under optimal operating condition such as 15 mA/cm{sup 2} current density, pH of 7, 1 g/l NaCl, 100 rpm, 28 deg, C temperature and 3 cm electrode distance, the operating cost was found to be 1.56 US $/m{sup 3}. The experimental results proved that the electrocoagulation is a suitable method for treating bleaching plant effluents for reuse.

  4. Efficiency of Ciprofloxacin (CIP Removal from Pharmaceutical Effluents Using the Ozone/Persulfate(O3/PS Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alirezi Rahmani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A newly emerging environmental problem is the discharge of pharmaceutical effluents containing antibiotic compounds. Compared to common methods, the ozone/persulfate process is a novel measure for treating persistent pollutants. This process is highly efficient in removing pollutants by using the free radicals of sulfates as powerful oxidants. In this study, a semi-continuous reactor with a useful volume of 1 L was used to evaluate the performance of the ozone/persulfate process in treating the ciprofloxacin antibiotic at concentrations from 10 to 100 mg/L in the presence of 0 to 15 mM of persulfate in 30 min. The results showed that under the optimized operating conditions of pH = 3, persulfate dose = 10 mM, ozone dose = 1 g/h, and an initial antibiotic concentration of 10 mg/L, this method was capable of removing 96% of the contaminant. Moreover, the efficiency of the process was found to be a function of experimental conditions. Based on the results of this study, it may be concluded that the ozone/persulfate process can be considered as an appropriate process for treating persistent and non-biodegradable pollutants.

  5. Experimental investigations on the effect of process parameters with the use of minimum quantity solid lubrication in turning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhesana, Mayur A.; Patel, K. M.; Mawandiya, B. K.

    2018-04-01

    Turning process is a very basic process in any field of mechanical application. During turning process, most of the energy is converted into heat because of the friction between work piece and tool. Heat generation can affect the surface quality of the work piece and tool life. To reduce the heat generation, Conventional Lubrication process is used in most of the industry. Minimum quantity lubrication has been an effective alternative to improve the performance of machining process. In this present work, effort has been made to study the effect of various process parameters on the surface roughness and power consumption during turning of EN8 steel material. Result revealed the effect of depth of cut and feed on the obtained surface roughness value. Further the effect of solid lubricant has been also studied and optimization of process parameters is also done for the turning process.

  6. Comprehensive evaluation of the effluents eluted from different processes of the textile industry and its immobilization to trim down the environmental pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Husaini, S.N.; Zaidi, J.H.; Matiullah; Akram, M.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the significance of industrial waste water pollution, which creates severe health hazards in humans, this study concentrates over the reduction and determination of the amounts of toxic metals/pollution parameters in the effluents leached from different processes of the textile industry. The concentrations of metal ions were measured by using neutron activation analysis (NAA) technique. The values of toxic metals such as As (49.1 ± 1.8 mg/L), Cu (42.7 ± 1.5 mg/L), Ni (41.1 ± 3.3 mg/L), Mn (51.1 ± 0.7 mg/L), Sb (1.89 ± 0.04 mg/L), Se (0.41 ± 0.01 mg/L), Co (7.5 ± 0.3 mg/L), Cr (8.5 ± 0.5 mg/L) and Cd (1.21 ± 0.08 mg/L) were found very high in crude textile's effluents as compared to their standard recommended limits. The immense variation observed among the injurious pollutants of the effluents i.e. pH, temperature, electrical conductivity, turbidity, biological oxygen demands, chemical oxygen demands, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, total solids etc. The toxic metals and injurious pollutants in the unprocessed effluents have been reduced in the post filtration effluents up to 98% and 96% respectively with the help of an ultra-filtration membrane therapy unit. (author)

  7. Effluent trading in river systems through stochastic decision-making process: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfagharipoor, Mohammad Amin; Ahmadi, Azadeh

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide an efficient framework for effluent trading in river systems. The proposed framework consists of two pessimistic and optimistic decision-making models to increase the executability of river water quality trading programs. The models used for this purpose are (1) stochastic fallback bargaining (SFB) to reach an agreement among wastewater dischargers and (2) stochastic multi-criteria decision-making (SMCDM) to determine the optimal treatment strategy. The Monte-Carlo simulation method is used to incorporate the uncertainty into analysis. This uncertainty arises from stochastic nature and the errors in the calculation of wastewater treatment costs. The results of river water quality simulation model are used as the inputs of models. The proposed models are used in a case study on the Zarjoub River in northern Iran to determine the best solution for the pollution load allocation. The best treatment alternatives selected by each model are imported, as the initial pollution discharge permits, into an optimization model developed for trading of pollution discharge permits among pollutant sources. The results show that the SFB-based water pollution trading approach reduces the costs by US$ 14,834 while providing a relative consensus among pollutant sources. Meanwhile, the SMCDM-based water pollution trading approach reduces the costs by US$ 218,852, but it is less acceptable by pollutant sources. Therefore, it appears that giving due attention to stability, or in other words acceptability of pollution trading programs for all pollutant sources, is an essential element of their success.

  8. Effluent Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effluent guidelines are national standards for wastewater discharges to surface waters and municipal sewage treatment plants. We issue the regulations for industrial categories based on the performance of treatment and control technologies.

  9. Casemix and process indicators of outcome in stroke. The Royal College of Physicians minimum data set for stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, P; Rudd, A

    1998-01-01

    The emphasis on outcomes measurement requires that casemix is considered in any comparative studies. In 1996 the Intercollegiate Working Party for Stroke agreed a minimum data set to measure the severity of casemix in stroke. The reasons for its development, the evidence base supporting the items included and the possible uses of the data set are described. It is currently being evaluated in national outcome and process audits to be reported at a later date.

  10. 40 CFR 407.67 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Fruits Subcategory § 407.67 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  11. 40 CFR 407.77 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS CANNED AND PRESERVED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Canned and Preserved Vegetables Subcategory § 407.77 Effluent limitations guidelines...

  12. Development of a surfactant liquid membrane extraction process for the cleansing of industrial aqueous effluents containing metallic cation traces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapaumbya Akaye, Guy-Roland

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to develop a process of surfactant liquid membrane extraction to purify industrial waste solution containing Cu(II), Fe(III), and Zn(II) (about 0,1 g/L). The extractant is the ammonium salt of Cyanex 306 and Aliquat 336. The first part of this work deals with the study of the liquid-liquid extraction of the metals. The efficiency of the extractant has been shown for the extraction of each metal alone and for Cu(II) and Zn(II) in the case of a mixture of the three metals. During this study we have observed that Fe(III) is reduced to Fe(II) (which is not extracted by the salt of Cyanex 301) in presence of Cu(II) and the quaternary ammonium salt (Aliquat 336). The optimisation of the experimental conditions for the discontinuous surfactant liquid membrane process led us to choose the following composition of the emulsion: 1,5 % of Cyanex 301 salt, 2,5 % of ECA 4360, dodecan. The internal phase is an aqueous solution containing 3,5 mol/L of NaOH and 0,5 mol/L tri-ethanolamin The residual concentration of Cu(II) and Zn(II) in the external phase is very low. In the case of iron, only 60 % are extracted because of the reduction phenomenon (10 % in liquid-liquid extraction). The realisation of the continuous process in pulsed column, after optimisation of hydrodynamics conditions, leads to similar results. In stationary conditions, we obtain a raffinate containing less than 0,5 mg/L of Cu(II) and Zn(II) and 36 mg/L of iron. The internal phase contains about 2 g/L of Cu(II) an Zn(II). We tried and minimize the reduction of Fe(III) in surfactant liquid membrane process. Less than 16 % of iron cannot be reduced. This leads to a purification of only 84 % In the basis of these results, processes of purification have been proposed for effluents of various composition. They enable to purify the effluent and besides to concentrate the pollutants about twenty times. (author) [fr

  13. Application of a pneumatic flotation process for the treatment of oil-burdened industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinabo, C.

    1993-01-01

    Different industrial waste waters containing oil emulsions were investigated using pneumatic flotation techniques. The separation efficiency is determined by the zeta potential of the oil/water emulsion. The electrophoretic measurements indicated that, the iep of the emulsion lies within the region of pH 5. Within this pH region it was possible to reduce the oil mud to a minimum level from the waste water using flotation. The laboratory flotation results showed the rest oil concentration amounts to 0.2 and 0.01% depending on the loading grade of oil in the waste water. Applying an emulsion with an oil content of 12%, it was possible to achieve a product in industrial scale with a rest oil concentration of 0.08%. (orig.) [de

  14. Quality control methods in accelerometer data processing: defining minimum wear time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly Rich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When using accelerometers to measure physical activity, researchers need to determine whether subjects have worn their device for a sufficient period to be included in analyses. We propose a minimum wear criterion using population-based accelerometer data, and explore the influence of gender and the purposeful inclusion of children with weekend data on reliability. METHODS: Accelerometer data obtained during the age seven sweep of the UK Millennium Cohort Study were analysed. Children were asked to wear an ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer for seven days. Reliability coefficients(r of mean daily counts/minute were calculated using the Spearman-Brown formula based on the intraclass correlation coefficient. An r of 1.0 indicates that all the variation is between- rather than within-children and that measurement is 100% reliable. An r of 0.8 is often regarded as acceptable reliability. Analyses were repeated on data from children who met different minimum daily wear times (one to 10 hours and wear days (one to seven days. Analyses were conducted for all children, separately for boys and girls, and separately for children with and without weekend data. RESULTS: At least one hour of wear time data was obtained from 7,704 singletons. Reliability increased as the minimum number of days and the daily wear time increased. A high reliability (r = 0.86 and sample size (n = 6,528 was achieved when children with ≥ two days lasting ≥10 hours/day were included in analyses. Reliability coefficients were similar for both genders. Purposeful sampling of children with weekend data resulted in comparable reliabilities to those calculated independent of weekend wear. CONCLUSION: Quality control procedures should be undertaken before analysing accelerometer data in large-scale studies. Using data from children with ≥ two days lasting ≥10 hours/day should provide reliable estimates of physical activity. It's unnecessary to include only children

  15. [eng] Minimum Income and Labour Market Integration Processes: Individual and Institutional Determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLARA RIBA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses whether activation policies have had a positive effect on beneficiaries of minimum income protection in Catalonia (Spain. The article first confirms that social assistance benefi ciaries with higher employability levels have greater chances of finding a job. Second, the article identifies different profiles of beneficiaries and examines the characteristics of those who did not find jobs in a favourable economic context. The results suggest that it is personal problems that act as barriers. Third, the article also examines to what extent public management is responsible for the results. For this purpose, it compares the performance of administrative units, controlling for the characteristics of their clients. Finally, the article discusses whether making social assistance dependent on activation is a good strategy for the majority of benefi ciaries with particularly difficult profiles, and what administrations can do.

  16. Understanding the Development of Minimum Unit Pricing of Alcohol in Scotland: A Qualitative Study of the Policy Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Hilton, Shona; Bonell, Chris; Bond, Lyndal

    2014-01-01

    Background Minimum unit pricing of alcohol is a novel public health policy with the potential to improve population health and reduce health inequalities. Theories of the policy process may help to understand the development of policy innovation and in turn identify lessons for future public health research and practice. This study aims to explain minimum unit pricing’s development by taking a ‘multiple-lenses’ approach to understanding the policy process. In particular, we apply three perspectives of the policy process (Kingdon’s multiple streams, Punctuated-Equilibrium Theory, Multi-Level Governance) to understand how and why minimum unit pricing has developed in Scotland and describe implications for efforts to develop evidence-informed policymaking. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with policy actors (politicians, civil servants, academics, advocates, industry representatives) involved in the development of MUP (n = 36). Interviewees were asked about the policy process and the role of evidence in policy development. Data from two other sources (a review of policy documents and an analysis of evidence submission documents to the Scottish Parliament) were used for triangulation. Findings The three perspectives provide complementary understandings of the policy process. Evidence has played an important role in presenting the policy issue of alcohol as a problem requiring action. Scotland-specific data and a change in the policy ‘image’ to a population-based problem contributed to making alcohol-related harms a priority for action. The limited powers of Scottish Government help explain the type of price intervention pursued while distinct aspects of the Scottish political climate favoured the pursuit of price-based interventions. Conclusions Evidence has played a crucial but complex role in the development of an innovative policy. Utilising different political science theories helps explain different aspects of the policy process

  17. Understanding the development of minimum unit pricing of alcohol in Scotland: a qualitative study of the policy process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal; Hilton, Shona; Bonell, Chris; Bond, Lyndal

    2014-01-01

    Minimum unit pricing of alcohol is a novel public health policy with the potential to improve population health and reduce health inequalities. Theories of the policy process may help to understand the development of policy innovation and in turn identify lessons for future public health research and practice. This study aims to explain minimum unit pricing's development by taking a 'multiple-lenses' approach to understanding the policy process. In particular, we apply three perspectives of the policy process (Kingdon's multiple streams, Punctuated-Equilibrium Theory, Multi-Level Governance) to understand how and why minimum unit pricing has developed in Scotland and describe implications for efforts to develop evidence-informed policymaking. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with policy actors (politicians, civil servants, academics, advocates, industry representatives) involved in the development of MUP (n = 36). Interviewees were asked about the policy process and the role of evidence in policy development. Data from two other sources (a review of policy documents and an analysis of evidence submission documents to the Scottish Parliament) were used for triangulation. The three perspectives provide complementary understandings of the policy process. Evidence has played an important role in presenting the policy issue of alcohol as a problem requiring action. Scotland-specific data and a change in the policy 'image' to a population-based problem contributed to making alcohol-related harms a priority for action. The limited powers of Scottish Government help explain the type of price intervention pursued while distinct aspects of the Scottish political climate favoured the pursuit of price-based interventions. Evidence has played a crucial but complex role in the development of an innovative policy. Utilising different political science theories helps explain different aspects of the policy process, with Multi-Level Governance particularly useful for

  18. Recovery of lithium from the effluent obtained in the process of spent lithium-ion batteries recycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xueyi; Cao, Xiao; Huang, Guoyong; Tian, Qinghua; Sun, Hongyu

    2017-08-01

    A novel process of lithium recovery as lithium ion sieve from the effluent obtained in the process of spent lithium-ion batteries recycling is developed. Through a two-stage precipitation process using Na 2 CO 3 and Na 3 PO 4 as precipitants, lithium is recovered as raw Li 2 CO 3 and pure Li 3 PO 4 , respectively. Under the best reaction condition (both the amounts of Na 2 CO 3 and Li 3 PO 4 vs. the theoretical ones are about 1.1), the corresponding recovery rates of lithium (calculated based on the concentration of the previous stage) are 74.72% and 92.21%, respectively. The raw Li 2 CO 3 containing the impurity of Na 2 CO 3 is used to prepare LiMn 2 O 4 as lithium ion sieve, and the tolerant level of sodium on its property is studied through batch tests of adsorption capacity and corrosion resistance. When the weight percentage of Na 2 CO 3 in raw Li 2 CO 3 is controlled less than 10%, the Mn corrosion percentage of LiMn 2 O 4 decreases to 21.07%, and the adsorption capacity can still keep at 40.08 mg g -1 . The results reveal that the conventional separation sodium from lithium may be avoided through the application of the raw Li 2 CO 3 in the field of lithium ion sieve. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Modelling de-novo formation of dioxins in the effluent gas cleaning tract of a zinc recycling process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordsieck, H.; Peche, R.

    2002-07-01

    Dioxins as well as other chloroaromatics are an unwanted by-product of most metallurgical processes, both in primary metal production and in recycling, such as at the re-use of high-zinc steel dust, as obtained in the second steel melting process using in electric arc furnaces, by extracting the included zinc. for achieving this purpose, the steel dust is treated in a rotary kiln. This resulting zinc oxide is offered to metal working companies in form of fine powder where it is used for galvanizing of components, for example, or for converting the powder pure metal. In the framework of the MINIDIP-project (Minimization of Dioxins in Thermal Industrial Processes: Mechanisms, Monitoring, Abatement) the formation of dioxins was studied as a function of temperature, time, oxygen, and inhibitor addition. The resulting kinetic data are introduced into a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, featuring geometric representations of the effluent gas cleaning tract components and the temperature and gas flow field as well as the trajectories and destination of particles different sizes calculated. This CFD model is used to estimate the de-novo formation of dioxins from the moment the gas leaves the rotary kiln until its cleaning, in order to define the role of this part of the plant in the formation of dioxins, as well as the identification and extent of possibilities for minimizing dioxin emissions. (Author)

  20. Recovery of lithium from the effluent obtained in the process of spent lithium-ion batteries recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Xueyi; Cao, Xiao; Huang, Guoyong

    2017-01-01

    A novel process of lithium recovery as lithium ion sieve from the effluent obtained in the process of spent lithium-ion batteries recycling is developed. Through a two-stage precipitation process using Na2CO3 and Na3PO4 as precipitants, lithium is recovered as raw Li2CO3 and pure Li3PO4...... of Na2CO3 is used to prepare LiMn2O4 as lithium ion sieve, and the tolerant level of sodium on its property is studied through batch tests of adsorption capacity and corrosion resistance. When the weight percentage of Na2CO3 in raw Li2CO3 is controlled less than 10%, the Mn corrosion percentage of LiMn2......O4 decreases to 21.07%, and the adsorption capacity can still keep at 40.08 mg g-1. The results reveal that the conventional separation sodium from lithium may be avoided through the application of the raw Li2CO3 in the field of lithium ion sieve....

  1. Methods of evaluating ore processing and effluent treatment for Cigar Lake ore at the Rabbit Lake Mill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, C.R.

    2002-01-01

    Cigar Lake is the second-largest, high grade uranium orebody in the world. Mineable reserves for Cigar Lake Phase 1 are estimated at 191 million pounds U 3 O 8 with a grade of 25.6% U 3 O 8 . Subject to regulatory approval, Cameco intends to process the majority of ore from Cigar Lake in the Rabbit Lake mill. Cameco initiated a programme to study the processing of Cigar Lake ore and the treatment of the resulting waste streams. Laboratory and follow-up pilot scale ore leaching tests with Cigar Lake ore samples were performed. Tailings and effluents were generated from the products of the pilot scale leach tests. Mill process tailings were blended with ground waste rock. Using these materials, geotechnical and geochemical properties, including long term tailings pore water characteristics, will be evaluated. In addition, proposed changes to the mill waste treatment operations were developed to deal with increased levels of arsenic and radium in the waste streams. This paper describes the methods and techniques Cameco used in this programme. (author)

  2. Silver precipitation from electrolytic effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivera, I.; Patino, F.; Cruells, M.; Roca, A.; Vinals, J.

    2004-01-01

    The recovery of silver contained in electrolytic effluents is attractive due to its high economic value. These effluents are considered toxic wastes and it is not possible to dump them directly without any detoxification process. One of the most important way for silver recovery is the precipitation with sodium ditionite, sodium borohidride or hydrazine monohidrate. In this work, the most significant aspects related to the use of these reagents is presented. Results of silver precipitation with sodium ditionite from effluents containing thiosulfate without previous elimination of other species are also presented. silver concentration in the final effluents w <1 ppm. (Author) 15 refs

  3. Waste Treatment Plant Liquid Effluent Treatability Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) provided a forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be generated by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of 25 distinct batches of tank waste through the WTP. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) evaluated the treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERFIETF. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERFIETF treatability envelope, which provides information on the items that determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERFIETF. The WTP liquid effluent forecast is outside the current LERFlETF treatability envelope. There are several concerns that must be addressed before the WTP liquid effluents can be accepted at the LERFIETF

  4. Attainability and minimum energy of single-stage membrane and membrane/distillation hybrid processes

    KAUST Repository

    Alshehri, Ali; Lai, Zhiping

    2014-01-01

    As an energy-efficient separation method, membrane technology has attracted more and more attentions in many challenging separation processes. The attainability and the energy consumption of a membrane process are the two basic fundamental questions

  5. Effluent standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, G C [Pennsylvania State University (United States)

    1974-07-01

    At the conference there was a considerable interest in research reactor standards and effluent standards in particular. On the program, this is demonstrated by the panel discussion on effluents, the paper on argon 41 measured by Sims, and the summary paper by Ringle, et al. on the activities of ANS research reactor standards committee (ANS-15). As a result, a meeting was organized to discuss the proposed ANS standard on research reactor effluents (15.9). This was held on Tuesday evening, was attended by members of the ANS-15 committee who were present at the conference, participants in the panel discussion on the subject, and others interested. Out of this meeting came a number of excellent suggestions for changes which will increase the utility of the standard, and a strong recommendation that the effluent standard (15.9) be combined with the effluent monitoring standard. It is expected that these suggestions and recommendations will be incorporated and a revised draft issued for comment early this summer. (author)

  6. Oxygen sensitivity of anammox and coupled N-cycle processes in oxygen minimum zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Jensen, Marlene Mark; Contreras, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Nutrient measurements indicate that 30–50% of the total nitrogen (N) loss in the ocean occurs in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). This pelagic N-removal takes place within only ,0.1% of the ocean volume, hence moderate variations in the extent of OMZs due to global warming may have a large impact...... at non-detectable concentrations of O2, while anaerobic NO3 2 reduction was fully active up to at least 25 mmol L21 O2. Hence, aerobic and anaerobic N-cycle pathways in OMZs can co-occur over a larger range of O2 concentrations than previously assumed. The zone where N-loss can occur is primarily...... controlled by the O2-sensitivity of anammox itself, and not by any effects of O2 on the tightly coupled pathways of aerobic NH3 oxidation and NO3 2 reduction. With anammox bacteria in the marine environment being active at O2 levels ,20 times higher than those known to inhibit their cultured counterparts...

  7. MINIMUM QUANTITY LUBRICANT FLOW ANALYSIS IN END MILLING PROCESSES: A COMPUTATIONAL FLUID DYNAMICS APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Najiha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a two-dimensional steady-state incompressible analysis for the minimum quantity of lubricant flow in milling operations using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD approach. The analysis of flow and heat transfer in a four-teeth milling cutter operation was undertaken. The domain of the rotating cutter along with the spray nozzle is defined. Operating cutting and boundary conditions are taken from the literature. A steady-state, pressure-based, planar analysis was performed with a viscous, realizable k-ε model. A mixture of oils and air were sprayed on the tool, which is considered to be rotating and is at a temperature near the melting temperature of the workpiece. Flow fields are obtained from the study. The vector plot of the flow field shows that the flow is not evenly distributed over the cutter surface, as well as the uneven distribution of the lubricant in the direction of the cutter rotation. It can be seen that the cutting fluid has not completely penetrated the tool edges. The turbulence created by the cutter rotation in the proximity of the tool throws oil drops out of the cutting zone. The nozzle position in relation to the feed direction is very important in order to obtain the optimum effect of the MQL flow.

  8. INVESTIGATION OF FLOW BEHAVIOR IN MINIMUM QUANTITY LUBRICATION NOZZLE FOR END MILLING PROCESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.S. Najiha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL is a sustainable manufacturing technique that has replaced conventional flooded lubrication methods and dry machining. In the MQL technique, the lubricant is sprayed onto the friction surfaces through nozzles through small pneumatically-operated pumps. This paper presents an investigation into the flow behavior of the lubricant and air mixture under certain pressures at the tip of a nozzle specially designed for MQL. The nozzle used is an MQL stainless steel nozzle, 6.35 mm in diameter. Computational fluid dynamics is used to determine the flow pattern at the tip of the nozzle where the lubricant and compressed air are mixed to form a mist. The lubricant volume flow is approximately 0.08 ml/cycle of the pump. A transient, pressure-based, three-dimensional analysis is performed with a viscous, realizable k-ε model. The results are obtained in the form of vector plots and flow fields. The flow mixing at the tip of the nozzle is wholly shown through the flow fields and vector plots. This study provides an insight into the flow distribution at the tip of the nozzle for a certain pressure to aid modifications in the design of the nozzle for future MQL studies. It attainable aids to determine the correct pressure for the air jet at the nozzle tip.

  9. Increased hydrazine during partial nitritation process in upflow air-lift reactor fed with supernatant of anaerobic digester effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeongdong [University of Alberta, Alberta (Canada); Jung, Sokhee [Samsung SDS, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Young-Ho [Yeungnam University, Gyungsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    The optimal balance of ammonium and nitrite is essential for successful operation of the subsequent anammox process. We conducted a partial nitritation experiment using an upflow air-lift reactor to provide operational parameters for achieving the optimal ratio of ammonium to nitrite, by feeding supernatant of anaerobic digester effluent, high-nitrogen containing rejection water. Semi-continuous operation results show that HRT should be set between 15 and 17 hours to achieve the optimum ration of 1.3 of NO{sub 2}-N/NH{sub 4}-N. In the UAR, nitritation was the dominant reaction due to high concentration of ammonia and low biodegradable organics. The influent contained low concentrations of hydroxylamine and hydrazine. However, hydrazine increased during partial nitritation by ⁓60-130% although there was no potential anammox activity in the reactor. The partial nitritation process successfully provided the ratio of nitrogen species for the anammox reaction, and relived the nitrite restraint on the anammox activity by increasing hydrazine concentration.

  10. Process Stability Identification Through Dynamic Study of Single-bed Ammonia Reactor with Feed-Effluent Heat Exchanger (FEHE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adhi Tri Partono

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In ammonia reactor system, a feed-effluent heat exchanger (FEHE is typically installed to utilize reaction-generated heat to heat the reactor’s feed. Utilizing energy from exothermic reaction to the incoming feed stream is often called “autothermic operation”. Despite the advantage of FEHE, there is a risk of utilizing FEHE in a reactor system such as instability of process temperature or known as hysteresis. Hysteresis phenomena in chemical process could cause operational problems, for example it could damage the integrity of the equipment’s material. This paper aims to evaluate the dynamic behavior of a single-bed ammonia reactor with FEHE, particularly to propose a way to prevent instability within the system. The dynamic simulation of the single-bed ammonia reactor with FEHE was performed with Aspen HYSYS v8.8. The result of the simulation result shows that hysteresis phenomenon in the ammonia reactor system occurs when the feed’s temperature is below a certain value. If the feed temperature reaches that value, the temperature of the reactor’s outlet oscillates. One of the solution to keep the feed temperature above that critical value is by installing a trim heater within the system. Based on the simulation, trim heater installation within the system is able to prevent hysteresis in the system evaluated.

  11. Kinetics of pulp mill effluent treatment by ozone-based processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Chun-Han; Hsieh, Po-Hung; Chang, Meng-Wen; Chern, Jia-Ming; Chiang, Shih-Min; Tzeng, Chewn-Jeng

    2009-01-01

    The wastewaters generated from wood pulping and paper production processes are traditionally treated by biological and physicochemical processes. In order to reduce chemical oxygen demand (COD) and color to meet increasingly strict discharge standards, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are being adapted as polishing treatment units. Various ozone-based processes were used in this study to treat simulated wastewaters prepared from black liquor from a hardwood Kraft pulp mill in Taiwan. The experimental results showed that the COD and color were primarily removed by direct ozone oxidation and activated carbon adsorption. While the addition of activated carbon could enhance the COD and color removal during ozonation, the addition of hydrogen peroxide improved the color removal only. For the various ozone-based treatment processes, kinetic models were developed to satisfactorily predict the COD and color removal rates. According to the kinetic parameters obtained from the various ozone-based processes, the enhanced COD and color removal of ozonation in the presence of activated carbon was attributed to the regeneration of the activated carbon by ozonation. These kinetic models can be used for reactor design and process design to treat pulping wastewater using ozone-based processes.

  12. Identification of fuel effluents in waste water. Its influence in depuration process by active sludges. Identificacion de vertidos combustibles en agua residual. Su influencia en el proceso de depuracion por fongos activos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parody, F.; Rebollo, M.C.; Azcarate, J.; Sammillan, I.; Beltran, V.M. (Ayuntamiento de Madrid (Spain))

    1994-01-01

    Frequently, fuel effluents are found in treatment water plants. This effluents are nocives for the biologic process. In this work the authors present an easy method for characterizing the fuel wastes in waste water and its chromatografic characterization in the water treatment plant in Madrid (Spain).

  13. Treatment of an azo dye effluent by peroxi-coagulation and its comparison to traditional electrochemical advanced processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Vale-Júnior, Edilson; da Silva, Djalma R; Fajardo, Ana S; Martínez-Huitle, Carlos A

    2018-04-05

    Peroxi-coagulation (PC) is an interesting new process that has not been widely studied in the literature. This work presents the application of this technology to treat an azo dye synthetic effluent, studying the effect of different parameters including initial pH, current density (j), initial dye concentration and supporting electrolyte. The two former variables significantly affected the colour removal of the wastewater, followed by the initial dye concentration and the kind of electrolyte, in a lesser extent. The optimum operating conditions achieved were initial pH of 3.0, j = 33.3 mA cm -2 , 100 mg L -1 of methyl orange (MO) and Na 2 SO 4 as supporting electrolyte. The performance of PC was also compared to other electrochemical advanced processes, under similar experimental conditions. Results indicate that the kinetic decay of the MO increases in the following order: electrocoagulation (EC) oxidation (EO) with electrogenerated H 2 O 2 oxidant character of the homogenous OH radicals generated by EF and PC approaches. The EO process with production of H 2 O 2 (EO-H 2 O 2 ) is limited by mass transport and the EC, as a separation method, takes longer times to achieve similar removal results. Energy requirements about 0.06 kWh g COD -1 , 0.09 kWh g COD -1 , 0.7 kWh g COD -1 and 0.1 kWh g COD -1 were achieved for PC, EF, EO-H 2 O 2 and EC, respectively. Degradation intermediates were monitored and carboxylic acids were detected for PC and EF processes, being rapidly removed by the former technology. PC emerges as a promising and competitive alternative for wastewaters depollution, among other oxidative approaches. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Recovery of calcium from the effluent of direct oxide reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferro, P.; Mishra, B.; Olson, D.L.; Moore, J.J.; Averill, W.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the production of plutonium by Direct Oxide Reduction [DOR] process using calcium generates significant amount of contaminated waste as calcium oxide saturated calcium chloride salt mix with calcium oxide content of up to 15 wt. pct. Fused salt electrolysis of a simulated slat mix [CaCl 2 + 15 wt. pct. CaO] is being carried out to election calcium, which can be recycled to the DOR rector along with the calcium chloride salt or may be used in-situ in an combined DOR and electrowinning process. The technology will resolve a major contaminated waste disposal problem, besides improving the cost and process efficiency in radioactive metal production. The process is being optimized in terms of the calcium solubility, cell temperature, current density and cell design to maximize the current efficiency. Scattered information is available regarding the solubility of calcium in calcium chloride salt in the present of calcium oxide. The solubility has also been found to depend on the use of graphite as the anode material. A porous ceramic sheath is being used around the anode to prevent the dissolution of electrowon calcium as oxide or carbonate and to prevent the contamination of salt by the anodic carbon. The electrode reactions are affected by the electrolyte composition and its viscosity which varies with time in this process and, therefore, electrochemical impedance is being measured to understand this time-dependent mechanisms

  15. Characterization of cutting parameters in the minimum quantity lubricant (MQL) machining process of a gearbox

    OpenAIRE

    Travieso Rodriguez, Jose Antonio; Gómez Gras, David; García Vilana, Silvia; Mainau Noguer, Ferran; Jerez Mesa, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to find the key process parameters for machining different parts of an automobile gearbox, commissioned by a company that needs to replace with the MQL lubrication system their current machining process based on cutting fluids. It particularly focuses on the definition of appropriate cutting parameters for machining under the MQL condition through a statistical method of Design of Experiments (DOE). Using a combination of recommended parameters, significant improvements in the...

  16. Nitrogen removal on recycling water process of wastewater treatment plant effluent using subsurface horizontal wetland with continuous feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazkiaturrizki, T.; Soewondo, P.; Handajani, M.

    2018-01-01

    Recycling water is a generic term for water reclamation and reuse to solve the scarcity of water. Constructed wetlands have been recognized as providing many benefits for wastewater treatment including water supply and control by recycling water. This research aims to find the best condition to significantly remove nitrogen using constructed wetland for recycling water of Bojongsoang Waste Water Treatment Plan (WWTP) effluent. Using media of soil, sand, gravel, and vegetation (Typha latifolia and Scirpus grossus) with an aeration system, BOD and COD parameters have been remarkably reduced. On the contrary, the removal efficiency for nitrogen is only between 50-60%. Modifications were then conducted by three step of treatment, i.e., Step I is to remove BOD/COD using Typha latifolia with an aeration system, Step II is todecrease nitrogen using Scirpus grossus with/without aeration, and Step III isto complete the nitrogen removal with denitrification process by Glycine max without aeration. Results of the research show that the nitrogen removal has been successfully increased to a high efficiency between 80-99%. The combination of aeration system and vegetation greatly affects the nitrogen removal. The vegetation acts as the organic nitrogen consumer (plant uptake) for amino acids, nitrate, and ammonium as nutrition, as well as theoxygen supplier to the roots so that aerobic microsites are formed for ammonification microorganisms.

  17. Annealing optimization in the process of making membrane PSF19%DMFEVA2 for wastewater treatment of palm oil mill effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, A. A.; Mustafa

    2018-02-01

    A small proportion of the Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) treatment has used its wastewater to converted to methane gas which will then be converted again into electrical energy. However, for Palm Oil Mill whose has a value of Chemical Oxygen Demand in its wastewater is less than 60.000 mg / L this can’t so that the purpose wastewater treatment only to reach the standard that can be safe to dispose into the environment. Wastewater treatment systems that are general applied by Palm Oil Mill especially in North Sumatera are aerobic and anaerobic, this method takes a relatively long time due to very dependent on microbial activity. An alternative method for wastewater treatment offered is membrane technology because the process is much more effective, the time is relatively short, and expected to give more optimal result. The optimum membrane obtained is PSF19%DMFEVA2T75 membrane,while the parameter condition of the permeate analysis produced in the treatment of POME wastewater with membrane PSF19%DMFEVA2T75 obtained at pH = 7.0; TSS = 148 mg / L; BOD = 149 mg / L; And COD = 252 mg / L. The results obtained is accordance with the standard of the quality of POME.

  18. Effect of GarriI processing effluents [waste water] on the cyanide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerous studies have described environmental exposure of humans to cyanide in African populations. Little is known about exposure to cyanide toxins from processed or unprocessed root tubers commonly consumed in Africa; and data on the food concentration of cyanide which is a potential poison and systemic toxicant ...

  19. Characterization of substances in products, effluents, and wastes from coal conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, M.R.

    1978-01-01

    Researchers at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) are investigating materials from synthetic fossil fuel processes. During the past year, samples have been collected from the Solvent Refining Coal Pilot Plant (SRC-I mode), Lignite Gasification Pilot Plant, Eyring Research Institute Gasifier, and Hanna III In Situ Coal Gasification Experiment. Inorganic and organic analyses have been performed, and comparisons of the data show some important differences in the potential emissions

  20. Sequential application of Fenton and ozone-based oxidation process for the abatement of Ni-EDTA containing nickel plating effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zilong; Liu, Zekun; Wang, Hongjie; Dong, Wenyi; Wang, Wei

    2018-07-01

    Treatment of Ni-EDTA in industrial nickel plating effluents was investigated by integrated application of Fenton and ozone-based oxidation processes. Determination of integrated sequence found that Fenton oxidation presented higher apparent kinetic rate constant of Ni-EDTA oxidation and capacity for contamination load than ozone-based oxidation process, the latter, however, was favorable to guarantee the further mineralization of organic substances, especially at a low concentration. Serial-connection mode of two oxidation processes was appraised, Fenton effluent after treated by hydroxide precipitation and filtration negatively affected the overall performance of the sequential system, as evidenced by the removal efficiencies of Ni 2+ and TOC dropping from 99.8% to 98.7%, and from 74.8% to 66.6%, respectively. As a comparison, O 3 /Fe 2+ oxidation process was proved to be more effective than other processes (e.g. O 3 -Fe 2+ , O 3 /H 2 O 2 /Fe 2+ , O 3 /H 2 O 2 -Fe 2+ ), and the final effluent Ni 2+ concentration could satisfied the discharge standard (Fenton reaction, initial influent pH of 3.0, O 3 dosage of 252 mg L -1 , Fe 2+ of 150 mg L -1 , and reaction time of 30 min for O 3 /Fe 2+ oxidation). Furthermore, pilot-scale test was carried out to study the practical treatability towards the real nickel plating effluent, revealing the effective removal of some other co-existence contaminations. And Fenton reaction has contributed most, with the percentage ranging from 72.41% to 93.76%. The economic cost advantage made it a promising alternative to the continuous Fenton oxidation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Retinal Information Processing for Minimum Laser Lesion Detection and Cumulative Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-17

    macula and especially the fovea. This is the region where information processing is most important, as it must make up for the poor optical quality of the...the fovea and portions of the central macula leave the retina with only large receptive field ganglion cells. In these cases, the ordinary mechanical... degeneration or failure of neurons following laser exposure without subsequent therapy. As the research progressed, significant progress was made in cat

  2. Decontamination of irradiated-fuel processing waste using manganese dioxide hydrate; Decontamination des effluents de traitement des combustibles irradies par le bioxyde de manganese hydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchapt, J M; Gaudier, J F [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1969-07-01

    The 'manganese dioxide' process is designed to replace the 'calcium carbonate' treatment for low and medium activity wastes. The objective to attain during the research for a new process was the diminution of the volume of the sludge without decreasing the decontamination factor of the wastes. The new process involves addition in series of twice over 100 ppm of Mn{sup 2+} in the waste which has previously been made basic and oxidizing; the precipitate formed in situ is separated after each addition. The process has the advantage of increasing the decontamination of strontium. The treatment can be used in a plant including two decantation units and has given effective results when applied in such a plant. (author) [French] Le procede au ''bioxyde de manganese'' est destine a remplacer le traitement ''carbonate de calcium'' dans les effluents de moyenne activite. L'objectif poursuivi lors de la recherche d'un procede nouveau etait de diminuer le volume des boues sans diminuer le facteur de decontamination des effluents. Le nouveau traitement consiste a effectuer en cascade sur les effluents rendus basiques et oxydants une double precipitation de 100 ppm de Mn{sup 2+} avec separation intermediaire du precipite. Il presente en outre l'avantage d'ameliorer la decontamination en strontium. Le traitement est utilisable dans la chaine des deux decanteurs et a donne satisfaction lors de son exploitation industrielle. Le volume des boues seches a ete reduit d'un facteur 3 a 4 par rapport au traitement carbonate. (auteur)

  3. Application of functionalized calixarenes to the processing of radioactive effluents by supported liquid membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Clement

    1994-01-01

    In a first part, this research thesis presents the general context of nuclear waste processing (nature of wastes to be processed, characteristics of the used method and products), and proposes an overview of results obtained during previous campaigns which were based on the use of the technique of supported liquid membranes, but with other types of extracting components. The second part focuses on the tracking of complexing and extractive properties of all functionalized calixarenes which had been synthesised by different research teams. Several experiments have been performed to determine the extraction efficiency and selectivity of these organic compounds with respect to the studied radio-elements. The third part reports the detailed study of a specific family of functionalized calixarenes for which two thermodynamic models of membrane transport described in the literature have been applied. Validity limits are discussed with respect to operation conditions. Some results are finally given on the caesium and actinide (neptunium, plutonium) decontamination of synthetic concentrates which simulate actual radioactive wastes [fr

  4. Application of Electro-Fenton Technology to Remediation of Polluted Effluents by Self-Sustaining Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ángeles Fernández de Dios

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The applicability of electro-Fenton technology to remediation of wastewater contaminated by several organic pollutants such as dyes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons has been evaluated using iron-enriched zeolite as heterogeneous catalyst. The electro-Fenton technology is an advanced oxidation process that is efficient for the degradation of organic pollutants, but it suffers from the high operating costs due to the need for power investment. For this reason, in this study microbial fuel cells (MFCs were designed in order to supply electricity to electro-Fenton processes and to achieve high treatment efficiency at low cost. Initially, the effect of key parameters on the MFC power generation was evaluated. Afterwards, the degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye and phenanthrene was evaluated in an electro-Fenton reactor, containing iron-enriched zeolite as catalyst, using the electricity supplied by the MFC. Near complete dye decolourization and 78% of phenanthrene degradation were reached after 90 min and 30 h, respectively. Furthermore, preliminary reusability tests of the developed catalyst showed high degradation levels for successive cycles. The results permit concluding that the integrated system is adequate to achieve high treatment efficiency with low electrical consumption.

  5. Application of Electro-Fenton Technology to Remediation of Polluted Effluents by Self-Sustaining Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Dios, Maria Ángeles; Iglesias, Olaia; Pazos, Marta; Sanromán, Maria Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The applicability of electro-Fenton technology to remediation of wastewater contaminated by several organic pollutants such as dyes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons has been evaluated using iron-enriched zeolite as heterogeneous catalyst. The electro-Fenton technology is an advanced oxidation process that is efficient for the degradation of organic pollutants, but it suffers from the high operating costs due to the need for power investment. For this reason, in this study microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were designed in order to supply electricity to electro-Fenton processes and to achieve high treatment efficiency at low cost. Initially, the effect of key parameters on the MFC power generation was evaluated. Afterwards, the degradation of Reactive Black 5 dye and phenanthrene was evaluated in an electro-Fenton reactor, containing iron-enriched zeolite as catalyst, using the electricity supplied by the MFC. Near complete dye decolourization and 78% of phenanthrene degradation were reached after 90 min and 30 h, respectively. Furthermore, preliminary reusability tests of the developed catalyst showed high degradation levels for successive cycles. The results permit concluding that the integrated system is adequate to achieve high treatment efficiency with low electrical consumption. PMID:24723828

  6. Treatment of anaerobic sludge digester effluents by the CANON process in an air pulsing SBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez-Padin, J.R.; Pozo, M.J.; Jarpa, M.; Figueroa, M.; Franco, A.; Mosquera-Corral, A.; Campos, J.L.; Mendez, R.

    2009-01-01

    The CANON (Completely Autotrophic Nitrogen removal Over Nitrite) process was successfully developed in an air pulsing reactor type SBR fed with the supernatant from an anaerobic sludge digester and operated at moderately low temperatures (18-24 o C). The SBR was started up as a nitrifying reactor, lowering progressively the dissolved oxygen concentration until reaching partial nitrification. Afterwards, an inoculation with sludge containing Anammox biomass was carried out. Nitrogen volumetric removal rates of 0.25 g N L -1 d -1 due to Anammox activity were measured 35 d after inoculation even though the inoculum constituted only 8% (w/w) of the biomass present in the reactor and it was poorly enriched in Anammox bacteria. The maximal nitrogen removal rate was of 0.45 g N L -1 d -1 . By working at a dissolved oxygen concentration of 0.5 mg L -1 in the bulk liquid, nitrogen removal percentages up to 85% were achieved. The reactor presented good biomass retention capacity allowing the accumulation of 4.5 g VSS L -1 . The biomass was composed by ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) forming fluffy structures and granules with an average diameter of 1.6 mm. These granules were composed by Anammox bacteria located in internal anoxic layers surrounded by an external aerobic layer where AOB were placed.

  7. ON THE ISSUE OF AIRCRAFT MAITENANCE PROCESS OPTIMIZATION ON THE CRITERION OF MINIMUM FUEL CONSUMPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Alexandrovich Belkin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Potentially new ways to improve civil aircraft fuel efficiency, based on the aircraft maintenance process optimiza- tion are considered. The data confirming the advisability of their further in-depth study and implementation in civil aviation airlines activity is given.It is shown that one of the reasons provoking the increase of fuel consumption at the cruising flight stage might be the necessity of the bypass of meteorological areas and of the flight altitude or airspeed change. These events are occasional. At the same time the most advantageous methods aimed at improving fuel efficiency are continuous aircraft climb or descent.One of these research directions is the implementation of continuous descent mode, rational routes of approach to the airfield, climb, choice of optimal flight modes in flights. This program is called “SESAR”. While its realization within the framework of the EC it is planned to reduce fuel consumption by 5 million tons a year due to its economy by 10 % after each flight. The similar program “NextGen” of air traffic optimization is accepted and is realized nowadays in the USA. The purpose of this program is annual improvement of fuel efficiency not less than by 2 % a year.Based on the conducted research the expanded list of recommendations for the realization of aircraft continuous descent system in flight, providing renunciation of horizontal flight areas at idling engines is presented.

  8. Simultaneous C and N removal from saline salmon effluents in filter reactors comprising anoxic-anaerobic-aerobic processes: effect of recycle ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustinianovich, Elisa A; Aspé, Estrella R; Huiliñir, César E; Roeckel, Marlene D

    2014-01-01

    Salmon processing generates saline effluents with high protein load. To treat these effluents, three compact tubular filter reactors were installed and an integrated anoxic/anaerobic/aerobic process was developed with recycling flow from the reactor's exit to the inlet stream in order to save organic matter (OM) for denitrification. The reactors were aerated in the upper section with recycle ratios (RR) of 0, 2, and 10, respectively, at 30°C. A tubular reactor behave as a plug flow reactor when RR = 0, and as a mixed flow reactor when recycle increases, thus, different RR values were used to evaluate how it affects the product distribution and the global performance. Diluted salmon process effluent was prepared as substrate. Using loads of 1.0 kg COD m(-3)d(-1) and 0.15 kg total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) m(-3)d(-1) at HRT of 2 d, 100% removal efficiencies for nitrite and nitrate were achieved in the anoxic-denitrifying section without effect of the dissolved oxygen in the recycled flow on denitrification. Removals >98% for total organic carbon (TOC) was achieved in the three reactors. The RR had no effect on the TOC removal; nevertheless a higher efficiency in total nitrogen removal in the reactor with the highest recycle ratio was observed: 94.3% for RR = 10 and 46.6% for RR = 2. Results showed that the proposed layout with an alternative distribution in a compact reactor can efficiently treat high organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations from a saline fish effluent with OM savings in denitrification.

  9. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the uranium trioxide facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, R.J.; Sontag, S.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plant is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years. The UO 3 Plant is located in the south-central portion of the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. The plant consists of two primary processing buildings and several ancillary facilities. The purpose of the UO 3 Plant is to receive uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant, concentrate it, convert the UNH to uranium trioxide (UO 3 ) powder by calcination and package it for offsite shipment. The UO 3 Plant has been placed in a standby mode. There are two liquid discharges, and three gaseous exhaust stacks, and seven building exhausters that are active during standby conditions

  10. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the tank farms facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crummel, G.M.; Gustavson, R.D.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Moeller, M.P.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum three years. A variety of liquid wastes are generated in processing treatment, and disposal operations throughout the Hanford Site. The Tank Farms Project serves a major role in Hanford Site waste management activities as the temporary repository for these wastes. Stored wastes include hazardous components regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) and as by-product material regulated under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. A total of 177 single- and double-shell tanks (SST and DST) have been constructed in the 200 East and 200 West Areas of the Hanford Site. These facilities were constructed to various designs from 1943 to 1986. The Tank Farms Project is comprised of these tanks along with various transfer, receiving, and treatment facilities

  11. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 284-E and 284-W power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, D.R.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP- 0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated as a minimum every three years. The 284-E and 284-W Power Plants are coal-fired plants used to generate steam. Electricity is not generated at these facilities. The maximum production of steam is approximately 159 t (175 tons)/h at 101 kg (225 lb)/in 2 . Steam generated at these facilities is used in other process facilities (i. e., the B Plant, Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant, 242-A Evaporator) for heating and process operations. The functions or processes associated with these facilities do not have the potential to generate radioactive airborne effluents or radioactive liquid effluents, therefore, radiation monitoring equipment is not used on the discharge of these streams. The functions or processes associated with the production of steam result in the use, storage, management and disposal of hazardous materials

  12. Investigation of disposal of nitrate-bearing effluent from in-situ leaching process by natural evaporation in Yining uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chongyuan; Li Weicai; Zhang Yutai; Gao Xizhen

    2000-01-01

    Experiments indicated, after lime neutralization and precipitation of nitrate-bearing effluent from in-situ leaching process, uranium concentration increase with the increasing of nitrate concentration. Only when nitrate concentration is <0.5 mg/L, uranium concentration can drop from 1.5-2.0 mg/L to about 1.0 mg/L. The permeability coefficient of soil is about 1.0-1.1 m/d in the place which is scheduled for building natural evaporation pool. After lime neutralization of nitrate-bearing effluent, it can drop to 0.03-0.01 m/d. Setting up water-proof layer in natural evaporation pool can reduce pollution of underground water by uranium, nitrate and ammonium

  13. Advanced oxidation of a reactive dyebath effluent: comparison of O3, H2O2/UV-C and TiO2/UV-A processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaton, Idil Arslan; Balcioglu, Isil Akmehmet; Bahnemann, Detlef W

    2002-03-01

    In the present study the treatment efficiency of different AOPs (O3/OH- H2O2/UV-C and TiO2/UV-A) were compared for the oxidation of simulated reactive dyebath effluent containing a mixture of monochlorotriazine type reactive dyes and various dye auxiliary chemicals at typical concentrations encountered in exhausted reactive dyebath liquors. A525 (color), UV280 (aromaticity) and TOC removal rates were assessed to screen the most appropriate oxidative process in terms of reactive dyebath effluent treatment. Special emphasis was laid on the effect of reaction pH and applied oxidant (O3, H2O2) dose on the observed reaction kinetics. It was established that the investigated AOPs were negatively affected by the Na2CO3 content (= 867 mg/L) which is always present at high concentrations in dychouse effluents since it is applied as a pH buffer and dye fixation agent during the reactive dyeing process. The ozonation reaction exhibited almost instantaneous decolorization kinetics and a reasonable TOC reduction rate. It appeared to be stable under the investigated advanced oxidation conditions and outranked the other studied AOPs based on the above mentioned criteria. Besides, the electrical energy requirements based on the EE/O parameter (the electrical energy required per order of pollutant removal in 1 m3 wastewater) was calculated for the homogenous AOPs in terms of decolorization kinetics. In view of the electrical energy efficiency, ozonation and H2O2/UV-C oxidation at the selected treatment conditions appear to be promising candidates for full-scale dyehouse effluent decolorization.

  14. A hybrid process of biofiltration of secondary effluent followed by ozonation and short soil aquifer treatment for water reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, I; Mamane, H; Cikurel, H; Jekel, M; Hübner, U; Avisar, D

    2015-11-01

    The Shafdan reclamation project facility (Tel Aviv, Israel) practices soil aquifer treatment (SAT) of secondary effluent with hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of a few months to a year for unrestricted agricultural irrigation. During the SAT, the high oxygen demand (>40 mg L(-1)) of the infiltrated effluent causes anoxic conditions and mobilization of dissolved manganese from the soil. An additional emerging problem is the occurrence of persistent trace organic compounds (TrOCs) in reclaimed water that should be removed prior to reuse. An innovative hybrid process based on biofiltration, ozonation and short SAT with ∼22 d HRT is proposed for treatment of the Shafdan secondary effluent to overcome limitations of the existing system and to reduce the SAT's physical footprint. Besides efficient removal of particulate matter to minimize clogging, coagulation/flocculation and filtration (5-6 m h(-1)) operated with the addition of hydrogen peroxide as an oxygen source efficiently removed dissolved organic carbon (DOC, to 17-22%), ammonium and nitrite. This resulted in reduced effluent oxygen demand during infiltration and oxidant (ozone) demand during ozonation by 23 mg L(-1) and 1.5 mg L(-1), respectively. Ozonation (1.0-1.2 mg O3 mg DOC(-1)) efficiently reduced concentrations of persistent TrOCs and supplied sufficient dissolved oxygen (>30 mg L(-1)) for fully oxic operation of the short SAT with negligible Mn(2+) mobilization (<50 μg L(-1)). Overall, the examined hybrid process provided DOC reduction of 88% to a value of 1.2 mg L(-1), similar to conventional SAT, while improving the removal of TrOCs and efficiently preventing manganese dissolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Correlation of radioactive-waste-treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: conversion of yellow cake to uranium hexafluoride. Part II. The solvent extraction-fluorination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, M.B.; Etnier, E.L.; Hill, G.S.; Patton, B.D.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Yen, S.N.

    1983-03-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials and chemicals from a model uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) production plant using the solvent extraction-fluorination process, and to evaluate the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the release materials on the environment. The model plant processes 10,000 metric tons of uranium per year. Base-case waste treatment is the minimum necessary to operate the process. Effluents meet the radiological requirements listed in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 20 (10 CFR 20), Appendix B, Table II, but may not be acceptable chemically at all sites. Additional radwaste treatment techniques are applied to the base-case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose committment are correlated with the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Much of the technology used in the advanced cases will require development and demonstration, or else is proprietary and unavailable for immediate use. The methodology and assumptions for the radiological doses are found in ORNL-4992.

  16. Correlation of radioactive-waste-treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: conversion of yellow cake to uranium hexafluoride. Part II. The solvent extraction-fluorination process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, M.B.; Etnier, E.L.; Hill, G.S.; Patton, B.D.; Witherspoon, J.P.; Yen, S.N.

    1983-03-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials and chemicals from a model uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) production plant using the solvent extraction-fluorination process, and to evaluate the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the release materials on the environment. The model plant processes 10,000 metric tons of uranium per year. Base-case waste treatment is the minimum necessary to operate the process. Effluents meet the radiological requirements listed in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 20 (10 CFR 20), Appendix B, Table II, but may not be acceptable chemically at all sites. Additional radwaste treatment techniques are applied to the base-case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose committment are correlated with the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Much of the technology used in the advanced cases will require development and demonstration, or else is proprietary and unavailable for immediate use. The methodology and assumptions for the radiological doses are found in ORNL-4992

  17. The treatment of effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wormser, G.; Rodier, J.; Robien, E. de; Fernandez, N.

    1964-01-01

    resins are used in the sodium form; the regeneration is carried out using a sodium salt solution which, after decontamination by coprecipitation is used again. With this process it is possible to use a smaller volume of sludge. 2 - The use of a natural evaporator. This process uses atmospheric air which is not saturated with water vapour and which is at a normal temperature, in order to extract water from the aqueous effluents. (authors) [fr

  18. Membrane processes for the treatment of exhausted effluents from leather industry; Processi a membrana per il trattamento degli effluenti esausti dell'industria conciaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassano, A.; Molinari, R.; Drioli, E. [Arcavata di Rende Univ. della Calabria, Arcavata di Rende, CS (Italy). Istituto di Ricerca su Membrane e Modellistica di Reattori Chimici

    2001-03-01

    This paper considers the potentiality of some membrane processes such as ultrafiltration (UF), nano filtration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO), in the treatment of exhausted effluents produced by the tanning cycle, based on the experimental results of the Research Group. [Italian] In questo studio vengono analizzate le potenzialita' applicative di alcuni processi a membrana, quali ultrafiltrazione (UF), nanofiltrazione (NF) e osmosi inversa (Ol), nel trattamento degli effluenti esausti del ciclo conciario, sulla base di risultati sperimentali del gruppo di ricerca del Cnr-Irmerc.

  19. Influence of minimum quantity lubrication with Al2O3 nanoparticles on cutting parameters in drilling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitrina, Sofia; Kristiawan, Budi; Surojo, Eko; Wijayanta, Agung Tri; Miyazaki, Takahiko; Koyama, Shigeru

    2018-02-01

    Machining is one of the largest and most widely used methods of production segments in industries. In this way, cutting fluids play an important role in minimizing production time, cost, and energy in various machining operations. This paper presents an experimental investigation into minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) with Al2O3 nanoparticles in drilling process of common rail as work material with DPSCM 435H code to analyze its influence on cutting parameters. Al2O3 has been selected for nanoparticles in this study due to its non-toxicity and spherical shapes for enhanced tribological attributes. Experiments were carried out for two different conditions; MQL + nanofluids (250 ml/h) and conventional cutting fluid (15 liters/min). In this work, nanofluid was prepared by adding Al2O3 nanoparticles (13 nm size) into the conventional cutting fluid in the specific proportion of 1.2 vol.%. The experiment results reveal that the performance of Al2O3 nanofluid in term surface roughness is better compared to the conventional cutting fluid, but the result of cutting temperature and chip morphology does not match with the previous experiment because volume fraction of nanofluid is too high. It means the specific proportion of 1.2 vol.% nanofluid is not best volume fraction for getting best cooling properties. This experiment does not focus on variations of volume fraction but on cooling conditions.

  20. A finite state, finite memory minimum principle, part 2. [a discussion of game theory, signaling, stochastic processes, and control theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandell, N. R., Jr.; Athans, M.

    1975-01-01

    The development of the theory of the finite - state, finite - memory (FSFM) stochastic control problem is discussed. The sufficiency of the FSFM minimum principle (which is in general only a necessary condition) was investigated. By introducing the notion of a signaling strategy as defined in the literature on games, conditions under which the FSFM minimum principle is sufficient were determined. This result explicitly interconnects the information structure of the FSFM problem with its optimality conditions. The min-H algorithm for the FSFM problem was studied. It is demonstrated that a version of the algorithm always converges to a particular type of local minimum termed a person - by - person extremal.

  1. Prediction of minimum temperatures in an alpine region by linear and non-linear post-processing of meteorological models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Barbiero

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Model Output Statistics (MOS refers to a method of post-processing the direct outputs of numerical weather prediction (NWP models in order to reduce the biases introduced by a coarse horizontal resolution. This technique is especially useful in orographically complex regions, where large differences can be found between the NWP elevation model and the true orography. This study carries out a comparison of linear and non-linear MOS methods, aimed at the prediction of minimum temperatures in a fruit-growing region of the Italian Alps, based on the output of two different NWPs (ECMWF T511–L60 and LAMI-3. Temperature, of course, is a particularly important NWP output; among other roles it drives the local frost forecast, which is of great interest to agriculture. The mechanisms of cold air drainage, a distinctive aspect of mountain environments, are often unsatisfactorily captured by global circulation models. The simplest post-processing technique applied in this work was a correction for the mean bias, assessed at individual model grid points. We also implemented a multivariate linear regression on the output at the grid points surrounding the target area, and two non-linear models based on machine learning techniques: Neural Networks and Random Forest. We compare the performance of all these techniques on four different NWP data sets. Downscaling the temperatures clearly improved the temperature forecasts with respect to the raw NWP output, and also with respect to the basic mean bias correction. Multivariate methods generally yielded better results, but the advantage of using non-linear algorithms was small if not negligible. RF, the best performing method, was implemented on ECMWF prognostic output at 06:00 UTC over the 9 grid points surrounding the target area. Mean absolute errors in the prediction of 2 m temperature at 06:00 UTC were approximately 1.2°C, close to the natural variability inside the area itself.

  2. Zero effluent; Efluente zero

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monteiro, Silvio Rogerio; Santos, Angelo Francisco dos [Liquigas Distribuidora S.A., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    A scenery of water shortage and the search for profitability improvement obligate the companies to exercise their creativity and to adopt alternative methods to the conventional ones to preserve the environmental resources. The 'Effluent Zero' project comes from a paradigms changing that the environmental preservation is a necessary cost. It brings a new analysis approach of this problem with the purpose to adapt the investments and operational costs with the effluents treatment to the demands of the productive processes. In Liquigas, the project brought significant results; made a potential reduction of nearly 90% in the investments of the effluents treatment systems. That means nearly 13% in reduction in the total investments in modernization and upgrade of the existents companies installations and of 1,6% in the total operational costs of the Company. Further more, it has contributed for a reduction of until 43% of the water consumption in the bottling process of the Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). This way, the project resulted in effective actions of environmental protection with relevant economic benefits. (author)

  3. Utilization of palm oil processing effluents as substrates for microbial protein production by the fungus Aspergillus oryzae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barker, T.; Worgan, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae grew well on the effluents produced during the extraction of palm oil. Biomass yields of approximately 50 g/100 g organic matter were obtained which contained 40% crude protein and had BOD reductions of 85% and COD reductions of 75-80% in batch culture following optimization of growth conditions. Supplementation with an inorganic N source was necessary. The more resistant substrate constituents to biodegradation were water-soluble carbohydrate and nitrogenous material, possibly Maillard reaction products, and polyphenols.

  4. Effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil fuel processing technologies on aquatic systems. Annual progress report, January 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergman, H.L.

    1980-01-04

    This is the third annual progress report for a continuing EPA-DOE jointly funded project to evaluate the effects of aqueous effluents from in situ fossil-fuel processing technologies on aquatic biota. The project is organized into four project tasks: (1) literature review; (2) process water screening; (3) methods development; and (4) recommendations. Our Bibliography of aquatic ecosystem effects, analytical methods and treatment technologies for organic compounds in advanced fossil-fuel processing effluents was submitted to the EPA for publication. The bibliography contains 1314 citations indexed by chemicals, keywords, taxa and authors. We estimate that the second bibliography volume will contain approximately 1500 citations and be completed in February. We compiled results from several laboratories of inorganic characterizations of 19 process waters: 55 simulated in situ oil-shale retort waters; and Hanna-3, Hanna-4B 01W and Lawrence Livermore Hoe Creek underground coal gasification condenser waters. These process waters were then compared to a published summary of the analyses from 18 simulated in situ oil-shale retort waters. We completed this year 96-h flow-through toxicity bioassays with fathead minnows and rainbow trout and 48-h flow-through bioassays with Daphnia pulicaria exposed to 5 oil-shale process waters, 1 tar-sand process water, 2 underground coal gasification condenser waters, 1 post-gasification backflood condenser water, as well as 2 bioassays with fossil-fuel process water constituents. The LC/sub 50/ toxicity values for these respective species when exposed to these waters are given in detail. (LTN)

  5. Methanization of industrial liquid effluents; Methanisation des effluents industriels liquides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederic, S.; Lugardon, A. [Societe Naskeo Environnement, 92 - Levallois-Perret (France)

    2007-09-15

    In a first part, this work deals with the theoretical aspects of the methanization of the industrial effluents; the associated reactional processes are detailed. The second part presents the technological criteria for choosing the methanization process in terms of the characteristics of the effluent to be treated. Some of the methanization processes are presented with their respective advantages and disadvantages. At last, is described the implementation of an industrial methanization unit. The size and the main choices are detailed: the anaerobic reactor, the control, the valorization aspects of the biogas produced. Some examples of industrial developments illustrate the different used options. (O.M.)

  6. Hepatic retinoid levels in seven fish species (teleosts) from a tropical coastal lagoon receiving effluents from iron-ore mining and processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Adriana A; van Hattum, Bert; Brouwer, Abraham

    2012-02-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate the possible effects of Fe and trace element exposure on hepatic levels of retinoids in seven fish species. Concentrations of retinoids were measured in fish collected from a coastal lagoon in Brazil that receives effluents from an iron-ore mining and processing plant. Fish from nearby coastal lagoons were also included to assess possible differences related to chemical exposure. Results indicated considerable differences in hepatic retinoid composition among the various species investigated. The most striking differences were in retinol and derivative-specific profiles and in didehydro retinol and derivative-specific profiles. The Perciformes species Geophagus brasiliensis, Tilapia rendalli, Mugil liza, and Cichla ocellaris and the Characiforme Hoplias malabaricus were characterized as retinol and derivative-specific, while the Siluriformes species Hoplosternum littorale and Rhamdia quelen were didehydro retinol and derivative-specific fish species. A negative association was observed between Al, Pb, As, and Cd and hepatic didehydro retinoid levels. Fish with higher levels of hepatic Fe, Cu, and Zn showed unexpectedly significant positive correlations with increased hepatic retinol levels. This finding, associated with the positive relationships between retinol and retinyl palmitate with lipid peroxidation, may suggest that vitamin A is mobilized from other tissues to increase hepatic antioxidant levels for protection against oxidative damage. These data show significant but dissimilar associations between trace element exposure and hepatic retinoid levels in fish species exposed to iron-ore mining and processing effluents, without apparent major impacts on fish health and condition. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  7. Tritium effluent removal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamberger, P.H.; Gibbs, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    An air detritiation system has been developed and is in routine use for removing tritium and tritiated compounds from glovebox effluent streams before they are released to the atmosphere. The system is also used, in combination with temporary enclosures, to contain and decontaminate airborne releases resulting from the opening of tritium containment systems during maintenance and repair operations. This detritiation system, which services all the tritium handling areas at Mound Facility, has played an important role in reducing effluents and maintaining them at 2 percent of the level of 8 y ago. The system has a capacity of 1.7 m 3 /min and has operated around the clock for several years. A refrigerated in-line filtration system removes water, mercury, or pump oil and other organics from gaseous waste streams. The filtered waste stream is then heated and passed through two different types of oxidizing beds; the resulting tritiated water is collected on molecular sieve dryer beds. Liquids obtained from regenerating the dryers and from the refrigerated filtration system are collected and transferred to a waste solidification and packaging station. Component redundancy and by-pass capabilities ensure uninterrupted system operation during maintenance. When processing capacity is exceeded, an evacuated storage tank of 45 m 3 is automatically opened to the inlet side of the system. The gaseous effluent from the system is monitored for tritium content and recycled or released directly to the stack. The average release is less than 1 Ci/day. The tritium effluent can be reduced by isotopically swamping the tritium; this is accomplished by adding hydrogen prior to the oxidizer beds, or by adding water to the stream between the two final dryer beds

  8. Methanization of industrial liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederic, S.; Lugardon, A.

    2007-01-01

    In a first part, this work deals with the theoretical aspects of the methanization of the industrial effluents; the associated reactional processes are detailed. The second part presents the technological criteria for choosing the methanization process in terms of the characteristics of the effluent to be treated. Some of the methanization processes are presented with their respective advantages and disadvantages. At last, is described the implementation of an industrial methanization unit. The size and the main choices are detailed: the anaerobic reactor, the control, the valorization aspects of the biogas produced. Some examples of industrial developments illustrate the different used options. (O.M.)

  9. Engineering strategies for the enhanced photo-H{sub 2} production using effluents of dark fermentation processes as substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chun-Yen; Chang, Jo-Shu [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China); Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China); Yeh, Kuei-Ling; Lo, Yung-Chung [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (China); Wang, Hui-Min [Department of Fragrance and Cosmetic Science, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung (China)

    2010-12-15

    The major obstacle of combining dark and photo fermentation for high-yield biohydrogen production is substrate inhibition while using dark fermentation effluent as the sole substrate. To solve this problem, the dark fermentation broth was diluted with different dilution ratio to improve photo-H{sub 2} production performance of an indigenous purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris WP3-5. The best photo-H{sub 2} production performance occurred at a dilution ratio of 1:2, giving a highest overall H{sub 2} production rate of 10.72 ml/l/h and a higher overall H{sub 2} yield of 6.14 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose. The maximum H{sub 2} content was about 88.1% during the dilution ratio of 1:2. The photo-H{sub 2} production performance was further improved by supplying yeast extract and glutamic acid as the nutrient. The results indicate that the overall H{sub 2} production rate and H{sub 2} yield increased to 17.02 ml/l/h and 10.25 mol H{sub 2}/mol sucrose, respectively. Using a novel solar-energy-excited optical fiber photobioreactor (SEEOFP) with supplementing tungsten filament lamp (TL) irradiation, the overall H{sub 2} production rate was improved to 17.86 ml/l/h. Meanwhile, the power consumption by combining SEEOFP and TL was about 37.1% lower than using TL alone. This study demonstrates that using optimal light sources and proper dilution of dark fermentation effluent, the performance of photo-H{sub 2} production can be markedly enhanced along with a reduction of power consumption. (author)

  10. Techno-economic analysis of the deacetylation and disk refining process: characterizing the effect of refining energy and enzyme usage on minimum sugar selling price and minimum ethanol selling price.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaowen; Shekiro, Joseph; Pschorn, Thomas; Sabourin, Marc; Tucker, Melvin P; Tao, Ling

    2015-01-01

    A novel, highly efficient deacetylation and disk refining (DDR) process to liberate fermentable sugars from biomass was recently developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The DDR process consists of a mild, dilute alkaline deacetylation step followed by low-energy-consumption disk refining. The DDR corn stover substrates achieved high process sugar conversion yields, at low to modest enzyme loadings, and also produced high sugar concentration syrups at high initial insoluble solid loadings. The sugar syrups derived from corn stover are highly fermentable due to low concentrations of fermentation inhibitors. The objective of this work is to evaluate the economic feasibility of the DDR process through a techno-economic analysis (TEA). A large array of experiments designed using a response surface methodology was carried out to investigate the two major cost-driven operational parameters of the novel DDR process: refining energy and enzyme loadings. The boundary conditions for refining energy (128-468 kWh/ODMT), cellulase (Novozyme's CTec3) loading (11.6-28.4 mg total protein/g of cellulose), and hemicellulase (Novozyme's HTec3) loading (0-5 mg total protein/g of cellulose) were chosen to cover the most commercially practical operating conditions. The sugar and ethanol yields were modeled with good adequacy, showing a positive linear correlation between those yields and refining energy and enzyme loadings. The ethanol yields ranged from 77 to 89 gallons/ODMT of corn stover. The minimum sugar selling price (MSSP) ranged from $0.191 to $0.212 per lb of 50 % concentrated monomeric sugars, while the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP) ranged from $2.24 to $2.54 per gallon of ethanol. The DDR process concept is evaluated for economic feasibility through TEA. The MSSP and MESP of the DDR process falls within a range similar to that found with the deacetylation/dilute acid pretreatment process modeled in NREL's 2011 design report. The DDR process is

  11. Energy recovery from effluents of sugar processing industries in the UASB reactors seeded with granular sludge developed under low and high concentrations of calcium ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphael, D M; Rubindamayugi, M S.T. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Dept. of Botany, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The digestion of wastewater from sugar processing industries in a single phase UASB reactor was evaluated by a step wise increase in organic loading rate. This study was conducted to compare the treatability of effluents from sugar processing industries in a single phase UASB reactors inoculated with granular sludge developed under low and high concentrations of calcium ions. At OLR of 11.34 g COD/l/day and HRT of 16 hours, UASB reactor R2 attained a COD removal efficiency of 90% with a maximum methane production rate of 3 l/l/day. From the results, the digestion of the wastewater from sugar industries in the UASB reactor inoculated with granular sludge developed under high calcium ion concentration seem feasible with regard to COD removal efficiency and methane production rate. (au) 24 refs.

  12. Energy recovery from effluents of sugar processing industries in the UASB reactors seeded with granular sludge developed under low and high concentrations of calcium ion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raphael, D.M.; Rubindamayugi, M.S.T. [Univ. of Dar es Salaam, Dept. of Botany, Applied Microbiology Unit (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The digestion of wastewater from sugar processing industries in a single phase UASB reactor was evaluated by a step wise increase in organic loading rate. This study was conducted to compare the treatability of effluents from sugar processing industries in a single phase UASB reactors inoculated with granular sludge developed under low and high concentrations of calcium ions. At OLR of 11.34 g COD/l/day and HRT of 16 hours, UASB reactor R2 attained a COD removal efficiency of 90% with a maximum methane production rate of 3 l/l/day. From the results, the digestion of the wastewater from sugar industries in the UASB reactor inoculated with granular sludge developed under high calcium ion concentration seem feasible with regard to COD removal efficiency and methane production rate. (au) 24 refs.

  13. Simulation of adsorption process of benzene present in effluent of the petrochemical industry; Simulacao do processo de adsorcao do benzeno presente em efluentes da industria petroquimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luz, Adriana D. da; Mello, Josiane M.M. de; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene M.A. Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Silva, Adriano da [Universidade Comunitaria Regional de Chapeco (UNOCHAPECO), SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The adsorption processes have shown quite efficient in the removal of pollutant in liquid effluents, especially hydrocarbons of difficult removal, such as benzene. This work presents a phenomenological model that describes the process of benzene removal through the adsorption in a fixed bed column, being used coal activated as adsorbent. The model considers the internal and external resistances of mass transfer to the adsorbent particle. The method of Finite Volumes is used in the discretization of the equations. The numerical results obtained through the simulation presented good correlation when compared with experimental data found in the literature, demonstrating that the developed computational code, together with the mathematical modeling, represents an important tool for the project of adsorption columns. (author)

  14. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: conversion of yellow cake to uranium hexafluoride. Part I. The fluorination-fractionation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, M.B.; Blanco, R.E.; Finney, B.C.; Hill, G.S.; Moore, R.E.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1977-07-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials and chemicals from a model uranium hexafluoride (UF/sub 6/) production plant using the fluorination-fractionation (dry hydrofluor) process, and to evaluate the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. This study is designed to assist in defining the term as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) in relation to limiting the release of radioactive materials from nuclear facilities. The model plant processes 10,000 metric tons of uranium per year. Base-case waste treatment is the minimum necessary to operate the process. Effluents meet the radiological requirements listed in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 20 (10 CFR 20), Appendix B, Table II, but may not be acceptable chemically at all sites. Additional radwaste treatment techniques are applied to the base-case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose commitment are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, radiological dose is plotted vs the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Much of the technology used in the advanced cases will require development and demonstration or else is proprietary and unavailable for immediate use. The methodology and assumptions for the radiological doses are found in ORNL-4992.

  15. Correlation of radioactive waste treatment costs and the environmental impact of waste effluents in the nuclear fuel cycle: conversion of yellow cake to uranium hexafluoride. Part I. The fluorination-fractionation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, M.B.; Blanco, R.E.; Finney, B.C.; Hill, G.S.; Moore, R.E.; Witherspoon, J.P.

    1977-07-01

    A cost/benefit study was made to determine the cost and effectiveness of radioactive waste (radwaste) treatment systems for decreasing the release of radioactive materials and chemicals from a model uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) production plant using the fluorination-fractionation (dry hydrofluor) process, and to evaluate the radiological impact (dose commitment) of the released materials on the environment. This study is designed to assist in defining the term as low as is reasonably achievable (ALARA) in relation to limiting the release of radioactive materials from nuclear facilities. The model plant processes 10,000 metric tons of uranium per year. Base-case waste treatment is the minimum necessary to operate the process. Effluents meet the radiological requirements listed in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10, Part 20 (10 CFR 20), Appendix B, Table II, but may not be acceptable chemically at all sites. Additional radwaste treatment techniques are applied to the base-case plant in a series of case studies to decrease the amounts of radioactive materials released and to reduce the radiological dose commitment to the population in the surrounding area. The costs for the added waste treatment operations and the corresponding dose commitment are calculated for each case. In the final analysis, radiological dose is plotted vs the annual cost for treatment of the radwastes. The status of the radwaste treatment methods used in the case studies is discussed. Much of the technology used in the advanced cases will require development and demonstration or else is proprietary and unavailable for immediate use. The methodology and assumptions for the radiological doses are found in ORNL-4992

  16. Facility effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gleckler, B.P.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the facility effluent monitoring programs and provides an evaluation of effluent monitoring data. These evaluations are useful in assessing the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control systems, as well as management practices.

  17. Mobil pilot unit of the advanced oxidation process for waste water treatment and reuse of the hydrics effluents; Unidade piloto movel de processo oxidativo avancado aplicado a tratamento e reuso de efluentes hidricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geraldo, Lucia Maria Limoeiro; Pereira Junior, Oswaldo de Aquino; Henriques, Sheyla de Oliveira Carvalho; Jacinto Junior, Agenor [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The chemical oxidation processes which generate free hydroxyl radicals are called Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP). These processes have been studied, in the last decades, as a new alternative for pollutants degradation. In the (AOP)'s there are in situ formation of hydroxyl radicals (OH{center_dot}), which are highly oxidant. Its high oxidation strength becomes it indicated in the treatment of effluent with highly refractory contaminants. It can be used as a partial treatment (taking the effluent to more degradable compounds), as a final treatment (taking the effluent to complete mineralization) or as a complementary treatment to other processes, allowing, for example, its reuse. The applicability of this technology in oily water effluents in all segments of the oil industry, has taken to the development, in the LARA (Laboratory of Treatment and Reuse of Waters - CENPES), of the Advanced Oxidation Process Mobile Pilot Unit (AOP's- MU) with capacity up to 1 m3/h. The (AOP's- MU) are able to produce hydroxyl radical from Fenton's reaction, titanium dioxide heterogeneous photo catalysis and hydrogen peroxide, photo-radiated or not. It is equipped with ultraviolet reactors of different wave lengths and power. (author)

  18. Effect of iron and magnesium addition for ethanol production from the conversion of palm oil mill effluent by anaerobic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handajani, M.; Gumilar, A.; Syafila, M.

    2018-01-01

    Nowadays, crisis of the energy is the main problem in the world. Currently, most the energy resource derived from the fossil material that cannot be refurbished. Ethanol is an alternative fuel that content as a fossil fuels. Wastewater with the high concentration of the organic can be used for the ethanol production to replace foodstuff as a raw material. In this study, palm oil mill effluent (POME) with the concentration of COD is 24,500 mg/L has been used as a substrate. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the metal addition in the substrate metabolic pathways. Circulating batch reactor (CBR) is used with the flushing N2 1L/min for 24 hours and continued operates for 72 hours by internal biogas. The additional variation concentration of Fe(II) ion are 0.5; 1.0 and 2.5 mg/L, and Mg(II) are 0.5 and 1.5 mg/L were added by combination. The results showed that the combination of Fe (II) 2.5 mg/L and Mg(II) 1.5 mg/L produced the highest ethanol concentration is 715.8 mg/L and degree of acidification (DA) 0.284-0.357. Another combination of Fe(II) and Mg(II) provide results for the ethanol production 463.7-689.7 mg/L with the rate of ethanol production is 1.09-26.5 mg/L/hour.

  19. Oxygen at Nanomolar Levels Reversibly Suppresses Process Rates and Gene Expression in Anammox and Denitrification in the Oxygen Minimum Zone off Northern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Dalsgaard, Tage; Stewart, Frank J.; Thamdrup, Bo; De Brabandere, Loreto; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Don E.; DeLong, Edward

    2014-01-01

    A major percentage (20 to 40%) of global marine fixed-nitrogen loss occurs in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Concentrations of O[subscript 2] and the sensitivity of the anaerobic N[subscript 2]-producing processes of anammox and denitrification determine where this loss occurs. We studied experimentally how O[subscript 2] at nanomolar levels affects anammox and denitrification rates and the transcription of nitrogen cycle genes in the anoxic OMZ off Chile. Rates of anammox and denitrification w...

  20. Decontamination of irradiated fuel processing waste using lead paraperiodate; Decontamination des effluents de traitement des combustibles irradies par le paraperiodate de plomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchapt, J M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Chusclan (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule

    1967-07-01

    The process is designed to eliminate ruthenium. It consists in an oxidation using para-periodic acid whose excess, acting then as a carrying-over agent, is precipitated in the form of a lead salt at a pH of 5 or 6. This process makes it possible to precipitate 80 to 98 per cent of the ruthenium which is not removed by the conventional precipitation techniques which follow it. If the waste is a reducing agent, it is pre-oxidized using ozone or potassium permanganate. The process was developed at Marcoule in 1963 and has since 1965 been applied industrially; its cost price is of the same order of magnitude as conventional processes and its results are satisfactory. (author) [French] Le procede est destine a l'elimination du ruthenium. Il consiste en une oxydation par l'acide par paraperiodique dont l'exces, jouant alors le role d'entraineur, est precipite sous forme de sel de plomb a pH 5 ou 6. Ce traitement permet de precipiter 80 a 98 pour cent du ruthenium rebelle aux traitements de precipitation classique, qui doivent le suivre. Si l'effluent est reducteur il est preoxyde a l'ozone ou au permanganate de potassium. Mis au point a Marcoule en 1963, il est depuis 1965 exploite industriellement, son prix de revient est du meme ordre de grandeur que celui des traitements habituels et les resultats ont donne satisfaction. (auteur)

  1. Micropollutant degradation, bacterial inactivation and regrowth risk in wastewater effluents: Influence of the secondary (pre)treatment on the efficiency of Advanced Oxidation Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakis, Stefanos; Voumard, Margaux; Grandjean, Dominique; Magnet, Anoys; De Alencastro, Luiz Felippe; Pulgarin, César

    2016-10-01

    In this work, disinfection by 5 Advanced Oxidation Processes was preceded by 3 different secondary treatment systems present in the wastewater treatment plant of Vidy, Lausanne (Switzerland). 5 AOPs after two biological treatment methods (conventional activated sludge and moving bed bioreactor) and a physiochemical process (coagulation-flocculation) were tested in laboratory scale. The dependence among AOPs efficiency and secondary (pre)treatment was estimated by following the bacterial concentration i) before secondary treatment, ii) after the different secondary treatment methods and iii) after the various AOPs. Disinfection and post-treatment bacterial regrowth were the evaluation indicators. The order of efficiency was Moving Bed Bioreactor > Activated Sludge > Coagulation-Flocculation > Primary Treatment. As far as the different AOPs are concerned, the disinfection kinetics were: UVC/H2O2 > UVC and solar photo-Fenton > Fenton or solar light. The contextualization and parallel study of microorganisms with the micropollutants of the effluents revealed that higher exposure times were necessary for complete degradation compared to microorganisms for the UV-based processes and inversed for the Fenton-related ones. Nevertheless, in the Fenton-related systems, the nominal 80% removal of micropollutants deriving from the Swiss legislation, often took place before the elimination of bacterial regrowth risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Enhanced WWTP effluent organic matter removal in hybrid ozonation-coagulation (HOC) process catalyzed by Al-based coagulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China); Jin, Pengkang, E-mail: pkjin@hotmail.com [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China); Hou, Rui [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China); Yang, Lei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, VIC, 3800 (Australia); Wang, Xiaochang C., E-mail: xcwang@xauat.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Municipal Engineering, Xi’an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi’an, Shaanxi Province, 710055 (China)

    2017-04-05

    Highlights: • A novel HOC process was firstly put forward to apply in wastewater reclamation. • Interactions between ozone and Al-based coagulants was found in the HOC process. • Ozonation can be catalyzed and enhanced by Al-based coagulants in the HOC process. • HOC process showed better organics removal than pre-ozonation-coagulation process. - Abstract: A novel hybrid ozonation-coagulation (HOC) process was developed for application in wastewater reclamation. In this process, ozonation and coagulation occurred simultaneously within a single unit. Compared with the conventional pre-ozonation-coagulation process, the HOC process exhibited much better performance in removing dissolved organic matters. In particular, the maximal organic matters removal efficiency was obtained at the ozone dosage of 1 mgO{sub 3}/mg DOC at each pH value (pH 5, 7 and 9). In order to interpret the mechanism of the HOC process, ozone decomposition was monitored. The results indicated that ozone decomposed much faster in the HOC process. Moreover, by using the reagent of O{sub 3}-resistant hydroxyl radical (·OH) probe compound, para-chlorobenzoic acid (pCBA), and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis, it was observed that the HOC process generated higher content of ·OH compared with pre-ozonation process. This indicates that the ·OH oxidation reaction as the key step can be catalyzed and enhanced by Al-based coagulants and their hydrolyzed products in this developed process. Thus, based on the catalytic effects of Al-based coagulants on ozonation, the HOC process provides a promising alternative to the conventional technology for wastewater reclamation in terms of higher efficiency.

  3. Processing radioactive effluents with ion-exchanging resins: study of result extrapolation; Traitement des effluents radioactifs par resines echangeuses d'ions: etude de l'extrapolation des resultats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wormser, G.

    1960-05-03

    As a previous study showed the ion-exchanging resins could be used in Saclay for the treatment of radioactive effluents, the author reports a study which aimed at investigating to which extent thus obtained results could be extrapolated to the case of higher industrial columns. The author reports experiments which aimed at determining extrapolation modes which could be used for columns of organic resin used for radioactive effluent decontamination. He notably studied whether the Hiester and Vermeulen extrapolation law could be applied. Experiments are performed at constant percolation flow rate, at varying flow rate, and at constant flow rate [French] Plusieurs etudes ont ete faites dans le but d'examiner les possibilites d'emploi des resines echangeuses d'ions pour le traitement des effluents radioactifs. Dans un rapport preliminaire, nous avons montre dans quelles limites un tel procede pouvait etre utilise au Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay. Les essais ont ete effectues sur des petites colonnes de resine au laboratoire; il est apparu ensuite necessaire de prevoir dans quelle mesure les resultats ainsi obtenus peuvent etre extrapoles a des colonnes industrielles, de plus grande hauteur. Les experiences dont les resultats sont exposes dans ce rapport, ont pour but de determiner les modes d'extrapolation qui pourraient etre employes pour des colonnes de resine organique utilisees pour la decontamination d'effluents radioactifs. Nous avons en particulier recherche si la loi d'extrapolation de Hiester et Vermeulen qui donne de bons resultats dans le cas de fixation d'ions radioactifs en presence d'un ion macrocomposant sur des terres, pouvait etre appliquee. Les experiences, en nombre limite, ont montre que la loi d'extrapolation de Hiester et Vermeulen pouvait s'appliquer dans le cas de l'effluent considere quand les debits de percolation sont tres faibles; quand ils sont plus forts, les volumes de liquide percoles, a fixation egale, sont proportionnels aux

  4. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 419 - Processes Included in the Determination of BAT Effluent Limitations for Total Chromium...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., and Phenolic Compounds (4AAP) Crude Processes 1. Atmospheric Crude Distillation 2. Crude Desalting 3. Vacuum Crude Distillation Cracking and Coking Processes 4. Visbreaking 5. Thermal Cracking 6. Fluid... Oil Manufacture 23. Propane Dewaxing, Propane Deasphalting, Propane Fractioning, Propane Deresining 24...

  5. The conceptual flowsheet of effluent treatment during total gelation of uranium process for preparing ceramic UO2 particles of high temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan Ying; Chen Xiaotong; Wang Yang; Liu Bing; Tang Yaping; Tang Chunhe

    2014-01-01

    Today, more and more people pay attention to the environmental protection and ecological environment. Along with the development of nuclear industry, many radioactive effluents may be discharged into environment, which can lead to the pollutions of water, atmosphere and soil. So radioactive effluents including low-activity and medium-level wastes solution treatments have been becoming one of significant subjects. High temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTR) is one of advanced nuclear reactors owing to its reliability, security and broad application in which the fabrication of spherical fuel element is a key technology. During the production of spherical fuel elements, the radioactive effluent treatment is necessary. Referring to the current treatment technologies and methods, the conceptual flowsheet of low-level radioactive effluent treatment during preparing spherical fuel elements was summarized which met the 'Zero Emission' demand. (authors)

  6. Clean technologies: methods for minimizing the releases and choice of the effluents valorization processes. Application to metal workshops; Technologies propres: methodes de minimisation des rejets et de choix des procedes de valorisation des effluents. Application aux ateliers de traitement de surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laforest, V.

    1999-12-10

    Currently, the essential part of the money invested by the industrialist is for the water treatment. In France, most of the 20 billions francs per year devoted to the water treatment is used for the industrial activity. The global management of effluents favour the integration of clean technologies (optimization, change and modification of the production process) in order to reduce the pollution problem at its source. Our study aims at the introduction of clean technologies in the metal workshops (consumer and generator of water and chemicals) by the development of two data management methods, which lead to two decision support systems. The aim of the first one is to minimize both the water consumption and the wastewater disposal by optimizing the production process (optimum yield and efficiency of the rinsing baths). The second one concerns the choice of valorization techniques considering the valorization objectives, the effluents characteristics and the parameters limiting the use of the techniques. Our approach fits into a global management method for the metal finishing industry wastewater. Its aim is to limit the quantity of wastewater generated, to valorize effluents and by this way to develop the clean technologies.

  7. Early benthic successional processes at implanted substrates in Barkley Submarine Canyon affected by a permanent oxygen minimum zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera De Leo, F.; Smith, C. R.; Levin, L. A.; Fleury, A.; Aguzzi, J.

    2016-02-01

    With the advent of cabled observatories scientists are now able to have a permanent presence in the deep-seafloor, being able to reveal previously unseen faunal behavior as well as to track long-term changes in biodiversity and ecosystem function. The Ocean Networks Canada 800-km loop seafloor observatory array (NEPTUNE) located in the NE Pacific has instruments measuring a variety of environmental variables ranging from temperature, salinity, oxygen, currents, turbidity, fluorescence, etc, at multiple and very high temporal resolution scales. High-definition video cameras also monitor benthic communities in multiple deep-sea habitats, all at some extent influenced by an oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). In the present study, whale-bone and wood substrates are being used to evaluate bathymetric, regional and inter-basin variations in benthic biodiversity and connectivity, as well as interactions between biodiversity and ecosystem function. In May of 2014 three humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) rib sections, one 20x20x10 cm block of Douglas Fir (Pseudotsunga meniziesii), and a 30x30x30 block of authigenic carbonate were placed with the use of an ROV at 890 m depth inside Barkley Canyon. The substrate packages were placed concentrically, 45-cm away from a HD video camera. Five-minute videos were captured at 2-hr intervals. Preliminary data analysis from 8 months of deployment showed very distinct early community succession patterns between the two organic substrates (bones and wood) and the authigenic carbonate. Whalebones and wood showed amphipod (Orchomene obtusa) abundance peaks mostly contained during the first 60 days after deployment; Amphipod peak abundance rapid decline coincides with rapid growth of bacterial mat on whalebone and wood surfaces. Low abundance, species richness and substrate degradation rates are in agreement with a low oxygen environment of the OMZ in the canyon. Despite the early stages of data analysis, this experiment demonstrates how

  8. Fission product determination in irradiated fuel processing waste (electrophoresis); Dosage des produits de fission dans les effluents de traitement des combustibles irradies (electrophorese)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auchapt, J M; Tret, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre de Marcoule, 30 - Bagnols-sur-Ceze (France). Centre de Production de Plutonium de Marcoule. Services d' Extraction du Plutonium

    1966-07-01

    This dosage method concerns fission products present in the waste produced from the processing of cooled irradiated fuels. - Sr, Cs, Ce, Y, Ru by quantitative analysis; - Zr, Nb by qualitative analysis. It includes electrophoresis on paper strips one meter long which is then analysed between two window-less Geiger counters. For an activity of 10{sup -2} {mu}Ci of any cation in a 10 {mu}l spot, the standard error {sigma} if 3 to 4 per cent. complete analysis lasts about 5 hours. (authors) [French] Cette methode de dosage concerne les produits de fission presents dans les effluents de traitement des combustibles irradies refroidis: - Sr, Cs, Ce, Y, Ru en analyse quantitative; - Zr, Nb en analyse qualitative. Elle comporte une electrophorese sur bande de papier de un metre de longueur suivie d'un depouillement entre deux compteurs Geiger sans fenetre. Pour une activite de 10{sup -2} {mu}Ci d'un cation quelconque dans une tache de 10 {mu}l l'erreur standard {sigma} est de 3 a 4 pour cent. L'analyse complete demande environ 5 heures. (auteurs)

  9. Uptake of heavy metals by Typha capensis from wetland sites polluted by effluent from mineral processing plants: implications of metal-metal interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaranyika, M F; Nyati, W

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the present work was to demonstrate the existence of metal-metal interactions in plants and their implications for the absorption of toxic elements like Cr. Typha capensis , a good accumulator of heavy metals, was chosen for the study. Levels of Fe, Cr, Ni, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn were determined in the soil and roots, rhizomes, stems and leaves of T. capensis from three Sites A, B and C polluted by effluent from a chrome ore processing plant, a gold ore processing plant, and a nickel ore processing plant, respectively. The levels of Cr were extremely high at Site A at 5415 and 786-16,047 μg g -1 dry weight in the soil and the plant, respectively, while the levels of Ni were high at Site C at 176 and 24-891 μg g -1 in the soil and the plant, respectively. The levels of Fe were high at all three sites at 2502-7500 and 906-13,833 μg g -1 in the soil and plant, respectively. For the rest of the metals, levels were modest at 8.5-148 and 2-264 μg g -1 in the soil and plant, respectively. Pearson's correlation analysis confirmed mutual synergistic metal-metal interactions in the uptake of Zn, Cu, Co, Ni, Fe, and Cr, which are attributed to the similarity in the radii and coordination geometry of the cations of these elements. The implications of such metal-metal interactions (or effects of one metal on the behaviour of another) on the uptake of Cr, a toxic element, and possible Cr detoxification mechanism within the plant, are discussed.

  10. 40 CFR 415.112 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY Potassium Metal Production Subcategory § 415.112 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants to navigable waters. ...

  11. 40 CFR 415.113 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Potassium Metal Production Subcategory § 415.113 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...): There shall be no discharge of process wastewater pollutants to navigable waters. ...

  12. Enhanced IMC based PID controller design for non-minimum phase (NMP) integrating processes with time delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghousiya Begum, K; Seshagiri Rao, A; Radhakrishnan, T K

    2017-05-01

    Internal model control (IMC) with optimal H 2 minimization framework is proposed in this paper for design of proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllers. The controller design is addressed for integrating and double integrating time delay processes with right half plane (RHP) zeros. Blaschke product is used to derive the optimal controller. There is a single adjustable closed loop tuning parameter for controller design. Systematic guidelines are provided for selection of this tuning parameter based on maximum sensitivity. Simulation studies have been carried out on various integrating time delay processes to show the advantages of the proposed method. The proposed controller provides enhanced closed loop performances when compared to recently reported methods in the literature. Quantitative comparative analysis has been carried out using the performance indices, Integral Absolute Error (IAE) and Total Variation (TV). Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Treatment of combined acid mine drainage (AMD)--flotation circuit effluents from copper mine via Fenton's process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahiroglu, Ayse; Tarlan-Yel, Esra; Sevimli, Mehmet Faik

    2009-07-30

    The treatability of a copper mine wastewater, including heavy metals, AMD, as well as flotation chemicals, with Fenton process was investigated. Fenton process seems advantageous for this treatment, because of Fe(2+) content and low pH of AMD. First, optimum Fe(2+) condition under constant H(2)O(2) was determined, and initial Fe(2+) content of AMD was found sufficient (120 mg/L for removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 6125 mg/L). In the second step, without any additional Fe(2+), optimum H(2)O(2) dosage was determined as 40 mg/L. Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) molar ratio of 1.8 was enough to achieve the best treatment performance. In all trials, initial pH of AMD was 4.8 and pH adjustment was not performed. Utilization of existing pH and Fe(2+), low H(2)O(2) requirements, and up to 98% treatment performances in COD, turbidity, color, Cu(2+), Zn(2+) made the proposed treatment system promising. Since the reaction occurs stepwise, a two-step kinetic model was applied and calculated theoretical maximum removal rate was consistent to experimental one, which validates the applied model. For the optimum molar ratio (1.8), 140 mL/L sludge of high density (1.094 g/mL), high settling velocity (0.16 cm/s) with low specific resistance (3.15 x 10(8)m/kg) was obtained. High reaction rates and easily dewaterable sludge characteristics also made the proposed method advantageous.

  14. modelling effluent assimila modelling effluent assimilat modelling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    G EFFLUENT ASSIMILATIVE CAPACITY OF IKPOBA RIVE. BENIN CITY, NIGERIA ... l purposes to communities rse such as ... treat in order for it to meet the aforeme of the communities. It is therefore i ..... Substituting and integrating yields the following equations ..... Purification Potentials of Small Tropical Urban. Stream: A ...

  15. Micro-EDM process modeling and machining approaches for minimum tool electrode wear for fabrication of biocompatible micro-components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puthumana, Govindan

    2017-01-01

    Micro-electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM) is a potential non-contact method for fabrication of biocompatible micro devices. This paper presents an attempt to model the tool electrode wear in micro-EDM process using multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA) and artificial neural networks...... linear regression model was developed for prediction of TWR in ten steps at a significance level of 90%. The optimum architecture of the ANN was obtained with 7 hidden layers at an R-sq value of 0.98. The predicted values of TWR using ANN matched well with the practically measured and calculated values...... (ANN). The governing micro-EDM factors chosen for this investigation were: voltage (V), current (I), pulse on time (Ton) and pulse frequency (f). The proposed predictive models generate a functional correlation between the tool electrode wear rate (TWR) and the governing micro-EDM factors. A multiple...

  16. Effluent management and pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ananda Narayanan, R.; Vedamoorthy, S.

    2006-01-01

    Generation of waste/effluent has a direct impact on environment, the higher the generation of waste higher the environmental impact. Though complete prevention of radioactive waste generation is a difficult task, keeping the waste generation to the minimum practicable is essential objective of Radioactive Waste Management. In doing so, it is essential to minimize waste generation at all the stages of a Nuclear Plant Cycle. Waste minimization refers to both a) Waste generation by operational and maintenance activities of plant and b) Secondary waste resulting from predisposal management of Radioactive Waste. The management of the effluent can be done in efficient manner by better designs, improved procedure, periodic reviews and above all inculcate the awareness amongst the waste generators since minimisation of waste, at source is the most efficient way to safe guard the environment. Commissioning and rich operating experience of waste management plant gather novel ideas which result in beneficial improvements in the system and operating procedure. Some of the steps initiated by designers and site agencies towards this are worth mentioning. (author)

  17. 40 CFR 458.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... this paragraph, which may be discharged from the carbon black lamp process by a point source subject to... Lamp Process Subcategory § 458.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent... achievable: There shall be no discharge of process waste water pollutants to navigable waters. ...

  18. Treatment of effluents in uranium industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, S.K.

    2009-01-01

    Uranium processing technology in India has matured in the last 50 years and is able to meet the country's requirement. Right from mining of the ore to milling and refining, effluents are generated and are being processed for their safe disposal. While the available technology is able to meet the regulatory limits of the effluents, the same may not be enough to meet the increased demand of uranium in the future. The increased population, urbanization and climate change are not only going to decrease the supply of process water but will also place increased restrictions on disposal to environment. This demands technologies that will generate less effluent for disposal and enable reuse and recycle concept to the extent possible. Presently used conventional physical-chemical methods, to contain the contaminants would, therefore, require further refinements. Contaminants like sulfates, chlorides etc in the effluent of uranium mill based on acid leach process are the concerns for the future plants. Hence, there is an urgent need for development of suitable methods for maximum recycle of the process effluents, which will also enable in minimizing the consumption of process water. A suitable membrane based process can be an option leaving a concentrated brine for reuse or for further treatment and disposal

  19. INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, C.A.

    1997-06-01

    The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

  20. The effect of operational parameters on electrocoagulation-flotation process followed by photocatalysis applied to the decontamination of water effluents from cellulose and paper factories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroski, Marcela; Rodrigues, Angela Claudia; Garcia, Juliana Carla; Passarella Gerola, Adriana; Nozaki, Jorge; Hioka, Noboru

    2008-01-01

    Cellulose and paper pulp factories utilize a large amount of water generating several undesirable contaminants. The present work is a preliminary investigation that associates the electrocoagulation-flotation (EC) method followed by photocatalysis to treat such wastewater. For EC, the experiment with aluminium and iron electrodes showed similar efficiency. Iron electrodes (anode and cathode) were chosen. By applying 30 min of EC/Fe 0 , 153 A m -2 and pH 6.0, the COD values, UV-vis absorbance and turbidity underwent an intense decrease. For the subsequent UV photocatalysis (mercury lamps) TiO 2 was employed and the favourable operational conditions found were 0.25 g L -1 of the catalyst and solution pH 3.0. The addition of hydrogen peroxide (50 mmol L -1 ) highly increased the photo-process performance. By employing the UV/TiO 2 /H 2 O 2 system, the COD reduction was 88% compared to pre-treated effluents and complete sample photobleaching was verified. The salt concentration on EC (iron electrodes) showed that the electrolysis duration can be reduced from 30 to 10 min by the addition of 5.0 g L -1 of NaCl. The biodegradability index (BOD/COD) increased from 0.15 (pre-treated) to 0.48 (after EC) and to 0.89 (after EC/photocatalysis irradiated for 6 h), showing that the employed sequence is very helpful to improve the water quality. This result was confirmed by biotoxicity tests performed with microcrustaceous Artemia salina

  1. The effect of operational parameters on electrocoagulation-flotation process followed by photocatalysis applied to the decontamination of water effluents from cellulose and paper factories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boroski, Marcela; Rodrigues, Angela Claudia; Garcia, Juliana Carla; Passarella Gerola, Adriana; Nozaki, Jorge [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Avenida Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900, Maringa, PR (Brazil); Hioka, Noboru [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Avenida Colombo, 5790, CEP 87020-900, Maringa, PR (Brazil)], E-mail: nhioka@uem.br

    2008-12-15

    Cellulose and paper pulp factories utilize a large amount of water generating several undesirable contaminants. The present work is a preliminary investigation that associates the electrocoagulation-flotation (EC) method followed by photocatalysis to treat such wastewater. For EC, the experiment with aluminium and iron electrodes showed similar efficiency. Iron electrodes (anode and cathode) were chosen. By applying 30 min of EC/Fe{sup 0}, 153 A m{sup -2} and pH 6.0, the COD values, UV-vis absorbance and turbidity underwent an intense decrease. For the subsequent UV photocatalysis (mercury lamps) TiO{sub 2} was employed and the favourable operational conditions found were 0.25 g L{sup -1} of the catalyst and solution pH 3.0. The addition of hydrogen peroxide (50 mmol L{sup -1}) highly increased the photo-process performance. By employing the UV/TiO{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system, the COD reduction was 88% compared to pre-treated effluents and complete sample photobleaching was verified. The salt concentration on EC (iron electrodes) showed that the electrolysis duration can be reduced from 30 to 10 min by the addition of 5.0 g L{sup -1} of NaCl. The biodegradability index (BOD/COD) increased from 0.15 (pre-treated) to 0.48 (after EC) and to 0.89 (after EC/photocatalysis irradiated for 6 h), showing that the employed sequence is very helpful to improve the water quality. This result was confirmed by biotoxicity tests performed with microcrustaceous Artemia salina.

  2. Effluent from Wastewater Treatment Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Jannie Munk; Nierychlo, Marta; Albertsen, Mads

    Incoming microorganisms to wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are usually considered to be removed in the treatment process. Analyses of the effluent generally show a very high degree of reduction of pathogens supporting this assumption. However, standard techniques for detecting bacteria......-independent 16SrRNA gene amplicon sequencing was applied for the identification and quantification of the microorganisms. In total 84 effluent samples from 14 full-scale Danish wastewater treatment plants were investigated over a period of 3 months. The microbial community composition was investigated by 16S r...... contain pathogenic species. One of these was Arcobacter (Campylobacteraceae) which was found in up to 16% relative abundance. This indicates that Arcobacter, and perhaps other pathogenic genera, are not being removed efficiently in full-scale plants and may pose a potential health safety problem. Further...

  3. Study of the synthesis of TiO2 layers on macroporous ceramic supports in supercritical (SC) CO2 for processing radioactive aqueous effluents in dynamic mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchateau, Maxime

    2014-01-01

    Public and military nuclear industry generates a significant amount of radioactive liquid waste which must be treated before being released into the environment. Decontamination methods alternative to the industrial techniques (evaporation, chemical treatment) are being developed, such as column treatments or coupled filtration/sorption processes. Current researches mainly focus on the development and shaping of specific sorbents. In this context, the objectives of this thesis were first to study the synthesis of TiO 2 layers on macroporous ceramic supports in supercritical (SC) CO 2 and then to evaluate their potential for radionuclide extraction in these alternative processes. A robust synthesis method has been developed, based on the thermal decomposition of titanium isopropoxide in SC CO 2 in the temperature range between 150 C and 350 C. Nano-structured TiO 2 films were formed on the macroporous supports (ceramic foams, tubular α-alumina supports) with good adhesion, already at 150 C. The effect of the synthesis temperature on sorbents physico-chemical characteristics and sorption properties has been studied with TiO 2 powders prepared under the same conditions as the supported films. The best sorption performance were observed for the powder prepared at 150 C, owing to its higher density of surface sites in comparison with powders prepared at either 250 C or 350 C. Consequently, this synthesis temperature (150 C) was selected for a detailed study of the composite sorbents (TiO 2 /support), in order to assess their sorption performance in continuous treatment processes. The sorption experiments have shown that a column of alumina macroporous foam (Φpore = 400μm) coated with TiO 2 was suitable for processing effluents in dynamic mode with high throughputs. Both macro-pore sizes and column height were revealed as important parameters to be controlled. For the coupled filtration/sorption treatment, TiO 2 membranes exhibit good mechanical strength and are able

  4. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC`s program results.

  5. Nuclear reactor effluent monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minns, J.L.; Essig, T.H.

    1993-01-01

    Radiological environmental monitoring and effluent monitoring at nuclear power plants is important both for normal operations, as well as in the event of an accident. During normal operations, environmental monitoring verifies the effectiveness of in-plant measures for controlling the release of radioactive materials in the plant. Following an accident, it would be an additional mechanism for estimating doses to members of the general public. This paper identifies the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulatory basis for requiring radiological environmental and effluent monitoring, licensee conditions for effluent and environmental monitoring, NRC independent oversight activities, and NRC's program results

  6. Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, S.S.

    1994-01-01

    Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ''capstone'' team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan

  7. Influence of minimum quantity of lubricant (MQL on tool life of carbide cutting tools during milling process of steel AISI 1018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Núñez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, high productivity of machining is an important issue to obtain economic benefits in the industry. This purpose could be reached with high cutting velocity and feed rate. However, the inherently behavior produce high temperatures in the interface of couple cutting tool/workpiece. Many cutting fluids have been developed to control temperature in process and increase tool life. The objective of this paper is to compare the carbide milling tool wear using different systems cutting fluids: flood and minimum quantity of lubrication (MQL. The values of carbide milling cutting tool wear was evaluate according with the standard ISO 8688-1 1989. The experimental results showed that using MQL reduces significantly (about 40% tool wear in milling AISI 1018 steel at industrial cutting conditions.

  8. Improvement of thermal exchange between feedstock and effluent in a hydrocarbon processing unit under hydrogen atmosphere by partial recycling of the product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orieux, A.

    1990-01-19

    Heat exchange is improved in light naphta hydroisomerization and catalytic reforming by recirculation of a part of the product in the thermal exchange zone at a temperature higher than the dew point of the effluent under hydrogen atmosphere and preferentially as a temperature lower than the temperature of the recycled product.

  9. Fungal bio-treatment of spruce wood with Trametes versicolor for pitch control: Influence on extractive contents, pulping process parameters, paper quality and effluent toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.; Kuster, B.; Claassen, F.W.; Tienvieri, T.; Bertaud, F.; Lennon, G.; Petit-Concil, M.; Sierra-Alvarez, R.

    2007-01-01

    Lipophilic low molar-mass constituents in wood chips for the paper industry result in low quality pulp, pitch deposition, and effluent toxicity. New biotechnological solutions such as fungal pre-treatment of wood chips can reduce pitch problems. This laboratory-scale study focuses on the potential

  10. Screening of tannin acyl hydrolase (E.C.3.1.1.20) producing tannery effluent fungal isolates using simple agar plate and SmF process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, K; Saravanababu, S; Arunachalam, M

    2007-03-01

    Industrially important tannase producing fungi were isolated from tannery effluent using simple agar plate method. The isolates were screened by submerged fermentation using auto-controlled bioreactor. The colony diameter on the solid surface media shows high correlation with quantitative production of tannase. The isolate Aspergillus niger shows maximum production of both extracellular and intracellular enzyme.

  11. Genotoxicity of swine effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Techio, V H; Stolberg, J; Kunz, A; Zanin, E; Perdomo, C C

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of genotoxic effects of swine effluents from different stages of a treatment system for swine wastes through bioassay of stamen hairs and micronuclei in Tradescantia (clone BNL 4430). No significant differences (p≥0.05) regarding the genic mutations were found in the bioassay of stamen hairs, independently of the effluent analysed. For the genotoxicity test with micronuclei, the plants exposed to raw wastes, to sludge, and to effluent of the biodigester have presented higher rates of chromosomal damages (micronuclei), with significant differences in relation to the control group and other effluent of the waste treatment system (p≤0.05). The association between the chemical parameters and the genotoxicity data have shown that the variables COD and TKN have presented significant correlation (p≤0.05) with the number of mutagenic events in the tetrads.

  12. Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Treated non-hazardous and non-radioactive liquid wastes are collected and then disposed of through the systems at the Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF). More...

  13. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) is located in the central part of the Hanford Site. LERF is permitted by the State of Washington and has three liquid...

  14. TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESS OF EFFLUENTS DEPHENOLYSATION

    OpenAIRE

    В. Трачевський; О. Никитюк

    2011-01-01

    The one of the important physical factors impacting on the environmental safety of industrial wastewater generated in the production of paints and varnishes is considered. Identification wastewater formation sources, composition, its amount in a particular type of resin is an essential point for developing methods of cleaning industrial wastewater treatment design and industrial plants. Deep cleaning of wastewater from phenol is a major challenge. Studies that mostly focused on the known meth...

  15. CONCAWE effluent speciation project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonards, P.; Comber, M.; Forbes, S.; Whale, G.; Den Haan, K.

    2010-09-15

    In preparation for the implementation of the EU REACH regulation, a project was undertaken to transfer the high-resolution analytical method for determining hydrocarbon blocks in petroleum products by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GCxGC) to a laboratory external to the petroleum industry (Institute for Environmental Studies (IVM) of the VU University of Amsterdam). The method was validated and used for the analysis of petroleum hydrocarbons extracted from refinery effluents. The report describes the technology transfer and the approaches used to demonstrate the successful transfer and application of the GCxGC methodology from analysing petroleum products to the quantitative determination of hydrocarbon blocks in refinery effluents. The report describes all the methods used for all the determinations on the effluent samples along with an overview of the results obtained which are presented in summary tables and graphs. These data have significantly improved CONCAWE's knowledge of what refineries emit in their effluents. A total of 111 Effluent Discharge Samples from 105 CONCAWE refineries in Europe were obtained in the period June 2008 to March 2009. These effluents were analysed for metals, standard effluent parameters (including COD, BOD), oil in water, BTEX and volatile organic compounds. The hydrocarbon speciation determinations and other hydrocarbon analyses are also reported. The individual refinery analytical results are included into this report, coded as per the CONCAWE system. These data will be, individually, communicated to companies and refineries. The report demonstrates that it is feasible to conduct a research programme to investigate the fate and effects of hydrocarbon blocks present in discharged refinery effluents.

  16. Esplanada: cultivar de cenoura de verão para fins de processamento Esplanada: a new tropical carrot variety suitable for minimum processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo V. Vieira

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available A cenoura é uma das hortaliças tradicionais mais consumidas no Brasil. Entretanto, o consumo de mini cenouras tipo "cenourete" obtidas via processamento mínimo ainda é muito pequeno no país. Isto se deve possivelmente ao restrito conhecimento da tecnologia de produção deste produto e da dificuldade em se obter matéria prima de qualidade e com regularidade, especialmente no período de verão. As raízes das principais cultivares utilizadas no Brasil não apresentam características de qualidade como coloração, formato e tamanho adequados para possibilitar máximo rendimento industrial. Neste contexto, foi desenvolvida a cultivar de polinização aberta "Esplanada", que apresenta boa adaptação às condições edafoclimáticas brasileiras, possui alta resistência à queima-das-folhas, baixa incidência de florescimento precoce no verão e resistência moderada a nematóides formadores de galhas. Estas características viabilizam seu cultivo em qualquer época do ano, nas principais regiões de produção. As raízes são compridas, finas e apresentam coloração uniforme, características estas adequadas para o processamento mínimo visando a produção de cenourete. Esta cultivar poderá ocupar posição estratégica na cadeia produtiva de cenoura, uma vez que vai possibilitar a produção de mini cenouras durante todo o ano em qualquer região do país.Carrot is one of the most consumed vegetables in Brazil. However, the consumption of "baby carrots", obtained by minimally processed roots, is still very low in the country, due to lack of processing technology knowledge and the low amount of minimally processed carrots produced in Brazil as a consequence of the low industrial productivity. The carrot varieties currently employed in minimum processing have as major disadvantages a series of low quality attributes including inadequate root shape and size which precludes reaching the maximum industrial yield. In this context, Embrapa

  17. High-yield pulping effluent treatment technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, W.X.; Hsieh, J.S.

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this report is to examine the high-yield (mechanical) pulp processes with respect to environmental issues affected by the discharge of their waste streams. Various statistics are given that support the view that high-yield pulping processes will have major growth in the US regions where pulp mills are located, and sites for projects in the development phase are indicated. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies applicable to these processes are reviewed. The different types of mechanical pulping or high-yield processes are explained, and the chemical additives are discussed. The important relationship between pulp yield and measure of BOD in the effluent is graphically presented. Effluent contaminants are identified, along with other important characteristics of the streams. Current and proposed environmental limitations specifically related to mechanical pulp production are reviewed. Conventional and innovative effluent-treatment technologies are discussed, along with their principle applications, uses, advantages, and disadvantages. Sludge management and disposal techniques become an intimate part of the treatment of waste streams. The conclusion is made that conventional technologies can successfully treat effluent streams under current waste-water discharge limitations, but these systems may not be adequate when stricter standards are imposed. At present, the most important issue in the treatment of pulp-mill waste is the management and disposal of the resultant sludge

  18. CY-1981 effluent monitoring report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honkus, R.J.

    1982-05-01

    The effluent monitoring programs at ICPP for calendar year 1981 are summarized. During the year, five significant occurrences or unplanned releases occurred. These are briefly described and tabulated. In none of the instances were the applicable Radiation Concentration Guides (RCG's) exceeded. A graphic summary of the total airborne, liquid and solid releases during CY-1981 is presented. Liquid waste activity was higher than anticipated due to various processing factors throughout the year. Solid waste jumped dramatically in December due to shipment of end-prices from the EBR-II fuel which was processed during the Electrolytic campaign

  19. Research on deeply purifying effluent from uranium mining and metallurgy to remove uranium by ion exchange. Pt.2: Elution uranium from lower loaded uranium resin by the intense fractionation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianguo; Chen Shaoqiang; Qi Jing

    2002-01-01

    Developing macroporous resin for purifying uranium effluent from uranium mining and metallurgy is presented. The Intense Fractionation Process is employed to elute uranium from lower loaded uranium resin by the eluent of sulfuric acid and ammonium sulfate. The result is indicated that the uranium concentration in the rich elutriant is greatly increased, and the rich liquor is only one bed column volume, uranium concentration in the elutriant is increased two times which concentration is 10.1 g/L. The eluent is saved about 50% compared with the conventional fixed bed elution operation. And also the acidity in the rich elutriant is of benefit to the later precipitation process in uranium recovery

  20. Facility effluent monitoring plan determinations for the 200 Area facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-11-01

    The following facility effluent monitoring plan determinations document the evaluations conducted for the Westinghouse Hanford Company 200 Area facilities (chemical processing, waste management, 222-S Laboratory, and laundry) on the Hanford Site in south central Washington State. These evaluations determined the need for facility effluent monitoring plans for the 200 Area facilities. The facility effluent monitoring plan determinations have been prepared in accordance with A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438 (WHC 1991). The Plutonium/Uranium Extraction Plant and UO 3 facility effluent monitoring plan determinations were prepared by Los Alamos Technical Associates, Richland, Washington. The Plutonium Finishing Plant, Transuranic Waste Storage and Assay Facility, T Plant, Tank Farms, Low Level Burial Grounds, and 222-S Laboratory determinations were prepared by Science Applications International Corporation of Richland, Washington. The B Plant Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan Determination was prepared by ERCE Environmental Services of Richland, Washington

  1. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the B plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesser, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the U.S. Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438-1. This facility effluent monitoring plant assesses effluent monitoring systems and evaluates whether they are adequate to ensure the public health and safety as specified in applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. This document must be reviewed annually even if there are no operational changes, and it must be updated every three years

  2. Handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Allen, G.C.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  3. Effluent treatment options for nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shipers, L.R.; Brockmann, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    A variety of approaches for handling effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests in an environmentally acceptable manner are discussed. The functional requirements of effluent treatment are defined and concept options are presented within the framework of these requirements. System concepts differ primarily in the choice of fission-product retention and waste handling concepts. The concept options considered range from closed cycle (venting the exhaust to a closed volume or recirculating the hydrogen in a closed loop) to open cycle (real time processing and venting of the effluent). This paper reviews the strengths and weaknesses of different methods to handle effluent from nuclear thermal propulsion system ground tests

  4. Advanced oxidative process with ozone of effluents contaminated by MN and other heavy metals originated in the acid drainage in uranium mine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Mirna Marienne Suzin e

    2016-01-01

    During a mine exploration the environment can be affected by different ways being one of them the mine acid drainage(DAM), that is formed by the exposition of sulphated minerals to the atmospheric air, water and iron-oxidation microorganisms. This exposition results in oxidation reactions and formation of sulphuric acid that dissolves all kind of metals present at the mineral that will result in the contamination of the ground and waters. The object of this research work is to test a technological solution of the mine acid drainage problem applying ozone advanced oxidation of the heavy metals present at the mine drainage of a uranium mine with special focus in the manganese removal. This study is applied to the material from the uranium mine of the Brazilian Nuclear Industry - INB, at Caldas- MG. The INB Industry has serious DAM contamination being the main contaminants of the superficial waters the elements, aluminium (Al), manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), sulfates(SO 4 +2 ), fluorides(F-), rare earth metals besides uranium (U) and thorium (Th). The Caldas unity is being used as research and testing field for the treatment of areas with environment degradation formed by the mining activity. The ozone testing showed a high efficiency for the removal of iron(Fe), manganese(Mn) and cerium (Ce) up to 99%. The manganese total concentration was reduced to values bellow the ones determined by CONAMA resolution. Elements as neodymium (Nd), zinc (Zn) and lanthanium (La) are also oxidated in presence of ozone but with lower efficiency. The aluminium remained unaffected by the ozone while Thorium and Uranium show an initial decay but at the end present only a concentration slight lower than the initial. The solid material formed after the ozone treatment consists mainly of manganese oxide (85%). In order to dispose, after the ozonization, the liquid effluent to the environment is necessary a pH correction in order to be within the CONAMA legislation, being used less

  5. 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility: Delisting petition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Waste water has been generated for over 40 years as a result of operations conducted on the Hanford Site. This waste water previously was discharged to cribs, ponds, or ditches. An example of such waste water includes process condensate that might have been in contact with dangerous waste or mixed waste (containing both radioactive and dangerous components). This petition presents the treatment technologies that are designed into the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility to eliminate the dangerous characteristics of the waste and to delist the effluent in accordance with the requirements found in 40 Code of Federal Regulations 260.20 and 260.22. The purpose of this petition is to demonstrate that the 242-A Evaporator process condensate will be treated adequately so that the effluent from the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility will no longer require management as a regulated dangerous waste. This demonstration was performed by use of a surrogate (synthetic) waste, designed by the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office to include species that represent all organic and inorganic constituents (but not radionuclide species) expected to be found on the Hanford Site. Thus, the surrogate will encompass not only the expected 242-A Evaporator process condensate characteristics, but those of other potential 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility waste streams and additional 40 CFR Appendix VIII constituents

  6. Development of improved radioactive effluent treatment to remove Zn-65, Mo-99 and I-125 by the coagulation-flocculation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakuma, S H [Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    1997-02-01

    Coagulation-flocculation treatment using aluminum sulphate, sodium carbonate, ferric chloride and coagulant aid was able to remove {sup 65}Zn, {sup 99}Mo and {sup 125}I from an aqueous effluent. Chemicals` dosages into the samples were varied which contributed different decontamination factors. For {sup 65}Zn removal, optimum pH value was 8 that provided the decontamination factor of 35. For {sup 125}I, optimum pH value was 7 with the decontamination factor of 4.8. Treatment of the effluent containing {sup 99}Mo at a laboratory scale was proved to be valid for the extrapolation to a plant scale. The pH range for optimum treatment was between 4.0 to 4.5. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs.

  7. Development of improved radioactive effluent treatment to remove Zn-65, Mo-99 and I-125 by the coagulation-flocculation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, S.H.

    1997-01-01

    Coagulation-flocculation treatment using aluminum sulphate, sodium carbonate, ferric chloride and coagulant aid was able to remove 65 Zn, 99 Mo and 125 I from an aqueous effluent. Chemicals' dosages into the samples were varied which contributed different decontamination factors. For 65 Zn removal, optimum pH value was 8 that provided the decontamination factor of 35. For 125 I, optimum pH value was 7 with the decontamination factor of 4.8. Treatment of the effluent containing 99 Mo at a laboratory scale was proved to be valid for the extrapolation to a plant scale. The pH range for optimum treatment was between 4.0 to 4.5. (author). 6 refs, 6 figs

  8. A sequential and fast method for low level of 226Ra , 228Ra, 210Pb e 210Po in mine effluents and uranium processing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taddei, M.H.T.; Taddei, J.F.A.C.

    2005-01-01

    Due to biological risk and long half lives, the radionuclides 228 Ra, 226 Ra, 210 Pb and 210 Po should be frequently monitored to check for any environmental contamination around mines and uranium plants. Currently, the methods used for the determination of these radionuclides take about thirty days to reach the radioactive equilibrium of the 210 Pb and 226 Ra daughter's. The evaluation of effluent discharges and leakage of deposits to water bodies in monitoring programs, require quick answers to implement corrective measures. Thereby fast determination methods must be implemented. This work presents a fast and sequential method to, in three days, determine accurately and sensitively, 226 Ra, 228 Ra, 210 Pb, 210 Po, in water and effluent samples

  9. Distribution of antibiotic resistance in the effluents of ten municipal wastewater treatment plants in China and the effect of treatment processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Weiwei; Wang, Jian; Cao, Rukun; Yang, Min; Zhang, Yu; Qiang, Zhimin

    2017-04-01

    Municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents represent an important contamination source of antibiotic resistance, threatening the ecological safety of receiving environments. In this study, the release of antibiotic resistance to sulfonamides and tetracyclines in the effluents of ten WWTPs in China was investigated. Results indicate that the concentrations of antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) ranged from 1.1 × 10 1 to 8.9 × 10 3  CFU mL -1 and 3.6 × 10 1 (tetW) to 5.4 × 10 6 (tetX) copies mL -1 , respectively. There were insignificant correlations of the concentrations of ARB and ARGs with those of corresponding antibiotics. Strong correlations were observed between the total concentrations of tetracycline resistance genes and sulfonamide resistance genes, and both of which were significantly correlated with intI1 concentrations. Statistical analysis of the effluent ARG concentrations in different WWTPs revealed an important role of disinfection in eliminating antibiotic resistance. The release rates of ARB and ARGs through the effluents of ten WWTPs ranged from 5.9 × 10 12 to 4.8 × 10 15  CFU d -1 and 6.4 × 10 12 (tetW) to 1.7 × 10 18 (sul1) copies d -1 , respectively. This study helps the effective assessment and scientific management of ecological risks induced by antibiotic resistance discharged from WWTPs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dry uranium tetrafluoride process preparation using the uranium hexafluoride reconversion process effluents; Processo alternativo para obtencao de tetrafluoreto de uranio a partir de efluentes fluoretados da etapa de reconversao de uranio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Neto, Joao Batista da

    2008-07-01

    It is a well known fact that the use of uranium tetrafluoride allows flexibility in the production of uranium suicide and uranium oxide fuel. To its obtention there are two conventional routes, the one which reduces uranium from the UF{sub 6} hydrolysis solution with stannous chloride, and the hydro fluorination of a solid uranium dioxide. In this work we are introducing a third and a dry way route, mainly utilized to the recovery of uranium from the liquid effluents generated in the uranium hexafluoride reconversion process, at IPEN/CNEN-SP. Working in the liquid phase, this route comprises the recuperation of ammonium fluoride by NH{sub 4}HF{sub 2} precipitation. Working with the solid residues, the crystallized bifluoride is added to the solid UO{sub 2}, which comes from the U mini plates recovery, also to its conversion in a solid state reaction, to obtain UF{sub 4}. That returns to the process of metallic uranium production unity to the U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} obtention. This fuel is considered in IPEN CNEN/SP as the high density fuel phase for IEA-R1m reactor, which will replace the former low density U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}-Al fuel. (author)

  11. Physiochemical Treatment of Textile Industry Effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, M. I.; Qazi, M. A.; Khan, H.; Ahmad, N.

    2015-01-01

    The study mainly focuses on the application of chemical Coagulants (Lime, Alum and Ferrous Sulfate) and Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) (Ozone Treatment and Fenton Process, alone and in combination) to treat textile industry effluents, optimization of coagulation process for various Coagulants in terms of process conditions, including coagulant dose, pH and settling time. The results revealed that Alum was most effective. The efficiency of coagulation process was dose dependent and 400 mg/L dose of Alum alone showed maximum color removal of 47%, 57% and 54% of yellow, red and blue dyes, respectively in addition to the COD removal of 44%. The combined applications of Alum and Lime (300:75 mg/L) and Lime and Alum (300:75 mg/L) showed slightly better COD removal of 51%. However, color removal efficiency of all coagulants was at par. The Ozonation process appeared the most promising for the treatment of waste water and color/COD removal, the efficiency of which increased with increasing the treatment time at constant Ozone dose. For less polluted effluents, 97% color removal was obtained after 1 minute and after 15 minutes for highly polluted effluents; The COD removal efficiency of the process for less polluted effluents was around 89% after 5 minutes Ozonation and for highly polluted effluents 88% COD removal after 40 minutes. The performance of Fenton process was extremely low as compared to Ozonation process. Increase in pH, significantly decreased the color removal efficiency of the process. COD removal efficiency of Fenton process increased with an increase in settling time. (author)

  12. Effluent treatment plant and decontamination centre, Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushik, C.P.; Agarwal, K.

    2017-01-01

    The Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, has a number of plants and laboratories, which generate Radioactive Liquid Waste and Protective Wears. Two facilities have been established in late 1960s to cater to this requirement. The Centre, on the average generates about 50,000 m"3 of active liquid effluents of varying specific activities. The Effluent Treatment Plant was setup to receive and process radioactive liquids generated by various facilities of BARC in Trombay. It also serves a single-point discharge facility to enable monitoring of radioactive effluents discharged from the Trombay site. About 120-150 Te of protective wears and inactive apparel are generated annually from various radioactive facilities and laboratories of BARC. In addition, contaminated fuel assembly components are generated by DHRUVA and formerly by CIRUS. These components require decontamination before its recycle to the fuel assembly process. The Decontamination Centre, setup in late 1960s, is mandated to carry out the above mentioned decontamination activities

  13. Readiness Assessment Plan, Hanford 200 areas treated effluent disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmer, F.J.

    1995-01-01

    This Readiness Assessment Plan documents Liquid Effluent Facilities review process used to establish the scope of review, documentation requirements, performance assessment, and plant readiness to begin operation of the Treated Effluent Disposal system in accordance with DOE-RLID-5480.31, Startup and Restart of Facilities Operational Readiness Review and Readiness Assessments

  14. A guide for preparing Hanford Site facility effluent monitoring plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickels, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    This document provides guidance on the format and content of effluent monitoring plans for facilities at the Hanford Site. The guidance provided in this document is designed to ensure compliance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 5400.1 (DOE 1988a), 5400.3 (DOE 1989a), 5400.4 (DOE 1989b), 5400.5 (DOE 1990a), 5480.1 (DOE 1982), 5480.11 (DOE 1988b), and 5484.1 (DOE 1981). These require environmental monitoring plans for each site, facility, or process that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants of radioactive or hazardous materials. In support of DOE Orders 5400.5 (Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment) and 5400.1 (General Environmental Protection Program), the DOE Environmental Regulatory Guide for Radiological Effluent Monitoring and Environmental Surveillance (DOE 1991) should be used to establish elements of a radiological effluent monitoring program in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. Evaluation of facilities for compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency Clean Air Act of 1977 requirements also is included in the airborne emissions section of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. Sampling Analysis Plans for Liquid Effluents, as required by the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement), also are included in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. The Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans shall include complete documentation of gaseous and liquid effluent sampling and monitoring systems

  15. 40 CFR 429.163 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Furniture... application of the best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125...

  16. 40 CFR 429.171 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Furniture... best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30...

  17. 40 CFR 429.173 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best available technology economically... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Furniture... best available technology economically achievable (BAT). Except as provided in 40 CFR 125.30 through...

  18. 40 CFR 429.161 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best practicable control technology... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS TIMBER PRODUCTS PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Wood Furniture... application of the best practicable control technology currently available (BPT). Except as provided in 40 CFR...

  19. 40 CFR 458.42 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Carbon Black Lamp Process Subcategory § 458.42 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of... shall be no discharge of process waste water pollutants into navigable waters. [60 FR 33972, June 29...

  20. 40 CFR 420.07 - Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS IRON AND STEEL MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions § 420.07 Effluent limitations guidelines and standards for pH. (a) The pH level in process wastewaters... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effluent limitations guidelines and...

  1. Method and apparatus for treating gaseous effluents from waste treatment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannery, Philip A.; Kujawa, Stephan T.

    2000-01-01

    Effluents from a waste treatment operation are incinerated and oxidized by passing the gases through an inductively coupled plasmas arc torch. The effluents are transformed into plasma within the torch. At extremely high plasma temperatures, the effluents quickly oxidize. The process results in high temperature oxidation of the gases without addition of any mass flow for introduction of energy.

  2. Oxygen at nanomolar levels reversibly suppresses process rates and gene expression in anammox and denitrification in the oxygen minimum zone off northern Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; Stewart, Frank J; Thamdrup, Bo; De Brabandere, Loreto; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Don E; DeLong, Edward F

    2014-10-28

    A major percentage (20 to 40%) of global marine fixed-nitrogen loss occurs in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Concentrations of O2 and the sensitivity of the anaerobic N2-producing processes of anammox and denitrification determine where this loss occurs. We studied experimentally how O2 at nanomolar levels affects anammox and denitrification rates and the transcription of nitrogen cycle genes in the anoxic OMZ off Chile. Rates of anammox and denitrification were reversibly suppressed, most likely at the enzyme level. Fifty percent inhibition of N2 and N2O production by denitrification was achieved at 205 and 297 nM O2, respectively, whereas anammox was 50% inhibited at 886 nM O2. Coupled metatranscriptomic analysis revealed that transcripts encoding nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ), nitrite reductase (nirS), and nitric oxide reductase (norB) decreased in relative abundance above 200 nM O2. This O2 concentration did not suppress the transcription of other dissimilatory nitrogen cycle genes, including nitrate reductase (narG), hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo), and nitrite reductase (nirK). However, taxonomic characterization of transcripts suggested inhibition of narG transcription in gammaproteobacteria, whereas the transcription of anammox narG, whose gene product is likely used to oxidatively replenish electrons for carbon fixation, was not inhibited. The taxonomic composition of transcripts differed among denitrification enzymes, suggesting that distinct groups of microorganisms mediate different steps of denitrification. Sulfide addition (1 µM) did not affect anammox or O2 inhibition kinetics but strongly stimulated N2O production by denitrification. These results identify new O2 thresholds for delimiting marine nitrogen loss and highlight the utility of integrating biogeochemical and metatranscriptomic analyses. The removal of fixed nitrogen via anammox and denitrification associated with low O2 concentrations in oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) is a major sink in

  3. Richards Bay effluent pipeline

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lord, DA

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available of major concern identified in the effluent are the large volume of byproduct calcium sulphate (phosphogypsum) which would smother marine life, high concentrations of fluoride highly toxic to marine life, heavy metals, chlorinated organic material... ........................ 9 THE RICHARDS BAY PIPELINE ........................................ 16 Environmental considerations ................................... 16 - Phosphogypsum disposal ................................... 16 - Effects of fluoride on locally occurring...

  4. Liquid effluent at Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair, N.R.

    1995-01-01

    This short paper reviews the liquid effluent treatment at the Dounreay site. The significant reductions in volume and activity discharged from the site to the environment have been achieved over the many years of operation, and some of the techniques are highlighted. The Regulator interaction and the effect on the environment is discussed, while some of the requirements of the Regulator are presented. (author)

  5. Computer software configuration management plan for 200 East/West Liquid Effluent Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graf, F.A. Jr.

    1995-02-27

    This computer software management configuration plan covers the control of the software for the monitor and control system that operates the Effluent Treatment Facility and its associated truck load in station and some key aspects of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility that stores condensate to be processed. Also controlled is the Treated Effluent Disposal System`s pumping stations and monitors waste generator flows in this system as well as the Phase Two Effluent Collection System.

  6. Computer software configuration management plan for 200 East/West Liquid Effluent Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graf, F.A. Jr.

    1995-01-01

    This computer software management configuration plan covers the control of the software for the monitor and control system that operates the Effluent Treatment Facility and its associated truck load in station and some key aspects of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility that stores condensate to be processed. Also controlled is the Treated Effluent Disposal System's pumping stations and monitors waste generator flows in this system as well as the Phase Two Effluent Collection System

  7. Recycling liquid effluents in a ceramic industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo Almeida, B.; Almeida, M.; Martins, S.; Alexandra Macarico, V.; Tomas da Fonseca, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this work is presented a study on the recycling of liquid effluents in a ceramic installation for sanitary industry. The effluents were characterized by X-ray diffraction and inductively coupled plasma to evaluate their compositions. It was also assessed the daily production rate. Several glaze-slurry mixtures were prepared and characterized according to procedures and equipment of the company's quality laboratory. The results show that for most of the properties, the tested mixtures exhibited acceptable performance. However, the pyro plasticity parameter is highly influenced by the glaze content and imposes the separation of glaze and slurry liquid effluents. In addition, it is necessary to invest on a storage plant, including tanks with constant stirring and a new pipeline structure to implement the reincorporation method on the slurry processing. (Author)

  8. Anaerobic effluent disinfection using ozone: Byproducts formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silva, G.H.R.; Daniel, L.A.; Bruning, H.; Rulkens, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    This research was aimed at studying oxidation processes, coliform inactivation effectiveness and disinfection byproducts (DBPs) associated with the disinfection of anaerobic sanitary wastewater effluent with ozone applied at doses of 5.0, 8.0 and 10.0mg O(3)L(-1) for contact times of 5, 10 and 15

  9. Gamma irradiation treatment of secondary sewage effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajdic, A.H.

    The operation and monitoring of a pilot scale Co-60 gamma irradiation unit treating secondary sewage effluent is described. The disinfecting efficiency of the unit is compared to that of an experimental 'ideal' chlorination unit and to the plant chlorination process. A cost estimate for disinfection by gamma irradiation on a full plant scale is included. (author)

  10. Regarding the rejection performance of a polymeric reverse osmosis membrane for the final purification of two-phase olive mill effluents previously treated by an advanced oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochando-Pulido, J.M.; Martínez-Férez, A.

    2017-01-01

    In previous works on olive mill wastewater (OMW), secondary advanced oxidation treatment solved the problem related to the presence of phenolic compounds and considerable chemical oxygen demand. However, the effluent presented a significant salinity after this treatment. In this work, an adequate operation of a reverse osmosis (RO) membrane is addressed to ensure constant performance over a long period of time. In this paper, the effect of the operating parameters on the dynamic membrane rejection performance towards the target species was examined and discussed. Rejection efficiencies of all species were observed to follow a similar pattern, which consisted of slight initial improvement that further decreased over time. Rejection of both divalent ions remained constant at over 99% regardless of the operating conditions. Rejections were noticed to follow the order SO42−> Cl−> NO3− and Ca2+> Mg2+> K+> Na+, as a rule. Divalent species were moderately more highly rejected than monovalent ones, in accordance with their higher charge and molecular size, and sulfate anions were consistently rejected by over 99%. Finally, the RO membrane exiting treated effluent was depleted of the high electro conductivity initially present (above 97% rejection), permitting its re-use as good quality irrigation water (below 1 mS/cm). [es

  11. Minimum Wages and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Fields, Gary S.; Kanbur, Ravi

    2005-01-01

    Textbook analysis tells us that in a competitive labor market, the introduction of a minimum wage above the competitive equilibrium wage will cause unemployment. This paper makes two contributions to the basic theory of the minimum wage. First, we analyze the effects of a higher minimum wage in terms of poverty rather than in terms of unemployment. Second, we extend the standard textbook model to allow for incomesharing between the employed and the unemployed. We find that there are situation...

  12. Chromium removal from tanning industries effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudry, M.A.; Ahmad, S.

    1997-01-01

    Air and water are the basic needs of human being and other living entities on the earth. Tanning industry uses water and some chemicals and so creates environmental problems, depending basically on two principal sources, hide and water. The processes of tanning are based on chromium sulphate and vegetable treatment of hide. According to the national environmental quality standards (NEQS) the effluent or disposed water should contain phenol less than 0.5 ppm, Cr, sulphates, chloride and other salts content. About 30-40 liters of water are used to process one Kg of raw hide into finished goods. Total installed capacity of hides and skins chrome tanning is 53.5 million square meter, earning a large amount of foreign exchange for our country. In the present work, seven tanning industries effluents from the suburbs of Multan city have been collected and analysed. The pH of the liquors have been found to vary from 2.72 to 4.4 and the constituent Cr have been found to be from zero to 8000 ppm from vegetable to chrome tanning industrial effluents studied. The stages involved in tanning and treatment of the effluent water waste including chemical treatment of Cr has been described with a special reference to supported liquid membranes process for removal of chromium ions. (author)

  13. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 222-S Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, A.V.

    1991-11-01

    A facility effluent monitoring plan is required by the US Department of Energy in DOE Order 5400.1 for any operations that involve hazardous materials and radioactive substances that could impact employee or public safety or the environment. This document is prepared using the specific guidelines identified in A Guide for Preparing Hanford Site Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, WHC-EP-0438. This facility effluent monitoring plan assesses effluent monitoring systems against applicable federal, state, and local requirements. This facility effluent monitoring plan is the first annual report. It shall ensure long-range integrity of the effluent monitoring systems by requiring an update whenever a new process or operation introduces new hazardous materials or significant radioactive materials. The current operation of the 222-S facilities includes the provision of analytical and radiological chemistry services in support of Hanford Site processing plants. The emphasis is on waste management, chemical processing, environmental monitoring effluent programs at B Plant, the Uranium Oxide Plant, Tank Farms, the 242-A Evaporator, the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility, the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Facility, the Plutonium Finishing Plant, process development/impact activities, and essential materials. The laboratory also supplies analytical services in support of ongoing waste tank characterization

  14. In situ and laboratory bioassays to evaluate the impact of effluent discharges on receiving aquatic ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolders, R.; Bervoets, L.; Blust, R.

    2004-01-01

    Effluents are a main source of direct and often continuous input of pollutants into aquatic ecosystems with long-term implications on ecosystem functioning. Therefore, the study of the effects of effluent exposure on organisms, populations or communities within the framework of impact assessment has a high ecological relevance. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicological impact of two effluents, one household wastewater treatment effluent (Effluent 1) and one industrial effluent (Effluent 2), on the receiving aquatic ecosystem using two test species under both in situ and laboratory conditions. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed under laboratory conditions in an online monitoring flow-through system (receiving different concentrations of Effluent 2) and under in situ conditions along the pollution gradient established by these two effluent discharges. Bioassays focussed on growth and condition related endpoints (i.e. condition, growth, lipid budget), since these are key functional processes within organisms and populations. Under laboratory conditions, increasing concentrations of the industrial effluent (Effluent 2) had a negative effect on both zebra mussel and carp energy reserves and condition. Under in situ conditions, the same negative impact of Effluent 2 was observed for zebra mussels, while Effluent 1 had no apparent effect on exposed zebra mussels. Carp growth and condition, on the other hand, were significantly increased at the discharge sites of both effluents when compared to the reference site, probably due to differences in food availability. The results indicate that a combination of in situ and laboratory exposures can illustrate how ecological processes influence bioassay studies. The incorporation of indirect, ecological effects, like changes in food availability, provides considerable benefit in understanding and predicting effects of effluents on selected species under realistic exposure

  15. In situ and laboratory bioassays to evaluate the impact of effluent discharges on receiving aquatic ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smolders, R. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)]. E-mail: roel.smolders@ua.ac.be; Bervoets, L. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Blust, R. [Laboratory for Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp (RUCA), Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2004-11-01

    Effluents are a main source of direct and often continuous input of pollutants into aquatic ecosystems with long-term implications on ecosystem functioning. Therefore, the study of the effects of effluent exposure on organisms, populations or communities within the framework of impact assessment has a high ecological relevance. The aim of this study was to assess the toxicological impact of two effluents, one household wastewater treatment effluent (Effluent 1) and one industrial effluent (Effluent 2), on the receiving aquatic ecosystem using two test species under both in situ and laboratory conditions. Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) were exposed under laboratory conditions in an online monitoring flow-through system (receiving different concentrations of Effluent 2) and under in situ conditions along the pollution gradient established by these two effluent discharges. Bioassays focussed on growth and condition related endpoints (i.e. condition, growth, lipid budget), since these are key functional processes within organisms and populations. Under laboratory conditions, increasing concentrations of the industrial effluent (Effluent 2) had a negative effect on both zebra mussel and carp energy reserves and condition. Under in situ conditions, the same negative impact of Effluent 2 was observed for zebra mussels, while Effluent 1 had no apparent effect on exposed zebra mussels. Carp growth and condition, on the other hand, were significantly increased at the discharge sites of both effluents when compared to the reference site, probably due to differences in food availability. The results indicate that a combination of in situ and laboratory exposures can illustrate how ecological processes influence bioassay studies. The incorporation of indirect, ecological effects, like changes in food availability, provides considerable benefit in understanding and predicting effects of effluents on selected species under realistic exposure

  16. Treating effluents; recovering coal, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, F B; Bury, E

    1920-02-18

    Liquor obtained by scrubbing coal gas with sea-water or fresh water, and containing or having added to it finely-divided carbonaceous material in suspension, is subjected to a froth-flotation process to recover the carbonaceous matter and organic materials in the froth, and render the remaining liquor innocuous. Liquor obtained by scrubbing distillation gases, such as coal gas, may be used as a frothing-agent in a froth flotation process for the recovery of carbonaceous substances such as coal from materials containing them, thereby producing a froth containing the coal, etc., and also the organic materials from the liquor. In some cases the effluent may be diluted with sea-water, and, in recovering carbonaceous shales, there may be added to the liquor a small proportion of paraffin oil.

  17. Androgenic endocrine disruptors in wastewater treatment plant effluents in India: Their influence on reproductive processes and systemic toxicity in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Vikas; Chakraborty, Ajanta; Viswanath, Gunda; Roy, Partha

    2008-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) are linked to human health and diseases as they mimic or block the normal functioning of endogenous hormones. The present work dealt with a comparative study of the androgenic potential of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influents and effluents in Northern region of India, well known for its polluted water. Water samples were screened for their androgenic potential using the Hershberger assay and when they were found positive for androgenicity, we studied their mode of action in intact rats. The data showed a significant change in the weight and structure of sex accessory tissues (SATs) of castrated and intact rats. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated a significant change in the expression patterns of the major steroidogenic enzymes in adrenal and testis: cytochrome P450 SCC , cytochrome P450 C17 , 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. This was further supported by increased enzymatic activities measured in vitro spectrophotometrically. Serum hormone profile showed a decreased level of gonadotrophic hormones and increased testosterone level. Further, increase in the serum level of alkaline phosphatase, SGPT and SGOT and histopathological changes in kidney and liver of treated animals, confirmed the toxic effects of contaminating chemicals. Analysis of water samples using HPLC and GC-MS showed the presence of various compounds and from them, four prominent aromatic compounds viz. nonylphenol, hexachlorobenzene and two testosterone equivalents, were identified. Our data suggest that despite rigorous treatment, the final treated effluent from WWTP still has enough androgenic and toxic compounds to affect general health

  18. The effect of advanced treatment of sewage effluents on metal speciation and (bio)availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, A; Merrington, G; Leverett, D; Ellor, B; Lofts, S; Gravell, A

    2014-02-01

    The bioavailability of metals can be strongly influenced by dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Wastewater treatment effluents add considerable quantities of DOC and metals to receiving waters, and as effluent controls become more stringent advanced effluent treatments may be needed. We assessed the effects of two types of advanced treatment processes on metal availability in wastewater effluents. Trace metal availability was assessed using diffuse gradients in thin films and predicted through speciation modelling. The results show little difference in metal availability post-advanced treatment. EDTA-like compounds are important metal complexants in the effluents.

  19. Minimum critical mass systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, H. van; Leege, P.F.A. de

    1987-01-01

    An analysis is presented of thermal systems with minimum critical mass, based on the use of materials with optimum neutron moderating and reflecting properties. The optimum fissile material distributions in the systems are obtained by calculations with standard computer codes, extended with a routine for flat fuel importance search. It is shown that in the minimum critical mass configuration a considerable part of the fuel is positioned in the reflector region. For 239 Pu a minimum critical mass of 87 g is found, which is the lowest value reported hitherto. (author)

  20. Management of radioactive effluents from research Reactors and PHWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodke, S.B.; Surender Kumar; Sinha, P.K.; Budhwar, R.K.; Raj, Kanwar

    2006-01-01

    Indian nuclear power programme is mainly based on pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs). In addition we have research reactors namely Apsara, CIRUS, Dhruva at Trombay. The operation and maintenance activities of these reactors generate radioactive liquid waste. These wastes require effective management so that the release of radioactivity to the environment is well within the authorized limits. India is self reliant in the design, erection, commissioning and operation of effluent management system for nuclear reactors. Segregation at source based on nature of effluents and radioactivity content is the first and foremost step in the over all management of liquid effluents. The effluents from the power reactors contain mainly activation products like 3 H. It also contains fission products like 137 Cs. Containment of these radionuclide along with 60 Co, 90 Sr, 131 I plays an important part in liquid waste management. Treatment processes for decontamination of these radionuclide include chemical treatment, ion exchange, evaporation etc. Effluents after treatment are monitored and discharged to the nearby water body after filtration and dilution. The concentrates from the processes are conditioned in cement matrix and disposed in Near Surface Disposal Facilities (NSDFs) co-located at each site. Some times large quantity of effluents with higher radioactivity concentration may get generated from the abnormal operation such as failure of heat exchangers. These effluents are handled on a campaign basis for which adequate storage capacity is provided. The treatment is given taking into consideration the required decontamination factor (DF), capacities of available treatment process, discharge limits and the availability of the dilution water. Similarly large quantities of effluents may get generated during fuel clad failure incident in reactors. In such situation, as in CIRUS large volume of effluent containing higher radioactivity are generated and are managed by delay

  1. Minimum entropy production principle

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 7 (2013), s. 9664-9677 ISSN 1941-6016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MINEP Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Minimum_entropy_production_principle

  2. Implementation of ozonation process in degradation of the phenols present in petrochemistry effluents; Aplicacao do processo de ozonizacao na degradacao de fenois presentes em efluentes petroquimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Fernanda Batista de; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene Maria Arruda Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The water contamination by the petrochemical pollutants with high toxicity, such as phenols, is a subject of interest of several researchers. The ozone is an alternative for the effluents treatment, being effective in environmental decontamination, reducing the COD and degrading the phenols. The ozone stability depends on the water pH, the type and content of organic matter. This study aimed to investigate in the phenol ozonation, evaluating the phenol and COD removal at different pHs. Ozone as injected in 5 L of phenol solution of 50 mg L-1 at pH = 2, 7 and 10, from 1 to 25 minutes, and then was measured the quantity of COD and phenol. It was found that in acid pH the ozone has increased the stability, because 82.19% of the ozone that enters in the column remains in solution. The phenol degradation was faster in alkaline solution (pH=10), where in 15 minutes of treatment, 99.7% of phenol was consumed. The COD removal increased from 7.3% in 6 minutes to 87.8% in 30 minutes, but the COD removal increases more slowly than that of phenol which was 53, 8% in 6 min, increasing to 99.2% at 25 min for pH=7. (author)

  3. Treating radioactive effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkham, I.A.

    1981-01-01

    In the treatment of radioactive effluent it is known to produce a floc being a suspension of precipitates carrying radioactive species in a mother liquor containing dissolved non-radioactive salts. It is also known and accepted practice to encapsulate the floc in a solid matrix by treatment with bitumen, cement and the like. In the present invention the floc is washed with water prior to encapsulation in the solid matrix whereby to displace the mother liquor containing the dissolved non-radioactive salts. This serves to reduce the final amount of solidified radioactive waste with consequent advantages in the storage and disposal thereof. (author)

  4. Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Decentralised wastewater treatment effluent fertigation: preliminary technical assessment. ... living in informal settlements with the effluent produced being used on agricultural land. ... Banana and taro required 3 514 mm of irrigation effluent.

  5. Stochastic variational approach to minimum uncertainty states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Illuminati, F.; Viola, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Padova Univ. (Italy)

    1995-05-21

    We introduce a new variational characterization of Gaussian diffusion processes as minimum uncertainty states. We then define a variational method constrained by kinematics of diffusions and Schroedinger dynamics to seek states of local minimum uncertainty for general non-harmonic potentials. (author)

  6. The effects of oxygen on process rates and gene expression of anammox and denitrification in the Eastern South Pacific oxygen minimum zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Tage; Stewart, Frank; De Brabandere, Loreto

    Oxygen concentrations were consistently below our detection limit of 90 nM for a distance of > 2000 km in the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) along the coasts of Chile and Peru. In most cases, anammox and denitrification were only detected when in situ oxygen concentrations were below detection...... differently to oxygen. When normalized to a housekeeping gene (rpoB), the expression of 4 out of 9 N-cycle-genes changed with increasing oxygen concentration: The expression of ammonium monooxygenase (amoC) was stimulated, whereas expression of nitrite reductase (nirS), nitric oxide reductase (nor...

  7. The application of XML in the effluents data modeling of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue Feng; Lin Quanyi; Yue Huiguo; Zhang Yan; Zhang Peng; Cao Jun; Chen Bo

    2013-01-01

    The radioactive effluent data, which can provide information to distinguish whether facilities, waste disposal, and control system run normally, is an important basis of safety regulation and emergency management. It can also provide the information to start emergency alarm system as soon as possible. XML technology is an effective tool to realize the standard of effluent data exchange, in favor of data collection, statistics and analysis, strengthening the effectiveness of effluent regulation. This paper first introduces the concept of XML, the choices of effluent data modeling method, and then emphasizes the process of effluent model, finally the model and application are shown, While there is deficiency about the application of XML in the effluents data modeling of nuclear facilities, it is a beneficial attempt to the informatization management of effluents. (authors)

  8. Filtration device for active effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerin, M.; Meunier, G.

    1994-01-01

    Among the various techniques relating to solid/liquid separations, filtration is currently utilized for treating radioactive effluents. After testing different equipments on various simulated effluents, the Valduc Center has decided to substitute a monoplate filter for a rotative diatomite precoated filter

  9. Separation of tritium from aqueous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geens, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Meynendonckx, L.; Parmentier, C.; Belien, H.; Ooms, E.; Smets, D.; Stevens, J.; van Vlerken, J.

    1988-01-01

    From 1975 until 1982 - within the framework of the CEC indirect action programme on management and storage of radioactive waste - the SCK/CEN has developed the ELEX process from laboratory scale experiments up to the construction of an integrated pilot installation. The ELEX process combines water electrolysis and catalytical isotope exchange for the separation of tritium from aqueous reprocessing effluents by isotope enrichment. Consequently, the pilot installation consists of two main parts: an 80 kW water electrolyser and a 10 cm diameter trickle bed exchange column. The feed rate of tritiated water amounts to 5 dm 3 .h -1 , containing up to 3.7 GBq.dm -3 of tritium. This report describes the further development of the process during the second phase of the second programme. Three main items are reported: (i) research work in the field of pretreatment of real reprocessing effluents, before feeding them to an ELEX installation; (ii) demonstration of the technical feasibility of the ELEX process with simulated active effluent streams in the pilot installation; (iii) a cost estimation for the ELEX installation, comprising the required investments and the annual operation costs

  10. PFOS and PFOA in influents, effluents, and biosolids of Chinese wastewater treatment plants and effluent-receiving marine environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hong; Zhang Can; Han Jianbo; Yu Yixuan; Zhang Peng

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in influents, effluents and sludges were investigated by analyzing the samples from twelve wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in China. The highest concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in influents were found to occur in municipal and industrial WWTPs, respectively. Relative to PFOS and PFOA concentrations in influents, elevated concentrations were observed in effluents from WWTPs applying anaerobic–anoxic–oxic wastewater treatment process. Importantly, application of previously reported organic carbon normalized partition coefficients (K OC ) derived from sediment-based sorption experiments appear to underestimate the PFOS and PFOA levels in biosolids quantified in the current study. PFOS and PFOA levels in effluents were found to be approximately 27 and 2 times higher than those detected in the effluent-receiving seawater, respectively. However, their levels in this area of seawater haven't exceeded the provisional short-term health advisories in drinking water issued by U.S. EPA yet. - Highlights: ► Levels of PFOS and PFOA in influents, effluents and sludge from Chinese WWTPs were examined. ► Municipal sewage was the main source for PFOS in Chinese WWTPs, while industrial sewage for PFOA. ► PFOS and PFOA concentrations in effluents were much higher than those in receiving seawater. - Levels of PFOS and PFOA in influent, effluent and sludge samples from Chinese WWTPs were examined and found much higher than those in receiving seawater.

  11. Voltametric study of formic and dihydroxy malonic acids on platinum for the definition of a process for the electrolytic destruction of carboxylic acids in radioactive aqueous effluents; Etude voltamperometrique des acides formiques et dihydroxymalonique sur platine en vue de la definition d`un procede de destruction electrolytique d`acides carboxyliques d`effluents aqueux radioactifs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Naour, C.

    1994-05-01

    To limit the amount of nuclear glasses generated by the treatment of the degraded solvent from the PUREX process for reprocessing of nuclear fuels, by solutions of sodium carbonate and caustic soda, it is planned to exploit the complexing power of certain carboxylic acids to return the metallic cations to the aqueous phase. The concept of this new treatment of the solvent by `substitution` reagents demands a process for the decomposition of these reagents, especially to CO{sub 2}. The investigation of the electrochemical behaviour, on platinum, of a substance selected as a model for understanding the interfacial mechanisms (HCOOH), and of dihydroxy malonic acid, revealed two distinct electro-poisoning processes: one is due to the adsorption of CO on the surface sites of platinum, and the second to the formation of a passivating layer of P{dagger}O. The application of 20 kHz ultrasonic flux in the neighbourhood of the platinum / aqueous formic acid solution interface also appears to cause a change in the superficial structure of the electrode used, in a direction that favours the decomposition of this compound. To overcome problems of poisoning of the platinum surface, aqueous solutions of formic, dihydroxy malonic and oxalic acids were electrolysed, in a cell without diaphragm, by applying voltage and current ranges, at levels adapted to each of the species. It is necessary to bring the working electrode to a higher potential than the oxidation potential for formic acid, and to a lower potential for dihydroxy malonic and oxalic acids. The frequent modifications of the electrode potentials helped to achieve quantitative destruction of these species, to CO{sub 2} (and to water) with an electrochemical efficiency approaching 100 %. This wet oxidation process also offers the advantage of not raising the energy potential of the effluents to be treated, because it takes place in mild conditions (ambient temperature and pressure). (author). 131 refs., 90 figs., 48 tabs.

  12. Disposal of tritiated effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, K.; Bruecher, H.

    1981-06-01

    After some introductory remarks on the origin of tritium, its properties and its behaviour in a reprocessing plant three alternative methods for the disposal of tritiated effluents produced during reprocessing are described (deep well injection, in-situ solidification, deep-sea dumping) and compared with each other under various aspects. The study is based on the concept of a 1400 t/a reprocessing plant for LWR fuel, which annually produces 3000 m 3 of tritiated waste water with a tritium content of 6.5 x 10 12 Bq/m 3 as well as a residual fission product and actinide content. An assessment of the three methods under the aspects of simplicity, reliability, safety, costs, state of development and materials handling revealed advantages in favour of 'injection', followed by 'dumping' and 'in-situ solidification'. (orig./HP) [de

  13. Performance evaluation of effluent treatment plant for automobile industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ansari, Farid [Department of Applied Science and Humanities, PDM College of Engineering, Bahadurgarh (Haryana) (India); Pandey, Yashwant K. [School of Energy and Environmental Studies, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya, Indore (India); Kumar, P.; Pandey, Priyanka [Department of Environmental Science, Post Graduate College Ghazipur (IN

    2013-07-01

    The automobile industry’s wastewater not only contains high levels of suspended and total solids such as oil, grease, dyestuff, chromium, phosphate in washing products, and coloring, at various stages of manufacturing but also, a significant amount of dissolved organics, resulting in high BOD or COD loads. The study reveals the performance, evaluation and operational aspects of effluent treatment plant and its treatability, rather than the contamination status of the real property. The Results revealed that the treated effluent shows most of the parameters are within permissible limits of Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), India and based on the site visits, discussion with operation peoples, evaluation of process design, treatment system, existing effluent discharge, results of sample analyzed and found that effluent treatment plant of automobile industry are under performance satisfactory.

  14. Ion exchange for treatment of industrial effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno Daudinot, Aurora Maria; Ge Leyva, Midalis

    2016-01-01

    The acid leaching and ammoniacal carbonate technologies of laterite respectively, are responsible for the low quality of life of the local population, the big deforested areas due to the mining tilling, the elevated contents of solids in the air and waters, as well as the chemical contamination by metals presence, the acidity or basicity of the effluents of both industries, that arrive through the river and the bay to aquifer's mantle. The ion exchange resins allow ions separation contained in low concentrations in the solutions, where the separation of these elements for solvents, extraction or another chemical methods would be costly. Technological variants are proposed in order to reduce the impact produced on the flora and the fauna, by the liquid effluents of nickel industry, by means of ion exchange resins introduction as well as the recuperation of metals and their re incorporation to the productive process. (Author)

  15. Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    1999-09-01

    The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the effluent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability.

  16. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility/Effluent Treatment Facility Hazards Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simiele, G.A.

    1994-01-01

    This document establishes the technical basis in support of Emergency Planning activities for the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and Effluent Treatment Facility the Hanford Site. The document represents an acceptable interpretation of the implementing guidance document for DOE ORDER 5500.3A. Through this document, the technical basis for the development of facility specific Emergency Action Levels and the Emergency Planning Zone is demonstrated

  17. Characterisation of the ecotoxicity of hospital effluents: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orias, Frédéric; Perrodin, Yves

    2013-06-01

    The multiple activities that take place in hospitals (surgery, drug treatments, radiology, cleaning of premises and linen, chemical and biological analysis laboratories, etc.), are a major source of pollutant emissions into the environment (disinfectants, detergents, drug residues, etc.). Most of these pollutants can be found in hospital effluents (HWW), then in urban sewer networks and WWTP (weakly adapted for their treatment) and finally in aquatic environments. In view to evaluating the impact of these pollutants on aquatic ecosystems, it is necessary to characterise their ecotoxicity. Several reviews have focused on the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of pollutants present in HWW. However, none have focused specifically on the characterisation of their experimental ecotoxicity. We have evaluated this according to two complementary approaches: (i) a "substance" approach based on the identification of the experimental data in the literature for different substances found in hospital effluents, and on the calculation of their PNEC (Predicted Non Effect Concentration), (ii) a "matrix" approach for which we have synthesised ecotoxicity data obtained from the hospital effluents directly. This work first highlights the diversity of the substances present within hospital effluents, and the very high ecotoxicity of some of them (minimum PNEC observed close to 0,01 pg/L). We also observed that the consumption of drugs in hospitals was a predominant factor chosen by authors to prioritise the compounds to be sought. Other criteria such as biodegradability, excretion rate and the bioaccumulability of pollutants are considered, though more rarely. Studies of the ecotoxicity of the particulate phase of effluents must also be taken into account. It is also necessary to monitor the effluents of each of the specialised departments of the hospital studied. These steps is necessary to define realistic environmental management policies for hospitals (replacement of

  18. Hydric effluents; Os efluentes hidricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This chapter gives a general overview on the general effects of the hydric pollution, the principal pollutants emitted by the oil refineries, control actions for the hydric emissions, the minimization actions, and the effluent treatment.

  19. Rising above the Minimum Wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, William; Macpherson, David

    An in-depth analysis was made of how quickly most people move up the wage scale from minimum wage, what factors influence their progress, and how minimum wage increases affect wage growth above the minimum. Very few workers remain at the minimum wage over the long run, according to this study of data drawn from the 1977-78 May Current Population…

  20. Características morfogênicas do capim-piatã submetido à adubação com efluentes de abatedouro avícola Morphogenetic characteristics of palisadegrass Piata fertilized with effluent from poultry processing plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Previdelli Orrico Junior

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar diferentes doses de efluente de abatedouro avícola para proporcionar melhorias nas características produtivas, morfogênicas e estruturais do capim-piatã. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, adotando-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em que foram testadas cinco doses de efluentes: 324, 648, 972, 1.296 e 1620m³ ha-1 ou equivalente a 50, 100, 150, 200 e 250kg ha-1 de N. As variáveis mensuradas foram: produção de matéria seca (MS, taxa de aparecimento de folha (TApF, taxa de alongamento de folha (TAlF, filocrono, taxa de alongamento de pseudocolmo (TAlC, comprimento final de folha (CFF e números de folhas verdes (NFV. A produção de MS seguiu um modelo linear de predição em função das doses efluente avícola, em que o tratamento com 250kg ha-1 de N foi 55% maior, quando comparado com o tratamento de 50kg ha-1 de N. Todas as características morfogênicas e estruturais avaliadas com exceção do filocrono apresentaram comportamento linear positivo. Dessa forma, o efluente de abatedouro avícola pode ser utilizado como uma alternativa para adubação do capim-piatã, pois este respondeu de maneira crescente até a dose máxima testada.The organic fertilizer is considered a viable alternative for the production of forage grasses. However there is little information about the rates and composition of the organic fertilizers. According to this assumption the objective of this study was to figure out the best dose of effluent from poultry processing plants in order to improve the structural, morphogenetic and productive characteristics of Piata palidadegrass. The experiment was carried out at a greenhouse and performed in a completely randomized design in which five doses of effluent, 324, 648, 972, 1296 and 1620m³ ha-1 were tested and equivalent to 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250kg ha-1 de N respectively. The measured variables were: dry matter (DM, leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation

  1. Microalgal Cultivation in Secondary Effluent: Recent Developments and Future Work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junping Lv

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Eutrophication of water catchments and the greenhouse effect are major challenges in developing the global economy in the near future. Secondary effluents, containing high amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus, need further treatment before being discharged into receiving water bodies. At the same time, new environmentally friendly energy sources need to be developed. Integrating microalgal cultivation for the production of biodiesel feedstock with the treatment of secondary effluent is one way of addressing both issues. This article provides a comprehensive review of the latest progress in microalgal cultivation in secondary effluent to remove pollutants and accumulate lipids. Researchers have discovered that microalgae remove nitrogen and phosphorus effectively from secondary effluent, accumulating biomass and lipids in the process. Immobilization of appropriate microalgae, and establishing a consortium of microalgae and/or bacteria, were both found to be feasible ways to enhance pollutant removal and lipid production. Demonstrations of pilot-scale microalgal cultures in secondary effluent have also taken place. However there is still much work to be done in improving pollutants removal, biomass production, and lipid accumulation in secondary effluent. This includes screening microalgae, constructing the consortium, making use of flue gas and nitrogen, developing technologies related to microalgal harvesting, and using lipid-extracted algal residues (LEA.

  2. 40 CFR 463.22 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... currently available, which are calculated by multiplying the average process water usage flow rate for the... average process water usage flow rate for the cleaning water processes from the permittee. ...

  3. 40 CFR 463.12 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... technology currently available, which are calculated by multiplying the average process water usage flow rate... process water usage flow rate for the contact cooling and heating water processes from the permittee. ...

  4. Study about the integrated treatment of chemical and radioactive effluents, introducing the zero release concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mierzwa, Jose Carlos

    1996-01-01

    An Integrated System to the treatment of Chemical and Radioactive Effluents to the Centro Experimental Aramar is proposed and evaluated, introducing the Effluent Zero Release concept, where factors related to the environmental regulation in vigor in the country, as well as the availability of hydrological resources in the place where CEA have been implanted, are considered. Through a literature analysis of the main effluents treatment techniques available nowadays and after a case of study selection, take into account two industrial installations that will be implanted at CEA, it was defined an arrangement to compose the Integrated System to the Treatment of Chemicals and Radioactive Effluents, focusing the Zero Release concept consolidation. A defined arrangement uses a combination among three treatment processes, it means chemical precipitation, reverse osmosis and evaporation, that were experimentally evaluated. The proposed arrangement was evaluated using synthetic effluents, that were prepared based on data from literature and conception documents of the installation considered in this work. Three kinds of effluents were simulated, one arising from a nuclear reactor laundry, one arising from the water refrigeration system and demineralized water production to the nuclear reactor and the other one arising from a nuclear material production laboratory. Each effluent were individually submitted to the selected treatment processes, to get the best operational conditions for each treatment process. The results got during the laboratory assays show that the proposed Integrated System to the Treatment of Chemicals and Radioactive Effluents is feasible, consolidating the Effluent Zero Release concept, which is the proposition of this work. (author)

  5. Reducing the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 for its application to an industrial wastewater treatment plant treating winery effluent wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Diéguez, Carlos; Bernard, Olivier; Roca, Enrique

    2013-03-01

    The Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) is a complex model which is widely accepted as a common platform for anaerobic process modeling and simulation. However, it has a large number of parameters and states that hinder its calibration and use in control applications. A principal component analysis (PCA) technique was extended and applied to simplify the ADM1 using data of an industrial wastewater treatment plant processing winery effluent. The method shows that the main model features could be obtained with a minimum of two reactions. A reduced stoichiometric matrix was identified and the kinetic parameters were estimated on the basis of representative known biochemical kinetics (Monod and Haldane). The obtained reduced model takes into account the measured states in the anaerobic wastewater treatment (AWT) plant and reproduces the dynamics of the process fairly accurately. The reduced model can support on-line control, optimization and supervision strategies for AWT plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Optimization-Based Design and Synthesis of Water Network for Water Management in an Industrial Process: Refinery Effluent Treatment Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sueviriyapan, Natthapong; Siemanond, Kitipat; Quaglia, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The increasing awareness of the sustainability of water resources has become an important issue. Many process industries contribute to high water consumption and wastewater generation. Problems in industrial water management include the processing of complex contaminants in wastewater, selection...... of wastewater treatment technologies, as well as water allocation, limited reuse, and recycling strategies. Therefore, a water and wastewater treatment network design requires the integration of both economic and environmental perspectives. The aim of this work was to modify and develop a generic model......-based synthesis process for a water/wastewater treatment network design problem utilizing the framework of Quaglia et al. (2013) in order to effectively design, synthesize, and optimize an industrial water management problem using different scenarios (both existing and retrofit system design). The model...

  7. Research on the removal of radium from uranium effluent by air-aeration hydrated manganese hydroxide adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jianguo; Chen Shaoqing; Qi Jing

    2002-01-01

    In the acidic leaching uranium process, pyrolusite or manganese oxide (MnO 2 ) powder is often used as an oxidizer. In the processed effluent, manganese ion present as a contaminant in addition to U, Ra, Th, As, Zn, Cu, F, SO 4 2- , etc. Manganese ion content is about 100∼200 mg/1 in effluent. In this case, a new process technique can be developed to treat the effluent using the Mn 2+ present in the effluent. The approach is as follows: The effluent is neutralized by lime milk to pH about 11. As a result, most contaminants are precipitated to meet the uranium effluent discharge standards (U, Th, Mn, SO 4 2- etc.), but radium is still present in the effluent. In this process, manganese ion forms manganese hydroxide Mn(OH) 2 . The manganese hydroxide is easily to oxide to form MnO(OH) 2 by air aeration. This hydrated manganese hydroxide complex can then be used to adsorb radium in effluent. The experiments show: (1) Effluent pH, manganese concentration in effluent, and aeration strength and time etc. influence the radium removal efficiency. Under the test conditions, when manganese in effluent is between 100∼300 mg/l, and pH is over 10.5, radium can be reduced to lower 1.11 Bq/1 in the processed effluent. Higher contents of impurity elements such as aluminum, silicon and magnesium in the effluent affect the removal efficiency; (2) Under the experimental conditions, the lime precipitation air-aeration formed hydrated manganese hydroxide complex sludge is stable. There is no obvious release of radium from the adsorbed hydrated manganese hydroxide complex sludge; (3) The current experiments show that hydrated manganese hydroxide complex sludge has a very good re-adsorption ability for removal of radium from uranium effluent. Some experimental parameters have been measured. (author)

  8. Technologies for the treatment of effluents from uranium mines, mills and tailings. Proceedings of a technical committee meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-06-01

    Effluent treatment is an important aspect of uranium mining and milling operations that continues through decommissioning and site rehabilitation. During the life of a mine, effluent treatment is an integral part of the operation with all effluent either being recycled to the mill or processed through a water treatment plant before being released into the environment. During decommissioning and rehabilitation, effluent treatment must continue either through a water treatment plant of by using passive treatment techniques. Because of the recent closing of several uranium mines or mining districts, particularly in eastern Europe, effluent treatment is becoming an ever increasing concern. Therefore the IAEA convened a technical committee meeting (TCM) so that experts from different countries could discuss information and knowledge on effluent treatment processes and methods. The papers presented at the meeting describe techniques for treatment of effluents from uranium production operations - both past and present. This publication contains ten papers presented at the meeting; each of the papers was indexed separately

  9. A Novel Photocatalyst with Ferromagnetic Core Used for the Treatment of Olive Oil Mill Effluents from Two-Phase Production Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Miguel Ochando-Pulido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Photocatalytic degradation of olive oil mill wastewater from two-phase continuous centrifugation process was studied. A novel photocatalyst with ferromagnetic properties was characterized and investigated. The degradation capacity of the photocatalytic process of olive oil washing wastewater (OMW and mixture of olives and olive oil (1 v/v washing wastewaters (MOMW was demonstrated. At lab-scale, the %COD removal and residence time (τ for MOMW and OMW were 58.4% (τ=2 h and 21.4% (τ=3 h, respectively. On the other hand, at pilot scale, 23.4% CODremoval, 19.2% total phenolsremoval, and 28.1% total suspended solidsremoval were registered at the end of the UV/TiO2 process for OMW, whereas 58.3% CODremoval, 27.5% total phenolsremoval, and 25.0% total suspended solidsremoval for MOMW. Also, before the UV/TiO2 reaction, a pH-T flocculation operation as pretreatment was realized. The overall efficiency of the treatment process for MOMW was up to 91% of CODremoval, in contrast with 33.2% of CODremoval for OMW.

  10. Optimizing COD removal from greywater by photoelectro-persulfate process using Box-Behnken design: assessment of effluent quality and electrical energy consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Mehdi; Ghanbari, Farshid

    2016-10-01

    Greywater (GW) is a potential source for water reuse in various applications. However, GW treatment is still a vital issue in water reuse in cases of environmental standards and risk to public health. This study investigates optimization and modeling of a hybrid process for COD removal from GW. Persulfate (PS) was simultaneously activated by electrogenerated ferrous ion (EC) and UV to generate sulfate radical. Photoelectro-persulfate (PEPS) was optimized by Box-Behnken design and the effects of four variables (pH, PS dosage, current density, and electrolysis time) were evaluated on COD removal. The results and several coefficients showed that the obtained model was acceptable for predicting the COD removal. Moreover, under optimum conditions (pH = 6.9, PS = 8.8 mM, current density = 2.0 mA/cm(2), and 49.3 min electrolysis time), BOD5, turbidity, TSS, phosphate, and UV254 were effectively removed and COD and BOD5 values reached to discharge standards. Different configurations of the processes were assessed for COD removal. The order of COD removal efficiency followed: PS electrical energy consumption was far less than that of photolysis process in hybrid PEPS process.

  11. Silver precipitation from electrolytic effluents; Precipitacion de plata de efluentes electroliticos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, I.; Patino, F.; Cruells, M.; Roca, A.; Vinals, J.

    2004-07-01

    The recovery of silver contained in electrolytic effluents is attractive due to its high economic value. These effluents are considered toxic wastes and it is not possible to dump them directly without any detoxification process. One of the most important way for silver recovery is the precipitation with sodium ditionite, sodium borohidride or hydrazine monohidrate. In this work, the most significant aspects related to the use of these reagents is presented. Results of silver precipitation with sodium ditionite from effluents containing thiosulfate without previous elimination of other species are also presented. silver concentration in the final effluents w <1 ppm. (Author) 15 refs.

  12. COD removal from pulp and paper effluents by Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP); COD:n vaehentaeminen aop-menetelmaellae metsaeteollisuuden jaetevesistae - EKY 04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, K; Wikberg, H [Kemira Chemicals Oy, Vaasa (Finland)

    1999-12-31

    The aim of this project is to develop a process where COD from pulp and paper industry can be removed by an AOP process. AOP is a process utilizing the oxidation power of the hydroxyl radical, which can be produced in many different ways. Compared to evaporation and membrane techniques, the benefits of this process are lack of condense, concentrate and sludge. It is a very simple process, based on adjusting the COD removal by means of hydrogen peroxide dosage. The study focuses on using heterogeneous catalyst together with hydrogen peroxide to produce hydroxyl radicals in order to remove COD at low temperatures (< 100 deg C) and normal pressures. The project started by screening catalysts able to perform this task in laboratory scale. Later on pilot scale equipment will be constructed for use in pulp and paper mill trials. The project will be carried out during 1997-1999. The study started by screening the possibilities of different catalysts together with hydrogen peroxide to remove phenols from a model water. Sofar, about hundred catalysts have been screened. These tests show that many of the heterogeneous catalysts are working, but most of them have actually dissolved in the water and `translated` to homogenous catalysts. This means that they cannot be used in this project. A few catalysts have been found to meet the targets for synthetic phenol waters. Next step will be to test these catalysts on actual water samples from pulp and paper mills, and after that a pilot and full-scale trial will be planned. In these trials we will find out which mill streams are possible to treat, and the cost/performances of a system totally based on the catalyst in use. Also, measurements of catalyst leaching and clogging will be made during these tests. The last test series is planned to be a full-scale trial. (orig.)

  13. COD removal from pulp and paper effluents by Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOP); COD:n vaehentaeminen aop-menetelmaellae metsaeteollisuuden jaetevesistae - EKY 04

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, K.; Wikberg, H. [Kemira Chemicals Oy, Vaasa (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    The aim of this project is to develop a process where COD from pulp and paper industry can be removed by an AOP process. AOP is a process utilizing the oxidation power of the hydroxyl radical, which can be produced in many different ways. Compared to evaporation and membrane techniques, the benefits of this process are lack of condense, concentrate and sludge. It is a very simple process, based on adjusting the COD removal by means of hydrogen peroxide dosage. The study focuses on using heterogeneous catalyst together with hydrogen peroxide to produce hydroxyl radicals in order to remove COD at low temperatures (< 100 deg C) and normal pressures. The project started by screening catalysts able to perform this task in laboratory scale. Later on pilot scale equipment will be constructed for use in pulp and paper mill trials. The project will be carried out during 1997-1999. The study started by screening the possibilities of different catalysts together with hydrogen peroxide to remove phenols from a model water. Sofar, about hundred catalysts have been screened. These tests show that many of the heterogeneous catalysts are working, but most of them have actually dissolved in the water and `translated` to homogenous catalysts. This means that they cannot be used in this project. A few catalysts have been found to meet the targets for synthetic phenol waters. Next step will be to test these catalysts on actual water samples from pulp and paper mills, and after that a pilot and full-scale trial will be planned. In these trials we will find out which mill streams are possible to treat, and the cost/performances of a system totally based on the catalyst in use. Also, measurements of catalyst leaching and clogging will be made during these tests. The last test series is planned to be a full-scale trial. (orig.)

  14. Minimum Error Entropy Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Marques de Sá, Joaquim P; Santos, Jorge M F; Alexandre, Luís A

    2013-01-01

    This book explains the minimum error entropy (MEE) concept applied to data classification machines. Theoretical results on the inner workings of the MEE concept, in its application to solving a variety of classification problems, are presented in the wider realm of risk functionals. Researchers and practitioners also find in the book a detailed presentation of practical data classifiers using MEE. These include multi‐layer perceptrons, recurrent neural networks, complexvalued neural networks, modular neural networks, and decision trees. A clustering algorithm using a MEE‐like concept is also presented. Examples, tests, evaluation experiments and comparison with similar machines using classic approaches, complement the descriptions.

  15. Decolorization and Degradation of Batik Dye Effluent using Ganoderma lucidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, Diah; Indrianingsih, A. W.; Darsih, Cici; Hernawan

    2017-12-01

    Batik is product of traditional Indonesia culture that developed into a large textile industry. Synthetic dyes which widely used in textile industries including batik. Colour can be removed from wastewater effluent by chemical, physical, and biology methods. Bioremediation is one of the methods that used for processing colored effluent. Isolated White-rot fungi Ganoderma lucidum was used for bioremediation process for batik effluent. G. lucidum was developed by G. lucidum cultivation on centers of mushroom farmer Media Agro Merapi Kaliurang, Yogyakarta. The batik effluent was collected from a private small and medium Batik enterprises located at Petir, Rongkop, Gunungkidul Regency. The aim of the study were to optimize decolorization of Naphtol Black (NB) using G. lucidum. The effect of process parameters like incubation time and dye concentration on dye decolorization and COD degradation was studied. G. lucidum were growth at pH 5-6 and temperature 25°C at various Naphtol Black dye with concentration 20 ppm, 50 ppm, and 100 ppm for 30 day incubation time. The result from this study increased decolorization in line with the increasing of COD degradation. Increasing percentage of decolorization and COD degradation gradually increased with incubation time and dye concentration. The maximum decolorization and COD reduction were found to be 60,53% and 81,03%. G. lucidum had potential to decolorized and degraded COD for NB dye effluent on higher concentration.

  16. 40 CFR 427.43 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Elastomeric Binder) Subcategory § 427.43 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  17. 40 CFR 427.33 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ASBESTOS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Asbestos Paper (Starch Binder) Subcategory § 427.33 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent...

  18. 40 CFR 426.113 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Television Picture... applicable to the abrasive polishing and acid polishing waste water streams. Effluent characteristic Effluent...

  19. 40 CFR 426.112 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GLASS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Television... stream): Effluent characteristic Effluent limitations Maximum for any 1 day Average of daily values for...

  20. Optimising the physicochemical treatment of textile effluents by supplementing it with biological processes; Optimizacion de la depuracion fisocoquimica en efluentes textiles, completandola con procesos biologicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crespi Rosell, M. [Instituto de Investigacion Textil y Cooperacion Industrial de Tarrasa (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    This article sets out how to increase the elimination of organic material in physicochemical coagulation/flocculation processes. It describes the optimisation of a coagulation/flocculation waste water treatment plant in a flock dyeing factory through increasing the biological activity in the homogenization pond by supplementing it with a percolating filter. Other modifications made subsequently to physicochemical waste water treatment plants for the same purpose are also described. (Author) 9 refs.

  1. Partial oxidation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najjar, M.S.

    1987-01-01

    A process is described for the production of gaseous mixtures comprising H/sub 2/+CO by the partial oxidation of a fuel feedstock comprising a heavy liquid hydrocarbonaceous fuel having a nickel, iron, and vanadium-containing ash or petroleum coke having a nickel, iron, and vanadium-containing ash, or mixtures thereof. The feedstock includes a minimum of 0.5 wt. % of sulfur and the ash includes a minimum of 5.0 wt. % vanadium, a minimum of 0.5 ppm nickel, and a minimum of 0.5 ppm iron. The process comprises: (1) mixing together a copper-containing additive with the fuel feedstock; wherein the weight ratio of copper-containing additive to ash in the fuel feedstock is in the range of about 1.0-10.0, and there is at least 10 parts by weight of copper for each part by weight of vanadium; (2) reacting the mixture from (1) at a temperature in the range of 2200 0 F to 2900 0 F and a pressure in the range of about 5 to 250 atmospheres in a free-flow refactory lined partial oxidation reaction zone with a free-oxygen containing gas in the presence of a temperature moderator and in a reducing atmosphere to produce a hot raw effluent gas stream comprising H/sub 2/+CO and entrained molten slag; and where in the reaction zone and the copper-containing additive combines with at least a portion of the nickel and iron constituents and sulfur found in the feedstock to produce a liquid phase washing agent that collects and transports at least a portion of the vanadium-containing oxide laths and spinels and other ash components and refractory out of the reaction zone; and (3) separating nongaseous materials from the hot raw effluent gas stream

  2. Minimum Covers of Fixed Cardinality in Weighted Graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lee J.

    Reported is the result of research on combinatorial and algorithmic techniques for information processing. A method is discussed for obtaining minimum covers of specified cardinality from a given weighted graph. By the indicated method, it is shown that the family of minimum covers of varying cardinality is related to the minimum spanning tree of…

  3. Do Minimum Wages Fight Poverty?

    OpenAIRE

    David Neumark; William Wascher

    1997-01-01

    The primary goal of a national minimum wage floor is to raise the incomes of poor or near-poor families with members in the work force. However, estimates of employment effects of minimum wages tell us little about whether minimum wages are can achieve this goal; even if the disemployment effects of minimum wages are modest, minimum wage increases could result in net income losses for poor families. We present evidence on the effects of minimum wages on family incomes from matched March CPS s...

  4. Computation of dilution discharge and mean concentration of effluents within a tidal estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.

    . ) is maxi mum during July (177.62 m"/sec ) and minimum du ring October (29.01 m'/sec). The corresponding mean concentrations of effluent near the discharge point is 0.01 and 006 ppt. However, it should be recalled that only the average concentrations...

  5. An evaluation of physical and biogeochemical processes regulating the oxygen minimum zone in the water column of the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.S.S.

    for transformations in redox sensitive elements of which nitrogen is an important one. Such environments are unique for biochemical reduction of nitrate ions into molecular nitrogen (denitrification) by respiratory process [Richards, 1965]. However, unlike the Arabian... Planet. Sci., 109, 452–465, 2001. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNES- CO), Discharge of Selected Rivers of the World, vol. 1, Paris, 1969. United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNES- CO...

  6. Effect of granular activated carbon addition on the effluent properties and fouling potentials of membrane-coupled expanded granular sludge bed process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, An; Liang, Heng; Qu, Fangshu; Bai, Langming; Li, Guibai; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan

    2014-11-01

    To mitigate membrane fouling of membrane-coupled anaerobic process, granular activated carbon (GAC: 50 g/L) was added into an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB). A short-term ultrafiltration test was investigated for analyzing membrane fouling potential and underlying fouling mechanisms. The results showed that adding GAC into the EGSB not only improved the COD removal efficiency, but also alleviated membrane fouling efficiently because GAC could help to reduce soluble microbial products, polysaccharides and proteins by 26.8%, 27.8% and 24.7%, respectively, compared with the control system. Furthermore, excitation emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy analysis revealed that GAC addition mainly reduced tryptophan protein-like, aromatic protein-like and fulvic-like substances. In addition, the resistance distribution analysis demonstrated that adding GAC primarily decreased the cake layer resistance by 53.5%. The classic filtration mode analysis showed that cake filtration was the major fouling mechanism for membrane-coupled EGSB process regardless of the GAC addition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. 40 CFR 463.17 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Contact... technology, which are calculated by multiplying the average process water usage flow rate for the contact... usage flow rate for the contact cooling and heating water processes from the permittee. ...

  8. 40 CFR 463.32 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PLASTICS MOLDING AND FORMING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY... currently available, which are calculated by multiplying the average process water usage flow rate for the... of 6.0 to 9.0 at all times. The permit authority will obtain the average process water usage flow...

  9. 40 CFR 440.102 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper, Lead, Zinc, Gold... obtain copper bearing ores, lead bearing ores, zinc bearing ores, gold bearing ores, or silver bearing... which employ the froth flotation process alone or in conjunction with other processes, for the...

  10. Airborne effluent control at uranium mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sears, M.B.

    1976-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory has made an engineering cost--environmental benefit study of radioactive waste treatment systems for decreasing the amount of radioactive materials released from uranium ore processing mills. This paper summarizes the results of the study which pertain to the control and/or abatement of airborne radioactive materials from the mill processes. The tailings area is not included. Present practices in the uranium milling industry, with particular emphasis on effluent control and waste management, have been surveyed. A questionnaire was distributed to each active mill in the United States. Replies were received from about 75 percent of the mill operators. Visits were made to six operating uranium mills that were selected because they represented the different processes in use today and the newest, most modern in mill designs. Discussions were held with members of the Region IV Office of NRC and the Grand Junction Office of ERDA. Nuclear Science Abstracts, as well as other sources, were searched for literature pertinent to uranium mill processes, effluent control, and waste management

  11. Characterization of residues of effluent treatment plant from lapping process of soda-lime glass and its application in the production of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio, Aline Pignaton; Calmon, Joao Luiz; Tristao, Fernando Avancini

    2012-01-01

    This study enunciates the physical, chemical and mineralogical composition of the residue from the process of ETE cutting of soda-lime glasses and its application in concrete as a replacement to the weight of CPV ARI RS cement, at levels of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%. Tests were performed on fresh and hardened (ages 3, 7, 28 and 300 days). The results were compared and statistically analyzed. In the fresh state, reductions in the amount of exuding water and consistency were observed. The results of compressive strength were statistically different, while the results for the tensile strength by diametrical compression and modulus of elasticity results were belonging to homogeneous groups. Beneficial effects the levels of residue on the cementitious matrix and the transition zone of concrete were identified by SEM, particularly concrete in S15

  12. Complete physico-chemical treatment for coke plant effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, M K

    2002-03-01

    Naturally found coal is converted to coke which is suitable for metallurgical industries. Large quantities of liquid effluents produced contain a large amount of suspended solids, high COD, BOD, phenols, ammonia and other toxic substances which are causing serious pollution problem in the receiving water to which they are discharged. There are a large number of coke plants in the vicinity of Jharia Coal Field (JCF). Characteristics of the effluents have been evaluated. The present effluent treatment systems were found to be inadequate. Physico-chemical treatment has been considered as a suitable option for the treatment of coke plant effluents. Ammonia removal by synthetic zeolite, activated carbon for the removal of bacteria, viruses, refractory organics, etc. were utilized and the results are discussed. A scheme has been proposed for the complete physico-chemical treatment, which can be suitably adopted for the recycling, reuse and safe disposal of the treated effluent. Various unit process and unit operations involved in the treatment system have been discussed. The process may be useful on industrial scale at various sites.

  13. A comparative study of disinfection efficiency and regrowth control of microorganism in secondary wastewater effluent using UV, ozone, and ionizing irradiation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, O-Mi [Quarantine Technology Center, Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency Plant, 175 Anyangro, Manan-Gu, Anyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 480-757 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Young; Park, Wooshin; Kim, Tae-Hun [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 29 Geumgu-gil, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Seungho, E-mail: seunghoyu68@gmail.com [Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 29 Geumgu-gil, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The ionizing radiation was applied to inactivate microorganisms and the critical dose to prevent the regrowth was determined. • The seasonal variation of disinfection efficiency observed in on-site UV treatment system was influenced by suspended solid, temperature, and precipitation, whereas, stable values were observed in ionizing radiation. • The electrical power consumption for disinfection using UV and ozone requires higher energy than ionizing radiation. - Abstract: Ionizing radiation technology was suggested as an alternative method to disinfection processes, such as chlorine, UV, and ozone. Although many studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of irradiation technology for microbial disinfection, there has been a lack of information on comparison studies of disinfection techniques and a regrowth of each treatment. In the present study, an ionizing radiation was investigated to inactivate microorganisms and to determine the critical dose to prevent the regrowth. As a result, it was observed that the disinfection efficiency using ionizing radiation was not affected by the seasonal changes of wastewater characteristics, such as temperature and turbidity. In terms of bacterial regrowth after disinfection, the ionizing radiation showed a significant resistance of regrowth, whereas, on-site UV treatment is influenced by the suspended solid, temperature, or precipitation. The electric power consumption was also compared for the economic feasibility of each technique at a given value of disinfection efficiency of 90% (1-log), showing 0.12, 36.80, and 96.53 Wh/(L/day) for ionizing radiation, ozone, and UV, respectively. The ionizing radiation requires two or three orders of magnitude lower power consumption than UV and ozone. Consequently, ionizing radiation can be applied as an effective and economical alternative technique to other conventional disinfection processes.

  14. A comparative study of disinfection efficiency and regrowth control of microorganism in secondary wastewater effluent using UV, ozone, and ionizing irradiation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, O-Mi; Kim, Hyun Young; Park, Wooshin; Kim, Tae-Hun; Yu, Seungho

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The ionizing radiation was applied to inactivate microorganisms and the critical dose to prevent the regrowth was determined. • The seasonal variation of disinfection efficiency observed in on-site UV treatment system was influenced by suspended solid, temperature, and precipitation, whereas, stable values were observed in ionizing radiation. • The electrical power consumption for disinfection using UV and ozone requires higher energy than ionizing radiation. - Abstract: Ionizing radiation technology was suggested as an alternative method to disinfection processes, such as chlorine, UV, and ozone. Although many studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of irradiation technology for microbial disinfection, there has been a lack of information on comparison studies of disinfection techniques and a regrowth of each treatment. In the present study, an ionizing radiation was investigated to inactivate microorganisms and to determine the critical dose to prevent the regrowth. As a result, it was observed that the disinfection efficiency using ionizing radiation was not affected by the seasonal changes of wastewater characteristics, such as temperature and turbidity. In terms of bacterial regrowth after disinfection, the ionizing radiation showed a significant resistance of regrowth, whereas, on-site UV treatment is influenced by the suspended solid, temperature, or precipitation. The electric power consumption was also compared for the economic feasibility of each technique at a given value of disinfection efficiency of 90% (1-log), showing 0.12, 36.80, and 96.53 Wh/(L/day) for ionizing radiation, ozone, and UV, respectively. The ionizing radiation requires two or three orders of magnitude lower power consumption than UV and ozone. Consequently, ionizing radiation can be applied as an effective and economical alternative technique to other conventional disinfection processes

  15. Design parameters for waste effluent treatment unit from beverages production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona A. Abdel-Fatah

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on a successful experimental result from laboratory and bench scale for treatment of wastewater from beverages industry, an industrial and efficient treatment unit is designed and constructed. The broad goal of this study was to design and construct effluent, cost effective and high quality treatment unit. The used technology is the activated sludge process of extended aeration type followed by rapid sand filters and chlorination as tertiary treatment. Experimental results have been considered as the basis for full scale design of the industrial capacity of 1600 m3/day treatment plant. Final effluent characteristics after treatment comply with Egyptian legalizations after reducing COD and BOD5 by about 97% and 95% respectively. So it is recommended to reuse treated effluent in textile industry in dyeing process.

  16. the effect of rubber effluent on some chemical properties of soil and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    levels of rubber effluent used were 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 ml per 2 kg soil. The trial was arranged ... addition to traces of various processing chemicals. The amount of ... The aim of this trial was to examine the influence of rubber effluent on ...

  17. Employment effects of minimum wages

    OpenAIRE

    Neumark, David

    2014-01-01

    The potential benefits of higher minimum wages come from the higher wages for affected workers, some of whom are in low-income families. The potential downside is that a higher minimum wage may discourage employers from using the low-wage, low-skill workers that minimum wages are intended to help. Research findings are not unanimous, but evidence from many countries suggests that minimum wages reduce the jobs available to low-skill workers.

  18. 75 FR 6151 - Minimum Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... capital and reserve requirements to be issued by order or regulation with respect to a product or activity... minimum capital requirements. Section 1362(a) establishes a minimum capital level for the Enterprises... entities required under this section.\\6\\ \\3\\ The Bank Act's current minimum capital requirements apply to...

  19. Purification of industrial effluents with a high load of organic pollutants by a combined anaerobic/aerobic process; Reinigung organisch hochbelasteter Industriebwaesser durch eine anaerob/aerobe Verfahrenskombination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reidl, H.H. [AEW ESMIL GmbH fuer Wasser- und Abwassersyteme, Ratingen (Germany)

    1994-12-31

    Organically polluted sewage water can be economically cleaned in an aerobic biological sewage treatment plant with upstream anaerobic as this saves activation volume and ventilation energy. This was demonstrated in the sewage treatment plant of the PWA in Redenfelden, where an anaerobic stage was installed which uses the BIOTHANE{sup R} process. The CARROUSEL-system of the anaerobic stage has proved a istself both in the PWA ans in municipal plants between 5000 to 100000 EW. It is a robust system with uncomplicated control which guarantees observance of maximum values and allows elimation of P and N. (orig.) [Deutsch] Organisch hochbelastete Abwaesser werden oekonomisch durch eine aerobe biologische Klaeranlage mit vorgeschalteter Anaerobie gereinigt, weil dadurch Belebungsvolumen und Belueftungsenergie eingespart werden. Dies wurde am Beispiel der Abwasserreinigungsanlage der PWA Redenfelden gezeigt, bie der eine Anaerobstufe nach den BIOTHANE{sup R}-Verfahren installiert ist. Das dort eingesetzte CARROUSEL-System fuer die Aerobstufe hat sich sowohl bei der PWA als auch im kommunalen Bereich bei Anlagen zwischen 5000 und 100000 EW, als robustes System mit unkomplizierter Steuerung bewaehrt, das eine sichere Einhaltung der Grenzwerte garantiert und die Moeglichkeit zur P- und N-Elimination bietet. (orig.)

  20. Source terms for airborne effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blomeke, J.O.; Perona, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    The origin and nature of fuel cycle wastes are discussed with regard to high-level wastes, cladding, noble gases, iodine, tritium, 14 C, low-level and intermediate-level transuranic wastes, non-transuranic wastes, and ore tailings. The current practice for gaseous effluent treatment is described for light water reactors and high-temperature gas-cooled reactors. Other topics discussed are projections of nuclear power generation; projected accumulation of gaseous wastes; the impact of nuclear fuel cycle centers; and global buildup of airborne effluents

  1. Characterisation of potential aquaculture pond effluents, and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conventional treatment of effluents from these small-scale, low-volume operations, which discharge relatively dilute effluents infrequently, might not be cost-effective. Keywords: aquaculture–environment interaction, earthen ponds, effluent characterisation, K-means clustering, t ilapia, water quality. African Journal of Aquatic ...

  2. Facility effluent monitoring plan for WESF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SIMMONS, F.M.

    1999-01-01

    The FEMP for the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF) provides sufficient information on the WESF effluent characteristics and the efferent monitoring systems so that a compliance assessment against applicable requirements may be performed. Radioactive and hazardous material source terms are related to specific effluent streams that are in turn, related to discharge points and, finally are compared to the effluent monitoring system capability

  3. A risk-based approach to liquid effluent monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hull, L.C.

    1995-10-01

    DOE Order 5400.1 identifies six objectives of a liquid effluent monitoring program. A strategy is proposed that meets these objective in one of two ways: (1) by showing that effluent concentrations are below concentration limits set by permits or are below concentrations that could cause environmental problems or (2) by showing that concentrations in effluent have not changed from a period when treatment processes were in control and there were no unplanned releases. The intensity of liquid effluent monitoring should be graded to the importance of the source being monitored. This can be accomplished by determining the risk posed by the source. A definition of risk is presented that defines risk in terms of the statistical probability of exceeding a release limit and the time available to recover from an exceedance of a release limit. Three examples are presented that show this approach to grading an effluent monitoring program can be implemented at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and will reduce monitoring requirements.

  4. A risk-based approach to liquid effluent monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, L.C.

    1995-10-01

    DOE Order 5400.1 identifies six objectives of a liquid effluent monitoring program. A strategy is proposed that meets these objective in one of two ways: (1) by showing that effluent concentrations are below concentration limits set by permits or are below concentrations that could cause environmental problems or (2) by showing that concentrations in effluent have not changed from a period when treatment processes were in control and there were no unplanned releases. The intensity of liquid effluent monitoring should be graded to the importance of the source being monitored. This can be accomplished by determining the risk posed by the source. A definition of risk is presented that defines risk in terms of the statistical probability of exceeding a release limit and the time available to recover from an exceedance of a release limit. Three examples are presented that show this approach to grading an effluent monitoring program can be implemented at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory and will reduce monitoring requirements

  5. Assessment of the effluent quality from a gold mining industry in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acheampong, Mike A; Paksirajan, Kannan; Lens, Piet N L

    2013-06-01

    The physical and chemical qualities of the process effluent and the tailings dam wastewater of AngloGold-Ashanti Limited, a gold mining company in Ghana, were studied from June to September, 2010. The process effluent from the gold extraction plant contains high amounts of suspended solids and is therefore highly turbid. Arsenic, copper and cyanide were identified as the major pollutants in the process effluent with average concentrations of 10.0, 3.1 and 21.6 mg L(-1), respectively. Arsenic, copper, iron and free cyanide (CN(-)) concentrations in the process effluent exceeded the Ghana EPA discharge limits; therefore, it is necessary to treat the process effluent before it can be discharged into the environment. Principal component analysis of the data indicated that the process effluent characteristics were influenced by the gold extraction process as well as the nature of the gold-bearing ore processed. No significant correlation was observed between the wastewater characteristics themselves, except for the dissolved oxygen and the biochemical oxygen demand. The process effluent is fed to the Sansu tailings dam, which removes 99.9 % of the total suspended solids and 99.7 % of the turbidity; but copper, arsenic and cyanide concentrations were still high. The effluent produced can be classified as inorganic with a high load of non-biodegradable compounds. It was noted that, though the Sansu tailings dam stores the polluted effluent from the gold extraction plant, there will still be serious environmental problems in the event of failure of the dam.

  6. Systems engineering implementation plan for the liquid effluents services program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, S.S.

    1995-01-01

    A graded approach is being taken by the Liquid Effluents Services Program in implementing systems engineering because of the advanced state of the program. The approach is cost-effective and takes credit for related work already completed, yet retains the benefits of systems engineering. This plan describes how the Liquid Effluents Services Program will implement systems engineering so there is a common understanding. Systems engineering work to be performed and the products of that work are identified. The relation to the current planning process and integration with the sitewide systems engineering effort is described

  7. Airborne effluent control for LMFBR fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yarbro, O.O.; Groenier, W.S.; Stephenson, M.J.

    1976-01-01

    A significant part of the LMFBR fuel reprocessing development program has been devoted to the development of efficient removal systems for the volatile fission products, including 131 I, krypton, tritium, 129 I, and most recently 14 C. Flowsheet studies have indicated that very significant reductions of radioactive effluents can be achieved by integrating advanced effluent control systems with new concepts of containment and ventilation; however, the feasibility of such has not yet been established, nor have the economics been examined. This paper presents a flowsheet for the application of advanced containment systems to the processing of LMFBR fuels and summarizes the status and applicability of specific fission product removal systems

  8. Fusion fuel cycle: material requirements and potential effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Bickford, W.E.; Long, L.W.; Price, B.A.; Mellinger, P.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Young, J.K.

    1980-10-01

    Environmental effluents that may be associated with the fusion fuel cycle are identified. Existing standards for controlling their release are summarized and anticipated regulatory changes are identified. The ability of existing and planned environmental control technology to limit effluent releases to acceptable levels is evaluated. Reference tokamak fusion system concepts are described and the principal materials required of the associated fuel cycle are analyzed. These materials include the fusion fuels deuterium and tritium; helium, which is used as a coolant for both the blanket and superconducting magnets; lithium and beryllium used in the blanket; and niobium used in the magnets. The chemical and physical processes used to prepare these materials are also described

  9. Fusion fuel cycle: material requirements and potential effluents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Bickford, W.E.; Long, L.W.; Price, B.A.; Mellinger, P.J.; Willingham, C.E.; Young, J.K.

    1980-10-01

    Environmental effluents that may be associated with the fusion fuel cycle are identified. Existing standards for controlling their release are summarized and anticipated regulatory changes are identified. The ability of existing and planned environmental control technology to limit effluent releases to acceptable levels is evaluated. Reference tokamak fusion system concepts are described and the principal materials required of the associated fuel cycle are analyzed. These materials include the fusion fuels deuterium and tritium; helium, which is used as a coolant for both the blanket and superconducting magnets; lithium and beryllium used in the blanket; and niobium used in the magnets. The chemical and physical processes used to prepare these materials are also described.

  10. Radioactive effluents in the Savannah River: Summary report for 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winn, W.G.

    1991-09-01

    Researchers at the Savannah River Site have low-level radiometric studies of the Savannah River to distinguish between the effluent contributions of the Savannah River Site and Plant Vogtle. Since the startup of Plant Vogtle in 1987, researchers have routinely detected neutron-activated isotopes in controlled releases, but all have routinely detected neutron-activated isotopes in controlled releases, but all have been well below the Department of Energy's (DOE) guidelines. The study has found that processing improvement at Plant Vogtle during 1989 have lowered the activities of effluents from Plant Vogtle. These studies will continue on a routine basis because they provide disturbing trends before actual health concerns evolve

  11. Effluent dispersion in natural water receivers (tracer examination)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpilowski, S.; Owczarczyk, A.; Chmielewski, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    Tracer methods constitute very convenient means for observation and examination of effluent dispersion and dilution processes in natural water receivers. In the report there are presented methods developed and used by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT) to measure mixing parameters in natural streams to determine distances of complete transverse mixing as well as to assess and predict dispersion of sewage in large water reservoirs. There are also presented the methods of predicting initial stage of dispersion of sewage discharged into large water reservoirs through underwater out falls and the method for determining the decomposition rates of effluent entering a natural water receiver. The methods presented can be used in analysis of pollution in a given water region, in selection of optimal sewage out fall locations as well as in prediction of effluent dilution intensity at different hydro- and meteorological conditions. (author). 27 refs, 15 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Atomics International environmental monitoring and facility effluent annual report, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, J.D.

    1977-01-01

    Environmental and facility effluent radioactivity monitoring at Atomics International (AI) is performend by the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Unit of the Health, Safety, and Radiation Services Department. Soil, vegetation, and surface water are routinely sampled to a distance of 10 miles from AI sites. Continuous ambient air sampling and thermoluminescent dosimetry are performed on site for monitoring airborne radioactivity and site ambient radiation levels. Radioactivity in effluents discharged to the atmosphere from AI facilities is continuously sampled and monitored to ensure that levels released to unrestricted areas are within appropriate limits, and to identify processes which may require additional engineering safeguards to minimize radioactivity levels in such effluents. In addition, selected nonradioactive constituents in surface water discharged to unrestricted areas are determined. This report summarizes and discusses monitoring results for 1976. The results of a special soil plutonium survey performed during the year are also summarized

  13. Treatment of Alkaline Stripped Effluent in Aerated Constructed Wetlands: Feasibility Evaluation and Performance Enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keli He

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ammonium stripping has gained increasing interest for nitrogen recovery in anaerobically digested effluents. However, the stripped effluents often still do not meet discharge standards, having high pH and residual pollutants. Constructed wetlands (CWs are an easy to operate ecosystem and have a long history of application in treatment of wastewaters with extreme pH, such as acid mine drainage. However, knowledge of the mechanistic details involved in the use of CWs to treat high alkaline drainage, such as stripped effluent, is insufficient. This study explored the feasibility and effectiveness of using three sub-surface horizontal flow CWs to treat high alkaline stripped effluent (pH > 10. Two intensification strategies—intermittent aeration and effluent recirculation—were evaluated to enhance nitrogen depuration performance. The results show that the treatment of alkaline stripped effluent is feasible due to the high buffering capacity of the wetlands. Effluent recirculation combined with intermittent artificial aeration improves nitrogen removal, with 71% total nitrogen (TN removal. Ammonia volatilization from the surface of the wetlands in high alkaline conditions only contributed to 3% of the total removed ammonium. The microbial abundance and activity had significant diversity for the various enhancement strategies used in the constructed wetland systems. Anammox is an important process for nitrogen removal in CWs treating alkaline stripped effluent, and possible enhancements of this process should be investigated further.

  14. Airborne radioactive effluents: releases and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grissom, M.C.

    1982-10-01

    This bibliography contains 870 citations on airborne radioactive waste included in the Department of Energy's Energy Data Base from January 1981 through August 1982. These citations are to research reports, journal articles, books, patents, theses, and conference papers from worldwide sources. Five indexes, each preceded by a brief description, are provided: Corporate Author, Personal Author, Subject, Contract Number, and Report Number

  15. UASB reactor effluent disinfection by ozone and chlorine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro da Silvia, G.H.; Bruning, H.; Gerrity, D.; Daniel, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    This research studied the sequential ozone and chlorine process with respect to, the inactivation of indicator bacteria and the formation of ozone disinfection byproducts in sanitary wastewater effluent. The applied ozone doses were 5, 8 and 10 mg.O3.L-1, followed by chlorine doses of 10, 20 and 30

  16. Separation of tritium from gaseous and aqueous effluent systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobisk, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    Three processes are discussed for separating tritium from gaseous and aqueous effluent systems: separation in the gas phase using Pd-25 wt percent Ag alloy diffusion membranes; electrolytic separation in the aqueous phase using ''bipolar'' electrodes; and the countercurrent exchange of tritium-containing hydrogen gas with water on catalytic surfaces combined with separation by direct electrolysis

  17. Major ion toxicity in effluents: A review with permitting recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodfellow, W.L.; Ausley, L.W.; Burton, D.T.; Denton, D.L.; Dorn, P.B.; Grothe, D.R.; Heber, M.A.; Norberg-King, T.J.; Rodgers, J.H. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Effluent toxicity testing methods have been well defined, but for the most part, these methods do not attempt to segregate the effects of active ionic concentrations and ion imbalances upon test and species performances. The role of various total dissolved solids in effluents on regulatory compliance has emerged during the last few years and has caused confusion in technical assessment and in permitting and compliance issues. This paper assesses the issue of ionic strength and ion imbalance, provides a brief summary of applicable data, presents several case studies demonstrating successful tools to address toxicity resulting from salinity and ion imbalance, and provides recommendations for regulatory and compliance options to manage discharges with salinity/ion imbalance issues. Effluent toxicity resulting from inorganic ion imbalance and the ion concentration of the effluent is pervasive in permitted discharge from many industrial process and municipal discharges where process streams are concentrated, adjusted, or modified. This paper discusses procedures that use weight-of-evidence approaches to identify ion imbalance toxicity, including direct measurement, predictive toxicity models for freshwater, exchange resins, mock effluents, and ion imbalance toxicity with tolerant/susceptible test species. Cost-effective waste treatment control options for a facility whose effluent is toxic because of total dissolved solids (TDS) or because of specific ion(s) are scarce at best. Depending on the discharge situation, TDS toxicity may not be viewed with the same level of concern as other, more traditional, toxicants. These discharge situations often do not require the conservative safety factors required by other toxicants. Selection of the alternative regulatory solutions discussed in this paper may be beneficial, especially because they do not require potentially expensive or high-energy-using treatment options that may be ineffective control options. The information

  18. W-007H B Plant Process Condensate Treatment Facility. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rippy, G.L.

    1995-01-01

    B Plant Process Condensate (BCP) liquid effluent stream is the condensed vapors originating from the operation of the B Plant low-level liquid waste concentration system. In the past, the BCP stream was discharged into the soil column under a compliance plan which expired January 1, 1987. Currently, the BCP stream is inactive, awaiting restart of the E-23-3 Concentrator. B Plant Steam Condensate (BCS) liquid effluent stream is the spent steam condensate used to supply heat to the E-23-3 Concentrator. The tube bundles in the E-23-3 Concentrator discharge to the BCS. In the past, the BCS stream was discharged into the soil column. Currently, the BCS stream is inactive. This project shall provide liquid effluent systems (BCP/BCS/BCE) capable of operating for a minimum of 20 years, which does not include the anticipated decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) period

  19. W-007H B Plant Process Condensate Treatment Facility. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rippy, G.L.

    1995-01-20

    B Plant Process Condensate (BCP) liquid effluent stream is the condensed vapors originating from the operation of the B Plant low-level liquid waste concentration system. In the past, the BCP stream was discharged into the soil column under a compliance plan which expired January 1, 1987. Currently, the BCP stream is inactive, awaiting restart of the E-23-3 Concentrator. B Plant Steam Condensate (BCS) liquid effluent stream is the spent steam condensate used to supply heat to the E-23-3 Concentrator. The tube bundles in the E-23-3 Concentrator discharge to the BCS. In the past, the BCS stream was discharged into the soil column. Currently, the BCS stream is inactive. This project shall provide liquid effluent systems (BCP/BCS/BCE) capable of operating for a minimum of 20 years, which does not include the anticipated decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) period.

  20. Antimicrobial resistant Escherichia coli in the municipal wastewater system: effect of hospital effluent and environmental fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Suvi; Morris, Carol; Morris, Dearbhaile; Cormican, Martin; Cummins, Enda

    2014-01-15

    The prevalence of antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria is increasing worldwide and remains a significant medical challenge which may lead to antimicrobial redundancy. The contribution of hospital effluent to the prevalence of resistance in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents is not fully understood. AMR bacteria contained in hospital effluent may be released into the aquatic and soil environments after WWTP processing. Hence, the objective of this study is to identify the extent hospital effluent contributes to contamination of these environments by comparing two WWTPs, one which receives hospital effluent and one which does not. AMR Escherichia coli were monitored in the two WWTPs. A model was developed using these monitored values to predict the effect of hospital effluent within a WWTP. The model predicted levels of AMR E. coli in the aquatic environment and potential bather exposure to AMR E. coli. The model results were highly variable. WWTP influent containing hospital effluent had a higher mean percentage of AMR E. coli; although, there appeared to be no within treatment plant effect on the prevalence of AMR E. coli. Examination of WWTP sludge showed a similar variation. There appeared to be no consistent effect from the presence of hospital effluent. The human exposure assessment model predicted swimmer intake of AMR E. coli between 6 and 193CFU/100ml sea water. It appears that hospital effluent is not the main contributing factor behind the development and persistence of AMR E. coli within WWTPs, although resistance may be too well-developed to identify an influence from hospital effluent. Mitigation needs to focus on the removal of already present resistant bacteria but for new or hospital specific antimicrobials focus needs to be on their limited release within effluents or separate treatment. © 2013.

  1. Realization of sanitary requirements concerning standardization of rare radioactive gas effluents at NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doroshenko, G.G.; Panchenko, S.V.; Chudajkin, O.G.

    1987-01-01

    The paper is aimed at determination of ways for practical realization of main sanitary requirements concerning environment and population protection under NPP operation. The idea of the requirements is reduced to not increasing permissible limits for radiation doses, minimum irradiation of population and decrease of unjustified irradiation of personnel. The given problem may be fully solved only in case of studying real chacteristics of operating reactors, taking into account statistic nature of effluents of inert radioactive gases (IRG). Methods of developing a system of working and reference standards of IRG effluents at NPPs are suggested. The considered approach may be realized in practice as the All-Union state on branch standards

  2. 40 CFR 455.63 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... control technology (BCT). 455.63 Section 455.63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... application of the best conventional pollution control technology: There shall be no discharge of process... effluent reduction attainable by the application of the best conventional pollutant control technology (BCT...

  3. 40 CFR 440.103 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Copper, Lead... copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, or molybdenum bearing ores or any combination of these ores from open... pollutants discharged from mills that use the froth-flotation process alone, or in conjunction with other...

  4. Cold Vacuum Drying facility effluent drain system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) effluent drain system (EFS). The primary function of the EFS is to collect and transport fire suppression water discharged into a CVDF process bay to a retention basin located outside the facility. The EFS also provides confinement of spills that occur inside a process bay and allows non-contaminated water that drains to the process bay sumps to be collected until sampling and analysis are complete

  5. F/H effluent treatment facility. Technical data summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.P.; Stimson, R.E.

    1984-12-01

    This document provides the technical basis for the design of the facility. Some of the sections are described with options to permit simplification of the process, depending on the effluent quality criteria that the facility will have to meet. Each part of the F/HETF process is reviewed with respect to decontamination and concentration efficiency, operability, additional waste generation, energy efficiency, and compatability with the rest of the process

  6. Removal of COD and color loads in bleached kraft pulp effluents by bottom ashes from boilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tran, A

    2008-07-01

    The effectiveness of the bottom ashes from biomass and coal-fired boilers in removing chemical oxygen demand (COD) and colorloads in effluents of a kraft pulp bleachery plant is investigated. The effluents tested are those of the sulfuric acid treatment (A stage) of a hardwood kraft pulp, and of the first acidic (chlorine or chlorine dioxide) and second alkaline (extraction) stages in the chlorine and elemental chlorine-free (ECF) bleaching lines of hardwood and softwood kraft pulps. The coal-fired boiler's bottom ashes are unable to remove either COD or color load in the bleached kraft pulp effluents. However, the bottom ashes of the biomass boiler are effective in removing COD and color loads of the acidic and alkaline effluents irrespective of the bleaching process or wood species. In particular, these ashes increase the pH of all the effluents examined.

  7. Effect of textile industrial effluent on tree plantation and soil chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G; Bala, N; Rathod, T R; Singh, B

    2001-01-01

    A field study was conducted at Arid Forest Research Institute to study the effect of textile industrial effluent on the growth of forest trees and associated soil properties. The effluent has high pH, electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and residual sodium carbonate (RSC) whereas the bivalent cations were in traces. Eight months old seedlings of Acacia nilotica, Acacia tortilis, Albizia lebbeck, Azadirachta indica, Parkinsonia aculeata and Prosopis juliflora were planted in July 1993. Various treatment regimes followed were; irrigation with effluent only (W1), effluent mixed with canal water in 1:1 ratio (W2), irrigation with gypsum treated effluent (W3), gypsum treated soil irrigated with effluent (W4) and wood ash treated soil irrigated with effluent (W5). Treatment regime W5 was found the best where plants attained (mean of six species) 173 cm height, 138 cm crown diameter and 9.2 cm collar girth at the age of 28 months. The poorest growth was observed under treatment regime of W3. The growth of the species varied significantly and the maximum growth was recorded for P. juliflora (188 cm height, 198 cm crown diameter and 10.0 cm collar girth). The minimum growth was recorded for A. lebbeck. Irrigation with effluent resulted in increase in percent organic matter as well as in EC. In most of the cases there were no changes in soil pH except in W5 where it was due to the effect of wood ash. Addition of wood ash influenced plant growth. These results suggest that tree species studied (except A. lebbeck) can be established successfully using textile industrial wastewater in arid region.

  8. Toxicity of leather tanning wastewater effluents in sea urchin early development and in marine microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meriç, Süreyya; De Nicola, Elena; Iaccarino, Mario; Gallo, Marialuisa; Di Gennaro, Annamaria; Morrone, Gaetano; Warnau, Michel; Belgiorno, Vincenzo; Pagano, Giovanni

    2005-10-01

    This study was designed to investigate the composition and the toxicity of leather tanning wastewater and conditioned sludge collected at the leather tanning wastewater treatment plant (CODISO) located in Solofra, Avellino (Southern Italy). Samples were analyzed for their conventional parameters (COD, TSS, chromium and ammonia) and for metal content. Effluent samples included raw wastewater, and samples collected following coagulation/flocculation process and biological treatment. A set of toxicity endpoints were tested using sea urchin and marine microalgal bioassays by evaluating acute embryotoxicity, developmental defects, changes in sperm fertilization success and transmissible damage from sperm to the offspring, and changes in algal growth rate. Dose-related toxicity to sea urchin embryogenesis and sperm fertilization success was exerted by effluent or sludge samples according to the following rank: conditioned sludge > coagulated effluent > or = raw influent > effluent from biological treatment. Offspring quality was not affected by sperm exposure to any wastewater or to sludge samples. Algal growth was inhibited by raw or coagulated effluent to a similar extent and, again, the effluent from the biological treatment resulted in a decreased toxicity. The results suggest that coagulated effluent and conditioned sludge result in higher toxicity than raw influent in sea urchin embryos and sperm, whereas the biological wastewater treatment of coagulated effluent, in both sea urchins and algae, cause a substantial improvement of wastewater quality. Hence a final biological wastewater treatment should be operated to minimize any environmental damage from tannery wastewater.

  9. Study on thorium removal from effluent by electrocoagulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nath, Baidurjya; Swaroopa Lakshmi, Y.V.; Tiwari, S.K.; Setty, D.S.; Kalyanakrishnan, G.; Saibaba, N.

    2015-01-01

    Coagulation-flocculation, membrane separation and ion-exchange are traditional methods for treatment of radioactive wastewater generated primarily from the front end processes of the fuel cycle. Electrocoagulation presents a robust and novel alternative to conventional coagulation process. The present study involves the establishment of electrocoagulation as a treatment process for thorium bearing non-process effluents in batch mode. This involved an electrolytic reactor with iron electrodes. The non-process effluent was subjected to coagulation and floatation by Fe(II) ions dissolved from the anode with the resultant flocs floating on the surface after being captured by hydrogen gas bubbles generated at the cathode. The effect of various operational parameters like initial pH, residence time, current density and initial thorium concentration on the removal efficiency was investigated. Maximum decontamination factor obtained was of the order of 10 4 . (author)

  10. Characterisation of the ecotoxicity of hospital effluents: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orias, Frédéric; Perrodin, Yves

    2013-01-01

    The multiple activities that take place in hospitals (surgery, drug treatments, radiology, cleaning of premises and linen, chemical and biological analysis laboratories, etc.), are a major source of pollutant emissions into the environment (disinfectants, detergents, drug residues, etc.). Most of these pollutants can be found in hospital effluents (HWW), then in urban sewer networks and WWTP (weakly adapted for their treatment) and finally in aquatic environments. In view to evaluating the impact of these pollutants on aquatic ecosystems, it is necessary to characterise their ecotoxicity. Several reviews have focused on the quantitative and qualitative characterisation of pollutants present in HWW. However, none have focused specifically on the characterisation of their experimental ecotoxicity. We have evaluated this according to two complementary approaches: (i) a “substance” approach based on the identification of the experimental data in the literature for different substances found in hospital effluents, and on the calculation of their PNEC (Predicted Non Effect Concentration), (ii) a “matrix” approach for which we have synthesised ecotoxicity data obtained from the hospital effluents directly. This work first highlights the diversity of the substances present within hospital effluents, and the very high ecotoxicity of some of them (minimum PNEC observed close to 0,01 pg/L). We also observed that the consumption of drugs in hospitals was a predominant factor chosen by authors to prioritise the compounds to be sought. Other criteria such as biodegradability, excretion rate and the bioaccumulability of pollutants are considered, though more rarely. Studies of the ecotoxicity of the particulate phase of effluents must also be taken into account. It is also necessary to monitor the effluents of each of the specialised departments of the hospital studied. These steps is necessary to define realistic environmental management policies for hospitals

  11. Continuous monitoring of gaseous effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasco, A.; Giraut, H.; Prado, M.; Bonino, A.D.

    1990-01-01

    The system allows to continuously determine the radioactive materials discharge (iodine, noble gases and aerosols) to the environment. It consists in compelling, by a pump, a known and fixed fraction of the total flow and preserving the aerosols by a filter. The gas -now free from aerosols- traverses an activated carbon filter which keeps the iodine; after being free from aerosols and iodine, the effluent traverses a measurement chambers for noble gases which has a scintillator. (Author) [es

  12. Waste monitoring system for effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, J.M.; Gomez, B.; Trujillo, L.; Malcom, J.E.; Nekimken, H.; Pope, N.; Bibeau, R.

    1995-07-01

    The waste monitoring system in use at Los Alamos National Laboratory's Plutonium Facility, TA-55, is a computer-based system that proves real-time information on industrial effluents. Remote computers monitor discharge events and data moves from one system to another via a local area network. This report describes the history, system design, summary, instrumentation list, displays, trending screens, and layout of the waste monitoring system

  13. The minimum wage in the Czech enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Lajtkepová

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the statutory minimum wage is not a new category, in the Czech Republic we encounter the definition and regulation of a minimum wage for the first time in the 1990 amendment to Act No. 65/1965 Coll., the Labour Code. The specific amount of the minimum wage and the conditions of its operation were then subsequently determined by government regulation in February 1991. Since that time, the value of minimum wage has been adjusted fifteenth times (the last increase was in January 2007. The aim of this article is to present selected results of two researches of acceptance of the statutory minimum wage by Czech enterprises. The first research makes use of the data collected by questionnaire research in 83 small and medium-sized enterprises in the South Moravia Region in 2005, the second one the data of 116 enterprises in the entire Czech Republic (in 2007. The data have been processed by means of the standard methods of descriptive statistics and of the appropriate methods of the statistical analyses (Spearman correlation coefficient of sequential correlation, Kendall coefficient, χ2 - independence test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and others.

  14. USERDA effluent data collection and reporting program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elle, D.R.; Schoen, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    Effluent and environmental monitoring has been conducted at United States Energy Research and Development Administration (formerly United States Atomic Energy Commission) facilities and sites virtually since the inception of atomic energy research and development. In 1971, computer systems were developed that permitted storage of information and data characterizing each effluent and onsite discharge point and relevant information on sources, effluent treatment and control systems, and discharge data, and serve as ERDA's computer-based management information systems for compiling waste discharge control and monitoring data on radioactivity released as airborne or liquid effluents or liquid discharges to onsite retention basins at ERDA facilities. The information systems and associated data outputs have proved to be an effective internal management tool for identifying effluent control problem areas and for surveying an agencywide Radioactive Effluent Reduction Program. The trend data facilitate the detection of gradual changes in the effectiveness of waste treatment systems, and errors or oversights in monitoring and data handling. Other computer outputs are useful for identifying effluent release points that have significantly higher or lower concentrations or quantities in the discharge stream than were measured the previous year. The year-to-year trend reports and the extensive computer edit and error checks have improved the reliability of the reported effluent data. Adoption of a uniform, centralized reporting system has improved the understanding and credibility of effluent data, and has allowed management to evaluate the effectiveness of effluent control practices at ERDA facilities. (author)

  15. Separation of tritium from reprocessing effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruggeman, A.; Doyen, W.; Harnie, R.; Leysen, R.; Meynendonckx, L.; Monsecour, M.; Goossens, W.R.A.; Baetsle, L.H.

    1980-01-01

    For several years tritium retention has been studied at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, SCK/CEN; initially attention was focused on the removal of tritium from gaseous reprocessing effluents. If tritium can be released from the spent fuel into the gaseous phase before any aqueous operation, adsorption on molecular sieves after some isotopic dilution with hydrogen and after complete conversion to (tritiated) water is the most practical collection method. A once-through 15 m 3 .h -1 oxidation-adsorption unit with a closed regeneration system and with a decontamination factor of 1000 at total (tritiated) hydrogen and water inlet concentrations down to 1000 vpm (parts per million by volume) has been constructed and tested at SCK/CEN and it is described in the text. If no special head-end treatment is used an appropriate liquid management inside the reprocessing plant restricts the volume of tritiated aqueous effluents to about 3 m 3 per tonne of LWR fuel processed. However, for further reduction an isotope separation process becomes necessary. SCK/CEN is developing the ELEX process, which is a combination of water ELectrolysis and tritium EXchange between hydrogen and water, the exchange being promoted by a hydrophobic catalyst. For electrolysis under normal conditions an elementary tritium separation factor of 11.6 with a standard deviation of 6% was obtained. As concerns the exchange step a hydrophobic catalyst has been developed which yields for the flow rates used at atmospheric pressure and at 20 0 C an overall exchange rate constant of 9 mol.s -1 .m -3 in a countercurrent trickle-bed reactor. At present an integrated bench scale de-tritiation unit is being built for further tests and for a dynamic demonstration of the ELEX process

  16. Disinfection of stabilization pond effluent by peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Negar Rezania

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: The study demonstrated that application of combined PAA and NaOCl in disinfecting the effluent of the stabilization pond will promote the efficiency of disinfection process in inactivating the coliform group bacteria and fecal streptococci.

  17. Effluent treatment for nuclear thermal propulsion ground testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipers, Larry R.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives are to define treatment functions, review concept options, discuss PIPET effluent treatment system (ETS), and outline future activities. The topics covered include the following: reactor exhaust; effluent treatment functions; effluent treatment categories; effluent treatment options; concept evaluation; PIPETS ETS envelope; PIPET effluent treatment concept; and future activities.

  18. Legal provisions governing liquid effluents radiological monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gans, I.; Ruehle, H.

    1985-01-01

    The KTA rule 1504 for radiological monitoring of liquid effluents from nuclear installations is explained. As there are no such rules published to date for establishments handling isotopes, some criteria are discussed which in the future ought to form part of a practical guide for liquid effluents monitoring in isotope handling installations. Monitoring measures described refer to liquid effluents from transfer containers, auxiliary cooling equipment, turbine buildings, main cooling installations, and waste air discharges from closed-circuit cooling systems. (DG) [de

  19. Characterization of tuna cooking effluents generated in seafood canning industries; Caracterizacion de los efluentes de coccion de atum generados en la industrias conserveras de productos marinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendez Paz, D.; Torres Ayaso, A. B.; Vieites Baptista de Sousa, J. M.

    2006-07-01

    Tuna cooking effluents from different factories were analyzed, in this work. It has been analyzed effluents form water cooking and steam cooking processes. Steam cooking effluents are more appropriate for protein recovery due to the higher protein concentrations (up to 10 g/l, in some cases) and lower volume. Besides, steam cooking effluents, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) were up to 50 and 5 g/l, respectively. Different correlations between the main parameters the main parameters have been found, for example protein and TKN concentrations of a tuna cooking effluent can be estimated from COD concentrations. (Author) 9 refs.

  20. Radiation treatment of sewage effluent, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawai, Teruko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki; Sawai, Takeshi; Shimokawa, Toshinari; Tanabe, Hiroko

    1991-01-01

    The water demand of the past several years has increased rapidly. Recycling of municipal waste water is an effective mean of coping with the water shortage in Tokyo. We studied the radiation treatment method of further purification of the effluent from sewage treatment plants. By gamma irradiation the refractory organic substances in the effluent were decomposed and the COD values decreased with increasing dose. The high molecular weight components in the effluent were degraded to lower molecular weight substances and were decomposed finally to carbon dioxide. In this paper we studied on the fading color and the reducing of order of sewage effluent. (author)

  1. Removal of active species from liquid effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blake, N.J.; Ritchie, S.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical assessments were made of recirculating liquid membrane technology applied to the removal of active species from liquid effluent. Caesium and strontium were extracted from neutral, aqueous liquor by di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphate in odourless kerosine and subsequently stripped by nitric acid. Flowrates to the membrane modules influenced the extraction and stripping mass transfer coefficients (MTC) for caesium, but not strontium. The acid strength of the strip solution affected the stripping MTC. When both ions were co-processed, caesium transfer was retarded. Potassium cobalt ferrocyanide and polyantimonic acid were used as adsorbers for caesium and strontium respectively in the strip loop. Caesium was more quickly adsorbed than strontium. A scale-up assessment of a recirculating liquid membrane was performed and compared to SIXEP at Sellafield. (author)

  2. Biogas Production From Cassava Starch Effluent Using Microalgae As Biostabilisator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Budiyono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growing of Indonesian population is emerging several critical national issues i.e. energy, food, environmental, water, transportation, as well as law and human right. As an agricultural country, Indonesia has abundant of biomass wastes such as agricultural wastes include the cassava starch wastes. The problem is that the effluent from cassava starch factories is released directly into the river before properly treatment. It has been a great source of pollution and has caused environmental problems to the nearby rural population. The possible alternative to solve the problem is by converting waste to energy biogas in the biodigester. The main problem of the biogas production of cassava starch effluent is acid forming-bacteria quickly produced acid resulting significantly in declining pH below the neutral pH and diminishing growth of methane bacteria. Hence, the only one of the method to cover this problem is by adding microalgae as biostabilisator of pH. Microalgae can also be used as purifier agent to absorb CO2.The general objective of this research project was to develop an integrated process of biogas production and purification from cassava starch effluent by using biostabilisator agent microalgae. This study has been focused on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production. The result can be concluded as follows: i The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added, ii Biogas production with microalgae and cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid, iii Biogas production without  microalgae was 189 ml/g total solid.

  3. Water reclamation and effluent retreatment system at Jaduguda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beri, K K [Uranium Corporation of India Limited, Jaduguda Mines, Singhbhum (India)

    1994-06-01

    Neutralization of uranium mill tailing with lime provided in original flow sheet was not found adequate for effluent quality control within limits particularly as regards to{sup 226}Ra and Mn. The same was being controlled by dilution and hence no water was being reclaimed. In October 1987 the Jaduguda mill was expanded to augment its ore processing capacity from 1000 MT/day to 1340 MT/day. This necessitated extra water requirement, which could have been met only with water reclamation. But this would have resulted in build up of pollutant ions apart from less water available for dilution. Hence a composite scheme was made for water reclamation and treatment of effluent with BaCl{sub 2} to precipitate Ba(Ra)So{sub 4} and with lime to precipitate Mn as hydroxide. This effluent treatment plant was commissioned in May 1990 and is working satisfactorily. The scheme is being further modified and augmented to take care of Narwa mine water and sewage treatment plant effluent. (author).

  4. Optimizing liquid effluent monitoring at a large nuclear complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Charissa J; Barnett, D Brent; Johnson, Vernon G; Olson, Phil M

    2003-12-01

    Effluent monitoring typically requires a large number of analytes and samples during the initial or startup phase of a facility. Once a baseline is established, the analyte list and sampling frequency may be reduced. Although there is a large body of literature relevant to the initial design, few, if any, published papers exist on updating established effluent monitoring programs. This paper statistically evaluates four years of baseline data to optimize the liquid effluent monitoring efficiency of a centralized waste treatment and disposal facility at a large defense nuclear complex. Specific objectives were to: (1) assess temporal variability in analyte concentrations, (2) determine operational factors contributing to waste stream variability, (3) assess the probability of exceeding permit limits, and (4) streamline the sampling and analysis regime. Results indicated that the probability of exceeding permit limits was one in a million under normal facility operating conditions, sampling frequency could be reduced, and several analytes could be eliminated. Furthermore, indicators such as gross alpha and gross beta measurements could be used in lieu of more expensive specific isotopic analyses (radium, cesium-137, and strontium-90) for routine monitoring. Study results were used by the state regulatory agency to modify monitoring requirements for a new discharge permit, resulting in an annual cost savings of US dollars 223,000. This case study demonstrates that statistical evaluation of effluent contaminant variability coupled with process knowledge can help plant managers and regulators streamline analyte lists and sampling frequencies based on detection history and environmental risk.

  5. Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization (MAWS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    In the Minimum Additive Waste Stabilization(MAWS) concept, actual waste streams are utilized as additive resources for vitrification, which may contain the basic components (glass formers and fluxes) for making a suitable glass or glassy slag. If too much glass former is present, then the melt viscosity or temperature will be too high for processing; while if there is too much flux, then the durability may suffer. Therefore, there are optimum combinations of these two important classes of constituents depending on the criteria required. The challenge is to combine these resources in such a way that minimizes the use of non-waste additives yet yields a processable and durable final waste form for disposal. The benefit to this approach is that the volume of the final waste form is minimized (waste loading maximized) since little or no additives are used and vitrification itself results in volume reduction through evaporation of water, combustion of organics, and compaction of the solids into a non-porous glass. This implies a significant reduction in disposal costs due to volume reduction alone, and minimizes future risks/costs due to the long term durability and leach resistance of glass. This is accomplished by using integrated systems that are both cost-effective and produce an environmentally sound waste form for disposal. individual component technologies may include: vitrification; thermal destruction; soil washing; gas scrubbing/filtration; and, ion-exchange wastewater treatment. The particular combination of technologies will depend on the waste streams to be treated. At the heart of MAWS is vitrification technology, which incorporates all primary and secondary waste streams into a final, long-term, stabilized glass wasteform. The integrated technology approach, and view of waste streams as resources, is innovative yet practical to cost effectively treat a broad range of DOE mixed and low-level wastes

  6. Cytogenotoxicity evaluation of two industrial effluents using Allium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    textile effluent was 4.5 times more toxic than the paint effluent. ... Key words: Genotoxicity, paint, textile, industrial effluents, Allium cepa, mutation, pollution, chromosomal .... concentration of a chemical producing 50% of the total effect).

  7. Application of reverse osmosis to the treatment of liquid effluents produced by nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, Y.; Poulat, B.; Menjeaud, C.

    1989-01-01

    Radioactive liquid effluents generated during the operation of PWR nuclear power units are currently treated by two independent systems. The effluents from the reactor coolant system are recycled, unlike the others, which, after treatment, are released into the river or ocean that provides cooling water for the unit. The objective of the treatment of nonrecycled effluents is to separate from them as much of the radioactive particles that they contain as possible, so as to release into the environment a maximum volume of nonradioactive waste, and to be left with only a minimum volume of concentrated waste, containing most of the initial radioactivity, which must be loaded into casks for storage. Membrane-based filtration techniques, because they have excellent separation performances, can logically be used for this decontamination of the liquid effluents. Having developed its own reverse osmosis membrane, a possible application in a nuclear power plant, i.e., integration of a reverse osmosis unit into a radioactive liquid effluent treatment system is presented. (author)

  8. Minimum bias measurement at 13 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Orlando, Nicola; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The modelling of Minimum Bias (MB) is a crucial ingredient to learn about the description of soft QCD processes and to simulate the environment at the LHC with many concurrent pp interactions (pile-up). We summarise the ATLAS minimum bias measurements with proton-proton collision at 13 TeV center-of-mass-energy at the Large Hadron Collider.

  9. Electrocoagulation for the treatment of textile industry effluent--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandegar, V; Saroha, Anil K

    2013-10-15

    Various techniques such as physical, chemical, biological, advanced oxidation and electrochemical are used for the treatment of industrial effluent. The commonly used conventional biological treatment processes are time consuming, need large operational area and are not effective for effluent containing toxic elements. Advanced oxidation techniques result in high treatment cost and are generally used to obtain high purity grade water. The chemical coagulation technique is slow and generates large amount of sludge. Electrocoagulation has recently attracted attention as a potential technique for treating industrial effluent due to its versatility and environmental compatibility. This technique uses direct current source between metal electrodes immersed in the effluent, which causes the dissolution of electrode plates into the effluent. The metal ions, at an appropriate pH, can form wide range of coagulated species and metal hydroxides that destabilize and aggregate particles or precipitate and adsorb the dissolved contaminants. Therefore, the objective of the present manuscript is to review the potential of electrocoagulation for the treatment of industrial effluents, mainly removal of dyes from textile effluent. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Photo-Electrochemical Treatment of Reactive Dyes in Wastewater and Reuse of the Effluent: Method Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Mireia; López-Grimau, Víctor; Gutiérrez-Bouzán, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the efficiency of a photo-electrochemical method to remove color in textile dyeing effluents is discussed. The decolorization of a synthetic effluent containing a bi-functional reactive dye was carried out by applying an electrochemical treatment at different intensities (2 A, 5 A and 10 A), followed by ultraviolet irradiation. The combination of both treatments was optimized. The final percentage of effluent decolorization, the reduction of halogenated organic volatile compound and the total organic carbon removal were the determinant factors in the selection of the best treatment conditions. The optimized method was applied to the treatment of nine simulated dyeing effluents prepared with different reactive dyes in order to compare the behavior of mono, bi, and tri-reactive dyes. Finally, the nine treated effluents were reused in new dyeing processes and the color differences (DECMC (2:1)) with respect to a reference were evaluated. The influence of the effluent organic matter removal on the color differences was also studied. The reuse of the treated effluents provides satisfactory dyeing results, and an important reduction in water consumption and salt discharge is achieved. PMID:28788251

  11. 40 CFR 417.162 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Detergents Subcategory § 417.162 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): (a) For normal liquid detergent operations the following values pertain: Effluent...

  12. Effects of a thermal effluent on the ostracods of Par Pond, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, M.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of a thermal effluent on the distribution and abundance of freshwater ostracods were investigated. Hot and cold water and thermal recovery sites were sampled for their ostracod fauna, using both tow and core methods. An unusual assemblage of both tropical and temperate ostracods was collected. Neither high maximum nor high minimum temperatures had an effect on total numbers of ostracods per sample, but high minimum temperatures were correlated with low species diversity. Variations in the seasonal cycles of ostracods were related to temperature differences. Thermal stresses may have indirectly affected the ostracod population by eliminating rooted vegetation

  13. Effluent and environmental monitoring of Chalk River Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilgrim, T.; De Waele, C.; Gallagher, C. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL's) Environmental Protection Program has been gathering environmental monitoring data at its Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) for over 60 years. The comprehensive effluent and environmental monitoring program at CRL consists of more than 600 sampling locations, including the Ottawa River, with approximately 60,000 analyses performed on air and liquid effluent parameters each year. Monitoring for a variety of radiological and non-radiological parameters is regularly conducted on various media, including ambient air, foodstuff (e.g. milk, fish, garden produce, large game, and farm animals), groundwater, Ottawa River water and other surface water on and off-site. The purpose of the monitoring program is to verify that past and current radiological and non-radiological emissions derived from AECL operations and activities, such as process water effluent into the Ottawa River, are below regulatory limits and demonstrate that CRL operations do not negatively affect the quality of water on or leaving the site. In fact, ongoing program reports demonstrate that radiological emissions are well below regulatory limits and have been declining for the past five years, and that non-radiological contaminants do not negatively affect the quality of water on and off the site. Two updated Canadian Standards Association (CSA) standards for Effluent and Environmental monitoring have come into effect and have resulted in some changes to the AECL Program. This presentation will discuss effluent and surface water monitoring results, the observed trends, the changes triggered by the CSA standards, and a path forward for the future. (author)

  14. Two stage treatment of dairy effluent using immobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dairy effluents contains high organic load and unscrupulous discharge of these effluents into aquatic bodies is a matter of serious concern besides deteriorating their water quality. Whilst physico-chemical treatment is the common mode of treatment, immobilized microalgae can be potentially employed to treat high organic content which offer numerous benefits along with waste water treatment. Methods A novel low cost two stage treatment was employed for the complete treatment of dairy effluent. The first stage consists of treating the diary effluent in a photobioreactor (1 L) using immobilized Chlorella pyrenoidosa while the second stage involves a two column sand bed filtration technique. Results Whilst NH4+-N was completely removed, a 98% removal of PO43--P was achieved within 96 h of two stage purification processes. The filtrate was tested for toxicity and no mortality was observed in the zebra fish which was used as a model at the end of 96 h bioassay. Moreover, a significant decrease in biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand was achieved by this novel method. Also the biomass separated was tested as a biofertilizer to the rice seeds and a 30% increase in terms of length of root and shoot was observed after the addition of biomass to the rice plants. Conclusions We conclude that the two stage treatment of dairy effluent is highly effective in removal of BOD and COD besides nutrients like nitrates and phosphates. The treatment also helps in discharging treated waste water safely into the receiving water bodies since it is non toxic for aquatic life. Further, the algal biomass separated after first stage of treatment was highly capable of increasing the growth of rice plants because of nitrogen fixation ability of the green alga and offers a great potential as a biofertilizer. PMID:24355316

  15. Bioremediation of petroleum refinery effluent by Planococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, Planococcus halophilus was screened for hydrocarbon degradation and bioremediation of refinery effluent. The test organism, P. halophilus, showed the capability to utilize kerosene as carbon source in minimal medium. Biological treatment of the refinery effluent with P. halophilus reduced the ...

  16. 324 and 327 Facilities Environmental Effluent Specifications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSON, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    These effluent specifications address requirements for the 324/321 Facilities, which are undergoing stabilization activities. Effluent specifications are imposed to protect personnel, the environment and the public, by ensuring adequate implementation and compliance with federal and state regulatory requirements and Hanford programs

  17. Animal alternatives for whole effluent toxicity testing ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since the 1940s, effluent toxicity testing has been utilized to varying degrees in many countries to assess potential ecological impacts and assist in determining necessary treatment options for environmental protection. However, it was only in the early 1980’s that toxicity based effluent assessments and subsequent discharge controls became globally important, when it was recognized that physical and chemical measurements alone did not protect the environment from potential impacts. Consequently, various strategies using different toxicity tests, whole effluent assessment techniques (incorporating bioaccumulation potential and persistence) plus supporting analytical tools have been developed over 30 years of practice. Numerous workshops and meetings have focused on effluent risk assessment through ASTM, SETAC, OSPAR, UK competent authorities, and EU specific country rules. Concurrent with this drive to improve effluent quality using toxicity tests, interest in reducing animal use has risen. The Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) organized and facilitated an international workshop in March 2016 to evaluate strategies for concepts, tools, and effluent assessments and update the toolbox of for effluent testing methods. The workshop objectives were to identify opportunities to use a suite of strategies for effluents, and to identify opportunities to reduce the reliance on animal tests and to determine barriers to implementation of new methodologie

  18. Wastes treatment: Naskeo undertakes on the way of methanization; Traitement des effluents: Naskeo mise sur la methanisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-09-15

    Naskeo proposes to cleanse the organic effluents of the chemical or pharmaceutical firms by methanization. A process which produces a renewable biogas, directly valorizable at the level of the process of the manufacturer. (O.M.)

  19. EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Effluent Charts Details

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Detailed Discharge Monitoring Report (DMR) data supporting effluent charts for one Clean Water Act discharge permit. Includes effluent parameters, amounts discharged...

  20. Image Segmentation Using Minimum Spanning Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, M. P.; Armiati, A.; Alvini, S.

    2018-04-01

    This research aim to segmented the digital image. The process of segmentation is to separate the object from the background. So the main object can be processed for the other purposes. Along with the development of technology in digital image processing application, the segmentation process becomes increasingly necessary. The segmented image which is the result of the segmentation process should accurate due to the next process need the interpretation of the information on the image. This article discussed the application of minimum spanning tree on graph in segmentation process of digital image. This method is able to separate an object from the background and the image will change to be the binary images. In this case, the object that being the focus is set in white, while the background is black or otherwise.

  1. Facility effluent monitoring plan for the 325 Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The Applied Chemistry Laboratory (325 Facility) houses radiochemistry research, radioanalytical service, radiochemical process development, and hazardous and mixed hazardous waste treatment activities. The laboratories and specialized facilities enable work ranging from that with nonradioactive materials to work with picogram to kilogram quantities of fissionable materials and up to megacurie quantities of other radionuclides. The special facilities include two shielded hot-cell areas that provide for process development or analytical chemistry work with highly radioactive materials, and a waste treatment facility for processing hazardous, mixed, low-level, and transuranic wastes generated by Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Radioactive material storage and usage occur throughout the facility and include a large number of isotopes. This material is in several forms, including solid, liquid, particulate, and gas. Some of these materials are also heated during testing which can produce vapors. The research activities have been assigned to the following activity designations: High-Level Hot Cell, Hazardous Waste Treatment Unit, Waste Form Development, Special Testing Projects, Chemical Process Development, Analytical Hot Cell, and Analytical Chemistry. The following summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the results of the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) determination for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements

  2. Quantification of effluents in the production of nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Mayara C.C.B.; Riella, Humberto G.; Carvalho, Elita F.U. de, E-mail: mcostac@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    At the Instituto de Pesquisa Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN), the Centro de Combustível Nuclear (CCN), Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, is responsible for manufacturing fuels for the IEA-R1 reactor and, possibly, the multipurpose reactor fuels. In order to meet the demand for both reactors, the CCN developed a new plant. The production process of the fuel generates several types of effluents - containing uranium or not - being solid, liquid and gaseous with varied physical and chemical characteristics. The objective of this work is to follow the nuclear fuel production process and to identify, quantify and characterize the effluents, especially the liquid ones, to later elaborate a plan of management of these and eventually dispose in a responsible way in the environment. (author)

  3. Quantification of effluents in the production of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Mayara C.C.B.; Riella, Humberto G.; Carvalho, Elita F.U. de

    2017-01-01

    At the Instituto de Pesquisa Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN), the Centro de Combustível Nuclear (CCN), Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil, is responsible for manufacturing fuels for the IEA-R1 reactor and, possibly, the multipurpose reactor fuels. In order to meet the demand for both reactors, the CCN developed a new plant. The production process of the fuel generates several types of effluents - containing uranium or not - being solid, liquid and gaseous with varied physical and chemical characteristics. The objective of this work is to follow the nuclear fuel production process and to identify, quantify and characterize the effluents, especially the liquid ones, to later elaborate a plan of management of these and eventually dispose in a responsible way in the environment. (author)

  4. Treatment of oil refinery effluent in a continuous reactor using Powdered Activated Carbon (PAC) in the activated sludge process; Tratamento de efluente de refinaria de petroleo em um reator continuo utilizando carvao ativado em po (CAP) no sistema de lodo ativado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, Lidia; Campos, Juacyara C.; Valle, Alexandre Ornellas do; Souza, Andre Lopes de [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Escola de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    The process of oil refining generates effluent containing toxic substances as high molecular weight hydrocarbons which have toxicity or are recalcitrant to biological degradation. This study examined the introduction of powdered activated carbon (PAC) in the system of activated sludge used to treat of oil refinery effluent. The process was conducted in two bioreactors continued, with a capacity of 2L: one to monitoring the performance of the activated sludge system without the addition of PAC and another to monitoring the performance of biological treatment using 2,0 g/L of PAC. The degradation of organic matter through activated sludge turned to physical adsorption associated with the addition of CAP promoted the values of COD reduction of 360 to 36 mg / L, which corresponds to an average of 90% of removal. It was also observed the reduction of the values of total organic carbon (TOC) of 285 to 86mg / L, which represents an increase of TOC removal of around 10 percentage points, which, probably, can be the portion of persistent organic matter that is not degraded by the biological system without CAP. (author)

  5. Design parameters for waste effluent treatment unit from beverages production

    OpenAIRE

    Mona A. Abdel-Fatah; H.O. Sherif; S.I. Hawash

    2017-01-01

    Based on a successful experimental result from laboratory and bench scale for treatment of wastewater from beverages industry, an industrial and efficient treatment unit is designed and constructed. The broad goal of this study was to design and construct effluent, cost effective and high quality treatment unit. The used technology is the activated sludge process of extended aeration type followed by rapid sand filters and chlorination as tertiary treatment. Experimental results have been con...

  6. 40 CFR 417.83 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.83 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of...

  7. 40 CFR 417.82 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS SOAP AND DETERGENT MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Liquid Soaps Subcategory § 417.82 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the...

  8. 40 CFR 415.342 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SOURCE CATEGORY Chrome Pigments Production Subcategory § 415.342 Effluent limitations guidelines... available (BPT): Subpart AH—Chrome Pigments Pollutant or pollutant property BPT effluent limitations Maximum...

  9. 40 CFR 415.647 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.647 Effluent limitations guidelines... subject to this subpart and producing cadmium pigments must achieve the following effluent limitations...

  10. 40 CFR 415.643 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... CATEGORY Cadmium Pigments and Salts Production Subcategory § 415.643 Effluent limitations guidelines... subject to this subpart and producing cadmium pigments must achieve the following effluent limitations...

  11. 40 CFR 440.23 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore Subcategory... discharged in mine drainage from mines producing bauxite ores shall not exceed: Effluent characteristic...

  12. 40 CFR 440.22 - Effluent limitations representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS ORE MINING AND DRESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Aluminum Ore... pollutants discharged in mine drainage from mines producing bauxite ores shall not exceed: Effluent...

  13. 40 CFR 406.73 - Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... economically achievable. 406.73 Section 406.73 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....73 Effluent limitations guidelines representing the degree of effluent reduction attainable by the...

  14. Biochemical methane potential of kraft bleaching effluent and codigestion with other in-mill streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fitamo, Temesgen Mathewos; Dahl, Olli; Master, Emma

    2016-01-01

    and in combination: total bleaching effluent, alkaline bleaching effluent, kraft evaporator condensate, and chemithermomechanical pulping effluent. The total bleaching effluent, consisting of the chlorine dioxide bleaching and alkaline bleaching effluents, exhibited the highest potential for organic matter...

  15. Effluent Mixing Modeling for Liquefied Natural Gas Outfalls in a Coastal Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Samad

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Liquid Natural Gas (LNG processing facilities typically are located on ocean shores for easy transport of LNG by marine vessels. These plants use large quantities of water for various process streams. The combined wastewater effluents from the LNG plants are discharged to the coastal and marine environments typically through submarine outfalls. Proper disposal of effluents from an LNG plant is essential to retain local and regional environmental values and to ensure regulatory and permit compliance for industrial effluents. Typical outfall designs involve multi-port diffuser systems where the design forms a part of the overall environmental impact assessment for the plant. The design approach needs to ensure that both near-field plume dispersion and far-field effluent circulation meets the specified mixing zone criteria. This paper describes typical wastewater process streams from an LNG plant and presents a diffuser system design case study (for an undisclosed project location in a meso-tidal coast to meet the effluent mixing zone criteria. The outfall is located in a coastal and marine ecosystem where the large tidal range and persistent surface wind govern conditions for the diffuser design. Physical environmental attributes and permit compliance criteria are discussed in a generic format. The paper describes the design approach, conceptualization of numerical model schemes for near- and far-field effluent mixing zones, and the selected diffuser design.

  16. Minimum Q Electrically Small Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, O. S.

    2012-01-01

    Theoretically, the minimum radiation quality factor Q of an isolated resonance can be achieved in a spherical electrically small antenna by combining TM1m and TE1m spherical modes, provided that the stored energy in the antenna spherical volume is totally suppressed. Using closed-form expressions...... for a multiarm spherical helix antenna confirm the theoretical predictions. For example, a 4-arm spherical helix antenna with a magnetic-coated perfectly electrically conducting core (ka=0.254) exhibits the Q of 0.66 times the Chu lower bound, or 1.25 times the minimum Q....

  17. Enhanced performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor with powdered activated carbon addition for municipal secondary effluent treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Hongjun, E-mail: hjlin@zjnu.cn [College of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, 688 Yingbin Avenue, Jinhua, Zhejiang Province 321004 (China); Wang, Fangyuan; Ding, Linxian; Hong, Huachang [College of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, 688 Yingbin Avenue, Jinhua, Zhejiang Province 321004 (China); Chen, Jianrong, E-mail: cjr@zjnu.cn [College of Geography and Environmental Sciences, Zhejiang Normal University, 688 Yingbin Avenue, Jinhua, Zhejiang Province 321004 (China); Lu, Xiaofeng [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} The first study to investigate the feasibility of PAC-MBR process treating municipal secondary effluent. {yields} The study revealed that most organics in the secondary effluent were low molecular weight (MW) substances, which could be retained in the reactor and then removed to some extent by PAC-MBR process. {yields} The study suggested that the action of biomass and the PAC is mutual and synergistic. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of PAC-MBR process treating municipal secondary effluent. Two laboratory-scale submerged MBRs (SMBR) with and without PAC addition were continuously operated in parallel for secondary effluent treatment. Approximately 63%TOC, 95% NH{sub 4}{sup +}-N and 98% turbidity in secondary effluent were removed by the PAC-MBR process. Most organics in the secondary effluent were found to be low molecular weight (MW) substances, which could be retained in the reactor and then removed to some extent by using PAC-MBR process. Parallel experiments showed that the addition of PAC significantly increased organic removal and responsible for the largest fraction of organic removal. Membrane fouling analysis showed the enhanced membrane performance in terms of sustainable operational time and filtration resistances by PAC addition. Based on these results, the PAC-MBR process was considered as an attractive option for the reduction of pollutants in secondary effluent.

  18. Enhanced performance of a submerged membrane bioreactor with powdered activated carbon addition for municipal secondary effluent treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Hongjun; Wang, Fangyuan; Ding, Linxian; Hong, Huachang; Chen, Jianrong; Lu, Xiaofeng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The first study to investigate the feasibility of PAC-MBR process treating municipal secondary effluent. → The study revealed that most organics in the secondary effluent were low molecular weight (MW) substances, which could be retained in the reactor and then removed to some extent by PAC-MBR process. → The study suggested that the action of biomass and the PAC is mutual and synergistic. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of PAC-MBR process treating municipal secondary effluent. Two laboratory-scale submerged MBRs (SMBR) with and without PAC addition were continuously operated in parallel for secondary effluent treatment. Approximately 63%TOC, 95% NH 4 + -N and 98% turbidity in secondary effluent were removed by the PAC-MBR process. Most organics in the secondary effluent were found to be low molecular weight (MW) substances, which could be retained in the reactor and then removed to some extent by using PAC-MBR process. Parallel experiments showed that the addition of PAC significantly increased organic removal and responsible for the largest fraction of organic removal. Membrane fouling analysis showed the enhanced membrane performance in terms of sustainable operational time and filtration resistances by PAC addition. Based on these results, the PAC-MBR process was considered as an attractive option for the reduction of pollutants in secondary effluent.

  19. Electro-coagulation applied to the treatment of industrial effluents; Electrocoagulation appliquee en traitement des effluents industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laplace, C.; Leboucher, G.; Coste, M. [Anjou Recherche, Vivendi Water, 78 - Maisons-Laffitte (France)

    2001-07-01

    The electro-coagulation is a water treatment technic in electrolysis cell with double anode. In substitution to the coagulant reagent often used in water de-pollution, it realizes also the coloring decomposition, the DCO abatement and sometimes improving the sludges processing. The technic presents meanwhile some limitations as its poor treatment capacity and the necessity of a high effluent conductivity. An example of application shows that this technic is economically competitive. (A.L.B.)

  20. Measurement of Minimum Bias Observables with ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Kvita, Jiri; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    The modelling of Minimum Bias (MB) is a crucial ingredient to learn about the description of soft QCD processes. It has also a significant relevance for the simulation of the environment at the LHC with many concurrent pp interactions (“pileup”). The ATLAS collaboration has provided new measurements of the inclusive charged particle multiplicity and its dependence on transverse momentum and pseudorapidity in special data sets with low LHC beam currents, recorded at center of mass energies of 8 TeV and 13 TeV. The measurements cover a wide spectrum using charged particle selections with minimum transverse momentum of both 100 MeV and 500 MeV and in various phase space regions of low and high charged particle multiplicities.

  1. Low Streamflow Forcasting using Minimum Relative Entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, H.; Singh, V. P.

    2013-12-01

    Minimum relative entropy spectral analysis is derived in this study, and applied to forecast streamflow time series. Proposed method extends the autocorrelation in the manner that the relative entropy of underlying process is minimized so that time series data can be forecasted. Different prior estimation, such as uniform, exponential and Gaussian assumption, is taken to estimate the spectral density depending on the autocorrelation structure. Seasonal and nonseasonal low streamflow series obtained from Colorado River (Texas) under draught condition is successfully forecasted using proposed method. Minimum relative entropy determines spectral of low streamflow series with higher resolution than conventional method. Forecasted streamflow is compared to the prediction using Burg's maximum entropy spectral analysis (MESA) and Configurational entropy. The advantage and disadvantage of each method in forecasting low streamflow is discussed.

  2. Detritiation of Tritiated Effluent Gas and Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Do Hee; Kim, Kwang Rag; Paek, Seung Woo; Lee, Min Soo; Yim, Sung Paal; Chung Hong Suk

    2007-06-01

    In a demonstration scale equipment for treatment of tritium in off-gas, Pt/SDBC as oxidation catalyst and Zeolite 13X as adsorbent was charged in the beds, respectively. It was confirmed from the performance test that decontamination factor of the equipment showed more than 100 under the flow rate of off-gas of 90 l/hr and at the temperature of 65 ∼ 80 .deg. C. A small scale CECE process has been developed combining LPCE catalytic column with SPE (solid polymer electrolyte) electrolysis. The catalytic column was a trickle-bed type packed with the mixture of 1 wt% Pt/SDBC catalyst and 4 mm Dixon wire-mesh ring. The experimental results of the CECE process proved that the decontamination factor of 13 ∼ 20 under the operating conditions of the water of the 4 l/day and the effluent hydrogen gas of 16.2 mol/h. A design code of CECE process also developed which will be applied the tritium industry. An experimental method for the reduction of tritiated organic waste by using catalytic oxidation was tested in a heated catalytic reactor of 0.5 wt% Pd/Al 2 O 3 . The simulated organic liquid was converted to water over 99%. A gas chromatographic column material was developed for the separation of mixed hydrogen isotopes. 17 wt% Pd-Pt on alumina showed 90% separation efficiency at 77 % yield for the separation of 29.2 % D 2 -H 2 gas mixture

  3. Suspended solids in liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    An international literature review and telephone mail survey was conducted with respect to technical and regulatory aspects of suspended solids in radioactive liquid wastes from nuclear power stations. Results of the survey are summarized and show that suspended solids are an important component of some waste streams. The data available, while limited, show these solids to be associated largely with corrosion products. The solids are highly variable in quantity, size and composition. Filtration is commonly applied for their removal from liquid effluents and is effective. Complex interactions with receiving waters can result in physical/chemical changes of released radionuclides and these phenomena have been seen as reason for not applying regulatory controls based on suspended solids content. 340 refs

  4. Radiological consequences of radioactive effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    A study of the differential radiological impact of the nuclear fuel cycle with and without plutonium recycle is being undertaken jointly by the National Radiological Protection Board and the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA). A summary is given of the development of the methodology detailed in their first report to the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) (NRPB/CEA, A methodology for evaluating the radiological consequences of radioactive effluents released in normal operations. Luxembourg, CEC Doc. V/3011/75 EN (1979)). The Collective Effective Dose Equivalent Commitment was used in an attempt to assess the total health detriment. The application of the methodology within particular member states of the European Community has been discussed at seminars. Sensitivity analysis can identify the more important parameters for improving the accuracy of the assessment. (UK)

  5. Assessment methodology for radioactive effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of this environmental assessment is to define and rank the needs for controlling radioactive effluents from nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The assessment is based on environmental standards and dose-to-man calculations. The study includes three calculations for each isotope from each facility: maximum individual dose for a 50-year dose commitment from a 1-yr exposure according to the organ affected; population dose for a 50-yr dose commitment from a 1-yr exposure according to the organ affected; and annual dose rate for the maximally exposed individual. The relative contribution of a specific nuclide and source to the total dose provides a method of ranking the nuclides, which in turn identifies the sources that should receive the greatest control in the future. These results will be used in subsequent tasks to assess the environmental impact of the total nuclear fuel cycle

  6. Studies on Lyari river effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Hashmi, I.; Rashid, A.; Niaz, G.R.; Khan, F.

    1999-01-01

    The study was aimed to determining the physical (TS, TSS, TDS, TVS) and chemical (Cl, SO/sub 4/, NH/sub 3/, BOD/sub 5/ COD, DO) characteristics as well as heavy present in the Lyari river effluents so as to identify the extent of pollution. The average results of each parameter of twelve different sites were compared with that of National Environmental Quality Standards (NEQS), BOD/sub 5/ and COD levels were above the NEQS while the NH/sub 3/-N concentration was low. Concentrations of Cd and Zn were within the range while that of Pb, Cr, Ni and Cu were higher than the NEQS at times. This indicates that heavy pollution load is entering into the Arabian Sea creating tremendous harm especially to marine life. (author)

  7. Effluent monitoring for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanchi, L.

    1977-01-01

    A microprocessor-based instrument operates a continuous surveillance on effluents from a nuclear facility. It receives and evaluates pulses from two NaI detectors and a set of single-channel analyzers. It has self-diagnosing capability so that it takes actions not only when it recognizes excessive radioactivity but also when it ascertains some abnormal behavior. Power failure procedure and automatic restart are provided. Operative constants such as alarm thresholds, times, and number of successive measurements are permanently stored in a read/write battery operated C-MOS memory. The program allows automatic succession of phases in a peculiar way and has a feature for loading an auxiliary program into RAMs

  8. Arsenic precipitation from metallurgical effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, P.; Vargas, C.; Araya, E.; Martin, I.; Alguacil, F. J.

    2004-01-01

    In the mining-metallurgical companies different liquid effluents are produced, which can contain a series of dissolved elements that are considered dangerous from an environmental point of view. One of these elements is the arsenic, especially in the state of oxidation +5 that can be precipitated as calcium or iron arsenate. To fulfil the environmental requests it should have in solution a content of arsenic lower than 0,5 mg/l and the obtained solid product should be very stable under the condition in which it will be stored. this work looks for the best conditions of arsenic precipitation, until achieving contents in solution lower than such mentioned concentration. Also, the stability of the precipitates was studied. (Author) 7 refs

  9. Effluent monitoring for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanchi, L.

    1976-01-01

    A microprocessor-based instrument operates a continuous surveillance on effluents from a nuclear facility. It receives and evaluates pulses from two NaI detectors and a set of single-channel analyzers. It has self-diagnosing capability so that it takes actions not only when it recognizes excessive radioactivity but also when it ascertains some abnormal behavior. Power failure procedure and automatic restart are provided. Operative constants such as alarm thresholds, times, and number of successive measurements are permanently stored in a read/write battery operated C-MOS memory. The program allows automatic succession of phases in a peculiar way and has a feature for loading an auxiliary program into RAMs

  10. Resident Assessment Instrument/Minimum Data Set (RAI/MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The Resident Assessment Instrument/Minimum Data Set (RAI/MDS) is a comprehensive assessment and care planning process used by the nursing home industry since 1990 as...

  11. Fermat and the Minimum Principle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Arguably, least action and minimum principles were offered or applied much earlier. This (or these) principle(s) is/are among the fundamental, basic, unifying or organizing ones used to describe a variety of natural phenomena. It considers the amount of energy expended in performing a given action to be the least required ...

  12. Coupling between minimum scattering antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Lessow, H; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans

    1974-01-01

    Coupling between minimum scattering antennas (MSA's) is investigated by the coupling theory developed by Wasylkiwskyj and Kahn. Only rotationally symmetric power patterns are considered, and graphs of relative mutual impedance are presented as a function of distance and pattern parameters. Crossed...

  13. An automation model of Effluent Treatment Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Alberto Oliveira Lima Roque

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and intensification of industrial activities have increased the deterioration of natural resources. Industrial, hospital and residential wastes are dumped directly into landfills without processing, polluting soils. This action will have consequences later, because the liquid substance resulting from the putrefaction of organic material plows into the soil to reach water bodies. Cities arise without planning, industrial and household wastes are discharged into rivers, lakes and oceans without proper treatment, affecting water resources. It is well known that in the next century there will be fierce competition for fresh water on the planet, probably due to the scarcity of it. Demographic expansion has occurred without proper health planning, degrading oceans, lakes and rivers. Thus, a large percentage of world population suffers from diseases related to water pollution. Accordingly, it can be concluded that sewage treatment is essential to human survival, to preserve rivers, lakes and oceans. An Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP treats wastewater to reduce its pollution to acceptable levels before sending them to the oceans or rivers. To automate the operation of an ETP, motors, sensors and logic blocks, timers and counters are needed. These functions are achieved with programmable logic controllers (PLC and Supervisory Systems. The Ladder language is used to program controllers and is a pillar of the Automation and Control Engineering. The supervisory systems allow process information to be monitored, while the PLC are responsible for control and data acquisition. In the age we live in, process automation is used in an increasing scale in order to provide higher quality, raise productivity and improve the proposed activities. Therefore, an automatic ETP will improve performance and efficiency to handle large volumes of sewage. Considering the growing importance of environmental awareness with special emphasis

  14. Physico-chemical treatment of coke plant effluents for control of water pollution in India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghose, M.K. [Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad (India). Center of Mining Environmental

    2002-01-01

    Coal carbonizing industries in India are important and are growing every year. Large quantities of liquid effluents produced in this industry contain a large amount of suspended solids, high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), phenols, ammonia and other toxic substances, which are causing serious surface water pollution in the area. There is a large number of coke plants in the vicinity of Jharia Coal Field (JCF). The working principle of a coke plant and the effluents produced is described. One large coke plant was chosen to evaluate characteristics of the effluent and to suggest a proper treatment method. Present effluent treatment system was found to be inadequate and a large quantity of a very good quality coke breeze is being lost, which is also causing siltation on the riverbed in addition to surface water pollution. Physico-chemical treatment has been considered as a suitable option for the treatment of coke plant effluents. A scheme has been proposed for the treatment, which can be suitably adopted for the recycling, reuse or safe disposal of the treated effluent. Various unit process and unit operations are discussed. The process may be useful on industrial scale for various sites so as to maintain a clean environment.

  15. The uranium recovery from UO{sub 2} kernel production effluent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xiaotong, E-mail: chenxiaotong@tsinghua.edu.cn; He, Linfeng; Liu, Bing; Tang, Yaping; Tang, Chunhe

    2016-12-15

    Graphical abstract: In this study, a flow sheet including evaporation, flocculation, filtration, adsorption, and reverse osmosis was established for the UO{sub 2} kernel production effluent of HTR spherical fuel elements. The uranium recovery could reach 99.9% after the treatment, with almost no secondary pollution produced. Based on the above experimental results, the treating flow process in this study would be feasible for laboratory- and engineering-scale treatment of UO{sub 2} kernel production effluent of HTR spherical fuel elements. - Highlights: • A flow sheet including evaporation, flocculation, filtration, adsorption, and reverse osmosis was established for the UO{sub 2} kernel production effluent. • The uranium recovery could reach 99.9% after the treatment, with almost no secondary pollution produced. • The treating flow process would be feasible for laboratory- and engineering-scale treatment of UO{sub 2} kernel production effluent. - Abstract: For the fabrication of coated particle fuel elements of high temperature gas cooled reactors, the ceramic UO{sub 2} kernels are prepared through chemical gelation of uranyl nitrate solution droplets, which produces radioactive effluent with components of ammonia, uranium, organic compounds and ammonium nitrate. In this study, a flow sheet including evaporation, flocculation, filtration, adsorption, and reverse osmosis was established for the effluent treating. The uranium recovery could reach 99.9% after the treatment, with almost no secondary pollution produced.

  16. Subproject L-045H 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-06-01

    The study focuses on the project schedule for Project L-045H, 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility is a Department of Energy subproject of the Hanford Environmental Compliance Project. The study scope is limited to validation of the project schedule only. The primary purpose of the study is to find ways and means to accelerate the completion of the project, thereby hastening environmental compliance of the 300 Area of the Hanford site. The ''300 Area'' has been utilized extensively as a laboratory area, with a diverse array of laboratory facilities installed and operational. The 300 Area Process Sewer, located in the 300 Area on the Hanford Site, collects waste water from approximately 62 sources. This waste water is discharged into two 1500 feet long percolation trenches. Current environmental statutes and policies dictate that this practice be discontinued at the earliest possible date in favor of treatment and disposal practices that satisfy applicable regulations

  17. Bioavailability and impact of effluents on coastal ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The Bioavailability and Impact of Effluents on Coastal Ecosystems program was initiated in July 1974. The program's major objective was to bring together a multidisciplinary team of researchers to investigate the biogeochemical processes that control the transport, transfer, distribution, biological availability and toxicity of materials found in energy-related effluents. This year has been spent in planning the needed research tasks, assembling the necessary personnel and equipment, and initiating first stage research as defined by the program. The program is centered at the Marine Research Laboratory, Sequim, Washington, and involves scientists located at Sequim and Richland. The operating philosophy is to conduct the program at the Marine Research Laboratory and use equipment and expertise from Richland as a resource for studies that cannot be practically done at Sequim. The research described represents the first year's efforts by the investigators involved in the program

  18. Aquatic Plant/microbial Filters for Treating Septic Tank Effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.

    1988-01-01

    The use of natural biological processes for treating many types of wastewater have been developed by NASA at the John C. Stennis Space Center, NSTL, Mississippi, during the past 15 years. The simplest form of this technology involves the use of aquatic plant/marsh filters for treatment of septic tank effluent. Septic tank effluent from single home units can be treated to advanced secondary levels and beyond by using a 37.2 sq m (400 sq ft) surface area washed gravel filter. This filter is generally 0.3 m (1 ft) deep with a surface cover of approximately 0.15 m (6 in.) of gravel. The plants in this filter are usually aesthetic or ornamental such as calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica), canna lily (Canna flaccida), elephant ear (Colocasia esculenta), and water iris (Iris pseudacorus).

  19. Decoloration and detoxification of effluents by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borrely, Sueli I.; Morais, Aline V.; Rosa, Jorge M.; Badaró-Pedroso, Cintia; Conceição Pereira, Maria da; Higa, Marcela C.

    2016-01-01

    Three distinct textile samples were investigated for color and toxicity (S1–chemical/textile industry; S2–final textile effluent; S3 - standard textile produced effluent–untreated blue). Radiation processing of these samples were carried out at Dynamitron Electron Beam Accelerator and color and toxicity removal were determined: color removal by radiation was 96% (40 kGy, S1); 55% (2.5 kGy, S2) and 90% (2.5 kGy, S3). Concerning toxicity assays, Vibrio fischeri luminescent bacteria demonstrated higher reduction after radiation than the other systems: removal efficiencies were 33% (20 kGy, S1); 55% (2.5 kGy, S2) and 33% (2.5 kGy, S3). Daphnia similis and Brachionus plicatilis fitted well for S3 effluents. Hard toxic volumes into biological treatment plant may be avoided if radiation would be previously applied in a real plant. Results reveled how indispensable is to run toxicity to more than one living-organism. - Highlights: • 2.5 kGy was enough for decoloration and detoxification of S2 and S3. • S1 effluents were very toxic and required at least 20 kGy for detoxification. • Radiation processing reduced toxicity for 100% of treated samples. • V. fischeri was the best tool for toxicity measurements.

  20. Biogas Production Using Anaerobic Biodigester from Cassava Starch Effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sunarso

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available IKMs’ factory activity in Margoyoso produces liquid and solid wastes. The possible alternative was to use the liquid effluent as biogas raw material. This study focuses on the used of urea, ruminant, yeast, microalgae, the treatment of gelled and ungelled feed for biogas production, pH control during biogas production using buffer Na2CO3, and feeding management in the semi-continuous process of biogas production that perform at ambient temperature for 30 days. Ruminant bacteria, yeast, urea, and microalgae was added 10% (v/v, 0.08% (w/v, 0.04% (w/v, 50% (v/v of mixing solution volume, respectively. The pH of slurry was adjusted with range 6.8-7.2 and was measured daily and corrected when necessary with Na2CO3. The total biogas production was measured daily by the water displacement technique. Biogas production from the ungelling and gelling mixture of cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea were 726.43 ml/g total solid and 198 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture without yeast was 58.6 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture added by microalgae without yeast was 58.72 ml/g total solid and that with yeast was 189 ml/g total solid. Biogas production from ungelling mixture of cassava starch effluent, yeast, ruminant bacteria, and urea in semi-continuous process was 581.15 ml/g total solid. Adding of microalgae as nitrogen source did not give significant effect to biogas production. But adding of yeast as substrate activator was very helpful to accelerate biogas production. The biogas production increased after cassava starch effluent and yeast was added. Requirement of sodium carbonate (Na2CO3 to increase alkalinity or buffering capacity of fermenting solution depends on pH-value

  1. Removal of radium-226 from uranium mining effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Averill, D.W.; Moffett, D.; Webber, R.T.; Whittle, L.; Wood, J.A.

    1984-12-01

    Uranium mining and milling operations usually generate large quantities of solid and liquid waste materials. A slurry, consisting of waste rock and chemical solutions from the milling operation, is discharged to impoundment areas (tailings basins). Most of the radioactive material dissolved in tailings slurries is precipitated by the addition of lime and limestone prior to discharge from the mill. However, the activity of one radioisotope, radium-226, remains relatively high in the tailings basin effluents. In Canada, radium-226 is removed from uranium mining and milling effluents by the addition of barium chloride to precipitate barium-radium sulphate [(Ba,Ra)SO 4 ]. Although dissolved radium-226 activities are generally reduced effectively, the process is considered to have two undesirable characteristics: the first related to suspended radium-226 in the effluents and the second to ultimate disposal of the (Ba,Ra)SO 4 sludge. A government-industry mining task force established a radioactivity sub-group in 1974 to assist in the development of effluent guidelines and regulations for the uranium mining industry (Radioactivity Sub-group, 1974). The investigation of more effective removal methods was recommended, including the development of mechanical treatment systems as alternatives to settling ponds. Environment Canada's Wastewater Technology Centre (WTC) initiated a bench scale study in March, 1976 which was designed to assess the feasibility of using precipitation, coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation for the removal of radium-226. In 1977, the study was accelerated with financial assistance from the Atomic Energy Control Board. The results were favourable, with improved radium removals obtained in bench scale batch tests using barium chloride as the precipitant and either alum or ferric chloride as the coagulant. A more comprehensive bench scale and pilot scale process development and demonstration program was formulated. The results of the joint study

  2. Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    S Barnert, Elizabeth; S Abrams, Laura; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka

    2017-03-13

    Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one.

  3. Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnert, Elizabeth S.; Abrams, Laura S.; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka

    2018-01-01

    Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one. Paper type Conceptual paper PMID:28299968

  4. Supercritical water oxidation test bed effluent treatment study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.M.

    1994-04-01

    This report presents effluent treatment options for a 50 h Supercritical Water Test Unit. Effluent compositions are calculated for eight simulated waste streams, using different assumed cases. Variations in effluent composition with different reactor designs and operating schemes are discussed. Requirements for final effluent compositions are briefly reviewed. A comparison is made of two general schemes. The first is one in which the effluent is cooled and effluent treatment is primarily done in the liquid phase. In the second scheme, most treatment is performed with the effluent in the gas phase. Several unit operations are also discussed, including neutralization, mercury removal, and evaporation

  5. Bioassessment of the Effluents Discharged from Two Export Oriented Industrial Zones Located in Kelani River Basin, Sri Lanka Using Erythrocytic Responses of the Fish, Nile Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemachandra, C K; Pathiratne, A

    2017-10-01

    Complex effluents originating from diverse industrial processes in industrial zones could pose cytotoxic/genotoxic hazards to biota in the receiving ecosystems which cannot be revealed by conventional monitoring methods. This study assessed potential cytotoxicity/genotoxicity of treated effluents of two industrial zones which are discharged into Kelani river, Sri Lanka combining erythrocytic abnormality tests and comet assay of the tropical model fish, Nile tilapia. Exposure of fish to the effluents induced erythrocytic DNA damage and deformed erythrocytes with serrated membranes, vacuolations, nuclear buds and micronuclei showing cytotoxic/genotoxic hazards in all cases. Occasional exceedance of industrial effluent discharge regulatory limits was noted for color and lead which may have contributed to the observed cytotoxicity/genotoxicity of effluents. The results demonstrate that fish erythrocytic responses could be used as effective bioanalytical tools for cytotoxic/genotoxic hazard assessments of complex effluents of industrial zones for optimization of the waste treatment process in order to reduce biological impacts.

  6. Design for minimum energy in interstellar communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerschmitt, David G.

    2015-02-01

    Microwave digital communication at interstellar distances is the foundation of extraterrestrial civilization (SETI and METI) communication of information-bearing signals. Large distances demand large transmitted power and/or large antennas, while the propagation is transparent over a wide bandwidth. Recognizing a fundamental tradeoff, reduced energy delivered to the receiver at the expense of wide bandwidth (the opposite of terrestrial objectives) is advantageous. Wide bandwidth also results in simpler design and implementation, allowing circumvention of dispersion and scattering arising in the interstellar medium and motion effects and obviating any related processing. The minimum energy delivered to the receiver per bit of information is determined by cosmic microwave background alone. By mapping a single bit onto a carrier burst, the Morse code invented for the telegraph in 1836 comes closer to this minimum energy than approaches used in modern terrestrial radio. Rather than the terrestrial approach of adding phases and amplitudes increases information capacity while minimizing bandwidth, adding multiple time-frequency locations for carrier bursts increases capacity while minimizing energy per information bit. The resulting location code is simple and yet can approach the minimum energy as bandwidth is expanded. It is consistent with easy discovery, since carrier bursts are energetic and straightforward modifications to post-detection pattern recognition can identify burst patterns. Time and frequency coherence constraints leading to simple signal discovery are addressed, and observations of the interstellar medium by transmitter and receiver constrain the burst parameters and limit the search scope.

  7. Primary effluent filtration for coastal discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper-Smith, G.D. [Yorkshire Water Services, Huddersfield (United Kingdom); Rundle, H. [The Capital Controls Group, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The use of a Tetra Deep Bed filter demonstration unit to treat primary effluent (Primary Effluent Filtration, PEF) was investigated. PEF proved capable of achieving the UWWTD primary standard, even when the primary stage performs poorly, but is not a cost-effective alternative to chemically assisted settlement. Results demonstrated that using a 1.5 to 2.2 mm grade medium, a filtration rate of 5 m/h, three backwashes a day and dosing 40 mg/l of PAXXL60 (a polyaluminium silicte) an average effluent quality of 20 mg/l BOD and 15 mgl/l total solid could be achieved. UV disinfection produced an effluent which complied with the Bathing Water Directive imperative requirement. A high enterovirus kill was also achieved. However, considerable additional work would be required before PEF could be considered suitable for full-scale applications. (orig.)

  8. A WET TALE: TOXICITY OF COMPLEX EFFLUENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This course covers standards, regulations, policy, guidance and technical aspects of implementing the whole effluent toxicity program. The curriculum incorporates rationale and information on WET test requirements from USEPA documents, such as the Technical Support Document for W...

  9. Effluent monitoring: Its purpose and value

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoen, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of effluent monitoring is described in terms of the primary objectives, the most important of which is to verify that the facility is functioning as it was designed and that the waste treatment and effluent control systems are performing as planned and expected. The object of a monitoring programme should be periodically re-examined to ensure that the programme serves a contemporary purpose. The value of the effluent monitoring programme is determined by the extent to which users of the monitoring data, i.e. the operator, the regulating authorities and the public, accept the result as indicating that the plant is operating safely, and in an environmentally acceptable manner. The credibility of the monitoring results is therefore the most important factor determining the value of an effluent monitoring programme. (author)

  10. THE EFFECT OF REFINERY AND PETROCHEMICAL EFFLUENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Osondu

    Ethiopian Journal of Environmental Studies and Management Vol. 4 No.2 ... Abstract. This study investigated the effects of treated effluent discharge on the water quality of Ubeji Creek, Warri. ..... Sodium increase is as a result of oil leakage.

  11. Bioremediation of textile effluent using Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bioremediation of textile effluent using Phanerochaete chrysosporium. ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS ... The discharge of these waste residues into the environment eventually poison, damage or affect one or ...

  12. Short-term dermal exposure to tannery effluent does not cause behavioral changes in male Swiss mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna de Oliveira Mendes

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tannery is a highly polluting activity due to the waste generated by bovine skin processing. Although there are several studies highlighting the health issues faced by workers exposed to tannery effluent, there are no records of experiments testing the neurobehavioral effects resulting from direct contact with this pollutant. Thus, the aim of the current study is to assess the possible neurobehavioral effects of dermal exposure to tannery effluent on male Swiss mice. Animals were divided in three groups, which were subjected to the same experimental time period and conditions: effluent group - animals in direct contact with tannery effluent (for 20 days; control group - animals in contact with pure water; and dry-control group - animals not exposed to water or to tannery effluent. Neurobehavioral tests started on the 17th experimental day. Results of the elevated plus-maze test (anxiety prediction showed no anxiogenic or anxiolytic effects, memory deficit or depressive symptoms on animals exposed to tannery effluent. Thus, the current results do not support the hypothesis that male Swiss mice dermal exposure to tannery effluents for the same time period and experimental conditions leads to neurobehavioral changes. Therefore, the herein adopted exposure protocol was not good to study the effects of dermal exposure to tannery effluent on the chosen experimental model.

  13. Quantum mechanics the theoretical minimum

    CERN Document Server

    Susskind, Leonard

    2014-01-01

    From the bestselling author of The Theoretical Minimum, an accessible introduction to the math and science of quantum mechanicsQuantum Mechanics is a (second) book for anyone who wants to learn how to think like a physicist. In this follow-up to the bestselling The Theoretical Minimum, physicist Leonard Susskind and data engineer Art Friedman offer a first course in the theory and associated mathematics of the strange world of quantum mechanics. Quantum Mechanics presents Susskind and Friedman’s crystal-clear explanations of the principles of quantum states, uncertainty and time dependence, entanglement, and particle and wave states, among other topics. An accessible but rigorous introduction to a famously difficult topic, Quantum Mechanics provides a tool kit for amateur scientists to learn physics at their own pace.

  14. Minimum resolvable power contrast model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Shuai; Wang, Xia; Zhou, Jingjing

    2018-01-01

    Signal-to-noise ratio and MTF are important indexs to evaluate the performance of optical systems. However,whether they are used alone or joint assessment cannot intuitively describe the overall performance of the system. Therefore, an index is proposed to reflect the comprehensive system performance-Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast (MRP) model. MRP is an evaluation model without human eyes. It starts from the radiance of the target and the background, transforms the target and background into the equivalent strips,and considers attenuation of the atmosphere, the optical imaging system, and the detector. Combining with the signal-to-noise ratio and the MTF, the Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast is obtained. Finally the detection probability model of MRP is given.

  15. Understanding the Minimum Wage: Issues and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Policies Inst. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which is designed to clarify facts regarding the minimum wage's impact on marketplace economics, contains a total of 31 questions and answers pertaining to the following topics: relationship between minimum wages and poverty; impacts of changes in the minimum wage on welfare reform; and possible effects of changes in the minimum wage…

  16. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for all...

  17. Effluent Treatment Facility tritium emissions monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, D.L.

    1991-01-01

    An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved sampling and analysis protocol was developed and executed to verify atmospheric emissions compliance for the new Savannah River Site (SRS) F/H area Effluent Treatment Facility. Sampling equipment was fabricated, installed, and tested at stack monitoring points for filtrable particulate radionuclides, radioactive iodine, and tritium. The only detectable anthropogenic radionuclides released from Effluent Treatment Facility stacks during monitoring were iodine-129 and tritium oxide. This paper only examines the collection and analysis of tritium oxide

  18. Novas tendências no tratamento de efluentes têxteis New tendencies on textile effluent treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Airton Kunz

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Textile effluents, when not correctly treated, cause a high impact to the environment. The main recalcitrant compounds present in textile effluent are represented by the synthetic dyes, used during the fibber dying process. Among others, the azo dyes are considered the most harmful due to its mutagenic and carcinogenic character. In the present work we reported a revision study on the new tendencies for remediation of textile effluents, mainly to degrade the recalcitrant compounds. For this purpose, chemical, physical, photochemical, biological and combined processes were investigated.

  19. Role of effluent organic matter in the photochemical degradation of compounds of wastewater origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodhipaksha, Laleen C; Sharpless, Charles M; Chin, Yu-Ping; MacKay, Allison A

    2017-03-01

    The photoreactivity of treated wastewater effluent organic matter differs from that of natural organic matter, and the indirect phototransformation rates of micropollutants originating in wastewater are expected to depend on the fractional contribution of wastewater to total stream flow. Photodegradation rates of four common compounds of wastewater origin (sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine, cimetidine and caffeine) were measured in river water, treated municipal wastewater effluent and mixtures of both to simulate various effluent-stream water mixing conditions that could occur in environmental systems. Compounds were chosen for their unique photodegradation pathways with the photochemically produced reactive intermediates, triplet-state excited organic matter ( 3 OM*), singlet oxygen ( 1 O 2 ), and hydroxyl radicals (OH). For all compounds, higher rates of photodegradation were observed in effluent relative to upstream river water. Sulfamethoxazole degraded primarily via direct photolysis, with some contribution from OH and possibly from carbonate radicals and other unidentified reactive intermediates in effluent-containing samples. Sulfadimethoxine also degraded mainly by direct photolysis, and natural organic matter appeared to inhibit this process to a greater extent than predicted by light screening. In the presence of effluent organic matter, sulfadimethoxine showed additional reactions with OH and 1 O 2 . In all water samples, cimetidine degraded by reaction with 1 O 2 (>95%) and caffeine by reaction with OH (>95%). In river water mixtures, photodegradation rate constants for all compounds increased with increasing fractions of effluent. A conservative mixing model was able to predict reaction rate constants in the case of hydroxyl radical reactions, but it overestimated rate constants in the case of 3 OM* and 1 O 2 pathways. Finally, compound degradation rate constants normalized to the rate of light absorption by water correlated with E 2 /E 3 ratios

  20. Removal of novel antiandrogens identified in biological effluents of domestic wastewater by activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dehua; Chen, Lujun; Liu, Rui

    2017-10-01

    Environmental antiandrogenic (AA) contaminants in effluents from wastewater treatment plants have the potential for negative impacts on wildlife and human health. The aim of our study was to identify chemical contaminants with likely AA activity in the biological effluents and evaluate the removal of these antiandrogens (AAs) during advanced treatment comprising adsorption onto granular activated carbon (GAC). In this study, profiling of AA contaminants in biological effluents and tertiary effluents was conducted using effect-directed analysis (EDA) including high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fractionation, a recombinant yeast screen containing androgen receptor (YAS), in combination with mass spectrometry analyses. Analysis of a wastewater secondary effluent from a membrane bioreactor revealed complex profiles of AA activity comprising 14 HPLC fractions and simpler profiles of GAC effluents with only 2 to 4 moderately polar HPLC fractions depending on GAC treatment conditions. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-nanospray mass spectrometry analyses of AA fractions in the secondary effluent resulted in detection of over 10 chemical contaminants, which showed inhibition of YAS activity and were potential AAs. The putative AAs included biocides, food additives, flame retardants, pharmaceuticals and industrial contaminants. To our knowledge, it is the first time that the AA properties of N-ethyl-2-isopropyl-5-methylcyclohexanecarboxamide (WS3), cetirizine, and oxcarbazepine are reported. The EDA used in this study was proven to be a powerful tool to identify novel chemical structures with AA activity in the complex aquatic environment. The adsorption process to GAC of all the identified antiandrogens, except WS3 and triclosan, fit well with the pseudo-second order kinetics models. Adsorption to GAC could further remove most of the AAs identified in the biological effluents with high efficiencies. Copyright