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Sample records for minimum displacement rate

  1. On kinematical minimum principles for rates and increments in plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouain, N.

    1984-01-01

    The optimization approach for elastoplastic analysis is discussed showing that some minimum principles related to numerical methods can be derived by means of duality and penalization procedures. Three minimum principles for velocity and plastic multiplier rate fields are presented in the framework of perfect plasticity. The first one is the classical Greenberg formulation. The second one, due to Capurso, is developed here with different motivation, and modified by penalization of constraints so as to arrive at a third principle for rates. The counterparts of these optimization formulations in terms of discrete increments of displacements of displacements and plastic multipliers are discussed. The third one of these minimum principles for finite increments is recognized to be closely related to Maier's formulation of holonomic plasticity. (Author) [pt

  2. Emittance growth rates for displaced beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, O.A.

    1993-05-01

    Emittance growth rates have been previously analyzed for nonuniform beams in linear channels and for initially uniform mismatched beams in nonlinear channels. These studies were for centered beams. Additional emittance growth can arise in cases where the beam is initially displaced. The purpose of this study is to obtain growth rates for displaced beams. This work differs from studies involving random displacement of electrodes. Our analysis assumes instead that the focusing system is perfectly aligned but that the beam is initially displaced with respect to the equilibrium axis. If the focusing force is slightly nonlinear, we find a gradual transfer of the potential energy of beam displacement into kinetic energy associated with emittance growth. We present explicit results for the emittance growth distance as a function of the nonlinearity of the channel. These results will have practical importance for designers of accelerators and transport systems when setting realistic tolerances for initial beam alignment. These tolerances will depend on the nonlinearity and the length of the system

  3. DNA fork displacement rates in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapp, L.N.; Painter, R.B.

    1981-01-01

    DNA fork displacement rates were measured in 20 human cell lines by a bromodeoxyuridine-313 nm photolysis technique. Cell lines included representatives of normal diploid, Fanconi's anemia, ataxia telangiectasia, xeroderma pigmentosum, trisomy-21 and several transformed lines. The average value for all the cell lines was 0.53 +- 0.08 μm/min. The average value for individual cell lines, however, displayed a 30% variation. Less than 10% of variation in the fork displacement rate appears to be due to the experimental technique; the remainder is probably due to true variation among the cell types and to culture conditions. (Auth.)

  4. DNA fork displacement rates in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapp, L.N.; Painter, R.B. (California Univ., San Francisco (USA). Lab. of Radiobiology)

    1981-11-27

    DNA fork displacement rates were measured in 20 human cell lines by a bromodeoxyuridine-313 nm photolysis technique. Cell lines included representatives of normal diploid, Fanconi's anemia, ataxia telangiectasia, xeroderma pigmentosum, trisomy-21 and several transformed lines. The average value for all the cell lines was 0.53 +- 0.08 ..mu..m/min. The average value for individual cell lines, however, displayed a 30% variation. Less than 10% of variation in the fork displacement rate appears to be due to the experimental technique; the remainder is probably due to true variation among the cell types and to culture conditions.

  5. Constant displacement rate testing at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepe, J.J.; Gonyea, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    A short time test has been developed which is capable of determining the long time notch sensitivity tendencies of CrMoV rotor forging materials. This test is based on Constant Displacement Rate (CDR) testing of a specific notch bar specimen at 1200 0 F at 2 mils/in/hour displacement rate. These data were correlated to conventional smooth and notch bar rupture behavior for a series of CrMoV materials with varying long time ductility tendencies. The purpose of this paper is to describe the details of this new test procedure and some of the relevant mechanics of material information generated during its development

  6. Bucket Foundation Response Under Various Displacement Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaitkunaite, Evelina; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2016-01-01

    in a multi-bucket foundation system. The foundation model is at a scale of approximately 1:20 prototype foundation size. The tests are performed in a pressure tank with the foundation model installed in dense sand. Based on the data, the conclusion is that the bucket foundation design in a storm case should......The present testing program aims at showing the pore pressure response around a bucket foundation skirt as well as the load and displacement change due to ten different displacement rates. Research findings are useful for a numerical model calibration focusing on the design of the upwind foundation...

  7. The Effect of Minimum Wage Rates on High School Completion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, John Robert; Hamrock, Caitlin

    2010-01-01

    Does increasing the minimum wage reduce the high school completion rate? Previous research has suffered from (1. narrow time horizons, (2. potentially inadequate measures of states' high school completion rates, and (3. potentially inadequate measures of minimum wage rates. Overcoming each of these limitations, we analyze the impact of changes in…

  8. An Experimental study on a Method of Computing Minimum flow rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yeon Sik; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Chang Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Many pump reliability problems in the Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) are being attributed to the operation of the pump at flow rates well below its best efficiency point(BEP). Generally, the manufacturer and the user try to avert such problems by specifying a minimum flow, below which the pump should not be operated. Pump minimum flow usually involves two considerations. The first consideration is normally termed the 'thermal minimum flow', which is that flow required to prevent the fluid inside the pump from reaching saturation conditions. The other consideration is often referred to as 'mechanical minimum flow', which is that flow required to prevent mechanical damage. However, the criteria for specifying such a minimum flow are not clearly understood by all parties concerned. Also various factor and information for computing minimum flow are not easily available as considering for the pump manufacturer' proprietary. The objective of this study is to obtain experimental data for computing minimum flow rate and to understand the pump performances due to low flow operation. A test loop consisted of the pump to be used in NPPs, water tank, flow rate measurements and piping system with flow control devices was established for this study

  9. 24 CFR 221.795 - Displacement-below market interest rate mortgages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Rights and Obligations-Moderate Income Projects § 221.795 Displacement—below market interest rate... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Displacement-below market interest rate mortgages. 221.795 Section 221.795 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  10. Rate of displacement for Jakob Type 1 lateral condyle fractures treated with a cast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zale, C; Winthrop, Z A; Hennrikus, W

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this retrospective study is to report the rate of displacement of Jakob Type 1 lateral condyle fractures that were initially treated in a cast. We performed a retrospective review of all patients that were treated for a non-displaced (Jakob Type 1 displaced and were converted to a closed pinning treatment plan with a conversion rate of 8.5%. There was a mean of 13.2 days (4 to 21) between treatment by initial casting and closed pinning. This study demonstrates an 8.5% displacement and conversion rate from cast treatment to closed pinning for initially non-displaced Jakob Type 1 lateral condyle fractures of the humerus. The internal oblique radiograph is most accurate to determine displacement. We recommend obtaining an internal oblique view at initial evaluation and at follow-up in the cast for lateral condyle fractures. To minimize movement at the fracture site, we recommend treating Jakob Type 1 lateral condyle fractures with a long arm cast with the elbow at 90° and the forearm in the supine position with a sling-loop design. IV - retrospective therapeutic study.

  11. A comparative analysis of carbon dioxide displacement rates for euthanasia of the ferret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzhugh, Dawn C; Parmer, Amanda; Shelton, Larry J; Sheets, James T

    2008-02-01

    Though carbon dioxide asphyxiation is a common method of euthanasia for laboratory animals, species-specific guidelines have not been established for this procedure in the domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). The authors investigated the efficacy and stress effects of carbon dioxide euthanasia in 24 ferrets that had participated in previous experimental protocols. They euthanized ferrets by placing them in cages that were either prefilled with carbon dioxide or gradually filled at a displacement rate of 10%, 20% or 50% of the cage volume per min. Blinded observers subjectively evaluated ferret distress. Prefilling the cage or filling it at a rate of 50% volume per min resulted in less time to recumbency and to last breath than did filling the cage at a slower displacement rate. Slower carbon dioxide displacement rates also caused an increase in ferret blood glucose concentrations, which may indicate distress. Overall, observers found that prefilling the euthanasia cage caused the least stress to ferrets.

  12. ''Reduced'' magnetohydrodynamics and minimum dissipation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.

    1992-01-01

    It is demonstrated that all solutions of the equations of ''reduced'' magnetohydrodynamics approach a uniform-current, zero-flow state for long times, given a constant wall electric field, uniform scalar viscosity and resistivity, and uniform mass density. This state is the state of minimum energy dissipation rate for these boundary conditions. No steady-state turbulence is possible. The result contrasts sharply with results for full three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics before the reduction occurs

  13. Heart rate-based lactate minimum test: a reproducible method.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strupler, M.; Muller, G.; Perret, C.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To find the individual intensity for aerobic endurance training, the lactate minimum test (LMT) seems to be a promising method. LMTs described in the literature consist of speed or work rate-based protocols, but for training prescription in daily practice mostly heart rate is used. The

  14. 36 CFR 223.61 - Establishing minimum stumpage rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Timber Sale Contracts Appraisal and Pricing.... No timber may be sold or cut under timber sale contracts for less than minimum stumpage rates except... amounts of material not meeting utilization standards of the timber sale contract. For any timber sale...

  15. Behavioral and physiological significance of minimum resting metabolic rate in king penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsey, L G; Butler, P J; Fahlman, A; Woakes, A J; Handrich, Y

    2008-01-01

    Because fasting king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) need to conserve energy, it is possible that they exhibit particularly low metabolic rates during periods of rest. We investigated the behavioral and physiological aspects of periods of minimum metabolic rate in king penguins under different circumstances. Heart rate (f(H)) measurements were recorded to estimate rate of oxygen consumption during periods of rest. Furthermore, apparent respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) was calculated from the f(H) data to determine probable breathing frequency in resting penguins. The most pertinent results were that minimum f(H) achieved (over 5 min) was higher during respirometry experiments in air than during periods ashore in the field; that minimum f(H) during respirometry experiments on water was similar to that while at sea; and that RSA was apparent in many of the f(H) traces during periods of minimum f(H) and provides accurate estimates of breathing rates of king penguins resting in specific situations in the field. Inferences made from the results include that king penguins do not have the capacity to reduce their metabolism to a particularly low level on land; that they can, however, achieve surprisingly low metabolic rates at sea while resting in cold water; and that during respirometry experiments king penguins are stressed to some degree, exhibiting an elevated metabolism even when resting.

  16. The independence of irradiation creep in austenitic alloys of displacement rate and helium to dpa ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, F.A.; Toloczko, M.B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Grossbeck, M.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The majority of high fluence data on the void swelling and irradiation creep of austenitic steels were generated at relatively high displacement rates and relatively low helium/dpa levels that are not characteristic of the conditions anticipated in ITER and other anticipated fusion environments. After reanalyzing the available data, this paper shows that irradiation creep is not directly sensitive to either the helium/dpa ratio or the displacement rate, other than through their possible influence on void swelling, since one component of the irradiation creep rate varies with no correlation to the instantaneous swelling rate. Until recently, however, the non-swelling-related creep component was also thought to exhibit its own strong dependence on displacement rate, increasing at lower fluxes. This perception originally arose from the work of Lewthwaite and Mosedale at temperatures in the 270-350{degrees}C range. More recently this perception was thought to extend to higher irradiation temperatures. It now appears, however, that this interpretation is incorrect, and in fact the steady-state value of the non-swelling component of irradiation creep is actually insensitive to displacement rate. The perceived flux dependence appears to arise from a failure to properly interpret the impact of the transient regime of irradiation creep.

  17. Displacement rate and temperature equivalence in stochastic cluster dynamics simulations of irradiated pure α-Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Aaron [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, 87185 NM (United States); George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, 30332 GA (United States); Muntifering, Brittany [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, 87185 NM (United States); Northwestern University, Chicago, 60208 IL (United States); Dingreville, Rémi; Hattar, Khalid [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, 87185 NM (United States); Capolungo, Laurent, E-mail: laurent@lanl.gov [George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, 30332 GA (United States); Material Science and Technology Division, MST-8, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, 87545 NM (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Charged particle irradiation is a frequently used experimental tool to study damage accumulation in metals expected during neutron irradiation. Understanding the correspondence between displacement rate and temperature during such studies is one of several factors that must be taken into account in order to design experiments that produce equivalent damage accumulation to neutron damage conditions. In this study, spatially resolved stochastic cluster dynamics (SRSCD) is used to simulate damage evolution in α-Fe and find displacement rate/temperature pairs under ‘target’ and ‘proxy’ conditions for which the local distribution of vacancies and vacancy clusters is the same as a function of displacement damage. The SRSCD methodology is chosen for this study due to its computational efficiency and ability to simulate damage accumulation in spatially inhomogeneous materials such as thin films. Results are presented for Frenkel pair irradiation and displacement cascade damage in thin films and bulk α-Fe. Holding all other material and irradiation conditions constant, temperature adjustments are shown to successfully make up for changes in displacement rate such that defect concentrations and cluster sizes remain relatively constant. The methodology presented in this study allows for a first-order prediction of the temperature at which ion irradiation experiments (‘proxy’ conditions) should take place in order to approximate neutron irradiation (‘target’ conditions).

  18. Where Would the EUR/CHF Exchange Rate be Without the SNB's Minimum Exchange Rate Policy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanke, Michael; Poulsen, Rolf; Weissensteiner, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Since its announcement made on September 6, 2011, the Swiss National Bank (SNB) has been pursuing the goal of a minimum EUR/CHF exchange rate of 1.20, promising to intervene on currency markets to prevent the exchange rate from falling below this level.We use a compound option pricing approach...

  19. On the equivalence between the minimum entropy generation rate and the maximum conversion rate for a reactive system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bispo, Heleno; Silva, Nilton; Brito, Romildo; Manzi, João

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Minimum entropy generation (MEG) principle improved the reaction performance. • MEG rate and the maximum conversion equivalence have been analyzed. • Temperature and residence time are used to the domain establishment of MEG. • Satisfying the temperature and residence time relationship results a optimal performance. - Abstract: The analysis of the equivalence between the minimum entropy generation (MEG) rate and the maximum conversion rate for a reactive system is the main purpose of this paper. While being used as a strategy of optimization, the minimum entropy production was applied to the production of propylene glycol in a Continuous Stirred-Tank Reactor (CSTR) with a view to determining the best operating conditions, and under such conditions, a high conversion rate was found. The effects of the key variables and restrictions on the validity domain of MEG were investigated, which raises issues that are included within a broad discussion. The results from simulations indicate that from the chemical reaction standpoint a maximum conversion rate can be considered as equivalent to MEG. Such a result can be clearly explained by examining the classical Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution, where the molecules of the reactive system under the condition of the MEG rate present a distribution of energy with reduced dispersion resulting in a better quality of collision between molecules with a higher conversion rate

  20. Interfraction patient motion and implant displacement in prostate high dose rate brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, C. D.; Kron, T.; Leahy, M.; Duchesne, G.; Williams, S.; Tai, K. H.; Haworth, A.; Herschtal, A.; Foroudi, F. [Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria 3002 (Australia); Nursing Service, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria 3002 (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3002 (Australia); Department of Physical Sciences, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and Royal Melbourne Insititute of Technology, Melbourne, Victoria 3000 (Australia); Department of Biostatistics and Clinical Trials, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Melbourne, Victoria 3002 (Australia); Department of Radiation Oncology, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre and University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To quantify movement of prostate cancer patients undergoing treatment, using an in-house developed motion sensor in order to determine a relationship between patient movement and high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy implant displacement. Methods: An electronic motion sensor was developed based on a three axis accelerometer. HDR brachytherapy treatment for prostate is delivered at this institution in two fractions 24 h apart and 22 patients were monitored for movement over the interval between fractions. The motion sensors functioned as inclinometers, monitoring inclination of both thighs, and the inclination and roll of the abdomen. The implanted HDR brachytherapy catheter set was assessed for displacement relative to fiducial markers in the prostate. Angle measurements and angle differences over a 2 s time base were binned, and the standard deviations of the resulting frequency distributions used as a metric for patient motion in each monitored axis. These parameters were correlated to measured catheter displacement using regression modeling. Results: The mean implant displacement was 12.6 mm in the caudal direction. A mean of 19.95 h data was recorded for the patient cohort. Patients generally moved through a limited range of angles with a mean of the exception of two patients who spent in excess of 2 h lying on their side. When tested for a relationship between movement in any of the four monitored axes and the implant displacement, none was significant. Conclusions: It is not likely that patient movement influences HDR prostate implant displacement. There may be benefits to patient comfort if nursing protocols were relaxed to allow patients greater freedom to move while the implant is in situ.

  1. Interfraction patient motion and implant displacement in prostate high dose rate brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, C. D.; Kron, T.; Leahy, M.; Duchesne, G.; Williams, S.; Tai, K. H.; Haworth, A.; Herschtal, A.; Foroudi, F.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To quantify movement of prostate cancer patients undergoing treatment, using an in-house developed motion sensor in order to determine a relationship between patient movement and high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy implant displacement. Methods: An electronic motion sensor was developed based on a three axis accelerometer. HDR brachytherapy treatment for prostate is delivered at this institution in two fractions 24 h apart and 22 patients were monitored for movement over the interval between fractions. The motion sensors functioned as inclinometers, monitoring inclination of both thighs, and the inclination and roll of the abdomen. The implanted HDR brachytherapy catheter set was assessed for displacement relative to fiducial markers in the prostate. Angle measurements and angle differences over a 2 s time base were binned, and the standard deviations of the resulting frequency distributions used as a metric for patient motion in each monitored axis. These parameters were correlated to measured catheter displacement using regression modeling. Results: The mean implant displacement was 12.6 mm in the caudal direction. A mean of 19.95 h data was recorded for the patient cohort. Patients generally moved through a limited range of angles with a mean of the exception of two patients who spent in excess of 2 h lying on their side. When tested for a relationship between movement in any of the four monitored axes and the implant displacement, none was significant. Conclusions: It is not likely that patient movement influences HDR prostate implant displacement. There may be benefits to patient comfort if nursing protocols were relaxed to allow patients greater freedom to move while the implant is in situ.

  2. Change-point analysis of geophysical time-series: application to landslide displacement rate (Séchilienne rock avalanche, France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorese, D.; Grasso, J.-R.; Garambois, S.; Font, M.

    2018-05-01

    The rank-sum multiple change-point method is a robust statistical procedure designed to search for the optimal number and the location of change points in an arbitrary continue or discrete sequence of values. As such, this procedure can be used to analyse time-series data. Twelve years of robust data sets for the Séchilienne (French Alps) rockslide show a continuous increase in average displacement rate from 50 to 280 mm per month, in the 2004-2014 period, followed by a strong decrease back to 50 mm per month in the 2014-2015 period. When possible kinematic phases are tentatively suggested in previous studies, its solely rely on the basis of empirical threshold values. In this paper, we analyse how the use of a statistical algorithm for change-point detection helps to better understand time phases in landslide kinematics. First, we test the efficiency of the statistical algorithm on geophysical benchmark data, these data sets (stream flows and Northern Hemisphere temperatures) being already analysed by independent statistical tools. Second, we apply the method to 12-yr daily time-series of the Séchilienne landslide, for rainfall and displacement data, from 2003 December to 2015 December, in order to quantitatively extract changes in landslide kinematics. We find two strong significant discontinuities in the weekly cumulated rainfall values: an average rainfall rate increase is resolved in 2012 April and a decrease in 2014 August. Four robust changes are highlighted in the displacement time-series (2008 May, 2009 November-December-2010 January, 2012 September and 2014 March), the 2010 one being preceded by a significant but weak rainfall rate increase (in 2009 November). Accordingly, we are able to quantitatively define five kinematic stages for the Séchilienne rock avalanche during this period. The synchronization between the rainfall and displacement rate, only resolved at the end of 2009 and beginning of 2010, corresponds to a remarkable change (fourfold

  3. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart A of... - Minimum Capital Components for Interest Rate and Foreign Exchange Rate Contracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... sheet interest rate and foreign exchange rate contracts: a. Interest Rate Contracts i. Single currency... Contracts i. Cross-currency interest rate swaps. ii. Forward foreign exchange rate contracts. iii. Currency... contracts traded on exchanges that require daily payment of variation margins are excluded from the minimum...

  4. 76 FR 11079 - Sale and Issue of Marketable Book-Entry Treasury Bills, Notes, and Bonds; Minimum Interest Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Treasury Bills, Notes, and Bonds; Minimum Interest Rate AGENCY: Bureau of the Public Debt, Fiscal Service... rules to establish a minimum interest rate of \\1/8\\ of one percent for all new Treasury note and bond... Treasury Bills, Notes, and Bonds \\1\\ (``UOC'' or ``Auction Rules'') to establish a minimum interest rate of...

  5. The influence of He/dpa ratio and displacement rate on microstructural evolution: a comparison of theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Yutai; Stoller, Roger E.; Kohno, Yutaka; Kohyama, Akira

    1994-01-01

    A kinetic model was developed to investigate the influence of the displacement rate and helium generation rate on microstructural evolution in austenitic stainless steels. The model integrates the rate equations describing the evolution of point defects, small point defect clusters, helium-vacancy clusters, and the larger cavity size distribution that is responsible for observable swelling. Cavity (bubble) nucleation is accounted for by the helium-vacancy cluster evolution, while void formation occurs when bubbles grow beyond a critical size in the larger cavity distribution. A series of ion irradiation experiments were used to both calibrate the model and to provide a comparison between model predictions and experimental observations. The experiments involved single and dual-beam irradiations of solution annealed AISI-316 stainless steel at 873 K. The displacement rates were in the range of 2x10 -3 to 1x10 -2 dpa/s and the helium-to-dpa ratios were in the range of 0 to 50 appm He/dpa. The maximum displacement dose was 25 dpa. The experiments revealed a significant effect of helium on both the dislocation structure and the cavity distribution. The model predictions of helium effects over a broad range of He/dpa ratios and displacement rates were consistent with experimental observations. ((orig.))

  6. Prevalence rate and dentoskeletal features associated with buccally displaced maxillary canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucedero, Manuela; Ricchiuti, Maria Rosaria; Cozza, Paola; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the prevalence and distribution of buccally displaced canines (BDCs) in subjects scheduled for orthodontic treatment and to investigate the association between BDC and sagittal, vertical, and transverse dentoskeletal relationships. A study sample of 1852 subjects was examined, and it was divided randomly into two groups. A first group of 252 subjects served as control group: the 'reference' prevalence rates for the examined parameters were calculated in this group. The remaining 1600 subjects comprised the sample from which the experimental BDC group was derived. Presence of unilateral or bilateral maxillary BDC, ANB, and SN GOGn angles for sagittal and vertical skeletal relationships, intercanine and intermolar distances, and tooth crowding at the maxillary arch were recorded for each subject. The statistical significance of differences between the BDC and the control groups in transverse relations and tooth crowding at the upper arch was tested by means of independent sample t-tests. Chi-square tests were performed to compare the prevalence rates of BDC and also sagittal and vertical skeletal features in the two groups. The prevalence rate of BDC was 3.06 per cent with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. BDC subjects exhibited a significant association with hyperdivergent skeletal relationships (38.8%), reduced maxillary intercanine width, and crowding in the upper arch. The presence of specific dentoskeletal characteristics can be considered as a risk indicator for developing a buccal displacement of upper permanent canines.

  7. Rate-Compatible LDPC Codes with Linear Minimum Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Jones, Christopher; Dolinar, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    A recently developed method of constructing protograph-based low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes provides for low iterative decoding thresholds and minimum distances proportional to block sizes, and can be used for various code rates. A code constructed by this method can have either fixed input block size or fixed output block size and, in either case, provides rate compatibility. The method comprises two submethods: one for fixed input block size and one for fixed output block size. The first mentioned submethod is useful for applications in which there are requirements for rate-compatible codes that have fixed input block sizes. These are codes in which only the numbers of parity bits are allowed to vary. The fixed-output-blocksize submethod is useful for applications in which framing constraints are imposed on the physical layers of affected communication systems. An example of such a system is one that conforms to one of many new wireless-communication standards that involve the use of orthogonal frequency-division modulation

  8. Rate-compatible protograph LDPC code families with linear minimum distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor); Dolinar, Jr., Samuel J. (Inventor); Jones, Christopher R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Digital communication coding methods are shown, which generate certain types of low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes built from protographs. A first method creates protographs having the linear minimum distance property and comprising at least one variable node with degree less than 3. A second method creates families of protographs of different rates, all structurally identical for all rates except for a rate-dependent designation of certain variable nodes as transmitted or non-transmitted. A third method creates families of protographs of different rates, all structurally identical for all rates except for a rate-dependent designation of the status of certain variable nodes as non-transmitted or set to zero. LDPC codes built from the protographs created by these methods can simultaneously have low error floors and low iterative decoding thresholds.

  9. Displaced and non-displaced Colombian children's evaluations of moral transgressions, retaliation, and reconciliation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila-Rey, Alicia; Killen, Melanie; Brenick, Alaina

    2015-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of displacement and exposure to violence on children's moral reasoning, Colombian children exposed to minimal violence (non-displaced or low-risk) (N = 99) and to extreme violence (displaced or high-risk) (N = 94), evenly divided by gender, at 6-, 9-, and 12 - years of age, were interviewed regarding their evaluation of peer-oriented moral transgressions (hitting and not sharing toys). The vast majority of children evaluated moral transgressions as wrong. Group and age differences were revealed, however, regarding provocation and retaliation. Children who were exposed to violence, in contrast to those with minimum exposure, judged it more legitimate to inflict harm or deny resources when provoked and judged it more okay to retaliate for reasons of retribution. Surprisingly, and somewhat hopefully, all children viewed reconciliation as feasible. The results are informative regarding theories of morality, culture, and the effects of violence on children's social development. PMID:25722543

  10. Can introduction of an uncemented, hydroxyapatite coated hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fractures be recommended?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Søren Kring; Brix, Michael; Birkelund, Lasse

    2010-01-01

    The role of uncemented fully hydroxyapatite coated hemiarthroplasties for the treatment of displaced femoral neck fractures remains unclear. We investigated if complications, reoperations and mortality differed from that of cemented hemiarthroplasties. The study groups consisted of 78 cemented...... and 97 uncemented, hydroxyapatite coated hemiarthroplasties with minimum 1 year follow-up. The dislocation rate was 3% in both groups (p=0.84). Proximal femoral fracturing occurred in 1% in the cemented group and in 4% in the uncemented group (p=0.26). Reoperations were performed following 4......% of procedures in the cemented group and following 2% of procedures in the uncemented group (p=0.48). Mortality rates did not differ statistically significant between groups. Outcomes were comparable. Introduction of an uncemented hydroxyapatite coated hemiarthroplasty for treatment of displaced femoral neck...

  11. 5 CFR 532.205 - The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing rates. 532.205 Section 532.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Prevailing Rate Determinations § 532.205 The use of Federal, State, and local minimum wage requirements in determining prevailing...

  12. Influence of helium generation rate and temperature history on mechanical properties of model Fe-Cr-Ni alloys irradiated in FFTF at relatively low displacement rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.L.; Garner, F.A.; Edwards, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    In agreement with earlier studies conducted at higher displacement rates, evolution of mechanical properties of model Fe-Cr-Ni alloys irradiated at lower displacement rates in the 59 Ni isotopic doping experiment does not appear to be strongly affected by large differences in helium generation rate. This insensitivity to helium/dpa ratio is exhibited during both isothermal and non-isothermal irradiation. The overall behavior of the model alloys used in this study is dominated by the tendency to converge to a saturation strength level that is independent of thermomechanical starting state and helium/dpa ratio, but which is dependent on irradiation temperature and alloy composition

  13. Surface displacements and energy release rates for constant stress drop slip zones in joined elastic quarter spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Michael J.; Wen, Shengmin; Keer, Leon M.

    2000-08-01

    A three-dimensional quasi-static model of faulting in an elastic half-space with a horizontal change of material properties (i.e., joined elastic quarter spaces) is considered. A boundary element method is used with a stress drop slip zone approach so that the fault surface relative displacements as well as the free surface displacements are approximated in elements over their respective domains. Stress intensity factors and free surface displacements are calculated for a variety of cases to show the phenomenological behavior of faulting in such a medium. These calculations showed that the behavior could be distinguished from a uniform half-space. Slip in a stiffer material increases, while slip in a softer material decreases the energy release rate and the free surface displacements. Also, the 1989 Kalapana earthquake was located on the basis of a series of forward searches using this method and leveling data. The located depth is 8 km, which is the closer to the seismically inferred depth than that determined from other models. Finally, the energy release rate, which can be used as a fracture criterion for fracture at this depth, is calculated to be 11.1×106 J m-2.

  14. Rate-independent dissipation in phase-field modelling of displacive transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tůma, K.; Stupkiewicz, S.; Petryk, H.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, rate-independent dissipation is introduced into the phase-field framework for modelling of displacive transformations, such as martensitic phase transformation and twinning. The finite-strain phase-field model developed recently by the present authors is here extended beyond the limitations of purely viscous dissipation. The variational formulation, in which the evolution problem is formulated as a constrained minimization problem for a global rate-potential, is enhanced by including a mixed-type dissipation potential that combines viscous and rate-independent contributions. Effective computational treatment of the resulting incremental problem of non-smooth optimization is developed by employing the augmented Lagrangian method. It is demonstrated that a single Lagrange multiplier field suffices to handle the dissipation potential vertex and simultaneously to enforce physical constraints on the order parameter. In this way, the initially non-smooth problem of evolution is converted into a smooth stationarity problem. The model is implemented in a finite-element code and applied to solve two- and three-dimensional boundary value problems representative for shape memory alloys.

  15. Late Quaternary displacement rate, paleoseismicity, and geomorphic evolution of the Alpine Fault : evidence from Hokuri Creek, south Westland, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, R.; Norris, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    A 400 ± 100 m offset of Lake McKerrow, South Westland, New Zealand, combined with dated (15.6 ka) glacial lake silts, requires an Alpine Fault displacement rate of 26 ± 7 mm/yr. Moraines associated with Hokuri Creek (assumed to be 17 ± 2 ka) are offset by 440 ± 40 m and require a displacement rate on the Alpine Fault of 26 ± 6 mm/yr. Slickensides, fault exposure, and offset topography are consistent with an almost pure dextral sense of movement on a vertical or subvertical fault. Locally, a small vertical component of up-to-the-west movement is observed. Folding in late Quaternary sediments indicates active tilting of sediments at up to 0.4 degrees/ka and variations in local uplift/subsidence rates of up to 4 mm/yr. At one locality c.1 km northwest of the Alpine Fault and near the core of an anticline, uplifted shells require an uplift rate of 1.4 ± 0.5 mm/yr relative to sea level. Displaced river channels provide estimates of the last two coseismic displacements on the fault of 9 m (penultimate) and 8 m. This suggests characteristic earthquake behaviour with a recurrence interval of 330 ± 90 yr and probable M w > 7.5. Radiocarbon dating suggests the last coseismic displacement occurred just after 370 ± 150 cal yr B.P. (author). 34 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Defect production rates by electrons, ions and neutrons in cubic metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, P.; Nielsen, B.R.; Andersen, H.H.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an interlaboratory program to study low temperature damage rates in dilute alloys of 300 ppM Zr in vanadium, niobium and molybdenum with electrons, light ions, fission neutrons and high energy neutrons are summarized. Additional experiments and literature data supplied complete sets of data also for the fcc metals Al, Cu and Pt. From the initial damage rates, displacement functions for each material were derived which give the number of stable defects produced by a recoil event of a certain knock-on energy. The low and high energy part of the displacement function was determined from the results of the electron and neutron irradiations, respectively, while the light ion data supplied information on the intermediate energy range. The displacement function allows the reliable calculation of atomic displacement rates also for particles and/or energies not employed in this program. For all metals the displacement rates for high energy neutrons scaled reasonably with the minimum displacement energies. This allows to estimate neutron damage rates also for those cubic metals where no high energy neutron results are available. For stainless steel, e.g., an average displacement energy of about 120 eV is deduced. The results are suggested to find practical use in defect calculations for fusion reactor first wall technology and in correlating the corresponding simulation experiments

  17. Robustness of IPSA optimized high-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy treatment plans to catheter displacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poder, Joel; Whitaker, May

    2016-06-01

    Inverse planning simulated annealing (IPSA) optimized brachytherapy treatment plans are characterized with large isolated dwell times at the first or last dwell position of each catheter. The potential of catheter shifts relative to the target and organs at risk in these plans may lead to a more significant change in delivered dose to the volumes of interest relative to plans with more uniform dwell times. This study aims to determine if the Nucletron Oncentra dwell time deviation constraint (DTDC) parameter can be optimized to improve the robustness of high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy plans to catheter displacements. A set of 10 clinically acceptable prostate plans were re-optimized with a DTDC parameter of 0 and 0.4. For each plan, catheter displacements of 3, 7, and 14 mm were retrospectively applied and the change in dose volume histogram (DVH) indices and conformity indices analyzed. The robustness of clinically acceptable prostate plans to catheter displacements in the caudal direction was found to be dependent on the DTDC parameter. A DTDC value of 0 improves the robustness of planning target volume (PTV) coverage to catheter displacements, whereas a DTDC value of 0.4 improves the robustness of the plans to changes in hotspots. The results indicate that if used in conjunction with a pre-treatment catheter displacement correction protocol and a tolerance of 3 mm, a DTDC value of 0.4 may produce clinically superior plans. However, the effect of the DTDC parameter in plan robustness was not observed to be as strong as initially suspected.

  18. Effect of displaced versus non-displaced pelvic fractures on long-term racing performance in 31 Thoroughbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, S E; Muurlink, M A; Anderson, G A; Puksmann, T N; Whitton, R C

    2013-06-01

    To evaluate the long-term racing prognosis for Thoroughbred racehorses with displaced versus non-displaced fractures of the pelvis identified by scintigraphy. Retrospective case analysis. Medical records of 31 Thoroughbred racehorses presenting to the University of Melbourne Equine Centre with fractures of the pelvis that were identified by scintigraphy were reviewed. Pelvic fracture site was determined and defined as displaced or non-displaced based on ultrasound and/or radiographic findings. Race records were analysed for each horse, with a minimum of 24 months' follow-up, and correlated with fracture type to determine long-term prognosis for racing. Results are expressed as median and range. Fractures at a single site were more common (n = 22) than fractures involving two sites (n = 9) and the ilial wing was the most commonly affected (n = 12). Thoroughbred racehorses with displaced pelvic fractures at any site (n = 12) raced fewer times within 24 months of diagnosis than horses with non-displaced fractures (n = 19) (median 0.5, range 0-13 vs 7, 0-24; P = 0.037), but there was no clear statistical difference in race earnings between the two groups (median A$0, range A$0-$123,250 vs A$14,440, A$0-$325,500, respectively; P = 0.080). Four horses with displaced fractures (33%) were euthanased on humane grounds because of persistent severe pain. When these horses were excluded from the analysis, there were no differences in performance variables between horses with a displaced or non-displaced pelvic fracture. Thoroughbred racehorses with a displaced or non-displaced pelvic fracture that survive the initial post-injury period have a good prognosis for racing. © 2013 The Authors. Australian Veterinary Journal © 2013 Australian Veterinary Association.

  19. The minimum or natural rate of flow and droplet size ejected by Taylor cone–jets: physical symmetries and scaling laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gañán-Calvo, A M; Rebollo-Muñoz, N; Montanero, J M

    2013-01-01

    We aim to establish the scaling laws for both the minimum rate of flow attainable in the steady cone–jet mode of electrospray, and the size of the resulting droplets in that limit. Use is made of a small body of literature on Taylor cone–jets reporting precise measurements of the transported electric current and droplet size as a function of the liquid properties and flow rate. The projection of the data onto an appropriate non-dimensional parameter space maps a region bounded by the minimum rate of flow attainable in the steady state. To explain these experimental results, we propose a theoretical model based on the generalized concept of physical symmetry, stemming from the system time invariance (steadiness). A group of symmetries rising at the cone-to-jet geometrical transition determines the scaling for the minimum flow rate and related variables. If the flow rate is decreased below that minimum value, those symmetries break down, which leads to dripping. We find that the system exhibits two instability mechanisms depending on the nature of the forces arising against the flow: one dominated by viscosity and the other by the liquid polarity. In the former case, full charge relaxation is guaranteed down to the minimum flow rate, while in the latter the instability condition becomes equivalent to the symmetry breakdown by charge relaxation or separation. When cone–jets are formed without artificially imposing a flow rate, a microjet is issued quasi-steadily. The flow rate naturally ejected this way coincides with the minimum flow rate studied here. This natural flow rate determines the minimum droplet size that can be steadily produced by any electrohydrodynamic means for a given set of liquid properties. (paper)

  20. The minimum or natural rate of flow and droplet size ejected by Taylor cone-jets: physical symmetries and scaling laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gañán-Calvo, A. M.; Rebollo-Muñoz, N.; Montanero, J. M.

    2013-03-01

    We aim to establish the scaling laws for both the minimum rate of flow attainable in the steady cone-jet mode of electrospray, and the size of the resulting droplets in that limit. Use is made of a small body of literature on Taylor cone-jets reporting precise measurements of the transported electric current and droplet size as a function of the liquid properties and flow rate. The projection of the data onto an appropriate non-dimensional parameter space maps a region bounded by the minimum rate of flow attainable in the steady state. To explain these experimental results, we propose a theoretical model based on the generalized concept of physical symmetry, stemming from the system time invariance (steadiness). A group of symmetries rising at the cone-to-jet geometrical transition determines the scaling for the minimum flow rate and related variables. If the flow rate is decreased below that minimum value, those symmetries break down, which leads to dripping. We find that the system exhibits two instability mechanisms depending on the nature of the forces arising against the flow: one dominated by viscosity and the other by the liquid polarity. In the former case, full charge relaxation is guaranteed down to the minimum flow rate, while in the latter the instability condition becomes equivalent to the symmetry breakdown by charge relaxation or separation. When cone-jets are formed without artificially imposing a flow rate, a microjet is issued quasi-steadily. The flow rate naturally ejected this way coincides with the minimum flow rate studied here. This natural flow rate determines the minimum droplet size that can be steadily produced by any electrohydrodynamic means for a given set of liquid properties.

  1. Vertical Finger Displacement Is Reduced in Index Finger Tapping During Repeated Bout Rate Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Jensen, Mark Holten; Madeleine, Pascal; Hansen, Ernst Albin

    2017-10-01

    The present study analyzed (a) whether a recently reported phenomenon of repeated bout rate enhancement in finger tapping (i.e., a cumulating increase in freely chosen finger tapping frequency following submaximal muscle activation in the form of externally unloaded voluntary tapping) could be replicated and (b) the hypotheses that the faster tapping was accompanied by changed vertical displacement of the fingertip and changed peak force during tapping. Right-handed, healthy, and recreationally active individuals (n = 24) performed two 3-min index finger tapping bouts at freely chosen tapping frequency, separated by 10-min rest. The recently reported phenomenon of repeated bout rate enhancement was replicated. The faster tapping (8.8 ± 18.7 taps/min, corresponding to 6.0 ± 11.0%, p = .033) was accompanied by reduced vertical displacement (1.6 ± 2.9 mm, corresponding to 6.3 ± 14.9%, p = .012) of the fingertip. Concurrently, peak force was unchanged. The present study points at separate control mechanisms governing kinematics and kinetics during finger tapping.

  2. Endothermic decompositions of inorganic monocrystalline thin plates. II. Displacement rate modulation of the reaction front

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, G.; Comperat, M.; Lallemant, M.

    1980-09-01

    Copper sulfate pentahydrate dehydration into trihydrate was investigated using monocrystalline platelets with (110) crystallographic orientation. Temperature and pressure conditions were selected so as to obtain elliptical trihydrate domains. The study deals with the evolution, vs time, of elliptical domain dimensions and the evolution, vs water vapor pressure, of the {D}/{d} ratio of ellipse axes and on the other hand of the interface displacement rate along a given direction. The phenomena observed are not basically different from those yielded by the overall kinetic study of the solid sample. Their magnitude, however, is modulated depending on displacement direction. The results are analyzed within the scope of our study of endothermic decomposition of solids.

  3. 77 FR 75896 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-26

    ...-11213, Notice No. 16] Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2013...., Washington, DC 20590, (telephone 202-493- 1342); or Kathy Schnakenberg, FRA Alcohol/Drug Program Specialist... from FRA's Management Information System, the rail industry's random drug testing positive rate has...

  4. 75 FR 79308 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ...-11213, Notice No. 14] Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2011... random testing positive rates were .037 percent for drugs and .014 percent for alcohol. Because the... effective December 20, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lamar Allen, Alcohol and Drug Program Manager...

  5. Internal Displacement, the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement, the Principles Normative Status, and the Need for their Effective Domestic Implementation in Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Goldman

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper briefly examines the phenomenon of internal displacement world-wide and the genesis of the United Nation’s mandate to deal with this problem. It examines key conclusions of a UN sponsored study which found that existing international law contained signifi cant gaps and grey areas in terms of meeting the needs of internally displaced persons. It also examines the origins and the content of the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement and the normative status of these Principles. It suggests that, while not binding as such on states, the Guiding Principles have nonetheless become the most authoritative expression of minimum international standards applicable to the internally displaced and that based on state practice many, if not all, of these principles may eventually become part of customary international law. The paper also discusses the need for effective domestic implementation of the Guiding Principles, and examines how governmental authorities, the Constitutional Court and civil society organizations in Colombia, as well as inter-governmental bodies, have responded to the crisis of internal displacement in the country. While noting the adequacy of Colombia’s legislative framework on internal displacement, the paper concludes that the State has not taken the measures required to prevent future displacement or to effectively meet the protection and assistance needs of its displaced citizens.

  6. Digitizing Tablet and Fahn–Tolosa–Marín Ratings of Archimedes Spirals have Comparable Minimum Detectable Change in Essential Tremor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodger J. Elble

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drawing Archimedes spirals is a popular and valid method of assessing action tremor in the upper limbs. We performed the first blinded comparison of Fahn–Tolosa–Marín (FTM ratings and tablet measures of essential tremor to determine if a digitizing tablet is better than 0–4 ratings in detecting changes in essential tremor that exceed random variability in tremor amplitude.Methods: The large and small spirals of FTM were drawn with each hand on two consecutive days by 14 men and four women (age 60±8.7 years [mean±SD] with mild to severe essential tremor. The drawings were simultaneously digitized with a digitizing tablet. Tremor in each digitized drawing was computed with spectral analysis in an independent laboratory, blinded to the clinical ratings. The mean peak-to-peak tremor displacement (cm in the four spirals and mean FTM ratings were compared statistically.Results: Test–retest intraclass correlations (ICCs (two-way random single measures, absolute agreement were excellent for the FTM ratings (ICC 0.90, 95% CI 0.76–0.96 and tablet (ICC 0.97, 95% CI 0.91–0.99. Log10 tremor amplitude (T and FTM were strongly correlated (logT = αFTM + β, α≈0.6, β≈–1.27, r = 0.94. The minimum detectable change for the tablet and FTM were 51% and 67% of the initial assessment.Discussion: Digitizing tablets are much more precise than clinical ratings, but this advantage is mitigated by the natural variability in tremor. Nevertheless, the digitizing tablet is a robust method of quantifying tremor that can be used in lieu of or in combination with clinical ratings.

  7. Fundamentals of displacement production in irradiated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.

    1975-09-01

    Radioinduced displacement damage in metals is described. Discussions are included on the displacement event itself, calculation of displacement rates in general, the manner in which different types of radiation interact with metals to produce displacements, the similarities and differences in the types of damage produced, the current status of computer simulations of displacement cascades, experimental evidence regarding cascades, and aspects of correlating damage produced by different types of radiation

  8. Multi-GNSS high-rate RTK, PPP and novel direct phase observation processing method: application to precise dynamic displacement detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paziewski, Jacek; Sieradzki, Rafal; Baryla, Radoslaw

    2018-03-01

    This paper provides the methodology and performance assessment of multi-GNSS signal processing for the detection of small-scale high-rate dynamic displacements. For this purpose, we used methods of relative (RTK) and absolute positioning (PPP), and a novel direct signal processing approach. The first two methods are recognized as providing accurate information on position in many navigation and surveying applications. The latter is an innovative method for dynamic displacement determination with the use of GNSS phase signal processing. This method is based on the developed functional model with parametrized epoch-wise topocentric relative coordinates derived from filtered GNSS observations. Current regular kinematic PPP positioning, as well as medium/long range RTK, may not offer coordinate estimates with subcentimeter precision. Thus, extended processing strategies of absolute and relative GNSS positioning have been developed and applied for displacement detection. The study also aimed to comparatively analyze the developed methods as well as to analyze the impact of combined GPS and BDS processing and the dependence of the results of the relative methods on the baseline length. All the methods were implemented with in-house developed software allowing for high-rate precise GNSS positioning and signal processing. The phase and pseudorange observations collected with a rate of 50 Hz during the field test served as the experiment’s data set. The displacements at the rover station were triggered in the horizontal plane using a device which was designed and constructed to ensure a periodic motion of GNSS antenna with an amplitude of ~3 cm and a frequency of ~4.5 Hz. Finally, a medium range RTK, PPP, and direct phase observation processing method demonstrated the capability of providing reliable and consistent results with the precision of the determined dynamic displacements at the millimeter level. Specifically, the research shows that the standard deviation of

  9. Modelling Toehold-Mediated RNA Strand Displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E.; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P.K.; Louis, Ard A.

    2015-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperat...

  10. Project-induced displacement, secondary stressors, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yue; Hwang, Sean-Shong; Xi, Juan

    2012-04-01

    It has been estimated that about 15 million people are displaced by development projects around the world each year. Despite the magnitude of people affected, research on the health and other impacts of project-induced displacement is rare. This study extends existing knowledge by exploring the short-term health impact of a large scale population displacement resulting from China's Three Gorges Dam Project. The study is theoretically guided by the stress process model, but we supplement it with Cernea's impoverishment risks and reconstruction (IRR) model widely used in displacement literature. Our panel analysis indicates that the displacement is associated positively with relocatees' depression level, and negatively with their self-rated health measured against a control group. In addition, a path analysis suggests that displacement also affects depression and self-rated health indirectly by changing social integration, socioeconomic status, and community resources. The importance of social integration as a protective mechanism, a factor that has been overlooked in past studies of population displacement, is highlighted in this study. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Energy and IAQ Implications of Alternative Minimum Ventilation Rates in California Retail and School Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Spencer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    For a stand-alone retail building, a primary school, and a secondary school in each of the 16 California climate zones, the EnergyPlus building energy simulation model was used to estimate how minimum mechanical ventilation rates (VRs) affect energy use and indoor air concentrations of an indoor-generated contaminant. The modeling indicates large changes in heating energy use, but only moderate changes in total building energy use, as minimum VRs in the retail building are changed. For example, predicted state-wide heating energy consumption in the retail building decreases by more than 50% and total building energy consumption decreases by approximately 10% as the minimum VR decreases from the Title 24 requirement to no mechanical ventilation. The primary and secondary schools have notably higher internal heat gains than in the retail building models, resulting in significantly reduced demand for heating. The school heating energy use was correspondingly less sensitive to changes in the minimum VR. The modeling indicates that minimum VRs influence HVAC energy and total energy use in schools by only a few percent. For both the retail building and the school buildings, minimum VRs substantially affected the predicted annual-average indoor concentrations of an indoor generated contaminant, with larger effects in schools. The shape of the curves relating contaminant concentrations with VRs illustrate the importance of avoiding particularly low VRs.

  12. Modelling toehold-mediated RNA strand displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šulc, Petr; Ouldridge, Thomas E; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P K; Louis, Ard A

    2015-03-10

    We study the thermodynamics and kinetics of an RNA toehold-mediated strand displacement reaction with a recently developed coarse-grained model of RNA. Strand displacement, during which a single strand displaces a different strand previously bound to a complementary substrate strand, is an essential mechanism in active nucleic acid nanotechnology and has also been hypothesized to occur in vivo. We study the rate of displacement reactions as a function of the length of the toehold and temperature and make two experimentally testable predictions: that the displacement is faster if the toehold is placed at the 5' end of the substrate; and that the displacement slows down with increasing temperature for longer toeholds. Copyright © 2015 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Minimum Symbol Error Rate Detection in Single-Input Multiple-Output Channels with Markov Noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Minimum symbol error rate detection in Single-Input Multiple- Output(SIMO) channels with Markov noise is presented. The special case of zero-mean Gauss-Markov noise is examined closer as it only requires knowledge of the second-order moments. In this special case, it is shown that optimal detection...

  14. The seating mechanics of head-neck modular tapers in vitro: Load-displacement measurements, moisture, and rate effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellette, Eric S; Shenoy, Aarti A; Gilbert, Jeremy L

    2018-04-01

    The mechanically assisted crevice corrosion performance of head-neck modular tapers is a significant concern in orthopedic biomaterials. Fretting crevice corrosion processes in modular tapers are thought to be influenced by a wide array of factors including seating mechanics of the junction, hence there is a need for in vitro test methods that can assess their performance. This study presented a test method to directly measure the load-displacement seating mechanics of modular tapers and used this method to compare the seating mechanics for different tapers, moisture, seating loads and seating rates. Seating mechanics were explored whereby the instantaneous load-displacement behavior of the head seating onto the neck is captured and used to define the mechanics of seating. Two distinct taper design/material combinations were assembled wet or dry using axially applied loads (500, 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 N) at two loading rates of 100 and 10 4  N/s (n = 5 for each condition) using a servohydraulic test frame. The results showed that pull-off strength scaled with seating load and ranged between 43% and 68% of seating load depending on sample and wetness. Tapers seated wet had higher pull-off strengths (2,200 ± 300 N) than those seated dry (1,800 ± 200 N, p mechanics (load-displacement plots) varied due to sample type and due to wetness with differences in seating energy, seating stiffness, and seating displacement. These results show the detailed mechanics of seating during assembly and provide significant insight into the complex interplay of factors associated with even "ideal" seating (axial, quasistatic) loading. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:1164-1172, 2018. © 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Asymmetric SOL Current in Vertically Displaced Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, J. D.; Navratil, G. A.; Hanson, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Experiments at the DIII-D tokamak demonstrate a non-monotonic relationship between measured scrape-off layer (SOL) currents and vertical displacement event (VDE) rates with SOL currents becoming largely n=1 dominant as plasma is displaced by the plasma control system (PCS) at faster rates. The DIII-D PCS is used to displace the magnetic axis 10x slower than the intrinsic growth time of similar instabilities in lower single-null plasmas. Low order (n VDE instabilities observed when vertical control is disabled. Previous inquiry shows VDE asymmetry characterized by SOL current fraction and geometric parameters of tokamak plasmas. We note that, of plasmas displaced by the PCS, short displacement time scales near the limit of the PCS temporal control appear to result in larger n=1/n=2 asymmetries. Work supported under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-FG02-04ER54761.

  16. State-level minimum wage and heart disease death rates in the United States, 1980-2015: A novel application of marginal structural modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dyke, Miriam E; Komro, Kelli A; Shah, Monica P; Livingston, Melvin D; Kramer, Michael R

    2018-07-01

    Despite substantial declines since the 1960's, heart disease remains the leading cause of death in the United States (US) and geographic disparities in heart disease mortality have grown. State-level socioeconomic factors might be important contributors to geographic differences in heart disease mortality. This study examined the association between state-level minimum wage increases above the federal minimum wage and heart disease death rates from 1980 to 2015 among 'working age' individuals aged 35-64 years in the US. Annual, inflation-adjusted state and federal minimum wage data were extracted from legal databases and annual state-level heart disease death rates were obtained from CDC Wonder. Although most minimum wage and health studies to date use conventional regression models, we employed marginal structural models to account for possible time-varying confounding. Quasi-experimental, marginal structural models accounting for state, year, and state × year fixed effects estimated the association between increases in the state-level minimum wage above the federal minimum wage and heart disease death rates. In models of 'working age' adults (35-64 years old), a $1 increase in the state-level minimum wage above the federal minimum wage was on average associated with ~6 fewer heart disease deaths per 100,000 (95% CI: -10.4, -1.99), or a state-level heart disease death rate that was 3.5% lower per year. In contrast, for older adults (65+ years old) a $1 increase was on average associated with a 1.1% lower state-level heart disease death rate per year (b = -28.9 per 100,000, 95% CI: -71.1, 13.3). State-level economic policies are important targets for population health research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Effect of Minimum Wages on the Labor Force Participation Rates of Teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Walter J.

    In light of pressure on Congress to raise the minimum wage from $5.15 to $6.15 per hour, a study looked at the effects such a raise would have on more than 10 million workers, many of them teenagers. The study used quarterly data on the labor force participation rates of teenagers from 1978 through 1999 and other studies to assess the effects of…

  18. Neutron displacement damage cross sections for SiC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hanchen; Ghoniem, N.

    1993-01-01

    Calculations of neutron displacement damage cross sections for SiC are presented. We use Biersack and Haggmark's empirical formula in constructing the electronic stopping power, which combines Lindhard's model at low PKA energies and Bethe-Bloch's model at high PKA energies. The electronic stopping power for polyatomic materials is computed on the basis of Bragg's Additivity Rule. A continuous form of the inverse power law potential is used for nuclear scattering. Coupled integro-differential equations for the number of displaced atoms j, caused by PKA i, are then derived. The procedure outlined above gives partial displacement cross sections, displacement cross sections for each specie of the lattice, and for each PKA type. The corresponding damage rates for several fusion and fission neutron spectra are calculated. The stoichiometry of the irradiated material is investigated by finding the ratio of displacements among various atomic species. The role of each specie in displacing atoms is also investigated by calculating the fraction of displacements caused by each PKA type. The study shows that neutron displacement damage rates of SiC in typical magnetic fusion reactor first walls will be ∝10-15 dpa MW -1 m 2 ; in typical lead-protected inertial confinement fusion reactor first walls they will be ∝15-20 dpa MW -1 m 2 . For fission spectra, we find that the neutron displacement damage rate of SiC is ∝74 dpa per 10 27 n/m 2 in FFTF, ∝39 dpa per 10 27 n/m 2 in HFIR, and 25 dpa per 10 27 n/m 2 in NRU. Approximately 80% of displacement atoms are shown to be of the carbon-type. (orig.)

  19. Peroneal tendon displacement accompanying intra-articular calcaneal fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Rull James; Lin, Darius; Ehrlichman, Lauren K; Ellington, J Kent; Strasser, Nicholas; Kwon, John Y

    2014-02-19

    Peroneal tendon displacement (subluxation or dislocation) accompanying an intra-articular calcaneal fracture is often undetected and under-treated. The goals of this study were to determine (1) the prevalence of peroneal tendon displacement accompanying intra-articular calcaneal fractures, (2) the association of tendon displacement with fracture classifications, (3) the association of tendon displacement with heel width, and (4) the rate of missed diagnosis of the tendon displacement on radiographs and computed tomography (CT) scans and the resulting treatment rate. A retrospective radiographic review of all calcaneal fractures presenting at three institutions from June 30, 2006, to June 30, 2011, was performed. CT imaging of 421 intra-articular calcaneal fractures involving the posterior facet was available for review. The prevalence of peroneal tendon displacement was noted and its associations with fracture classification and heel width were evaluated. Peroneal tendon displacement was identified in 118 (28.0%) of the 421 calcaneal fracture cases. The presence of tendon displacement was significantly associated with joint-depression fractures compared with tongue-type fractures (p displacement had been identified in the radiology reports. Although sixty-five (55.1%) of the fractures with tendon displacement had been treated with internal fixation, the tendon displacement was treated surgically in only seven (10.8%) of these cases. Analysis of CT images showed a 28% prevalence of peroneal tendon displacement accompanying intra-articular calcaneal fractures. Surgeons and radiologists are encouraged to consider this association.

  20. Displacer Diameter Effect in Displacer Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shaowei

    2017-12-01

    Gas driving displacer pulse tube refrigerators are one of the work recovery type of pulse tube refrigerators whose theoretical efficiency is the same as Stirling refrigerators'. Its cooling power is from the displacement of the displacer. Displace diameter, rod diameter and pressure drop of the regenerator influence the displacement, which are investigated by numerical simulation. It is shown that the displacement ratio of the displacer over the piston is almost not affected by the displacer diameter at the same rod diameter ratio, or displacer with different diameters almost has the same performance.

  1. Photochemical Acceleration of DNA Strand Displacement by Using Ultrafast DNA Photo-crosslinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shigetaka; Hashimoto, Hirokazu; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Kenzo

    2017-10-18

    DNA strand displacement is an essential reaction in genetic recombination, biological processes, and DNA nanotechnology. In particular, various DNA nanodevices enable complicated calculations. However, it takes time before the output is obtained, so acceleration of DNA strand displacement is required for a rapid-response DNA nanodevice. Herein, DNA strand displacement by using DNA photo-crosslinking to accelerate this displacement is evaluated. The DNA photo-crosslinking of 3-cyanovinylcarbazole ( CNV K) was accelerated at least 20 times, showing a faster DNA strand displacement. The rate of photo-crosslinking is a key factor and the rate of DNA strand displacement is accelerated through ultrafast photo-crosslinking. The rate of DNA strand displacement was regulated by photoirradiation energy. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Displacement sensing system and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    VunKannon, Jr., Robert S

    2006-08-08

    A displacement sensing system and method addresses demanding requirements for high precision sensing of displacement of a shaft, for use typically in a linear electro-dynamic machine, having low failure rates over multi-year unattended operation in hostile environments. Applications include outer space travel by spacecraft having high-temperature, sealed environments without opportunity for servicing over many years of operation. The displacement sensing system uses a three coil sensor configuration, including a reference and sense coils, to provide a pair of ratio-metric signals, which are inputted into a synchronous comparison circuit, which is synchronously processed for a resultant displacement determination. The pair of ratio-metric signals are similarly affected by environmental conditions so that the comparison circuit is able to subtract or nullify environmental conditions that would otherwise cause changes in accuracy to occur.

  3. 75 FR 1547 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-12

    ...-11213, Notice No. 13] RIN 2130-AA81 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing... percent for alcohol. Because the industry-wide random drug testing positive rate has remained below 1.0... effective upon publication. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Lamar Allen, Alcohol and Drug Program Manager...

  4. [Osteosynthesis by tension band wiring of displaced fractures of the olecranon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doursounian, L; Prevot, O; Touzard, R C

    1994-01-01

    Fifty-two displaced olecranon fractures in adults were treated over a 5-year period. Minimum follow-up was 6 months. Forty-eight fractures were operated and 38 were treated by tension band wiring technique. This technique, applied for all types of fractures, gave good functional results in 33 cases (87%) and fair functional results in 5 cases. Complications include 1 pseudarthrosis, 2 loss of reduction, 2 transient tourniquet palsy and 13 skin problems due to wire protrusion. Tension band wiring is a simple safe and effective technique for displaced olecranon fractures but often requires K-wire removal.

  5. 78 FR 78275 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ...-11213, Notice No. 17] Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2014... December 26, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jerry Powers, FRA Drug and Alcohol Program Manager, W38...-493-6313); or Sam Noe, FRA Drug and Alcohol Program Specialist, (telephone 615-719- 2951). Issued in...

  6. Comparing fixation used for calcaneal displacement osteotomies: a look at removal rates and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Douglas E; Simpson, G Alex; Philbin, Terrence M

    2015-02-01

    The calcaneal displacement osteotomy is a procedure frequently used by foot and ankle surgeons for hindfoot angular deformity. Traditional techniques use compression screw fixation that can result in prominent hardware. While the results of the procedure are generally good, a common concern is the development of plantar heel pain related to prominent hardware. The primary purpose of this study is to retrospectively compare clinical outcomes of 2 fixation methods for the osteotomy. Secondarily a cost analysis will compare implant costs to hardware removal costs. Records were reviewed for patients who had undergone a calcaneal displacement osteotomy fixated with either lag screw or a locked lateral compression plate (LLCP). Neuropathy, previous ipsilateral calcaneus surgery, heel pad trauma, or incomplete radiographic follow-up were exclusionary. Thirty-two patients (19.4%) required hardware removal from the screw fixation group compared to 1 (1.6%) of the LLCP group, which is significant (P cost was remarkably different with screw fixation costing on average $247.12, compared to the LLCP costing $1175.59. Although the LLCP cost was significantly higher, cost savings were identified when the cost of removal and removal rates were included. This study demonstrates that this device provides adequate stabilization for healing in equivalent time to screw fixation. The LLCP required decreased rates of hardware removal with fewer postoperative visits over a shorter period of time. Significant savings were demonstrated in the LLCP group despite the higher implant cost. Therapeutic, Level III, Retrospective Comparative Study. © 2014 The Author(s).

  7. Constraining Basin Depth and Fault Displacement in the Malombe Basin Using Potential Field Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beresh, S. C. M.; Elifritz, E. A.; Méndez, K.; Johnson, S.; Mynatt, W. G.; Mayle, M.; Atekwana, E. A.; Laó-Dávila, D. A.; Chindandali, P. R. N.; Chisenga, C.; Gondwe, S.; Mkumbwa, M.; Kalaguluka, D.; Kalindekafe, L.; Salima, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Malombe Basin is part of the Malawi Rift which forms the southern part of the Western Branch of the East African Rift System. At its southern end, the Malawi Rift bifurcates into the Bilila-Mtakataka and Chirobwe-Ntcheu fault systems and the Lake Malombe Rift Basin around the Shire Horst, a competent block under the Nankumba Peninsula. The Malombe Basin is approximately 70km from north to south and 35km at its widest point from east to west, bounded by reversing-polarity border faults. We aim to constrain the depth of the basin to better understand displacement of each border fault. Our work utilizes two east-west gravity profiles across the basin coupled with Source Parameter Imaging (SPI) derived from a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey. The first gravity profile was done across the northern portion of the basin and the second across the southern portion. Gravity and magnetic data will be used to constrain basement depths and the thickness of the sedimentary cover. Additionally, Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data is used to understand the topographic expression of the fault scarps. Estimates for minimum displacement of the border faults on either side of the basin were made by adding the elevation of the scarps to the deepest SPI basement estimates at the basin borders. Our preliminary results using SPI and SRTM data show a minimum displacement of approximately 1.3km for the western border fault; the minimum displacement for the eastern border fault is 740m. However, SPI merely shows the depth to the first significantly magnetic layer in the subsurface, which may or may not be the actual basement layer. Gravimetric readings are based on subsurface density and thus circumvent issues arising from magnetic layers located above the basement; therefore expected results for our work will be to constrain more accurate basin depth by integrating the gravity profiles. Through more accurate basement depth estimates we also gain more accurate displacement

  8. Distally displaced premolars: A dental anomaly associated with palatally displaced canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, Tiziano; Leonardi, Maria; Giuntini, Veronica

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of association between distally displaced premolars (DDP) and palatally displaced canines (PDC) in the pattern of associated phenotypes of dental developmental disturbance. A sample of 2811 subjects (mean age, 9 years 7 months +/- 1 year 3 months) was divided randomly into 2 groups. The first group of 500 subjects was the control group. The reference prevalence rates for the examined parameters were calculated for this group: DDP (measured with the distal angle theta and the premolar-molar angle gamma); PDC; and other dental anomalies, specifically, aplasia of the third molars, aplasia of the contralateral mandibular second premolar, aplasia of the maxillary lateral incisors, and small maxillary lateral incisors. Of the remaining 2311 subjects, the first 100 with a diagnosis of DDP of at least 1 mandibular second premolar comprised experimental group 1 (DDP group). In addition to sex distribution, the same variables that were examined in the control group were analyzed. In the subgroup with the concurrent DDP and PDC (experimental group 2, or DDP-PDC group), the presence of other dental anomalies was investigated. The prevalence rate for PDC in experimental group 1 was compared with that in the control group. The same was done for the prevalence rates for the 4 other dental anomalies in the PDC-DDP group (experimental group 2) vs the prevalence rates for these anomalies in the control group. All comparisons were performed with chi-square tests with the Yates correction (P <0.05), as were the comparisons between the sexes in experimental groups 1 and 2. The values for theta and gamma angles in experimental group 1 were compared with the values for these angles in experimental group 2, as well as with those in the control group. These statistical comparisons were made with analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Bonferroni post-hoc test (P <0.05). The prevalence rate for PDC in experimental group 1 (28%) was

  9. Job Displacement and First Birth Over the Business Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Barbara; Kreyenfeld, Michaela; Uhlendorff, Arne

    2017-06-01

    In this article, we investigate the impact of job displacement on women's first-birth rates as well as the variation in this effect over the business cycle. We use mass layoffs to estimate the causal effects of involuntary job loss on fertility in the short and medium term, up to five years after displacement. Our analysis is based on rich administrative data from Germany, with an observation period spanning more than 20 years. We apply inverse probability weighting (IPW) to flexibly control for the observed differences between women who were and were not displaced. To account for the differences in the composition of the women who were displaced in a downturn and the women who were displaced in an upswing, we use a double weighting estimator. Results show that the extent to which job displacement has adverse effects on fertility depends on the business cycle. The first-birth rates were much lower for women who were displaced in an economic downturn than for those who lost a job in an economic upturn. This result cannot be explained by changes in the observed characteristics of the displaced women over the business cycle.

  10. Anterior disc displacement with reduction and symptomatic hypermobility in the human temporomandibular joint : Prevalence rates and risk factors in children and teenagers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slater, James J. R. Huddleston; Lobbezoo, Frank; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Naeije, Machiel

    2007-01-01

    Aims: To assess the prevalence rates and risk factors of anterior disc displacement with reduction (ADDR) and symptomatic hypermobility in a large sample of children and teenagers. Prevalence rates were also established in samples of young adults and adults. Methods: Children from 7 Dutch primary

  11. 29 CFR 4.1b - Payment of minimum compensation based on collectively bargained wage rates and fringe benefits...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... bargained wage rates and fringe benefits applicable to employment under predecessor contract. 4.1b Section 4... collectively bargained wage rates and fringe benefits applicable to employment under predecessor contract. (a) Section 4(c) of the Service Contract Act of 1965 as amended provides special minimum wage and fringe...

  12. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  13. Disasters And Minimum Health Standards In Disaster Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sibel GOGEN

    Full Text Available Millions of people are affected by natural or man made disasters all over the world. The number of people affected by disasters increase globally, due to global climate changes, increasing poverty, low life standards, inappropriate infrastructure, lack of early response systems, abuse of natural sources, and beside these, nuclear weapons, wars and conflicts, terrorist actions, migration, displacement and population movements. 95 % of life loss due to disasters are in the underdeveloped or developing countries. Turkey is a developing country, highly affected by disasters. For coping with disasters, not only national action plans, but also International Action Plans and cooperations are needed. Since all the disasters have direct and indirect effects on health, applications of minimal health standarts in disaster response, will reduce the morbidity and mortality rates. In this paper, water supplies and sanitation, vector control, waste control, burial of corpses, nutrition and minimum health standards in disaster response, are reviewed. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(12.000: 296-306

  14. Training improves interobserver reliability for the diagnosis of scaphoid fracture displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijze, Geert A; Guitton, Thierry G; van Dijk, C Niek; Ring, David

    2012-07-01

    The diagnosis of displacement in scaphoid fractures is notorious for poor interobserver reliability. We tested whether training can improve interobserver reliability and sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of scaphoid fracture displacement on radiographs and CT scans. Sixty-four orthopaedic surgeons rated a set of radiographs and CT scans of 10 displaced and 10 nondisplaced scaphoid fractures for the presence of displacement, using a web-based rating application. Before rating, observers were randomized to a training group (34 observers) and a nontraining group (30 observers). The training group received an online training module before the rating session, and the nontraining group did not. Interobserver reliability for training and nontraining was assessed by Siegel's multirater kappa and the Z-test was used to test for significance. There was a small, but significant difference in the interobserver reliability for displacement ratings in favor of the training group compared with the nontraining group. Ratings of radiographs and CT scans combined resulted in moderate agreement for both groups. The average sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of diagnosing displacement of scaphoid fractures were, respectively, 83%, 85%, and 84% for the nontraining group and 87%, 86%, and 87% for the training group. Assuming a 5% prevalence of fracture displacement, the positive predictive value was 0.23 in the nontraining group and 0.25 in the training group. The negative predictive value was 0.99 in both groups. Our results suggest training can improve interobserver reliability and sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the diagnosis of scaphoid fracture displacement, but the improvements are slight. These findings are encouraging for future research regarding interobserver variation and how to reduce it further.

  15. Swelling of AISI 304L in response to simultaneous variations in stress and displacement rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, D.L.; Garner, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    The duration of the transient regime of neutron-induced swelling in annealed AISI 304L at 400 0 C is sensitive to both stress and displacement rate variations. The simultaneous application of both variables exerts a synergistic effect on the transient regime. The duration of this regime cannot be reduced below a required intrinsic exposure of approx. 10 dpa, however, which has been found to be characteristic of all Fe-Ni-Cr austenitic alloys. This is four times larger than that currently assumed in the stress-affected swelling equation for 20% cold-worked AISI 316

  16. The Effect of Basepair Mismatch on DNA Strand Displacement

    OpenAIRE

    Broadwater, D.?W.?Bo; Kim, Harold?D.

    2016-01-01

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single base pair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied si...

  17. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for all...

  18. A minimum bit error-rate detector for amplify and forward relaying systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Aissa, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new detector is being proposed for amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying system when communicating with the assistance of L number of relays. The major goal of this detector is to improve the bit error rate (BER) performance of the system. The complexity of the system is further reduced by implementing this detector adaptively. The proposed detector is free from channel estimation. Our results demonstrate that the proposed detector is capable of achieving a gain of more than 1-dB at a BER of 10 -5 as compared to the conventional minimum mean square error detector when communicating over a correlated Rayleigh fading channel. © 2012 IEEE.

  19. A minimum bit error-rate detector for amplify and forward relaying systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, a new detector is being proposed for amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying system when communicating with the assistance of L number of relays. The major goal of this detector is to improve the bit error rate (BER) performance of the system. The complexity of the system is further reduced by implementing this detector adaptively. The proposed detector is free from channel estimation. Our results demonstrate that the proposed detector is capable of achieving a gain of more than 1-dB at a BER of 10 -5 as compared to the conventional minimum mean square error detector when communicating over a correlated Rayleigh fading channel. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Studies on displacement behavior between hydrogen and deuterium in hydride column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Guangda; Li Gan; Jiang Guoqiang

    2001-01-01

    A series displacement experiments between hydrogen and deuterium in ZrCo, LaNi 5 , LaNi 4.7 Al 0.3 and Pd hydride column had been conducted at room temperature about. Results indicate that displacement characteristics related to factors such as temperature, gas flow rate, ratio surface area of solid phase and hydrogen isotope separation factor of the metal-hydrogen system. The palladium hydride have the best displacement characteristics, and LaNi 5 , LaNi 4.7 Al 0.3 and ZrCo are in the next places. Theoretical study reveals that the rule of the exchange reaction of hydrogen isotopes in gas-solid interface determines the displacement behavior and the displacing efficiency depends on exchange rate. The ideal stage mode could be used to describe the displacement breakthrough curve. The height equivalent to theoretical place (HETP) indicates the displacing effects. Also, the separation factor has a serious influence to HETP under the same condition

  1. Displacement compressors - acceptance tests

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    ISO 1217:2009 specifies methods for acceptance tests regarding volume rate of flow and power requirements of displacement compressors. It also specifies methods for testing liquid-ring type compressors and the operating and testing conditions which apply when a full performance test is specified.

  2. Design objectives with non-zero prescribed support displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2011-01-01

    When non-zero prescribed support displacements are involved in addition to design independent loads for a continuum/structure, then the objectives of minimum compliance (total elastic energy) and of maximum strength lead to different designs. This is verified by the presented sensitivities. Designs...... minimization as well as that of direct strength maximization; we choose the objective of obtaining uniform energy density and show by examples that the obtained solutions are close to fulfilling also strength maximization, with the price of increased compliance. Optimal design examples are presented...

  3. VADASE: a new approach for real-time fast displacement detection - First application to Taiwan High-Rate GNSS Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Huang-Kai; Rau, Ruey-Juin; Colosimo, Gabriele; Benedetti, Elisa; Branzanti, Mara; Crespi, Mattia; Mazzoni, Augusto

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this work is to show new possibilities for GNSS Permanent Network data processing offered by VADASE (Variometric Approach for Displacements Analysis Standalone Engine) to retrieve waveforms and coseismic displacements in real-time when an earthquake occurs. The main advantage of using GNSS receiver, in a complementary way with traditional seismic network, is that it can work without being affected by saturation, which commonly influence seismometers and accelerometers close to strong earthquake epicenters. VADASE was originally proposed in 2010 ([4],[5]) as the third way in GPS Seismology (in addition to Precise Point Positioning and Instantaneous Differential Positioning). The approach is based on time single differences of carrier phase observations continuously collected at high rate (1 Hz or higher) using a standalone GPS receiver and standard GPS broadcast products (orbits and clocks) that are available in real-time. Hence, one receiver works in standalone mode and the epoch-by-epoch displacements (equivalent to velocities) are estimated. Then, they are summed over the time interval when the earthquake occurred to retrieve coseismic displacements and waveforms. Considering time intervals limited to few minutes, the receiver displacements can be ascertained at a few centimeters accuracy level in real-time. The effectiveness of this approach was recognized by DLR (German Aerospace Agency), and VADASE was awarded the DLR Special Topic Prize and the Audience Award at the European Satellite Navigation Competition 2010. Moreover, VADASE potential was proven in the dramatic occasion of the Japanese earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011 ([3]-[6]); in fact VADASE was able to provide the first estimates of the displacements suffered at the IGS sites of MIZU and USUD [7], as soon as the data of these stations were available. The results were then confirmed by several other solutions based on the renown (DP, PPP) approaches. More recently, VADASE was applied

  4. Ion-channeling study of anomalous atomic displacements at the superconducting transition in high-Tc materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehn, L.E.; Sharma, R.P.; Baldo, P.M.

    1991-01-01

    Ion channeling along the [001] direction in high-quality single crystals of (Y/Er)Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-x revealed an abrupt change in displace-ments in the a-b plane of the Cu and O atoms at the superconducting transition, T c ; normal 'Debye-like' vibrations were found for the Y/Er and Ba atoms. The anomalous change in Cu-O displacements was found to shift directly with stoichiometry-induced changes in T c , implying a direct link between the observed phonon anomaly and the superconducting transition. Recent measurements of ion-channeling along the [001] axis in (Bi 1.7 Pb 0.3 )Sr 2 Ca 1 Cu 2 O x single-crystals revealed a similar change at T c , suggesting that this phonon anomaly is a general feature of high-T c superconductivity. In order to identify more specifically the crystallographic directions and displacement amplitudes associated with the anomalous phonon behavior, axial channeling scans using RBS, as well as characteristic x-ray production, were taken at several temperatures between 30 and 300K along the [301] and [331] directions of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x single crystals. Twins present in the specimens, and the existing static atomic displacements present along these directions, caused the channeling to be poorer along these axes compared to the (001) direction. Also, a much stronger dependence of the minimum yield on depth was observed. However, since only one twin variant generally dominated over sufficiently wide areas of the specimens, reasonably good (approx 10 percent) minimum yields could be obtained along the appropriate [331] axis, and detwinned crystals produced good results along [301]. (author). 27 refs.; 5 figs

  5. The Effect of Basepair Mismatch on DNA Strand Displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadwater, D W Bo; Kim, Harold D

    2016-04-12

    DNA strand displacement is a key reaction in DNA homologous recombination and DNA mismatch repair and is also heavily utilized in DNA-based computation and locomotion. Despite its ubiquity in science and engineering, sequence-dependent effects of displacement kinetics have not been extensively characterized. Here, we measured toehold-mediated strand displacement kinetics using single-molecule fluorescence in the presence of a single basepair mismatch. The apparent displacement rate varied significantly when the mismatch was introduced in the invading DNA strand. The rate generally decreased as the mismatch in the invader was encountered earlier in displacement. Our data indicate that a single base pair mismatch in the invader stalls branch migration and displacement occurs via direct dissociation of the destabilized incumbent strand from the substrate strand. We combined both branch migration and direct dissociation into a model, which we term the concurrent displacement model, and used the first passage time approach to quantitatively explain the salient features of the observed relationship. We also introduce the concept of splitting probabilities to justify that the concurrent model can be simplified into a three-step sequential model in the presence of an invader mismatch. We expect our model to become a powerful tool to design DNA-based reaction schemes with broad functionality. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Displaced Sense: Displacement, Religion and Sense-making

    OpenAIRE

    Naidu, Maheshvari

    2016-01-01

    Whether formally categorized as refugees or not, displaced migrants experience varying degrees of vulnerability in relation to where they find themselves displaced. The internally displaced furthermore squat invisibly and outside the boundaries of the legal framework and incentive structures accorded to those classified as 'refugee'. They are thus arguably, by and large, left to source sustaining solutions for themselves. This article works through the theoretical prism of sense-making theory...

  7. Displacement behaviour is associated with reduced stress levels among men but not women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changiz Mohiyeddini

    Full Text Available Sex differences in the ability to cope with stress may contribute to the higher prevalence of stress-related disorders among women compared to men. We recently provided evidence that displacement behaviour--activities such as scratching and face touching--represents an important strategy for coping with stressful situations: in a healthy population of men, displacement behaviour during a social stress test attenuated the relationship between anxiety experienced prior to this test, and the subsequent self-reported experience of stress. Here, we extend this work to look at physiological and cognitive (in addition to self-reported measures of stress, and study both men and women in order to investigate whether sex moderates the link between displacement behaviour and the response to stress. In a healthy study population, we quantified displacement behaviour, heart rate and cognitive performance during the Trier Social Stress Test, and used self-report questionnaires to assess the experience of stress afterwards. Men engaged in displacement behaviour about twice as often as women, and subsequently reported lower levels of stress. Bivariate correlations revealed that for men, higher rates of displacement behaviour were associated with decreased self-reported stress, fewer mistakes in the cognitive task and a trend towards lower heart rate; no relationships between displacement behaviour and stress measures were found for women. Moreover, moderation analyses revealed that high rates of displacement behaviour were associated with lower stress levels in men but not in women, and that high displacement behaviour rates were associated with poorer cognitive performance in women, but not men. These results point to an important sex difference in coping strategies, and highlight new avenues for research into sex biases in stress-related disorders.

  8. Crustal displacements in Greenland caused by ice mass variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Karina

    rates indicates, that the modeled elastic displacements are well captured. Based on this analysis, the GIA rates are estimated to -1 ± 0.6 mm/yr at KELY, 2 ± 0.7 mm/yr at SCOR, and 0.5 ± 0.5 mm/yr at QAQ1. At the sites KULU and THU2 the elastic displacement rates could not be accurately estimated...... modeled and removed. Over a period of a few decades, the GIA rate is assumed to be constant. Hence, changes in the observed rate results from the present-day changes. Here, mass change grids, derived from Ice, Cloud,and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) data from three overlapping time spans are used...

  9. Outcomes of nonoperatively treated displaced scapular body fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitroulias, Apostolos; Molinero, Kenneth G; Krenk, Daniel E; Muffly, Matthew T; Altman, Daniel T; Altman, Gregory T

    2011-05-01

    Displaced scapular body fractures most commonly are treated conservatively. However there is conflicting evidence in the literature regarding the outcomes owing to retrospective design of studies, different classification systems, and diverse outcome tools. The functional outcome after nonoperative management of displaced scapular body fractures was assessed by change in the DASH (Disability of Arm, Shoulder and Hand) score; (2) the radiographic outcome was assessed by the change of the glenopolar angle (GPA); and (3) associated scapular and extrascapular injuries that may affect outcome were identified. Forty-nine consecutive patients were treated with early passive and active ROM exercises for a displaced scapular body fracture. We followed 32 of these patients (65.3%) for a minimum of 6 months (mean, 15 months; range, 6-33 months). Mean age of the patients was 46.9 years (range, 21-84 years) and the mean Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 21.5 (range, 5-50). Subjective functional results (DASH score) and radiographic assessment (fracture union, glenopolar angle) were measured. All fractures healed uneventfully. The mean change of glenopolar angle was 9° (range, 0°-20°). The mean change of the DASH score was 10.2, which is a change with minimal clinical importance. There was a correlation between the change in this score with the ISS and presence of rib fractures. Satisfactory outcomes are reported with nonoperative treatment of displaced scapular body fractures. We have shown that the severity of ISS and the presence of rib fractures adversely affect the clinical outcome.

  10. Short gamma-ray burst formation rate from BATSE data using E{sub p} -L{sub p} correlation and the minimum gravitational-wave event rate of a coalescing compact binary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonetoku, Daisuke; Sawano, Tatsuya; Toyanago, Asuka [College of Science and Engineering, School of Mathematics and Physics, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Nakamura, Takashi [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Takahashi, Keitaro, E-mail: yonetoku@astro.s.kanazawa-u.ac.jp, E-mail: takashi@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Science, Kumamoto University, Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Using 72 short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) with well determined spectral data observed by BATSE, we determine their redshift and luminosity by applying the E{sub p} -L{sub p} correlation for SGRBs found by Tsutsui et al. For 53 SGRBs with an observed flux brighter than 4 × 10{sup –6} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, the cumulative redshift distribution up to z = 1 agrees well with that of 22 Swift SGRBs. This suggests that the redshift determination by the E{sub p} -L{sub p} correlation for SGRBs works well. The minimum event rate at z = 0 is estimated as R{sub on−axis}{sup min}=6.3{sub −3.9}{sup +3.1}× 10{sup −10} events Mpc{sup −3} yr{sup −1}, so that the minimum beaming angle is 0.°6-7.°8 assuming a merging rate of 10{sup –7}- 4 × 10{sup –6} events Mpc{sup –3} yr{sup –1} suggested from the binary pulsar data. Interestingly, this angle is consistent with that for SGRB 130603B of ∼4°-8°. On the other hand, if we assume a beaming angle of ∼6° suggested from four SGRBs with the observed beaming angle value, then the minimum event rate including off-axis SGRBs is estimated as R{sub all}{sup min}=1.15{sub −0.66}{sup +0.56} × 10{sup −7} events Mpc{sup −3} yr{sup −1}. If SGRBs are induced by the coalescence of binary neutron stars (NSs) and/or black holes (BHs), then this event rate leads to a minimum gravitational-wave detection rate of 3.8{sub −2.2}{sup +1.8} (146{sub −83}{sup +71}) events yr{sup −1} for an NS-NS (NS-BH) binary, respectively, by a worldwide network with KAGRA, advanced-LIGO, advanced-VIRGO, and GEO.

  11. MRI-guided percutaneous cryoablation of renal tumors: Use of external manual displacement of adjacent bowel loops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuncali, Kemal; Morrison, Paul R.; Tatli, Servet; Silverman, Stuart G.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to investigate retrospectively the safety and effectiveness of using external hand compression to displace adjacent bowel loops during MRI-guided percutaneous cryoablation of renal tumors. Materials and methods: Fourteen patients (six women, eight men; mean age: 72 years) with 15 renal tumors (mean diameter: 2.4 cm; range: 1.4-4.6 cm) adjacent to bowel were treated with MRI-guided percutaneous cryoablation during which bowel was displaced manually. Bowel loop of concern was ascending colon (n 5), descending colon (n = 8), descending colon and small bowel (n = 1), ascending colon and small bowel (n = 1). To analyze effectiveness of the maneuver, mean distance between tumor margin and bowel before and after the maneuver were compared and analyzed using paired Student's t-test. Minimum distance between iceball edge and adjacent bowel with external manual displacement during freezing was also measured. Safety was assessed by analyzing post-procedural MR imaging for adjacent bowel wall thickening and focal fluid collections as well as patients' clinical and imaging follow-up. Results: Mean distance between tumor margin and closest adjacent bowel increased from 0.8 cm (range: 0-2 cm) before external manual compression to 2.6 cm (range: 1.6-4.1 cm) with manual displacement (p < 0.01). Mean minimum distance between iceball edge and closest adjacent bowel during the procedures was 1.6 cm (range: 0.5-3.5 cm). No evidence of bowel injury was encountered. Twelve of 15 tumors had follow-up (mean: 10 months) that showed no tumor recurrence. Conclusion: MRI-guided percutaneous cryoablation of renal tumors adjacent to bowel can be done safely and effectively using external hand compression to displace bowel loops

  12. Insect Wing Displacement Measurement Using Digital Holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, Daniel D.; Mendoza Santoyo, Fernando; Torre I, Manuel H. de la; Caloca Mendez, Cristian I.

    2008-01-01

    Insects in flight have been studied with optical non destructive techniques with the purpose of using meaningful results in aerodynamics. With the availability of high resolution and large dynamic range CCD sensors the so called interferometric digital holographic technique was used to measure the surface displacement of in flight insect wings, such as butterflies. The wings were illuminated with a continuous wave Verdi laser at 532 nm, and observed with a CCD Pixelfly camera that acquire images at a rate of 11.5 frames per second at a resolution of 1392x1024 pixels and 12 Bit dynamic range. At this frame rate digital holograms of the wings were captured and processed in the usual manner, namely, each individual hologram is Fourier processed in order to find the amplitude and phase corresponding to the digital hologram. The wings displacement is obtained when subtraction between two digital holograms is performed for two different wings position, a feature applied to all consecutive frames recorded. The result of subtracting is seen as a wrapped phase fringe pattern directly related to the wing displacement. The experimental data for different butterfly flying conditions and exposure times are shown as wire mesh plots in a movie of the wings displacement

  13. Malnutrition and Mortality Patterns among Internally Displaced and Non-Displaced Population Living in a Camp, a Village or a Town in Eastern Chad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrier, Gilles; Zounoun, Malaïka; Delarosa, Olimpia; Defourny, Isabelle; Lacharite, Michelo; Brown, Vincent; Pedalino, Biagio

    2009-01-01

    Background Certain population groups have been rendered vulnerable in Chad because of displacement of more than 200,000 people over the last three years as a result of mass violence against civilians in the east of the country. The objective of the study was to assess mortality and nutritional patterns among displaced and non-displaced population living in camps, villages and a town in the Ouddaï and Salamat regions of Chad. Methodology Between May and October 2007, two stage, 30-cluster household surveys were conducted among 43,900 internally displaced persons (IDPs) living in camps in Ouaddai region (n = 898 households), among 19,400 non-displaced persons (NDPs) living in 42 villages in Ouaddai region (n = 900 households) and among 17,000 NDPs living in a small town in Salamat region (n = 901 households). Data collection included anthropometric measurements, measles vaccination rates and retrospective mortality. Crude mortality rate (CMR), mortality rate among children younger than 5 years (U5MR), causes of death and the prevalence of wasting (weight-for-height z score malnutrition rates (according to the WHO definition) among 904 IDP children, 956 NDPs children living in a village, 901 NDP children living in a town aged 6 to 59 months were 20.6% (95% CI, 17.9%–23.3%), 16.4% (95% CI, 14.0%–18.8%) and 10.1% (95% CI, 8.1%–12.2%) respectively. The study found a high mortality rate among IDPs and an elevated prevalence of wasting not only in IDP camps but also in villages located in the same region. The town-dweller population remains at risk of malnutrition. Appropriate contingency plans need to be made to ensure acceptable living standards for these populations. PMID:19956627

  14. On the Influence of Piston and Cylinder Density in Tribodynamics of a Radial Piston Digital Fluid Power Displacement Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Per; Roemer, Daniel Beck; Andersen, Torben O.

    2015-01-01

    -stroke displacement simulations are used as basis for the parametric analysis. From the parametric analysis a change, in the minimum film thickness as function of piston and cylinder density, is shown for certain operating modes of the digital fluid power displacement motor. This indicate a need for careful....... In this paper the influence of the inertia term on the lubrication gaps of a radial piston motor are studied by a parametric analysis of the piston and cylinder density in a multibody tribodynamic simulation model. The motor is modeled as a digital fluid power displacement machine and a series of full...... assessment of the applicability, of the force balance condition, if it is used in multibody tribodynamic simulations of radial piston digital fluid power displacement motors....

  15. Association of Ipsilateral Rib Fractures With Displacement of Midshaft Clavicle Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Daniel; Ellington, Matthew; Brennan, Kindyle; Brennan, Michael

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether the presence of ipsilateral rib fractures affects the rate of a clavicle fracture being unstable (>100% displacement). A retrospective review from 2002-2013 performed at a single level 1 trauma center evaluated 243 midshaft clavicle fractures. Single Level 1 trauma center. These fractures were subdivided into those with ipsilateral rib fractures (CIR; n = 149) and those without ipsilateral rib fractures (CnIR; n = 94). The amount of displacement was measured on the initial injury radiograph and subsequent follow-up radiographs. Fractures were classified into either 100% displacement, based on anteroposterior radiographs. Ipsilateral rib fractures were recorded based on which number rib was fractured and the total number of fractured ribs. One hundred sixteen (78%) of the CIR group and 51 (54%) of the CnIR group were found to have >100% displacement at follow-up (P = 0.0047). Seventy-two percent of the CIR group demonstrated progression from 100% displacement of the fracture compared with only 54% of the CnIR group (P fracture to >100% was 4.08 (P = 0.000194) when ribs 1-4 were fractured and not significant for rib fractures 5-8 or 9-12. The presence of concomitant ipsilateral rib fractures significantly increases the rate of midshaft clavicle fractures being >100% displaced. In addition, a fracture involving the upper one-third of the ribs significantly increases the rate of the clavicle fracture being >100% displaced on early follow-up. Clavicle fractures with associated ipsilateral rib fractures tend to demonstrate an increased amount of displacement on follow-up radiographs compared with those without ipsilateral rib fractures. Prognostic Level II. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  16. Subthreshold displacement damage in copper--aluminum alloys during electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drosd, R.; Kosel, T.; Washburn, J.

    1976-12-01

    During electron irradiation at low energies which results in a negligible damage rate in a pure material, lighter solute atoms are displaced, which may in turn indirectly displace solvent atoms by a focussed replacement collision or an interstitial diffusion jump. The extent to which lighter solute atoms contribute to the subthreshold damage rate has been examined by irradiating copper--aluminum alloys at high temperatures in a high voltage electron microscope. The damage rate, as measured by monitoring the growth rate of dislocation loops, at 300 kV was found to increase linearly with the aluminum concentration

  17. Fission-neutron displacement cross sections in metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamura, Saburo; Aruga, Takeo; Nakata, Kiyotomo

    1985-01-01

    The sensitivity damage rates for 22 metals were measured after fission-spectrum neutron irradiation at low temperature and the experimental damage rates were compared with the theoretical calculation. The relation between the theoretical displacement cross section and the atomic weight of metals can be written by two curves; one is for fcc and hcp metals, and another is for bcc metals. On the other hand, the experimental displacement cross section versus atomic weight is shown approximately by a curve for both fcc and bcc metals, and the cross section for hcp metals deviates from the curve. The defect production efficiency is 0.3-0.4 for fcc metals and 0.6-0.8 for bcc metals. (orig.)

  18. Small Displacement Detection of Biological Signals Using the Cyclic Frequency Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A new signal processing method called the Cyclic Frequency method is proposed for small displacement detection of vital signals such as heart rate and respiration using the CW radar method. We have presented experimental results of small displacement detection to confirm the validity of the method. The displacement amplitude 2.5 mm can be detected with a propagation frequency of 24.15 GHz. We may increase the propagation frequency for smaller displacement amplitude or target velocity.

  19. Minimum airflow reset of single-duct VAV terminal boxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Hum

    Single duct Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems are currently the most widely used type of HVAC system in the United States. When installing such a system, it is critical to determine the minimum airflow set point of the terminal box, as an optimally selected set point will improve the level of thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) while at the same time lower overall energy costs. In principle, this minimum rate should be calculated according to the minimum ventilation requirement based on ASHRAE standard 62.1 and maximum heating load of the zone. Several factors must be carefully considered when calculating this minimum rate. Terminal boxes with conventional control sequences may result in occupant discomfort and energy waste. If the minimum rate of airflow is set too high, the AHUs will consume excess fan power, and the terminal boxes may cause significant simultaneous room heating and cooling. At the same time, a rate that is too low will result in poor air circulation and indoor air quality in the air-conditioned space. Currently, many scholars are investigating how to change the algorithm of the advanced VAV terminal box controller without retrofitting. Some of these controllers have been found to effectively improve thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency. However, minimum airflow set points have not yet been identified, nor has controller performance been verified in confirmed studies. In this study, control algorithms were developed that automatically identify and reset terminal box minimum airflow set points, thereby improving indoor air quality and thermal comfort levels, and reducing the overall rate of energy consumption. A theoretical analysis of the optimal minimum airflow and discharge air temperature was performed to identify the potential energy benefits of resetting the terminal box minimum airflow set points. Applicable control algorithms for calculating the ideal values for the minimum airflow reset were developed and

  20. Displacement Parameter Inversion for a Novel Electromagnetic Underground Displacement Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanying Shentu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Underground displacement monitoring is an effective method to explore deep into rock and soil masses for execution of subsurface displacement measurements. It is not only an important means of geological hazards prediction and forecasting, but also a forefront, hot and sophisticated subject in current geological disaster monitoring. In previous research, the authors had designed a novel electromagnetic underground horizontal displacement sensor (called the H-type sensor by combining basic electromagnetic induction principles with modern sensing techniques and established a mutual voltage measurement theoretical model called the Equation-based Equivalent Loop Approach (EELA. Based on that work, this paper presents an underground displacement inversion approach named “EELA forward modeling-approximate inversion method”. Combining the EELA forward simulation approach with the approximate optimization inversion theory, it can deduce the underground horizontal displacement through parameter inversion of the H-type sensor. Comprehensive and comparative studies have been conducted between the experimentally measured and theoretically inversed values of horizontal displacement under counterpart conditions. The results show when the measured horizontal displacements are in the 0–100 mm range, the horizontal displacement inversion discrepancy is generally tested to be less than 3 mm under varied tilt angles and initial axial distances conditions, which indicates that our proposed parameter inversion method can predict underground horizontal displacement measurements effectively and robustly for the H-type sensor and the technique is applicable for practical geo-engineering applications.

  1. Microbial degradation rates of small peptides and amino acids in the oxygen minimum zone of Chilean coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantoja, Silvio; Rossel, Pamela; Castro, Rodrigo; Cuevas, L. Antonio; Daneri, Giovanni; Córdova, Candy

    2009-07-01

    We found similar microbial degradation rates of labile dissolved organic matter in oxic and suboxic waters off northern Chile. Rates of peptide hydrolysis and amino acid uptake in unconcentrated water samples were not low in the water column where oxygen concentration was depleted. Hydrolysis rates ranged from 65 to 160 nmol peptide L -1 h -1 in the top 20 m, 8-28 nmol peptide L -1 h -1 between 100 and 300 m (O 2-depleted zone), and 14-19 nmol peptide L -1 h -1 between 600 and 800 m. Dissolved free amino acid uptake rates were 9-26, 3-17, and 6 nmol L -1 h -1 at similar depth intervals. Since these findings are consistent with a model of comparable potential activity of microbes in degrading labile substrates of planktonic origin, we suggest, as do other authors, that differences in decomposition rates with high and low oxygen concentrations may be a matter of substrate lability. The comparison between hydrolysis and uptake rates indicates that microbial peptide hydrolysis occurs at similar or faster rates than amino acid uptake in the water column, and that the hydrolysis of peptides is not a rate-limiting step for the complete remineralization of labile macromolecules. Low O 2 waters process about 10 tons of peptide carbon per h, double the amount processed in surface-oxygenated water. In the oxygen minimum zone, we suggest that the C balance may be affected by the low lability of the dissolved organic matter when this is upwelled to the surface. An important fraction of dissolved organic matter is processed in the oxygen minimum layer, a prominent feature of the coastal ocean in the highly productive Humboldt Current System.

  2. Fiber-optic couplers as displacement sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruch, Martin C.; Gerdt, David W.; Adkins, Charles M.

    2003-04-01

    We introduce the novel concept of using a fiber-optic coupler as a versatile displacement sensor. Comparatively long fiber-optic couplers, with a coupling region of approximately 10 mm, are manufactured using standard communication SM fiber and placed in a looped-back configuration. The result is a displacement sensor, which is robust and highly sensitive over a wide dynamic range. This displacement sensor resolves 1-2 μm over distances of 1-1.5 mm and is characterized by the essential absence of a 'spring constant' plaguing other strain gauge-type sensors. Consequently, it is possible to couple to extremely weak vibrations, such as the skin displacement affected by arterial heart beat pulsations. Used as a wrist-worn heartbeat monitor, the fidelity of the arterial pulse signal has been shown to be so high that it is possible to not only determine heartbeat and breathing rates, but to implement a new single-point blood pressure measurement scheme which does not squeeze the arm. In an application as a floor vibration sensor for the non-intrusive monitoring of independently living elderly, the sensor has been shown to resolve the distinct vibration spectra of different persons and different events.

  3. Displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosonen, Risto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Mundt, Elisabeth

    The aim of this Guidebook is to give the state-of-the art knowledge of the displacement ventilation technology, and to simplify and improve the practical design procedure. The Guidebook discusses methods of total volume ventilation by mixing ventilation and displacement ventilation and it gives...... insights of the performance of the displacement ventilation. It also shows practical case studies in some typical applications and the latest research findings to create good local micro-climatic conditions....

  4. Variable exhumation rates and variable displacement rates: Documenting recent slowing of Himalayan shortening in western Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuarrie, Nadine; Tobgay, Tobgay; Long, Sean P.; Reiners, Peter W.; Cosca, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    We link exhumational variability in space and time to the evolving geometry of the Himalayan fold–thrust belt in western Bhutan. By combining new and published geochronologic and thermochronologic data we document the burial age, peak temperatures and complete cooling history from 20 Ma to the present over an across-strike distance of ∼125 km. These integrated cooling curves highlight windows of fast exhumation that vary spatially and temporally. We propose that pulses of fast exhumation are a result of structures that facilitate the vertical motion of material, illustrated in sequentially-restored cross sections. Due to a range of permissible geometries at depth, we explore and evaluate the impact of geometry on kinematics and rates of deformation. The linked cooling history and cross sections provide estimates of both magnitude and timing of thrust sheet displacement and highlight temporal variability in potential shortening rates. Structural and chronologic data illustrate a general north to south progression of Himalayan deformation, with emplacement of the Main Central thrust (MCT), Paro thrust and Shumar thrust by 12 to no later than 9 Ma. Two different geometries and kinematic scenarios for the Lesser Himalayan duplex are proposed. A north to south propagating duplex system requires that the southern portion of that system, south of the MCT, deformed and cooled by 9 Ma, leaving only the southernmost thrust sheets, including the Main Boundary and Main Frontal thrusts, to deform between 9 and 0 Ma. This limited post 9 Ma shortening would necessitate a marked slowdown in convergence accommodated on the Main Himalayan thrust. A two-tiered duplex system, which allows for the Paro window duplex and the southern Baxa duplex to form simultaneously, permits duplex formation and accompanying exhumation until 6 Ma. Limited cooling from ∼200 °C to the surface post 6 Ma suggests either a decrease in shortening rates from 6 to 0 Ma or that duplex formation and

  5. Digital Speckle Photography of Subpixel Displacements of Speckle Structures Based on Analysis of Their Spatial Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimova, L. A.; Ryabukho, P. V.; Mysina, N. Yu.; Lyakin, D. V.; Ryabukho, V. P.

    2018-04-01

    We have investigated the capabilities of the method of digital speckle interferometry for determining subpixel displacements of a speckle structure formed by a displaceable or deformable object with a scattering surface. An analysis of spatial spectra of speckle structures makes it possible to perform measurements with a subpixel accuracy and to extend the lower boundary of the range of measurements of displacements of speckle structures to the range of subpixel values. The method is realized on the basis of digital recording of the images of undisplaced and displaced speckle structures, their spatial frequency analysis using numerically specified constant phase shifts, and correlation analysis of spatial spectra of speckle structures. Transformation into the frequency range makes it possible to obtain quantities to be measured with a subpixel accuracy from the shift of the interference-pattern minimum in the diffraction halo by introducing an additional phase shift into the complex spatial spectrum of the speckle structure or from the slope of the linear plot of the function of accumulated phase difference in the field of the complex spatial spectrum of the displaced speckle structure. The capabilities of the method have been investigated in natural experiment.

  6. Neutron-induced displacement damage analysis (with particular reference to zirconium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.H.

    1978-10-01

    Neutron irradiation produces damage in a solid, initially in the form of atomic displacements. As a first step to understanding the effects of irradiation damage in reactor structural materials, information on the initial atomic displacements is necessary. The computer program DISPKAN, based on an extension and generalization of the program RICE, written at ORNL for such calculations, has been developed and installed on the CDC system at CRNL. Using neutron scattering data from ENDF/B files, DISPKAN performs a displacement and PKO analysis on the initial damage caused by neutrons from a given spectrum. The following quantities are calculated: the displacement rate per unit neutron flux, the PKO spectrum, the displacement spectrum, the fraction of PKO's with energy above T, the fraction of displacements produced by PKO's with energy above T, the average PKO energy, the average number of displacements produced per PKO, and the total number of PKO's produced per atom of the solid per unit fluence. The input and output formats of the program are explained. Sample runs are demonstrated. Results for zirconium, exposed to five neutron spectra typically available to experimentalist, are given to illustrate the spectral dependence of the initial displacement events. (author)

  7. Applicability of the minimum entropy generation method for optimizing thermodynamic cycles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Xue-Tao; Liang Xin-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Entropy generation is often used as a figure of merit in thermodynamic cycle optimizations.In this paper,it is shown that the applicability of the minimum entropy generation method to optimizing output power is conditional.The minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number do not correspond to the maximum output power when the total heat into the system of interest is not prescribed.For the cycles whose working medium is heated or cooled by streams with prescribed inlet temperatures and prescribed heat capacity flow rates,it is theoretically proved that both the minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number correspond to the maximum output power when the virtual entropy generation induced by dumping the used streams into the environment is considered.However,the minimum principle of entropy generation is not tenable in the case that the virtual entropy generation is not included,because the total heat into the system of interest is not fixed.An irreversible Carnot cycle and an irreversible Brayton cycle are analysed.The minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number do not correspond to the maximum output power if the heat into the system of interest is not prescribed.

  8. Applicability of the minimum entropy generation method for optimizing thermodynamic cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xue-Tao; Liang Xin-Gang

    2013-01-01

    Entropy generation is often used as a figure of merit in thermodynamic cycle optimizations. In this paper, it is shown that the applicability of the minimum entropy generation method to optimizing output power is conditional. The minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number do not correspond to the maximum output power when the total heat into the system of interest is not prescribed. For the cycles whose working medium is heated or cooled by streams with prescribed inlet temperatures and prescribed heat capacity flow rates, it is theoretically proved that both the minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number correspond to the maximum output power when the virtual entropy generation induced by dumping the used streams into the environment is considered. However, the minimum principle of entropy generation is not tenable in the case that the virtual entropy generation is not included, because the total heat into the system of interest is not fixed. An irreversible Carnot cycle and an irreversible Brayton cycle are analysed. The minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number do not correspond to the maximum output power if the heat into the system of interest is not prescribed. (general)

  9. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    We use a detailed employer-employee data set matched with detailed crime information (timing of crime, fines, convictions, crime type) to estimate the impact of job loss on an individual's probability to commit crime. We focus on job losses due to displacement, i.e. job losses in firms losing...... a substantial share of their workers, for workers with at least three years of tenure. Displaced workers are more likely to commit offenses leading to conviction (probation, prison terms) for property crimes and for alcohol-related traffic violations in the two years following displacement. We find no evidence...... that displaced workers' propensity to commit crime is higher than non-displaced workers before the displacement event; but it is significantly higher afterwards. Displacement impacts crime over and above what is explained by earnings losses and weeks of unemployment following displacement....

  10. Reply to Comment on ‘The cancer Warburg effect may be a testable example of the minimum entropy production rate principle’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, Bartolomé; Marín, Dolores

    2018-03-01

    The minimum rate principle is applied to the chemical reaction in a steady-state open cell system where, under constant supply of the glucose precursor, reference to time or to glucose consumption does not affect the conclusions.

  11. Optical Method for Detecting Displacements and Strains at Ultra-High Temperatures During Thermo-Mechanical Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Russell W. (Inventor); Rivers, H. Kevin (Inventor); Sikora, Joseph G. (Inventor); Roth, Mark C. (Inventor); Johnston, William M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An ultra-high temperature optical method incorporates speckle optics for sensing displacement and strain measurements well above conventional measurement techniques. High temperature pattern materials are used which can endure experimental high temperature environments while simultaneously having a minimum optical aberration. A purge medium is used to reduce or eliminate optical distortions and to reduce, and/or eliminate oxidation of the target specimen.

  12. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    Displacement ventilation is an interesting new type of air distribution principle which should be considered in connection with design of comfort ventilation in both smal1 and large spaces. Research activities on displacement ventilation are large all over the world and new knowledge of design...... methods appears continuously. This book gives an easy introduction to the basis of displacement ventilation and the chapters are written in the order which is used in a design procedure. The main text is extended by five appendices which show some of the new research activities taking place at Aalborg...

  13. Rheticus Displacement: an Automatic Geo-Information Service Platform for Ground Instabilities Detection and Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaradia, M. T.; Samarelli, S.; Agrimano, L.; Lorusso, A. P.; Nutricato, R.; Nitti, D. O.; Morea, A.; Tijani, K.

    2016-12-01

    Rheticus® is an innovative cloud-based data and services hub able to deliver Earth Observation added-value products through automatic complex processes and a minimum interaction with human operators. This target is achieved by means of programmable components working as different software layers in a modern enterprise system which relies on SOA (service-oriented-architecture) model. Due to its architecture, where every functionality is well defined and encapsulated in a standalone component, Rheticus is potentially highly scalable and distributable allowing different configurations depending on the user needs. Rheticus offers a portfolio of services, ranging from the detection and monitoring of geohazards and infrastructural instabilities, to marine water quality monitoring, wildfires detection or land cover monitoring. In this work, we outline the overall cloud-based platform and focus on the "Rheticus Displacement" service, aimed at providing accurate information to monitor movements occurring across landslide features or structural instabilities that could affect buildings or infrastructures. Using Sentinel-1 (S1) open data images and Multi-Temporal SAR Interferometry techniques (i.e., SPINUA), the service is complementary to traditional survey methods, providing a long-term solution to slope instability monitoring. Rheticus automatically browses and accesses (on a weekly basis) the products of the rolling archive of ESA S1 Scientific Data Hub; S1 data are then handled by a mature running processing chain, which is responsible of producing displacement maps immediately usable to measure with sub-centimetric precision movements of coherent points. Examples are provided, concerning the automatic displacement map generation process, as well as the integration of point and distributed scatterers, the integration of multi-sensors displacement maps (e.g., Sentinel-1 IW and COSMO-SkyMed HIMAGE), the combination of displacement rate maps acquired along both ascending

  14. Refugees and displaced persons. War, hunger, and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toole, M J; Waldman, R J

    1993-08-04

    The number of refugees and internally displaced persons in need of protection and assistance has increased from 30 million in 1990 to more than 43 million today. War and civil strife have been largely responsible for this epidemic of mass migration that has affected almost every region of the world, including Europe. Since 1990, crude death rates (CDRs) during the early influx of refugees who crossed international borders have been somewhat lower than CDRs reported earlier among Cambodian and Ethiopian refugees. Nevertheless, CDRs among refugees arriving in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nepal, Malawi, and Zimbabwe since 1990 ranged from five to 12 times the baseline CDRs in the countries of origin. Among internally displaced populations in northern Iraq, Somalia, and Sudan, CDRs were extremely high, ranging from 12 to 25 times the baseline CDRs for the nondisplaced. Among both refugees and internally displaced persons, death rates among children less than 5 years of age were far higher than among older children and adults. In Bangladesh, the death rate in female Rohingya refugees was several times higher than in males. Preventable conditions such as diarrheal disease, measles, and acute respiratory infections, exacerbated often by malnutrition, caused most deaths. Although relief programs for refugees have improved since 1990, the situation among the internally displaced may have worsened. The international community should intervene earlier in the evolution of complex disasters involving civil war, human rights abuses, food shortages, and mass displacement. Relief programs need to be based on sound health and nutrition information and should focus on the provision of adequate shelter, food, water, sanitation, and public health programs that prevent mortality from diarrhea, measles, and other communicable diseases, especially among young children and women.

  15. 12 CFR 3.6 - Minimum capital ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... should have well-diversified risks, including no undue interest rate risk exposure; excellent control... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum capital ratios. 3.6 Section 3.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE...

  16. Dams and Displacement: Raising the Standards and Broadening the Research Agenda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke McDonald-Wilmsen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The World Commission on Dams provided an analytical overview of the cumulative effects of years of dam development. A lack of commitment or capacity to cope with displacement or to consider the civil rights of, or risks to, displaced people led to the impoverishment and suffering of tens of millions and growing opposition to dams by affected communities worldwide. However, after the WCD, little has changed for the better in terms of resettlement policies. In fact, the standards of key agencies, like the Asian Development Bank, have been lowered and diluted compared to prior policies. Dam-induced development and displacement are stifled by a 'managerialist' approach to planning, in which solutions are sought internally and subordinated to the economics that underpins the existence of the project. The aim of successful resettlement is to prevent impoverishment and to enable displaced people to share in the project’s benefits. Within the field of dam-induced resettlement, this is a lofty goal rarely achieved. However, in other fields of resettlement, such as refugee studies and adaptation to environmental change, such a goal is regarded as a minimum standard. In this paper we seek to broaden the research agenda on dam-induced resettlement and to raise the standards of development projects that entail resettlement. We do this by importing some of the considerations and concerns from practice and research from the fields of refugee studies and adaptation to environmental change.

  17. The Effect of Minimum Wages on Adolescent Fertility: A Nationwide Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullinger, Lindsey Rose

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the effect of minimum wage laws on adolescent birth rates in the United States. I used a difference-in-differences approach and vital statistics data measured quarterly at the state level from 2003 to 2014. All models included state covariates, state and quarter-year fixed effects, and state-specific quarter-year nonlinear time trends, which provided plausibly causal estimates of the effect of minimum wage on adolescent birth rates. A $1 increase in minimum wage reduces adolescent birth rates by about 2%. The effects are driven by non-Hispanic White and Hispanic adolescents. Nationwide, increasing minimum wages by $1 would likely result in roughly 5000 fewer adolescent births annually.

  18. Construction of Protograph LDPC Codes with Linear Minimum Distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Jones, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    A construction method for protograph-based LDPC codes that simultaneously achieve low iterative decoding threshold and linear minimum distance is proposed. We start with a high-rate protograph LDPC code with variable node degrees of at least 3. Lower rate codes are obtained by splitting check nodes and connecting them by degree-2 nodes. This guarantees the linear minimum distance property for the lower-rate codes. Excluding checks connected to degree-1 nodes, we show that the number of degree-2 nodes should be at most one less than the number of checks for the protograph LDPC code to have linear minimum distance. Iterative decoding thresholds are obtained by using the reciprocal channel approximation. Thresholds are lowered by using either precoding or at least one very high-degree node in the base protograph. A family of high- to low-rate codes with minimum distance linearly increasing in block size and with capacity-approaching performance thresholds is presented. FPGA simulation results for a few example codes show that the proposed codes perform as predicted.

  19. Radiation displacement damage estimates for a radionuclide waste stabilization material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolan, K.W.

    1977-01-01

    Estimates of the number of atomic displacements produced in pollucite by the radioactive decay of Cs-134 are made. Pollucite is a candidate material for radionuclide waste stabilization, while Cs-134 is one of the radionuclide products which would be chemically bound in the pollucite lattice. At the maximum concentration of Cs-134 in pollucite, assuming a threshold displacement energy of 15.0 eV, the displacement rate is estimated to be 4.3 x 10 12 atoms/cm 3 /second which includes all atomic species in the pollucite lattice. It was found that most of the displacements, 85 percent, were caused by elastic scattering of photoelectrons and Compton electrons which are products of γ-ray interactions in the material. Most of the remaining displacements are caused by elastic scattering of β-particles. Recoil energies of the Ba daughter product are insufficient to cause displacement. Atomic displacements of nearest neighbors, atoms within one lattice spacing of the decay site, are estimated to be 2.7 x 10 6 atoms/cm 3 /second. These estimates provide a starting point for assessing the long term stability of pollucite to radiation damage

  20. Electron and positron contributions to the displacement per atom profile in bulk multi-walled carbon nanotube material irradiated with gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva Fabelo, Antonio; Pinnera Hernandez, Ibrahin; Leyva Pernia, Diana

    2013-01-01

    The electron and positron contributions to the effective atom displacement cross-section in multi-walled carbon nanotube bulk materials exposed to gamma rays were calculated. The physical properties and the displacement threshold energy value reported in literature for this material were taken into account. Then, using the mathematical simulation of photon and particle transport in matter, the electron and positron energy flux distributions within the irradiated object were also calculated. Finally, considering both results, the atom displacement damage profiles inside the analyzed bulk carbon nanotube material were determined. The individual contribution from each type of secondary particles generated by the photon interactions was specified. An increasing behavior of the displacement cross-sections for all the studied particles energy range was observed. The particles minimum kinetic energy values that make probabilistically possible the single and multiple atom displacement processes were determined. The positrons contribution importance to the total number of point defects generated during the interaction of gamma rays with the studied materials was confirmed

  1. Displacement characteristics of a piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator with a hydraulic displacement amplification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muralidhara [NMAMIT, Nitte (India); Rao, Rathnamala [NITK, Surathkal (India)

    2015-11-15

    In this study, a new piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator is proposed with a hydraulic displacement amplification system. A piezoactuator is used to deflect a diaphragm which displaces a certain volume of hydraulic fluid into a smaller-diameter piston chamber, thereby amplifying the displacement at the other end of the piston. An electro-mechanical model is implemented to estimate the displacement of a multilayer piezoelectric actuator for the applied input voltage considering the hysteresis behavior. The displacement characteristics of the proposed microactuator are studied for triangular actuation voltage signal. Results of the experiments and simulation of the displacement behavior of the stacked piezoactuator and the amplified displacement of the prototype actuator were compared. Experimental results suggest that the mathematical model developed for the new piezoactuator-based prototype actuator is capable of estimating its displacement behavior accurately, within an error of 1.2%.

  2. Displacement characteristics of a piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator with a hydraulic displacement amplification system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralidhara; Rao, Rathnamala

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a new piezoactuator-based prototype microactuator is proposed with a hydraulic displacement amplification system. A piezoactuator is used to deflect a diaphragm which displaces a certain volume of hydraulic fluid into a smaller-diameter piston chamber, thereby amplifying the displacement at the other end of the piston. An electro-mechanical model is implemented to estimate the displacement of a multilayer piezoelectric actuator for the applied input voltage considering the hysteresis behavior. The displacement characteristics of the proposed microactuator are studied for triangular actuation voltage signal. Results of the experiments and simulation of the displacement behavior of the stacked piezoactuator and the amplified displacement of the prototype actuator were compared. Experimental results suggest that the mathematical model developed for the new piezoactuator-based prototype actuator is capable of estimating its displacement behavior accurately, within an error of 1.2%.

  3. Measuring vulnerability to disaster displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Susan A.; Khazai, Bijan; Power, Christopher; Wenzel, Friedemann

    2015-04-01

    Large scale disasters can cause devastating impacts in terms of population displacement. Between 2008 and 2013, on average 27 million people were displaced annually by disasters (Yonetani 2014). After large events such as hurricane Katrina or the Port-au-Prince earthquake, images of inadequate public shelter and concerns about large scale and often inequitable migration have been broadcast around the world. Population displacement can often be one of the most devastating and visible impacts of a natural disaster. Despite the importance of population displacement in disaster events, measures to understand the socio-economic vulnerability of a community often use broad metrics to estimate the total socio-economic risk of an event rather than focusing on the specific impacts that a community faces in a disaster. Population displacement is complex and multi-causal with the physical impact of a disaster interacting with vulnerability arising from the response, environmental issues (e.g., weather), cultural concerns (e.g., expectations of adequate shelter), and many individual factors (e.g., mobility, risk perception). In addition to the complexity of the causes, population displacement is difficult to measure because of the wide variety of different terms and definitions and its multi-dimensional nature. When we speak of severe population displacement, we may refer to a large number of displaced people, an extended length of displacement or associated difficulties such as poor shelter quality, risk of violence and crime in shelter communities, discrimination in aid, a lack of access to employment or other difficulties that can be associated with large scale population displacement. We have completed a thorough review of the literature on disaster population displacement. Research has been conducted on historic events to understand the types of negative impacts associated with population displacement and also the vulnerability of different groups to these impacts. We

  4. Measuring displacement signal with an accelerometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Sang Bo

    2010-01-01

    An effective and simple way to reconstruct displacement signal from a measured acceleration signal is proposed in this paper. To reconstruct displacement signal by means of double-integrating the time domain acceleration signal, the Nyquist frequency of the digital sampling of the acceleration signal should be much higher than the highest frequency component of the signal. On the other hand, to reconstruct displacement signal by taking the inverse Fourier transform, the magnitude of the significant frequency components of the Fourier transform of the acceleration signal should be greater than the 6 dB increment line along the frequency axis. With a predetermined resolution in time and frequency domain, determined by the sampling rate to measure and record the original signal, reconstructing high-frequency signals in the time domain and reconstructing low-frequency signals in the frequency domain will produce biased errors. Furthermore, because of the DC components inevitably included in the sampling process, low-frequency components of the signals are overestimated when displacement signals are reconstructed from the Fourier transform of the acceleration signal. The proposed method utilizes curve-fitting around the significant frequency components of the Fourier transform of the acceleration signal before it is inverse-Fourier transformed. Curve-fitting around the dominant frequency components provides much better results than simply ignoring the insignificant frequency components of the signal

  5. Effects of seismic intensity and socioeconomic status on injury and displacement after the 2007 Peru earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milch, Karen; Gorokhovich, Yuri; Doocy, Shannon

    2010-10-01

    Earthquakes are a major cause of displacement, particularly in developing countries. Models of injury and displacement can be applied to assist governments and aid organisations in effectively targeting preparedness and relief efforts. A stratified cluster survey was conducted in January 2008 to evaluate risk factors for injury and displacement following the 15 August 2007 earthquake in southern Peru. In statistical modelling, seismic intensity, distance to rupture, living conditions, and educational attainment collectively explained 54.9 per cent of the variability in displacement rates across clusters. Living conditions was a particularly significant predictor of injury and displacement, indicating a strong relationship between risk and socioeconomic status. Contrary to expectations, urban, periurban, and rural clusters did not exhibit significantly different injury and displacement rates. Proxies of socioeconomic status, particularly the living conditions index score, proved relevant in explaining displacement, likely due to unmeasured aspects of housing construction practices and building materials. © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2010.

  6. Resonant neutron-induced atomic displacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmaghraby, Elsayed K., E-mail: e.m.k.elmaghraby@gmail.com

    2017-05-01

    Highlights: • Neutron induced atomic displacements was investigated based on scattering of energy of neutron. • Model for cascade function (multiplication of displacements with increasing energy transfer) was proposed and justified. • Parameterizations for the dpa induced in all elements were performed. • Table containing all necessary parameters to calculate the displacement density induced by neutron is given. • Contribution of non resonance displacement and resonant-neutron induced displacements are distinguished. - Abstract: A model for displacement cascade function was modified to account for the continuous variation of displacement density in the material in response to neutron exposure. The model is based on the Gaussian distribution of displacement energies of atoms in a material. Analytical treatment for moderated epithermal neutron field was given in which the displacement density was divided into two terms, discrete-resonance term and continuum term. Calculation are done for all isotopes using ENDF/B VII.1 data files and temperature dependent cross section library. Weighted elemental values were reported a fitting was performed to obtain energy-dependent formula of displacement density and reduce the number of parameters. Results relevant the present specification of the cascade function are tabulated for each element to enable calculation of displacement density at any value of displacement energy in the between 5 eV and 55 eV.

  7. Job Displacement and First Birth Over the Business Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Barbara; Kreyenfeld, Michaela; Uhlendorff, Arne

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we investigate the impact of job displacement on women?s first-birth rates as well as the variation in this effect over the business cycle. We use mass layoffs to estimate the causal effects of involuntary job loss on fertility in the short and medium term, up to five years after displacement. Our analysis is based on rich administrative data from Germany, with an observation period spanning more than 20 years. We apply inverse probability weighting (IPW) to flexibly control ...

  8. Job Displacement and Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Patrick; Ouazad, Amine

    theory of crime. Marital dissolution is more likely post-displacement, and we find small intra-family externalities of adult displacement on younger family members’ crime. The impact of displacement on crime is stronger in municipalities with higher capital and labor income inequalities....

  9. 29 CFR 525.9 - Criteria for employment of workers with disabilities under certificates at special minimum wage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... certificates at special minimum wage rates. 525.9 Section 525.9 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... special minimum wage rates. (a) In order to determine that special minimum wage rates are necessary in... at the special minimum wage rate; (3) The productivity of the workers with disabilities compared to...

  10. Adjusting the displaced tip of peripherally inserted central catheter under DSA guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao Yanjun; Dong Huijuan; Zhang Lingjuan; Li Hongmei; Xu Lianqin

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore a new method to adjust the displaced tip of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) under DSA guidance. Methods: Under DSA guidance, the displaced tip of PICC was repositioned to the ideal junction area of superior vena cava with right atrium with proper manipulation. Results: Under DSA guidance, the displaced tip of PICC was successfully corrected in 13 cases. The mean operative time was 15.53 minutes, which was markedly shorter than that needed by blind adjusting beside the bed. Conclusion: The displacement of PICC tip is a common occurrence, which is hard to be avoided. Under DSA guidance, the adjusting manipulation of the displaced PICC tip is safe and time-saving with high successful rate. It is worth popularizing this technique in clinical practice. (authors)

  11. MRI evaluation of maternal cardiac displacement in pregnancy: implications for cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Signy; Kirkpatrick, Iain D C; Zelop, Carolyn M; Jassal, Davinder S

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine, with the use of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, whether there is vertical displacement of the heart during pregnancy. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation guidelines during pregnancy recommend placing the hands 2-3 cm higher on the sternum than in nonpregnant individuals. This recommendation is based on the presumption that the heart is displaced superiorly by the diaphragm during the third trimester. Whether there is true cardiac displacement because of the expanding uterus in pregnancy remains unknown. A total of 34 healthy female volunteers 18-35 years old were enrolled prospectively from 2010-2012 at 2 tertiary care centers. The conditions of all participants were evaluated with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in the one-half left lateral decubitus position during the third trimester of pregnancy and again at a minimum of 3 months after delivery (surrogate for the nonpregnant state). Superior displacement of the heart was determined by measurement of the distance between the inferior aspect of the clavicular heads and the coronary sinus at both time points. The study population included 34 women (mean age, 29 ± 3 years; body mass index, 24 ± 4 kg/m(2)). The mean gestational age at third-trimester imaging was 237 ± 16 days (34 weeks ± 16 days); the mean number of days for postpartum imaging (baseline) was 107 ± 25 days (16 weeks ± 25 days). There was no statistical difference between the cardiac position at baseline (10.1 ± 1.2 cm) and during the third trimester (10.3 ± 1.1 cm; P = .22). Contrary to popular assumption, there is no significant vertical displacement of the heart in the third trimester of pregnancy relative to the nonpregnant state. Accordingly, there is no need to alter hand placement for chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation in pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Calculation of displacement and helium production at the LAMPF irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, D.R.; Greenwood, L.R.; Sommer, W.F.; Wechsler, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    Differential and total displacement and helium production rates are calculated for copper irradiated by spallation neutrons and 760 MeV protons at LAMPF. The calculations are performed using the SPECTER and VNMTC computer codes, the latter being specially designed for spallation radiation damage calculations. For comparison, similar SPECTER calculations are also described for irradiation of copper in EBR-II and RTNS-II. The results indicate substantial contributions to the displacement and helium production rates due to neutrons in the high-energy tail (above 40 MeV) of the LAMPF spallation neutron spectrum. Still higher production rates are calculated for irradiations in the direct proton beam. These results will provide useful background information for research to be conducted at a new irradiation facility at LAMPF

  13. Internal Displacement: Livelihood saving responses

    OpenAIRE

    Deborah Hines

    2001-01-01

    Deborah Hines explores how to assist the internally displaced and those prone to displacement. She considers the major causes of internal displacement, making the case for a more comprehensive set of policy and operational actions in response to situations of internal displacement. Development (2001) 44, 34–39. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1110289

  14. Generating Sub-nanometer Displacement Using Reduction Mechanism Consisting of Torsional Leaf Spring Hinges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fukuda Makoto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent demand on the measurement resolution of precise positioning comes up to tens of picometers. Some distinguished researches have been performed to measure the displacement in picometer order, however, few of them can verify the measurement performance as available tools in industry. This is not only because the picometer displacement is not yet required for industrial use, but also due to the lack of standard tools to verify such precise displacement. We proposed a displacement reduction mechanism for generating precise displacement using torsional leaf spring hinges (TLSHs that consist of four leaf springs arranged radially. It has been demonstrated that a prototype of the reduction mechanism was able to provide one-nanometer displacement with 1/1000 reduction rate by a piezoelectric actuator. In order to clarify the potential of the reduction mechanism, a displacement reduction table that can be mounted on AFM stage was newly developed using TLSHs. This paper describes the design of the reduction mechanism and the sub-nanometer displacement performance of the table obtained from its dynamic and static characteristics measured by displacement sensors and from the AFM images

  15. Influence of subcascade formation on displacement damage at high PKA energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoller, R.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Greenwood, L.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    The design of first generation fusion reactors will have to be rely on radiation effects data obtained from experiments conducted in fission reactors. Two issues must be addressed to use this data with confidence. The first is differences in the neutron energy spectrum, and the second is differences in nuclear transmutation rates. Differences in the neutron energy spectra are reflected in the energy spectra of the primary knockon atoms (PKA). The issue of PKA energy effects has been addressed through the use of displacement cascade simulations using the method of molecular dynamics (MD). Although MD simulations can provide a detailed picture of the formation and evolution of displacement cascades, they impose a substantial computational burden. However, recent advances in computing equipment permit the simulation of high energy displacement events involving more than one-million atoms; the results presented here encompass MD cascade simulation energies from near the displacement threshold to as high as 40 keV. Two parameters have been extracted from the MD simulations: the number of point defects that remain after the displacement event is completed and the fraction of the surviving interstitials that are contained in clusters. The MD values have been normalized to the number of atomic displacements calculated with the secondary displacement model by Norgett, Robinson, and Torrens (NRT).

  16. Impact of the operation of non-displaced feedwater heaters on the performance of Solar Aided Power Generation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, Jiyun; Hu, Eric; Nathan, Graham J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Impact of non-displaced feedwater heater on plant’s performance has been evaluated. • Two operation strategies for non-displaced feedwater heater has been proposed. • Constant temperature strategy is generally better. • Constant mass flow rate strategy is suit for rich solar thermal input. - Abstract: Solar Aided Power Generation is a technology in which low grade solar thermal energy is used to displace the high grade heat of the extraction steam in a regenerative Rankine cycle power plant for feedwater preheating purpose. The displaced extraction steam can then expand further in the steam turbine to generate power. In such a power plant, using the (concentrated) solar thermal energy to displace the extraction steam to high pressure/temperature feedwater heaters (i.e. displaced feedwater heaters) is the most popular arrangement. Namely the extraction steam to low pressure/temperature feedwater heaters (i.e. non-displaced feedwater heaters) is not displaced by the solar thermal energy. In a Solar Aided Power Generation plants, when solar radiation/input changes, the extraction steam to the displaced feedwater heaters requires to be adjusted according to the solar radiation. However, for the extraction steams to the non-displaced feedwater heaters, it can be either adjusted accordingly following so-called constant temperature strategy or unadjusted i.e. following so-called constant mass flow rate strategy, when solar radiation/input changes. The previous studies overlooked the operation of non-displaced feedwater heaters, which has also impact on the whole plant’s performance. This paper aims to understand/reveal the impact of the two different operation strategies for non-displaced feedwater heaters on the plant’s performance. In this paper, a 300 MW Rankine cycle power plant, in which the extraction steam to high pressure/temperature feedwater heaters is displaced by the solar thermal energy, is used as study case for this purpose. It

  17. Retinal displacement toward optic disc after internal limiting membrane peeling for idiopathic macular hole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Masahiro; Ichikawa, Yoshikazu; Higashida, Rieko; Tsutsumi, Yorihisa; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Imamura, Yutaka

    2014-05-01

    To examine the retinal displacement following successful macular hole (MH) surgery with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling and gas tamponade, and to determine the correlation between the extent of displacement and the basal MH size. Retrospective, interventional, observational case series. The medical records of consecutive patients with an idiopathic MH that had undergone vitrectomy with ILM peeling and gas tamponade were studied. The distances between the optic disc and the intersection of 2 retinal vessels located nasal or temporal to the fovea were measured manually preoperatively (A), and 2 weeks and 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively (B), on the fundus autofluorescence or near-infrared images. The basal and minimum diameters of the MHs were measured in the spectral-domain optical coherence tomographic images. The correlations between the ratio of the retinal displacement (A - B/A) and basal diameters of the MHs were determined. Twenty-one eyes of 21 patients (9 men, mean age: 64.6 ± 8.4 years) were studied. Ten eyes (47.6%) had stage 2 MH, 9 eyes (42.9%) had stage 3 MH, and 2 eyes (9.5%) had stage 4 MH. The temporal retinal vessels were displaced 260.8 ± 145.8 μm toward the optic disc at 2 weeks postoperatively, which was significantly greater than the 91.1 ± 89.7 μm of the nasal retinal vessels (paired t test, P displacement in the temporal field at 2 weeks was significantly correlated with the basal diameter of the MH (Spearman's rank correlation coeffieient = -0.476, P = .033. The greater displacement of the temporal retina than the nasal retina toward the optic disc postoperatively suggests that the temporal retina is more flexible and can be retracted toward the optic disc during the MH closure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. OSPAR 30'' displacement; Esvaziamento do OSPAR 30''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Jose Carlos [White Martins Gases Industriais do Nordeste S.A., Recife, PE (Brazil); Souza, Antonio Geraldo de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Crude oil pipeline OSPAR that unites Sao Francisco do Sul-SC to Araucaria-PR, with 30 inches in diameter and extension of 118 km (74 mi) was displaced in May 2004. Nitrogen at high flow rate and a pig were used to remove the crude oil, liberating the line to maintenance. Logistic restrictions prevented that the displacement followed the normal flow direction, so the option was to do the job in the reverse direction. To make viable our operation, a maneuver was performed; which we suppose was never done before in Brazil, at an intermediate pumping station, allowing a pressure reduction at the line end, maintaining it at permissible levels. Despite logistical and operational difficulties, the job was performed with success in 47 hours. (author)

  19. A 34 ampere-hour nickel-cadmium minimum trickle charge testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmerman, P. J.

    1985-01-01

    The current rates used for trickle charging batteries are critical in maintaining a full charge and in preventing an overcharge condition. The importance of the trickle charge rate comes from the design, maintenance and operational requirements of an electrical power system. The results of minimum trickle charge testing performed on six 34 ampere-hour, nickel-cadmium cells manufactured by General Electric are described. The purpose of the testing was to identify the minimum trickle charge rates at temperatures of 15 C and 30 C.

  20. 29 CFR 520.409 - When will authority to pay apprentices special minimum wages become effective and what is the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wages become effective and what is the special minimum wage rate? 520.409 Section 520.409 Labor... apprentices special minimum wages become effective and what is the special minimum wage rate? (a) An... Division. (b) The wage rate specified by the apprenticeship program becomes the special minimum wage rate...

  1. Sub-Ensemble Monitoring of DNA Strand Displacement Using Multiparameter Single-Molecule FRET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltierra-Jasso, Laura E; Morten, Michael J; Magennis, Steven W

    2018-03-05

    Non-enzymatic DNA strand displacement is an important mechanism in dynamic DNA nanotechnology. Here, we show that the large parameter space that is accessible by single-molecule FRET is ideal for the simultaneous monitoring of multiple reactants and products of DNA strand exchange reactions. We monitored the strand displacement from double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) at 37 °C; the data were modelled as a second-order reaction approaching equilibrium, with a rate constant of 10 m -1  s -1 . We also followed the displacement from a DNA three-way junction (3WJ) by ssDNA. The presence of three internal mismatched bases in the middle of the invading strand did not prevent displacement from the 3WJ, but reduced the second-order rate constant by about 50 %. We attribute strand exchange in the dsDNA and 3WJ to a zero-toehold pathway from the blunt-ended duplex arms. The single-molecule approach demonstrated here will be useful for studying complex DNA networks. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. ASYMMETRIC SUNSPOT ACTIVITY AND THE SOUTHWARD DISPLACEMENT OF THE HELIOSPHERIC CURRENT SHEET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Y.-M.; Robbrecht, E.

    2011-01-01

    Observations of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) have suggested a statistical tendency for the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) to be shifted a few degrees southward of the heliographic equator during the period 1965-2010, particularly in the years near sunspot minimum. Using potential-field source-surface extrapolations and photospheric flux-transport simulations, we demonstrate that this southward displacement follows from Joy's law and the observed hemispheric asymmetry in the sunspot numbers, with activity being stronger in the southern (northern) hemisphere during the declining (rising) phase of cycles 20-23. The hemispheric asymmetry gives rise to an axisymmetric quadrupole field, whose equatorial zone has the sign of the leading-polarity flux in the dominant hemisphere; during the last four cycles, the polarity of the IMF around the equator thus tended to match that of the north polar field both before and after polar field reversal. However, large fluctuations are introduced by the nonaxisymmetric field components, which depend on the longitudinal distribution of sunspot activity in either hemisphere. Consistent with this model, the HCS showed an average northward displacement during cycle 19, when the 'usual' alternation was reversed and the northern hemisphere became far more active than the southern hemisphere during the declining phase of the cycle. We propose a new method for determining the north-south displacement of the HCS from coronal streamer observations.

  3. Displaced rocks, strong motion, and the mechanics of shallow faulting associated with the 1999 Hector Mine, California, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Andrew J.; Ross, Stephanie L.; Stenner, Heidi D.

    2002-01-01

    The paucity of strong-motion stations near the 1999 Hector Mine earthquake makes it impossible to make instrumental studies of key questions about near-fault strong-motion patterns associated with this event. However, observations of displaced rocks allow a qualitative investigation of these problems. By observing the slope of the desert surface and the frictional coefficient between these rocks and the desert surface, we estimate the minimum horizontal acceleration needed to displace the rocks. Combining this information with observations of how many rocks were displaced in different areas near the fault, we infer the level of shaking. Given current empirical shaking attenuation relationships, the number of rocks that moved is slightly lower than expected; this implies that slightly lower than expected shaking occurred during the Hector Mine earthquake. Perhaps more importantly, stretches of the fault with 4 m of total displacement at the surface displaced few nearby rocks on 15?? slopes, suggesting that the horizontal accelerations were below 0.2g within meters of the fault scarp. This low level of shaking suggests that the shallow parts of this rupture did not produce strong accelerations. Finally, we did not observe an increased incidence of displaced rocks along the fault zone itself. This suggests that, despite observations of fault-zone-trapped waves generated by aftershocks of the Hector Mine earthquake, such waves were not an important factor in controlling peak ground acceleration during the mainshock.

  4. Analysis of power ramp rate and minimum power controllability of the MMS model for a plant dynamics analysis of a Prototype SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eui Kwang; Kim, Dehee; Joo, Hyungkook; Lee, Taeho

    2014-01-01

    A full plant dynamic model was developed for a prototype SFR using the Modular Modeling System (MMS). It includes the modeling of various subsystems such as the neutronics, primary and intermediate sodium systems of the NSSS, steam and water systems of the BOP, BOP controls, and the supervisory plant controls. The NSSS model is subdivided into component models, such as a Core, IHXs, Pumps, SGs, and the rest of the NSSS loop model. The BOP model is subdivided into a steam subsystem, feedwater subsystem, and preheater subsystem. Plant transient tests were performed to study the operational considerations. It includes varying the power ramp rate and studying the controllability at minimum power. Plant transient tests were performed to study operational considerations by using the MMS model for a prototype SFR. It includes varying the power ramp rate, studying the controllability at the minimum power set point. At a power ramp rate of higher than 2%, the steam temperature has a large deviation from the target. As the power set point decreases, the PHTS hot leg temperature and steam temperature tend to have higher deviations. After further refinement of the MMS model, it can be useful for developing the plant operation logics of the prototype SFR

  5. 30 CFR 77.606-1 - Rubber gloves; minimum requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. 77.606-1... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606-1 Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. (a) Rubber gloves (lineman's gloves) worn while handling high-voltage trailing cables shall be rated at least 20,000 volts and shall...

  6. On the biophysics and kinetics of toehold-mediated DNA strand displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Niranjan; Ouldridge, Thomas E; Sulc, Petr; Schaeffer, Joseph M; Yurke, Bernard; Louis, Ard A; Doye, Jonathan P K; Winfree, Erik

    2013-12-01

    Dynamic DNA nanotechnology often uses toehold-mediated strand displacement for controlling reaction kinetics. Although the dependence of strand displacement kinetics on toehold length has been experimentally characterized and phenomenologically modeled, detailed biophysical understanding has remained elusive. Here, we study strand displacement at multiple levels of detail, using an intuitive model of a random walk on a 1D energy landscape, a secondary structure kinetics model with single base-pair steps and a coarse-grained molecular model that incorporates 3D geometric and steric effects. Further, we experimentally investigate the thermodynamics of three-way branch migration. Two factors explain the dependence of strand displacement kinetics on toehold length: (i) the physical process by which a single step of branch migration occurs is significantly slower than the fraying of a single base pair and (ii) initiating branch migration incurs a thermodynamic penalty, not captured by state-of-the-art nearest neighbor models of DNA, due to the additional overhang it engenders at the junction. Our findings are consistent with previously measured or inferred rates for hybridization, fraying and branch migration, and they provide a biophysical explanation of strand displacement kinetics. Our work paves the way for accurate modeling of strand displacement cascades, which would facilitate the simulation and construction of more complex molecular systems.

  7. Oxygen at Nanomolar Levels Reversibly Suppresses Process Rates and Gene Expression in Anammox and Denitrification in the Oxygen Minimum Zone off Northern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Dalsgaard, Tage; Stewart, Frank J.; Thamdrup, Bo; De Brabandere, Loreto; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Don E.; DeLong, Edward

    2014-01-01

    A major percentage (20 to 40%) of global marine fixed-nitrogen loss occurs in oxygen minimum zones (OMZs). Concentrations of O[subscript 2] and the sensitivity of the anaerobic N[subscript 2]-producing processes of anammox and denitrification determine where this loss occurs. We studied experimentally how O[subscript 2] at nanomolar levels affects anammox and denitrification rates and the transcription of nitrogen cycle genes in the anoxic OMZ off Chile. Rates of anammox and denitrification w...

  8. Connecting localized DNA strand displacement reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullor Ruiz, Ismael; Arbona, Jean-Michel; Lad, Amitkumar; Mendoza, Oscar; Aimé, Jean-Pierre; Elezgaray, Juan

    2015-07-01

    Logic circuits based on DNA strand displacement reactions have been shown to be versatile enough to compute the square root of four-bit numbers. The implementation of these circuits as a set of bulk reactions faces difficulties which include leaky reactions and intrinsically slow, diffusion-limited reaction rates. In this paper, we consider simple examples of these circuits when they are attached to platforms (DNA origamis). As expected, constraining distances between DNA strands leads to faster reaction rates. However, it also induces side-effects that are not detectable in the solution-phase version of this circuitry. Appropriate design of the system, including protection and asymmetry between input and fuel strands, leads to a reproducible behaviour, at least one order of magnitude faster than the one observed under bulk conditions.Logic circuits based on DNA strand displacement reactions have been shown to be versatile enough to compute the square root of four-bit numbers. The implementation of these circuits as a set of bulk reactions faces difficulties which include leaky reactions and intrinsically slow, diffusion-limited reaction rates. In this paper, we consider simple examples of these circuits when they are attached to platforms (DNA origamis). As expected, constraining distances between DNA strands leads to faster reaction rates. However, it also induces side-effects that are not detectable in the solution-phase version of this circuitry. Appropriate design of the system, including protection and asymmetry between input and fuel strands, leads to a reproducible behaviour, at least one order of magnitude faster than the one observed under bulk conditions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C5NR02434J

  9. The use of a displacement device negatively affects the performance of dogs (Canis familiaris) in visible object displacement tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Corsin A; Riemer, Stefanie; Range, Friederike; Huber, Ludwig

    2014-08-01

    Visible and invisible displacement tasks have been used widely for comparative studies of animals' understanding of object permanence, with evidence accumulating that some species can solve invisible displacement tasks and, thus, reach Piagetian stage 6 of object permanence. In contrast, dogs appear to rely on associative cues, such as the location of the displacement device, during invisible displacement tasks. It remains unclear, however, whether dogs, and other species that failed in invisible displacement tasks, do so because of their inability to form a mental representation of the target object, or simply because of the involvement of a more salient but potentially misleading associative cue, the displacement device. Here we show that the use of a displacement device impairs the performance of dogs also in visible displacement tasks: their search accuracy was significantly lower when a visible displacement was performed with a displacement device, and only two of initially 42 dogs passed the sham-baiting control conditions. The negative influence of the displacement device in visible displacement tasks may be explained by strong associative cues overriding explicit information about the target object's location, reminiscent of an overshadowing effect, and/or object individuation errors as the target object is placed within the displacement device and moves along a spatiotemporally identical trajectory. Our data suggest that a comprehensive appraisal of a species' performance in object permanence tasks should include visible displacement tasks with the same displacement device used in invisible displacements, which typically has not been done in the past.

  10. Displacement data assimilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, W. Steven [Pacific Northwest Laboratory, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Venkataramani, Shankar [Department of Mathematics and Program in Applied Mathematics, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Mariano, Arthur J. [Rosenstiel School of Marine & Atmospheric Science, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33149 (United States); Restrepo, Juan M., E-mail: restrepo@math.oregonstate.edu [Department of Mathematics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    We show that modifying a Bayesian data assimilation scheme by incorporating kinematically-consistent displacement corrections produces a scheme that is demonstrably better at estimating partially observed state vectors in a setting where feature information is important. While the displacement transformation is generic, here we implement it within an ensemble Kalman Filter framework and demonstrate its effectiveness in tracking stochastically perturbed vortices.

  11. Displacement cascades in diatomic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, D.M.; Coulter, C.A.

    1981-01-01

    A new function, the specified-projectile displacement function p/sub ijk/ (E), is introduced to describe displacement cascades in polyatomic materials. This function describes the specific collision events that produce displacements and hence adds new information not previously available. Calculations of p/sub ijk/ (E) for MgO, Al 2 O 3 and TaO are presented and discussed. Results show that the parameters that have the largest effect on displacement collision events are the PKA energy and the mass ratio of the atom types in the material. It is further shown that the microscopic nature of the displacement events changes over the entire recoil energy range relevant to fusion neutron spectra and that these changes are different in materials whose mass ratio is near one than in those where it is far from one

  12. New geologic slip rates for the Agua Blanca Fault, northern Baja California, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, P. O.; Behr, W. M.; Fletcher, J. M.; Hinojosa-Corona, A.; Rockwell, T. K.

    2015-12-01

    Within the southern San Andreas transform plate boundary system, relatively little is known regarding active faulting in northern Baja California, Mexico, or offshore along the Inner Continental Borderland. The inner offshore system appears to be fed from the south by the Agua Blanca Fault (ABF), which strikes northwest across the Peninsular Ranges of northern Baja California. Therefore, the geologic slip rate for the ABF also provides a minimum slip rate estimate for the offshore system, which is connected to the north to faults in the Los Angeles region. Previous studies along the ABF determined slip rates of ~4-6 mm/yr (~10% of relative plate motion). However, these rates relied on imprecise age estimates and offset geomorphic features of a type that require these rates to be interpreted as minima, allowing for the possibility that the slip rate for the ABF may be greater. Although seismically quiescent, the surface trace of the ABF clearly reflects Holocene activity, and given its connectivity with the offshore fault system, more quantitative slip rates for the ABF are needed to better understand earthquake hazard for both US and Mexican coastal populations. Using newly acquired airborne LiDAR, we have mapped primary and secondary fault strands along the segmented western 70 km of the ABF. Minimal development has left the geomorphic record of surface slip remarkably well preserved, and we have identified abundant evidence meter to km scale right-lateral displacement, including new Late Quaternary slip rate sites. We verified potential reconstructions at each site during summer 2015 fieldwork, and selected an initial group of three high potential slip rate sites for detailed mapping and geochronologic analyses. Offset landforms, including fluvial terrace risers, alluvial fans, and incised channel fill deposits, record displacements of ~5-80 m, and based on minimal soil development, none appear older than early Holocene. To quantitatively constrain landform ages

  13. Prismatic displacement effect of progressive multifocal glasses on reaction time and accuracy in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, Ashton C; Campbell, A John; Robertson, M Clare; Sanderson, Gordon F

    2014-01-01

    Multifocal glasses (bifocals, trifocals, and progressives) increase the risk of falling in elderly people, but how they do so is unclear. To explain why glasses with progressive addition lenses increase the risk of falls and whether this can be attributed to false projection, this study aimed to 1) map the prismatic displacement of a progressive lens, and 2) test whether this displacement impaired reaction time and accuracy. The reaction times of healthy ≥75-year-olds (31 participants) were measured when grasping for a bar and touching a black line. Participants performed each test twice, wearing their progressives and new, matched single vision (distance) glasses in random order. The line and bar targets were positioned according to the maximum and minimum prismatic displacement effect through the progressive lens, mapped using a focimeter. Progressive spectacle lenses have large areas of prismatic displacement in the central visual axis and edges. Reaction time was faster for progressives compared with single vision glasses with a centrally-placed horizontal grab bar (mean difference 101 ms, P=0.011 [repeated measures analysis]) and a horizontal black line placed 300 mm below center (mean difference 80 ms, P=0.007). There was no difference in accuracy between the two types of glasses. Older people appear to adapt to the false projection of progressives in the central visual axis. This adaptation means that swapping to new glasses or a large change in prescription may lead to a fall. Frequently updating glasses may be more beneficial.

  14. 29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the schedule...

  15. Reducing tobacco use and access through strengthened minimum price laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Ian; Pearson, Anne; Laird-Metke, Elisa; Ribisl, Kurt

    2014-10-01

    Higher prices reduce consumption and initiation of tobacco products. A minimum price law that establishes a high statutory minimum price and prohibits the industry's discounting tactics for tobacco products is a promising pricing strategy as an alternative to excise tax increases. Although some states have adopted minimum price laws on the basis of statutorily defined price "markups" over the invoice price, existing state laws have been largely ineffective at increasing the retail price. We analyzed 3 new variations of minimum price laws that hold great potential for raising tobacco prices and reducing consumption: (1) a flat rate minimum price law similar to a recent enactment in New York City, (2) an enhanced markup law, and (3) a law that incorporates both elements.

  16. Minimum scale controlled topology optimization and experimental test of a micro thermal actuator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heo, S.; Yoon, Gil Ho; Kim, Y.Y.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the optimal topology design, fabrication and test of a micro thermal actuator. Because the minimum scale was controlled during the design optimization process, the production yield rate of the actuator was improved considerably; alternatively, the optimization design ...... tested. The test showed that control over the minimum length scale in the design process greatly improves the yield rate and reduces the performance deviation....... without scale control resulted in a very low yield rate. Using the minimum scale controlling topology design method developed earlier by the authors, micro thermal actuators were designed and fabricated through a MEMS process. Moreover, both their performance and production yield were experimentally...

  17. Displacement sensor for measurement of fuel rod elongation in the LOFT reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billeter, T.R.

    1979-09-01

    Qualification tests conducted for a period of 700 hours of each of three displacement measuring (LVDT) sensors confirmed applicability of the design for use in the Loss-of-Fluid-Test (LOFT) reactor. Operationally, the sensor satisfies all specified requirements for LOFT. Even for imposed temperature transients at rates up to 100 0 F/s, the indicated displacement remained within the allowed maximum error band of +- 10% of reading. The 0.6-inch O.D. by 5.5-inch long sensor exhibited a linearly related signal output variation for displacement variations of up to 1-inch range. Long term operation at temperatures of 100 0 F to 800 0 F caused no perceptible permanent change of operating characteristics

  18. Needle displacement during HDR brachytherapy in the treatment of prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damore, Steven J.; Syed, A.M. Nisar; Puthawala, Ajmel A.; Sharma, Anil

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: We used clinical patient data to examine implant displacement between high dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy fractions for prostate cancer to determine its impact on treatment delivery. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the verification films taken prior to each fraction for 96 consecutive patients treated with HDR brachytherapy boosts as part of their radiation therapy for definitive treatment of organ-confined prostate cancer at our institution. Patients were treated with 18-24 Gy in 4 fractions of HDR delivered in 40 hours followed by 36-39.6 Gy external beam radiation to the prostate. We determined the mean and maximum displacement distances of marker seeds placed in the prostate and of the implanted needles between HDR fractions. Results: Mean and maximum displacement distances between fractions were documented up to 7.6 mm and 28.5 mm, respectively, for the implant needles and 3.6 mm and 11.4 mm, respectively, for the gold marker seeds. All displacement of implant needles occurred in the caudal direction. At least 1 cm caudal displacement of needles occurred prior to 15.5% all fractions. Manual adjustment of needles was required prior to 15% of fractions, and adjustment of the CLP only was required in 24%. Most of the displacement for both the marker seeds and needles occurred between the first and second fractions. Conclusions: There is significant caudal displacement of interstitial implant needles between HDR fractions in our prostate cancer patients. Obtaining verification films and making adjustments in the treatment volume prior to each fraction is necessary to avoid significant inaccuracies in treatment delivery

  19. MRI of displaced meniscal fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunoski, Brian; Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal

    2012-01-01

    A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  20. MRI of displaced meniscal fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunoski, Brian [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Children' s Hospital of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Detroit, MI (United States); Zbojniewicz, Andrew M.; Laor, Tal [University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2012-01-15

    A torn meniscus frequently requires surgical fixation or debridement as definitive treatment. Meniscal tears with associated fragment displacement, such as bucket handle and flap tears, can be difficult to recognize and accurately describe on MRI, and displaced fragments can be challenging to identify at surgery. A displaced meniscal fragment can be obscured by synovium or be in a location not usually evaluated at arthroscopy. We present a pictorial essay of meniscal tears with displaced fragments in patients referred to a pediatric hospital in order to increase recognition and accurate interpretation by the radiologist, who in turn can help assist the surgeon in planning appropriate therapy. (orig.)

  1. Armed conflict, homonegativity and forced internal displacement: implications for HIV among Colombian gay, bisexual and transgender individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zea, Maria Cecilia; Reisen, Carol A; Bianchi, Fernanda T; Gonzales, Felisa A; Betancourt, Fabián; Aguilar, Marcela; Poppen, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Colombia has endured six decades of civil unrest, population displacement and violence. We examined the relationships between contextual conditions, displacement and HIV among gay, bisexual and transgender individuals in Bogotá, Colombia. A total of 19 key informants provided information about internal displacement of sexual minorities. Life-history interviews were conducted with 42 participants aged 18 to 48 years and included questions about displacement experiences, sexual behaviour, life prior to displacement and participants' economic and social situation in Bogotá. The interplay of a variety of factors - including internal conflict and violence, homonegativity and 'social cleansing', gender and sexual identity and poverty - strongly shaped the varied experiences of displacement. Migration, sexual violence, exchange sex and low rates of HIV testing were risk factors that increased vulnerability for HIV in this displaced sample. Although displacement and HIV in Colombia are major problems, both are understudied.

  2. Mental health problems among internally displaced persons in Darfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Abdalla A R M; Musa, Saif A

    2010-08-01

    War victims are regarded as one of the highest risk groups for mental disturbances. This study investigated the effects of the Darfur conflict on mental health of 430 internally displaced persons (IDPs) from three camps located around Fasher and Nyala towns. A stratified random sampling technique was used to select participants. Male participants represented 50.6% of the sample while female participants represented 49.4%. The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28) were used in addition to a questionnaire measuring demographic variables and living conditions. It was hypothesized that high prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and of nonpsychotic psychiatric symptoms will be evident. Results showed a high dissatisfaction rate (72%) with living conditions among IDPs. There was also high prevalence of PTSD (54%) and general distress (70%) among IDPs. Female participants showed more somatic symptoms than their male counterparts. Married participants were more distressed, anxious, and showed more social dysfunction, while single ones reported more avoidance symptoms. Significant differences related to date of displacement were found in PTSD and hyperarousal. The group of IDPs displaced in 2003 scored higher on these scales than those displaced in 2004 and 2005. There was also significant difference related to date of displacement in distress, somatic symptoms, depression, anxiety, and social dysfunction. IDPs displaced in 2003 scored higher on these scales. Results are discussed in light of the study hypotheses and previous findings. It is concluded that three factors might affect the dissatisfaction of IDPs with living conditions inside camps. These are: lack of employment, unsuitability of food items, and lack of security around camps. It was recommended that psychological support services should be among the prime relief services provided by aid agencies.

  3. Effects of threshold displacement energy on defect production by displacement cascades in α, β and γ-LiAlO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchihira, H.; Oda, T.; Tanaka, S.

    2013-01-01

    Threshold displacement energy evaluation and a series of displacement cascade simulations in α, β, and γ-LiAlO 2 were performed using molecular dynamics. Threshold displacement energy evaluations indicated that higher absolute ionic charge values and larger densities both increase threshold displacement energy. The displacement cascade simulations suggest that the influence of different crystal structures on the number of interstitial atoms generated in a displacement cascade is explainable almost entirely by the difference of the threshold displacement energy

  4. The impact of minimum wages on youth employment in Portugal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.C. Pereira

    2003-01-01

    textabstractFrom January 1, 1987, the legal minimum wage for workers aged 18 and 19 in Portugal was uprated to the full adult rate, generating a 49.3% increase between 1986 and 1987 in the legal minimum wage for this age group. This shock is used as a ?natural experiment? to evaluate the impact of

  5. Patterns of mortality rates in Darfur conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degomme, Olivier; Guha-Sapir, Debarati

    2010-01-23

    Several mortality estimates for the Darfur conflict have been reported since 2004, but few accounted for conflict dynamics such as changing displacement and causes of deaths. We analyse changes over time for crude and cause-specific mortality rates, and assess the effect of displacement on mortality rates. Retrospective mortality surveys were gathered from an online database. Quasi-Poisson models were used to assess mortality rates with place and period in which the survey was done, and the proportions of displaced people in the samples were the explanatory variables. Predicted mortality rates for five periods were computed and applied to population data taken from the UN's series about Darfur to obtain the number of deaths. 63 of 107 mortality surveys met all criteria for analysis. Our results show significant reductions in mortality rates from early 2004 to the end of 2008, although rates were higher during deployment of fewer humanitarian aid workers. In general, the reduction in rate was more important for violence-related than for diarrhoea-related mortality. Displacement correlated with increased rates of deaths associated with diarrhoea, but also with reduction in violent deaths. We estimated the excess number of deaths to be 298 271 (95% CI 178 258-461 520). Although violence was the main cause of death during 2004, diseases have been the cause of most deaths since 2005, with displaced populations being the most susceptible. Any reduction in humanitarian assistance could lead to worsening mortality rates, as was the case between mid 2006 and mid 2007. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. How to avoid simulation sickness in virtual environments during user displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemeny, A.; Colombet, F.; Denoual, T.

    2015-03-01

    Driving simulation (DS) and Virtual Reality (VR) share the same technologies for visualization and 3D vision and may use the same technics for head movement tracking. They experience also similar difficulties when rendering the displacements of the observer in virtual environments, especially when these displacements are carried out using driver commands, including steering wheels, joysticks and nomad devices. High values for transport delay, the time lag between the action and the corresponding rendering cues and/or visual-vestibular conflict, due to the discrepancies perceived by the human visual and vestibular systems when driving or displacing using a control device, induces the so-called simulation sickness. While the visual transport delay can be efficiently reduced using high frequency frame rate, the visual-vestibular conflict is inherent to VR, when not using motion platforms. In order to study the impact of displacements on simulation sickness, we have tested various driving scenarios in Renault's 5-sided ultra-high resolution CAVE. First results indicate that low speed displacements with longitudinal and lateral accelerations under a given perception thresholds are well accepted by a large number of users and relatively high values are only accepted by experienced users and induce VR induced symptoms and effects (VRISE) for novice users, with a worst case scenario corresponding to rotational displacements. These results will be used for optimization technics at Arts et Métiers ParisTech for motion sickness reduction in virtual environments for industrial, research, educational or gaming applications.

  7. Sub-ensemble monitoring of DNA strand displacement using multiparameter single-molecule FRET

    OpenAIRE

    Baltierra Jasso, Laura; Morten, Michael; Magennis, Steven William

    2018-01-01

    Non-enzymatic DNA strand displacement is an important mechanism in dynamic DNA nanotechnology. Here we show that the large parameter space that is accessible by single-molecule FRET is ideal for the simultaneous monitoring of multiple reactants and products of DNA strand exchange reactions. We monitored the strand displacement from double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) by single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) at 37 °C; the data were modelled as a second-order reaction approaching equilibrium, with a rate constan...

  8. The Minimum Wage and the Employment of Teenagers. Recent Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallick, Bruce; Currie, Janet

    A study used individual-level data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth to examine the effects of changes in the federal minimum wage on teenage employment. Individuals in the sample were classified as either likely or unlikely to be affected by these increases in the federal minimum wage on the basis of their wage rates and industry of…

  9. Measurement of interfacial displacement of a liquid film in microchannels using laser focus displacement meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazuku, Tatsuya; Fukamachi, Norihiro; Takamasa, Tomoji; Hibiki, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for measuring the interfacial displacement of a liquid film in microchannels using a laser focus displacement meter (LFD). The purpose of the study is to clarify the effectiveness of the new method for obtaining detailed information concerning interfacial displacement, especially in the case of a thin liquid film, in micro- and mini-channels. To prevent the tube wall signal from disturbing that of the gas-liquid interface, a fluorocarbon tube with water box was used; the refraction index of this device is same as that for water. With this method, accurate instantaneous measurements of interfacial displacement of the liquid film were achieved. The error caused by refraction of the laser beam passing through the acrylic water box and fluorocarbon tube was estimated analytically and experimentally. The formulated analytical equation can estimate the real interface displacement using measured displacement in a fluorocarbon tube of 25 μm to 2.0 mm I.D. A preliminary test using fluorocarbon tubes of 1 and 2 mm I.D. showed that the corrected interface displacement calculated by the equation agreed with real displacement within a 1% margin of error. It was also confirmed that the LFD in the system could measure a liquid film of 0.25 μm at the thinnest. We made simultaneous measurements of the interface in fluorocarbon tubes of 0.5 and 1 mm I.D. using the LFD and a high-speed video camera with a microscope. These showed that the LFD could measure the interface of a liquid film with high spatial and temporal resolution during annular, slug, and piston flow regimes. The data also clarified the existence of a thin liquid film less than 1 μm in thickness in slug and annular flow regions. (author)

  10. LDPC Codes with Minimum Distance Proportional to Block Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Jones, Christopher; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2009-01-01

    Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes characterized by minimum Hamming distances proportional to block sizes have been demonstrated. Like the codes mentioned in the immediately preceding article, the present codes are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. The previously mentioned codes have low decoding thresholds and reasonably low error floors. However, the minimum Hamming distances of those codes do not grow linearly with code-block sizes. Codes that have this minimum-distance property exhibit very low error floors. Examples of such codes include regular LDPC codes with variable degrees of at least 3. Unfortunately, the decoding thresholds of regular LDPC codes are high. Hence, there is a need for LDPC codes characterized by both low decoding thresholds and, in order to obtain acceptably low error floors, minimum Hamming distances that are proportional to code-block sizes. The present codes were developed to satisfy this need. The minimum Hamming distances of the present codes have been shown, through consideration of ensemble-average weight enumerators, to be proportional to code block sizes. As in the cases of irregular ensembles, the properties of these codes are sensitive to the proportion of degree-2 variable nodes. A code having too few such nodes tends to have an iterative decoding threshold that is far from the capacity threshold. A code having too many such nodes tends not to exhibit a minimum distance that is proportional to block size. Results of computational simulations have shown that the decoding thresholds of codes of the present type are lower than those of regular LDPC codes. Included in the simulations were a few examples from a family of codes characterized by rates ranging from low to high and by thresholds that adhere closely to their respective channel capacity thresholds; the simulation results from these examples showed that the codes in question have low

  11. Displacement of group III, IV, V, and VI impurities in Si by the analyzing beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiggers, L.W.; Saris, F.W.

    1978-01-01

    By means of 2MeV He + backscattering and 1.5 MeV H + backscattering and nuclear reaction analysis in combination with the channeling technique displacement of impurity atoms in Si from substitutional into non-substitutional positions under bombardment is studied. In this paper the authors report on the displacement of Ga, Ge, P, As, Sb, Bi, Se, and Te in Si single crystals. It appears that displacement of impurity atoms is not an exception but almost a rule. The only element for which an effect was not found was Ge. Values for the displacement rate were derived and appeared to be, with the exception for Ge, all of the same order of magnitude. (Auth.)

  12. EDSPA, 1-D Mechanical Displacement for Elastic, Thermoelastic, Viscoelastic Behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlich, M.; Elsen, R.

    1995-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: EDSPA solves the one dimensional mechanical displacement equation in radial (sphere) axisymmetric cylindrical (infinite cylinder, slab) coordinates. The constitutive laws for the material to be considered can comprise the - elastic and/or - thermoelastic and/or - viscoplastic behaviour. The boundary conditions allow to prescribe displacement and/or stress values. The delivered version of EDSPA is especially suitable for the calculation of borehole problems in rock salt (heater boreholes or free converging boreholes or caverns) where convergence rates and/or contact pressures are of interest. 2 - Method of solution: The coarse-mesh method is used to transform the displacement differential equation (quasi-stationary case: second order ordinary differential equation as a two point boundary value problem) into a system of algebraic equations. This three-diagonal system is solved with the Thomas algorithm (direct solver). 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Because of EDSPA's simple one-dimensional formulation there are no restrictions for storage allocation and argument ranges

  13. A Comparative Study of Face Milling of D2 Steel Using Al2O3 Based Nanofluid Minimum Quantity Lubrication and Minimum Quantity Lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ahsan Ul Haq

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of process parameters feed, depth of cut and flow rate, on the temperature during face milling of the D2 tool steel under two different lubricant conditions, Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL and Nanofluid Minimum Quantity Lubrication (NFMQL. Distilled water with the flow rate range 200-400 ml/hr was used in MQL. 2% by weight concentration of Al2O3 nanoparticles with distilled water as the base fluid used as NFMQL with same flow rate. Response surface methodology RSM central composite design CCD was used to design experiment run, modeling, and analysis. ANOVA was used for the adequacy and validation of the system. The comparison shows that NFMQL condition reduced more temperature during machining.

  14. Displacement functions for diatomic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panrkin, D.M.; Coulter, C.A.

    1979-01-01

    An extension of the methods of Lindhard et at. was used to calculate the total displacement function n/sub ij/(E) for a number of diatomic materials, where n/sub ij/(E) is defined to be the average number of atoms of type j which are displaced from their sites in a displacement cascade initiated by a PKA of type i and energy E. From the n/sub ij/(E) one can calculate the fraction n/sub ij/(E) of the displacements produced by a type i PKA with energy E which are of type j. Values of the n/sub ij/ for MgO, CaO, Al 2 O 3 , and TaO are presented. It is shown that for diatomic materials with mass ratios reasonably near one (e.g., MgO, Al 2 O 3 ) and equal displacement thresholds for the two species the n/sub ij/ become independent of the PKA type i at energies only a few times threshold. However, for larger mass ratios the n/sub ij/ do not become independent of i until much larger, energies are reached - e.g. > 10 5 eV for TaO. In addition, it is found that the n/sub ij/ depend sensitively on the displacement thresholds, with very dramatic charges occuring when the two thresholds become significantly different from one another

  15. Etiopathogenesis of abomasal displacement in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šamanc Horea

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abomasal displacement presents topographic gastropathy, where this organ has changed its position, and there is simultaneous dilatation which can vary in intensity. The incidence of this disorder in herds of high-yield dairy cows varies to a great degree (1 to 18 %. Abomasal displacement was established in herds of East-Frisian cows in 1 to 3% animals, and in Holstein cow herds in 5 to 18 % animals. The most frequent abomasal displacement is to the left (88%. There is significant seasonal variation in the incidence of abomasal displacement. About two-thirds of cases of abomasal displacement are diagnosed from October until April. The disorder appears more frequently in cows with repeated lactations. It has been established that it appears after the first calving in 27.8% cases, after the second to fifth calving in 66.7% cases, and after the sixth and seventh calving in 5.5% of the cows. The response of endocrine pancreas B-cells for insulin secretion to hyperglycaemia caused by applying an excess-glucose test is reduced in cows with left abomasal displacement, and there is constant hyperglycaemia in cows with right abomasal displacement. The excess-glucose test indicates a disrupted function of the endocrine pancreas in diseased animals. It has been determined through examinations of Aml genotypes in Holstein cow herds in connection with the appearance of abomasal displacement, that the occurrence of this disorder cannot be attributed to a genetic predisposition.

  16. Libyan armed conflict 2011: Mortality, injury and population displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Daw

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The Libyan armed conflict resulted in great human loss and social damage mirrored by high rates of mortality, injury and human displacement. Such parameters peaked as the conflict escalated and differed according to the Libyan regions and provinces involved. National and international efforts should be combined to overcome the consequences of these conflicts.

  17. Pre-failure behaviour of an unstable limestone cliff from displacement and seismic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-L. Got

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We monitored the displacement and seismic activity of an unstable vertical rock slice in a natural limestone cliff of the southeast Vercors massif, southeast France, during the months preceding its collapse. Displacement measurements showed an average acceleration of the movement of its top, with clear increases in the displacement velocity and in the discrete seismic event production rate during periods where temperature falls, with more activity when rainfall or frost occurs. Crises of discrete seismic events produce high amplitudes in periodograms, but do not change the high frequency base noise level rate. We infer that these crises express the critical crack growth induced by water weakening (from water vapor condensation or rain of the rock strength rather than to a rapid change in applied stresses. Seismic noise analysis showed a steady increase in the high frequency base noise level and the emergence of spectral modes in the signal recorded by the sensor installed on the unstable rock slice during the weeks preceding the collapse. High frequency seismic noise base level seems to represent subcritical crack growth. It is a smooth and robust parameter whose variations are related to generalized changes in the rupture process. Drop of the seismic noise amplitude was concomitant with the emergence of spectral modes – that are compatible with high-order eigenmodes of the unstable rock slice – during the later stages of its instability. Seismic noise analysis, especially high frequency base noise level analysis may complement that of inverse displacement velocity in early-warning approaches when strong displacement fluctuations occur.

  18. Conflict, displacement and health in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mowafi, Hani

    2011-01-01

    Displacement is a hallmark of modern humanitarian emergencies. Displacement itself is a traumatic event that can result in illness or death. Survivors face challenges including lack of adequate shelter, decreased access to health services, food insecurity, loss of livelihoods, social marginalisation as well as economic and sexual exploitation. Displacement takes many forms in the Middle East and the Arab World. Historical conflicts have resulted in long-term displacement of Palestinians. Internal conflicts have driven millions of Somalis and Sudanese from their homes. Iraqis have been displaced throughout the region by invasion and civil strife. In addition, large numbers of migrants transit Middle Eastern countries or live there illegally and suffer similar conditions as forcibly displaced people. Displacement in the Middle East is an urban phenomenon. Many displaced people live hidden among host country populations in poor urban neighbourhoods - often without legal status. This represents a challenge for groups attempting to access displaced populations. Furthermore, health information systems in host countries often do not collect data on displaced people, making it difficult to gather data needed to target interventions towards these vulnerable populations. The following is a discussion of the health impacts of conflict and displacement in the Middle East. A review was conducted of published literature on migration and displacement in the region. Different cases are discussed with an emphasis on the recent, large-scale and urban displacement of Iraqis to illustrate aspects of displacement in this region.

  19. 13 CFR 301.4 - Investment rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment rates. 301.4 Section... ELIGIBILITY, INVESTMENT RATE AND PROPOSAL AND APPLICATION REQUIREMENTS Investment Rates and Matching Share Requirements § 301.4 Investment rates. (a) Minimum Investment Rate. There is no minimum Investment Rate for a...

  20. Gender-based violence in conflict and displacement: qualitative findings from displaced women in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Andrea L; Pham, Kiemanh; Glass, Nancy; Loochkartt, Saskia; Kidane, Teemar; Cuspoca, Decssy; Rubenstein, Leonard S; Singh, Sonal; Vu, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Gender-based violence (GBV) is prevalent among, though not specific to, conflict affected populations and related to multifarious levels of vulnerability of conflict and displacement. Colombia has been marked with decades of conflict, with an estimated 5.2 million internally displaced persons (IDPs) and ongoing violence. We conducted qualitative research to understand the contexts of conflict, displacement and dynamics with GBV. This as part of a multi-phase, mixed method study, in collaboration with UNHCR, to develop a screening tool to confidentially identify cases of GBV for referral among IDP women who were survivors of GBV. Qualitative research was used to identify the range of GBV, perpetrators, contexts in conflict and displacement, barriers to reporting and service uptake, as well as to understand experiences of service providers. Thirty-five female IDPs, aged 18 years and older, who self-identified as survivors of GBV were enrolled for in-depth interviews in San Jose de Guaviare and Quibdo, Colombia in June 2012. Thirty-one service providers participated in six focus group discussions and four interviews across these sites. Survivors described a range of GBV across conflict and displacement settings. Armed actors in conflict settings perpetrated threats of violence and harm to family members, child recruitment, and, to a lesser degree, rape and forced abortion. Opportunistic violence, including abduction, rape, and few accounts of trafficking were more commonly reported to occur in the displacement setting, often perpetrated by unknown individuals. Intrafamilial violence, intimate partner violence, including physical and sexual violence and reproductive control were salient across settings and may be exacerbated by conflict and displacement. Barriers to reporting and services seeking were reported by survivors and providers alike. Findings highlight the need for early identification of GBV cases, with emphasis on confidential approaches and active

  1. Approaching population thresholds in presence of uncertainty: Assessing displacement of seabirds from offshore wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Malte; Garthe, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Assessment of the displacement impacts of offshore wind farms on seabirds is impeded by a lack of evidence regarding species-specific reactions to developed sites and the potential ecological consequences faced by displaced individuals. In this study, we present a method that makes best use of the currently limited understanding of displacement impacts. The combination of a matrix table displaying the full range of potential displacement and mortality levels together with seasonal potential biological removal (PBR) assessments provides a tool that increases confidence in the conclusions of impact assessments. If unrealistic displacement levels and/or mortality rates are required to equal or approach seasonal PBRs, this gives an indication of the likeliness of adverse impacts on the assessed population. This approach is demonstrated by assessing the displacement impacts of an offshore wind farm cluster in the German North Sea on the local common guillemot (Uria aalge) population. - Highlights: • A novel approach for assessing displacement impacts of offshore wind farms on seabirds is presented making best use of limited data • A displacement matrix approach is linked with PBR analysis to increased confidence in assessment conclusions drawn • A case example demonstrates the applicability of the methods described in practice

  2. Approaching population thresholds in presence of uncertainty: Assessing displacement of seabirds from offshore wind farms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, Malte, E-mail: der.malte.busch@gmail.com; Garthe, Stefan

    2016-01-15

    Assessment of the displacement impacts of offshore wind farms on seabirds is impeded by a lack of evidence regarding species-specific reactions to developed sites and the potential ecological consequences faced by displaced individuals. In this study, we present a method that makes best use of the currently limited understanding of displacement impacts. The combination of a matrix table displaying the full range of potential displacement and mortality levels together with seasonal potential biological removal (PBR) assessments provides a tool that increases confidence in the conclusions of impact assessments. If unrealistic displacement levels and/or mortality rates are required to equal or approach seasonal PBRs, this gives an indication of the likeliness of adverse impacts on the assessed population. This approach is demonstrated by assessing the displacement impacts of an offshore wind farm cluster in the German North Sea on the local common guillemot (Uria aalge) population. - Highlights: • A novel approach for assessing displacement impacts of offshore wind farms on seabirds is presented making best use of limited data • A displacement matrix approach is linked with PBR analysis to increased confidence in assessment conclusions drawn • A case example demonstrates the applicability of the methods described in practice.

  3. Aseptic minimum volume vitrification technique for porcine parthenogenetically activated blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Yu, Yutao; Zhang, Xiuqing; Yang, Huanming; Bolund, Lars; Callesen, Henrik; Vajta, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    Minimum volume vitrification may provide extremely high cooling and warming rates if the sample and the surrounding medium contacts directly with the respective liquid nitrogen and warming medium. However, this direct contact may result in microbial contamination. In this work, an earlier aseptic technique was applied for minimum volume vitrification. After equilibration, samples were loaded on a plastic film, immersed rapidly into factory derived, filter-sterilized liquid nitrogen, and sealed into sterile, pre-cooled straws. At warming, the straw was cut, the filmstrip was immersed into a 39 degree C warming medium, and the sample was stepwise rehydrated. Cryosurvival rates of porcine blastocysts produced by parthenogenetical activation did not differ from control, vitrified blastocysts with Cryotop. This approach can be used for minimum volume vitrification methods and may be suitable to overcome the biological dangers and legal restrictions that hamper the application of open vitrification techniques.

  4. Effects of Fault Displacement on Emplacement Drifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, F.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate potential effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts, including drip shields and waste packages emplaced in emplacement drifts. The output from this analysis not only provides data for the evaluation of long-term drift stability but also supports the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) process model report (PMR) and Disruptive Events Report currently under development. The primary scope of this analysis includes (1) examining fault displacement effects in terms of induced stresses and displacements in the rock mass surrounding an emplacement drift and (2 ) predicting fault displacement effects on the drip shield and waste package. The magnitude of the fault displacement analyzed in this analysis bounds the mean fault displacement corresponding to an annual frequency of exceedance of 10 -5 adopted for the preclosure period of the repository and also supports the postclosure performance assessment. This analysis is performed following the development plan prepared for analyzing effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts (CRWMS M and O 2000). The analysis will begin with the identification and preparation of requirements, criteria, and inputs. A literature survey on accommodating fault displacements encountered in underground structures such as buried oil and gas pipelines will be conducted. For a given fault displacement, the least favorable scenario in term of the spatial relation of a fault to an emplacement drift is chosen, and the analysis is then performed analytically. Based on the analysis results, conclusions are made regarding the effects and consequences of fault displacement on emplacement drifts. Specifically, the analysis will discuss loads which can be induced by fault displacement on emplacement drifts, drip shield and/or waste packages during the time period of postclosure

  5. Integration of fringe projection and two-dimensional digital image correlation for three-dimensional displacements measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felipe-Sesé, Luis; López-Alba, Elías; Siegmann, Philip; Díaz, Francisco A.

    2016-12-01

    A low-cost approach for three-dimensional (3-D) full-field displacement measurement is applied for the analysis of large displacements involved in two different mechanical events. The method is based on a combination of fringe projection and two-dimensional digital image correlation (DIC) techniques. The two techniques have been employed simultaneously using an RGB camera and a color encoding method; therefore, it is possible to measure in-plane and out-of-plane displacements at the same time with only one camera even at high speed rates. The potential of the proposed methodology has been employed for the analysis of large displacements during contact experiments in a soft material block. Displacement results have been successfully compared with those obtained using a 3D-DIC commercial system. Moreover, the analysis of displacements during an impact test on a metal plate was performed to emphasize the application of the methodology for dynamics events. Results show a good level of agreement, highlighting the potential of FP + 2D DIC as low-cost alternative for the analysis of large deformations problems.

  6. High-displacement spiral piezoelectric actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, F.; Kholkin, A. L.; Jadidian, B.; Safari, A.

    1999-10-01

    A high-displacement piezoelectric actuator, employing spiral geometry of a curved piezoelectric strip is described. The monolithic actuators are fabricated using a layered manufacturing technique, fused deposition of ceramics, which is capable of prototyping electroceramic components with complex shapes. The spiral actuators (2-3 cm in diameter) consisted of 4-5 turns of a lead zirconate titanate ceramic strip with an effective length up to 28 cm. The width was varied from 0.9 to 1.75 mm with a height of 3 mm. When driven by the electric field applied across the width of the spiral wall, the tip of the actuator was found to displace in both radial and tangential directions. The tangential displacement of the tip was about 210 μm under the field of 5 kV/cm. Both the displacement and resonant frequency of the spirals could be tailored by changing the effective length and wall width. The blocking force of the actuator in tangential direction was about 1 N under the field of 5 kV/cm. These properties are advantageous for high-displacement low-force applications where bimorph or monomorph actuators are currently employed.

  7. Shell Tectonics: A Mechanical Model for Strike-slip Displacement on Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoden, Alyssa Rose; Wurman, Gilead; Huff, Eric M.; Manga, Michael; Hurford, Terry A.

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a new mechanical model for producing tidally-driven strike-slip displacement along preexisting faults on Europa, which we call shell tectonics. This model differs from previous models of strike-slip on icy satellites by incorporating a Coulomb failure criterion, approximating a viscoelastic rheology, determining the slip direction based on the gradient of the tidal shear stress rather than its sign, and quantitatively determining the net offset over many orbits. This model allows us to predict the direction of net displacement along faults and determine relative accumulation rate of displacement. To test the shell tectonics model, we generate global predictions of slip direction and compare them with the observed global pattern of strike-slip displacement on Europa in which left-lateral faults dominate far north of the equator, right-lateral faults dominate in the far south, and near-equatorial regions display a mixture of both types of faults. The shell tectonics model reproduces this global pattern. Incorporating a small obliquity into calculations of tidal stresses, which are used as inputs to the shell tectonics model, can also explain regional differences in strike-slip fault populations. We also discuss implications for fault azimuths, fault depth, and Europa's tectonic history.

  8. Internal displacement and health among the Palestinian minority in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daoud, Nihaya; Shankardass, Ketan; O'Campo, Patricia; Anderson, Kim; Agbaria, Ayman K

    2012-04-01

    Long term health impacts of internal displacement (ID) resulting from political violence are not well documented or understood. One such case is the ID of 300,000-420,000 Palestinian citizens of Israel and their descendants during the Nakba of 1948 (Palestinian Catastrophe). We aim to document the long term health impacts of this ID. We draw on data collected in 2005 from a nationwide random sample of 902 individuals aged 30-70. Research participants were interviewed in person after being selected through a multistage sampling procedure. About 24% of participants reported that either they or their families had been internally displaced. Palestinian internally displaced persons (IDPs), that is, those who were forcibly displaced and dispossessed from their homes and lands during the Nakba and its aftermath, as well as their families and descendants, and who reside within the current borders of Israel, had an odds ratio of 1.45 (95% CI = 1.02-2.07) for poor self-rated health (SRH) compared to non-IDPs after controlling for demographic, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. No difference was found between IDPs and non-IDPs in limiting longstanding illness following control for confounders. Low socioeconomic position and chronic stress were significantly related to ID and to SRH. Our findings suggest adverse long term health impacts of the Nakba on the IDPs when compared to non-IDPs. We propose that these disparities might stem from IDPs' unhealed post-traumatic scars from the Nakba, or from becoming a marginalized minority within their own society due to their displacement and loss of collective identity. Given these long term health consequences, we conclude that displacement should be addressed with health and social policies for IDPs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. On the road again: traffic fatalities and auto insurance minimums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel A. Yakovlev

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Prior research on policy-induced moral hazard effects in the auto insurance market has focused on the impact of compulsory insurance, no-fault liability, and tort liability laws on traffic fatalities. In contrast, this paper examines the moral hazard effect of a previously overlooked policy variable: minimum auto insurance coverage. We hypothesize that state-mandated auto insurance minimums may “over-insure” some drivers, lowering their incentives to drive carefully. Using a longitudinal panel of American states from 1982 to 2006, we find that policy-induced increases in auto insurance minimums are associated with higher traffic fatality rates, ceteris paribus.

  10. Flow Characteristics and Sizing of Annular Seat Valves for Digital Displacement Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nørgård

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the steady-state flow characteristics and power losses of annular seat valves for digital displacement machines. Annular seat valves are promising candidates for active check-valves used in digital displacement fluid power machinery which excels in efficiency in a broad operating range. To achieve high machine efficiency, the valve flow losses and the required electrical power needed for valve switching should be low. The annular valve plunger geometry, of a valve prototype developed for digital displacement machines, is parametrized by three parameters: stroke length, seat radius and seat width. The steady-state flow characteristics are analyzed using static axi-symmetric computational fluid dynamics. The pressure drops and flow forces are mapped in the valve design space for several different flow rates. The simulated results are compared against measurements using a valve prototype. Using the simulated maps to estimate the flow power losses and a simple generic model to estimate the electric power losses, both during digital displacement operation, optimal designs of annular seat valves, with respect to valve power losses, are derived under several different operating conditions.

  11. Buoyant miscible displacement flow of shear-thinning fluids: Experiments and Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale Etrati Khosroshahi, Seyed Ali; Frigaard, Ian

    2017-11-01

    We study displacement flow of two miscible fluids with density and viscosity contrast in an inclined pipe. Our focus is mainly on displacements where transverse mixing is not significant and thus a two-layer, stratified flow develops. Our experiments are carried out in a long pipe, covering a wide range of flow-rates, inclination angles and viscosity ratios. Density and viscosity contrasts are achieved by adding Glycerol and Xanthan gum to water, respectively. At each angle, flow rate and viscosity ratio are varied and density contrast is fixed. We identify and map different flow regimes, instabilities and front dynamics based on Fr , Re / Frcosβ and viscosity ratio m. The problem is also studied numerically to get a better insight into the flow structure and shear-thinning effects. Numerical simulations are completed using OpenFOAM in both pipe and channel geometries and are compared against the experiments. Schlumberger, NSERC.

  12. Displacement cross sections and PKA spectra: tables and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doran, D.G.; Graves, N.J.

    1976-12-01

    Damage energy cross sections to 20 MeV are given for aluminum, vanadium, chromium, iron, nickel, copper, zirconium, niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, tungsten, lead, and 18Cr10Ni stainless steel. They are based on ENDF/B-IV nuclear data and the Lindhard energy partition model. Primary knockon atom (PKA) spectra are given for aluminum, iron, niobium, tantalum, and lead for neutron energies up to 15 MeV at approximately one-quarter lethargy intervals. The contributions of various reactions to both the displacement cross sections (taken to be proportional to the damage energy cross sections) and the PKA spectra are presented graphically. Spectral-averaged values of the displacement cross sections are given for several spectra, including approximate maps for the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) and several positions in the Fast Test Reactor (FTR). Flux values are included to permit estimation of displacement rates. Graphs show integral PKA spectra for the five metals listed above for neutron spectra corresponding to locations in the EBR-II, the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), and a conceptual fusion reactor (UWMAK-I). Detailed calculations are given only for cases not previously documented. Uncertainty estimates are included

  13. Instability of displacement of Oldroyd-B fluid by air in a Hele-Shaw cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daripa, Prabir

    2014-03-01

    We study the displacement of an Oldroyd-B fluid in a Hele-Shaw cell when driven by air. In particular, we explicitly obtain an analytical expression for the growth rate of instability which depends on the relaxation and retardation (time) constants, denoted by λ, and λ1 respectively, appearing in the Oldroyd-B constitutive relations. When these two constants are zero, we recover the classical Saffman-Taylor result for a Newtonian liquid displaced by air. Our results show that this displacement process is more unstable than the case when a Newtonian fluid is displaced by air. The analytical results are plotted and compared with numerical results on this unstable displacement process available in the literature. The agreement is found to be excellent. In particular, results show that the non-Newtonian case (i.e., Oldroyd-B) is more unstable than the Newtonian case. Supported by an NPRP Grant # 08-777-1-141 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of the Qatar Foundation). The statements made herein are solely the responsibility of the author.

  14. A note on minimum-variance theory and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Jianfeng [Department of Informatics, Sussex University, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Tartaglia, Giangaetano [Physics Department, Rome University ' La Sapienza' , Rome 00185 (Italy); Tirozzi, Brunello [Physics Department, Rome University ' La Sapienza' , Rome 00185 (Italy)

    2004-04-30

    We revisit the minimum-variance theory proposed by Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780-4), discuss the implications of the theory on modelling the firing patterns of single neurons and analytically find the optimal control signals, trajectories and velocities. Under the rate coding assumption, input control signals employed in the minimum-variance theory should be Fitts processes rather than Poisson processes. Only if information is coded by interspike intervals, Poisson processes are in agreement with the inputs employed in the minimum-variance theory. For the integrate-and-fire model with Fitts process inputs, interspike intervals of efferent spike trains are very irregular. We introduce diffusion approximations to approximate neural models with renewal process inputs and present theoretical results on calculating moments of interspike intervals of the integrate-and-fire model. Results in Feng, et al (2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 7287-304) are generalized. In conclusion, we present a complete picture on the minimum-variance theory ranging from input control signals, to model outputs, and to its implications on modelling firing patterns of single neurons.

  15. A note on minimum-variance theory and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Jianfeng; Tartaglia, Giangaetano; Tirozzi, Brunello

    2004-01-01

    We revisit the minimum-variance theory proposed by Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780-4), discuss the implications of the theory on modelling the firing patterns of single neurons and analytically find the optimal control signals, trajectories and velocities. Under the rate coding assumption, input control signals employed in the minimum-variance theory should be Fitts processes rather than Poisson processes. Only if information is coded by interspike intervals, Poisson processes are in agreement with the inputs employed in the minimum-variance theory. For the integrate-and-fire model with Fitts process inputs, interspike intervals of efferent spike trains are very irregular. We introduce diffusion approximations to approximate neural models with renewal process inputs and present theoretical results on calculating moments of interspike intervals of the integrate-and-fire model. Results in Feng, et al (2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 7287-304) are generalized. In conclusion, we present a complete picture on the minimum-variance theory ranging from input control signals, to model outputs, and to its implications on modelling firing patterns of single neurons

  16. New developments on Monte Carlo simulation code for the calculation of Atom Displacements Induced rates by High Energy Electrons in Solid Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damiani, Daniela D.; Cruz, Carlos M.; Pinnera, Ibrahin; Abreu, Yamiel; Leyva, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    New developments and simulations on regard to the interactions of incident gamma radiation over solids materials using the MCSAD (Monte Carlo Simulation of Atom Displacement) code are presented. In this code Monte Carlo algorithms are applied in order to sample all electrons and gamma interaction processes occurring during their transport through a solid target, especially those connected to the output of atom displacements events. Particularly, it is calculated the limit angle to elastic scattering for the electrons on a new approach, which allows correctly the splitting of the electron single processes at higher scattering angles. On this way, the probability of single electron scattering processes transferring high recoil atomic energy leading to atom displacement effects is calculated and consequently sampled in the MCSAD code. In addition, it is considered some other new theoretical aspects in order to improve previous versions, like the one concerning the selection of threshold energy for displacements at a given atom site in dependence of the atom recoil direction. (Author)

  17. Calculation of displacement and helium production at the LAMPF irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechsler, M.S.; Davidson, D.R.; Sommer, W.F.; Greenwood, L.R.

    1985-01-01

    Differential and total displacement and helium-production rates are calculated for copper irradiated by spallation neutrons and 760-MeV protons at LAMPF. The calculations are performed using the SPECTOR and VNMTC computer codes, the latter being specially designed for spallation radiation-damage calculations. For comparison, similar SPECTER calculations are also described for irradiation of copper in the experimental breeder reactor (EBR-II) at the Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho, and in the rotating target neutron source (RTNS-II) at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The neutron energy spectra for LAMPF, EBR-II, and RTNS-II and the displacement and helium-production cross sections are shown

  18. Is Fibular Fracture Displacement Consistent with Tibiotalar Displacement?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bekerom, Michel P. J.; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2010-01-01

    We believed open reduction with internal fixation is required for supination-external rotation ankle fractures located at the level of the distal tibiofibular syndesmosis (Lauge-Hanssen SER II and Weber B) with 2 mm or more fibular fracture displacement. The rationale for surgery for these ankle

  19. Phenomenon of displacement in Arabic language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Displacement is one of the characteristics of language and common phenomena in the Arabic language. Not only is this phenomenon limited to Arabic poetry and prose, but it is also broadened, so we can see examples of this in the Qur'an. Because of this phenomenon extensively in Arabic literature and also because of its essence that leads to the transmission of the elements for the first visibility to the other visibility in the sentence and sometimes had to change the grammatical role of the words, its identify helps us in a better understanding of text and the correct translation of it and protects the reader from mistakes. This paper in the descriptive analytical approach tries studying of the phenomenon of the displacement in the Arabic language and bringing its instances in Arabic poetry and prose as well as verses contained in the Holy Quran, to show that through the types and characteristics in the Arabic language and to response to several questions, including: how important is the displacement and what is its types in rhetoric, and the reasons of the displacement, and etc... Of the most important results of this study may refer to the undeniable role of the displacement as a rhetorical method to better understanding of the texts including: one of the most important reasons of the displacement in the use of language is to improve speech verbally and morally, and violation of the standard language and create a poetic atmosphere, and the recognition of the occurrence of the phenomenon of displacement in the Arabic language that uphold different interpretations remote and estimates when faced with the displacement in the text and help us to understand it and etc...

  20. Effects of third fragment size and displacement on non-union of femoral shaft fractures after locking for intramedullary nailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J R; Kim, H-J; Lee, K-B

    2016-04-01

    The femoral shaft fractures with large fragments makes anatomical reduction challenging and often results in non-union. In some studies, the degree of fragment displacement was reported to have affected non-union, but the association between the one fragment size and degree of displacement has not been fully clarified. Therefore we performed a retrospective study to assess: (1) the more influential factor of non-union: the degree of fragment displacement, or the fragment size? (2) the non-union rates according to different sizes and degrees of displacement. The degree of displacement is the more potent factor of non-union than the third fragment size in femoral shaft fractures. We assessed retrospectively 64 cases, which could be followed up for longer than one year. Fragments were divided according to the length of their long axis into three groups: group A (0-3.9cm), (n=21); group B (4-7.9cm), (n=22); group C (8cm or more), (n=21). Fragment displacement was also assessed in the proximal (P) or distal (D) end to the nearest cortex of the femoral shaft, and divided into the following groups: group P1 (n=44) or D1 (n=47), (0-9mm); group P2 (n=10) or D2 (n=11), (10-19mm); group P3 (n=7) or D3 (n=3), (20-29mm); and group P4 (n=3) or D4 (n=3), (30mm or more). The bone union rate was 86% in the small (less than 8cm) fragment groups and 71% in the large (8cm or more) fragment group (P=0.046). With respect to the degree of displacement, the union rate was lower (P=0.001) and the average union time was longer (P=0.012) in the 20mm or more group for both the proximal fragment part and the distal fragment part (P=0.002, P=0.014). A logistic regression analysis underlined the displacement in the proximal site (OR: 0.298, 95% CI: 0.118-0.750) as in the distal site (OR: 0.359, 95% CI: 0.162-0.793) as a larger effect on union rate than the fragment size that as no effect in logistic regression (OR 3.8, 95% CI: 0.669-21.6). Non-union develops significantly more frequently in

  1. Earthquake related displacement fields near underground facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.

    1979-04-01

    Relative displacements of rock masses are evaluated in terms of geological evidence, seismological evidence, data from simulation experiments, and analytical predictive models. Numerical models have been developed to determine displacement fields as a function of depth, distance, and azimuth from an earthquake source. Computer calculations for several types of faults indicate that displacements decrease rapidly with distance from the fault, but that displacements can either increase or decrease as a function of depth depending on the type and geometry of the fault. For long shallow vertical strike-slip faults the displacement decreases markedly with depth. For square strike slip faults and for dip slip faults displacement does not decrease as markedly with depth. Geologic structure, material properties, and depth affect the seismic source spectrum. Amplification of the high frequencies of shear waves is larger by a factor of about 2 for layered geologic models than for an elastic half space

  2. Morphology and slip rate of the Hurunui section of the Hope Fault, South Island, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langridge, R.M.; Berryman, K.R.

    2005-01-01

    The Hurunui section of the Hope Fault is a newly defined, 42 km long geomorphic fault section which extends from Harper Pass to the Hope-Boyle River confluence. Reconnaissance mapping along the Hurunui section from Hope Shelter to Harper Pass provided new data on its location, geomorphology, displacement, and slip rate. More than 200 previously published field observations of dextrally and vertically displaced landforms along the fault provide data on the distribution of displacement along the fault trace. Five radiocarbon dates found in association with offset geomorphic features are presented and two new measures of dextral slip rate are calculated. At McKenzie Stream, a late Holocene fan complex is cut by the Hope Fault. Young abandoned and active channels on this surface show dextral offsets of up to 22 ± 2 m along a south-facing scarp with a height of up to 5 m. Woody litter from a unit in this complex has yielded a radiocarbon age of 2331 ± 55 yr BP and a corresponding minimum horizontal slip rate of 8.1-11.0 mm/yr. At Macs Knob, large dextral deflections of stream catchments are linked to episodes of glacial resetting of the landscape. Correlation of the offset of 'Macs stream' (166 ± 17 m) with a post-Aranuian age peat (10,782 ± 60 yr BP) yields a maximum horizontal slip rate of 13.0 ± 1.5 mm/yr. The single-event dextral displacement, based on offset stream channels at McKenzie fan, is 3.2-3.8 m (av. c. 3.4 m). The ratio of dextral to vertical slip is c. 7 ± 2:1, indicating that the Hope Fault has a dominantly strike-slip sense of motion. The average recurrence interval for the last 5-7 events (i.e., to produce 19-24 m slip at McKenzie fan) is 310-490 yr. The age of the most recent surface-rupturing earthquake at this site is not known, though felt effects, fault scaling, and landscape arguments indicate it was not the AD 1888 North Canterbury earthquake. (author). 48 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  3. SOCIAL CAPITAL IN INVOLUNTARY DISPLACEMENT AND RESETTLEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Quetulio-Navarra

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Social capital is often seen as a substitute for lack of other types of capital amongpoor people. Because of the recognized applicability of the social capital conceptand its correlation with the different dimensions of poverty, it has been used inevaluating the adaptation and integration of involuntarily displaced individualsinto their new environment. This paper presents insights based on a review of thefindings of studies that looked into the role of social capital in conflict- anddevelopment-induced displacement contexts. Althoughboth types of displace-ments are involuntary or forced in nature, they differ in terms of the role of socialcapital regarding its main sources, the formation pattern and its determinants.Social capital studies in forced resettlement appear to be relatively small innumber and are heavily concentrated on first worldcountries and conflict- anddevelopment-induced displacements. The conduct of similar studies in developingcountries and in a disaster-induced resettlement context, the third type ofinvoluntary displacement, should generate new and relevant findings regardingthe role of social capital in resettlement communities.

  4. War, forced displacement and growth in Laotian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarkin, Patrick F

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from several populations suggests that war negatively impacts civilian nutrition, physical growth and overall health. This effect is often enduring or permanent, particularly if experienced early in life. To assess whether the number of lifetime displacement experiences and being displaced in infancy were associated with adult height, sitting height, leg length and the sitting height ratio. Retrospective questionnaires on displacement and resettlement experiences and anthropometric data were collected from a sample of Laotian adult refugees (ethnic Hmong and Lao; n = 365). All were born in Laos or Thailand and had resettled in French Guiana or the US. Many had been displaced several times by military conflict in Laos. In bivariate analyses, being displaced in infancy and the number of lifetime displacement experiences one had were negatively associated with final adult height and leg length in both sexes. The association was stronger in females, particularly Hmong females. There was no significant association between total displacement experiences and the sitting height ratio. In multiple regression analyses, linear growth in males was negatively associated with being displaced in infancy; in females, the number of lifetime displacement experiences was a significant predictor. Forced displacement from war appears to have a lasting effect on final adult height, sitting height and leg length, although not necessarily on the sitting height ratio in this sample.

  5. Stability of cracked pipe under seismic/dynamic displacement-controlled stresses. Subtask 1.2 final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, G.; Veith, P.; Marschall, C.

    1997-06-01

    Results of displacement-controlled pipe fracture experiments, analyses, and material characterization efforts performed within the International Piping Integrity Research Group, IPIRG, Program Subtask 1.2 are discussed. Effects of dynamic versus quasi-static and monotonic versus cyclic loading were evaluated for ductile tearing of two materials, A106 Grade B ferritic steel and TP304 austenitic steel. Twelve through-wall-cracked pipe experiments were conducted on 6-inch diameter Schedule 120 pipe at 288 C (550 F). The results indicated dynamic loading at seismic strain rates marginally increased the load-carrying capacity of austenitic steel. The ferritic steel tested was sensitive to dynamic strain-aging, and consequently, its load-carrying capacity decreased at dynamic strain rates. Two parameters were found to affect the apparent ductile crack growth resistance during cyclic loading, load ratio (R) and incremental plastic displacement that occurs in a cycle. Cyclic (R = 0) loading had minimal effect on ductile tearing for both materials. However, fully reversed loading decreased the load-carrying capacity and toughness for both materials. The incremental plastic displacement can be as important as the load ratio; however, it is harder to quantify from design stress reports. Large plastic displacements will minimize the effect of negative load ratios

  6. Displacement Ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Mattsson, Magnus; Sandberg, Mats

    Full-scale experiments were made in a displacement ventilated room with two breathing thermal manikins to study the effect of movements and breathing on the vertical contaminant distribution, and on the personal exposure of occupants. Concentrations were measured with tracer gas equipment...

  7. Estimated Minimum Discharge Rates of the Deepwater Horizon Spill-Interim Report to the Flow Rate Technical Group from the Mass Balance Team

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labson, Victor F.; Clark, Roger N.; Swayze, Gregg A.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, K. Eric; Powers, Michael H.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Meeker, Gregory P.

    2010-01-01

    All of the calculations and results in this report are preliminary and intended for the purpose, and only for the purpose, of aiding the incident team in assessing the extent of the spilled oil for ongoing response efforts. Other applications of this report are not authorized and are not considered valid. Because of time constraints and limitations of data available to the experts, many of their estimates are approximate, are subject to revision, and certainly should not be used as the Federal Government's final values for assessing volume of the spill or its impact to the environment or to coastal communities. Each expert that contributed to this report reserves the right to alter his conclusions based upon further analysis or additional information. An estimated minimum total oil discharge was determined by calculations of oil volumes measured as of May 17, 2010. This included oil on the ocean surface measured with satellite and airborne images and with spectroscopic data (129,000 barrels to 246,000 barrels using less and more aggressive assumptions, respectively), oil skimmed off the surface (23,500 barrels from U.S. Coast Guard [USCG] estimates), oil burned off the surface (11,500 barrels from USCG estimates), dispersed subsea oil (67,000 to 114,000 barrels), and oil evaporated or dissolved (109,000 to 185,000 barrels). Sedimentation (oil captured from Mississippi River silt and deposited on the ocean bottom), biodegradation, and other processes may indicate significant oil volumes beyond our analyses, as will any subsurface volumes such as suspended tar balls or other emulsions that are not included in our estimates. The lower bounds of total measured volumes are estimated to be within the range of 340,000 to 580,000 barrels as of May 17, 2010, for an estimated average minimum discharge rate of 12,500 to 21,500 barrels per day for 27 days from April 20 to May 17, 2010.

  8. Variation in Sperm Displacement and Its Association with Accessory Gland Protein Loci in Drosophila Melanogaster

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, A. G.; Aguade, M.; Prout, T.; Harshman, L. G.; Langley, C. H.

    1995-01-01

    Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified....

  9. Tracking speckle displacement by double Kalman filtering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Donghui Li; Li Guo

    2006-01-01

    @@ A tracking technique using two sequentially-connected Kalman filter for tracking laser speckle displacement is presented. One Kalman filter tracks temporal speckle displacement, while another Kalman filter tracks spatial speckle displacement. The temporal Kalman filter provides a prior for the spatial Kalman filter, and the spatial Kalman filter provides measurements for the temporal Kalman filter. The contribution of a prior to estimations of the spatial Kalman filter is analyzed. An optical analysis system was set up to verify the double-Kalman-filter tracker's ability of tracking laser speckle's constant displacement.

  10. Displaced epithelium after liposuction for gynecomastia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cristina S; Petrey, Chris; Grant, Shawn; Ransdell, Jill S; Reynolds, Carol

    2011-08-01

    The authors describe the case of a 36-year-old man with gynecomastia who was previously treated with liposuction of the breast for cosmetic purposes. Histologic examination of a subsequent excisional biopsy revealed nests of displaced epithelial cells in adipose tissue. Epithelial cell displacement is a well-known risk of core needle biopsies and fine-needle aspirations of breast lesions. However, to the authors' knowledge, epithelial displacement in gynecomastia after liposuction, mimicking invasive ductal carcinoma, has not previously been reported.

  11. The Effect of an Increased Minimum Wage on Infant Mortality and Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komro, Kelli A; Livingston, Melvin D; Markowitz, Sara; Wagenaar, Alexander C

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of state minimum wage laws on low birth weight and infant mortality in the United States. We estimated the effects of state-level minimum wage laws using a difference-in-differences approach on rates of low birth weight (minimum wage above the federal level was associated with a 1% to 2% decrease in low birth weight births and a 4% decrease in postneonatal mortality. If all states in 2014 had increased their minimum wages by 1 dollar, there would likely have been 2790 fewer low birth weight births and 518 fewer postneonatal deaths for the year.

  12. Water displacement mercury pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  13. Global minimum profile error (GMPE) - a least-squares-based approach for extracting macroscopic rate coefficients for complex gas-phase chemical reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Minh V; Nguyen, Hieu T; Mai, Tam V-T; Huynh, Lam K

    2018-01-03

    Master equation/Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (ME/RRKM) has shown to be a powerful framework for modeling kinetic and dynamic behaviors of a complex gas-phase chemical system on a complicated multiple-species and multiple-channel potential energy surface (PES) for a wide range of temperatures and pressures. Derived from the ME time-resolved species profiles, the macroscopic or phenomenological rate coefficients are essential for many reaction engineering applications including those in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. Therefore, in this study, a least-squares-based approach named Global Minimum Profile Error (GMPE) was proposed and implemented in the MultiSpecies-MultiChannel (MSMC) code (Int. J. Chem. Kinet., 2015, 47, 564) to extract macroscopic rate coefficients for such a complicated system. The capability and limitations of the new approach were discussed in several well-defined test cases.

  14. Do Minimum Wages Fight Poverty?

    OpenAIRE

    David Neumark; William Wascher

    1997-01-01

    The primary goal of a national minimum wage floor is to raise the incomes of poor or near-poor families with members in the work force. However, estimates of employment effects of minimum wages tell us little about whether minimum wages are can achieve this goal; even if the disemployment effects of minimum wages are modest, minimum wage increases could result in net income losses for poor families. We present evidence on the effects of minimum wages on family incomes from matched March CPS s...

  15. Cross-border spread, lineage displacement and evolutionary rate estimation of rabies virus in Yunnan Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuzhen; Vrancken, Bram; Feng, Yun; Dellicour, Simon; Yang, Qiqi; Yang, Weihong; Zhang, Yunzhi; Dong, Lu; Pybus, Oliver G; Zhang, Hailin; Tian, Huaiyu

    2017-06-03

    Rabies is an important but underestimated threat to public health, with most cases reported in Asia. Since 2000, a new epidemic wave of rabies has emerged in Yunnan Province, southwestern China, which borders three countries in Southeast Asia. We estimated gene-specific evolutionary rates for rabies virus using available data in GenBank, then used this information to calibrate the timescale of rabies virus (RABV) spread in Asia. We used 452 publicly available geo-referenced complete nucleoprotein (N) gene sequences, including 52 RABV sequences that were recently generated from samples collected in Yunnan between 2008 and 2012. The RABV N gene evolutionary rate was estimated to be 1.88 × 10 -4 (1.37-2.41 × 10 -4 , 95% Bayesian credible interval, BCI) substitutions per site per year. Phylogenetic reconstructions show that the currently circulating RABV lineages in Yunnan result from at least seven independent introductions (95% BCI: 6-9 introductions) and represent each of the three main Asian RABV lineages, SEA-1, -2 and -3. We find that Yunnan is a sink location for the domestic spread of RABV and connects RABV epidemics in North China, South China, and Southeast Asia. Cross-border spread from southeast Asia (SEA) into South China, and intermixing of the North and South China epidemics is also well supported. The influx of RABV into Yunnan from SEA was not well-supported, likely due to the poor sampling of SEA RABV diversity. We found evidence for a lineage displacement of the Yunnan SEA-2 and -3 lineages by Yunnan SEA-1 strains, and considered whether this could be attributed to fitness differences. Overall, our study contributes to a better understanding of the spread of RABV that could facilitate future rabies virus control and prevention efforts.

  16. Prismatic displacement effect of progressive multifocal glasses on reaction time and accuracy in elderly people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellison AC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ashton C Ellison, A John Campbell, M Clare Robertson, Gordon F SandersonDunedin School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Dunedin, New ZealandBackground: Multifocal glasses (bifocals, trifocals, and progressives increase the risk of falling in elderly people, but how they do so is unclear. To explain why glasses with progressive addition lenses increase the risk of falls and whether this can be attributed to false projection, this study aimed to 1 map the prismatic displacement of a progressive lens, and 2 test whether this displacement impaired reaction time and accuracy.Methods: The reaction times of healthy ≥75-year-olds (31 participants were measured when grasping for a bar and touching a black line. Participants performed each test twice, wearing their progressives and new, matched single vision (distance glasses in random order. The line and bar targets were positioned according to the maximum and minimum prismatic displacement effect through the progressive lens, mapped using a focimeter.Results: Progressive spectacle lenses have large areas of prismatic displacement in the central visual axis and edges. Reaction time was faster for progressives compared with single vision glasses with a centrally-placed horizontal grab bar (mean difference 101 ms, P=0.011 [repeated measures analysis] and a horizontal black line placed 300 mm below center (mean difference 80 ms, P=0.007. There was no difference in accuracy between the two types of glasses.Conclusion: Older people appear to adapt to the false projection of progressives in the central visual axis. This adaptation means that swapping to new glasses or a large change in prescription may lead to a fall. Frequently updating glasses may be more beneficial.Keywords: fall prevention, false projection, stored visual spatial information

  17. Prolonged displacement may compromise resilience in Eritrean mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almedom, Astier; Tesfamichael, Berhe; Mohammed, Zein; Mascie-Taylor, Nick; Muller, Jocelyn; Alemu, Zemui

    2005-12-01

    to assess the impact of prolonged displacement on the resilience of Eritrean mothers. an adapted SOC scale (short form) was administered. Complementary qualitative data were gathered from study participants' spontaneous reactions to and commentaries on the SOC scale. Displaced women's SOC scores were significantly less than those of the non-displaced: Mean = 54.84; SD = 6.48 in internally displaced person (IDP) camps, compared to non-displaced urban and rural/pastoralist: Mean = 48. 94, SD = 11.99; t = 3.831, p urban (non-displaced). Rural but traditionally mobile (pastoralist or transhumant) communities scored more or less the same as the urban non-displaced--i.e., significantly higher than those in IDP camps (p urban and pastoralist/transhumant groups were similar, while women in IDP camps were lower scoring--RR = .268, p < .001. The implications of these findings for health policy are critical. It is incumbent on the international health institutions including the World Health Organization and regional as well as local players to address the plight of internally displaced women, their families and communities in Eritrea and other places of dire conditions such as, for example Darfur in the Sudan.

  18. Would a Higher Minimum Wage Help Poor Families Headed by Women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Linda R.; Giannaros, Demetrios

    1990-01-01

    Studies suggest negative employment consequences if the minimum wage is increased. This may not affect poverty among households headed by women because the unemployment rate does not seem to play a statistically significant role in determining the poverty rate for this cohort. (Author)

  19. The impact of minimum wages on population health: evidence from 24 OECD countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhart, Otto

    2017-11-01

    This study examines the relationship between minimum wages and several measures of population health by analyzing data from 24 OECD countries for a time period of 31 years. Specifically, I test for health effects as a result of within-country variations in the generosity of minimum wages, which are measured by the Kaitz index. The paper finds that higher levels of minimum wages are associated with significant reductions of overall mortality rates as well as in the number of deaths due to outcomes that have been shown to be more prevalent among individuals with low socioeconomic status (e.g., diabetes, disease of the circulatory system, stroke). A 10% point increase of the Kaitz index is associated with significant declines in death rates and an increase in life expectancy of 0.44 years. Furthermore, I provide evidence for potential channels through which minimum wages impact population health by showing that more generous minimum wages impact outcomes such as poverty, the share of the population with unmet medical needs, the number of doctor consultations, tobacco consumption, calorie intake, and the likelihood of people being overweight.

  20. Displacement of location in illusory line motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Timothy L; Ruppel, Susan E

    2013-05-01

    Six experiments examined displacement in memory for the location of the line in illusory line motion (ILM; appearance or disappearance of a stationary cue is followed by appearance of a stationary line that is presented all at once, but the stationary line is perceived to "unfold" or "be drawn" from the end closest to the cue to the end most distant from the cue). If ILM was induced by having a single cue appear, then memory for the location of the line was displaced toward the cue, and displacement was larger if the line was closer to the cue. If ILM was induced by having one of two previously visible cues vanish, then memory for the location of the line was displaced away from the cue that vanished. In general, the magnitude of displacement increased and then decreased as retention interval increased from 50 to 250 ms and from 250 to 450 ms, respectively. Displacement of the line (a) is consistent with a combination of a spatial averaging of the locations of the cue and the line with a relatively weaker dynamic in the direction of illusory motion, (b) might be implemented in a spreading activation network similar to networks previously suggested to implement displacement resulting from implied or apparent motion, and (c) provides constraints and challenges for theories of ILM.

  1. Seismic displacements monitoring for 2015 Mw 7.8 Nepal earthquake with GNSS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, T.; Su, X.; Xie, X.

    2017-12-01

    The high-rate Global Positioning Satellite System (GNSS) has been recognized as one of the powerful tools for monitoring ground motions generated by seismic events. The high-rate GPS and BDS data collected during the 2015 Mw 7.8 Nepal earthquake have been analyzed using two methods, that are the variometric approach and Precise point positioning (PPP). The variometric approach is based on time differenced technique using only GNSS broadcast products to estimate velocity time series from tracking observations in real time, followed by an integration procedure on the velocities to derive the seismic event induced displacements. PPP is a positioning method to calculate precise positions at centimeter- or even millimeter-level accuracy with a single GNSS receiver using precise satellite orbit and clock products. The displacement motions with accuracy of 2 cm at far-field stations and 5 cm at near-field stations with great ground motions and static offsets up to 1-2 m could be achieved. The multi-GNSS, GPS + BDS, could provide higher accuracy displacements with the increasing of satellite numbers and the improvement of the Position Dilution of Precision (PDOP) values. Considering the time consumption of clock estimates and the precision of PPP solutions, 5 s GNSS satellite clock interval is suggested. In addition, the GNSS-derived displacements are in good agreement with those from strong motion data. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of real-time capturing seismic waves with multi-GNSS observations, which is of great promise for the purpose of earthquake early warning and rapid hazard assessment.

  2. Variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homutescu, V. M.; Bălănescu, D. T.; Panaite, C. E.; Atanasiu, M. V.

    2016-08-01

    The basic design and construction of an alpha-type Stirling engine with on load variable displacement is presented. The variable displacement is obtained through a planar quadrilateral linkage with one on load movable ground link. The physico-mathematical model used for analyzing the variable displacement alpha-type Stirling engine behavior is an isothermal model that takes into account the real movement of the pistons. Performances and power adjustment capabilities of such alpha-type Stirling engine are calculated and analyzed. An exemplification through the use of the numerical simulation was performed in this regard.

  3. Measurement of the Dynamic Displacements of Railway Bridges Using Video Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Diogo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of a non-contact dynamic displacement measurement system for railway bridges based on video technology. The system, consisting of a high speed video camera, an optical lens, lighting lamps and a precision target, can perform measurements with high precision for distances from the camera to the target up to 25 m, with acquisition frame rates ranging from 64 fps to 500 fps, and be articulated with other measurement systems, which promotes its integration in structural health monitoring systems. The system’s performance was evaluated based on two tests, one in the laboratory and other on the field. The laboratory test evaluated the performance of the system in measuring the displacement of a steel beam, subjected to a point load applied dynamically, for distances from the camera to the target between 3 m and 15 m. The field test allowed evaluating the system’s performance in the dynamic measurement of the displacement of a point on the deck of a railway bridge, induced by passing trains at speeds between 160 km/h and 180 km/h, for distances from the camera to the target up to 25 m. The results of both tests show a very good agreement between the displacement measurement obtained with the video system and with a LVDT.

  4. The effect of location of a convective heat source on displacement ventilation: CFD study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H.J.; Holland, D. [Dunham Associates, Inc., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Advanced Technologies Group

    2001-08-01

    Two-dimensional computational simulations are performed to examine the effect of vertical location of a convective heat source on thermal displacement ventilation systems. In this study, a heat source is modeled with seven different heights from the floor (0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2.0 m) in a displacement ventilation environment. The flow and temperature fields in thermal displacement ventilation systems vary depending on the location of the heat source. As the heat source rises, the convective heat gain from the heat source to an occupied zone becomes less significant. This effect changes the temperature field and results in the reduction of the cooling load in the occupied zone. The stratification level is also affected by the heat source location at a given flow rate. (author)

  5. Variation in sperm displacement and its association with accessory gland protein loci in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, A G; Aguadé, M; Prout, T; Harshman, L G; Langley, C H

    1995-01-01

    Genes that influence mating and/or fertilization success may be targets for strong natural selection. If females remate frequently relative to the duration of sperm storage and rate of sperm use, sperm displacement may be an important component of male reproductive success. Although it has long been known that mutant laboratory stocks of Drosophila differ in sperm displacement, the magnitude of the naturally occurring genetic variation in this character has not been systematically quantified. Here we report the results of a screen for variation in sperm displacement among 152 lines of Drosophilia melanogaster that were made homozygous for second and/or third chromosomes recovered from natural populations. Sperm displacement was assayed by scoring the progeny of cn;bw females that had been mated sequentially to cn;bw and tested males in either order. Highly significant differences were seen in both the ability to displace sperm that is resident in the female's reproductive tract and in the ability to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. Most lines exhibited nearly complete displacement, having nearly all progeny sired by the second male, but several lines had as few as half the progeny fathered by the second male. Lines that were identified in the screen for naturally occurring variation in sperm displacement were also characterized for single-strand conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) at seven accessory gland protein (Acp) genes, Glucose dehydrogenase (Gld), and Esterase-6 (Est-6). Acp genes encode proteins that are in some cases known to be transmitted to the female in the seminal fluid and are likely candidates for genes that might mediate the phenomenon of sperm displacement. Significant associations were found between particular Acp alleles at four different loci (Acp26Aa/Ab, Acp29B, Acp36DE and Acp53E) and the ability of males to resist displacement by subsequent sperm. There was no correlation between the ability to displace resident sperm and the ability

  6. Internal displacement in Colombia: Fifteen distinguishing features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, James M; Ceballos, Ángela Milena Gómez; Espinel, Zelde; Oliveros, Sofia Rios; Fonseca, Maria Fernanda; Florez, Luis Jorge Hernandez

    2014-01-01

    This commentary aims to delineate the distinguishing features of conflict-induced internal displacement in the nation of Colombia, South America. Even as Colombia is currently implementing a spectrum of legal, social, economic, and health programs for "victims of armed conflict," with particular focus on internally displaced persons (IDPs), the dynamics of forced migration on a mass scale within this country are little known beyond national borders.   The authors of this commentary are embarking on a global mental health research program in Bogota, Colombia to define best practices for reaching the displaced population and implementing sustainable, evidence-based screening and intervention for common mental disorders. Presenting the defining characteristics of internal displacement in Colombia provides the context for our work and, more importantly, conveys the compelling and complex nature of this humanitarian crisis. We attempt to demonstrate Colombia's unique position within the global patterning of internal displacement.

  7. Recent surface displacements in the Upper Rhine Graben — Preliminary results from geodetic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, Thomas; Heck, Bernhard; Knöpfler, Andreas; Masson, Frédéric; Mayer, Michael; Ulrich, Patrice; Westerhaus, Malte; Zippelt, Karl

    2013-08-01

    Datasets of the GNSS Upper Rhine Graben Network (GURN) and the national levelling networks in Germany, France and Switzerland are investigated with respect to current surface displacements in the Upper Rhine Graben (URG) area. GURN consists of about 80 permanent GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) stations. The terrestrial levelling network comprises 1st and 2nd order levelling lines that have been remeasured at intervals of roughly 25 years, starting in 1922. Compared to earlier studies national institutions and private companies made available raw data, allowing for consistent solutions for the URG region. We focussed on the southern and eastern parts of the investigation area. Our preliminary results show that the levelling and GNSS datasets are sensitive to resolve small surface displacement rates down to an order of magnitude of 0.2 mm/a and 0.4 mm/a, respectively. The observed horizontal velocity components for a test region south of Strasbourg, obtained from GNSS coordinate time series, vary around 0.5 mm/a. The results are in general agreement with interseismic strain built-up in a sinistral strike-slip regime. Since the accuracy of the GNSS derived vertical component is insufficient, data of precise levelling networks is used to determine vertical displacement rates. More than 75% of the vertical rates obtained from a kinematic adjustment of 1st order levelling lines in the eastern part of URG vary between - 0.2 mm/a and + 0.2 mm/a, indicating that this region behaves stable. Higher rates up to 0.5 mm/a in a limited region south of Freiburg are in general agreement with active faulting. We conclude that both networks deliver stable results that reflect real surface movements in the URG area. We note, however, that geodetically observed surface displacements generally result from a superposition of different effects, and that a separation in tectonic and non-tectonic processes needs additional information and expertise.

  8. Mortality displacement as a function of heat event strength in 7 US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Michael V; Davis, Robert E; Hondula, David M

    2014-02-15

    Mortality rates increase immediately after periods of high air temperature. In the days and weeks after heat events, time series may exhibit mortality displacement-periods of lower than expected mortality. We examined all-cause mortality and meteorological data from 1980 to 2009 in the cities of Atlanta, Georgia; Boston, Massachusetts; Minneapolis-St. Paul, Minnesota; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Phoenix, Arizona; Seattle, Washington; and St. Louis, Missouri. We modeled baseline mortality using a generalized additive model. Heat waves were defined as periods of 3 or more consecutive days in which the apparent temperature exceeded a variable percentile. For each heat wave, we calculated the sum of excess and deficit mortality. Mortality displacement, which is the ratio of grand sum deficit to grand sum excess mortality, decreased as a function of event strength in all cities. Displacement was close to 1.00 for the weakest events. At the highest temperatures, displacement varied from 0.35 (95% confidence interval: 0.21, 0.55) to 0.75 (95% confidence interval: 0.54, 0.97). We found strong evidence of acclimatization across cities. Without consideration of displacement effects, the net impacts of heat-wave mortality are likely to be significant overestimations. A statistically significant positive relationship between the onset temperature of nondisplaced heat mortality and mean warm-season temperature (R(2) = 0.78, P < 0.01) suggests that heat mortality thresholds may be predictable across cities.

  9. Force transmissibility versus displacement transmissibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lage, Y. E.; Neves, M. M.; Maia, N. M. M.; Tcherniak, D.

    2014-10-01

    It is well-known that when a single-degree-of-freedom (sdof) system is excited by a continuous motion of the foundation, the force transmissibility, relating the force transmitted to the foundation to the applied force, equals the displacement transmissibility. Recent developments in the generalization of the transmissibility to multiple-degree-of-freedom (mdof) systems have shown that similar simple and direct relations between both types of transmissibility do not appear naturally from the definitions, as happens in the sdof case. In this paper, the authors present their studies on the conditions under which it is possible to establish a relation between force transmissibility and displacement transmissibility for mdof systems. As far as the authors are aware, such a relation is not currently found in the literature, which is justified by being based on recent developments in the transmissibility concept for mdof systems. Indeed, it does not appear naturally, but the authors observed that the needed link is present when the displacement transmissibility is obtained between the same coordinates where the applied and reaction forces are considered in the force transmissibility case; this implies that the boundary conditions are not exactly the same and instead follow some rules. This work presents a formal derivation of the explicit relation between the force and displacement transmissibilities for mdof systems, and discusses its potential and limitations. The authors show that it is possible to obtain the displacement transmissibility from measured forces, and the force transmissibility from measured displacements, opening new perspectives, for example, in the identification of applied or transmitted forces. With this novel relation, it becomes possible, for example, to estimate the force transmissibility matrix with the structure off its supports, in free boundary conditions, and without measuring the forces. As far as force identification is concerned, this

  10. The Chinese Export Displacement Effect Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Christian; Yu, Wusheng; Yu, Qian

    China’s global export share has increased dramatically over the past decades. This development has prompted an empirical literature on whether Chinese exports displace those originated from elsewhere in various destination markets. In this paper we focus on the growth of China’s exports to the East...... African Community (EAC) countries and show how it has affected exports from the European Union (EU) to the EAC. Our main contribution to the literature on the displacement effect of Chinese exports is a set of total and relative displacement estimates based on different specifications of the gravity model...... where we control for country-year fixed effects so as to avoid the “gold medal mistake” of not accounting for time varying “multilateral resistance”. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that Chinese exports have displaced exports from other countries in general. Nor do they support the hypothesis...

  11. Impact of residential displacement on healthcare access and mental health among original residents of gentrifying neighborhoods in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sungwoo; Chan, Pui Ying; Walters, Sarah; Culp, Gretchen; Huynh, Mary; Gould, L Hannah

    2017-01-01

    As gentrification continues in New York City as well as other urban areas, residents of lower socioeconomic status maybe at higher risk for residential displacement. Yet, there have been few quantitative assessments of the health impacts of displacement. The objective of this paper is to assess the association between displacement and healthcare access and mental health among the original residents of gentrifying neighborhoods in New York City. We used 2 data sources: 1) 2005-2014 American Community Surveys to identify gentrifying neighborhoods in New York City, and 2) 2006-2014 Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System. Our cohort included 12,882 residents of gentrifying neighborhoods in 2006 who had records of emergency department visits or hospitalization at least once every 2 years in 2006-2014. Rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations post-baseline were compared between residents who were displaced and those who remained. During 2006-2014, 23% were displaced. Compared with those who remained, displaced residents were more likely to make emergency department visits and experience hospitalizations, mainly due to mental health (Rate Ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.5, 2.2), after controlling for baseline demographics, health status, healthcare utilization, residential movement, and the neighborhood of residence in 2006. These findings suggest negative impacts of displacement on healthcare access and mental health, particularly among adults living in urban areas and with a history of frequent emergency department visits or hospitalizations.

  12. Impact of residential displacement on healthcare access and mental health among original residents of gentrifying neighborhoods in New York City.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungwoo Lim

    Full Text Available As gentrification continues in New York City as well as other urban areas, residents of lower socioeconomic status maybe at higher risk for residential displacement. Yet, there have been few quantitative assessments of the health impacts of displacement. The objective of this paper is to assess the association between displacement and healthcare access and mental health among the original residents of gentrifying neighborhoods in New York City.We used 2 data sources: 1 2005-2014 American Community Surveys to identify gentrifying neighborhoods in New York City, and 2 2006-2014 Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System. Our cohort included 12,882 residents of gentrifying neighborhoods in 2006 who had records of emergency department visits or hospitalization at least once every 2 years in 2006-2014. Rates of emergency department visits and hospitalizations post-baseline were compared between residents who were displaced and those who remained.During 2006-2014, 23% were displaced. Compared with those who remained, displaced residents were more likely to make emergency department visits and experience hospitalizations, mainly due to mental health (Rate Ratio = 1.8, 95% confidence interval = 1.5, 2.2, after controlling for baseline demographics, health status, healthcare utilization, residential movement, and the neighborhood of residence in 2006.These findings suggest negative impacts of displacement on healthcare access and mental health, particularly among adults living in urban areas and with a history of frequent emergency department visits or hospitalizations.

  13. OSPAR 30'' displacement; Esvaziamento do OSPAR 30''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Jose Carlos [White Martins Gases Industriais do Nordeste S.A., Recife, PE (Brazil); Souza, Antonio Geraldo de [TRANSPETRO - PETROBRAS Transportes, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Crude oil pipeline OSPAR that unites Sao Francisco do Sul-SC to Araucaria-PR, with 30 inches in diameter and extension of 118 km (74 mi) was displaced in May 2004. Nitrogen at high flow rate and a pig were used to remove the crude oil, liberating the line to maintenance. Logistic restrictions prevented that the displacement followed the normal flow direction, so the option was to do the job in the reverse direction. To make viable our operation, a maneuver was performed; which we suppose was never done before in Brazil, at an intermediate pumping station, allowing a pressure reduction at the line end, maintaining it at permissible levels. Despite logistical and operational difficulties, the job was performed with success in 47 hours. (author)

  14. The Three Gorges: the unexamined toll of development-induced displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Stein

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available In China, the context of forced displacement in its broadest sense centres on four issues: (1 coercive displacement for development; (2 political persecution resulting in controlled displacement; (3 massive labour dislocations; and (4 disaster-induced displacement. This article looks at the role of the state in displacement, focusing on the first of these issues: development-induced displacement.

  15. [Changes in perceived health in war-displaced population, Ayacucho, Peru: 1980-2004].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, José Moya; López-Moreno, Sergio

    2011-03-01

    The current study aims to show the individual and familiar changes in health patterns suffered by indigenous communities which were displaced from their Andean communities to Ayacucho city, Peru, for war-related political reasons, during the period of 1980 and 2004. Information about health self-perception was collected from displaced farmers living in Ayacucho city, and analyzed by using ethnographic research tools in: origin communities; during the displaced process to town, and during the integration process once the war was over in 1993. It was found out that these poor Andean communities had traditionally lived under severe social exclusion conditions, and were characterized by low access to health services and high childhood and maternal mortality rates. Vulnerability to disease, malnutrition and death reached a higher impact during the early years after the displacement, followed by a reconstructive process in order to set up a new social network. It gets consolidated once the war is over. At that time, life conditions start becoming more favorable, identification documents were regularized, and an improvement in access to health programs and services is detected. These changes also reflected the improvement on health self-perception. Nevertheless, mental health will remain causing distress in every age group of the population.

  16. Minimum ventilation rates as a function of the use and the frequency of use of rooms. Final report. Mindestluftwechsel in Abhaengigkeit von der Nutzungsart und -intensitaet. Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wegner, J; Schlueter, G; Angerer, C; Meyer, H D

    1986-12-01

    From a hygienic view-point optimum indoor air quality can be characterized as the complete absence of pollutants. The most important sources of such pollutants are reviewed, amongst them those entering a room from outside, those generated by man and his activities and those emanating from different materials such as building materials, furnishing, cleansing and polishing agents. In view of achieving acceptable indoor conditions all emissions have to be kept as low as possible. Carbon dioxide and body odors as well as pollutants, the concentrations of which cannot be reduced to non-relevant levels by product control, should be eliminated by ventilation measures. However, such measures should not exceed a given limit, since in order to minimize energy consumption, air exchange rates have to be kept at a minimum. As a result of the investigations, it is concluded that the minimum ventilation rate should be derived from the acceptable CO/sub 2/ concentration. The concentrations of all other pollutants (e.g., formaldehyde) should be limited by product control or source removal. With 75 refs., 10 tabs., 19 figs.

  17. Displaced Homemakers: Vo-Tech Workshop Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Wanda Jo

    Written for displaced homemaker programs in vocational-technical schools, this curriculum contains material designed so that instructors can prepare student manuals appropriate to almost any educational support situation for displaced homemakers. An overview provides information on special needs groups, curriculum use, and resources and sample…

  18. 5 CFR 330.706 - Notification of displaced employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of displaced employees. 330... RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Interagency Career Transition Assistance Plan for Displaced Employees § 330.706 Notification of displaced employees. (a) In addition to meeting the requirements of...

  19. Determination of displacement threshold energies in pure Ti and in γ-TiAl alloys by electron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattonnay, G.; Dimitrov, O.

    1999-01-01

    Resistivity damage rates, determined during low-temperature electron irradiations in the energy range 0.3-2.5 MeV, were used for evaluating displacement threshold energies of titanium in high purity hcp titanium, and of titanium and aluminium in γ-TiAl intermetallic compounds. These parameters were deduced from a comparison of experimental displacement cross-section variations as a function of electron energy, with theoretical curves based on a displacement model for diatomic materials. The displacement energy of titanium in hcp titanium appears to depend on the electron energy. A threshold value of 21±1 eV was obtained in the range 0.3-0.5 MeV, and a larger value of 30±2 eV is determined in the range 0.5-2.5 MeV. In γ-TiAl, aluminium atoms are displaced first, with a threshold displacement energy (34±2 eV) larger than the one of titanium atoms, and much higher than the value in pure aluminium. The displacement energy of Ti atoms is 28±2 eV, close to the one obtained in pure titanium under similar conditions. These results were used for re-evaluating the Frenkel-pair resistivity of the stoichiometric TiAl compound. (orig.)

  20. 40 CFR 205.153 - Engine displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., in accordance with American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) E 29-67. (b) For rotary engines... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement. 205.153 Section... TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycles § 205.153 Engine displacement. (a) Engine...

  1. Dissolved oxygen detection by galvanic displacement-induced

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dissolved oxygen detection by galvanic displacement-induced graphene/silver nanocomposite ... dissolved oxygen (DO) detection based on a galvanic displacement synthesized reduced graphene oxide–silver nanoparticles ... Current Issue

  2. Bistability and displacement fluctuations in a quantum nanomechanical oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avriller, R.; Murr, B.; Pistolesi, F.

    2018-04-01

    Remarkable features have been predicted for the mechanical fluctuations at the bistability transition of a classical oscillator coupled capacitively to a quantum dot [Micchi et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 206802 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.206802]. These results have been obtained in the regime ℏ ω0≪kBT ≪ℏ Γ , where ω0, T , and Γ are the mechanical resonating frequency, the temperature, and the tunneling rate, respectively. A similar behavior could be expected in the quantum regime of ℏ Γ ≪kBT ≪ℏ ω0 . We thus calculate the energy- and displacement-fluctuation spectra and study their behavior as a function of the electromechanical coupling constant when the system enters the Frank-Condon regime. We find that in analogy with the classical case, the energy-fluctuation spectrum and the displacement spectrum widths show a maximum for values of the coupling constant at which a mechanical bistability is established.

  3. Improved estimation of receptor density and binding rate constants using a single tracer injection and displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syrota, A.; Delforge, J.; Mazoyer, B.M.

    1988-01-01

    The possibility of improving receptor model parameter estimation using a displacement experiment in which an excess of an unlabeled ligand (J) is injected after a delay (t D ) following injection of trace amounts of the β + - labeled ligand (J*) is investigated. The effects of varying t D and J/J* on parameter uncertainties are studied in the case of 11 C-MQNB binding to myocardial acetycholine receptor using parameters identified in a dog experiment

  4. Effect of loading rate on the compressive mechanics of the immature baboon cervical spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, Paul Z; Nuckley, David J; Ching, Randal P

    2006-02-01

    Thirty-four cervical spine segments were harvested from 12 juvenile male baboons and compressed to failure at displacement rates of 5, 50, 500, or 5000 mm/s. Compressive stiffness, failure load, and failure displacement were measured for comparison across loading rate groups. Stiffness showed a significant concomitant increase with loading rate, increasing by 62% between rates of 5 and 5000 mm/s. Failure load also demonstrated an increasing relationship with loading rate, while displacement at failure showed no rate dependence. These data may help in the development of improved pediatric automotive safety standards and more biofidelic physical and computational models.

  5. 76 FR 80781 - Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing Rates for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-27

    ...-11213, Notice No. 15] RIN 2130-AA81 Alcohol and Drug Testing: Determination of Minimum Random Testing...: Lamar Allen, Alcohol and Drug Program Manager, Office of Safety Enforcement, Mail Stop 25, Federal... Kathy Schnakenberg, FRA Alcohol/Drug Program Specialist, (telephone (719) 633-8955). Issued in...

  6. Rising above the Minimum Wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, William; Macpherson, David

    An in-depth analysis was made of how quickly most people move up the wage scale from minimum wage, what factors influence their progress, and how minimum wage increases affect wage growth above the minimum. Very few workers remain at the minimum wage over the long run, according to this study of data drawn from the 1977-78 May Current Population…

  7. Flow Convergence Caused by a Salinity Minimum in a Tidal Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C. Warner

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Residence times of dissolved substances and sedimentation rates in tidal channels are affected by residual (tidally averaged circulation patterns. One influence on these circulation patterns is the longitudinal density gradient. In most estuaries the longitudinal density gradient typically maintains a constant direction. However, a junction of tidal channels can create a local reversal (change in sign of the density gradient. This can occur due to a difference in the phase of tidal currents in each channel. In San Francisco Bay, the phasing of the currents at the junction of Mare Island Strait and Carquinez Strait produces a local salinity minimum in Mare Island Strait. At the location of a local salinity minimum the longitudinal density gradient reverses direction. This paper presents four numerical models that were used to investigate the circulation caused by the salinity minimum: (1 A simple one-dimensional (1D finite difference model demonstrates that a local salinity minimum is advected into Mare Island Strait from the junction with Carquinez Strait during flood tide. (2 A three-dimensional (3D hydrodynamic finite element model is used to compute the tidally averaged circulation in a channel that contains a salinity minimum (a change in the sign of the longitudinal density gradient and compares that to a channel that contains a longitudinal density gradient in a constant direction. The tidally averaged circulation produced by the salinity minimum is characterized by converging flow at the bed and diverging flow at the surface, whereas the circulation produced by the constant direction gradient is characterized by converging flow at the bed and downstream surface currents. These velocity fields are used to drive both a particle tracking and a sediment transport model. (3 A particle tracking model demonstrates a 30 percent increase in the residence time of neutrally buoyant particles transported through the salinity minimum, as compared to

  8. Theory of nonaxisymmetric vertical displacement events in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitzpatrick, R.

    2011-01-01

    A semi-analytic sharp-boundary model of a nonaxisymmetric vertical displacement event (VDE) in a large aspect-ratio, high-beta (i.e. β ∼ ε), vertically elongated tokamak plasma is developed. The model is used to simulate nonaxisymmetric VDEs with a wide range of different plasma equilibrium and vacuum vessel parameters. These simulations yield poloidal halo current fractions and toroidal peaking factors whose magnitudes are similar to those seen in experiments, and also reproduce the characteristic inverse scaling between the halo current fraction and the toroidal peaking factor. Moreover, the peak poloidal halo current density in the vacuum vessel is found to correlate strongly with the reciprocal of the minimum edge safety factor attained during the VDE. In addition, under certain circumstances, the ratio of the net sideways force acting on the vacuum vessel to the net vertical force is observed to approach unity. Finally, the peak vertical force per unit area acting on the vessel is found to have a strong correlation with the equilibrium toroidal plasma current at the start of the VDE, but is also found to increase with increasing vacuum vessel resistivity relative to the scrape-off layer plasma.

  9. Displacement in new economy labor markets: Post-displacement wage loss in high tech versus low tech cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Daniel J; Rubin, Beth A

    2016-11-01

    While scholars and politicians tout education as the salve to employment disruptions, we argue that the geography of the new economy, and the social closure mechanisms that geography creates, may be just as important as individuals' characteristics for predicting post-displacement wage loss (or gain). We use data from the 2012 Displaced Workers ement of the Current Population Survey and from the 2010 United States Census to test hypotheses linking local labor markets in different industrial contexts to post-displacement wage loss. Our results point to age as a closure mechanism, and to the partially protective effect of education in high-tech versus low-tech economic sectors. This study is the first to use national level data to examine how employment in high-tech cities influences post-displacement wages. These findings are relevant both for theorizing about the new economy and for public policy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Refining fault slip rates using multiple displaced terrace risers-An example from the Honey Lake fault, NE California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ryan D.; Briggs, Richard W.; Crone, Anthony J.; DuRoss, Christopher B.

    2017-11-01

    Faulted terrace risers are semi-planar features commonly used to constrain Quaternary slip rates along strike-slip faults. These landforms are difficult to date directly and therefore their ages are commonly bracketed by age estimates of the adjacent upper and lower terrace surfaces. However, substantial differences in the ages of the upper and lower terrace surfaces (a factor of 2.4 difference observed globally) produce large uncertainties in the slip-rate estimate. In this investigation, we explore how the full range of displacements and bounding ages from multiple faulted terrace risers can be combined to yield a more accurate fault slip rate. We use 0.25-m cell size digital terrain models derived from airborne lidar data to analyze three sites where terrace risers are offset right-laterally by the Honey Lake fault in NE California, USA. We use ages for locally extensive subhorizontal surfaces to bracket the time of riser formation: an upper surface is the bed of abandoned Lake Lahontan having an age of 15.8 ± 0.6 ka and a lower surface is a fluvial terrace abandoned at 4.7 ± 0.1 ka. We estimate lateral offsets of the risers ranging between 6.6 and 28.3 m (median values), a greater than fourfold difference in values. The amount of offset corresponds to the riser's position relative to modern stream meanders: the smallest offset is in a meander cutbank position, whereas the larger offsets are in straight channel or meander point-bar positions. Taken in isolation, the individual terrace-riser offsets yield slip rates ranging from 0.3 to 7.1 mm/a. However, when the offset values are collectively assessed in a probabilistic framework, we find that a uniform (linear) slip rate of 1.6 mm/a (1.4-1.9 mm/a at 95% confidence) can satisfy the data, within their respective uncertainties. This investigation demonstrates that integrating observations of multiple offset elements (crest, midpoint, and base) from numerous faulted and dated terrace risers at closely spaced

  11. Refining fault slip rates using multiple displaced terrace risers—An example from the Honey Lake fault, NE California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Ryan D.; Briggs, Richard; Crone, Anthony J.; Duross, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Faulted terrace risers are semi-planar features commonly used to constrain Quaternary slip rates along strike-slip faults. These landforms are difficult to date directly and therefore their ages are commonly bracketed by age estimates of the adjacent upper and lower terrace surfaces. However, substantial differences in the ages of the upper and lower terrace surfaces (a factor of 2.4 difference observed globally) produce large uncertainties in the slip-rate estimate. In this investigation, we explore how the full range of displacements and bounding ages from multiple faulted terrace risers can be combined to yield a more accurate fault slip rate. We use 0.25-m cell size digital terrain models derived from airborne lidar data to analyze three sites where terrace risers are offset right-laterally by the Honey Lake fault in NE California, USA. We use ages for locally extensive subhorizontal surfaces to bracket the time of riser formation: an upper surface is the bed of abandoned Lake Lahontan having an age of 15.8 ± 0.6 ka and a lower surface is a fluvial terrace abandoned at 4.7 ± 0.1 ka. We estimate lateral offsets of the risers ranging between 6.6 and 28.3 m (median values), a greater than fourfold difference in values. The amount of offset corresponds to the riser's position relative to modern stream meanders: the smallest offset is in a meander cutbank position, whereas the larger offsets are in straight channel or meander point-bar positions. Taken in isolation, the individual terrace-riser offsets yield slip rates ranging from 0.3 to 7.1 mm/a. However, when the offset values are collectively assessed in a probabilistic framework, we find that a uniform (linear) slip rate of 1.6 mm/a (1.4–1.9 mm/a at 95% confidence) can satisfy the data, within their respective uncertainties. This investigation demonstrates that integrating observations of multiple offset elements (crest, midpoint, and base) from numerous faulted and dated terrace risers at closely spaced

  12. The Risk Management of Minimum Return Guarantees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antje Mahayni

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Contracts paying a guaranteed minimum rate of return and a fraction of a positive excess rate, which is specified relative to a benchmark portfolio, are closely related to unit-linked life-insurance products and can be considered as alternatives to direct investment in the underlying benchmark. They contain an embedded power option, and the key issue is the tractable and realistic hedging of this option, in order to rigorously justify valuation by arbitrage arguments and prevent the guarantees from becoming uncontrollable liabilities to the issuer. We show how to determine the contract parameters conservatively and implement robust risk-management strategies.

  13. Fracture Energy of Plain Concrete Beams at Different Rates of Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulfkjær, J. P.; Hansen, Lars Pilegaard; Madsen, S. H.

    . The beams are tested in a closed loop servo controlled materials testing system. The experimental results for these preliminary tests show that the bending tensile strength is increasing with the displacement rate and that the fracture energy is constant at lower displacement rates and then increasing...

  14. Displacement measurement system for linear array detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Pengchong; Chen Ziyu; Shen Ji

    2011-01-01

    It presents a set of linear displacement measurement system based on encoder. The system includes displacement encoders, optical lens and read out circuit. Displacement read out unit includes linear CCD and its drive circuit, two amplifier circuits, second order Butterworth low-pass filter and the binarization circuit. The coding way is introduced, and various parts of the experimental signal waveforms are given, and finally a linear experimental test results are given. The experimental results are satisfactory. (authors)

  15. Operative Versus Conservative Management of Displaced Tibial Shaft Fracture in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Matthew C; Nagle, David; Bastrom, Tracey; Linn, Michael S; Schwartz, Alexandra K; Pennock, Andrew T

    2016-01-01

    Displaced tibial shaft fractures are common in adolescent patients, yet there is no standardized management strategy. We compared surgical fixation and closed reduction and casting (CRC) of these fractures to assess treatment outcomes and determine predictors of failure. We retrospectively reviewed all patients aged 12 to 18 who presented with a displaced tibial shaft fracture that required reduction over an 8-year period. Exclusion criteria included open fractures and lack of follow-up to radiographic union or to 6 months from the index procedure. Fractures were initially treated based on surgeon preference either with CRC or with immediate intramedullary nailing. Seventy-four patients met inclusion criteria: 57 were initially managed with CRC and 17 with operative fixation. Radiographic healing was defined as bridging of 3 cortices and adequacy of final alignment was defined as 20% (odds ratio=7.8, Palignment (92.5% vs. 72.4%, P=0.10) but required longer hospitalization (5.4 vs. 1.9 d, P<0.001) and had a higher incidence of anterior knee pain (20% vs. 0%, P<0.01). There was no significant difference between groups with respect to time to healing. Treatment outcomes between initial operative fixation and closed reduction of displaced tibia fractures in adolescents are similar, but patients must be counseled about the high failure rates with CRC. Predictors of CRC failure include initial fracture displacement and the presence of a fibula fracture-these variables should be considered when selecting a treatment method. Level III-Therapeutic study.

  16. Loading rate effect on the fracture behaviour of highstrength concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Viso J.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This research deals with the sensitivity of eight types of performancedesigned high-strength concrete to the loading rate. Variations in the composition of the concrete produce the desired performance, for instance having null shrinkage or being able to be pumped at elevated heights without segregation, but they also produce variations in the fracture properties that are reported in this paper. We performed tests at five loading rates spanning six orders of magnitude in the displacement rate, from 1.74 × 10-5 mm/s to 17.4 mm/s. Load-displacement curves show that their peak is higher as the displacement rate increases, whereas the corresponding displacement is almost constant. Fracture energy also increases, but only for loading rates higher than 0.01 mm/s. We use a formula based on a cohesive law with a viscous term to study the results. The correlation of the formula to the experimental results is good and it allows us to obtain the theoretical value for the fracture energy under strictly static conditions. In addition, both the fracture energy and the characteristic length of the concretes used in the study diminish as the compressive strength of their aggregates increases.

  17. Potential relocation of climatic environments suggests high rates of climate displacement within the North American protection network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batllori, Enric; Parisien, Marc-André; Parks, Sean A; Moritz, Max A; Miller, Carol

    2017-08-01

    Ongoing climate change may undermine the effectiveness of protected area networks in preserving the set of biotic components and ecological processes they harbor, thereby jeopardizing their conservation capacity into the future. Metrics of climate change, particularly rates and spatial patterns of climatic alteration, can help assess potential threats. Here, we perform a continent-wide climate change vulnerability assessment whereby we compare the baseline climate of the protected area network in North America (Canada, United States, México-NAM) to the projected end-of-century climate (2071-2100). We estimated the projected pace at which climatic conditions may redistribute across NAM (i.e., climate velocity), and identified future nearest climate analogs to quantify patterns of climate relocation within, among, and outside protected areas. Also, we interpret climatic relocation patterns in terms of associated land-cover types. Our analysis suggests that the conservation capacity of the NAM protection network is likely to be severely compromised by a changing climate. The majority of protected areas (~80%) might be exposed to high rates of climate displacement that could promote important shifts in species abundance or distribution. A small fraction of protected areas (climates that represent analogs of conditions currently characterizing almost a fifth of the protected areas across NAM. However, the majority of nearest climatic analogs for protected areas are in nonprotected locations. Therefore, unprotected landscapes could pose additional threats, beyond climate forcing itself, as sensitive biota may have to migrate farther than what is prescribed by the climate velocity to reach a protected area destination. To mitigate future threats to the conservation capacity of the NAM protected area network, conservation plans will need to capitalize on opportunities provided by the existing availability of natural land-cover types outside the current network of NAM

  18. Combined effects of Mass and Velocity on forward displacement and phenomenological ratings: a functional measurement approach to the Momentum metaphor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel-Ange Amorim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Representational Momentum (RepMo refers to the phenomenon that the vanishing position of a moving target is perceived as displaced ahead in the direction of movement. Originally taken to reflect a strict internalization of physical momentum, the finding that the target implied mass did not have an effect led to its subsequent reinterpretation as a second-order isomorphism between mental representations and principles of the physical world. However, very few studies have addressed the effects of mass on RepMo, and consistent replications of the null effect are lacking. The extent of motor engagement of the observers in RepMo tasks has, on the other hand, been suggested to determine the occurrence of the phenomenon; however, no systematic investigations were made of the degree to which it might modulate the effect of target mass. In the present work, we use Information Integration Theory to study the joint effects of different motor responses, target velocity and target mass on RepMo, and also of velocity and target mass on rating responses. Outcomes point not only to an effect of mass on RepMo, as to a differential effect of response modality on kinematic (e.g., velocity and dynamic (e.g., mass variables. Comparisons of patterns of mislocalisation with phenomenological ratings suggest that simplification of physical principles, rather than strict internalization or isomorphism per se, might underlie RepMo.

  19. Stability of Miscible Displacements Across Stratified Porous Media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariati, Maryam; Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2000-09-11

    This report studied macro-scale heterogeneity effects. Reflecting on their importance, current simulation practices of flow and displacement in porous media were invariably based on heterogeneous permeability fields. Here, it was focused on a specific aspect of such problems, namely the stability of miscible displacements in stratified porous media, where the displacement is perpendicular to the direction of stratification.

  20. Implantation rate effects on microstructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choyke, W.J.; Spitznagel, J.A.; Wood, S.; Doyle, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    We report a detailed TEM study of rate effects in a metal (304 SS) where we dope with an insoluble atom (He) and create the displacement damage with high energy Si. The rates of doping and the rates of producing lattice damage are independently varied during dual implantation. In addition to varying the doping rates of the He the magnitude of the displacement damage prior to He implantation is also varied (beam history). We find that the beam history has virtually no effect on maximum bubble size but it has a major effect on the average cavity diameter. A weak dependence of cavity number density on helium implantation rate is found. The total dislocation density is relatively independent of the doping rate and beam history at 550 and 700 0 C, whereas the loop fraction is sensitive to beam history at these temperatures. Acicular precipitate formation is weakly dependent on doping, doping rate and more strongly dependent on doping concentration and temperature. This form of solute segregation is very sensitive to beam history. (orig.)

  1. Employment effects of minimum wages

    OpenAIRE

    Neumark, David

    2014-01-01

    The potential benefits of higher minimum wages come from the higher wages for affected workers, some of whom are in low-income families. The potential downside is that a higher minimum wage may discourage employers from using the low-wage, low-skill workers that minimum wages are intended to help. Research findings are not unanimous, but evidence from many countries suggests that minimum wages reduce the jobs available to low-skill workers.

  2. 5 CFR 534.403 - SES rate range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... first day of the first applicable pay period beginning on or after January 1, 2004, the minimum rate of basic pay of the SES rate range is set at an amount equal to the minimum rate of basic pay under 5 U.S.C... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PAY UNDER OTHER SYSTEMS Pay and...

  3. Experimental research on microscopic displacement mechanism of CO2-water alternative flooding in low permeability reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hongyan; Zhu, Weiyao; Long, Yunqian; Song, Hongqing; Huang, Kun

    2018-02-01

    This paper provides an experimental method to deal with the problems of low oil recovery ratio faced with water flooding utilizing the CO2/water alternate displacement technology. A series of CO2/water alternate flooding experiments were carried out under 60°C and 18.4MPa using high temperature / pressure microscopic visualization simulation system. Then, we used the image processing technique and software to analyze the proportion of remaining oil in the displacement process. The results show that CO2 can extract the lighter chemical components in the crude oil and make it easier to form miscible phase, which can reduce the viscosity and favorable mobility ratio of oil. What’s more, the displacement reduces the impact of gas channeling, which can achieve an enlarged sweeping efficiency to improve filtration ability. In addition, the CO2 dissolved in oil and water can greatly reduce the interfacial tension, which can increase the oil displacement efficiency in a large extent. Generally speaking, the recovery rate of residual oil in the micro - model can be elevated up to 15.89% ∼ 16.48% under formation condition by alternate displacement.

  4. Atomic displacements in bcc dilute alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present here a systematic investigation of the atomic displacements in bcc transition metal (TM) dilute alloys. We have calculated the atomic displacements in bcc (V, Cr, Fe, Nb, Mo, Ta and W) transition metals (TMs) due to 3d, 4d and 5d TMs at the substitutional site using the Kanzaki lattice static method. Wills and ...

  5. Online Image-based Monitoring of Soft-tissue Displacements for Radiation Therapy of the Prostate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, Jeffrey; Salisbury, Kenneth; Hristov, Dimitre

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Emerging prolonged, hypofractionated radiotherapy regimens rely on high-dose conformality to minimize toxicity and thus can benefit from image guidance systems that continuously monitor target position during beam delivery. To address this need we previously developed, as a potential add-on device for existing linear accelerators, a novel telerobotic ultrasound system capable of real-time, soft-tissue imaging. Expanding on this capability, the aim of this work was to develop and characterize an image-based technique for real-time detection of prostate displacements. Methods and Materials: Image processing techniques were implemented on spatially localized ultrasound images to generate two parameters representing prostate displacements in real time. In a phantom and five volunteers, soft-tissue targets were continuously imaged with a customized robotic manipulator while recording the two tissue displacement parameters (TDPs). Variations of the TDPs in the absence of tissue displacements were evaluated, as was the sensitivity of the TDPs to prostate translations and rotations. Robustness of the approach to probe force was also investigated. Results: With 95% confidence, the proposed method detected in vivo prostate displacements before they exceeded 2.3, 2.5, and 2.8 mm in anteroposterior, superoinferior, and mediolateral directions. Prostate pitch was detected before exceeding 4.7° at 95% confidence. Total system time lag averaged 173 ms, mostly limited by ultrasound acquisition rate. False positives (FPs) (FP) in the absence of displacements did not exceed 1.5 FP events per 10 min of continuous in vivo imaging time. Conclusions: The feasibility of using telerobotic ultrasound for real-time, soft-tissue–based monitoring of target displacements was confirmed in vivo. Such monitoring has the potential to detect small clinically relevant intrafractional variations of the prostate position during beam delivery.

  6. The role of environmental degradation in population displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonergan, S

    1998-01-01

    This article answers a series of questions about the role of environmental degradation in population displacement, refugee movement, and migration. The environment tends not to be included in the reasons for migration. Roger's indicators of migration potential include population growth, economic restructuring, increased economic disparities, and increased refugee flows. Myers (1993) estimated that international displacement and internal displacement may amount to about 25 million and may rise to 150 million by 2050. The role of the environment in displacement must be examined in the broader political and cultural context. Definitions of environmental refugees are ambiguous and inconsistent, and research has not answered why people continue to move to Mexico City and Chongqing, China, which both have very high levels of pollution. El-Hinnawi (1985) defined 3 groups of environmental refugees: those displaced due to natural disasters; those displaced due to permanent habitat changes; and those displaced who migrated from areas that cannot support their basic needs and who desire an improved quality of life. Lonergan (1994) identified environmental stresses as natural disasters, cumulative or slow-onset changes, accidental disruptions or industrial accidents, development projects, and conflict and warfare. These 5 causes must be treated separately and not lumped together as environmental degradation. Shoreline erosion, coastal flooding, and agricultural disruption associated with climate change may increase migration. Global measures must address world poverty and promote sustainable development.

  7. Assessing the impacts of Saskatchewan's minimum alcohol pricing regulations on alcohol-related crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Tim; Zhao, Jinhui; Sherk, Adam; Callaghan, Russell C; Macdonald, Scott; Gatley, Jodi

    2017-07-01

    Saskatchewan's introduction in April 2010 of minimum prices graded by alcohol strength led to an average minimum price increase of 9.1% per Canadian standard drink (=13.45 g ethanol). This increase was shown to be associated with reduced consumption and switching to lower alcohol content beverages. Police also informally reported marked reductions in night-time alcohol-related crime. This study aims to assess the impacts of changes to Saskatchewan's minimum alcohol-pricing regulations between 2008 and 2012 on selected crime events often related to alcohol use. Data were obtained from Canada's Uniform Crime Reporting Survey. Auto-regressive integrated moving average time series models were used to test immediate and lagged associations between minimum price increases and rates of night-time and police identified alcohol-related crimes. Controls were included for simultaneous crime rates in the neighbouring province of Alberta, economic variables, linear trend, seasonality and autoregressive and/or moving-average effects. The introduction of increased minimum-alcohol prices was associated with an abrupt decrease in night-time alcohol-related traffic offences for men (-8.0%, P prices may contribute to reductions in alcohol-related traffic-related and violent crimes perpetrated by men. Observed lagged effects for violent incidents may be due to a delay in bars passing on increased prices to their customers, perhaps because of inventory stockpiling. [Stockwell T, Zhao J, Sherk A, Callaghan RC, Macdonald S, Gatley J. Assessing the impacts of Saskatchewan's minimum alcohol pricing regulations on alcohol-related crime. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:492-501]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  8. The cerebral neurobiology of anxiety, anxiety displacement, and anxiety denial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, L A; Fronczek, J; Abel, L; Buchsbaum, M S; Fallon, J H

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies examining the relationship of anxiety scores, derived from the content analysis of speech of normal individuals, have revealed that the anxiety scores occurring in the dreams associated with rapid eye movement (REM) sleep are significantly correlated with localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates assessed by positron emission tomography (PET) scanning. These significant intercorrelations occur in different cerebral areas when the anxiety scores are obtained from mental experiences reported during non-REM sleep or during wakeful silent mentation. The purpose of the present study was to examine the intercorrelations found between anxiety attributed to the self, anxiety-displacement, and anxiety denial measured from computerized content analysis of 5-min verbal reports of subjective thoughts and feelings obtained from wakeful normal subjects and localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates during PET scanning. The subjects were 10 wakeful young males. Their anxiety scores were derived from computerized content analysis of 5-min reports they gave of their subjective thoughts, feelings and fantasies during a 30-min period following an intravenous injection of F D-deoxyglucose (FDG). The subjects were moved 32--45 min after this injection to obtain a PET scan, which records all of the localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates during the 30 min following the FDG injection. Significant intercorrelations of localized cerebral glucose metabolic rates with the scores of self-anxiety, anxiety displacement, and anxiety-denial were found in dissimilar cerebral locations depending on the type of anxiety involved. The significant correlations occurred in brain regions known to be associated with the functions of emotions, cognition, memory, and vision. Specific combinations of cerebral areas, based on glucose metabolic rates, appear to distinguish and be associated with different verbal expressions of anxiety. Replication of this preliminary research will be

  9. Quasi-static displacement calibration system for a "Violin-Mode" shadow-sensor intended for Gravitational Wave detector suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2014-10-01

    This paper describes the design of, and results from, a calibration system for optical linear displacement (shadow) sensors. The shadow sensors were designed to detect "Violin-Mode" (VM) resonances in the 0.4 mm diameter silica fibre suspensions of the test masses/mirrors of Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory gravitational wave interferometers. Each sensor illuminated the fibre under test, so as to cast its narrow shadow onto a "synthesized split photodiode" detector, the shadow falling over adjacent edges of the paired photodiodes. The apparatus described here translated a vertically orientated silica test fibre horizontally through a collimated Near InfraRed illuminating beam, whilst simultaneously capturing the separate DC "shadow notch" outputs from each of the paired split photodiode detectors. As the ratio of AC to DC photocurrent sensitivities to displacement was known, a calibration of the DC response to quasi-static shadow displacement allowed the required AC sensitivity to vibrational displacement to be found. Special techniques are described for generating the required constant scan rate for the test fibre using a DC motor-driven stage, for removing "jitter" at such low translation rates from a linear magnetic encoder, and so for capturing the two shadow-notch signals at each micrometre of the test fibre's travel. Calibration, across the four detectors of this work, gave a vibrational responsivity in voltage terms of (9.45 ± 1.20) MV (rms)/m, yielding a VM displacement sensitivity of (69 ± 13) pm (rms)/√Hz, at 500 Hz, over the required measuring span of ±0.1 mm.

  10. Displacement laser interferometry with sub-nanometer uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cosijns, S.J.A.G.

    2004-01-01

    Development in industry is asking for improved resolution and higher accuracy in mechanical measurement. Together with miniaturization the demand for sub nanometer uncertainty on dimensional metrology is increasing rapidly. Displacement laser interferometers are used widely as precision displacement

  11. Efficiency of a variable displacement open circuit floating cup pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vael, G.E.M.; Achten, P.A.J.; Brink, van den T.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Floating Cup Displacement principle is a relatively new axial piston displacement principle for hydrostatic pumps, motors and transformers. Since its origin in 2001, it has been mainly applied in fixed displacement pump prototypes. At the SICFP’05, a design for a variable displacement open

  12. Epitaxial growth by monolayer restricted galvanic displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilić Rastko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of a new method for epitaxial growth of metals in solution by galvanic displacement of layers pre-deposited by underpotential deposition (UPD was discussed and experimentally illustrated throughout the lecture. Cyclic voltammetry (CV and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM are employed to carry out and monitor a “quasi-perfect”, two-dimensional growth of Ag on Au(111, Cu on Ag(111, and Cu on Au(111 by repetitive galvanic displacement of underpotentially deposited monolayers. A comparative study emphasizes the displacement stoichiometry as an efficient tool for thickness control during the deposition process and as a key parameter that affects the deposit morphology. The excellent quality of layers deposited by monolayer-restricted galvanic displacement is manifested by a steady UPD voltammetry and ascertained by a flat and uniform surface morphology maintained during the entire growth process.

  13. Barrier displacement on a neutral landscape: Towards a theory of continental biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, James S.; Schoolmaster, Donald; Tagliacollo, Victor; Duke-Sylvester, Scott M.

    2017-01-01

    Macroevolutionary theory posits three processes leading to lineage diversification and the formation of regional biotas: dispersal (species geographic range expansion), speciation (species lineage splitting), and extinction (species lineage termination). The Theory of Island Biogeography (TIB) predicts species richness values using just two of these processes; dispersal and extinction. Yet most species on Earth live on continents or continental shelves, and the dynamics of evolutionary diversification at regional and continental scales are qualitatively different from those that govern the formation of species richness on biogeographic islands. Certain geomorphological processes operating perennially on continental platforms displace barriers to gene flow and organismal dispersal, and affect all three terms of macroevolutionary diversification. For example, uplift of a dissected landscape and river capture both merge and separate portions of adjacent areas, allowing dispersal and larger geographic ranges, vicariant speciation and smaller geographic ranges, and extinction when range sizes are subdivided below a minimum persistence threshold.

  14. Minimum Wages and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Fields, Gary S.; Kanbur, Ravi

    2005-01-01

    Textbook analysis tells us that in a competitive labor market, the introduction of a minimum wage above the competitive equilibrium wage will cause unemployment. This paper makes two contributions to the basic theory of the minimum wage. First, we analyze the effects of a higher minimum wage in terms of poverty rather than in terms of unemployment. Second, we extend the standard textbook model to allow for incomesharing between the employed and the unemployed. We find that there are situation...

  15. Development of a heterodyne laser interferometer for very small high frequency displacements detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baarmann, P.

    1992-10-01

    A heterodyne laser interferometer with detection electronics has been developed for measuring very small amplitude high frequency vibrations. A laser beam from HeNe-laser is focused and reflected in the vibrating surface and the generated phase shifts are after interference with a reference beam detected with a photo detector and evaluated in a demodulation system. The set-up is a prototype and techniques to improve the accuracy and sensitivity of the system are presented. The present system can detect vibration amplitude from around 1 Angstrom and is linear up to 250 Angstrom (±4%). Frequencies from a few tens of kHz up to tens of MHz are covered. The low frequency region can be greatly improved. The minimum detectable displacement may be improved by narrowing the bandwidth of the detection system to the region of interest

  16. Axial displacement of external and internal implant-abutment connection evaluated by linear mixed model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seol, Hyon-Woo; Heo, Seong-Joo; Koak, Jai-Young; Kim, Seong-Kyun; Kim, Shin-Koo

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the axial displacement of external and internal implant-abutment connection after cyclic loading. Three groups of external abutments (Ext group), an internal tapered one-piece-type abutment (Int-1 group), and an internal tapered two-piece-type abutment (Int-2 group) were prepared. Cyclic loading was applied to implant-abutment assemblies at 150 N with a frequency of 3 Hz. The amount of axial displacement, the Periotest values (PTVs), and the removal torque values(RTVs) were measured. Both a repeated measures analysis of variance and pattern analysis based on the linear mixed model were used for statistical analysis. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the surface of the implant-abutment connection. The mean axial displacements after 1,000,000 cycles were 0.6 μm in the Ext group, 3.7 μm in the Int-1 group, and 9.0 μm in the Int-2 group. Pattern analysis revealed a breakpoint at 171 cycles. The Ext group showed no declining pattern, and the Int-1 group showed no declining pattern after the breakpoint (171 cycles). However, the Int-2 group experienced continuous axial displacement. After cyclic loading, the PTV decreased in the Int-2 group, and the RTV decreased in all groups. SEM imaging revealed surface wear in all groups. Axial displacement and surface wear occurred in all groups. The PTVs remained stable, but the RTVs decreased after cyclic loading. Based on linear mixed model analysis, the Ext and Int-1 groups' axial displacements plateaued after little cyclic loading. The Int-2 group's rate of axial displacement slowed after 100,000 cycles.

  17. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  18. 75 FR 6151 - Minimum Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... capital and reserve requirements to be issued by order or regulation with respect to a product or activity... minimum capital requirements. Section 1362(a) establishes a minimum capital level for the Enterprises... entities required under this section.\\6\\ \\3\\ The Bank Act's current minimum capital requirements apply to...

  19. Exonuclease of human DNA polymerase gamma disengages its strand displacement function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Quan; Shumate, Christie K; White, Mark A; Molineux, Ian J; Yin, Y Whitney

    2013-11-01

    Pol γ, the only DNA polymerase found in human mitochondria, functions in both mtDNA repair and replication. During mtDNA base-excision repair, gaps are created after damaged base excision. Here we show that Pol γ efficiently gap-fills except when the gap is only a single nucleotide. Although wild-type Pol γ has very limited ability for strand displacement DNA synthesis, exo(-) (3'-5' exonuclease-deficient) Pol γ has significantly high activity and rapidly unwinds downstream DNA, synthesizing DNA at a rate comparable to that of the wild-type enzyme on a primer-template. The catalytic subunit Pol γA alone, even when exo(-), is unable to synthesize by strand displacement, making this the only known reaction of Pol γ holoenzyme that has an absolute requirement for the accessory subunit Pol γB. © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. A Pareto-Improving Minimum Wage

    OpenAIRE

    Eliav Danziger; Leif Danziger

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows that a graduated minimum wage, in contrast to a constant minimum wage, can provide a strict Pareto improvement over what can be achieved with an optimal income tax. The reason is that a graduated minimum wage requires high-productivity workers to work more to earn the same income as low-productivity workers, which makes it more difficult for the former to mimic the latter. In effect, a graduated minimum wage allows the low-productivity workers to benefit from second-degree pr...

  1. Slip rate of the Calico fault: Implications for geologic versus geodetic rate discrepancy in the Eastern California Shear Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskin, Michael; Perg, Lesley; Blumentritt, Dylan; Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy; Iriondo, Alexander

    2007-03-01

    Long-term (105 years) fault slip rates test the scale of discrepancy between infrequent paleoseismicity and relatively rapid geodetic rates of dextral shear in the Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ). The Calico fault is one of a family of dextral faults that traverse the Mojave Desert portion of the ECSZ. Its slip rate is determined from matching and dating incised Pleistocene alluvial fan deposits and surfaces displaced by fault slip. A high-resolution topographic base acquired via airborne laser swath mapping aids in identification and mapping of deformed geomorphic features. The oldest geomorphically preserved alluvial fan, unit B, is displaced 900 ± 200 m from its source at Sheep Springs Wash in the northern Rodman Mountains. This fan deposit contains the first preserved occurrence of basalt clasts derived from the Pipkin lava field and overlies Quaternary conglomerate deposits lacking these clasts. The 40Ar/39Ar dating of two flows from this field yields consistent ages of 770 ± 40 ka and 735 ± 9 ka. An age of 650 ± 100 ka is assigned to this fan deposit based on these ages and on the oldest cosmogenic 3He exposure date of 653 ± 20 ka on a basalt boulder from the surface of unit B. This assigned age and offset together yield a mid-Pleistocene to present average slip rate of 1.4 ± 0.4 mm/yr. A younger fan surface, unit K, records 100 ± 10 m of dextral displacement and preserves original depositional morphology of its surface. Granitic boulders and pavement samples from this surface yield an average age of 56.4 ± 7.7 ka after taking into account minimal cosmogenic inheritance of granitic clasts. The displaced and dated K fans yield a slip rate of 1.8 ± 0.3 mm/yr. Distributed deformation of the region surrounding the fault trace, if active, could increase the overall displacement rate to 2.1 ± 0.5 mm/yr. Acceleration of slip rate from an average of 1.4 mm/yr prior to ˜50 ka to 1.8 mm/yr since ˜50 ka is possible, though a single time-averaged slip

  2. N2 production rates limited by nitrite availability in the Bay of Bengal oxygen minimum zone

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bristow, L.A; Callbeck, C.M.; Larsen, M.; Altabet, M.A; Dekaezemacker, J.; Forth, M.; Gauns, M.; Glud, R.N.; Kuypers, M.M.M.; Lavik, G.; Milucka, J.; Naqvi, S.W.A; Pratihary, A; Revsbech, N.P.; Thamdrup, B.; Treusch, A; Canfield, D.E.

    A third or more of the fixed nitrogen lost from the oceans as N2 is removed by anaerobic microbial processes in open ocean oxygen minimum zones. These zones have expanded over the past decades, and further anthropogenically induced...

  3. Do environmental changes or juvenile competition act as mechanisms of species displacement in crayfishes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, Jacob T.; DiStefano, R.J.; Magoulick, D.D.

    2012-01-01

    The Big Creek Crayfish, Orconectes peruncus, is native to the St. Francis River drainage in Missouri, USA and is often absent where the introduced Woodland Crayfish, Orconectes hylas, has established. We performed a field experiment to determine whether effects of current abiotic conditions and interspecific competition with O. hylas were responsible for displacement of O. peruncus from parts of their former range. We examined growth and survival of juvenile male O. peruncus exposed to juvenile male O. hylas in enclosures at two sites in the former range of O. peruncus. Enclosures contained 8 (low density) or 16 individuals (high density) and had O. peruncus only (control) or both species (interspecific treatment). Juvenile O. peruncus were able to survive and grow in portions of their former range, implicating biotic versus abiotic factors in the displacement of O. peruncus. Survival rates of O. peruncus did not differ among treatments at either site. Orconectes peruncus showed significant growth in all treatments and interspecific effects were not greater than intraspecific effects on O. peruncus growth rates. High-density treatments showed significantly reduced O. peruncus growth rates compared to low-density treatments, except in Carver Creek interspecific treatments. When considered in the context of previous studies examining the effects of O. hylas on O. peruncus, results suggest that neither direct competition between juvenile males of the two species or abiotic change are responsible for the decreased range of O. peruncus. Additional research is required to determine the mechanism(s) driving the displacement of O. peruncus. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  4. Topology synthesis of large-displacement compliant mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus B. Wittendorf; Buhl, Thomas; Sigmund, Ole

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the use of topology optimization as a synthesis tool for the design of large-displacement compliant mechanisms. An objective function for the synthesis of large-displacement mechanisms is proposed together with a formulation for synthesis of path-generating compliant mechanisms...

  5. Prolonged displacement may compromise resilience in Eritrean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: to assess the impact of prolonged displacement on the resilience of Eritrean mothers. Methods: an adapted SOC scale (short form) was administered. Complementary qualitative data were gathered from study participants' spontaneous reactions to and commentaries on the SOC scale. Results: Displaced ...

  6. Job displacement and stress-related health outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Browning, Martin; Danø, Anne Møller; Heinesen, Eskil

    2006-01-01

    We investigate whether job loss as the result of displacement causes hospitalization for stress-related diseases which are widely thought to be associated with unemployment. In doing this, we use much better data than any previous investigators. Our data are a random 10% sample of the male...... group of displaced workers if they had not in fact been displaced. Our results indicate unequivocally that being displaced in Denmark does not cause hospitalization for stress-related disease. An analysis of the power of our test suggests that even though we are looking for a relatively rare outcome...... population of Denmark for the years 1981-1999 with full records on demographics, health and work status for each person, and with a link from every working person to a plant. We use the method of matching on observables to estimate the counter-factual of what would have happened to the health of a particular...

  7. On virtual displacement and virtual work in Lagrangian dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Subhankar; Shamanna, J

    2006-01-01

    The confusion and ambiguity encountered by students in understanding virtual displacement and virtual work is discussed in this paper. A definition of virtual displacement is presented that allows one to express them explicitly for holonomic (velocity independent), non-holonomic (velocity dependent), scleronomous (time independent) and rheonomous (time dependent) constraints. It is observed that for holonomic, scleronomous constraints, the virtual displacements are the displacements allowed by the constraints. However, this is not so for a general class of constraints. For simple physical systems, it is shown that the work done by the constraint forces on virtual displacements is zero. This motivates Lagrange's extension of d'Alembert's principle to a system of particles in constrained motion. However, a similar zero work principle does not hold for the allowed displacements. It is also demonstrated that d'Alembert's principle of zero virtual work is necessary for the solvability of a constrained mechanical problem. We identify this special class of constraints, physically realized and solvable, as the ideal constraints. The concept of virtual displacement and the principle of zero virtual work by constraint forces are central to both Lagrange's method of undetermined multipliers and Lagrange's equations in generalized coordinates

  8. 2014 and beyond: implications for displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidan O’Leary

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 2014 marks a watershed for Afghanistan, with the withdrawal of the International Security Assistance Force after twelve years, and the very real risks this withdrawal poses to the capacity of the Afghan state to meet the many internal and external challenges faced by the country. These challenges have significant implications for displaced and returning Afghans and for the potential for displacement in the future.

  9. Displacement Ventilation in a Room with Low-Level Diffusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Peter V.

    Ventilation systems with vertical displacement flow have been used in industrial areas with high thermal loads for many years. Quite resently the vertical displacement flow systems have grown popular as comfort ventilation in rooms with thermal loads e.g. offices.......Ventilation systems with vertical displacement flow have been used in industrial areas with high thermal loads for many years. Quite resently the vertical displacement flow systems have grown popular as comfort ventilation in rooms with thermal loads e.g. offices....

  10. Minimum critical mass systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, H. van; Leege, P.F.A. de

    1987-01-01

    An analysis is presented of thermal systems with minimum critical mass, based on the use of materials with optimum neutron moderating and reflecting properties. The optimum fissile material distributions in the systems are obtained by calculations with standard computer codes, extended with a routine for flat fuel importance search. It is shown that in the minimum critical mass configuration a considerable part of the fuel is positioned in the reflector region. For 239 Pu a minimum critical mass of 87 g is found, which is the lowest value reported hitherto. (author)

  11. MRI of radial displacement of the meniscus in the knee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jian; Lv Houshan; Lao Shan; Guan Zhenpeng; Hong Nan; Liang Hao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To describe the phenomenon of radial displacement of the meniscus of the knees in the study population with MR imaging, and to establish MRI diagnostic criteria for radial displacement of the meniscus and displacement index. Methods: MR signs of radial displacement of the meniscus were evaluated retrospectively in 398 patients with knee symptoms who were examined with non- weight bearing MR images from Jan. 2000 to Feb. 2004. The patients younger than 18 years old, with joint effusion or serious arthropathy were excluded and 312 patients were eligible to be enrolled in this study. The criterion for radial displacement of the meniscus was defined as the location of the edge of meniscal body beyond the femoral and tibial outer border line. A displacement index, defined as the ratio of meniscal overhang to meniscal width, was used to quantify meniscal displacement. Results: The prevalence of radial displacement of the meniscus was 16.7% (52/312) and 13.9% (21/151) in right knee and 19.3% (31/161 )in left knee, respectively. There was no significant difference between left and right knee (χ 2 =1.60, P>0.05) and the ratio between medial and lateral meniscus was 7.8:1. The average displacement index was 0.54±0.24. The displacement indices were significant higher in older group (F=3.63, P<0.05). The incidence and indices of radial displacement of the meniscus for patients under or above 50 year older were 12.0%(17/142), 0.46±0.22 and 20.6% (35/170), 0.64±0.20, respectively. Difference was highly significant (t=0.84, P<0.01). Conclusion: It was concluded that radial displacement of the meniscus in knees was not a rare finding with MR imaging in patients with knee symptoms. The incidence increased in older age group. Further investigations were recommended to understand the etiology and clinical significance of the phenomenon of radial displacement of the meniscus. (authors)

  12. Overtreatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ban, Ilija; Nowak, Jan; Virtanen, Kaisa

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose - The best treatment for displaced clavicle fractures has been debated for decades. Operative treatment has become more common. However, several randomized trials comparing non-operative and operative treatment have not shown any compelling evidence in favor of surgery. We...... identified the preferred treatment of displaced midshaft clavicle fractures at public hospitals in 3 countries in Scandinavia. Patients and methods - A purpose-made multiple-choice questionnaire in English was sent to all public hospitals in Denmark, Sweden, and Finland. This was addressed to the orthopedic...... surgeon responsible for treatment of clavicle fractures, and completed questionnaires were obtained from 85 of 118 hospitals. Results - In the 3 countries, 69 of the 85 hospitals that responded would treat displaced clavicle fractures operatively. Clear criteria for treatment allocation were used at 58...

  13. Dependence of irradiation creep on temperature and atom displacements in 20% cold worked type 316 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.R.

    1976-04-01

    Irradiation creep studies with pressurized tubes of 20 percent cold worked Type 316 stainless steel were conducted in EBR-2. Results showed that as atom displacements are extended above 5 dpa and temperatures are increased above 375 0 C, the irradiation induced creep rate increases with both increasing atom displacements and increasing temperature. The stress exponent for irradiation induced creep remained near unity. Irradiation-induced effective creep strains up to 1.8 percent were observed without specimen failure. 13 figures

  14. Future changes over the Himalayas: Maximum and minimum temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimri, A. P.; Kumar, D.; Choudhary, A.; Maharana, P.

    2018-03-01

    An assessment of the projection of minimum and maximum air temperature over the Indian Himalayan region (IHR) from the COordinated Regional Climate Downscaling EXperiment- South Asia (hereafter, CORDEX-SA) regional climate model (RCM) experiments have been carried out under two different Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios. The major aim of this study is to assess the probable future changes in the minimum and maximum climatology and its long-term trend under different RCPs along with the elevation dependent warming over the IHR. A number of statistical analysis such as changes in mean climatology, long-term spatial trend and probability distribution function are carried out to detect the signals of changes in climate. The study also tries to quantify the uncertainties associated with different model experiments and their ensemble in space, time and for different seasons. The model experiments and their ensemble show prominent cold bias over Himalayas for present climate. However, statistically significant higher warming rate (0.23-0.52 °C/decade) for both minimum and maximum air temperature (Tmin and Tmax) is observed for all the seasons under both RCPs. The rate of warming intensifies with the increase in the radiative forcing under a range of greenhouse gas scenarios starting from RCP4.5 to RCP8.5. In addition to this, a wide range of spatial variability and disagreements in the magnitude of trend between different models describes the uncertainty associated with the model projections and scenarios. The projected rate of increase of Tmin may destabilize the snow formation at the higher altitudes in the northern and western parts of Himalayan region, while rising trend of Tmax over southern flank may effectively melt more snow cover. Such combined effect of rising trend of Tmin and Tmax may pose a potential threat to the glacial deposits. The overall trend of Diurnal temperature range (DTR) portrays increasing trend across entire area with

  15. Effect of rheological characteristics and technology of application of a viscoelastic separator on its displacing ability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnibidin, V N

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the results of industrial tests of the displacing ability of a viscoelastic separator, obtained by mixing a clay suspension and an aqueous solution of polyacrylamide. It is established that the displacing ability of the viscoelastic separator is determined mainly by the value of the final normal stresses sigma /SUB f/ . The greatest effect from the use of this separator is achieved with sigma /SUB f/ of at least 600 dyne/cm/sup 2/ and a rate of movement of not more than 0.5 m/sec.

  16. Minimum critical power ratio control device for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosawa, Tsuneo.

    1991-01-01

    Reactor core flowrate is determined by comparing a minimum critical power ratio calculated based on the status amount of a nuclear power plant and a control value for the minimum critical power ratio that depends on the reactor core flowrate. Further, the minimum critical power ratio and a control value for the minimum critical power ratio that depends on the reactor thermal power are compared to set a reactor thermal power converted to a reactor core flowrate. Deviation between the thus determined reactor core flowrate and the present reactor core flowrate is calculated. When the obtained deviation is lower than a rated value, a reactor core flowrate set signal is generated to a reactor flowrate control means, to control the reactor power by a recycling flowrate control system of the reactor. On the other hand, when the deviation exceeds the determined value, the reactor core flowrate set signal is converted into a reactor thermal power, to control the position of control rods and control the reactor power. Then, monitor and control can be conducted safely and automatically without depending on operator's individual ability over the entire operation range corresponding to load following operation. (N.H.)

  17. Axial displacements in external and internal implant-abutment connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hye; Kim, Dae-Gon; Park, Chan-Jin; Cho, Lee-Ra

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the axial displacement of the abutments during clinical procedures by the tightening torque and cyclic loading. Two different implant-abutment connection systems were used (external butt joint connection [EXT]; internal tapered conical connection [INT]). The master casts with two implant replicas, angulated 10° from each other, were fabricated for each implant connection system. Four types of impression copings were assembled and tightened with the corresponding implants (hex transfer impression coping, non-hex transfer impression coping, hex pick-up impression coping, non-hex pick-up impression coping). Resin splinted abutments and final prosthesis were assembled. The axial displacement was measured from the length of each assembly, which was evaluated repeatedly, after 30 Ncm torque tightening. After 250 N cyclic loading of final prosthesis for 1,000,000 cycles, additional axial displacement was recorded. The mean axial displacement was statistically analyzed (repeated measured ANOVA). There was more axial displacement in the INT group than that of the EXT group in impression copings, resin splinted abutments, and final prosthesis. Less axial displacement was found at 1-piece non-hex transfer type impression coping than other type of impression copings in the INT group. There was more axial displacement at the final prosthesis than resin splinted abutments in the INT and the EXT groups. After 250 N cyclic loading of final prosthesis, the INT group showed more axial displacement than that of the EXT group. Internal tapered conical connection demonstrated a varying amount of axial displacement with tightening torque and cyclic loading. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Employment protection and the consequences for displaced workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albæk, Karsten; van Audenrode, Marc; Browning, Martin

    We compare the wage and employment consequences of a job displacement in Belgium and Denmark. These two countries both have generous unemployment insurance schemes but job protection laws vary dramatically between the two. Using comparable data we find that the incidence of displacement and the c...... and the consequences for wages are similar in the two countries. The consequences for employment are very different with Danish workers experiencing much less unemployment after a displacement...

  19. Bucky gel actuator displacement: experiment and model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghamsari, A K; Zegeye, E; Woldesenbet, E; Jin, Y

    2013-01-01

    Bucky gel actuator (BGA) is a dry electroactive nanocomposite which is driven with a few volts. BGA’s remarkable features make this tri-layered actuator a potential candidate for morphing applications. However, most of these applications would require a better understanding of the effective parameters that influence the BGA displacement. In this study, various sets of experiments were designed to investigate the effect of several parameters on the maximum lateral displacement of BGA. Two input parameters, voltage and frequency, and three material/design parameters, carbon nanotube type, thickness, and weight fraction of constituents were selected. A new thickness ratio term was also introduced to study the role of individual layers on BGA displacement. A model was established to predict BGA maximum displacement based on the effect of these parameters. This model showed good agreement with reported results from the literature. In addition, an important factor in the design of BGA-based devices, lifetime, was investigated. (paper)

  20. N2 production rates limited by nitrite availability in the Bay of Bengal oxygen minimum zone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bristow, Laura A.; Callbeck, C. M.; Larsen, M

    2017-01-01

    with isotopically labelled nitrogen compounds and analyse geochemical signatures of these processes in the water column. We find that the Bay of Bengal supports denitrifier and anammox microbial populations, mediating low, but significant N loss. Yet, unlike other oxygen minimum zones, our measurements using...

  1. Quasi-static displacement calibration system for a “Violin-Mode” shadow-sensor intended for Gravitational Wave detector suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the design of, and results from, a calibration system for optical linear displacement (shadow) sensors. The shadow sensors were designed to detect “Violin-Mode” (VM) resonances in the 0.4 mm diameter silica fibre suspensions of the test masses/mirrors of Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory gravitational wave interferometers. Each sensor illuminated the fibre under test, so as to cast its narrow shadow onto a “synthesized split photodiode” detector, the shadow falling over adjacent edges of the paired photodiodes. The apparatus described here translated a vertically orientated silica test fibre horizontally through a collimated Near InfraRed illuminating beam, whilst simultaneously capturing the separate DC “shadow notch” outputs from each of the paired split photodiode detectors. As the ratio of AC to DC photocurrent sensitivities to displacement was known, a calibration of the DC response to quasi-static shadow displacement allowed the required AC sensitivity to vibrational displacement to be found. Special techniques are described for generating the required constant scan rate for the test fibre using a DC motor-driven stage, for removing “jitter” at such low translation rates from a linear magnetic encoder, and so for capturing the two shadow-notch signals at each micrometre of the test fibre's travel. Calibration, across the four detectors of this work, gave a vibrational responsivity in voltage terms of (9.45 ± 1.20) MV (rms)/m, yielding a VM displacement sensitivity of (69 ± 13) pm (rms)/√Hz, at 500 Hz, over the required measuring span of ±0.1 mm

  2. Quasi-static displacement calibration system for a “Violin-Mode” shadow-sensor intended for Gravitational Wave detector suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lockerbie, N. A.; Tokmakov, K. V. [SUPA (Scottish Universities Physics Alliance), Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

    2014-10-15

    This paper describes the design of, and results from, a calibration system for optical linear displacement (shadow) sensors. The shadow sensors were designed to detect “Violin-Mode” (VM) resonances in the 0.4 mm diameter silica fibre suspensions of the test masses/mirrors of Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory gravitational wave interferometers. Each sensor illuminated the fibre under test, so as to cast its narrow shadow onto a “synthesized split photodiode” detector, the shadow falling over adjacent edges of the paired photodiodes. The apparatus described here translated a vertically orientated silica test fibre horizontally through a collimated Near InfraRed illuminating beam, whilst simultaneously capturing the separate DC “shadow notch” outputs from each of the paired split photodiode detectors. As the ratio of AC to DC photocurrent sensitivities to displacement was known, a calibration of the DC response to quasi-static shadow displacement allowed the required AC sensitivity to vibrational displacement to be found. Special techniques are described for generating the required constant scan rate for the test fibre using a DC motor-driven stage, for removing “jitter” at such low translation rates from a linear magnetic encoder, and so for capturing the two shadow-notch signals at each micrometre of the test fibre's travel. Calibration, across the four detectors of this work, gave a vibrational responsivity in voltage terms of (9.45 ± 1.20) MV (rms)/m, yielding a VM displacement sensitivity of (69 ± 13) pm (rms)/√Hz, at 500 Hz, over the required measuring span of ±0.1 mm.

  3. Strain rate dependency of bovine trabecular bone under impact loading at sideways fall velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns-Bray, William S; Ferguson, Stephen J; Helgason, Benedikt

    2018-05-03

    There is currently a knowledge gap in scientific literature concerning the strain rate dependent properties of trabecular bone at intermediate strain rates. Meanwhile, strain rates between 10 and 200/s have been observed in previous dynamic finite element models of the proximal femur loaded at realistic sideways fall speeds. This study aimed to quantify the effect of strain rate (ε̇) on modulus of elasticity (E), ultimate stress (σ u ), failure energy (U f ), and minimum stress (σ m ) of trabecular bone in order to improve the biofidelity of material properties used in dynamic simulations of sideways fall loading on the hip. Cylindrical cores of trabecular bone (D = 8 mm, L gauge  = 16 mm, n = 34) from bovine proximal tibiae and distal femurs were scanned in µCT (10 µm), quantifying apparent density (ρ app ) and degree of anisotropy (DA), and subsequently impacted within a miniature drop tower. Force of impact was measured using a piezoelectric load cell (400 kHz), while displacement during compression was measured from high speed video (50,000 frames/s). Four groups, with similar density distributions, were loaded at different impact velocities (0.84, 1.33, 1.75, and 2.16 m/s) with constant kinetic energy (0.4 J) by adjusting the impact mass. The mean strain rates of each group were significantly different (p < 0.05) except for the two fastest impact speeds (p = 0.09). Non-linear regression models correlated strain rate, DA, and ρ app with ultimate stress (R 2  = 0.76), elastic modulus (R 2  = 0.63), failure energy (R 2  = 0.38), and minimum stress (R 2  = 0.57). These results indicate that previous estimates of σ u could be under predicting the mechanical properties at strain rates above 10/s. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Increasing the minimum age of marriage program to improve maternal and child health in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjarwati

    2017-08-01

    The objective of the article is to review the importance of understanding the adolescent reproductive health, especially the impact of early marriage to have commitment for health maintenance by increasing the minimum age of marriage. There are countless studies describing the impact of pregnancy at a very young age, the risk that young people must understand to support the program of increasing minimum age of marriage in Indonesia. Increasing the minimum age of marriage is as one of the government programs in improving maternal and child health. It also supports the Indonesian government's program about a thousand days of life. It is required that teens understand the impact of early marriage to prepare for optimal health for future generations. The maternal mortality rate and infant mortality rate in Indonesia is still high because health is not optimal since the early period of pregnancy. These studies reveal that the increased number of early marriages leads to rising divorce rate, maternal mortality rate, and infant mortality and intensifies the risk of cervical cancer. The increase in early marriage is mostly attributed to unwanted pregnancy. It is revealed that early marriage increases the rate of pregnancy at too young an age with the risk of maternal and child health in Indonesia.

  5. A Vision-Based Sensor for Noncontact Structural Displacement Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dongming; Feng, Maria Q.; Ozer, Ekin; Fukuda, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Conventional displacement sensors have limitations in practical applications. This paper develops a vision sensor system for remote measurement of structural displacements. An advanced template matching algorithm, referred to as the upsampled cross correlation, is adopted and further developed into a software package for real-time displacement extraction from video images. By simply adjusting the upsampling factor, better subpixel resolution can be easily achieved to improve the measurement accuracy. The performance of the vision sensor is first evaluated through a laboratory shaking table test of a frame structure, in which the displacements at all the floors are measured by using one camera to track either high-contrast artificial targets or low-contrast natural targets on the structural surface such as bolts and nuts. Satisfactory agreements are observed between the displacements measured by the single camera and those measured by high-performance laser displacement sensors. Then field tests are carried out on a railway bridge and a pedestrian bridge, through which the accuracy of the vision sensor in both time and frequency domains is further confirmed in realistic field environments. Significant advantages of the noncontact vision sensor include its low cost, ease of operation, and flexibility to extract structural displacement at any point from a single measurement. PMID:26184197

  6. Numerical modelling of fracture displacements due to thermal load from a KBS-3 repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakami, Eva; Olofsson, Stig-Olof [Itasca Geomekanik AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-01-01

    10 cm. A fracture of 265 m length, 30 deg dip angle, 5 GPa/m shear stiffness and 30 deg friction angle gave 4.5 cm shear displacement. In the two-dimensional UDEC models, the fracture extension is defined as the length L along the dip direction of the fracture. In reality, however, the three-dimensional geometry of the fracture will influence the shear magnitude. Results from additional three-dimensional analyses (using FLAC{sup 3D} ) offer a comparison between two cases regarding the three-dimensional extension of a fracture. A model assuming a fracture with infinite extension in the strike direction, and a length L in the dip direction, i.e. the 2-D assumption made in the UDEC analyses, gives 1.4 times larger fracture shear displacement than a corresponding model with a circular fracture of diameter L. Among the different parameters varied between models in this study, the fracture friction length, fracture friction angle and shear stiffness are found to be the most important for the heat induced shear displacement on the fracture plane. With regard to the current safety limit for allowed fracture shear displacements (10 cm), the following approximate layout restriction i suggested: Central parts of fractures dipping in the range of 30-45 deg with a minimum length of 700 metres in the dip direction, and a friction angle smaller than about 15 deg or shear stiffness in the order of 0.005 GPa/m or less, should not be allowed to intersect the deposition holes. This recommendation is only valid for the over all conditions assumed in this study. A significantly different initial stress state or change in thermal loading could lead to a different layout criterion.

  7. Diagnosing displaced four-part fractures of the proximal humerus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig; Bagger, Jens; Sylvest, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Displaced four-part fractures comprise 2-10 % of all proximal humeral fractures. The optimal treatment is unclear and randomised trials are needed. The conduct and interpretation of such trials is facilitated by a reproducible fracture classification. We aimed at quantifying observer agreement...... on the classification of displaced four-part fractures according to the Neer system. Published and unpublished data from five observer studies were reviewed. Observers agreed less on displaced four-part fractures than on the overall Neer classification. Mean kappa values for interobserver agreement ranged from 0.......16 to 0.48. Specialists agreed slightly more than fellows and residents. Advanced imaging modalities (CT and 3D CT) seemed to contribute more to classification of displaced four-part patterns than in less complex fracture patterns. Low observer agreement may challenge the clinical approach to displaced...

  8. Land Restitution and Prevention of Forced Displacement in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Gómez-Isa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The armed conflict in Colombia, which has generated over three million internally displaced persons, has dramatic humanitarian consequences and raises serious issues regarding the protection of displaced peoples’ rights. The underlying reasons for the displacement often lie in the dynamics associated with territorial control and land seizures undertaken for strategic, military or purely economic purposes. Domestic and international legal provisions have established the victims’ right to the restitution of their homes and property as the “preferred remedy” in cases of displacement. However, policies dealing with displacement, both those of the Colombian government and of several international institutions, fail to take this sufficiently into account. A comprehensive reparation policy for victims must necessarily entail the reversion of lands, territories and goods seized in Colombia under the pretext of the internal armed conflict.

  9. Method of making self-calibrated displacement measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedersen, H.N.

    1977-01-01

    A method for monitoring the displacement of an object having an acoustically reflective surface at least partially submerged in an acoustically conductive medium is described. The reflective surface is designed to have a stepped interface responsive to an incident acoustic pulse to provide separate discrete reflected pulses to a receiving transducer. The difference in the time of flight of the reflected acoustic signals corresponds to the known step height and the time of travel of the signals to the receiving transducer provides a measure of the displacement of the object. Accordingly, the reference step length enables simultaneous calibration of each displacement measurement. 3 claims, 3 figures

  10. Mental health of internally displaced persons in Jalozai camp, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujeeb, Arooj

    2015-11-01

    Internal displacement has been a distressing issue of Pakistan for last one decade. Few research works have been conducted on the psychological issues of internally displaced persons in Pakistan. The current research was aimed at determining the psychological effects of internal displacement, that is, psychological well-being, depression, anxiety and stress (internalizing problems) of the individuals who were displaced as a result of an armed conflict in Swat. A sample of 126 internally displaced persons was taken from Jalozai camp which included females (n = 65) and males (n = 61). Age of the sample ranged from 20 to 75 years with a mean of 47.5 years. Translated and adapted versions of Well-Being Affectometer-2 Scale and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale were used in the current research. Results of the study indicated differences between males and females, females being higher on internalizing problems and lower on psychological well-being, whereas family loss during displacement affected the results in the same way. Well-being, gender and family loss emerged as significant predictors of internalizing problems, and gender moderated the relationship between well-being and internalizing problems. Internal displacement may bring psychological issues for internally displaced persons, that is, their well-being may decrease and depression, anxiety and stress may increase during displacement. Limitations and implications of the study were discussed further. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Spectator Ions ARE Important! A Kinetic Study of the Copper-Aluminum Displacement Reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Sabrina G.; Cohen, Skyler

    2010-01-01

    Surprisingly, spectator ions are responsible for unexpected kinetics in the biphasic copper(II)-aluminum displacement reaction, with the rate of reaction dependent on the identity of the otherwise ignored spectator ions. Application of a published kinetic analysis developed for a reaction between a rotating Al disk and a Cu(II) ion solution to the…

  12. How Will Higher Minimum Wages Affect Family Life and Children's Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Heather D; Romich, Jennifer

    2018-06-01

    In recent years, new national and regional minimum wage laws have been passed in the United States and other countries. The laws assume that benefits flow not only to workers but also to their children. Adolescent workers will most likely be affected directly given their concentration in low-paying jobs, but younger children may be affected indirectly by changes in parents' work conditions, family income, and the quality of nonparental child care. Research on minimum wages suggests modest and mixed economic effects: Decreases in employment can offset, partly or fully, wage increases, and modest reductions in poverty rates may fade over time. Few studies have examined the effects of minimum wage increases on the well-being of families, adults, and children. In this article, we use theoretical frameworks and empirical evidence concerning the effects on children of parental work and family income to suggest hypotheses about the effects of minimum wage increases on family life and children's well-being.

  13. Minimum number of transfer units and reboiler duty for multicomponent distillation columns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pleşu, Valentin; Bonet Ruiz, Alexandra Elena; Bonet, Jordi; Llorens, Joan; Iancu, Petrica

    2013-01-01

    Some guidelines to evaluate distillation columns, considering only basic thermodynamic data and principles, are provided in this paper. The method allows a first insight to the problem by simple calculations, without requiring column variables to ensure rational use of energy and low environmental impact. The separation system is approached by two complementary ways: minimum and infinite reflux flow rate. The minimum reflux provides the minimum energy requirements, and the infinite reflux provides the feasibility conditions. The difficulty of separation can be expressed in terms of number of transfer units (NTU). The applicability of the method is not mathematically limited by the number of components in the mixture. It is also applicable to reactive distillation. Several mixtures, including reactive distillation, are rigorously simulated as illustrative examples, to verify the applicability of the approach. The separation of the mixtures, performed by distillation columns, is feasible if a minimum NTU can be calculated between the distillate and bottom products. Once verified the feasibility of the separation, the maximum thermal efficiency depends only on boiling point of bottom and distillate streams. The minimum energy requirements corresponding to the reboiler can be calculated from the maximum thermal efficiency, and the variation of entropy and enthalpy of mixing between distillate and bottom streams. -- Highlights: • Feasibility analysis complemented with difficulty of separation parameters • Minimum and infinite reflux simplified models for distillation columns • Minimum number of transfer units (NTU) for packed columns at early design stages • Calculation of minimum energy distillation requirements at early design stages • Thermodynamic cycle approach and efficiency for distillation columns

  14. [Displacement of the posterior part of the eyeball in myopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akizawa, Yasuko; Masahiro, Ida

    2006-12-01

    The principal aim of this study was to investigate displacement of the posterior part of the eyeball within the muscle cone in myopic eyes, particularly in moderately myopic subjects as well as in high myopes. Secondly, the correlation of the amount of displacement and the outer axial length of the globe was studied. The direction of displacement was also examined to clarify whether the eyeball tends to shift toward a certain direction. Seven patients with moderate myopia (moderate myopia group), fifteen patients with high myopia without esotropia (high myopia group), five patients with high myopia and esotropia (myopic esotropia group), and twenty-two controls (control group) were examined. Using magnetic resonance imaging, the outer axial length and the displacement of the posterior portion of the eyeball in the muscle cone were measured. In order to eliminate interindividual differences in the facial configuration, the coronal scanning was done perpendicularly to the orbital axis. The displacement was measured in a plane 4 mm anterior to the globe-optic nerve junction. The displacement was represented by the distance and direction of the globe center from the center of the muscle cone. In the moderate myopia group, there was no displacement of the posterior part of the eyeball in the muscle cone. It was the same as in the control group. But among the three groups, the displacement (mean standard deviation) was significantly greater in the myopic esotropia group (1.53 +/- 0.49 mm) and the high myopia group (0.94 +/- 0.52 mm) than in the control group (0.11 +/- 0.18 mm) (one way ANOVA and multiple comparison). The outer axial length and the distance of the displacement in all cases was significantly correlated (r = 0.87, p = 0.01). Moreover, the posterior part of the eyeball of the myopic esotropia group and the high myopia group was displaced superiorly and temporally. The posterior part of the eyeball of myopic eyes was displaced superotemporally in the muscle

  15. Quantification of the vocal folds’ dynamic displacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Socorro Hernández-Montes, María; Muñoz, Silvino; De La Torre, Manuel; Flores, Mauricio; Pérez, Carlos; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando

    2016-05-01

    Fast dynamic data acquisition techniques are required to investigate the motional behavior of the vocal folds (VFs) when they are subjected to a steady air-flow through the trachea. High-speed digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is a non-invasive full-field-of-view technique that has proved its usefulness to study rapid and non-repetitive object movements. Hence it is an ideal technique used here to measure VF displacements and vibration patterns at 2000 fps. Analyses from a set of 200 displacement images showed that VFs’ vibration cycles are established along their width (y) and length (x). Furthermore, the maximum deformation for the right and left VFs’ area may be quantified from these images, which in itself represents an important result in the characterization of this structure. At a controlled air pressure, VF displacements fall within the range ~100-1740 nm, with a calculated precision and accuracy that yields a variation coefficient of 1.91%. High-speed acquisition of full-field images of VFs and their displacement quantification are on their own significant data in the study of their functional and physiological behavior since voice quality and production depend on how they vibrate, i.e. their displacement amplitude and frequency. Additionally, the use of high speed DHI avoids prolonged examinations and represents a significant scientific and technological alternative contribution in advancing the knowledge and working mechanisms of these tissues.

  16. Lateral vibration analysis of continuous bridges utilizing equal displacement rule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Wei

    Full Text Available The application of equal displacement rule simplifies the evaluation of lateral displacement demand forSDOF system. For complex multi-degree-of-freedom (MDOF structures such as continuous bridge systems, however, it requires more investigations. In this paper, a comprehensive parametric study of the ratio of maximum inelastic displacement to maximum elastic displacement for typical continuous bridges is performedto advance the application of equal displacement rule to MDOF systems. Particurlarly for the bridges with long periods, this adapted methodlogy is further simplified. It is concluded that equal displacement rule of MDOF is applicable to continuous bridges when the periods of the main modes are no less than the limiting period, which usually serves as an indication to the level of inelastic deformation for a bridge subjected to an earthquake.

  17. Development of a High Precision Displacement Measurement System by Fusing a Low Cost RTK-GPS Sensor and a Force Feedback Accelerometer for Infrastructure Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Gunhee; Kim, Kiyoung; Chung, Jun Yeon; Choi, Jaemook; Kwon, Nam-Yeol; Kang, Doo-Young; Sohn, Hoon

    2017-11-28

    A displacement measurement system fusing a low cost real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS) receiver and a force feedback accelerometer is proposed for infrastructure monitoring. The proposed system is composed of a sensor module, a base module and a computation module. The sensor module consists of a RTK-GPS rover and a force feedback accelerometer, and is installed on a target structure like conventional RTK-GPS sensors. The base module is placed on a rigid ground away from the target structure similar to conventional RTK-GPS bases, and transmits observation messages to the sensor module. Then, the initial acceleration, velocity and displacement responses measured by the sensor module are transmitted to the computation module located at a central monitoring facility. Finally, high precision and high sampling rate displacement, velocity, and acceleration are estimated by fusing the acceleration from the accelerometer, the velocity from the GPS rover, and the displacement from RTK-GPS. Note that the proposed displacement measurement system can measure 3-axis acceleration, velocity as well as displacement in real time. In terms of displacement, the proposed measurement system can estimate dynamic and pseudo-static displacement with a root-mean-square error of 2 mm and a sampling rate of up to 100 Hz. The performance of the proposed system is validated under sinusoidal, random and steady-state vibrations. Field tests were performed on the Yeongjong Grand Bridge and Yi Sun-sin Bridge in Korea, and the Xihoumen Bridge in China to compare the performance of the proposed system with a commercial RTK-GPS sensor and other data fusion techniques.

  18. A framework for siting and dispatch of emerging energy resources to realize environmental and health benefits: Case study on peaker power plant displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, Elena M.; Casey, Joan A.; Shonkoff, Seth B.C.

    2016-01-01

    Emerging grid resources such as energy storage and demand response have the potential to provide numerous environmental and societal benefits, but are primarily sited and operated to provide grid-specific services without optimizing these co-benefits. We present a four-metric framework to identify priority regions to deploy and dispatch these technologies to displace marginal grid air emissions with high environmental and health impacts. To the standard metrics of total mass and rate of air pollutant emissions we add location and time, to prioritize emission displacement near densely populated areas with poor air quality, especially at times when air pollutant concentrations exceed regulatory standards. We illustrate our framework with a case study using storage, demand response, and other technologies to displace peaker power plants, the highest-rate marginal emitters on the California grid. We combine spatial-temporal data on plant electricity generation, air quality standard exceedance days, and population characteristics available from environmental justice screening tool CalEnviroScreen 2.0 to determine where emissions reductions may have the greatest marginal benefit. This screening approach can inform grid siting decisions, such as storage in lieu of peaker plants in high impact regions, or dispatch protocol, such as triggering demand response instead of peaker plants on poor air quality days. - Highlights: •We develop a health and environmental framework for siting clean energy resources. •Metrics include total mass, time, rate and location of displaced marginal emissions. •Emission displacement is prioritized near dense populations on poor air quality days. •We apply our framework to the displacement of peaker power plant generation in CA. •We identify optimal places and times to site and dispatch storage and demand response.

  19. Apparent Dependence of Rate- and State-Dependent Friction Parameters on Loading Velocity and Cumulative Displacement Inferred from Large-Scale Biaxial Friction Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Yumi; Yamashita, Futoshi; Fukuyama, Eiichi; Noda, Hiroyuki; Mizoguchi, Kazuo

    2017-06-01

    We investigated the constitutive parameters in the rate- and state-dependent friction (RSF) law by conducting numerical simulations, using the friction data from large-scale biaxial rock friction experiments for Indian metagabbro. The sliding surface area was 1.5 m long and 0.5 m wide, slid for 400 s under a normal stress of 1.33 MPa at a loading velocity of either 0.1 or 1.0 mm/s. During the experiments, many stick-slips were observed and those features were as follows. (1) The friction drop and recurrence time of the stick-slip events increased with cumulative slip displacement in an experiment before which the gouges on the surface were removed, but they became almost constant throughout an experiment conducted after several experiments without gouge removal. (2) The friction drop was larger and the recurrence time was shorter in the experiments with faster loading velocity. We applied a one-degree-of-freedom spring-slider model with mass to estimate the RSF parameters by fitting the stick-slip intervals and slip-weakening curves measured based on spring force and acceleration of the specimens. We developed an efficient algorithm for the numerical time integration, and we conducted forward modeling for evolution parameters ( b) and the state-evolution distances (L_{{c}}), keeping the direct effect parameter ( a) constant. We then identified the confident range of b and L_{{c}} values. Comparison between the results of the experiments and our simulations suggests that both b and L_{{c}} increase as the cumulative slip displacement increases, and b increases and L_{{c}} decreases as the loading velocity increases. Conventional RSF laws could not explain the large-scale friction data, and more complex state evolution laws are needed.

  20. Calculation of displacement and helium production at the Clinton P. Anderson Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) irradiation facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wechsler, M.S.; Davidson, D.R.; Greenwood, L.R.; Sommer, W.F.

    1984-01-01

    CT: Differential and total displacement and helium production rates are calculated for copper irradiated by spallation neutrons and 760 MeV protons at the Clinton P. Anderson Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF). The calculations are performed using the SPECTER and VNMTC computer codes, the latter being specially designed for spallation radiation damage calculations. For comparison, similar SPECTER calculations are also described for irradiation of copper in EBR-II and RTNS-II. The results indicate substantial contributions to the displacement and helium production rates due to neutrons in the high-energy tail (above 20 MeV) of the LAMPF spallation neutron spectrum. Still higher production rates are calculated for irradiations in the direct proton beam. These results will provide useful background information for research to be conducted at a new irradiation facility at LAMPF

  1. Large scale chromatographic separations using continuous displacement chromatography (CDC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taniguchi, V.T.; Doty, A.W.; Byers, C.H.

    1988-01-01

    A process for large scale chromatographic separations using a continuous chromatography technique is described. The process combines the advantages of large scale batch fixed column displacement chromatography with conventional analytical or elution continuous annular chromatography (CAC) to enable large scale displacement chromatography to be performed on a continuous basis (CDC). Such large scale, continuous displacement chromatography separations have not been reported in the literature. The process is demonstrated with the ion exchange separation of a binary lanthanide (Nd/Pr) mixture. The process is, however, applicable to any displacement chromatography separation that can be performed using conventional batch, fixed column chromatography

  2. Effect of excavation method on rock mass displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshinori; Kikuchi, Tadashi; Sugihara, Kozo

    1998-01-01

    Rock mass displacement measurements have been performed to understand rock mass behavior and its dependence on excavation method during drift excavation at the Tono mine. Rock mass displacements of 1.46 mm and 0.67 mm have been measured at one meter (0.33D: blasting, 0.42D: machine, D: width of drift) from the walls of drifts excavated by the drill and blasting method and machine, respectively. Numerical analysis of rock mass displacements with Finite Element Method has been performed assuming an excavation disturbed zone. Measured and analysed rock mass displacements are consistent with each other for the drift excavation by the drill and blasting method. The excavation disturbed zone was narrower for the drift excavated by machine than for the drift excavated by the drill and blasting method. (author)

  3. Pitot-probe displacement in a supersonic turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. M.

    1972-01-01

    Eight circular pitot probes ranging in size from 2 to 70 percent of the boundary-layer thickness were tested to provide experimental probe displacement results in a two-dimensional turbulent boundary layer at a nominal free-stream Mach number of 2 and unit Reynolds number of 8 million per meter. The displacement obtained in the study was larger than that reported by previous investigators in either an incompressible turbulent boundary layer or a supersonic laminar boundary layer. The large probes indicated distorted Mach number profiles, probably due to separation. When the probes were small enough to cause no appreciable distortion, the displacement was constant over most of the boundary layer. The displacement in the near-wall region decreased to negative displacement in some cases. This near-wall region was found to extend to about one probe diameter from the test surface.

  4. Miscible fluid displacement: an answer to increasing oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, N R; Rivera, R J

    1976-01-01

    This study presents the state of the art on miscible and miscible-type processes. It is well known that when these processes are applied under ideal laboratory conditions, the oil recovery obtained from linear cores approaches 100% of the total oil contained in the porous structure which is contacted by the displacing fluids. In the past few years, a worldwide shortage of crude oil supplies produced an increased interest in new oil recovery methods. Because of this situation, the oil industry turned its eyes back toward the miscible processes. This study discusses the following miscible fluid displacement processes: (1) high-pressure dry gas displacement; (2) enriched gas displacement; (3) GLP slug flooding; and (4) carbon dioxide displacement. In addition to the processes aforementioned, this work presents the main features of the micellar solution flooding process. (17 refs.)

  5. The impact of a minimum pension on old age poverty and its budgetary cost. Evidence from Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Jacques Dethier

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the impact on old age poverty and the fiscal cost of universal minimum oldage pensions in Latin America using recent household survey data for 18 countries. Alleviatingold age poverty requires different approach from other age groups and a minimum pension islikely to be the only alternative available. First we measure old age poverty rates for all countries.Second we discuss the design of minimum pensions schemes, means-tested or not, as wellas the disincentive effects that they are expected to have on the economic and social behavior ofhouseholds including labor supply, saving and family solidarity. Third we use the household surveysto simulate the fiscal cost and the impact on poverty rates of alternative minimum pensionschemes in the 18 countries. We show that a universal minimum pension would substantiallyreduce poverty among the elderly except in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Uruguay where minimumpension systems already exist and poverty rates are low. Such schemes have much tobe commended in terms of incentives, spillover effects and administrative simplicity but have ahigh fiscal cost. The latter is a function of the age at which benefits are awarded, the prevailinglongevity, the generosity of benefits, the efficacy of means testing, and naturally the fiscal capacityof the country.

  6. Histone displacement during nucleotide excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinant, C.; Bartek, J.; Bekker-Jensen, S.

    2012-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is an important DNA repair mechanism required for cellular resistance against UV light and toxic chemicals such as those found in tobacco smoke. In living cells, NER efficiently detects and removes DNA lesions within the large nuclear macromolecular complex called...... of histone variants and histone displacement (including nucleosome sliding). Here we review current knowledge, and speculate about current unknowns, regarding those chromatin remodeling activities that physically displace histones before, during and after NER....

  7. Evaluation of Low versus High Volume per Minute Displacement CO₂ Methods of Euthanasia in the Induction and Duration of Panic-Associated Behavior and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, Debra L; Fitz, Stephanie D; Bernabe, Cristian S; Caliman, Izabela F; Haulcomb, Melissa M; Federici, Lauren M; Shekhar, Anantha; Johnson, Philip L

    2016-08-02

    Current recommendations for the use of CO ₂ as a euthanasia agent for rats require the use of gradual fill protocols (such as 10% to 30% volume displacement per minute) in order to render the animal insensible prior to exposure to levels of CO ₂ that are associated with pain. However, exposing rats to CO ₂ , concentrations as low as 7% CO ₂ are reported to cause distress and 10%-20% CO ₂ induces panic-associated behavior and physiology, but loss of consciousness does not occur until CO ₂ concentrations are at least 40%. This suggests that the use of the currently recommended low flow volume per minute displacement rates create a situation where rats are exposed to concentrations of CO ₂ that induce anxiety, panic, and distress for prolonged periods of time. This study first characterized the response of male rats exposed to normoxic 20% CO ₂ for a prolonged period of time as compared to room air controls. It demonstrated that rats exposed to this experimental condition displayed clinical signs consistent with significantly increased panic-associated behavior and physiology during CO ₂ exposure. When atmospheric air was then again delivered, there was a robust increase in respiration rate that coincided with rats moving to the air intake. The rats exposed to CO ₂ also displayed behaviors consistent with increased anxiety in the behavioral testing that followed the exposure. Next, this study assessed the behavioral and physiologic responses of rats that were euthanized with 100% CO ₂ infused at 10%, 30%, or 100% volume per minute displacement rates. Analysis of the concentrations of CO ₂ and oxygen in the euthanasia chamber and the behavioral responses of the rats suggest that the use of the very low flow volume per minute displacement rate (10%) may prolong the duration of panicogenic ranges of ambient CO ₂ , while the use of the higher flow volume per minute displacement rate (100%) increases agitation. Therefore, of the volume

  8. Modeling of displacement damage in silicon carbide detectors resulting from neutron irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorsandi, Behrooz

    There is considerable interest in developing a power monitor system for Generation IV reactors (for instance GT-MHR). A new type of semiconductor radiation detector is under development based on silicon carbide (SiC) technology for these reactors. SiC has been selected as the semiconductor material due to its superior thermal-electrical-neutronic properties. Compared to Si, SiC is a radiation hard material; however, like Si, the properties of SiC are changed by irradiation by a large fluence of energetic neutrons, as a consequence of displacement damage, and that irradiation decreases the life-time of detectors. Predictions of displacement damage and the concomitant radiation effects are important for deciding where the SiC detectors should be placed. The purpose of this dissertation is to develop computer simulation methods to estimate the number of various defects created in SiC detectors, because of neutron irradiation, and predict at what positions of a reactor, SiC detectors could monitor the neutron flux with high reliability. The simulation modeling includes several well-known---and commercial---codes (MCNP5, TRIM, MARLOWE and VASP), and two kinetic Monte Carlo codes written by the author (MCASIC and DCRSIC). My dissertation will highlight the displacement damage that may happen in SiC detectors located in available positions in the OSURR, GT-MHR and IRIS. As extra modeling output data, the count rates of SiC for the specified locations are calculated. A conclusion of this thesis is SiC detectors that are placed in the thermal neutron region of a graphite moderator-reflector reactor have a chance to survive at least one reactor refueling cycle, while their count rates are acceptably high.

  9. Do minimum wages improve early life health? Evidence from developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Muhammad Farhan; Mendoza Rodríguez, José M; Harper, Sam; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit

    2016-06-01

    The impact of legislated minimum wages on the early-life health of children living in low and middle-income countries has not been examined. For our analyses, we used data from the Demographic and Household Surveys (DHS) from 57 countries conducted between 1999 and 2013. Our analyses focus on height-for-age z scores (HAZ) for children under 5 years of age who were surveyed as part of the DHS. To identify the causal effect of minimum wages, we utilized plausibly exogenous variation in the legislated minimum wages during each child's year of birth, the identifying assumption being that mothers do not time their births around changes in the minimum wage. As a sensitivity exercise, we also made within family comparisons (mother fixed effect models). Our final analysis on 49 countries reveal that a 1% increase in minimum wages was associated with 0.1% (95% CI = -0.2, 0) decrease in HAZ scores. Adverse effects of an increase in the minimum wage were observed among girls and for children of fathers who were less than 35 years old, mothers aged 20-29, parents who were married, parents who were less educated, and parents involved in manual work. We also explored heterogeneity by region and GDP per capita at baseline (1999). Adverse effects were concentrated in lower-income countries and were most pronounced in South Asia. By contrast, increases in the minimum wage improved children's HAZ in Latin America, and among children of parents working in a skilled sector. Our findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that increases in the minimum wage unconditionally improve child health in lower-income countries, and highlight heterogeneity in the impact of minimum wages around the globe. Future work should involve country and occupation specific studies which can explore not only different outcomes such as infant mortality rates, but also explore the role of parental investments in shaping these effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. SAR Interferometry and Precise Leveling for the Determination of Vertical Displacements in the Upper Rhine Graben Area, Southwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, T.; Schenk, A.; Westerhaus, M.; Zippelt, K.; Heck, B.

    2013-12-01

    The PS-InSAR (Persistent Scatterer SAR Interferometry) method and precise levelings provide a unique database to detect recent displacements of the Earth's surface. Data of both measurement techniques are analyzed at Geodetic Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, in order to gain detailed insight into the velocity field of the Upper Rhine Graben (URG). As central and most prominent segment of the European Cenozoic rift system, the seismically and tectonically active Rhine Graben is of steady geo-scientific interest. In the last decades, the URG is characterized by small tectonic movements (Switzerland over the last 100 years building a network of leveling lines. A kinematic network adjustment is applied on the leveling data, providing an accurate solution for vertical displacement rates with accuracies of 0.2 to 0.4 mm/a. The biggest disadvantage of the leveling database is the sparse spatial distribution of the measurement points. Therefore, PS-InSAR is used to significantly increase the number of points within the leveling loops. To obtain a high accuracy for line of sight displacement rates, ERS-1/2 and Envisat data from ascending and descending orbits covering a period from 1992 to 2000 and 2002 to 2010, resp., are processed using StaMPS (Stanford Method for Persistent Scatterers). As the tectonic displacements cover a large area, the separation of atmospheric effects and orbit errors plays an important role in the PS-InSAR processing chain. Besides the tectonic signal, man-induced surface displacements caused by oil extraction are investigated. A comparison between the estimates from leveling and InSAR provides detailed insight into the temporal and spatial characteristics of the surface displacement as well as into the possibilities and limits of the measurement techniques.

  11. Video Games, Adolescents, and the Displacement Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Carla Christine

    2012-01-01

    The displacement effect (the idea that time spent in one activity displaces time spent in other activities) was examined within the lens of adolescents' video game use and their time spent reading, doing homework, in physically active sports and activities, in creative play, and with parents and friends. Data were drawn from the Panel Study…

  12. Electron and positron contributions to the displacement per atom profile in bulk multi-walled carbon nanotube material irradiated with gamma rays; Aporte de electrones y positrones al perfil de desplazamientos atomicos en materiales masivos de nanotubos de carbono de paredes multiples irradiados con rayos gamma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyva Fabelo, Antonio; Pinnera Hernandez, Ibrahin; Leyva Pernia, Diana, E-mail: aleyva@ceaden.edu.cu [Centro de Aplicaciones Tecnologicas y Desarrollo Nuclear (CEADEN), La Habana (Cuba); others, and

    2013-07-01

    The electron and positron contributions to the effective atom displacement cross-section in multi-walled carbon nanotube bulk materials exposed to gamma rays were calculated. The physical properties and the displacement threshold energy value reported in literature for this material were taken into account. Then, using the mathematical simulation of photon and particle transport in matter, the electron and positron energy flux distributions within the irradiated object were also calculated. Finally, considering both results, the atom displacement damage profiles inside the analyzed bulk carbon nanotube material were determined. The individual contribution from each type of secondary particles generated by the photon interactions was specified. An increasing behavior of the displacement cross-sections for all the studied particles energy range was observed. The particles minimum kinetic energy values that make probabilistically possible the single and multiple atom displacement processes were determined. The positrons contribution importance to the total number of point defects generated during the interaction of gamma rays with the studied materials was confirmed.

  13. Overhead Transmission Lines Deicing under Different Incentive Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Overhead transmission line icing is one of the main factors affecting safety and reliability of power grid. This paper proposed an excitation deicing method of iced wire and theoretically revealed the ice removal mechanism under displacement excitation conditions, by taking the LGJ-70/10 glaze icing wire as the 3D model and analyzing and studying its dynamic response under the effect of displacement excitation. The simulation results show that the stress of wire icing area is enlarged with the increase of excitation displacement and frequency. Through the comparison of the compression strength experimental results on a series of different iced wires in low temperature environment, the authors found out that the stress generated from the wire icing area is greater than the crushing strength of the ice within the scope of the calculation parameters, which proved the validity and the feasibility of the method, and finally the suitable excitation displacement is determined. Following studies show that, as far as possible, it is necessary to reduce the incentive displacement and also to select the appropriate constraint length in order to avoid the line jumping that may be caused by large span ice shedding.

  14. Particle displacement tracking for PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wernet, Mark P.

    1990-01-01

    A new Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) data acquisition and analysis system, which is an order of magnitude faster than any previously proposed system has been constructed and tested. The new Particle Displacement Tracing (PDT) system is an all electronic technique employing a video camera and a large memory buffer frame-grabber board. Using a simple encoding scheme, a time sequence of single exposure images are time coded into a single image and then processed to track particle displacements and determine velocity vectors. Application of the PDT technique to a counter-rotating vortex flow produced over 1100 velocity vectors in 110 seconds when processed on an 80386 PC.

  15. Displacement of the posterior part of the eyeball in myopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akizawa, Yasuko; Ida, Masahiro

    2006-01-01

    The principal aim of this study was to investigate displacement of the posterior part of the eyeball within the muscle cone in myopic eyes, particularly in moderately myopic subjects as well as in high myopes. Secondly, the correlation of the amount of displacement and the outer axial length of the globe was studied. The direction of displacement was also examined to clarify whether the eyeball tends to shift toward a certain direction. Seven patients with moderate myopia (moderate myopia group), fifteen patients with high myopia without esotropia (high myopia group), five patients with high myopia and esotropia (myopic esotropia group), and twenty-two controls (control group) were examined. Using magnetic resonance imaging, the outer axial length and the displacement of the posterior portion of the eyeball in the muscle cone were measured. In order to eliminate interindividual differences in the facial configuration, the coronal scanning was done perpendicularly to the orbital axis. The displacement was measured in a plane 4 mm anterior to the globe-optic nerve junction. The displacement was represented by the distance and direction of the globe center from the center of the muscle cone. In the moderate myopia group, there was no displacement of the posterior part of the eyeball in the muscle cone. It was the same as in the control group. But among the three groups, the displacement (mean±standard deviation) was significantly greater in the myopic esotropia group (1.53±0.49 mm) and the high myopia group (0.94±0.52 mm) than in the control group (0.11±0.18 mm) (one way ANOVA and multiple comparison). The outer axial length and the distance of the displacement in all cases was significantly correlated (r=0.87, p=0.01). Moreover, the posterior part of the eyeball of the myopic esotropia group and the high myopia group was displaced superiorly and temporally. The posterior part of the eyeball of myopic eyes was displaced superotemporally in the muscle cone

  16. Social phobia among long-term internally displaced persons: An epidemiological study of adults in two internally displaced person settlements in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salah, Tarig Taha Mohamed; Ayazi, Touraj; Lien, Lars; Eide, Arne; Hauff, Edvard

    2015-09-01

    Despite the high worldwide prevalence and association with other mental disorders and disability, only few studies are available on social phobia in low-income countries. This study aims to assess the prevalence, socio-demographic correlates and comorbidity of social phobia and its association with disability among long-term internally displaced persons (IDPs) in one urban and one rural area in Central Sudan. This cross-sectional study was implemented in two IDP areas in Central Sudan. Data were collected during face-to-face interviews using structured questionnaires to assess socio-demographic factors and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) to determine psychiatric diagnoses. A total of 1,876 adults were enrolled from both study areas. The overall lifetime prevalence of social phobia was 14.2%, with higher rates among IDPs in the rural area and among those who were less educated. Social phobia was associated with other mental disorders in both study areas. Disability and prolonged displacement increased the risk of having social phobia in the rural area. Further work needs to be done to improve our understanding and to establish proper interventions in dealing with social phobia, other common mental disorders and disability among long-term IDPs in these impoverished areas. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. The Banality of Displacement: Turning a (ColourBlind Eye on the Ethnic Representation of the Internally Displaced in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Oslender

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has one of the highest numbers of internally displaced persons, or IDPs, world-wide. Yet, there exists a conundrum. While latest NGO figures put the total number of IDPs since 1985 at 4 million, Colombian government figures show much lower estimates of 1.9 million. In fact, there are significant discrepancies in the ways how IDPs are identified, counted and categorised. Moreover, whereas it is now commonly argued that displacement has affected black populations proportionately higher than mestizo populations, no data exists to sustain such a view. The displaced population has simply not been accounted for in terms of its ethnic composition. In this article, drawing on Hannah Arendt’s work on terror and evil, I propose the notion of the “banality of displacement” to explain such a colour-blind approach in the discourses and representation of displacement in Colombia. I will refer in particular to the case of the Afro-Colombian population, drawing on fieldwork data collected since 1996, when I begun to work with the social movement of black communities in Colombia

  18. Quantification of the vocal folds’ dynamic displacements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernández-Montes, María del Socorro; Muñoz, Silvino; De La Torre, Manuel; Flores, Mauricio; Pérez, Carlos; Mendoza-Santoyo, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Fast dynamic data acquisition techniques are required to investigate the motional behavior of the vocal folds (VFs) when they are subjected to a steady air-flow through the trachea. High-speed digital holographic interferometry (DHI) is a non-invasive full-field-of-view technique that has proved its usefulness to study rapid and non-repetitive object movements. Hence it is an ideal technique used here to measure VF displacements and vibration patterns at 2000 fps. Analyses from a set of 200 displacement images showed that VFs’ vibration cycles are established along their width (y) and length (x). Furthermore, the maximum deformation for the right and left VFs’ area may be quantified from these images, which in itself represents an important result in the characterization of this structure. At a controlled air pressure, VF displacements fall within the range ∼100–1740 nm, with a calculated precision and accuracy that yields a variation coefficient of 1.91%. High-speed acquisition of full-field images of VFs and their displacement quantification are on their own significant data in the study of their functional and physiological behavior since voice quality and production depend on how they vibrate, i.e. their displacement amplitude and frequency. Additionally, the use of high speed DHI avoids prolonged examinations and represents a significant scientific and technological alternative contribution in advancing the knowledge and working mechanisms of these tissues. (paper)

  19. 29 CFR 510.10 - Table of wage rates and effective dates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Schedule of Minimum Wage Rates Applicable in Puerto Rico § 510.10 Table of wage rates and effective dates. (a) The following table provides effective dates of minimum wage increases...

  20. Flow measurements using noise signals of axially displaced thermocouples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozma, R.; Hoogenboom, J.E. (Interuniversitair Reactor Inst., Delft (Netherlands))

    1990-01-01

    Determination of the flow rate of the coolant in the cooling channels of nuclear reactors is an important aspect of core monitoring. It is usually impossible to measure the flow by flowmeters in the individual channels due to the lack of space and safety reasons. An alternative method is based on the analysis of noise signals of the available in-core detectors. In such a noise method, a transit time which characterises the propagation of thermohydraulic fluctuations (density or temperature fluctuations) in the coolant is determined from the correlation between the noise signals of axially displaced detectors. In this paper, the results of flow measurements using axially displaced thermocouples in the channel wall will be presented. The experiments have been performed in a simulated MRT-type fuel assembly located in the research reactor HOR of the Interfaculty Reactor Institute, Delft. It was found that the velocities obtained via temperature noise correlation methods are significantly larger than the area-averaged velocity in the single-phase coolant flow. Model calculations show that the observed phenomenon can be explained by effects due to the radial velocity distribution in the channel. (author).

  1. Minimum income protection in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Peijpe, T.

    2009-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the Dutch legal system of minimum income protection through collective bargaining, social security, and statutory minimum wages. In addition to collective agreements, the Dutch statutory minimum wage offers income protection to a small number of workers. Its

  2. The effect of multi-component adsorption on selectivity in ion exchange displacement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugcu, N; Cramer, S M

    2005-01-21

    This paper examines chemically selective displacement chromatography using affinity ranking plots, batch displacer screening experiments, column displacements, multi-component adsorption isotherms and spectroscopy. The affinity ranking plot indicated that the displacers, sucrose octasulfate (SOS) and tatrazine, should possess sufficient affinity to displace the proteins amyloglucosidase and apoferritin over a wide range of operating conditions. In addition, the plots indicated that the separation of these proteins by displacement chromatography would be extremely difficult. Further, the two proteins were shown to have very similar retention times under shallow linear gradient conditions. When batch displacement experiments were carried out, both tartrazine and SOS exhibited significant selectivity differences with respect to their ability to displace these two proteins, in contrast to the affinity ranking plot results. Column displacement experiments carried out with sucrose octasulfate agreed with the predictions of the affinity ranking plots, with both proteins being displaced but poorly resolved under several column displacement conditions. On the other hand, column displacement with tartrazine as the displacer resulted in the selective displacement and partial purification of apoferritin. Single- and multi-component isotherms of the proteins with or without the presence of displacers were determined and were used to help explain the selectivity reversals observed in the column and batch displacement experiments. In addition, fluorescence and CD spectra suggested that the displacers did not induce any structural changes to either of the proteins. The results in this paper indicate that multi-component adsorption behavior can be exploited for creating chemically selective displacement separations.

  3. Earthquake damage to underground facilities and earthquake related displacement fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pratt, H.R.; Stephenson, D.E.; Zandt, G.; Bouchon, M.; Hustrulid, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    The potential seismic risk for an underground facility is considered in the evaluation of its location and design. The possible damage resulting from either large-scale displacements or high accelerations should be considered in evaluating potential sites of underground facilities. Scattered through the available literature are statements to the effect that below a few hundred meters shaking and damage in mines is less than at the surface; however, data for decreased damage underground have not been completely reported or explained. In order to assess the seismic risk for an underground facility, a data base was established and analyzed to evaluate the potential for seismic disturbance. Substantial damage to underground facilities is usually the result of displacements primarily along pre-existing faults and fractures, or at the surface entrance to these facilities. Evidence of this comes from both earthquakes as a function of depth is important in the evaluation of the hazard to underground facilities. To evaluate potential displacements due to seismic effects of block motions along pre-existing or induced fractures, the displacement fields surrounding two types of faults were investigated. Analytical models were used to determine relative displacements of shafts and near-surface displacement of large rock masses. Numerical methods were used to determine the displacement fields associated with pure strike-slip and vertical normal faults. Results are presented as displacements for various fault lengths as a function of depth and distance. This provides input to determine potential displacements in terms of depth and distance for underground facilities, important for assessing potential sites and design parameters

  4. Studying Landslide Displacements in Megamendung (Indonesia Using GPS Survey Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasanuddin Z. Abidin

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Landslide is one of prominent geohazards that frequently affects Indonesia, especially in the rainy season. It destroys not only environment and property, but usually also causes deaths. Landslide monitoring is therefore very crucial and should be continuously done. One of the methods that can have a contribution in studying landslide phenomena is repeated GPS survey method. This paper presents and discusses the operational performances, constraints and results of GPS surveys conducted in a well known landslide prone area in West Java (Indonesia, namely Megamendung, the hilly region close to Bogor. Three GPS surveys involving 8 GPS points have been conducted, namely on April 2002, May 2003 and May 2004, respectively. The estimated landslide displacements in the area are relatively quite large in the level of a few dm to a few m. Displacements up to about 2-3 m were detected in the April 2002 to May 2003 period, and up to about 3-4 dm in the May 2003 to May 2004 period. In both periods, landslides in general show the northwest direction of displacements. Displacements vary both spatially and temporally. This study also suggested that in order to conclude the existence of real and significant displacements of GPS points, the GPS estimated displacements should be subjected to three types of testing namely: the congruency test on spatial displacements, testing on the agreement between the horizontal distance changes with the predicted direction of landslide displacement, and testing on the consistency of displacement directions on two consecutive periods.

  5. Surface displacement imaging by interferometry with a light emitting diode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilhaire, Stefan; Grauby, Stephane; Jorez, Sebastien; Lopez, Luis David Patino; Rampnoux, Jean-Michel; Claeys, Wilfrid

    2002-01-01

    We present an imaging technique to measure static surface displacements of electronic components. A device is supplied by a transient current that creates a variation of temperature, thus a surface displacement. To measure the latter, a setup that is based on a Michelson interferometer is used. To avoid the phenomenon of speckle and the drawbacks inherent to it, we use a light emitting diode as the light source for the interferometer. The detector is a visible CCD camera that analyzes the optical signal containing the information of surface displacement of the device. Combining images, we extract the amplitude of the surface displacement. Out-of-plane surface-displacement images of a thermoelectric device are presented

  6. Marginal greenhouse gas emissions displacement of wind power in Great Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomson, R. Camilla; Harrison, Gareth P.; Chick, John P.

    2017-01-01

    There is considerable uncertainty over the effect of wind power on the operation of power systems, and the consequent greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions displacement; this is used to project emissions reductions that inform energy policy. Currently, it is approximated as the average emissions of the whole system, despite an acknowledgement that wind will actually displace only the generators operating on the margin. This article presents a methodology to isolate the marginal emissions displacement of wind power from historical empirical data, taking into account the impact on the operating efficiency of coal and CCGT plants. For Great Britain over 2009–2014, it was found that marginal emissions displacement has generally been underestimated with, for example, the emissions displacement factor for wind being 21% higher than that the average emissions factor in 2010. The actual displacement depends upon the relative merit of coal and CCGT, with a greater discrepancy between marginal displacement and average emissions during more normal system operation, suggesting that policies to penalise high-carbon generation can increase the effectiveness of wind at reducing GHG emissions. Furthermore, it was also identified that wind power is almost as technically effective as demand-side reductions at decreasing GHG emissions from power generation. - Highlights: • Marginal emissions displacement was calculated from operational data for 2009–2014. • Existing estimates of emissions displacement are generally low. • Emissions displacement is a function of the relative merit of coal and CCGT plants. • Policies to penalise high-carbon generation should increase emissions displacement. • Wind almost as effective as demand-reduction at reducing emissions.

  7. Protected DNA strand displacement for enhanced single nucleotide discrimination in double-stranded DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodakov, Dmitriy A; Khodakova, Anastasia S; Huang, David M; Linacre, Adrian; Ellis, Amanda V

    2015-03-04

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are a prime source of genetic diversity. Discriminating between different SNPs provides an enormous leap towards the better understanding of the uniqueness of biological systems. Here we report on a new approach for SNP discrimination using toehold-mediated DNA strand displacement. The distinctiveness of the approach is based on the combination of both 3- and 4-way branch migration mechanisms, which allows for reliable discrimination of SNPs within double-stranded DNA generated from real-life human mitochondrial DNA samples. Aside from the potential diagnostic value, the current study represents an additional way to control the strand displacement reaction rate without altering other reaction parameters and provides new insights into the influence of single nucleotide substitutions on 3- and 4-way branch migration efficiency and kinetics.

  8. Double jeopardy: assessing the association between internal displacement, housing quality and chronic illness in a low-income neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Rima R; Yassin, Nasser; Ghanawi, Joly; Haddad, Pascale; Mahfoud, Ziyad

    2011-04-01

    PURPOSE: This study analyzed associations between war-related internal displacement, housing quality and the prevalence of chronic illness in Nabaa, a low-income neighborhood on the outskirts of Beirut, Lebanon. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of sociodemographics, household characteristics and health conditions of the study population was carried out in 2002. Using a structured questionnaire, the research team surveyed 1,151 households representing 4,987 residents of all ages. The survey was administered to a proxy respondent from each household in face-to-face interviews. A multiple logistic regression model using the generalized estimation equation method was constructed to assess the simultaneous effect of displacement and housing quality on reported ill health, while adjusting for potential confounders. RESULTS: Housing quality and internal displacement were strongly associated with occurrences of chronic illness. The most vulnerable respondents were older residents, females and internally displaced people, who reported high rates of chronic illnesses. Residents with high levels of education were less likely to report a chronic illness than those that had elementary education or less. CONCLUSION: Nabaa residents' experience of poor health was associated with inadequate housing quality. Moreover, residents who have been displaced experience worse living conditions and were more likely to experience poor health than those who were not displaced. These results reveal a need for policies to improve housing quality and alleviate war-related consequences in low-income neighborhoods.

  9. Development of a High Precision Displacement Measurement System by Fusing a Low Cost RTK-GPS Sensor and a Force Feedback Accelerometer for Infrastructure Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunhee Koo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A displacement measurement system fusing a low cost real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS receiver and a force feedback accelerometer is proposed for infrastructure monitoring. The proposed system is composed of a sensor module, a base module and a computation module. The sensor module consists of a RTK-GPS rover and a force feedback accelerometer, and is installed on a target structure like conventional RTK-GPS sensors. The base module is placed on a rigid ground away from the target structure similar to conventional RTK-GPS bases, and transmits observation messages to the sensor module. Then, the initial acceleration, velocity and displacement responses measured by the sensor module are transmitted to the computation module located at a central monitoring facility. Finally, high precision and high sampling rate displacement, velocity, and acceleration are estimated by fusing the acceleration from the accelerometer, the velocity from the GPS rover, and the displacement from RTK-GPS. Note that the proposed displacement measurement system can measure 3-axis acceleration, velocity as well as displacement in real time. In terms of displacement, the proposed measurement system can estimate dynamic and pseudo-static displacement with a root-mean-square error of 2 mm and a sampling rate of up to 100 Hz. The performance of the proposed system is validated under sinusoidal, random and steady-state vibrations. Field tests were performed on the Yeongjong Grand Bridge and Yi Sun-sin Bridge in Korea, and the Xihoumen Bridge in China to compare the performance of the proposed system with a commercial RTK-GPS sensor and other data fusion techniques.

  10. [Management of disk displacement with condylar fracture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shi-bin; Li, Zu-bing; Yang, Xue-wen; Zhao, Ji-hong; Dong, Yao-jun

    2003-07-01

    To investigate clinical features of disk displacement during the course of condylar fracture and to explore the techniques of disk reposition and suturation. 32 patients (10 females and 22 males) who had disk displacements with condylar fractures were followed up. Reduction and reposition of the dislocated disks simultaneously with fixation of fractures were performed. 7 patients underwent intermaxillary fixation with elastic bands for 1 to 2 weeks. The occlusions were satisfactory in all cases but one for the reason of ramus height loss. No TMJ symptom was found when examined 3 months post operation. Anterior disk displacements were most occurred with high condylar process fractures. Surgical reposition and suturation of disk play an important role for the later TMJ-function.

  11. Monitoring of pipe displacements in French LMFBR SUPERPHENIX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foucher, N.; Debaene, J.P.; Renault, Y.; Blin, B.

    1993-01-01

    In order to check that pipe supports work properly and that the locking of snubbers or the loss of supports do not put a pipe in unacceptable loading conditions, a monitoring of the behaviour of the main pipes of SUPERPHENIX is planned. This monitoring system consists in measuring the displacements at selected points of the pipe by means of measuring rods and checking that these displacements remain inside allowable domains. These allowable domains are defined so that, if the displacements of the pipe are inside all these domains, the plant operator is sure that the stresses verify the allowable limits and then no additional inspection is carried out. In the opposite case, the operator will inspect the pipe in detail in order to determine the consequences and repair if necessary before restarting. Selection of points for monitoring was done with the to minimize the number of measures to be carried out and to use as far as possible the measuring rods that were installed to check that pipe displacements were consistent with what has been obtained in design calculations. However, it appears necessary to ensure that any incident occurring at any point of the pipe can be detected and, if necessary, additional measuring rods may be installed. An incident is said detectable if it induces on at least one measuring rod a deviation with respect to expected displacement not lower than 5 mm. It has been chosen so that small normal changes in measured displacements are not mistaken as incidents. The incidents that are supposed likely to occur are: 1) loss of a support which induces mainly primary stresses, 2) locking of a snubber which induces mainly secondary stresses. Monitoring of pipe displacements is a simple and effective way of checking that no damaging perturbation has occurred on the pipe. Calculations carried out on the DHR loops of SUPERPHENIX show that allowable domains of acceptable size may be obtained using a relatively small number of measuring rods. The method

  12. Hypnosis control based on the minimum concentration of anesthetic drug for maintaining appropriate hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furutani, Eiko; Nishigaki, Yuki; Kanda, Chiaki; Takeda, Toshihiro; Shirakami, Gotaro

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel hypnosis control method using Auditory Evoked Potential Index (aepEX) as a hypnosis index. In order to avoid side effects of an anesthetic drug, it is desirable to reduce the amount of an anesthetic drug during surgery. For this purpose many studies of hypnosis control systems have been done. Most of them use Bispectral Index (BIS), another hypnosis index, but it has problems of dependence on anesthetic drugs and nonsmooth change near some particular values. On the other hand, aepEX has an ability of clear distinction between patient consciousness and unconsciousness and independence of anesthetic drugs. The control method proposed in this paper consists of two elements: estimating the minimum effect-site concentration for maintaining appropriate hypnosis and adjusting infusion rate of an anesthetic drug, propofol, using model predictive control. The minimum effect-site concentration is estimated utilizing the property of aepEX pharmacodynamics. The infusion rate of propofol is adjusted so that effect-site concentration of propofol may be kept near and always above the minimum effect-site concentration. Simulation results of hypnosis control using the proposed method show that the minimum concentration can be estimated appropriately and that the proposed control method can maintain hypnosis adequately and reduce the total infusion amount of propofol.

  13. Sieve-based lateral displacement technology for suspension separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.P.; Wagterveld, R.M.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2017-01-01

    Sparse lateral displacement arrays are easier to scale up than full deterministic lateral displacement arrays or deterministic ratchets, because they require lower pressure drop and simplify the construction of the device. However, the asymmetry of sparse arrays leads to a non-homogeneous pressure

  14. 100 group displacement cross sections from RECOIL data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.

    1995-01-01

    Displacement cross sections in 100 neutron energy groups were calculated from the RECOIL data base using the RECOIL program, for use in DPA (Displacement Per Atom) calculations for FBTR and PFBR materials. 100 group displacement cross sections were calculated using RECOIL-Data Base and RECOIL Program. Modifications were made in the data base to reduce space requirement, and in the program for easy handling on a PC. 2 refs

  15. MRI anatomy of anteriorly displaced anus: what obstructs defecation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbouZeid, Amr Abdelhamid; Mohammad, Shaimaa Abdelsattar; Khairy, Khaled Talaat

    2014-01-01

    Anteriorly displaced anus is an anomaly that is debated with regard to its nomenclature, diagnosis and management. To describe MRI anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus and its impact on the process of defecation. We prospectively examined ten children (7 girls, 3 boys; age range 7 months to 8 years, mean 3 years) with anteriorly displaced anus between August 2009 and April 2012. Noncontrast MRI examinations were performed on a 1.5-T magnet. T1- and T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images were acquired in axial, sagittal and coronal planes of the pelvis. The anorectal angle and the relative hiatal distance were measured in mid-sagittal images, and compared with those of a control group using the Mann-Whitney test. In children with anteriorly displaced anus, no anatomical abnormality was depicted at the level of the proximal anal canal. However, the distal anal canal was displaced anteriorly, running out its external muscle cuff, which remained un-displaced at the usual site of the anus. This changes the orientation of the central axis of the anal canal by passing across instead of along the fibers of the longitudinal muscle coat. Children with anteriorly displaced anus had a more obtuse anorectal angle (mean 112.1 ), which was significantly greater than that of the control group (mean 86.2 ). MRI is a valuable tool in studying the anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus. The abnormal orientation of the longitudinal muscle across the anal canal can explain the obstructed defecation in these children. Based on this study, it might be of interest to use MRI in studying equivocal cases and children with unexplained constipation. (orig.)

  16. MRI anatomy of anteriorly displaced anus: what obstructs defecation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AbouZeid, Amr Abdelhamid [Ain-Shams University, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Cairo (Egypt); Mohammad, Shaimaa Abdelsattar; Khairy, Khaled Talaat [Ain-Shams University, Department of Radiodiagnosis, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-07-15

    Anteriorly displaced anus is an anomaly that is debated with regard to its nomenclature, diagnosis and management. To describe MRI anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus and its impact on the process of defecation. We prospectively examined ten children (7 girls, 3 boys; age range 7 months to 8 years, mean 3 years) with anteriorly displaced anus between August 2009 and April 2012. Noncontrast MRI examinations were performed on a 1.5-T magnet. T1- and T2-weighted turbo spin-echo images were acquired in axial, sagittal and coronal planes of the pelvis. The anorectal angle and the relative hiatal distance were measured in mid-sagittal images, and compared with those of a control group using the Mann-Whitney test. In children with anteriorly displaced anus, no anatomical abnormality was depicted at the level of the proximal anal canal. However, the distal anal canal was displaced anteriorly, running out its external muscle cuff, which remained un-displaced at the usual site of the anus. This changes the orientation of the central axis of the anal canal by passing across instead of along the fibers of the longitudinal muscle coat. Children with anteriorly displaced anus had a more obtuse anorectal angle (mean 112.1 ), which was significantly greater than that of the control group (mean 86.2 ). MRI is a valuable tool in studying the anatomy of the anal canal in children with anteriorly displaced anus. The abnormal orientation of the longitudinal muscle across the anal canal can explain the obstructed defecation in these children. Based on this study, it might be of interest to use MRI in studying equivocal cases and children with unexplained constipation. (orig.)

  17. Minimum wage effects on employment and school enrollment: reply to Evans and Turner

    OpenAIRE

    David Neumark; William L. Wascher

    1996-01-01

    In earlier work, we presented results suggesting that minimum wage increases have important consequences for both the employment opportunities of youths and their decision to enroll in school. In this paper, we show that the recent claim made by William Evans and Mark Turner that our results are sensitive to changes in the definition of the enrollment rate is based upon an analysis that uses a mismeasured minimum wage index. When the data are constructed properly, our original conclusions are...

  18. Rate based failure detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Brett Emery Trabun; Gamage, Thoshitha Thanushka; Bakken, David Edward

    2018-01-02

    This disclosure describes, in part, a system management component and failure detection component for use in a power grid data network to identify anomalies within the network and systematically adjust the quality of service of data published by publishers and subscribed to by subscribers within the network. In one implementation, subscribers may identify a desired data rate, a minimum acceptable data rate, desired latency, minimum acceptable latency and a priority for each subscription. The failure detection component may identify an anomaly within the network and a source of the anomaly. Based on the identified anomaly, data rates and or data paths may be adjusted in real-time to ensure that the power grid data network does not become overloaded and/or fail.

  19. Performance of displacement ventilation in practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naidenov, K.; Pitchurov, G.; Langkilde, Gunnar

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents results of a field study in offices with displacement ventilation. It comprises detailed physical measurements of the thermal environment and collection of occupants´ response at 227 workplaces. The results, both physical measurements and human response, identified draught...... as the major local discomfort in the rooms with displacement ventilation. Twenty-three percent of the occupants were daily bothered by draught. In some buildings the maintenance personnel tried to improve occupants´ thermal comfort by raising the supply air temperature or office workers themselves blocked...

  20. How do minimum cigarette price laws affect cigarette prices at the retail level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feighery, E C; Ribisl, K M; Schleicher, N C; Zellers, L; Wellington, N

    2005-04-01

    Half of US states have minimum cigarette price laws that were originally passed to protect small independent retailers from unfair price competition with larger retailers. These laws prohibit cigarettes from being sold below a minimum price that is set by a formula. Many of these laws allow cigarette company promotional incentives offered to retailers, such as buydowns and master-type programmes, to be calculated into the formula. Allowing this provision has the potential to lower the allowable minimum price. This study assesses whether stores in states with minimum price laws have higher cigarette prices and lower rates of retailer participation in cigarette company promotional incentive programmes. Retail cigarette prices and retailer participation in cigarette company incentive programmes in 2001 were compared in eight states with minimum price laws and seven states without them. New York State had the most stringent minimum price law at the time of the study because it excluded promotional incentive programmes in its price setting formula; cigarette prices in New York were compared to all other states included in the study. Cigarette prices were not significantly different in our sample of US states with and without cigarette minimum price laws. Cigarette prices were significantly higher in New York stores than in the 14 other states combined. Most existing minimum cigarette price laws appear to have little impact on the retail price of cigarettes. This may be because they allow the use of promotional programmes, which are used by manufacturers to reduce cigarette prices. New York's strategy to disallow these types of incentive programmes may result in higher minimum cigarette prices, and should also be explored as a potential policy strategy to control cigarette company marketing practices in stores. Strict cigarette minimum price laws may have the potential to reduce cigarette consumption by decreasing demand through increased cigarette prices and reduced

  1. Internal displacement and the Syrian crisis: an analysis of trends from 2011-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Lyles, Emily; Delbiso, Tefera D; Robinson, Courtland W

    2015-01-01

    Since the start of the Syrian crisis in 2011, civil unrest and armed conflict in the country have resulted in a rapidly increasing number of people displaced both within and outside of Syria. Those displaced face immense challenges in meeting their basic needs. This study sought to characterize internal displacement in Syria, including trends in both time and place, and to provide insights on the association between displacement and selected measures of household well-being and humanitarian needs. This study presents findings from two complementary methods: a desk review of displaced population estimates and movements and a needs assessment of 3930 Syrian households affected by the crisis. The first method, a desk review of displaced population estimates and movements, provides a retrospective analysis of national trends in displacement from March 2011 through June 2014. The second method, analysis of findings from a 2014 needs assessment by displacement status, provides insight into the displaced population and the association between displacement and humanitarian needs. Findings indicate that while displacement often corresponds to conflict levels, such trends were not uniformly observed in governorate-level analysis. Governorate level IDP estimates do not provide information on a scale detailed enough to adequately plan humanitarian assistance. Furthermore, such estimates are often influenced by obstructed access to certain areas, unsubstantiated reports, and substantial discrepancies in reporting. Secondary displacement is not consistently reported across sources nor are additional details about displacement, including whether displaced individuals originated within the current governorate or outside of the governorate. More than half (56.4 %) of households reported being displaced more than once, with a majority displaced for more than one year (73.3 %). Some differences between displaced and non-displaced population were observed in residence crowding, food

  2. Evaluation of Low versus High Volume per Minute Displacement CO2 Methods of Euthanasia in the Induction and Duration of Panic-Associated Behavior and Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debra L. Hickman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Current recommendations for the use of CO 2 as a euthanasia agent for rats require the use of gradual fill protocols (such as 10% to 30% volume displacement per minute in order to render the animal insensible prior to exposure to levels of CO 2 that are associated with pain. However, exposing rats to CO 2 , concentrations as low as 7% CO 2 are reported to cause distress and 10%–20% CO 2 induces panic-associated behavior and physiology, but loss of consciousness does not occur until CO 2 concentrations are at least 40%. This suggests that the use of the currently recommended low flow volume per minute displacement rates create a situation where rats are exposed to concentrations of CO 2 that induce anxiety, panic, and distress for prolonged periods of time. This study first characterized the response of male rats exposed to normoxic 20% CO 2 for a prolonged period of time as compared to room air controls. It demonstrated that rats exposed to this experimental condition displayed clinical signs consistent with significantly increased panic-associated behavior and physiology during CO 2 exposure. When atmospheric air was then again delivered, there was a robust increase in respiration rate that coincided with rats moving to the air intake. The rats exposed to CO 2 also displayed behaviors consistent with increased anxiety in the behavioral testing that followed the exposure. Next, this study assessed the behavioral and physiologic responses of rats that were euthanized with 100% CO 2 infused at 10%, 30%, or 100% volume per minute displacement rates. Analysis of the concentrations of CO 2 and oxygen in the euthanasia chamber and the behavioral responses of the rats suggest that the use of the very low flow volume per minute displacement rate (10% may prolong the duration of panicogenic ranges of ambient CO 2 , while the use of the higher flow volume per minute displacement rate (100% increases agitation. Therefore, of the volume displacement per

  3. Two interceptive approaches to palatally displaced canines: a prospective longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonardi, Maria; Armi, Pamela; Franchi, Lorenzo; Baccetti, Tiziano

    2004-10-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of two interceptive approaches to palatally displaced canines (PDCs), ie, extraction of the deciduous canines alone and in association with the use of a cervical pull headgear. The prospective longitudinal design of the investigation included 46 subjects with PDC (62 maxillary canines) who were randomly assigned to one of three groups (1) a group that underwent the extraction of the deciduous canine only, (2) a group that received in addition the use of a cervical pull headgear, and (3) an untreated control group. Panoramic radiographs were evaluated at initial observation (T1) and after an average period of 18 months (T2). Cervical vertebral maturation was assessed on lateral cephalograms at T1. Successful or unsuccessful canine eruption was assessed 48 months after T1. The between-group statistical comparisons were performed on the T1-T2 changes in the diagnostic parameters on panoramic radiographs, the prevalence rates of successful canine eruption, and the amount of time for canine eruption. The removal of the deciduous canine as an isolated measure to intercept palatal displacement of maxillary canines showed a prevalence rate of 50% success, which was not significantly greater than the success rate in untreated controls. The use of a headgear in addition to the extraction of the deciduous canine induced successful eruption in 80% of the cases, with a significant improvement in the measures for intraosseous canine position. There was no significant difference between the two interceptive approaches in the time required for canine eruption.

  4. Expansion of a function about a displaced centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, M.A.

    1981-07-01

    We review the progress recently made in obtaining closed form expressions for the expansion of general orbitals about a displaced centre and establish the equivalence between different expansions. We also examine how these expressions do have the desired limit as the displacement approaches zero. (author)

  5. Nanomechanical displacement sensing using a quantum point contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleland, A.N.; Aldridge, J.S.; Driscoll, D.C.; Gossard, A. C.

    2002-01-01

    We describe a radio frequency mechanical resonator that includes a quantum point contact, defined using electrostatic top gates. We can mechanically actuate the resonator using either electrostatic or magnetomotive forces. We demonstrate the use of the quantum point contact as a displacement sensor, operating as a radio frequency mixer at the mechanical resonance frequency of 1.5 MHz. We calculate a displacement sensitivity of about 3x10 -12 m/Hz 1/2 . This device will potentially permit quantum-limited displacement sensing of nanometer-scale resonators, allowing the quantum entanglement of the electronic and mechanical degrees of freedom of a nanoscale system

  6. Contact-type displacement measuring mechanism for fuel assembly in reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Yoshio; Ko, Kuniaki.

    1995-01-01

    The measuring mechanism of the present invention, which is used in a lmfbr type reactor, is suspended by a gripper of a fuel handing machine, and it comprises a combination of a displacement amount measuring jig allowed to be inserted into a handling head of a fuel assembly and a displacement amount measuring ring disposed at the lower portion in the handling head. The displacement amount measuring jig has a structure comprising a releasable handle and a columnar or cylindrical measuring portion allowable to be inserted into the handling head formed at the lower portion of the handle, which are connected with each other. When an interference (contact) occurred between the displacement amount measuring jig and the stepwise displacement amount measuring ring during the measurement, change of load and a phenomenon that the fuel handing machine can not be lowered are recognized, so that core displacement amount can be recognized based on the stroke of the gripper portion. Then, remote measurement is possible for displacement and deformation of the fuel assembly in the reactor container, and the measurement can be conducted by the same procedures and in the same period of time as in a case of ordinary fuel exchange operation. A flow channel for coolants passing through the fuel assembly can be ensured, thereby enabling to measure the amount of core displacement which is closer to an actual value in the reactor. (N.H.)

  7. Lateral displacement in small angle multiple scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bichsel, H.; Hanson, K.M.; Schillaci, K.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA))

    1982-07-01

    Values have been calculated for the average lateral displacement in small angle multiple scattering of protons with energies of several hundred MeV. The calculations incorporate the Moliere distribution which does not make the gaussian approximations of the distribution in projected angle and lateral deflections. Compared to other published data, such approximations can lead to errors in the lateral displacement of up to 10% in water.

  8. Vertical Displacements Driven by Groundwater Storage Changes in the North China Plain Detected by GPS Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renli Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The North China Plain (NCP has been experiencing the most severe groundwater depletion in China, leading to a broad region of vertical motions of the Earth’s surface. This paper explores the seasonal and linear trend variations of surface vertical displacements caused by the groundwater changes in NCP from 2009 to 2013 using Global Positioning System (GPS and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE techniques. Results show that the peak-to-peak amplitude of GPS-derived annual variation is about 3.7~6.0 mm and is highly correlated (R > 0.6 for most selected GPS stations with results from GRACE, which would confirm that the vertical displacements of continuous GPS (CGPS stations are mainly caused by groundwater storage (GWS changes in NCP, since GWS is the dominant component of total water storage (TWS anomalies in this area. The linear trends of selected bedrock-located IGS CGPS stations reveal the distinct GWS changes in period of 2009–2010 (decrease and 2011–2013 (rebound, which are consistent with results from GRACE-derived GWS anomalies and in situ GWS observations. This result implies that the rate of groundwater depletion in NCP has slowed in recent years. The impacts of geological condition (bedrock or sediment of CGPS stations to their results are also investigated in this study. Contrasted with the slight linear rates (−0.69~1.5 mm/a of bedrock-located CGPS stations, the linear rates of sediment-located CGPS stations are between −44 mm/a and −17 mm/a. It is due to the opposite vertical displacements induced by the Earth surface’s porous and elastic response to groundwater depletion. Besides, the distinct renewal characteristics of shallow and deep groundwater in NCP are discussed. The GPS-based vertical displacement time series, to some extent, can reflect the quicker recovery of shallow unconfined groundwater than the deep confined groundwater in NCP; through one month earlier to attain the maximum height for CGPS

  9. Minimum-domain impulse theory for unsteady aerodynamic force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, L. L.; Liu, L. Q.; Su, W. D.; Wu, J. Z.

    2018-01-01

    We extend the impulse theory for unsteady aerodynamics from its classic global form to finite-domain formulation then to minimum-domain form and from incompressible to compressible flows. For incompressible flow, the minimum-domain impulse theory raises the finding of Li and Lu ["Force and power of flapping plates in a fluid," J. Fluid Mech. 712, 598-613 (2012)] to a theorem: The entire force with discrete wake is completely determined by only the time rate of impulse of those vortical structures still connecting to the body, along with the Lamb-vector integral thereof that captures the contribution of all the rest disconnected vortical structures. For compressible flows, we find that the global form in terms of the curl of momentum ∇ × (ρu), obtained by Huang [Unsteady Vortical Aerodynamics (Shanghai Jiaotong University Press, 1994)], can be generalized to having an arbitrary finite domain, but the formula is cumbersome and in general ∇ × (ρu) no longer has discrete structures and hence no minimum-domain theory exists. Nevertheless, as the measure of transverse process only, the unsteady field of vorticity ω or ρω may still have a discrete wake. This leads to a minimum-domain compressible vorticity-moment theory in terms of ρω (but it is beyond the classic concept of impulse). These new findings and applications have been confirmed by our numerical experiments. The results not only open an avenue to combine the theory with computation-experiment in wide applications but also reveal a physical truth that it is no longer necessary to account for all wake vortical structures in computing the force and moment.

  10. Test Rig for Valves of Digital Displacement Machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Christian; Christensen, Jeppe Haals; Bech, Michael Møller

    2017-01-01

    A test rig for the valves of digital displacement machines has been developed at Aalborg University. It is composed of a commercial radial piston machine, which has been modified to facilitate Digital Displacement operation for a single piston. Prototype valves have been optimized, designed and m...

  11. A study of the displacement of a Wankel rotary engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, J. E.; Pennock, G. R.

    1993-03-01

    The volumetric displacement of a Wankel rotary engine is a function of the trochoid ratio and the pin size ratio, assuming the engine has a unit depth and the number of lobes is specified. The mathematical expression which defines the displacement contains a function which can be evaluated directly and a normal elliptic integral of the second type which does not have an explicit solution. This paper focuses on the contribution of the elliptic integral to the total displacement of the engine. The influence of the elliptic integral is shown to account for as much as 20 percent of the total displacement, depending on the trochoid ratio and the pin size ratio. Two numerical integration techniques are compared in the paper, namely, the trapezoidal rule and Simpson's 1/3 rule. The bounds on the error, associated with each numerical method, are analyzed. The results indicate that the numerical method has a minimal effect on the accuracy of the calculated displacement for a practical number of integration steps. The paper also evaluates the influence of manufacturing tolerances on the calculated displacement and the actual displacement. Finally. a numerical example of the common three-lobed Wankel rotary engine is included for illustrative purposes.

  12. Displacement-noise-free gravitational-wave detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Seiji; Chen Yanbei

    2004-01-01

    We present a new idea that allows us to detect gravitational waves without being disturbed by any kind of displacement noise, based on the fact that gravitational waves and test-mass motions affect the propagations of light differently. We demonstrate this idea by analyzing a simple toy model consisting of three equally-separated objects on a line. By taking a certain combination of light travel times between these objects, we construct an observable free from the displacement of each object, which has a reasonable sensitivity to gravitational waves

  13. Perspectives of displaced Syrian women and service providers on fertility behaviour and available services in West Bekaa, Lebanon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabakian-Khasholian, Tamar; Mourtada, Rima; Bashour, Hyam; Kak, Faysal El; Zurayk, Huda

    2017-10-01

    Prior to the conflict, Syria had relatively high fertility rates. In 2010, it had the sixth highest total fertility rate in the Arab World, but it witnessed a fertility decline before the conflict in 2011. Displacement during conflict influences fertility behaviour, and meeting the contraceptive needs of displaced populations is complex. This study explored the perspectives of women and service providers about fertility behaviour of and service provision to Syrian refugee women in Bekaa, Lebanon. We used qualitative methodology to conduct 12 focus group discussions with Syrian refugee women grouped in different age categories and 13 in-depth interviews with care providers from the same region. Our findings indicate that the displacement of Syrians to Lebanon had implications on the fertility behaviour of the participants. Women brought their beliefs about preferred family size and norms about decision-making into an environment where they were exposed to both aid and hardship. The unaffordability of contraceptives in the Lebanese privatised health system compared to their free provision in Syria limited access to family planning services. Efforts are needed to maintain health resources and monitor health needs of the refugee population in order to improve access and use of services.

  14. Understanding the Minimum Wage: Issues and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Policies Inst. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which is designed to clarify facts regarding the minimum wage's impact on marketplace economics, contains a total of 31 questions and answers pertaining to the following topics: relationship between minimum wages and poverty; impacts of changes in the minimum wage on welfare reform; and possible effects of changes in the minimum wage…

  15. Youth minimum wages and youth employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marimpi, Maria; Koning, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This paper performs a cross-country level analysis on the impact of the level of specific youth minimum wages on the labor market performance of young individuals. We use information on the use and level of youth minimum wages, as compared to the level of adult minimum wages as well as to the median

  16. Characteristics of children with hip displacement in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Philippe

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip dislocation in children with cerebral palsy (CP is a common and severe problem. The dislocation can be avoided, by screening and preventive treatment of children with hips at risk. The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of children with CP who develop hip displacement, in order to optimise a hip surveillance programme. Methods In a total population of children with CP a standardised clinical and radiological follow-up of the hips was carried out as a part of a hip prevention programme. The present study is based on 212 children followed until 9–16 years of age. Results Of the 212 children, 38 (18% developed displacement with Migration Percentage (MP >40% and further 19 (9% MP between 33 and 39%. Mean age at first registration of hip displacement was 4 years, but some hips showed MP > 40% already at two years of age. The passive range of hip motion at the time of first registration of hip displacement did not differ significantly from the findings in hips without displacement. The risk of hip displacement varied according to CP-subtype, from 0% in children with pure ataxia to 79% in children with spastic tetraplegia. The risk of displacement (MP > 40% was directly related to the level of gross motor function, classified according to the gross motor function classification system, GMFCS, from 0% in children in GMFCS level I to 64% in GMFCS level V. Conclusion Hip displacement in CP often occurs already at 2–3 years of age. Range of motion is a poor indicator of hips at risk. Thus early identification and early radiographic examination of children at risk is of great importance. The risk of hip displacement varies according to both CP-subtype and GMFCS. It is sometimes not possible to determine subtype before 4 years of age, and at present several definitions and classification systems are used. GMFCS is valid and reliable from 2 years of age, and it is internationally accepted. We recommend a hip

  17. Displacing use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Janet; Matthews, Ben

    2014-01-01

    -centred design process. We identified alternative design-relevant relationships between people and devices that are not specifically tied to the functions/uses of the devices, e.g. relationships between the healthcare professional and the device, between doctors and patients, and between patients and their own......This paper critically discusses the concept of use in design, suggesting that relevant relationships other than use are sometimes obscured by the usercentredness of design processes. We present a design case from the medical device domain that displaced the concept of use from the centre of a human...

  18. Chronic disease and disability among Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doocy, Shannon; Sirois, Adam; Tileva, Margarita; Storey, J Douglas; Burnham, Gilbert

    2013-01-01

    The Iraq conflict resulted in the largest displacement in the Middle East since the Palestinian crisis, and provision of health services to the displaced population presents a critical challenge. The study aimed to provide information on chronic medical conditions and disability to inform humanitarian assistance planning. Nationally representative cross-sectional surveys of Iraqi populations displaced in Jordan and Syria were conducted in late 2008 and early 2009. Clusters of 10 household were randomly selected using probability-based sampling; a total of 1200 and 813 Iraqi households in Jordan and Syria, respectively, were interviewed. The majority of respondents in both countries perceived healthcare as unaffordable but accessible; cost was an important barrier to care. In Jordan, most routine health expenditures were for medications where in Syria, expenses were divided between medical consultations and medication. Chronic disease prevalence among adults was 51.5% (confidence interval (CI): 49.4-53.5) in Syria and 41.0% (CI: 39.4-42.7) in Jordan, most common were hypertension and musculoskeletal problems. Overall disability rates were 7.1% (CI: 6.3-8.0) in Syria and 3.4% (CI: 3.0-3.9) in Jordan. In both countries, the majority of disability was attributed to conflict, prevalence was higher in men than women, and depression was the leading cause of mental health disability. Chronic illnesses, disabilities and psychological health are key challenges for the Iraqi population and the health systems in Jordan and Syria. Continued attention to the development of systems to manage conditions that require secondary and tertiary care is essential, particularly given reported difficulties in accessing care and the anticipated prolonged displacement. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The experimental plan of displacement- and frequency-noise free laser interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kokeyama, K; Sato, S; Kawamura, S; Nishizawa, A; Chen, Y; Pai, A; Somiya, K; Ward, R; Sugamoto, A

    2008-01-01

    We present the partial demonstration of displacement- and laser-noise free interferometer (DFI) and the next experimental plan to examine the complete configuration. A part of the full implementation of DFI has been demonstrated to confirm the cancellation of beamsplitter displacements. The displacements were suppressed by about two orders of magnitude. The aim of the next experiment is to operate the system and to confirm the cancellation of all displacement noises, while the gravitational wave (GW) signals survive. The optical displacements will be simulated by electro-optic modulators (EOM). To simulate the GW contribution to laser lights, we will use multiple EOMs

  20. R3 Cup Does Not Have a High Failure Rate in Conventional Bearings: A Minimum of 5-Year Follow-Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoh, Kar H; Whitham, Robert D J; Golding, David M; Wong, Jenny F; Lee, Paul Y F; Evans, Aled R

    2018-02-01

    The R3 cementless acetabular system was first marketed in Australia and Europe in 2007. Previous papers have shown high failure rates of the R3 cup with up to 24% with metal-on-metal bearing. There are currently no medium term clinical results on this cup. The aim of the study is to review our results of the R3 acetabular cup with conventional bearings with a minimum of 5-year follow-up. Patients who were implanted with the R3 acetabular cup were identified from our center's arthroplasty database. A total of 293 consecutive total hip arthroplasties were performed in 286 patients. The primary outcome was revision. The secondary outcomes were the Oxford Hip Scores (OHS) and radiographic evaluation. The mean age of the patients was 69.4 years. The mean preoperative OHS was 23 (range 10-34) and the mean OHS was 40 (range 33-48) at the final follow-up. Radiological evaluation showed an excellent ARA score in all patients at 5 years. None of the R3 cups showed osteolysis at the final follow-up. There were 3 revisions in our series, of which 2 R3 cups were revised. The risk of revision was 1.11% at 5 years. Our experience of using the R3 acetabular system with conventional bearings showed high survivorship and is consistent with the allocated Orthopaedic Data Evaluation Panel rating of 5A* as rated in 2015 in the United Kingdom. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Aerobic Microbial Respiration In Oceanic Oxygen Minimum Zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalvelage, Tim; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene Mark

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic denitrifica......Oxygen minimum zones are major sites of fixed nitrogen loss in the ocean. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox, in pelagic nitrogen removal. Sources of ammonium for the anammox reaction, however, remain controversial, as heterotrophic...... denitrification and alternative anaerobic pathways of organic matter remineralization cannot account for the ammonium requirements of reported anammox rates. Here, we explore the significance of microaerobic respiration as a source of ammonium during organic matter degradation in the oxygen-deficient waters off...... Namibia and Peru. Experiments with additions of double-labelled oxygen revealed high aerobic activity in the upper OMZs, likely controlled by surface organic matter export. Consistently observed oxygen consumption in samples retrieved throughout the lower OMZs hints at efficient exploitation of vertically...

  2. Discretization of space and time: determining the values of minimum length and minimum time

    OpenAIRE

    Roatta , Luca

    2017-01-01

    Assuming that space and time can only have discrete values, we obtain the expression of the minimum length and the minimum time interval. These values are found to be exactly coincident with the Planck's length and the Planck's time but for the presence of h instead of ħ .

  3. Minimum wage development in the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Bolsheva, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the effectiveness of the minimum wage policy at the national level in Russia and its impact on living standards in the country. The analysis showed that the national minimum wage in Russia does not serve its original purpose of protecting the lowest wage earners and has no substantial effect on poverty reduction. The national subsistence minimum is too low and cannot be considered an adequate criterion for the setting of the minimum wage. The minimum wage d...

  4. Axial linear patellar displacement: a new measurement of patellofemoral congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urch, Scott E; Tritle, Benjamin A; Shelbourne, K Donald; Gray, Tinker

    2009-05-01

    The tools for measuring the congruence angle with digital radiography software can be difficult to use; therefore, the authors sought to develop a new, easy, and reliable method for measuring patellofemoral congruence. The abstract goes here and covers two columns. The abstract goes The linear displacement measurement will correlate well with the congruence angle measurement. here and covers two columns. Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. On Merchant view radiographs obtained digitally, the authors measured the congruence angle and a new linear displacement measurement on preoperative and postoperative radiographs of 31 patients who suffered unilateral patellar dislocations and 100 uninjured subjects. The linear displacement measurement was obtained by drawing a reference line across the medial and lateral trochlear facets. Perpendicular lines were drawn from the depth of the sulcus through the reference line and from the apex of the posterior tip of the patella through the reference line. The distance between the perpendicular lines was the linear displacement measurement. The measurements were obtained twice at different sittings. The observer was blinded as to the previous measurements to establish reliability. Measurements were compared to determine whether the linear displacement measurement correlated with congruence angle. Intraobserver reliability was above r(2) = .90 for all measurements. In patients with patellar dislocations, the mean congruence angle preoperatively was 33.5 degrees , compared with 12.1 mm for linear displacement (r(2) = .92). The mean congruence angle postoperatively was 11.2 degrees, compared with 4.0 mm for linear displacement (r(2) = .89). For normal subjects, the mean congruence angle was -3 degrees and the mean linear displacement was 0.2 mm. The linear displacement measurement was found to correlate with congruence angle measurements and may be an easy and useful tool for clinicians to evaluate patellofemoral

  5. Displacement and force coupling control design for automotive active front steering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wanzhong; Zhang, Han; Li, Yijun

    2018-06-01

    A displacement and force coupling control design for active front steering (AFS) system of vehicle is proposed in this paper. In order to investigate the displacement and force characteristics of the AFS system of the vehicle, the models of AFS system, vehicle, tire as well as the driver model are introduced. Then, considering the nonlinear characteristics of the tire force and external disturbance, a robust yaw rate control method is designed by applying a steering motor to generate an active steering angle to adjust the yaw stability of the vehicle. Based on mixed H2/H∞ control, the system robustness and yaw rate tracking performance are enforced by H∞ norm constraint and the control effort is captured through H2 norm. In addition, based on the AFS system, a planetary gear set and an assist motor are both added to realize the road feeling control in this paper to dismiss the influence of extra steering angle through a compensating method. Evaluation of the overall system is accomplished by simulations and experiments under various driving condition. The simulation and experiment results show the proposed control system has excellent tracking performance and road feeling performance, which can improve the cornering stability and maneuverability of vehicle.

  6. A CMOS-MEMS clamped–clamped beam displacement amplifier for resonant switch applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia-Ren; Lu, Shih-Chuan; Tsai, Chun-Pu; Li, Wei-Chang

    2018-06-01

    This paper presents a micromechanical clamped–clamped beam (CC-beam) displacement amplifier based on a CMOS-MEMS fabrication process platform. In particular, a 2.0 MHz resonant displacement amplifier composed of two identical CC-beams coupled by a mechanical beam at locations where the two beams have mismatched velocities exhibits a larger displacement, up to 9.96×, on one beam than that of the other. The displacement amplification prevents unwanted input impacting—the structure switches only to the output but not the input—required by resonant switch-based mechanical circuits (Kim et al 2009 22nd IEEE Int. Conf. on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems; Lin et al 2009 15th Int. Conf. on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators, & Microsystems (TRANSDUCERS’09) Li et al 2013 17th Int. Conf. on Solid-State Sensors, Actuators, & Microsystems (TRANSDUCERS’13)). Compared to a single CC-beam displacement amplifier, theory predicts that the displacement amplifying CC-beam array yields a larger overall output displacement for displacement gain beyond 1.13 thanks to the preserved input driving force. A complete analytical model predicts the resultant stiffness and displacement gain of the coupled CC-beam displacement amplifier that match well with finite element analysis (FEA) prediction and measured results.

  7. New displacement sensor for a hybrid magnetic bearing in liquid nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komori, M.; Kobayashi, H.; Shiraishi, C.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a newly developed displacement sensor. The displacement sensor is used for a hybrid magnetic bearing in liquid nitrogen. The principle of the displacement sensor is based on a differential transformer. The sensor is found to be useful in liquid nitrogen at 77 K (-196 C). Moreover, the sensor is applied to a hybrid magnetic bearing. The displacement sensor is found to be useful and promising

  8. Minimum emittance of three-bend achromats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoyu; Xu Gang

    2012-01-01

    The calculation of the minimum emittance of three-bend achromats (TBAs) made by Mathematical software can ignore the actual magnets lattice in the matching condition of dispersion function in phase space. The minimum scaling factors of two kinds of widely used TBA lattices are obtained. Then the relationship between the lengths and the radii of the three dipoles in TBA is obtained and so is the minimum scaling factor, when the TBA lattice achieves its minimum emittance. The procedure of analysis and the results can be widely used in achromats lattices, because the calculation is not restricted by the actual lattice. (authors)

  9. Serial forced displacement in American cities, 1916-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullilove, Mindy Thompson; Wallace, Rodrick

    2011-06-01

    Serial forced displacement has been defined as the repetitive, coercive upheaval of groups. In this essay, we examine the history of serial forced displacement in American cities due to federal, state, and local government policies. We propose that serial forced displacement sets up a dynamic process that includes an increase in interpersonal and structural violence, an inability to react in a timely fashion to patterns of threat or opportunity, and a cycle of fragmentation as a result of the first two. We present the history of the policies as they affected one urban neighborhood, Pittsburgh's Hill District. We conclude by examining ways in which this problematic process might be addressed.

  10. HTR-10GT AMBs displacement sensor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhengang; Zha Meisheng; Zhao Lei; Sun Zhuo

    2005-01-01

    The 10 MW high temperature gas-cooled test module reactor (HTR-10GT) with the core made of spherical fuel elements was designed and constructed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University in China. In the HTR-10GT, turbo-compressor and generator rotors are connected by a flexible coupling. The rotors, restricted by actual instruments and working environment, must be supported without any contact and lubrication. Active magnetic bearing (AMB), known as its advantages over the conventional bearings., such as contact-free, no-lubricating and active damping vibration, is the best way to suspend and stabilize the position of rotors of HTR-10GT. Each rotor is suspended by two radial and one axial AMBs. The radial AMB's radial gap is 0.15 mm considering the gap of 0.4 mm between the compressor stator and blades in order to protect the compressor. The control system controls the rotor position to meet the required gaps between rotor and stator through windings current. All the position information concerning radial and axial AMB is generated by sensors for measuring the displacement of the levitated body. Some typical sensors, i.e. eddy current displacement sensor, capacitive displacement sensor, can provide position information, but, quite often, unsatisfactory anti-jamming, which is a key issue for AMB systems near generator and other electric devices in HTR-10GT. Therefore, a kind of new type sensor is designed to measure the radial and axial displacements and the vibration of the rotors. This paper focuses on the design characteristics of the HTR-10GT AMBs displacement sensors and introduction of the related experiments to demonstrate its performance. (authors)

  11. Disc displacement patterns in lumbar anterior spondylolisthesis: Contribution to foraminal stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacMahon, P.J.; Taylor, D.H.; Duke, D.; Brennan, D.D.; Eustace, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the particular disc displacement pattern seen at MRI in patients with spondylolisthesis, and its potential contribution to foraminal stenosis. Methods: 38 patients with symptomatic lumbar anterior spondylolisthesis and 38 sex and aged matched control patients with herniated disc disease, at corresponding disc space levels, were included for study. In each case note was made of the presence, absence and direction of disc displacement and also the presence and location of neural contact with the displaced disc. Results: In 33 of 38 (86.8%) patients in the spondylolisthesis group, the vertical disc displacement was upward. In the control group only 3 patients (7.8%) had upward vertical disc displacement. 19 patients (53%) from the spondylolisthesis group had exit foraminal nerve root contact, compared to 7 patients (18.4%) from the control group. 27 control patients (71%) had contact within the lateral recess, compared to only 6 patients (17%) with spondylolisthesis. Differences for upward displacement were significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Disc displacement in patients with spondylolisthesis is predominately in a cephalad and lateral direction. Although this disc displacement pattern can occur in patients without spondylolisthesis, its incidence is much greater in the subset of patients with concomitant spondylolisthesis. In the setting of acquired osseous narrowing of the exit foramen, this described pattern of disc displacement superiorly and laterally in spondylolisthesis increases the susceptibility of spondylolisthesis patients to radicular symptoms and accounts for the exiting nerve root being more commonly affected than the traversing nerve root.

  12. Simulation of neoclassical tearing mode stabilization via minimum seeking method on ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, M. H.; Kim, K.; Na, D. H.; Byun, C. S.; Na, Y. S. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, M. [FNC Technology Co. Ltd, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) are well known resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities. These instabilities are sustained by a helically perturbed bootstrap current. NTMs produce magnetic islands in tokamak plasmas that can degrade confinement and lead to plasma disruption. Because of this, the stabilization of NTMs is one of the key issues for tokamaks that achieve high fusion performance such as ITER. Compensating for the lack of bootstrap current by an Electron Cyclotron Current Drive (ECCD) has been proved experimentally as an effective method to stabilize NTMs. In order to stabilize NTMs, it is important to reduce misalignment. So that even ECCD can destabilize the NTMs when misalignment is large. Feedback control method that does not fully require delicate and accurate real-time measurements and calculations, such as equilibrium reconstruction and EC ray-tracing, has also been proposed. One of the feedback control methods is minimum seeking method. This control method minimizes the island width by tuning the misalignment, assuming that the magnetic island width is a function of the misalignment. As a robust and simple method of controlling NTM, minimum 'island width growth rate' seeking control is purposed and compared with performance of minimum ' island width' seeking control. At the integrated numerical system, simulations of the NTM suppression are performed with two types of minimum seeking controllers; one is a FDM based minimum seeking controller and the other is a sinusoidal perturbation based minimum seeking method. The full suppression is achieved both types of controller. The controllers adjust poloidal angle of EC beam and reduce misalignment to zero. The sinusoidal perturbation based minimum seeking control need to modify the adaptive gain.

  13. The Distal Humerus Axial View: Assessment of Displacement in Medial Epicondyle Fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souder, Christopher D; Farnsworth, Christine L; McNeil, Natalie P; Bomar, James D; Edmonds, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    The assessment and treatment of childhood medial epicondyle humerus fractures continues to be associated with significant debate. Several studies demonstrate that standard radiographic views are unable to accurately portray the true displacement. Without reliable ways to assess the amount of displacement, how can we debate treatment and outcomes? This study introduces a novel imaging technique for the evaluation of medial epicondyle fractures. An osteotomy of a cadaveric humerus was performed to simulate a medial epicondyle fracture. Plain radiographs were obtained with the fracture fragment displaced anteriorly in 2-mm increments between 0 and 18 mm. Anteroposterior (AP), internal oblique (IR), lateral (LAT), and distal humerus axial (AXIAL) views were performed. Axial images were obtained by positioning the central ray above the shoulder at 15 to 20 degrees from the long axis of the humerus, centered on the distal humerus. Displacement (mm) was measured by 7 orthopaedic surgeons on digital radiographs. At 10 mm displacement, AP views underestimated displacement by 5.5±0.6 mm and IR views underestimated by 3.8±2.1 mm. On LAT views, readers were not able to visualize fragments with displacement. Displacement ≥10 mm from LAT views was overestimated by 1 reader by up to 4.6 mm and underestimated by others by up to 18.0 mm. AXIAL images more closely estimated the true amount of displacement, with a mean 1.5±1.1 mm error in measurement for displacement and a mean 0.8±0.7 mm error for displacements of ≥10 mm. AXIAL measurements correlated strongly with the actual displacement (r=0.998, Pdisplacement of medial epicondyle humerus fractures. The newly described AXIAL projection more accurately and reliably demonstrated the true displacement while reducing the need for advanced imaging such as computed tomography. This simple view can be easily obtained at a clinic visit, enhancing the surgeon's ability to determine the true displacement.

  14. Human response to ductless personalized ventilation coupled with displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Veselý, Michal; Melikov, Arsen K.

    2012-01-01

    A human subject experiment was carried out to investigate the extent to which ductless personalized ventilation (DPV) in conjunction with displacement ventilation can improve perceived air quality (PAQ) and thermal comfort at elevated room air temperature in comparison with displacement ventilation...... alone. The experimental conditions comprised displacement ventilation alone (room air temperature of 23 °C, 26 °C, 29 °C) and DPV with displacement ventilation (26 °C, 29 °C), both operating at supply air temperatures 3, 5 or 6K lower than room air temperature, as well as mixing ventilation (23 °C, 3 K......). During one hour exposure participants answered questionnaires regarding PAQ and thermal comfort. PAQ was significantly better with DPV than without DPV at the same background conditions. Thermal comfort improved when DPV was used. Combining DPV with displacement ventilation showed the potential...

  15. Effects of Interfacial Reaction on the Radial Displacement of Oil by Alkaline Solutions Effets des réactions interfaciales sur le déplacement radial de l'huile par les solutions alcalines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasr-El-Din H. A.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Caustic flooding is frequently used to recover acidic oils in secondary and tertiary recovery modes. This study examines the secondary recovery of an acidic oil by alkaline solutions in a water-wet porous medium using a radial geometry. A model porous medium consisting of sintered glass beads sandwiched between two glass plates was employed to visualize the displacement process. The medium was originally saturated with the oil phase, namely paraffin oil (non-reacting system or paraffin oil doped with 1 wt% linoleic acid (reacting system. The effects of the injection flow rate and the NaOH concentration in the aqueous phase on the displacement pattern were studied experimentally. The volumetric oil recovery at the breakthrough condition was also measured. Dynamic interfacial tension (IFT measurements for the reacting system were measured in a spinning drop tensiometer. A drastic drop in the IFT occurred as a result of the chemical reaction at the interface between the linoleic acid in the oil phase and the NaOH in the aqueous phase. It was also found that the IFT behavior with respect to time was a function of NaOH concentration with a maximum interfacial activity (minimum IFT occurring at 0. 1 w% NaOH. Displacement runs showed a significant change in the displacement patterns during secondary recovery for the reacting system compared with those for the non-reacting one. A significant drop in the breakthrough recovery was obtained for the reacting systems, especially at high injection flow rates. The breakthrough recovery of the reacting system was found to be a function of NaOH concentration in the aqueous phase, with a minimum recovery at NaOH concentration of 0. 1 wt%. On a souvent recours à la submersion par des produits alcalins pour récupérer les acides gras dans les modes secondaire et tertiaire. Dans cette étude, on examine la récupération secondaire d'un acide gras par des solutions alcalines dans un milieu poreux imprégné d

  16. Understanding interferometry for micro-cantilever displacement detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander von Schmidsfeld

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Interferometric displacement detection in a cantilever-based non-contact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM operated in ultra-high vacuum is demonstrated for the Michelson and Fabry–Pérot modes of operation. Each mode is addressed by appropriately adjusting the distance between the fiber end delivering and collecting light and a highly reflective micro-cantilever, both together forming the interferometric cavity. For a precise measurement of the cantilever displacement, the relative positioning of fiber and cantilever is of critical importance. We describe a systematic approach for accurate alignment as well as the implications of deficient fiber–cantilever configurations. In the Fabry–Pérot regime, the displacement noise spectral density strongly decreases with decreasing distance between the fiber-end and the cantilever, yielding a noise floor of 24 fm/Hz0.5 under optimum conditions.

  17. The prevalence and significance of displacement for wilderness recreation management and research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingrid E. Schneider

    2007-01-01

    The concept of visitor displacement has important implications for wilderness management and research. Research on actual displacement of wilderness visitors is extremely limited, but this displacement likely follows patterns found for general recreationists: visitors employ a variety of coping responses and displacement is prevalent. Understanding if and when visitors...

  18. Mechanical property changes induced in structural alloys by neutron irradiations with different helium to displacement ratios*1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansur, L. K.; Grossbeck, M. L.

    1988-07-01

    Effects of helium on mechanical properties of irradiated structural materials are reviewed. In particular, variations in response to the ratio of helium to displacement damage serve as the focus. Ductility in creep and tensile tests is emphasized. A variety of early work has led to the current concentration on helium effects for fusion reactor materials applications. A battery of techniques has been developed by which the helium to displacement ratio can be varied. Our main discussion is devoted to the techniques of spectral tailoring and isotopic alloying currently of interest for mixed-spectrum reactors. Theoretical models of physical mechanisms by which helium interacts with displacement damage have been developed in terms of hardening to dislocation motion and grain boundary cavitation. Austenitic stainless steels, ferritic/martensitic steels and vanadium alloys are considered. In each case, work at low strain rates, where the main problems may lie, at the helium to displacement ratios appropriate to fusion reactor materials is lacking. Recent experimental evidence suggests that both in-reactor and high helium results may differ substantially from post-irradiation or low helium results. It is suggested that work in these areas is especially needed.

  19. Displaced, Homeless and Abused: The Dynamics of Gender-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    based abuse (SPGBV) experienced by displaced Zimbabwean refugees, perpetrators of such abuses and the gender of perpetrators in South Africa. Refugee and Internally displaced persons are interchangeably used in this study. Through in-depth ...

  20. Differential Extension, Displacement Transfer, and the South to North Decrease in Displacement on the Furnace Creek - Fish Lake Valley Fault System, Western Great Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katopody, D. T.; Oldow, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    The northwest-striking Furnace Creek - Fish Lake Valley (FC-FLV) fault system stretches for >250 km from southeastern California to western Nevada, forms the eastern boundary of the northern segment of the Eastern California Shear Zone, and has contemporary displacement. The FC-FLV fault system initiated in the mid-Miocene (10-12 Ma) and shows a south to north decrease in displacement from a maximum of 75-100 km to less than 10 km. Coeval elongation by extension on north-northeast striking faults within the adjoining blocks to the FC-FLV fault both supply and remove cumulative displacement measured at the northern end of the transcurrent fault system. Elongation and displacement transfer in the eastern block, constituting the southern Walker Lane of western Nevada, exceeds that of the western block and results in the net south to north decrease in displacement on the FC-FLV fault system. Elongation in the eastern block is accommodated by late Miocene to Pliocene detachment faulting followed by extension on superposed, east-northeast striking, high-angle structures. Displacement transfer from the FC-FLV fault system to the northwest-trending faults of the central Walker Lane to the north is accomplished by motion on a series of west-northwest striking transcurrent faults, named the Oriental Wash, Sylvania Mountain, and Palmetto Mountain fault systems. The west-northwest striking transcurrent faults cross-cut earlier detachment structures and are kinematically linked to east-northeast high-angle extensional faults. The transcurrent faults are mapped along strike for 60 km to the east, where they merge with north-northwest faults forming the eastern boundary of the southern Walker Lane. The west-northwest trending transcurrent faults have 30-35 km of cumulative left-lateral displacement and are a major contributor to the decrease in right-lateral displacement on the FC-FLV fault system.

  1. 30 CFR 57.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.001L) For rope lengths 3,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×4.0. (b) Friction drum ropes. For rope lengths less than 4,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.0005L) For rope lengths 4,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×5.0. (c) Tail...

  2. 30 CFR 56.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0-0.001L) For rope lengths 3,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×4.0 (b) Friction drum ropes. For rope lengths less than 4,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0-0.0005L) For rope lengths 4,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×5.0 (c) Tail ropes...

  3. Conservation-induced displacement: A comparative study of two Indian protected areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kabra Asmita

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Attempts at ′preservation via displacement′ are an extreme manifestation of the ′fortress′ or an exclusionary conservation paradigm, support for which has increased lately due to escalating conservation threats. While the policies and processes emanating from this paradigm have produced positive conservation outcomes for some Protected Areas, livelihood outcomes for the displaced people have seldom been as positive. This article examines whether the impoverishment risks arising from conservation-induced displacement tend to vary with the degree of marginalisation of the displaced community. In this light, this article examines in detail the impact on livelihood of conservation-induced displacement in two Protected Areas (PAs of India. The article posits that understanding the dynamic livelihood context of displaced communities, especially the ecological base of their livelihoods, is critical to any assessment of their pre- and post-displacement livelihood strategies and livelihood outcomes (such as income, poverty, food security and health. A variety of livelihood parameters, including compensation received, consumption flows, agricultural production, monetary income, food security, headcount ratio of poverty and overall poverty indices have been studied, to understand the extent to which key livelihood risks arising out of displacement are addressed by the rehabilitation package and process in the two PAs. The Sahariya is a forest-dependent Adivasi community living in and around the Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary in the semi-arid tropical region of Madhya Pradesh. The Sahariya Adivasis of the Kuno Sanctuary were a socially, politically and economically marginalised community, whose lives and livelihoods were intricately linked to their ecological base. We found that inadequate attention was paid to this factor while designing and implementing a suitable rehabilitation package for the 1650 Sahariya households displaced from this PA. As a result

  4. Influence of displacement gradients on the interpretation of charged particle simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Guthrie, G.L.

    1975-08-01

    Neutron flux and spectrum gradients are negligible within a single grain of structural materials in fusion reactors. In charged particle simulation, however, substantial gradients exist in the flux of displaced atoms (dpa) along the ion path, which is typically several microns or less in length. In interpretation of such experiments, one must account for the influence of variables that are atypical of the simulated environment. Experimental and modeling studies show that dpa gradients lead to gradients in microstructure, which in turn modify the effect of diffusion on the effective growth environment of voids and other defects. For some ions, these effects are overwhelmed by a phenomenon designated the ''internal temperature shift.'' Although the physical temperature is relatively invariant along the ion path, the temperature regime of swelling shifts as the displacement rate changes. The swelling vs. depth profile is altered substantially from that expected from the dpa profile, and the type of modification is dependent on the relation of the irradiation temperature to the peak swelling temperature at the mean displacement flux. Swelling profiles for a variety of simulations were analyzed and found to include the influence of surface denuded zones, incubation effects, diffusion, swelling-generated stresses and internal temperature shifts. The impact of the latter imposes restrictions on the interpretation of step height measurements and full range intercorrelations for high energy ions

  5. Influence of displacement gradients on the interpretation of charged particle simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, F.A.; Guthrie, G.L.

    1976-01-01

    Neutron flux and spectrum gradients are negligible within a single grain of structural materials in fusion reactors. In charged particle simulation, however, substantial gradients exist in the flux of displaced atoms (dpa) along the ion path, which is typically several microns or less in length. In interpretation of such experiments, one must account for the influence of variables that are atypical of the simulated environment. Experimental and modeling studies show that dpa gradients lead to gradients in microstructure, which in turn modify the effect of diffusion on the effective growth environment of voids and other defects. For some ions, these effects are overwhelmed by a phenomenon designated the ''internal temperature shift.'' Although the physical temperature is relatively invariant along the ion path, the temperature regime of swelling shifts as the displacement rate changes. The swelling vs. depth profile is altered substantially from that expected from the dpa profile, and the type of modification is dependent on the relation of the irradiation temperature to the peak swelling temperature at the mean displacement flux. Swelling profiles for a variety of simulations were analyzed and found to include the influence of surface denuded zones, incubation effects, diffusion, swelling-generated stresses and internal temperature shifts. The impact of the latter imposes restrictions on the interpretation of step height measurements and full range intercorrelations for high energy ions

  6. Interest Rate Swaps

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Pepic

    2014-01-01

    Interest rates changes have a huge impact on the business performance. Therefore, it is of great importance for the market participants to identify and adequately manage this risk. Financial derivatives are a relatively simple way of protection from adverse changes in interest rates. Interest rate swaps are particularly popular because they reduce interest rate risk to a minimum with a relatively low initial cost and without great risk, but also because of the fact that there are many modific...

  7. Standard test method for crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD) fracture toughness measurement

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2008-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of critical crack-tip opening displacement (CTOD) values at one or more of several crack extension events, and may be used to measure cleavage crack initiation toughness for materials that exhibit a change from ductile to brittle behavior with decreasing temperature, such as ferritic steels. This test method applies specifically to notched specimens sharpened by fatigue cracking. The recommended specimens are three-point bend [SE(B)], compact [C(T)], or arc-shaped bend [A(B)] specimens. The loading rate is slow and influences of environment (other than temperature) are not covered. The specimens are tested under crosshead or clip gage displacement controlled loading. 1.1.1 The recommended specimen thickness, B, for the SE(B) and C(T) specimens is that of the material in thicknesses intended for an application. For the A(B) specimen, the recommended depth, W, is the wall thickness of the tube or pipe from which the specimen is obtained. Superficial surface machini...

  8. Reference respiratory waveforms by minimum jerk model analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anetai, Yusuke, E-mail: anetai@radonc.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Sumida, Iori; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yagi, Masashi; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Yamadaoka 2-2, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ota, Seiichi [Department of Medical Technology, Osaka University Hospital, Yamadaoka 2-15, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-09-15

    Purpose: CyberKnife{sup ®} robotic surgery system has the ability to deliver radiation to a tumor subject to respiratory movements using Synchrony{sup ®} mode with less than 2 mm tracking accuracy. However, rapid and rough motion tracking causes mechanical tracking errors and puts mechanical stress on the robotic joint, leading to unexpected radiation delivery errors. During clinical treatment, patient respiratory motions are much more complicated, suggesting the need for patient-specific modeling of respiratory motion. The purpose of this study was to propose a novel method that provides a reference respiratory wave to enable smooth tracking for each patient. Methods: The minimum jerk model, which mathematically derives smoothness by means of jerk, or the third derivative of position and the derivative of acceleration with respect to time that is proportional to the time rate of force changed was introduced to model a patient-specific respiratory motion wave to provide smooth motion tracking using CyberKnife{sup ®}. To verify that patient-specific minimum jerk respiratory waves were being tracked smoothly by Synchrony{sup ®} mode, a tracking laser projection from CyberKnife{sup ®} was optically analyzed every 0.1 s using a webcam and a calibrated grid on a motion phantom whose motion was in accordance with three pattern waves (cosine, typical free-breathing, and minimum jerk theoretical wave models) for the clinically relevant superior–inferior directions from six volunteers assessed on the same node of the same isocentric plan. Results: Tracking discrepancy from the center of the grid to the beam projection was evaluated. The minimum jerk theoretical wave reduced the maximum-peak amplitude of radial tracking discrepancy compared with that of the waveforms modeled by cosine and typical free-breathing model by 22% and 35%, respectively, and provided smooth tracking for radial direction. Motion tracking constancy as indicated by radial tracking discrepancy

  9. Reference respiratory waveforms by minimum jerk model analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anetai, Yusuke; Sumida, Iori; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yagi, Masashi; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Ota, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: CyberKnife"® robotic surgery system has the ability to deliver radiation to a tumor subject to respiratory movements using Synchrony"® mode with less than 2 mm tracking accuracy. However, rapid and rough motion tracking causes mechanical tracking errors and puts mechanical stress on the robotic joint, leading to unexpected radiation delivery errors. During clinical treatment, patient respiratory motions are much more complicated, suggesting the need for patient-specific modeling of respiratory motion. The purpose of this study was to propose a novel method that provides a reference respiratory wave to enable smooth tracking for each patient. Methods: The minimum jerk model, which mathematically derives smoothness by means of jerk, or the third derivative of position and the derivative of acceleration with respect to time that is proportional to the time rate of force changed was introduced to model a patient-specific respiratory motion wave to provide smooth motion tracking using CyberKnife"®. To verify that patient-specific minimum jerk respiratory waves were being tracked smoothly by Synchrony"® mode, a tracking laser projection from CyberKnife"® was optically analyzed every 0.1 s using a webcam and a calibrated grid on a motion phantom whose motion was in accordance with three pattern waves (cosine, typical free-breathing, and minimum jerk theoretical wave models) for the clinically relevant superior–inferior directions from six volunteers assessed on the same node of the same isocentric plan. Results: Tracking discrepancy from the center of the grid to the beam projection was evaluated. The minimum jerk theoretical wave reduced the maximum-peak amplitude of radial tracking discrepancy compared with that of the waveforms modeled by cosine and typical free-breathing model by 22% and 35%, respectively, and provided smooth tracking for radial direction. Motion tracking constancy as indicated by radial tracking discrepancy affected by respiratory

  10. 29 CFR 520.200 - What is the legal authority for payment of wages lower than the minimum wage required by section...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the minimum wage required by section 6(a) of the Fair Labor Standards Act? 520.200 Section 520.200... lower than the minimum wage required by section 6(a) of the Fair Labor Standards Act? Section 14(a) of..., for the payment of special minimum wage rates to workers employed as messengers, learners (including...

  11. Displacement in urban areas: new challenges, new partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisp, Jeff; Morris, Tim; Refstie, Hilde

    2012-07-01

    Rapid urbanisation is a key characteristic of the modern world, interacting with and reinforcing other global mega trends, including armed conflict, climate change, crime, environmental degradation, financial and economic instability, food shortages, underemployment, volatile commodity prices, and weak governance. Displaced people also are affected by and engaged in the process of urbanisation. Increasingly, refugees, returnees, and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are to be found not in camps or among host communities in rural areas, but in the towns and cities of developing and middle-income countries. The arrival and long-term settlement of displaced populations in urban areas needs to be better anticipated, understood, and planned for, with a particular emphasis on the establishment of new partnerships. Humanitarian actors can no longer liaise only with national governments; they must also develop urgently closer working relationships with mayors and municipal authorities, service providers, urban police forces, and, most importantly, the representatives of both displaced and resident communities. This requires linking up with those development actors that have established such partnerships already. © 2012 The Author(s). Journal compilation © Overseas Development Institute, 2012.

  12. Financing of internal displacement: excerpts from the Sri Lankan experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirthalingam, Kopalapillai; Lakshman, Rajith W D

    2010-04-01

    This paper investigates how internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Batticaloa, Sri Lanka, financed their first year of displacement. We conducted extensive fieldwork in August 2007 in numerous welfare centres in Batticaloa that have received persons displaced from the Mutur divisional secretariat (DS) in the Trincomalee district. The sample was selected from the village of Sampur in Mutur DS. The displaced from Sampur are of Tamil origin and our findings reveal certain coping strategies that may be particular to this community, including the selling or mortgaging of gold jewellery to address the effects of displacement. We found that the IDPs in this region rely heavily on jewellery and other forms of savings to ensure their survival. There is also strong evidence to support the critically important coping role played by livelihoods. These coping strategies have enabled the IDP households in the present sample to live marginally above the poverty line.

  13. 30 CFR 77.1431 - Minimum rope strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.001L) For rope lengths 3,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×4.0 (b) Friction drum ropes. For rope lengths less than 4,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.0005L) For rope lengths 4,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×5.0 (c) Tail ropes...

  14. The climate velocity of the contiguous United States during the 20th century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon Z. Dobrowski; John Abatzoglou; Alan K. Swanson; Jonathan A. Greenberg; Alison R. Mynsberge; Zachary A. Holden; Michael K. Schwartz

    2013-01-01

    Rapid climate change has the potential to affect economic, social, and biological systems. A concern for species conservation is whether or not the rate of on-going climate change will exceed the rate at which species can adapt or move to suitable environments. Here we assess the climate velocity (both climate displacement rate and direction) for minimum temperature,...

  15. Research on Joint Parameter Inversion for an Integrated Underground Displacement 3D Measuring Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanying Shentu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Underground displacement monitoring is a key means to monitor and evaluate geological disasters and geotechnical projects. There exist few practical instruments able to monitor subsurface horizontal and vertical displacements simultaneously due to monitoring invisibility and complexity. A novel underground displacement 3D measuring sensor had been proposed in our previous studies, and great efforts have been taken in the basic theoretical research of underground displacement sensing and measuring characteristics by virtue of modeling, simulation and experiments. This paper presents an innovative underground displacement joint inversion method by mixing a specific forward modeling approach with an approximate optimization inversion procedure. It can realize a joint inversion of underground horizontal displacement and vertical displacement for the proposed 3D sensor. Comparative studies have been conducted between the measured and inversed parameters of underground horizontal and vertical displacements under a variety of experimental and inverse conditions. The results showed that when experimentally measured horizontal displacements and vertical displacements are both varied within 0 ~ 30 mm, horizontal displacement and vertical displacement inversion discrepancies are generally less than 3 mm and 1 mm, respectively, under three kinds of simulated underground displacement monitoring circumstances. This implies that our proposed underground displacement joint inversion method is robust and efficient to predict the measuring values of underground horizontal and vertical displacements for the proposed sensor.

  16. A Phosphate Minimum in the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) off Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmier, A.; Giraud, M.; Sudre, J.; Jonca, J.; Leon, V.; Moron, O.; Dewitte, B.; Lavik, G.; Grasse, P.; Frank, M.; Stramma, L.; Garcon, V.

    2016-02-01

    The Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) off Peru is known to be associated with the advection of Equatorial SubSurface Waters (ESSW), rich in nutrients and poor in oxygen, through the Peru-Chile UnderCurrent (PCUC), but this circulation remains to be refined within the OMZ. During the Pelágico cruise in November-December 2010, measurements of phosphate revealed the presence of a phosphate minimum (Pmin) in various hydrographic stations, which could not be explained so far and could be associated with a specific water mass. This Pmin, localized at a relatively constant layer ( 20minimum with a mean vertical phosphate decrease of 0.6 µM but highly variable between 0.1 and 2.2 µM. In average, these Pmin are associated with a predominant mixing of SubTropical Under- and Surface Waters (STUW and STSW: 20 and 40%, respectively) within ESSW ( 25%), complemented evenly by overlying (ESW, TSW: 8%) and underlying waters (AAIW, SPDW: 7%). The hypotheses and mechanisms leading to the Pmin formation in the OMZ are further explored and discussed, considering the physical regional contribution associated with various circulation pathways ventilating the OMZ and the local biogeochemical contribution including the potential diazotrophic activity.

  17. [Correlation analysis between residual displacement and hip function after reconstruction of acetabular fractures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kunlong; Fang, Yue; Luan, Fujun; Tu, Chongqi; Yang, Tianfu

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the relationships between residual displacement of weight-bearing and non weight-bearing zones (gap displacement and step displacement) and hip function by analyzing the CT images after reconstruction of acetabular fractures. The CT measures and clinical outcome were retrospectively analyzed from 48 patients with displaced acetabular fracture between June 2004 and June 2009. All patients were treated by open reduction and internal fixation, and were followed up 24 to 72 months (mean, 36 months); all fractures healed after operation. The residual displacement involved the weight-bearing zone in 30 cases (weight-bearing group), and involved the non weight-bearing zone in 18 cases (non weight-bearing group). The clinical outcomes were evaluated by Merle d'Aubigné-Postel criteria, and the reduction of articular surface by CT images, including the maximums of two indexes (gap displacement and step displacement). All the data were analyzed in accordance with the Spearman rank correlation coefficient analysis. There was strong negative correlation between the hip function and the residual displacement values in weight-bearing group (r(s) = -0.722, P = 0.001). But there was no correlation between the hip function and the residual displacement values in non weight-bearing group (r(s) = 0.481, P = 0.059). The results of clinical follow-up were similar to the correlation analysis results. In weight-bearing group, the hip function had strong negative correlation with step displacement (r(s) = 0.825, P = 0.002), but it had no correlation with gap displacement (r(s) = 0.577, P = 0.134). In patients with acetabular fracture, the hip function has correlation not only with the extent of the residual displacement but also with the location of the residual displacement, so the residual displacement of weight-bearing zone is a key factor to affect the hip function. In patients with residual displacement in weight-bearing zone, the bigger the step displacement is, the

  18. Displaced Electric Sail Orbits Design and Transition Trajectory Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiming Qi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Displaced orbits for spacecraft propelled by electric sails are investigated as an alternative to the use of solar sails. The orbital dynamics of electric sails based spacecraft are studied within a spherical coordinate system, which permits finding the solutions of displaced electric sail orbits and optimize transfer trajectory. Transfer trajectories from Earth's orbit to displaced orbit are also studied in an optimal framework, by using genetic algorithm and Gauss pseudospectral method. The initial guesses for the state and control histories used in the Gauss pseudospectral method are interpolated from the best solution of a genetic algorithm. Numerical simulations show that the electric sail is able to perform the transfer from Earth’s orbit to displaced orbit in acceptable time, and the hybrid optimization method has the capability to search the feasible and optimal solution without any initial value guess.

  19. Monitoring roof beam lateral displacement at the waste isolation pilot plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrill, L.J.; Lewis, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Lateral displacement in the immediate roof beam at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a significant factor in assessment of excavation performance for the design of ground control systems. Information on roof beam lateral displacement, expansion, fracture formation, as well as excavation convergence, is gathered using a variety of manually and remotely read instruments. Visual observations are also used when possible. This paper describes the methods used to measure lateral displacement, or offset, at the WIPP. Offset magnitudes are determined by the degree of occlusion in drillholes that intersect the offset plane. The Borehole Lateral Displacement Sensor (BLDS) was developed for installation at WIPP to monitor offset at a high degree of accuracy at a short reading frequency. Offset measurements have historically been obtained by visual estimation of borehole occlusion. Use of the BLDS will enable relationships between time dependent roof beam lateral displacement and expansion to be established in much shorter periods than is possible using visual observations. The instrument will also allow remote monitoring of roof beam displacement in areas where visual estimations are not possible. Continued monitoring of roof beam displacement, convergence, and expansion, is integral to timely and pertinent assessments of WIPP excavation performance

  20. Monitoring roof beam lateral displacement at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terrill, L.J.; Lewis, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    Lateral displacement in the immediate roof beam at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a significant factor in assessment of excavation performance for the design of ground control systems. Information on roof beam lateral displacement, expansion, fracture formation, as well as excavation convergence, is gathered using a variety of manually and remotely read instruments. Visual observations are also used when possible. This paper describes the methods used to measure lateral displacement, or offset, at the WIPP. Offset magnitudes are determined by the degree of occlusion in drillholes that intersect the offset plane. The Borehole Lateral Displacement Sensor (BLDS) was developed for installation at WIPP to monitor offset at a high degree of accuracy at a short reading frequency. Offset measurements have historically been obtained by visual estimation of borehole conclusion. Use of the BLDS will enable relationships between time dependent roof beam lateral displacement and expansion to be established in much shorter periods than is possible using visual observations. The instrument will also allow remote monitoring of roof beam displacement in areas where visual estimations are not possible. Continued monitoring of roof beam displacement, convergence, and expansion, is integral to timely and pertinent assessments of WIPP excavation performance

  1. Natural history of minimal anterior displacements of the temporomandibular joint meniscus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drace, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) often provides more precise localization of the meniscus than other imaging modalities. Previous study of the distribution of meniscus position in a control population showed that anterior displacements of more than 10 0 were more than 2 standard deviations from the mean, but the clinical significance and natural history of minimal displacements remained uncertain. Twenty follow-up MR studies were performed after 1-2 years in subjects with minimal meniscus displacements drawn from an original series of 125 symptomatic patients and 50 asymptomatic volunteers. These were correlated with repeated clinical histories and clinical examinations. A significant increase in the amount of anterior displacement was found in 55% of the originally asymptomatic volunteers with minimal displacements, which was accompanied by new symptoms in 40%. This was seen exclusively among those with a history of orthodontia. Worsening anterior displacements were seen in 50% of the patient population, and 25% had associated worsening symptoms. These findings indicate that detection of even minimal displacements of the TMJ meniscus is necessary and warrants follow-up MR examinations. Routine follow-up MR images should be obtained following malocclusion treatment and after major dental procedures

  2. Rate-Compatible Protograph LDPC Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy V. (Inventor); Nosratinia, Aria (Inventor); Divsalar, Dariush (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Digital communication coding methods resulting in rate-compatible low density parity-check (LDPC) codes built from protographs. Described digital coding methods start with a desired code rate and a selection of the numbers of variable nodes and check nodes to be used in the protograph. Constraints are set to satisfy a linear minimum distance growth property for the protograph. All possible edges in the graph are searched for the minimum iterative decoding threshold and the protograph with the lowest iterative decoding threshold is selected. Protographs designed in this manner are used in decode and forward relay channels.

  3. Unemployment in Iraqi Refugees: The Interaction of Pre and Post-Displacement Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A. Michelle; Dhalimi, Abir; Lumley, Mark A.; Jamil, Hikmet; Pole, Nnamdi; Arnetz, Judith E.; Arnetz, Bengt B.

    2016-01-01

    Previous refugee research has been unable to link pre-displacement trauma with unemployment in the host country. The current study assessed the role of pre-displacement trauma, post-displacement trauma, and the interaction of both trauma types to prospectively examine unemployment in a random sample of newly-arrived Iraqi refugees. Participants (N=286) were interviewed three times over the first two years post-arrival. Refugees were assessed for pre-displacement trauma exposure, post-displacement trauma exposure, a history of unemployment in the country of origin and host country, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Analyses found that neither pre-displacement nor post-displacement trauma independently predicted unemployment 2 years post-arrival; however, the interaction of pre and post-displacement trauma predicted 2-year unemployment. Refugees with high levels of both pre and post-displacement trauma had a 91% predicted probability of unemployment, whereas those with low levels of both traumas had a 20% predicted probability. This interaction remained significant after controlling for sociodemographic variables and mental health upon arrival to the U.S. Resettlement agencies and community organizations should consider the interactive effect of encountering additional trauma after escaping the hardships of the refugee's country of origin. PMID:27535348

  4. Sensorless displacement estimation of a shape memory alloy coil spring actuator using inductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hongjip; Lee, Dae-young; Cho, Kyu-Jin; Han, Yongsu; Ha, Jung-Ik

    2013-01-01

    To measure the displacement of a shape memory alloy (SMA) coil spring actuator for feedback control, displacement sensors larger than the actuator are normally required. In this study, a novel method for estimating the displacement of an SMA coil spring actuator without a sensor is proposed. Instead of a sensor, coil inductance is used for estimating the displacement. Coil inductance is estimated by measuring the voltage and the transient response of the current. It has a one-to-one relationship with the displacement of the coil and is not affected by load. Previous methods for estimating displacement using resistance measurements are heavily affected by load variations. The experimental results herein show that displacement is estimated with reasonable accuracy under varying loads using coil inductance. This sensorless method of estimating the displacement of an SMA coil spring actuator can be used to build a compact feedback controller because there is no need for a bulky displacement sensor. (paper)

  5. Oil/water displacement in microfluidic packed beds under weakly water-wetting conditions: competition between precursor film flow and piston-like displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanino, Yukie; Zacarias-Hernandez, Xanat; Christensen, Magali

    2018-02-01

    Optical microscopy was used to measure depth-averaged oil distribution in a quasi-monolayer of crushed marble packed in a microfluidic channel as it was displaced by water. By calibrating the transmitted light intensity to oil thickness, we account for depth variation in the fluid distribution. Experiments reveal that oil saturation at water breakthrough decreases with increasing Darcy velocity, U_{ {w}}, between capillary numbers {Ca} = μ _{ {w}} U_{ {w}}/σ = 9× 10^{-7} and 9× 10^{-6}, where μ _{ {w}} is the dynamic viscosity of water and σ is the oil/water interfacial tension, under the conditions considered presently. In contrast, end-point (long-time) remaining oil saturation depends only weakly on U_{ {w}}. This transient dependence on velocity is attributed to the competition between precursor film flow, which controls early time invasion dynamics but is inefficient at displacing oil, and piston-like displacement, which controls ultimate oil recovery. These results demonstrate that microfluidic experiments using translucent grains and fluids are a convenient tool for quantitative investigation of sub-resolution liquid/liquid displacement in porous media.

  6. Programming chemical kinetics: engineering dynamic reaction networks with DNA strand displacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivas, Niranjan

    Over the last century, the silicon revolution has enabled us to build faster, smaller and more sophisticated computers. Today, these computers control phones, cars, satellites, assembly lines, and other electromechanical devices. Just as electrical wiring controls electromechanical devices, living organisms employ "chemical wiring" to make decisions about their environment and control physical processes. Currently, the big difference between these two substrates is that while we have the abstractions, design principles, verification and fabrication techniques in place for programming with silicon, we have no comparable understanding or expertise for programming chemistry. In this thesis we take a small step towards the goal of learning how to systematically engineer prescribed non-equilibrium dynamical behaviors in chemical systems. We use the formalism of chemical reaction networks (CRNs), combined with mass-action kinetics, as our programming language for specifying dynamical behaviors. Leveraging the tools of nucleic acid nanotechnology (introduced in Chapter 1), we employ synthetic DNA molecules as our molecular architecture and toehold-mediated DNA strand displacement as our reaction primitive. Abstraction, modular design and systematic fabrication can work only with well-understood and quantitatively characterized tools. Therefore, we embark on a detailed study of the "device physics" of DNA strand displacement (Chapter 2). We present a unified view of strand displacement biophysics and kinetics by studying the process at multiple levels of detail, using an intuitive model of a random walk on a 1-dimensional energy landscape, a secondary structure kinetics model with single base-pair steps, and a coarse-grained molecular model that incorporates three-dimensional geometric and steric effects. Further, we experimentally investigate the thermodynamics of three-way branch migration. Our findings are consistent with previously measured or inferred rates for

  7. Ocular surface displacement with and without contact lenses during non-contact tonometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimayanti, Ulfah; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki; Uemura, Shohei; Takenaka, Joji; Mochizuki, Hideki; Kaneko, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the displacement of the central ocular surface during non-contact tonometry with and without soft contact lenses and determine the factors associated with the displacement of the central ocular surface and intraocular pressure (IOP) reading changes caused by wearing soft contact lenses (CLs). One eye each in 21 subjects was studied. The cornea was photographed using a high-speed camera at 5,000 frames/sec during non-contact tonometry without contact lenses (NCL), with -5.0 diopters (D), -0.5 D and +5.0 D CL. The displacement of the ocular surface and the factors affecting displacement at the IOP reading and maximum displacement time were investigated. The IOP readings while wearing +5 D CL were significantly higher than those obtained while wearing -5 D CL. The ocular surface displacement between +5 D CL and other groups were significantly different. A significant positive correlation was found between the ocular surface displacement of subjects at the IOP reading time and the IOP obtained with the non-contact tonometer. A significant negative correlation was found between the ocular surface curvature and the IOP obtained using the non-contact tonometer. The radius of curvature of the ocular surface affected the displacement during the IOP reading and maximum displacement time. Our results indicate that soft contact lens use changes the ocular surface behavior and IOP readings during non-contact tonometry. The radius of curvature of the eye affects the ocular surface displacement and IOP readings in this situation.

  8. A new reliability measure based on specified minimum distances before the locations of random variables in a finite interval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todinov, M.T.

    2004-01-01

    A new reliability measure is proposed and equations are derived which determine the probability of existence of a specified set of minimum gaps between random variables following a homogeneous Poisson process in a finite interval. Using the derived equations, a method is proposed for specifying the upper bound of the random variables' number density which guarantees that the probability of clustering of two or more random variables in a finite interval remains below a maximum acceptable level. It is demonstrated that even for moderate number densities the probability of clustering is substantial and should not be neglected in reliability calculations. In the important special case where the random variables are failure times, models have been proposed for determining the upper bound of the hazard rate which guarantees a set of minimum failure-free operating intervals before the random failures, with a specified probability. A model has also been proposed for determining the upper bound of the hazard rate which guarantees a minimum availability target. Using the models proposed, a new strategy, models and reliability tools have been developed for setting quantitative reliability requirements which consist of determining the intersection of the hazard rate envelopes (hazard rate upper bounds) which deliver a minimum failure-free operating period before random failures, a risk of premature failure below a maximum acceptable level and a minimum required availability. It is demonstrated that setting reliability requirements solely based on an availability target does not necessarily mean a low risk of premature failure. Even at a high availability level, the probability of premature failure can be substantial. For industries characterised by a high cost of failure, the reliability requirements should involve a hazard rate envelope limiting the risk of failure below a maximum acceptable level

  9. HDR monotherapy for prostate cancer: A simulation study to determine the effect of catheter displacement on target coverage and normal tissue irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolkman-Deurloo, Inger-Karine K.; Roos, Martin A.; Aluwini, Shafak

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to systematically analyse the effect of catheter displacements both on target coverage and normal tissue irradiation in fractionated high dose rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy, using a simulation study, and to define tolerances for catheter displacement ensuring that both target coverage and normal tissue doses remain clinically acceptable. Besides the effect of total implant displacement, also displacements of catheters belonging to selected template rows only were evaluated in terms of target coverage and normal tissue dose, in order to analyse the change in dose distribution as a function of catheter dwell weight and catheter location. Material and methods: Five representative implant geometries, with 17 catheters each, were selected. The clinical treatment plan was compared to treatment plans in which an entire implant displacement in caudal direction over 3, 5, 7 and 10 mm was simulated. Besides, treatment plans were simulated considering a displacement of either the central, most ventral or most dorsal catheter rows only, over 5 mm caudally. Results: Due to displacement of the entire implant the target coverage drops below the tolerance of 93% for all displacements studied. The effect of displacement of the entire implant on organs at risk strongly depended on the patient anatomy; e.g., for 80% of the implant geometries the V 80 of the rectum exceeded its tolerance for all displacements. The effect of displacement of catheters belonging to selected template rows depended strongly on the relative weight of each catheter row when considering the target coverage and on its location when considering the dose in the organs at risk. Conclusion: This study supports the need for a check of the catheter locations before each fraction and correction of deviations of the catheter position exceeding 3 mm.

  10. Displacement and deformation measurement for large structures by camera network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yang; Yu, Qifeng; Yang, Zhen; Xu, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2014-03-01

    A displacement and deformation measurement method for large structures by a series-parallel connection camera network is presented. By taking the dynamic monitoring of a large-scale crane in lifting operation as an example, a series-parallel connection camera network is designed, and the displacement and deformation measurement method by using this series-parallel connection camera network is studied. The movement range of the crane body is small, and that of the crane arm is large. The displacement of the crane body, the displacement of the crane arm relative to the body and the deformation of the arm are measured. Compared with a pure series or parallel connection camera network, the designed series-parallel connection camera network can be used to measure not only the movement and displacement of a large structure but also the relative movement and deformation of some interesting parts of the large structure by a relatively simple optical measurement system.

  11. Large scale intender test program to measure sub gouge displacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Been, Ken; Lopez, Juan [Golder Associates Inc, Houston, TX (United States); Sancio, Rodolfo [MMI Engineering Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The production of submarine pipelines in an offshore environment covered with ice is very challenging. Several precautions must be taken such as burying the pipelines to protect them from ice movement caused by gouging. The estimation of the subgouge displacements is a key factor in pipeline design for ice gouged environments. This paper investigated a method to measure subgouge displacements. An experimental program was implemented in an open field to produce large scale idealized gouges on engineered soil beds (sand and clay). The horizontal force required to produce the gouge, the subgouge displacements in the soil and the strain imposed by these displacements were monitored on a buried model pipeline. The results showed that for a given keel, the gouge depth was inversely proportional to undrained shear strength in clay. The subgouge displacements measured did not show a relationship with the gouge depth, width or soil density in sand and clay tests.

  12. Characterization of the elastic displacement demand: Case study - Sofia city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskaleva, I.; Kouteva, M.; Vaccari, F.; Panza, G.F.

    2008-02-01

    The results of the study on the seismic site response in a part of the metropolitan Sofia are discussed. The neo-deterministic seismic hazard assessment procedure has been used to compute realistic synthetic waveforms considering four earthquake scenarios, with magnitudes M = 3.7, M = 6.3 and M = 7.0. Source and site specific ground motion time histories are computed along three investigated cross sections, making use of the hybrid approach, combining the modal summation technique and the finite differences scheme. Displacement and acceleration response spectra are considered. These results are validated against the design elastic displacement response spectra and displacement demand, recommended in Eurocode 8. The elastic response design spectrum from the standard pseudo-acceleration, versus natural period, Tn, format is converted to the Sa - Sd format. The elastic displacement response spectra and displacement demand are discussed with respect to the earthquake magnitude, the seismic source-to-site distance, seismic source mechanism, and the local geological site conditions. (author)

  13. Fault Length Vs Fault Displacement Evaluation In The Case Of Cerro Prieto Pull-Apart Basin (Baja California, Mexico) Subsidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacka, E.; Sarychikhina, O.; Nava Pichardo, F. A.; Farfan, F.; Garcia Arthur, M. A.; Orozco, L.; Brassea, J.

    2013-05-01

    The Cerro Prieto pull-apart basin is located in the southern part of San Andreas Fault system, and is characterized by high seismicity, recent volcanism, tectonic deformation and hydrothermal activity (Lomnitz et al, 1970; Elders et al., 1984; Suárez-Vidal et al., 2008). Since the Cerro Prieto geothermal field production started, in 1973, significant subsidence increase was observed (Glowacka and Nava, 1996, Glowacka et al., 1999), and a relation between fluid extraction rate and subsidence rate has been suggested (op. cit.). Analysis of existing deformation data (Glowacka et al., 1999, 2005, Sarychikhina 2011) points to the fact that, although the extraction changes influence the subsidence rate, the tectonic faults control the spatial extent of the observed subsidence. Tectonic faults act as water barriers in the direction perpendicular to the fault, and/or separate regions with different compaction, and as effect the significant part of the subsidence is released as vertical displacement on the ground surface along fault rupture. These faults ruptures cause damages to roads and irrigation canals and water leakage. Since 1996, a network of geotechnical instruments has operated in the Mexicali Valley, for continuous recording of deformation phenomena. To date, the network (REDECVAM: Mexicali Valley Crustal Strain Measurement Array) includes two crackmeters and eight tiltmeters installed on, or very close to, the main faults; all instruments have sampling intervals in the 1 to 20 minutes range. Additionally, there are benchmarks for measuring vertical fault displacements for which readings are recorded every 3 months. Since the crackmeter measures vertical displacement on the fault at one place only, the question appears: can we use the crackmeter data to evaluate how long is the lenth of the fractured fault, and how quickly it grows, so we can know where we can expect fractures in the canals or roads? We used the Wells and Coppersmith (1994) relations between

  14. Fundamental principles of rotary displacement meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, J. [Schlumberger Industries, Owenton, KY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The gas meter exists to continually and accurately measure the volume of gas supplied over the complete flow range of the load. In effect the gas meter serves as the {open_quotes}cash register{close_quotes} of the gas industry; its accurate and dependable performance ensures fair dealings for both the supplier and the user. An investment both in and of itself, the gas meter should be chosen as a function of its usefullness both over the short term and the long term. Thus in addition to initial cost, one must take into account various associated factors, costs and benefits, including the following: Design Characteristics Application, suitability, Meter features and options, Operation constraints, Installation, Service and maintenance, Repair and replacement, Life expectancy, Compatibility with complimentary products, Correcting devices, Remote reading capabilities, Data generation and gathering, Upgradeabilty. This paper will look at one positive displacement meter, the Rotary meter, and address the fundamentals principals of the technology as well as looking at some of the benefits derived from its application. Rotary positive displacement meters were introduced at the end of last century. Used primarily for metering transmission sized loads, the meters` measuring capabilities have extended to cover nearly all areas of distribution with exception of domestic applications. Rotary meters are available in rated capacities from 800 cfh to 102,000 cfh and operating pressures from 175 PSIG to 1440 PSIG. The use of rotary meters on load ranges in the 800 to 10,000 cfh category has increased and is replacing the use of diaphragm meters because of the smaller relative size of rotaries, and improvements in rangeabilities in the last few years. Turbine meters are usually the meter of choice on loads over 16,000 cfh unless a meter with high rangeability is required because of varying load characteristics, in which case a large foot mounted rotary might still be selected.

  15. Distal displacement of the maxilla and the upper first molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, S; Molthen, R; West, E E; Miller, D M

    1979-06-01

    Data from a sample of 198 Class II cases treated with various appliances which deliver distally directed forces to the maxilla were examined to determine the frequency of absolute distal displacement of the upper first molar and of the maxilla. Analysis revealed that such distal displacement is possible and that it is, in fact, a frequent finding following treatment. Long-range stability of distal displacement was not assessed.

  16. Displacement of DL-[3H]-2-amino-4-phosphonobutanoic acid ( [3H]APB) binding with methyl-substituted APB analogues and glutamate agonists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, M.B.; Crooks, S.L.; Johnson, R.L.; Koerner, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The binding of the excitatory amino acid antagonist DL-2-amino-4-phosphonobutanoic acid (DL-APB) to rat brain synaptic plasma membranes was characterized. As determined by Scatchard analysis, the binding was saturable and homogeneous with a Kd = 6.0 microM and Bmax = 380 pmol/mg of protein. The binding was dependent on the presence of Ca 2+ and Cl - ions and was diminished upon freezing. The association rate constant was 6.8 X 10(-3) microM -1 min -1 , and the dissociation rate constant was 2.0 X 10(-2) min -1 . The L isomers of APB, glutamate, and aspartate were more potent as displacers of APB binding than the D isomers. With the exception of kynurenic acid, all compounds examined in both systems were more potent as displacers of APB binding than as inhibitors of synaptic transmission. This difference in potency was most pronounced for agonists at dentate granule cells. L-Glutamate, D-glutamate, and L-glutamate tetrazole were between 140- and 7500-fold more potent as displacers of DL-APB binding than as inhibitors of synaptic transmission. D-2-Amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid and alpha-methyl-APB were between 10- and 20-fold more potent as displacers of binding

  17. Control of DNA strand displacement kinetics using toehold exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, David Yu; Winfree, Erik

    2009-12-02

    DNA is increasingly being used as the engineering material of choice for the construction of nanoscale circuits, structures, and motors. Many of these enzyme-free constructions function by DNA strand displacement reactions. The kinetics of strand displacement can be modulated by toeholds, short single-stranded segments of DNA that colocalize reactant DNA molecules. Recently, the toehold exchange process was introduced as a method for designing fast and reversible strand displacement reactions. Here, we characterize the kinetics of DNA toehold exchange and model it as a three-step process. This model is simple and quantitatively predicts the kinetics of 85 different strand displacement reactions from the DNA sequences. Furthermore, we use toehold exchange to construct a simple catalytic reaction. This work improves the understanding of the kinetics of nucleic acid reactions and will be useful in the rational design of dynamic DNA and RNA circuits and nanodevices.

  18. Searches for light sterile neutrinos with multitrack displaced vertices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, Giovanna; Helo, Juan Carlos; Hirsch, Martin

    2018-03-01

    We study discovery prospects for long-lived sterile neutrinos at the LHC with multitrack displaced vertices, with masses below the electroweak scale. We reinterpret current displaced vertex searches making use of publicly available, parametrized selection efficiencies for modeling the detector response to displaced vertices. We focus on the production of right-handed WR bosons and neutrinos N in a left-right symmetric model, and find poor sensitivity. After proposing a different trigger strategy (considering the prompt lepton accompanying the neutrino displaced vertex) and optimized cuts in the invariant mass and track multiplicity of the vertex, we find that the LHC with √{s }=13 TeV and 300 fb-1 is able to probe sterile neutrino masses between 10 GeV right-handed gauge boson mass of 2 TeV work joins other efforts in motivating dedicated experimental searches to target this low sterile neutrino mass region.

  19. Piezoelectric displacement in ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.; Cain, M.; Gee, M.

    1999-01-01

    This Good Practice Guide is intended to aid a user to perform displacement measurements on piezoelectric ceramic materials such as PZT (lead zirconium titanate) in either monolithic or multilayer form. The various measurement issues that the user must consider are addressed, and good measurement practise is described for the four most suitable methods. (author)

  20. Range and specificity of war-related trauma to posttraumatic stress; depression and general health perception: displaced former World War II children in late life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Kristin; Dapp, Ulrike; Anders, Jennifer; von Renteln-Kruse, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Silke

    2011-02-01

    Dose-response relation of war experiences and posttraumatic stress, depression and poor health functioning in late life is well documented in war-affected populations. The influence of differing trauma types experienced by war-affected population in the study of dose-response relation of war trauma and psychological maladaptation in late life has not been investigated. We examined a subgroup of displaced elders and investigated whether specific trauma types were associated with differential health outcomes. From representative practitioner lists, matched groups of former displaced and non-displaced World War II children were assigned, yielding a total sample of 417 participants (response rate 50%). Measurement encompassed a self-report survey including the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Consistent dose-relation between war-related experiences and posttraumatic stress or depressive symptoms in late life was found for both, displaced and non-displaced elders, whereas a gradient for poor health perception was only found in displaced people. Trauma types derived from principal component analysis showed differential associations with health outcomes. Human Right Violations emerged as risk factor for posttraumatic stress symptoms and Deprivation & Threat to Life as risk factor for depressive symptoms. Poor self-rated health was associated with multiple trauma types. Non-random recruitment, retrospective design and use of self-report. Posttraumatic stress and depression are associated with war-related experiences more than 60 years after World War II. Results suggest that different trauma types lead to unique variants of syndrome configurations, which may result from different etiological factors. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Forced displacement and women's security in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meertens, Donny

    2010-04-01

    In the protracted Colombian conflict, assistance to internally displaced persons has developed in the context of contradictory political processes. The Colombian government's launching of a transitional justice process in the midst of armed conflict has generated a complex situation displaying both conflict and post-conflict characteristics. The progressive Constitutional Court rulings on internal displacement, in particular the gender-sensitive Auto 092, constitute an attempt to bring together humanitarian interventions and transitional justice measures in a rights-based framework. However, the national government is reluctant to adopt them fully and local realities still hamper their integrated implementation. Displaced women, therefore, remain in an especially vulnerable position. This paper argues that gender-sensitive humanitarian interventions must take into account all of these complexities of scale and political process in order to make legal frameworks more effective at the local level. In these contexts, interventions should pay particular attention to strategies that contribute to transforming pre-existing gender regimes.

  2. Ocular surface displacement with and without contact lenses during non-contact tonometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulfah Rimayanti

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the displacement of the central ocular surface during non-contact tonometry with and without soft contact lenses and determine the factors associated with the displacement of the central ocular surface and intraocular pressure (IOP reading changes caused by wearing soft contact lenses (CLs. METHODS: One eye each in 21 subjects was studied. The cornea was photographed using a high-speed camera at 5,000 frames/sec during non-contact tonometry without contact lenses (NCL, with -5.0 diopters (D, -0.5 D and +5.0 D CL. The displacement of the ocular surface and the factors affecting displacement at the IOP reading and maximum displacement time were investigated. RESULTS: The IOP readings while wearing +5 D CL were significantly higher than those obtained while wearing -5 D CL. The ocular surface displacement between +5 D CL and other groups were significantly different. A significant positive correlation was found between the ocular surface displacement of subjects at the IOP reading time and the IOP obtained with the non-contact tonometer. A significant negative correlation was found between the ocular surface curvature and the IOP obtained using the non-contact tonometer. The radius of curvature of the ocular surface affected the displacement during the IOP reading and maximum displacement time. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that soft contact lens use changes the ocular surface behavior and IOP readings during non-contact tonometry. The radius of curvature of the eye affects the ocular surface displacement and IOP readings in this situation.

  3. Effects of Turbulent Reynolds Number on the Displacement Speed Statistics in the Thin Reaction Zones Regime of Turbulent Premixed Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilanjan Chakraborty

    2011-01-01

    nature of the correlations remains unaffected. The dependence of displacement speed on strain rate and curvature is found to weaken with increasing turbulent Reynolds number when either Damköhler or Karlovitz number is held constant, but the qualitative nature of the correlation remains unaltered. The implications of turbulent Reynolds number effects in the context of Flame Surface Density (FSD modelling have also been addressed, with emphasis on the influence of displacement speed on the curvature and propagation terms in the FSD balance equation.

  4. Low-activity waste feed delivery -- Minimum duration between successive batches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, B.B.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a defensible basis for establishing what ''minimum duration'' will provide acceptable risk mitigation for low-activity waste feed delivery to the privatization vendors. The study establishes a probabilistic-based duration for staging of low-activity waste feed batches. A comparison is made of the durations with current feed delivery plans and potential privatization vendor facility throughput rates

  5. Low-activity waste feed delivery -- Minimum duration between successive batches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, B.B.

    1998-08-25

    The purpose of this study is to develop a defensible basis for establishing what ``minimum duration`` will provide acceptable risk mitigation for low-activity waste feed delivery to the privatization vendors. The study establishes a probabilistic-based duration for staging of low-activity waste feed batches. A comparison is made of the durations with current feed delivery plans and potential privatization vendor facility throughput rates.

  6. Sleep quality among internally displaced Georgian adolescents and population-based controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhelashvili, Irine; Eliozishvili, Marine; Lortkipanidze, Nani; Oniani, Nikoloz; Cervena, Katerina; Darchia, Nato

    2016-09-01

    Sleep problems in children and adolescents are a significant public health concern and may be linked to a variety of psychoemotional difficulties. This study aimed to evaluate sleep quality and associated factors in conflict-affected Georgian adolescents after 9 months of forced displacement. Thirty-three internally displaced adolescents (mean age 11.4 years) and 33 adolescents (mean age 10.8 years) from the general population completed the Epworth Sleepiness Scale and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Parents completed the Children's Sleep-Wake Scale and provided information on their socioeconomic status (SES) and the adolescents' sleep behavior, academic performance, and peer social relationships. The groups differed significantly in sleep quality, peer relationships, SES, and CDI scores. In the internally displaced group, the only significant predictor of sleep quality was SES, which increased the predictive capacity of the model (demographic and psychosocial variables) by 20% in the hierarchical analyses. The most significant predictor in the non-internally displaced group was CDI. This research indicates that displacement may affect sleep quality and psychosocial functioning. The importance of family SES as a contributing factor to displaced adolescents' poor sleep quality is highlighted. An integrated approach designed to improve the psychosocial environment of internally displaced adolescents is needed for their protection. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Customizing Structure-Function Displacements in the Macula for Individual Differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Andrew; Chen, Siyuan; Sepulveda, Juan A; McKendrick, Allison M

    2015-09-01

    In the macula, retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are displaced from their receptive fields. We used optical coherence tomography (OCT) to customize displacements for individual eyes by taking into account macular shape parameters, and determined the likely effect of individual anatomical differences on structure-function mapping in the central visual field. Using the population average model of Drasdo et al. as a starting point, we altered the RGC count in that model based on the ratio of an individual's RGC layer plus inner plexiform layer thickness to the population average on a pointwise basis as a function of eccentricity from the fovea. For 20 adults (age, 24-33; median age, 28) with normal vision, we computed displacements with the original model and our customized approach. We report the variance in displacements among individuals and compare the effects of such displacements on structure-function mapping of the commonly used the 10-2 visual field pattern. As expected, customizing the displacement using individual OCT data made only a small difference on average from the population-based values predicted by the Drasdo et al. model. However, the range between individuals was over 1° at many locations, and closer to 2° at some locations in the superior visual field. Individualizing macular displacement measurements based on OCT data for an individual can result in large spatial shifts in the retinal area corresponding to 10-2 locations, which may be important for clinical structure-function analysis when performed on a local, spatial scale.

  8. Contactless sub-millimeter displacement measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliepen, Guus; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Hammerschlag, Robert H.

    2008-07-01

    Weather effects on foldable domes, as used at the DOT and GREGOR, are investigated, in particular the correlation between the wind field and the stresses caused to both metal framework and tent clothing. Camera systems measure contactless the displacement of several dome points. The stresses follow from the measured deformation pattern. The cameras placed near the dome floor do not disturb telescope operations. In the set-ups of DOT and GREGOR, these cameras are up to 8 meters away from the measured points and must be able to detect displacements of less than 0.1 mm. The cameras have a FireWire (IEEE1394) interface to eliminate the need for frame grabbers. Each camera captures 15 images of 640 × 480 pixels per second. All data is processed on-site in real-time. In order to get the best estimate for the displacement within the constraints of available processing power, all image processing is done in Fourier-space, with all convolution operations being pre-computed once. A sub-pixel estimate of the peak of the correlation function is made. This enables to process the images of four cameras using only one commodity PC with a dual-core processor, and achieve an effective sensitivity of up to 0.01 mm. The deformation measurements are well correlated to the simultaneous wind measurements. The results are of high interest to upscaling the dome design (ELTs and solar telescopes).

  9. Displacive stability of a void in a void lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brailsford, A.D.

    1977-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that the stability of the void-lattice structure in irradiated metals may be attributed to the effect of the overlapping of the point-defect diffusion fields associated with each void. It is shown here, however, that the effect is much too weak. When one void is displaced from its lattice site, the displacement is shown to relax to zero as proposed, but a conservative estimate indicates that the characteristic time is equivalent to an irradiation dose of the order of 300 displacements per atom which is generally much greater than the dose necessary for void-lattice formation

  10. Three-Axis Attitude Estimation Using Rate-Integrating Gyroscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crassidis, John L.; Markley, F. Landis

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, attitude estimation has been performed using a combination of external attitude sensors and internal three-axis gyroscopes. There are many studies of three-axis attitude estimation using gyros that read angular rates. Rate-integrating gyros measure integrated rates or angular displacements, but three-axis attitude estimation using these types of gyros has not been as fully investigated. This paper derives a Kalman filtering framework for attitude estimation using attitude sensors coupled with rate- integrating gyroscopes. In order to account for correlations introduced by using these gyros, the state vector must be augmented, compared with filters using traditional gyros that read angular rates. Two filters are derived in this paper. The first uses an augmented state-vector form that estimates attitude, gyro biases, and gyro angular displacements. The second ignores correlations, leading to a filter that estimates attitude and gyro biases only. Simulation comparisons are shown for both filters. The work presented in this paper focuses only on attitude estimation using rate-integrating gyros, but it can easily be extended to other applications such as inertial navigation, which estimates attitude and position.

  11. 12 CFR 564.4 - Minimum appraisal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 564.4 Section 564.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.4 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally related transactions, all appraisals shall, at a minimum: (a...

  12. The minimum wage in the Czech enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Lajtkepová

    2010-01-01

    Although the statutory minimum wage is not a new category, in the Czech Republic we encounter the definition and regulation of a minimum wage for the first time in the 1990 amendment to Act No. 65/1965 Coll., the Labour Code. The specific amount of the minimum wage and the conditions of its operation were then subsequently determined by government regulation in February 1991. Since that time, the value of minimum wage has been adjusted fifteenth times (the last increase was in January 2007). ...

  13. Minimum Wages and Regional Disparity: An analysis on the evolution of price-adjusted minimum wages and their effects on firm profitability (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    MORIKAWA Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper, using prefecture level panel data, empirically analyzes 1) the recent evolution of price-adjusted regional minimum wages and 2) the effects of minimum wages on firm profitability. As a result of rapid increases in minimum wages in the metropolitan areas since 2007, the regional disparity of nominal minimum wages has been widening. However, the disparity of price-adjusted minimum wages has been shrinking. According to the analysis of the effects of minimum wages on profitability us...

  14. Event-driven control of a speed varying digital displacement machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Henrik; Johansen, Per; Andersen, Torben O.

    2017-01-01

    . The controller synthesis is carried out as a discrete optimal deterministic problem with full state feedback. Based on a linear analysis of the feedback control system, stability is proven in a pre-specified operation region. Simulation of a non-linear evaluation model with the controller implemented shows great...... be treated as a Discrete Linear Time Invariant control problem with synchronous sampling rate. To make synchronous linear control theory applicable for a variable speed digital displacement machine, a method based on event-driven control is presented. Using this method, the time domain differential equations...... are converted into the spatial (position) domain to obtain a constant sampling rate and thus allowing for use of classical control theory. The method is applied to a down scaled digital fluid power motor, where the motor speed is controlled at varying references under varying pressure and load torque conditions...

  15. Validation of a CFD methodology for positive displacement LVAD analysis using PIV data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvitz, Richard B; Reddy, Varun; Deutsch, Steve; Manning, Keefe B; Paterson, Eric G

    2009-11-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to asses the hydrodynamic performance of a positive displacement left ventricular assist device. The computational model uses implicit large eddy simulation direct resolution of the chamber compression and modeled valve closure to reproduce the in vitro results. The computations are validated through comparisons with experimental particle image velocimetry (PIV) data. Qualitative comparisons of flow patterns, velocity fields, and wall-shear rates demonstrate a high level of agreement between the computations and experiments. Quantitatively, the PIV and CFD show similar probed velocity histories, closely matching jet velocities and comparable wall-strain rates. Overall, it has been shown that CFD can provide detailed flow field and wall-strain rate data, which is important in evaluating blood pump performance.

  16. Sideways displacement and curved path of recti eye muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib); F. Harting (Friedrich); B.J. de Waal (Bob); B.W.J.M. Verbeeten (Ben)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractWe investigated the sideways displacement of recti muscles with the eye in various gaze-positions by making computed tomographic (CT) scans in a plane perpendicular to the muscle cone, posterior to the globe. We found no consistent sideways displacement of the horizontal recti in the up

  17. A displacement based FE formulation for steady state problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yu, Y.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis a new displacement based formulation is developed for elasto-plastic deformations in steady state problems. In this formulation the displacements are the primary variables, which is in contrast to the more common formulations in terms of the velocities as the primary variables. In a

  18. Case report: traumatic displacement of a cochlear implant magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keereweer, Stijn; Van der Schroeff, Marc P; Pullens, Bas

    2014-04-01

    To date, over 200 000 cochlear implants (CIs) have been implanted worldwide and the incidence is still increasing. We present a case of traumatic displacement of CI magnet to raise awareness about this complication and to highlight the need for vigilance during surgery as well as for proper counseling. The clinical presentation of a 1.5-year-old boy with a traumatic displacement of a CI magnet was presented and the literature was reviewed for this rare complication. After minor head injury, the sound processor could no longer connect to the CI. X-ray imaging demonstrated displacement of the CI magnet. During revision surgery, the magnet was replaced by a new magnet in the silicon holding cap. Intraoperative impedance measurements were normal and the CI was successfully activated 4 weeks postoperatively. Clinicians and patients should be aware of the risk of displacement of the CI magnet after (minor) head injury. Young boys tend to have a higher risk for this complication.

  19. 41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum wages. 50-201... Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published in the Federal Register by the...

  20. determination of design inflow rate in furrow irrigation using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    taken as the minimum inflow rate which gave rise to a minimum water application efficiency of. 60% and a minimum distribution uniformity of 75%. It is recommended that the procedure described in this work is useful for the modification of existing furrow irrigation systems and the establishment of new ones. Also, the design ...

  1. Urban displaced youth in Kabul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Majidi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Displaced young people in Kabul are waiting to see what the coming year brings for Afghanistan before making a decision as whether to move on again. This provides a window of opportunity to develop youth-sensitive programming.

  2. All-fiber multimode interference micro-displacement sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonio-Lopez, J E; LiKamWa, P; Sanchez-Mondragon, J J; May-Arrioja, D A

    2013-01-01

    We report an all-fiber micro-displacement sensor based on multimode interference (MMI) effects. The micro-displacement sensor consists of a segment of No-Core multimode fiber (MMF) with one end spliced to a segment of single mode fiber (SMF) which acts as the input. The other end of the MMF and another SMF are inserted into a capillary ferrule filled with index matching liquid. Since the refractive index of the liquid is higher than that of the ferrule, a liquid MMF with a diameter of 125 µm is formed between the fibers inside the ferrule. When the fibers are separated this effectively increases the length of the MMF. Since the peak wavelength response of MMI devices is very sensitive to changes in the MMF's length, this can be used to detect micro-displacements. By measuring spectral changes we have obtained a sensing range of 3 mm with a sensitivity of 25 nm mm −1 and a resolution of 20 µm. The sensor can also be used to monitor small displacements by using a single wavelength to interrogate the transmission of the MMI device close to the resonance peak. Under this latter regime we were able to obtain a sensitivity of 7000 mV mm −1 and a sensing range of 100 µm, with a resolution up to 1 µm. The simplicity and versatility of the sensor make it very suitable for many diverse applications. (paper)

  3. Reconstructing particle masses in events with displaced vertices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottin, Giovanna

    2018-03-01

    We propose a simple way to extract particle masses given a displaced vertex signature in event topologies where two long-lived mother particles decay to visible particles and an invisible daughter. The mother could be either charged or neutral and the neutral daughter could correspond to a dark matter particle in different models. The method allows to extract the parent and daughter masses by using on-shell conditions and energy-momentum conservation, in addition to the displaced decay positions of the parents, which allows to solve the kinematic equations fully on an event-by-event basis. We show the validity of the method by means of simulations including detector effects. If displaced events are seen in discovery searches at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), this technique can be applied.

  4. The study on the X-ray correction method of long fracture displacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Bin; Huang Ailing; Chen Fuzhong; Men Chunyan; Sui Chengzong; Cui Yiming; Yang Yundong

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the image correction of fracture displacement by conventional X-ray photography (ortho tropic and lateral) and test by computed tomography (CT). Methods: The correction method of fracture displacement was designed according to geometry of X-ray photography. Selected one midhumeral fracture specimen which designed with lateral shift and angular displacement, and scanned from anteroposterior and position respectively, and also volume scanned using CT, the data obtained from volume scan were processed using multiplanar reconstruction (MPR) and shaded surface display (SSD). The displacement data relied on X-ray image, CT with MPR and SSD processing, actual design of specimens were compared respectively. Results: The direction and degree of displacement among correction data of X-ray images and the data from MPR and SSD, actual design of specimen were little difference, location difference <1.5 mm, degree difference <1.5 degree. Conclusion: It is really reliable for fracture displacement by conventional X-ray photography with coordinate correction, and it is helpful to obviously improve the diagnostic accuracy of the degree of fracture displacement. (authors)

  5. Minimum Wage Laws and the Distribution of Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kevin

    The desirability of raising the minimum wage long revolved around just one question: the effect of higher minimum wages on the overall level of employment. An even more critical effect of the minimum wage rests on the composition of employment--who gets the minimum wage job. An examination of employment in eating and drinking establishments…

  6. Point Coupled Displacement Sensor, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Real-time displacement measurement techniques are needed to acquire aerodynamic and structural system characteristics in flight. This proposal describes the...

  7. Calculations on displacement damage and its related parameters for heavy ion bombardment in reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sone, Kazuho; Shiraishi, Kensuke

    1975-04-01

    The depth distribution of displacement damage expressed in displacements per atom (DPA) in reactor materials such as Mo, Nb, V, Fe and Ni bombarded by energetic nitrogen, argon and self ions with incident energy below 2 MeV was calculated following the theory developed by Lindhard and co-workers for the partition of energy as an energetic ion slowing down. In this calculation, energy loss due to electron excitation was taken into account for the atomic collision cascade after the primary knock-on process. Some parameters indispensable for the calculation such as energy loss rate, damage efficiency, projected range and its straggling were tabulated as a function of incident ion energy of 20 keV to 2 MeV. The damage and parameters were also calculated for 2 MeV nickel ions bombarding Fe targets. In this case, the DPA value is of 40--75% overestimated in a calculation disregarding electronic energy loss for primary knock-on atoms. The formula proposed in this report is significant for calculations on displacement damage produced by heavy ion bombardment as a simulation of high fluence fast neutron damage. (auth.)

  8. Calculations on displacement damage and its related parameters for heavy ion bombardment in reactor materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sone, K; Shiraishi, K

    1975-04-01

    The depth distribution of displacement damage expressed in displacements per atom (DPA) in reactor materials such as Mo, Nb, V, Fe and Ni bombarded by energetic nitrogen, argon and self ions with incident energy below 2 MeV was calculated following the theory developed by Lindhard and co-workers for the partition of energy as an energetic ion slowing down. In this calculation, energy loss due to electron excitation was taken into account for the atomic collision cascade after the primary knock-on process. Some parameters indispensable for the calculation such as energy loss rate, damage efficiency, projected range and its straggling were tabulated as a function of incident ion energy of 20 keV to 2 MeV. The damage and parameters were also calculated for 2 MeV nickel ions bombarding Fe targets. In this case, the DPA value is of 40--75% overestimated in a calculation disregarding electronic energy loss for primary knock-on atoms. The formula proposed in this report is significant for calculations on displacement damage produced by heavy ion bombardment as a simulation of high fluence fast neutron damage.

  9. Retention of Displaced Students after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coco, Joshua Christian

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the strategies that university leaders implemented to improve retention of displaced students in the aftermaths of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The universities that participated in this study admitted displaced students after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. This study utilized a qualitative…

  10. load-displacement and stability characteristics of tidn-walled beams

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    construction. Such structural ... The finite displacement formulation is used for load- displacement .... The other stress term, which is the incremental linear stress term a/ is .... formulation, only two out of the four general governing ..... 119, Paper. No. 2700 ... Deformations Spatial Buckling of Thin-Walled Beams and Frames ...

  11. 40 CFR 86.419-2006 - Engine displacement, motorcycle classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... reference in § 86.1). (2) For rotary engines, displacement means the maximum volume of a combustion chamber... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine displacement, motorcycle... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES...

  12. 29 CFR 505.3 - Prevailing minimum compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevailing minimum compensation. 505.3 Section 505.3 Labor... HUMANITIES § 505.3 Prevailing minimum compensation. (a)(1) In the absence of an alternative determination...)(2) of this section, the prevailing minimum compensation required to be paid under the Act to the...

  13. Dosimetry Modeling for Focal Low-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Qaisieh, Bashar [Leeds Cancer Centre, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom); Mason, Josh, E-mail: joshua.mason@nhs.net [Leeds Cancer Centre, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom); Bownes, Peter; Henry, Ann [Leeds Cancer Centre, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, Leeds (United Kingdom); Dickinson, Louise [Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, Northwick Park Hospital, London North West NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom); Ahmed, Hashim U. [Division of Surgery and Interventional Science, University College London, London (United Kingdom); University College London Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Emberton, Mark [University College London Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Langley, Stephen [St Luke' s Cancer Centre, Guildford (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Focal brachytherapy targeted to an individual lesion(s) within the prostate may reduce side effects experienced with whole-gland brachytherapy. The outcomes of a consensus meeting on focal prostate brachytherapy were used to investigate optimal dosimetry of focal low-dose-rate (LDR) prostate brachytherapy targeted using multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mp-MRI) and transperineal template prostate mapping (TPM) biopsy, including the effects of random and systematic seed displacements and interseed attenuation (ISA). Methods and Materials: Nine patients were selected according to clinical characteristics and concordance of TPM and mp-MRI. Retrospectively, 3 treatment plans were analyzed for each case: whole-gland (WG), hemi-gland (hemi), and ultra-focal (UF) plans, with 145-Gy prescription dose and identical dose constraints for each plan. Plan robustness to seed displacement and ISA were assessed using Monte Carlo simulations. Results: WG plans used a mean 28 needles and 81 seeds, hemi plans used 17 needles and 56 seeds, and UF plans used 12 needles and 25 seeds. Mean D90 (minimum dose received by 90% of the target) and V100 (percentage of the target that receives 100% dose) values were 181.3 Gy and 99.8% for the prostate in WG plans, 195.7 Gy and 97.8% for the hemi-prostate in hemi plans, and 218.3 Gy and 99.8% for the focal target in UF plans. Mean urethra D10 was 205.9 Gy, 191.4 Gy, and 92.4 Gy in WG, hemi, and UF plans, respectively. Mean rectum D2 cm{sup 3} was 107.5 Gy, 77.0 Gy, and 42.7 Gy in WG, hemi, and UF plans, respectively. Focal plans were more sensitive to seed displacement errors: random shifts with a standard deviation of 4 mm reduced mean target D90 by 14.0%, 20.5%, and 32.0% for WG, hemi, and UF plans, respectively. ISA has a similar impact on dose-volume histogram parameters for all plan types. Conclusions: Treatment planning for focal LDR brachytherapy is feasible. Dose constraints are easily met with a notable

  14. A wireless laser displacement sensor node for structural health monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo Seon; Kim, Jong Moon; Choi, Se Woon; Kim, Yousok

    2013-09-30

    This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM). The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS) and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA) communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements.

  15. Prostate HDR brachytherapy catheter displacement between planning and treatment delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitaker, May; Hruby, George; Lovett, Aimee; Patanjali, Nitya

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: HDR brachytherapy is used as a conformal boost for treating prostate cancer. Given the large doses delivered, it is critical that the volume treated matches that planned. Our outpatient protocol comprises two 9 Gy fractions, two weeks apart. We prospectively assessed catheter displacement between CT planning and treatment delivery. Materials and methods: Three fiducial markers and the catheters were implanted under transrectal ultrasound guidance. Metal marker wires were inserted into 4 reference catheters before CT; marker positions relative to each other and to the marker wires were measured from the CT scout. Measurements were repeated immediately prior to treatment delivery using pelvic X-ray with marker wires in the same reference catheters. Measurements from CT scout and film were compared. For displacements of 5 mm or more, indexer positions were adjusted prior to treatment delivery. Results: Results are based on 48 implants, in 25 patients. Median time from planning CT to treatment delivery was 254 min (range 81–367 min). Median catheter displacement was 7.5 mm (range −2.9–23.9 mm), 67% of implants had displacement of 5 mm or greater. Displacements were predominantly caudal. Conclusions: Catheter displacement can occur in the 1–3 h between the planning CT scan and treatment. It is recommended that departments performing HDR prostate brachytherapy verify catheter positions immediately prior to treatment delivery.

  16. A Wireless Laser Displacement Sensor Node for Structural Health Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Woon Choi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes a wireless laser displacement sensor node that measures displacement as a representative damage index for structural health monitoring (SHM. The proposed measurement system consists of a laser displacement sensor (LDS and a customized wireless sensor node. Wireless communication is enabled by a sensor node that consists of a sensor module, a code division multiple access (CDMA communication module, a processor, and a power module. An LDS with a long measurement distance is chosen to increase field applicability. For a wireless sensor node driven by a battery, we use a power control module with a low-power processor, which facilitates switching between the sleep and active modes, thus maximizing the power consumption efficiency during non-measurement and non-transfer periods. The CDMA mode is also used to overcome the limitation of communication distance, which is a challenge for wireless sensor networks and wireless communication. To evaluate the reliability and field applicability of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system, the system is tested onsite to obtain the required vertical displacement measurements during the construction of mega-trusses and an edge truss, which are the primary structural members in a large-scale irregular building currently under construction. The measurement values confirm the validity of the proposed wireless displacement measurement system and its potential for use in safety evaluations of structural elements.

  17. Lepton flavor violation with displaced vertices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Heeck

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available If light new physics with lepton-flavor-violating couplings exists, the prime discovery channel might not be ℓ→ℓ′γ but rather ℓ→ℓ′X, where the new boson X could be an axion, majoron, familon or Z′ gauge boson. The most conservative bound then comes from ℓ→ℓ′+inv, but if the on-shell X can decay back into leptons or photons, displaced-vertex searches could give much better limits. We show that only a narrow region in parameter space allows for displaced vertices in muon decays, μ→eX,X→γγ,ee, whereas tauon decays can have much more interesting signatures.

  18. Passive Smoking in a Displacement Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Erik; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The aim of this research is to see if the displacement ventilation principle can protect a person from exposure to passive tobacco smoking. This is done by full-scale experiments with two breathing thermal manikins, smoke visualisations, and tracer gas measurements. In some situations, exhaled...... smoke will stratify in a certain height due to the vertical temperature gradient. This horizontal layer of exhaled tobacco smoke may lead to exposure. In other situations, the smoke is mixed into the upper zone, and the passive smoker is protected to some extent by the displacement principle...

  19. Simulation and experimental studies of a double-fiber angular displacement sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ruixue; Jing, Ruiping; Cheng, Yongjin

    2017-03-01

    A novel optical fiber angular displacement sensor is reported in this study. It gets the rotating angle of an object by means of the intensity modulation of a reflected light. The sensor probe, which is composed of an emitting fiber and a receiving fiber that are aligned along the vertical direction closely, is fixed directly on the rotating object. The measurements for axial displacement and angular displacement were operated separately. In particular, measurements for angular displacement were performed when the reflector is placed at different distances from the sensor probe separately. There is an excellent linearity between the angular displacement and the sensor output power. The results indicate that the larger the distance between the sensor probe and the reflector, the higher sensitivity the angular displacement sensor has. A theoretical model of the sensor is also developed and the simulate computation demonstrates that the theoretical results are in accordance with the experimental ones. The linear sensing range is ±7.2°, and the maximum sensitivity is 13.71%/deg. Furthermore, the hysteresis and the reproducibility of the measurement of the sensor are investigated. The designed sensor provides a kind of simple and effective method for measuring the angular displacement of a shaft system in practice due to its small size, light weight, good linearity and reproducibility.

  20. Assessing interventions available to internally displaced persons in Abia state, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwereji, Ee

    2009-03-01

    Internally displaced persons are faced with several problems, such as sexual violence, and deserve appropriate intervention, especially in view of the increasing prevalence of HIV/AIDS and other infections in Nigeria. This study attempts to assess interventions offered by governmental authorities and organizations to internally displaced persons and to identify gaps in services as well as to identify what needs to be strengthened. The author reviewed relevant published and unpublished documents and collected data by interviews with semi-structured questions. Twenty-five organizations and government and police departments and 55 internally displaced persons were interviewed. None of the organizations, including governmental institutions, provided social services or assistance in prevention of HIV/AIDS to internally displaced persons. The main services provided by 17 (68%) organizations to 43 (78.2%) of internally displaced persons were provision of food, clothing and money, but these were provided on an ad hoc basis. Only 3 organizations (12%) included spiritual counseling and resolution of communal conflicts in their services. The fact that most organizations, including the government, do not have services for internally displaced persons indicates lack of support for internally displaced persons. The government should be urged to include these people in most prevention services, including HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. This should help reduce the national prevalence of HIV/AIDS.

  1. DNA hybridization kinetics: zippering, internal displacement and sequence dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouldridge, Thomas E; Sulc, Petr; Romano, Flavio; Doye, Jonathan P K; Louis, Ard A

    2013-10-01

    Although the thermodynamics of DNA hybridization is generally well established, the kinetics of this classic transition is less well understood. Providing such understanding has new urgency because DNA nanotechnology often depends critically on binding rates. Here, we explore DNA oligomer hybridization kinetics using a coarse-grained model. Strand association proceeds through a complex set of intermediate states, with successful binding events initiated by a few metastable base-pairing interactions, followed by zippering of the remaining bonds. But despite reasonably strong interstrand interactions, initial contacts frequently dissociate because typical configurations in which they form differ from typical states of similar enthalpy in the double-stranded equilibrium ensemble. Initial contacts must be stabilized by two or three base pairs before full zippering is likely, resulting in negative effective activation enthalpies. Non-Arrhenius behavior arises because the number of base pairs required for nucleation increases with temperature. In addition, we observe two alternative pathways-pseudoknot and inchworm internal displacement-through which misaligned duplexes can rearrange to form duplexes. These pathways accelerate hybridization. Our results explain why experimentally observed association rates of GC-rich oligomers are higher than rates of AT- rich equivalents, and more generally demonstrate how association rates can be modulated by sequence choice.

  2. Effect of fentanyl on the induction dose and minimum infusion rate of propofol preventing movement in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Carrie A; Seddighi, Reza; Cox, Sherry K; Sun, Xiaocun; Egger, Christine M; Doherty, Thomas J

    2017-07-01

    To determine the effect of fentanyl on the induction dose of propofol and minimum infusion rate required to prevent movement in response to noxious stimulation (MIR NM ) in dogs. Crossover experimental design. Six healthy, adult intact male Beagle dogs, mean±standard deviation 12.6±0.4 kg. Dogs were administered 0.9% saline (treatment P), fentanyl (5 μg kg -1 ) (treatment PLDF) or fentanyl (10 μg kg -1 ) (treatment PHDF) intravenously over 5 minutes. Five minutes later, anesthesia was induced with propofol (2 mg kg -1 , followed by 1 mg kg -1 every 15 seconds to achieve intubation) and maintained for 90 minutes by constant rate infusions (CRIs) of propofol alone or with fentanyl: P, propofol (0.5 mg kg -1  minute -1 ); PLDF, propofol (0.35 mg kg -1  minute -1 ) and fentanyl (0.1 μg kg -1  minute -1 ); PHDF, propofol (0.3 mg kg -1  minute -1 ) and fentanyl (0.2 μg kg -1  minute -1 ). Propofol CRI was increased or decreased based on the response to stimulation (50 V, 50 Hz, 10 mA), with 20 minutes between adjustments. Data were analyzed using a mixed-model anova and presented as mean±standard error. ropofol induction doses were 6.16±0.31, 3.67±0.21 and 3.33±0.42 mg kg -1 for P, PLDF and PHDF, respectively. Doses for PLDF and PHDF were significantly decreased from P (pFentanyl, at the doses studied, caused statistically significant and clinically important decreases in the propofol induction dose and MIR NM . Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Noise cancellation properties of displacement noise free interferometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Shuichi; Kawamura, Seiji; Nishizawa, Atsushi; Chen Yanbei

    2010-01-01

    We have demonstrated the practical feasibility of a displacement- and frequency-noise-free laser interferometer (DFI) by partially implementing a recently proposed optical configuration using bi-directional Mach-Zehnder interferometers (MZIs). The noise cancellation efficiency was evaluated by comparing the displacement noise spectrum of the MZIs and the DFI, demonstrating up to 50 dB of noise cancellation. In addition, the possible extension of DFI as QND device is explored.

  4. Interest Rate Swaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Pepić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Interest rates changes have a huge impact on the business performance. Therefore, it is of great importance for the market participants to identify and adequately manage this risk. Financial derivatives are a relatively simple way of protection from adverse changes in interest rates. Interest rate swaps are particularly popular because they reduce interest rate risk to a minimum with a relatively low initial cost and without great risk, but also because of the fact that there are manymodifications of the standard swap created to better satisfy the different needs of market players.

  5. Do Some Workers Have Minimum Wage Careers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, William J.; Fallick, Bruce C.

    2001-01-01

    Most workers who begin their careers in minimum-wage jobs eventually gain more experience and move on to higher paying jobs. However, more than 8% of workers spend at least half of their first 10 working years in minimum wage jobs. Those more likely to have minimum wage careers are less educated, minorities, women with young children, and those…

  6. Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…

  7. 29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards...

  8. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of immiscible displacement in the cavity with different channel configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qin; Zang, Chenqiang; Yang, Mo; Xu, Hongtao

    In this work, the immiscible displacement in a cavity with different channel configurations is studied using an improved pseudo-potential lattice Boltzmann equation (LBE) model. This model overcomes the drawback of the dependence of the fluid properties on the grid size, which exists in the original pseudo-potential LBE model. The approach is first validated by the Laplace law. Then, it is employed to study the immiscible displacement process. The influences of different factors, such as the surface wettability, the distance between the gas cavity and liquid cavity and the surface roughness of the channel are investigated. Numerical results show that the displacement efficiency increases and the displacement time decreases with the increase of the surface contact angle. On the other hand, the displacement efficiency increases with increasing distance between the gas cavity and the liquid cavity at first and finally reaches a constant value. As for the surface roughness, two structures (a semicircular cavity and a semicircular bulge) are studied. The comprehensive results show that although the displacement processes for both the structures depend on the surface wettability, they present quite different behaviors. Specially, for the roughness structure constituted by the semicircular cavity, the displacement efficiency decreases and displacement time increases evidently with the size of the semicircular cavity for the small contact angle. The trend slows down as the increase of the contact angle. Once the contact angle exceeds a certain value, the size of the semicircular cavity almost has no influence on the displacement process. While for the roughness structure of a semicircular bulge, the displacement efficiency increases with the size of bulge first and then it decreases for the small contact angle. The displacement efficiency increases first and finally reaches a constant for the large contact angle. The results also show that the displacement time has an

  9. Does temperature-mediated reproductive success drive the direction of species displacement in two invasive species of leafminer fly?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haihong Wang

    Full Text Available Liriomyza sativae and L. trifolii (Diptera: Agromyzidae are two highly invasive species of leafmining flies, which have become established as pests of horticultural crops throughout the world. In certain regions where both species have been introduced, L. sativae has displaced L. trifolii, whereas the opposite has occurred in other regions. These opposing outcomes suggest that neither species is an inherently superior competitor. The regions where these displacements have been observed (southern China, Japan and western USA are climatically different. We determined whether temperature differentially affects the reproductive success of these species and therefore if climatic differences could affect the outcome of interspecific interactions where these species are sympatric. The results of life table parameters indicate that both species can develop successfully at all tested temperatures (20, 25, 31, 33°C. L. sativae had consistently higher fecundities at all temperatures, but L. trifolii developed to reproductive age faster. Age-stage specific survival rates were higher for L. sativae at low temperatures, but these were higher for L. trifolii at higher temperatures. We then compared the net reproductive rates (R0 for both species in pure and mixed cultures maintained at the same four constant temperatures. Both species had significantly lower net reproductive rates in mixed species cultures compared with their respective pure species cultures, indicating that both species are subject to intense interspecific competition. Net reproductive rates were significantly greater for L. sativae than for L. trifolii in mixed species groups at the lower temperatures, whereas the opposite occurred at the higher temperature. Therefore, interactions between the species are temperature dependent and small differences could shift the competitive balance between the species. These temperature mediated effects may contribute to the current ongoing displacement

  10. A mathematical model of past, present and future shore level displacement in Fennoscandia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paasse, T. [Sveriges Geologiska Undersoekning, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1997-12-01

    Shore level displacement in Fennoscandia is mainly due to two interactive vertical movements, glacio-isostatic uplift and eustatic sea level rise. A recent investigation of the lake-tilting phenomenon has made it possible to discern the course of glacio-isostatic. As a consequence an iteration process to estimate glacio-isostatic uplift and eustatic rise using empirical data of the shore level displacement has been started. The model indicates that there are two mechanisms involved in glacio-isostatic uplift, one slow and the other fast. The main uplift, still in progress, acts slowly. Arctan functions have proved to be suitable tools for describing slow glacio-isostatic uplift. The time of maximal uplift rate is isochronous, meaning that slow uplift occurred simultaneously in all Fennoscandia in an interactive movement. For slow uplift there is a relationship between the rate of decline and the crustal thickness. In areas with greater crustal thickness the rate of decline of the glacio-isostatic recovery is lower than in areas with thinner crust. The fast mechanism gave rise to a crustal subsidence which started about 12 500 BP. After about 10 300 BP, in the early Holocene, the subsidence was restored by a fast uplift. Normal distribution functions have been used for calculating the fast mechanism. The mantle material exhibits plastic behaviour. When the mantle encounters short-lived stresses the material behaves like an elastic solid but in response to long-term stresses it will flow. The slow mechanism can be linked to viscous flow and as a response to long-term stresses. The fast mechanism is probably the response to a short-lived stress. This stress could have been caused by renewed ice loading, due to a self-triggered redistribution of the ice load during deglaciation. Future development regarding glacio-isostatic uplift, eustasy and shore level displacement is predicted in Fennoscandia using the results from the modelling. Predictions are based on the

  11. Optimum design of seat region in valves suitable for digital displacement machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roemer, Daniel Beck; Johansen, Per; Pedersen, Henrik C.

    2014-01-01

    Digital displacement fluid power is an upcoming technology setting new standards for the achievable efficiency in variable displacement fluid power pumps and motors. In the present work, an annular seat valve suitable for use in digital displacement units is considered, and the valve geometry...

  12. Overloaded CDMA Systems with Displaced Binary Signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanhaverbeke Frederik

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We extend three types of overloaded CDMA systems, by displacing in time the binary signature sequences of these systems: (1 random spreading (PN, (2 multiple-OCDMA (MO, and (3 PN/OCDMA (PN/O. For each of these systems, we determine the time shifts that minimize the overall multiuser interference power. The achievable channel load with coded and uncoded data is evaluated for the conventional (without displacement and improved (with displacement systems, as well as for systems based on quasi-Welch-bound-equality (QWBE sequences, by means of several types of turbo detectors. For each system, the best performing turbo detector is selected in order to compare the performance of these systems. It is found that the improved systems substantially outperform their original counterparts. With uncoded data, (improved PN/O yields the highest acceptable channel load. For coded data, MO allows for the highest acceptable channel load over all considered systems, both for the conventional and the improved systems. In the latter case, channel loads of about 280% are achievable with a low degradation as compared to a single user system.

  13. A differential Michelson interferometer with orthogonal single frequency laser for nanometer displacement measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Liping; Chen, Benyong; Wang, Bin

    2017-01-01

    A novel differential Michelson laser interferometer is proposed to eliminate the influence of environmental fluctuations for nanometer displacement measurement. This differential interferometer consists of two homodyne interferometers in which two orthogonal single frequency beams share common reference arm and partial measurement arm. By modulating the displacement of the common reference arm with a piezoelectric transducer, the common-mode displacement drift resulting from the environmental disturbances can be well suppressed and the measured displacement as differential-mode displacement signal is achieved. In addition, a phase difference compensation method is proposed for accurately determining the phase difference between interference signals by correcting the time interval according to the average speed in one cycle of interference signal. The nanometer displacement measurement experiments were performed to demonstrate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed interferometer and show that precision displacement measurement with standard deviation less than 1 nm has been achieved. (paper)

  14. A Novel Computational Method to Reduce Leaky Reaction in DNA Strand Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available DNA strand displacement technique is widely used in DNA programming, DNA biosensors, and gene analysis. In DNA strand displacement, leaky reactions can cause DNA signals decay and detecting DNA signals fails. The mostly used method to avoid leakage is cleaning up after upstream leaky reactions, and it remains a challenge to develop reliable DNA strand displacement technique with low leakage. In this work, we address the challenge by experimentally evaluating the basic factors, including reaction time, ratio of reactants, and ion concentration to the leakage in DNA strand displacement. Specifically, fluorescent probes and a hairpin structure reporting DNA strand are designed to detect the output of DNA strand displacement, and thus can evaluate the leakage of DNA strand displacement reactions with different reaction time, ratios of reactants, and ion concentrations. From the obtained data, mathematical models for evaluating leakage are achieved by curve derivation. As a result, it is obtained that long time incubation, high concentration of fuel strand, and inappropriate amount of ion concentration can weaken leaky reactions. This contributes to a method to set proper reaction conditions to reduce leakage in DNA strand displacement.

  15. Jobs Taken by Mothers Moving from Welfare to Work and the Effects of Minimum Wages on This Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Peter D.

    The potential effects of raising the minimum wage on the earnings of mothers moving from welfare to work were examined by analyzing the differences that existed in the late 1980s in the various states' minimum wage rates and data from three waves of the Survey of Income and Program Participation for the years 1985-1990 (during which time 13 states…

  16. Experimental investigations of the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of inert and combustible dust cloud mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addai, Emmanuel Kwasi, E-mail: emmanueladdai41@yahoo.com; Gabel, Dieter; Krause, Ulrich

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Ignition sensitivity of a highly flammable dust decreases upon addition of inert dust. • Minimum ignition temperature of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • Minimum ignition energy of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%. - Abstract: The risks associated with dust explosions still exist in industries that either process or handle combustible dust. This explosion risk could be prevented or mitigated by applying the principle of inherent safety (moderation). This is achieved by adding an inert material to a highly combustible material in order to decrease the ignition sensitivity of the combustible dust. The presented paper deals with the experimental investigation of the influence of adding an inert dust on the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of the combustible/inert dust mixtures. The experimental investigation was done in two laboratory scale equipment: the Hartmann apparatus and the Godbert-Greenwald furnace for the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature test respectively. This was achieved by mixing various amounts of three inert materials (magnesium oxide, ammonium sulphate and sand) and six combustible dusts (brown coal, lycopodium, toner, niacin, corn starch and high density polyethylene). Generally, increasing the inert materials concentration increases the minimum ignition energy as well as the minimum ignition temperatures until a threshold is reached where no ignition was obtained. The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%.

  17. Experimental investigations of the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of inert and combustible dust cloud mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addai, Emmanuel Kwasi; Gabel, Dieter; Krause, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ignition sensitivity of a highly flammable dust decreases upon addition of inert dust. • Minimum ignition temperature of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • Minimum ignition energy of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%. - Abstract: The risks associated with dust explosions still exist in industries that either process or handle combustible dust. This explosion risk could be prevented or mitigated by applying the principle of inherent safety (moderation). This is achieved by adding an inert material to a highly combustible material in order to decrease the ignition sensitivity of the combustible dust. The presented paper deals with the experimental investigation of the influence of adding an inert dust on the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of the combustible/inert dust mixtures. The experimental investigation was done in two laboratory scale equipment: the Hartmann apparatus and the Godbert-Greenwald furnace for the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature test respectively. This was achieved by mixing various amounts of three inert materials (magnesium oxide, ammonium sulphate and sand) and six combustible dusts (brown coal, lycopodium, toner, niacin, corn starch and high density polyethylene). Generally, increasing the inert materials concentration increases the minimum ignition energy as well as the minimum ignition temperatures until a threshold is reached where no ignition was obtained. The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%.

  18. Associations between minimum wage policy and access to health care: evidence from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 1996-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarrier, Kelly P; Zimmerman, Frederick J; Ralston, James D; Martin, Diane P

    2011-02-01

    We examined whether minimum wage policy is associated with access to medical care among low-skilled workers in the United States. We used multilevel logistic regression to analyze a data set consisting of individual-level indicators of uninsurance and unmet medical need from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and state-level ecological controls from the US Census, Bureau of Labor Statistics, and several other sources in all 50 states and the District of Columbia between 1996 and 2007. Higher state-level minimum wage rates were associated with significantly reduced odds of reporting unmet medical need after control for the ecological covariates, substate region fixed effects, and individual demographic and health characteristics (odds ratio = 0.853; 95% confidence interval = 0.750, 0.971). Minimum wage rates were not significantly associated with being uninsured. Higher minimum wages may be associated with a reduced likelihood of experiencing unmet medical need among low-skilled workers, and do not appear to be associated with uninsurance. These findings appear to refute the suggestion that minimum wage laws have detrimental effects on access to health care, as opponents of the policies have suggested.

  19. Directional dependence of the threshold displacement energies in metal oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, Benjamin J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2017-12-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to investigate the directional dependence and the values of the threshold energies (TDEs) for the displacements of the oxygen and metal atoms and for producing stable Frenkel pairs in five metal oxides of Cr2O3, Al2O3, TiO2, SiO2, and MgO. The TDEs for the Frenkel pairs and atoms displacement are calculated in 66 crystallographic directions, on both the anion and cation sublattices. The performed simulations are for metal and oxygen PKA energies up to 350 and 400 eV, respectively. The calculated probability distributions for the atoms displacement and average number of Frenkel pairs produced in the different oxides are compared. The results revealed unique symmetrical patterns of the TDEs for the displacement of the atoms and the formation of stable Frenkel pairs, confirming the strong dependence on the direction and the crystalline structure of the oxides. Results also showed that the formation of stable Frenkel pairs is associated with the displacements of the PKAs and/or of the SKAs. The probabilities of the TDEs for the displacement of the oxygen and metal PKAs are consistently lower than those of the atoms in the crystal. In SiO2, TDEs for the displacement of oxygen and metal atoms and those for the formation of stable Frenkel pairs are the lowest, while those in TiO2 are among the highest. The results for Cr2O3 and Al2O3, which have the same crystal structure, are similar. The calculated TDEs for MgO, Al2O3 and TiO2 are generally in good agreement with the experimental values and the probability distributions of the TDEs for the PKAs in TiO2 are in good agreement with reported MD simulation results.

  20. Traumatic corneal flap displacement after laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Peng, Kai-Ling; Lin, Chien-Jen

    2017-01-01

    Laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is the most common and popular procedure performed for the correction of refractive errors in the last two decades. We report a case of traumatic flap displacement with flap folding which occurred 3 years after LASIK was performed. Previous literature suggests that vision prognosis would be closely related to proper and prompt management of traumatic flap displacement with flap folding 3 years after LASIK. A 23-year-old female presented to our hospital who had undergone uneventful LASIK in both eyes 3 years prior. Unfortunately, she had suffered a blunt trauma in her right eye in a car accident. A late onset of corneal flap displacement was found with upper and lower portion of the flap being folded inside the corneal bed. Surgical intervention for debridement with subsequent reposition of corneal flap was performed as soon as possible in the operating room. A bandage contact lens was placed, and topical antibiotic and corticosteroids were given postoperatively. Two days after the operation, the displaced corneal flap was found to be well attached smoothly on the corneal bed without folds. The best-corrected visual acuity was 6/6 with refraction of -0.75 D to 1.0 D ×175° in her right eye 1 month later. We reviewed a total of 19 published cases of late-onset traumatic flap dislocations or displacements after LASIK with complete data from 2000 to 2014. Traumatic displacement of corneal flaps after LASIK may occur after blunt injury with specific direction of force to the flap margin, especially tangential one. According to the previous literature, late-onset traumatic flap displacement may happen at any time after LASIK and be caused by various types of injuries. Fortunately, good visual function could mostly be restored with immediate and proper management.