A Newton method for solving continuous multiple material minimum compliance problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stolpe, Mathias; Stegmann, Jan
2007-01-01
method, one or two linear saddle point systems are solved. These systems involve the Hessian of the objective function, which is both expensive to compute and completely dense. Therefore, the linear algebra is arranged such that the Hessian is not explicitly formed. The main concern is to solve......This paper presents an implementation of an active-set line-search Newton method intended for solving large-scale instances of a class of multiple material minimum compliance problems. The problem is modeled with a convex objective function and linear constraints. At each iteration of the Newton...... a sequence of closely related problems appearing as the continuous relaxations in a nonlinear branch and bound framework for solving discrete minimum compliance problems. A test-set consisting of eight discrete instances originating from the design of laminated composite structures is presented...
A Newton method for solving continuous multiple material minimum compliance problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stolpe, M; Stegmann, Jan
This paper presents an implementation of an active-set line-search Newton method intended for solving large-scale instances of a class of multiple material minimum compliance problems. The problem is modeled with a convex objective function and linear constraints. At each iteration of the Newton....... Computational experiments with a branch and bound method indicate that the proposed Newton method can, on most instances in the test-set, take advantage of the available starting point information in an enumeration tree and resolve the relaxations after branching with few additional function evaluations...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stolpe, Mathias; Bendsøe, Martin P.
2007-01-01
This paper present some initial results pertaining to a search for globally optimal solutions to a challenging benchmark example proposed by Zhou and Rozvany. This means that we are dealing with global optimization of the classical single load minimum compliance topology design problem with a fixed...... finite element discretization and with discrete design variables. Global optimality is achieved by the implementation of some specially constructed convergent nonlinear branch and cut methods, based on the use of natural relaxations and by applying strengthening constraints (linear valid inequalities...
Biyikli, Emre; To, Albert C
2015-01-01
A new topology optimization method called the Proportional Topology Optimization (PTO) is presented. As a non-sensitivity method, PTO is simple to understand, easy to implement, and is also efficient and accurate at the same time. It is implemented into two MATLAB programs to solve the stress constrained and minimum compliance problems. Descriptions of the algorithm and computer programs are provided in detail. The method is applied to solve three numerical examples for both types of problems. The method shows comparable efficiency and accuracy with an existing optimality criteria method which computes sensitivities. Also, the PTO stress constrained algorithm and minimum compliance algorithm are compared by feeding output from one algorithm to the other in an alternative manner, where the former yields lower maximum stress and volume fraction but higher compliance compared to the latter. Advantages and disadvantages of the proposed method and future works are discussed. The computer programs are self-contained and publicly shared in the website www.ptomethod.org.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Emre Biyikli
Full Text Available A new topology optimization method called the Proportional Topology Optimization (PTO is presented. As a non-sensitivity method, PTO is simple to understand, easy to implement, and is also efficient and accurate at the same time. It is implemented into two MATLAB programs to solve the stress constrained and minimum compliance problems. Descriptions of the algorithm and computer programs are provided in detail. The method is applied to solve three numerical examples for both types of problems. The method shows comparable efficiency and accuracy with an existing optimality criteria method which computes sensitivities. Also, the PTO stress constrained algorithm and minimum compliance algorithm are compared by feeding output from one algorithm to the other in an alternative manner, where the former yields lower maximum stress and volume fraction but higher compliance compared to the latter. Advantages and disadvantages of the proposed method and future works are discussed. The computer programs are self-contained and publicly shared in the website www.ptomethod.org.
Minimum Dominating Tree Problem for Graphs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIN Hao; LIN Lan
2014-01-01
A dominating tree T of a graph G is a subtree of G which contains at least one neighbor of each vertex of G. The minimum dominating tree problem is to find a dominating tree of G with minimum number of vertices, which is an NP-hard problem. This paper studies some polynomially solvable cases, including interval graphs, Halin graphs, special outer-planar graphs and others.
Weight-Constrained Minimum Spanning Tree Problem
Henn, Sebastian Tobias
2007-01-01
In an undirected graph G we associate costs and weights to each edge. The weight-constrained minimum spanning tree problem is to find a spanning tree of total edge weight at most a given value W and minimum total costs under this restriction. In this thesis a literature overview on this NP-hard problem, theoretical properties concerning the convex hull and the Lagrangian relaxation are given. We present also some in- and exclusion-test for this problem. We apply a ranking algorithm and the me...
Compliance with minimum information guidelines in public metabolomics repositories.
Spicer, Rachel A; Salek, Reza; Steinbeck, Christoph
2017-09-26
The Metabolomics Standards Initiative (MSI) guidelines were first published in 2007. These guidelines provided reporting standards for all stages of metabolomics analysis: experimental design, biological context, chemical analysis and data processing. Since 2012, a series of public metabolomics databases and repositories, which accept the deposition of metabolomic datasets, have arisen. In this study, the compliance of 399 public data sets, from four major metabolomics data repositories, to the biological context MSI reporting standards was evaluated. None of the reporting standards were complied with in every publicly available study, although adherence rates varied greatly, from 0 to 97%. The plant minimum reporting standards were the most complied with and the microbial and in vitro were the least. Our results indicate the need for reassessment and revision of the existing MSI reporting standards.
34 CFR 379.53 - What are the minimum performance levels for each compliance indicator?
2010-07-01
... Funding? § 379.53 What are the minimum performance levels for each compliance indicator? (a) Primary... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the minimum performance levels for each compliance indicator? 379.53 Section 379.53 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department...
Wage discrimination and partial compliance with the minimum wage law
Yang-Ming Chang; Bhavneet Walia
2007-01-01
This paper presents a simple model to characterize the discriminatory behavior of a non-complying firm in a minimum-wage economy. In the analysis, the violating firm pays one â€œfavoredâ€ group of workers the statutory minimum and the other â€œnon-favoredâ€ group of workers a sub-minimum. We find conditions under which law enforcement is ineffective in improving the between-group wage differentials. We show that an increase in the minimum wage raises the sub-minimum wage and employment of wor...
44 CFR 60.2 - Minimum compliance with flood plain management criteria.
2010-10-01
... assure that its comprehensive plan is consistent with the flood plain management objectives of this part... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum compliance with flood plain management criteria. 60.2 Section 60.2 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL...
The balanced minimum evolution problem under uncertain data
Catanzaro, Daniele; Labbe, Martine; Pesenti, Raffaele
2013-01-01
We investigate the Robust Deviation Balanced Minimum Evolution Problem (RDBMEP), a combinatorial optimization problem that arises in computational biology when the evolutionary distances from taxa are uncertain and varying inside intervals. By exploiting some fundamental properties of the objective
Multiple Objective Minimum Cost Flow Problems: A Review
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hamacher, H.W.; Pedersen, Christian Roed; Ruzika, S.
2005-01-01
In this paper, theory and algorithms for solving the multiple objective minimum cost flow problem are reviewed. For both the continuous and integer case exact and approximation algorithms are presented. In addition, a section on compromise solutions summarizes corresponding results. The reference...... list consists of all papers known to the authors which deal with the multiple objective minimum cost flow problem....
Fuzzy α-minimum spanning tree problem: definition and solutions
Zhou, Jian; Chen, Lu; Wang, Ke; Yang, Fan
2016-04-01
In this paper, the minimum spanning tree problem is investigated on the graph with fuzzy edge weights. The notion of fuzzy ? -minimum spanning tree is presented based on the credibility measure, and then the solutions of the fuzzy ? -minimum spanning tree problem are discussed under different assumptions. First, we respectively, assume that all the edge weights are triangular fuzzy numbers and trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and prove that the fuzzy ? -minimum spanning tree problem can be transformed to a classical problem on a crisp graph in these two cases, which can be solved by classical algorithms such as the Kruskal algorithm and the Prim algorithm in polynomial time. Subsequently, as for the case that the edge weights are general fuzzy numbers, a fuzzy simulation-based genetic algorithm using Prüfer number representation is designed for solving the fuzzy ? -minimum spanning tree problem. Some numerical examples are also provided for illustrating the effectiveness of the proposed solutions.
USING GENETIC ALGORTIHM TO SOLVE STEINER MINIMUM SPANNING TREE PROBLEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Öznur İŞÇİ
2006-03-01
Full Text Available Genetic algorithms (GA are a stochastic research methods, and they produce solutions that are close to optimum or near optimum. In addition to GA's successful application to traveling salesman problem, square designation, allocation, workshop table, preparation of lesson/examination schedules, planning of communication networks, assembling line balanced, minimum spanning tree type many combinatorial optimization problems it would be applicable to make the best comparison in optimization. In this study a Java program is developed to solve Steiner minimum spanning tree problem by genetic algorithm and its performance is examined. According to the tests carried out on the problems that were given before in the literature, results that are close to optimum are obtained in by GA approach that is recommended in this study. For the predetermined points in the study, length and gain are calculated for Steiner minimum spanning tree problem and minimum spanning tree problem.
SOLVING MINIMUM SPANNING TREE PROBLEM WITH DNA COMPUTING
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Liu Xikui; Li Yan; Xu Jin
2005-01-01
Molecular programming is applied to minimum spanning problem whose solution requires encoding of real values in DNA strands. A new encoding scheme is proposed for real values that is biologically plausible and has a fixed code length. According to the characteristics of the problem, a DNA algorithm solving the minimum spanning tree problem is given. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by simulation. The advantages and disadvantages of this algorithm are discussed.
Minimum cost network flows: Problems, algorithms, and software
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sifaleras Angelo
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We present a wide range of problems concerning minimum cost network flows, and give an overview of the classic linear single-commodity Minimum Cost Network Flow Problem (MCNFP and some other closely related problems, either tractable or intractable. We also discuss state-of-the-art algorithmic approaches and recent advances in the solution methods for the MCNFP. Finally, optimization software packages for the MCNFP are presented.
An empirical investigation of compliance and enforcement problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Jensen, Frank
2011-01-01
Compliance and enforcement are important issues from an economic point of view because management measures are useless without a certain level of enforcement. These conclusions come from the well-established theoretical literature on compliance and enforcement problems within fisheries. This pape...
An empirical investigation of compliance and enforcement problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kronbak, Lone Grønbæk; Jensen, Frank
2011-01-01
Compliance and enforcement are important issues from an economic point of view because management measures are useless without a certain level of enforcement. These conclusions come from the well-established theoretical literature on compliance and enforcement problems within fisheries. This pape...
Minimum Compliance Topology Optimization of Shell-Infill Composites for Additive Manufacturing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wu, Jun; Clausen, Anders; Sigmund, Ole
2017-01-01
Additively manufactured parts are often composed of two sub-structures, a solid shell forming their exterior and a porous infill occupying the interior. To account for this feature this paper presents a novel method for generating simultaneously optimized shell and infill in the context of minimum...... interpolation model into a physical density field, upon which the compliance is minimized. Enhanced by an adapted robust formulation for controlling the minimum length scale of the base, our method generates optimized shell-infill composites suitable for additive manufacturing. We demonstrate the effectiveness...
An improved approximation ratio for the minimum latency problem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goemans, M.; Kleinberg, J. [MIT, Cambridge, MA (United States)
1996-12-31
Given a tour visiting n points in a metric space, the latency of one of these points p is the distance traveled in the tour before reaching p. The minimum latency problem asks for a tour passing through n given points for which the total latency of the n points is minimum; in effect, we are seeking the tour with minimum average {open_quotes}arrival time.{close_quotes} This problem has been studied in the operations research literature, where it has also been termed the {open_quotes}delivery-man problem{close_quotes} and the {open_quotes}traveling repairman problem.{close_quotes} The approximability of the minimum latency problem was first considered by Sahni and Gonzalez in 1976; however, unlike the classical traveling salesman problem, it is not easy to give any constant-factor approximation algorithm for the minimum latency problem. Recently, Blum, Chalasani, Coppersmith, Pulleyblank, Raghavan, and Sudan gave the first such algorithm, obtaining an approximation ratio of 144. In this work, we present an algorithm which improves this ratio to 21.55. The development of our algorithm involves a number of techniques that seem to be of interest from the perspective of the traveling salesman problem and its variants more generally.
Ant Colony Optimization and the Minimum Cut Problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kötzing, Timo; Lehre, Per Kristian; Neumann, Frank
2010-01-01
Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is a powerful metaheuristic for solving combinatorial optimization problems. With this paper we contribute to the theoretical understanding of this kind of algorithm by investigating the classical minimum cut problem. An ACO algorithm similar to the one that was prov...
Automatically Produced Algorithms for the Generalized Minimum Spanning Tree Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Contreras-Bolton
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The generalized minimum spanning tree problem consists of finding a minimum cost spanning tree in an undirected graph for which the vertices are divided into clusters. Such spanning tree includes only one vertex from each cluster. Despite the diverse practical applications for this problem, the NP-hardness continues to be a computational challenge. Good quality solutions for some instances of the problem have been found by combining specific heuristics or by including them within a metaheuristic. However studied combinations correspond to a subset of all possible combinations. In this study a technique based on a genotype-phenotype genetic algorithm to automatically construct new algorithms for the problem, which contain combinations of heuristics, is presented. The produced algorithms are competitive in terms of the quality of the solution obtained. This emerges from the comparison of the performance with problem-specific heuristics and with metaheuristic approaches.
ON THE INVERSE MINIMUM SPANNING TREE PROBLEM WITH MINIMUM NUMBER OF PERTURBED EDGES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bangyi LI; Zhaohan SHENG
2003-01-01
Let G= be a network with the vertex set V, the edge set E and the length vector L, andlet T* be a prior determined spanning tree of G. The inverse minimum spanning tree problem withminimum number of perturbed edges is to perturb the length vector L to L+ δ, such that T* is one ofminimum spanning trees under the length vector L+ δ and the number of perturbed edges is minimum.This paper establishes a mathematical model for this problem and transforms it into a minimumvertex covering problem in a bipartite graph Go, a path-graph. Thus a strongly polynomial algorithmwith time complexity O(mn2) can be designed by using Hungarian method.
Statistical Mechanics of the Minimum Dominating Set Problem
Zhao, Jin-Hua; Zhou, Hai-Jun
2014-01-01
The minimum dominating set problem has wide applications in network science and related fields. It consists of assembling a node set of global minimum size such that any node of the network is either in this set or is adjacent to at least one node of this set. Although this is a difficult optimization problem in general, we show it can be exactly solved by a generalized leaf-removal process if the network contains no core. If the network has an extensive core, we estimate the size of minimum dominating sets by a mean-field theory and implement a belief-propagation algorithm to obtain nearly optimal solutions. Our algorithms also perform well on real-world network instances.
A Vertex Oriented Approach to Minimum Cost Spanning Tree Problems
Ciftci, B.B.; Tijs, S.H.
2007-01-01
In this paper we consider spanning tree problems, where n players want to be connected to a source as cheap as possible. We introduce and analyze (n!) vertex oriented construct and charge procedures for such spanning tree situations leading in n steps to a minimum cost spanning tree and a cost shari
A Vertex Oriented Approach to Minimum Cost Spanning Tree Problems
Ciftci, B.B.; Tijs, S.H.
2007-01-01
In this paper we consider spanning tree problems, where n players want to be connected to a source as cheap as possible. We introduce and analyze (n!) vertex oriented construct and charge procedures for such spanning tree situations leading in n steps to a minimum cost spanning tree and a cost shari
MINIMUM DISCRIMINATION INFORMATION PROBLEMS VIA GENERALIZED GEOMETRIC PROGRAMMING
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZhuDetong
2003-01-01
In this paper,the quadratic program problm and minimum discrimiation in formation (MDI) problem with a set of quadratic inequality constraints and entropy constraints of density are considered.Based on the properties of the generalized geometric programming,the dual programs of thses two problems are derived.Furthermore,the duality theorms and related Kuhn-Tucker conditions for two pairs of the prime-dual programs are also established by the duality theory.
Dispersal routes reconstruction and the minimum cost arborescence problem.
Hordijk, Wim; Broennimann, Olivier
2012-09-01
We show that the dispersal routes reconstruction problem can be stated as an instance of a graph theoretical problem known as the minimum cost arborescence problem, for which there exist efficient algorithms. Furthermore, we derive some theoretical results, in a simplified setting, on the possible optimal values that can be obtained for this problem. With this, we place the dispersal routes reconstruction problem on solid theoretical grounds, establishing it as a tractable problem that also lends itself to formal mathematical and computational analysis. Finally, we present an insightful example of how this framework can be applied to real data. We propose that our computational method can be used to define the most parsimonious dispersal (or invasion) scenarios, which can then be tested using complementary methods such as genetic analysis.
Algorithms for the minimum spanning tree problem with resource allocation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seiji Kataoka
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We formulate the minimum spanning tree problem with resource allocation (MSTRA in two ways, as discrete and continuous optimization problems (d-MSTRA/c-MSTRA, prove these to be NP-hard, and present algorithms to solve these problems to optimality. We reformulate d-MSTRA as the knapsack constrained minimum spanning tree problem, and solve this problem using a previously published branch-and-bound algorithm. By applying a ‘peg test’, the size of d-MSTRA is (significantly reduced. To solve c-MSTRA, we introduce the concept of f-fractionalsolution, and prove that an optimal solution can be found within this class of solutions. Based on this fact, as well as conditions for ‘pruning’ subproblems, we develop an enumerative algorithm to solve c-MSTRA to optimality. We implement these algorithms in ANSI C programming language and, through extensive numerical tests, evaluate the performance of the developed codes on various types of instances.
Inverse minimum spanning tree problem and reverse shortest-path problem with discrete values
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Longcheng; HE Yong
2006-01-01
In this paper, we consider two network improvement problems with given discrete values: the inverse minimum spanning tree problem and the reverse shortest-path problem, where the decrements of the weight of the edges are given discrete values. First,for the three models of the inverse minimum spanning tree problem (the sum-type, the bottleneck-type and the constrained bottlenecktype), we present their respective strongly polynomial algorithms. Then, we show that the reverse shortest-path problem is strongly NP-complete.
Towards a Data Reduction for the Minimum Flip Supertree Problem
Böcker, Sebastian
2011-01-01
In computational phylogenetics, the problem of constructing a supertree of a given set of rooted input trees can be formalized in different ways, to cope with contradictory information in the input. We consider the Minimum Flip Supertree problem, where the input trees are transformed into a 0/1/?-matrix, such that each row represents a taxon, and each column represents an inner node of one of the input trees. Our goal is to find a perfect phylogeny for the input matrix requiring a minimum number of 0/1-flips, that is, corrections of 0/1-entries in the matrix. The problem is known to be NP-complete. Here, we present a parameterized data reduction with polynomial running time. The data reduction guarantees that the reduced instance has a solution if and only if the original instance has a solution. We then make our data reduction parameter-independent by using upper bounds. This allows us to preprocess an instance, and to solve the reduced instance with an arbitrary method. Different from an existing data reduc...
Minimum Ballistic Factor Problem of Slender Axial Symmetric Missiles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. B. Tawakley
1979-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of determining the geometry of slender, axisymmetric missiles of minimum ballistic factor in hypersonic flow has been solved via the calculus of variations under the assumptions that the flow is Newtonian and the surface averaged skin-friction coefficient is constant. The study has been made for conditions of given length and diameter, given diameter and surfacearea, and given surface area and length. The earlier investigations/sup 8/ where only regular shapes were determined has been extended to cover those class of bodies which consist of regular shapes followed or preceded by zero slope shapes.
Solving the minimum ﬂow problem with interval bounds and ﬂows
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Mehdi Ghiyasvand
2012-12-01
The minimum cost ﬂow problem with interval data can be solved using two minimum cost ﬂow problems with crisp data. In this paper, the idea of Ghiyasvand was extended for solving the minimum ﬂow problem with interval-valued lower, upper bounds and ﬂows. This problem can be solved using two minimum ﬂow problems with crisp data. Then, this result is extended to networks with fuzzy lower, upper bounds and ﬂows.
Feltkamp, V.; Tijs, S.H.; Muto, S.
1994-01-01
Minimum cost spanning extension problems are generalizations of minimum cost spanning tree problems in which an existing network has to be extended to connect users to a source. This paper generalizes the definition of irreducible core to minimum cost spanning extension problems and introduces an
Feltkamp, V.; Tijs, S.H.; Muto, S.
1994-01-01
Minimum cost spanning extension problems are generalizations of minimum cost spanning tree problems in which an existing network has to be extended to connect users to a source. This paper generalizes the definition of irreducible core to minimum cost spanning extension problems and introduces an al
Feltkamp, V.; Tijs, S.H.; Muto, S.
1994-01-01
Minimum cost spanning extension problems are generalizations of minimum cost spanning tree problems in which an existing network has to be extended to connect users to a source. This paper generalizes the definition of irreducible core to minimum cost spanning extension problems and introduces an al
Achieving spectrum conservation for the minimum span and minimum-order frequency assignment problems
Heyward, Ann O.
1992-01-01
Effective and efficient solution of frequency assignment problems assumes increasing importance as the radiofrequency spectrum experiences ever-increasing utilization by diverse communications services, requiring that the most efficient use of this resource be achieved. The research presented explores a general approach to the frequency assignment problem, in which such problems are categorized by the appropriate spectrum-conserving objective function, and are each treated as an N-job, M-machine scheduling problem appropriate for the objective. Results obtained and presented illustrate that such an approach presents an effective means of achieving spectrum-conserving frequency assignments for communications systems in a variety of environments.
Achieving spectrum conservation for the minimum-span and minimum-order frequency assignment problems
Heyward, Ann O.
1992-01-01
Effective and efficient solutions of frequency assignment problems assumes increasing importance as the radiofrequency spectrum experiences ever increasing utilization by diverse communications services, requiring that the most efficient use of this resource be achieved. The research presented explores a general approach to the frequency assignment problem, in which such problems are categorized by the appropriate spectrum conserving objective function, and are each treated as an N-job, M-machine scheduling problem appropriate for the objective. Results obtained and presented illustrate that such an approach presents an effective means of achieving spectrum conserving frequency assignments for communications systems in a variety of environments.
Pop, P.C.; Kern, Walter; Still, Georg J.
2001-01-01
Given a complete undirected graph with the nodes partitioned into m node sets called clusters, the Generalized Minimum Spanning Tree problem denoted by GMST is to find a minimum-cost tree which includes exactly one node from each cluster. It is known that the GMST problem is NP-hard and even finding
Linearization of the boundary-layer equations of the minimum time-to-climb problem
Ardema, M. D.
1979-01-01
Ardema (1974) has formally linearized the two-point boundary value problem arising from a general optimal control problem, and has reviewed the known stability properties of such a linear system. In the present paper, Ardema's results are applied to the minimum time-to-climb problem. The linearized zeroth-order boundary layer equations of the problem are derived and solved.
Solving project scheduling problems by minimum cut computations
Möhring, R.H.; Schulz, A.S.; Stork, F.; Uetz, M.J.
2003-01-01
In project scheduling, a set of precedence-constrained jobs has to be scheduled so as to minimize a given objective. In resource-constrained project scheduling, the jobs additionally compete for scarce resources. Due to its universality, the latter problem has a variety of applications in manufactur
Slocum, Sarah K; Vollmer, Timothy R
2015-09-01
Previous research has shown that problem behavior maintained by escape can be treated using positive reinforcement. In the current study, we directly compared functional (escape) and nonfunctional (edible) reinforcers in the treatment of escape-maintained problem behavior for 5 subjects. In the first treatment, compliance produced a break from instructions. In the second treatment, compliance produced a small edible item. Neither treatment included escape extinction. Results suggested that the delivery of a positive reinforcer for compliance was effective for treating escape-maintained problem behavior for all 5 subjects, and the delivery of escape for compliance was ineffective for 3 of the 5 subjects. Implications and future directions related to the use of positive reinforcers in the treatment of escape behavior are discussed.
Dry, Matthew J.; Preiss, Kym; Wagemans, Johan
2012-01-01
We investigated human performance on the Euclidean Traveling Salesperson Problem (TSP) and Euclidean Minimum Spanning Tree Problem (MST-P) in regards to a factor that has previously received little attention within the literature: the spatial distributions of TSP and MST-P stimuli. First, we describe a method for quantifying the relative degree of…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wøhlk, Sanne; Laporte, Gilbert
2017-01-01
The aim of this paper is to computationally compare several algorithms for the Minimum Cost Perfect Matching Problem on an undirected complete graph. Our work is motivated by the need to solve large instances of the Capacitated Arc Routing Problem (CARP) arising in the optimization of garbage...
Solution for Nonlinear Three-Dimensional Intercept Problem with Minimum Energy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Henzeh Leeghim
2013-01-01
a minimum-energy application, which then generates both the desired initial interceptor velocity and the TOF for the minimum-energy transfer. The optimization problem is formulated by using the classical Lagrangian f and g coefficients, which map initial position and velocity vectors to future times, and a universal time variable x. A Newton-Raphson iteration algorithm is introduced for iteratively solving the problem. A generalized problem formulation is introduced for minimizing the TOF as part of the optimization problem. Several examples are presented, and the results are compared with the Hohmann transfer solution approaches. The resulting minimum-energy intercept solution algorithm is expected to be broadly useful as a starting iterative for applications spanning: targeting, rendezvous, interplanetary trajectory design, and so on.
An Integer Programming Formulation of the Minimum Common String Partition Problem.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S M Ferdous
Full Text Available We consider the problem of finding a minimum common string partition (MCSP of two strings, which is an NP-hard problem. The MCSP problem is closely related to genome comparison and rearrangement, an important field in Computational Biology. In this paper, we map the MCSP problem into a graph applying a prior technique and using this graph, we develop an Integer Linear Programming (ILP formulation for the problem. We implement the ILP formulation and compare the results with the state-of-the-art algorithms from the literature. The experimental results are found to be promising.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
江永亨; 王军; 等
2003-01-01
The bottleneck analysis of the minimum coat problem for the generalized netwok(MCPGN) is discussed.The analysis is based on the network simplex algorithm,which gains negative cost graphs by constructing augmented forest structure,then augments flows on the negative cost graphs until the optimal revolution is gained Bottleneck structure is presented after analyzing the augmented forest structure.The negative cost augmented graphs are constructed with the bottleneck structure.The arcs that block the negative cost augmented graph are the elements of the bottleneck.The bottleneck analysis for the generalized circulation problem,the minimum circulation problem and the circulation problem are discussed respectively as the basal problems,then that for MCPGN is achieved.An example is presented at the end.
Cross Decomposition of the Degree-Constrained Minimum Spanning Tree problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Han-Suk Sohn
2007-02-01
Full Text Available As computer communication networks become a prevalent part in our daily life, the importance of efficient design of those networks becomes more evident. One of the critical issues in the network design process is the topological design problem involved in establishing a centralized data communication network with best performance and low costs. It can be recognized as a degree-constrained minimum spanning tree and it has been shown to be NP-hard. The degree-constrained minimum spanning tree problem commonly appears as a subproblem in the design of centralized data communication networks, and so the development of effective algorithms has received much attention in the research literature. To achieve effectiveness in solving degree-constrained minimum spanning tree, a solution algorithm based on cross-decomposition is proposed in this paper. The computational results are analyzed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. It shows a great promise in the design of centralized data communication networks.
Characteristics of the boundary-layer equations of the minimum time-to-climb problem
Ardema, M. D.
1976-01-01
In many singular perturbation solutions of optimal control problems, the most difficult numerical task is to solve the boundary-layer equations. However, these equations have a special structure that may often be used to expedite their solution. This paper begins by noting the general nature of the boundary-layer equations for optimal control problems. These results are then applied to the aircraft minimum time-to-climb problem. A specific numerical example is considered to illustrate the characteristics of the solution of the boundary-layer equations for this problem.
E. Porras Musalem (Eric); R. Dekker (Rommert)
2003-01-01
textabstractWe study the joint replenishment problem (JRP) for M items under deterministic demand, with a minimum order quantity constraint for each item in the replenishment order. We first study an iterative procedure that proves to be not efficient in this case. Further, we derive bounds on the b
A Minimum-Cost Network-Flow Solution to the Case v Thurstone Scaling Problem.
Lattin, James M.
1990-01-01
An approach is presented for determining unidimensional scale estimates that are relatively insensitive to limited inconsistencies in paired comparisons data. The solution procedure--a minimum-cost network-flow problem--is presented in conjunction with a sensitivity diagnostic that assesses the influence of a single pairwise comparison on…
Tijs, S.H.; Moretti, S.; Brânzei, R.; Norde, H.W.
2005-01-01
A new way is presented to define for minimum cost spanning tree (mcst-) games the irreducible core, which is introduced by Bird in 1976.The Bird core correspondence turns out to have interesting monotonicity and additivity properties and each stable cost monotonic allocation rule for mcst-problems i
Tijs, S.H.; Moretti, S.; Brânzei, R.; Norde, H.W.
2005-01-01
A new way is presented to define for minimum cost spanning tree (mcst-) games the irreducible core, which is introduced by Bird in 1976.The Bird core correspondence turns out to have interesting monotonicity and additivity properties and each stable cost monotonic allocation rule for mcst-problems
Tijs, S.H.; Moretti, S.; Brânzei, R.; Norde, H.W.
2005-01-01
A new way is presented to define for minimum cost spanning tree (mcst-) games the irreducible core, which is introduced by Bird in 1976.The Bird core correspondence turns out to have interesting monotonicity and additivity properties and each stable cost monotonic allocation rule for mcst-problems i
Revised analysis of the (1+1) EA for the minimum spanning tree problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Witt, Carsten
2014-01-01
We revisit the classical analysis of the (1+1) EA for the minimum spanning tree problem in the case that nothing is known about the weights of the underlying graph. Here the original upper bound on the expected running time by Neumann and Wegener [Theor. Comput. Sci. 378(1), 32-40, 2007], which...
Development of Gis Tool for the Solution of Minimum Spanning Tree Problem using Prim's Algorithm
Dutta, S.; Patra, D.; Shankar, H.; Alok Verma, P.
2014-11-01
minimum spanning tree (MST) of a connected, undirected and weighted network is a tree of that network consisting of all its nodes and the sum of weights of all its edges is minimum among all such possible spanning trees of the same network. In this study, we have developed a new GIS tool using most commonly known rudimentary algorithm called Prim's algorithm to construct the minimum spanning tree of a connected, undirected and weighted road network. This algorithm is based on the weight (adjacency) matrix of a weighted network and helps to solve complex network MST problem easily, efficiently and effectively. The selection of the appropriate algorithm is very essential otherwise it will be very hard to get an optimal result. In case of Road Transportation Network, it is very essential to find the optimal results by considering all the necessary points based on cost factor (time or distance). This paper is based on solving the Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) problem of a road network by finding it's minimum span by considering all the important network junction point. GIS technology is usually used to solve the network related problems like the optimal path problem, travelling salesman problem, vehicle routing problems, location-allocation problems etc. Therefore, in this study we have developed a customized GIS tool using Python script in ArcGIS software for the solution of MST problem for a Road Transportation Network of Dehradun city by considering distance and time as the impedance (cost) factors. It has a number of advantages like the users do not need a greater knowledge of the subject as the tool is user-friendly and that allows to access information varied and adapted the needs of the users. This GIS tool for MST can be applied for a nationwide plan called Prime Minister Gram Sadak Yojana in India to provide optimal all weather road connectivity to unconnected villages (points). This tool is also useful for constructing highways or railways spanning several
Monotone Approximations of Minimum and Maximum Functions and Multi-objective Problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stipanovic, Dusan M., E-mail: dusan@illinois.edu [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Coordinated Science Laboratory, Department of Industrial and Enterprise Systems Engineering (United States); Tomlin, Claire J., E-mail: tomlin@eecs.berkeley.edu [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (United States); Leitmann, George, E-mail: gleit@berkeley.edu [University of California at Berkeley, College of Engineering (United States)
2012-12-15
In this paper the problem of accomplishing multiple objectives by a number of agents represented as dynamic systems is considered. Each agent is assumed to have a goal which is to accomplish one or more objectives where each objective is mathematically formulated using an appropriate objective function. Sufficient conditions for accomplishing objectives are derived using particular convergent approximations of minimum and maximum functions depending on the formulation of the goals and objectives. These approximations are differentiable functions and they monotonically converge to the corresponding minimum or maximum function. Finally, an illustrative pursuit-evasion game example with two evaders and two pursuers is provided.
Effect of a system-oriented intervention on compliance problems in schizophrenia
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skarsholm, Hanne; Støvring, Henrik; Nielsen, Bent
2014-01-01
individually due to inappropriate behavior in the patient. We conducted a pragmatic controlled trial with a system-oriented approach, to provide a new perspective on compliance and test the efficacy of a multifactorial intervention at the system level in a routine clinical setting, an approach that has...... estimates. This was reflected by significant differences found in an analysis based on a last observation carried forward approach. Conclusion. This study suggests that compliance problems are better solved by a multifactorial intervention at the system level than at the individual level....
Electromagnetism metaheuristic algorithm for solving the strong minimum energy topology problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kartelj Aleksandar
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper electromagnetism (EM metaheuristic is used for solving the NP-hard strong minimum energy topology problem (SMETP. Objective function is adapted to the problem so that it effectively prevents infeasible solutions. Proposed EM algorithm uses efficient local search to speed up overall running time. This approach is tested on two sets of randomly generated symmetric and asymmetric instances. EM reaches all known optimal solutions for these instances. The solutions are obtained in a reasonable running time even for the problem instances of higher dimensions.
Two- and three-index formulations of the minimum cost multicommodity k-splittable flow problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gamst, Mette; Jensen, Peter Neergaard; Pisinger, David
2010-01-01
of commodities has to be satisfied at the lowest possible cost. The problem has applications in transportation problems where a number of commodities must be routed, using a limited number of distinct transportation units for each commodity. Based on a three-index formulation by Truffot et al. [J. Truffot, C......The multicommodity flow problem (MCFP) considers the efficient routing of commodities from their origins to their destinations subject to capacity restrictions and edge costs. Baier et al. [G. Baier, E. Köhler, M. Skutella, On the k-splittable flow problem, in: 10th Annual European Symposium...... on Algorithms, 2002, 101–113] introduced the maximum flow multicommodity k-splittable flow problem (MCkFP) where each commodity may use at most k paths between its origin and its destination. This paper studies the -hard minimum cost multicommodity k-splittable flow problem (MCMCkFP) in which a given flow...
A deﬁcit scaling algorithm for the minimum ﬂow problem
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Laura Ciupală
2006-06-01
In this paper, we develop a new preﬂow algorithm for the minimum ﬂow problem, called deﬁcit scaling algorithm. This is a special implementation of the generic preﬂow algorithm for the minimum ﬂow problem developed by Ciurea and Ciupală earlier. The bottleneck operation in the generic preﬂow algorithm is the number of noncancelling pulls. Using the scaling technique (i.e. selecting the active nodes with sufﬁciently large deﬁcits), we reduce the number of noncancelling pulls to $O(n^2 \\log \\bar{c})$ and obtain an $O(nm+n^2 \\log \\bar{c})$ algorithm.
Algebraic Approach to the Minimum-Cost Multi-Impulse Orbit-Transfer Problem
Avendaño, M.; Martín-Molina, V.; Martín-Morales, J.; Ortigas-Galindo, J.
2016-08-01
We present a purely algebraic formulation (i.e. polynomial equations only) of the minimum-cost multi-impulse orbit transfer problem without time constraints, while keeping all the variables with a precise physical meaning. We apply general algebraic techniques to solve these equations (resultants, Gr\\"obner bases, etc.) in several situations of practical interest of different degrees of generality. For instance, we provide a proof of the optimality of the Hohmann transfer for the minimum fuel 2-impulse circular to circular orbit transfer problem, and we provide a general formula for the optimal 2-impulse in-plane transfer between two rotated elliptical orbits under a mild symmetry assumption on the two points where the impulses are applied (which we conjecture that can be removed).
Setiawan, E. P.; Rosadi, D.
2017-01-01
Portfolio selection problems conventionally means ‘minimizing the risk, given the certain level of returns’ from some financial assets. This problem is frequently solved with quadratic or linear programming methods, depending on the risk measure that used in the objective function. However, the solutions obtained by these method are in real numbers, which may give some problem in real application because each asset usually has its minimum transaction lots. In the classical approach considering minimum transaction lots were developed based on linear Mean Absolute Deviation (MAD), variance (like Markowitz’s model), and semi-variance as risk measure. In this paper we investigated the portfolio selection methods with minimum transaction lots with conditional value at risk (CVaR) as risk measure. The mean-CVaR methodology only involves the part of the tail of the distribution that contributed to high losses. This approach looks better when we work with non-symmetric return probability distribution. Solution of this method can be found with Genetic Algorithm (GA) methods. We provide real examples using stocks from Indonesia stocks market.
Solution of the Problem of the Identified Minimum for the Tri-Variate Normal
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A Mukherjea; M Elnaggar
2012-11-01
Let $X=(X_1,X_2,X_3)$ be a non-singular tri-variate normal vector with zero means. Let $T=\\min\\{X_1,X_2,X_3\\}$, and $I=i \\mathrm{ iff } T=X_i,i=1,2,3$. The problem of the identified minimum (,) is then to find if its joint distribution determines uniquely . This problem is solved here in the affirmative. To the best of our knowledge, it was first solved in the bivariate normal case (and partially in the tri-variate normal case) in 1978 in [1].
A Genetic Algorithm Based Approach for Solving the Minimum Dominating Set of Queens Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saad Alharbi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In the field of computing, combinatorics, and related areas, researchers have formulated several techniques for the Minimum Dominating Set of Queens Problem (MDSQP pertaining to the typical chessboard based puzzles. However, literature shows that limited research has been carried out to solve the MDSQP using bioinspired algorithms. To fill this gap, this paper proposes a simple and effective solution based on genetic algorithms to solve this classical problem. We report results which demonstrate that near optimal solutions have been determined by the GA for different board sizes ranging from 8 × 8 to 11 × 11.
Vegh, Laszlo A.
2011-01-01
A well-studied nonlinear extension of the minimum-cost flow problem is to minimize the objective $\\sum_{ij\\in E} C_{ij}(f_{ij})$ over feasible flows $f$, where on every arc $ij$ of the network, $C_{ij}$ is a convex function. We give a strongly polynomial algorithm for the case when all $C_{ij}$'s are convex quadratic functions, settling an open problem raised e.g. by Hochbaum [1994]. We also give strongly polynomial algorithms for computing market equilibria in Fisher markets with linear util...
There is no 16-Clue Sudoku: Solving the Sudoku Minimum Number of Clues Problem
McGuire, Gary; Civario, Gilles
2012-01-01
We apply our new hitting set enumeration algorithm to solve the sudoku minimum number of clues problem, which is the following question: What is the smallest number of clues (givens) that a sudoku puzzle may have? It was conjectured that the answer is 17. We have performed an exhaustive search for a 16-clue sudoku puzzle, and we did not find one, thereby proving that the answer is indeed 17. This article describes our method and the actual search. The hitting set problem is computationally hard; it is one of Karp's twenty-one classic NP-complete problems. We have designed a new algorithm that allows us to efficiently enumerate hitting sets of a suitable size. Hitting set problems have applications in many areas of science, such as bioinformatics and software testing.
Dewi, F; Jones, S D; Ghaly, G A; Cronin, A J
2013-10-01
Accurate and timely collection of clinical records is of utmost importance in planning, evaluating, and auditing orthognathic operations. The minimum dataset guidelines of the British Orthodontic Society (BOS) and the British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (BAOMS) were published in an attempt to standardise the collection of clinical records of patients having orthognathic operations. This multicentre retrospective audit aimed to assess and compare compliance with the guidelines in 3 maxillofacial units over a 1-year period. A total of 105 cases were reviewed. Compliance varied. Documentation of altered sensation was consistently poor and too many unnecessary radiographs were taken. There may be a need to circulate the guidelines again to increase awareness and reduce variability between centres.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Listrovoy Sergey Vladimirovich
2015-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper the probabilistic method is presented for solving the minimum vertex cover problem using systems of non-linear equations that are formed on the basis of a neighborhood relationship of a particular vertex of a given graph. The minimum vertex cover problem is one of the classic mathematical optimization problems that have been shown to be NP-hard. It has a lot of real-world applications in different fields of science and technology. This study finds solutions to this problem by means of the two basic procedures. In the first procedure three probabilistic pairs of variables according to the maximum vertex degree are formed and processed accordingly. The second procedure checks a given graph for the presence of the leaf vertices. Special software package to check the validity of these procedures was written. The experiment results show that our method has significantly better time complexity and much smaller frequency of the approximation errors in comparison with one of the most currently efficient algorithms.
Intractability of the Minimum-Flip Supertree problem and its variants
Böcker, Sebastian; Nicolas, Francois; Truss, Anke
2011-01-01
Computing supertrees is a central problem in phylogenetics. The supertree method that is by far the most widely used today was introduced in 1992 and is called Matrix Representation with Parsimony analysis (MRP). Matrix Representation using Flipping (MRF)}, which was introduced in 2002, is an interesting variant of MRP: MRF is arguably more relevant that MRP and various efficient implementations of MRF have been presented. From a theoretical point of view, implementing MRF or MRP is solving NP-hard optimization problems. The aim of this paper is to study the approximability and the fixed-parameter tractability of the optimization problem corresponding to MRF, namely Minimum-Flip Supertree. We prove strongly negative results.
On the Minimum Error Correction Problem for Haplotype Assembly in Diploid and Polyploid Genomes.
Bonizzoni, Paola; Dondi, Riccardo; Klau, Gunnar W; Pirola, Yuri; Pisanti, Nadia; Zaccaria, Simone
2016-09-01
In diploid genomes, haplotype assembly is the computational problem of reconstructing the two parental copies, called haplotypes, of each chromosome starting from sequencing reads, called fragments, possibly affected by sequencing errors. Minimum error correction (MEC) is a prominent computational problem for haplotype assembly and, given a set of fragments, aims at reconstructing the two haplotypes by applying the minimum number of base corrections. MEC is computationally hard to solve, but some approximation-based or fixed-parameter approaches have been proved capable of obtaining accurate results on real data. In this work, we expand the current characterization of the computational complexity of MEC from the approximation and the fixed-parameter tractability point of view. In particular, we show that MEC is not approximable within a constant factor, whereas it is approximable within a logarithmic factor in the size of the input. Furthermore, we answer open questions on the fixed-parameter tractability for parameters of classical or practical interest: the total number of corrections and the fragment length. In addition, we present a direct 2-approximation algorithm for a variant of the problem that has also been applied in the framework of clustering data. Finally, since polyploid genomes, such as those of plants and fishes, are composed of more than two copies of the chromosomes, we introduce a novel formulation of MEC, namely the k-ploid MEC problem, that extends the traditional problem to deal with polyploid genomes. We show that the novel formulation is still both computationally hard and hard to approximate. Nonetheless, from the parameterized point of view, we prove that the problem is tractable for parameters of practical interest such as the number of haplotypes and the coverage, or the number of haplotypes and the fragment length.
Chakrabarty, Deeparnab
2010-01-01
We introduce a problem that is a common generalization of the uncapacitated facility location and minimum latency (ML) problems, where facilities need to be opened to serve clients and also need to be sequentially activated before they can provide service. Formally, we are given a set \\F of n facilities with facility-opening costs {f_i}, a set of m clients, and connection costs {c_{ij}} specifying the cost of assigning a client j to a facility i, a root node r denoting the depot, and a time metric d on \\F\\cup{r}. Our goal is to open a subset F of facilities, find a path P starting at r and spanning F to activate the open facilities, and connect each client j to a facility \\phi(j)\\in F, so as to minimize \\sum_{i\\in F}f_i +\\sum_{clients j}(c_{\\phi(j),j}+t_j), where t_j is the time taken to reach \\phi(j) along path P. We call this the minimum latency uncapacitated facility location (MLUFL) problem. Our main result is an O(\\log n\\max{\\log n,\\log m})-approximation for MLUFL. We also show that any improvement in th...
A minimum resource neural network framework for solving multiconstraint shortest path problems.
Zhang, Junying; Zhao, Xiaoxue; He, Xiaotao
2014-08-01
Characterized by using minimum hard (structural) and soft (computational) resources, a novel parameter-free minimal resource neural network (MRNN) framework is proposed for solving a wide range of single-source shortest path (SP) problems for various graph types. The problems are the k-shortest time path problems with any combination of three constraints: time, hop, and label constraints, and the graphs can be directed, undirected, or bidirected with symmetric and/or asymmetric traversal time, which can be real and time dependent. Isomorphic to the graph where the SP is to be sought, the network is activated by generating autowave at source neuron and the autowave travels automatically along the paths with the speed of a hop in an iteration. Properties of the network are studied, algorithms are presented, and computation complexity is analyzed. The framework guarantees globally optimal solutions of a series of problems during the iteration process of the network, which provides insight into why even the SP is still too long to be satisfied. The network facilitates very large scale integrated circuit implementation and adapt to very large scale problems due to its massively parallel processing and minimum resource utilization. When implemented in a sequentially processing computer, experiments on synthetic graphs, road maps of cities of the USA, and vehicle routing with time windows indicate that the MRNN is especially efficient for large scale sparse graphs and even dense graphs with some constraints, e.g., the CPU time taken and the iteration number used for the road maps of cities of the USA is even less than ∼ 2% and 0.5% that of the Dijkstra's algorithm.
Ingvarsson, Einar T; Kahng, Sungwoo; Hausman, Nicole L
2008-01-01
Functional analysis suggested that the problem behavior of an 8-year-old girl with autism was maintained by escape from demands and access to edible items. Noncontingent delivery of an edible item was sufficient to increase compliance and reduce the rate of problem behavior without the use of escape extinction in a demand context. Leaner and richer schedules of noncontingent reinforcement were equally effective, and there were minimal differences between noncontingent reinforcement and differential reinforcement of compliance.
A fast and Robust Algorithm for general inequality/equality constrained minimum time problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Briessen, B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sadegh, N. [Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Mechanical Engineering
1995-12-01
This paper presents a new algorithm for solving general inequality/equality constrained minimum time problems. The algorithm`s solution time is linear in the number of Runge-Kutta steps and the number of parameters used to discretize the control input history. The method is being applied to a three link redundant robotic arm with torque bounds, joint angle bounds, and a specified tip path. It solves case after case within a graphical user interface in which the user chooses the initial joint angles and the tip path with a mouse. Solve times are from 30 to 120 seconds on a Hewlett Packard workstation. A zero torque history is always used in the initial guess, and the algorithm has never crashed, indicating its robustness. The algorithm solves for a feasible solution for large trajectory execution time t{sub f} and then reduces t{sub f} and then reduces t{sub f} by a small amount and re-solves. The fixed time re- solve uses a new method of finding a near-minimum-2-norm solution to a set of linear equations and inequalities that achieves quadratic convegence to a feasible solution of the full nonlinear problem.
A Rounding by Sampling Approach to the Minimum Size k-Arc Connected Subgraph Problem
Laekhanukit, Bundit; Singh, Mohit
2012-01-01
In the k-arc connected subgraph problem, we are given a directed graph G and an integer k and the goal is the find a subgraph of minimum cost such that there are at least k-arc disjoint paths between any pair of vertices. We give a simple (1 + 1/k)-approximation to the unweighted variant of the problem, where all arcs of G have the same cost. This improves on the 1 + 2/k approximation of Gabow et al. [GGTW09]. Similar to the 2-approximation algorithm for this problem [FJ81], our algorithm simply takes the union of a k in-arborescence and a k out-arborescence. The main difference is in the selection of the two arborescences. Here, inspired by the recent applications of the rounding by sampling method (see e.g. [AGM+ 10, MOS11, OSS11, AKS12]), we select the arborescences randomly by sampling from a distribution on unions of k arborescences that is defined based on an extreme point solution of the linear programming relaxation of the problem. In the analysis, we crucially utilize the sparsity property of the ext...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lucia Sepe
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The paper presents the main results of the monitoring on the effectiveness of the cross compliance standard 4.6 ‘Minimum livestock stocking rates and/or appropriate regimes’ carried out in two case studies within the project MO.NA.CO: sheep grazing in medium-rich pastures in southern Apennines and in the plain of Sardinia, Italy. The monitoring involved aspects related to soil, flora, livestock and economics (competitiveness differential. The study showed, although in the short term, that the minimum stocking rate 0.2 LU/ha/year was not effective and, conversely, the effectiveness of the maximum level of stocking rate (4 LU/ha for the maintenance of the habitat. The generalization in applying minimum and maximum rate, not taking into account the climatic conditions, forage resources or farming system (including the species of grazing animal may lead to a serious nullification of the conditions of the Standard. The authors recommend to identify homogeneous areas and eligible specific stocking rates from all Italian regions, also considering the animal species.
On Compliance and Buckling Objective Functions in Topology Optimization of Snap-Through Problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindgaard, Esben; Dahl, Jonas
2013-01-01
optimized design. A well-known issue in buckling topology optimization is artificial buckling modes in low density regions. The typical remedy applied for linear buckling does not have a natural extension to nonlinear problems, and we propose an alternative approach. Some possible negative implications...... of the analysis method and optimization formulation. We apply a nonlinear path tracing algorithm capable of detecting different types of stability points and an optimization formulation that handles possible mode switching. This is an extension into the topology optimization realm of a method developed, and used......This paper deals with topology optimization of static geometrically nonlinear structures experiencing snap-through behaviour. Different compliance and buckling criterion functions are studied and applied for topology optimization of a point loaded curved beam problem with the aim of maximizing...
Brahma, Sanjoy; Datta, Biswa
2009-07-01
The partial quadratic eigenvalue assignment problem (PQEVAP) concerns the reassignment of a small number of undesirable eigenvalues of a quadratic matrix pencil, while leaving the remaining large number of eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenvectors unchanged. The problem arises in controlling undesirable resonance in vibrating structures and in stabilizing control systems. The solution of this problem requires computations of a pair of feedback matrices. For practical effectiveness, these feedback matrices must be computed in such a way that their norms and the condition number of the closed-loop eigenvector matrix are as small as possible. These considerations give rise to the minimum norm partial quadratic eigenvalue assignment problem (MNPQEVAP) and the robust partial quadratic eigenvalue assignment problem (RPQEVAP), respectively. In this paper we propose new optimization based algorithms for solving these problems. The problems are solved directly in a second-order setting without resorting to a standard first-order formulation so as to avoid the inversion of a possibly ill-conditioned matrix and the loss of exploitable structures of the original model. The algorithms require the knowledge of only the open-loop eigenvalues to be replaced and their corresponding eigenvectors. The remaining open-loop eigenvalues and their corresponding eigenvectors are kept unchanged. The invariance of the large number of eigenvalues and eigenvectors under feedback is guaranteed by a proven mathematical result. Furthermore, the gradient formulas needed to solve the problems by using the quasi-Newton optimization technique employed are computed in terms of the known quantities only. Above all, the proposed methods do not require the reduction of the model order or the order of the controller, even when the underlying finite element model has a very large degree of freedom. These attractive features, coupled with minimal computational requirements, such as solutions of small
Ingvarsson, Einar T.; Kahng, SungWoo; Hausman, Nicole L.
2008-01-01
Functional analysis suggested that the problem behavior of an 8-year-old girl with autism was maintained by escape from demands and access to edible items. Noncontingent delivery of an edible item was sufficient to increase compliance and reduce the rate of problem behavior without the use of escape extinction in a demand context. Leaner and…
IMPROVED ALGORITHM FOR MINIMUM DATA AGGREGATION TIME PROBLEM IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
Wireless sensor networks promise a new paradigm for gathering data via collaboration among sensors spreading over a large geometrical region.Many applications impose delay requirements for data gathering and ask for time-efficient schedules for aggregating sensed data and sending to the data sink.In this paper,the authors study the minimum data aggregation time problem under collision-free transmission model.In each time round,data sent by a sensor reaches all sensors within its transmission range,but a sensor can receive data only when it is the only data that reaches the sensor.The goal is to find the method that schedules data transmission and aggregation at sensors so that the time for all requested data to be sent to the data sink is minimal.The authors propose anew approximation algorithm for this NP-hard problem with guaranteed performance ratio 7△/log2|S| + c,which significantly reduces the current best ratio of △-1,where S is the set of sensors containing source data,△ is the maximal number of sensors within the transmission range of any sensor,and c is a constant.The authors also conduct extensive simulation,the obtained results justify the improvement of proposed algorithm over the existing one.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Uchoa, Eduardo; Fukasawa, Ricardo; Lysgaard, Jens
2008-01-01
This paper presents a robust branch-cut-and-price algorithm for the Capacitated Minimum Spanning Tree Problem (CMST). The variables are associated to q-arbs, a structure that arises from a relaxation of the capacitated prize-collecting arborescence problem in order to make it solvable in pseudo-p...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Uchoa, Eduardo; Fukasawa, Ricardo; Lysgaard, Jens
This paper presents a robust branch-cut-and-price algorithm for the Capacitated Minimum Spanning Tree Problem (CMST). The variables are associated to q-arbs, a structure that arises from a relaxation of the capacitated prize-collecting arborescence problem in order to make it solvable in pseudo...
Therapeutic compliance in asthma: Is it a problem of great magnitude?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Palomino-Rodríguez, Arnaldo Andrés
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Worldwide, asthma is the most common chronic disease of the lower respiratory tract in children, and, as a public health problem, it may affect people of all ages. Its control involves not only the recognition and diagnosis of the disease, but also the specific treatment and compliance to it. The latter is defined as the reasonable understanding by the patient of the need for treatment and its different possibilities, followed by appropriate actions. It has also been defined as the degree of cooperation and agreement between the physician and the patient concerning the therapeutic regimen, characterized by the patient’s understanding of and adherence to the scheme, including adequate medical patient communication. In developed countries adherence to treatment of asthma patients can be as low as 50 %, and in developing countries it may be even lower. Factors that influence therapeutic compliance in asthma depend on the patient, the physician, the relationship between them, the prescribed treatment, the patient-pharmacist, and the physician-pharmacist relationships, the structure of the health system, the community and the family.
WALLS, FOREST
PRESENT MIGRANT LABOR PROBLEMS AND SOLUTIONS WHICH HAVE BEEN PROPOSED ARE PRESENTED. THE FIRST PROBLEM AREA IS PROVIDING EDUCATION FOR MIGRANT CHILDREN. THIS IS HINDERED BY THE PROBLEM OF SECURING COMPLIANCE WITH MINIMUM EDUCATION LAWS AND BY LAWS PROHIBITING EMPLOYMENT OF CHILDREN DURING SCHOOL HOURS. A SECOND PROBLEM AREA IS THAT OF CHILD LABOR.…
Cataldo, Michael F.; And Others
1986-01-01
Four developmentally disabled children (ages 3-5) identified as noncompliant received a standard set of adult requests under three conditions: no reinforcement, noncontingent reinforcement, and reinforcement contingent on compliance. Among results was that the contingent reinforcement procedure produced covariation in all subjects' compliance and…
Possible Global Minimum Lattice Configurations for Thomson`s Problem of Charges on a Sphere
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Altschuler, E.L.; Tipton, R.; Dowla, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Williams, T.J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, MS B256, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Ratner, E.R. [Department of Applied Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Stong, R. [Department of Mathematics, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77004 (United States); Wooten, F. [Department of Applied Science, University of California Davis/Livermore, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)
1997-04-01
What configuration of N point charges on a conducting sphere minimizes the Coulombic energy? J.J. Thomson posed this question in 1904. For N{le}112, numerical methods have found apparent global minimum-energy configurations; but the number of local minima appears to grow exponentially with N, making many such methods impractical. Here we describe a topological/numerical procedure that we believe gives the global energy minimum lattice configuration for N of the form N=10(m{sup 2}+n{sup 2}+mn)+2 (m, n positive integers). For those N with more than one lattice, we give a rule to choose the minimum one. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
最优和最小能量最优跟踪问题%Optimal and Minimum Energy Optimal Tracking Problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘轩黄
2005-01-01
Based on the theory of generalized inverses and Bellman's dynamic programming approach,two forms of solutions to the optimal and minimum energy optimal tracking problems are presented for discrete linear time-varying systems.In each case, simple expressions for the minimum tracking error and minimum control energy are derived.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Uchoa, Eduardo; Fukasawa, Ricardo; Lysgaard, Jens
2008-01-01
This paper presents a robust branch-cut-and-price algorithm for the Capacitated Minimum Spanning Tree Problem (CMST). The variables are associated to q-arbs, a structure that arises from a relaxation of the capacitated prize-collecting arborescence problem in order to make it solvable in pseudo...... or the size of the LPs that are actually solved. Computational results on benchmark instances from the OR-Library show very significant improvements over previous algorithms. Several open instances could be solved to optimality....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Uchoa, Eduardo; Fukasawa, Ricardo; Lysgaard, Jens;
This paper presents a robust branch-cut-and-price algorithm for the Capacitated Minimum Spanning Tree Problem (CMST). The variables are associated to q-arbs, a structure that arises from a relaxation of the capacitated prize-collecting arborescence problem in order to make it solvable in pseudo-p...... or the size of the LPs that are actually solved. Computational results on benchmark instances from the OR-Library show very signicant improvements over previous algorithms. Several open instances could be solved to optimality....
2010-07-01
... compliance with the evaluation standards? (a) Compliance indicator 1—Philosophy—(1) Consumer control. (i) The... 34 CFR 364.53 for each consumer; (ii) Facilitates the development and achievement of IL goals..., or other type of barrier that prevents the full integration of these individuals into society....
A new formulation for the epsilon method applied to the minimum-time-to-climb problem
Taylor, L. W., Jr.; Smith, H. J.
1978-01-01
Balakrishnan's epsilon technique is used to compute minimum-time profiles for the F-104 airplane. This technique differs from the classical gradient method in that a quadratic penalty on the error in satisfying the equation of motion is included in the cost function to be minimized as a means of eliminating the requirement of satisfying the equations of motion. Although the number of unknown independent functions is increased to include the state variables, the evaluation of the gradient of the cost function is simplified, resulting in considerable computational savings, thereby making it appear feasible to use the epsilon method for real-time application.
The Parabolas of Artzt in the Solution of a Geometric Problem of Minimum Length
Klaoudatos, Nikos
2011-01-01
The article describes the solution of a geometric problem and how this problem was formed. During the investigation process, I discovered that the inscribed parabola in a triangle, known as the parabola of Artzt, a mathematical subject developed almost 120 years ago, was the decisive idea which directed me towards the solution. Moreover, in the…
Tight Approximation Ratio of a General Greedy Splitting Algorithm for the Minimum k-Way Cut Problem
Xiao, Mingyu; Yao, Andrew C
2008-01-01
For an edge-weighted connected undirected graph, the minimum $k$-way cut problem is to find a subset of edges of minimum total weight whose removal separates the graph into $k$ connected components. The problem is NP-hard when $k$ is part of the input and W[1]-hard when $k$ is taken as a parameter. A simple algorithm for approximating a minimum $k$-way cut is to iteratively increase the number of components of the graph by $h-1$, where $2 \\le h \\le k$, until the graph has $k$ components. The approximation ratio of this algorithm is known for $h \\le 3$ but is open for $h \\ge 4$. In this paper, we consider a general algorithm that iteratively increases the number of components of the graph by $h_i-1$, where $h_1 \\le h_2 \\le ... \\le h_q$ and $\\sum_{i=1}^q (h_i-1) = k-1$. We prove that the approximation ratio of this general algorithm is $2 - (\\sum_{i=1}^q {h_i \\choose 2})/{k \\choose 2}$, which is tight. Our result implies that the approximation ratio of the simple algorithm is $2-h/k + O(h^2/k^2)$ in general and...
Janich, Karl W.
2005-01-01
The At-Least version of the Generalized Minimum Spanning Tree Problem (L-GMST) is a problem in which the optimal solution connects all defined clusters of nodes in a given network at a minimum cost. The L-GMST is NPHard; therefore, metaheuristic algorithms have been used to find reasonable solutions to the problem as opposed to computationally feasible exact algorithms, which many believe do not exist for such a problem. One such metaheuristic uses a swarm-intelligent Ant Colony System (ACS) algorithm, in which agents converge on a solution through the weighing of local heuristics, such as the shortest available path and the number of agents that recently used a given path. However, in a network using a solution derived from the ACS algorithm, some nodes may move around to different clusters and cause small changes in the network makeup. Rerunning the algorithm from the start would be somewhat inefficient due to the significance of the changes, so a genetic algorithm based on the top few solutions found in the ACS algorithm is proposed to quickly and efficiently adapt the network to these small changes.
A Memetic Approach for Improving Minimum Cost of Economic Load Dispatch Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jinho Kim
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Economic load dispatch problem is a popular optimization problem in electrical power system field, which has been so far tackled by various mathematical and metaheuristic approaches including Lagrangian relaxation, branch and bound method, genetic algorithm, tabu search, particle swarm optimization, harmony search, and Taguchi method. On top of these techniques, this study proposes a novel memetic algorithm scheme combining metaheuristic algorithm and gradient-based technique to find better solutions for an economic load dispatch problem with valve-point loading. Because metaheuristic algorithms have the strength in global search and gradient-based techniques have the strength in local search, the combination approach obtains better results than those of any single approach. A bench-mark example of 40 generating-unit economic load dispatch problem demonstrates that the memetic approach can further improve the existing best solutions from the literature.
Kuhn-Tucker sufficiency for global minimum of multi-extremal mathematical programming problems
Jeyakumar, V.; Srisatkunrajah, S.; Huy, N. Q.
2007-11-01
The Kuhn-Tucker Sufficiency Theorem states that a feasible point that satisfies the Kuhn-Tucker conditions is a global minimizer for a convex programming problem for which a local minimizer is global. In this paper, we present new Kuhn-Tucker sufficiency conditions for possibly multi-extremal nonconvex mathematical programming problems which may have many local minimizers that are not global. We derive the sufficiency conditions by first constructing weighted sum of square underestimators of the objective function and then by characterizing the global optimality of the underestimators. As a consequence, we derive easily verifiable Kuhn-Tucker sufficient conditions for general quadratic programming problems with equality and inequality constraints. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the significance of our criteria for multi-extremal problems.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Amit Kumar; Manjot Kaur
2014-02-01
Several authors have proposed different methods for solving fuzzy minimum cost flow (MCF) problems. In this paper, some single and multi-objective fuzzy MCF problems are chosen which cannot be solved by using any of the existing methods and a new method is proposed for solving such type of problems. The main advantage of the proposed method over existing methods is that the fuzzy MCF problems which can be solved by using the existing methods can also be solved by the proposed method. But, there exist several fuzzy MCF problems which can be solved only by using the proposed method i.e., it is not possible to solve these problems by using the existing methods. To illustrate the proposed method and also to show the advantages of the proposed method over existing methods some single and multiobjective fuzzy MCF problems which cannot be solved by using the existing methods are solved by using the proposed method and the obtained results are discussed.
Espejo, Inmaculada; Puerto, Justo; Rodriguez-Chia, Antonio
2008-01-01
We consider a discrete facility location problem with a new form of equity criterion. The model discussed in the paper analyzes the case where demand points only have strict preference order on the sites where the plants can be located. The goal is to find the location of the facilities minimizing the total envy felt by the entire set of demand points. We define this new total envy criterion and provide several integer linear programming formulations that reflect and model this approach. Extensive computational tests are reported, showing the potentials and limits of each formulation on several types of instances.
Luo, Xiaodong; Lorentzen, Rolf J; Nævdal, Geir
2015-01-01
The focus of this work is on an alternative implementation of the iterative ensemble smoother (iES). We show that iteration formulae similar to those used in \\cite{chen2013-levenberg,emerick2012ensemble} can be derived by adopting a regularized Levenberg-Marquardt (RLM) algorithm \\cite{jin2010regularized} to approximately solve a minimum-average-cost (MAC) problem. This not only leads to an alternative theoretical tool in understanding and analyzing the behaviour of the aforementioned iES, but also provides insights and guidelines for further developments of the smoothing algorithms. For illustration, we compare the performance of an implementation of the RLM-MAC algorithm to that of the approximate iES used in \\cite{chen2013-levenberg} in three numerical examples: an initial condition estimation problem in a strongly nonlinear system, a facies estimation problem in a 2D reservoir and the history matching problem in the Brugge field case. In these three specific cases, the RLM-MAC algorithm exhibits comparabl...
Compliance Framing - Framing Compliance
Lutz-Ulrich Haack; Martin C. Reimann
2012-01-01
Corporations have to install various organizational measures to comply with legal as well as internal guidelines systematically. Compliance management systems have the challenging task to make use of an internal compliance-marketing approach in order to ensure not only an adequate but also effective compliance-culture. Compliance-literature and findings of persuasive goal-framing-theory give opposite implications for establishing a rather values- versus rule-based compliance-culture respectiv...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiuping Xu
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to deal with a minimum cost network flow problem (MCNFP in a large-scale construction project using a nonlinear multiobjective bilevel model with birandom variables. The main target of the upper level is to minimize both direct and transportation time costs. The target of the lower level is to minimize transportation costs. After an analysis of the birandom variables, an expectation multiobjective bilevel programming model with chance constraints is formulated to incorporate decision makers’ preferences. To solve the identified special conditions, an equivalent crisp model is proposed with an additional multiobjective bilevel particle swarm optimization (MOBLPSO developed to solve the model. The Shuibuya Hydropower Project is used as a real-world example to verify the proposed approach. Results and analysis are presented to highlight the performances of the MOBLPSO, which is very effective and efficient compared to a genetic algorithm and a simulated annealing algorithm.
Leble, S B
2004-01-01
A dressing technique is used to improve zero range potential (ZRP) model. We consider a Darboux transformation starting with a ZRP, the result of the "dressing" gives a potential with non-zero range that depends on a seed solution parameters. Concepts of the partial waves and partial phases for non-spherical potential are used in order to perform Darboux transformation. The problem of scattering on the regular X$_{\\hbox{n}}$ and YX$_{\\hbox{n}}$ structures is studied. The results of the low-energy electron-molecule scattering on the dressed ZRPs are illustrated by model calculation for the configuration and parameters of the silane ($\\hbox{SiH}_4$) molecule. \\center{Key words: low-energy scattering, multiple scattering, Ramsauer-Townsend minimum, silane, zero range potential.
Donkers, M C F; Heemels, W P M H
2011-01-01
In this paper, we present two control laws that are tailored for control applications in which computational and/or communication resources are scarce. Namely, we consider minimum attention control, where the `attention' that a control task requires is minimised given certain performance requirements, and anytime attention control, where the performance under the `attention' given by a scheduler is maximised. Here, we interpret `attention' as the inverse of the time elapsed between two consecutive executions of a control task. By focussing on linear plants, by allowing for only a finite number of possible intervals between two subsequent executions of the control task, by making a novel extension to the notion of control Lyapunov functions and taking these novel extended control Lyapunov function to be infinity-norm-based, we can formulate the aforementioned control problems as online linear programs, which can be solved efficiently. Furthermore, we provide techniques to construct suitable infinity-norm-based...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xiao LIU; Jia-wei YE
2011-01-01
We present a new algorithm for nesting problems.Many equally spaced points are set on a sheet,and a piece is moved to one of the points and rotated by an angle.Both the point and the rotation angle constitute the packing attitude of the piece.We propose a new algorithm named HAPE(Heuristic Algorithm based on the principle of minimum total Potential Energy)to find the optimal packing attitude at which the piece has the lowest center of gravity.In addition,a new technique for polygon overlap testing is proposed which avoids the time-consuming calculation of no-fit-polygon(NFP).The detailed implementation of HAPE is presented and two computational experiments are described.The first experiment is based on a real industrial problem and the second on 11 published benchmark problems.Using a hill-climbing(HC)search method,the proposed algorithm performs well in comparison with other published solutions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1981-01-01
A study of the problems of compliance with the Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978 experienced by electric utility systems which have a total generating capacity of less than 2000 MW is presented. This volume presents the following appendices: (A) case studies (Farmington, New Mexico; Lamar, Colorado; Dover, Delaware; Wolverine Electric Cooperative, Michigan; Central Telephone and Utilities, Kansas; Sierra Pacific Power Company, Nevada; Vero Beach, Florida; Lubbock, Texas; Western Farmers Cooperative, Oklahoma; and West Texas Utilities Company, Texas); (B) contacts and responses to study; (C) joint action legislation chart; (D) Texas Municipal Power Agency case study; (E) existing generating units jointly owned with small utilities; (F) future generating units jointly owned with small utilities; (G) Federal Register Notice of April 17, 1980, and letter of inquiry to utilities; (H) small utility responses; and (I) Section 744, PIFUA. (WHK)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammad Ali Barati
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Multi-period models of portfolio selection have been developed in the literature with respect to certain assumptions. In this study, for the first time, the portfolio selection problem has been modeled based on mean-semi variance with transaction cost and minimum transaction lots considering functional constraints and fuzzy parameters. Functional constraints such as transaction cost and minimum transaction lots were included. In addition, the returns on assets parameters were considered as trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. An efficient genetic algorithm (GA was designed, results were analyzed using numerical instances and sensitivity analysis were executed. In the numerical study, the problem was solved based on the presence or absence of each mode of constraints including transaction costs and minimum transaction lots. In addition, with the use of sensitivity analysis, the results of the model were presented with the variations of minimum expected rate of programming periods.
Parental problem-solving skills, stress, and dietary compliance in phenylketonuria.
Fehrenbach, A M; Peterson, L
1989-04-01
Parents of 30 children with phenylketonuria (PKU) who were classified as being in good dietary control (compliant, measured as within the medically acceptable range of blood phenylalanine levels of 2-10 mg) or poor dietary control (noncompliant, measured as either below or above medically acceptable 2-10 mg blood phenylalanine levels) engaged in verbal and written problem-solving situations under conditions of both high and low time-pressure induced stress. Overall, compliant parents gave higher quality verbal and written problem-solving solutions than noncompliant parents. Stress reduced the quality of problem solving in both compliant and noncompliant parents, but even under high stress, compliant parents demonstrated better problem-solving abilities than noncompliant parents. The potential importance of these findings for preventive intervention in PKU families is discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mikaël Barboteu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We consider a mathematical model which describes the dynamic evolution of a viscoelastic body in frictional contact with an obstacle. The contact is modelled with a combination of a normal compliance and a normal damped response law associated with a slip rate-dependent version of Coulomb’s law of dry friction. We derive a variational formulation and an existence and uniqueness result of the weak solution of the problem is presented. Next, we introduce a fully discrete approximation of the variational problem based on a finite element method and on an implicit time integration scheme. We study this fully discrete approximation schemes and bound the errors of the approximate solutions. Under regularity assumptions imposed on the exact solution, optimal order error estimates are derived for the fully discrete solution. Finally, after recalling the solution of the frictional contact problem, some numerical simulations are provided in order to illustrate both the behavior of the solution related to the frictional contact conditions and the theoretical error estimate result.
2013-01-01
This article highlights the strengths and weaknesses of to two research directions neuropsychology of domestic and foreign, as well as identifying possible areas of integration. One of the most acute problems is the development of experimental psychological methods to determine the quantitative and expressed characteristics of the psychic phenomena by flexibly combining qualitative and quantitative approaches, with a view to putting into practice foreign neuroscience principles and standards ...
Burikham, Piyabut; Harko, Tiberiu; Lake, Matthew J
2015-01-01
The existence of both a minimum mass and a minimum density in nature, in the presence of a positive cosmological constant, is one of the most intriguing results in classical general relativity. These results follow rigorously from the Buchdahl inequalities in four dimensional de Sitter space. In this work, we obtain the generalized Buchdahl inequalities in arbitrary space-time dimensions with $\\Lambda \
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Burikham, Piyabut; Cheamsawat, Krai [Chulalongkorn University, High Energy Physics Theory Group, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Bangkok (Thailand); Harko, Tiberiu [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Lake, Matthew J. [Naresuan University, The Institute for Fundamental Study, ' ' The Tah Poe Academia Institute' ' , Phitsanulok (Thailand); Ministry of Education, Thailand Center of Excellence in Physics, Bangkok (Thailand)
2015-09-15
The existence of both a minimum mass and a minimum density in nature, in the presence of a positive cosmological constant, is one of the most intriguing results in classical general relativity. These results follow rigorously from the Buchdahl inequalities in four-dimensional de Sitter space. In this work, we obtain the generalized Buchdahl inequalities in arbitrary space-time dimensions with Λ ≠ 0 and consider both the de Sitter and the anti-de Sitter cases. The dependence on D, the number of space-time dimensions, of the minimum and maximum masses for stable spherical objects is explicitly obtained. The analysis is then extended to the case of dark energy satisfying an arbitrary linear barotropic equation of state. The Jeans instability of barotropic dark energy is also investigated, for arbitrary D, in the framework of a simple Newtonian model with and without viscous dissipation, and we determine the dispersion relation describing the dark energy-matter condensation process, along with estimates of the corresponding Jeans mass (and radius). Finally, the quantum mechanical implications of the mass limits are investigated, and we show that the existence of a minimum mass scale naturally leads to a model in which dark energy is composed of a 'sea' of quantum particles, each with an effective mass proportional to Λ{sup 1/4}. (orig.)
最小比率旅行商问题的引力搜索算法求解%Gravitational Search Algorithm for Minimum Ratio Traveling Salesman Problem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘勇; 马良
2013-01-01
The objective of the tradition traveling salesman problem is to minimize the total distances. But in fact, the salesman often considers the benefit. In this paper, minimum ratio traveling salesman problem is studied. In this problem, the objective function is the ratio between the total distances and total benefits. The objective function of minimum ratio traveling salesman problem is nonlinear while the objective function of traveling salesman problem is linear. So, it is much more difficult to solve minimum ratio traveling salesman problem. To solve this problem, a gravitational search algorithm is proposed. The algorithm is an optimization method inspired from the law of universal gravitation and Newton's Second Law. The calculation model based on speed and position is used. By random key method, the continuous positions of searching agents are converted to discrete orders of city visit. The implementation of the algorithm is given. The results of emulation and comparison experiment verify the feasibility and effectiveness of this algorithm in optimizing minimum ratio traveling salesman problem.%经典旅行商问题的目标函数是总路程最小,而在实际情况中往往会考虑旅行商的收益问题,研究了以总路程和总收益之比为目标函数的最小比率旅行商问题.由于该问题的目标函数是非线性的,比求解目标函数是线性的旅行商问题更为困难,为有效求解该问题,提出一种引力搜索算法.算法基于万有引力定律和牛顿第二定律进行寻优,并采用速度和位置的计算模型.同时结合随机键的编码方法,将搜索个体的连续位置转换为离散的城市访问顺序.给出了算法的具体实现方案,并通过仿真和比较实验验证算法的优化性能.实验结果表明该算法可以有效求解最小比率旅行商问题.
Brill, K
1997-06-17
Adolescents represent a particularly difficult group with respect to compliance. Not only is incorrect pill intake a common problem, but unnecessary discontinuation also occurs regularly. Reasons for poor compliance are varied, but inadequate information and problems with cycle control and weight gain are particularly important. Choosing a well-tolerated oral contraceptive can help to improve compliance, and clinical experience from a large, multicenter trial suggests that monophasic gestodene (75 micrograms gestodene/30 micrograms ethinylestradiol) is a suitable preparation for this group of women. An investigation of 5,602 adolescents with an average age of 16.4 years found good contraceptive reliability and excellent cycle control. The incidence of spotting and breakthrough bleeding was low and declined during the course of the study. The preparation was tolerated well, and the incidence of adverse events was low, with only 4.4% of women withdrawing from the study due to adverse events. An increase in body weight was uncommon. At the end of the study, 85.0% of adolescents rated monophasic gestodene as good and 9.6% as satisfactory.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
罗润梓; 孙世杰
2005-01-01
In this paper, a semi on-line version on m identical machines M1 , M2, …, Mm ( m ≥ 3 ) was considered, where the processing time of the largest job is known in advance. Our goal is to maximize the minimum machine load, an NPLS algorithm was presented and its worst-case ratio was proved to be equal to m - 1 which is the best possible value. It is concluded that if the total processing time of jobs is also known to be greater than (2 m - 1 )Pmax where pmax is the largest job's processing time, then the worstcase ratio is 2 - 1/m.
一种最小创建者集合的构建算法%Heuristic Algorithm for the Minimum Founder Set Reconstructive Problem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴璟莉; 刘广海
2012-01-01
最小创建者集合问题(the Minimum Founder Set problem,MFS)是求解重组体的嵌合体结构或创建者集合的有效模型,提出一种求解访问题的构造性启发式算法H-MFS.在嵌合体中的最小片断长度须不小于L的模型约束下,各重组体的前L列之间及最后L列之间均不能出现断点.基于这个思想,该算法将创建者序列的基因位点分成三个部分分别构建.采用两组真实的生物数据对算法进行测试分析:1.Kreitman的果蝇乙醇脱氢酶数据；2.国际人类基因组单体型图计划发布的CEU种群样本.实验结果显示,该算法能快速有效地求解MFS问题,并且当重组体的SNP位点个数取值较大时,H-MFS仍具有较高的执行效率,有很好的实用价值.%The minimum founder set problem (MFS) is an effective computation model for constructing the mosaic patter or founder set from a set of recombinant sequences. In this paper, a practical constructive heuristic algorithm H-MFS is presented for solving the problem. Based on the intuition that there can not be any breakpoints among the fust (resp. the last) L columns under the constraints that the minimum fragment length of the mosaic must not less than L. H-MFS partitions the sites of founders into three parts and reconstructs them respectively.Experiments were conducted by using two sets of real biological data; L Kreitman' ADH data..2. the CEU population sample released by the International HapMap Project. The results indicate that H-MFS can solve the minimum founder set problem fast and effectively. Furthermore, when the number of recombinants and SNP sites grows large, H-MFS is still able to find satisfied solution to this problem very quickly. Hence it is practical in realistic applications.
Making corporate compliance programs work.
Chibbaro, M J; Colyer, C
2000-05-01
Healthcare organizations have created corporate compliance programs in an effort to adhere to Federal government recommendations, minimize the risk of wrongful behavior, and possibly reduce fines that may result from a government investigation. Compliance programs may have undetected weaknesses. Corporate compliance officers, executives, and board members need to be certain that their organization's program has sufficient infrastructure, oversight, and resources; effective education and training; an effective mechanism (hotline) to receive reports of compliance problems; and ongoing auditing and monitoring capabilities.
Kobylkin, Konstantin
2016-10-01
Computational complexity and approximability are studied for the problem of intersecting of a set of straight line segments with the smallest cardinality set of disks of fixed radii r > 0 where the set of segments forms straight line embedding of possibly non-planar geometric graph. This problem arises in physical network security analysis for telecommunication, wireless and road networks represented by specific geometric graphs defined by Euclidean distances between their vertices (proximity graphs). It can be formulated in a form of known Hitting Set problem over a set of Euclidean r-neighbourhoods of segments. Being of interest computational complexity and approximability of Hitting Set over so structured sets of geometric objects did not get much focus in the literature. Strong NP-hardness of the problem is reported over special classes of proximity graphs namely of Delaunay triangulations, some of their connected subgraphs, half-θ6 graphs and non-planar unit disk graphs as well as APX-hardness is given for non-planar geometric graphs at different scales of r with respect to the longest graph edge length. Simple constant factor approximation algorithm is presented for the case where r is at the same scale as the longest edge length.
Högström, Jens; Enebrink, Pia; Melin, Bo; Ghaderi, Ata
2015-08-01
The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate if previously reported treatment gains of a parent management training (PMT) program, administered via Internet, were retained from post to the 18-month follow-up. Another aim was to evaluate homework compliance as a predictor of short and long-term outcomes. Participants were parents of 58 children (3-11 years) with conduct problems who received a 10-week self-directed PMT program, with limited therapist support. Parents of 32 children (55.2 %) responded at all measurement point (baseline, post-test and follow-up) and analyses showed that child conduct problems continued to decrease during the 18-month period after the intervention whereas parenting skills deteriorated somewhat from post treatment. Pre- to post-treatment change in child conduct problems was predicted by parental engagement in homework assignments intended to reduce negative child behaviors. The findings provide support for the use of Internet-based PMT and stress the importance of parental compliance to homework training.
Albuquerque, Fabio; Beier, Paul
2015-01-01
Here we report that prioritizing sites in order of rarity-weighted richness (RWR) is a simple, reliable way to identify sites that represent all species in the fewest number of sites (minimum set problem) or to identify sites that represent the largest number of species within a given number of sites (maximum coverage problem). We compared the number of species represented in sites prioritized by RWR to numbers of species represented in sites prioritized by the Zonation software package for 11 datasets in which the size of individual planning units (sites) ranged from algorithms remain superior for conservation prioritizations that consider compactness and multiple near-optimal solutions in addition to species representation. But because RWR can be implemented easily and quickly in R or a spreadsheet, it is an attractive alternative to integer programming or heuristic algorithms in some conservation prioritization contexts.
Generalized Benders’ Decomposition for topology optimization problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Munoz Queupumil, Eduardo Javier; Stolpe, Mathias
2011-01-01
This article considers the non-linear mixed 0–1 optimization problems that appear in topology optimization of load carrying structures. The main objective is to present a Generalized Benders’ Decomposition (GBD) method for solving single and multiple load minimum compliance (maximum stiffness......–1 semi definite programming formulation of the considered problem. Several ways to accelerate the method are suggested and an implementation is described. Finally, a set of truss topology optimization problems are numerically solved to global optimality....
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Black, D.G.
1995-06-01
This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the activities conducted to ensure that the Hanford Site is in compliance with federal environmental protection statutes and related Washington State and local environmental protection regulations and the status of Hanford`s compliance with these requirements. Environmental permits required under the environmental protection regulations are discussed under the applicable statute.
Zhambaev, Yerzhan S.; Sagieva, Galia K.; Bazarbek, Bakhytzhan Zh.; Akkulov, Rustem T.
2016-01-01
The article discusses the issues of improving the activity of subjects of environmental management in accordance with international environmental standards and national environmental legislation. The article deals with the problem of ensuring the implementation of international environmental standards, the introduction of eco-management, and the…
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
朱德通
2003-01-01
In this paper,the quadratic program problem and minimum discrimination information (MDI) problem with a set of quadratic inequality constraints and entropy constraints of density are considered.Based on the properties of the generalized geometric programming,the dual programs of these two problems are derived.Furthermore,the duality theorems and related Kuhn-Tucker conditions for two pairs of the prime-dual programs are also established by the duality theory.
Asymmetric k-Center with Minimum Coverage
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gørtz, Inge Li
2008-01-01
In this paper we give approximation algorithms and inapproximability results for various asymmetric k-center with minimum coverage problems. In the k-center with minimum coverage problem, each center is required to serve a minimum number of clients. These problems have been studied by Lim et al. [A....... Lim, B. Rodrigues, F. Wang, Z. Xu, k-center problems with minimum coverage, Theoret. Comput. Sci. 332 (1–3) (2005) 1–17] in the symmetric setting....
Third-party biller compliance guidance emphasizes risk awareness.
Saner, R J
1999-03-01
The voluntary compliance guidance for third-party billing companies released by the HHS Office of Inspector General (OIG) in December 1998, like the OIG's previously released guidance directed at hospitals, home health agencies, and clinical laboratories, identifies seven minimum elements for an effective corporate compliance program: written compliance policies, designation of a compliance officer, ongoing training, open lines of communication, guidelines to ensure the enforcement of compliance standards, internal monitoring and auditing of compliance activity, and procedures to respond to and correct errors. Three areas of concern for third-party billing companies are emphasized in the new guidance document: compliance risk, claims documentation, and disclosure of suspected misconduct or fraud.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
江永亨; 王军; 金以慧
2003-01-01
The bottleneck analysis of the minimum cost problem for the generalized network (MCPGN) is dis-cussed. The analysis is based on the network simplex algorithm, which gains negative cost graphs by constructingaugmented forest structure, then augments flows on the negative cost graphs until the optimal revolution is gained.Bottleneck structure is presented after analyzing the augmented forest structure. The negative cost augmentedgraphs are constructed with the bottleneck structure. The arcs that block the negative cost augmented graph arethe elements of the bottleneck. The bottleneck analysis for the generalized circulation problem, the minimum circu-lation problem and the circulation problem are discussed respectively as the basal problems, then that for MCPGNis achieved. An example is presented at the end.
Cardinal, Jean; Joret, Gwenaël
2008-01-01
We study graph orientations that minimize the entropy of the in-degree sequence. The problem of finding such an orientation is an interesting special case of the minimum entropy set cover problem previously studied by Halperin and Karp [Theoret. Comput. Sci., 2005] and by the current authors [Algorithmica, to appear]. We prove that the minimum entropy orientation problem is NP-hard even if the graph is planar, and that there exists a simple linear-time algorithm that returns an approximate solution with an additive error guarantee of 1 bit. This improves on the only previously known algorithm which has an additive error guarantee of log_2 e bits (approx. 1.4427 bits).
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李帮义
2002-01-01
This paper puts forward the concept of kth minimum spanning trees.For the special case k＝ 2, an polynomial algorithm is given, whose time com-plexity is O(rnn), where rn is the number of edges in the network, n is the num-ber of vertices. By using the fixed length spanning tree problem, it proves thatfinding the spanning tree length distributions problem is NP-C.
Minimum signals in classical physics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
邓文基; 许基桓; 刘平
2003-01-01
The bandwidth theorem for Fourier analysis on any time-dependent classical signal is shown using the operator approach to quantum mechanics. Following discussions about squeezed states in quantum optics, the problem of minimum signals presented by a single quantity and its squeezing is proposed. It is generally proved that all such minimum signals, squeezed or not, must be real Gaussian functions of time.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wimmelmann, Camilla Lawaetz
2017-01-01
the local policy workers front-staged some practices in the implementation process and back-staged others. The local policy workers deliberately performed ‘guideline compliance’ by using information control and impression management techniques. The findings suggest that local guideline compliance should......Guidelines are increasingly used to regulate how local authorities engage in practices. Focusing on the Danish national health promotion guidelines, this article reveals that the local policy workers did not implement the guidelines as proposed. Using a dramaturgical framework, it illustrates how...... be regarded as a staged performance in which deliberate techniques are used to produce and manage certain impressions of compliance....
Antoniak, Jeannie
2004-09-01
Undeniably, handwashing remains the single most effective and cost-efficient method for preventing and reducing the transmission of nosocomial infections. Yet the rates and outbreaks of nosocomial infections in Canadian and international healthcare institutions continue to increase. Shaikh Khalifa Medical Center developed and implemented a multidisciplinary approach to address the challenges of handwashing compliance among nurses and healthcare workers in its workplace setting. Supported by evidence-based research, the approach consisted of three components: collaboration, implementation and evaluation. The use of the alcohol-based hand rub sanitizer or "solution" was integral to the multidisciplinary approach. Ongoing education, communication and a committed leadership were essential to promote and sustain handwashing compliance.
Prisca, Radu Alexandru; Gozar, Horea; Prisca, Ana Maria; Moldovan, Cosmin; Borda, Angela
2017-05-01
Primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is a controversial pathology. Current management of VUR is ruled by EAU guidelines elaborated in 2012. They defined and analyzed the risk factors and enunciated three risk groups, developing the initial treatment indications. Continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) is recommended as the initial treatment option in patients classified in moderate-risk group without low urinary tract disorder. The compliance with medication use is a concern for using CAP. The aim of the present study is to quantify the compliance of the parents of VUR patients, to analyze its impact on treatment and the applicability of EAU guidelines in our patients. This is a 4-year prospective study, which includes 202 patients aged between 1 and 174 months, diagnosed with primary VUR without LUTD. To quantify parent compliance with treatment, an algorithm was developed. Out of 202 children, 60.9% were girls. A rate of 54% patients was declared cured. In terms of compliance, incompliant patients tend toward worsening (p = 0.0001), most of them being unfollowed. Logistic regression demonstrated that the evolution of children with VUR is dependent on compliance. In conclusion, parent's compliance must be considered in EAU guidelines application, being a negative predictive factor in VUR resolution.
A General Framework for Measuring VAT Compliance Rates
J. A. Giesecke; Tran Hoang Nhi
2010-01-01
Summary measures of VAT compliance rates are valuable for identifying problem areas in VAT implementation. They are also essential for meaningful cross-country and cross-time comparisons of VAT compliance. We present a comprehensive and general framework for calculating VAT compliance rates at both the economy-wide and detailed sectoral levels. Unlike existing measures of VAT compliance, our framework isolates a compliance measure from the effects on VAT receipts of detailed features of VAT s...
Theory of Regulatory Compliance for Requirements Engineering
Jureta, Ivan; Mylopoulos, John; Perini, Anna; Susi, Angelo
2010-01-01
Regulatory compliance is increasingly being addressed in the practice of requirements engineering as a main stream concern. This paper points out a gap in the theoretical foundations of regulatory compliance, and presents a theory that states (i) what it means for requirements to be compliant, (ii) the compliance problem, i.e., the problem that the engineer should resolve in order to verify whether requirements are compliant, and (iii) testable hypotheses (predictions) about how compliance of requirements is verified. The theory is instantiated by presenting a requirements engineering framework that implements its principles, and is exemplified on a real-world case study.
Minimum Error Entropy Classification
Marques de Sá, Joaquim P; Santos, Jorge M F; Alexandre, Luís A
2013-01-01
This book explains the minimum error entropy (MEE) concept applied to data classification machines. Theoretical results on the inner workings of the MEE concept, in its application to solving a variety of classification problems, are presented in the wider realm of risk functionals. Researchers and practitioners also find in the book a detailed presentation of practical data classifiers using MEE. These include multi‐layer perceptrons, recurrent neural networks, complexvalued neural networks, modular neural networks, and decision trees. A clustering algorithm using a MEE‐like concept is also presented. Examples, tests, evaluation experiments and comparison with similar machines using classic approaches, complement the descriptions.
Kavitha, Telikepalli; Nimbhorkar, Prajakta
2010-01-01
We consider an extension of the {\\em popular matching} problem in this paper. The input to the popular matching problem is a bipartite graph G = (A U B,E), where A is a set of people, B is a set of items, and each person a belonging to A ranks a subset of items in an order of preference, with ties allowed. The popular matching problem seeks to compute a matching M* between people and items such that there is no matching M where more people are happier with M than with M*. Such a matching M* is called a popular matching. However, there are simple instances where no popular matching exists. Here we consider the following natural extension to the above problem: associated with each item b belonging to B is a non-negative price cost(b), that is, for any item b, new copies of b can be added to the input graph by paying an amount of cost(b) per copy. When G does not admit a popular matching, the problem is to "augment" G at minimum cost such that the new graph admits a popular matching. We show that this problem is...
The generalized minimum spanning tree polytope and related polytopes
Pop, P.C.
2001-01-01
The Generalized Minimum Spanning Tree problem denoted by GMST is a variant of the classical Minimum Spanning Tree problem in which nodes are partitioned into clusters and the problem calls for a minimum cost tree spanning at least one node from each cluster. A different version of the problem, calle
The generalized minimum spanning tree polytope and related polytopes
Pop, P.C.
2001-01-01
The Generalized Minimum Spanning Tree problem denoted by GMST is a variant of the classical Minimum Spanning Tree problem in which nodes are partitioned into clusters and the problem calls for a minimum cost tree spanning at least one node from each cluster. A different version of the problem, calle
The Research of Obstacle-avoiding Problem based on Minimum Variation B-spline%基于最小变量的B-样条避障问题研究
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
彭辉; 曾碧
2011-01-01
为解决移动机器人在避障时的曲线优化问题，提出了基于最小变量的B-样条避障的方法．对该方法从数学模型上进行了推导，指出了该方法相对于其他弘样条方法的优点，并对该方法进行了优化，给出了相应的优化算法．研究表明：具有最小变量的B-样条函数比只用肛样条函数定义的曲线具有更优化的线性约束，其曲线具有更好的光滑性．%To solve the mobile robot in obstacle avoidance of curve optimization problems , and put for- ward based on the minimum variable B-spline obstacle-avoidance approach. The method is carried out from the derived mathematical model, that the method compared to other B-spline interpolation method has the advantage . The method was optimized, and its iterative optimization algorithm is given. Results of the em- pirical investigation indicated that the Minimum Variation B-spline problem which is a linearly constrained optimization problem over curves defined by B-spline functions only, Its curve has better smoothness.
How Do Alternative Minimum Wage Variables Compare?
Sara Lemos
2005-01-01
Several minimum wage variables have been suggested in the literature. Such a variety of variables makes it difficult to compare the associated estimates across studies. One problem is that these estimates are not always calibrated to represent the effect of a 10% increase in the minimum wage. Another problem is that these estimates measure the effect of the minimum wage on the employment of different groups of workers. In this paper we critically compare employment effect estimates using five...
McCambridge, Jim; Hawkins, Benjamin; Holden, Chris
2014-01-01
Background There has been insufficient research attention to alcohol industry methods of influencing public policies. With the exception of the tobacco industry, there have been few studies of the impact of corporate lobbying on public health policymaking more broadly. Methods We summarize here findings from documentary analyses and interview studies in an integrative review of corporate efforts to influence UK policy on minimum unit pricing (MUP) of alcohol 2007–10. Results Alcohol producers and retailers adopted a long-term, relationship-building approach to policy influence, in which personal contacts with key policymakers were established and nurtured, including when they were not in government. The alcohol industry was successful in achieving access to UK policymakers at the highest levels of government and at all stages of the policy process. Within the United Kingdom, political devolution and the formation for the first time of a Scottish National Party (SNP) government disrupted the existing long-term strategy of alcohol industry actors and created the conditions for evidence-based policy innovations such as MUP. Conclusions Comparisons between policy communities within the United Kingdom and elsewhere are useful to the understanding of how different policy environments are amenable to influence through lobbying. Greater transparency in how policy is made is likely to lead to more effective alcohol and other public policies globally by constraining the influence of vested interests. PMID:24261642
构建最小k重控制集的概率算法%Probabilistic algorithm for minimum k-fold dominating set problem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马文凯; 李德英; 张昭
2011-01-01
A k-fold dominating set of a graph G is a node subset D of V(G) such that every node in V(G) - D has at least k neighbors in D. Minimum k-fold dominating sets (MkDS) are utilized to build robust virtual backbones in wireless networks. In this paper, we propose a fast distributed probabilistic algorithm to construct an MA;DS. The expected size of the k-dominating set which we construct is no more than O(k2) times of the optimal, and the time complexity is O((△ log△ + log log n)n), where A = max|D>(p)|, D(p) is the set of nodes falling into the disk with center p and radius 1, and the maximum is taken over all p in the given set.%点集D(u)V(G)称为图G的k重控制集,如果D满足V(G)-D中任意结点在D中至少有k个邻居.在无线网络中,最小k重控制集(MkDS)用以构建健壮的虚拟骨干网.构建虚拟骨干网是无线网络中最基本也是最重要的问题.在本文中,我们提出一种快速的分布式概率算法来构建k重控制集.我们构建的k重控制集的期望大小不超过最优解的.O(k2)倍.算法的运行时间复杂度为O(△ log△+log log n)n),其中△=max{︳D(p)︳},D(p)是以p为中心半径为1的圆盘中的结点,最大值的比较范围是给定集合中所有的p点.
2010-10-01
... manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. 536.9 Section 536.9 Transportation Other Regulations... domestically manufactured passenger automobile minimum standard. (a) Each manufacturer is responsible for..., the domestically manufactured passenger automobile compliance category credit excess or shortfall...
34 CFR 379.52 - How is grantee performance measured using the compliance indicators?
2010-07-01
... Funding? § 379.52 How is grantee performance measured using the compliance indicators? (a) Each compliance indicator establishes a minimum performance level. (b) If a grantee does not achieve the minimum performance... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How is grantee performance measured using...
2010-04-01
... Miscellaneous § 1.52 Self-regulatory organization adoption and surveillance of minimum financial requirements... the minimum financial and related reporting requirements adopted by such self-regulatory organizations... monitoring and auditing for compliance with the minimum financial rules of the self-regulatory...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dekker Jacqueline M
2010-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug related problems (DRPs are common among elderly patients who are discharged from the hospital and are using several drugs for their chronic diseases. Examples of drug related problems are contra-indications, interactions, adverse drug reactions and inefficacy of treatment. Causes of these problems include prescription errors and non-compliance with treatment. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of medication review and cognitive behaviour therapy of discharged patients by community pharmacists to minimize the occurrence of drug related problems. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial will be performed. Community pharmacists will be randomized into a control group and an intervention group. 342 Patients, aged over 60 years, discharged from general and academic hospitals, using five or more prescription drugs for their chronic disease will be asked by their pharmacy to participate in the study. Patients randomized to the control group will receive usual care according to the Dutch Pharmacy Standard. The medication of patients randomised to the intervention group will be reviewed by the community pharmacist with use of the national guidelines for the treatment of diseases, when patients are discharged from the hospital. The Pharmaceutical Care network Europe Registration form will be used to record drug related problems. Trained pharmacy technicians will counsel patients at home at baseline and at 1,3,6,9 and 12 months, using Cognitive Behaviour Treatment according to the Theory of Planned Behaviour. The patient's attitude towards medication and patient's adherence will be subject of the cognitive behaviour treatment. The counselling methods that will be used are motivational interviewing and problem solving treatment. Patients adherence towards drug use will be determined with use of the Medication Adherence Report Scale Questionnaire. There will be a follow-up of 12 months. The two primary outcome
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yekini Shehu
2010-01-01
real Banach space which is also uniformly smooth using the properties of generalized f-projection operator. Using this result, we discuss strong convergence theorem concerning general H-monotone mappings and system of generalized mixed equilibrium problems in Banach spaces. Our results extend many known recent results in the literature.
Deadline Compliance Status Reports
Department of Housing and Urban Development — These monthly Deadline Compliance Status Reports assist Participating Jurisdictions and HUD Field Offices in monitoring compliance with the 2-year commitment and...
Exercise Compliance: A New View for Public Health.
Dishman, Rod K.
1986-01-01
The author argues that exercise may be a unique health behavior, leaving researchers with problems in understanding exercise compliance. New definitions, new methods, and broader perspectives are needed. Four theories of compliance are described, and problems of research methodology are discussed. (Author/MT)
2013-04-26
... Suspicious Activities, and Bank Secrecy Act Compliance Program information collection. The Minimum Security... financial institution type, depository institutions, broker-dealers in securities, futures commission... institutions will revise internal programs, or develop new programs, to capture information that reflects...
Do Formal Inspections Ensure that British Zoos Meet and Improve on Minimum Animal Welfare Standards?
Stephen Harris; Chris Draper; William Browne
2013-01-01
Simple Summary Key aims of the formal inspections of British zoos are to assess compliance with minimum standards of animal welfare and promote improvements in animal care and husbandry. We compared reports from two consecutive inspections of 136 British zoos to see whether these goals were being achieved. Most zoos did not meet all the minimum animal welfare standards and there was no clear evidence of improving levels of compliance with standards associated with the Zoo Licensing Act 1981. ...
Taking your medicine: relational steps to improving patient compliance.
Hausman, A
2001-01-01
Patient non-compliance with physicians' instructions is a major problem that costs billions of dollars each year. This study supports a significant role for communication, both as a form of information exchange and social support, and participative decision-making in improving patient compliance. These results, based on structural equation modeling, also support the interaction of communication and participative decision-making positively affecting compliance. Results suggest that one-way communication from physician to patient and patient education will not solve compliance problems by themselves. Instead the solution revolves around open, bi-directional information exchange, active listening by both parties, and truly informed consent on the part of patients.
Minimum Length - Maximum Velocity
Panes, Boris
2011-01-01
We study a framework where the hypothesis of a minimum length in space-time is complemented with the notion of reference frame invariance. It turns out natural to interpret the action of the obtained reference frame transformations in the context of doubly special relativity. As a consequence of this formalism we find interesting connections between the minimum length properties and the modified velocity-energy relation for ultra-relativistic particles. For example we can predict the ratio between the minimum lengths in space and time using the results from OPERA about superluminal neutrinos.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boll, Karen
2014-01-01
Tax compliance denotes the act of reporting and paying taxes in accordance with the tax laws. Current social science scholarship on tax compliance can almost entirely be divided into behavioural psychology analyses and critical tax studies. This article, which presents two cases of how tax...... that studies tax compliance where it takes place as well as what it is made of. Consequently, this article argues that tax compliance is a socio-material assemblage and that complying is a distributed action. The article concludes by highlighting how an ANT approach contributes to the further theoretical...
Integration of GIS technology with air compliance for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gurney, I.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Humphreys, M.P. [USDOE Oak Ridge Operations Office, TN (United States)
1994-12-31
ORNL uses a Geographical Information System (GIS) to achieve air quality compliance effectively and with minimum expense. Since implementation of MapInfo for Environmental Air Compliance activities, plant-wide adoption of the sytem is occurring. The common forum for data exchange allows compliance groups to pursue more of a management and planning rather than merely a regulatory role. Field surveys are implemented by personnel directly involved with the activities and this data is then transmitted via MapInfo. Examples are given of how the Environmental Compliance Section at ORNL uses it to achieve air quality compliance for Titles III and V, NEPA, and NESHAPs.
Regulatory Enforcement and Compliance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren
1999-01-01
agencies. The latter are shown to be more important in bringing about compliance than are inspectors' enforcement styles. Municipal agencies are shown to increase compliance through the use of third parties, more frequent inspection, and setting priorities for inspection of major items. The findings about...
Discrete bat algorithm for solving minimum ratio traveling salesman problem%求解最小比率旅行商问题的离散蝙蝠算法
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李枝勇; 马良; 张惠珍
2015-01-01
研究了以总路程与总收益之比为目标函数的最小比率旅行商问题，提出了求解该问题的离散蝙蝠算法。介绍了蝙蝠算法的基本思想，重新定义了位置与位置的减法操作算子、实数与位置的乘法操作算子以及速度与位置的加法操作算子，引入了城市子序列逆序策略来对线路进行局部搜索。给出了算法的具体实现方案，并通过仿真和比较实验验证算法的优化性能，实验结果表明该算法可以有效求解最小比率旅行商问题。%This paper studied minimum ratio traveling salesman problem(MRTSP),which objective function was the ratio be-tween the total distances and total benefits,and presented a discrete bat algorithm for solving MRTSP.In this improved bat al-gorithm,on the one hand,it redefined the subtraction operator of location and location,the multiplication operator of real number and location,and the addition operator of velocity and location.On the other hand,it introduced the reversing the city subsequence in order to perform the route’s local search.The experimental results show that this improved bat algorithm is feasible and can effectively solve the MRTSP instances.
Compliance and Enforcement Actions (CEA) -
Department of Transportation — Compliance and Enforcement Actions application provides process assistance / improvements for conducting investigation and enforcement activities. The Compliance and...
14 CFR 23.1443 - Minimum mass flow of supplemental oxygen.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum mass flow of supplemental oxygen... Equipment Miscellaneous Equipment § 23.1443 Minimum mass flow of supplemental oxygen. (a) If continuous flow oxygen equipment is installed, an applicant must show compliance with the requirements of...
Misdrahi, D; Llorca, P M; Lançon, C; Bayle, F J
2002-01-01
Compliance has been defined as the extent to which a person's behavior coincides with the medical advice given. Medication compliance is one of the foremost problems affecting neuroleptic efficacy in psychiatric patients. Since chlorpromazine introduction in 1952, antipsychotics are the principal element of schizophrenia treatment. Actually progress links to the use of new antipsychotics are conditioned by quality of compliance. The problem of nonadherence to medication could concern 50% of prescription. The reported incidence of non-compliance with antipsychotic medication ranges from 11 to 80%. In a two thirds of case rehospitalization is the result of complete or partial noncompliance. After one year of first hospitalisation, 40% of relapse results from non adherence to medication. Medication adherence problems increase hospitalisation, morbidity and mortality. Social consequences, professional problems and family troubles linked to hospitalisations lead to low quality of life for patients and high cost for society. There are three main methods of measuring compliance. These include patient and clinical self-report, pill counts, and biological measures. Self-report methods are generally the most cost-effective and time-efficient way of obtaining an indication of compliance. In psychiatric research, the most commonly used self-report measure of compliance is the Drug Attitude Inventory (DAI) originally devised by Hogan et al. On the basis of criticism concerning DAI reliability, a new questionnaire of medication compliance was proposed: the Medication Adherence Rating scale (MARS). The main goal of compliance evaluation is to quantify this phenomenon with accuracy and to find predictive factors of medication nonadherence. Three types of factors influencing compliance are identified: factors due to medications, factors linked to patients and factors depending on the therapeutic relation with the clinician. Tolerance is considered as the principal reason explaining
Calder, Alan
2009-01-01
The growing range of Green IT regulations are challenging more and more organisations to take specific steps to ensure they are in compliance with sometimes complex regulations, ranging from cap & trade requirements through to regulations concerning IT equipment disposal.
Environmental Compliance Issue Coordination
An order to establish the Department of Energy (DOE) requirements for coordination of significant environmental compliance issues to ensure timely development and consistent application of Departmental environmental policy and guidance
Environmental Compliance Guide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1981-02-01
The Guide is intended to assist Department of Energy personnel by providing information on the NEPA process, the processes of other environmental statutes that bear on the NEPA process, the timing relationships between the NEPA process and these other processes, as well as timing relationships between the NEPA process and the development process for policies, programs, and projects. This information should be helpful not only in formulating environmental compliance plans but also in achieving compliance with NEPA and various other environmental statutes. The Guide is divided into three parts with related appendices: Part I provides guidance for developing environmental compliance plans for DOE actions; Part II is devoted to NEPA with detailed flowcharts depicting the compliance procedures required by CEQ regulations and Department of Energy NEPA Guidelines; and Part III contains a series of flowcharts for other Federal environmental requirements that may apply to DOE projects.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yen Hung Chen
2012-01-01
minimum cost spanning tree T in G such that the total weight in T is at most a given bound B. In this paper, we present two polynomial time approximation schemes (PTASs for the constrained minimum spanning tree problem.
41 CFR 60-1.20 - Compliance evaluations.
2010-07-01
... otherwise treated during employment without regard to race, color, religion, sex, or national origin. A... longer than the minimum period necessary to effect such changes. Upon approval of the commitment, the... compliance evaluations. Each agency shall include in the invitation for bids for each formally advertised...
Rising above the Minimum Wage.
Even, William; Macpherson, David
An in-depth analysis was made of how quickly most people move up the wage scale from minimum wage, what factors influence their progress, and how minimum wage increases affect wage growth above the minimum. Very few workers remain at the minimum wage over the long run, according to this study of data drawn from the 1977-78 May Current Population…
DILEMATIKA PENETAPAN UPAH MINIMUM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
. Pitaya
2015-02-01
Full Text Available In the effort of creating appropiate wage for employees, it is necessary to determine the wages by considering the increase of poverty without ignoring the increase of productivity, the progressivity of companies and the growth of economic. The new minimum wages in the provincial level and the regoinal/municipality level have been implemented per 1st January in Indonesia since 2001. The determination of minimum wage for provinvial level should be done 30 days before 1st January, whereas the determination of minimumwage for regional/municipality level should be done 40 days before 1st January. Moreover,there is an article which governs thet the minimumwage will be revised annually. By considering the time of determination and the time of revision above,it can be predicted that before and after the determination date will be crucial time. This is because the controversy among parties in industrial relationships will arise. The determination of minimum wage will always become a dilemmatic step which has to be done by the Government. Through this policy, on one side the government attempts to attract many investors, however, on the other side the government also has to protect the employees in order to have the appropiate wage in accordance with the standard of living.
The Body of Knowledge on Compliance in Heart Failure Patients We Are Not There Yet
Nieuwenhuis, Maurice M. W.; van der Wal, Martje H. L.; Jaarsma, Tiny
2011-01-01
Background: Noncompliance with diet and fluid restriction is a problem in patients with heart failure (HF). In recent studies, a relationship between compliance with sodium and fluid restriction and knowledge and beliefs regarding compliance was found. In these studies, however, compliance was prima
The Body of Knowledge on Compliance in Heart Failure Patients We Are Not There Yet
Nieuwenhuis, Maurice M. W.; van der Wal, Martje H. L.; Jaarsma, Tiny
2011-01-01
Background: Noncompliance with diet and fluid restriction is a problem in patients with heart failure (HF). In recent studies, a relationship between compliance with sodium and fluid restriction and knowledge and beliefs regarding compliance was found. In these studies, however, compliance was prima
Minimum quality standards and exports
2015-01-01
This paper studies the interaction of a minimum quality standard and exports in a vertical product differentiation model when firms sell global products. If ex ante quality of foreign firms is lower (higher) than the quality of exporting firms, a mild minimum quality standard in the home market hinders (supports) exports. The minimum quality standard increases quality in both markets. A welfare maximizing minimum quality standard is always lower under trade than under autarky. A minimum quali...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王家桢; 马良; 张惠珍
2015-01-01
Euclidean Steiner minimum tree problem , a classical NP-hard problem in combination optimization , has been widely studied in many fields .Euclidean Steiner minimal tree problem in 3-space is the generalization of Euclidean Steiner minimum tree problem in 2-space .The research results on Euclidean Steiner minimal tree problem in 3-space have been rarely published because of their difficulties .In this paper , a hybrid intelligent method is designed by using Delaunay tetrahedron mesh generation technology to solve the Euclidean Steiner min -imal tree problem in 3-space , which can not only avoid falling into local optima , but also has good effects in solving large scale problems .Promising results are obtained by using this hybrid method coded in MATLAB to solve series of Euclidean Steiner minimum tree problem instances in 3-space .%Steiner最小树问题是组合优化中经典的NP难题，在许多实际问题中有着广泛的应用，而三维欧氏Stei-ner最小树问题是对二维欧氏Steiner最小树问题的推广。由于三维欧氏Steiner树问题的求解非常困难，至今为止的相关成果较为少见。本文针对该问题，利用Delaunay四面体网格剖分技术，提出了一种混合型智能求解方法，不仅可以尽量避免拓扑结构陷入局部最优，且对较大规模的问题求解亦有良好的效果。算法在Matlab环境下编程实现，经实例测试，获得了满意的效果。
Context quantization by minimum adaptive code length
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forchhammer, Søren; Wu, Xiaolin
2007-01-01
Context quantization is a technique to deal with the issue of context dilution in high-order conditional entropy coding. We investigate the problem of context quantizer design under the criterion of minimum adaptive code length. A property of such context quantizers is derived for binary symbols...
Minimum Description Length Shape and Appearance Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thodberg, Hans Henrik
2003-01-01
The Minimum Description Length (MDL) approach to shape modelling is reviewed. It solves the point correspondence problem of selecting points on shapes defined as curves so that the points correspond across a data set. An efficient numerical implementation is presented and made available as open s...... source Matlab code. The problems with the early MDL approaches are discussed. Finally the MDL approach is extended to an MDL Appearance Model, which is proposed as a means to perform unsupervised image segmentation....
Minimum degree and density of binary sequences
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brandt, Stephan; Müttel, J.; Rautenbach, D.
2010-01-01
For d,k∈N with k ≤ 2d, let g(d,k) denote the infimum density of binary sequences (x)∈{0,1} which satisfy the minimum degree condition σ(x+) ≥ k for all i∈Z with xi=1. We reduce the problem of computing g(d,k) to a combinatorial problem related to the generalized k-girth of a graph G which...
Mathematical programming methods for large-scale topology optimization problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rojas Labanda, Susana
, and at the same time, reduce the number of function evaluations. Nonlinear optimization methods, such as sequential quadratic programming and interior point solvers, have almost not been embraced by the topology optimization community. Thus, this work is focused on the introduction of this kind of second......This thesis investigates new optimization methods for structural topology optimization problems. The aim of topology optimization is finding the optimal design of a structure. The physical problem is modelled as a nonlinear optimization problem. This powerful tool was initially developed...... for the classical minimum compliance problem. Two of the state-of-the-art optimization algorithms are investigated and implemented for this structural topology optimization problem. A Sequential Quadratic Programming (TopSQP) and an interior point method (TopIP) are developed exploiting the specific mathematical...
Do Minimum Wages Fight Poverty?
David Neumark; William Wascher
1997-01-01
The primary goal of a national minimum wage floor is to raise the incomes of poor or near-poor families with members in the work force. However, estimates of employment effects of minimum wages tell us little about whether minimum wages are can achieve this goal; even if the disemployment effects of minimum wages are modest, minimum wage increases could result in net income losses for poor families. We present evidence on the effects of minimum wages on family incomes from matched March CPS s...
[Frequency dependance of compliance].
Gayrard, P
1975-01-01
Resistance of peripheral or "small" airways is only a small part of the total pulmonary resistance (Raw). Even considerable obstruction in these airways will have little effect on total resistance. Conversely this will lead to inequality in the time constants of units in parallel, and dynamic lung compliance (C dyn) shall fall as respiratory frequence increases. C dyn is measured from simultaneous recordings of transpulmonary pressure (esophageal balloon) and volume obtained from a volume displacement plethysmograph. If Raw and static compliance are found to be normal, the frequency dependance of compliance will result from peripheral airway obstruction only. Early stages of chronic airway obstruction can be established by this method. However this appear not suitable for wide-scale studies.
ICIS FE&C Compliance Monitoring Screens
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Web Based Training for Integrated Compliance Information System Updated Compliance Monitoring Training for ICIS Federal Enforcement and Compliance User. This...
Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.
1995-01-01
The minimum fuel mode of the NASA F-15 research aircraft is designed to minimize fuel flow while maintaining constant net propulsive force (FNP), effectively reducing thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC), during cruise flight conditions. The test maneuvers were at stabilized flight conditions. The aircraft test engine was allowed to stabilize at the cruise conditions before data collection initiated; data were then recorded with performance seeking control (PSC) not-engaged, then data were recorded with the PSC system engaged. The maneuvers were flown back-to-back to allow for direct comparisons by minimizing the effects of variations in the test day conditions. The minimum fuel mode was evaluated at subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers and focused on three altitudes: 15,000; 30,000; and 45,000 feet. Flight data were collected for part, military, partial, and maximum afterburning power conditions. The TSFC savings at supersonic Mach numbers, ranging from approximately 4% to nearly 10%, are in general much larger than at subsonic Mach numbers because of PSC trims to the afterburner.
Minimum wages, earnings, and migration
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Boffy-Ramirez, Ernest
2013-01-01
Does increasing a state’s minimum wage induce migration into the state? Previous literature has shown mobility in response to welfare benefit differentials across states, yet few have examined the minimum wage as a cause of mobility...
Oral contraceptive compliance during adolescence.
Serfaty, D
1997-06-17
A review of the available literature suggests that adolescent lack of compliance with oral contraceptives (OCs) is a multifactorial problem that requires a multifactorial solution. Because of their lack of experience with contraception, higher frequency of intercourse, higher intrinsic fertility, and pattern of frequent stopping or switching of methods, adolescents experience higher OC failure rates than do adult women. Adolescents also are more likely to forget to take the pill or to discontinue due to side effects, without consulting their physician. A survey of European young women identified contraceptive protection without weight gain as the most necessary change in OCs. Adolescents must be counseled not to miss a single pill, observe the pill-free interval, take phasic formulations in the right order, and use a back-up method in case of diarrhea and vomiting or when certain medications (e.g., antibiotics and anti-epileptics) are used concurrently, and be informed of steps to take in the event of side effects and unprotected intercourse. The quality of the counseling appears to be more important to compliance than the quantity of information provided. Pharmacists should complete the counseling initiated by the physician and explain prescription use. The most significant predictor of consistent OC use is the adolescent's motivation.
Interpersonal Communication and Compliance
Fennis, Bob M.; Das, Enny; Pruyn, Ad Th.H.
2006-01-01
Two field experiments examined the impact of the Disrupt-Then-Reframe (DTR) technique on compliance. This recently identified technique consists of a subtle, odd element in a typical scripted request (the disruption) followed by a persuasive phrase (the reframing). The authors argued that its impact
Environmental compliance and cleanup
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Black, D.G.
1995-06-01
This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the roles of the principal agencies, organizations, and public in environmental compliance and cleanup of the Hanford Site. Regulatory oversight, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the role of Indian tribes, public participation, and CERCLA Natural Resource Damage Assessment Trustee Activities are all discussed.
Linear Minimum variance estimation fusion
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Yunmin; LI Xianrong; ZHAO Juan
2004-01-01
This paper shows that a general mulitisensor unbiased linearly weighted estimation fusion essentially is the linear minimum variance (LMV) estimation with linear equality constraint, and the general estimation fusion formula is developed by extending the Gauss-Markov estimation to the random paramem of distributed estimation fusion in the LMV setting.In this setting ,the fused estimator is a weighted sum of local estimatess with a matrix quadratic optimization problem subject to a convex linear equality constraint. Second, we present a unique solution to the above optimization problem, which depends only on the covariance matrixCK. Third, if a priori information, the expectation and covariance, of the estimated quantity is unknown, a necessary and sufficient condition for the above LMV fusion becoming the best unbiased LMV estimation with dnown prior information as the above is presented. We also discuss the generality and usefulness of the LMV fusion formulas developed. Finally, we provied and off-line recursion of Ck for a class of multisensor linear systems with coupled measurement noises.
Minimal compliance design for metal–ceramic composites with lamellar microstructures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Piat, R.; Sinchuk, Y.; Vasoya, M.;
2011-01-01
. Micromechanical models are applied for the calculation of the effective elastic properties of the composites. Optimized local lamella orientations and ceramic contents are calculated, and the difference between the initial (specimen with constant ceramic content and orientation) and the optimized designs......Metal–ceramic composites produced by melt infiltration of ceramic preforms are studied in an optimal design context. The ceramic preforms are manufactured through a process of freeze-casting of Al2O3 particle suspension. The microstructure of these composites can be presented as distributions...... of lamellar domains. With local ceramic volume fraction and lamella orientation chosen as the design variables, a minimum compliance optimization problem is solved based on topology optimization and finite element methods for metal–ceramic samples with different geometries and boundary conditions...
Minimum cost connection networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Tvede, Mich
In the present paper we consider the allocation of cost in connection networks. Agents have connection demands in form of pairs of locations they want to be connected. Connections between locations are costly to build. The problem is to allocate costs of networks satisfying all connection demands...
Social Security's special minimum benefit.
Olsen, K A; Hoffmeyer, D
Social Security's special minimum primary insurance amount (PIA) provision was enacted in 1972 to increase the adequacy of benefits for regular long-term, low-earning covered workers and their dependents or survivors. At the time, Social Security also had a regular minimum benefit provision for persons with low lifetime average earnings and their families. Concerns were rising that the low lifetime average earnings of many regular minimum beneficiaries resulted from sporadic attachment to the covered workforce rather than from low wages. The special minimum benefit was seen as a way to reward regular, low-earning workers without providing the windfalls that would have resulted from raising the regular minimum benefit to a much higher level. The regular minimum benefit was subsequently eliminated for workers reaching age 62, becoming disabled, or dying after 1981. Under current law, the special minimum benefit will phase out over time, although it is not clear from the legislative history that this was Congress's explicit intent. The phaseout results from two factors: (1) special minimum benefits are paid only if they are higher than benefits payable under the regular PIA formula, and (2) the value of the regular PIA formula, which is indexed to wages before benefit eligibility, has increased faster than that of the special minimum PIA, which is indexed to inflation. Under the Social Security Trustees' 2000 intermediate assumptions, the special minimum benefit will cease to be payable to retired workers attaining eligibility in 2013 and later. Their benefits will always be larger under the regular benefit formula. As policymakers consider Social Security solvency initiatives--particularly proposals that would reduce benefits or introduce investment risk--interest may increase in restoring some type of special minimum benefit as a targeted protection for long-term low earners. Two of the three reform proposals offered by the President's Commission to Strengthen
Fraud and abuse. Building an effective corporate compliance program.
Matusicky, C F
1998-04-01
In 1997, General Health System (GHS), a not-for-profit integrated delivery system headquartered in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, developed a formal corporate compliance program. A newly appointed corporate compliance officer worked with key GHS managers and employees to assess the organization's current fraud and abuse prevention practices and recommend changes to meet new regulatory and organizational requirements. Then a structure for implementing these changes was developed, with staff training at its core. The program required a significant initial outlay of financial and human resources. The benefits to the organization, however, including a greater ability to respond quickly and effectively to possible compliance problems and better organizational communications, were worth the investment.
Agent Architectures for Compliance
Burgemeestre, Brigitte; Hulstijn, Joris; Tan, Yao-Hua
A Normative Multi-Agent System consists of autonomous agents who must comply with social norms. Different kinds of norms make different assumptions about the cognitive architecture of the agents. For example, a principle-based norm assumes that agents can reflect upon the consequences of their actions; a rule-based formulation only assumes that agents can avoid violations. In this paper we present several cognitive agent architectures for self-monitoring and compliance. We show how different assumptions about the cognitive architecture lead to different information needs when assessing compliance. The approach is validated with a case study of horizontal monitoring, an approach to corporate tax auditing recently introduced by the Dutch Customs and Tax Authority.
Checking Security Policy Compliance
Gowadia, Vaibhav; Kudo, Michiharu
2008-01-01
Ensuring compliance of organizations to federal regulations is a growing concern. This paper presents a framework and methods to verify whether an implemented low-level security policy is compliant to a high-level security policy. Our compliance checking framework is based on organizational and security metadata to support refinement of high-level concepts to implementation specific instances. Our work uses the results of refinement calculus to express valid refinement patterns and their properties. Intuitively, a low-level security policy is compliant to a high-level security policy if there is a valid refinement path from the high-level security policy to the low-level security policy. Our model is capable of detecting violations of security policies, failures to meet obligations, and capability and modal conflicts.
Orchestrated Session Compliance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Franco Barbanera
2015-08-01
Full Text Available We investigate the notion of orchestrated compliance for client/server interactions in the context of session contracts. Devising the notion of orchestrator in such a context makes it possible to have orchestrators with unbounded buffering capabilities and at the same time to guarantee any message from the client to be eventually delivered by the orchestrator to the server, while preventing the server from sending messages which are kept indefinitely inside the orchestrator. The compliance relation is shown to be decidable by means of 1 a procedure synthesising the orchestrators, if any, making a client compliant with a server, and 2 a procedure for deciding whether an orchestrator behaves in a proper way as mentioned before.
Decision trees with minimum average depth for sorting eight elements
AbouEisha, Hassan
2015-11-19
We prove that the minimum average depth of a decision tree for sorting 8 pairwise different elements is equal to 620160/8!. We show also that each decision tree for sorting 8 elements, which has minimum average depth (the number of such trees is approximately equal to 8.548×10^326365), has also minimum depth. Both problems were considered by Knuth (1998). To obtain these results, we use tools based on extensions of dynamic programming which allow us to make sequential optimization of decision trees relative to depth and average depth, and to count the number of decision trees with minimum average depth.
Kodak, Tiffany; Miltenberger, Raymond G; Romaniuk, Cathryn
2003-01-01
The present study evaluated the effects of noncontingent escape and differential negative reinforcement of other behavior in reducing problem behaviors and increasing compliance in 2 children with disabilities. Results showed that both methods reduced problem behavior and increased compliance for both children.
Distributed consensus on minimum time rendezvous via cyclic alternating projection
Hu, Chunhe; Chen, Zongji
2014-01-01
In this paper, we propose a distributed algorithm to solve planar minimum time multi-vehicle rendezvous problem with non-identical velocity constraints on cyclic digraph (topology). Motivated by the cyclic alternating projection method that can compute a point's projection on the intersection of some convex sets, we transform the minimum time rendezvous problem into finding the distance between the position plane and the intersection of several second-order cones in position-time space. The d...
PCI compliance understand and implement effective PCI data security standard compliance
Williams, Branden R
2012-01-01
The credit card industry established the PCI Data Security Standards to provide a minimum standard for how vendors should protect data to ensure it is not stolen by fraudsters. PCI Compliance, 3e, provides the information readers need to understand the current PCI Data Security standards, which have recently been updated to version 2.0, and how to effectively implement security within your company to be compliant with the credit card industry guidelines and protect sensitive and personally identifiable information. Security breaches continue to occur on a regular basis, affecting millions of
Minimum Vital of Drinking Water in the Jurisprudence of the Colombian Constitutional Court
Restrepo Gutiérrez, Elizabeth; Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Medellín; Zárate Yepes, Carlos Alberto; Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Medellín
2016-01-01
The minimum vital of drinking water for vulnerable people isprotected by the Colombian Constitutional Jurisprudence,locally and nationally. The Constitutional Court has created asolid jurisprudential line on the right to water in relation to thesuspension of water supply service for the customer’s failure topay for the service; this Court has also defined the conditionsnecessary for the companies to refrain from suspending serviceand the minimum amount necessary for survival. Compliance witht...
NP-Completeness Results for Minimum Planar Spanners
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ulrik Brandes
1998-12-01
Full Text Available For any fixed parameter t greater or equal to 1, a t-spanner of a graph G is a spanning subgraph in which the distance between every pair of vertices is at most t times their distance in G. A minimum t-spanner is a t-spanner with minimum total edge weight or, in unweighted graphs, minimum number of edges. In this paper, we prove the NP-hardness of finding minimum t-spanners for planar weighted graphs and digraphs if t greater or equal to 3, and for planar unweighted graphs and digraphs if t greater or equal to 5. We thus extend results on that problem to the interesting case where the instances are known to be planar. We also introduce the related problem of finding minimum planar t-spanners and establish its NP-hardness for similar fixed values of t.
Iterative Regularization with Minimum-Residual Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Hansen, Per Christian
2007-01-01
We study the regularization properties of iterative minimum-residual methods applied to discrete ill-posed problems. In these methods, the projection onto the underlying Krylov subspace acts as a regularizer, and the emphasis of this work is on the role played by the basis vectors of these Krylov...... subspaces. We provide a combination of theory and numerical examples, and our analysis confirms the experience that MINRES and MR-II can work as general regularization methods. We also demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the same is not true, in general, for GMRES and RRGMRES their success...... as regularization methods is highly problem dependent....
Iterative regularization with minimum-residual methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Hansen, Per Christian
2006-01-01
We study the regularization properties of iterative minimum-residual methods applied to discrete ill-posed problems. In these methods, the projection onto the underlying Krylov subspace acts as a regularizer, and the emphasis of this work is on the role played by the basis vectors of these Krylov...... subspaces. We provide a combination of theory and numerical examples, and our analysis confirms the experience that MINRES and MR-II can work as general regularization methods. We also demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the same is not true, in general, for GMRES and RRGMRES - their success...... as regularization methods is highly problem dependent....
Minimum Information Dominating Set for Critical Sampling over Graphs
2015-04-01
information on IDS uniquely determines the information in the rest of the graph. The minimum vertex cover ( MVC ) [10, 11] and the mini- mum dominating set (MDS...12, 13] are related to the IDS problem. The MVC asks for a minimum subset of vertices such that each edge in the original graph is adjacent to at...vertex in this subset. The minimum IDS problem is inherently more complex than MVC and MDS. For instance, as shown in this paper, it is co-NP-complete to
Reactive Power Compensation Method Considering Minimum Effective Reactive Power Reserve
Gong, Yiyu; Zhang, Kai; Pu, Zhang; Li, Xuenan; Zuo, Xianghong; Zhen, Jiao; Sudan, Teng
2017-05-01
According to the calculation model of minimum generator reactive power reserve of power system voltage stability under the premise of the guarantee, the reactive power management system with reactive power compensation combined generator, the formation of a multi-objective optimization problem, propose a reactive power reserve is considered the minimum generator reactive power compensation optimization method. This method through the improvement of the objective function and constraint conditions, when the system load growth, relying solely on reactive power generation system can not meet the requirement of safe operation, increase the reactive power reserve to solve the problem of minimum generator reactive power compensation in the case of load node.
Global optima for the Zhou–Rozvany problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stolpe, Mathias; Bendsøe, Martin P.
2011-01-01
of a local branching method in which the subproblems are solved by a special purpose nonlinear branch-and-cut algorithm. The convergence rate of the branch-and-cut method is improved by strengthening the problem formulation with valid linear inequalities and variable fixing techniques. With the proposed......We consider the minimum compliance topology design problem with a volume constraint and discrete design variables. In particular, our interest is to provide global optimal designs to a challenging benchmark example proposed by Zhou and Rozvany. Global optimality is achieved by an implementation...... algorithms, we find global optimal designs for several values on the available volume. These designs can be used to validate other methods and heuristics for the considered class of problems....
Extrinsic incentives and tax compliance
Sour, Laura; Gutiérrez Andrade, Miguel Ángel
2011-01-01
This paper models the impact of extrinsic incentives in a tax compliance model. It also provides experimental evidence that confirms the existence of a positive relationship between rewards and tax compliance. If individuals are audited, rewards for honest taxpayers are effective in increasing the level of tax compliance. These results are particularly relevant in countries where there is little respect for tax law since rewards can contribute to crowding in the intrinsic motivation to comply.
Extrinsic incentives and tax compliance
Sour, Laura; Gutiérrez Andrade, Miguel Ángel
2011-01-01
This paper models the impact of extrinsic incentives in a tax compliance model. It also provides experimental evidence that confirms the existence of a positive relationship between rewards and tax compliance. If individuals are audited, rewards for honest taxpayers are effective in increasing the level of tax compliance. These results are particularly relevant in countries where there is little respect for tax law since rewards can contribute to crowding in the intrinsic motivation to comply.
48 CFR 1609.7001 - Minimum standards for health benefits carriers.
2010-10-01
... instructions and directives. (2) Legal and ethical business and health care practices. (3) Compliance with the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Minimum standards for health benefits carriers. 1609.7001 Section 1609.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System OFFICE OF...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵学锋
2013-01-01
经典的最小连通支配集(MCDS)计算是NP难问题.为此,提出一种利用萤火虫优化算法求解该难题的新方法.把网络中的每个节点当作一个萤火虫个体,以节点度为基础构成荧光素,通过概率选择和荧光素调节机制,使个体被吸引向邻接的高亮度个体,从而由所选出的个体组成网络的支配集.经连接和修剪处理后,得到MCDS的近似解.在无线传感器网络模型的单位圆盘图上进行模拟实验,结果表明,该算法得到的连通支配集规模较小,更接近集中式算法的结果.%For computing the Minimum Connected Dominating Set(MCDS) in the network, a new algorithm is proposed based on Glowworm Swarm Optimization(GSO) algorithm. Each node of network is considered as individual glowworm emitting luciferin whose intensity is dependent on the degree of the node. By use of the scheme of probabilistic selection and luciferin adjustment, some nodes are attracted toward its neighbors having higher intensity of luciferin, and in this way, a dominated set of the network is constructed which contains the priority individuals. The nodes of the dominating set are connected and a pruning rule is applied to eliminate some redundant nodes for MCDS. Numerical results in Unit Disk Graphs(UDG) modeling wireless networks show the GSO-based algorithm can provide smaller CDS scale, and it is closer to centralized algorithm.
Compliance or patient empowerment in online communities
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wentzer, Helle; Bygholm, Ann
2010-01-01
of the discussion is complementary data from quantitative research on characteristics of patient support groups, and from two qualitative, in depth studies of the impact of patient networks for lung patients and for women with fertility problems. We conclude that in spite of the potential of online communities......New technologies enable a different organization of the public’s admission to health care services. The article discusses whether online support groups in patient treatment are to be understood in the light of patient empowerment or within the tradition of compliance. The back-ground material...... of opening up health care to the critical voice of the public, the quantitative and qualitative studies surprisingly point to a synthesis of the otherwise opposite positions of empowerment and compliance in patient care. Thereby the critical potential of online communities in health care services seems...
Formalizing and applying compliance patterns for business process compliance
Elgammal, A.F.S.A.; Türetken, O.; van den Heuvel, W.J.A.M.; Papazoglou, M.
2016-01-01
Today’s enterprises demand a high degree of compliance of business processes to meet diverse regulations and legislations. Several industrial studies have shown that compliance management is a daunting task, and organizations are still struggling and spending billions of dollars annually to ensure a
Centanni, N; Monroe, M; White, L; Larson, R
1999-01-01
The service sector within the biopharmaceutical industry has experienced phenomenal growth over the past decade. In the highly regulated Good Laboratory Practices environment, the need for timely, high-quality service, accurate results, and on-time deliverables becomes paramount for the success and profitability of biopharmaceutical companies. The quality assurance process is a vital component of this drug product-development cycle and ensures compliance to the highest domestic and international regulatory standards. Quality-assurance professionals historically have held the role of independent auditors of the processes, who certify that results meet current standards of practice. Covance, a contract research organization that includes Good Laboratory Practices laboratories, reorganized and expanded the functional responsibilities of its quality assurance team in 1997. Auditors and quality assurance professionals have assumed roles beyond traditional compliance auditing and are forging new leadership and mentoring roles as process-improvement specialists. The results have been tangible, measurable benefits for clients and the Covance organization. This article provides an overview of this cultural change and the processes put in place to improve efficiency, productivity, and customer and employee satisfaction.
Minimum Cost Homomorphisms to Reflexive Digraphs
Gupta, Arvind; Karimi, Mehdi; Rafiey, Arash
2007-01-01
For digraphs $G$ and $H$, a homomorphism of $G$ to $H$ is a mapping $f:\\ V(G)\\dom V(H)$ such that $uv\\in A(G)$ implies $f(u)f(v)\\in A(H)$. If moreover each vertex $u \\in V(G)$ is associated with costs $c_i(u), i \\in V(H)$, then the cost of a homomorphism $f$ is $\\sum_{u\\in V(G)}c_{f(u)}(u)$. For each fixed digraph $H$, the {\\em minimum cost homomorphism problem} for $H$, denoted MinHOM($H$), is the following problem. Given an input digraph $G$, together with costs $c_i(u)$, $u\\in V(G)$, $i\\in V(H)$, and an integer $k$, decide if $G$ admits a homomorphism to $H$ of cost not exceeding $k$. We focus on the minimum cost homomorphism problem for {\\em reflexive} digraphs $H$ (every vertex of $H$ has a loop). It is known that the problem MinHOM($H$) is polynomial time solvable if the digraph $H$ has a {\\em Min-Max ordering}, i.e., if its vertices can be linearly ordered by $<$ so that $i
Minimum length-maximum velocity
Panes, Boris
2012-03-01
We study a framework where the hypothesis of a minimum length in space-time is complemented with the notion of reference frame invariance. It turns out natural to interpret the action of the obtained reference frame transformations in the context of doubly special relativity. As a consequence of this formalism we find interesting connections between the minimum length properties and the modified velocity-energy relation for ultra-relativistic particles. For example, we can predict the ratio between the minimum lengths in space and time using the results from OPERA on superluminal neutrinos.
The Strategic Nature of Compliance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
König, Thomas; Mäder, Lars Kai
2014-01-01
This compliance study models correct and timely implementation of policies in a multilevel system as a strategic game between a central monitoring agency and multiple implementers and evaluates statistically the empirical implications of this model. We test whether compliance is determined...
The periodicity of Grand Solar Minimum
Velasco Herrera, Victor Manuel
2016-07-01
The sunspot number is the most used index to quantify the solar activity. Nevertheless, the sunspot is a syn- thetic index and not a physical index. Therefore, we should be careful to use the sunspot number to quantify the low (high) solar activity. One of the major problems of using sunspot to quantify solar activity is that its minimum value is zero. This zero value hinders the reconstruction of the solar cycle during the Maunder minimum. All solar indexes can be used as analog signals, which can be easily converted into digital signals. In con- trast, the conversion of a digital signal into an analog signal is not in general a simple task. The sunspot number during the Maunder minimum can be studied as a digital signal of the solar activity In 1894, Maunder published a discovery that has maintained the Solar Physics in an impasse. In his fa- mous work on "A Prolonged Sunspot Minimum" Maunder wrote: "The sequence of maximum and minimum has, in fact, been unfailing during the present century [..] and yet there [..], the ordinary solar cycle was once interrupted, and one long period of almost unbroken quiescence prevailed". The search of new historical Grand solar minima has been one of the most important questions in Solar Physics. However, the possibility of estimating a new Grand solar minimum is even more valuable. Since solar activity is the result of electromagnetic processes; we propose to employ the power to quantify solar activity: this is a fundamental physics concept in electrodynamics. Total Solar Irradiance is the primary energy source of the Earth's climate system and therefore its variations can contribute to natural climate change. In this work, we propose to consider the fluctuations in the power of the Total Solar Irradiance as a physical measure of the energy released by the solar dynamo, which contributes to understanding the nature of "profound solar magnetic field in calm". Using a new reconstruction of the Total Solar Irradiance we found the
Cook, Philip
2013-01-01
A minimum voting age is defended as the most effective and least disrespectful means of ensuring all members of an electorate are sufficiently competent to vote. Whilst it may be reasonable to require competency from voters, a minimum voting age should be rejected because its view of competence is unreasonably controversial, it is incapable of defining a clear threshold of sufficiency and an alternative test is available which treats children more respectfully. This alternative is a procedura...
Increasing the weight of minimum spanning trees
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frederickson, G.N.; Solis-Oba, R. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)
1996-12-31
Given an undirected connected graph G and a cost function for increasing edge weights, the problem of determining the maximum increase in the weight of the minimum spanning trees of G subject to a budget constraint is investigated. Two versions of the problem are considered. In the first, each edge has a cost function that is linear in the weight increase. An algorithm is presented that solves this problem in strongly polynomial time. In the second version, the edge weights are fixed but an edge can be removed from G at a unit cost. This version is shown to be NP-hard. An {Omega}(1/ log k)-approximation algorithm is presented for it, where k is the number of edges to be removed.
Compliance with Segment Disclosure Initiatives
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arya, Anil; Frimor, Hans; Mittendorf, Brian
2013-01-01
Regulatory oversight of capital markets has intensified in recent years, with a particular emphasis on expanding financial transparency. A notable instance is efforts by the Financial Accounting Standards Board that push firms to identify and report performance of individual business units...... (segments). This paper seeks to address short-run and long-run consequences of stringent enforcement of and uniform compliance with these segment disclosure standards. To do so, we develop a parsimonious model wherein a regulatory agency promulgates disclosure standards and either permits voluntary...... compliance or mandates strict compliance from firms. Under voluntary compliance, a firm is able to credibly withhold individual segment information from its competitors by disclosing data only at the aggregate firm level. Consistent with regulatory hopes, we show that mandatory compliance enhances welfare...
Compliance with physical exercise
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gram, Anne Sofie; Bønnelycke, Julie; Rosenkilde Larsen, Mads
2014-01-01
, a moderate (MOD; 300 kcal/day) or a high-dose (HIGH; 600 kcal/day) endurance exercise group for 12 weeks. A sub-set of the subjects were interviewed using pre-determined, qualitative questions to elucidate physical activity and health behaviour. In combination with the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB......Aims: Sixty-one healthy, sedentary, moderately overweight young men participated in a randomised controlled trial to examine the effects of two different doses of endurance exercise on health behaviour and exercise compliance. Methods: Participants were randomised to a sedentary control group...... improved various metabolic health parameters. The MOD group was untroubled by the exercise load and had a positive attitude towards exercise. The HIGH group expressed increased fatigue, less positivity and perceived exercise as time-consuming. The MOD group described themselves as more energetic...
Minimum-Cost Reachability for Priced Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Behrmann, Gerd; Fehnker, Ansgar; Hune, Thomas Seidelin
2001-01-01
This paper introduces the model of linearly priced timed automata as an extension of timed automata, with prices on both transitions and locations. For this model we consider the minimum-cost reachability problem: i.e. given a linearly priced timed automaton and a target state, determine...... the minimum cost of executions from the initial state to the target state. This problem generalizes the minimum-time reachability problem for ordinary timed automata. We prove decidability of this problem by offering an algorithmic solution, which is based on a combination of branch-and-bound techniques...... and a new notion of priced regions. The latter allows symbolic representation and manipulation of reachable states together with the cost of reaching them....
Minimum Population Search, an Application to Molecular Docking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antonio Bolufé-Röhler
2014-08-01
Full Text Available Computer modeling of protein-ligand interactions is one of the most important phases in a drug design process. Part of the process involves the optimization of highly multi-modal objective (scoring functions. This research presents the Minimum Population Search heuristic as an alternative for solving these global unconstrained optimization problems. To determine the effectiveness of Minimum Population Search, a comparison with seven state-of-the-art search heuristics is performed. Being specifically designed for the optimization of large scale multi-modal problems, Minimum Population Search achieves excellent results on all of the tested complexes, especially when the amount of available function evaluations is strongly reduced. A first step is also made toward the design of hybrid algorithms based on the exploratory power of Minimum Population Search. Computational results show that hybridization leads to a further improvement in performance.
Iterative Regularization with Minimum-Residual Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Hansen, Per Christian
2007-01-01
We study the regularization properties of iterative minimum-residual methods applied to discrete ill-posed problems. In these methods, the projection onto the underlying Krylov subspace acts as a regularizer, and the emphasis of this work is on the role played by the basis vectors of these Krylov...... subspaces. We provide a combination of theory and numerical examples, and our analysis confirms the experience that MINRES and MR-II can work as general regularization methods. We also demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the same is not true, in general, for GMRES and RRGMRES their success...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Fengwen; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Sigmund, Ole
2014-01-01
The focus of this paper is on interpolation schemes for fictitious domain and topology optimization approaches with structures undergoing large displacements. Numerical instability in the finite element simulations can often be observed, due to excessive distortion in low stiffness regions. A new...... for a challenging test geometry as well as for topology optimization of minimum compliance and compliant mechanisms. The effect of combining the proposed interpolation scheme with different hyperelastic material models is investigated as well. Numerical results show that the proposed approach alleviates...... the problems in the low stiffness regions and for the simulated cases, results in stable topology optimization of structures undergoing large displacements. © 2014 Elsevier B.V....
Minimum length scale in topology optimization by geometric constraints
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Mingdong; Lazarov, Boyan Stefanov; Wang, Fengwen
2015-01-01
A density-based topology optimization approach is proposed to design structures with strict minimum length scale. The idea is based on using a filtering-threshold topology optimization scheme and computationally cheap geometric constraints. The constraints are defined over the underlying structural...... geometry represented by the filtered and physical fields. Satisfying the constraints leads to a design that possesses user-specified minimum length scale. Conventional topology optimization problems can be augmented with the proposed constraints to achieve minimum length scale on the final design....... No additional finite element analysis is required for the constrained optimization. Several benchmark examples are presented to show the effectiveness of this approach....
On the Minimum Induced Drag of Wings
Bowers, Albion H.
2011-01-01
Of all the types of drag, induced drag is associated with the creation and generation of lift over wings. Induced drag is directly driven by the span load that the aircraft is flying at. The tools by which to calculate and predict induced drag we use were created by Ludwig Prandtl in 1903. Within a decade after Prandtl created a tool for calculating induced drag, Prandtl and his students had optimized the problem to solve the minimum induced drag for a wing of a given span, formalized and written about in 1920. This solution is quoted in textbooks extensively today. Prandtl did not stop with this first solution, and came to a dramatically different solution in 1932. Subsequent development of this 1932 solution solves several aeronautics design difficulties simultaneously, including maximum performance, minimum structure, minimum drag loss due to control input, and solution to adverse yaw without a vertical tail. This presentation lists that solution by Prandtl, and the refinements by Horten, Jones, Kline, Viswanathan, and Whitcomb.
Tax compliance in Indonesia: the role of public officials as taxpayers
Rahman, Abdul
2017-01-01
This thesis addresses the problem of low tax compliance in Indonesia, focusing on the role of public officials as taxpayers. Through the analysis of literature and policy documents, we identified four main factors affecting tax compliance: modernized tax administration system (MTAS), tax sanctions,
Sapiei, Noor Sharoja
2017-01-01
Commitment to compliance may cause taxpayers to experience unnecessary compliance costs burden resulting in non-compliance behaviour. This study evaluates the tax compliance costs of corporate taxpayers and their compliance with the corporate income tax (CIT) reporting requirements under the Self-Assessment System (SAS) environment. Tax compliance costs, corporate characteristics, tax attitudinal aspects and the likely compliance behaviour of public listed companies (PLCs) are integrated into...
Topology optimization of coated structures and material interface problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Anders; Aage, Niels; Sigmund, Ole
2015-01-01
This paper presents a novel method for including coated structures and prescribed material interface properties into the minimum compliance topology optimization problem. Several elements of the method are applicable to a broader range of interface problems. The approach extends the standard SIMP...... method by including the normalized norm of the spatial gradient of the design field into the material interpolation function, enforcing coating material at interfaces by attributing particular properties. The length scales of the base structure and the coating are separated by introducing a two......-step filtering/projection approach. The modeled coating thickness is derived analytically, and the coating is shown to be accurately controlled and applied in a highly uniform manner over the structure. An alternative interpretation of the model is to perform single-material design for additive manufacturing...
Topology optimization of coated structures and material interface problems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Clausen, Anders; Aage, Niels; Sigmund, Ole
2015-01-01
This paper presents a novel method for including coated structures and prescribed material interface properties into the minimum compliance topology optimization problem. Several elements of the method are applicable to a broader range of interface problems. The approach extends the standard SIMP...... method by including the normalized norm of the spatial gradient of the design field into the material interpolation function, enforcing coating material at interfaces by attributing particular properties. The length scales of the base structure and the coating are separated by introducing a two......-step filtering/projection approach. The modeled coating thickness is derived analytically, and the coating is shown to be accurately controlled and applied in a highly uniform manner over the structure. An alternative interpretation of the model is to perform single-material design for additive manufacturing...
Minimum Q Electrically Small Antennas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kim, O. S.
2012-01-01
for a multiarm spherical helix antenna confirm the theoretical predictions. For example, a 4-arm spherical helix antenna with a magnetic-coated perfectly electrically conducting core (ka=0.254) exhibits the Q of 0.66 times the Chu lower bound, or 1.25 times the minimum Q.......Theoretically, the minimum radiation quality factor Q of an isolated resonance can be achieved in a spherical electrically small antenna by combining TM1m and TE1m spherical modes, provided that the stored energy in the antenna spherical volume is totally suppressed. Using closed-form expressions...... for the stored energies obtained through the vector spherical wave theory, it is shown that a magnetic-coated metal core reduces the internal stored energy of both TM1m and TE1m modes simultaneously, so that a self-resonant antenna with the Q approaching the fundamental minimum is created. Numerical results...
Security practices and regulatory compliance in the healthcare industry.
Kwon, Juhee; Johnson, M Eric
2013-01-01
Securing protected health information is a critical responsibility of every healthcare organization. We explore information security practices and identify practice patterns that are associated with improved regulatory compliance. We employed Ward's cluster analysis using minimum variance based on the adoption of security practices. Variance between organizations was measured using dichotomous data indicating the presence or absence of each security practice. Using t tests, we identified the relationships between the clusters of security practices and their regulatory compliance. We utilized the results from the Kroll/Healthcare Information and Management Systems Society telephone-based survey of 250 US healthcare organizations including adoption status of security practices, breach incidents, and perceived compliance levels on Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health, Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, Red Flags rules, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, and state laws governing patient information security. Our analysis identified three clusters (which we call leaders, followers, and laggers) based on the variance of security practice patterns. The clusters have significant differences among non-technical practices rather than technical practices, and the highest level of compliance was associated with hospitals that employed a balanced approach between technical and non-technical practices (or between one-off and cultural practices). Hospitals in the highest level of compliance were significantly managing third parties' breaches and training. Audit practices were important to those who scored in the middle of the pack on compliance. Our results provide security practice benchmarks for healthcare administrators and can help policy makers in developing strategic and practical guidelines for practice adoption.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lazarus, Lloyd
2009-02-02
This report summarizes activities at the KCP related to evaluating and modifying machine tools in order to be in compliance with Section 23 of DOE 10 CFR 851, Worker Safety and Health Program. Section 851.23 (a) states that “Contractors must comply with the following safety and health standards that are applicable to the hazards in their covered workplace”, and subsection 9 contains the following applicable standard: “American Congress of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH), ‘Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents and Biological Exposure Indices,’ (2005) (incorporated by reference, see §851.27) when the ACGIH Threshold Limit Values are lower (more protective) than permissible exposure limits in 29 CFR 1910.” In the 2005 ACGIH – Threshold Limit Value book a Notice of Change was issued for exposure to mineral oil mist used in metalworking fluids (MWFs). The effects of planning for the new facility and which machine tools would be making the transition to the new facility affected which machine tools were modified.
Minimum cell connection and separation in line segment arrangements
Alt, Helmut; Giannopoulos, Panos; Knauer, Christian
2011-01-01
We study the complexity of the following cell connection and separation problems in segment arrangements. Given a set of straight-line segments in the plane and two points a and b: (i) compute the minimum number of segments one needs to remove so that there is a path connecting a to b that does not intersect any of the remaining segments; (ii) compute the minimum number of segments one needs to remove so that the arrangement induced by the remaining segments has a single cell; (iii) compute the minimum number of segments one needs to retain so that any path connecting a to b intersects some of the retained segments. We show that problems (i) and (ii) are NP-hard, while problem (iii) is polynomial-time solvable. We also discuss special polynomial-time and fixed-parameter tractable cases.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘传领; 梁咏梅; 杨静宇
2012-01-01
The local minimum problem of path planning based on potential field has attracted attention for many years. For the innate limitations of potential field, an improved method for moblie robot path planning is proposed in this paper. In this method, expansion and erosion algorithms are used to pretreat and optimize the workspace of robot and improved potential field is used to navigate robot. Furthermore, sub-goal point is set for robot to get rid of local minimization rapidly. The simulation results indicate that this method is effective to solve local minimum problem for robot path planning in complex environments.%多年来势场法路径规划的局部极小问题就一直被广泛关注,针对人工势场法所固有的缺陷提出了一种改进的移动机器人路径规划方法.方法利用膨胀与腐蚀算法对机器人的工作空间进行预处理,来优化工作环境,并使用改进的势场法进行机器人导航,以改善其运动轨迹；另外通过设置子目标点使陷入局部极小的机器人快速“逃离”极小状态.仿真结果表明本文算法在复杂环境下解决机器人路径规划的局部极小问题是有效的.
Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Air Compliance Complaint Database (ACCD) which logs all air pollution complaints...
Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS)
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The purpose of ICIS is to meet evolving Enforcement and Compliance business needs for EPA and State users by integrating information into a single integrated data...
2010-01-01
... energy consumption shall be measured at the building five foot line for all fuels. Energy consumed from... BUILDINGS Building Energy Compliance Alternative § 434.604 Compliance. 604.1 Compliance with this section is... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance. 434.604 Section 434.604 Energy DEPARTMENT...
14 CFR 26.49 - Compliance plan.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance plan. 26.49 Section 26.49... Data for Repairs and Alterations § 26.49 Compliance plan. (a) Compliance plan. Except for applicants... January 11, 2008, each person identified in §§ 26.43, 26.45, and 26.47, must submit a compliance...
40 CFR 469.11 - Compliance dates.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 469.11 Section 469... Compliance dates. The compliance deadline for the BAT fluoride limitation shall be as soon as possible as... determined by the permit writer, but in no event later than July 1, 1984. The compliance date for PSES...
40 CFR 469.21 - Compliance dates.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 469.21 Section 469....21 Compliance dates. The compliance date for the BAT fluoride limitation is as soon as possible as determined by the permit writer but in no event later than November 8, 1985. The compliance date for PSES...
Acid rain compliance: The need for regulatory guidance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Solomon, B.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)
1993-07-01
This article presents a broad view of the need for regulatory guidance when confronting the problem of acid rain. The two major topics addressed are (1) Why is guidance needed and (2) What kind of guidance is needed. Discussion of rate and accounting treatment of allowances, acid rain compliance planning, and allowance trading and energy efficiency are included.
Hypertension Treatment Compliance: A Study on Blacks and Minorities.
Lewis, Irene
1980-01-01
Because high blood pressure is generally asymptomatic, it is difficult to inspire patients to adhere to proper treatment regimens. Case studies of nine patients, mostly Black, showed that compliance problems can be overcome if people are impressed with the idea that hypertension is a disease and not merely a symptom. (Author/GC)
1 Relationship between Income Size, Inspection and VAT Compliance
African Journals Online (AJOL)
User
2012-01-24
Jan 24, 2012 ... is framed in respect of personal finance, that people have a number of mental accounts that ... A fundamental result of the tax evasion literature is that the problem of non- compliance and ..... Private limited company. 26. 61.5.
Hazardous Waste Compliance Program Plan
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Potter, G.L.; Holstein, K.A.
1994-05-01
The Hazardous Waste Compliance Program Plan (HWCPP) describes how the Rocky Flats Plant institutes a more effective waste management program designed to achieve and maintain strict adherence to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) requirements. Emphasis is given to improve integration of line operations with programmatic and functional support activities necessary to achieve physical compliance to RCRA regulated equipment, facilities and operations at the floor level. This program focuses on specific activities occurring or which need to occur within buildings containing RCRA regulated units and activities. The plan describes a new approach to achieving and maintaining compliance. This approach concentrates authority and accountability for compliance with the line operating personnel, with support provided from the programmatic functions. This approach requires a higher degree of integration and coordination between operating and program support organizations. The principal changes in emphases are; (1) increased line operations involvement, knowledge and accountability in compliance activities, (2) improved management systems to identify, correct and/or avoid deficiencies and (3) enhanced management attention and employee awareness of compliance related matters.
Minimum Thermal Conductivity of Superlattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Simkin, M. V.; Mahan, G. D.
2000-01-31
The phonon thermal conductivity of a multilayer is calculated for transport perpendicular to the layers. There is a crossover between particle transport for thick layers to wave transport for thin layers. The calculations show that the conductivity has a minimum value for a layer thickness somewhat smaller then the mean free path of the phonons. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.
Minimum aanlandingsmaat Brasem (Abramis brama)
Hal, van R.; Miller, D.C.M.
2016-01-01
Ter ondersteuning van een besluit aangaande een minimum aanlandingsmaat voor brasem, primair voor het IJsselmeer en Markermeer, heeft het ministerie van Economische Zaken IMARES verzocht een overzicht te geven van aanlandingsmaten voor brasem in andere landen en waar mogelijk de motivatie achter dez
Coupling between minimum scattering antennas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, J.; Lessow, H; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans
1974-01-01
Coupling between minimum scattering antennas (MSA's) is investigated by the coupling theory developed by Wasylkiwskyj and Kahn. Only rotationally symmetric power patterns are considered, and graphs of relative mutual impedance are presented as a function of distance and pattern parameters. Crossed...
Physiological effects of ovarian hormones: clinical aspects and compliance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ottesen, B; Pedersen, A T
1996-01-01
of osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease are other considerations. Despite the large number of different hormone treatment regimens available, such problems as continued bleeding and concern about side effects engenders low compliance. To enhance compliance, it is important to ensure that post-menopausal women......Menopause is marked by the permanent cessation of menstrual bleeding. Deprivation of ovarian hormones due to decreasing ovarian activity causes widespread physiological effects. Disturbances in menstrual pattern and hot flashes are major reasons for hormone replacement therapy (HRT), but prevention...... and their physicians are aware of the probable risks and benefits of hormone therapy before deciding whether or not to use preventive HRT....
The waste isolation pilot plant regulatory compliance program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mewhinney, J.A. [U.S. Dept. of Energy, Carlsbad, NM (United States); Kehrman, R.F. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Carlsbad, NM (United States)
1996-06-01
The passage of the WIPP Land Withdrawal Act of 1992 (LWA) marked a turning point for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) program. It established a Congressional mandate to open the WIPP in as short a time as possible, thereby initiating the process of addressing this nation`s transuranic (TRU) waste problem. The DOE responded to the LWA by shifting the priority at the WIPP from scientific investigations to regulatory compliance and the completion of prerequisites for the initiation of operations. Regulatory compliance activities have taken four main focuses: (1) preparing regulatory submittals; (2) aggressive schedules; (3) regulator interface; and (4) public interactions
Qualitative examination of compliance in heart failure patients in The Netherlands
van der Wal, Martje H. L.; Jaarsma, Tiny; Moser, Debra K.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.
2010-01-01
BACKGROUND: Noncompliance with pharmacological and nonpharmacological recommendations is a problem in many heart failure (HF) patients, leading to worse symptoms and readmission. Although knowledge is available regarding factors related to compliance with HF regimens, little is known about patients'
Qualitative examination of compliance in heart failure patients in The Netherlands
van der Wal, Martje H. L.; Jaarsma, Tiny; Moser, Debra K.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.
2010-01-01
BACKGROUND: Noncompliance with pharmacological and nonpharmacological recommendations is a problem in many heart failure (HF) patients, leading to worse symptoms and readmission. Although knowledge is available regarding factors related to compliance with HF regimens, little is known about patients'
Minimum Data Sampling Method in the Inverse Scattering Problem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
1994-01-01
ＭｉｎｉｍｕｍＤａｔａＳａｍｐｌｉｎｇＭｅｔｈｏｄｉｎｔｈｅＩｎｖｅｒｓｅＳｃａｔｔｅｒｉｎｇＰｒｏｂｌｅｍＹｕＷｅｎｈｕａ（Ｒｅｓ．Ｉｎｓｔ．ｏｆＥＭＦｉｅｌｄａｎｄＭｉｃｒｏｗａｖｅＴｅｃｈ．），ＳｏｕｔｈｗｅｓｔＪｉａｏｔｏｎｇＵｎｉｖｅｒｓｉ...
A Benders approach for the constrained minimum break problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Rasmus Vinther; Trick, Michael
2007-01-01
This paper presents a hybrid IP/CP algorithm for designing a double round robin schedule with a minimal number of breaks. Both mirrored and non-mirrored schedules with and without place constraints are considered. The algorithm uses Benders cuts to obtain feasible home-away pattern sets in few...
Minimum-Cost Reachability for Priced Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Behrmann, Gerd; Fehnker, Ansgar; Hune, Thomas Seidelin;
2001-01-01
This paper introduces the model of linearly priced timed automata as an extension of timed automata, with prices on both transitions and locations. For this model we consider the minimum-cost reachability problem: i.e. given a linearly priced timed automaton and a target state, determine the mini......This paper introduces the model of linearly priced timed automata as an extension of timed automata, with prices on both transitions and locations. For this model we consider the minimum-cost reachability problem: i.e. given a linearly priced timed automaton and a target state, determine...... the minimum cost of executions from the initial state to the target state. This problem generalizes the minimum-time reachability problem for ordinary timed automata. We prove decidability of this problem by offering an algorithmic solution, which is based on a combination of branch-and-bound techniques...... and a new notion of priced regions. The latter allows symbolic representation and manipulation of reachable states together with the cost of reaching them....
Vehicle Optimal Velocity Curves for Minimum-Time Maneuver
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li-xia Zhang
2014-02-01
Full Text Available A problem in vehicle minimum-time maneuver is the assumption that a vehicle passes through a given path in a minimal amount of time without deviating from the boundary of the given path. Vehicle handling inverse dynamics provides a new perspective to solve such problem. Based on inverse dynamics, this paper transformed the problem of optimal vehicle velocity for minimum-time maneuver into that of optimal control with the objective function of minimum time. The path for minimum vehicle travel time and the optimal control model were established. The optimal velocity curves for three types of paths, namely, monotonically increasing path, monotonically decreasing path, and constant radius path, were analyzed. On this basis, the optimal velocity curves were solved for two kinds of concrete paths: a path of decreasing curvature radius followed by a path of increasing curvature radius and another path of increasing curvature radius followed by a path of decreasing curvature radius. Nine cases of possible optimal velocity curves were acquired. The optimal velocity curve of the given path, that is, a parabola followed by a semicircle, was obtained. Optimal velocity curves can be used as reference for vehicle minimum-time maneuver, which is an important issue for driver safety in fast-moving vehicles.
Minimum Weight Cycles and Triangles: Equivalences and Algorithms
Roditty, Liam
2011-01-01
We consider the fundamental algorithmic problem of finding a cycle of minimum weight in a weighted graph. In particular, we show that the minimum weight cycle problem in an undirected n-node graph with edge weights in {1,...,M} or in a directed n-node graph with edge weights in {-M,..., M} and no negative cycles can be efficiently reduced to finding a minimum weight triangle in an Theta(n)-node undirected graph with weights in {1,...,O(M)}. Roughly speaking, our reductions imply the following surprising phenomenon: a minimum cycle with an arbitrary number of weighted edges can be "encoded" using only three edges within roughly the same weight interval! This resolves a longstanding open problem posed by Itai and Rodeh [SIAM J. Computing 1978 and STOC'77]. A direct consequence of our efficient reductions are O (Mn^{omega})-time algorithms using fast matrix multiplication (FMM) for finding a minimum weight cycle in both undirected graphs with integral weights from the interval [1,M] and directed graphs with inte...
Understanding the Minimum Wage: Issues and Answers.
Employment Policies Inst. Foundation, Washington, DC.
This booklet, which is designed to clarify facts regarding the minimum wage's impact on marketplace economics, contains a total of 31 questions and answers pertaining to the following topics: relationship between minimum wages and poverty; impacts of changes in the minimum wage on welfare reform; and possible effects of changes in the minimum wage…
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for all...
Quantum mechanics the theoretical minimum
Susskind, Leonard
2014-01-01
From the bestselling author of The Theoretical Minimum, an accessible introduction to the math and science of quantum mechanicsQuantum Mechanics is a (second) book for anyone who wants to learn how to think like a physicist. In this follow-up to the bestselling The Theoretical Minimum, physicist Leonard Susskind and data engineer Art Friedman offer a first course in the theory and associated mathematics of the strange world of quantum mechanics. Quantum Mechanics presents Susskind and Friedman’s crystal-clear explanations of the principles of quantum states, uncertainty and time dependence, entanglement, and particle and wave states, among other topics. An accessible but rigorous introduction to a famously difficult topic, Quantum Mechanics provides a tool kit for amateur scientists to learn physics at their own pace.
Kwee, R E; The ATLAS collaboration
2010-01-01
Since the restart of the LHC in November 2009, ATLAS has collected inelastic pp-collisions to perform first measurements on charged particle densities. These measurements will help to constrain various models describing phenomenologically soft parton interactions. Understanding the trigger efficiencies for different event types are therefore crucial to minimize any possible bias in the event selection. ATLAS uses two main minimum bias triggers, featuring complementary detector components and trigger levels. While a hardware based first trigger level situated in the forward regions with 2.09 < |eta| < 3.8 has been proven to select pp-collisions very efficiently, the Inner Detector based minimum bias trigger uses a random seed on filled bunches and central tracking detectors for the event selection. Both triggers were essential for the analysis of kinematic spectra of charged particles. Their performance and trigger efficiency measurements as well as studies on possible bias sources will be presen...
Minimum thickness anterior porcelain restorations.
Radz, Gary M
2011-04-01
Porcelain laminate veneers (PLVs) provide the dentist and the patient with an opportunity to enhance the patient's smile in a minimally to virtually noninvasive manner. Today's PLV demonstrates excellent clinical performance and as materials and techniques have evolved, the PLV has become one of the most predictable, most esthetic, and least invasive modalities of treatment. This article explores the latest porcelain materials and their use in minimum thickness restoration.
Fingerprinting with Minimum Distance Decoding
Lin, Shih-Chun; Gamal, Hesham El
2007-01-01
This work adopts an information theoretic framework for the design of collusion-resistant coding/decoding schemes for digital fingerprinting. More specifically, the minimum distance decision rule is used to identify 1 out of t pirates. Achievable rates, under this detection rule, are characterized in two distinct scenarios. First, we consider the averaging attack where a random coding argument is used to show that the rate 1/2 is achievable with t=2 pirates. Our study is then extended to the general case of arbitrary $t$ highlighting the underlying complexity-performance tradeoff. Overall, these results establish the significant performance gains offered by minimum distance decoding as compared to other approaches based on orthogonal codes and correlation detectors. In the second scenario, we characterize the achievable rates, with minimum distance decoding, under any collusion attack that satisfies the marking assumption. For t=2 pirates, we show that the rate $1-H(0.25)\\approx 0.188$ is achievable using an ...
Minimum feature size preserving decompositions
Aloupis, Greg; Demaine, Martin L; Dujmovic, Vida; Iacono, John
2009-01-01
The minimum feature size of a crossing-free straight line drawing is the minimum distance between a vertex and a non-incident edge. This quantity measures the resolution needed to display a figure or the tool size needed to mill the figure. The spread is the ratio of the diameter to the minimum feature size. While many algorithms (particularly in meshing) depend on the spread of the input, none explicitly consider finding a mesh whose spread is similar to the input. When a polygon is partitioned into smaller regions, such as triangles or quadrangles, the degradation is the ratio of original to final spread (the final spread is always greater). Here we present an algorithm to quadrangulate a simple n-gon, while achieving constant degradation. Note that although all faces have a quadrangular shape, the number of edges bounding each face may be larger. This method uses Theta(n) Steiner points and produces Theta(n) quadrangles. In fact to obtain constant degradation, Omega(n) Steiner points are required by any al...
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide, Sandia National Laboratories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hansen, R.P. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States)
1995-08-01
This report contains a comprehensive National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Compliance Guide for the Sandia National Laboratories. It is based on the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) NEPA regulations in 40 CFR Parts 1500 through 1508; the US Department of Energy (DOE) N-EPA implementing procedures in 10 CFR Part 102 1; DOE Order 5440.1E; the DOE ``Secretarial Policy Statement on the National Environmental Policy Act`` of June 1994- Sandia NEPA compliance procedures-, and other CEQ and DOE guidance. The Guide includes step-by-step procedures for preparation of Environmental Checklists/Action Descriptions Memoranda (ECL/ADMs), Environmental Assessments (EAs), and Environmental Impact Statements (EISs). It also includes sections on ``Dealing With NEPA Documentation Problems`` and ``Special N-EPA Compliance Issues.``
China's Compliance with WTO Transparency Requirement: Institution-Related Impediments
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sijie Chen
2012-12-01
Full Text Available
This article examines the institution-related impediments to China’s compliance with WTO transparency requirements provided in GATT Article X. The problem of transparency in China’s national trade administration was not only the centre of focus in the negotiations before its accession to the WTO, but is one of remaining obstacles and sources of complaints after the accession. It argues that the strategy of imposing WTO-plus obligations on China would not be rational or more effective at promoting compliance in the sense that it requires weaker members to undertake more. For a possible solution of better compliance, an in-depth analysis of those impediments would be a crucial and necessary step. This provides an essential point to be considered for the discussion on the extent to which GATT Article X, as one of the most abstract and intrusive obligations, should be applied in the WTO case law.
Optimal Configuration of a Redundant Robotic Arm: Compliance Approach
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
Applications of robots in tasks where the robot's end-effector bears loads, such as manipulating or assembling an object, picking-and-placing loads, grinding or drilling, demand precision. One aspect that improves precision is the limitation, if not elimination, of manipulator compliance. This paper presents a manipulator compliance optimization approach for determining an optimal manipulator configuration for a given position in the robot's task space. A numerical solution for minimal compliance, a nonlinear constrained optimization problem, is presented for an arbitrary position and illustrated by an example, using a model developed on ADAMS software and using MATLAB optimization tools. Also, this paper investigates the optimal value function for robot tasks in which the tool-point is subjected to applied force as it generates an important trajectory such as in grinding processes. The optimal value function is needed for optimal configuration control.
Disease management and medication compliance.
Cohen, Joshua; Christensen, Kathyrn; Feldman, Lanna
2012-02-01
Lack of medication compliance is harmful to health care systems from both a clinical and economic perspective. This study examines the methods that disease management organizations employ to identify nonadherent patients and to measure effectiveness of compliance programs for patients with diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and cystic fibrosis. In addition, this study investigates the degree to which disease managers assume risk in their contracts, and whether compliance strategies are being coordinated with payers' use of value-based insurance design, in which patient cost sharing is a function of the relative value of pharmaceuticals. This study's findings suggest that disease management may be falling short in terms of: (a) comprehensive commitment to expert-recommended at-home devices used to self-diagnose and measure health indicators; (b) early adoption of expert-recommended new technologies to measure and improve compliance; (c) intensity of use of standard tests in outpatient clinics; (d) coordination of compliance strategies with payers' use of value-based insurance design; and (e) the proportion of risk assumed in disease management contracts.
Minimum spanning trees and random resistor networks in d dimensions.
Read, N
2005-09-01
We consider minimum-cost spanning trees, both in lattice and Euclidean models, in d dimensions. For the cost of the optimum tree in a box of size L , we show that there is a correction of order L(theta) , where theta or =1 . The arguments all rely on the close relation of Kruskal's greedy algorithm for the minimum spanning tree, percolation, and (for some arguments) random resistor networks. The scaling of the entropy and free energy at small nonzero T , and hence of the number of near-optimal solutions, is also discussed. We suggest that the Steiner tree problem is in the same universality class as the minimum spanning tree in all dimensions, as is the traveling salesman problem in two dimensions. Hence all will have the same value of theta=-3/4 in two dimensions.
Minimum Energy Requirements in Complex Distillation Arrangements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Halvorsen, Ivar J.
2001-07-01
the first part of the thesis has been to present a complete theory of minimum energy in directly coupled columns, not a design procedure for engineering purposes. Thus, our focus has been on the basic theory and on verification and analysis of the new results. However, based on these results, it is straightforward to develop design procedures including rigorous computations for real feed mixtures without the idealized assumptions used to deduce the analytic results. In part 2 we focus on optimization of operation, and in particular the concept of self-optimizing control. We consider a process where we have more degrees of freedom than are consumed by the product specifications. The remaining unconstrained degrees of freedom are used to optimize the operation, given by some scalar cost criterion. In addition there will in practice always be unknown disturbances, model uncertainty and uncertainty in measurements and implementation of manipulated inputs, which makes it impossible to precalculate and implement the optimal control inputs accurately. The main idea is to achieve self-optimizing control by turning the optimization problem into a constant setpoint problem. The issue is then to find (if possible) a set of variables, which when kept at their setpoints, indirectly ensures optimal operation. We have used the ternary Petlyuk arrangement to illustrate the concept. It is a quite challenging case where the potential energy savings may easily be lost if we do not manage to keep the manipulated inputs at their optimal values, and the optimum is strongly affected by changes in feed composition and column performance. This also applies to the best control structure selection, and we believe that the reported difficulties in control are really a control structure problem (the task of selecting the best variables to control and the best variables to manipulate). In this analysis we present in detail the properties of the Petlyuk arrangement, and show how important
Knowledge, compliance, and satisfaction: an evaluation of the SIMPLE program.
Rivera-Sárate, Sacha; González-Cordero, Myriam L; Gutiérrez-Collazo, Luz M; Ríos-Motta, Ruth
2009-11-01
Evaluate the increase in medication use knowledge, participants' compliance, and satisfaction with the pharmacist through the SIMPLE program (Sepa [Know] Información correcta sobre [Correct information about] Medicinas [Medicines], Pregunte [Ask], Lea la etiqueta [Read the label], y Evite problemas [and Avoid problems]). Quasi-experimental type using a convenience sample. Community pharmacies in Puerto Rico. 60 years of age or older in need of education for appropriate use of medications, using three or more medications for chronic diseases, were functional, and signed an informed consent and privacy agreement. A total of 316 elderly were enrolled. Complete documentation for the six encounters was obtained for 250 participants. The program was implemented through six encounters between pharmacists and participants in community pharmacies. Medication use knowledge and participants' compliance were measured by analyzing the baseline data and follow-up encounters. Participants' satisfaction with the pharmacist was evaluated using the Satisfaction With Pharmacist (SWiP) scale. Medication use knowledge, participant's compliance, and satisfaction with the pharmacist. Compliance improved from 55.2% before the program to 90.0% after the program. Knowledge of medication use improved from 36.8% before the program to 94.4% after the program. There was an increase in the "very much" response for all items in the SWiP scale. An increase in knowledge and compliance with medication therapy by the participants was observed after participation in the program. Participant-pharmacist relationship was reaffirmed and enhanced after participation in the program.
Waste manifesting and tracking: compliance monitoring and enforcement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bures, M.A. [M.A. Bures Consulting, Calgary, AB (Canada)
1998-12-31
An overview of Alberta`s new approach to compliance and enforcement activities for oilfield waste manifesting and tracking was presented. The Energy and Utilities Board`s (EUB`s) current compliance model includes a surveillance process which places a lot of emphasis on improving the performance of problem operators and high risk operators. It also includes an enforcement policy which outlines well defined expectations and escalating consequences. These `enforcement ladders` generally consist of at least four levels. Levels one and two are considered relatively minor offences, but levels three and higher are quite serious and the consequences of non-compliance far more expensive. The priority areas for surveillance and compliance monitoring of oilfield waste include: (1) waste receivers, (2) proper characterization of oilfield waste to ensure appropriate disposal, (3) the verification that oilfield waste is disposed at appropriate facilities, and (4) ensuring that dangerous oilfield wastes go to approved facilities. The new compliance model is an approved EUB policy and is gradually being implemented across the province. 6 refs., 1 fig.
Biped locomotion control with compliance; Compliance wo mochiita nisoku soko robot no undo seigyo
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kawaji, S.; Ogasawara, K.; Iimori, J. [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan)
1995-12-20
Realization of stable walking motion of biped locomotive robot is one of difficult control problems, but it is very interesting both theoretically and practically from the view point of motion control. The authors have already reported that the locomotion rhythm plays an important role in walking motions, and confirmed experimentally that the control method based on the locomotion rhythm is effective. But, many uncertainties, e.g., the changes of robot dynamics and the interaction between the robot and the floor, may make the locomotion rhythm irregular. In this paper, we introduce the compliance into the control system in order to modify the original reference locomotion rhythm for stable walking under the existence of the uncertainties. Concretely a compliance control system for the contact leg is designed to modify the rhythm by changing the posture of the leg corresponding to the force acting from the body so that the robot may keep the equilibrium state dynamically. Finally the simulation results are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed compliance control system. 21 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
江彬; 左停
2013-01-01
对我国农村扶贫政策与低保政策及其衔接问题的相关文献进行梳理与综述,在此基础上提出了自己的观点:要将两项政策真正有效衔接必须要认识到贫困不仅只是一个单纯的经济收入问题,它涉及了社会资本、自然资源、基础设施、健康、教育、社会公正等许多因素,要用社会发展的眼光,以实证研究来发现问题、解决问题；要充分发挥贫困人群的作用,明确他们的所需与所想,如此才能更好的解决两项政策的衔接问题.%Through reviewing relevant literatures about rural poverty reduction policy and rural area minimum life ensure policy and their connection problem, some points of views were put forward: we must realize that poverty is beyond the economic category, it involves a lot of factors, such as social capital, natural resources, infrastructure, health, education, social justice, etc. Hence, we should use the vision of social development and empirical research to find out problems and solve the problems; In addition, we should make the most of the poor people's function, knowing about exactly what they need and what they think, by this way the two policies can be connected efficiently.
Corporate compliance and voluntary disclosure.
Schiff, A B
1995-09-01
In any event, the decision to institute a corporate compliance program is a relatively simple one. In view of the ambiguity surrounding certain fraud and abuse provisions, and the corporate "death sentence" that may result from program exclusion, a compliance program is always sound corporate policy. To be sure, if the compliance program is administered improperly, it can actually increase the likelihood of whistleblower actions and create a body of potentially hurtful documentation. But these dangers can be minimized by structuring the program to protect the self-evaluative process through relevant privileges. The risks also pale in comparison to the exposure to criminal or exclusionary sanctions when improper conduct goes undetected by an organization.
Minimum 2-Tuple Dominating Set of an Interval Graph
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tarasankar Pramanik
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The k-tuple domination problem, for a fixed positive integer k, is to find a minimum size vertex subset such that every vertex in the graph is dominated by at least k vertices in this set. The case when k=2 is called 2-tuple domination problem or double domination problem. In this paper, the 2-tuple domination problem is studied on interval graphs from an algorithmic point of view, which takes O(n2 time, n is the total number of vertices of the interval graph.
Minimum-cost dynamic flows: The series-parallel case
Klinz, Bettina; Woeginger, Gerhard J.
2004-01-01
A dynamic network consists of a directed graph with capacities, costs, and integral transit times on the arcs. In the minimum-cost dynamic flow problem (MCDFP), the goal is to compute, for a given dynamic network with source s, sink t, and two integers v and T, a feasible dynamic flow from s to t of
Minimum Competency Testing: A Report of Four Regional Conferences.
Miller, Barbara Soloth, Ed.
Summaries are presented of the problems and issues of minimum competency testing which were discussed at four regional conferences for political and educational practitioners. The Education Commission of the States sponsored the conferences, but took no official position of support or opposition. Section 1 compares the legislative, practitioner,…
Social influence: compliance and conformity.
Cialdini, Robert B; Goldstein, Noah J
2004-01-01
This review covers recent developments in the social influence literature, focusing primarily on compliance and conformity research published between 1997 and 2002. The principles and processes underlying a target's susceptibility to outside influences are considered in light of three goals fundamental to rewarding human functioning. Specifically, targets are motivated to form accurate perceptions of reality and react accordingly, to develop and preserve meaningful social relationships, and to maintain a favorable self-concept. Consistent with the current movement in compliance and conformity research, this review emphasizes the ways in which these goals interact with external forces to engender social influence processes that are subtle, indirect, and outside of awareness.
Kirchler, Erich; Wahl, Ingrid
2010-06-01
Surveys on tax compliance and non-compliance often rely on ad hoc formulated items which lack standardization and empirical validation. We present an inventory to assess tax compliance and distinguish between different forms of compliance and non-compliance: voluntary versus enforced compliance, tax avoidance, and tax evasion. First, items to measure voluntary and enforced compliance, avoidance, and evasion were drawn up (collected from past research and newly developed), and tested empirically with the aim of producing four validated scales with a clear factorial structure. Second, findings from the first analyses were replicated and extended to validation on the basis of motivational postures. A standardized inventory is provided which can be used in surveys in order to collect data which are comparable across research focusing on self-reports. The inventory can be used in either of two ways: either in its entirety, or by applying the single scales independently, allowing an economical and fast assessment of different facets of tax compliance.
Ceramic veneers with minimum preparation.
da Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes; Reis, Rachelle; Santana, Lino; Romanini, Jose Carlos; Carvalho, Ricardo Marins; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio
2013-10-01
The aim of this article is to describe the possibility of improving dental esthetics with low-thickness glass ceramics without major tooth preparation for patients with small to moderate anterior dental wear and little discoloration. For this purpose, a carefully defined treatment planning and a good communication between the clinician and the dental technician helped to maximize enamel preservation, and offered a good treatment option. Moreover, besides restoring esthetics, the restorative treatment also improved the function of the anterior guidance. It can be concluded that the conservative use of minimum thickness ceramic laminate veneers may provide satisfactory esthetic outcomes while preserving the dental structure.
Regulatory treatment of allowances and compliance costs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rose, K. [National Regulatory Research Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)
1993-07-01
The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA) established a national emission allowance trading system, a market-based form of environmental regulation designed to reduce and limit sulfur dioxide emissions. However, the allowance trading system is being applied primarily to an economically regulated electric utility industry. The combining of the new form of environmental regulation and economic regulation of electric utilities has raised a number of questions including what the role should be of the federal and state utility regulating commissions and how those actions will affect the decision making process of the utilities and the allowance market. There are several dimensions to the regulatory problems that commissions face. Allowances and utility compliance expenditures have implications for least-cost/IPR (integrated resource planning), prudence review procedures, holding company and multistate utility regulation and ratemaking treatment. The focus of this paper is on the ratemaking treatment. The following topics are covered: ratemaking treatment of allowances and compliance costs; Traditional cost-recovery mechanisms; limitations to the traditional approach; traditional approach and the allowance trading market; market-based cost recovery mechanisms; methods of determining the benchmark; determining the split between ratepayers and the utility; other regulatory approaches; limitations of incentive mechanisms.
The Specification of an Expert System for Building Bylaws Compliance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sania Bhatti
2012-04-01
Full Text Available An Expert System is a computer program that simulates the human intelligence and behaviour in specific and limited domains. It is used to solve problems with tricks, shortcuts and heuristics i.e. rules of thumb. Checking a Plan (Map to verify its compliance with building bylaws is a complex task mainly due to various rules and the exceptions to those rules. Humans are prone to make errors in such situations. Due to the problems faced by Building Control Department, HDA ( Hyderabad Development Authority there is a strong need to develop a computerized system. In this research we have developed a prototype named as ESBBC (Expert System for Building Bylaws Compliance for HDA that can help in their building plan checking system. The proposed solution is merging three frameworks, i.e. Java an OOP (Object Oriented Programming language, Prolog- a rule based language and MS Access- for database. The solution is fulfilling the three main requirements of the HDA, i.e. Determination of whether a particular plan is in compliance with predefined building bylaws or not. (2 Offering search facility. (3 Maintaining records of plans which are entered for compliance checking. We have checked plans of 20 properties according to HDA building regulations using ESBBC and presented their results. The results show that ESBBC has capability to identify errors made by humans.
Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Engine and Vehicle Compliance Certification and Fuel Economy Inventory contains measured emissions and fuel economy compliance information for all types of...
Clean Air Markets - Compliance Query Wizard
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Compliance Query Wizard is part of a suite of Clean Air Markets-related tools that are accessible at http://ampd.epa.gov/ampd/. The Compliance module provides...
Client Compliance with Homework Directives during Counseling.
Worthington, Everett L., Jr.
1986-01-01
Investigated compliance as a function of counselor, client, and therapy variables. Results indicated that variables associated with the conduct of counseling more strongly influenced compliance with homework than did either counselor or client variables. (Author/BL)
24 CFR 108.25 - Compliance meeting.
2010-04-01
... COMPLIANCE PROCEDURES FOR AFFIRMATIVE FAIR HOUSING MARKETING § 108.25 Compliance meeting. (a) Scheduling... the goals of the AFHM plan may not be achieved, or that the implementation of the Plan should...
Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data Inventory
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Mobile Source Emissions Regulatory Compliance Data Inventory data asset contains measured summary compliance information on light-duty, heavy-duty, and non-road...
ETHICS AND COMPLIANCE IN BUSINESS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ANDREESCU Nicoleta Alina
2015-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we have studied the evolution of the business ethics concept through the prism of definitions from some renowned authors in the field and through the approach model of the business ethics and by implementing it in the company level. We have found out that in the last 40 years this concept has evolved from a theoretical aspect, as well as a practical one. Companies are motivated to implement ethics and compliance programs in business so that they can manage the changes that come from society. If, until recently, all that mattered for a company was profit, in the last decades, the situation changed. In order to develop a durable business, it is essential to have a good reputation. Owning and implementing an ethics and compliance program in business has become an imperative for companies, regardless of their activity sector. The role of the compliance department becomes more pregnant in each company: the employees need safety, the existence of communication lines provides comfort. From the partners in business’ point of view, owning such a program is a necessity, a condition, and not conforming to the principles of business ethics can lead to the isolation of the company. The ethics and compliance programs in business are instruments that protect the company by implementing certain proactive identification mechanisms that ensure the development of an ethical organizational culture.
Corporate compliance: implications for trustees.
Commins, K
1998-01-01
In this era of fraud and abuse enforcement efforts, hospital trustees are facing potential liability in the event that an investigation reveals the hospital has violated state or federal provisions pertaining to fraud and abuse. This liability can be minimized, or avoided, by ensuring that an effective compliance plan is in place prior to such an investigation.
Best Practices and Simultaneous Compliance
This wrap-up presentation to the workshop covers several topics concerning how lead and copper compliance under the Lead and Copper Rule should be integrated into an overall “simultaneous compliance” framework with other organizations. The LCR requires “optimization” of lead leve...
Audit-based compliance control
Cederquist, J.G.; Corin, R.; Dekker, M.A.C.; Etalle, S.; Hartog, J.I. den; Lenzini, G.
2007-01-01
In this paper we introduce a new framework for controlling compliance to discretionary access control policies [Cederquist et al. in Proceedings of the International Workshop on Policies for Distributed Systems and Networks (POLICY), 2005; Corin et al. in Proceedings of the IFIP Workshop on Formal A
Project Compliance with Enterprise Architecture
Foorthuis, R.M.
2012-01-01
This research project set out to identify effective practices and models for working with projects that are required to comply with Enterprise Architecture (EA), and investigate the benefits and drawbacks brought about by compliance. Research methods used are canonical action research, a statistical
Project Compliance with Enterprise Architecture
Foorthuis, R.M.
2012-01-01
This research project set out to identify effective practices and models for working with projects that are required to comply with Enterprise Architecture (EA), and investigate the benefits and drawbacks brought about by compliance. Research methods used are canonical action research, a statistical
Developing a nursing corporate compliance program.
Bartis, Janice A; Sullivan, Trent
2002-09-01
This article presents the process that a large urban tertiary care hospital engaged in when developing a corporate compliance program for nursing. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how nurse executives can successfully implement a comprehensive and practical nursing corporate compliance program. This article describes in detail the 5 steps the hospital took to develop its nursing corporate compliance program and provides examples of tools to guide you in developing a nursing corporate compliance program.
Corporate compliance: framework and implementation.
Fowler, N
1999-01-01
The federal government has created numerous programs to combat fraud and abuse. The government now encourages healthcare facilities to have a corporate compliance program (CCP), a plan that reduces the chances that the facility will violate laws or regulations. A CCP is an organization-wide program comprised of a code of conduct and written policies, internal monitoring and auditing standards, employee training, feedback mechanisms and other features, all designed to prevent and detect violations of governmental laws, regulations and policies. It is a system or method ensuring that employees understand and will comply with laws that apply to what they do every day. Seven factors, based on federal sentencing guidelines, provide the framework for developing a CCP. First, a facility must establish rules that are reasonably capable of reducing criminal conduct. Second, high-level personnel must oversee the compliance effort. Third, a facility must use due care in delegating authority in the compliance initiative. Fourth, standards must be communicated effectively to employees, and fifth, a facility must take reasonable steps to achieve compliance. Sixth, standards must be enforced consistently across the organization and last, standards must be modified or changed for reported concerns, to ensure they are not repeated. PROMINA Health System, Inc. in Atlanta, Ga., designed a program to meet federal guidelines. It started with a self-assessment to define its areas or risk. Next, it created the internal structure and assigned organizational responsibility for running the CCP. PROMINA then developed standards of business and professional conduct, established vehicles of communication and trained employees on the standards. Finally, it continues to develop evidence of the program's effectiveness by monitoring and documenting its compliance activities.
42 CFR 3.308 - Compliance reviews.
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance reviews. 3.308 Section 3.308 Public... ORGANIZATIONS AND PATIENT SAFETY WORK PRODUCT Enforcement Program § 3.308 Compliance reviews. The Secretary may conduct compliance reviews to determine whether a respondent is complying with the applicable...
14 CFR 1252.400 - Compliance reviews.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance reviews. 1252.400 Section 1252..., and Enforcement Procedures § 1252.400 Compliance reviews. (a) NASA may conduct compliance reviews and pre-award reviews of recipients or use other similar procedures that will permit it to investigate and...
Monitoring Compliance with Open Access policies
Picarra, Mafalda
2015-01-01
In parallel to implementing Open Access policies, institutions and research funders are also engaged in developing mechanisms to monitor compliance with the existing policies. This study highlights why policy compliance must be monitored and how it can be done. A series of case studies illustrate where compliance is being effectively monitored.
Tax compliance depends on voice of taxpayers
Casal, Sandro; Kogler, C.; Mittone, Luigi; Kirchler, Erich
2016-01-01
Reducing the social distance between taxpayers and tax authorities boosts taxpayers' acceptance of tax load and tax compliance. In the present experiment participants had the opportunity to pay their tax due either as one single compliance decision or as separate compliance decisions for each type o
38 CFR 18.6 - Compliance information.
2010-07-01
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance information... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 General § 18.6 Compliance information. (a) Cooperation and assistance... compliance reports at such times, and in such form and containing such information, as the responsible...
22 CFR 209.6 - Compliance information.
2010-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compliance information. 209.6 Section 209.6... § 209.6 Compliance information. (a) Cooperation and assistance. The Administrator shall to the fullest... and accurate compliance reports at such times, and in such form and containing such information,...
40 CFR 503.2 - Compliance period.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance period. 503.2 Section 503.2 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SEWAGE SLUDGE STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE General Provisions § 503.2 Compliance period. (a) Compliance with the standards...
Tax compliance depends on voice of taxpayers
Casal, Sandro; Kogler, C.; Mittone, Luigi; Kirchler, Erich
2016-01-01
Reducing the social distance between taxpayers and tax authorities boosts taxpayers' acceptance of tax load and tax compliance. In the present experiment participants had the opportunity to pay their tax due either as one single compliance decision or as separate compliance decisions for each type o
40 CFR 425.05 - Compliance dates.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 425.05 Section 425... STANDARDS LEATHER TANNING AND FINISHING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY General Provisions § 425.05 Compliance dates. The compliance date for new source performance standards (NSPS) and pretreatment standards for...
The encoding complexity of two dimensional range minimum data structures
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Brodnik, Andrej; Davoodi, Pooya
2013-01-01
In the two-dimensional range minimum query problem an input matrix A of dimension m ×n, m ≤ n, has to be preprocessed into a data structure such that given a query rectangle within the matrix, the position of a minimum element within the query range can be reported. We consider the space complexity...... of the encoding variant of the problem where queries have access to the constructed data structure but can not access the input matrix A, i.e. all information must be encoded in the data structure. Previously it was known how to solve the problem with space O(mn min {m,logn}) bits (and with constant query time...
Effect of frailty syndrome on treatment compliance in older hypertensive patients
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chudiak A
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Anna Chudiak, Beata Jankowska-Polańska, Izabella Uchmanowicz Department of Clinical Nursing, Faculty of Health Science, Wroclaw Medical University, Wroclaw, Poland Background: Frailty syndrome (FS is an important problem in older persons. It may develop concomitantly to many aging-related diseases, including arterial hypertension, and exerts detrimental effects on both their outcomes and treatment compliance.Objective: To analyze the effect of FS on treatment compliance in older hypertensive patients.Materials and methods: This study of 300 hypertensive patients (167 women and 133 men aged between 65 and 91 years (mean 71.75±7.79 years was based on the analysis of medical documentation and survey with the Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI and Hill-Bone High Blood Pressure Compliance Scale.Results: Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure values of the study subjects were 141.97 and 85.16 mm Hg, respectively. Mean time elapsed since the diagnosis of arterial hypertension was 13.74 years. FS was diagnosed in 65.67% of the study subjects. Mean global score of the Hill-Bone High Blood Pressure Compliance Scale was 20.75 points. TFI scores correlated significantly with the global score of the Hill-Bone High Blood Pressure Compliance Scale (R=0.509, P<0.001 and the values of its 2 subscales: Appointment Keeping (R=0.34, P<0.001 and Medication Taking (R=0.537, P<0.001.Conclusion: FS exerts a significant effect on treatment compliance of older hypertensive patients. Treatment compliance is modulated by patients’ sex (worse compliance in men, education (better compliance in subjects with higher education, and TFI scores (worse compliance in patients with FS. Keywords: frailty syndrome, compliance, adherence, arterial hypertension, older age
Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection
Lao, Dong
2017-01-08
We present a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves relative to background motion at some unknown time in the video, and the goal is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Due to unreliability of motion between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Our method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.
Minimum Competency Testing and the Handicapped.
Wildemuth, Barbara M.
This brief overview of minimum competency testing and disabled high school students discusses: the inclusion or exclusion of handicapped students in minimum competency testing programs; approaches to accommodating the individual needs of handicapped students; and legal issues. Surveys of states that have mandated minimum competency tests indicate…
Do Some Workers Have Minimum Wage Careers?
Carrington, William J.; Fallick, Bruce C.
2001-01-01
Most workers who begin their careers in minimum-wage jobs eventually gain more experience and move on to higher paying jobs. However, more than 8% of workers spend at least half of their first 10 working years in minimum wage jobs. Those more likely to have minimum wage careers are less educated, minorities, women with young children, and those…
Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?
Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane
2005-01-01
Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…
Minimum income protection in the Netherlands
van Peijpe, T.
2009-01-01
This article offers an overview of the Dutch legal system of minimum income protection through collective bargaining, social security, and statutory minimum wages. In addition to collective agreements, the Dutch statutory minimum wage offers income protection to a small number of workers. Its effect
Tools for NEPA compliance: Baseline reports and compliance guides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wolff, T.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hansen, R.P. [Hansen Environmental Consultants, Englewood, CO (United States)
1994-12-31
Environmental baseline documents and NEPA compliance guides should be carried in every NEPA implementation ``tool kit``. These two indispensable tools can play a major role in avoiding repeated violations of NEPA requirements that have occurred over the past 26 years. This paper describes these tools, discusses their contents, and explains how they are used to prepare better NEPA documents more cost-effectively. Focus is on experience at Sandia Laboratories (NM).
The Gilbert Arborescence Problem
Volz, M G; Ras, C J; Swanepoel, K J; Thomas, D A
2009-01-01
We investigate the problem of designing a minimum cost flow network interconnecting n sources and a single sink, each with known locations and flows. The network may contain other unprescribed nodes, known as Steiner points. For concave increasing cost functions, a minimum cost network of this sort has a tree topology, and hence can be called a Minimum Gilbert Arborescence (MGA). We characterise the local topological structure of Steiner points in MGAs, showing, in particular, that for a wide range of metrics and cost-functions the degree of each Steiner point is 3.
Minimum-Time Quantum Transport with Bounded Trap Velocity
Stefanatos, Dionisis
2011-01-01
We formulate the problem of efficient transport of a quantum particle trapped in a harmonic potential which can move with a bounded velocity, as a minimum-time problem on a linear system with bounded input. We completely solve the corresponding optimal control problem and obtain an interesting bang-bang solution. These results are expected to find applications in quantum information processing, where quantum transport between the storage and processing units of a quantum computer is an essential step. They can also be extended to the efficient transport of Bose-Einstein condensates, where the ability to control them is crucial for their potential use as interferometric sensors.
Quasi-greedy triangulations approximating the minimum weight triangulation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levcopoulos, C.; Krznaric, D. [Lund Univ. (Sweden)
1996-12-31
This paper settles the following two open problems: (1) What is the worst-case approximation ratio between the greedy and the minimum weight triangulation? (2) Is there a polynomial time algorithm that always pro- duces a triangulation whose length is within a constant factor from the minimum? The answer to the first question is that the known {Omega}({radical}n) lower bound is tight. The second question is answered in the affirmative by using a slight modification of an O(n log n) algorithm for the greedy triangulation. We also derive some other interesting results. For example, we show that a constant-factor approximation of the minimum weight convex partition can be obtained within the same time bounds.
Unit stream power, minimum energy dissipation rate, and river engineering
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chih Ted Yang
2010-01-01
Unit stream power is the most important and dominant parameter for the determination of transport rate of sand,gravel, and hyper-concentrated sediment with wash load.Minimum energy dissipation rate theory, or its simplified minimum unit stream power and minimum stream power theories,can provide engineers the needed theoretical basis for river morphology and river engineering studies.The Generalized Sediment Transport model for Alluvial River Simulation computer mode series have been developed based on the above theories.The computer model series have been successfully applied in many countries.Examples will be used to illustrate the applications of the computer models to solving a wide range of river morphology and river engineering problems.
Obesity and arterial compliance alterations.
Seifalian, Alexander M; Filippatos, Theodosios D; Joshi, Jatin; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P
2010-03-01
Obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, especially when excess body fat is distributed preferentially within the abdominal region. Obese subjects usually have increased arterial stiffness compared with non-obese subjects of similar age. The factors associated with increased arterial stiffness in obesity include endothelial dysfunction (decreased nitric oxide bioavailability), impaired smooth muscle cell function, insulin resistance, as well as elevated cholesterol and C-peptide levels. Furthermore, visceral fat, the adipose tissue-related renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and hyperleptinaemia contribute to the obesity-associated impaired arterial compliance. Weight loss improves CVD risk factors and arterial compliance. Because increased arterial stiffness is a marker of CVD risk these findings support the concept that the presence of obesity has vascular implications.
Minimum Covering with Travel Cost
Fekete, Sandor P.; Mitchell, Joseph S.B.; Schmidt, Christiane
2011-01-01
Given a polygon and a visibility range, the Myopic Watchman Problem with Discrete Vision (MWPDV) asks for a closed path P and a set of scan points S, such that (i) every point of the polygon is within visibility range of a scan point; and (ii) path length plus weighted sum of scan number along the tour is minimized. Alternatively, the bicriteria problem (ii') aims at minimizing both scan number and tour length. We consider both lawn mowing (in which tour and scan points may leave P) and milli...
Minimum Covering with Travel Cost
Fekete, Sandor P; Schmidt, Christiane
2011-01-01
Given a polygon and a visibility range, the Myopic Watchman Problem with Discrete Vision (MWPDV) asks for a closed path P and a set of scan points S, such that (i) every point of the polygon is within visibility range of a scan point; and (ii) path length plus weighted sum of scan number along the tour is minimized. Alternatively, the bicriteria problem (ii') aims at minimizing both scan number and tour length. We consider both lawn mowing (in which tour and scan points may leave P) and milling (in which tour, scan points and visibility must stay within P) variants for the MWPDV; even for simple special cases, these problems are NP-hard. We show that this problem is NP-hard, even for the special cases of rectilinear polygons and L_\\infty scan range 1, and negligible small travel cost or negligible travel cost. For rectilinear MWPDV milling in grid polygons we present a 2.5-approximation with unit scan range; this holds for the bicriteria version, thus for any linear combination of travel cost and scan cost. F...
Minimum Delay Moving Object Detection
Lao, Dong
2017-05-14
This thesis presents a general framework and method for detection of an object in a video based on apparent motion. The object moves, at some unknown time, differently than the “background” motion, which can be induced from camera motion. The goal of proposed method is to detect and segment the object as soon it moves in an online manner. Since motion estimation can be unreliable between frames, more than two frames are needed to reliably detect the object. Observing more frames before declaring a detection may lead to a more accurate detection and segmentation, since more motion may be observed leading to a stronger motion cue. However, this leads to greater delay. The proposed method is designed to detect the object(s) with minimum delay, i.e., frames after the object moves, constraining the false alarms, defined as declarations of detection before the object moves or incorrect or inaccurate segmentation at the detection time. Experiments on a new extensive dataset for moving object detection show that our method achieves less delay for all false alarm constraints than existing state-of-the-art.
Dose variation during solar minimum
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gussenhoven, M.S.; Mullen, E.G.; Brautigam, D.H. (Phillips Lab., Geophysics Directorate, Hanscom Air Force Base, MA (US)); Holeman, E. (Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics)
1991-12-01
In this paper, the authors use direct measurement of dose to show the variation in inner and outer radiation belt populations at low altitude from 1984 to 1987. This period includes the recent solar minimum that occurred in September 1986. The dose is measured behind four thicknesses of aluminum shielding and for two thresholds of energy deposition, designated HILET and LOLET. The authors calculate an average dose per day for each month of satellite operation. The authors find that the average proton (HILET) dose per day (obtained primarily in the inner belt) increased systematically from 1984 to 1987, and has a high anticorrelation with sunspot number when offset by 13 months. The average LOLET dose per day behind the thinnest shielding is produced almost entirely by outer zone electrons and varies greatly over the period of interest. If any trend can be discerned over the 4 year period it is a decreasing one. For shielding of 1.55 gm/cm{sup 2} (227 mil) Al or more, the LOLET dose is complicated by contributions from {gt} 100 MeV protons and bremsstrahlung.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Izadyar
2006-06-01
Full Text Available Background and Aim: With the introduction of long term subcutaneous administration of Deferoxamine there has been a decline in the morbidity and mortality of transfusion-dependent beta thalassemia patients. But parenteral iron chelation therapy is still a burden and a major reason for unsatisfactory compliance and places an additional psychological burden on the patients. There are some factors contributing to low compliance in these patients. To evaluate compliance to Deferoxamine and barriers of non adherence and assessment the prevalence of depression and it’s association with compliance. Materials and Methods: 205 patients with major thalassemia in children medical center older than 6 years old were included. They were classified in 3 groups by compliance index (CI: No. of days of treatment per one month/No. of treatment days prescribed by physician. CI>75 % was considered good ,CI< 50-75%: moderate,CI<50%:weak and 3d group the patients without compliance. For assessment of depression: Beck Depression questionnaires were given to the patients older than 18 years old and Children Depression Inventories (CDI“kovacs” were given to the rest Results: Of 205 patients (110 females (54% and 95 males (46%, 13.3% were non compliant, 14% had poor compliance, 62.7% had good compliance. Females were more compliant than males (P=0.034. Compliance improved in older age groups meaningfully (P=0.037. There was negative association between compliance and serum ferritin level (P=0.02. 22% of children and 12% of Adults had severe depression according to the questionnaires. There was no association between compliance and depression. The most prevalent problem rgarding Desferal injection was local reactions in injection site (83%. Conclusion: As oral chelation therapies are not used routinely, more investigations regarding the noncompliance must be considered; and this method of chelation therapy must be encouraged. Compliance is a multifactorial problem
ELECTRONIC COMPLIANCE AND APPROVAL PROJECT (ECAP)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hope Morgan; Richard A. Varela; Deborah LaHood; Susan Cisco; Mary Ann Benavides; Donna Burks
2002-11-01
The Texas Railroad Commission (RRC), working in partnership with the United States Department of Energy and the oil and gas industry it regulates, is implementing a strategy for improving efficiency in regulations and significantly reducing administrative operating costs through the Electronic Compliance and Approval Process (ECAP). The project will streamline regulatory compliance and reporting by providing the ability to electronically submit, process, and query oil and gas applications and reports through the Internet-based ECAP system. Implementation of an ECAP drilling permit pilot project began September 1999 after funding resources were secured--a $700,000 grant from the U.S. Department of Energy and an appropriation of $1.4 million from the Texas Legislature. The pilot project involves creating the ability to file, review, and approve a well's drilling permit application through a completely electronic process. The pilot project solution will ultimately provide the infrastructure, technology, and electronic modules to enable the filing of all compliance permits and performance reports through the internet from a desktop computer. The pilot project was conducted in three phases. The first phase, implemented May 2000, provided the infrastructure that allows the electronic filing and approval of simple drilling permit applications, associated fees, and attachments. The official ''roll-out'' of ECAP and the first electronically filed drilling permit application occurred on May 11, 2000 in Dallas in conjunction with an Internet Workshop sponsored by the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council. After the completion of Phase I, the ECAP team conducted an extensive review of progress to date and analyzed requirements and opportunities for future steps. The technical team identified core infrastructure modifications that would facilitate and better support future development and expansion of the ECAP system and work began on database structure
ELECTRONIC COMPLIANCE AND APPROVAL PROJECT (ECAP)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hope Morgan; Richard A. Varela; Deborah LaHood; Susan Cisco; Mary Ann Benavides; Donna Burks
2002-11-01
The Texas Railroad Commission (RRC), working in partnership with the United States Department of Energy and the oil and gas industry it regulates, is implementing a strategy for improving efficiency in regulations and significantly reducing administrative operating costs through the Electronic Compliance and Approval Process (ECAP). The project will streamline regulatory compliance and reporting by providing the ability to electronically submit, process, and query oil and gas applications and reports through the Internet-based ECAP system. Implementation of an ECAP drilling permit pilot project began September 1999 after funding resources were secured--a $700,000 grant from the U.S. Department of Energy and an appropriation of $1.4 million from the Texas Legislature. The pilot project involves creating the ability to file, review, and approve a well's drilling permit application through a completely electronic process. The pilot project solution will ultimately provide the infrastructure, technology, and electronic modules to enable the filing of all compliance permits and performance reports through the internet from a desktop computer. The pilot project was conducted in three phases. The first phase, implemented May 2000, provided the infrastructure that allows the electronic filing and approval of simple drilling permit applications, associated fees, and attachments. The official ''roll-out'' of ECAP and the first electronically filed drilling permit application occurred on May 11, 2000 in Dallas in conjunction with an Internet Workshop sponsored by the Petroleum Technology Transfer Council. After the completion of Phase I, the ECAP team conducted an extensive review of progress to date and analyzed requirements and opportunities for future steps. The technical team identified core infrastructure modifications that would facilitate and better support future development and expansion of the ECAP system and work began on database structure
Generalized minimum dominating set and application in automatic text summarization
Xu, Yi-Zhi
2016-01-01
For a graph formed by vertices and weighted edges, a generalized minimum dominating set (MDS) is a vertex set of smallest cardinality such that the summed weight of edges from each outside vertex to vertices in this set is equal to or larger than certain threshold value. This generalized MDS problem reduces to the conventional MDS problem in the limiting case of all the edge weights being equal to the threshold value. We treat the generalized MDS problem in the present paper by a replica-symmetric spin glass theory and derive a set of belief-propagation equations. As a practical application we consider the problem of extracting a set of sentences that best summarize a given input text document. We carry out a preliminary test of the statistical physics-inspired method to this automatic text summarization problem.
Modified string method for finding minimum energy path
Samanta, Amit
2010-01-01
We present an efficient algorithm to calculate minimum energy path (MEP) and energy barriers between locally minimum points on the multidimensional potential energy surface (PES). Our method dwells the original idea of the String method [Phys. Rev. B 66, 052301 (2002)] to evolve a smooth string along a direction normal to the string. The algorithm works by identifying hyperplanes, at each discretized point, normal to path. The intermediate configurations at these discretized points are then relaxed with their motion confined to their corresponding hyperplanes. Thus the problem of finding MEP on the PES is remodeled as a set of constrained minimization problem. This provides the flexibility of using minimization algorithms faster than the steepest descent method used in the simplified string method [J. Chem. Phys.,126(16),164103 (2007)]. In our method, since each intermediate image relaxes independently, if their step lengths are not controlled kinks can form easily. We propose using a mixing scheme to advance...
K-vertex-connectivity minimum augmentation for undirected unweighted graphs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2003-01-01
For an undirected unweighted graph G0＝(V0,E0) and a positive integer K, the K-vertex-connectivity minimum augmentation problem (K-VCMAP) is to find a minimum set of edges Emin such that the graph H0＝(V0,E0∪Emin) is K-vertex-connected. Results in the literature have given polynomial time algorithms for K-VCMAP in several special cases such as where k≤3, or G0 is a tree. However, it still remains open whether or not there exist polynomial time algorithms for K-VCMAP for any graph G0 and any integer K. In this paper, we settle the problem by describing an efficient algorithm (KUCA) with time-complexity of O(K|V(G0)|5) for the K-VCMAP for any G0 and any positive integer K.
Kernel methods and minimum contrast estimators for empirical deconvolution
Delaigle, Aurore
2010-01-01
We survey classical kernel methods for providing nonparametric solutions to problems involving measurement error. In particular we outline kernel-based methodology in this setting, and discuss its basic properties. Then we point to close connections that exist between kernel methods and much newer approaches based on minimum contrast techniques. The connections are through use of the sinc kernel for kernel-based inference. This `infinite order' kernel is not often used explicitly for kernel-based deconvolution, although it has received attention in more conventional problems where measurement error is not an issue. We show that in a comparison between kernel methods for density deconvolution, and their counterparts based on minimum contrast, the two approaches give identical results on a grid which becomes increasingly fine as the bandwidth decreases. In consequence, the main numerical differences between these two techniques are arguably the result of different approaches to choosing smoothing parameters.
Approximating the Minimum Tour Cover of a Digraph
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Viet Hung Nguyen
2011-04-01
Full Text Available Given a directed graph G with non-negative cost on the arcs, a directed tour cover T of G is a cycle (not necessarily simple in G such that either head or tail (or both of them of every arc in G is touched by T. The minimum directed tour cover problem (DToCP, which is to find a directed tour cover of minimum cost, is NP-hard. It is thus interesting to design approximation algorithms with performance guarantee to solve this problem. Although its undirected counterpart (ToCP has been studied in recent years, in our knowledge, the DToCP remains widely open. In this paper, we give a 2 log2(n-approximation algorithm for the DToCP.
Compliance management and corporate governance; Compliance Management und Corporate Governance
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Becker, Uwe [Stadt Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Alsheimer, Constantin; Kassebohm, Kristian; Reutler, Susanne [Mainova AG, Frankfurt (Germany)
2009-08-15
Starting in the year 2009, numerous changes in the financial system and accountancy a well as in the corporate law come into effect for enterprises. Thereby, the requirements substantially are intensified to their corporate governance. The actual well-known reproaches of bribery, corruption and injuries of data protection intensify the pressure on executive committees and supervisory boards in order to meet normative and ethical requirements. All the more is valid for power suppliers whose reputation can already carry damage out with the first suspicion. Already in 2008, Mainova AG (Frnkfurt/Main, Federal Republic of Germany) implemented a compliance management.
Minimum Drag Configurations in Hypersonic Flow Via the Method of Steepest Descent
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. B. Tawakley
1979-04-01
Full Text Available It has been shown that the problem of finding minimum drag configuration in hypersonic flow can be reduced to a problem in optimum control and the method of steepest ascent is a useful tool for finding the solution of this problem.
Automated design of minimum drag light aircraft fuselages and nacelles
Smetana, F. O.; Fox, S. R.; Karlin, B. E.
1982-01-01
The constrained minimization algorithm of Vanderplaats is applied to the problem of designing minimum drag faired bodies such as fuselages and nacelles. Body drag is computed by a variation of the Hess-Smith code. This variation includes a boundary layer computation. The encased payload provides arbitrary geometric constraints, specified a priori by the designer, below which the fairing cannot shrink. The optimization may include engine cooling air flows entering and exhausting through specific port locations on the body.
An application of Hamiltonian neurodynamics using Pontryagin's Maximum (Minimum) Principle.
Koshizen, T; Fulcher, J
1995-12-01
Classical optimal control methods, notably Pontryagin's Maximum (Minimum) Principle (PMP) can be employed, together with Hamiltonians, to determine optimal system weights in Artificial Neural dynamical systems. A new learning rule based on weight equations derived using PMP is shown to be suitable for both discrete- and continuous-time systems, and moreover, can also be applied to feedback networks. Preliminary testing shows that this PMP learning rule compares favorably with Standard BackPropagations (SBP) on the XOR problem.
Minimum wages, globalization and poverty in Honduras
Gindling, T. H.; Terrell, Katherine
2008-01-01
To be competitive in the global economy, some argue that Latin American countries need to reduce or eliminate labour market regulations such as minimum wage legislation because they constrain job creation and hence increase poverty. On the other hand, minimum wage increases can have a direct positive impact on family income and may therefore help to reduce poverty. We take advantage of a complex minimum wage system in a poor country that has been exposed to the forces of globalization to test...
Tracking error with minimum guarantee constraints
Diana Barro; Elio Canestrelli
2008-01-01
In recent years the popularity of indexing has greatly increased in financial markets and many different families of products have been introduced. Often these products also have a minimum guarantee in the form of a minimum rate of return at specified dates or a minimum level of wealth at the end of the horizon. Period of declining stock market returns together with low interest rate levels on Treasury bonds make it more difficult to meet these liabilities. We formulate a dynamic asset alloca...
Minimum Load-curtailment in Transmission Network Planning Considering Integrated Wind Farms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHEN Yan; WEN Jinyu; CHENG Shijie
2011-01-01
With the enlarging scale of integrated wind power, the transmission network expansion planning （TNEP） problem considering wind farms is more important than before. TNEP problem usually can be divided into two sub-problems. The first sub-problem is to determine the new planning scheme in some way, and the second sub-problem is to assess the security and reliability of the transmission network planning scheme using the minimum load-shedding index.
Minimum degree condition forcing complete graph immersion
DeVos, Matt; Fox, Jacob; McDonald, Jessica; Mohar, Bojan; Scheide, Diego
2011-01-01
An immersion of a graph $H$ into a graph $G$ is a one-to-one mapping $f:V(H) \\to V(G)$ and a collection of edge-disjoint paths in $G$, one for each edge of $H$, such that the path $P_{uv}$ corresponding to edge $uv$ has endpoints $f(u)$ and $f(v)$. The immersion is strong if the paths $P_{uv}$ are internally disjoint from $f(V(H))$. It is proved that for every positive integer $t$, every simple graph of minimum degree at least $200t$ contains a strong immersion of the complete graph $K_t$. For dense graphs one can say even more. If the graph has order $n$ and has $2cn^2$ edges, then there is a strong immersion of the complete graph on at least $c^2 n$ vertices in $G$ in which each path $P_{uv}$ is of length 2. As an application of these results, we resolve a problem raised by Paul Seymour by proving that the line graph of every simple graph with average degree $d$ has a clique minor of order at least $cd^{3/2}$, where $c>0$ is an absolute constant. For small values of $t$, $1\\le t\\le 7$, every simple graph of...
Minimum-weight perfect matching for~non-intrinsic distances on the line
Delon, Julie; Sobolevski, Andrei
2011-01-01
Consider a real line equipped with a (not necessarily intrinsic) distance. We deal with the minimum-weight perfect matching problem for a complete graph whose points are located on the line and whose edges have weights equal to distances along the line. This problem is closely related to one-dimensional Monge-Kantorovich transport optimization. The main result of the present note is a "bottom-up" recursion relation for weights of partial minimum-weight matchings.
Effect of Pressure on Minimum Fluidization Velocity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhu Zhiping; Na Yongjie; Lu Qinggang
2007-01-01
Minimum fluidization velocity of quartz sand and glass bead under different pressures of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 Mpa were investigated. The minimum fluidization velocity decreases with the increasing of pressure. The influence of pressure to the minimum fluidization velocities is stronger for larger particles than for smaller ones.Based on the test results and Ergun equation, an experience equation of minimum fluidization velocity is proposed and the calculation results are comparable to other researchers' results.
7 CFR 35.11 - Minimum requirements.
2010-01-01
..., Denmark, East Germany, England, Finland, France, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Liechtenstein..., Switzerland, Wales, West Germany, Yugoslavia), or Greenland shall meet each applicable minimum requirement...
The six golden rules to improve compliance in hand hygiene.
Kampf, G
2004-04-01
Improvement of compliance in hand hygiene is probably the most effective step in reducing the incidence of nosocomial infections (NI). But improvement of compliance is known to be complex. Six possibilities for improving compliance are available although some of them may be difficult to carry out. Rule 1: Select an alcohol-based hand rub which has a good skin tolerance and is acceptable to health care workers to use. This has been shown to improve compliance. Rule 2: The hand rub shall be easily available. Wall dispensers near the patient and pocket bottles may well help. Other possibilities should be assessed locally. Rule 3: Implement teaching and promotion of hand hygiene, which has been shown to be very effective. This is may be the most effective tool but will cost time and money. If money is a problem, rule 4 may be the solution. Rule 4: Create a hospital budget which covers all costs involved with preventable nosocomial infection. Combine it with the budget for hand hygiene products. Even a small number of prevented NI largely outweighs the cost of effective hand hygiene products. Rule 5: Get senior staff to set a good example in order to motivate junior staff, because negligence in hand hygiene appears to correlate with the number of professional years. Rule 6: Have the patient-staff ratio well balanced. It has been shown that staff shortage decreases hand hygiene compliance. Other factors may be important as well, but implementation of these 6 golden rules could be an effective step into the right direction.
SELF MANAGEMENT INTERVENTION INCREASING COMPLIANCE IN PATIENT WITH DM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Siti Nur Kholifah
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes mellitus (DM was a degenerative disease which often found in the community. Diabetes was caused by unhealthy habits, such as overeating, lack of exercise, and stress. The purpose of this study was to identify selfmanagement as one of the interventions that can improve treatment compliance in patients with diabetes. Method: This study was used quasy experiments non randomized pretest-posttest design. Samples were 20 families who lived with type 2 diabetes patient. Variable independent was self management intervention and variable dependent was patient complience. Data were collected by using interview, food recall, and observation on behavioral change. Data then analyzed by using paired t-test with α≤0.05. Results: The results had showed that before intervention only 3 (15 % respondents who obey diabetes diet, then increase to 19 (95 % respondents after intervention with p value=0.000. Patient’s medication compliance also increased, from 6 (30 % respondents before intervention to 20 (100% respondents after intervention, with p value= 0.000. Patient compliance on exercise also increase from 2 (10% respondents before intervention, become 19 (95% respondents after intervention, with p value=0.000. Discussion: Self management intervention could improve patient’s knowledge, problem-solving skills, and self-effi cacy. Self management should be done after the patient had understand their disease and realized the importance of self-care. Community health nurses were expected to implement self management as one of nursing intervention, so that patient compliance on their treatment can be increased. Key words: Self management intervention, compliance, patient DM type 2
Improved Minimum Cuts and Maximum Flows in Undirected Planar Graphs
Italiano, Giuseppe F
2010-01-01
In this paper we study minimum cut and maximum flow problems on planar graphs, both in static and in dynamic settings. First, we present an algorithm that given an undirected planar graph computes the minimum cut between any two given vertices in O(n log log n) time. Second, we show how to achieve the same O(n log log n) bound for the problem of computing maximum flows in undirected planar graphs. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first algorithms for those two problems that break the O(n log n) barrier, which has been standing for more than 25 years. Third, we present a fully dynamic algorithm that is able to maintain information about minimum cuts and maximum flows in a plane graph (i.e., a planar graph with a fixed embedding): our algorithm is able to insert edges, delete edges and answer min-cut and max-flow queries between any pair of vertices in O(n^(2/3) log^3 n) time per operation. This result is based on a new dynamic shortest path algorithm for planar graphs which may be of independent int...
Internal compliance investigations can reduce government sanctions.
Mustokoff, M M; Yecies, M S
1997-10-01
An effective corporate compliance program is facilitated by three essential elements: a well-qualified compliance officer; a policy of immediate investigation of every report of potential fraud and abuse; and clearly defined roles for both corporate and outside counsel in conducting the investigations. A government agency is less likely to exercise the full extent of its powers when these elements are in place and three is evidence of a sincere compliance effort.
Active Compliance And Damping In Telemanipulator Control
Kim, Won S.; Bejczy, Antal K.; Hannaford, Blake
1991-01-01
Experimental telemanipulator system of force-reflecting-hand-controller type provides for active compliance and damping in remote, robotic manipulator hand. Distributed-computing and -control system for research in various combinations of force-reflecting and active-compliance control regimes. Shared compliance control implemented by low-pass-filtered force/torque feedback. Variable simulated springs and shock absorbers soften collisions and increase dexterity.
Monitoring managers through corporate compliance programs
Angelucci, C.; Han, M.A.
2010-01-01
Compliance programs entail monitoring of employees' behavior with the claimed objective of fighting corporate crime. (Competition) Authorities promote such intra-firm monitoring. In a three-tier hierarchy model, authority-shareholder-manager, we study the impact of monitoring through a compliance program on contracting within the firm and the authority's optimal sanctions and leniency policy. We find that compliance programs are beneficial in the fight against corporate crime if and only if t...
Federal government expands compliance initiatives.
Dugan, J K
1997-09-01
In 1995, the Federal government initiated Operation Restore Trust to increase enforcement of fraud and abuse regulations in Medicare and Medicaid programs. With the success of the original initiative, the government is expanding the project to additional states and program areas. The initial scrutiny of home health agencies, nursing homes, hospice care, and durable medical equipment is being expanded to managed care plans and acute care hospitals with an eye toward DRG creep. To manage this increased enforcement activity, healthcare organizations should institute comprehensive corporate compliance programs. Such programs should provide a framework that delineates responsibilities and provides a systematic means to resolve issues in a timely manner.
Frequency and predictors of non-compliance to dietary recommendations among hypertensive patients.
Khan, Muhammad Shahzeb; Bawany, Faizan Imran; Mirza, Arslan; Hussain, Mehwish; Khan, Asadullah; Lashari, Muhammad Nawaz
2014-08-01
Compliance to dietary recommendations among hypertensive people is a major health care issue. Non-compliance can nullify the effects of even the most scientific and optimum treatment plan. The main aim of this study was to determine the frequency and predictors of non-adherence in our region. We also investigated the possible factors based on patient opinions that could increase compliance. A sample of 400 adult patients, diagnosed with hypertension for at least 3 years, who visited Civil Hospital during the time period April-June 2013 were included in this cross sectional study. Patient data and opinions were collected by two trained interviewers using a pre-coded questionnaire. Compliance was assessed based on patients self report. More than three quarters (n = 310, 77.5%) of the hypertensive patients were non-compliant. More than one social gathering in a week, peer-influence, no friends to follow the recommended diet plan and lack of believe regarding diet as an effective measure to control blood pressure were found to be the significant predictors of non-compliance (P values compliance to dietary recommendations is a major problem prevalent especially in Pakistan. There is an urgent need for doctors and nurses to counsel their patients effectively to prevent future morbidities and mortalities because of non-compliance.
Ugwu, E O; Olibe, A O; Obi, S N; Ugwu, A O
2014-01-01
Anemia in pregnancy is highly prevalent among antenatal clinic attendees in Enugu, Nigeria despite the practice of routine iron supplementation in pregnancy. The major problem with iron supplementation in pregnancy is compliance, and this may be a potential driver to the persistent high prevalence of anemia in this population. To find out the compliance rate and determinants of compliance to iron supplementation among pregnant women in Enugu, southeastern Nigeria. This was a questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of eligible pregnant women receiving antenatal care at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH), Ituku/Ozalla, Enugu, Nigeria between April 1, 2012 and January 31, 2013. The knowledge of iron supplementation was 76.3% ( n = 302), however, the compliance rate was 65.9% ( n = 261). Tertiary level of education and high social class were factors significantly associated with compliance to iron supplementation after adjusting for other factors in the binary logistic regression analysis ( P compliance to iron supplementation included gastrointestinal side effects of iron supplements (41.7%), non-affordability of iron supplements (28.3%), and forgetfulness (15.0%) among the antenatal mothers. The compliance rate of 65.9% for iron supplementation by pregnant mothers in Enugu can further be improved by providing the drug free of charge in the short term and improvement in education and socioeconomic class of the populace in the long run.
Operating pumps on minimum flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casada, D.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Li, Y.C. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)
1992-06-01
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff issued Information Notice (IN) 87-59 to alert all licensees to two miniflow design concerns identified by Westinghouse. The first potential problem discussed in this IN involves parallel pump operation. If the head/capacity curve of one of the parallel pumps is greater than the other, the weaker pump may be dead-headed when the pumps are operating at low-flow conditions. The other problem related to potential pump damage as a result of hydraulic instability during low-flow operation. In NRC Bulletin 88-04, dated May 5, 1988, the staff requested all licensees to investigate and correct, as applicable, the two miniflow design concerns. The staff also developed a Temporary Instruction, Tl 2515/105, dated January 29, 1990 to inspect for the adequacy of licensee response and follow-up actions to NRC Bulletin 88-04. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has reviewed utility responses to Bulletin 88-04 under auspices of the NRC`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program, and participated in several NRC inspections. Examples of actions that have been taken, an assessment of the overall industry response, and resultant conclusions and recommendations are presented.
Operating pumps on minimum flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casada, D.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Li, Y.C. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States))
1992-01-01
The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff issued Information Notice (IN) 87-59 to alert all licensees to two miniflow design concerns identified by Westinghouse. The first potential problem discussed in this IN involves parallel pump operation. If the head/capacity curve of one of the parallel pumps is greater than the other, the weaker pump may be dead-headed when the pumps are operating at low-flow conditions. The other problem related to potential pump damage as a result of hydraulic instability during low-flow operation. In NRC Bulletin 88-04, dated May 5, 1988, the staff requested all licensees to investigate and correct, as applicable, the two miniflow design concerns. The staff also developed a Temporary Instruction, Tl 2515/105, dated January 29, 1990 to inspect for the adequacy of licensee response and follow-up actions to NRC Bulletin 88-04. Oak Ridge National Laboratory has reviewed utility responses to Bulletin 88-04 under auspices of the NRC's Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program, and participated in several NRC inspections. Examples of actions that have been taken, an assessment of the overall industry response, and resultant conclusions and recommendations are presented.
Strategies for Addressing Spreadsheet Compliance Challenges
Weber, Brandon
2006-01-01
Most organizations today use spreadsheets in some form or another to support critical business processes. However the financial resources, and developmental rigor dedicated to them are often minor in comparison to other enterprise technology. The increasing focus on achieving regulatory and other forms of compliance over key technology assets has made it clear that organizations must regard spreadsheets as an enterprise resource and account for them when developing an overall compliance strategy. This paper provides the reader with a set of practical strategies for addressing spreadsheet compliance from an organizational perspective. It then presents capabilities offered in the 2007 Microsoft Office System which can be used to help customers address compliance challenges.
EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Environmental Protection Agency's Enforcement and Compliance History Online (ECHO) website provides customizable and downloadable information about environmental...
Compliance with Corporate Governance Principles: Australian Evidence
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Maryam Safari; Soheila Mirshekary; Victoria Wise
2015-01-01
This study investigates the association between the level of compliance of Australian listed companies with Australian corporate governance principles, in aggregate, and the level of discretionary...
40 CFR 160.12 - Statement of compliance or non-compliance.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Statement of compliance or non-compliance. 160.12 Section 160.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... non-compliance. Any person who submits to EPA an application for a research or marketing permit...
Kakietek, Jakub; Dunn, Lillian; O'Dell, Sarah Abood; Jernigan, Jan; Kettel Khan, Laura
2014-10-16
In 2006, the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) passed regulations for child care centers that established standards for beverages provided to children and set a minimum amount of time for daily physical activity. DOHMH offered several types of training and technical assistance to support compliance with the regulations. This article analyzes the association between training and technical assistance provided and compliance with the regulations in a sample of 174 group child care centers. Compliance was measured by using a site inventory of beverages stored on premises and a survey of centers' teachers regarding the amount of physical activity provided. Training and technical assistance measures were based on the DOHMH records of training and technical assistance provided to the centers in the sample and on a survey of center directors. Ordinal logistic regression was used to assess the association between training and technical assistance measures and compliance with the regulations. Measures of training related to physical activity the center received: the number of staff members who participated in Sport, Play and Active Recreation for Kids (SPARK) and other training programs in which a center participated were associated with better compliance with the physical activity regulations. Neither training nor technical assistance were associated with compliance with the regulations related to beverages. Increased compliance with regulations pertaining to physical activity was not related to compliance with beverage regulations. Future trainings should be targeted to the specific regulation requirements to increase compliance.
La-Rotta, Ehidee Isabel Gómez; Garcia, Clerison Stelvio; Barbosa, Felipe; dos Santos, Amanda Ferreira; Vieira, Gabriela Mazzarolo Marcondes; Carneiro, Mariângela
2013-09-01
Brazil is the first country in the world to have broad coverage standard (NR-32) focused on protecting health workers exposed to biological risks. This study evaluated the degree of knowledge of the NR-32 Standard and the level of knowledge and compliance with the standard precautions. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 208 randomly selected health professionals; 93 of them were residents and 115 were physicians at a Brazilian Clinical Hospital. To collect information, the participants were interviewed and/or they completed semi-structured questionnaires divided into three domains: knowledge of the standard, knowledge of biosafety, and compliance with standard precautions. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess internal consistency of the scales of knowledge and compliance with values above +0.75 indicating excellent agreement. Multivariate linear regression was used to evaluate the predictors for compliance with NR-32, biosafety, and standard precautions. Mean knowledge of the NR-32 Standard was 2.2 (± 2.02) points (minimum 0 and maximum 7 points). The minimum expected mean was 5.25 points. The mean knowledge of biosafety was 12.31 (± 2.10) points (minimum 4 and maximum 16 points). The minimum expected mean was 12.75 points. The mean compliance with standard precautions was 12.79 (± 2.6) points (minimum 6 and maximum 18 points). The minimum expected mean was 13.5 points. The individual means for using gloves, masks and goggles during procedures and for not recapping needles were 2.69, 2.27, 1.20 and 2.14, respectively. The factors associated with knowledge of the NR-32 were: greater knowledge amongst those who studied at a public university and who had knowledge of biosafety. The knowledge of the NR-32 Standard was low, but there was a good level of knowledge of biosafety issues. The compliance with standard precautions was acceptable in general, but was low for some of the evaluated precautions.
Stochastic variational approach to minimum uncertainty states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Illuminati, F.; Viola, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Padova Univ. (Italy)
1995-05-21
We introduce a new variational characterization of Gaussian diffusion processes as minimum uncertainty states. We then define a variational method constrained by kinematics of diffusions and Schroedinger dynamics to seek states of local minimum uncertainty for general non-harmonic potentials. (author)
Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run
Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena
2007-01-01
Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…
New Minimum Wage Research: A Symposium.
Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; And Others
1992-01-01
Includes "Introduction" (Ehrenberg); "Effect of the Minimum Wage [MW] on the Fast-Food Industry" (Katz, Krueger); "Using Regional Variation in Wages to Measure Effects of the Federal MW" (Card); "Do MWs Reduce Employment?" (Card); "Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages" (Neumark,…
5 CFR 630.206 - Minimum charge.
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum charge. 630.206 Section 630.206 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Definitions and General Provisions for Annual and Sick Leave § 630.206 Minimum charge. (a) Unless an agency...
Stochastic variational approach to minimum uncertainty states
Illuminati, F; Illuminati, F; Viola, L
1995-01-01
We introduce a new variational characterization of Gaussian diffusion processes as minimum uncertainty states. We then define a variational method constrained by kinematics of diffusions and Schr\\"{o}dinger dynamics to seek states of local minimum uncertainty for general non-harmonic potentials.
Monotonic Stable Solutions for Minimum Coloring Games
Hamers, H.J.M.; Miquel, S.; Norde, H.W.
2011-01-01
For the class of minimum coloring games (introduced by Deng et al. (1999)) we investigate the existence of population monotonic allocation schemes (introduced by Sprumont (1990)). We show that a minimum coloring game on a graph G has a population monotonic allocation scheme if and only if G is (P4,
Ronchieri, Elisabetta; Diez-andino Sancho, Guillermo; DI Meglio, Alberto; Marzolla, Moreno
2008-01-01
Grid software projects require infrastructures in order to evaluate interoperability with other projects and compliance with predefined standards. Interoperability and compliance are quality attributes that are expected from all distributed projects. ETICS is designed to automate the investigation of this kind of problems. It integrates well-established procedures, tools and resources in a coherent framework and adaptes them to the special needs of these projects. Interoperability and compliance to standards are important quality attributes of software developed for Grid environments where many different parts of an interconnected system have to interact. Compliance to standard is one of the major factors in making sure that interoperating parts of a distributed system can actually interconnect and exchange information. Taking the case of the Grid environment (Foster and Kesselman, 2003), most of the projects that are developing software have not reached the maturity level of other communities yet and have di...
Ducharme, Joseph M; Sanjuan, Elena; Drain, Tammy
2007-05-01
Errorless compliance training is a noncoercive, success-focused approach to treatment of problem behavior in children. The intervention involves graduated exposure of a child to increasingly more challenging requests at a slow enough rate to ensure that noncompliance rarely occurs, providing parents with many opportunities to reinforce cooperative responses and rendering punishment unnecessary. The authors evaluated this approach with three boys with characteristics of Asperger syndrome. Mothers first delivered a range of requests to their children and recorded child responses. For each child, the authors calculated compliance probability for all requests and categorized them into four probability levels, from those yielding high compliance (Level 1) to those that commonly led to opposition (Level 4). Treatment began with delivery of Level 1 requests. Requests from Levels 2 through 4 were faded in sequentially over several weeks. All three children demonstrated substantial generalized improvement in compliance.
Explaining G20 and BRICS Compliance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marina Larionova
2016-11-01
Full Text Available This article explores the internal and external factors influencing the compliance performance of the Group of 20 (G20 and the BRICS. The authors start with an overview of the G20 and BRICS compliance patterns using comparative data onthe number of commitments made by the two institutions, the level of institutional compliance, and distribution of commitments and compliance across issue areas. G20 compliance is traced since the leaders’ first 2008 summit in Washington. The BRICS compliance performance record includes data since the third stand alone summit in Sanya in 2011.The study then takes stock of compliance catalysts embedded in the summits’ discourse: priority placements, numerical targets, timelines, self-accountability pledges and mandates to implement and/or monitor implementation. The authors review trends in the use of catalysts in different years and issue areas and identify commonalities and differences.The analysis then turns to external causes of compliance and focuses on demand for collective actions and members’ collective power to respond and deliver on their pledges. Here the study explores whether the self-accountability mechanisms created by the institutions in response to the demand for effectiveness and legitimacy facilitate compliance.The article concludes by highlighting catalysts, causes of compliance and their combinations with the greatest power to encourage implementation, explaining trends in G20 and BRICS compliance performance. The data sets on G20 and BRICS differ in terms of scale. The G20 data set contains 1,511 commitments of which 114 have been monitored, and the BRICS data set contains 231 commitments of which 23 have been monitored.
Prediction of compliance with MRI procedures among children of ages 3 years to 12 years
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cahoon, Glenn D. [The Royal Children' s Hospital Melbourne, Medical Imaging Department, Parkville (Australia); Davison, Tanya E. [Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)
2014-10-15
A number of children are unable to comply with an MRI procedure and require general anesthetic. However, we lack information about which factors are associated with MRI compliance in young children. To determine the strongest predictors of MRI compliance, focusing on variables that can be easily rated by patients' parents. A sample of 205 children ages 3-11 years (mean age 6.6 years) who were at risk of non-compliance were recruited from a children's hospital. Their parents completed a behavior assessment scale for children as well as a questionnaire that assessed their expectations of compliance and perception of their child's typical medical compliance. The children subsequently completed a mock MRI with an educational play therapist and a clinical MRI, with the quality of the scan scored by the MRI technologist. Overall, 88.3% of children complied with the clinical scan and achieved diagnostic images, with age unrelated to compliance in this well-prepared patient group. The strongest predictors of MRI compliance were parental expectations and ratings of how well the child typically copes with medical procedures. Non-compliance was related to child attention problems and to poor adaptability among children. A total of 64 preschool-age children (91.4%) and 110 school-age children (95.7%) were correctly classified as compliant or non-compliant based on these predictor variables. A child's temperament, medical experiences and parental expectations provide important information in predicting which children successfully comply with an MRI procedure and which require general anesthesia. Further study is needed to explore the utility of these variables in predicting compliance at sites that do not have access to an MRI simulator. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Angélica Tavares de Medeiros
2013-10-01
Full Text Available This essay aims to debate the minimum clock hours of instruction necessary for obtaining a bachelor's degree in nutrition considering the challenges to educate health professionals. Official documents on the minimum clock hours of instruction required by undergraduate nutrition programs were analyzed to investigate compliance with the curriculum guidelines for the area, the law that regulates the profession of dietitian, and the necessary education for the Sistema Único de Saúde (Unified Health Care System. Compared with other health programs, nutrition presented the smallest increase in the minimum clock hours of instruction required for the degree. The changes that occurred in the epidemiological, demographic, and nutritional profile of the population and scientific advances require specific nutrition actions. Since Sistema Único de Saúde focuses on comprehensiveness in the three levels of care, on humanization, and on health care, the theoretical and methodological concepts given in undergraduate programs need to be improved for the dietitians education to meet the Sistema Único de Saúde needs. Incorporation of the knowledge needed for working with food and nutritional phenomena, including its social and cultural dimensions, management of public policies, quantity cooking, and food and nutritional surveillance requires a higher minimum clock hours of instruction. In conclusion, dietitians need a minimum clock hours of instruction of 4,000 to acquire a proper education, integrate into the university life, and coordinate interdisciplinary experiences of the triad teaching/research/extension.
Impact of cigarette minimum price laws on the retail price of cigarettes in the USA.
Tynan, Michael A; Ribisl, Kurt M; Loomis, Brett R
2013-05-01
Cigarette price increases prevent youth initiation, reduce cigarette consumption and increase the number of smokers who quit. Cigarette minimum price laws (MPLs), which typically require cigarette wholesalers and retailers to charge a minimum percentage mark-up for cigarette sales, have been identified as an intervention that can potentially increase cigarette prices. 24 states and the District of Columbia have cigarette MPLs. Using data extracted from SCANTRACK retail scanner data from the Nielsen company, average cigarette prices were calculated for designated market areas in states with and without MPLs in three retail channels: grocery stores, drug stores and convenience stores. Regression models were estimated using the average cigarette pack price in each designated market area and calendar quarter in 2009 as the outcome variable. The average difference in cigarette pack prices are 46 cents in the grocery channel, 29 cents in the drug channel and 13 cents in the convenience channel, with prices being lower in states with MPLs for all three channels. The findings that MPLs do not raise cigarette prices could be the result of a lack of compliance and enforcement by the state or could be attributed to the minimum state mark-up being lower than the free-market mark-up for cigarettes. Rather than require a minimum mark-up, which can be nullified by promotional incentives and discounts, states and countries could strengthen MPLs by setting a simple 'floor price' that is the true minimum price for all cigarettes or could prohibit discounts to consumers and retailers.
Motivation for Compliance with Environmental Regulation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Winter, Søren; May, Peter J.
2001-01-01
A combination of calculated, normative, and social motivations as well as awareness of rules and capacity to comply are thought to foster compliance with regulations. Hypotheses about these factors were tested with data concerning Danish farmers’ compliance with agro-environmental regulations...
Determinants of Compliance among Pediatric Amblyopia Patients.
Wolff, Hans; Juhasz, Anne McCreary
Given the recent focus on patient responsibility for health status and improvement, it is important to understand the dynamics involved in patient compliance to treatment regimens. The determinants of patching compliance among 30 pediatric amblyopia patients and their parents were investigated by means of parent, patient, and physician…
2010-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance. 3.3 Section 3.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE General § 3.3 Compliance. A person must comply with the regulations...
40 CFR 52.1335 - Compliance schedules.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance schedules. 52.1335 Section 52.1335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Effective date Final compliance date Pilot Knob Pelleting Co Pilot Knob, MO V(10 CSR 10-3.050) Oct. 19,...
47 CFR 2.1077 - Compliance information.
2010-10-01
... RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Declaration of Conformity § 2.1077 Compliance information. (a) If a product must be tested and authorized under a Declaration of Conformity, a compliance... the following information: (1) Identification of the product, e.g., name and model number; (2) A...
Implementing compliance controls in public administration
Boer, A.; van Engers, T.
2011-01-01
This paper presents a monitoring and diagnosis component of a knowledge cquisition, design, and simulation framework for implementation of compliance in public administration. A major purpose of the framework is to give a methodological justification for the exploration of compliance control policie
Monitoring managers through corporate compliance programs
Angelucci, C.; Han, M.A.
2011-01-01
Compliance programs entail monitoring of employees' behavior with the claimed objective of fighting corporate crime. (Competition) Authorities promote such intra-firm monitoring. In a three-tier hierarchy model, authority-shareholder-manager, we study the impact of monitoring through a compliance pr
40 CFR 63.403 - Compliance dates.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 63.403 Section 63.403 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL... Hazardous Air Pollutants for Industrial Process Cooling Towers § 63.403 Compliance dates. The...
Tax Compliance over the Firm Life Course
Stam, F.C.; Verbeeten, F.H.M.
2017-01-01
This article provides a new model of tax compliance over the firm life course, focusing on the dynamics in the underlying motivations and capacities for tax compliance. We review and structure the relevant literature on the early life course of firms: the traditional stages of growth models and a le
Correlates of exercise compliance in physical therapy.
Sluijs, E.M.; Kok, G.J.; Zee, J. van der
1993-01-01
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This correlational study describes factors that are related to patient compliance with exercise regimens during physical therapy. We investigated whether patient compliance was related to characteristics of the patient or the patient's illness, to the patient's attitude, or t
45 CFR 80.6 - Compliance information.
2010-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance information. 80.6 Section 80.6 Public... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 80.6 Compliance information. (a) Cooperation and assistance. The... reports at such times, and in such form and containing such information, as the responsible...
22 CFR 141.5 - Compliance information.
2010-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Compliance information. 141.5 Section 141.5... DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.5 Compliance information... such information, as a responsible Departmental official or his designee may determine to be...
33 CFR 104.120 - Compliance documentation.
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance documentation. 104.120... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS General § 104.120 Compliance documentation. (a) Each vessel owner or... maintain the documentation described in paragraphs (a)(1), (2), or (3) of this section. The letter...
33 CFR 105.120 - Compliance documentation.
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance documentation. 105.120... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES General § 105.120 Compliance documentation. Each facility owner or... documentation are available at the facility and are made available to the Coast Guard upon request: (a)...
Maternal Responsiveness and Subsequent Child Compliance.
Parpal, Mary; Maccoby, Eleanor E.
1985-01-01
Contrasts effects of three modes of mother/child interaction on children's subsequent compliance with maternal directives. Subjects were 39 children from lower-middle-class families, ranging in age from approximately three to four-and-a-half. Responsive play and noninteractive conditions produced higher levels of compliance than the untrained free…
30 CFR 90.207 - Compliance sampling.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance sampling. 90.207 Section 90.207... MANDATORY HEALTH STANDARDS-COAL MINERS WHO HAVE EVIDENCE OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS Sampling Procedures § 90.207 Compliance sampling. (a) The operator shall take five valid respirable dust samples...
Environmental Compliance Audit& Assessment Program Manual
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thorson, Patrick; Baskin, David; Borglin, Ned; Fox, Robert; Wahl, Linnea; Hatayama, Howard; Pauer, Ronald
2009-03-13
This document describes the elements, schedule, roles, and responsibilities of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) Environmental Compliance Audit & Assessment Program (ECAAP). The ECAAP has been developed to meet the requirements of DOE Order 450.1A,1 and Executive Order 13423.2 These referenced Orders stipulate that government agencies must develop environmental compliance audit programs to monitor and improve compliance with environmental regulations. As stated specifically in the DOE Order, as a part of a DOE facility's Environmental Management System (EMS), 'An environmental compliance audit and review program that identifies compliance deficiencies and root causes of non-compliance' shall be developed and implemented. The ECAAP has also been developed to satisfy LBNL's institutional technical assurance assessment requirements promulgated in the Environment, Safety and Health (ES&H) Self-Assessment Program (LBNL/PUB-5344) and described by the ES&H Technical Assurance Program (TAP) Manual (LBNL/PUB-913E). The ES&H TAP Manual provides the framework for systematic reviews of ES&H programs with the intent to provide assurance that these programs comply with their guiding regulations, are effective, and are properly implemented. As required by the DOE and Executive Orders and by LBNL's TAP, the goal of the ECAAP is to identify environmental regulatory compliance deficiencies and to determine their respective causes. The ECAAP then provides a means of correcting any deficiencies identified, and leads to continually improving environmental compliance performance.
5 CFR 900.406 - Compliance information.
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Compliance information. 900.406 Section... Compliance information. (a) Cooperation and assistance. OPM, to the fullest extent practicable, shall seek... at the times, and in the form and containing the information OPM may determine necessary to enable...
[Predictors for compliance in orthodontic treatment].
Müssig, E; Berger, M; Komposch, G; Brunner, M
2008-03-01
Having established the importance of compliance as a significant factor of a successful orthodontic treatment, the aim of the present study was to evaluate intrapersonal and interpersonal factors which could help predict patient compliance. The attributional style of 58 patients was assessed by a standardised questionnaire. An individual questionnaire was designed to determine attitudes concerning orthodontic treatment, the doctor-patient relationship, the wearing behaviour and control behaviour. The questionnaire was answered by the patient and by the orthodontist. The compliance was evaluated by the orthodontist on the basis of commonly used indicators for compliance: wearing time, oral hygiene and reliability of keeping the appointments. The results showed a significant correlation between the compliance and the attributional style of the patients in positive situations, but not between the compliance and the wearing behaviour estimated by the patient. The interpersonal comparison revealed a lack of knowledge on the part of the orthodontist about the patients' daily activities and their ability to correctly wear their appliances. The questionnaire answers show compliance to be a subjective construct of the orthodontist demonstrating mostly social-emotional matters. There is no consistency with compliance and the patients' statement concerning their wearing behaviour but with a positive attitude on the part of the patients demonstrating independent responsibility.
33 CFR 106.110 - Compliance dates.
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 106.110 Section... MARINE SECURITY: OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF (OCS) FACILITIES General § 106.110 Compliance dates. (a) On or... TWIC under this part may enroll beginning after the date set by the Coast Guard in a Notice to...
49 CFR 214.305 - Compliance dates.
2010-10-01
... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance dates. 214.305 Section 214.305..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD WORKPLACE SAFETY Roadway Worker Protection § 214.305 Compliance dates. Each program adopted by a railroad shall comply not later than the date specified in the...
40 CFR 63.1545 - Compliance dates.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compliance dates. 63.1545 Section 63.1545 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Primary Lead Smelting § 63.1545 Compliance dates. (a) Each owner...
33 CFR 105.115 - Compliance dates.
2010-07-01
... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance dates. 105.115 Section... MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES General § 105.115 Compliance dates. (a) On or before December 31, 2003... required to obtain a TWIC under this part may enroll beginning after the date set by the Coast Guard in...
Chemical quality and regulatory compliance of drinking water in Iceland.
Gunnarsdottir, Maria J; Gardarsson, Sigurdur M; Jonsson, Gunnar St; Bartram, Jamie
2016-11-01
Assuring sufficient quality of drinking water is of great importance for public wellbeing and prosperity. Nations have developed regulatory system with the aim of providing drinking water of sufficient quality and to minimize the risk of contamination of the water supply in the first place. In this study the chemical quality of Icelandic drinking water was evaluated by systematically analyzing results from audit monitoring where 53 parameters were assessed for 345 samples from 79 aquifers, serving 74 water supply systems. Compliance to the Icelandic Drinking Water Regulation (IDWR) was evaluated with regard to parametric values, minimum requirement of sampling, and limit of detection. Water quality compliance was divided according to health-related chemicals and indicators, and analyzed according to size. Samples from few individual locations were benchmarked against natural background levels (NBLs) in order to identify potential pollution sources. The results show that drinking compliance was 99.97% in health-related chemicals and 99.44% in indicator parameters indicating that Icelandic groundwater abstracted for drinking water supply is generally of high quality with no expected health risks. In 10 water supply systems, of the 74 tested, there was an indication of anthropogenic chemical pollution, either at the source or in the network, and in another 6 water supplies there was a need to improve the water intake to prevent surface water intrusion. Benchmarking against the NBLs proved to be useful in tracing potential pollution sources, providing a useful tool for identifying pollution at an early stage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Culture and compliance: an anthropologist’s view
Sampson, Steven
2014-01-01
The concept of "culture" is often used improperly in the literature and training on business ethics and compliance. A more sophisticated view of 'culture of compliance' is required. Published in a magazine for ethics and compliance professionals
41 CFR 60-2.30 - Corporate management compliance evaluations.
2010-07-01
... Relating to Public Contracts OFFICE OF FEDERAL CONTRACT COMPLIANCE PROGRAMS, EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 2-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION PROGRAMS Miscellaneous § 60-2.30 Corporate management compliance evaluations. (a) Purpose. Corporate Management Compliance Evaluations are designed to ascertain...
EPA Enforcement and Compliance History Online: Water Effluent Charts Summaries
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Summary of compliance status each outfall and parameter for one Clean Water Act discharge permit. Provides the current compliance status and overall compliance...
International Criminal Justice and the Politics of Compliance
Lamont, Christopher
2010-01-01
International Criminal Justice and the Politics of Compliance provides a comprehensive study of compliance with legal obligations derived from the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia's (ICTY) Statute and integrates theoretical debates on compliance into international justice sc
Programmer`s manual for CAMCON: Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rechard, R.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gilkey, A.P.; Rudeen, D.K.; Byle, K.A. [New Mexico Engineering Research Inst., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Iuzzolino, H.J. [Geo-Centers, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1993-05-01
CAMCON, the Compliance Assessment Methodology CONtroller, is an analysis system that assists in assessing the compliance of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) with applicable long-term regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency, including Subpart B of the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes, 40 CFR 191 and 40CFR268.6, which is the portion of the Land Disposal Restrictions implementing the Resource, Conservative, and Recovery Act of 1976, as amended that states the conditions for disposal of hazardous chemical wastes. This manual provides an architectural overview of the CAMCON system. Furthermore this manual presents guidelines and presents suggestions for programmers developing the many different types of software necessary to investigate various events and physical processes of the WIPP. These guidelines include user interface requirements, minimum quality assurance requirements, coding style suggestions, and the use of numerous software libraries developed specifically for or adapted for the CAMCON system.
Environmental Compliance and Protection Program Description Oak Ridge, Tennessee
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bechtel Jacobs
2009-02-26
The objective of the Environmental Compliance and Protection (EC and P) Program Description (PD) is to establish minimum environmental compliance requirements and natural resources protection goals for the Bechtel Jacobs Company LLC (BJC) Oak Ridge Environmental Management Cleanup Contract (EMCC) Contract Number DE-AC05-98OR22700-M198. This PD establishes the work practices necessary to ensure protection of the environment during the performance of EMCC work activities on the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, by BJC employees and subcontractor personnel. Both BJC and subcontractor personnel are required to implement this PD. A majority of the decontamination and demolition (D and D) activities and media (e.g., soil and groundwater) remediation response actions at DOE sites on the ORR are conducted under the authority of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). CERCLA activities are governed by individual CERCLA decision documents (e.g., Record of Decision [ROD] or Action Memorandum) and according to requirements stated in the Federal Facility Agreement for the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE 1992). Applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for the selected remedy are the requirements for environmental remediation responses (e.g., removal actions and remedial actions) conducted under CERCLA.
A Review of Factors for Tax Compliance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicoleta BARBUTA-MISU
2011-03-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify the variables of tax compliance analysed by researchers from various countries and adapting them to the Romanian conditions to create a model to include factors that influence decision of tax compliance. Tax compliance has been studied in economics by analysing the individual decision of a representative person between paying taxes and evading taxes. In the research of tax compliance have been done many empirical studies that emphasized the impact of a wide variety of potential determinants of voluntary compliance with individual income/profit tax filing and reporting obligations. The most important determinants identified are: economic factors as the level of income, audit probabilities, tax audit, tax rate, tax benefits, penalties, fines and other non-economic factors as attitudes toward taxes, personal, social and national norms, perceived fairness etc.
The minimum work requirement for distillation processes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yunus, Cerci; Yunus, A. Cengel; Byard, Wood [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering
2000-07-01
A typical ideal distillation process is proposed and analyzed using the first and second-laws of thermodynamics with particular attention to the minimum work requirement for individual processes. The distillation process consists of an evaporator, a condenser, a heat exchanger, and a number of heaters and coolers. Several Carnot engines are also employed to perform heat interactions of the distillation process with the surroundings and determine the minimum work requirement for processes. The Carnot engines give the maximum possible work output or the minimum work input associated with the processes, and therefore the net result of these inputs and outputs leads to the minimum work requirement for the entire distillation process. It is shown that the minimum work relation for the distillation process is the same as the minimum work input relation found by Cerci et al [1] for an incomplete separation of incoming saline water, and depends only on the properties of the incoming saline water and the outgoing pure water and brine. Also, certain aspects of the minimum work relation found are discussed briefly. (authors)
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF MINIMUM IGNITION TEMPERATURE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Igor WACHTER
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of this scientific paper is an analysis of the minimum ignition temperature of dust layer and the minimum ignition temperatures of dust clouds. It could be used to identify the threats in industrial production and civil engineering, on which a layer of combustible dust could occure. Research was performed on spent coffee grounds. Tests were performed according to EN 50281-2-1:2002 Methods for determining the minimum ignition temperatures of dust (Method A. Objective of method A is to determine the minimum temperature at which ignition or decomposition of dust occurs during thermal straining on a hot plate at a constant temperature. The highest minimum smouldering and carbonating temperature of spent coffee grounds for 5 mm high layer was determined at the interval from 280 °C to 310 °C during 600 seconds. Method B is used to determine the minimum ignition temperature of a dust cloud. Minimum ignition temperature of studied dust was determined to 470 °C (air pressure – 50 kPa, sample weight 0.3 g.
Design and Control of Nonlinear Mechanical Systems for Minimum Time
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.B. Cardoso
2008-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated methodology for optimal design and control of nonlinear flexible mechanical systems, including minimum time problems. This formulation is implemented in an optimum design code and it is applied to the nonlinear behavior dynamic response. Damping and stiffness characteristics plus control driven forces are considered as decision variables. A conceptual separation between time variant and time invariant design parameters is presented, this way including the design space into the control space and considering the design variables as control variables not depending on time. By using time integrals through all the derivations, design and control problems are unified. In the optimization process we can use both types of variables simultaneously or by interdependent levels. For treating minimum time problems, a unit time interval is mapped onto the original time interval, then treating equally time variant and time invariant problems. The dynamic response and its sensitivity are discretized via space-time finite elements, and may be integrated either by at-once integration or step-by-step. Adjoint system approach is used to calculate the sensitivities.
Metabolic syndrome patient compliance with drug treatment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nilcéia Lopes
2008-01-01
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: 1 To evaluate the compliance with drug treatment in patients with metabolic syndrome. 2 To determine association between access to and use of medicines, as well as the level of knowledge of cardiovascular risk factors and compliance. INTRODUCTION: Low compliance has been one of the greatest challenges for the successful treatment of chronic diseases. Although this issue has been widely studied in patients with isolated hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia, compliance studies involving patients with these concomitant diseases or with metabolic syndrome diagnosis are scarce. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study involving patients who have been diagnosed with metabolic syndrome according to the IDF criteria. Patients were being treated in a Health-Medical School Center bound to the Public Brazilian Healthcare System. This study was conducted in two phases. Phase I was characterized by analyzing medical records and Phase II involved interviewing the patients. A variation of the Morisky-Green Test was used to evaluate compliance. Compliance was the dependent variable and the independent variables included access to medicines, the use of medicines and the level of knowledge concerning cardiovascular risk factors. RESULTS: Two hundred and forty-three patients were identified as being eligible for Phase II, and 75 were included in the study. The average level of compliance was 5.44 points (standard deviation of 0.68, on a scale ranging from 1.00 to 6.00 points. There was no statistically meaningful association between independent variables and compliance. The level of patient knowledge of diet and dyslipidemia was considered to be low. CONCLUSIONS: Patients involved in this study exhibited a high level of compliance with drug treatment. Further research is needed to better elucidate the compliance behavior of patients who have been diagnosed with metabolic syndrome.
Does the Minimum Wage Cause Inefficient Rationing?
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
何满辉; 梁明秋
2008-01-01
By not allowing wages to dearthe labor market,the minimum wage could cause workers with low reservation wages to be rationed out while equally skilled woTkers with higher reservation wages are employed.I find that proxies for reservation wages of unskilled workers in high-impact stales did not rise relative to reservation wages in other states,suggesting that the increase in the minimum wage did not cause jobs to be allocated less efficiently.However,even if rationing is efficient,the minimum wage can still entail other efficiency costs.
Minimum emittance in TBA and MBA lattices
Xu, Gang; Peng, Yue-Mei
2015-03-01
For reaching a small emittance in a modern light source, triple bend achromats (TBA), theoretical minimum emittance (TME) and even multiple bend achromats (MBA) have been considered. This paper derived the necessary condition for achieving minimum emittance in TBA and MBA theoretically, where the bending angle of inner dipoles has a factor of 31/3 bigger than that of the outer dipoles. Here, we also calculated the conditions attaining the minimum emittance of TBA related to phase advance in some special cases with a pure mathematics method. These results may give some directions on lattice design.
Smoothing-Norm Preconditioning for Regularizing Minimum-Residual Methods
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Per Christian; Jensen, Toke Koldborg
2006-01-01
When GMRES (or a similar minimum-residual algorithm such as RRGMRES, MINRES, or MR-II) is applied to a discrete ill-posed problem with a square matrix, in some cases the iterates can be considered as regularized solutions. We show how to precondition these methods in such a way that the iterations...... take into account a smoothing norm for the solution. This technique is well established for CGLS, but it does not immediately carry over to minimum-residual methods when the smoothing norm is a seminorm or a Sobolev norm. We develop a new technique which works for any smoothing norm of the form $\\|L......\\,x\\|_2$ and which preserves symmetry if the coefficient matrix is symmetric. We also discuss the efficient implementation of our preconditioning technique, and we demonstrate its performance with numerical examples in one and two dimensions....
Finding the Minimum Ratio Traveling Salesman Tour by Artificial Ants
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
马良; 崔雪丽; 姚俭
2003-01-01
Ants of artificial colony are able to generate good solutions to the famous traveling salesman problem (TSP).We propose an artificial ants algorithm for solving the minimum ratio TSP, which is more general than the standard TSP in combinatorial optimization area. In the minimum ratio TSP, another criterion concerning each edge is added, that is,the traveling salesman can have a benefit if he travels from one city to another. The objective is to minimize the ratio between total costs or distances and total benefits. The idea of this type of optimization is in some sense quite similar to that of traditional cost-benefit analysis in management science. Computational results substantiate the solution quality and efficiency of the algorithm.
40 CFR 194.55 - Results of compliance assessments.
2010-07-01
...) Compliance assessments shall consider and document uncertainty in the performance of the disposal system. (b) Probability distributions for uncertain disposal system parameter values used in compliance assessments...
Patient Compliance with Surveillance Following Elective Endovascular Aneurysm Repair
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Godfrey, Anthony D., E-mail: deangodfrey@yahoo.co.uk; Morbi, Abigail H. M., E-mail: a.morbi@soton.ac.uk; Nordon, Ian M., E-mail: ian.nordon@uhs.nhs.uk [University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Unit of Cardiac Vascular and Thoracic Surgery - CV& T, Department of Vascular Surgery (United Kingdom)
2015-10-15
PurposeIntegral to maintaining good outcomes post-endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is a robust surveillance protocol. A significant proportion of patients fail to comply with surveillance, exposing themselves to complications. We examine EVAR surveillance in Wessex (UK), exploring factors that may predict poor compliance.MethodsRetrospective analysis of 179 consecutive elective EVAR cases [2008–2013] was performed. 167 patients were male, with the age range of 50–95. Surveillance was conducted centrally (tertiary referral trauma centre) and at four spoke units. Surveillance compliance and predictors of non-compliance including age, gender, co-morbid status, residential location and socioeconomic status were analysed for univariate significance.ResultsFifty patients (27.9 %) were non-compliant with surveillance; 14 (8.1 %) had no imaging post-EVAR. At 1 year, 56.1 % (of 123 patients) were compliant. At years 2 and 3, 41.5 and 41.2 % (of 65 and 34 patients, respectively) were compliant. Four years post-EVAR, only one of eight attended surveillance (12.5 %). There were no statistically significant differences in age (p = 0.77), co-morbid status or gender (p = 0.64). Distance to central unit (p = 0.67) and surveillance site (p = 0.56) was non-significant. While there was a trend towards compliance in upper-middle-class socioeconomic groups (ABC1 vs. C1C2D), correlating with >50 % of non-compliant patients living within <10 mile radius of the central unit, overall predictive value was not significant (p = 0.82).ConclusionsCompliance with surveillance post-EVAR is poor. No independent predictor of non-compliance has been confirmed, but socioeconomic status appears to be relevant. There is a worrying drop-off in attendance beyond the first year. This study highlights a problem that needs to be addressed urgently, if we are to maintain good outcomes post-EVAR.
Anxiety among adolescents and its affect on orthodontic compliance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trakyali G
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Background: Investigations have suggested that poor compliance could be an indicator of poor relationship with family and could be related to the person′s personality traits. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of parents attitude, the anxiety during treatment and self-confidence/self-care of the patient on cooperation during orthodontic treatment. Materials and Methods: The study material consisted of questionnaires completed by 82 adolescent patients and their parents. The patients were divided into two groups of 42 compliant and 40 non-compliant patients. The above-mentioned questionnaries were State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-STAI, Piers-Harris Children′s Self Concept Scale and The Exercise of Self-Care Agency for the patients and Mc Master Family Assessment Device and Parental Attitude Research Instrument-PARI for the parents. Results: The problem solving and caring attitude of the father and his determinative role in the family had a positive infulence on the compliance of the child. The patients who showed better compliance also had a lower state of anxiety, which could also be explained by the positive effect of the attitude of the father in the family. Conclusion: It would be useful to overcome the increased state of anxiety of the child in the orthodontic clinic by using educational and relaxation techniques. Besides, it would be wise to ask the father to be present at the first appointment during part of the education of the child.
Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...
Quantitative Research on the Minimum Wage
Goldfarb, Robert S.
1975-01-01
The article reviews recent research examining the impact of minimum wage requirements on the size and distribution of teenage employment and earnings. The studies measure income distribution, employment levels and effect on unemployment. (MW)
Impact of the Minimum Wage on Compression.
Wolfe, Michael N.; Candland, Charles W.
1979-01-01
Assesses the impact of increases in the minimum wage on salary schedules, provides guidelines for creating a philosophy to deal with the impact, and outlines options and presents recommendations. (IRT)
Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...
Minimum wages and employment in China
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Fang, Tony; Lin, Carl
2015-01-01
... that minimum wage changes led to significant adverse effects on employment in the Eastern and Central regions of China, and resulted in disemployment for females, young adults, and low-skilled workers...
Minimum Wage Policy and Country's Technical Efficiency
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Mohd Zaini Abd Karim; Sok-Gee Chan; Sallahuddin Hassan
2016-01-01
.... However, some quarters argued against the idea of a nationwide minimum wage asserting that it will lead to an increase in the cost of doing business and thus will hurt Malaysian competitiveness...
Graph theory for FPGA minimum configurations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ruan Aiwu; Li Wenchang; Xiang Chuanyin; Song Jiangmin; Kang Shi; Liao Yongbo
2011-01-01
A traditional bottom-up modeling method for minimum configuration numbers is adopted for the study of FPGA minimum configurations.This method is limited ifa large number of LUTs and multiplexers are presented.Since graph theory has been extensively applied to circuit analysis and test,this paper focuses on the modeling FPGA configurations.In our study,an internal logic block and interconnections of an FPGA are considered as a vertex and an edge connecting two vertices in the graph,respectively.A top-down modeling method is proposed in the paper to achieve minimum configuration numbers for CLB and IOB.Based on the proposed modeling approach and exhaustive analysis,the minimum configuration numbers for CLB and IOB are five and three,respectively.
Minimum Time Path Planning for Robotic Manipulator in Drilling/ Spot Welding Tasks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiang Zhang
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a minimum time path planning strategy is proposed for multi points manufacturing problems in drilling/spot welding tasks. By optimizing the travelling schedule of the set points and the detailed transfer path between points, the minimum time manufacturing task is realized under fully utilizing the dynamic performance of robotic manipulator. According to the start-stop movement in drilling/spot welding task, the path planning problem can be converted into a traveling salesman problem (TSP and a series of point to point minimum time transfer path planning problems. Cubic Hermite interpolation polynomial is used to parameterize the transfer path and then the path parameters are optimized to obtain minimum point to point transfer time. A new TSP with minimum time index is constructed by using point-point transfer time as the TSP parameter. The classical genetic algorithm (GA is applied to obtain the optimal travelling schedule. Several minimum time drilling tasks of a 3-DOF robotic manipulator are used as examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Price pass-through and minimum wages
Daniel Aaronson
1997-01-01
A textbook consequence of competitive markets is that an industry-wide increase in the price of inputs will be passed on to consumers through an increase in prices. This fundamental implication has been explored by researchers interested in who bears the burden of taxation and exchange rate fluctuations. However, little attention has focused on the price implications of minimum wage hikes. From a policy perspective, this is an oversight. Welfare analysis of minimum wage laws should not ignore...
The minimum wage and restaurant prices
Daniel Aaronson; Eric French; MacDonald, James M.
2004-01-01
Using both store-level and aggregated price data from the food away from home component of the Consumer Price Index survey, we show that restaurant prices rise in response to an increase in the minimum wage. These results hold up when using several different sources of variation in the data. We interpret these findings within a model of employment determination. The model implies that minimum wage hikes cause employment to fall and prices to rise if labor markets are competitive but potential...
Minimum Process Coordinated Checkpointing Scheme for Ad Hoc Networks
Tuli, Ruchi
2011-01-01
The wireless mobile ad hoc network (MANET) architecture is one consisting of a set of mobile hosts capable of communicating with each other without the assistance of base stations. This has made possible creating a mobile distributed computing environment and has also brought several new challenges in distributed protocol design. In this paper, we study a very fundamental problem, the fault tolerance problem, in a MANET environment and propose a minimum process coordinated checkpointing scheme. Since potential problems of this new environment are insufficient power and limited storage capacity, the proposed scheme tries to reduce the amount of information saved for recovery. The MANET structure used in our algorithm is hierarchical based. The scheme is based for Cluster Based Routing Protocol (CBRP) which belongs to a class of Hierarchical Reactive routing protocols. The protocol proposed by us is nonblocking coordinated checkpointing algorithm suitable for ad hoc environments. It produces a consistent set of...
On (dynamic) range minimum queries in external memory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arge, L.; Fischer, Johannes; Sanders, Peter
2013-01-01
We study the one-dimensional range minimum query (RMQ) problem in the external memory model. We provide the first space-optimal solution to the batched static version of the problem. On an instance with N elements and Q queries, our solution takes Θ(sort(N + Q)) = Θ( N+QB log M /B N+QB ) I....../O complexity and O(N + Q) space, where M is the size of the main memory and B is the block size. This is a factor of O(log M /B N) improvement in space complexity over the previous solutions. We also show that an instance of the batched dynamic RMQ problem with N updates and Q queries can be solved in O ( N...
On (dynamic) range minimum queries in external memory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arge, L.; Fischer, Johannes; Sanders, Peter
2013-01-01
/O complexity and O(N + Q) space, where M is the size of the main memory and B is the block size. This is a factor of O(log M /B N) improvement in space complexity over the previous solutions. We also show that an instance of the batched dynamic RMQ problem with N updates and Q queries can be solved in O ( N......We study the one-dimensional range minimum query (RMQ) problem in the external memory model. We provide the first space-optimal solution to the batched static version of the problem. On an instance with N elements and Q queries, our solution takes Θ(sort(N + Q)) = Θ( N+QB log M /B N+QB ) I...
GENDER AND ETHNICITY DIFFERENCES IN TAX COMPLIANCE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeyapalan Kasipillai
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate whether gender and ethnicity differences occur in relation to tax compliance attitude and behavior. Prior studies on tax compliance have focused little on gender as a predictor of compliance. In Malaysia, ethnic background of a taxpayer could be a major determinant of tax compliance. A personal interview approach is used to obtain information from taxpayers in urban towns. A t-test suggests that males and females were found to have similar compliant attitude. As for ethnicity, asimilar result was observed. Results of a regression analysis indicate that gender, academic qualification, and the person preparing tax return were statistically significant as determinants of non-compliant attitude. In terms of compliant behavior, a regression analysis revealed that "attitude towards non-compliance" and "receipt of cash income" were two significant explanatory variables of tax non-compliance behavior of understating income knowingly. The findings of this study are useful for policyimplications in identifying groups that require additional attention to increase voluntary tax compliance.
Drug compliance in patients with systemic scleroderma.
Hromadkova, Lucie; Soukup, Tomas; Cermakova, Eva; Vlcek, Jiri
2012-11-01
Although drug compliance is a crucial component of treatment effectiveness in chronic diseases, it has never been evaluated in patients with systemic scleroderma. Therefore, the aim of this descriptive study was to determine the drug compliance rate in systemic scleroderma patients and to identify risk factors for noncompliance in these patients. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted. All patients with systemic scleroderma (n = 41) who visited a rheumatic center and signed an informed consent form were included. Data were obtained during structured interviews with patients and from medical records. The Compliance Questionnaire Rheumatology (CQR) was used to determine patient compliance. The relationships between compliance rate and demographic and clinical characteristics were examined. The mean CQR score was 75 %. Based on a dichotomous rating, only 42 % of the patients achieved a satisfactory compliance rate (≥80 %). No relationships between various demographic and clinical characteristics and CQR score expressed as continuous or dichotomous variables were found. This study represents the first evaluation of drug compliance in patients with systemic scleroderma. Many noncompliant patients were identified, but no common risk factors for noncompliance were discovered. The reasons for noncompliance seem to depend on the personal features of the patients.
[Drug compliance of patients on anticoagulant treatment].
Gadó, Klára; Kocsis, Eszter; Zelkó, Romána; Hankó, Balázs; Kovácsné Balogh, Judit; Forczig, Mónika; Domján, Gyula
2015-08-09
Despite several therapeutic possibilities the morbidity and mortality of thromboembolic disorders remain high. Improving drug compliance - i. e. keeping up the doctor's prescriptions - may be an effective tool to reach better results. To improve patients' compliance, the risk factors of non-compliance should be recognized. Among these patients' fear of adverse effects of drugs, their lack of knowledge about their illness and medication, forgetfulness, and other social, economic factors may be the most important. Furthermore, adherence may be worsened when the patient feels that the decision has been made over his/her head. Sustained medical adherence is important because anticoagulation may be a life-long treatment. The new oral anticoagulants make the matter of compliance to be current. These new type of drugs do not need regular laboratory monitoring and, therefore, compliance cannot be strictly followed. There are several studies concerning drug compliance to anticoagulant medications. Improvement of adherence is based on regular patient education after reviewing the factors of non-compliance, which needs teamwork with important roles of doctors, pharmacists, dietetics and nurses. Careful and accurate work of the participants of primary care might be complemented by the activity of anticoagulant clinics.
Wabe, Nasir; Sorich, Michael J; Wechalekar, Mihir D; Cleland, Leslie G; McWilliams, Leah; Lee, Anita; Spargo, Llewellyn; Metcalf, Robert; Hall, Cindy; Proudman, Susanna M; Wiese, Michael D
2017-05-01
To determine the minimum cut-points for rate of physician compliance with a treat-to-target (T2T) strategy needed to achieve optimal rates of remission or low disease activity (LDA). In this analysis of longitudinal observational data from patients with early RA, physician compliance with a T2T treatment protocol was determined for each clinic visit over 3 years. Remission and LDA were measured by Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28), simplified disease activity index (SDAI) and clinical disease activity index (CDAI). The minimum physician compliance rates for predicting these outcomes were calculated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Overall, 149 patients completed 3078 clinic visits over 3 years of follow-up. Treatment decisions complied with the T2T protocol in 2343 of these visits (76.1%). The minimum cut-points for physician compliance rates that predicted remission and LDA according to DAS28 were 81.1% and 70.7%, respectively, and to predict remission and LDA according to SDAI, the respective cut-points were 92.7% and 77.4%. Based on these cut-points, three categories of physician compliance with T2T were proposed: high (to maximize the likelihood of achieving remission, > 80% according to DAS28 or > 90% according to SDAI/CDAI); medium (the minimal physician compliance to achieve LDA, 70-79% according to DAS28 or 75-89% for SDAI/CDAI); and low (< 70% for DAS28 and < 75% for SDAI/CDAI), where remission and LDA are unlikely). When patients were stratified by baseline disease activity, the physician compliance rate cut-points were similar for most outcomes at year 3. Using real-life clinical data, we determined the thresholds for physician compliance with a T2T strategy that stratified patients according to their disease outcomes and proposed a system for classifying physician compliance as high, medium and low. © 2015 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Integration of Environmental Compliance at the Savannah River Site - 13024
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoel, David [United States Department of Energy - Savannah River Operations Office (United States); Griffith, Michael [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC (United States)
2013-07-01
The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a large federal installation hosting diverse missions and multiple organizations with competing regulatory needs. Accordingly, there was a need to integrate environmental compliance strategies to ensure the consistent flow of information between Department of Energy-Savannah River (DOE-SR), the regulatory agencies and other interested parties. In order to meet this objective, DOE and major SRS contractors and tenants have committed to a strategy of collaboratively working together to ensure that a consistent, integrated, and fully coordinated approach to environmental compliance and regulator relationships is maintained. DOE-SR and Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, LLC, the SRS management and operations contractor, have established an environmental compliance integration process that provides for the consistent flow down of requirements to projects, facilities, SRS contractors, and subcontractors as well as the upward flow of information to assist in the early identification and resolution of environmental regulatory issues and enhancement of compliance opportunities. In addition, this process strongly fosters teamwork to collaboratively resolve complex regulatory challenges, promote pollution prevention and waste minimization opportunities to advance site missions in a manner that balances near-term actions with the long-term site vision, while being protective of human health and the environment. Communication tools are being utilized, some with enhancements, to ensure appropriate information is communicated to all levels with environmental responsibility at SRS. SRS internal regulatory integration is accomplished through a variety of informational exchange forums (e.g., Challenges, Opportunities and Resolution (COR) Team, DOE's Joint Site Regulatory Integration Team, and the Senior Environmental Managers Council (SEMC)). SRS communications and problem-solving with the regulatory agencies have been enhanced through formation
Compliance Notices – A New Tool in Environmental Enforcement
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LA Feris
2006-12-01
Full Text Available This note examines compliance notices, a new administrative remedy that has been created to assist in compliance and enforcement of environmental laws. The note considers the aim and scope of compliance and the process of issuing a compliance notice. In addition, it reflects on objections to compliance notices as well as the effect of non-compliance with compliance notices. It furthermore considers the mandate of Environmental Management Inspectors (EMIs to issue compliance notices, the legislation in terms of which they may issue compliance notices and the ability of EMIs to issue compliance notices beyond the designated legislation. The note also assesses the overall effectiveness of compliance notices and the extent to which it is likely to be utilised by EMIs in the exercise of their mandate.
[Compliance of treatment in glaucoma patients].
Banc, Ana; Stan, Cristina
2013-01-01
To evaluate the treatment compliance level of glaucoma patients and the correlation between the compliance level and a series of patient's demographic characteristics. We conducted an observational study in which we studied 100 glaucoma patients who answered the questions we included into a questionnaire. We defined and calculated a broad compliance score and a narrow score, and we investigated the connection between the first score and age, gender, demographic location (urban versus rural), education level, current occupation and duration of disease respectively. The mean of the broad compliance score was 9.64 +/- 1.72, which represents 80% of the maximum value of the score, and the mean of the narrow compliance score was 4.73 +/- 1.12, (78% of the maximum value). The correlation coefficient between score and age was z = -0.09 (p value = 0.19), the Z value for the evaluation of the connection between score and gender was -1.16 (p value = 0.24), and for the connection between compliance score and demographic location Z value = -2.42 (p value = 0.01). Chi-square value for the evaluation of the relation between the score and education level was 14.66 (p value = 0.001), and for the current occupation Chi-square value = 3.47 (p value = 0.06). The correlation coefficient between score and disease duration was tau = 0.09 (p value = 0.23). According to the answers the patients gave, we identified the parameters that require more attention in the ophthalmologist - glaucoma patient communication: genetic transmission of glaucoma, treatment's side effects, number of visits to the ophthalmologist, awareness of the life-long gradului period of treatment. In this study, the compliance level of glaucoma patients is relatively high and we observe a correlation between the compliance level and demographic location, and between the compliance level and patient's education level respectively.,
Motivation and compliance with intraoral elastics.
Veeroo, Helen J; Cunningham, Susan J; Newton, Jonathon Timothy; Travess, Helen C
2014-07-01
Intraoral elastics are commonly used in orthodontics and require regular changing to be effective. Unfortunately, poor compliance with elastics is often encountered, especially in adolescents. Intention for an action and its implementation can be improved using "if-then" plans that spell out when, where, and how a set goal, such as elastic wear, can be put into action. Our aim was to determine the effect of if-then plans on compliance with elastics. To identify common barriers to compliance with recommendations concerning elastic wear, semistructured interviews were carried out with 14 adolescent orthodontic patients wearing intraoral elastics full time. Emerging themes were used to develop if-then plans to improve compliance with elastic wear. A prospective pilot study assessed the effectiveness of if-then planning aimed at overcoming the identified barriers on compliance with elastic wear. Twelve participants were randomized equally into study and control groups; the study group received information about if-then planning. The participants were asked to collect used elastics, and counts of these were used to assess compliance. A wide range of motivational and volitional factors were described by the interviewed participants, including the perceived benefits of elastics, cues to remember, pain, eating, social situations, sports, loss of elastics, and breakages. Compliance with elastic wear was highly variable among patients. The study group returned more used elastics, suggesting increased compliance, but the difference was not significant. The use of if-then plans might improve compliance with elastic wear when compared with routine clinical instructions. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
The Degree and Cost Adjusted Folk Solution for Minimum Cost Spanning Tree Games
Norde, H.W.
2013-01-01
Abstract: In this paper two cost sharing solutions for minimum cost spanning tree problems are introduced, the degree adjusted folk solution and the cost adjusted folk solution. These solutions overcome the problem of the classical reductionist folk solution as they have considerable strict ranking
Maintaining compliance at home: Helping the elderly with their medications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E Mokgele
2000-09-01
Full Text Available The elderly population consumes more drugs for their chronic conditions compared to any age group. In this study it was indicated that the average elderly takes two to four drugs per day. The high quantity and wide range of drugs used by the elderly can lead to significant risks. Adding to the risks is the problem of compliance. Areas of concern regarding safety in administering medications to the elderly are the need for increased awareness of the effects of drugs in their systems.
Information security policy development for compliance
Williams, Barry L
2013-01-01
Although compliance standards can be helpful guides to writing comprehensive security policies, many of the standards state the same requirements in slightly different ways. Information Security Policy Development for Compliance: ISO/IEC 27001, NIST SP 800-53, HIPAA Standard, PCI DSS V2.0, and AUP V5.0 provides a simplified way to write policies that meet the major regulatory requirements, without having to manually look up each and every control. Explaining how to write policy statements that address multiple compliance standards and regulatory requirements, the book will he
Touch, compliance, and awareness of tactile contact.
Joule, Robert-Vincent; Guéguen, Nicolas
2007-04-01
Many experimental studies have shown that touch increases compliance with a request; however, the difference between the effect of touch on compliance between participants who notice and those who do not notice such contact remains in question. An experiment was conducted in which a female confederate asked 368 female smokers to give her a cigarette. In the Touch condition, when making her request, the confederate slightly touched the participant on her forearm. Analysis showed the touch was associated with significantly higher compliance to the request, and a difference was evident in the Touch condition between subjects who had noticed the tactile contact and those who had not.
An analysis of aircrew procedural compliance
Schofield, J. E.; Giffin, W. C.
1981-01-01
This research examines the relationships between aircrew compliance with procedures and operator errors. The data for this analysis were generated by reexamination of a 1976 experiment in full mission simulation conducted by Dr. H. P. Ruffell Smith (1979) for the NASA-Ames Research Center. The character of individual operators, the chemistry of crew composition, and complex aspects of the operational environment affected procedural compliance by crew members. Associations between enumerated operator errors and several objective indicators of crew coordination were investigated. The correspondence among high operator error counts and infrequent compliance with specific crew coordination requirements was most notable when copilots were accountable for control of flight parameters.
Rossow, Lindy; Fahs, Christopher A; Guerra, Myriam; Jae, Sae Young; Heffernan, Kevin S; Fernhall, Bo
2010-11-01
The purpose of this study was to determine the cumulative effects of repeated cycling sprints (Wingate tests) on carotid compliance and blood pressure (BP). Fourteen young, healthy men and women completed this study. Vascular and hemodynamic measurements were taken at rest, 5 min following a first Wingate test, 25 min following the first Wingate test, 5 min following a second Wingate test, and 25 min following the second Wingate test. At each time point, the measurements taken included brachial and carotid pulse pressure (PP), heart rate, carotid artery maximum and minimum diameters, and carotid compliance. Carotid BP was obtained with applanation tonometry. Carotid diameters were obtained using ultrasonography and compliance was calculated from carotid diameters and BP. Carotid and brachial PP increased significantly (P sprint, carotid arterial compliance decreased significantly more than 5 min following the first sprint (P sprint reduces carotid artery compliance immediately after exercise. Performance of a second identical cycling sprint further compounds this vascular change, reducing carotid artery compliance beyond levels seen following a single cycling sprint.
Lodrigues, William; Dumas, Judy; Rao, Madhu; Lilley, Lisa; Rao, Roshni
2011-01-01
To provide evaluations of cancer care quality, the Commission on Cancer and the National Quality Forum (NQF) established three breast cancer treatment quality measures. Programs that submit data to the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) can receive feedback on their compliance with these quality measures, and perform comparisons with other member institutions. Data received by a county hospital from the NCDB revealed poor compliance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of submitted data, identify contributing factors and initiate processes to improve. Reported 2004 NCDB quality measure compliance was 26% for radiation, 61.4% for chemotherapy, and 21.3% for hormonal therapy. Retrospective treatment review was performed. Data collected included: patient demographics, pathology, final surgical intervention, adjuvant treatment, and quality measure compliance. Sources included two electronic records, an electronic results depository, two paper charts, a pharmacy data base, and a "shadow chart." Applicability of and compliance with these quality measures was noted. Of 540 records reviewed, 132 met final study criteria. Actual compliance differed significantly from NCDB rates and were found to be 97% for radiation, 98% for chemotherapy, and 88% for hormonal therapy. Process analysis revealed the need for tumor registry staff to evaluate all sources of data. A significant problem was neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and the requirement to submit NCDB data within 6 months of initial diagnosis. Processes and education initiated for tumor registry staff, medical records personnel, physicians, and other care providers resulted in significantly improved 2007 compliance of data submitted to the NCDB. Prior to public reporting, institutions should perform NQF quality measure compliance assessments, confirm accuracy, and initiate educational processes/imperatives.
Analysis of a Pendulum Problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jantzen, Jan
1998-01-01
The ball-balancer, or cart-ball system, demonstrates some basic concepts in control being nonlinear, multivariable, and non-minimum phase. It is basically an inverted pendulum problem, which is a much used benchmark problem. The objective here is to provide an analysis of the system, which can...
An adaptive high-order minimum action method
Wan, Xiaoliang
2011-10-01
In this work, we present an adaptive high-order minimum action method for dynamical systems perturbed by small noise. We use the hp finite element method to approximate the minimal action path and nonlinear conjugate gradient method to solve the optimization problem given by the Freidlin-Wentzell least action principle. The gradient of the discrete action functional is obtained through the functional derivative and the moving mesh technique is employed to enhance the approximation accuracy. Numerical examples are given to demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed numerical method.
Compliance to Hypertension Treatment in Residents of a Fishermen Colony in District Kollam, Kerala.
Aslami, Ahmad Nadeem; Jobby, Abraham
2015-06-01
Hypertension is an important underline cause for cardiovascular deaths worldwide. Treatment compliance for hypertension depends on a lot of factors. There is paucity of studies about awareness and compliance to antihypertensive treatment particularly in coastal areas. Our aim was to know the awareness, treatment, compliance and control of blood pressure among hypertensive patients in a fishermen colony of Jonakapuram, Kollam. A community based cross sectional study was done in a coastal area of Kollam. A house-to-house survey was conducted with a pretested semi-structure questionnaire. Three blood pressure readings were taken and mean value was calculated. The study period was one year. Data was analyzed by using Statistical Package of Social Sciences 12. Appropriate statistical tests were applied. A total of 276 persons were found to be hypertensive. The percentage of awareness, treatment among aware subjects, treatment compliance and control of BP among patients taking anti-hypertensives was 71.74%, 85.86%, 73.53% and 50.58%. The awareness and treatment was significantly more among females as compared to males. The advices received by the patients were medicines, diet restrictions and lifestyle changes. Financial problems were the main reason for non-compliance to medicines. Nearly 3/4(th) of the study subjects were aware that they have hypertension. Monetary problems were an important cause for non-compliance. Half of the patients taking antihypertensive medication had their blood pressure uncontrolled. Patient's economic status should be considered before advising them medications. This will increase compliance and help in improving the quality of patient care.
Minimum Cost Homomorphisms to Locally Semicomplete and Quasi-Transitive Digraphs
Sen-Gupta, A; Karimi, M; Kim, E J; Rafiey, A
2007-01-01
For digraphs $G$ and $H$, a homomorphism of $G$ to $H$ is a mapping $f:\\ V(G)\\dom V(H)$ such that $uv\\in A(G)$ implies $f(u)f(v)\\in A(H)$. If, moreover, each vertex $u \\in V(G)$ is associated with costs $c_i(u), i \\in V(H)$, then the cost of a homomorphism $f$ is $\\sum_{u\\in V(G)}c_{f(u)}(u)$. For each fixed digraph $H$, the minimum cost homomorphism problem for $H$, denoted MinHOM($H$), can be formulated as follows: Given an input digraph $G$, together with costs $c_i(u)$, $u\\in V(G)$, $i\\in V(H)$, decide whether there exists a homomorphism of $G$ to $H$ and, if one exists, to find one of minimum cost. Minimum cost homomorphism problems encompass (or are related to) many well studied optimization problems such as the minimum cost chromatic partition and repair analysis problems. We focus on the minimum cost homomorphism problem for locally semicomplete digraphs and quasi-transitive digraphs which are two well-known generalizations of tournaments. Using graph-theoretic characterization results for the two dig...
Minimum-fuel station-change for geostationary satellites using low-thrust considering perturbations
Zhao, ShuGe; Zhang, JingRui
2016-10-01
The objective of this paper is to find the minimum-fuel station change for geostationary satellites with low-thrust while considering significant perturbation forces for geostationary Earth orbit (GEO). The effect of Earth's triaxiality, lunisolar perturbations, and solar radiation pressure on the terminal conditions of a long duration GEO transfer is derived and used for establishing the station change model with consideration of significant perturbation forces. A method is presented for analytically evaluating the effect of Earth's triaxiality on the semimajor axis and longitude during a station change. The minimum-fuel problem is solved by the indirect optimization method. The easier and related minimum-energy problem is first addressed and then the energy-to-fuel homotopy is employed to finally obtain the solution of the minimum-fuel problem. Several effective techniques are employed in solving the two-point boundary-value problem with a shooting method to overcome the problem of the small convergence radius and the sensitivity of the initial costate variables. These methods include normalization of the initial costate vector, computation of the analytic Jacobians matrix, and switching detection. The simulation results show that the solution of the minimum-fuel station change with low-thrust considering significant perturbation forces can be obtained by applying these preceding techniques.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sajewski Łukasz
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Reachability and minimum energy control of descriptor fractional discrete-time linear systems with different fractional orders are addressed. Using the Weierstrass–Kronecker decomposition theorem of the regular pencil, a solution to the state equation of descriptor fractional discrete-time linear systems with different fractional orders is given. The reachability condition of this class of systems is presented and used for solving the minimum energy control problem. The discussion is illustrated with numerical examples.
A Strategy Tackling Local Minimum of Direct Search Method in Modeling a Hydraulic Actuator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘云山; 陈晓辉
2013-01-01
A strategy for attacking the local minimum problem of direct search method is developed for modeling a hydraulic actuator. The Nelder-Mead direct search method is combined with Ordinary Least Squares which can used to optimize the parameters which the model function is in linear with. The model fitting results show that this strategy can reach a solution more close to the global minimum than the Nelder-Mead direct search method used alone.
On-Off Minimum-Time Control With Limited Fuel Usage: Global Optima Via Linear Programming
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
DRIESSEN,BRIAN
1999-09-01
A method for finding a global optimum to the on-off minimum-time control problem with limited fuel usage is presented. Each control can take on only three possible values: maximum, zero, or minimum. The simplex method for linear systems naturally yields such a solution for the re-formulation presented herein because it always produces an extreme point solution to the linear program. Numerical examples for the benchmark linear flexible system are presented.
Minimum-Time Consensus-Based Approach for Power System Applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Tao; Wu, Di; Sun, Yannan; Lian, Jianming
2016-02-01
This paper presents minimum-time consensus based distributed algorithms for power system applications, such as load shedding and economic dispatch. The proposed algorithms are capable of solving these problems in a minimum number of time steps instead of asymptotically as in most of existing studies. Moreover, these algorithms are applicable to both undirected and directed communication networks. Simulation results are used to validate the proposed algorithms.
Local Government Internal Audit Compliance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Greg Jones
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Local government councils (LGC rely on a number of funding sources including state and federal governments as well as their community constituents to enable them to provide a range of public services. Given the constraints on these funding sources councils need to have in place a range of strategies and policies capable of providing good governance and must appropriately discharge their financial accountabilities. To assist LGC with meeting their governance and accountability obligations they often seek guidance from their key stakeholders. For example, in the Australian State of New South Wales (NSW, the Office of Local Government has developed a set of guidelines, the Internal Audit Guidelines. In 2010 the NSW Office of Local Government issued revised guidelines emphasising that an internal audit committee is an essential component of good governance. In addition, the guidelines explained that to improve the governance and accountability of the councils, these committees should be composed of a majority of independent members. To maintain committee independence the guidelines indicated that the Mayor should not be a member of the committee. However these are only guidelines, not legislated requirements and as such compliance with the guidelines, before they were revised, has been demonstrated to be quite low (Jones & Bowrey 2013. This study, based on a review of NSW Local Government Councils’ 2012/2013 reports, including Annual Reportsrelation to internal audit committees, to determine if the guidelines are effective in improving local government council governance.
Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Arthritis
... Resources Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Arthritis By Beth Loy, Ph.D. Preface Introduction Information ... SOAR) at http://AskJAN.org/soar . Information about Arthritis How prevalent is arthritis? An estimated 50 million ...
Consolidated Audit And Compliance System (CACS)
US Agency for International Development — Consolidated Audit and Compliance System: is an audit findings management and reporting system. CACS is an implementation of the Agency Secure Image and Storage...
40 CFR 264.96 - Compliance period.
2010-07-01
....96 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.96 Compliance period. (a) The Regional Administrator...
Iowa Compliance Implementation and Evaluation Guide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cole, Pamala C.
2012-09-04
This Guide is designed to assist state and local code jurisdictions in achieving statewide compliance with the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) for residential buildings and ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007 for commercial buildings.
Nevada Compliance Implementation and Evaluation Guide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cole, Pamala C.
2012-08-30
This Guide is designed to assist state and local code jurisdictions in achieving statewide compliance with the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) for residential buildings and ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007 for commercial buildings.
Utah Compliance Implementation and Evaluation Guide
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cole, Pamala C.
2012-08-30
This Guide is designed to assist state and local code jurisdictions in achieving statewide compliance with the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) for residential buildings and ANSI/ASHRAE/IESNA Standard 90.1-2007 for commercial buildings.
Enforcement and Compliance History Online (ECHO) Facilities
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — ECHO provides integrated compliance and enforcement information for about 800,000 regulated facilities nationwide. Its features range from simple to advanced,...
2010-01-01
... Department of Agriculture-Effectuation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 § 15.5 Compliance. (a... racial and ethnic data showing the extent to which members of minority groups are beneficiaries...
Information communication Technology (ICT) compliance among ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Information communication Technology (ICT) compliance among ... The one with very strong effect is the high cost of hardware and software including fear of virus ... requisite education and upgrade themselves through training programme to ...
Solving set partitioning problems using lagrangian relaxation
van Krieken, M.G.C.
2006-01-01
This thesis focuses on the set partitioning problem. Given a collection of subsets of a certain root set and costs associated to these subsets, the set partitioning problem is the problem of finding a minimum cost partition of the root set. Many real-life problems, such as vehicle routing and crew s
Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature
Savage, M. J.
2016-02-01
Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) errors for grass minimum temperature and the 4-h nowcasts.
41 CFR 60-2.35 - Compliance status.
2010-07-01
... 2-AFFIRMATIVE ACTION PROGRAMS Miscellaneous § 60-2.35 Compliance status. No contractor's compliance... 11246 and the regulations in this chapter. Each contractor's compliance with its affirmative action... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Compliance status....
42 CFR 93.413 - HHS compliance actions.
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false HHS compliance actions. 93.413 Section 93.413... Compliance Issues § 93.413 HHS compliance actions. (a) An institution's failure to comply with its assurance... requirements of this part, HHS may take some or all of the following compliance actions: (1) Issue a letter...
Chawsithiwong; Dendara
2014-01-01
Objectives of this survey research were: 1to determine compliance with food safety standard of food establishments in the Pom Prap Sattru Phai District, Bangkok 2) to analyze the factors associated with compliance with food safety and 3) to investigate problems, obstacles and guidelines for the development of food establishments in the studied area. Data Collection by a questionnaire of 120 samples from a population of 168 between April –June,2013 was accomplished. The computer statistical an...
Compliance and patching and atropine amblyopia treatments.
Wang, Jingyun
2015-09-01
In the past 20 years, there has been a great advancement in knowledge pertaining to compliance with amblyopia treatments. The occlusion dose monitor introduced quantitative monitoring methods in patching, which sparked our initial understanding of the dose-response relationship for patching amblyopia treatment. This review focuses on current compliance knowledge and the impact it has on patching and atropine amblyopia treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Compliance with occlusion therapy for childhood amblyopia.
Wallace, Michael P; Stewart, Catherine E; Moseley, Merrick J; Stephens, David A; Fielder, Alistair R
2013-09-17
Explore compliance with occlusion treatment of amblyopia in the Monitored and Randomized Occlusion Treatment of Amblyopia Studies (MOTAS and ROTAS), using objective monitoring. Both studies had a three-phase protocol: initial assessment, refractive adaptation, and occlusion. In the occlusion phase, participants were instructed to dose for 6 hours/day (MOTAS) or randomized to 6 or 12 hour/day (ROTAS). Dose was monitored continuously using an occlusion dose monitor (ODM). One hundred and fifty-two patients (71 male, 81 female; 122 Caucasian, 30 non-Caucasian) of mean ± SD age 68 ± 18 months participated. Amblyopia was defined as an interocular acuity difference of at least 0.1 logMAR and was associated with anisometropia in 50, strabismus in 44, and both (mixed) in 58. Median duration of occlusion was 99 days (interquartile range 72 days). Mean compliance was 44%, mean proportion of days with no patch worn was 42%. Compliance was lower (39%) on weekends compared with weekdays (46%, P = 0.04), as was the likelihood of dosing at all (52% vs. 60%, P = 0.028). Compliance was lower when attendance was less frequent (P amblyopia type, and severity were not associated with compliance. Mixture modeling suggested three subpopulations of patch day doses: less than 30 minutes; doses that achieve 30% to 80% compliance; and doses that achieve around 100% compliance. This study shows that compliance with patching treatment averages less than 50% and is influenced by several factors. A greater understanding of these influences should improve treatment outcome. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00274664).
THE ROLE OF FAIRNESS IN TAX COMPLIANCE
Verboon, Peter; Goslinga, Sjoerd
2010-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to study the relation between fairness considerations and tax compliance attitudes and intentions. Data from a large panel survey among small business owners in the Netherlands have been analyzed. Besides a number of background and control variables the questionnaire contained measures of personal norms, procedural and distributive justice, tax compliance attitudes and intentions to comply with tax rules. Results support the hypothesis that personal norms and just...
40 CFR 156.159 - Compliance date.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance date. 156.159 Section 156... REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES AND DEVICES Container Labeling § 156.159 Compliance date. Any pesticide product...(d)(7), 156.10(f), 156.10(i)(2)(ix), 156.140, 156.144, 156.146, and 156.156. Effective Date Note:...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saviz, K.
1998-05-26
The year 2000 is rapidly approaching, and there is a good chance that computer systems that utilize two digit year dates will experience problems in retrieval of date information. The ISA Thermoluminescent Dosimetry Data Processing (TL-DP) software and computer system has been reviewed for Year 2000 compliance issues.
Sikolia, David Wafula
2013-01-01
User non-compliance with information security policies in organizations due to negligence or ignorance is reported as a key data security problem for organizations. The violation of the confidentiality, integrity and availability of organizational data has led to losses in millions of dollars for organizations in terms of money and time spent…
Ducharme, Joseph M.; Sanjuan, Elena; Drain, Tammy
2007-01-01
Errorless compliance training is a noncoercive, success-focused approach to treatment of problem behavior in children. The intervention involves graduated exposure of a child to increasingly more challenging requests at a slow enough rate to ensure that noncompliance rarely occurs, providing parents with many opportunities to reinforce cooperative…
Van Wijk, Boris L G; Klungel, Olaf H; Heerdink, Eibert R; de Boer, Anthonius
2006-01-01
PURPOSE: Discontinuation with treatment is a major problem in the treatment of hypertension. The objective of our study was to assess the association between non-compliance and discontinuation in patients who started using antihypertensive monotherapy. METHODS: A nested case-control study within a c
Sikolia, David Wafula
2013-01-01
User non-compliance with information security policies in organizations due to negligence or ignorance is reported as a key data security problem for organizations. The violation of the confidentiality, integrity and availability of organizational data has led to losses in millions of dollars for organizations in terms of money and time spent…
Van Wijk, Boris L G; Klungel, Olaf H; Heerdink, Eibert R; de Boer, Anthonius
PURPOSE: Discontinuation with treatment is a major problem in the treatment of hypertension. The objective of our study was to assess the association between non-compliance and discontinuation in patients who started using antihypertensive monotherapy. METHODS: A nested case-control study within a
Compliance with RSV prophylaxis: Global physicians’ perspectives
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kari S Anderson
2009-07-01
Full Text Available Kari S Anderson, Victoria M Mullally, Linda M Fredrick, Andrew L CampbellAbbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL, USAAbstract: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is a significant cause of morbidity in high-risk infants. Palivizumab is proven to prevent serious RSV disease, but compliance with prophylaxis (monthly doses during the RSV season is essential to ensure protection. We invited 453 pediatricians to participate in a survey to identify their perspectives of barriers to compliance and interventions to improve compliance with palivizumab prophylaxis schedules. One hundred physicians from five continents completed the survey, identifying caregiver inconvenience, distance to clinic, cost of prophylaxis, and lack of understanding of the severity of RSV as the most common reasons for noncompliance. They recommended provision of educational materials about RSV, reminders from hospital or clinic, and administration of prophylaxis at home to increase compliance. Globally, physicians recognize several obstacles to prophylaxis compliance. This survey suggests that focused proactive interventions such as empowering caregivers with educational materials and reducing caregiver inconvenience may be instrumental to increase compliance.Keywords: medication adherence, respiratory syncytial virus infections, infant, premature, immunization, passive
Photoacoustic tomography of vascular compliance in humans
Hai, Pengfei; Zhou, Yong; Liang, Jinyang; Li, Chiye; Wang, Lihong V.
2015-12-01
Characterization of blood vessel elastic properties can help in detecting thrombosis and preventing life-threatening conditions such as acute myocardial infarction or stroke. Vascular elastic photoacoustic tomography (VE-PAT) is proposed to measure blood vessel compliance in humans. Implemented on a linear-array-based photoacoustic computed tomography system, VE-PAT can quantify blood vessel compliance changes due to simulated thrombosis and occlusion. The feasibility of the VE-PAT system was first demonstrated by measuring the strains under uniaxial loading in perfused blood vessel phantoms and quantifying their compliance changes due to the simulated thrombosis. The VE-PAT system detected a decrease in the compliances of blood vessel phantoms with simulated thrombosis, which was validated by a standard compression test. The VE-PAT system was then applied to assess blood vessel compliance in a human subject. Experimental results showed a decrease in compliance when an occlusion occurred downstream from the measurement point in the blood vessels, demonstrating VE-PAT's potential for clinical thrombosis detection.
McComas, Jennifer J.
2009-01-01
In the context of instructional demands, compliance and problem behavior can be considered concurrent operants. Of applied interest is increasing one response (i.e., compliance) while decreasing the other (i.e., problem behavior). Strategic arrangement of reinforcement can alter response allocation accordingly. Such schedules can also influence…
Utility of oral fluid in compliance monitoring of opioid medications.
Conermann, Till; Gosalia, Ankur R; Kabazie, Abraham Jack; Moore, Christina; Miller, Kathy; Fetsch, Madalene; Irvan, Dwain
2014-01-01
Prescription drug abuse is the fastest growing drug problem in the United States, and the increase in unintentional drug overdose deaths has been driven by the increase in opioid analgesic use. Given the epidemic of non-medical prescription pain reliever use and the current medico-legal climate, it is increasingly important for the prescriber to monitor for medication compliance. The purpose of this IRB approved study is to compare the results of oral fluid (OF) and routine urinalysis for monitoring compliance in a single academic pain management program in an urban setting in order to evaluate the utility of OF analysis in compliance monitoring when prescribing opioid medications. Outcomes analysis of prospective, consecutive, paired comparison study with clinical implications. Single academic interventional pain management center in the United States. Paired OF and urine specimens were collected for each patient with signed informed consent, at the Institute for Pain Medicine, Western Pennsylvania Hospital, from patients who routinely donated urine on a random basis for compliance testing. A total of 153 paired specimens were analyzed. Demographic and prescription data were made available. Specimens were screened using immunoassay and presumptive positive findings were confirmed with liquid-chromatography and mass spectrometry. Although both matrices were tested for a wider range of medications, the data presented here are representative of analgesic opioids and benzodiazepine drug classes only. Following exclusion criteria, of the 132 remaining specimen pairs that were positive for opioids or benzodiazepines in at least one matrix, 101 pairs showed exact drug class matches (76.5%). In an additional 21 pairs, at least one drug class was positive in both matrices (15.9%), giving an overall agreement of 92.4%. Overall, 191 positive results were found in urine averaging 1.4 drugs per specimen; 176 positives were detected using OF for an average of 1.3 drugs per
Deep solar minimum and global climate changes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahmed A. Hady
2013-05-01
Full Text Available This paper examines the deep minimum of solar cycle 23 and its potential impact on climate change. In addition, a source region of the solar winds at solar activity minimum, especially in the solar cycle 23, the deepest during the last 500 years, has been studied. Solar activities have had notable effect on palaeoclimatic changes. Contemporary solar activity are so weak and hence expected to cause global cooling. Prevalent global warming, caused by building-up of green-house gases in the troposphere, seems to exceed this solar effect. This paper discusses this issue.
A minimum achievable PV electrical generating cost
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sabisky, E.S. [11 Carnation Place, Lawrenceville, NJ 08648 (United States)
1996-03-22
The role and share of photovoltaic (PV) generated electricity in our nation`s future energy arsenal is primarily dependent on its future production cost. This paper provides a framework for obtaining a minimum achievable electrical generating cost (a lower bound) for fixed, flat-plate photovoltaic systems. A cost of 2.8 $cent/kWh (1990$) was derived for a plant located in Southwestern USA sunshine using a cost of money of 8%. In addition, a value of 22 $cent/Wp (1990$) was estimated as a minimum module manufacturing cost/price
Ecological Monitoring and Compliance Program 2014 Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hall, Derek B. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Anderson, David C. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Greger, Paul D. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States); Ostler, W. Kent [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, Nevada (United States)
2015-05-12
statewide database. No field surveys were conducted this year for sensitive plants on the NNSS due to poor growing conditions. Surveys of sensitive and protected/regulated animals during 2014 focused on winter raptors, bats, wild horses (Equus caballus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), desert bighorn sheep (Ovis Canadensis nelsoni), and mountain lions (Puma concolor). Two permanent, long-term winter raptor survey routes were established and sampled in January and February. A total of 27 raptors representing 4 species were observed. The wild horse population increased from 30 to 41, with several yearlings recruiting into the population, possibly due to the death of a mountain lion known to prey on horse foals. Mule deer abundance and density measured with standardized deer surveys was similar to 2013 and appears to be stable. Desert bighorn sheep, including rams, ewes, and lambs, were detected using motion-activated cameras at four water sources. There are plans to conduct helicopter surveys to census the population during September 2015 and then capture and radio-collar up to 20 sheep during November 2015. Over 150 sheep scat samples have been collected for genetic analysis to try to determine how sheep on the NNSS are related to surrounding sheep populations. Information is presented about bird mortalities, Migratory Bird Treaty Act compliance, and a summary of nuisance animals and their control on the NNSS. A total of 93 mountain lion images (i.e., photographs or video clips) were taken during 220,379 camera hours at 16 of 32 sites sampled and another 11,946 images of at least 29 species other than mountain lions were taken as well. A mountain lion telemetry study continued in 2014. NNSS7 was tracked from January 1 to November 15 using a global positioning system satellite transmitter. He consumed 21 mule deer, 17 desert bighorn sheep, 1 juvenile bobcat, and 3 coyotes. Mule deer were primarily taken in the summer and fall. No new mountain lions were captured. A minimum
TWO FEEDBACK PROBLEMS FOR GRAPHS WITH BOUNDED TREE-WIDTH
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZhangShaoqiang; LiGuojun; SohnMoo-Young
2004-01-01
Many difficult (often NP-complete) optimization problems can be solved efficiently on graphs of small tree-width with a given tree decomposition. In this paper,it is discussed how to solve the minimum feedback vertex set problem and the minimum vertex feedback edge set problem efficiently by using dynamic programming on a tree-decomposition.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Huas Dominique
2010-08-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Adherence to anti-osteoporosis treatments is poor, exposing treated women to increased fracture risk. Determinants of poor adherence are poorly understood. The study aims to determine physician- and patient- rated treatment compliance with osteoporosis treatments and to evaluate factors influencing compliance. Methods This was an observational, cross-sectional pharmacoepidemiological study with a randomly-selected sample of 420 GPs, 154 rheumatologists and 110 gynaecologists practicing in France. Investigators included post-menopausal women with a diagnosis of osteoporosis and a treatment initiated in the previous six months. Investigators completed a questionnaire on clinical features, treatments and medical history, and on patient compliance. Patients completed a questionnaire on sociodemographic features, lifestyle, attitudes and knowledge about osteoporosis, treatment compliance, treatment satisfaction and quality of life. Treatment compliance was evaluated with the Morisky Medication-taking Adherence Scale. Variables collected in the questionnaires were evaluated for association with compliance using multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results 785 women were evaluated. Physicians considered 95.4% of the sample to be compliant, but only 65.5% of women considered themselves compliant. The correlation between patient and physician perceptions of compliance was low (κ: 0.11 [95% CI: 0.06 to 0.16]. Patient-rated compliance was highest for monthly bisphosphonates (79.7% and lowest for hormone substitution therapy (50.0%. Six variables were associated with compliance: treatment administration frequency, perceptions of long-term treatment acceptability, perceptions of health consequences of osteoporosis, perceptions of knowledge about osteoporosis, exercise and mental quality of life. Conclusion Compliance to anti-osteoporosis treatments is poor. Reduction of dosing regimen frequency and patient education may be useful
Implications of Stein's Paradox for Environmental Standard Compliance Assessment.
Qian, Song S; Stow, Craig A; Cha, YoonKyung
2015-05-19
The implications of Stein's paradox stirred considerable debate in statistical circles when the concept was first introduced in the 1950s. The paradox arises when we are interested in estimating the means of several variables simultaneously. In this situation, the best estimator for an individual mean, the sample average, is no longer the best. Rather, a shrinkage estimator, which shrinks individual sample averages toward the overall average is shown to have improved overall accuracy. Although controversial at the time, the concept of shrinking toward overall average is now widely accepted as a good practice for improving statistical stability and reducing error, not only in simple estimation problems, but also in complicated modeling problems. However, the utility of Stein's insights are not widely recognized in the environmental management community, where mean pollutant concentrations of multiple waters are routinely estimated for management decision-making. In this essay, we introduce Stein's paradox and its modern generalization, the Bayesian hierarchical model, in the context of environmental standard compliance assessment. Using simulated data and nutrient monitoring data from wadeable streams around the Great Lakes, we show that a Bayesian hierarchical model can improve overall estimation accuracy, thereby improving our confidence in the assessment results, especially for standard compliance assessment of waters with small sample sizes.
Suggested benchmarks for shape optimization for minimum stress concentration
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Pauli
2008-01-01
Shape optimization for minimum stress concentration is vital, important, and difficult. New formulations and numerical procedures imply the need for good benchmarks. The available analytical shape solutions rely on assumptions that are seldom satisfied, so here, we suggest alternative benchmarks....... The existence of singularities forces us to separate the design modeling (parameterization) from the analysis modeling, which from a practical point of view, is finite element (FE) modeling. Furthermore, the obtained stress concentrations depend highly on the FE modeling and cannot be used as a primary...... procedure is avoided. As examples, we use a sensitive stress concentration problem for fillets or cavities in tension (or compression). These problems are solved as three dimensional (axisymmetric) and as plane stress and plane strain cases. Further cases with design of shapes for a T-head fillet are also...
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF MINIMUM QUANTITY LUBRICANTS IN ALLOY STEEL TURNING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L B Abhang
2010-07-01
Full Text Available To eliminate health and environmental problems caused by using conventional cutting fluid in the metal cutting industry, a new economical and practical approach to minimum quantity of lubrication machining technique is developed. Turning is a widely used metal removal process in manufacturing industry that involves generation of high cutting forces and temperature. Lubrication becomes critical to minimize the effects of these forces and temperature on cutting tool and work piece. Strained environment is a global problem. In metalcutting industry the use of coolant has become more problematic in terms of both employee health and environmental pollution. It is said that the use of coolant forms approximately 8-16 % of the total production costs. Development of lubricants that is eco-friendly and economically is acquiring importance. In this context, using minimum quantity of lubrication of boric acid mixed with base oil SAE 40 has proved to be a feasible alternative to the conventional cutting fluid. In the present work 10% boric acid by weight mixed with base oil SAE 40 is used as a MQL in turning process. Variations in cutting (lubricant force, cutting temp, chip thickness and surface roughness are studied under different machining conditions. The results indicate that there is a considerable improvement in machining performance with MQL assisted machining compared to dry machining.
Implications of the Deep Minimum for Slow Solar Wind Origin
Antiochos, S. K.; Mikic, Z.; Lionello, R.; Titov, V. S.; Linker, J. A.
2009-12-01
The origin of the slow solar wind has long been one of the most important problems in solar/heliospheric physics. Two observational constraints make this problem especially challenging. First, the slow wind has the composition of the closed-field corona, unlike the fast wind that originates on open field lines. Second, the slow wind has substantial angular extent, of order 30 degrees, which is much larger than the widths observed for streamer stalks or the widths expected theoretically for a dynamic heliospheric current sheet. We propose that the slow wind originates from an intricate network of narrow (possibly singular) open-field corridors that emanate from the polar coronal hole regions. Using topological arguments, we show that these corridors must be ubiquitous in the solar corona. The total solar eclipse in August 2008, near the lowest point of the Deep Minimum, affords an ideal opportunity to test this theory by using the ultra-high resolution Predictive Science's (PSI) eclipse model for the corona and wind. Analysis of the PSI eclipse model demonstrates that the extent and scales of the open-field corridors can account for both the angular width of the slow wind and its closed-field composition. We discuss the implications of our slow wind theory for the structure of the corona and heliosphere at the Deep Minimum and describe further observational and theoretical tests. This work has been supported by the NASA HTP, SR&T, and LWS programs.
Prasitmeeboon, Pitcha
repetitive control FIR compensator. The aim is to reduce the final error level by using real time frequency response model updates to successively increase the cutoff frequency, each time creating the improved model needed to produce convergence zero error up to the higher cutoff. Non-minimum phase systems present a difficult design challenge to the sister field of Iterative Learning Control. The third topic investigates to what extent the same challenges appear in RC. One challenge is that the intrinsic non-minimum phase zero mapped from continuous time is close to the pole of repetitive controller at +1 creating behavior similar to pole-zero cancellation. The near pole-zero cancellation causes slow learning at DC and low frequencies. The Min-Max cost function over the learning rate is presented. The Min-Max can be reformulated as a Quadratically Constrained Linear Programming problem. This approach is shown to be an RC design approach that addresses the main challenge of non-minimum phase systems to have a reasonable learning rate at DC. Although it was illustrated that using the Min-Max objective improves learning at DC and low frequencies compared to other designs, the method requires model accuracy at high frequencies. In the real world, models usually have error at high frequencies. The fourth topic addresses how one can merge the quadratic penalty to the Min-Max cost function to increase robustness at high frequencies. The topic also considers limiting the Min-Max optimization to some frequencies interval and applying an FIR zero-phase low-pass filter to cutoff the learning for frequencies above that interval.
Kinsella, John J.
1970-01-01
Discussed are the nature of a mathematical problem, problem solving in the traditional and modern mathematics programs, problem solving and psychology, research related to problem solving, and teaching problem solving in algebra and geometry. (CT)
A bicriterion Steiner tree problem on graph
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vujošević Mirko B.
2003-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a formulation of bicriterion Steiner tree problem which is stated as a task of finding a Steiner tree with maximal capacity and minimal length. It is considered as a lexicographic multicriteria problem. This means that the bottleneck Steiner tree problem is solved first. After that, the next optimization problem is stated as a classical minimums Steiner tree problem under the constraint on capacity of the tree. The paper also presents some computational experiments with the multicriteria problem.
Minimum training requirement in ultrasound imaging of peripheral arterial disease
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eiberg, J P; Hansen, M A; Grønvall Rasmussen, J B
2008-01-01
To demonstrate the minimum training requirement when performing ultrasound of peripheral arterial disease.......To demonstrate the minimum training requirement when performing ultrasound of peripheral arterial disease....
Moment-specific compliance with hand hygiene.
Lau, Tiffany; Tang, Grace; Mak, Ka-lun; Leung, Gilberto
2014-06-01
Hand hygiene is an important component of patient-safety education. The World Health Organization recommends the use of hand hygiene measures at five clinical moments. While previous studies have treated hand hygiene as a single entity, we investigated whether and how the compliance of students may vary across the five clinical moments. We also studied their reasons for non-compliance with a view to inform teaching. A voluntary self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted on a convenient sample of 339 medical and nursing students. The five clinical moments studied were: before touching a patient (moment 1); before a clean/aseptic procedure (moment 2); after body fluid exposure risk (moment 3); after touching a patient (moment 4); and after touching the patient's surroundings (moment 5). The overall reported compliance rate was 83.0 per cent. The compliance rates were significantly lower at moments 1 and 5. Nursing students reported better overall compliance (p = 0.01), and at moments 2 (p = 0.0001) and 3 (p = 0.0001), than medical students. Medical students fared better at moment 4 (p = 0.009). The most common reason reported for non-compliance was 'forgetfulness'. We identified differences in compliance rates across the five clinical moments of hand hygiene. Education programmes should not treat the hand hygiene process as a single entity, but should adopt a moment-specific approach to promote recall, with particular emphases on moments 1 and 5. Nursing and medical students may require different education strategies. Future studies on hand hygiene may also adopt a moment-specific approach. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Completeness properties of the minimum uncertainty states
Trifonov, D. A.
1993-01-01
The completeness properties of the Schrodinger minimum uncertainty states (SMUS) and of some of their subsets are considered. The invariant measures and the resolution unity measures for the set of SMUS are constructed and the representation of squeezing and correlating operators and SMUS as superpositions of Glauber coherent states on the real line is elucidated.
Minimum Wage Effects throughout the Wage Distribution
Neumark, David; Schweitzer, Mark; Wascher, William
2004-01-01
This paper provides evidence on a wide set of margins along which labor markets can adjust in response to increases in the minimum wage, including wages, hours, employment, and ultimately labor income. Not surprisingly, the evidence indicates that low-wage workers are most strongly affected, while higher-wage workers are little affected. Workers…
A Minimum Relative Entropy Principle for AGI
Ven, Antoine van de; Schouten, Ben
2010-01-01
In this paper the principle of minimum relative entropy (PMRE) is proposed as a fundamental principle and idea that can be used in the field of AGI. It is shown to have a very strong mathematical foundation, that it is even more fundamental then Bayes rule or MaxEnt alone and that it can be related
What's Happening in Minimum Competency Testing.
Frahm, Robert; Covington, Jimmie
An examination of the current status of minimum competency testing is presented in a series of short essays, which discuss case studies of individual school systems and state approaches. Sections are also included on the viewpoints of critics and supporters, teachers and teacher organizations, principals and students, and the federal government.…
Statistical inference of Minimum Rank Factor Analysis
Shapiro, A; Ten Berge, JMF
2002-01-01
For any given number of factors, Minimum Rank Factor Analysis yields optimal communalities for an observed covariance matrix in the sense that the unexplained common variance with that number of factors is minimized, subject to the constraint that both the diagonal matrix of unique variances and the
Minimum Bias and Underlying Event at CMS
Fano, Livio
2006-01-01
The prospects of measuring minimum bias collisions (MB) and studying the underlying event (UE) at CMS are discussed. Two methods are described. The first is based on the measurement of charged tracks in the transverse region with respect to a charge-particle jet. The second technique relies on the selection of muon-pair events from Drell-Yan process.
44 CFR 62.6 - Minimum commissions.
2010-10-01
... ADJUSTMENT OF CLAIMS Issuance of Policies § 62.6 Minimum commissions. (a) The earned commission which shall be paid to any property or casualty insurance agent or broker duly licensed by a state insurance regulatory authority, with respect to each policy or renewal the agent duly procures on behalf of the...
A Minimum Relative Entropy Principle for AGI
B.A.M. Ben Schouten; Antoine van de van de Ven
2010-01-01
In this paper the principle of minimum relative entropy (PMRE) is proposed as a fundamental principle and idea that can be used in the field of AGI. It is shown to have a very strong mathematical foundation, that it is even more fundamental then Bayes rule or MaxEnt alone and that it can be related
Statistical inference of Minimum Rank Factor Analysis
Shapiro, A; Ten Berge, JMF
For any given number of factors, Minimum Rank Factor Analysis yields optimal communalities for an observed covariance matrix in the sense that the unexplained common variance with that number of factors is minimized, subject to the constraint that both the diagonal matrix of unique variances and the