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Sample records for minimum bactericidal concentrations

  1. Minimum bactericidal concentration of phenols extracted from oil vegetation water on spoilers, starters and food-borne bacteria

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    Luca Fasolato

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess the in vitro effect of phenols extracted from oil vegetation water (PEOW on several food-borne strains. Antibacterial activity of PEOW was based on the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC on microtitre assay. The taxa tested were: Staphylococcus (n. 5, Listeria (n. 4, Escherichia (n. 2, Salmonella (n. 1, Pseudomonas (n. 3, Lactobacillus (n. 2 and Pediococcus (n. 1. S. aureus and L. monocytogens showed the lowest level of resistance to PEOW (MBC=1.5-3 mg/mL. In contrast, the Gram negative strains (e.g. S. Typhimurium and Pseudomonas spp. were in some cases unaffected by the tested doses and the MBCs ranged between 6 to 12 mg/mL. Starter cultures were dramatically reduced on growth (e.g. Staphylococcus xylosus; 0.75 mg/mL MBC. The thresholds for pathogenic strains could be considered for further applications of PEOW in food models (e.g. shelf life or challenge test studies.

  2. Polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride shows bactericidal advantages over chlorhexidine digluconate against ESKAPE bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhongxin; Wei, Dafu; Lu, Yanhua

    2015-01-01

    More information regarding the bactericidal properties of polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMG) against clinically important antibiotic-resistant ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species) pathogens needs to be provided for its uses in infection control. The bactericidal properties of PHMG and chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) were compared based on their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations, and time-course-killing curves against clinically important antibiotic-susceptible and antibiotic-resistant ESKAPE pathogens. Results showed that PHMG exhibited significantly higher bactericidal activities against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, and ceftazidime-resistant Enterobacter spp. than CHG. A slight bactericidal advantage over CHG was obtained against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium, ciprofloxacin- and levofloxacin-resistant Acinetobacter spp., and multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In previous reports, PHMG had higher antimicrobial activity against almost all tested Gram-negative bacteria and several Gram-positive bacteria than CHG using MIC test. These studies support the further development of covalently bound PHMG in sterile-surface materials and the incorporation of PHMG in novel disinfectant formulas. © 2014 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  3. Studies on bactericidal efficacy of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne peel

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    El Zawane Kamarudin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: T o explore the in vitro antibacterial potential of the peel of Cucurbita moschata D uchesne ( tropical pumpkin ( C. moschata against human pathogenic bacteria. Methods: I n the present study, dichloromethane ( DCM , methanol ( MEOH and aqueous extracts of C. moschata peel were examined for in vitro antibacterial potency against eight bacterial strains i.e. Bacillus cereus, Burkholderia cepacia, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphyloccocus aureus, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Vibrio alginolyticus, Vibrio parahaemolyticus using K irby- B auer disk diffusion susceptibility and broth micro-dilution methods. Results: DCM extract of pumpkin peel exhibited the maximum zone of inhibition against Staphyloccocus aureus ( 21 mm whereas aqueous extract of pumpkin peel revealed the least zone of inhibition against Escherichia coli ( 8 mm . MEOH extract gave maximum zone of inhibition against Pseudomonas aerugenosa ( 19 mm . B roth micro-dilution method showed minimum inhibitory concentration for the DCM extract against Burkholderia cepacia at 6 . 25 mg/m L . T he minimum bactericidal concentrations were also determined to know the nature of all extracts. DCM and MEOH extracts exhibited bactericidal nature to all bacterial strains except for the Vibrio alginolyticus. T he minimum bactericidal concentrations values exhibited bactericidal nature ranging from 3 . 12 mg/m L to 100 . 00 mg/m L . T he screening of antimicrobial properties of different extracts of C. moschata peel revealed that the DCM extract possessed good antimicrobial efficacy compared to MEOH and aqueous extracts. Conclusions: P eel of C. moschata possesses antibacterial compounds and could be potential source for a new class of antibiotics.

  4. Bactericidal activites of selected macrofungi extracts against Staphylococcus aureus

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    Nikolovska-Nedelkoska Daniela A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing of the antibiotic resistance exhibited by pathogenic microorganisms has resulted in research directed toward evaluation of novel sources of antimicrobial compounds. Previous studies have indicated that macrofungi, as a specific response to the natural hostile environment, produce secondary metabolites with antimicrobial properties. In this study, antimicrobial activities of the extracts from six wild mushrooms: Amanita echinocephala, Russula medulata, Cerena unicolor, Hericium erinaceus, Ishnoderma benzoinum and Laetiporus sulphureus were evaluated against Grampositive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. The antimicrobial potential of the methanolic mushroom extracts was investigated by the microdilution method. Antimicrobial activity was observed in all species included in the study. All the extracts that demonstrated inhibitory activities were further tested for bactericidal activity and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values were determined. The tested microorganism was most sensitive to the examined extracts from the polypore fungi C. unicolor and H. erinaceus. The highest bactericidal activity was obtained in the extracts from the species C. unicolor (MBC=1.563 mg/mL. The experimental results revealed that the methanolic extract of C. unicolor possessed significant bactericidal activity. The findings suggest the potential use of this wild mushroom as antimicrobial agent.

  5. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

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    Intorasoot, Amornrat; Chornchoem, Piyaorn; Sookkhee, Siriwoot; Intorasoot, Sorasak

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate the antibacterial activity of 10 volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal ( Alpinia galanga Linn.), ginger ( Zingiber officinale ), plai ( Zingiber cassumunar Roxb.), lime ( Citrus aurantifolia ), kaffir lime ( Citrus hystrix DC.), sweet basil ( Ocimum basilicum Linn.), tree basil ( Ocimum gratissimum ), lemongrass ( Cymbopogon citratus DC.), clove ( Syzygium aromaticum ), and cinnamon ( Cinnamomum verum ) against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Acinetobacter baumannii , and 30 clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR- A. baumannii ). Agar diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were employed for the determination of bactericidal activity of water distilled medicinal plants. Tea tree oil ( Melaleuca alternifolia ) was used as positive control in this study. The results indicated the volatile oil extracted from cinnamon exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the most common human pathogens, S. aureus , E. coli , P. aeruginosa , and A. baumannii . Most of volatile oil extracts were less effective against non-fermentative bacteria, P. aeruginosa . In addition, volatile oil extracted from cinnamon, clove, and tree basil possessed potent bactericidal activity against MDR- A. baumannii with MBC 90 of 0.5, 1, and 2 mg/mL, respectively. The volatile oil extracts would be useful as alternative natural product for the treatment of the most common human pathogens and MDR- A. baumannii infections.

  6. Evaluation of bactericidal efficacy of silver ions on Escherichia coli for drinking water disinfection.

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    Pathak, Satya P; Gopal, K

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is the development of a suitable process for the disinfection of drinking water by evaluating bactericidal efficacy of silver ions from silver electrodes. A prototype of a silver ioniser with silver electrodes and control unit has been fabricated. Silver ions from silver electrodes in water samples were estimated with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A fresh culture of Escherichia coli (1.75 × 10(3) c.f.u./ml) was exposed to 1, 2, 5, 10 and 20 ppb of silver ions in 100 ml of autoclaved tap water for 60 min. The effect of different pH and temperatures on bactericidal efficacy was observed at constant silver ion concentration (5 ppb) and contact time of 30 min. The maximum bactericidal activity (100%) was observed at 20 ppb of silver ion concentration indicating total disinfection after 20 min while minimum bactericidal activity (25%) was observed after 10 min at 01 ppb of silver ions. Likewise, 100% bactericidal activity was noticed with 2, 5 and 10 ppb of silver ions after 60, 50 and 40 min, respectively. Bactericidal activity at pH 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 was observed at 79.9%, 79.8%, 80.5%, 100% and 100%, respectively, whereas it was 80.4%, 88.3%, 100%, 100% and 100% at 10°C, 20°C, 30°C, 40°C and 50°C, respectively. The findings of this study revealed that very low concentrations of silver ions at pH 8-9 and temperature >20°C have bactericidal efficacy for total disinfection of drinking water. Silver ionisation is suitable for water disinfection and an appropriate alternative to chlorination which forms carcinogenic disinfection by-products.

  7. Effect of bactericides on sulfate-reducing bacteria

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    Kuznetsova, T A; Gareyshina, A Z; Limanov, V Ye; Neizvestnoya, R G; Yalymova, A G

    1980-01-01

    A study was made of the effect on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRD) of different bactericides under laboratory conditions. The tests were conducted according to the technique developed in the VNIISPTneft'. A total of 36 chemical reagents were checked. The majority of them completely suppressed the growth of the accumulating culture of the SRD with different concentration of bactericide. The reagents which have good bactericidal action were verified for anticorrosion properties and were tested on field water from well 520 and 6334 of the Aznakayevskiy UKPN. The study results indicated that in selecting the dosing of bactericides on the accumulation culture of the SRD, the bactericidal effect is observed with lower concentration than the SRD collected from the near-face well zones.

  8. Antibacterial activities of leave extracts as bactericides for soaking of skin or hide

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    Suparno, Ono; Panandita, Tania; Afifah, Amalia; Marimin; Purnawati, Rini

    2018-03-01

    Antibacteria, a subtance inhibiting the growth of bacteria, can be obtained from tropical-almond (Terminalia catappa), morinda (Morinda citrifolia), and white leadtree (Leucaena leucocephala) plants, since the plants have phytochemical content functioning as antibacterial agent. Commonly, part of plant that contains higher antibacterial substances is its leaf. The objectives of this study were to determine antibacterial activity of tropical-almond, morinda, and white leadtree leaves extracts, and to analyse the potency of the three extracts as natural bactericide for soaking of skin or hide. The responses measured in this study were phytochemical contents, total flavonoid, tannin content, the inhibition zone, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Phytochemical contents containing the three leaves extracts were alkaloid, flavonoid, tannin, saponin, phenolic, and glycoside. Total flavonoid and tannin contents of the three extracts were tropical-almond extract of 1.14 % and 1.51 %, respectively; morinda extract of 0.61 % and 0.36 %, respectively; and white leadtree extract of 0.60 % and 4.82 %, respectively. White leadtree leaf extract gave the highest inhibition zone against B. subtilis, S. aureus and E. coli, i.e. 1.50, 1.3, and 1.65 cm, respectively; and the lowest MIC and MBC against B. subtilis, S. aureus and E. coli, i.e. 1500, 3000, and 1500 μg/ml, respectively. Therefore, the white leadtree leave extract had more potential as bactericide for soaking of skin or hide compared to those of the tropical-almond and morinda leaves extracts.

  9. Inhibitory and bactericidal power of mangosteen rind extract towards Porphyromonas Gingivalis and Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans (Laboratory test

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    Ina Hendiani

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The bacteria that cause the occurrence of pathogens of periodontal disease are gram negative anaerobes. These bacteria include Pophyromonas Gingivalis and Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans. Mangosteen skin extract is known to have anti-inflammatory, anti microbial, and anti oxidant properties. The extract of the mangosteen peel is altered in gel preparation in order to streamline its clinical application in periodontal disease. The purpose of this study was to examine the antibacterial power of the ginger mangosteen tree extract gel against Pophyromonas gingivalis and Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans (Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans. Methods: This research was conducted by experimental laboratory. Mangosteen fruit extract gel with concentration of 100%, 50%, 25%, 12,5%, 6,25%, 3,125% and 0,78% were tested against Pophyromonas Gingivalis and Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans with agar diffusion method. Results and Discussion: The results of this study indicate that for Actinobacilus Aggregatibacter bacteria minimal inhibitory concentration at a concentration of 6.25% with a diameter of 13,5mm inhibition. Minimal bactericidal concentration at 12,5% concentration with 14,7mm inhibitory diameter. In the test of Pophyromonas Gingivalis bacteria, minimal inhibitory concentrations were obtained at a concentration of 1.56% and a minimum bactericidal concentration was obtained at a concentration of 3.125%. Conclusion: The conclusion that mangosteen peel skin gel extract can inhibit bacterial growth and is bactericidal against Pophyromonas Gingivalis and Actinobacillus Actinomycetemcomitans (Aggregatibacter Actinomycetecomitans.

  10. Bactericidal Effect of Pterostilbene Alone and in Combination with Gentamicin against Human Pathogenic Bacteria.

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    Lee, Wee Xian; Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Ghazali, Ahmad Rohi

    2017-03-17

    The antibacterial activity of pterostilbene in combination with gentamicin against six strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were investigated. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of pterostilbene were determined using microdilution technique whereas the synergistic antibacterial activities of pterostilbene in combination with gentamicin were assessed using checkerboard assay and time-kill kinetic study. Results of the present study showed that the combination effects of pterostilbene with gentamicin were synergistic (FIC index bacteria strains: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 , Escherichia coli O157 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 15442 . However, the time-kill study showed that the interaction was indifference which did not significantly differ from the gentamicin treatment. Furthermore, time-kill study showed that the growth of the tested bacteria was completely attenuated with 2 to 8 h treatment with 0.5 × MIC of pterostilbene and gentamicin. The identified combinations could be of effective therapeutic value against bacterial infections. These findings have potential implications in delaying the development of bacterial resistance as the antibacterial effect was achieved with the lower concentrations of antibacterial agents.

  11. An investigation of the bactericidal activity of selected essential oils to Aeromonas spp.

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    Clifford E. Starliper

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of fishes caused by Aeromonas spp. are common, have broad host ranges and may cause high mortality. Treatments of captive-reared populations using antimicrobials are limited with concerns for bacterial resistance development and environmental dissemination. This study was done to determine whether selected plant-derived essential oils were bactericidal to Aeromonas spp. Initially, twelve essential oils were evaluated using a disk diffusion assay to an isolate of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, cause of fish furunculosis. The greatest zones of inhibition were obtained with oils of cinnamon Cinnamomum cassia, oregano Origanum vulgare, lemongrass Cymbopogon citratus and thyme Thymus vulgaris. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC’s were determined for these four oils, Allimed® (garlic extract, Allium sativum and colloidal silver to sixty-nine isolates representing nine Aeromonas spp. The lowest mean MBCs (0.02–0.04% were obtained with three different sources of cinnamon oil. MBCs for three sources of oregano and lemongrass oils ranged from 0.14% to 0.30% and 0.10% to 0.65%, respectively, and for two thyme oils were 2.11% and 2.22%. The highest concentration (5% of Allimed® tested resulted in MBCs to twelve isolates. A concentration of silver greater than 15 mg/L would be required to determine MBCs for all but one isolate.

  12. Bactericidal activity of bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles against human pathogenic bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abalkhil, Tarad Abdulaziz; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Salmen, Saleh Hussein; Wainwright, Milton

    2017-01-01

    Green synthesis is an attractive and eco-friendly approach to generate potent antibacterial silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs). Such particles have long been used to fight bacteria and represent a promising tool to overcome the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. In this study, green synthesis of Ag-NPs was attempted using plant extracts of Aloe vera, Portulaca oleracea and Cynodon dactylon. The identity and size of Ag-NPs was characterized by ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer and scanning electron microscopy. Monodispersed Ag-NPs were produced with a range of different sizes based on the plant extract used. The bactericidal activity of Ag-NPs against a number of human pathogenic bacteria was determined using the disc diffusion method. The results showed that Gram positive bacteria were more susceptible than Gram negative ones to these antibacterial agents. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined using the 96- well plate method. Finally, the mechanism by which Ag-NPs affect bacteria was investigated by SEM analysis. Bacteria treated with Ag-NPs were seen to undergo shrinkage and to lose their viability. This study provides evidence for a cheap and effective method for synthesizing potent bactericidal Ag-NPs and demonstrates their effectiveness against human pathogenic bacteria

  13. Preparation of AgBr@SiO{sub 2} core@shell hybrid nanoparticles and their bactericidal activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuanyuan [Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Yang, Lisu [Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Henna Sports School, Zhengzhou 450045 (China); Zhao, Yanbao, E-mail: yanbaozhao@126.com [Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China); Li, Binjie; Sun, Lei; Luo, Huajuan [Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials of Ministry of Education, Henan University, Kaifeng 475004 (China)

    2013-04-01

    AgBr@SiO{sub 2} core@shell hybrid nanoparticles (NPs) were successfully prepared by sol-gel method. Their morphology and structure were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The hybrid NPs are predominantly spherical in shape, with an average diameter of 180–200 nm, and each NP contains one inorganic core. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the hybrid NPs were examined against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Escherichia coli (E. coli), respectively. Results indicated that the AgBr@SiO{sub 2} NPs had excellent antibacterial activity. - Highlights: ► Presents a novel antibacterial agent “AgBr@ SiO{sub 2} NPs”. ► AgBr@SiO{sub 2} hybrid NPs could provide long-term antimicrobial effect. ► AgBr@SiO{sub 2} hybrid NPs have excellent antibacterial activity.

  14. Determination of minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations of tiamulin against field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

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    Pridmore, Andrew; Burch, David; Lees, Peter

    2011-08-05

    Tiamulin activity was measured against 19 UK field isolates of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae collected between 2003 and 2009 and the type strain ATCC 27090 as a control, with the intention of comparing broth with serum as growth media. Broth microdilution MIC/MBC tests were performed in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guideline M31-A3, in 'Veterinary Fastidious Medium' (VFM) (supplemented Mueller-Hinton broth at pH 7.3) and in 100% swine serum. For improved precision, a modified, overlapping doubling-dilution series was used (tiamulin concentration range 0.3-72 μg/ml). The MBC was reported as the lowest concentration producing a 99.9% reduction in bacterial density in the sub-cultured well contents, relative to the starting inoculum. The mean MBC/MIC ratio for tiamulin against A. pleuropneumoniae in VFM was low (1.74:1), even though tiamulin is classed as a bacteriostatic drug. Only three of the 19 isolates and the reference strain grew in 100% serum and their MICs were higher than those determined in VFM. It is postulated that this difference was due to differences in pH of the matrices or binding of tiamulin to serum proteins or a combination of both factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bactericidal Effects and Mechanism of Action of Olanexidine Gluconate, a New Antiseptic

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    Iwata, Koushi; Nii, Takuya; Nakata, Hikaru; Tsubotani, Yoshie; Inoue, Yasuhide

    2015-01-01

    Olanexidine gluconate [1-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-5-octylbiguanide gluconate] (development code OPB-2045G) is a new monobiguanide compound with bactericidal activity. In this study, we assessed its spectrum of bactericidal activity and mechanism of action. The minimal bactericidal concentrations of the compound for 30-, 60-, and 180-s exposures were determined with the microdilution method using a neutralizer against 320 bacterial strains from culture collections and clinical isolates. Based on the results, the estimated bactericidal olanexidine concentrations with 180-s exposures were 869 μg/ml for Gram-positive cocci (155 strains), 109 μg/ml for Gram-positive bacilli (29 strains), and 434 μg/ml for Gram-negative bacteria (136 strains). Olanexidine was active against a wide range of bacteria, especially Gram-positive cocci, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and had a spectrum of bactericidal activity comparable to that of commercial antiseptics, such as chlorhexidine and povidone-iodine. In vitro experiments exploring its mechanism of action indicated that olanexidine (i) interacts with the bacterial surface molecules, such as lipopolysaccharide and lipoteichoic acid, (ii) disrupts the cell membranes of liposomes, which are artificial bacterial membrane models, (iii) enhances the membrane permeability of Escherichia coli, (iv) disrupts the membrane integrity of S. aureus, and (v) denatures proteins at relatively high concentrations (≥160 μg/ml). These results indicate that olanexidine probably binds to the cell membrane, disrupts membrane integrity, and its bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects are caused by irreversible leakage of intracellular components. At relatively high concentrations, olanexidine aggregates cells by denaturing proteins. This mechanism differs slightly from that of a similar biguanide compound, chlorhexidine. PMID:25987609

  16. Bactericidal Effect of Pterostilbene Alone and in Combination with Gentamicin against Human Pathogenic Bacteria

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    Wee Xian Lee

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activity of pterostilbene in combination with gentamicin against six strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were investigated. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of pterostilbene were determined using microdilution technique whereas the synergistic antibacterial activities of pterostilbene in combination with gentamicin were assessed using checkerboard assay and time-kill kinetic study. Results of the present study showed that the combination effects of pterostilbene with gentamicin were synergistic (FIC index < 0.5 against three susceptible bacteria strains: Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli O157 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa 15442. However, the time-kill study showed that the interaction was indifference which did not significantly differ from the gentamicin treatment. Furthermore, time-kill study showed that the growth of the tested bacteria was completely attenuated with 2 to 8 h treatment with 0.5 × MIC of pterostilbene and gentamicin. The identified combinations could be of effective therapeutic value against bacterial infections. These findings have potential implications in delaying the development of bacterial resistance as the antibacterial effect was achieved with the lower concentrations of antibacterial agents.

  17. The stability of complement-mediated bactericidal activity in human serum against Salmonella.

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    Colette M O'Shaughnessy

    Full Text Available The complement cascade includes heat-labile proteins and care is required when handling serum in order to preserve its functional integrity. We have previously used a whole human serum bactericidal assay to show that antibody and an intact complement system are required in blood for killing of invasive isolates of Salmonella. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the conditions under which human serum can be stored and manipulated while maintaining complement integrity. Serum bactericidal activity against Salmonella was maintained for a minimum of 35 days when stored at 4°C, eight days at 22°C and 54 hours at 37°C. Up to three freeze-thaw cycles had no effect on the persistence of bactericidal activity and hemolytic complement assays confirmed no effect on complement function. Delay in the separation of serum for up to four days from clotted blood stored at 22°C did not affect bactericidal activity. Dilution of serum resulted in an increased rate of loss of bactericidal activity and so serum should be stored undiluted. These findings indicate that the current guidelines concerning manipulation and storage of human serum to preserve complement integrity and function leave a large margin for safety with regards to bactericidal activity against Salmonella. The study provides a scheme for determining the requirements for serum handling in relation to functional activity of complement in other systems.

  18. Bactericidal Effect of Lauric Acid-Loaded PCL-PEG-PCL Nano-Sized Micelles on Skin Commensal Propionibacterium acnes

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    Thi-Quynh-Mai Tran

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Acne is the over growth of the commensal bacteria Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes on human skin. Lauric acid (LA has been investigated as an effective candidate to suppress the activity of P. acnes. Although LA is nearly insoluble in water, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO has been reported to effectively solubilize LA. However, the toxicity of DMSO can limit the use of LA on the skin. In this study, LA-loaded poly(ɛ-caprolactone-poly(ethylene glycol-poly(ɛ-caprolactone micelles (PCL-PEG-PCL were developed to improve the bactericidal effect of free LA on P. acnes. The block copolymers mPEG-PCL and PCL-PEG-PCL with different molecular weights were synthesized and characterized using 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC, and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC. In the presence of LA, mPEG-PCL diblock copolymers did not self-assemble into nano-sized micelles. On the contrary, the average particle sizes of the PCL-PEG-PCL micelles ranged from 50–198 nm for blank micelles and 27–89 nm for LA-loaded micelles. The drug loading content increased as the molecular weight of PCL-PEG-PCL polymer increased. Additionally, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of free LA were 20 and 80 μg/mL, respectively. The MICs and MBCs of the micelles decreased to 10 and 40 μg/mL, respectively. This study demonstrated that the LA-loaded micelles are a potential treatment for acne.

  19. [Bactericidal activity of colloidal silver against grampositive and gramnegative bacteria].

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    Afonina, I A; Kraeva, L A; Tseneva, G Ia

    2010-01-01

    It was shown that colloidal silver solution prepared in cooperation with the A. F. Ioffe Physical Technical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, had significant bactericidal activity. Stable bactericidal effect on gramnegative microorganisms was observed after their 2-hour exposition in the solution of colloidal silver at a concentration of 10 ppm. Grampositive capsule-forming microorganisms were less susceptible to the colloidal silver solution: their death was observed after the 4-hour exposition in the solution.

  20. Novel antiseptic compound OPB-2045G shows potent bactericidal activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus both in vitro and in vivo: a pilot study in animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yasuhide; Hagi, Akifumi; Nii, Takuya; Tsubotani, Yoshie; Nakata, Hikaru; Iwata, Koushi

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for new compounds to effectively treat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). The novel monobiguanide compound 1-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)-5-octylbiguanide gluconate (OPB-2045G) has potential bactericidal activity. We sought to elucidate the potency of OPB-2045G bactericidal activity against MRSA and VRE compared to those of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHG) and povidone iodine (PVP-I). In vitro bactericidal activity was analysed using minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) as the index. The in vivo bactericidal efficacy of OPB-2045G was examined by determining MRSA and VRE contamination of the normal dorsal skin of mice following removal of hair. After a 3 min treatment period, the MBC of OPB-2045G was lower than that of CHG and PVP-I against standard strains and clinical isolates. Additionally, in our in vivo mouse model, the in vivo bactericidal activity of 1.5 % OPB-2045G (a clinically relevant dose) was higher than that of 0.5 % CHG and equivalent to that of 10 % PVP-I against MRSA. Similarly, the in vivo bactericidal activity of OPB-2045G was higher than that of 0.5 % CHG and 10 % PVP-I against VRE. OPB-2045G showed more potent bactericidal activity against MRSA and VRE both in vitro and in vivo compared to CHG and PVP-I, indicating that OPB-2045G may provide better protection against health care-associated infections caused by these pathogens. © 2015 The Authors.

  1. Bactericidal action of cold atmospheric plasma in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boxhammer, V; Morfill, G E; Shimizu, T; Klämpfl, T; Li, Y-F; Köritzer, J; Zimmermann, J L; Jokipii, J R; Schlegel, J

    2012-01-01

    In this study different influences on the bactericidal effect of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) were investigated intensively. In detail, different initial densities of Escherichia coli cells and different treatment times of up to 8 min were studied. The results show that up to densities of 10 5 cells per 20 μl high reduction rates of up to 5 log can be achieved in less than 3 min of CAP application. In contrast, for higher cell densities almost no reduction was measured for CAP treatment times of up to 8 min. To understand this data in detail, a theoretical model was developed. This model starts from the premise that bacteria are able to some degree to neutralize reactive species and that accordingly the bactericidal effect depends on the bacterial concentration. A further purpose of this study was to analyze the contribution of reactive oxygen and also reactive nitrogen species—produced by the CAP—to the bactericidal effect. We therefore measured nitrites, nitrates and hydrogen peroxide—products of chemical reactions between the species produced by the CAP and the liquid. The evidence of nitric oxide (NO) uptake in bacteria and the corresponding reference experiments with hydrogen peroxide and a chemical NO donor clearly show that the bactericidal effect of CAP is related to a combination of oxidative and nitrosative effects. (paper)

  2. Bactericidal and cytotoxic effects of Erythrina fusca leaves aquadest extract

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    Janti Sudiono

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Empirically, Erythrina fusca has been used as traditional herb for its antibacterial and antiinflammation properties. Periodontal disease is one of the most oral infectious diseases with microorganism predominated as the contributing factors. Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis is one of the main bacteria pathogen found in periodontal diseases. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the bactericidal effect of Erythrina fusca Leaves Aquadest Extract (EFLAE at various concentrations on P. gingivalis and cytotoxic effect on fibroblast. Methods: Pure P. gingivalis was cultured in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI medium for 24 hours with or without various concentrations of treatment of EFLAE. Calculation and statistical analysis of remaining bacteria were performed by inhibitory zone method to evaluate the EFLAE bactericidal effect and compared to chlorhexidine as positive control. To evaluate the cytotoxic effect, NIH 3T3 cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s Modification of Eagle’s Medium (DMEM containing of 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS and 1% penicillin-streptomycin, pH 7.2, in 5% CO2, and stored in humidified incubator under temperature 370 C. Cells were treated with/without various concentrations of EFLAE for 48 hours. The viable cells were then counted using 3-(4,5- Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5 diphenyl tetrazodium bromide (MTT method. Results: EFLAE have bactericidal effect on P. gingivalis in a concentration dependent manner starting from 78%. The concentration of 90% EFLAE had stronger bactericidal effect (35.004 ± 1.546 than those of chlorhexidine as positive control (32.313 ± 1.619. One-way ANOVA showed significant bactericidal effect differences among concentrations of EFLAE and chlorhexidine (p<0.05 while Tuckey HSD test showed significant difference only between lower concentration of EFLAE (78%, 79% and chlorhexidine. With the highest concentration of EFLAE (100% applied in the bactericidal test, no cytotoxic effect

  3. Serum bactericidal activity as indicator of innate immunity in pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Biller-Takahashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The immune system of teleost fish has mechanisms responsible for the defense against bacteria through protective proteins in several tissues. The protein action can be evaluated by serum bactericidal activity and this is an important tool to analyze the immune system. Pacu, Piaractus mesopotamicus, is one of the most important fish in national aquaculture. However there is a lack of studies on its immune responses. In order to standardize and assess the accuracy of the serum bactericidal activity assay, fish were briefly challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila and sampled one week after the challenge. The bacterial infection increased the concentration of protective proteins, resulting in a decrease of colony-forming unit values expressed as well as an enhanced serum bactericidal activity. The protocol showed a reliable assay, appropriate to determine the serum bactericidal activity of pacu in the present experimental conditions.

  4. Controlled assembly of silver nano-fluid in Heliotropium crispum extract: A potent anti-biofilm and bactericidal formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Faria; Hashmi, Muhammad Uzair; Khalid, Nauman; Hayat, Muhammad Qasim; Ikram, Aamer; Janjua, Hussnain A.

    2016-11-01

    The study describes the optimized method for silver nanoparticle (AgNPs) synthesis using Heliotropium crispum (HC) plant extract. Optimization of physicochemical parameters resulted in stable and rapidly assembled AgNPs. FTIR results suggest presence of plant phytochemicals that helped in the reduction, stabilization and capping of AgNPs. The assembled Ag nano-composites displayed the peak surface plasmon resonance (SPR) around 428 nm. The presence of uniquely assembled Ag-biomolecule composites, cap and stabilize nanoparticles in aqueous plant suspension. Spherical, uniform-shaped AgNPs with low poly-dispersion and average particle size of 42 nm and was determined through dynamic light scattering (DLS) and scanning election microscopy (SEM) which present robust interaction with microbes. The study also evaluates the antimicrobial and anti-biofilm properties of biologically synthesized AgNPs on clinical isolates of MRSA, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii. Minimum inhibitory concentration (0.5 mg mL-1) of nanoparticles that presented bactericidal effect was made through inhibition assays on bacterial strains. The concentration which presented potent bactericidal response was then evaluated through growth inhibition in liquid medium for anti-biofilm studies at 2.0 mg mL-1. HC-Ag nanoparticles mediated anti-biofilm effects on Pseudomonas aeruginosa was revealed through SEM. Complete breakdown of biofilm's extracellular polymeric substances resulted after incubation with AgNPs. Peptidoglycan cell wall destruction was also revealed on planktonic bacterial images after 24 h of incubation.

  5. Bactericidal catechins damage the lipid bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikigai, H; Nakae, T; Hara, Y; Shimamura, T

    1993-04-08

    The mode of antibacterial action of, the green tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) and (-)-epicatechin (EC) was investigated. Strong bactericidal EGCg caused leakage of 5,6-carboxyfluorescein from phosphatidylcholine liposomes (PC), but EC with very weak bactericidal activity caused little damage to the membrane. Phosphatidylserine and dicetyl phosphate partially protected the membrane from EGCg-mediated damage when reconstituted into the liposome membrane with PC. EGCg, but not EC, caused strong aggregation and NPN-fluorescence quenching of PC-liposomes and these actions were markedly lowered in the presence of negatively charged lipids. These results show that bactericidal catechins primarily act on and damage bacterial membranes. The observation that Gram-negative bacteria are more resistant to bactericidal catechins than Gram-positive bacteria can be explained to some extent by the presence of negatively charged lipopolysaccharide.

  6. Suggested benchmarks for shape optimization for minimum stress concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli

    2008-01-01

    Shape optimization for minimum stress concentration is vital, important, and difficult. New formulations and numerical procedures imply the need for good benchmarks. The available analytical shape solutions rely on assumptions that are seldom satisfied, so here, we suggest alternative benchmarks...

  7. Stem Bark Extract and Fraction of Persea americana (Mill. Exhibits Bactericidal Activities against Strains of Bacillus cereus Associated with Food Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Akinpelu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigates the in vitro antibacterial potentials of stem bark extracts of Persea americana on strains of Bacillus cereus implicated in food poisoning. The crude stem bark extracts and butanolic fraction at a concentration of 25 mg/mL and 10 mg/mL, respectively, exhibited antibacterial activities against test isolates. The zones of inhibition exhibited by the crude extract and the fraction ranged between 10 mm and 26 mm, while the minimum inhibitory concentration values ranged between 0.78 and 5.00 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged between 3.12 mg/mL–12.5 mg/mL and 1.25–10 mg/mL for the extract and the fraction, respectively. The butanolic fraction killed 91.49% of the test isolates at a concentration of 2× MIC after 60 min of contact time, while a 100% killing was achieved after the test bacterial cells were exposed to the butanolic fraction at a concentration of 3× MIC after 90 min contact time. Intracellular protein and potassium ion leaked out of the test bacterial cells when exposed to certain concentrations of the fraction; this is an indication of bacterial cell wall disruptions by the extract’s butanolic fraction and, thus, caused a biocidal effect on the cells, as evident in the killing rate test results.

  8. Combined treatment of UVA irradiation and antibiotics induces greater bactericidal effects on Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yanfei; Nakahashi, Mutsumi; Mawatari, Kazuaki; Shimohata, Takaaki; Uebanso, Takashi; Harada, Yumi; Tsunedomi, Akari; Emoto, Takahiro; Akutagawa, Masatake; Kinouchi, Yohsuke; Takahashi, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The presence of antibiotics in the environment and their subsequent impact on the development of multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria has raised concerns globally. Consequently, much research is focused on a method to produce a better disinfectant. We have established a disinfectant system using UVA-LED that inactivates pathogenic bacteria. We assessed the bactericidal efficiency of a combination of UVA-LED and antibiotics against Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Combined use of antibiotic drugs and UVA irradiation was more bactericidal than UVA irradiation or antibacterial drugs alone. The bactericidal synergy was observed at low concentrations of each drug that are normally unable to kill the bacteria. This combination has the potential to become a sterilization technology.

  9. Bactericidal strontium-releasing injectable bone cements based on bioactive glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brauer, Delia S; Karpukhina, Natalia; Kedia, Gopal; Bhat, Aditya; Law, Robert V; Radecka, Izabela; Hill, Robert G

    2013-01-06

    Strontium-releasing injectable bone cements may have the potential to prevent implant-related infections through the bactericidal action of strontium, while enhancing bone formation in patients suffering from osteoporosis. A melt-derived bioactive glass (BG) series (SiO2–CaO–CaF2–MgO) with 0–50% of calcium substituted with strontium on a molar base were produced. By mixing glass powder, poly(acrylic acid) and water, cements were obtained which can be delivered by injection and set in situ, giving compressive strength of up to 35 MPa. Strontium release was dependent on BG composition with increasing strontium substitution resulting in higher concentrations in the medium. Bactericidal effects were tested on Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis; cell counts were reduced by up to three orders of magnitude over 6 days. Results show that bactericidal action can be increased through BG strontium substitution, allowing for the design of novel antimicrobial and bone enhancing cements for use in vertebroplasty or kyphoplasty for treating osteoporosis-related vertebral compression fractures.

  10. 6 CFR 27.204 - Minimum concentration by security issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 27.204 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Chemical Facility Security Program § 27.204 Minimum concentration by security issue. (a) Release Chemicals—(1) Release-Toxic Chemicals. If a release-toxic chemical of interest...

  11. Sustained release of bactericidal concentrations of penicillin in the pleural space via an antibiotic-eluting pigtail catheter coated with electrospun nanofibers: results from in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yin-Kai; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Liu, Kuo-Sheng; Wang, Yi-Chuan; Wang, Chih-Wei; Liu, Shih-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Inadequate intrapleural drug concentrations caused by poor penetration of systemic antibiotics into the pleural cavity is a major cause of treatment failure in empyema. Herein, we describe a novel antibiotic-eluting pigtail catheter coated with electrospun nanofibers used for the sustained release of bactericidal concentrations of penicillin in the pleural space. Electrospun nanofibers prepared using polylactide-polyglycolide copolymer and penicillin G sodium dissolved in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol were used to coat the surface of an Fr6 pigtail catheter. The in vitro patterns of drug release were tested by placing the catheter in phosphate-buffered saline. In vivo studies were performed using rabbits treated with penicillin either intrapleurally (Group 1, 20 mg delivered through the catheter) or systemically (Group 2, intramuscular injection, 10 mg/kg). Penicillin concentrations in the serum and pleural fluid were then measured and compared. In vitro studies revealed a burst release of penicillin (10% of the total dose) occurring in the first 24 hours, followed by a sustained release in the subsequent 30 days. Intrapleural drug levels were significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (Ppenicillin concentrations remained above the minimum inhibitory concentration breakpoint throughout the entire study period. In contrast, serum penicillin levels were significantly higher in Group 2 than in Group 1 (P<0.001). Notably, all Group 2 rabbits showed signs of systemic toxicity (paralytic ileus and weight loss). We conclude that our antibiotic-eluting catheter may serve as a novel therapeutic option to treat empyema.

  12. Evaluation of the minimum iodine concentration for contrast-enhanced subtraction mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldelli, P; Bravin, A; Maggio, C Di; Gennaro, G; Sarnelli, A; Taibi, A; Gambaccini, M

    2006-01-01

    Early manifestation of breast cancer is often very subtle and is displayed in a complex and variable pattern of normal anatomy that may obscure the disease. The use of dual-energy techniques, that can remove the structural noise, and contrast media, that enhance the region surrounding the tumour, could help us to improve the detectability of the lesions. The aim of this work is to investigate the use of an iodine-based contrast medium in mammography with two different double exposure techniques: K-edge subtraction mammography and temporal subtraction mammography. Both techniques have been investigated by using an ideal source, like monochromatic beams produced at a synchrotron radiation facility and a clinical digital mammography system. A dedicated three-component phantom containing cavities filled with different iodine concentrations has been developed and used for measurements. For each technique, information about the minimum iodine concentration, which provides a significant enhancement of the detectability of the pathology by minimizing the risk due to high dose and high concentration of contrast medium, has been obtained. In particular, for cavities of 5 and 8 mm in diameter filled with iodine solutions, the minimum concentration needed to obtain a contrast-to-noise ratio of 5 with a mean glandular dose of 2 mGy has been calculated. The minimum concentrations estimated with monochromatic beams and K-edge subtraction mammography are 0.9 mg ml -1 and 1.34 mg ml -1 for the biggest and smallest details, respectively, while for temporal subtraction mammography they are 0.84 mg ml -1 and 1.31 mg ml -1 . With the conventional clinical system the minimum concentrations for the K-edge subtraction mammography are 4.13 mg ml -1 (8 mm diameter) and 5.75 mg ml -1 (5 mm diameter), while for the temporal subtraction mammography they are 1.01 mg ml -1 (8 mm diameter) and 1.57 mg ml -1 (5 mm diameter)

  13. Lactobacillus proteins are associated with the bactericidal activity against E. coli of female genital tract secretions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabah Kalyoussef

    Full Text Available Female genital tract secretions are bactericidal for Escherichia (E. coli ex vivo. However, the intersubject variability and molecules that contribute to this activity have not been defined.The bactericidal activity and concentration of immune mediators in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL collected from 99 healthy women were determined.CVL reduced the number of E. coli colonies by 68% [-26, 100] (median [range]. CVL were active against laboratory and clinical isolates of E. coli, but were inactive against Lactobacillus species. Bactericidal activity correlated with the concentration of protein recovered (p90% inhibitory activity (active and two with<30% activity were subjected to MS/MS proteomic analysis. 215 proteins were identified and six were found exclusively in active samples. Four of these corresponded to Lactobacillus crispatus or jensenii proteins. Moreover, culture supernatants from Lactobacillus jensenii were bactericidal for E. coli.Both host and commensal microbiota proteins contribute to mucosal defense. Identification of these proteins will facilitate the development of strategies to maintain a healthy vaginal microbiome and prevent colonization with pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli that increase the risk for urinary tract infections, preterm labor and perinatal infection.

  14. Preparation and bactericide activity of gallic acid stabilized gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno-Alvarez, S. A.; Martinez-Castanon, G. A.; Nino-Martinez, N.; Reyes-Macias, J. F.; Patino-Marin, N.; Loyola-Rodriguez, J. P.; Ruiz, Facundo

    2010-01-01

    In this work, gold nanoparticles with three different sizes (13.7, 39.4, and 76.7 nm) were prepared using a simple aqueous method with gallic acid as the reducing and stabilizing agent, the different sizes were obtained varying some experimental parameters as the pH of the reaction and the amount of the gallic acid. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Samples were identified as elemental gold and present spherical morphology, a narrow size distribution and good stabilization according to TEM and DLS results. The antibacterial activity of this gallic acid stabilized gold nanoparticles against S. mutans (the etiologic agent of dental caries) was assessed using a microdilution method obtaining a minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.31, 12.31, and 49.25 μg/mL for 13.7, 39.4, and 76.7 nm gold nanoparticles, respectively. The antibacterial assay showed that gold nanoparticles prepared in this work present a bactericide activity by a synergistic action with gallic acid. The MIC found for this nanoparticles are much lower than those reported for mixtures of gold nanoparticles and antibiotics.

  15. Preparation and bactericide activity of gallic acid stabilized gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Alvarez, S. A. [UASLP, Doctorado Institucional en Ingenieria y Ciencia de Materiales (Mexico); Martinez-Castanon, G. A., E-mail: mtzcastanon@fciencias.uaslp.m [UASLP, Maestria en Ciencias Odontologicas, Facultad de Estomatologia (Mexico); Nino-Martinez, N. [UASLP, Facultad de Ciencias (Mexico); Reyes-Macias, J. F.; Patino-Marin, N.; Loyola-Rodriguez, J. P. [UASLP, Maestria en Ciencias Odontologicas, Facultad de Estomatologia (Mexico); Ruiz, Facundo [UASLP, Facultad de Ciencias (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    In this work, gold nanoparticles with three different sizes (13.7, 39.4, and 76.7 nm) were prepared using a simple aqueous method with gallic acid as the reducing and stabilizing agent, the different sizes were obtained varying some experimental parameters as the pH of the reaction and the amount of the gallic acid. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Samples were identified as elemental gold and present spherical morphology, a narrow size distribution and good stabilization according to TEM and DLS results. The antibacterial activity of this gallic acid stabilized gold nanoparticles against S. mutans (the etiologic agent of dental caries) was assessed using a microdilution method obtaining a minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.31, 12.31, and 49.25 {mu}g/mL for 13.7, 39.4, and 76.7 nm gold nanoparticles, respectively. The antibacterial assay showed that gold nanoparticles prepared in this work present a bactericide activity by a synergistic action with gallic acid. The MIC found for this nanoparticles are much lower than those reported for mixtures of gold nanoparticles and antibiotics.

  16. Docosahexaenoic acid loaded lipid nanoparticles with bactericidal activity against Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seabra, Catarina Leal; Nunes, Cláudia; Gomez-Lazaro, Maria; Correia, Marta; Machado, José Carlos; Gonçalves, Inês C; Reis, Celso A; Reis, Salette; Martins, M Cristina L

    2017-03-15

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid present in fish oil, has been described as a promising molecule to the treatment of Helicobacter pylori gastric infection. However, due to its highly unsaturated structure, DHA can be easily oxidized loosing part of its bioactivity. This work aims the nanoencapsulation of DHA to improve its bactericidal efficacy against H. pylori. DHA was loaded into nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) produced by hot homogenization and ultrasonication using a blend of lipids (Precirol ATO5 ® , Miglyol-812 ® ) and a surfactant (Tween 60 ® ). Homogeneous NLC with 302±14nm diameter, -28±3mV surface charge (dynamic and electrophoretic light scattering) and containing 66±7% DHA (UV/VIS spectroscopy) were successfully produced. Bacterial growth curves, performed over 24h in the presence of different DHA concentrations (free or loaded into NLC), demonstrated that nanoencapsulation enhanced DHA bactericidal effect, since DHA-loaded NLC were able to inhibit H. pylori growth in a much lower concentrations (25μM) than free DHA (>100μM). Bioimaging studies, using scanning and transmission electron microscopy and also imaging flow cytometry, demonstrated that DHA-loaded NLC interact with H. pylori membrane, increasing their periplasmic space and disrupting membrane and allowing the leakage of cytoplasmic content. Furthermore, the developed nanoparticles are not cytotoxic to human gastric adenocarcinoma cells at bactericidal concentrations. DHA-loaded NLC should, therefore, be envisaged as an alternative to the current treatments for H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Human Lysozyme Synergistically Enhances Bactericidal Dynamics and Lowers the Resistant Mutant Prevention Concentration for Metronidazole to Helicobacter pylori by Increasing Cell Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Metronidazole (MNZ is an effective agent that has been employed to eradicate Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori. The emergence of broad MNZ resistance in H. pylori has affected the efficacy of this therapeutic agent. The concentration of MNZ, especially the mutant prevention concentration (MPC, plays an important role in selecting or enriching resistant mutants and regulating therapeutic effects. A strategy to reduce the MPC that can not only effectively treat H. pylori but also prevent resistance mutations is needed. H. pylori is highly resistant to lysozyme. Lysozyme possesses a hydrolytic bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan and a cationic dependent mode. These effects can increase the permeability of bacterial cells and promote antibiotic absorption into bacterial cells. In this study, human lysozyme (hLYS was used to probe its effects on the integrity of the H. pylori outer and inner membranes using as fluorescent probe hydrophobic 1-N-phenyl-naphthylamine (NPN and the release of aspartate aminotransferase. Further studies using a propidium iodide staining method assessed whether hLYS could increase cell permeability and promote cell absorption. Finally, we determined the effects of hLYS on the bactericidal dynamics and MPC of MNZ in H. pylori. Our findings indicate that hLYS could dramatically increase cell permeability, reduce the MPC of MNZ for H. pylori, and enhance its bactericidal dynamic activity, demonstrating that hLYS could reduce the probability of MNZ inducing resistance mutations.

  18. Bactericide for sulfate-reducing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shklyar, T F; Anoshina, G M; Blokhin, V Ye; Kisarrev, Ye L; Novikovsa, G M

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the invention is to find a bactericide for sulfate-reducing bacteria of oil fields in Western Siberia in order to suppress the biocorrosive activity on oil industry equipment. This goal is achieved by using M-nitroacetanylide as the bactericide of sulfate-reducing bacteria. This agent suppresses the activity of a stored culture of sulfate-reducing bacteria that comes from industrial waste waters injection wells of the Smotlor oil field.

  19. Blood bactericidal activity in Hiroshima subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Hamilton, H B

    1961-03-07

    A simple screening method for blood bactericidal activity was developed for study of irradiated atomic bomb survivors and nonirradiated subjects in Hiroshima. Blood bactericidal activity was found to be a relatively constant biological phenomenon in all subjects studied. No differences in activity were detected in relationship to radiation exposure in 1945. 17 references, 6 tables.

  20. Hypnosis control based on the minimum concentration of anesthetic drug for maintaining appropriate hypnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furutani, Eiko; Nishigaki, Yuki; Kanda, Chiaki; Takeda, Toshihiro; Shirakami, Gotaro

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel hypnosis control method using Auditory Evoked Potential Index (aepEX) as a hypnosis index. In order to avoid side effects of an anesthetic drug, it is desirable to reduce the amount of an anesthetic drug during surgery. For this purpose many studies of hypnosis control systems have been done. Most of them use Bispectral Index (BIS), another hypnosis index, but it has problems of dependence on anesthetic drugs and nonsmooth change near some particular values. On the other hand, aepEX has an ability of clear distinction between patient consciousness and unconsciousness and independence of anesthetic drugs. The control method proposed in this paper consists of two elements: estimating the minimum effect-site concentration for maintaining appropriate hypnosis and adjusting infusion rate of an anesthetic drug, propofol, using model predictive control. The minimum effect-site concentration is estimated utilizing the property of aepEX pharmacodynamics. The infusion rate of propofol is adjusted so that effect-site concentration of propofol may be kept near and always above the minimum effect-site concentration. Simulation results of hypnosis control using the proposed method show that the minimum concentration can be estimated appropriately and that the proposed control method can maintain hypnosis adequately and reduce the total infusion amount of propofol.

  1. A complex of equine lysozyme and oleic acid with bactericidal activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily A Clementi

    Full Text Available HAMLET and ELOA are complexes consisting of oleic acid and two homologous, yet functionally different, proteins with cytotoxic activities against mammalian cells, with HAMLET showing higher tumor cells specificity, possibly due to the difference in propensity for oleic acid binding, as HAMLET binds 5-8 oleic acid molecules per protein molecule and ELOA binds 11-48 oleic acids. HAMLET has been shown to possess bactericidal activity against a number of bacterial species, particularly those with a respiratory tropism, with Streptococcus pneumoniae displaying the greatest degree of sensitivity. We show here that ELOA also displays bactericidal activity against pneumococci, which at lower concentrations shows mechanistic similarities to HAMLET's bactericidal activity. ELOA binds to S. pneumoniae and causes perturbations of the plasma membrane, including depolarization and subsequent rupture, and activates an influx of calcium into the cells. Selective inhibition of calcium channels and sodium/calcium exchange activity significantly diminished ELOA's bactericidal activity, similar to what we have observed with HAMLET. Finally, ELOA-induced death was also accompanied by DNA fragmentation into high molecular weight fragments - an apoptosis-like morphological phenotype that is seen during HAMLET-induced death. Thus, in contrast to different mechanisms of eukaryote cell death induced by ELOA and HAMLET, these complexes are characterized by rather similar activities towards bacteria. Although the majority of these events could be mimicked using oleic acid alone, the concentrations of oleic acid required were significantly higher than those present in the ELOA complex, and for some assays, the results were not identical between oleic acid alone and the ELOA complex. This indicates that the lipid, as a common denominator in both complexes, is an important component for the complexes' bactericidal activities, while the proteins are required both to solubilize

  2. Comparison of the bactericidal activity of ozone and chlorine against Escherichia coli at 1/sup 0/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fetner, R H; Ingols, R S

    1956-01-01

    The bactericidal effects of ozone solutions were tested against Escherichia coli suspensions at 1/sup 0/, and the lethal concentration was found to be that quantity of ozone necessary to produce a detectable residue in the suspension; under the conditions of these experiments this was 0.4-0.5 mg/l. A comparison of the bactericidal activity of chlorine under similar conditions emphasized the different modes of action of the two agents.

  3. Isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration reduction by fentanyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, A I; Smith, C; Dyar, O; Goodman, D; Smith, L R; Glass, P S

    1993-05-01

    Isoflurane is commonly combined with fentanyl during anesthesia. Because of hysteresis between plasma and effect site, bolus administration of fentanyl does not accurately describe the interaction between these drugs. The purpose of this study was to determine the MAC reduction of isoflurane by fentanyl when both drugs had reached steady biophase concentrations. Seventy-seven patients were randomly allocated to receive either no fentanyl or fentanyl at several predetermined plasma concentrations. Fentanyl was administered using a computer-assisted continuous infusion device. Patients were also randomly allocated to receive a predetermined steady state end-tidal concentration of isoflurane. Blood samples for fentanyl concentration were taken at 10 min after initiation of the infusion and before and immediately after skin incision. A minimum of 20 min was allowed between the start of the fentanyl infusion and skin incision. The reduction in the MAC of isoflurane by the measured fentanyl concentration was calculated using a maximum likelihood solution to a logistic regression model. There was an initial steep reduction in the MAC of isoflurane by fentanyl, with 3 ng/ml resulting in a 63% MAC reduction. A ceiling effect was observed with 10 ng/ml providing only a further 19% reduction in MAC. A 50% decrease in MAC was produced by a fentanyl concentration of 1.67 ng/ml. Defining the MAC reduction of isoflurane by all the opioids allows their more rational administration with inhalational anesthetics and provides a comparison of their relative anesthetic potencies.

  4. Short communication: Determination of the ability of Thymox to kill or inhibit various species of microorganisms associated with infectious causes of bovine lameness in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulow, Megan; Zibaee, Fahimeh; Allard, Marianne; Döpfer, Dörte

    2015-11-01

    Infectious claw diseases continue to plague cattle in intensively managed husbandry systems. Poor foot hygiene and constant moist environments lead to the infection and spread of diseases such as digital dermatitis (hairy heel warts), interdigital dermatitis, and interdigital phlegmon (foot rot). Currently, copper sulfate and formalin are the most widely used disinfecting agents in bovine footbaths; however, the industry could benefit from more environmentally and worker friendly substitutes. This study determined the in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of Thymox (Laboratoire M2, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada) for a selection of microorganisms related to infectious bovine foot diseases. Thymox is a broad-spectrum agricultural disinfectant that is nontoxic, noncorrosive, and readily biodegradable. The values for minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration indicated that Thymox inhibited growth and killed the various species of microorganisms under study at much lower concentrations compared with the recommended working concentration of a 1% solution. Overall, the values found in this study of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of Thymox show its potential as an alternative antibacterial agent used in bovine footbaths; however, field trials are needed to determine its effectiveness for the control and prevention of infectious claw diseases. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of using a fungicide along with bactericide in the main ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    quarternized compounds), and a fungicide (2-thiocyanomethylthio benzothiazole based) commonly used in Turkish leather industry were chosen. The bactericides were added into the main soaking float with and without different concentrations of fungicide. In each trial, liquor samples were taken at the end of the main ...

  6. Bactericidal activity of herbal volatile oil extracts against multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornrat Intorasoot

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim:\tTo investigate the antibacterial activity of ten volatile oils extracted from medicinal plants, including galangal (Alpinia galanga Linn., ginger (Zingiber officinale, plai (Zingiber cassumunar Roxb., lime (Citrus aurantifolia, kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix DC., sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum Linn., tree basil (Ocimum gratissimum, lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus DC., clove (Syzygium aromaticum and cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum against four standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii and thirty clinical isolates of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR-A. baumannii. Methods:\tAgar diffusion, minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC were employed for determination of bactericidal activity of water distillated medicinal plants. Tea tree oil (Melaleuca alternifolia was used as positive control in this study. Results:\tThe results indicated the volatile oil extracted from cinnamon exhibited potent antibacterial activity against the most common human pathogens, S. aureus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii. Most of volatile oil extracts were less effective against non-fermentative bacteria, P. aeruginosa. In addition, volatile oil extracted from cinnamon, clove and tree basil possessed potent bactericidal activity against MDR-A. baumannii with MBC90 of 0.5, 1 and 2 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions: The volatile oil extracts would be useful as alternative natural product for treatment of the most common human pathogens and MDR-A. baumannii infections. [J Complement Med Res 2017; 6(2.000: 218-222

  7. Minimum detectable gas concentration performance evaluation method for gas leak infrared imaging detection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Jiakun; Wang, Xia; Li, Shuo

    2017-04-01

    Thermal imaging technology is an effective means of detecting hazardous gas leaks. Much attention has been paid to evaluation of the performance of gas leak infrared imaging detection systems due to several potential applications. The minimum resolvable temperature difference (MRTD) and the minimum detectable temperature difference (MDTD) are commonly used as the main indicators of thermal imaging system performance. This paper establishes a minimum detectable gas concentration (MDGC) performance evaluation model based on the definition and derivation of MDTD. We proposed the direct calculation and equivalent calculation method of MDGC based on the MDTD measurement system. We build an experimental MDGC measurement system, which indicates the MDGC model can describe the detection performance of a thermal imaging system to typical gases. The direct calculation, equivalent calculation, and direct measurement results are consistent. The MDGC and the minimum resolvable gas concentration (MRGC) model can effectively describe the performance of "detection" and "spatial detail resolution" of thermal imaging systems to gas leak, respectively, and constitute the main performance indicators of gas leak detection systems.

  8. Bactericidal Effect of Photolysis of H2O2 in Combination with Sonolysis of Water via Hydroxyl Radical Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Hong; Nakamura, Keisuke; Kanno, Taro; Sasaki, Keiichi; Niwano, Yoshimi

    2015-01-01

    The bactericidal effect of hydroxyl radical (·OH) generated by combination of photolysis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and sonolysis of water was examined under the condition in which the yield of ·OH increased additively when H2O2 aqueous solution was concomitantly irradiated with laser and ultrasound. The suspension of Staphylococcus aureus mixed with the different concentrations of H2O2 was irradiated simultaneously with a laser light (wavelength: 405 nm, irradiance: 46 and 91 mW/cm2) and ultrasound (power: 30 w, frequency: 1.65 MHz) at 20 ± 1°C of the water bulk temperature for 2 min. The combination of laser and ultrasound irradiation significantly reduced the viable bacterial count in comparison with the laser irradiation of H2O2 alone. By contrast, the ultrasound irradiation alone exerted almost no bactericidal effect. These results suggested that the combination effect of photolysis of H2O2 and sonolysis of water on bactericidal activity was synergistic. A multi-way analysis of variance also revealed that the interaction of H2O2 concentration, laser power and ultrasound irradiation significantly affected the bactericidal activity. Since the result of oxidative DNA damage evaluation demonstrated that the combination of laser and ultrasound irradiation significantly induced oxidative damage of bacterial DNA in comparison with the laser irradiation of H2O2 alone, it was suggested that the combination effect of photolysis of H2O2 and sonolysis of water on bactericidal activity would be exerted via oxidative damage of cellular components such as DNA.

  9. How low can you go? Assessing minimum concentrations of NSC in carbon limited tree saplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Guenter; Hartmann, Henrik; Schwendener, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Tissue concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) are frequently used to determine the carbon balance of plants. Over the last years, an increasing number of studies have inferred carbon starvation in trees under environmental stress like drought from low tissue NSC concentrations. However, such inferences are limited by the fact that minimum concentrations of NSC required for survival are not known. So far, it was hypothesized that even under lethal carbon starvation, starch and low molecular sugar concentrations cannot be completely depleted and that minimum NSC concentrations at death vary across tissues and species. Here we present results of an experiment that aimed to determine minimum NSC concentrations in different tissues of saplings of two broad-leaved tree species (Acer pseudoplatanus and Quercus petratea) exposed to lethal carbon starvation via continuous darkening. In addition, we investigated recovery rates of NSC concentrations in saplings that had been darkened for different periods of time and were then re-exposed to light. Both species survived continuous darkening for about 12 weeks (confirmed by testing the ability to re-sprout after darkness). In all investigated tissues, starch concentrations declined close to zero within three to six weeks of darkness. Low molecular sugars also decreased strongly within the first weeks of darkness, but seemed to stabilize at low concentrations of 0.5 to 2 % dry matter (depending on tissue and species) almost until death. NSC concentrations recovered surprisingly fast in saplings that were re-exposed to light. After 3 weeks of continuous darkness, tissue NSC concentrations recovered within 6 weeks to levels of unshaded control saplings in all tissues and in both species. To our knowledge, this study represents the first experimental attempt to quantify minimum tissue NSC concentrations at lethal carbon starvation. Most importantly, our results suggest that carbon-starved tree saplings are able to

  10. Spectroscopy investigation on chemo-catalytic, free radical scavenging and bactericidal properties of biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized using Salicornia brachiata aqueous extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seralathan, Janani; Stevenson, Priscilla; Subramaniam, Shankar; Raghavan, Rachana; Pemaiah, Brindha; Sivasubramanian, Aravind; Veerappan, Anbazhagan

    2014-01-01

    Nanosized silver have been widely used in many applications, such as catalysis, photonics, sensors, medicine etc. Thus, there is an increasing need to develop high-yield, low cost, non-toxic and eco-friendly procedures for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Herein, we report an efficient, green synthesis of silver nanoparticles utilizing the aqueous extract of Salicornia brachiata, a tropical plant of the Chenopodiaceae family. Silver nanoparticles have been characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The morphology of the particles formed consists of highly diversified shapes like spherical, rod-like, prism, triangular, pentagonal and hexagonal pattern. However, addition of sodium hydroxide to the extract produces mostly spherical particles. The stable nanoparticles obtained using this green method show remarkable catalytic activity in the reduction of 4-nitro phenol to 4-amino phenol. The reduction catalyzed by silver nanoparticles followed the first-order kinetics, with a rate constant of, 0.6 × 10-2 s-1. The bactericidal activity of the synthesized silver nanoparticles against the pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus E, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, was also explored using REMA. The obtained results showed that the minimum inhibitory concentration required to induce bactericidal effect is lower than the control antibiotic, ciprofloxacin. In addition to these, the biogenic synthesized nanoparticles also exhibited excellent free radical scavenging activity.

  11. Bactericidal Antibiotics Induce Toxic Metabolic Perturbations that Lead to Cellular Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Belenky

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Understanding how antibiotics impact bacterial metabolism may provide insight into their mechanisms of action and could lead to enhanced therapeutic methodologies. Here, we profiled the metabolome of Escherichia coli after treatment with three different classes of bactericidal antibiotics (β-lactams, aminoglycosides, quinolones. These treatments induced a similar set of metabolic changes after 30 min that then diverged into more distinct profiles at later time points. The most striking changes corresponded to elevated concentrations of central carbon metabolites, active breakdown of the nucleotide pool, reduced lipid levels, and evidence of an elevated redox state. We examined potential end-target consequences of these metabolic perturbations and found that antibiotic-treated cells exhibited cytotoxic changes indicative of oxidative stress, including higher levels of protein carbonylation, malondialdehyde adducts, nucleotide oxidation, and double-strand DNA breaks. This work shows that bactericidal antibiotics induce a complex set of metabolic changes that are correlated with the buildup of toxic metabolic by-products.

  12. Bactericidal Effect of Photolysis of H2O2 in Combination with Sonolysis of Water via Hydroxyl Radical Generation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Sheng

    Full Text Available The bactericidal effect of hydroxyl radical (·OH generated by combination of photolysis of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and sonolysis of water was examined under the condition in which the yield of ·OH increased additively when H2O2 aqueous solution was concomitantly irradiated with laser and ultrasound. The suspension of Staphylococcus aureus mixed with the different concentrations of H2O2 was irradiated simultaneously with a laser light (wavelength: 405 nm, irradiance: 46 and 91 mW/cm2 and ultrasound (power: 30 w, frequency: 1.65 MHz at 20 ± 1°C of the water bulk temperature for 2 min. The combination of laser and ultrasound irradiation significantly reduced the viable bacterial count in comparison with the laser irradiation of H2O2 alone. By contrast, the ultrasound irradiation alone exerted almost no bactericidal effect. These results suggested that the combination effect of photolysis of H2O2 and sonolysis of water on bactericidal activity was synergistic. A multi-way analysis of variance also revealed that the interaction of H2O2 concentration, laser power and ultrasound irradiation significantly affected the bactericidal activity. Since the result of oxidative DNA damage evaluation demonstrated that the combination of laser and ultrasound irradiation significantly induced oxidative damage of bacterial DNA in comparison with the laser irradiation of H2O2 alone, it was suggested that the combination effect of photolysis of H2O2 and sonolysis of water on bactericidal activity would be exerted via oxidative damage of cellular components such as DNA.

  13. In vitro bactericidal and bacteriostatic potential of ingredients of traditional medicine obtained from Kacha area (river indus) district D.I. Khan, KPK, against human bacterial pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, A.; Khan, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze and evaluate antimicrobial potential of medicinal plants obtained from kacha area of river indus, that are used as ingredients of traditional medicine for treatment of multiple infectious diseases. The antimicrobial activities of methanol and aqueous extracts of 5 medicinal plants of a traditional medicine were evaluated against 6 human gram positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcos luteus) and gram negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter, Klebsiella pneumoniae) pathogens. The disc diffusion and broth macro dilution assay was used to determine the zone of inhibitions and the minimum inhibitory concentration respectively. The ciprofloxacin and streptomycin were used as standard agents. Both aqueous and methanol fractions of all 5 tested plants exhibited antimicrobial activity against one or more species of microorganisms. The most active extract found wasAzadirachta indica leaves which represented widest zone of inhibition of 16(+- 0.05) mm and minimum inhibitory concentration 0.19mg/ml against Klebsie-lla pneumoniae. Calotropis procera leaves was found least active representing lowest Zones of inhibition 3.13(+- 0.05) mm and highest minimum inhibitory concentration value (20mg/ml) against test microorganisms. Over all methanol fractions of medicinal plants represented stronger biological activity against test microorganisms than aqueous extracts. A good majority of extracts were bactericidal. These results afford the ground information for potential use of crude extracts with high MIC and MBC values. Moreover a synergistic effect is expected when used in combination. For this further attempt are in progress to investigate antimicrobial potential of combination medicine. (author)

  14. Adverse influence of ozone on pulmonary bactericidal activity of the murine lung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, E; Tyler, W S; Hoeprich, P D; Eagle, C

    1971-01-01

    Mice infected with /sup 32/P-labeled Staphylococcus aureus and subsequently (30 to 45 min) exposed to 0.62 to 4.25 ppM O/sub 3/ for 4 hr showed less bactericidal activity (negative at higher concentrations) than controls not exposed to O/sub 3/. Counts of /sup 32/P showed 5 to 20% loss (ciliary clearance) from 0 to 5 hr with no O/sub 3/ effect. Histologically, capillaries and small vessels were dilated with occasional edema at higher concentrations. Inhibition of macrophage function was thought to account for these results.

  15. Biofilm formation and determination of minimum biofilm eradication concentration of antibiotics in Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassew, Dereje Damte; Mechesso, Abraham Fikru; Park, Na-Hye; Song, Ju-Beom; Shur, Joo-Woon; Park, Seung-Chun

    2017-10-20

    The study was aimed to investigate biofilm forming ability of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae and to determine the minimum biofilm eradication concentrations of antibiotics. Biofilm forming ability of six strains of M. hyopneumoniae was examined using crystal violet staining on coverslips. The results demonstrated an apparent line of biofilm growth in 3 of the strains isolated from swine with confirmed cases of enzootic pneumonia. BacLight bacterial viability assay revealed that the majority of the cells were viable after 336 hr of incubation. Moreover, M. hyopneumoniae persists in the biofilm after being exposed to 10 fold higher concentration of antibiotics than the minimum inhibitory concentrations in planktonic cells. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of biofilm formation in M. hyopneumoniae. However, comprehensive studies on the mechanisms of biofilm formation are needed to combat swine enzootic pneumonia caused by resistant M. hyopneumoniae.

  16. The bactericidal mechanism of action against Staphylococcus aureus for AgO nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Wenning, E-mail: shenwenning@qq.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an University of Technology, No. 5 South Jinhua Road, Xi' an 710048 (China); Li, Pin [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an University of Technology, No. 5 South Jinhua Road, Xi' an 710048 (China); Feng, Hui [Shaanxi Institute of Zoology, Xi' an 710032 (China); Ge, Yanfeng; Liu, Zheng; Feng, Lajun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Xi' an University of Technology, No. 5 South Jinhua Road, Xi' an 710048 (China)

    2017-06-01

    To identify the mechanistic effects of AgO nanoparticles on Gram-positive bacteria, S. aureus cells suspended in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and deionized water were separately treated using AgO nanoparticles at different concentrations. The phase composition changes of the bactericide after killing S. aureus and the cellular responses of S. aureus to AgO were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results show that AgO nanoparticles could kill S. aureus suspended in PBS and deionized water. The bactericidal effect of AgO bactericide against S. aureus in water was better than that in PBS, due to the formation of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} from the reaction between AgO and PBS. AgO nanoparticles exerted their bactericidal activity by multiple processes. AgO nanoparticles adhered to the surface of S. aureus cells firstly, then induced physical alterations in cell morphology and released silver ions, leading to initial injuries of cell membrane. Once membrane damage occurred, they entered the cells, and damaged the intracellular materials, eventually causing severe morphological and structural injuries to the cells and leakage of cytoplasm. - Highlights: • S. aureus in water was more sensitive to AgO than in PBS, since AgO reacted with PBS and formed Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. • After killing S. aureus in water, AgO did not changed. • AgO particles attached to cell surface then interacted with the cells, resulting in the increase of released silver contents. • Cell membrane damages by AgO nanoparticles were supported by the leakages of K{sup +}, proteins and DNA. • Serious cell morphological and structural changes were caused by AgO nanoparticles.

  17. The bactericidal mechanism of action against Staphylococcus aureus for AgO nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Wenning; Li, Pin; Feng, Hui; Ge, Yanfeng; Liu, Zheng; Feng, Lajun

    2017-01-01

    To identify the mechanistic effects of AgO nanoparticles on Gram-positive bacteria, S. aureus cells suspended in phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and deionized water were separately treated using AgO nanoparticles at different concentrations. The phase composition changes of the bactericide after killing S. aureus and the cellular responses of S. aureus to AgO were characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic absorption spectrophotometer, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. The results show that AgO nanoparticles could kill S. aureus suspended in PBS and deionized water. The bactericidal effect of AgO bactericide against S. aureus in water was better than that in PBS, due to the formation of Ag 3 PO 4 from the reaction between AgO and PBS. AgO nanoparticles exerted their bactericidal activity by multiple processes. AgO nanoparticles adhered to the surface of S. aureus cells firstly, then induced physical alterations in cell morphology and released silver ions, leading to initial injuries of cell membrane. Once membrane damage occurred, they entered the cells, and damaged the intracellular materials, eventually causing severe morphological and structural injuries to the cells and leakage of cytoplasm. - Highlights: • S. aureus in water was more sensitive to AgO than in PBS, since AgO reacted with PBS and formed Ag 3 PO 4 . • After killing S. aureus in water, AgO did not changed. • AgO particles attached to cell surface then interacted with the cells, resulting in the increase of released silver contents. • Cell membrane damages by AgO nanoparticles were supported by the leakages of K + , proteins and DNA. • Serious cell morphological and structural changes were caused by AgO nanoparticles.

  18. In vitro bactericidal activity of Jinghua Weikang Capsule and its individual herb Chenopodium ambrosioides L. against antibiotic-resistant Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Yu; Zhang, Xue-Zhi; Li, Ning; Cheng, Hong

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the bactericidal effects of Jinghua Weikang Capsule and its major component Chenopodium ambrosioides L. on antibiotic-resistant Helicobacter pylori. Four clinical antibiotic-resistant H. pylori strains were isolated and incubated in liquid medium containing Jinghua Weikang Capsule or Chenopodium ambrosioides L. By means of time-kill curve method, the average colony counts and bactericidal rate were calculated at time points of 0, 4, 8 and 24 h after the incubation and the time-kill curves were charted. Both Jinghua Weikang Capsule and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. at a concentration of 0.64 g/L showed obvious bactericidal effect against antibiotic-resistant H. pylori after 4 h of incubation. Jinghua Weikang Capsule and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. are considered to be active against antibiotic-resistant H. pylori in vitro.

  19. The Integral Method, a new approach to quantify bactericidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, Waldemar; Pfleiderer, Jörg; Nagl, Markus

    2015-08-01

    The bactericidal activity (BA) of antimicrobial agents is generally derived from the results of killing assays. A reliable quantitative characterization and particularly a comparison of these substances, however, are impossible with this information. We here propose a new method that takes into account the course of the complete killing curve for assaying BA and that allows a clear-cut quantitative comparison of antimicrobial agents with only one number. The new Integral Method, based on the reciprocal area below the killing curve, reliably calculates an average BA [log10 CFU/min] and, by implementation of the agent's concentration C, the average specific bactericidal activity SBA=BA/C [log10 CFU/min/mM]. Based on experimental killing data, the pertaining BA and SBA values of exemplary active halogen compounds were established, allowing quantitative assertions. N-chlorotaurine (NCT), chloramine T (CAT), monochloramine (NH2Cl), and iodine (I2) showed extremely diverging SBA values of 0.0020±0.0005, 1.11±0.15, 3.49±0.22, and 291±137log10 CFU/min/mM, respectively, against Staphylococcus aureus. This immediately demonstrates an approximately 550-fold stronger activity of CAT, 1730-fold of NH2Cl, and 150,000-fold of I2 compared to NCT. The inferred quantitative assertions and conclusions prove the new method suitable for characterizing bactericidal activity. Its application comprises the effect of defined agents on various bacteria, the consequence of temperature shifts, the influence of varying drug structure, dose-effect relationships, ranking of isosteric agents, comparison of competing commercial antimicrobial formulations, and the effect of additives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Multi-residue screening of prioritised human pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs and bactericides in sediments and sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Katherine H; Reid, Malcolm; Thomas, Kevin V

    2011-08-01

    A robust multi-residue method was developed for the analysis of a selection of pharmaceutical compounds, illicit drugs and personal care product bactericides in sediments and sludges. Human pharmaceuticals were selected for analysis in Scottish sewage sludge and freshwater sediments based on prescription, physico-chemical and occurrence data. The method was suitable for the analysis of the selected illicit drugs amphetamine, benzoylecgonine, cocaine, and methamphetamine, the pharmaceuticals atenolol, bendroflumethiazide, carbamazepine, citalopram, diclofenac, fluoxetine, ibuprofen, and salbutamol, and the bactericides triclosan and triclocarban in sewage sludge and freshwater sediment. The method provided an overall recovery of between 56 and 128%, RSDs of between 2 and 19% and LODs of between 1 and 50 ng g(-1). Using the methodology the human pharmaceuticals atenolol, carbamazepine and citalopram and the bactericides triclosan and triclocarban were detected in Scottish sewage sludge. The illicit drugs cocaine, its metabolite benzoylecgonine, amphetamine and methamphetamine were not detected in any of the samples analysed. Triclosan and triclocarban were present at the highest concentrations with triclocarban detected in all but one sample and showing a pattern of co-occurrence in both sludge and sediment samples.

  1. Antibacterial activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyces against hospital isolates of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Mohamed Abdallah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial activity of methanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa calyces employed in Sudanese folk medicine against five hospital isolates of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (MDR A. baumannii. Methods: The antibacterial activity of 80% methanol extract (v/v of H. sabdariffa calyces was evaluated by agar disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration methods. Antibiotic susceptibility of selected A. baumannii strains was tested. Results: In the present investigation, the methanol extract from the calyces of H. sabdariffa exhibited significant antibacterial properties against the non-MDR A. baumannii as well as the MDR A. baumannii strains with a zone of inhibition ranging from (11.3 ± 0.3 to (13.6 ± 0.3 mm. The relative percentage inhibition of H. sabdariffa extract (10 mg/disc with respect to gentamicin (10 mg/disc had potent antibacterial properties and was much more effective than gentamicin. Values of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration ranged from 25 to 50 and 50 to 100 mg/mL, respectively, revealing the potential bactericidal properties of the extract. Conclusions: According to the present study, the calyces of H. sabdariffa can be used as a substitute source of the current ineffective synthetic antibiotics used against MDR A. baumannii.

  2. [Bactericidal activity of serum and chemotherapy in sensitive and resistant exciter (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyer, H; Metz, H; Preac-Mursic, V

    1975-11-21

    Comparing examinations with Ampicillin sensitive and resistant bacteria-strains show that the bactericidal activity of serum is dependent on the bacteria-strains, on the Ampicillin sensitivity of the particular exciter and on the number of bacteria/ml (germ count). Bactericide effect could always be obtained with sensitive strains as a result of additional chemotherapy. With several resistant strains a bactericide effect could not be obtained in this case the continuous optimal Ampicillin addition was the decisive factor. Because of the extremely complicated process of the bactericide one should not make general conclusions from the individual experimental results.

  3. Bactericidal Effects of HVOF-Sprayed Nanostructured TiO2 on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, B.; Peppler, M.; Lima, R. S.; McDonald, A.

    2010-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been shown to exhibit photocatalytic bactericidal activity. This preliminary study focused on examining the photocatalytic activity of high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) sprayed nanostructured TiO2 coatings to kill Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The surfaces of the nanostructured TiO2 coatings were lightly polished before addition of the bacterial solution. Plates of P. aeruginosa were grown, and then suspended in a phosphate buffer saline (PBS) solution. The concentration of bacteria used was determined by a photo-spectrometer, which measured the amount of light absorbed by the bacteria-filled solution. This solution was diluted and pipetted onto the coating, which was exposed to white light in 30-min intervals, up to 120 min. It was found that on polished HVOF-sprayed coatings exposed to white light, 24% of the bacteria were killed after exposure for 120 min. On stainless steel controls, approximately 6% of the bacteria were not recovered. These preliminary results show that thermal-sprayed nanostructured TiO2 coatings exhibited photocatalytic bactericidal activity with P. aeruginosa.

  4. Influence of nanoscale topology on bactericidal efficiency of black silicon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linklater, Denver P.; Khuong Duy Nguyen, Huu; Bhadra, Chris M.; Juodkazis, Saulius; Ivanova, Elena P.

    2017-06-01

    The nanostructuring of materials to create bactericidal and antibiofouling surfaces presents an exciting alternative to common methods of preventing bacterial adhesion. The fabrication of synthetic bactericidal surfaces has been inspired by the anti-wetting and anti-biofouling properties of insect wings, and other topologies found in nature. Black silicon is one such synthetic surfaces which has established bactericidal properties. In this study we show that time-dependent plasma etching of silicon wafers using 15, 30, and 45 min etching intervals, is able to produce different surface geometries with linearly increasing heights of approximately 280, 430, and 610 nm, respectively. After incubation on these surfaces with Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacterial cells it was established that smaller, more densely packed pillars exhibited the greatest bactericidal activity with 85% and 89% inactivation of bacterial cells, respectively. The decrease in the pillar heights, pillar cap diameter and inter-pillar spacing corresponded to a subsequent decrease in the number of attached cells for both bacterial species.

  5. Technical basis for a minimum hydroxide concentration in tanks containing dilute waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zapp, P.E.

    1995-05-01

    Laboratory tests were performed to address the protection of waste tank steel from corrosion in situations of elevated temperatures up to 75 C (hot spots) in the sludge layer of Extended Sludge Processing (ESP) tanks. Coupon immersion tests were conducted at 75 C in two ESP simulants at four hydroxide (or pH) levels. The nitrite concentrations of the simulants were calculated from the ESP technical standards based on a temperature of 40 C. The results showed that a hydroxide concentration of at least 0.01 M prevented significant corrosion of the steel at the elevated temperature. This conclusion provides the technical basis for the revised minimum hydroxide concentration of 0.01 M in the draft WSRC 241-82H Control Room Process Requirements, for the ESP tanks

  6. Effect of Oxygen Limitation and Starvation on the Benzalkonium Chloride Susceptibility of Escherichia coli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, L.A.; Haagensen, Janus Anders Juul; Molin, Søren

    2008-01-01

    the gfp-tagged E. coli K-12 strain MG1655[pOX38Km]. Increasing temperature from 10 degrees C to 30 degrees C increased the bactericidal effect of BAC for both starved and nonstarved E. coli under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The lowest minimum bactericidal concentration was observed for cells...

  7. Bactericidal effects of antibiotics on slowly growing and nongrowing bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Eng, R H; Padberg, F T; Smith, S M; Tan, E N; Cherubin, C E

    1991-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are most often tested against bacteria in the log phase of multiplication to produce the maximum bactericidal effect. In an infection, bacteria may multiply less optimally. We examined the effects of several classes of antimicrobial agents to determine their actions on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria during nongrowing and slowly growing phases. Only ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin exhibited bactericidal activity against nongrowing gram-negative bacteria, and no antib...

  8. Bactericidal and Hemocompatible Coating via the Mixed-Charged Copolymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiao-Li; Hu, Mi; Qin, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Jing; Chen, Xia-Chao; Lei, Wen-Xi; Ye, Wan-Ying; Jin, Qiao; Ren, Ke-Feng; Ji, Jian

    2018-03-28

    Cationic antibacterial coating based on quaternary ammonium compounds, with an efficient and broad spectrum bactericidal property, has been widely used in various fields. However, the high density of positive charges tends to induce weak hemocompatibility, which hinders the application of the cationic antibacterial coating in blood-contacting devices and implants. It has been reported that a negatively charged surface can reduce blood coagulation, showing improved hemocompatibility. Here, we describe a strategy to combine the cationic and anionic groups by using mixed-charged copolymers. The copolymers of poly (quaternized vinyl pyridine- co- n-butyl methacrylate- co-methacrylate acid) [P(QVP- co- nBMA- co-MAA)] were synthesized through free radical copolymerization. The cationic group of QVP, the anionic group of MAA, and the hydrophobic group of nBMA were designed to provide bactericidal capability, hemocompatibility, and coating stability, respectively. Our findings show that the hydrophilicity of the copolymer coating increased, and its zeta potential decreased from positive charge to negative charge with the increase of the anionic/cationic ratio. Meanwhile, the bactericidal property of the copolymer coating was kept around a similar level compared with the pure quaternary ammonium copolymer coating. Furthermore, the coagulation time, platelet adhesion, and hemolysis tests revealed that the hemocompatibility of the copolymer coating improved with the addition of the anionic group. The mixed-charged copolymer combined both bactericidal property and hemocompatibility and has a promising potential in blood-contacting antibacterial devices and implants.

  9. A versatile synthesis of highly bactericidal Myramistin (registered) stabilized silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertelov, G K; Krutyakov, Yu A; Olenin, A Yu; Lisichkin, G V; Efremenkova, O V

    2008-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles stabilized by a well-known antibacterial surfactant benzyldimethyl[3-(myristoylamino)propyl]ammonium chloride (Myramistin) were produced for the first time by borohydride reduction of silver chloride sol in water. Stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles without evident precipitation for several months could be obtained. In vitro bactericidal tests showed that Myramistin capped silver NPs exhibited notable activity against six different microorganisms-gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The activity was up to 20 times higher (against E. coli) compared to Myramistin at the same concentrations and on average 2 times higher if compared with citrate-stabilized NPs

  10. Bactericidal effects of triclosan in soap both in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S A; Moon, H; Lee, K; Rhee, M S

    2015-12-01

    On December 2013, the US FDA proposed a rule stating that manufacturers must provide data to demonstrate that antibacterial soap is more effective than plain soap or water. The objective of the present study was to examine the in vitro and in vivo bactericidal effect of triclosan (the most widely used antiseptic agent in soap) in soap. Twenty bacterial strains (proposed by the FDA) were exposed to plain and antibacterial soaps (the same formulation as plain soap, but containing 0.3% triclosan) for 20 s at 22°C (room temperature) and 40°C (warm temperature). The temperature and time were selected to simulate the hand washing conditions and procedures used by consumers. The triclosan concentration of 0.3% is the maximum allowed by law. The decontamination efficacy of plain soap and antibacterial soap was also examined in vivo: the hands of volunteers were artificially inoculated with Serratia marcescens. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in bactericidal activity between plain soap and antibacterial soap at either test temperature. However, antibacterial soap showed significantly greater bactericidal effects after 9 h. These results suggest that although triclosan-containing soap does have antibacterial activity, the effects are not apparent during the short time required for hand washing. Antibacterial soap containing triclosan (0.3%) was no more effective than plain soap at reducing bacterial contamination when used under 'real-life' conditions. The present study provides practical information that may prove useful for both industry and governments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY OF HUMAN SERA AGAINST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    East African Medical Journal Vol. 77 No. 12 December 2000. BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY OF HUMAN SERA AGAINST SALMONELLA TYPHI AND SALMONELLA PARATYPHI A, B, C. E.O. Igumbor, BSc, MSc, PhD, Department of Medical Microbiology, School of Medicine, University of Zimbabwe P.O. Box Al78, Avondale, ...

  12. Standardization of a broth microdilution susceptibility testing method to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations of aquatic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, R.A.; Walker, R.D.; Carson, J.

    2005-01-01

    (ampicillin, enrofloxacin, erythromycin, florfenicol, flumequine, gentamicin, ormetoprim/sulfadimethoxine, oxolinic acid, oxytetracycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) QC ranges were determined using dry- and frozen-form 96-well plates and cation-adjusted Mueller...

  13. Mutant prevention concentration, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic integration, and modeling of enrofloxacin data established in diseased buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, B; Sidhu, P K; Kaur, G; Venkatachalam, D; Rampal, S

    2015-12-01

    The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modeling of enrofloxacin data using mutant prevention concentration (MPC) of enrofloxacin was conducted in febrile buffalo calves to optimize dosage regimen and to prevent the emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The serum peak concentration (Cmax ), terminal half-life (t1/2 K10) , apparent volume of distribution (Vd(area) /F), and mean residence time (MRT) of enrofloxacin were 1.40 ± 0.27 μg/mL, 7.96 ± 0.86 h, 7.74 ± 1.26 L/kg, and 11.57 ± 1.01 h, respectively, following drug administration at dosage 12 mg/kg by intramuscular route. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration, and MPC of enrofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida were 0.055, 0.060, and 1.45 μg/mL, respectively. Modeling of ex vivo growth inhibition data to the sigmoid Emax equation provided AUC24 h /MIC values to produce effects of bacteriostatic (33 h), bactericidal (39 h), and bacterial eradication (41 h). The estimated daily dosage of enrofloxacin in febrile buffalo calves was 3.5 and 8.4 mg/kg against P. multocida/pathogens having MIC90 ≤0.125 and 0.30 μg/mL, respectively, based on the determined AUC24 h /MIC values by modeling PK/PD data. The lipopolysaccharide-induced fever had no direct effect on the antibacterial activity of the enrofloxacin and alterations in PK of the drug, and its metabolite will be beneficial for its use to treat infectious diseases caused by sensitive pathogens in buffalo species. In addition, in vitro MPC data in conjunction with in vivo PK data indicated that clinically it would be easier to eradicate less susceptible strains of P. multocida in diseased calves. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Processing, characterization, and bactericidal activity of undoped and silver-doped vanadium oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tousley, M.E.; Wren, A.W.; Towler, M.R. [Inamori School of Engineering, Alfred University, Alfred, NY 14803 (United States); Mellott, N.P., E-mail: mellott@alfred.edu [Inamori School of Engineering, Alfred University, Alfred, NY 14803 (United States)

    2012-12-14

    Vanadium oxide (V) and silver-doped vanadium oxide (Ag-V) powders were prepared via sol-gel processing. Structural evolution and bactericidal activity was examined as a function of temperature ranging from 250, 350, 450 and 550 Degree-Sign C. Powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy. Results from all techniques showed vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is the predominant phase regardless of heat treatment temperature or the addition of silver (Ag). XRD analysis suggests Ag is present as AgCl in samples heat treated to 250, 350, and 450 Degree-Sign C and as AgV{sub 6}O{sub 15} at 550 Degree-Sign C. Bactericidal activity was evaluated against Escherichia coli using the agar disk diffusion method considering both Ag-V and undoped, V powders. While the addition of Ag significantly increased bactericidal properties, the specific Ag valency, or crystal structure and morphology formed at higher temperatures, had little effect on functionality. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vanadium and silver-doped vanadium oxide powders were prepared via sol-gel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Powders were characterized using advanced, complementary structural techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bactericidal activity was evaluated against E. coli. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both vanadium and silver doped vanadium oxide show bactericidal activity.

  15. The behavior of active bactericidal and antifungal coating under visible light irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Gang; Zhang, Xiaodong; Zhao, Yan; Su, Haijia, E-mail: suhj@mail.buct.edu.cn; Tan, Tianwei

    2014-02-15

    In the present paper, the novel active bactericidal and antifungal coatings (ABAC) have been prepared through the immobilization of Fe-doped TiO{sub 2} (anatase) with chitosan. The characterization of ABAC using optical microscope imaging, SEM, AFM and FTIR shows that the Fe doped TiO{sub 2} is embedded into the chitosan coating with favorable dispersion through the hydrogen bonds interaction between chitosan molecules and TiO{sub 2}. The contact angle measurement demonstrated the hydrophilicity of ABAC (θ = 34.5 ± 4.1°). The bactericidal activity of ABAC has been evaluated by inactivating three different test strains: Escherichia coli, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger which illustrates the apparently higher bactericidal ability than chitosan, Fe-TiO{sub 2} and chitosan/TiO{sub 2} (pure) under visible light irradiation and its bactericidal activity is lasting for at least 24 h. ABAC showed rapid and efficient antibacterial ability for the three tested strains and its antibacterial ratio in 2 h for E. coli, C. albicans and A. niger was 99.9%, 97.0% and 95.0%, respectively. The prepared chitosan/TiO{sub 2} composite emulsion shows favorable storage stability and can be stored up to 1 year without losing its bactericidal activity. ABAC is a low-cost and eco-friendly antibacterial coating products and promising for domestic, medical and industrial applications.

  16. Bactericidal activity of titanium dioxide ultraviolet-induced films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleskova, S.N., E-mail: pleskova@mail.ru [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Tomsk State University, ave. Lenina 36, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Golubeva, I.S., E-mail: golubmay@mail.ru [Institute of applied biotechnology of Nizhny Novgorod, Yablonevaya Street 22, Nizhny Novgorod 603093 (Russian Federation); Verevkin, Y.K., E-mail: verevkin@appl.sci-nnov.ru [Institute of applied physics of the Russian Academy of Science, Ul' yanov Street, 46, Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-01

    TiO{sub 2} films are used as a self-sterilization surface due to their property to form reactive oxygen species (ROS) when irradiated with ultraviolet light. These ROS attack bacteria and kill them. We present a new way to enhance the bactericidal activity of TiO{sub 2}-films: formation of nanopores on the surface by four-beam high-power laser irradiation. Such surfaces have significantly higher antibacterial activity as compared to conventional TiO{sub 2} surfaces after 15 and 60 min of UV irradiation. Study of the bacterial cell morphology by atomic force microscopy after 60 min irradiation showed that Staphylococcus aureus 956 and Escherichia coli 321–5 undergo significant morphological changes. S. aureus assume atypical elongated shapes after UV treatment alone and swollen forms with protrusions after UV treatment on TiO{sub 2} surface. E. coli exhibit oval or round forms after UV treatment alone, and round forms with small protrusions, and destroyed cells after incubation under UV on the TiO{sub 2} film. - Highlights: • Nanopores on the TiO{sub 2} surface enhance the bactericidal activity of films. • The bactericidal effect of TiO{sub 2} is strain-specific. • The bacterial morphology significantly changes after UV/TiO{sub 2} treatment.

  17. Bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin upon Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumanni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemelman, R; Vejar, C; Bello, H; Domínguez, M; González, G

    1992-01-01

    The mechanisms of bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin (mechanisms A and B) upon cells of a strain of Escherichia coli and one strain of Acinetobacter baumannii were investigated under different conditions. The killing of E. coli cells by ciprofloxacin was significantly reduced by chloramphenicol, but this antibiotic showed almost no activity upon killing of A. baumannii cells by this quinolone. Similar results were obtained when rifampicin was added to ciprofloxacin. Bactericidal activity of ciprofloxacin upon nondividing cells of E. coli was lower and that upon non-dividing cells of A. baumannii was not affected when compared with activity of ciprofloxacin upon dividing cells of both microorganisms. These results demonstrate that the antibacterial activity of ciprofloxacin upon A. baumannii is independent of protein and ARN synthesis, a fact which suggests that this quinolone exerts only bactericidal mechanism B upon A. baumannii. This finding might explain, at least in part, the lower susceptibility of this microorganism to ciprofloxacin.

  18. Minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in green iguanas and the effect of butorphanol on minimum alveolar concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosley, Craig A E; Dyson, Doris; Smith, Dale A

    2003-06-01

    To determine minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in green iguanas and effects of butorphanol on MAC. Prospective randomized trial. 10 healthy mature iguanas. in each iguana, MAC was measured 3 times: twice after induction of anesthesia with isoflurane and once after induction of anesthesia with isoflurane and IM administration of butorphanol (1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb]). A blood sample was collected from the tail vein for blood-gas analysis at the beginning and end of the anesthetic period. The MAC was determined with a standard bracketing technique; an electrical current was used as the supramaximal stimulus. Animals were artificially ventilated with a ventilator set to deliver a tidal volume of 30 mL/kg (14 mL/lb) at a rate of 4 breaths/min. Mean +/- SD MAC values during the 3 trials (2 without and 1 with butorphanol) were 2.0 +/- 0.6, 2.1 +/- 0.6, and 1.7 +/- 0.7%, respectively, which were not significantly different from each other. Heart rate and end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 were also not significantly different among the 3 trials. Mean +/- SD heart rate was 48 +/- 10 beats/min; mean end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 was 22 +/- 10 mm Hg. There were no significant differences in blood-gas values for samples obtained at the beginning versus the end of the anesthetic period. Results suggest that the MAC of isoflurane in green iguanas is 2.1% and that butorphanol does not have any significant isoflurane-sparing effects.

  19. A versatile synthesis of highly bactericidal Myramistin® stabilized silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertelov, G. K.; Krutyakov, Yu A.; Efremenkova, O. V.; Olenin, A. Yu; Lisichkin, G. V.

    2008-09-01

    Silver nanoparticles stabilized by a well-known antibacterial surfactant benzyldimethyl[3-(myristoylamino)propyl]ammonium chloride (Myramistin®) were produced for the first time by borohydride reduction of silver chloride sol in water. Stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles without evident precipitation for several months could be obtained. In vitro bactericidal tests showed that Myramistin® capped silver NPs exhibited notable activity against six different microorganisms—gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and fungi. The activity was up to 20 times higher (against E. coli) compared to Myramistin® at the same concentrations and on average 2 times higher if compared with citrate-stabilized NPs.

  20. Inhibitory and bactericidal action of the biocorrosion agents «INCORGAS» and «AMDOR».

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsygankova, L E; Vigdorovich, V I; Esina, M N; Nazina, T N; Dubinskaya, E V

    2014-06-01

    Inhibiting action of A, B and M-X compositions against hydrosulfide corrosion of carbon steel, hydrogen diffusion through the steel membrane has been studied along with their bactericidal effect with respect to sulfate-reducing bacteria of Desulfomicrobium type. Bactericidal properties of the compositions have been studied in the Postgate medium. Corrosion tests have been made in the NACE medium saturated by hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide separately and together by methods of gravimetrical measurements and linear polarization resistance (LRP). Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical diffusion method have been used. Steel protection is determined in the inhibited solutions by combined action of corrosion products film and inhibitor. Presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria in medium increases hydrogen diffusion flux through the steel membrane by 2-3 times and essentially stimulates effect of the inhibitors. The inhibiting compositions decrease quantity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) by 95-98%. The obtained results testify about predominately bacteriostatic action of the inhibiting compositions, which has influence on the enzymatic systems of SRB cells responsible directly for the sulfate reduction because of substantially decreasing the biogenic hydrogen sulfide concentration in the system. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Bactericidal action of photogenerated singlet oxygen from photosensitizers used in plaque disclosing agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirika Ishiyama

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT has been suggested as an efficient clinical approach for the treatment of dental plaque in the field of dental care. In PDT, once the photosensitizer is irradiated with light of a specific wavelength, it transfers the excitation energy to molecular oxygen, which gives rise to singlet oxygen. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Since plaque disclosing agents usually contain photosensitizers such as rose bengal, erythrosine, and phloxine, they could be used for PTD upon photoactivation. The aim of the present study is to compare the ability of these three photosensitizers to produce singlet oxygen in relation to their bactericidal activity. The generation rates of singlet oxygen determined by applying an electron spin resonance technique were in the order phloxine > erythrosine ≒ rose bengal. On the other hand, rose bengal showed the highest bactericidal activity against Streptococcus mutans, a major causative pathogen of caries, followed by erythrosine and phloxine, both of which showed activity similar to each other. One of the reasons for the discrepancy between the singlet oxygen generating ability and bactericidal activity was the incorporation efficiency of the photosensitizers into the bacterial cells. The incorporation rate of rose bengal was the highest among the three photosensitizers examined in the present study, likely leading to the highest bactericidal activity. Meanwhile, the addition of L-histidine, a singlet oxygen quencher, cancelled the bactericidal activity of any of the three photoactivated photosensitizers, proving that singlet oxygen was responsible for the bactericidal action. CONCLUSIONS: It is strongly suggested that rose bengal is a suitable photosensitizer for the plaque disclosing agents as compared to the other two photosensitizers, phloxine and erythrosine, when used for PDT.

  2. Effect of Punica granatum L. Flower Water Extract on Five Common Oral Bacteria and Bacterial Biofilm Formation on Orthodontic Wire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahid Dastjerdi, Elahe; Abdolazimi, Zahra; Ghazanfarian, Marzieh; Amdjadi, Parisa; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Mahboubi, Arash

    2014-12-01

    Use of herbal extracts and essences as natural antibacterial compounds has become increasingly popular for the control of oral infectious diseases. Therefore, finding natural antimicrobial products with the lowest side effects seems necessary. The present study sought to assess the effect of Punica granatum L. water extract on five oral bacteria and bacterial biofilm formation on orthodontic wire. Antibacterial property of P. granatum L. water extract was primarily evaluated in brain heart infusion agar medium using well-plate method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined by macro-dilution method. The inhibitory effect on orthodontic wire bacterial biofilm formation was evaluated using viable cell count in biofilm medium. At the final phase, samples were fixed and analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. The growth inhibition zone diameter was proportional to the extract concentration. The water extract demonstrated the maximum antibacterial effect on Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 10556 with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 6.25 mg/ml and maximum bactericidal effect on S. sanguinis ATCC 10556 and S. sobrinus ATCC 27607 with minimum bactericidal concentration of 25 mg/ml. The water extract decreased bacterial biofilm formation by S. sanguinis, S. sobrinus, S. salivarius, S. mutans ATCC 35608 and E. faecalis CIP 55142 by 93.7-100%, 40.6-99.9%, 85.2-86.5%, 66.4-84.4% and 35.5-56.3% respectively. Punica granatum L. water extract had significant antibacterial properties against 5 oral bacteria and prevented orthodontic wire bacterial biofilm formation. However, further investigations are required to generalize these results to the clinical setting.

  3. Bactericidal Antibiotics Increase Hydroxyphenyl Fluorescein Signal by Altering Cell Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulander, Wilhelm; Wang, Ying; Folkesson, Sven Anders

    2014-01-01

    It was recently proposed that for bactericidal antibiotics a common killing mechanism contributes to lethality involving indirect stimulation of hydroxyl radical (OH center dot) formation. Flow cytometric detection of OH center dot by hydroxyphenyl fluorescein (HPF) probe oxidation was used...... to support this hypothesis. Here we show that increased HPF signals in antibiotics-exposed bacterial cells are explained by fluorescence associated with increased cell size, and do not reflect reactive oxygen species (ROS) concentration. Independently of antibiotics, increased fluorescence was seen...... for elongated cells expressing the oxidative insensitive green fluorescent protein (GFP). Although our data question the role of ROS in lethality of antibiotics other research approaches point to important interplays between basic bacterial metabolism and antibiotic susceptibility. To underpin...

  4. The bactericidal effect of surface micro-discharge plasma under different ambient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, T; Zimmermann, J L; Morfill, G E

    2011-01-01

    A series of experiments on the bactericidal properties of plasmas using a surface micro-discharge (SMD) device in an atmosphere under different ambient temperatures and humidities was carried out. This plasma dispenser was developed for use as a disinfection system in private and public places (hospitals, medical practices, etc). The bactericidal effect is due to the interplay of the plasma and the chemical products produced via interactions with O 2 /N 2 and H 2 O vapour in air. To use this device in different countries and therefore under various ambient conditions, it is important to understand its behaviour and efficiency, especially with respect to air temperature and humidity. The experimental results obtained in this study show that the bactericidal properties of the SMD plasma dispenser are not sensitive to the different temperatures and humidities.

  5. The bactericidal effect of surface micro-discharge plasma under different ambient conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, T.; Zimmermann, J. L.; Morfill, G. E.

    2011-02-01

    A series of experiments on the bactericidal properties of plasmas using a surface micro-discharge (SMD) device in an atmosphere under different ambient temperatures and humidities was carried out. This plasma dispenser was developed for use as a disinfection system in private and public places (hospitals, medical practices, etc). The bactericidal effect is due to the interplay of the plasma and the chemical products produced via interactions with O2/N2 and H2O vapour in air. To use this device in different countries and therefore under various ambient conditions, it is important to understand its behaviour and efficiency, especially with respect to air temperature and humidity. The experimental results obtained in this study show that the bactericidal properties of the SMD plasma dispenser are not sensitive to the different temperatures and humidities.

  6. Dosing strategy based on prevailing aminoglycoside minimum inhibitory concentration in India: Evidence and issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balaji Veeraraghavan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aminoglycosides are important agents used for treating drug-resistant infections. The current dosing regimen of aminoglycosides does not achieve sufficient serum level concentration for the infected bacterial pathogen interpreted as susceptible based on laboratory testing. Minimum inhibitory concentration was determined for nearly 2000 isolates of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by broth microdilution method. Results were interpreted based on CLSI and EUCAST interpretative criteria and the inconsistencies in the susceptibility profile were noted. This study provides insights into the inconsistencies existing in the laboratory interpretation and the corresponding clinical success rates. This urges the need for revising clinical breakpoints for amikacin, to resolve under dosing leading to clinical failure.

  7. Bactericidal antibiotics induce programmed metabolic toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aislinn D. Rowan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The misuse of antibiotics has led to the development and spread of antibiotic resistance in clinically important pathogens. These resistant infections are having a significant impact on treatment outcomes and contribute to approximately 25,000 deaths in the U.S. annually. If additional therapeutic options are not identified, the number of annual deaths is predicted to rise to 317,000 in North America and 10,000,000 worldwide by 2050. Identifying therapeutic methodologies that utilize our antibiotic arsenal more effectively is one potential way to extend the useful lifespan of our current antibiotics. Recent studies have indicated that modulating metabolic activity is one possible strategy that can impact the efficacy of antibiotic therapy. In this review, we will address recent advances in our knowledge about the impacts of bacterial metabolism on antibiotic effectiveness and the impacts of antibiotics on bacterial metabolism. We will particularly focus on two studies, Lobritz, et al. (PNAS, 112(27: 8173-8180 and Belenky et al. (Cell Reports, 13(5: 968–980 that together demonstrate that bactericidal antibiotics induce metabolic perturbations that are linked to and required for bactericidal antibiotic toxicity.

  8. Bactericidal Immunity to Salmonella in Africans and Mechanisms Causing Its Failure in HIV Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Shan Goh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nontyphoidal strains of Salmonella are a leading cause of death among HIV-infected Africans. Antibody-induced complement-mediated killing protects healthy Africans against Salmonella, but increased levels of anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS antibodies in some HIV-infected African adults block this killing. The objective was to understand how these high levels of anti-LPS antibodies interfere with the killing of Salmonella.Sera and affinity-purified antibodies from African HIV-infected adults that failed to kill invasive S. Typhimurium D23580 were compared to sera from HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected subjects with bactericidal activity. The failure of sera from certain HIV-infected subjects to kill Salmonella was found to be due to an inherent inhibitory effect of anti-LPS antibodies. This inhibition was concentration-dependent and strongly associated with IgA and IgG2 anti-LPS antibodies (p<0.0001 for both. IgG anti-LPS antibodies, from sera of HIV-infected individuals that inhibit killing at high concentration, induced killing when diluted. Conversely, IgG, from sera of HIV-uninfected adults that induce killing, inhibited killing when concentrated. IgM anti-LPS antibodies from all subjects also induced Salmonella killing. Finally, the inhibitory effect of high concentrations of anti-LPS antibodies is seen with IgM as well as IgG and IgA. No correlation was found between affinity or avidity, or complement deposition or consumption, and inhibition of killing.IgG and IgM classes of anti-S. Typhimurium LPS antibodies from HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected individuals are bactericidal, while at very high concentrations, anti-LPS antibodies of all classes inhibit in vitro killing of Salmonella. This could be due to a variety of mechanisms relating to the poor ability of IgA and IgG2 to activate complement, and deposition of complement at sites where it cannot insert in the bacterial membrane. Vaccine trials are required to understand the significance of

  9. The bactericidal effect of surface micro-discharge plasma under different ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, T; Zimmermann, J L; Morfill, G E, E-mail: tshimizu@mpe.mpg.de [Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Giessenbachstr., 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    A series of experiments on the bactericidal properties of plasmas using a surface micro-discharge (SMD) device in an atmosphere under different ambient temperatures and humidities was carried out. This plasma dispenser was developed for use as a disinfection system in private and public places (hospitals, medical practices, etc). The bactericidal effect is due to the interplay of the plasma and the chemical products produced via interactions with O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O vapour in air. To use this device in different countries and therefore under various ambient conditions, it is important to understand its behaviour and efficiency, especially with respect to air temperature and humidity. The experimental results obtained in this study show that the bactericidal properties of the SMD plasma dispenser are not sensitive to the different temperatures and humidities.

  10. Antimicrobial potential of Casearia sylvestris against oral bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Henriques CAVALHEIRO

    Full Text Available Abstract Aim The aim of this study was to obtain Casearia sylvestris leave extracts by different extractive methods, including the obtention of essential oil, in order to compare their antimicrobial activities to conventional mouthwash chlorhexidine against oral bacteria. Material and method For this evaluation, extracts from the leaves were obtained by different methods of extraction (infusion, decoction, maceration and percolation using different solvent systems: water 100%, ethanol 100%, methanol 100%, water: ethanol 3:7; water: ethanol 7:3; water: methanol 7:3 and water: methanol 3:7. The essential oil, which corresponds to a volatile fraction, was obtained by hydrodistillation using Clevenger modified apparatus. The microdilution broth method was used to determine the values of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC for the following microorganisms: Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175, S. mitis ATCC 49456, S. sanguinis ATCC 10556, S. salivarius ATCC 25975, Lactobacillus casei ATCC 11578 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC4082. Chlorhexidine gluconate was used as a positive control. Result All extracts evaluated in the used protocol displayed MIC values higher than 400 µg/mL and few showed bactericidal activity. The antimicrobial activity of essential oil was higher than the activity of the extracts, and the best minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values were obtained against L. casei (MIC of 0.023 µg/mL and MBC of 0.046 µg/mL and S. mutans (MIC of 25 µg/mL and MBC of 50 µg/mL, respectively. Conclusion The essential oil of Casearia sylvestris has significant antimicrobial activity against oral microorganisms.

  11. Intracellular activity of clinical concentrations of phenothiazines including thioridiazine against phagocytosed Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordway, Diane; Viveiros, Miguel; Leandro, Clara; Arroz, Maria Jorge; Amaral, Leonard

    2002-07-01

    The effect of thioridazine (TZ) was studied on the killing activity of human peripheral blood monocyte derived macrophages (HPBMDM) and of human macrophage cell line THP-1 at extracellular concentrations below those achievable clinically. These macrophages have nominal killing activity against bacteria and therefore, would not influence any activity that the compounds may have against intracellular localised Staphylococcus aureus. The results indicated that whereas TZ has an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the strains of S. aureus of 18, 0.1 mg/l of TZ in the medium completely inhibits the growth of S. aureus that has been phagocytosed by macrophages. The latter concentration was non-toxic to macrophages, did not cause cellular expression of activation marker CD69 nor induction of CD3+ T cell production of IFN-gamma, but blocked cellular proliferation and down-regulated the production of T cell-derived cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-5). These results suggest that TZ induces intracellular bactericidal activities independent of the capacity to generate Type 1 responses against S. aureus.

  12. Effect of Carvacrol on Salmonella Saintpaul Biofilms on Stainless ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of carvacrol against Salmonella Saintpaul biofilms on stainless steel surface. Methods: The effects of carvacrol on planktonic cells were evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration. The action of carvacrol on Salmonella Saintpaul ...

  13. Effect of Punica granatum L. Flower Water Extract on Five Common Oral Bacteria and Bacterial Biofilm Formation on Orthodontic Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    VAHID DASTJERDI, Elahe; ABDOLAZIMI, Zahra; GHAZANFARIAN, Marzieh; AMDJADI, Parisa; KAMALINEJAD, Mohammad; MAHBOUBI, Arash

    2014-01-01

    Background: Use of herbal extracts and essences as natural antibacterial compounds has become increasingly popular for the control of oral infectious diseases. Therefore, finding natural antimicrobial products with the lowest side effects seems necessary. The present study sought to assess the effect of Punica granatum L. water extract on five oral bacteria and bacterial biofilm formation on orthodontic wire. Methods: Antibacterial property of P. granatum L. water extract was primarily evaluated in brain heart infusion agar medium using well-plate method. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were determined by macro-dilution method. The inhibitory effect on orthodontic wire bacterial biofilm formation was evaluated using viable cell count in biofilm medium. At the final phase, samples were fixed and analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy. Results: The growth inhibition zone diameter was proportional to the extract concentration. The water extract demonstrated the maximum antibacterial effect on Streptococcus sanguinis ATCC 10556 with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 6.25 mg/ml and maximum bactericidal effect on S. sanguinis ATCC 10556 and S. sobrinus ATCC 27607 with minimum bactericidal concentration of 25 mg/ml. The water extract decreased bacterial biofilm formation by S. sanguinis, S. sobrinus, S. salivarius, S. mutans ATCC 35608 and E. faecalis CIP 55142 by 93.7–100%, 40.6–99.9%, 85.2–86.5%, 66.4–84.4% and 35.5–56.3% respectively. Conclusion: Punica granatum L. water extract had significant antibacterial properties against 5 oral bacteria and prevented orthodontic wire bacterial biofilm formation. However, further investigations are required to generalize these results to the clinical setting. PMID:26171362

  14. Phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in whole blood from atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, S.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Toyota, E.; Neriishi, S.; Yamakido, M.; Matsuo, M.; Hosoda, Y.; Finch, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of peripheral blood leukocytes from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression for age, sex, radiation exposure, city of exposure, and neutrophil counts. No significant radiation effect was observed for either blood phagocytic or bactericidal activities. The only significant variable for these functions was the neutrophil count

  15. Inhibitory and bactericidal potential of crude acetone extracts of Combretum molle (Combretaceae) on drug-resistant strains of Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njume, Collise; Afolayan, Anthony J; Samie, Amidou; Ndip, Roland N

    2011-10-01

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori is strongly associated with a number of gastroduodenal pathologies. Antimicrobial resistance to commonly-used drugs has generated a considerable interest in the search for novel therapeutic compounds from medicinal plants. As an ongoing effort of this search, the susceptibility of 32 clinical strains of H. pylori and a reference strain-NCTC 11,638-was evaluated against five solvent extracts of Combretum molle, a plant widely used for the treatment of gastric ulcers and other stomach-related morbidities in South Africa. The extracts were screened for activity by the agar-well diffusion method, and the most active one of them was tested against the same strains by micro-broth dilution and time kill assays. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. The solvent extracts all demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm. The most potent anti-H. pylori activity was demonstrated by the acetone extract, to which 87.5% of the clinical strains were susceptible. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC90) values for this extract ranged from 1.25 to 5.0 mg/mL while those for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.94 mg/mL and from 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extract was highly bactericidal at a concentration of 2.5 and 5.0 mg/mL, with complete elimination of the test organisms in 24 hours. Its inhibitory activity was better than that of metronidazole (pmolle may contain therapeutically-useful compounds against H. pylori, which are mostly concentrated in the acetone extract.

  16. Influence of Rifampin Therapy on Serum Bactericidal Activity in the Presence of Cloxacillin and Vancomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew MR Mackenzie

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of rifampin on serum inhibitory and serum bactericidal titres was examined. Sera were prepared from pooled human serum to contain vancomycin (10 mg/L, cloxacillin (5 mg/L or rifampin (1 mg/L, and the combinations cloxacillin/rifampin and vancomycin/rifampin. These five sera were tested by a microtitre method for serum inhibitory power and serum bactericidal titre against 11 strains of Staphylococcus aureus. A 48 h incubation period was required to detect full colony growth for subculture plates. It was found with all strains that the effect of the addition of rifampin to the other two antibiotics was to increase the serum inhibitory power, lower the serum bactericidal titre, increase the inhibitory/cidal ratio, and slow colony growth on subculture. In the clinical part of the study it was shown that only three of 38 sera (8% from patients receiving betalactam or vanomycin but not rifampin gave an inhibitory/cidal ratio greater than 8, but that nine of 10 sera (90% from patients receiving rifampin in addition to betalactam or vancomycin gave a ratio greater than 8 (P<0.001. The study verified that the effect of rifampin in serum was to increase inhibitory power and decrease bactericidal titre. The clinical significance of these results is not known and it is suggested that a high ratio of inhibitory to bactericidal titre in the presence of rifampin is to be expected, and that a low bactericidal titre under these circumstances is not necessarily an indication to modify therapy.

  17. Antibacterial Activity of the Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Juglans regia L. Stem Bark on Human Bacterial Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moori Bakhtiari N.* PhD,

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aims Bovine mastitis continues to be the most costly disease to the dairy farmers. It dominates in Iran as one of the most prevalent diseases in dairy cattle among the dairy farms. Mastitis treatment with antibiotics leads to the development of antibiotic resistant strains and consumer health problem.This study was performed for the first time to analyze in vitro effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. stem bark on 6 mastitis pathogens. Materials & Methods the susceptibility of 6 strains of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus spp., Pasteurella multocida and Mannheimia haemolytica were analyzed against hydro-alcoholic extract of Juglans regia L. stem bark with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC methods. Findings Hydro-alcoholic extract did not have antibacterial effects on E. coli and K. pneumoniae. Minimum inhibitory concentration for S. aureus, P. multocida, M. haemolytica and Streptococcus spp. was 62.5mg/ml of hydro-alcoholic extract. There was not any significant response with concentrations below 100mg/disc on S. aureus, Streptococcus species, P. multocida and M. haemolytica. Minimum bactericidal concentration of this extract was 100mg/ml in all isolates. Conclusion Juglans regia L. have some antibacterial effects on S. aureus, P. multocida, M. haemolytica and Streptococcus species.

  18. Bactericidal Antibiotics Do Not Appear To Cause Oxidative Stress in Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feld, Louise; Knudsen, Gitte Maegaard; Gram, Lone

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress can be an important contributor to the lethal effect of bactericidal antibiotics in some bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, despite the different target-specific actions of bactericidal antibiotics, they have a common mechanism leading to bacterial...... to cause oxidative stress in L. monocytogenes and propose that this is caused by its noncyclic tricarboxylic acid (TCA) pathway. Hence, in this noncyclic metabolism, there is a decoupling between the antibiotic-mediated cellular requirement for NADH and the induction of TCA enzyme activity, which...

  19. Estimation of minimum detectable concentration of chlorine in the blast furnace slag cement concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naqvi, A.A., E-mail: aanaqvi@kfupm.edu.s [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Maslehuddin, M. [Center for Engineering Research, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Garwan, M.A.; Nagadi, M.M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Al-Amoudi, O.S.B. [Department of Civil Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Khateeb-ur-Rehman,; Raashid, M. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-01-01

    The Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis technique was used to measure the concentration of chloride in the blast furnace slag (BFS) cement concrete to assess the possibility of reinforcement corrosion. The experimental setup was optimized using Monte Carlo calculations. The BFS concrete specimens containing 0.8-3.5 wt.% chloride were prepared and the concentration of chlorine was evaluated by determining the yield of 6.11, 6.62, 7.41, 7.79 and 8.58 MeV gamma-rays. The Minimum Detectable Concentration (MDC) of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was estimated. The best value of MDC limit of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete was found to be 0.034 {+-} 0.011 and 0.038 {+-} 0.012 wt.% for 6.11 and 6.62 MeV prompt gamma-rays. Within the statistical uncertainty the lower bound of the measured MDC of chlorine in the BFS cement concrete meets the maximum permissible limit of 0.03 wt.% of chloride set by the American Concrete Institute.

  20. Pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin and ceftiofur in plasma, interstitial fluid, and gastrointestinal tract of calves after subcutaneous injection, and bactericidal impacts on representative enteric bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, D M; Jacob, M E; Warren, C D; Papich, M G

    2016-02-01

    This study's objectives were to determine intestinal antimicrobial concentrations in calves administered enrofloxacin or ceftiofur sodium subcutaneously, and their impact on representative enteric bacteria. Ultrafiltration devices were implanted in the ileum and colon of 12 steers, which received either enrofloxacin or ceftiofur sodium. Samples were collected over 48 h after drug administration for pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis. Enterococcus faecalis or Salmonella enterica (5 × 10(5) CFU/mL of each) were exposed in vitro to peak and tail (48 h postadministration) concentrations of both drugs at each location for 24 h to determine inhibition of growth and change in MIC. Enrofloxacin had tissue penetration factors of 1.6 and 2.5 in the ileum and colon, while ciprofloxacin, an active metabolite of enrofloxacin, was less able to cross into the intestine (tissue penetration factors of 0.7 and 1.7). Ceftiofur was rapidly eliminated leading to tissue penetration factors of 0.39 and 0.25. All concentrations of enrofloxacin were bactericidal for S. enterica and significantly reduced E. faecalis. Peak ceftiofur concentration was bactericidal for S. enterica, and tail concentrations significantly reduced growth. E. faecalis experienced growth at all ceftiofur concentrations. The MICs for both organisms exposed to peak and tail concentrations of antimicrobials were unchanged at the end of the study. Enrofloxacin and ceftiofur achieved intestinal concentrations capable of reducing intestinal bacteria, yet the short exposure of ceftiofur in the intestine may select for resistant organisms. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Integrated antifouling and bactericidal polymer membranes through bioinspired polydopamine/poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xianghong; Yuan, Shuaishuai; Shi, Dean; Yang, Yingkui; Jiang, Tao; Yan, Shunjie; Shi, Hengchong; Luan, Shifang; Yin, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Antifouling and bactericidal capabilities were facilely integrated into a surface via bioinspired coating. • The modification technique was very facile and universal to different types of substrate materials. • The integrated antifouling and bactericidal surfaces have great potential in wound dressing applications. - Abstract: Polypropylene (PP) non-woven has been widely used as wound dressing; however, the hydrophobic nature of PP can initiate bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation. Herein, we propose a facile approach to functionalize PP non-woven with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone)-iodine complex (PVP-I). PVP and PEG were successively tethered onto PP non-woven surface via versatile bioinspired dopamine (DA) chemistry, followed by complexing iodine with PVP moieties. It was demonstrated through the field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) and spread plate method that the as-modified PP non-woven integrated both antifouling property of PEG for suppressing bacterial adhesion, and bactericidal property of PVP-I for killing the few adherent bacteria. Meanwhile, it could greatly resist platelet and red blood cell adhesion. The integrated antifouling and bactericidal PP non-woven surfaces might have great potential in various wound dressing applications.

  2. Integrated antifouling and bactericidal polymer membranes through bioinspired polydopamine/poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone) coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xianghong [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Yuan, Shuaishuai [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Shi, Dean, E-mail: deanshi2012@yahoo.com [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Yang, Yingkui; Jiang, Tao [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory for the Green Preparation and Application of Functional Materials, Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Organic Chemical Materials, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062 (China); Yan, Shunjie; Shi, Hengchong [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Luan, Shifang, E-mail: sfluan@ciac.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Yin, Jinghua [State Key Laboratory of Polymer Physics and Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2016-07-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Antifouling and bactericidal capabilities were facilely integrated into a surface via bioinspired coating. • The modification technique was very facile and universal to different types of substrate materials. • The integrated antifouling and bactericidal surfaces have great potential in wound dressing applications. - Abstract: Polypropylene (PP) non-woven has been widely used as wound dressing; however, the hydrophobic nature of PP can initiate bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation. Herein, we propose a facile approach to functionalize PP non-woven with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and poly(N-vinyl pyrrolidone)-iodine complex (PVP-I). PVP and PEG were successively tethered onto PP non-woven surface via versatile bioinspired dopamine (DA) chemistry, followed by complexing iodine with PVP moieties. It was demonstrated through the field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM) and spread plate method that the as-modified PP non-woven integrated both antifouling property of PEG for suppressing bacterial adhesion, and bactericidal property of PVP-I for killing the few adherent bacteria. Meanwhile, it could greatly resist platelet and red blood cell adhesion. The integrated antifouling and bactericidal PP non-woven surfaces might have great potential in various wound dressing applications.

  3. Bactericidal effect of a 405-nm diode laser on Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotoku, Y; Kato, J; Akashi, G; Hirai, Y [Department of Operative Dentistry, Tokyo Dental College, 1-2-2, Masago, Mihama-ku, Chiba, 261-8502 (Japan); Ishihara, K [Department of Microbiology, Tokyo Dental College, 1-2-2, Masago, Mihama-ku, Chiba, 261-8502 (Japan)

    2009-05-15

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of 405-nm diode laser irradiation on periodontopathic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro. A diluted suspension of P. gingivalis was irradiated directly with a 405-nm diode laser under conditions of 100 mW-10 sec, 100 mW-20 sec, 200 mW-5 sec, 200 mW-10 sec, 200 mW-20 sec, 400 mW-5 sec, 400 mW-10 sec, and 400 mW-20 sec. The energy density ranged from 2.0 to 16.0 J/cm{sup 2}. The irradiated bacterial suspension was spread on a blood agar plate and growth of the colonies was examined after an anaerobic culture for 7 days. Bacterial growth was inhibited under all irradiation conditions, but the bactericidal effect of the 405-nm diode laser depended on the energy density. More than 97% of bacterial growth was inhibited with irradiation at an energy density > 4.0 J/cm{sup 2}. The mechanism of the bactericidal effect is photochemical, rather than photothermal. These findings suggest that a 405-nm diode laser has a high bactericidal effect on P. gingivalis.

  4. Bactericidal effect of a 405-nm diode laser on Porphyromonas gingivalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotoku, Y; Kato, J; Akashi, G; Hirai, Y; Ishihara, K

    2009-01-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of 405-nm diode laser irradiation on periodontopathic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro. A diluted suspension of P. gingivalis was irradiated directly with a 405-nm diode laser under conditions of 100 mW-10 sec, 100 mW-20 sec, 200 mW-5 sec, 200 mW-10 sec, 200 mW-20 sec, 400 mW-5 sec, 400 mW-10 sec, and 400 mW-20 sec. The energy density ranged from 2.0 to 16.0 J/cm 2 . The irradiated bacterial suspension was spread on a blood agar plate and growth of the colonies was examined after an anaerobic culture for 7 days. Bacterial growth was inhibited under all irradiation conditions, but the bactericidal effect of the 405-nm diode laser depended on the energy density. More than 97% of bacterial growth was inhibited with irradiation at an energy density > 4.0 J/cm 2 . The mechanism of the bactericidal effect is photochemical, rather than photothermal. These findings suggest that a 405-nm diode laser has a high bactericidal effect on P. gingivalis

  5. Bactericidal effect of a 405-nm diode laser on Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotoku, Y.; Kato, J.; Akashi, G.; Hirai, Y.; Ishihara, K.

    2009-05-01

    The study was conducted to determine the effect of 405-nm diode laser irradiation on periodontopathic bacteria such as Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro. A diluted suspension of P. gingivalis was irradiated directly with a 405-nm diode laser under conditions of 100 mW-10 sec, 100 mW-20 sec, 200 mW-5 sec, 200 mW-10 sec, 200 mW-20 sec, 400 mW-5 sec, 400 mW-10 sec, and 400 mW-20 sec. The energy density ranged from 2.0 to 16.0 J/cm2. The irradiated bacterial suspension was spread on a blood agar plate and growth of the colonies was examined after an anaerobic culture for 7 days. Bacterial growth was inhibited under all irradiation conditions, but the bactericidal effect of the 405-nm diode laser depended on the energy density. More than 97% of bacterial growth was inhibited with irradiation at an energy density > 4.0 J/cm2. The mechanism of the bactericidal effect is photochemical, rather than photothermal. These findings suggest that a 405-nm diode laser has a high bactericidal effect on P. gingivalis.

  6. In vitro antimicrobial efficacy of Rhynchostegium vagans A. Jaeger (moss against commonly occurring pathogenic microbes of Indian sub-tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Negi*

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the antimicrobial effect of organic extracts with a standard dose of Rhynchostegium vagans (R. vagans on pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Methods: R. vagans was extracted in solvents (ethanol and acetone and the extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial activity by using disc diffusion assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration was observed by employing micro broth dilution method. Mode of inhibition of ethanolic extract against Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris (A. flavus var. columnaris was assessed by scanning electron microscopy. Results: It was found that the ethanolic extract of R. vagans was the most potent with lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (3.91 to 61.25 µg/mL and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (3.91 to 500 µg/mL, respectively. Significant morphological and ultrastructural alterations were seen in A. flavus var. columnaris. Among microorganisms, Gram negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Erwinia chrysanthemi and Salmonella enterica and fungi (A. flavus var. columnaris and Aspergillus parasiticus var. globosus were found more sensitive. Ethanolic extract was found superior over the antibiotics (chloramphenicol and fluconazole. Conclusions: R. vagans exhibited effective antimicrobial activity against all the microorganisms. The moss can be used as a broad spectrum herbal antimicrobial agent in pharmaceutics.

  7. The antimicrobial activity of bupivacaine, lidocaine and mepivacaine against equine pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler, D. M. T.; Damborg, P.; Verwilghen, D. R.

    2017-01-01

    Lameness is the most commonly reported health problem in horses, and lameness investigations which include local anaesthetic injections are routinely performed by equine practitioners. Through this process, bacteria can enter the tissues perforated by the needle and may cause local infections...... the antimicrobial activity of the local anaesthetics bupivacaine, lidocaine and mepivacaine against 40 equine clinical bacterial isolates of the Actinobacillus, Corynebacterium, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Staphylococcus and Streptococcus genera. Minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal...... also bactericidal. The tested local anaesthetics possessed antimicrobial activity against equine pathogens at concentrations that are routinely applied in clinical cases. However, this antimicrobial activity should not discourage antiseptic preparation prior to local anaesthetic injections....

  8. Selenium-mediated protection in reversing the sensitivity of bacterium to the bactericidal antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhonglei; Tan, Jun; Shao, Lei; Dong, Xiaojing; Ye, Richard D; Chen, Daijie

    2017-05-01

    Inducing production of damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) is an important criterion to distinguish the bactericidal antibiotics from bacteriostatic antibiotics. Selenoenzymes were generally recognized to be a powerful antioxidant capable of scavenging free radicals, protecting the cells from the harmful effects of ROS. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the selenium (Se)-mediated protection in reversing antibiotic sensitivity and the role of selenoenzymes in alleviating the negative effects of oxidative stress. The cellular antioxidant activity of Se-enriched bacteria was analyzed, as well as intracellular ROS production and elimination when Se-enriched bacteria in the presence of various antibiotics. Compared to complete inhibition of the parental strain by bactericidal antibiotics, it only exhibited slight and reversible inhibition of Se-enriched Escherichia coli ATCC25922 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 at the same conditions, which indicated that intracellular selenium provided substantial protection against antibiotics. ROS generation caused by bactericidal antibiotics was confirmed by fluorescence spectrophotometry using 2', 7'-dichloro- uorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) as substrate. The time course experiments of pretreatment with selenium showed significant decrease of ROS level at 2h. In summary, the present study provides experimental evidence supporting selenoenzymes has good scavenging effect to ROS and can protect bacteria from oxidative stress injury induced by bactericidal antibiotics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Evaluation of the bactericidal characteristics of nano-copper oxide or functionalized zeolite coating for bio-corrosion control in concrete sewer pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haile, T.; Nakhla, G.; Allouche, E.; Vaidya, S.

    2010-01-01

    The bactericidal characteristics of nano-copper oxide or functionalized zeolite coated concrete pipes against Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans were studied by measuring the temporal variation of bacterial dry cell weight measurement, cellular Adenosine Triphosphate production, as well as oxygen uptake rate of the aforementioned bacterium. Uncorroded (UC), severely corroded (SC), and moderately corroded (MC) concrete pipes were electrochemically coated with a nano-copper oxide, while another uncorroded concrete pipe was used to apply functionalized zeolite coating (Z2). Specimens were characterized by field emission-scanning electron microscopy, and optical microscopy. Oxygen uptake rate of the bacterium was the highest in UC followed by the MC. Oxygen uptake rate and cellular Adenosine Triphosphate decreased progressively in Z2 and SC throughout the duration of the experiment due to decline in live bacterial cell. The maximum bacterial specific growth rate was 1.1 x 10 -2 day -1 for both UC and MC, with a decay rates varying from 1.4 x 10 -2 to 2.6 x 10 -2 day -1 . The minimum concentration limits for the inhibition of the bacterium in the nano-copper oxide coated concrete pipes ranged from 2.3 mg to 2.6 mg Cu per mg dry cell weight.

  10. Comparison of standardised versus non-standardised methods for testing the in vitro potency of oxytetracycline against mannheimia haemolytica and pasteurella multocida

    OpenAIRE

    Lees, P; Illambas, J; Pelligand, L; Toutain, P L

    2016-01-01

    The in vitro pharmacodynamics of oxytetracycline was established for six isolates of each of the calf pneumonia pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and bacterial time-kill curves were determined in two matrices, Mueller Hinton broth (MHB) and calf serum. Geometric mean MIC ratios, serum:MHB, were 25.2:1 (M. haemolytica) and 27.4:1 (P. multocida). The degree of binding of oxytetracycline to...

  11. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils of Selected Aromatic Plants from Tajikistan

    OpenAIRE

    Sharopov, Farukh; Braun, Markus Santhosh; Gulmurodov, Isomiddin; Khalifaev, Davlat; Isupov, Salomiddin; Wink, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oils of 18 plant species from Tajikistan (Central Asia) were investigated. The essential oil of Origanum tyttanthum showed a strong antibacterial activity with both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 312.5 µg/mL for E. coli, 625 µg/mL (MIC) and 1250 µg/mL (MBC) for MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus), respectively. The essential oil of Galagan...

  12. Whole-blood phagocytic and bactericidal activities of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Sumiko; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Toyota, Emiko; Neriishi, Shotaro; Yamakido, Michio; Matsuo, Miyo; Hosoda, Yutaka; Finch, S.C.

    1989-04-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in aliquots of whole blood from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Any significant effects of exposure to A-bomb radiation could not be detected for both phagocytic and bactericidal activities of whole blood from A-bomb survivors. In addition, there were no significant effects of age categories, sex or city, except in neutrophil counts. (J.P.N.)

  13. High Concentrations of Sodium Chloride Improve Microbicidal Activity of Ibuprofen against Common Cystic Fibrosis Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián J. Muñoz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Ibuprofen (IBU-H, a widely used anti-inflammatory, also shows a marked antimicrobial effect against several bacterial species, including those involved in cystic fibrosis such as Pseudomona aeruginosa, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Burkholderia cepacia complex. Additionally, our results show significant synergy between water soluble Na-ibuprofen (IBU-Na and ionic strength. Salt concentrations above 0.5 M modify the zeta potential promoting the action of Na-IBU; thus, with 1 M sodium chloride, IBU-Na is ten times more efficient than in the absence of ionic strength, and the minimum effective contact time is reduced from hours to minutes. In short time periods, where neither IBU-Na nor controls with 1 M NaCl show activity, the combination of both leads to a reduction in the bacterial load. We also analyzed whether the changes caused by salt on the bacterial membrane also promoted the activity of other microbicide compounds used in cystic fibrosis like gentamicin, tobramycin and phosphomycin. The results show that the presence of ionic strength only enhanced the bactericidal activity of the amphipathic molecule of IBU-Na. In this respect, the effect of saline concentration was also reflected in the surface properties of IBU-Na, where, in addition to the clear differences observed between 145 mM and 1 M, singular behaviors were also found, different in each condition. The combination of anti-inflammatory activity and this improved bactericidal effect of Na-IBU in hypertonic solution provides a new alternative for the treatment of respiratory infections of fibrotic patients based on known and widely used compounds.

  14. The nature of inherent bactericidal activity: insights from the nanotopology of three species of dragonfly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainwaring, David E.; Nguyen, Song Ha; Webb, Hayden; Jakubov, Timur; Tobin, Mark; Lamb, Robert N.; Wu, Alex H.-F.; Marchant, Richard; Crawford, Russell J.; Ivanova, Elena P.

    2016-03-01

    While insect wings are widely recognised as multi-functional, recent work showed that this extends to extensive bactericidal activity brought about by cell deformation and lysis on the wing nanotopology. We now quantitatively show that subtle changes to this topography result in substantial changes in bactericidal activity that are able to span an order of magnitude. Notably, the chemical composition of the lipid nanopillars was seen by XPS and synchrotron FTIR microspectroscopy to be similar across these activity differences. Modelling the interaction between bacterial cells and the wing surface lipids of 3 species of dragonflies, that inhabit similar environments, but with distinctly different behavioural repertoires, provided the relationship between surface structure and antibacterial functionality. In doing so, these principal behavioural patterns correlated with the demands for antimicrobial efficiency dictated by differences in their foraging strategies. This work now reveals a new feature in the design elegance of natural multi-functional surfaces as well providing insights into the bactericidal mechanism underlying inherently antimicrobial materials, while suggesting that nanotopology is related to the evolutionary development of a species through the demands of its behavioural repertoire. The underlying relationship between the processes of wetting, adhesion and capillarity of the lipid nanopillars and bactericidal efficiency suggests new prospects for purely mechano-responsive antibacterial surfaces.While insect wings are widely recognised as multi-functional, recent work showed that this extends to extensive bactericidal activity brought about by cell deformation and lysis on the wing nanotopology. We now quantitatively show that subtle changes to this topography result in substantial changes in bactericidal activity that are able to span an order of magnitude. Notably, the chemical composition of the lipid nanopillars was seen by XPS and synchrotron

  15. Povidone-Iodine Concentration and Dosing in Cataract Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, Jagger C; George, Mary J; Meyer, Dale R; Rosco, Michael G; Habib, Matthew M

    2018-05-17

    Iodine has been recognized as an effective bactericide since the 1800's, and povidone-iodine (PI) solution has been applied to the ocular surface and periocular skin since the 1980's to prevent endophthalmitis in cataract surgery. In vitro, PI solution kills bacteria very quickly at dilute concentrations (0.05-1.0%). In many instances, PI kills bacteria more quickly at these dilute concentrations than more conventional (5%-10%) concentrations. This is due to greater availability of diatomic free iodine in dilute solution, the bactericidal component of PI. The toxicity of PI, both in vitro and clinically has been shown to be related to concentration. Current American Academy of Ophthalmology (AAO) and the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons (ESCRS) recommendations regarding PI use suggest using 5% PI prior to surgery. An alternative dosing strategy uses dilute PI repetitively throughout cataract surgery (0.25% every thirty seconds). We review the povidone-iodine literature with attention to basic science and use of dilute PI. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The bactericidal effect of a Genius (R) Nd : YAG laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kranendonk, A.A.; Reijden, W.A. van der; Winkelhoff, A.J. van; Weijden, G.A. van der

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the 'in vitro' bactericidal effect of the Nd:YAG laser (Genius, MØlsgaard Dental, Copenhagen, Denmark) on six periodontal pathogens. METHODS: Suspensions of six different periodontal pathogens (Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella

  17. Assessment of synergistic antibacterial activity of combined biosurfactants revealed by bacterial cell envelop damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Santanu; Datta, Sriparna; Biswas, Dipa; Sengupta, Dipanjan

    2018-02-01

    Besides potential surface activity and some beneficial physical properties, biosurfactants express antibacterial activity. Bacterial cell membrane disrupting ability of rhamnolipid produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa C2 and a lipopeptide type biosurfactant, BS15 produced by Bacillus stratosphericus A15 was examined against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923 and Escherichia coli K8813. Broth dilution technique was followed to examine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of both the biosurfactants. The combined effect of rhamnolipid and BS15 against S. aureus and E. coli showed synergistic activity by expressing fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index of 0.43 and 0.5. Survival curve of both the bacteria showed bactericidal activity after treating with biosurfactants at their MIC obtained from FIC index study as it killed >90% of initial population. The lesser value of MIC than minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the biosurfactants also supported their bactericidal activity against both the bacteria. Membrane permeability against both the bacteria was supported by amplifying protein release, increasing of cell surface hydrophobicity, withholding capacity of crystal violet dye and leakage of intracellular materials. Finally cell membrane disruption was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). All these experiments expressed synergism and effective bactericidal activity of the combination of rhamnolipid and BS15 by enhancing the bacterial cell membrane permeability. Such effect of the combination of rhamnolipid and BS15 could make them promising alternatives to traditional antibiotic in near future. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Lidocaine, dexmedetomidine and their combination reduce isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration in dogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos M Acevedo-Arcique

    Full Text Available The effects of intravenous (i.v. lidocaine, dexmedetomidine and their combination delivered as a bolus followed by a constant rate infusion (CRI on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane (MACISO in dogs were evaluated. Seven healthy adult dogs were included. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol and maintained with isoflurane. For each dog, baseline MAC (MACISO/BASAL was determined after a 90-minute equilibration period. Thereafter, each dog received one of the following treatments (loading dose, CRI: lidocaine 2 mg kg(-1, 100 µg kg(-1 minute(-1; dexmedetomidine 2 µg kg(-1, 2 µg kg(-1 hour(-1; or their combination. MAC was then determined again after 45- minutes of treatment by CRI. At the doses administered, lidocaine, dexmedetomidine and their combination significantly reduced MACISO by 27.3% (range: 12.5-39.2%, 43.4% (33.3-53.3% and 60.9% (46.1-78.1%, respectively, when compared to MACISO/BASAL. The combination resulted in a greater MACISO reduction than the two drugs alone. Their use, at the doses studied, provides a clinically important reduction in the concentration of ISO during anaesthesia in dogs.

  19. Effect of ZnO morphology on affecting bactericidal property of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene biocomposite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Rajeev Kumar; Agarwal, Meenakshi; Balani, Kantesh

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infection of implants can be controlled by selective trapping of bacteria, followed with consequent killing by targeted antibacterial agents. Herein, the role of various ZnO morphologies, viz. micro-rods (R), nanoparticles (NP), and micro-disks (D) on antibacterial efficacy of ZnO via release of Zn"2"+ and H_2O_2 is assessed, both as isolated powders and via incorporating them in cytocompatible ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Though ZnO is antibacterial, interestingly, all ZnO morphologies elicited a supportive growth of gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) in culture medium (until 28–35 μg/ml). But, all ZnO morphologies did elicit bactericidal effect on gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis) both in culture medium (for 0–2.5 μg/ml) or when incorporated (5–20 wt.%) into UHMWPE. The bactericidal mechanisms were quantified for various ZnO morphologies via: (i) H_2O_2 production, (ii) Zn"2"+ release, and (iii) the presence of surface oxygen vacancies. On one hand, where only ZnO(NP) elicited release of H_2O_2 in the absence of light, maximum Zn"2"+ release was elicited by ZnO(D). Interestingly, when ZnO is incorporated as reinforcement (5–20 wt.%), its antibacterial action against E. coli was vividly observed due to selective proliferation of bacteria only on friendly UHMWPE matrix. Hence, luring bacteria on affable UHMWPE surface can be complemented with their targeted killing by ZnO present in composite. - Highlights: • The role of ZnO morphology in affecting bactericidal mechanisms • Quantification of Zn"2"+ release, H_2O_2 production and surface oxygen vacancy defects • Inherent resistance by gram negative bacteria at lower ZnO concentrations • Containment of bacteria on polymeric surface and consequent targeted killing by ZnO

  20. Nanoparticle synthesis of zinc peroxide: structural and morphological characterization for bactericidal applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonia, Roberto; Martinez, Vanessa C.; Solis, Jose L.; Gomez, Monica M.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc peroxide (ZnO 2 ) nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel technique. The chemicals used for the synthesis were zinc acetate di-hydrate (Zn(CH 3 COO) 2. 2H 2 O) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) at 30 % in an aqueous solution with sonication. The structure of the ZnO 2 nanoparticles was characterized by X-ray diffraction. While the morphology and the cluster size were determined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. For a preliminary evaluation of the bactericidal properties of the ZnO 2 , the material was exposed to Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli y Bacillus subtili, and the nanoparticles presented good bactericidal properties. (author)

  1. Simultaneous Assessment of Acidogenesis-Mitigation and Specific Bacterial Growth-Inhibition by Dentifrices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Forbes

    Full Text Available Dentifrices can augment oral hygiene by inactivating bacteria and at sub-lethal concentrations may affect bacterial metabolism, potentially inhibiting acidogenesis, the main cause of caries. Reported herein is the development of a rapid method to simultaneously measure group-specific bactericidal and acidogenesis-mitigation effects of dentifrices on oral bacteria. Saliva was incubated aerobically and anaerobically in Tryptone Soya Broth, Wilkins-Chalgren Broth with mucin, or artificial saliva and was exposed to dentifrices containing triclosan/copolymer (TD; sodium fluoride (FD; stannous fluoride and zinc lactate (SFD1; or stannous fluoride, zinc lactate and stannous chloride (SFD2. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined turbidometrically whilst group-specific minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC were assessed using growth media and conditions selective for total aerobes, total anaerobes, streptococci and Gram-negative anaerobes. Minimum acid neutralization concentration (MNC was defined as the lowest concentration of dentifrice at which acidification was inhibited. Differences between MIC and MNC were calculated and normalized with respect to MIC to derive the combined inhibitory and neutralizing capacity (CINC, a cumulative measure of acidogenesis-mitigation and growth inhibition. The overall rank order for growth inhibition potency (MIC under aerobic and anaerobic conditions was: TD> SFD2> SFD1> FD. Acidogenesis-mitigation (MNC was ordered; TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1. CINC was ordered TD> FD> SFD2> SFD1 aerobically and TD> FD> SFD1> SFD2 anaerobically. With respect to group-specific bactericidal activity, TD generally exhibited the greatest potency, particularly against total aerobes, total anaerobes and streptococci. This approach enables the rapid simultaneous evaluation of acidity mitigation, growth inhibition and specific antimicrobial activity by dentifrices.

  2. The minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane in ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnadurai, Sathya K; Williams, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    To determine the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane for ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis). Prospective experimental trial. Six adult ring-tailed lemurs, aged 1.3-11.2 years (median age: 8.26) and weighing a mean ± standard deviation (SD) of 2283 ± 254 g. Five adult aye-ayes, aged 4.4-19.3 years (median age: 8.0) and weighing 2712 ± 191 g. Minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane was determined using a tail-clamp stimulus. The end-tidal sevoflurane (Fe'Sevo) concentration was increased or decreased by approximately 10% after a positive or negative response to tail clamping, respectively. This procedure was repeated until a positive and negative result were seen on two consecutive trials (i.e. a negative result was achieved and a single 10% decrease in Fe'Sevo concentration resulted in a positive test). The MAC for that animal was determined to be the mean of the concentrations at the two consecutive trials. The mean ± SD MAC of sevoflurane for ring-tailed lemurs was 3.48 ± 0.55% and 1.84 ± 0.17 for aye-ayes. This represents a 47.1% higher MAC in ring-tailed lemurs compared to aye-ayes. The sevoflurane MAC was significantly higher in ring-tailed lemurs, compared to aye-ayes. The MAC of sevoflurane in aye-ayes is consistent with reported MAC values in other species. Extrapolation of sevoflurane anesthetic dose between different species of lemurs could lead to significant errors in anesthetic dosing. © 2015 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  3. A simple robust method for synthesis of metallic copper nanoparticles of high antibacterial potency against E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Arijit Kumar; Sarkar, Raj Kumar; Prasun Chattopadhyay, Asoke; Aich, Pulakesh; Chakraborty, Ruchira; Basu, Tarakdas

    2012-03-01

    A method for preparation of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) was developed by simple reduction of CuCl2 in the presence of gelatin as a stabilizer and without applying stringent conditions like purging with nitrogen. The NPs were characterized by spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The particles were about 50-60 nm in size and highly stable. The antibacterial activity of this Cu-NP on Gram-negative Escherichia coli was demonstrated by the methods of agar plating, flow cytometry and phase contrast microscopy. The minimum inhibitory concentration (3.0 µg ml-1), minimum bactericidal concentration (7.5 µg ml-1) and susceptibility constant (0.92) showed that this Cu-NP is highly effective against E. coli at a much lower concentration than that reported previously. Treatment with Cu-NPs made E. coli cells filamentous. The higher the concentration of Cu-NPs, the greater the population of filamentous cells; average filament size varied from 7 to 20 µm compared to the normal cell size of ˜2.5 µm. Both filamentation and killing of cells by Cu-NPs (7.5 µg ml-1) also occurred in an E. coli strain resistant to multiple antibiotics. Moreover, an antibacterial effect of Cu-NPs was also observed in Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, for which the values of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were close to that for E. coli.

  4. Minimum inhibitory concentration distribution in environmental Legionella spp. isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandalakis, Vassilios; Chochlakis, Dimosthenis; Goniotakis, Ioannis; Tselentis, Yannis; Psaroulaki, Anna

    2014-12-01

    In Greece standard tests are performed in the watering and cooling systems of hotels' units either as part of the surveillance scheme or following human infection. The purpose of this study was to establish the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) distributions of environmental Legionella isolates for six antimicrobials commonly used for the treatment of Legionella infections, by MIC-test methodology. Water samples were collected from 2004 to 2011 from 124 hotels from the four prefectures of Crete (Greece). Sixty-eight (68) Legionella isolates, comprising L. pneumophila serogroups 1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 8, 12, 13, 15, L. anisa, L. rubrilucens, L. maceachernii, L. quinlivanii, L. oakridgensis, and L. taurinensis, were included in the study. MIC-tests were performed on buffered charcoal yeast extract with α-ketoglutarate, L-cysteine, and ferric pyrophosphate. The MICs were read after 2 days of incubation at 36 ± 1 °C at 2.5% CO2. A large distribution in MICs was recorded for each species and each antibiotic tested. Rifampicin proved to be the most potent antibiotic regardless of the Legionella spp.; tetracycline appeared to have the least activity on our environmental isolates. The MIC-test approach is an easy, although not so cost-effective, way to determine MICs in Legionella spp. These data should be kept in mind especially since these Legionella species may cause human disease.

  5. Comparative Study of Hydroalcoholic Extracts of Momordica charantia L. against Foodborne Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakholiya, Kalpna; Vaghela, P.; Rathod, T.; Chanda, Sumitra

    2014-01-01

    The antimicrobial effect of 24 different hydroalcoholic extracts (100, 75, 50 and 25% methanol and water) obtained from four parts (leaf+stem (aerial), peel, pulp and seed) of Momordica charantia L. were investigated against five Gram-positive, six Gram-negative and four fungal strains. The extraction was done by individual cold percolation method using hexane, different hydroalcoholic solvent (100, 75, 50 and 25% methanol) and water. The antimicrobial activity was done by agar well diffusion assay. The extracts, which showed >15 mm zone of inhibition, were further screened to determine minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration using a broth dilution method performed in 96-well microtitre plate. The extractive yield was highest in aqueous extracts of all the four parts closely followed by 25% methanol. Micrococcus flavus was the most susceptible Gram-positive bacteria and Pseudomonas testosteroni was the most susceptible Gram-negative bacteria. The highest antibacterial activity was shown by 100% methanol. The Gram-negative Pseudomonas spp. was more susceptible towards all the extracts than the Gram-positive bacteria or fungal strains investigated. One hundred percent and 50% methanol extracts of seed showed lowest minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values, that is <39 and 625 μg/ml, respectively, against Pseudomonas pictorum. Therefore, these extracts would be of interest in the control of Pseudomonas spp. in food industry as well as used for therapeutic purposes. PMID:24843188

  6. Preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activity studies of silver-loaded poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) nanocomposites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Cunfeng [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Chang, Ying; Cheng, Ling; Xu, Yiting [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Chen, Xiaoling, E-mail: tinachen0628@163.com [Department of Endodontics, Xiamen Stomatology Hospital, Teaching Hospital of Fujian Medical University, Xiamen 361003 (China); Zhang, Long; Zhong, Lina [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Dai, Lizong, E-mail: lzdai@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Materials, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2014-03-01

    A simple method for preparing a new type of stable antibacterial agent was presented. Monodisperse poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (PSA) nanospheres, serving as matrices, were synthesized via soap-free emulsion polymerization. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy micrographs indicated that PSA nanospheres have interesting surface microstructures and well-controlled particle size distributions. Silver-loaded poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (PSA/Ag-NPs) nanocomposites were prepared in situ through interfacial reduction of silver nitrate with sodium borohydride, and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Their effects on antibacterial activity including inhibition zone, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and bactericidal kinetics were evaluated. In the tests, PSA/Ag-NPs nanocomposites showed excellent antibacterial activity against both gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli. These nanocomposites are considered to have potential application in antibacterial coatings on biomedical devices to reduce nosocomial infection rates. - Highlights: • A new type of antibacterial agent (PSA/Ag-NPs nanocomposites) was synthesized. • The antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli was studied. • Inhibition zone, MIC, MBC, and bactericidal kinetics were evaluated. • PSA/Ag-NPs nanocomposites showed excellent antibacterial activity.

  7. Electrospun biodegradable polymers loaded with bactericide agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaz Katsarava

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Development of materials with an antimicrobial activity is fundamental for different sectors, including medicine and health care, water and air treatment, and food packaging. Electrospinning is a versatile and economic technique that allows the incorporation of different natural, industrial, and clinical agents into a wide variety of polymers and blends in the form of micro/nanofibers. Furthermore, the technique is versatile since different constructs (e.g. those derived from single electrospinning, co-electrospinning, coaxial electrospinning, and miniemulsion electrospinning can be obtained to influence the ability to load agents with different characteristics and stability and to modify the release behaviour. Furthermore, antimicrobial agents can be loaded during the electrospinning process or by a subsequent coating process. In order to the mitigate burst release effect, it is possible to encapsulate the selected drug into inorganic nanotubes and nanoparticles, as well as in organic cyclodextrine polysaccharides. In the same way, processes that involve covalent linkage of bactericide agents during surface treatment of electrospun samples may also be considered. The present review is focused on more recent works concerning the electrospinning of antimicrobial polymers. These include chitosan and common biodegradable polymers with activity caused by the specific load of agents such as metal and metal oxide particles, quaternary ammonium compounds, hydantoin compounds, antibiotics, common organic bactericides, and bacteriophages.

  8. Bactericidal efficacy of elevated pH on fish pathogenic and environmental bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford E. Starliper

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Ship ballast water is a recognized medium for transfer and introductions of nonindigenous species. There is a need for new ballast water treatment methods that effectively and safely eliminate or greatly minimize movements of these species. The present study employed laboratory methods to evaluate the bactericidal efficacy of increased pH (pH 10.0–12.0 for exposure durations of up to 72 h to kill a variety of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including fish pathogens (Aeromonas spp., Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Serratia liquefaciens, Carnobacterium sp., other common aquatic-inhabitant bacteria (Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp. and indicators listed in International Maritime Organization D2 Standards; namely, Vibrio cholera (an environmental isolate from fish, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Volumes of 5 N NaOH were added to tryptic soy broth to obtain desired pH adjustments. Viable cells were determined after 0, 4, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Initial (0 h cell numbers ranged from 3.40 × 104 cfu/mL for Bacillus sp. to 2.44 × 107 cfu/mL for E. faecalis. The effective endpoints of pH and treatment duration necessary to realize 100% bactericidal effect varied; however, all bacteria tested were killed within 72 h at pH 12.0 or lower. The lowest parameters examined, 4 h at pH 10.0, were bactericidal to V. cholera, E. ictaluri, three of four isolates of E. coli, and (three of four Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Bactericidal effect was attained at pH 10.0 within 12 h for the other A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, and within 24 h for P. fluorescens, and the remaining E. coli.

  9. Bactericidal efficacy of elevated pH on fish pathogenic and environmental bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Watten, Barnaby J.

    2013-01-01

    Ship ballast water is a recognized medium for transfer and introductions of nonindigenous species. There is a need for new ballast water treatment methods that effectively and safely eliminate or greatly minimize movements of these species. The present study employed laboratory methods to evaluate the bactericidal efficacy of increased pH (pH 10.0–12.0) for exposure durations of up to 72 h to kill a variety of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria including fish pathogens (Aeromonas spp., Yersinia ruckeri, Edwardsiella ictaluri, Serratia liquefaciens, Carnobacterium sp.), other common aquatic-inhabitant bacteria (Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus sp.) and indicators listed in International Maritime Organization D2 Standards; namely, Vibrio cholera (an environmental isolate from fish), Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Volumes of 5 N NaOH were added to tryptic soy broth to obtain desired pH adjustments. Viable cells were determined after 0, 4, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h. Initial (0 h) cell numbers ranged from 3.40 × 104 cfu/mL for Bacillus sp. to 2.44 × 107 cfu/mL for E. faecalis. The effective endpoints of pH and treatment duration necessary to realize 100% bactericidal effect varied; however, all bacteria tested were killed within 72 h at pH 12.0 or lower. The lowest parameters examined, 4 h at pH 10.0, were bactericidal to V. cholera, E. ictaluri, three of four isolates of E. coli, and (three of four) Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. Bactericidal effect was attained at pH 10.0 within 12 h for the other A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, and within 24 h for P. fluorescens, and the remaining E. coli.

  10. Comparison of in vitro efficacy of linezolid and vancomycin by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleem, F.; Usman, J.; Hassan, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the in vitro activities of vancomycin and linezolid against methicillin resistant Staphyloccus aureus in our set up to help in formulating a better empirical treatment and reduce the emergence of vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Methods: The study was conducted over a period of 6 months(July 1, 2009 - Dec 1, 2009). Fifty Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from the clinical isolates of Military Hospital Rawalpindi were subjected to the determination of Minimum inhibitory concentrations of linezolid and vancomycin using E-strips. Results: All the isolated organisms were uniformly susceptible to both the antibiotics. Vancomycin showed higher minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) as compared to linezolid MICs. Conclusion: This study suggests that linezolid and vancomycin have similar in vitro efficacy for methicillin resistant Staphyloccus aureus infections. (author)

  11. Resazurin-based 96-well plate microdilution method for the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration of biosurfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshikh, Mohamed; Ahmed, Syed; Funston, Scott; Dunlop, Paul; McGaw, Mark; Marchant, Roger; Banat, Ibrahim M

    2016-06-01

    To develop and validate a microdilution method for measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of biosurfactants. A standardized microdilution method including resazurin dye has been developed for measuring the MIC of biosurfactants and its validity was established through the replication of tetracycline and gentamicin MIC determination with standard bacterial strains. This new method allows the generation of accurate MIC measurements, whilst overcoming critical issues related to colour and solubility which may interfere with growth measurements for many types of biosurfactant extracts.

  12. Synthesis of nanosilver particles by reverse micelle method and study of their bactericidal properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran Thi Ngoc Dung; Ngo Quoc Buu; Dang Viet Quang; Le Anh Bang; Nguyen Hoai Chau; Nguyen Thi Ly [Institute of Environmental Technology, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay Distr., Hanoi (Viet Nam); Huynh Thi Ha [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay Distr., Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nguyen Vu Trung [National Institute for Infectious and Tropical Diseases, 1 Ton That Tung, Dong Da Distr., Hanoi (Viet Nam)], E-mail: ttndzung@yahoo.com, E-mail: buu_nq@yahoo.com

    2009-09-01

    Nanosilver particles have been synthesized by the reverse micelle method, where AgNO{sub 3} was used as a silver ions source, NaBH{sub 4} and quercetin - as reducing agents, CTAB, SDOSS and AOT- as surfactants, while the stabilizer was Vietnamese chitosan. Studying the factors influencing the process of nanosilver particle formation, it was shown that the particle size of the nanosilver products depends on the concentration of the reaction components and their stoichiometric ratio. It was also shown that the reaction system using AOT surfactant is capable of producing nanosilver particles with smallest nanoparticles ({phi}{sub av} {approx} 5 nm) and good particle-size distribution. The study on bactericidal activity of the nanosilver products indicated that the disinfecting solution with a nanosilver concentration of 3 ppm was able to inhibit all E.coli and Coliforms, TPC and fungi at 15 ppm, while Vibrio cholerae cells were inactivated completely with 0.5 ppm of nanosilver after 30 minutes exposition.

  13. Two Major Medicinal Honeys Have Different Mechanisms of Bactericidal Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakman, Paulus H. S.; te Velde, Anje A.; de Boer, Leonie; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Zaat, Sebastian A. J.

    2011-01-01

    Honey is increasingly valued for its antibacterial activity, but knowledge regarding the mechanism of action is still incomplete. We assessed the bactericidal activity and mechanism of action of Revamil (R) source (RS) honey and manuka honey, the sources of two major medical-grade honeys. RS honey

  14. Experimental investigations of the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of inert and combustible dust cloud mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Addai, Emmanuel Kwasi, E-mail: emmanueladdai41@yahoo.com; Gabel, Dieter; Krause, Ulrich

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Ignition sensitivity of a highly flammable dust decreases upon addition of inert dust. • Minimum ignition temperature of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • Minimum ignition energy of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%. - Abstract: The risks associated with dust explosions still exist in industries that either process or handle combustible dust. This explosion risk could be prevented or mitigated by applying the principle of inherent safety (moderation). This is achieved by adding an inert material to a highly combustible material in order to decrease the ignition sensitivity of the combustible dust. The presented paper deals with the experimental investigation of the influence of adding an inert dust on the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of the combustible/inert dust mixtures. The experimental investigation was done in two laboratory scale equipment: the Hartmann apparatus and the Godbert-Greenwald furnace for the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature test respectively. This was achieved by mixing various amounts of three inert materials (magnesium oxide, ammonium sulphate and sand) and six combustible dusts (brown coal, lycopodium, toner, niacin, corn starch and high density polyethylene). Generally, increasing the inert materials concentration increases the minimum ignition energy as well as the minimum ignition temperatures until a threshold is reached where no ignition was obtained. The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%.

  15. Experimental investigations of the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of inert and combustible dust cloud mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Addai, Emmanuel Kwasi; Gabel, Dieter; Krause, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Ignition sensitivity of a highly flammable dust decreases upon addition of inert dust. • Minimum ignition temperature of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • Minimum ignition energy of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%. - Abstract: The risks associated with dust explosions still exist in industries that either process or handle combustible dust. This explosion risk could be prevented or mitigated by applying the principle of inherent safety (moderation). This is achieved by adding an inert material to a highly combustible material in order to decrease the ignition sensitivity of the combustible dust. The presented paper deals with the experimental investigation of the influence of adding an inert dust on the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of the combustible/inert dust mixtures. The experimental investigation was done in two laboratory scale equipment: the Hartmann apparatus and the Godbert-Greenwald furnace for the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature test respectively. This was achieved by mixing various amounts of three inert materials (magnesium oxide, ammonium sulphate and sand) and six combustible dusts (brown coal, lycopodium, toner, niacin, corn starch and high density polyethylene). Generally, increasing the inert materials concentration increases the minimum ignition energy as well as the minimum ignition temperatures until a threshold is reached where no ignition was obtained. The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%.

  16. Effects of carprofen and morphine on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Jeff C H; Weil, Ann B; Inoue, Tomohito

    2009-01-01

    The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in dogs was determined following carprofen (2.2 mg/kg per os) alone, morphine (1 mg/kg intravenously) alone, carprofen and morphine, and no drug control in eight healthy adult dogs. Isoflurane MAC following administration of morphine alone (0.81%+/-0.18%) or carprofen and morphine (0.68%+/-0.31%) was significantly less than the control MAC (1.24%+/-0.15%). Isoflurane MAC after carprofen alone (1.13%+/-0.13%) was not significantly different from the control value. Results indicated that administration of morphine alone or in combination with carprofen significantly reduced the MAC of isoflurane in dogs. The isoflurane MAC reduction was additive between the effects of carprofen and morphine.

  17. The study of cellulosic fabrics impregnated with porphyrin compounds for use as photo-bactericidal polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, Rahmatollah, E-mail: rahimi_rah@iust.ac.ir [Bioinorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fayyaz, Fatemeh [Bioinorganic Chemistry Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran 16846-13114 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rassa, Mehdi [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-02-01

    In the present work, we report on the preparation of cellulosic fabrics bearing two types of photo-sensitizers in order to prepare efficient polymeric materials for antimicrobial applications. The obtained porphyrin-grafted cellulosic fabrics were characterized by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, diffuse reflectance UV–Vis (DRUV) spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TG) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Antimicrobial activity of the prepared porphyrin-cellulose was tested under visible light irradiation against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomunas aeroginosa and Escherichia coli. In addition, the effect of two parameters on photo-bactericidal activity of treated fibers was studied: illumination time and concentration of photosensitizers (PS). - Highlights: • Cellulosic fabrics were impregnated with various concentrations of porphyrins (TAPP and its zinc ion complex). • The products were characterized by ATR-FTIR, DRUV, SEM and TG. • The photo-antibacterial activity of products was determined against S. aureus, P. aeroginosa and E. coli. • The effect of two parameters were studied on photoinactivation of treated fibers: illumination time and concentration of PS.

  18. The effect of long-term storage on the physiochemical and bactericidal properties of electrochemically activated solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Gareth; Thorn, Robin; Reynolds, Darren

    2012-12-24

    Electrochemically activated solutions (ECAS) are generated by electrolysis of NaCl solutions, and demonstrate broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and high environmental compatibility. The biocidal efficacy of ECAS at the point of production is widely reported in the literature, as are its credentials as a "green biocide." Acidic ECAS are considered most effective as biocides at the point of production and ill suited for extended storage. Acidic ECAS samples were stored at 4 °C and 20 °C in glass and polystyrene containers for 398 days, and tested for free chlorine, pH, ORP and bactericidal activity throughout. ORP and free chlorine (mg/L) in stored ECAS declined over time, declining at the fastest rate when stored at 20 °C in polystyrene and at the slowest rate when stored at 4 °C in glass. Bactericidal efficacy was also affected by storage and ECAS failed to produce a 5 log(10) reduction on five occasions when stored at 20 °C. pH remained stable throughout the storage period. This study represents the longest storage evaluation of the physiochemical parameters and bactericidal efficacy of acidic ECAS within the published literature and reveals that acidic ECAS retain useful bactericidal activity for in excess of 12 months, widening potential applications.

  19. The Effect of Long-Term Storage on the Physiochemical and Bactericidal Properties of Electrochemically Activated Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Robinson

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemically activated solutions (ECAS are generated by electrolysis of NaCl solutions, and demonstrate broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and high environmental compatibility. The biocidal efficacy of ECAS at the point of production is widely reported in the literature, as are its credentials as a “green biocide.” Acidic ECAS are considered most effective as biocides at the point of production and ill suited for extended storage. Acidic ECAS samples were stored at 4 °C and 20 °C in glass and polystyrene containers for 398 days, and tested for free chlorine, pH, ORP and bactericidal activity throughout. ORP and free chlorine (mg/L in stored ECAS declined over time, declining at the fastest rate when stored at 20 °C in polystyrene and at the slowest rate when stored at 4 °C in glass. Bactericidal efficacy was also affected by storage and ECAS failed to produce a 5 log10 reduction on five occasions when stored at 20 °C. pH remained stable throughout the storage period. This study represents the longest storage evaluation of the physiochemical parameters and bactericidal efficacy of acidic ECAS within the published literature and reveals that acidic ECAS retain useful bactericidal activity for in excess of 12 months, widening potential applications.

  20. [Antibacterial actin of vinegar against food-borne pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O157:H7 (Part 2). Effect of sodium chloride and temperature on bactericidal activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entani, E; Asai, M; Tsujihata, S; Tsukamoto, Y; Ohta, M

    1997-05-01

    Bactericidal effects of various kinds of AWASEZU (processed vinegar, 2.5% acidity) on food-borne pathogenic bacteria including Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other bacteria were examined. the order of bactericidal activities was NIHAIZU (3.5% NaCl was added) > SANBA-IZU (3.5% NaCl and 10% sucrose were added) > plain vinegar (spirit vinegar) > AMAZU (10% sucrose was added). This indicates that their activities were enhanced by the addition of sodium chloride and suppressed by the addition of sugar. On the other hand, when soy sauce was used instead of sodium chloride, the order of bactericidal activities was plain vinegar > AMAZU > NIHAIZU > SANBAIZU. This is mainly because their activities were suppressed by the increase in the pH value. The effect of sodium chloride (0.01-15%) and temperature (10-50 degrees C) on bactericidal activities against E. coli O157:H7 in spirit vinegar (0.5-2.5% acidity) was further examined. When vinegar was used in combination with sodium chloride, predominant synergism on the bactericidal activity was observed. Their activities were markedly enhanced by the addition of sodium chloride in proportion to the concentration. In addition to this, at higher temperatures spirit vinegar killed bacteria much more rapidly. It should be noted that the bactericidal activity of spirit vinegar was extremely enhanced by the combined use of the addition of sodium chloride and the rise of temperature. For example, in 2.5% acidity vinegar, the time required for 3 log decrease in viable cell numbers at 20 degrees C was shortened to 1/140-fold by the addition of 5% sodium chloride, shortened to 1/51-fold by the rise of the reaction temperature at 40 degrees C, and shortened to 1/830-fold; 0.89 minutes by both the addition of 5% sodium chloride and the rise of temperature at 40 degrees C. In order to propose the methods to prevent food poisoning by bacterial infection, bactericidal activities of vinegar solution containing sodium chloride on cooking tools and

  1. In vitro and in vivo bactericidal activity of Tinospora sagittata (Oliv.) Gagnep. var. craveniana (S.Y.Hu) Lo and its main effective component, palmatine, against porcine Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Qian; Xu, Min; Dong, Qi; Zhang, Yuli; Li, Yinglun; Ye, Gang; Zhao, Ling

    2016-08-30

    Tinospora sagittata (Oliv.) Gagnep. var. craveniana (S.Y.Hu) Lo (TSG) is a traditional Chinese herb that has been used for the treatment of upper respiratory tract infection and has anti-bacterial and anti-ulcer activity. Our study investigated the bactericidal effects of TSG and its major component, palmatine, against a Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) strain isolated from pig and the standard strain H. pylori SS1 in vitro and in vivo. H. pylori was isolated from pig and named H. pylori SCYA201401. For in vitro experiments, the inhibitory activity of TSG and palmatine against H. pylori SCYA201401 and H. pylori SS1 were tested by use of the agar cup diffusion technique. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined from the absence of H. pylori colonies on agar plates. Time-kill curves were used to evaluate bactericidal activity; the average number of colonies was calculated at 0 to 48 h after liquid incubation, with concentrations of drugs at 0.5, 1, and 2 × MIC. For in vivo experiments, H. pylori SCYA201401-infected mice were randomly divided into TSG, palmatine, triple therapy (omeprazole, clarithromycin, and amoxicillin), blank control, and model groups. The eradication ratios were determined by use of rapid urease tests and bacterial culture. In vitro, the MIC and MBC of TSG against H. pylori SCYA201401 and SS1 were both 6250 μg/mL, whereas palmatine against H. pylori SCYA201401 was 6.25 μg/mL and against H. pylori SS1 was 3.12 μg/mL. The time-kill curves showed a dose-dependent, progressive decline in the numbers of viable bacteria up to 40 h. In vivo, the eradication ratios in the TSG and palmatine groups of mice were 80 and 50 % compared with 70 % in the triple-therapy group. TSG and its major component, palmatine, have bactericidal activity against H. pylori in vitro and in vivo. The possibility that TSG or palmatine can be effective in the treatment of human and animals H. pylori

  2. THE BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY OF NORMAL GUINEA PIG SERUM AGAINST LISTERIA MONOCYTOGENES AND ITS INHIBITION BY A LISTERIAL CELL EXTRACT,

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal guinea pig serum contains bactericidins active against Listeria monocytogenes. The listeriocidal activity of the serum did not increase after...factor. Lysozyme was not implicated in the bactericidal system. It was suggested that the bactericidal activity of guinea pig serum might be due either to

  3. Disclosure of the quackery: Testing of the bactericidal action of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The obtained results indicate a fraud: bactericidal effect is rather a result of photocatalytic action of a hidden component used on purpose in the production of glass or subsequently applied by the use of nanotechnology (possibly antimony trioxide or titanium oxide) than of the so-called ''orgon and hydronic technology''.

  4. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of medicinal plants used in Northern Peru as antibacterial remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussmann, R W; Malca-García, G; Glenn, A; Sharon, D; Chait, G; Díaz, D; Pourmand, K; Jonat, B; Somogy, S; Guardado, G; Aguirre, C; Chan, R; Meyer, K; Kuhlman, A; Townesmith, A; Effio-Carbajal, J; Frías-Fernandez, F; Benito, M

    2010-10-28

    The plant species reported here are traditionally used in Northern Peru to treat bacterial infections, often addressed by the local healers as "inflammation". The aim of this study was to evaluate the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of their antibacterial properties against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and water extracts of 141 plant species was determined using a deep-well broth microdilution method on commercially available bacterial strains. The ethanolic extracts of 51 species inhibited Escherichia coli, and 114 ethanolic extracts inhibited Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast, only 30 aqueous extracts showed activity against Escherichia coli and 38 extracts against Staphylococcus aureus. The MIC concentrations were mostly very high and ranged from 0.008 to 256 mg/ml, with only 36 species showing inhibitory concentrations of extracts exhibited stronger activity and a much broader spectrum of action than the aqueous extracts. Hypericum laricifolium, Hura crepitans, Caesalpinia paipai, Cassia fistula, Hyptis sidifolia, Salvia sp., Banisteriopsis caapi, Miconia salicifolia and Polygonum hydropiperoides showed the lowest MIC values and would be interesting candidates for future research. The presence of antibacterial activity could be confirmed in most species used in traditional medicine in Peru which were assayed in this study. However, the MIC for the species employed showed a very large range, and were mostly very high. Nevertheless, traditional knowledge might provide some leads to elucidate potential candidates for future development of new antibiotic agents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of Punica granatum on the virulence factors of cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulube, Zandiswa; Patel, Mrudula

    2016-09-01

    Dental caries is caused by acids produced by biofilm-forming Streptococcus mutans from fermentable carbohydrates and bacterial byproducts. Control of these bacteria is important in the prevention of dental caries. This study investigated the effect of the fruit peel of Punica granatum on biofilm formation, acid and extracellular polysaccharides production (EPS) by S. mutans. Pomegranate fruit peels crude extracts were prepared. The Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were determined against S. mutans. At 3 sub-bactericidal concentrations, the effect on the acid production, biofilm formation and EPS production was determined. The results were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon Rank Sum Tests. The lowest MBC was 6.25 mg/mL. Punica granatum significantly inhibited acid production (p mutans. The crude extract of P. granatum killed cariogenic S. mutans at high concentrations. At sub-bactericidal concentrations, it reduced biofilm formation, acid and EPS production. This suggests that P. granatum extract has the potential to prevent dental caries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A simple robust method for synthesis of metallic copper nanoparticles of high antibacterial potency against E. coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterjee, Arijit Kumar; Aich, Pulakesh; Chakraborty, Ruchira; Basu, Tarakdas; Sarkar, Raj Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Asoke Prasun

    2012-01-01

    A method for preparation of copper nanoparticles (Cu-NPs) was developed by simple reduction of CuCl 2 in the presence of gelatin as a stabilizer and without applying stringent conditions like purging with nitrogen. The NPs were characterized by spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering, x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The particles were about 50–60 nm in size and highly stable. The antibacterial activity of this Cu-NP on Gram-negative Escherichia coli was demonstrated by the methods of agar plating, flow cytometry and phase contrast microscopy. The minimum inhibitory concentration (3.0 µg ml −1 ), minimum bactericidal concentration (7.5 µg ml −1 ) and susceptibility constant (0.92) showed that this Cu-NP is highly effective against E. coli at a much lower concentration than that reported previously. Treatment with Cu-NPs made E. coli cells filamentous. The higher the concentration of Cu-NPs, the greater the population of filamentous cells; average filament size varied from 7 to 20 µm compared to the normal cell size of ∼2.5 µm. Both filamentation and killing of cells by Cu-NPs (7.5 µg ml −1 ) also occurred in an E. coli strain resistant to multiple antibiotics. Moreover, an antibacterial effect of Cu-NPs was also observed in Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus, for which the values of minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were close to that for E. coli. (paper)

  7. Electrochemical analysis of the UV treated bactericidal Ti6Al4V surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacha-Olivenza, Miguel A. [Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Extremadura, Av. Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Gallardo-Moreno, Amparo M., E-mail: amparogm@unex.es [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Extremadura, Av. Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Vadillo-Rodríguez, Virginia; González-Martín, M. Luisa [Department of Applied Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Extremadura, Av. Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Pérez-Giraldo, Ciro [Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Extremadura, Av. Elvas s/n, 06071 Badajoz (Spain); Networking Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN) (Spain); Galván, Juan C. [National Centre for Metallurgical Research (CENIM-CSIC), Av. Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    2013-04-01

    This research investigates in detail the bactericidal effect exhibited by the surface of the biomaterial Ti6Al4V after being subjected to UV-C light. It has been recently hypothesized that small surface currents, occurring as a consequence of the electron–hole pair recombination taking place after the excitation process, are behind the bactericidal properties displayed by this UV-treated material. To corroborate this hypothesis we have used different electrochemical techniques, such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization plots and Mott–Schottky plots. EIS and Mott–Schottky plots have shown that UV-C treatment causes an initial increase on the surface electrical conduction of this material. In addition, EIS and polarization plots demonstrated that higher corrosion currents occur at the UV treated than at the non-irradiated samples. Despite this increase in the corrosion currents, EIS has also shown that such currents are not likely to affect the good stability of this material oxide film since the irradiated samples completely recovered the control values after being stored in dark conditions for a period not longer than 24 h. These results agree with the already-published in vitro transitory behavior of the bactericidal effect, which was shown to be present at initial times after the biomaterial implantation, a crucial moment to avoid a large number of biomaterial associated infections. Highlights: ► Bactericidal response of UV-treated Ti6Al4V is explained through electrochemistry. ► There is an increase in the superficial electrical conduction after UV-treatment. ► Higher corrosion currents for UV-treated against non-UV-treated samples are shown. ► EIS shows the recuperation on irradiated samples in agreement with microbial tests.

  8. Electrochemical analysis of the UV treated bactericidal Ti6Al4V surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacha-Olivenza, Miguel A.; Gallardo-Moreno, Amparo M.; Vadillo-Rodríguez, Virginia; González-Martín, M. Luisa; Pérez-Giraldo, Ciro; Galván, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    This research investigates in detail the bactericidal effect exhibited by the surface of the biomaterial Ti6Al4V after being subjected to UV-C light. It has been recently hypothesized that small surface currents, occurring as a consequence of the electron–hole pair recombination taking place after the excitation process, are behind the bactericidal properties displayed by this UV-treated material. To corroborate this hypothesis we have used different electrochemical techniques, such as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiodynamic polarization plots and Mott–Schottky plots. EIS and Mott–Schottky plots have shown that UV-C treatment causes an initial increase on the surface electrical conduction of this material. In addition, EIS and polarization plots demonstrated that higher corrosion currents occur at the UV treated than at the non-irradiated samples. Despite this increase in the corrosion currents, EIS has also shown that such currents are not likely to affect the good stability of this material oxide film since the irradiated samples completely recovered the control values after being stored in dark conditions for a period not longer than 24 h. These results agree with the already-published in vitro transitory behavior of the bactericidal effect, which was shown to be present at initial times after the biomaterial implantation, a crucial moment to avoid a large number of biomaterial associated infections. Highlights: ► Bactericidal response of UV-treated Ti6Al4V is explained through electrochemistry. ► There is an increase in the superficial electrical conduction after UV-treatment. ► Higher corrosion currents for UV-treated against non-UV-treated samples are shown. ► EIS shows the recuperation on irradiated samples in agreement with microbial tests

  9. Antimicrobial activity of gallic acid against thermophilic Campylobacter is strain specific and associated with a loss of calcium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarjit, Amreeta; Wang, Yi; Dykes, Gary A

    2015-04-01

    Gallic acid has been suggested as a potential antimicrobial for the control of Campylobacter but its effectiveness is poorly studied. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of gallic acid against Campylobacter jejuni (n = 8) and Campylobacter coli (n = 4) strains was determined. Gallic acid inhibited the growth of five C. jejuni strains and three C. coli strains (MIC: 15.63-250 μg mL(-1)). Gallic acid was only bactericidal to two C. coli strains (MBC: 125 and 62.5 μg mL(-1)). The mechanism of the bactericidal effect against these two strains (and selected non-susceptible controls) was investigated by determining decimal reduction times and by monitoring the loss of cellular content and calcium ions, and changes in cell morphology. Gallic acid did not result in a loss of cellular content or morphological changes in the susceptible strains as compared to the controls. Gallic acid resulted in a loss of calcium ions (0.58-1.53 μg mL(-1) and 0.54-1.17 μg mL(-1), respectively, over a 180 min period) from the susceptible strains but not the controls. Gallic acid is unlikely to be an effective antimicrobial against Campylobacter in a practical sense unless further interventions to ensure an effective bactericidal mode of action against all strains are developed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of food processing organic matter on photocatalytic bactericidal activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemmireddy, Veerachandra K; Hung, Yen-Con

    2015-07-02

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of food processing organic matter on photocatalytic bactericidal activity of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs). Produce and meat processing wash solutions were prepared using romaine lettuce and ground beef samples. Physico-chemical properties such as pH, turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total phenolics (for produce) and protein (for meat) content of the extracts were determined using standard procedures. The photocatalytic bactericidal activity of TiO2 (1 mg/mL) in suspension with or without organic matter against Escherichia coli O157:H7 (5-strain) was determined over a period of 3h. Increasing the concentration of organic matter (either produce or meat) from 0% to 100% resulted in 85% decrease in TiO2 microbicidal efficacy. 'Turbidity, total phenolics, and protein contents in wash solutions had significant effect on the log reduction. Increasing the total phenolics content in produce washes from 20 to 114 mg/L decreased the log reduction from 2.7 to 0.38 CFU/mL, whereas increasing the protein content in meat washes from 0.12 to 1.61 mg/L decreased the log reduction from and 5.74 to 0.87 CFU/mL. Also, a linear correlation was observed between COD and total phenolics as well as COD and protein contents. While classical disinfection kinetic models failed to predict, an empirical equation in the form of "Y=me(nX)" (where Y is log reduction, X is COD, and m and n are reaction rate constants) predicted the disinfection kinetics of TiO2 in the presence of organic matter (R(2)=94.4). This study successfully identified an empirical model with COD as a predictor variable to predict the bactericidal efficacy of TiO2 when used in food processing environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of ZnO morphology on affecting bactericidal property of ultra high molecular weight polyethylene biocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Rajeev Kumar [Biomaterials Processing and Characterization Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur -208016 (India); Agarwal, Meenakshi [Amity Institute of Nanotechnology, Amity University, Noida, Uttar Pradesh - 201303 (India); Balani, Kantesh, E-mail: kbalani@iitk.ac.in [Biomaterials Processing and Characterization Laboratory, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur -208016 (India)

    2016-05-01

    Bacterial infection of implants can be controlled by selective trapping of bacteria, followed with consequent killing by targeted antibacterial agents. Herein, the role of various ZnO morphologies, viz. micro-rods (R), nanoparticles (NP), and micro-disks (D) on antibacterial efficacy of ZnO via release of Zn{sup 2+} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} is assessed, both as isolated powders and via incorporating them in cytocompatible ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). Though ZnO is antibacterial, interestingly, all ZnO morphologies elicited a supportive growth of gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) in culture medium (until 28–35 μg/ml). But, all ZnO morphologies did elicit bactericidal effect on gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus or Staphylococcus epidermidis) both in culture medium (for 0–2.5 μg/ml) or when incorporated (5–20 wt.%) into UHMWPE. The bactericidal mechanisms were quantified for various ZnO morphologies via: (i) H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production, (ii) Zn{sup 2+} release, and (iii) the presence of surface oxygen vacancies. On one hand, where only ZnO(NP) elicited release of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in the absence of light, maximum Zn{sup 2+} release was elicited by ZnO(D). Interestingly, when ZnO is incorporated as reinforcement (5–20 wt.%), its antibacterial action against E. coli was vividly observed due to selective proliferation of bacteria only on friendly UHMWPE matrix. Hence, luring bacteria on affable UHMWPE surface can be complemented with their targeted killing by ZnO present in composite. - Highlights: • The role of ZnO morphology in affecting bactericidal mechanisms • Quantification of Zn{sup 2+} release, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} production and surface oxygen vacancy defects • Inherent resistance by gram negative bacteria at lower ZnO concentrations • Containment of bacteria on polymeric surface and consequent targeted killing by ZnO.

  12. Minimum effective concentration of bupivacaine for axillary brachial plexus block guided by ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Takeda

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of ultrasound in regional anesthesia allows reducing the dose of local anesthetic used for peripheral nerve block. The present study was performed to determine the minimum effective concentration (MEC90 of bupivacaine for axillary brachial plexus block. Methods: Patients undergoing hand surgery were recruited. To estimate the MEC90, a sequential up-down biased coin method of allocation was used. The bupivacaine dose was 5 mL for each nerve (radial, ulnar, median, and musculocutaneous. The initial concentration was 0.35%. This concentration was changed by 0.05% depending on the previous block; a blockade failure resulted in increased concentration for the next patient; in case of success, the next patient could receive or reduction (0.1 probability or the same concentration (0.9 probability. Surgical anesthesia was defined as driving force ≤2 according to the modified Bromage scale, lack of thermal sensitivity and response to pinprick. Postoperative analgesia was assessed in the recovery room with numeric pain scale and the amount of drugs used within 4 h after the blockade. Results: MEC90 was 0.241% [R2: 0.978, confidence interval: 0.20–0.34%]. No patient, with successful block, reported pain after 4 h. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that ultrasound guided axillary brachial plexus block can be performed with the use of low concentration of local anesthetics, increasing the safety of the procedure. Further studies should be conducted to assess blockade duration at low concentrations. Resumo: Introdução: O uso do ultrassom na anestesia regional permite a redução da dose de anestésico local utilizada para o bloqueio de nervos periféricos. O presente estudo foi conduzido com o objetivo de determinar a concentração mínima efetiva (CME90 de bupivacaína para o bloqueio do plexo braquial via axilar (BPVA. Métodos: Pacientes submetidos a cirurgias da mão foram recrutados. Foi usado um método de alocação

  13. Antimicrobial activities of six essential oils commonly used as condiments in Brazil against Clostridium perfringens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Radaelli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite recent advances in food production technology, food-borne diseases (FBD remain a challenging public health concern. In several countries, including Brazil, Clostridium perfringens is among the five main causative agents of food-borne diseases. The present study determines antimicrobial activities of essential oils of six condiments commonly used in Brazil, viz., Ocimum basilicum L. (basil, Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary, Origanum majorana L. (marjoram, Mentha × piperita L. var. Piperita (peppermint, Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme and Pimpinella anisum L. (anise against C. perfringens strain A. Chemical compositions of the oils were determined by GC–MS (gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The identities of the isolated compounds were established from the respective Kováts indices, and a comparison of mass spectral data was made with those reported earlier. The antibacterial activity was assessed from minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC using the microdilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration values were 1.25 mg mL-1 for thyme, 5.0 mg mL-1 for basil and marjoram, and 10 mg mL-1 for rosemary, peppermint and anise. All oils showed bactericidal activity at their minimum inhibitory concentration, except anise oil, which was only bacteriostatic. The use of essential oils from these common spices might serve as an alternative to the use of chemical preservatives in the control and inactivation of pathogens in commercially produced food systems.

  14. Antimicrobial activities of six essential oils commonly used as condiments in Brazil against Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaelli, Marcela; da Silva, Bárbara Parraga; Weidlich, Luciana; Hoehne, Lucélia; Flach, Adriana; da Costa, Luiz Antonio Mendonça Alves; Ethur, Eduardo Miranda

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in food production technology, food-borne diseases (FBD) remain a challenging public health concern. In several countries, including Brazil, Clostridium perfringens is among the five main causative agents of food-borne diseases. The present study determines antimicrobial activities of essential oils of six condiments commonly used in Brazil, viz., Ocimum basilicum L. (basil), Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), Origanum majorana L. (marjoram), Mentha × piperita L. var. Piperita (peppermint), Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme) and Pimpinella anisum L. (anise) against C. perfringens strain A. Chemical compositions of the oils were determined by GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). The identities of the isolated compounds were established from the respective Kováts indices, and a comparison of mass spectral data was made with those reported earlier. The antibacterial activity was assessed from minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) using the microdilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration values were 1.25mgmL(-1) for thyme, 5.0mgmL(-1) for basil and marjoram, and 10mgmL(-1) for rosemary, peppermint and anise. All oils showed bactericidal activity at their minimum inhibitory concentration, except anise oil, which was only bacteriostatic. The use of essential oils from these common spices might serve as an alternative to the use of chemical preservatives in the control and inactivation of pathogens in commercially produced food systems. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Damage of Escherichia coli membrane by bactericidal agent polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride: micrographic evidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z X; Wei, D F; Guan, Y; Zheng, A N; Zhong, J J

    2010-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide micrographic evidences for the damaged membrane structure and intracellular structure change of Escherichia coli strain 8099, induced by polyhexamethylene guanidine hydrochloride (PHMG). The bactericidal effect of PHMG on E. coli was investigated based on beta-galactosidase activity assay, fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate confocal laser scanning microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results revealed that a low dose (13 microg ml(-1)) of PHMG slightly damaged the outer membrane structure of the treated bacteria and increased the permeability of the cytoplasmic membrane, while no significant damage was observed to the morphological structure of the cells. A high dose (23 microg ml(-1)) of PHMG collapsed the outer membrane structure, led to the formation of a local membrane pore across the membrane and badly damaged the internal structure of the cells. Subsequently, intracellular components were leaked followed by cell inactivation. Dose-dependent membrane disruption was the main bactericidal mechanism of PHMG. The formation of the local membrane pores was probable after exposure to a high dose (23 microg ml(-1)) of PHMG. Micrographic evidences were provided about the damaged membrane structure and intracellular structure change of E. coli. The presented information helps understand the bactericidal mechanism of PHMG by membrane damage.

  16. Bactericidal efficacy of silver impregnated activated carbon for disinfection of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, L.; Khan, F.A.; Usmani, T.H.

    2009-01-01

    When highly contaminated water was passed through two types of silver coated activated carbon and their mixtures with sand, the former was found to be far better medium for disinfection of water, with bactericidal efficacy of about 2.5 times that of the latter. (author)

  17. Nanoconjugated vancomycin: new opportunities for the development of anti-VRSA agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Roy, Somenath; Sahu, Sumanta Kumar; Santra, Susmita; Pramanik, Panchanan; Bal, Manjusri

    2010-01-01

    More than 90% of Staphylococcus strains are resistant to penicillin. In 1961 S. aureus developed resistance to methicillin (MRSA), invalidating almost all antibiotics, including the most potent β-lactams. Vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic, was used for the treatment of MRSA in 1980. Vancomycin inhibits the bio-synthesis of peptidoglycan and the assembly of NAM-NAG-polypeptide into the growing peptidoglycan chain. Vancomycin resistant S. aureus (VRSA) first appeared in the USA in 2002. Folic acid tagged chitosan nanoparticles are used as Trojan horses to deliver vancomycin into bacterial cells. These nanoparticles are biocompatible and biodegradable semisynthetic polymers. These nanosized vehicles enhance the transport of vancomycin across epithelial surfaces and show its efficient drug action, which has been understood from studies of the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of nanoparticles of a chitosan derivative loaded with vancomycin. Tolerance values distinctly show that vancomycin loaded into nanoconjugate is very effective and has a strong bactericidal effect on VRSA.

  18. Nanoconjugated vancomycin: new opportunities for the development of anti-VRSA agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Subhankari Prasad; Mahapatra, Santanu Kar; Roy, Somenath [Immunology and Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Human Physiology with Community Health, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore-721102 (India); Sahu, Sumanta Kumar; Santra, Susmita; Pramanik, Panchanan [Nanomaterials Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, Pin-721302 (India); Bal, Manjusri, E-mail: panchanan_123@yahoo.com [Department of Human Physiology, Calcutta University, Kolkata (India)

    2010-03-12

    More than 90% of Staphylococcus strains are resistant to penicillin. In 1961 S. aureus developed resistance to methicillin (MRSA), invalidating almost all antibiotics, including the most potent {beta}-lactams. Vancomycin, a glycopeptide antibiotic, was used for the treatment of MRSA in 1980. Vancomycin inhibits the bio-synthesis of peptidoglycan and the assembly of NAM-NAG-polypeptide into the growing peptidoglycan chain. Vancomycin resistant S. aureus (VRSA) first appeared in the USA in 2002. Folic acid tagged chitosan nanoparticles are used as Trojan horses to deliver vancomycin into bacterial cells. These nanoparticles are biocompatible and biodegradable semisynthetic polymers. These nanosized vehicles enhance the transport of vancomycin across epithelial surfaces and show its efficient drug action, which has been understood from studies of the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of nanoparticles of a chitosan derivative loaded with vancomycin. Tolerance values distinctly show that vancomycin loaded into nanoconjugate is very effective and has a strong bactericidal effect on VRSA.

  19. Evaluation of the antibacterial potential of Petroselinum crispum and Rosmarinus officinalis against bacteria that cause urinary tract infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Villas Boas Petrolini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study we evaluated the antibacterial activity of the crude hydroalcoholic extracts, fractions, and compounds of two plant species, namely Rosmarinus officinalis and Petroselinum crispum, against the bacteria that cause urinary tract infection. The microdilution method was used for determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC. The crude hydroalcoholic extract of R. officinalis displayed in vitro activity against Gram-positive bacteria, with satisfactory MBC for the clinical isolate S. saprophyticus. The fractions and the pure compound rosmarinic acid did not furnish promising results for Gram-negative bacteria, whereas fractions 2, 3, and 4 gave encouraging results for Gram-positive bacteria and acted as bactericide against S. epidermidis as well as E. faecalis (ATCC 29212 and its clinical isolate. R. officinalis led to promising results in the case of Gram-positive bacteria, resulting in a considerable interest in the development of reliable alternatives for the treatment of urinary infections.

  20. Preparation, characterization, and antibacterial activity studies of silver-loaded poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Cunfeng; Chang, Ying; Cheng, Ling; Xu, Yiting; Chen, Xiaoling; Zhang, Long; Zhong, Lina; Dai, Lizong

    2014-03-01

    A simple method for preparing a new type of stable antibacterial agent was presented. Monodisperse poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (PSA) nanospheres, serving as matrices, were synthesized via soap-free emulsion polymerization. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy micrographs indicated that PSA nanospheres have interesting surface microstructures and well-controlled particle size distributions. Silver-loaded poly(styrene-co-acrylic acid) (PSA/Ag-NPs) nanocomposites were prepared in situ through interfacial reduction of silver nitrate with sodium borohydride, and further characterized by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Their effects on antibacterial activity including inhibition zone, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), and bactericidal kinetics were evaluated. In the tests, PSA/Ag-NPs nanocomposites showed excellent antibacterial activity against both gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and gram-negative Escherichia coli. These nanocomposites are considered to have potential application in antibacterial coatings on biomedical devices to reduce nosocomial infection rates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nanoparticles as Efflux Pump and Biofilm Inhibitor to Rejuvenate Bactericidal Effect of Conventional Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Divya; Singh, Ajeet; Khan, Asad U.

    2017-07-01

    The universal problem of bacterial resistance to antibiotic reflects a serious threat for physicians to control infections. Evolution in bacteria results in the development of various complex resistance mechanisms to neutralize the bactericidal effect of antibiotics, like drug amelioration, target modification, membrane permeability reduction, and drug extrusion through efflux pumps. Efflux pumps acquire a wide range of substrate specificity and also the tremendous efficacy for drug molecule extrusion outside bacterial cells. Hindrance in the functioning of efflux pumps may rejuvenate the bactericidal effect of conventional antibiotics. Efflux pumps also play an important role in the exclusion or inclusion of quorum-sensing biomolecules responsible for biofilm formation in bacterial cells. This transit movement of quorum-sensing biomolecules inside or outside the bacterial cells may get interrupted by impeding the functioning of efflux pumps. Metallic nanoparticles represent a potential candidate to block efflux pumps of bacterial cells. The application of nanoparticles as efflux pump inhibitors will not only help to revive the bactericidal effect of conventional antibiotics but will also assist to reduce biofilm-forming capacity of microbes. This review focuses on a novel and fascinating application of metallic nanoparticles in synergy with conventional antibiotics for efflux pump inhibition.

  2. Bactericidal effect of starch-stabilized zero-valent iron nanoparticles on Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mosaferi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study showed that nonstabilized Fe 0 nanoparticles have higher bactericidal efficiency than that of S-NZVI. This investigation also suggests that NZVI can be used as an effective and strong agent for antimicrobial applications.

  3. Antimicrobial Activities of Methanol, Ethanol and Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Philippine Piper betle L. on Clinical Isolates of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria with Transferable Multiple Drug Resistance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demetrio L Valle

    Full Text Available Piper betle L. has traditionally been used in alternative medicine in different countries for various therapeutic purposes, including as an anti-infective agent. However, studies reported in the literature are mainly on its activities on drug susceptible bacterial strains. This study determined the antimicrobial activities of its ethanol, methanol, and supercritical CO2 extracts on clinical isolates of multiple drug resistant bacteria which have been identified by the Infectious Disease Society of America as among the currently more challenging strains in clinical management. Assay methods included the standard disc diffusion method and the broth microdilution method for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC of the extracts for the test microorganisms. This study revealed the bactericidal activities of all the P. betle leaf crude extracts on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE, extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, with minimum bactericidal concentrations that ranged from 19μg/ml to 1250 μg/ml. The extracts proved to be more potent against the Gram positive MRSA and VRE than for the Gram negative test bacteria. VRE isolates were more susceptible to all the extracts than the MRSA isolates. Generally, the ethanol extracts proved to be more potent than the methanol extracts and supercritical CO2 extracts as shown by their lower MICs for both the Gram positive and Gram negative MDRs. MTT cytotoxicity assay showed that the highest concentration (100 μg/ml of P. betle ethanol extract tested was not toxic to normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDFn. Data from the study firmly established P. betle as an alternative source of anti-infectives against multiple drug resistant

  4. Antimicrobial Activities of Methanol, Ethanol and Supercritical CO2 Extracts of Philippine Piper betle L. on Clinical Isolates of Gram Positive and Gram Negative Bacteria with Transferable Multiple Drug Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Demetrio L; Cabrera, Esperanza C; Puzon, Juliana Janet M; Rivera, Windell L

    2016-01-01

    Piper betle L. has traditionally been used in alternative medicine in different countries for various therapeutic purposes, including as an anti-infective agent. However, studies reported in the literature are mainly on its activities on drug susceptible bacterial strains. This study determined the antimicrobial activities of its ethanol, methanol, and supercritical CO2 extracts on clinical isolates of multiple drug resistant bacteria which have been identified by the Infectious Disease Society of America as among the currently more challenging strains in clinical management. Assay methods included the standard disc diffusion method and the broth microdilution method for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of the extracts for the test microorganisms. This study revealed the bactericidal activities of all the P. betle leaf crude extracts on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and metallo-β-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter baumannii, with minimum bactericidal concentrations that ranged from 19μg/ml to 1250 μg/ml. The extracts proved to be more potent against the Gram positive MRSA and VRE than for the Gram negative test bacteria. VRE isolates were more susceptible to all the extracts than the MRSA isolates. Generally, the ethanol extracts proved to be more potent than the methanol extracts and supercritical CO2 extracts as shown by their lower MICs for both the Gram positive and Gram negative MDRs. MTT cytotoxicity assay showed that the highest concentration (100 μg/ml) of P. betle ethanol extract tested was not toxic to normal human dermal fibroblasts (HDFn). Data from the study firmly established P. betle as an alternative source of anti-infectives against multiple drug resistant bacteria.

  5. Enhanced bactericidal effect of enterocin AS-48 in combination with high-intensity pulsed-electric field treatment against Salmonella enterica in apple juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Viedma, Pilar; Sobrino López, Angel; Ben Omar, Nabil; Abriouel, Hikmate; Lucas López, Rosario; Valdivia, Eva; Martín Belloso, Olga; Gálvez, Antonio

    2008-12-10

    The effect of the broad spectrum cyclic antimicrobial peptide enterocin AS-48 combination with high-intensity pulsed-electric field (HIPEF) treatment (35 kV/cm, 150 Hz, 4 micros and bipolar mode) was tested on Salmonella enterica CECT 915 in apple juice. A response surface methodology was applied to study the bactericidal effects of the combined treatment. The process variables were AS-48 concentration, temperature, and HIPEF treatment time. While treatment with enterocin AS-48 alone up to 60 microg/ml had no effect on the viability of S. enterica in apple juice, an increased bactericidal activity was observed in combination with HIPEF treatments. Survival fraction was affected by treatment time, enterocin AS48 concentration and treatment temperature. The combination of 100 micros of HIPEF treatment, 30 microg/ml of AS-48, and temperature of 20 degrees C resulted in the lowest inactivation, with only a 1.2-log reduction. The maximum inactivation of 4.5-log cycles was achieved with HIPEF treatment for 1000 micros in combination with 60 microg/ml of AS-48 and a treatment temperature of 40 degrees C. Synergism between enterocin AS-48 and HIPEF treatment depended on the sequence order application, since it was observed only when HIPEF was applied in the presence of previously-added bacteriocin. The combined treatment could improve the safety of freshly-made apple juice against S. enterica transmission.

  6. Antimicrobial Potential of Momordica charantia L. against Multiresistant Standard Species and Clinical Isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena Filho, José Hardman Sátiro de; Lima, Rennaly de Freitas; Medeiros, Ana Claudia Dantas de; Pereira, Jozinete Vieira; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Costa, Edja Maria Melo de Brito

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antibacterial and antifungal potential in vitro of Momordica charantia L. against the microorganisms of clinical interest (standard strains and multiresistant isolates) in order to aggregate scientific information in relation to its use as a therapeutic product. M. charantia L. plant material was acquired in municipality of Malta, Paraiba, Brazil. The extract was obtained through maceration, filtration and then concentrated under reduced pressure in a rotary evaporator, resulting in a dough, and was then dried in an oven for 72 hours at 40°C. Antimicrobial action of ethanolic extract of seed M. charantia L. was evaluated based on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) against standard strains of bacteria, isolates multiresistant bacteria and Candida species, by microdilution in broth method. All organisms were sensitive to the extract, being considered strong antimicrobial activity (MIC and MBC/MFC charantia L. showed strong antimicrobial potential, with bactericidal and fungicidal profile, there is the prospect to constitute a new therapeutic strategy for the control of infections, particularly in multiresistant strains. The use of medicinal plants in treatment of infectious processes have an important function nowadays, due to the limitations of the use of synthetic antibiotics available, related specifically to the microbial resistance emergence.

  7. Superior bactericidal activity of N-bromine compounds compared to their N-chlorine analogues can be reversed under protein load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, W; Klotz, S; Nagl, M

    2014-06-01

    To investigate and compare the bactericidal activity (BA) of active bromine and chlorine compounds in the absence and presence of protein load. Quantitative killing tests against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were performed both in the absence and in the presence of peptone with pairs of isosteric active chlorine and bromine compounds: hypochlorous and hypobromous acid (HOCl and HOBr), dichloro- and dibromoisocyanuric acid, chlorantine and bromantine (1,3-dibromo- and 1,3 dichloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoine), chloramine T and bromamine T (N-chloro- and N-bromo-4-methylbenzenesulphonamide sodium), and N-chloro- and N-bromotaurine sodium. To classify the bactericidal activities on a quantitative basis, an empirical coefficient named specific bactericidal activity (SBA), founded on the parameters of killing curves, was defined: SBA= mean log reductions/(mean exposure times x concentration) [mmol 1(-1) min (-1)]. In the absence of peptone, tests with washed micro-organisms revealed a throughout higher BA of bromine compounds with only slight differences between single substances. This was in contrast to chlorine compounds, whose killing times differed by a factor of more than four decimal powers. As a consequence, also the isosteric pairs showed according differences. In the presence of peptone, however, bromine compounds showed an increased loss of BA, which partly caused a reversal of efficacy within isosteric pairs. In medical practice, weakly oxidizing active chlorine compounds like chloramines have the highest potential as topical anti-infectives in the presence of proteinaceous material (mucous membranes, open wounds). Active bromine compounds, on the other hand, have their chance at insensitive body regions with low organic matter, for example skin surfaces. The expected protein load is one of the most important parameters for selection of a suited active halogen compound. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Hydrophobic pinning with copper nanowhiskers leads to bactericidal properties.

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    Ajay Vikram Singh

    Full Text Available The considerable morbidity associated with hospitalized patients and clinics in developed countries due to biofilm formation on biomedical implants and surgical instruments is a heavy economic burden. An alternative to chemically treated surfaces for bactericidal activity started emerging from micro/nanoscale topographical cues in the last decade. Here, we demonstrate a putative antibacterial surface using copper nanowhiskers deposited by molecular beam epitaxy. Furthermore, the control of biological response is based on hydrophobic pinning of water droplets in the Wenzel regime, causing mechanical injury and cell death. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed the details of the surface morphology and non-contact mode laser scanning of the surface revealed the microtopography-associated quantitative parameters. Introducing the bacterial culture over nanowhiskers produces mechanical injury to cells, leading to a reduction in cell density over time due to local pinning of culture medium to whisker surfaces. Extended culture to 72 hours to observe biofilm formation revealed biofilm inhibition with scattered microcolonies and significantly reduced biovolume on nanowhiskers. Therefore, surfaces patterned with copper nanowhiskers can serve as potential antibiofilm surfaces. The topography-based antibacterial surfaces introduce a novel prospect in developing mechanoresponsive nanobiomaterials to reduce the risk of medical device biofilm-associated infections, contrary to chemical leaching of copper as a traditional bactericidal agent.

  9. Effects of fentanyl on isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration in New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barter, Linda S; Hawkins, Michelle G; Pypendop, Bruno H

    2015-02-01

    To determine effects of increasing plasma fentanyl concentrations on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in rabbits. 6 adult female New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Rabbits were anesthetized with isoflurane in oxygen; ventilation was controlled and body temperature maintained between 38.5° and 39.5°C. Fentanyl was administered IV by use of a computer-controlled infusion system to achieve 6 target plasma concentrations. Isoflurane MAC was determined in duplicate by use of the bracketing technique with a supramaximal electrical stimulus. Blood samples were collected for measurement of plasma fentanyl concentration at each MAC determination. The MAC values were analyzed with a repeated-measures ANOVA followed by Holm-Sidak pairwise comparisons. Mean ± SD plasma fentanyl concentrations were 0 ± 0 ng/mL (baseline), 1.2 ± 0.1 ng/mL, 2.2 ± 0.3 ng/mL, 4.4 ± 0.4 ng/mL, 9.2 ± 0.4 ng/mL, 17.5 ± 2.6 ng/mL, and 36.8 ± 2.4 ng/mL. Corresponding mean values for isoflurane MAC were 1.92 ± 0.16%, 1.80 ± 0.16%, 1.60 ± 0.23%, 1.46 ± 0.22%, 1.12 ± 0.19%, 0.89 ± 0.14%, and 0.70 ± 0.15%, respectively. Isoflurane MAC for plasma fentanyl concentrations ≥ 2.2 ng/mL differed significantly from the baseline value. In 3 rabbits, excessive spontaneous movement prevented MAC determination at the highest plasma fentanyl concentration. Fentanyl reduced isoflurane MAC by approximately 60% in New Zealand White rabbits. Further studies will be needed to investigate the cardiorespiratory effects of isoflurane and fentanyl combinations in rabbits; however, fentanyl may prove to be a useful adjunct to inhalation anesthesia in this species.

  10. Bactericidal activity of self-assembled palmitic and stearic fatty acid crystals on highly ordered pyrolytic graphite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Elena P; Nguyen, Song Ha; Guo, Yachong; Baulin, Vladimir A; Webb, Hayden K; Truong, Vi Khanh; Wandiyanto, Jason V; Garvey, Christopher J; Mahon, Peter J; Mainwaring, David E; Crawford, Russell J

    2017-09-01

    The wings of insects such as cicadas and dragonflies have been found to possess nanostructure arrays that are assembled from fatty acids. These arrays can physically interact with the bacterial cell membranes, leading to the death of the cell. Such mechanobactericidal surfaces are of significant interest, as they can kill bacteria without the need for antibacterial chemicals. Here, we report on the bactericidal effect of two of the main lipid components of the insect wing epicuticle, palmitic (C16) and stearic (C18) fatty acids. Films of these fatty acids were re-crystallised on the surface of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite. It appeared that the presence of two additional CH 2 groups in the alkyl chain resulted in the formation of different surface structures. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy showed that the palmitic acid microcrystallites were more asymmetric than those of the stearic acid, where the palmitic acid microcrystallites were observed to be an angular abutment in the scanning electron micrographs. The principal differences between the two types of long-chain saturated fatty acid crystallites were the larger density of peaks in the upper contact plane of the palmitic acid crystallites, as well as their greater proportion of asymmetrical shapes, in comparison to that of the stearic acid film. These two parameters might contribute to higher bactericidal activity on surfaces derived from palmitic acid. Both the palmitic and stearic acid crystallite surfaces displayed activity against Gram-negative, rod-shaped Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive, spherical Staphylococcus aureus cells. These microcrystallite interfaces might be a useful tool in the fabrication of effective bactericidal nanocoatings. Nanostructured cicada and dragonfly wing surfaces have been discovered to be able physically kill bacterial cells. Here, we report on the successful fabrication of bactericidal three-dimensional structures of two main lipid

  11. Efficiency calibration and minimum detectable activity concentration of a real-time UAV airborne sensor system with two gamma spectrometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Bin; Meng, Jia; Wang, Peng; Cao, Ye; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2016-04-01

    A small-sized UAV (NH-UAV) airborne system with two gamma spectrometers (LaBr3 detector and HPGe detector) was developed to monitor activity concentration in serious nuclear accidents, such as the Fukushima nuclear accident. The efficiency calibration and determination of minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) of the specific system were studied by MC simulations at different flight altitudes, different horizontal distances from the detection position to the source term center and different source term sizes. Both air and ground radiation were considered in the models. The results obtained may provide instructive suggestions for in-situ radioactivity measurements of NH-UAV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bactericidal Effect of Calcium Oxide (Scallop-Shell Powder) Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm on Quail Egg Shell, Stainless Steel, Plastic, and Rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soo-Jin; Park, Shin Young; Kim, Seh Eun; Kang, Ike; Park, Jiyong; Lee, Jungwon; Kim, Chang-Min; Chung, Myung-Sub; Ha, Sang-Do

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal effect of calcium oxide (CaO) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms on quail eggshells and major egg contacting surfaces (stainless steel, plastic, and rubber). The samples were subjected to CaO treatments (0%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15%, 0.20%, 0.25%, and 0.30%) for 1 min. All the CaO treatments significantly reduced P. aeruginosa biofilms on all tested surfaces as compared to controls. In comparison of biofilm stability, the strongest and most resistant biofilm was formed on eggshell against the CaO treatment, followed by rubber, stainless steel, and plastic. In evaluation of bactericidal effect, the largest reduction (3.16 log CFU) was observed in plastic even at the lowest concentration of CaO (0.01%), whereas the least reduction was found in eggshells, regardless of CaO concentration. In addition, stainless steel showed a significant reduction in biofilm formation at all concentrations except 0.10% to 0.15% CaO. At 0.30% CaO, the reduction of P. aeruginosa in biofilms on stainless steel, plastic, rubber, and eggshell were 5.48, 6.37, 4.87, and 3.14 log CFU/cm 2 (CFU/egg), respectively. Biofilm reduction after CaO treatment was also observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Based on the FE-SEM images, we observed that P. aeruginosa biofilms formed compact aggregations on eggshell surfaces with CaO treatments up to 0.30%. More specifically, a 0.20% CaO treatment resulted in the reductions of 3 to 6 log CFU in all materials. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  13. Morphological bactericidal fast-acting effects of peracetic acid, a high-level disinfectant, against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chino, T; Nukui, Y; Morishita, Y; Moriya, K

    2017-01-01

    The bactericidal effect of disinfectants against biofilms is essential to reduce potential endoscopy-related infections caused by contamination. Here, we investigated the bactericidal effect of a high-level disinfectant, peracetic acid (PAA), against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm models in vitro. S. aureus and P. aeruginosa biofilms were cultured at 35 °C for 7 days with catheter tubes. The following high-level disinfectants (HLDs) were tested: 0.3% PAA, 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA), and 2.0% alkaline-buffered glutaraldehyde (GA). Biofilms were exposed to these agents for 1-60 min and observed after 5 min and 30 min by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. A Student's t test was performed to compare the exposure time required for bactericidal effectiveness of the disinfectants. PAA and GA were active within 1 min and 5 min, respectively, against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa biofilms. OPA took longer than 10 min and 30 min to act against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa biofilms, respectively ( p  < 0.01). Treatment with PAA elicited changes in cell shape after 5 min and structural damage after 30 min. Amongst the HLDs investigated, PAA elicited the most rapid bactericidal effects against both biofilms. Additionally, treatment with PAA induced morphological alterations in the in vitro biofilm models, suggesting that PAA exerts fast-acting bactericidal effects against biofilms associated with endoscopy-related infections. These findings indicate that the exposure time for bactericidal effectiveness of HLDs for endoscope reprocessing in healthcare settings should be reconsidered.

  14. The effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin concentrations on enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and the role of the surface protein dispersin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, Ninell P [ORNL; Fowlkes, Jason Davidson [ORNL; Trevino-Dopatka, Sonia [ORNL; Maggart, Michael J [ORNL; Boisen, Nadia [University of Virginia School of Medicine; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Nataro, James [University of Virginia School of Medicine; Allison, David P [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) are bacterial pathogens that cause watery diarrhea, which is often persistent and can be inflammatory. The antibiotic ciprofloxacin is used to treat EAEC infections, but a full understanding of the antimicrobial effects of ciprofloxacin is needed for more efficient treatment of bacterial infections. In this study, it was found that sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of ciprofloxacin had an inhibitory effect on EAEC adhesion to glass and mammalian HEp-2 cells. It was also observed that bacterial surface properties play an important role in bacterial sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. In an EAEC mutant strain where the hydrophobic positively charged surface protein dispersin was absent, sensitivity to ciprofloxacin was reduced compared with the wild-type strain. Identified here are several antimicrobial effects of ciprofloxacin at sub-MIC concentrations indicating that bacterial surface hydrophobicity affects the response to ciprofloxacin. Investigating the effects of sub-MIC doses of antibiotics on targeted bacteria could help to further our understanding of bacterial pathogenicity and elucidate future antibiotic treatment modalities.

  15. Antimicrobial activity and safety evaluation of peptides isolated from the hemoglobin of chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Fengjiao; Wu, Qiaoxing; Song, Shuang; She, Ruiping; Zhao, Yue; Yang, Yifei; Zhang, Meikun; Du, Fang; Soomro, Majid Hussain; Shi, Ruihan

    2016-12-05

    Hemoglobin is a rich source of biological peptides. As a byproduct and even wastewater of poultry-slaughtering facilities, chicken blood is one of the most abundant source of hemoglobin. In this study, the chicken hemoglobin antimicrobial peptides (CHAP) were isolated and the antimicrobial and bactericidal activities were tested by the agarose diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) analysis, minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) analysis, and time-dependent inhibitory and bactericidal assays. The results demonstrated that CHAP had potent and rapid antimicrobial activity against 19 bacterial strains, including 9 multidrug-resistant bacterial strains. Bacterial biofilm and NaCl permeability assays, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were further performed to detect the mechanism of its antimicrobial effect. Additionally, CHAP showed low hemolytic activity, embryo toxicity, and high stability in different temperatures and animal plasma. CHAP may have great potential for expanding production and development value in animal medication, the breeding industry and environment protection.

  16. Corneal epithelial wound healing and bactericidal effect of conditioned medium from human uterine cervical stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudez, Maria A; Sendon-Lago, Juan; Eiro, Noemi; Treviño, Mercedes; Gonzalez, Francisco; Yebra-Pimentel, Eva; Giraldez, Maria Jesus; Macia, Manuel; Lamelas, Maria Luz; Saa, Jorge; Vizoso, Francisco; Perez-Fernandez, Roman

    2015-01-22

    To evaluate the effect of conditioned medium from human uterine cervical stem cells (CM-hUCESCs) on corneal epithelial healing in a rat model of dry eye after alkaline corneal epithelial ulcer. We also tested the bactericidal effect of CM-hUCESCs. Dry eye was induced in rats by extraocular lacrimal gland excision, and corneal ulcers were produced using NaOH. Corneal histologic evaluation was made with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining. Real-time PCR was used to evaluate mRNA expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines. We also studied the bactericidal effect of CM-hUCESCs in vitro and on infected corneal contact lenses (CLs) using Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus epidermidis bacteria. In addition, in order to investigate proteins from CM-hUCESCs that could mediate these effects, we carried out a human cytokine antibody array. After injury, dry eyes treated with CM-hUCESCs significantly improved epithelial regeneration and showed reduced corneal macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1α) and TNF-α mRNA expression as compared to untreated eyes and eyes treated with culture medium or sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic drops. In addition, we found in CM-hUCESCs high levels of proteins, such as tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 1 and 2, fibroblast growth factor 6 and 7, urokinase receptor, and hepatocyte growth factor, that could mediate these effects. In vitro, CM-hUCESCs showed a clear bactericidal effect on both E. coli and S. epidermidis and CLs infected with S. epidermidis. Analyses of CM-hUCESCs showed elevated levels of proteins that could be involved in the bactericidal effect, such as the chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligands 1, 6, 8, 10, and the chemokine (C-C motif) ligands 5 and 20. Treatment with CM-hUCESCs improved wound healing of alkali-injured corneas and showed a strong bactericidal effect on CLs. Patients using CLs and suffering from dry eye, allergies induced by commercial solutions, or small corneal injuries could benefit from this treatment

  17. Following the Mechanisms of Bacteriostatic versus Bactericidal Action Using Raman Spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bernatová, Silvie; Samek, Ota; Pilát, Zdeněk; Šerý, Mojmír; Ježek, Jan; Jákl, Petr; Šiler, Martin; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Zemánek, Pavel; Holá, V.; Dvořáčková, M.; Růžička, F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 18, č. 11 (2013), s. 13188-13199 ISSN 1420-3049 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED0017/01/01; GA ČR GAP205/11/1687 Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Raman spectroscopy * antibiotics * bacteria * bactericidal * bacteriostatic Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 2.095, year: 2013

  18. The Commonly Used Bactericide Bismerthiazol Promotes Rice Defenses against Herbivores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pengyong Zhou

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical elicitors that enhance plant resistance to pathogens have been extensively studied, however, chemical elicitors that induce plant defenses against insect pests have received little attention. Here, we found that the exogenous application of a commonly used bactericide, bismerthiazol, on rice induced the biosynthesis of constitutive and/or elicited jasmonic acid (JA, jasmonoyl-isoleucine conjugate (JA-Ile, ethylene and H2O2 but not salicylic acid. These activated signaling pathways altered the volatile profile of rice plants. White-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera nymphs and gravid females showed a preference for feeding and/or oviposition on control plants: survival rates were better and more eggs were laid than on bismerthiazol-treated plants. Moreover, bismerthiazol treatment also increased both the parasitism rate of WBPH eggs laid on plants in the field by Anagrus nilaparvatae, and also the resistance of rice to the brown planthopper (BPH Nilaparvata lugens and the striped stem borer (SSB Chilo suppressalis. These findings suggest that the bactericide bismerthiazol can induce the direct and/or indirect resistance of rice to multiple insect pests, and so can be used as a broad-spectrum chemical elicitor.

  19. Influence of glycerol and an alternative humectant on the immediate and 3-hours bactericidal efficacies of two isopropanol-based antiseptics in laboratory experiments in vivo according to EN 12791

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miranda Suchomel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Guidelines for hand hygiene recommend the use of alcohol-based hand rubs containing humectants in order to improve dermal tolerance. However, the bactericidal efficacy of pre-surgical hand rubs is negatively affected by the WHO-recommended humectant glycerol, especially the 3-h efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether replacing glycerol as humectant increases the bactericidal efficacy of surgical hand rubs based on isopropanol (75%, wt/wt. Material and methods The efficacy of 3 and 5 min applications of a modified WHO II-formulation (containing lower glycerol concentrations and the TPH 5766 hand rub which contains a new humectant (containing ethylhexylglycerin, dexpanthenol and a fatty alcohol were compared to the European Norm 12,791 reference (n-propanol, 60%, vol/vol immediately following and 3 h after application. Results Immediately after application both isopropanol-based surgical rubs approximated the performance of the reference. The 3-h effect of the modified WHO II-formulation was found to be less efficacious than the EN 12791, showing a 30% decrease in log10 reduction values. The 3-h post application effect for the TPH 5766 hand rub was found to not be different from EN 12791. Conclusion Based on our data, the bactericidal efficacy of isopropanol-based surgical hand rubs can best be obtained if glycerol is not used in the formulation. Unlike glycerol, a humectant comprised of ethylhexylglycerin, dexpanthenol and a fatty alcohol was found not to decrease hand rub effectiveness. Further investigation of the bactericidal efficacy of other humectants is necessary and may prove useful.

  20. O mínimo de oxigênio na costa leste do Brasil entre 7-22ºS The minimum oxygen concentration in easthern Brasilian coast between 7-22ºS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argeo Magliocca

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available In the South Atlantic nearly the Brazilian coast, at low latitudes, the layer of minimum oxygen concentration shows distinct values between the Equatorial region (7ºS and the region limited by latitudes of 18-22ºS. In the vicinity of the Equator the minimum concentration is remarkably clear (2,0 ml/l at 7ºS and at 22ºS the minima values raise up to 4.0-4.5 ml/l. The minimum oxygen layer follows the isopynics surfaces (σt = 26.8-27.2 in depths of 300-400 m (7ºS and 600-800 m (22ºS . The oxygen concentration in this area results from a biochemical and physical processes, due to the presence of poor water Brazil Current southward and the rich one Intermediate Antartic water flowing northward.

  1. The Comparison Among Antibacterial Activity of Mespilus germanica Extracts and Number of Common Therapeutic Antibiotics “In Vitro”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Tabatabaei-Yazdi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antibiotic resistance is a serious and growing phenomenon in contemporary medicine and has emerged as one of the pre-eminent public health concerns of the 21st century. Objectives: In this study, antibacterial activity of Mespilus germanica extract against some pathogenic bacterial strains (Streptococcus pyogene, Listeria innocua, Enterobacter aerogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae was evaluated. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, maceration extraction method was used for M. germanica extract. Disk diffusion method was used to evaluate the antimicrobial effect and broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS-18 statistical software and analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey test. Results: Antimicrobial activity was assessed by inhibition diameters which were found to range from 8 to 21.5 mm for the two extracts against all the bacterial strains tested. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC for the extracts were later determined by three fold serial dilutions method and they ranged 2 - 64 mg/mL against all the strains and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC for the extracts were later determined by three fold serial dilutions method and they ranged 4 - 128 mg/mL against all the strains. Conclusions: The M. germanica extract showed the more effective impact on the growth S. pyogene and L. innocua than E. aerogenes and K. pneumoniae (P < 0.05. M. germanica in comparison with common therapeutic antibiotics had more inhibitory effect on some of the studied strains in vitro.

  2. Morphological bactericidal fast-acting effects of peracetic acid, a high-level disinfectant, against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in tubing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bactericidal effect of disinfectants against biofilms is essential to reduce potential endoscopy-related infections caused by contamination. Here, we investigated the bactericidal effect of a high-level disinfectant, peracetic acid (PAA, against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm models in vitro. Methods S. aureus and P. aeruginosa biofilms were cultured at 35 °C for 7 days with catheter tubes. The following high-level disinfectants (HLDs were tested: 0.3% PAA, 0.55% ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPA, and 2.0% alkaline-buffered glutaraldehyde (GA. Biofilms were exposed to these agents for 1–60 min and observed after 5 min and 30 min by transmission and scanning electron microscopy. A Student’s t test was performed to compare the exposure time required for bactericidal effectiveness of the disinfectants. Results PAA and GA were active within 1 min and 5 min, respectively, against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa biofilms. OPA took longer than 10 min and 30 min to act against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa biofilms, respectively (p < 0.01. Treatment with PAA elicited changes in cell shape after 5 min and structural damage after 30 min. Conclusions Amongst the HLDs investigated, PAA elicited the most rapid bactericidal effects against both biofilms. Additionally, treatment with PAA induced morphological alterations in the in vitro biofilm models, suggesting that PAA exerts fast-acting bactericidal effects against biofilms associated with endoscopy-related infections. These findings indicate that the exposure time for bactericidal effectiveness of HLDs for endoscope reprocessing in healthcare settings should be reconsidered.

  3. Concentrations of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein, bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein, soluble CD14 and plasma lipids in relation to endotoxaemia in patients with alcoholic liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schäfer, C.; Parlesak, Alexandr; Schütt, C.

    2002-01-01

    of endotoxin on its target cells (LPS-binding protein and sCD14) were increased. Endotoxin antagonists, such as bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein and high-density lipoprotein, were increased in the pre-cirrhotic stages, whereas a significant reduction of the latter was observed in cirrhosis. Low......-density lipoprotein remained unchanged. The elevation of binding factors in the pre-cirrhotic stages of alcoholic liver disease might attenuate the effects of endotoxaemia, whereas in cirrhosis the reduction of high density lipoprotein, to which large quantities of endotoxin bind, may contribute to its pro...

  4. The Commonly Used Bactericide Bismerthiazol Promotes Rice Defenses against Herbivores

    OpenAIRE

    Pengyong Zhou; Xiaochang Mo; Wanwan Wang; Xia Chen; Yonggen Lou

    2018-01-01

    Chemical elicitors that enhance plant resistance to pathogens have been extensively studied, however, chemical elicitors that induce plant defenses against insect pests have received little attention. Here, we found that the exogenous application of a commonly used bactericide, bismerthiazol, on rice induced the biosynthesis of constitutive and/or elicited jasmonic acid (JA), jasmonoyl-isoleucine conjugate (JA-Ile), ethylene and H2O2 but not salicylic acid. These activated signaling pathways ...

  5. Human Salivary Protein Histatin 5 Has Potent Bactericidal Activity against ESKAPE Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Han; Puri, Sumant; McCall, Andrew; Norris, Hannah L; Russo, Thomas; Edgerton, Mira

    2017-01-01

    ESKAPE ( Enterococcus faecium , Staphylococcus aureus , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Acinetobacter baumanni , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Enterobacter species) pathogens have characteristic multiple-drug resistance and cause an increasing number of nosocomial infections worldwide. Peptide-based therapeutics to treat ESKAPE infections might be an alternative to conventional antibiotics. Histatin 5 (Hst 5) is a salivary cationic histidine-rich peptide produced only in humans and higher primates. It has high antifungal activity against Candida albicans through an energy-dependent, non-lytic process; but its bactericidal effects are less known. We found Hst 5 has bactericidal activity against S. aureus (60-70% killing) and A. baumannii (85-90% killing) in 10 and 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer (NaPB), while killing of >99% of P. aeruginosa , 60-80% E. cloacae and 20-60% of E. faecium was found in 10 mM NaPB. Hst 5 killed 60% of biofilm cells of P. aeruginosa , but had reduced activity against biofilms of S. aureus and A. baumannii . Hst 5 killed 20% of K. pneumonia biofilm cells but not planktonic cells. Binding and uptake studies using FITC-labeled Hst 5 showed E. faecium and E. cloacae killing required Hst 5 internalization and was energy dependent, while bactericidal activity was rapid against P. aeruginosa and A. baumannii suggesting membrane disruption. Hst 5-mediated killing of S. aureus was both non-lytic and energy independent. Additionally, we found that spermidine conjugated Hst 5 (Hst5-Spd) had improved killing activity against E. faecium, E. cloacae , and A. baumannii . Hst 5 or its derivative has antibacterial activity against five out of six ESKAPE pathogens and may be an alternative treatment for these infections.

  6. Ammonium and nitrite oxidation at nanomolar oxygen concentrations in oxygen minimum zone waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, Laura A; Dalsgaard, Tage; Tiano, Laura; Mills, Daniel B; Bertagnolli, Anthony D; Wright, Jody J; Hallam, Steven J; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Donald E; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Thamdrup, Bo

    2016-09-20

    A major percentage of fixed nitrogen (N) loss in the oceans occurs within nitrite-rich oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) via denitrification and anammox. It remains unclear to what extent ammonium and nitrite oxidation co-occur, either supplying or competing for substrates involved in nitrogen loss in the OMZ core. Assessment of the oxygen (O2) sensitivity of these processes down to the O2 concentrations present in the OMZ core (Chile at manipulated O2 levels between 5 nmol⋅L(-1) and 20 μmol⋅L(-1) Rates of both processes were detectable in the low nanomolar range (5-33 nmol⋅L(-1) O2), but demonstrated a strong dependence on O2 concentrations with apparent half-saturation constants (Kms) of 333 ± 130 nmol⋅L(-1) O2 for ammonium oxidation and 778 ± 168 nmol⋅L(-1) O2 for nitrite oxidation assuming one-component Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Nitrite oxidation rates, however, were better described with a two-component Michaelis-Menten model, indicating a high-affinity component with a Km of just a few nanomolar. As the communities of ammonium and nitrite oxidizers were similar to other OMZs, these kinetics should apply across OMZ systems. The high O2 affinities imply that ammonium and nitrite oxidation can occur within the OMZ core whenever O2 is supplied, for example, by episodic intrusions. These processes therefore compete with anammox and denitrification for ammonium and nitrite, thereby exerting an important control over nitrogen loss.

  7. In vitro activity of XF-73, a novel antibacterial agent, against antibiotic-sensitive and -resistant Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, David J; Robbins, Marion; Rhys-Williams, William; Love, William G

    2010-06-01

    The antibacterial activity of XF-73, a dicationic porphyrin drug, was investigated against a range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with known antibiotic resistance profiles, including resistance to cell wall synthesis, protein synthesis, and DNA and RNA synthesis inhibitors as well as cell membrane-active antibiotics. Antibiotic-sensitive strains for each of the bacterial species tested were also included for comparison purposes. XF-73 was active [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 0.25-4 mg/L] against all of the Gram-positive bacteria tested, irrespective of the antibiotic resistance profile of the isolates, suggesting that the mechanism of action of XF-73 is unique compared with the major antibiotic classes. Gram-negative activity was lower (MIC 1 mg/L to > 64 mg/L). Minimum bactericidal concentration data confirmed that the activity of XF-73 was bactericidal. Time-kill kinetics against healthcare-associated and community-associated meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates demonstrated that XF-73 was rapidly bactericidal, with > 5 log(10) kill obtained after 15 min at 2 x MIC, the earliest time point sampled. The post-antibiotic effect (PAE) for XF-73 under conditions where the PAE for vancomycin was 5.4 h. XF-73 represents a novel broad-spectrum Gram-positive antibacterial drug with potentially beneficial characteristics for the treatment and prevention of Gram-positive bacterial infections. 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Concentration-dependent behaviors of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells and infectious bacteria toward magnesium oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetteland, Cheyann Lee; Nguyen, Nhu-Y Thi; Liu, Huinan

    2016-04-15

    This article reports the quantitative relationship between the concentration of magnesium oxide (MgO) nanoparticles and its distinct biological activities towards mammalian cells and infectious bacteria for the first time. The effects of MgO nanoparticles on the viability of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and infectious bacteria (both gram-negative Escherichia coli and gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis) showed a concentration-dependent behavior in vitro. The critical concentrations of MgO nanoparticles identified in this study provided valuable guidelines for biomaterial design toward potential clinical translation. BMSCs density increased significantly when cultured in 200μg/mL of MgO in comparison to the Cells Only control without MgO. The density of BMSCs decreased significantly after culture in the media with 500μg/mL or more of MgO. Concentrations at or above 1000μg/mL of MgO resulted in complete BMSCs death. Quantification of colony forming units (CFU) revealed that the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of MgO for E. coli and S. epidermidis was 1200μg/mL. The addition of MgO nanoparticles into the cultures increased the pH and Mg(2+) ion concentration in the respective culture media, which might have played a role in the observed cell responses but not the main factors. E. coli and S. epidermidis still proliferated significantly at alkaline pH up to 10 or with supplemental Mg(2+) dosages up to 50mM, indicating bactericidal properties of MgO are beyond the effects of increased media pH and Mg(2+) ion concentrations. MgO nanoparticles at a concentration of 200μg/mL provided dual benefits of promoting BMSC proliferation while reducing bacterial adhesion, which should be further studied for potential medical implant applications. The use of free MgO nanoparticles yielded detrimental effects to BMSCs in concentrations above 300μg/mL. We recommend further study into MgO nanoparticle as a coating material or as a part of a

  9. In vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Anju; Nanda, Arun; Ahmad, Sayeed; Narasimhan, B.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Psidium guajava Linn (Myrtaceae). Materials and Methods: The inhibitory effect of methanolic extract of P. guajava was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains by using the paper disc diffusion method. Results: The methanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli with minimum inhibitory concentration, 0.78 μg/ml, minimum bactericidal concentration of 50 μg/ml, and appreciable antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 μg/ml. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract revealed the presence of antimicrobial compounds such as flavonoids, steroids, and tannins, which may contribute for the antimicrobial action of P. guajava. Conclusion: The extract was found to be bacteriostatic and fungistatic in action. PMID:21687350

  10. In vitro antimicrobial activity of methanolic leaf extract of Psidium guajava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anju Dhiman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was designed to examine the chemical composition and in vitro antimicrobial potential of methanolic extract of Psidium guajava Linn (Myrtaceae. Materials and Methods: The inhibitory effect of methanolic extract of P. guajava was tested against three bacterial and two fungal strains by using the paper disc diffusion method. Results: The methanolic extract exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli with minimum inhibitory concentration, 0.78 μg/ml, minimum bactericidal concentration of 50 μg/ml, and appreciable antifungal activity with minimum inhibitory concentration of 12.5 μg/ml. Preliminary phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract revealed the presence of antimicrobial compounds such as flavonoids, steroids, and tannins, which may contribute for the antimicrobial action of P. guajava. Conclusion: The extract was found to be bacteriostatic and fungistatic in action.

  11. Bactericidal effect of colistin on planktonic Pseudomonas aeruginosa is independent of hydroxyl radical formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brochmann, Rikke Prejh; Toft, Anders; Ciofu, Oana

    2014-01-01

    The bactericidal effect of several major types of antibiotics has recently been demonstrated to be dependent on the formation of toxic amounts of hydroxyl radicals (OH·) resulting from oxidative stress in metabolically active cells. Since killing by the antimicrobial peptide colistin does...... not require bacterial metabolic activity, we tested whether the bactericidal effect of colistin depends on the formation of OH·. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures, OH-mediated killing by ciprofloxacin was demonstrated by decreased bacterial survival and induction of 3'-(p-hydroxyphenyl) fluorescein (HPF......) fluorescence. OH·-mediated killing by ciprofloxacin was further confirmed by rescue of cells and reduction of HPF fluorescence due to prevention of OH· accumulation by scavenging with thiourea, by chelating with dipyridyl, by decreasing metabolism as well as by anoxic growth. In contrast, no formation of OH...

  12. Mechanism of bactericidal activity of Silver Nitrate - a concentration dependent bi-functional molecule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sureshbabu Ram Kumar Pandian

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Silver nitrate imparts different functions on bacteria depending upon its concentration. At lower concentration it induced synthesis of nanoparticles, whereas at higher concentrations it induced cell death. Bacillus licheniformis was used as model system. The MIC was 5 mM, and it induced catalase production, apoptotic body formation and DNA fragmentation.

  13. Potential aquaculture probiont Lactococcus lactis TW34 produces nisin Z and inhibits the fish pathogen Lactococcus garvieae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sequeiros, Cynthia; Garcés, Marisa E; Vallejo, Marisol; Marguet, Emilio R; Olivera, Nelda L

    2015-04-01

    Bacteriocin-producing Lactococcus lactis TW34 was isolated from marine fish. TW34 bacteriocin inhibited the growth of the fish pathogen Lactococcus garvieae at 5 AU/ml (minimum inhibitory concentration), whereas the minimum bactericidal concentration was 10 AU/ml. Addition of TW34 bacteriocin to L. garvieae cultures resulted in a decrease of six orders of magnitude of viable cells counts demonstrating a bactericidal mode of action. The direct detection of the bacteriocin activity by Tricine-SDS-PAGE showed an active peptide with a molecular mass ca. 4.5 kDa. The analysis by MALDI-TOF-MS detected a strong signal at m/z 2,351.2 that corresponded to the nisin leader peptide mass without the initiating methionine, whose sequence STKDFNLDLVSVSKKDSGASPR was confirmed by MS/MS. Sequence analysis of nisin structural gene confirmed that L. lactis TW34 was a nisin Z producer. This nisin Z-producing strain with probiotic properties might be considered as an alternative in the prevention of lactococcosis, a global disease in aquaculture systems.

  14. Isoflurane minimum alveolar concentration sparing effects of fentanyl in the dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Allan J; Soares, Joao H N; Pavlisko, Noah D; McAlister Council-Troche, Robert; Henao-Guerrero, Natalia

    2017-07-01

    To characterize the isoflurane-sparing effects of a high and a low dose of fentanyl in dogs, and its effects on mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR). Prospective, randomized crossover trial. Eight healthy male Beagle dogs weighing 12.1 ± 1.6 kg [mean ± standard deviation (SD)] and approximate age 1 year. Dogs were anesthetized using isoflurane and minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) was determined in duplicate by the bracketing method using an electrical stimulus on the tarsus. Animals were administered fentanyl: low dose (33 μg kg -1 loading dose, 0.2 μg kg -1  minute -1 ) or high dose (102 μg kg -1 loading dose, 0.8 μg kg -1  minute -1 ) and MAC was re-determined (MAC ISO-F ). Blood was collected for analysis of plasma fentanyl concentrations before administration and after MAC ISO-F determination. All values are presented as mean ± SD. Isoflurane MAC (MAC ISO ) was 1.30 ± 0.23% in the low dose treatment, which significantly decreased to 0.75 ± 0.22% (average MAC reduction 42.3 ± 9.4%). MAC ISO was 1.30 ± 0.18% in the high dose treatment, which significantly decreased to 0.30 ± 0.11% (average MAC reduction 76.9 ± 7.4%). Mean fentanyl plasma concentrations were 6.2 and 29.5 ng mL -1 for low and high dose treatments, respectively. MAP increased significantly only in the high dose treatment (from 81 ± 8 to 92 ± 9 mmHg). HR decreased significantly in both treatments from 108 ± 25 to 61 ± 14 beats minute -1 with the low dose and from 95 ± 14 to 42 ± 4 beats minute -1 with the high dose. Fentanyl administration resulted in a dose-dependent isoflurane MAC-sparing effect with bradycardia at both doses and an increase in MAP only at high dose. Further evaluation is needed to determine the effects of fentanyl on the overall cardiovascular function. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  15. Complement-mediated bactericidal activity of anti-factor H binding protein monoclonal antibodies against the meningococcus relies upon blocking factor H binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntini, Serena; Reason, Donald C; Granoff, Dan M

    2011-09-01

    Binding of the complement-downregulating protein factor H (fH) to the surface of the meningococcus is important for survival of the organism in human serum. The meningococcal vaccine candidate factor H binding protein (fHbp) is an important ligand for human fH. While some fHbp-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) block binding of fH to fHbp, the stoichiometry of blocking in the presence of high serum concentrations of fH and its effect on complement-mediated bactericidal activity are unknown. To investigate this question, we constructed chimeric antibodies in which the human IgG1 constant region was paired with three murine fHbp-specific binding domains designated JAR 3, JAR 5, and MAb502. By surface plasmon resonance, the association rates for binding of all three MAbs to immobilized fHbp were >50-fold higher than that for binding of fH to fHbp, and the MAb dissociation rates were >500-fold lower than that for fH. While all three MAbs elicited similar C1q-dependent C4b deposition on live bacteria (classical complement pathway), only those antibodies that inhibited binding of fH to fHbp (JAR 3 and JAR 5) had bactericidal activity with human complement. MAb502, which did not inhibit fH binding, had complement-mediated bactericidal activity only when tested with fH-depleted human complement. When an IgG1 anti-fHbp MAb binds to sparsely exposed fHbp on the bacterial surface, there appears to be insufficient complement activation for bacteriolysis unless fH binding also is inhibited. The ability of fHbp vaccines to elicit protective antibodies, therefore, is likely to be enhanced if the antibody repertoire is of high avidity and includes fH-blocking activity.

  16. Bactericidal activities of the cationic steroid CSA-13 and the cathelicidin peptide LL-37 against Helicobacter pylori in simulated gastric juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janmey Paul A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The worldwide appearance of drug-resistant strains of H. pylori motivates a search for new agents with therapeutic potential against this family of bacteria that colonizes the stomach, and is associated with adenocarcinoma development. This study was designed to assess in vitro the anti-H. pylori potential of cathelicidin LL-37 peptide, which is naturally present in gastric juice, its optimized synthetic analog WLBU2, and the non-peptide antibacterial agent ceragenin CSA-13. Results In agreement with previous studies, increased expression of hCAP-18/LL-37 was observed in gastric mucosa obtained from H. pylori infected subjects. MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration values determined in nutrient-containing media range from 100-800 μg/ml for LL-37, 17.8-142 μg/ml for WLBU2 and 0.275-8.9 μg/ml for ceragenin CSA-13. These data indicate substantial, but widely differing antibacterial activities against clinical isolates of H. pylori. After incubation in simulated gastric juice (low pH with presence of pepsin CSA-13, but not LL-37 or WLBU2, retained antibacterial activity. Compared to LL-37 and WLBU2 peptides, CSA-13 activity was also more resistant to inhibition by isolated host gastric mucins. Conclusion These data indicate that cholic acid-based antimicrobial agents such as CSA-13 resist proteolytic degradation and inhibition by mucin and have potential for treatment of H. pylori infections, including those caused by the clarithromycin and/or metronidazole-resistant strains.

  17. Medium Effects on Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations of Nylon-3 Polymers against E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Heejun; Chakraborty, Saswata; Liu, Runhui; Gellman, Samuel H.; Weisshaar, James C.

    2014-01-01

    Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against E. coli were measured for three nylon-3 polymers using Luria-Bertani broth (LB), brain-heart infusion broth (BHI), and a chemically defined complete medium (EZRDM). The polymers differ in the ratio of hydrophobic to cationic subunits. The cationic homopolymer is inert against E. coli in BHI and LB, but becomes highly potent in EZRDM. A mixed hydrophobic/cationic polymer with a hydrophobic t-butylbenzoyl group at its N-terminus is effective in BHI, but becomes more effective in EZRDM. Supplementation of EZRDM with the tryptic digest of casein (often found in LB) recapitulates the LB and BHI behavior. Additional evidence suggests that polyanionic peptides present in LB and BHI may form electrostatic complexes with cationic polymers, decreasing activity by diminishing binding to the anionic lipopolysaccharide layer of E. coli. In contrast, two natural antimicrobial peptides show no medium effects. Thus, the use of a chemically defined medium helps to reveal factors that influence antimicrobial potency of cationic polymers and functional differences between these polymers and evolved antimicrobial peptides. PMID:25153714

  18. The bactericidal effect of carbon nanotube/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared light on Streptococcus mutans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akasaka, Tsukasa, E-mail: akasaka@den.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita13 Nishi7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Matsuoka, Makoto [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita13 Nishi7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan); Hashimoto, Takeshi [Meijo Nano Carbon Co. Ltd., Otsubashi bldg. 4F, 3-4-10 Marunouchi, Naka-ku, Nagoya 460-0002 (Japan); Abe, Shigeaki; Uo, Motohiro; Watari, Fumio [Graduate School of Dental Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita13 Nishi7, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-8586 (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    Dental caries are mainly associated with oral pathogens, and Streptococcus mutans is a primary cariogenic organism. Many methods have been established to eliminate S. mutans from the oral cavity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of carbon nanotube (CNT)/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared (NIR) light on S. mutans, as a potential photothermal antimicrobial nanotherapy. A colony-forming unit assay clearly showed that CNT/agar composites attain bactericidal activity after NIR light irradiation; this bactericidal activity is higher than that of graphite (GP)/agar and activated carbon (AC)/agar composites. Furthermore, it was observed that longer irradiation times immobilized S. mutans in the CNT/agar composite.

  19. The bactericidal effect of carbon nanotube/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared light on Streptococcus mutans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akasaka, Tsukasa; Matsuoka, Makoto; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Abe, Shigeaki; Uo, Motohiro; Watari, Fumio

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries are mainly associated with oral pathogens, and Streptococcus mutans is a primary cariogenic organism. Many methods have been established to eliminate S. mutans from the oral cavity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of carbon nanotube (CNT)/agar composites irradiated with near-infrared (NIR) light on S. mutans, as a potential photothermal antimicrobial nanotherapy. A colony-forming unit assay clearly showed that CNT/agar composites attain bactericidal activity after NIR light irradiation; this bactericidal activity is higher than that of graphite (GP)/agar and activated carbon (AC)/agar composites. Furthermore, it was observed that longer irradiation times immobilized S. mutans in the CNT/agar composite.

  20. Minimum inhibitory concentration of vancomycin to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolated from different clinical samples at a tertiary care hospital in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Ojha Kshetry

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA has evolved as a serious threat to public health. It has capability to cause infections not only in health care settings but also in community. Due to the multidrug resistance shown by MRSA, there are limited treatment options for the infections caused by this superbug. Vancomycin is used as the drug of choice for the treatment of infections caused by MRSA. Different studies from all around the world have documented the emergence of strains of S. aureus those are intermediate sensitive or resistant to vancomycin. And recently, there have been reports of reduced susceptibility of MRSA to vancomycin, from Nepal also. So the main purpose of this study was to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of vancomycin to methicillin resistant S. aureus isolated from different clinical specimens. Methods Total 125 strains of S. aureus isolated from different clinical samples at KIST Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Lalitpur, Nepal from Nov 2012 to June 2013, were subjected to MRSA detection by cefoxitin disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin to confirmed MRSA strains were determined by agar dilution method. Yellow colored colonies in mannitol salt agar, which were gram positive cocci, catalase positive and coagulase positive were confirmed to be S. aureus. Results Among, total 125 S. aureus strains isolated; 47(37.6% were MRSA. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of vancomycin to the strains of MRSA ranged from 0.125 μg/ml to 1 μg/ml. Conclusion From our findings we concluded that the rate of isolation of MRSA among all the strains of S. aureus isolated from clinical samples was very high. However, none of the MRSA strains were found to be vancomycin intermediate-sensitive or vancomycin-resistant.

  1. Antibacterial activity of Vernonia amygdalina leaf extracts against ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minimum bactericidal concentration of the ethanol extract was 50mg/ml in P. aeruginosa and K. pneumonia and 100mg/ml for E. coli, S. aureus and B. subtilis. MBC of 200mg/ml was observed for B. subtilis, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa in the aqueous fraction of the plant. The most antibiotic resistant bacterial strain was S.

  2. Antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of ginger (Zingiber officinale (Roscoe ethanolic extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial and anti-biofilm activity of ethanolic extract from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale were evaluated. In vitro antibacterial activity was investigated by microdilution method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC have been determined. The values were in the range from 0.0024 to > 20 mg/ml. The most sensitive bacteria were Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. Anti-biofilm activity was tested by crystal violet assay. Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Proteus mirabilis and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 were used as the test organisms. Ethanolic extract showed the best result on Proteus mirabilis biofilm where biofilm inhibitory concentration (BIC50 was 19 mg/ml.

  3. Effect of diesel leakage in circulating cooling water system on preponderant bacteria diversity and bactericidal effect of biocides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Huiyun; Liu, Fang; Lu, Jinjin; Yang, Wei; Zhao, Chaocheng

    2015-01-01

    Petroleum products leakage results in adverse effect on the normal operation of a circulating cooling water system. However, relatively little research has been done to explore the effect of petroleum products leakage on circulating cooling water quality and biofilm preponderant bacteria diversity. Also, normal biocides application modes cannot fulfil the need for biofilm control. In this study, diesel oil was used as the experimental subject representing leaking petroleum products; the effect of diesel addition on biofilm preponderant bacteria diversity and the bactericidal effect of chlorine dioxide and tetradecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (1427) was investigated. Bacterial community structures were examined by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and PCR cloning of 16S rDNA genes. Except for 100 mg/L diesel, increasing diesel concentration enhanced the biofilm detachment ratio compared with the control test. The microstructure of biofilm samples with 0, 300 and 900 mg/L diesel addition was observed. The species of preponderant bacteria in the biofilm sample with 300 mg/L diesel addition were more and the bacterial distribution was more uniform than those in the biofilm sample with 900 mg/L diesel addition. With ClO2 and 1427 addition, chemical oxygen demand increased, lipid phosphorus and bacterial count first decreased and then remained stable, and the bactericidal ratio first increased and then remained stable. Diesel addition variation has more obvious effect on ClO2 than 1427.

  4. Influence of pulmonary surfactant on in vitro bactericidal activities of amoxicillin, ceftazidime, and tobramycin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van 't Veen (Annemarie); J.W. Mouton (Johan); D.A.M.P.J. Gommers (Diederik); J.A.J.W. Kluytmans (Jan); P. Dekkers; B.F. Lachmann (Burkhard)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe influence of a natural pulmonary surfactant on antibiotic activity was investigated to assess the possible use of exogenous surfactant as a vehicle for antibiotic delivery to the lung. The influence of surfactant on the bactericidal activity of

  5. Subinhibitory concentrations of triclosan promote Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation and adherence to oral epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Blanca Lombardo Bedran

    Full Text Available Triclosan is a general membrane-active agent with a broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity that is commonly used in oral care products. In this study, we investigated the effect of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs of triclosan on the capacity of the cariogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans to form biofilm and adhere to oral epithelial cells. As quantified by crystal violet staining, biofilm formation by two reference strains of S. mutans was dose-dependently promoted, in the range of 2.2- to 6.2-fold, by 1/2 and 1/4 MIC of triclosan. Observations by scanning electron microscopy revealed the presence of a dense biofilm attached to the polystyrene surface. Growth of S. mutans in the presence of triclosan at sub-MICs also increased its capacity to adhere to a monolayer of gingival epithelial cells. The expression of several genes involved in adherence and biofilm formation in S. mutans was investigated by quantitative RT-PCR. It was found that sub-MICs of triclosan significantly increased the expression of comD, gtfC, and luxS, and to a lesser extent of gtfB and atlA genes. These findings stress the importance of maintaining effective bactericidal concentrations of therapeutic triclosan since sub-MICs may promote colonization of the oral cavity by S. mutans.

  6. Fabrication of nonfouling, bactericidal, and bacteria corpse release multifunctional surface through surface-initiated RAFT polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bailiang; Ye, Zi; Tang, Yihong; Han, Yuemei; Lin, Quankui; Liu, Huihua; Chen, Hao; Nan, Kaihui

    Infections after surgery or endophthalmitis are potentially blinding complications caused by bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation on the intraocular lens. Neither single-function anti-adhesion surface nor contacting killing surface can exhibit ideal antibacterial function. In this work, a novel (2-(dimethylamino)-ethyl methacrylate- co -2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (p (DMAEMA- co -MPC)) brush was synthesized by "grafting from" method through reversible-addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. 1-Bromoheptane was used to quaternize the p (DMAEMA- co -MPC) brush coating and to endow the surface with bactericidal function. The success of the surface functionalization was confirmed by atomic force microscopy, water contact angle, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The quaternary ammonium salt units were employed as efficient disinfection that can eliminate bacteria through contact killing, whereas the 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine units were introduced to suppress unwanted nonspecific adsorption. The functionalized poly(dimethyl siloxane) surfaces showed efficiency in reducing bovine serum albumin adsorption and in inhibiting bacteria adhesion and biofilm formation. The copolymer brushes also demonstrated excellent bactericidal function against gram-positive ( Staphylococcus aureus ) bacteria measured by bacteria live/dead staining and shake-flask culture methods. The surface biocompatibility was evaluated by morphology and activity measurement with human lens epithelial cells in vitro. The achievement of the p (DMAEMA + - co -MPC) copolymer brush coating with nonfouling, bactericidal, and bacteria corpse release properties can be used to modify intraocular lenses.

  7. Clemastine as Antimicrobial Agent: Effectiveness and Mechanism of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.Fazli Bazaz

    1991-07-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, the antimicrobial activity of Clemastine was studied.The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs of this drug against some bacteria were determined using tube dilution method.To find out the bactericidal activity of Clemastine, the number of living bacteria in the presence of drug was counted by a culture method (pour plate method. Thereafter, the preservative effectiveness of Clemastine was studied in detail using standard method (USP 1985.The results show a good antibacterial but not antifungal activity."nIn considering the mechanism of action of Clemastine, it can be seen that the drug has some effect on cell membrane permeability and causes leakage of intracellular material including the K+ .Comparing the bactericidal results with the leakage of K+, shows that the leakage may be due to the bactericidal activity of the drug.

  8. Aqueous synthesis of ZnTe/dendrimer nanocomposites and their antimicrobial activity: implications in therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S.; Ghosh, D.; Bag, P. K.; Bhattacharya, S. C.; Saha, A.

    2011-03-01

    The present strategy proposes a simple and single step aqueous route for synthesizing stable, fluorescent ZnTe/dendrimer nanocomposites with varying dendrimer terminal groups. In these hybrid materials, the fluorescence of the semiconductor combines with the biomimetic properties of the dendrimer making them suitable for various biomedical applications. The ZnTe nanocomposites thus obtained demonstrate bactericidal activity against enteropathogenic bacteria without having toxic effects on the human erythrocytes. The average size of the ZnTe nanoparticles within the dendrimer matrix was in the range of 2.9-6.0 nm, and they have a good degree of crystallinity with a hexagonal crystal phase. The antibacterial activities of the ZnTe/dendrimer nanocomposites (ZnTe DNCs) as well other semiconductor nanocomposites were evaluated against enteropathogenic bacteria including multi-drug resistant Vibrio cholerae serogroup O1 and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC). ZnTe DNCs had significant antibacterial activity against strains of V. cholerae and ETEC with minimum inhibitory concentrations ranging from 64 to 512 μg ml-1 and minimum bactericidal concentrations ranging from 128 to 1000 μg ml-1. Thus, the observed results suggest that these water-soluble active nanocomposites have potential for the treatment of enteric diseases like diarrhoea and cholera.The present strategy proposes a simple and single step aqueous route for synthesizing stable, fluorescent ZnTe/dendrimer nanocomposites with varying dendrimer terminal groups. In these hybrid materials, the fluorescence of the semiconductor combines with the biomimetic properties of the dendrimer making them suitable for various biomedical applications. The ZnTe nanocomposites thus obtained demonstrate bactericidal activity against enteropathogenic bacteria without having toxic effects on the human erythrocytes. The average size of the ZnTe nanoparticles within the dendrimer matrix was in the range of 2.9-6.0 nm, and they

  9. Isolation of Abscisic Acid from Korean Acacia Honey with Anti-Helicobacter pylori Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, SeGun; Hong, InPyo; Woo, SoonOk; Jang, HyeRi; Pak, SokCheon; Han, SangMi

    2017-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) is linked to the development of the majority of peptic ulcers and some types of gastric cancers, and its antibiotic resistance is currently found worldwide. This study is aimed at evaluating the anti- H. pylori activity of Korean acacia honey and isolating the related active components using organic solvents. The crude acacia honey was extracted with n -hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n -butanol. The EtOAc extract was subjected to octadecyl-silica chromatography. The extracts and fractions were then examined for anti- H. pylori activity using the agar well diffusion method. The antimicrobial activity of abscisic acid against H. pylori was investigated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), and by performing a time-kill assay. Abscisic acid related to the botanical origins of acacia honey from Korea has been analyzed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography. The MICs and MBCs of abscisic acid were 2.7 ± 1.3 and 6.9 ± 1.9 μg/mL, respectively. The bactericidal activity of abscisic acid (at 10.8 μg/mL corresponding to 4 × MIC) killed the organism within 36-72 h. These results suggest that abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey has antibacterial activity against H. pylori . Abscisic acid isolated from Korean acacia honey can be therapeutic and may be further exploited as a potential lead candidate for the development of treatments for H. pylori -induced infections. The crude acacia honey was extracted with n -hexane, dichloromethane, EtOAc, and n -butanolThe EtOAc extract yielded eight fractions and four subfractions were subsequently obtained chromatographicallyAbscisic acid was isolated from one subfractionAll the solvent extracts and fractions showed antibacterial activity against H. pylori Abscisic acid exhibited antibacterial activity against H. pylori . Abbreviations used: MeOH: Methanol; EtOAc: Ethyl acetate; TSB: Trypticase

  10. Modification of TiO(2) nanotube surfaces by electro-spray deposition of amoxicillin combined with PLGA for bactericidal effects at surgical implantation sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hwan; Moon, Seung-Kyun; Kim, Kwang-Mahn; Kim, Kyoung-Nam

    2013-01-01

    To fabricate the antibiotic-releasing coatings on TiO(2) nanotube surfaces for wide applications of implant and bone plate in medical and dental surgery, the optimal deposition time of amoxicillin/PLGA solution simultaneously performing non-toxicity and a high bactericidal effect for preventing early implant failures was found. FE-SEM, ESD and FT-IR were used for confirming deposition of amoxicillin/PLGA on the TiO(2) surface. Also, the elution of amoxicillin/PLGA in a TiO(2) nanotube surface was measured by a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. The bactericidal effect of amoxicillin on the TiO(2) nanotube surface was evaluated by using Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The cytotoxicity and cell proliferation were observed by WST assay using MC3T3-E1 osteoblast cells. The results indicated that the TiO(2) nanotube surface controlled by electro-spray deposition time with amoxicillin/PLGA solution could provide a high bactericidal effect against S. aureus by the bactericidal effect of amoxicillin, as well as good osteoblast cell proliferation at the TiO(2) nanotube surface without toxicity. This study used electro-spray deposition (ESD) methodology to obtain amoxicillin deposition in nanotube structures of TiO(2) and found the optimal deposition time of amoxicillin/PLGA solution simultaneously performing non-toxicity and a high bactericidal effect for preventing early implant failures.

  11. Antibacterial, antibiofilm and antitumor activities of grape and mulberry leaves ethanolic extracts towards bacterial clinical strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elshahat M. Ramadan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were measured at concentrations of 0.01–2.56 mg/mL of grape and mulberry leaves ethanolic extracts. The MIC values were ranged from 0.08 to 0.16 mg/mL against Ps. aeruginosa Ps9, and 0.32 mg/mL against each of S. aureus St3, E. coli Ec3, and S. typhi Sa1. Whereas, the MBC values were ranged from 0.32 to 1.28 mg/mL of the tested extracts. The effects of the tested extracts were also studied representing the bactericidal effect of the grape extract with a ratio of 2 against all investigated isolates, except S. typhi Sa1. Whereas, the mulberry extract had a bactericidal effect towards S. aureus St3 and E. coli Ec3 with ratio of 2, and a bacteriostatic effect against Ps. aeruginosa Ps9 and S. typhi Sa1 with a ratio ≥4. The investigated bacteria found to have a strong ability to form biofilms with densities ranged from 0.67 to 0.80. Both tested extracts inhibited these biofilms with percentages ranged from 48 to 66% at sub-inhibitory concentrations (SICs ranged from 0.04 to 0.16 mg/mL. In addition, the tested extracts have an excellent cytotoxic activity towards colon cancer cell lines (HCT-16. Five phenolic compounds detected in the tested extracts of grape and mulberry using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC after 9.53 min of the retention time. The phenolic compounds of both tested extracts were gallic, coumaric, ferulic, chlorogenic and caffeic with concentrations ranged from 1.28 to 6.56 µg/mL.

  12. Synthesis of flower-like sulfadiazine copper/polyvinyl pyrrolidone composite and its antimicrobial activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ping [Henan University, Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials (China); Xu, Xiangmin [Yellow River Conservancy Technical Institute (China); Li, Binjie, E-mail: lbj821@163.com [Medical School of Henan University (China); Zhao, Yanbao [Henan University, Key Laboratory for Special Functional Materials (China)

    2015-09-15

    Flower-like sulfadiazine copper/polyvinyl pyrrolidone (SD-Cu/PVP) composite was synthesized at room temperature. Its structure and morphology were investigated by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermo gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, and the possible forming mechanism was discussed as well. In addition, its antibacterial activity toward the bacterial strains such as Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Escherichia coli (E. coli), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) was evaluated by the minimum inhibitory concentration, the minimum bactericidal concentration, and cup diffusion method. Results suggested that the SD-Cu/PVP composite displayed selectively antibacterial activity for E. coli and P. aeruginosa than S. aureus.

  13. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PINEAPPLE (ANANAS COMOSUS L. MERR EXTRACT AGAINST MULTIDRUG-RESISTANT OF PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA: AN IN VITRO STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat Sayyid Zharfan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the main cause of nosocomial infection which is responsible for 10% of hospital-acquired infection. Pseudomonas aeruginosa tends to mutate and displays potential for development of antibiotic resistance. Approximately, 10% of global bacterial isolates are found as Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pseudomonas aeruginosa have a quite tremendous severity index, especially on pneumonia and urinary tract infections, even sepsis, which 50% mortality rate. Pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr has antimicrobial properties. The active antimicrobial compounds in Ananas comosus L. Merr include saponin and bromelain. This research aims to find the potency of antimicrobial effect of pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr extract towards Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa specimen is obtained from patient’s pus in orthopaedic department, Dr Soetomo Public Hospital, Surabaya. Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa specimen is resistant to all antibiotic agents except cefoperazone-sulbactam. This research is conducted by measuring the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC through dilution test with Mueller-Hinton broth medium. Pineapple extract (Ananas comosus L. Merr. is dissolved in aquadest, then poured into test tube at varying concentrations (6 g/ml; 3 g/ml; 1.5 g/ml; 0.75 g/ml, 0.375 g/ml; and 0.1875 g/ml. After 24 hours’ incubation, samples are plated onto nutrient agar plate, to determine the Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC. The extract of pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merr has antimicrobial activities against Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC could not be determined, because turbidity changes were not seen. The Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC of pineapple extract (Ananas comosus L. Merr to Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa is 0.75 g/ml. Further study of in vivo is needed.

  14. A rapid microtiter plate serum bactericidal assay method for determining serum complement-mediated killing of Mannheimia haemolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalew, Sahlu; Confer, Anthony W; Shrestha, Binu; Payton, Mark E

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we describe a rapid microtiter serum bactericidal assay (RMSBA) that can be used to measure the functionality of immune sera. It quantifies bactericidal activity of immune sera in the presence of complement against a homologous bacterium, M. haemolytica in this case. There is high correlation between data from RMSBA and standard complement-mediated bacterial killing assay (r=0.756; p<0.0001). The RMSBA activity of sera can be generated in less than 5 h instead of overnight incubation. RMSBA costs substantially less in terms of time, labor, and resources and is highly reproducible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Minimum alveolar concentration threshold of sevoflurane for postoperative dream recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aceto, P; Perilli, V; Lai, C; Sacco, T; Modesti, C; Luca, E; De Santis, P; Sollazzi, L; Antonelli, M

    2015-11-01

    Many factors affect postoperative dream recall, including patient characteristics, type of anesthesia, timing of postoperative interview and stress hormone secretion. Aims of the study were to determine whether Bispectral Index (BIS)-guided anesthesia might decrease sevoflurane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) when compared with hemodynamically-guided anesthesia, and to search for a MAC threshold useful for preventing arousal, dream recall and implicit memory. One hundred thirty patients undergoing elective thyroidectomy were enrolled. Anesthesia was induced with propofol 2 mg kg(-1), fentanyl 3 mcg kg(-1) and cis-atracurium 0.15 mg kg(-1). For anesthesia maintenance, patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups: a BIS-guided group in which sevoflurane MAC was adjusted on the basis of BIS values, and a hemodynamic parameters (HP)-guided group in which MAC was adjusted based on HP. An auditory recording was presented to patients during anesthesia maintenance. Dream recall and explicit/implicit memory were investigated upon awakening and approximately after 24 h. Mean sevoflurane MAC during auditory presentation was similar in the two groups (0.85 ± 0.16 and 0.87 ± 0.17 [P = 0.53] in BIS-guided and HP-guided groups, respectively). Frequency of dream recall was similar in the two groups: 27% (N. = 17) in BIS-guided group, 18% (N. = 12) in HP-guided group, P = 0.37. In both groups, dream recall was less probable in patients anesthetized with MAC values ≥ 0.9 (area under ROC curve = 0.83, sensitivity = 90%, and specificity = 49%). BIS-guided anesthesia was not able to generate different MAC values compared to HP-guided anesthesia. Independent of the guide used for anesthesia, a sevoflurane MAC over 0.9 was required to prevent postoperative dream recall.

  16. Ebselen and analogs as inhibitors of Bacillus anthracis thioredoxin reductase and bactericidal antibacterials targeting Bacillus species, Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, Tomas N; Osman, Harer; Werngren, Jim; Hoffner, Sven; Engman, Lars; Holmgren, Arne

    2016-06-01

    Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of anthrax, a disease associated with a very high mortality rate in its invasive forms. We studied a number of ebselen analogs as inhibitors of B. anthracis thioredoxin reductase and their antibacterial activity on Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The most potent compounds in the series gave IC(50) values down to 70 nM for the pure enzyme and minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) down to 0.4 μM (0.12 μg/ml) for B. subtilis, 1.5 μM (0.64 μg/ml) for S. aureus, 2 μM (0.86 μg/ml) for B. cereus and 10 μg/ml for M. tuberculosis. Minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were found at 1-1.5 times the MIC, indicating a general, class-dependent, bactericidal mode of action. The combined bacteriological and enzymological data were used to construct a preliminary structure-activity-relationship for the benzoisoselenazol class of compounds. When S. aureus and B. subtilis were exposed to ebselen, we were unable to isolate resistant mutants on both solid and in liquid medium suggesting a high resistance barrier. These results suggest that ebselen and analogs thereof could be developed into a novel antibiotic class, useful for the treatment of infections caused by B. anthracis, S. aureus, M. tuberculosis and other clinically important bacteria. Furthermore, the high barrier against resistance development is encouraging for further drug development. We have characterized the thioredoxin system from B. anthracis as a novel drug target and ebselen and analogs thereof as a potential new class of antibiotics targeting several important human pathogens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Aqueous and Organic Solvent-Extracts of Selected South African Medicinal Plants Possess Antimicrobial Activity against Drug-Resistant Strains of Helicobacter pylori: Inhibitory and Bactericidal Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collise Njume

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify sources of cheap starting materials for the synthesis of new drugs against Helicobacter pylori. Solvent-extracts of selected medicinal plants; Combretum molle, Sclerocarya birrea, Garcinia kola, Alepidea amatymbica and a single Strychnos species were investigated against 30 clinical strains of H. pylori alongside a reference control strain (NCTC 11638 using standard microbiological techniques. Metronidazole and amoxicillin were included in these experiments as positive control antibiotics. All the plants demonstrated anti-H. pylori activity with zone diameters of inhibition between 0 and 38 mm and 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50 values ranging from 0.06 to 5.0 mg/mL. MIC50 values for amoxicillin and metronidazole ranged from 0.001 to 0.63 mg/mL and 0.004 to 5.0 mg/mL respectively. The acetone extracts of C. molle and S. birrea exhibited a remarkable bactericidal activity against H. pylori killing more than 50% of the strains within 18 h at 4× MIC and complete elimination of the organisms within 24 h. Their antimicrobial activity was comparable to the control antibiotics. However, the activity of the ethanol extract of G. kola was lower than amoxicillin (P < 0.05 as opposed to metronidazole (P > 0.05. These results demonstrate that S. birrea, C. molle and G. kola may represent good sources of compounds with anti-H. pylori activity.

  18. Bactericidal activity of partially oxidized nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehling, Julia; Dringen, Ralf; Zare, Richard N; Maas, Michael; Rezwan, Kurosch

    2014-06-24

    Nanodiamonds are a class of carbon-based nanoparticles that are rapidly gaining attention, particularly for biomedical applications, i.e., as drug carriers, for bioimaging, or as implant coatings. Nanodiamonds have generally been considered biocompatible with a broad variety of eukaryotic cells. We show that, depending on their surface composition, nanodiamonds kill Gram-positive and -negative bacteria rapidly and efficiently. We investigated six different types of nanodiamonds exhibiting diverse oxygen-containing surface groups that were created using standard pretreatment methods for forming nanodiamond dispersions. Our experiments suggest that the antibacterial activity of nanodiamond is linked to the presence of partially oxidized and negatively charged surfaces, specifically those containing acid anhydride groups. Furthermore, proteins were found to control the bactericidal properties of nanodiamonds by covering these surface groups, which explains the previously reported biocompatibility of nanodiamonds. Our findings describe the discovery of an exciting property of partially oxidized nanodiamonds as a potent antibacterial agent.

  19. PREPARATION OF TITANIA SOL-GEL COATINGS CONTAINING SILVER IN VARIOUS FORMS AND MEASURING OF THEIR BACTERICIDAL EFFECTS AGAINST E. COLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Horkavcova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The work describes titania coatings containing various forms of silver applied on a titanium substrate by a dip-coating sol-gel technique. Silver was added into the basic titania sol in form of colloid particles of Ag, crystals of AgNO3, particles of AgI, particles of Ag3PO4 and Ag3PO4 developed in situ (in the sol by reaction of AgNO3 with added calcium phosphate (brushite or monetite. Mechanically and chemically treated titanium substrates were dipped at a constant rate into individual types of sols. Subsequently, they were slowly fired. The fired coatings contained microcracks. All over the surface there were evenly distributed spherical nanoparticles of silver (Ag, AgNO3 or microcrystals of AgI and Ag3PO4. The prepared coatings were tested under static conditions for their bactericidal effects against gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli. The coated substrates were immersed into a suspension of E. coli in physiological solution for 24 and 4 hours. The basic titania coatings with no silver demonstrated no bactericidal properties. Very good bactericidal effect against E. coli in both types of bactericidal test showed the titania coatings with AgNO3, Ag3PO4 crystals and Ag3PO4 developed in situ.

  20. Bactericidal strontium-releasing injectable bone cements based on bioactive glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Brauer, Delia S.; Karpukhina, Natalia; Kedia, Gopal; Bhat, Aditya; Law, Robert V.; Radecka, Izabela; Hill, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Strontium-releasing injectable bone cements may have the potential to prevent implant-related infections through the bactericidal action of strontium, while enhancing bone formation in patients suffering from osteoporosis. A melt-derived bioactive glass (BG) series (SiO2–CaO–CaF2–MgO) with 0–50% of calcium substituted with strontium on a molar base were produced. By mixing glass powder, poly(acrylic acid) and water, cements were obtained which can be delivered by injection and set in situ, gi...

  1. Subsets of memory CD4+ T cell and bactericidal antibody response to Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C after immunization of HIV-infected children and adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucimar G Milagres

    Full Text Available Meningococcal disease is endemic in Brazil, with periodic outbreaks and case fatality rates reach as high as 18 to 20% of cases. Conjugate vaccines against meningococci are immunogenic in healthy children. However, we have previously shown a poor bactericidal antibody response to a Men C conjugate vaccine in Brazilian HIV-infected children and adolescents after a single vaccine administration. The goal of the present work was to investigate associations between bactericidal antibody response induced by MenC vaccine and the frequency and activation profile (expression of CD38, HLA-DR and CCR5 molecules of total CD4+ memory T cell sub-populations in HIV-1-infected children and adolescents. Responders to vaccination against MenC had a predominance (about 44% of CD4+ TINTERMEDIATE subset followed by TTRANSITIONAL memory subset (23 to 26%. Importantly, CD4+ TINT frequency was positively associated with bactericidal antibody response induced by vaccination. The positive correlation persisted despite the observation that the frequency TINT CD38+HLA-DR+ was higher in responders. In contrast, CD4+ TCENTRAL MEMORY (TCM subset negatively correlated with bactericidal antibodies. In conclusion, these data indicate that less differentiated CD+ T cells, like TCM may be constantly differentiating into intermediate and later differentiated CD4+ T cell subsets. These include CD4 TINT subset which showed a positive association with bactericidal antibodies.

  2. EFFECTS DISTRIBUTIVE THE WAGE MINIMUM IN MARKET OF LABOR CEARENSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyciane Coelho Vasconcelos

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the contribution of the minimum wage (MW for the devolution of income from the labor market at Ceará in the period 2002-2012. This research was based on National Sample Survey (PNAD of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE.It was used the simulation methodology proposed in DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux (1996 from the estimated counterfactual Kernel density functions. The simulations were performed for females and males. The results revealed by the decompositions than the minimum wage, the degree of formalization and the personal attributes had impacts not concentrators to workers female and male. However, for women, the de-concentrating effect of the minimum wage is more intense in the sample compared to men. In summary, the simulations indicate the importance of the minimum wage to reduce the dispersion of labor income in recent years.

  3. Bactericidal activity under UV and visible light of cotton fabrics coated with anthraquinone-sensitized TiO2

    KAUST Repository

    Rahal, Raed

    2013-06-01

    This study describes a method derived from ISO/TC 206/SC specifications to assess the bactericidal activity against a bacterial strain, Pseudomonas fluorescens, of various photocatalytic fabrics, under UVA and filtered visible light. The experimental method allowed the accurate quantification of bacteria survival on photoactive surfaces and films under UVA and UV-free visible irradiation. Cotton fabrics coated with TiO2, anthraquinone or anthraquinone-sensitized TiO2 display a significant bactericidal efficiency. TiO2-coated fabrics are very efficient against P. fluorescens after 4 h UVA irradiation (bacteria survival below the detection limit). Under UVA-free visible light, anthraquinone-sensitized TiO2 coated fabrics induced a significant bactericidal activity after 2 h irradiation, while anthraquinone alone-coated fabrics were not as efficient and TiO2 coated fabrics were almost inefficient. These results show that although exhibiting a weak n-π* band in the 350-420 nm range, anthraquinone is a good candidate as an efficient visible light photosensitizer. A synergy effect between anthraquinone and TiO2 was demonstrated. A possible reaction mechanism, involving a synergy effect for singlet oxygen formation with anthraquinone-sensitized TiO2 is proposed to account for these results. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Bactericidal active ingredient in cryopreserved plasma-treated water with the reduced-pH method for plasma disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Katsuhisa; Ikawa, Satoshi; Nakashima, Yoichi; Tani, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Takashi; Ohshima, Tomoko

    2016-09-01

    For the plasma disinfection of human body, plasma sterilization in liquid is crucial. We found that the plasma-treated water (PTW) has strong bactericidal activity under low pH condition. Physicochemical properties of PTW is discussed based on chemical kinetics. Lower temperature brings longer half-life and the bactericidal activity of PTW can be kept by cryopreservation. High performance PTW, corresponding to the disinfection power of 22 log reduction (B. subtilis spore), can be obtained by special plasma system equipped with cooling device. This is equivalent to 65% H2O2, 14% sodium hypochlorite and 0.33% peracetic acid, which are deadly poison for human. But, it is deactivated soon at higher temperature (4 sec. at body temperature), and toxicity to human body seems low. For dental application, PTW was effective on infected models of human extracted tooth. Although PTW has many chemical components, respective chemical components in PTW were isolated by ion chromatography. In addition to peaks of H2O2, NO2- and NO3-, a specific peak was detected. and only this fraction had bactericidal activity. Purified active ingredient of PTW is the precursor of HOO, and further details will be discussed in the presentation. MEXT (15H03583, 23340176, 25108505). NCCE (23-A-15).

  5. Efficacy of pH elevation as a bactericidal strategy for treating ballast water of freight carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford E. Starliper

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of ship ballast water with sodium hydroxide (NaOH is one method currently being developed to minimize the risk to introduce aquatic invasive species. The bactericidal capability of sodium hydroxide was determined for 148 bacterial strains from ballast water collected in 2009 and 2010 from the M/V Indiana Harbor, a bulk-freight carrier plying the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA. Primary culture of bacteria was done using brain heart infusion agar and a developmental medium. Strains were characterized based on PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence similarities (99+ % were determined by comparison with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI GenBank catalog. Flavobacterium spp. were the most prevalent bacteria characterized in 2009, comprising 51.1% (24/47 of the total, and Pseudomonas spp. (62/101; 61.4% and Brevundimonas spp. (22/101; 21.8% were the predominate bacteria recovered in 2010; together, comprising 83.2% (84/101 of the total. Testing was done in tryptic soy broth (TSB medium adjusted with 5 N NaOH. Growth of each strain was evaluated at pH 10.0, pH 11.0 and pH 12.0, and 4 h up to 72 h. The median cell count at 0 h for 148 cultures was 5.20 × 106 cfu/mL with a range 1.02 × 105–1.60 × 108 cfu/mL. The TSB adjusted to pH 10.0 and incubation for less than 24 h was bactericidal to 52 (35.1% strains. Growth in pH 11.0 TSB for less than 4 h was bactericidal to 131 (88.5% strains and pH 11.0 within 12 h was bactericidal to 141 (95.3%. One strain, Bacillus horikoshii, survived the harshest treatment, pH 12.0 for 72 h.

  6. Efficacy of pH elevation as a bactericidal strategy for treating ballast water of freight carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starliper, Clifford E; Watten, Barnaby J; Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Green, Phyllis A; Bassett, Noel L; Adams, Cynthia R

    2015-05-01

    Treatment of ship ballast water with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is one method currently being developed to minimize the risk to introduce aquatic invasive species. The bactericidal capability of sodium hydroxide was determined for 148 bacterial strains from ballast water collected in 2009 and 2010 from the M/V Indiana Harbor, a bulk-freight carrier plying the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA. Primary culture of bacteria was done using brain heart infusion agar and a developmental medium. Strains were characterized based on PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence similarities (99+ %) were determined by comparison with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) GenBank catalog. Flavobacterium spp. were the most prevalent bacteria characterized in 2009, comprising 51.1% (24/47) of the total, and Pseudomonas spp. (62/101; 61.4%) and Brevundimonas spp. (22/101; 21.8%) were the predominate bacteria recovered in 2010; together, comprising 83.2% (84/101) of the total. Testing was done in tryptic soy broth (TSB) medium adjusted with 5 N NaOH. Growth of each strain was evaluated at pH 10.0, pH 11.0 and pH 12.0, and 4 h up to 72 h. The median cell count at 0 h for 148 cultures was 5.20 × 10(6) cfu/mL with a range 1.02 × 10(5)-1.60 × 10(8) cfu/mL. The TSB adjusted to pH 10.0 and incubation for less than 24 h was bactericidal to 52 (35.1%) strains. Growth in pH 11.0 TSB for less than 4 h was bactericidal to 131 (88.5%) strains and pH 11.0 within 12 h was bactericidal to 141 (95.3%). One strain, Bacillus horikoshii, survived the harshest treatment, pH 12.0 for 72 h.

  7. Evaluation of the effectiveness of peracetic acid in the sterilization of dental equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceretta, R; Paula, M M S; Angioletto, Ev; Méier, M M; Mitellstädt, F G; Pich, C T; Junior, S A; Angioletto, E

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of peracetic acid in the microbiological sterilisation of dental materials. Peracetic acid solution was evaluated at concentrations of 800, 1500 and 2500 ppm. At these concentrations, it was determined whether peracetic acid caused corrosion to dental instruments and induced cellular mutagenicity and cytotoxicity. In addition, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), agar diffusion and diffusion by well method, were also verified. The corrosion rate, calculated from potentiodynamic assays was 10(-6) cm/year, indicating that the product does not damage equipment. The sterilisation capacity of peracetic acid at 2500 ppm was the best. The comet assay indicated genotoxic activity at 2500 ppm. This study demonstrated the effectiveness of peracetic acid for sterilizing dental equipment, providing another alternative for the prevention of infections in clinics.

  8. Increased bactericidal activity of colistin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in anaerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolpen, Mette; Appeldorff, Cecilie F.; Brandt, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    that production of OH˙may not contribute significantly to the bactericidal activity of colistin on P. aeruginosa biofilm. Thus, we investigated the effect of colistin treatment on biofilm of wild-type PAO1, a catalase-deficient mutant (katA) and a colistin-resistant CF isolate cultured in microtiter plates...

  9. Surface activation of graphene oxide nanosheets by ultraviolet irradiation for highly efficient anti-bacterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerapandian, Murugan; Zhang, Linghe; Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan; Yun, Kyusik

    2013-10-01

    A comprehensive investigation of anti-bacterial properties of graphene oxide (GO) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiated GO nanosheets was carried out. Microscopic characterization revealed that the GO nanosheet-like structures had wavy features and wrinkles or thin grooves. Fundamental surface chemical states of GO nanosheets (before and after UV irradiation) were investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results revealed that UV irradiated GO nanosheets have more pronounced anti-bacterial behavior than GO nanosheets and standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The MIC of UV irradiated GO nanosheets was 0.125 μg ml-1 for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, 0.25 μg ml-1 for Bacillus subtilis and 0.5 μg ml-1 for Enterococcus faecalis, ensuring its potential as an anti-infective agent for controlling the growth of pathogenic bacteria. The minimum bactericidal concentration of normal GO nanosheets was determined to be two-fold higher than its corresponding MIC value, indicating promising bactericidal activity. The mechanism of anti-bacterial action was evaluated by measuring the enzymatic activity of β-d-galactosidase for the hydrolysis of o-nitrophenol-β-d-galactopyranoside.

  10. Surface activation of graphene oxide nanosheets by ultraviolet irradiation for highly efficient anti-bacterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veerapandian, Murugan; Zhang, Linghe; Yun, Kyusik; Krishnamoorthy, Karthikeyan

    2013-01-01

    A comprehensive investigation of anti-bacterial properties of graphene oxide (GO) and ultraviolet (UV) irradiated GO nanosheets was carried out. Microscopic characterization revealed that the GO nanosheet-like structures had wavy features and wrinkles or thin grooves. Fundamental surface chemical states of GO nanosheets (before and after UV irradiation) were investigated using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results revealed that UV irradiated GO nanosheets have more pronounced anti-bacterial behavior than GO nanosheets and standard antibiotic, kanamycin. The MIC of UV irradiated GO nanosheets was 0.125 μg ml −1 for Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium, 0.25 μg ml −1 for Bacillus subtilis and 0.5 μg ml −1 for Enterococcus faecalis, ensuring its potential as an anti-infective agent for controlling the growth of pathogenic bacteria. The minimum bactericidal concentration of normal GO nanosheets was determined to be two-fold higher than its corresponding MIC value, indicating promising bactericidal activity. The mechanism of anti-bacterial action was evaluated by measuring the enzymatic activity of β-d-galactosidase for the hydrolysis of o-nitrophenol-β-d-galactopyranoside. (paper)

  11. Susceptibility of Meningococcal Strains Responsible for Two Serogroup B Outbreaks on U.S. University Campuses to Serum Bactericidal Activity Elicited by the MenB-4C Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Raffaella; Beernink, Peter T; Giuntini, Serena; Granoff, Dan M

    2015-12-01

    In 2013 and 2014, two U.S. universities had meningococcal serogroup B outbreaks (a total of 14 cases) caused by strains from two different clonal complexes. To control the outbreaks, students were immunized with a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine (Novartis) that was not yet licensed in the United States. The vaccine (referred to as MenB-4C) contains four components capable of eliciting bactericidal activity. Both outbreak strains had high expression levels of two of the vaccine antigens (subfamily B factor H binding protein [FHbp] and neisserial heparin binding antigen [NHba]); the university B outbreak strain also had moderate expression of a third antigen, NadA. We investigated the bactericidal activity of sera from mice immunized with FHbp, NHba, or NadA and sera from MenB-4C-immunized infant macaques and an adult human. The postimmunization bactericidal activity of the macaque or human serum against isolates from university B with FHbp identification (ID) 1 that exactly matched the vaccine FHbp sequence variant was 8- to 21-fold higher than that against isolates from university A with FHbp ID 276 (96% identity to the vaccine antigen). Based on the bactericidal activity of mouse antisera to FHbp, NadA, or NHba and macaque or human postimmunization serum that had been depleted of anti-FHbp antibody, the bactericidal activity against both outbreak strains largely or entirely resulted from antibodies to FHbp. Thus, despite the high level of strain expression of FHbp from a subfamily that matched the vaccine antigen, there can be large differences in anti-FHbp bactericidal activity induced by MenB-4C vaccination. Further, strains with moderate to high NadA and/or NHba expression can be resistant to anti-NadA or anti-NHba bactericidal activity elicited by MenB-4C vaccination. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Biogenic silver nanoparticles synthesized with rhamnogalacturonan gum: Antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity and its mode of action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Jyothi Kora

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Silver nanoparticles synthesized from gum kondagogu (5 nm were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. To decipher the mode of antibacterial action of nanoparticles, a comprehensive study was carried out employing a variety of susceptibility assays: micro-broth dilution, antibiofilm activity, growth kinetics, cytoplasmic content leakage, membrane permeabilization, etc. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and cell surface damage during bacterial nanoparticle interaction were also demonstrated using dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate, N-acetylcysteine; and scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectra. Further, the biocompatibility with HeLa cell line was also evaluated. Compared to earlier reports, the minimum inhibitory concentration values were lower by 3.2- and 16-folds for Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative Escherichia coli strains, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration values were lower by 4 and 50-folds. Thus, the biogenic silver nanoparticles were found to be more potent bactericidal agents in terms of concentration. The nanoparticles exhibited significant antibiofilm activity against test strains at 2 μg mL−1, which can have implications in the treatment of drug resistant bacterial infections caused by biofilms. Growth curve in nanoparticle supplemented indicated a faster inhibition in Gram-negative bacteria as compared to Gram-positive. Treatment with nanoparticles caused cytoplasmic content leakage and membrane permeabilization in a dose dependent manner, an evidence for membrane damage. The observations noted in our study substantiated the association of ROS and membrane damage in the antibacterial action of silver nanoparticles. The promising antibacterial activity enables these nanoparticles as potential bactericidal material for various environmental and biomedical applications.

  13. Differential mechanism of Escherichia coli Inactivation by (+)-limonene as a function of cell physiological state and drug's concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueca, Beatriz; Pagán, Rafael; García-Gonzalo, Diego

    2014-01-01

    (+)-limonene is a lipophilic antimicrobial compound, extracted from citrus fruits' essential oils, that is used as a flavouring agent and organic solvent by the food industry. A recent study has proposed a common and controversial mechanism of cell death for bactericidal antibiotics, in which hydroxyl radicals ultimately inactivated cells. Our objective was to determine whether the mechanism of Escherichia coli MG1655 inactivation by (+)-limonene follows that of bactericidal antibiotics. A treatment with 2,000 μL/L (+)-limonene inactivated 4 log10 cycles of exponentially growing E. coli cells in 3 hours. On one hand, an increase of cell survival in the ΔacnB mutant (deficient in a TCA cycle enzyme), or in the presence of 2,2'-dipyridyl (inhibitor of Fenton reaction by iron chelation), thiourea, or cysteamine (hydroxyl radical scavengers) was observed. Moreover, the ΔrecA mutant (deficient in an enzyme involved in SOS response to DNA damage) was more sensitive to (+)-limonene. Thus, this indirect evidence indicates that the mechanism of exponentially growing E. coli cells inactivation by 2,000 μL/L (+)-limonene is due to the TCA cycle and Fenton-mediated hydroxyl radical formation that caused oxidative DNA damage, as observed for bactericidal drugs. However, several differences have been observed between the proposed mechanism for bactericidal drugs and for (+)-limonene. In this regard, our results demonstrated that E. coli inactivation was influenced by its physiological state and the drug's concentration: experiments with stationary-phase cells or 4,000 μL/L (+)-limonene uncovered a different mechanism of cell death, likely unrelated to hydroxyl radicals. Our research has also shown that drug's concentration is an important factor influencing the mechanism of bacterial inactivation by antibiotics, such as kanamycin. These results might help in improving and spreading the use of (+)-limonene as an antimicrobial compound, and in clarifying the controversy about

  14. Bacterial Iron Uptake Pathways: Gates for the Import of Bactericide Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schalk, Isabelle J; Mislin, Gaëtan L A

    2017-06-08

    Bacterial resistance to most antibiotics in clinical use has reached alarming proportions. A challenge for modern medicine will be to discover new antibiotics or strategies to combat multidrug resistant bacteria, especially Gram-negative bacteria for which the situation is particularly critical. Vectorization of bactericide compounds by siderophores (iron chelators produced by bacteria) is a promising strategy able to considerably increase the efficacy of drugs. Such a Trojan horse strategy can also extend activity of specific Gram-positive antibiotics to Gram-negative bacteria.

  15. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF SATUREJA HORTENSIS L. TOWARDS PATHOGENIC MICROBIAL STRAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Kotyuk

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the information on the component composition of ethereal oil of Satureja hortensis cultivated in Zhytomyr Polissya. In the ethereal oil of summer savory, 19 components were identified: carvacrol (89,07%, γ-terpinene (3,53%, α-thujone (1,7%, camphora (1,48%, terpinen-4 ol 4 (0,91%, β-bisabolen (0,56%, β-caryophyllene (0,45%, bitsiklogermakren (0,38% para-cymene (0,34%, 1,8-cineole (0,33%, trans-sabinengidrat (0.25%, 1-octen-3-ol (0.20%, spatulenol (0,18%, β-thujone (0,14%, eugenol (0,11%, geranylacetate (0,11%, humulene (0,09%, α-terpinene (0,09%, octanol-3 (0,07%. A high carvacrol content determines antimicrobial properties of summer savory. The antimicrobial activity of S. hortensis extract was studied in accordance with the common methodology of determining the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibacterial preparations. The aboveground part of plants harvested in the last ten-day period of August, in the flowering phase, was used in the experiments. The raw material was reduced to fragments of 1-1.5mm according to the requirements of pharmacopoeia. The extract of S. hortensis was obtained by the method of maceration in 40% ethyl alcohol at a ratio of 1:5 and the concentration of 200mg/ml. The availability of antimicrobial activity of extracted substances in the structure of the substances studied was determined by the way of comparison of their minimum inhibiting concentrations (MIC and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentrations (MBC/MFC with those in 40% ethyl alcohol. The paper investigates the biological activity of 40 % ethanol extract of Satureja hortensis herb grown under the conditions of Ukrainian Polissya as to golden staphylococcus (Staphylococcus aureus, coliform bacillus Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans which are pathogenic in reference to other organisms. It has been shown that S. hortensis extract was characterized by antimicrobial activity since extracted substances

  16. Efficacy of some colloidal silver preparations and silver salts against Proteus bacteria, one possible cause of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disaanayake, D M B T; Faoagali, Joan; Laroo, Hans; Hancock, Gerald; Whitehouse, Michael

    2014-04-01

    There has been increased interest in the role of anti-Proteus antibodies in the aetiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and whether chemotherapeutic agents active against Proteus species might reduce the risk and/or exacerbations of RA. We examined the in vitro antibacterial effects of ten different silver preparations which were either ionic silver [Ag(I)] solutions or nanoparticulate silver (NPS) (Ag(0)) suspensions against ATCC and two wild (clinical) strains of Proteus. The data establish the low minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of all the silver formulations tested against these four Proteus strains. In a pilot study, a potent NPS preparation ex vivo showed long-lasting anti-Proteus activity in a normal human volunteer.

  17. Effect of intravenous administration of tramadol hydrochloride on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Christine M; Souza, Marcy J; Greenacre, Cheryl B; Cox, Sherry K; Rohrbach, Barton W

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the effect of IV administration of tramadol hydrochloride on the minimum alveolar concentration of isoflurane (ISOMAC) that prevented purposeful movement of rabbits in response to a noxious stimulus. Six 6- to 12-month-old female New Zealand White rabbits. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane in oxygen. A baseline ISOMAC was determined by clamping a pedal digit with sponge forceps until gross purposeful movement was detected or a period of 60 seconds elapsed. Subsequently, tramadol (4.4 mg/kg) was administered IV and the posttreatment ISOMAC (ISOMAC(T)) was measured. Mean +/- SD ISOMAC and ISOMAC(T) values were 2.33 +/- 0.13% and 2.12 +/- 0.17%, respectively. The ISOMAC value decreased by 9 +/- 4% after tramadol was administered. Plasma tramadol and its major metabolite (M1) concentrations at the time of ISOMAC(T) determination varied widely (ranges, 181 to 636 ng/mL and 32 to 61 ng/mL, respectively). Intervals to determination of ISOMAC(T) and plasma tramadol and M1 concentrations were not correlated with percentage change in the ISOMAC. Heart rate decreased significantly immediately after tramadol administration but by 10 minutes afterward was not different from the pretreatment value. Systolic arterial blood pressure decreased to approximately 60 mm Hg for approximately 5 minutes in 3 rabbits after tramadol administration. No adverse effects were detected. As administered, tramadol had a significant but clinically unimportant effect on the ISOMAC in rabbits. Higher doses of tramadol may provide clinically important reductions but may result in a greater degree of cardiovascular depression.

  18. Comprehensive bactericidal activity of an ethanol-based hand gel in 15 seconds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampf Günter

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies indicate that the commonly recommended 30 s application time for the post contamination treatment of hands may not be necessary as the same effect may be achieved with some formulations in a shorter application time such as 15 s. Method We evaluated the bactericidal activity of an ethanol-based hand gel (Sterillium® Comfort Gel within 15 s in a time-kill-test against 11 Gram-positive, 16 Gram-negative bacteria and 11 emerging bacterial pathogens. Each strain was evaluated in quadruplicate. Results The hand gel (85% ethanol, w/w was found to reduce all 11 Gram-positive and all 16 Gram-negative bacteria by more than 5 log10 steps within 15 s, not only against the ATCC test strains but also against corresponding clinical isolates. In addition, a log10 reduction > 5 was observed against all tested emerging bacterial pathogens. Conclusion The ethanol-based hand gel was found to have a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity in only 15 s which includes the most common species causing nosocomial infections and the relevant emerging pathogens. Future research will hopefully help to find out if a shorter application time for the post contamination treatment of hands provides more benefits or more risks.

  19. Potensi Ekstrak Daun Binahong (Anredera cordifolia Sebagai Penghambat Bakteri Vibrio harveyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gde Raka Angga Kartika

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Binahong (Anredera cordifolia is a plant that can treat various kinds of diseases, because this plant has a high antioxidant content and as an antibacterial and antiviral. Vibriosis disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio harveyi is a serious problem in marine and brackish culture, this disease can cause death for shrimp and fish that farmed in marine or brackish. This study aims to determine the potential of using leaf extract Binahong with different concentrations as Vibrio harveyi inhibiting bacterial growth in vitro. The method used is to test the Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC to determine minimum levels inhibit the growth of Vibrio harveyi and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC using paper disc. The results showed the use of leaf extract Binahong (Anredera cordifolia with different concentrations significant effect on the growth of Vibrio harveyi in vitro. Binahong leaf extract (Anredera cordifolia with a concentration of 3%, 5%, 7%, 9%, 11% and 13% is only bacteriostatic which inhibits the growth of bacteria Vibrio harveyi with the best concentration obtained is equal to 13%.

  20. Efficiency calibration and minimum detectable activity concentration of a real-time UAV airborne sensor system with two gamma spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xiao-Bin; Meng, Jia; Wang, Peng; Cao, Ye; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2016-01-01

    A small-sized UAV (NH-UAV) airborne system with two gamma spectrometers (LaBr_3 detector and HPGe detector) was developed to monitor activity concentration in serious nuclear accidents, such as the Fukushima nuclear accident. The efficiency calibration and determination of minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) of the specific system were studied by MC simulations at different flight altitudes, different horizontal distances from the detection position to the source term center and different source term sizes. Both air and ground radiation were considered in the models. The results obtained may provide instructive suggestions for in-situ radioactivity measurements of NH-UAV. - Highlights: • A small-sized UAV airborne sensor system was developed. • Three radioactive models were chosen to simulate the Fukushima accident. • Both the air and ground radiation were considered in the models. • The efficiency calculations and MDAC values were given. • The sensor system is able to monitor in serious nuclear accidents.

  1. Bactericidal properties of silver films on intramedullary implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, C.; Walker, C.; Cortes, E.; Hettinger, Jeffrey; Krchnavek, R.; Caputo, G. A.; Ostrum, R.

    2011-03-01

    We report on investigations of silver films on titanium and stainless steel substrates as anti-bacterial coatings for intramedullary nails used in orthopedic trauma. Silver films are deposited using a magnetron sputtering technique from a single elemental target. The deposition parameter (energy, pressure, and temperature) dependence of the silver film microstructure and adhesion will be presented. Preliminary measurements of the effectiveness of the silver films as a bactericide on S. aureus bacteria demonstrate that the films are effective destroying the bacteria. The process of this investigation will be presented. Preliminary transmission electron microscopy measurements will also presented which image healthy and damaged bacteria helping to identify the fundamental mechanism leading to the effectiveness of silver as an anti-bacterial coating. We acknowledge the support of Rowan University, College of Liberal Arts and Sciences.

  2. Experimental investigations of the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of inert and combustible dust cloud mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, Emmanuel Kwasi; Gabel, Dieter; Krause, Ulrich

    2016-04-15

    The risks associated with dust explosions still exist in industries that either process or handle combustible dust. This explosion risk could be prevented or mitigated by applying the principle of inherent safety (moderation). This is achieved by adding an inert material to a highly combustible material in order to decrease the ignition sensitivity of the combustible dust. The presented paper deals with the experimental investigation of the influence of adding an inert dust on the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of the combustible/inert dust mixtures. The experimental investigation was done in two laboratory scale equipment: the Hartmann apparatus and the Godbert-Greenwald furnace for the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature test respectively. This was achieved by mixing various amounts of three inert materials (magnesium oxide, ammonium sulphate and sand) and six combustible dusts (brown coal, lycopodium, toner, niacin, corn starch and high density polyethylene). Generally, increasing the inert materials concentration increases the minimum ignition energy as well as the minimum ignition temperatures until a threshold is reached where no ignition was obtained. The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Antibacterial activity of the stem bark of Tieghemella Heckelii Pierre ex. A Chev against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipre, B G; Guessennd, N K; Koné, M W; Gbonon, V; Coulibaly, J K; Dosso, M

    2017-03-27

    Tieghemella heckelii (Sapotaceae) is a medicinal plant used in Africa, particularly in Côte d'Ivoire for treating various diseases including infections. Identification of prospective antibacterial compounds from stem bark of this plant as a result of its medicinal virtue, led to screening activity against methicillin resistant bacteria. Six extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol, methanol and sterile distilled water) were prepared and tested on methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using broth microdilution method for activity assessment. From this experiment, the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the plant extracts were determined in sterile 96-well microplates in order to search for both bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects. Afterwards, data analysis was performed using GraphPad Prism5 software (One-way ANOVA and Turkey Multiple Comparison test). The results were then presented as Mean ± SD for experiment repeated three times. Four extracts (ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol and sterile distilled water) showed credible potency, with strong, significant, and moderate growth inhibition of the MRSA tested. The MIC values which varied from 45 μg/mL to 97 μg/mL according to microbial phenotype, resolutely established the activity of the plant extracts. Additionally, the MBC values which varied, depending on the type of bacteria strain, revealed the bacteriostatic and bactericidal effects of the active extracts against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The present study is a confirmation of the therapeutic potential of Tieghemella heckelii and its promising contribution to the discovery of a novel antibacterial drug pertaining to these resistant strains.

  4. The bactericidal agent triclosan modulates thyroid hormone-associated gene expression and disrupts postembryonic anuran development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Skirrow, Rachel C.; Osachoff, Heather; Wigmore, Heidi; Clapson, David J.; Gunderson, Mark P.; Van Aggelen, Graham; Helbing, Caren C.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated whether exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of the bactericidal agent, triclosan, induces changes in the thyroid hormone-mediated process of metamorphosis of the North American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana and alters the expression profile of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) α and β, basic transcription element binding protein (BTEB) and proliferating nuclear cell antigen (PCNA) gene transcripts. Premetamorphic tadpoles were immersed in environmentally relevant concentrations of triclosan and injected with 1 x 10 -11 mol/g body weight 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T 3 ) or vehicle control. Morphometric measurements and steady-state mRNA levels obtained by quantitative polymerase chain reaction were determined. mRNA abundance was also examined in Xenopus laevis XTC-2 cells treated with triclosan and/or 10 nM T 3 . Tadpoles pretreated with triclosan concentrations as low as 0.15 ± 0.03 μg/L for 4 days showed increased hindlimb development and a decrease in total body weight following T 3 administration. Triclosan exposure also resulted in decreased T 3 -mediated TRβ mRNA expression in the tadpole tail fin and increased levels of PCNA transcript in the brain within 48 h of T 3 treatment whereas TRα and BTEB were unaffected. Triclosan alone altered thyroid hormone receptor α transcript levels in the brain of premetamorphic tadpoles and induced a transient weight loss. In XTC-2 cells, exposure to T 3 plus nominal concentrations of triclosan as low as 0.03 μg/L for 24 h resulted in altered thyroid hormone receptor mRNA expression. Exposure to low levels of triclosan disrupts thyroid hormone-associated gene expression and can alter the rate of thyroid hormone-mediated postembryonic anuran development

  5. Surface functionalization of Cu-Ni alloys via grafting of a bactericidal polymer for inhibiting biocorrosion by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans in anaerobic seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, S J; Liu, C K; Pehkonen, S O; Bai, R B; Neoh, K G; Ting, Y P; Kang, E T

    2009-01-01

    A novel surface modification technique was developed to provide a copper nickel alloy (M) surface with bactericidal and anticorrosion properties for inhibiting biocorrosion. 4-(chloromethyl)-phenyl tricholorosilane (CTS) was first coupled to the hydroxylated alloy surface to form a compact silane layer, as well as to confer the surface with chloromethyl functional groups. The latter allowed the coupling of 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) to generate the M-CTS-4VP surface with biocidal functionality. Subsequent surface graft polymerization of 4VP, in the presence of benzoyl peroxide (BPO) initiator, from the M-CTS-4VP surface produced the poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P(4VP)) grafted surface, or the M-CTS-P(4VP) surface. The pyridine nitrogen moieties on the M-CTS-P(4VP) surface were quaternized with hexylbromide to produce a high concentration of quaternary ammonium groups. Each surface functionalization step was ascertained by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and static water contact angle measurements. The alloy with surface-quaternized pyridinium cation groups (N+) exhibited good bactericidal efficiency in a Desulfovibrio desulfuricans-inoculated seawater-based modified Barr's medium, as indicated by viable cell counts and fluorescence microscopy (FM) images of the surface. The anticorrosion capability of the organic layers was verified by the polarization curve and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. In comparison, the pristine (surface hydroxylated) Cu-Ni alloy was found to be readily susceptible to biocorrosion under the same environment.

  6. Combined roles of human IgG subclass, alternative complement pathway activation, and epitope density in the bactericidal activity of antibodies to meningococcal factor h binding protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntini, Serena; Reason, Donald C; Granoff, Dan M

    2012-01-01

    Meningococcal vaccines containing factor H binding protein (fHbp) are in clinical development. fHbp binds human fH, which enables the meningococcus to resist complement-mediated bacteriolysis. Previously, we found that chimeric human IgG1 mouse anti-fHbp monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) had human complement-mediated bactericidal activity only if the MAb inhibited fH binding. Since IgG subclasses differ in their ability to activate complement, we investigated the role of human IgG subclasses on antibody functional activity. We constructed chimeric MAbs in which three different murine fHbp-specific binding domains were each paired with human IgG1, IgG2, or IgG3. Against a wild-type group B isolate, all three IgG3 MAbs, irrespective of their ability to inhibit fH binding, had bactericidal activity that was >5-fold higher than the respective IgG1 MAbs, while the IgG2 MAbs had the least activity. Against a mutant with increased fHbp expression, the anti-fHbp MAbs elicited greater C4b deposition (classical pathway) and greater bactericidal activity than against the wild-type strain, and the IgG1 MAbs had similar or greater activity than the respective IgG3 MAbs. The bactericidal activity against both wild-type and mutant strains also was dependent, in part, on activation of the alternative complement pathway. Thus, at lower epitope density in the wild-type strain, the IgG3 anti-fHbp MAbs had the greatest bactericidal activity. At a higher epitope density in the mutant, the IgG1 MAbs had similar or greater bactericidal activity than the IgG3 MAbs, and the activity was less dependent on the inhibition of fH binding than at a lower epitope density.

  7. Split-plot fractional designs: Is minimum aberration enough?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Ramirez, Jose; Tobias, Randy

    2006-01-01

    Split-plot experiments are commonly used in industry for product and process improvement. Recent articles on designing split-plot experiments concentrate on minimum aberration as the design criterion. Minimum aberration has been criticized as a design criterion for completely randomized fractional...... factorial design and alternative criteria, such as the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions, are suggested (Wu and Hamada (2000)). The need for alternatives to minimum aberration is even more acute for split-plot designs. In a standard split-plot design, there are several types of two...... for completely randomized designs. Consequently, we provide a modified version of the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions design criterion to be used for split-plot designs....

  8. Bactericidal activity does not predict sterilizing activity: the case of rifapentine in the murine model of Mycobacterium ulcerans disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak V Almeida

    Full Text Available Since 2004, treatment of Mycobacterium ulcerans disease, or Buruli ulcer, has shifted from surgery to daily treatment with streptomycin (STR + rifampin (RIF for 8 weeks. For shortening treatment duration, we tested the potential of daily rifapentine (RPT, a long-acting rifamycin derivative, as a substitute for RIF.BALB/c mice were infected with M. ulcerans in the right hind footpad and treated either daily (7/7 with STR+RIF or five days/week (5/7 with STR+RIF or STR+RPT for 4 weeks, beginning 28 days after infection when CFU counts were 4.88±0.51. The relative efficacy of the drug treatments was compared by footpad CFU counts during treatment and median time to footpad swelling after treatment cessation as measure of sterilizing activity. All drug treatments were bactericidal. After 1 week of treatment, the decline in CFU counts was significantly greater in treated mice but not different between the three treated groups. After 2 weeks of treatment, the decline in CFU was greater in mice treated with STR+RPT 5/7 than in mice treated with STR+RIF 7/7 and STR+RIF 5/7. After 3 and 4 weeks of treatment, CFU counts were nil in mice treated with STR+RPT and reduced by more than 3 and 4 logs in mice treated with STR+RIF 5/7 and STR+RIF 7/7, respectively. In sharp contrast to the bactericidal activity, the sterilizing activity was not different between all drug regimens although it was in proportion to the treatment duration.The better bactericidal activity of daily STR+RIF and especially of STR+RPT did not translate into better prevention of relapse, possibly because relapse-freecure after treatment of Buruli ulcer is more related to the reversal of mycolactone-induced local immunodeficiency by drug treatment rather than to the bactericidal potency of drugs.

  9.  In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of three Indian Spices Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishith Kumar Pal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available  Objective: To explore the in vitro antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum; CIN, clove (Syzygium aromaticum, CLV and cumin (Cuminum cyminum, CMN against clinical isolates of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, from Kolkata, India.Methods: The CIN, CLV and CMN were tested for their antibacterial activity against MRSA by in vitro methods. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC values of the three extracts were determined, and time-kill studies were performed in order to investigate the bactericidal activity of the extracts (at the MIC level for the isolates. The killing efficacy of the extracts was determined at various concentrations.Results: The zone diameter of inhibition (ZDI obtained due to CIN, CLV and CMN ranged between 22-27 mm, 19-23 mm and 9-15 mm, respectively; while the MICs, for the isolates, were in the range of 64-256, 64-512 and 128-512 µg/ml, respectively. When tested for their MIC levels; the CIN and CLV were found to be bactericidal after 6 hrs of incubation, while CMN showed bactericidal activity after 24 hrs. However, when tested at various concentrations; CIN, CLV and CMN displayed bactericidal activity against S. aureus, after 24 hrs of incubation, at 200, 200 and 300 µg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The C. zeylanicum and S. aromaticum showed the strongest in vitro antibacterial activity followed by C. cyminum against MRSA, and such findings could be considered a valuable support in the treatment of infection and may contribute to the development of potential antimicrobial agents for inclusion in anti- S. aureus regimens.

  10. Smart Biointerface with Photoswitched Functions between Bactericidal Activity and Bacteria-Releasing Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Ting; Zhan, Wenjun; Yu, Qian; Chen, Hong

    2017-08-09

    Smart biointerfaces with capability to regulate cell-surface interactions in response to external stimuli are of great interest for both fundamental research and practical applications. Smart surfaces with "ON/OFF" switchability for a single function such as cell attachment/detachment are well-known and useful, but the ability to switch between two different functions may be seen as the next level of "smart". In this work reported, a smart supramolecular surface capable of switching functions reversibly between bactericidal activity and bacteria-releasing ability in response to UV-visible light is developed. This platform is composed of surface-containing azobenzene (Azo) groups and a biocidal β-cyclodextrin derivative conjugated with seven quaternary ammonium salt groups (CD-QAS). The surface-immobilized Azo groups in trans form can specially incorporate CD-QAS to achieve a strongly bactericidal surface that kill more than 90% attached bacteria. On irradiation with UV light, the Azo groups switch to cis form, resulting in the dissociation of the Azo/CD-QAS inclusion complex and release of dead bacteria from the surface. After the kill-and-release cycle, the surface can be easily regenerated for reuse by irradiation with visible light and reincorporation of fresh CD-QAS. The use of supramolecular chemistry represents a promising approach to the realization of smart, multifunctional surfaces, and has the potential to be applied to diverse materials and devices in the biomedical field.

  11. BACTERICIDAL COATINGS ON TEXTILES FOR REMEDIATION OF INTERMICROBE ACTIVITY (BaCTeRIA) SUMMARY REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-07

    TEXTILES FOR REMEDIATION OF INTERMICROBE ACTIVITY (BaCTeRIA) SUMMARY REPORT by Tobyn A. Branck Courtney M. Cowell Jennifer M. Rego and...October 2011 – September 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE BACTERICIDAL COATINGS ON TEXTILES FOR REMEDIATION OF INTERMICROBE ACTIVITY (BaCTeRIA) SUMMARY REPORT... REMEDIATION OF INTERMICROBE ACTIVITY (BaCTeRIA) SUMMARY REPORT Introduction The Biological Sciences and Technology Team (BSTT), Warfighter

  12. Antimicrobial Effects of Blueberry, Raspberry, and Strawberry Aqueous Extracts and their Effects on Virulence Gene Expression in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Hazim O; Kamimoto, Maki; Shimamoto, Toshi; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2015-11-01

    The antimicrobial effects of aqueous extracts of blueberry, raspberry, and strawberry on 13 pathogenic bacteria were evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the extracts were determined before and after neutralization to pH 7.03 ± 0.15. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria were selectively inhibited by the non-neutralized berries. Blueberry was the best inhibitor, and Vibrio and Listeria were the most sensitive bacteria. After neutralization, blueberry affected only Vibrio and Listeria, whereas the antimicrobial activities of raspberry and strawberry were abolished. The total contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins in the extracts were measured with colorimetric methods and were highest in strawberry, followed by raspberry, and then blueberry. We also studied the effects of sub-bactericidal concentrations of the three berry extracts on virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the three berry extracts effectively repressed the transcription of the tcpA gene. Raspberry also repressed the transcription of the ctxA gene, whereas blueberry and strawberry did not. However, the three berry extracts did not affect the transcription of toxT. These results suggest that the three berry extracts exert potent antimicrobial effects and inhibit the expression of the virulence factors of V. cholerae. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Evaluation of the antibacterial activity of Piperaceae extracts and nisin on Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Suelen P; Anjos, Márcia Maria Dos; Carrara, Vanessa S; Delima, Juliana N; Cortez, Diógenes Aparício G; Nakamura, Tânia U; Nakamura, Celso V; de Abreu Filho, Benício A

    2013-11-01

    Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is a gram-positive aerobic bacterium. This bacterium resists pasteurization temperatures and low pH and is usually involved in the spoilage of juices and acidic drinks. The objective of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of nisin and the species Piper (Piperaceae) on A. acidoterrestris. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined by the broth microdilution method. The species Piper aduncum had the lowest MIC and an MBC of 15.6 μg/mL and was selected for fractionation. Six fractions were obtained, and the dichloromethane fraction (F.3) had the lowest MIC/MBC (7.81 μg/mL). The dichloromethane fraction was again fractionized, and a spectral analysis revealed that the compound was prenylated chromene (F.3.7). The checkerboard method demonstrated that the crude extract (CE) of P. aduncum plus nisin had a synergistic interaction (fractional inhibitory concentration [FIC] = 0.24). The bactericidal activity of (F.3.7) was confirmed by the time-kill curve. P. aduncum, nisin, and prenylated chromene exhibited strong antibacterial activity against the spores and vegetative cells of A. acidoterrestris. The results of this study suggest that extracts of the genus Piper may provide an alternative to the use of thermal processing for controlling A. spoilage. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  14. Bactericidal effects of plasma-modified surface chemistry of silicon nanograss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostrikov, Kola; Macgregor-Ramiasa, Melanie; Cavallaro, Alex; Ostrikov, Kostya; Vasilev, Krasimir

    2016-01-01

    The surface chemistry and topography of biomaterials regulate the adhesion and growth of microorganisms in ways that are still poorly understood. Silicon nanograss structures prepared via inductively coupled plasma etching were coated with plasma deposited nanometer-thin polymeric films to produce substrates with controlled topography and defined surface chemistry. The influence of surface properties on Staphylococcus aureus proliferation is demonstrated and explained in terms of nanograss substrate wetting behaviour. With the combination of the nanograss topography; hydrophilic plasma polymer coatings enhanced antimicrobial activity while hydrophobic coatings reduced it. This study advances the understanding of the effects of surface wettability on the bactericidal properties of reactive nano-engineered surfaces. (paper)

  15. Insights into the Mechanism of Action of Bactericidal Lipophosphonoxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya Panova

    Full Text Available The advantages offered by established antibiotics in the treatment of infectious diseases are endangered due to the increase in the number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. This leads to a need for new antibacterial compounds. Recently, we discovered a series of compounds termed lipophosphonoxins (LPPOs that exhibit selective cytotoxicity towards Gram-positive bacteria that include pathogens and resistant strains. For further development of these compounds, it was necessary to identify the mechanism of their action and characterize their interaction with eukaryotic cells/organisms in more detail. Here, we show that at their bactericidal concentrations LPPOs localize to the plasmatic membrane in bacteria but not in eukaryotes. In an in vitro system we demonstrate that LPPOs create pores in the membrane. This provides an explanation of their action in vivo where they cause serious damage of the cellular membrane, efflux of the cytosol, and cell disintegration. Further, we show that (i LPPOs are not genotoxic as determined by the Ames test, (ii do not cross a monolayer of Caco-2 cells, suggesting they are unable of transepithelial transport, (iii are well tolerated by living mice when administered orally but not peritoneally, and (iv are stable at low pH, indicating they could survive the acidic environment in the stomach. Finally, using one of the most potent LPPOs, we attempted and failed to select resistant strains against this compound while we were able to readily select resistant strains against a known antibiotic, rifampicin. In summary, LPPOs represent a new class of compounds with a potential for development as antibacterial agents for topical applications and perhaps also for treatment of gastrointestinal infections.

  16. Insights into the Mechanism of Action of Bactericidal Lipophosphonoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panova, Natalya; Zborníková, Eva; Šimák, Ondřej; Pohl, Radek; Kolář, Milan; Bogdanová, Kateřina; Večeřová, Renata; Seydlová, Gabriela; Fišer, Radovan; Hadravová, Romana; Šanderová, Hana; Vítovská, Dragana; Šiková, Michaela; Látal, Tomáš; Lovecká, Petra; Barvík, Ivan; Krásný, Libor; Rejman, Dominik

    2015-01-01

    The advantages offered by established antibiotics in the treatment of infectious diseases are endangered due to the increase in the number of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains. This leads to a need for new antibacterial compounds. Recently, we discovered a series of compounds termed lipophosphonoxins (LPPOs) that exhibit selective cytotoxicity towards Gram-positive bacteria that include pathogens and resistant strains. For further development of these compounds, it was necessary to identify the mechanism of their action and characterize their interaction with eukaryotic cells/organisms in more detail. Here, we show that at their bactericidal concentrations LPPOs localize to the plasmatic membrane in bacteria but not in eukaryotes. In an in vitro system we demonstrate that LPPOs create pores in the membrane. This provides an explanation of their action in vivo where they cause serious damage of the cellular membrane, efflux of the cytosol, and cell disintegration. Further, we show that (i) LPPOs are not genotoxic as determined by the Ames test, (ii) do not cross a monolayer of Caco-2 cells, suggesting they are unable of transepithelial transport, (iii) are well tolerated by living mice when administered orally but not peritoneally, and (iv) are stable at low pH, indicating they could survive the acidic environment in the stomach. Finally, using one of the most potent LPPOs, we attempted and failed to select resistant strains against this compound while we were able to readily select resistant strains against a known antibiotic, rifampicin. In summary, LPPOs represent a new class of compounds with a potential for development as antibacterial agents for topical applications and perhaps also for treatment of gastrointestinal infections.

  17. The effects of the bacterial interaction with visible-light responsive titania photocatalyst on the bactericidal performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chia-Liang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bactericidal activity of traditional titanium dioxide (TiO2 photocatalyst is effective only upon irradiation by ultraviolet light, which restricts the potential applications of TiO2 for use in our living environments. Recently carbon-containing TiO2 was found to be photoactive at visible-light illumination that affords the potential to overcome this problem; although, the bactericidal activity of these photocatalysts is relatively lower than conventional disinfectants. Evidenced from scanning electron microscopy and confocal Raman spectral mapping analysis, we found the interaction with bacteria was significantly enhanced in these anatase/rutile mixed-phase carbon-containing TiO2. Bacteria-killing experiments indicate that a significantly higher proportion of all tested pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella flexneri and Acinetobacter baumannii, were eliminated by the new nanoparticle with higher bacterial interaction property. These findings suggest the created materials with high bacterial interaction ability might be a useful strategy to improve the antimicrobial activity of visible-light-activated TiO2.

  18. Biofilm disruption potential of a glycolipid biosurfactant from marine Brevibacterium casei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiran, George Seghal; Sabarathnam, Balu; Selvin, Joseph

    2010-08-01

    The antibiofilm activity of a glycolipid biosurfactant isolated from the marine actinobacterium Brevibacterium casei MSA19 was evaluated against pathogenic biofilms in vitro. The isolate B. casei MSA19 was a potential biosurfactant producer among the 57 stable strains isolated from the marine sponge Dendrilla nigra. The biosurfactant production was optimized under submerged fermentation. The purified glycolipid showed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Based on the minimum inhibitory concentration/minimum bactericidal concentration ratio, the glycolipid was determined as bacteriostatic. The glycolipid biosurfactant disrupted the biofilm formation under dynamic conditions. The disruption of the biofilm by the MSA19 glycolipid was consistent against mixed pathogenic biofilm bacteria. Therefore, the glycolipid biosurfactant can be used as a lead compound for the development of novel antibiofilm agents.

  19. Fabrication of nonfouling, bactericidal, and bacteria corpse release multifunctional surface through surface-initiated RAFT polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang B

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bailiang Wang,1,2 Zi Ye,1 Yihong Tang,1 Yuemei Han,1 Quankui Lin,1,2 Huihua Liu,2 Hao Chen,1,2 Kaihui Nan1,2 1School of Ophthalmology and Optometry, Eye Hospital, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, 2Wenzhou Institute of Biomaterials and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Infections after surgery or endophthalmitis are potentially blinding complications caused by bacterial adhesion and subsequent biofilm formation on the intraocular lens. Neither single-function anti-adhesion surface nor contacting killing surface can exhibit ideal antibacterial function. In this work, a novel (2-(dimethylamino-ethyl methacrylate-co-2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (p (DMAEMA-co-MPC brush was synthesized by “grafting from” method through reversible–addition fragmentation chain transfer polymerization. 1-Bromoheptane was used to quaternize the p (DMAEMA-co-MPC brush coating and to endow the surface with bactericidal function. The success of the surface functionalization was confirmed by atomic force microscopy, water contact angle, and spectroscopic ellipsometry. The quaternary ammonium salt units were employed as efficient disinfection that can eliminate bacteria through contact killing, whereas the 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine units were introduced to suppress unwanted nonspecific adsorption. The functionalized poly(dimethyl siloxane surfaces showed efficiency in reducing bovine serum albumin adsorption and in inhibiting bacteria adhesion and biofilm formation. The copolymer brushes also demonstrated excellent bactericidal function against gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus bacteria measured by bacteria live/dead staining and shake-flask culture methods. The surface biocompatibility was evaluated by morphology and activity measurement with human lens epithelial cells in vitro. The achievement of the p (DMAEMA+-co-MPC copolymer brush coating with nonfouling, bactericidal, and

  20. Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Bactericidal and Antimycotic Activities against Oral Microbes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvelia E. Rodríguez-Luis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a new discipline with huge applications including medicine and pharmacology industries. Although several methods and reducing agents have been employed to synthesize silver nanoparticles, reactive chemicals promote toxicity and nondesired effects on the human and biological systems. The objective of this work was to synthesize silver nanoparticles from Glycyrrhiza glabra and Amphipterygium adstringens extracts and determine their bactericidal and antimycotic activities against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans growth, respectively. 1 and 10 mM silver nitrate were mixed with an extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Amphipterygium adstringens. Green silver nanoparticles (AgNPs were characterized by TEM, Vis-NIR, FTIR, fluorescence, DLS, TGA, and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. Bactericidal and antimycotic activities of AgNPs were determined by Kirby and Bauer method and cell viability MTT assays. AgNPs showed a spherical shape and average size of 9 nm if prepared with Glycyrrhiza glabra extract and 3 nm if prepared with Amphipterygium adstringens extract. AgNPs inhibited the bacterial and fungal growth as was expected, without a significant cytotoxic effect on human epithelial cells. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that AgNPs could be an interesting option to control oral biofilms.

  1. Chemical composition, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of essential oil from pine needle (Cedrus deodara).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei-Cai; Zhang, Zeng; Gao, Hong; Jia, Li-Rong; He, Qiang

    2012-07-01

    The chemical composition of essential oil from pine needles (Cedrus deodara) was determined, and its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were evaluated. Twenty-three components, representing 95.79% of the oil, were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The main components include α-terpineol (30.2%), linalool (24.47%), limonene (17.01%), anethole (14.57%), caryophyllene (3.14%), and eugenol (2.14%). Pine needle essential oil showed remarkable antioxidant activity in scavenging free radicals, in lipid peroxidation, and in reducing power assays. Moreover, the essential oil revealed strong antimicrobial activity against typical food-borne microorganisms, with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values of 0.2 to 1.56 and 0.39 to 6.25 μg/mL, respectively. Transmission electron microscope observation ascertained that the bactericidal mechanism of pine needle essential oil may be the induction of cytoplasmic outflow and plasmolysis. These results suggest that the essential oil from pine needles has potential to be used as a natural antioxidant and antimicrobial agent in food processing. The present study provides a theoretical basis for the potential application of essential oil from pine needles (C. deodara) to be used as a natural resource of antioxidant and antimicrobial agents in food industry. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. The Influence of Interfering Substances on the Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Quaternary Ammonium Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Araújo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Standard cleaning processes may not remove all the soiling typically found in food industry, such as carbohydrates, fats, or proteins. Contaminants have a high impact in disinfection as their presence may reduce the activity of disinfectants. The influence of alginic acid, bovine serum albumin, yeast extract, and humic acids was assessed on the antimicrobial activities of benzalkonium chloride and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide against Bacillus cereus vegetative cells and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The bacteria (single and consortium were exposed to surfactants (single and combined in the absence and presence of potential disinfection interfering substances. The antimicrobial effects of the surfactants were assessed based on the bacterial respiratory activity measured by oxygen uptake rate due to glucose oxidation. The tested surfactants were efficient against both bacteria (single and consortium with minimum bactericidal concentrations ranging from 3 to 35 mg·L−1. The strongest effect was caused by humic acids that severely quenched antimicrobial action, increasing the minimum bactericidal concentration of the surfactants on P. fluorescens and the consortium. The inclusion of the other interfering substances resulted in mild interferences in the antibacterial activity. This study clearly demonstrates that humic acids should be considered as an antimicrobial interfering substance in the development of disinfection strategies.

  3. The bactericidal agent triclosan modulates thyroid hormone-associated gene expression and disrupts postembryonic anuran development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhoen, Nik [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, P.O. Box 3055, Stn. CSC, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada); Skirrow, Rachel C. [Pacific Environmental Science Centre, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, British Columbia V7H 1V2 (Canada); Osachoff, Heather [Pacific Environmental Science Centre, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, British Columbia V7H 1V2 (Canada); Wigmore, Heidi [Pacific Environmental Science Centre, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, British Columbia V7H 1V2 (Canada); Clapson, David J. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, P.O. Box 3055, Stn. CSC, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada); Gunderson, Mark P. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, P.O. Box 3055, Stn. CSC, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada); Van Aggelen, Graham [Pacific Environmental Science Centre, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, British Columbia V7H 1V2 (Canada); Helbing, Caren C. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, P.O. Box 3055, Stn. CSC, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia V8W 3P6 (Canada)]. E-mail: chelbing@uvic.ca

    2006-12-01

    We investigated whether exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of the bactericidal agent, triclosan, induces changes in the thyroid hormone-mediated process of metamorphosis of the North American bullfrog, Rana catesbeiana and alters the expression profile of thyroid hormone receptor (TR) {alpha} and {beta}, basic transcription element binding protein (BTEB) and proliferating nuclear cell antigen (PCNA) gene transcripts. Premetamorphic tadpoles were immersed in environmentally relevant concentrations of triclosan and injected with 1 x 10{sup -11} mol/g body weight 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) or vehicle control. Morphometric measurements and steady-state mRNA levels obtained by quantitative polymerase chain reaction were determined. mRNA abundance was also examined in Xenopus laevis XTC-2 cells treated with triclosan and/or 10 nM T{sub 3}. Tadpoles pretreated with triclosan concentrations as low as 0.15 {+-} 0.03 {mu}g/L for 4 days showed increased hindlimb development and a decrease in total body weight following T{sub 3} administration. Triclosan exposure also resulted in decreased T{sub 3}-mediated TR{beta} mRNA expression in the tadpole tail fin and increased levels of PCNA transcript in the brain within 48 h of T{sub 3} treatment whereas TR{alpha} and BTEB were unaffected. Triclosan alone altered thyroid hormone receptor {alpha} transcript levels in the brain of premetamorphic tadpoles and induced a transient weight loss. In XTC-2 cells, exposure to T{sub 3} plus nominal concentrations of triclosan as low as 0.03 {mu}g/L for 24 h resulted in altered thyroid hormone receptor mRNA expression. Exposure to low levels of triclosan disrupts thyroid hormone-associated gene expression and can alter the rate of thyroid hormone-mediated postembryonic anuran development.

  4. Minimum inhibitory concentration values and problematic disk break ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Latife Ä°ÅŸeri

    2015-08-08

    Aug 8, 2015 ... to tigecycline, and to test the correlation between the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and ... This study was performed using 108 strains of enterococci. The .... drugs (TetA-E, TetK) from inside the bacterial cell, and ribo-.

  5. Alpha amylase assisted synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles: Structural characterization and application as antibacterial agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Razi; Mohsin, Mohd; Ahmad, Tokeer; Sardar, Meryam

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Green synthesis of TiO 2 nanoparticles using an enzyme alpha amylase has been described. • The morphology and shape depends upon the concentration of the alpha amylase enzyme. • The biosynthesized nanoparticles show good bactericidal effect against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. • The bactericidal effect was further confirmed by Confocal microscopy and TEM. - Abstract: The enzyme alpha amylase was used as the sole reducing and capping agent for the synthesis of TiO 2 nanoparticles. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) methods. The XRD data confirms the monophasic crystalline nature of the nanoparticles formed. TEM data shows that the morphology of nanoparticles depends upon the enzyme concentration used at the time of synthesis. The presence of alpha amylase on TiO 2 nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR. The nanoparticles were investigated for their antibacterial effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration value of the TiO 2 nanoparticles was found to be 62.50 μg/ml for both the bacterial strains. The inhibition was further confirmed using disc diffusion assay. It is evident from the zone of inhibition that TiO 2 nanoparticles possess potent bactericidal activity. Further, growth curve study shows effect of inhibitory concentration of TiO 2 nanoparticles against S. aureus and E. coli. Confocal microscopy and TEM investigation confirm that nanoparticles were disrupting the bacterial cell wall

  6. Bactericidal micron-thin sol-gel films prevent pin tract and periprosthetic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Haibo; Knabe, Christine; Burke, Megan; Radin, Shula; Garino, Jonathan; Schaer, Thomas; Ducheyne, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Orthopedic injuries constitute the majority of wounds sustained by U.S. soldiers in recent conflicts. The risk of infection is considerable with fracture fixation devices. In this pilot study, we examined the use of unique bactericidal micron-thin sol-gel films on fracture fixation devices and their ability to prevent and eradicate infections. External fixation was studied with micron-thin sol-gel coated percutaneous pins releasing triclosan and inserted medially into rabbit tibiae. A total of 11 rabbits received percutaneous pins that were either uncoated or sol-gel/triclosan coated. Internal fracture fixation was also studied using sol-gel coated intramedullary (IM) nails releasing vancomycin in the intramedullary tibiae. Six sheep received IM nails that were coated with a sol-gel film that either contained vancomycin or did not contain vancomycin. All animals were challenged with Staphylococcus aureus around the implant. Animals were euthanized at 1 month postoperative. Rabbits receiving triclosan/sol-gel coated percutaneous pins did not show signs of infection. Uncoated percutaneous pins had a significantly higher infection rate. In the sheep study, there were no radiographic signs of osteomyelitis with vancomycin/sol-gel coated IM nails, in contrast to the observations in the control cohort. Hence, the nanostructured sol-gel controlled release technology offers the promise of a reliable and continuous delivery system of bactericidals from orthopedic devices to prevent and treat infection. Reprint & Copyright © 2014 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. The determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations of selected antimicrobials for porcine Haemophilus parasuis isolates from the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Nedbalcová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Haemophilus parasuis isolates obtained from pigs in the Czech Republic were tested for their susceptibility to amoxicillin, penicillin, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, tetracycline, and tulathromycin by determination of minimum inhibitory concentrations using the broth microdilution method. The H. parasuis isolates were mostly susceptible to majority of tested antimicrobials (amoxicillin 90%, penicillin 73.3%, enrofloxacin 83.3%, and tulathromycin 83.3%. All isolates were susceptible to ceftiofur. On the other hand, no isolate was susceptible to tetracycline, 30% of tested isolates were intermediately susceptible, and 70% were resistant. These findings indicate that tested antimicrobials with the exception of tetracycline should be the preferred option used for the treatment of infection caused by H. parasuis but due to the potential transmission of resistance from animals to humans, the use of ceftiofur is considered as a last resort option in antimicrobial treatment of animals.

  8. Role of Berberine in the Treatment of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Ming; Zhang, Ming-Bo; Liu, Yan-Chen; Kang, Jia-Rui; Chu, Zheng-Yun; Yin, Kai-Lin; Ding, Ling-Yu; Ding, Ran; Xiao, Rong-Xin; Yin, Yi-Nan; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Yue-Dan

    2016-04-01

    Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid widely used in the treatment of microbial infections. Recent studies have shown that berberine can enhance the inhibitory efficacy of antibiotics against clinical multi-drug resistant isolates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we demonstrated that sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of berberine exhibited no bactericidal activity against MRSA, but affected MRSA biofilm development in a dose dependent manner within the concentration ranging from 1 to 64 μg/mL. Further study indicated that berberine inhibited MRSA amyloid fibrils formation, which consist of phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs). Molecular dynamics simulation revealed that berberine could bind with the phenyl ring of Phe19 in PSMα2 through hydrophobic interaction. Collectively, berberine can inhibit MRSA biofilm formation via affecting PSMs’ aggregation into amyloid fibrils, and thereby enhance bactericidal activity of antibiotics. These findings will provide new insights into the multiple pharmacological properties of berberine in the treatment of microbial-generated amyloid involved diseases.

  9. Biodegradable drug-eluting nanofiber-enveloped implants for sustained release of high bactericidal concentrations of vancomycin and ceftazidime: in vitro and in vivo studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu YH

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Yung-Heng Hsu,1,2 Dave Wei-Chih Chen,1 Chun-Der Tai,3 Ying-Chao Chou,1,2 Shih-Jung Liu,2 Steve Wen-Neng Ueng,1 Err-Cheng Chan4 1Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Guishan Township, 2Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chang Gung University, Guishan Township, 3Graduate Institute of Medical Mechatronics, Chang Gung University, Guishan Township, 4School of Medical Technology, Chang Gung University, Guishan Township, Taiwan Abstract: We developed biodegradable drug-eluting nanofiber-enveloped implants that provided sustained release of vancomycin and ceftazidime. To prepare the biodegradable nanofibrous membranes, poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide and the antibiotics were first dissolved in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol. They were electrospun into biodegradable drug-eluting membranes, which were then enveloped on the surface of stainless plates. An elution method and a high-performance liquid chromatography assay were employed to characterize the in vivo and in vitro release rates of the antibiotics from the nanofiber-enveloped plates. The results showed that the biodegradable nanofiber-enveloped plates released high concentrations of vancomycin and ceftazidime (well above the minimum inhibitory concentration for more than 3 and 8 weeks in vitro and in vivo, respectively. A bacterial inhibition test was carried out to determine the relative activity of the released antibiotics. The bioactivity ranged from 25% to 100%. In addition, the serum creatinine level remained within the normal range, suggesting that the high vancomycin concentration did not affect renal function. By adopting the electrospinning technique, we will be able to manufacture biodegradable drug-eluting implants for the long-term drug delivery of different antibiotics. Keywords: biodegradable nanofiber-enveloped plates, electrospinning, antibiotics, release characteristics

  10. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea Madhuca Longifolia Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Jyothi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases.Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method.Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 µg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 µg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 µg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 µg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 µg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 µg/ml, respectively.Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases.

  11. In-Vitro Activity of Saponins of Bauhinia Purpurea, Madhuca Longifolia, Celastrus Paniculatus and Semecarpus Anacardium on Selected Oral Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, K. S.; Seshagiri, M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Dental caries, periodontitis and other mucosal diseases are caused by a complex community of microorganisms. This study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial properties of saponins of four important oil yielding medicinal plant extracts on selected oral pathogens that are involved in such diseases. Materials and Methods: Saponins were extracted from Bauhinia purpurea, Madhuca longifolia, Celastrus paniculatus and Semecarpus anacardium and purified. Antimicrobial properties of these saponins against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus were determined using well diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined as the lowest concentration of saponins inhibiting bacterial growth after 14 h of incubation at 37°C. The bactericidal activity was evaluated using the viable cell count method. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of Madhuca longifolia saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Streptococcus mitis and Staphylococcus aureus was 18.3 ± 0.15/34.4 ± 0.24 μg/ml, 19.0 ± 0.05/32.2 ± 0.0 μg/ml and 21.2 ± 0.35/39.0 ± 0.30 μg/ml, respectively and Bauhinia purpurea saponin on Streptococcus mutans MTCC 890, Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus acidophilus was 26.4 ± 0.20/43.0 ± 0.40 μg/ml, 29.0 ± 0.30/39.6 ± 0.12 μg/ml and 20.2 ± 0.05/36.8 ± 0.23 μg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The strong antimicrobial activity of Madhuca longifolia and Bauhinia purpurea may be due to the presence of complex triterpenoid saponins, oleanane type triterpenoid glycosides or atypical pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin. Hence, these extracted saponins may be used in food and oral products to prevent and control oral diseases. PMID:23323183

  12. Novel Kombucha Beverage from Lingzhi or Reishi Medicinal Mushroom, Ganoderma lucidum, with Antibacterial and Antioxidant Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sknepnek, Aleksandra; Pantić, Milena; Matijašević, Danka; Miletić, Dunja; Lević, Steva; Nedović, Viktor; Niksic, Miomir

    2018-01-01

    Kombucha is a nonalcoholic beverage traditionally made by fermenting black tea using a combination of yeast and acetic acid bacteria (AAB) cultures. Ganoderma lucidum hot water extract (HWE) was used-to our knowledge for the first time-to prepare a novel, health-promoting kombucha product. During the 11-day fermentation, pH, total acidity, and the numbers of yeasts and AAB were monitored. It was found that sweetened G. lucidum HWE was a good medium for yeast and AAB growth. The desired acidity for the beverage was reached on the second day (3 g/L) of the fermentation process; the maximum established acidity was 22.8 ± 0.42 g/L. Fourier transform infrared analysis revealed that the vacuum-dried beverage is a mixture of various compounds such as polysaccharides, phenols, proteins, and lipids. Total phenolic content of the liquid sample was 4.91 ± 0.2338 mg gallic acid equivalents/g, whereas the vacuum-dried sample had a smaller amount of phenolics (2.107 ± 0.228 mg gallic acid equivalents/g). Established half-maximal effective concentrations for DPPH scavenging activity and reducing power were 22.8 ± 0.17 and 10.61 ± 0.34 mg/mL, respectively. The antibacterial testing revealed that activity does not originate solely from synthesized acetic acid. The liquid G. lucidum beverage was the most effective against the tested bacteria, with the lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (0.04 mg/mL) against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Rhodococcus equi, and a minimum bactericidal concentration (0.16 mg/mL) against Bacillus spizizenii, B. cereus, and R. equi. The vacuum-dried sample was less effective, with the lowest minimum bactericidal concentration against the Gram-positive bacteria R. equi (1.875 mg/mL) and against the Gram-negative bacteria Proteus hauseri (30 mg/mL).

  13. Uncertainty and minimum detectable concentrations using relative, absolute and K*0-IAEA standardization for the INAA laboratory of the ETRR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, M. Y.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: The Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) Laboratory of Egypt Second Training and Research Reactor (ETRR-2) is increasingly requested to perform multi-element analysis to large number of samples from different origins. The INAA laboratory has to demonstrate competence by conforming to appropriate internationally and nationally accepted standards. The objective of this work is to determine the uncertainty budget and sensitivity of the INAA laboratory measurements. Concentrations of 9 elements; Mn, Na, K, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Rb, and Cs, were measured against a certified test sample. Relative, absolute, and Ko-IAEA standardization methods were employed and results compared. The flux was monitored using cadmium covered gold method, and multifoil (gold, nickel and zirconium) method. The combined and expanded uncertainties were estimated. Uncertainty of concentrations ranged between 2-21% depending on the standardization method used. The relative method, giving the lowest uncertainty, produced uncertainty budget between 2 and 11%. The minimum detectable concentration was the lowest for Cs ranging between 0.36 and 0.59 ppb and the highest being for K in the range of 0.32 to 8.64 ppm

  14. Structural and optical characterization and efficacy of hydrothermal synthesized Cu and Ag doped zinc oxide nanoplate bactericides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abinaya, C.; Marikkannan, M.; Manikandan, M. [Department of Materials Science, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, 625 021, Tamil Nadu (India); Mayandi, J., E-mail: jeyanthinath@yahoo.co.in [Department of Materials Science, School of Chemistry, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, 625 021, Tamil Nadu (India); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, 49931 1295, MI (United States); Suresh, P.; Shanmugaiah, V. [Department of Microbial Technology, School of Biological Sciences, Madurai Kamaraj University, Madurai, 625 021, Tamil Nadu (India); Ekstrum, C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, 49931 1295, MI (United States); Pearce, J.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, 49931 1295, MI (United States); Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, 49931 1295, MI (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This study reports on a novel synthesis of pure zinc oxide and both Cu and Ag doped ZnO nanoplates using a simple and low-cost hydrothermal method. The structural and optical properties of the nanoplates were quantified and the materials were tested for antibacterial activity. X-ray diffraction revealed the formation of the wurtzite phase of ZnO and scanning and transmission electron microscopy showed the formation of randomly oriented ZnO nanoplates, having a thickness less than 80 nm and diameter less than 350 nm. The elemental analyses of both the pure and doped samples were evaluated by energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. The FTIR spectra of ZnO nanomaterials showed the predictable bands at 3385 cm{sup −1} (O−H stretching), 1637 cm{sup −1} (stretching vibration of H{sub 2}O), 400 cm{sup −1}–570 cm{sup −1} (M−O stretching). The as synthesized samples showed a strong absorption peak in the UV region (∼376 nm) and a near band edge emission at 392 nm with some defect peaks in the visible region. From the XPS spectra the oxidation states of Zn, Cu and Ag were found to be +2, +2 and 0 respectively. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella typhi bacteria were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of undoped and doped ZnO. Ag doped ZnO exhibited low minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values as 40 μg/ml for E. coli and S. aureus and 20 μg/ml for S. typhi, which are comparable to commercial antibiotics without optimization. Further, these chemically modified nanoparticles will be applicable in the development of medicine to control the spread and infection of a variety of bacterial strains. - Highlights: • Distinct ZnO nanoplates were successfully synthesized by facile hydrothermal method. • Cu and Ag doped ZnO exhibits significant destruction of bacteria with low MIC value. • Ag:ZnO has a noteworthy bactericidal effect against E. coli, S. aureus &S. typhi. • It projects that, a feasible low cost industrial process can

  15. Determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and mutant prevention concentration (MPC of selected antimicrobials in bovine and swine Pasteurella multocida, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Nedbalcová

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We compared the values of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and mutant prevention concentration (MPC values ​​of three antimicrobial agents for 72 bovine isolates of Pasteurella multocida, 80 swine isolates of P. multocida, 80 bovine isolates of Escherichia coli, 80 swine isolates of E. coli, and 80 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine mastitis. The ratio of MIC90​​/MPC90 which limited mutant selection window (MSW was ≤ 0.12/4 mg/l for enrofloxacin, 0.5/≥ 64 mg/l for florfenicol and 4/≥ 128 mg/l for tulathromycin in bovine P. multocida isolates, ≤ 0.12/2 mg/l for enrofloxacin, 0.5/≥ 64 mg/l for florfenicol and 4/≥ 128 mg/l for tulathromycin in swine P. multocida isolates, 1/16 mg/l for enrofloxacin, 8/≥ 64 mg/l for florfenicol and 8/≥ 128 mg/l for tulathromycin in bovine E. coli isolates, 0.5/16 mg/l for enrofloxacin, ≥ 64/≥ 64 mg/l for florfenicol and 8/≥ 128 mg/l for tulathromycin in swine E. coli isolates, and 0.25/16 mg/l for enrofloxacin, 4/≥ 64 mg/l for florfenicol and 4/≥ 128 mg/l for tulathromycin in S. aureus isolates. These findings indicate that the dosage of antimicrobial agents to achieve serum concentration equal to or higher than MPC could reduce selection of resistant bacterial subpopulation.

  16. Effects of sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations of ciprofloxacin on enteroaggregative Escherichia coli and the role of the surface protein dispersin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowlkes, Jason Davidson [ORNL; Doktycz, Mitchel John [ORNL; Allison, David Post [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) are bacterial pathogens that cause watery diarrhoea, which is often persistent and can be inflammatory. The antibiotic ciprofloxacin is used to treat EAEC infections, but a full understanding of the antimicrobial effects of ciprofloxacin is needed for more efficient treatment of bacterial infections. In this study, it was found that sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs) of ciprofloxacin had an inhibitory effect on EAEC adhesion to glass and mammalian HEp-2 cells. It was also observed that bacterial surface properties play an important role in bacterial sensitivity to ciprofloxacin. In an EAEC mutant strain where the hydrophobic positively charged surface protein dispersin was absent, sensitivity to ciprofloxacin was reduced compared with the wild-type strain. Identified here are several antimicrobial effects of ciprofloxacin at sub-MIC concentrations indicating that bacterial surface hydrophobicity affects the response to ciprofloxacin. Investigating the effects of sub-MIC doses of antibiotics on targeted bacteria could help to further our understanding of bacterial pathogenicity and elucidate future antibiotic treatment modalities.

  17. Characterization of Mechanical and Bactericidal Properties of Cement Mortars Containing Waste Glass Aggregate and Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Pawel; Augustyniak, Adrian; Cendrowski, Krzysztof; Horszczaruk, Elzbieta; Rucinska, Teresa; Nawrotek, Pawel; Mijowska, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    The recycling of waste glass is a major problem for municipalities worldwide. The problem concerns especially colored waste glass which, due to its low recycling rate as result of high level of impurity, has mostly been dumped into landfills. In recent years, a new use was found for it: instead of creating waste, it can be recycled as an additive in building materials. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of manufacturing sustainable and self-cleaning cement mortars with use of commercially available nanomaterials and brown soda-lime waste glass. Mechanical and bactericidal properties of cement mortars containing brown soda-lime waste glass and commercially available nanomaterials (amorphous nanosilica and cement containing nanocrystalline titanium dioxide) were analyzed in terms of waste glass content and the effectiveness of nanomaterials. Quartz sand is replaced with brown waste glass at ratios of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by weight. Study has shown that waste glass can act as a successful replacement for sand (up to 100%) to produce cement mortars while nanosilica is incorporated. Additionally, a positive effect of waste glass aggregate for bactericidal properties of cement mortars was observed. PMID:28773823

  18. Characterization of Mechanical and Bactericidal Properties of Cement Mortars Containing Waste Glass Aggregate and Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Sikora

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The recycling of waste glass is a major problem for municipalities worldwide. The problem concerns especially colored waste glass which, due to its low recycling rate as result of high level of impurity, has mostly been dumped into landfills. In recent years, a new use was found for it: instead of creating waste, it can be recycled as an additive in building materials. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of manufacturing sustainable and self-cleaning cement mortars with use of commercially available nanomaterials and brown soda-lime waste glass. Mechanical and bactericidal properties of cement mortars containing brown soda-lime waste glass and commercially available nanomaterials (amorphous nanosilica and cement containing nanocrystalline titanium dioxide were analyzed in terms of waste glass content and the effectiveness of nanomaterials. Quartz sand is replaced with brown waste glass at ratios of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% by weight. Study has shown that waste glass can act as a successful replacement for sand (up to 100% to produce cement mortars while nanosilica is incorporated. Additionally, a positive effect of waste glass aggregate for bactericidal properties of cement mortars was observed.

  19. Persistence of bactericidal antibodies following early infant vaccination with a serogroup B meningococcal vaccine and immunogenicity of a preschool booster dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snape, Matthew D; Saroey, Praveen; John, Tessa M; Robinson, Hannah; Kelly, Sarah; Gossger, Nicoletta; Yu, Ly-Mee; Wang, Huajun; Toneatto, Daniela; Dull, Peter M; Pollard, Andrew J

    2013-10-15

    The multicomponent serogroup B meningococcal (4CMenB) vaccine was recently licensed for use in Europe. There are currently no data on the persistence of bactericidal antibodies induced by use of this vaccine in infants. Our objective was to evaluate serogroup B-specific bactericidal antibodies in children aged 40-44 months previously vaccinated at 2, 4, 6 and 12 months of age. Participants given 4 doses of 4CMenB as infants received a fifth dose of the vaccine at 40-44 months of age. Age-matched participants who were MenB vaccine-naive received 4CMenB and formed the control group. We evaluated human complement serum bactericidal activity (hSBA) titres at baseline and 1 month after each dose of 4CMenB. Before a booster dose at enrolment, 41%-76% of 17 participants previously vaccinated with 4CMenB in infancy had hSBA titres of 4 or greater against 4 reference strains. Before vaccination in the control group (n = 40) these proportions were similar for strains 44/76-SL (63%) and M10713 (68%) but low for strains NZ98/254 (0%) and 5/99 (3%). A booster dose in the 4CMenB-primed participants generated greater increases in hSBA titres than in controls. As has been observed with other meningococcal vaccines, bactericidal antibodies waned after vaccination with 4CMenB administered according to an approved infant vaccination schedule of 2, 4, 6 and 12 months of age, but there was an anamnestic response to a booster dose at 40-44 months of age. If 4CMenB were introduced into routine vaccination schedules, assessment of the need for a booster dose would require data on the impact of these declining titres on vaccine effectiveness. ClinicalTrials.gov, no. NCT01027351.

  20. Combined treatment of UVA irradiation and antibiotics induces greater bactericidal effects on Vibrio parahaemolyticus

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Yanfei; Nakahashi, Mutsumi; Mawatari, Kazuaki; Shimohata, Takaaki; Uebanso, Takashi; Harada, Yumi; Tsunedomi, Akari; Emoto, Takahiro; Akutagawa, Masatake; Kinouchi, Yohsuke; Takahashi, Akira

    2016-01-01

    The presence of antibiotics in the environment and their subsequent impact on the development of multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria has raised concerns globally. Consequently, much research is focused on a method to produce a better disinfectant. We have established a disinfectant system using UVA-LED that inactivates pathogenic bacteria. We assessed the bactericidal efficiency of a combination of UVA-LED and antibiotics against Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Combined use of antibiotic drugs and U...

  1. Energy and IAQ Implications of Alternative Minimum Ventilation Rates in California Retail and School Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutton, Spencer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    For a stand-alone retail building, a primary school, and a secondary school in each of the 16 California climate zones, the EnergyPlus building energy simulation model was used to estimate how minimum mechanical ventilation rates (VRs) affect energy use and indoor air concentrations of an indoor-generated contaminant. The modeling indicates large changes in heating energy use, but only moderate changes in total building energy use, as minimum VRs in the retail building are changed. For example, predicted state-wide heating energy consumption in the retail building decreases by more than 50% and total building energy consumption decreases by approximately 10% as the minimum VR decreases from the Title 24 requirement to no mechanical ventilation. The primary and secondary schools have notably higher internal heat gains than in the retail building models, resulting in significantly reduced demand for heating. The school heating energy use was correspondingly less sensitive to changes in the minimum VR. The modeling indicates that minimum VRs influence HVAC energy and total energy use in schools by only a few percent. For both the retail building and the school buildings, minimum VRs substantially affected the predicted annual-average indoor concentrations of an indoor generated contaminant, with larger effects in schools. The shape of the curves relating contaminant concentrations with VRs illustrate the importance of avoiding particularly low VRs.

  2. Antimicrobial activity and synergy of antibiotics with two biphenyl compounds, protosappanins A and B from Sappan Lignum against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Guo-Ying; Han, Zong-Qi; Han, Jun; Hao, Xiao-Yan; Tang, Hua-Shu; Wang, Gen-Chun

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to investigate antimicrobial ingredients from Sappan Lignum and to evaluate their synergy on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains with antibiotics. Bioactivity-guided phytochemical procedures were used to screen the active compounds. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were assayed by broth microdilution. The synergy was evaluated through checkerboard microdilution and loss of viability assays. Protosappanins A (PsA) and B (PsB) were identified from Sappan Lignum extracts. They showed active against both S. aureus and MRSA with MIC or MIC50 at 64 (PsA) and 128 (PsB) mg/L alone. When they were used in combination with antibiotics, they showed best synergy with amikacin and gentamicin with MIC50 (mg/L) of amikacin reduced more significantly from 32 to four (with PsA) and eight (with PsB), and the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) ranged between 0.078 and 0.500 (FICI50  = 0.375). Moreover, the resistance of MRSA towards amikacin and gentamicin could be reversed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute criteria. The combined bactericidal mode could as well be synergy. PsA and PsB showed very low cytotoxicity in comparison with their promising activity against MRSA. Protosappanins A and B showed both alone activities and resistance reversal effects of amikacin and gentamicin against MRSA, which warrant further investigations for potential combinatory therapy of MRSA infection. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. High-Level Antimicrobial Efficacy of Representative Mediterranean Natural Plant Extracts against Oral Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamprini Karygianni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature is an unexplored reservoir of novel phytopharmaceuticals. Since biofilm-related oral diseases often correlate with antibiotic resistance, plant-derived antimicrobial agents could enhance existing treatment options. Therefore, the rationale of the present report was to examine the antimicrobial impact of Mediterranean natural extracts on oral microorganisms. Five different extracts from Olea europaea, mastic gum, and Inula viscosa were tested against ten bacteria and one Candida albicans strain. The extraction protocols were conducted according to established experimental procedures. Two antimicrobial assays—the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assay and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC assay—were applied. The screened extracts were found to be active against each of the tested microorganisms. O. europaea presented MIC and MBC ranges of 0.07–10.00 mg mL−1 and 0.60–10.00 mg mL−1, respectively. The mean MBC values for mastic gum and I. viscosa were 0.07–10.00 mg mL−1 and 0.15–10.00 mg mL−1, respectively. Extracts were less effective against C. albicans and exerted bactericidal effects at a concentration range of 0.07–5.00 mg mL−1 on strict anaerobic bacteria (Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, and Parvimonas micra. Ethyl acetate I. viscosa extract and total mastic extract showed considerable antimicrobial activity against oral microorganisms and could therefore be considered as alternative natural anti-infectious agents.

  4. Study on the susceptibility of Enterococcus faecalis from infectious processes to ciprofloxacin and vancomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Genaro

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Enterococcus faecalis is considered a pathogen responsible for hospital infections and, due to its frequent multi-resistant profile, has caused preoccupations among many medical authorities. The objective of this study was to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of 74 strains isolated from blood cultures and purulent secretions to vancomycin and ciprofloxacin through the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC by using the Microdilution test. The results showed a greater efficacy of vancomycin compared to ciprofloxacin (98.6% of the strains were inhibited by vancomycin at lower concentrations: 0.06 - 1 µg/ml. However, in the MBC analysis 73% of the strains showed a MBC of vancomycin only at high concentrations (equal to or higher than 64 µg/ml. For ciprofloxacin, the strains showed a broad sensitivity with MICs and MBCs distributed along all the MIC classes. Results also revealed a probability that some strains are tolerant to vancomycin, which indicates the need of other tests to confirm this characteristic.

  5. Effects of Flower and Fruit Extracts of Melastoma malabathricum Linn. on Growth of Pathogenic Bacteria: Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella typhimurium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nurhadis Che Omar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melastoma malabathricum Linn. is a shrub that comes with beautiful pink or purple flowers and has berries-like fruits rich in anthocyanins. This study was carried out with the aim to evaluate the inhibitory activities of different concentrations of the M. malabathricum Linn. flower and fruit crude extracts against Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55, Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244, Escherichia coli IMR E30, and Salmonella typhimurium IMR S100 using the disc diffusion method. The lowest concentrations of the extracts producing inhibition zones against the test microorganisms were used to determine their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs. In addition, the growth of Listeria monocytogenes IMR L55 and Staphylococcus aureus IMR S244 grown in medium supplemented with the respective extracts at different temperatures (4°C, 25°C, and 37°C and pHs (4, 6, 7, and 8 was determined.

  6. Effect of peppermint essential oil on growth and survival of some foodborne pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Boniadian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the effects of peppermint essential oils on Bacillus cereus, Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica. In the first step, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC of peppermint essential were determined by the tube dilution method in tryptic soy broth (TSB. Then, the growth behavior of each of the aforementioned bacteria was assessed in presence of peppermint essential oil in concentration of less than MIC. The result of first step showed that Y. enterocolitica is more sensitive to peppermint essential oil than other tested bacteria (MIC = 0.1% & MBC = 0.22%, followed by L. monocytogenes (MIC = 0.12% & MBC = 0.15%, S. typhimurium (MIC = 0.22% & MBC = 0.25% and B. cereus (MIC = 0.3% & MBC = 5%, respectively. The results revealed that, the peppermint essential oils in low concentration inhibited the growth rate of bacteria thus may use as a natural preservative and flavoring in foods.

  7. Bactericidal/Permeability-increasing protein fold-containing family member A1 in airway host protection and respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Clemente J; Cohn, Lauren

    2015-05-01

    Bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein fold-containing family member A1 (BPIFA1), formerly known as SPLUNC1, is one of the most abundant proteins in respiratory secretions and has been identified with increasing frequency in studies of pulmonary disease. Its expression is largely restricted to the respiratory tract, being highly concentrated in the upper airways and proximal trachea. BPIFA1 is highly responsive to airborne pathogens, allergens, and irritants. BPIFA1 actively participates in host protection through antimicrobial, surfactant, airway surface liquid regulation, and immunomodulatory properties. Its expression is modulated in multiple lung diseases, including cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, respiratory malignancies, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. However, the role of BPIFA1 in pulmonary pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. This review highlights the versatile properties of BPIFA1 in antimicrobial protection and its roles as a sensor of environmental exposure and regulator of immune cell function. A greater understanding of the contribution of BPIFA1 to disease pathogenesis and activity may clarify if BPIFA1 is a biomarker and potential drug target in pulmonary disease.

  8. Minimum inhibitory concentration of Brazilian Brachyspira hyodysenteriae strains

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel, Amanda G.S.; Sato, José P.H.; Gabardo, Michelle P.; Resende, Talita P.; Barcellos, David E.S.N. de; Pereira, Carlos E.R.; Vannucci, Fábio A.; Guedes, Roberto M.C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to characterize Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of strains obtained from pigs in Brazil based on the minimal inhibitory concentration test (MIC). The MIC was performed for 22 B. hyodysenteriae isolates obtained from 2011 to 2013 using the following antimicrobial drugs: tylosin, tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin and tylvalosin. Outbreaks of swine dysentery were diagnosed based ...

  9. A self-loading microfluidic device for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration of antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cira, Nate J; Ho, Jack Y; Dueck, Megan E; Weibel, Douglas B

    2012-03-21

    This article describes a portable microfluidic technology for determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antibiotics against bacteria. The microfluidic platform consists of a set of chambers molded in poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) that are preloaded with antibiotic, dried, and reversibly sealed to a second layer of PDMS containing channels that connect the chambers. The assembled device is degassed via vacuum prior to its use, and the absorption of gas by PDMS provides the mechanism for actuating and metering the flow of fluid in the microfluidic channels and chambers. During the operation of the device, degas driven flow introduces a suspension of bacterial cells, dissolves the antibiotic, and isolates cells in individual chambers without cross contamination. The growth of bacteria in the chambers in the presence of a pH indicator produces a colorimetric change that can be detected visually using ambient light. Using this device we measured the MIC of vancomycin, tetracycline, and kanamycin against Enterococcus faecalis 1131, Proteus mirabilis HI4320, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Escherichia coli MG1655 and report values that are comparable to standard liquid broth dilution measurements. The device provides a simple method for MIC determination of individual antibiotics against human pathogens that will have applications for clinical and point-of-care medicine. Importantly, this device is designed around simplicity: it requires a single pipetting step to introduce the sample, no additional components or external equipment for its operation, and provides a straightforward visual measurement of cell growth. As the device introduces a novel approach for filling and isolating dead-end microfluidic chambers that does not require valves and actuators, this technology should find applications in other portable assays and devices.

  10. Effect of bactericidal activity of three disinfectants on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

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    Cesar Augusto Marchionatti Avancini

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA can cause hospital-acquired infections (HA-MRSA, community- acquired ones (CA-MRSA, and infections transmitted by pets and animals raised for food production (livestock-acquired or LA-MRSA. The conduct to control the transmission of these diseases requires a careful action against the causative agents on surfaces in the environment and the choice of disinfectants and antiseptics is crucial. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the bactericidal activity of sodium hypochlorite (SH, iodophor (I and a quaternary ammonium compound (QAC, cetyl-trimethyl-ammonium chloride, commonly used in hospital and animal production settings, on 21 MRSA isolates and a control bacterium, and test the hypothesis of cross resistance of antibiotics and disinfectants. Methods: The bactericidal activity of four successive dilutions of the disinfectants was evaluated through the suspension test, using an initial inoculum population density of 107 CFU/mL, after contact times of 5, 15 and 30 minutes. Results: Five minutes of contact of SH 25 ppm, I 12.5 ppm and QAC 125 ppm sufficed to inactivate the reference bacterium S. aureus ATCC 6538 and all MRSA. Conclusions: Once the factors that influence the efficiency of disinfectants are controlled, sodium hypochlorite, iodophor and the quaternary ammonium compound are suitable for controlling MRSA in the sources of infection. No resistance relationship was observed in the methicillin-resistant isolates with these substances.

  11. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of Musa sp. leaf extracts against multidrug resistant clinical pathogens causing nosocomial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, Ponmurugan; Mustaffa, Muhammed

    2013-09-01

    To investigate different Musa sp. leave extracts of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol were evaluated for antibacterial activity against multi-drug resistant pathogens causing nosocomial infection by agar well diffusion method and also antioxidant activities. The four different Musa species leaves were extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antibacterial susceptibility test, minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum inhibitory bacterial concentration were determined by agar well diffusion method. Total phenolic content and in vitro antioxidant activity was determined. All the Musa sp. extracts showed moderate antibacterial activities expect Musa paradisiaca with the inhibition zone ranging from 8.0 to 18.6 mm. Among four species ethyl acetate extracts of Musa paradisiaca showed highest activity against tested pathogens particularly E. coli, P. aeruginosa and Citrobacter sp. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were within the value of 15.63- 250 µg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentrations were ranging from 31.25- 250 µg/mL. Antioxidant activity of Musa acuminate exhibited maximum activity among other three Musa species. The present study concluded that among the different Musa species, Musa paradisiaca displayed efficient antibacterial activity followed by Musa acuminata against multi-drug resistant nosocomial infection causing pathogens. Further, an extensive study is needed to identify the bioactive compounds, mode of action and toxic effect in vivo of Musa sp.

  12. SILVER NANOPARTICLES IN THE SOLUTION OF THE PROBLEM OF DRUG RESISTANCE IN MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS

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    A. V. Zaharov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal — a scientific evaluation of the effectiveness and safety of NHS in the treatment of experimental drug-resistant tuberculosis. Materials and methods. Used silver nanoparticles obtained by an electrochemical method. With a size of 5-60 nm, 120-270 kontsentratsiey- 1 mcm² and the size of the stabilizer shell — 2-5 nm. 750 crops studied Inhibitory activity of the silver nanoparticles in an isolated form and as part of a nanocomposite with chemotherapy in concentrations of 5; 25 and 50 mcg/ml. Defines the minimum inhibitory concentration of bactericidal nanoparticles composed of a nanocomposite with isoniazid. To evaluate the morphometry M.tuberculosis used atomic force microscopy. Toxicology nanopreparations studied 83 non-linear white mice and 146 white rats. Chemotherapeutic Activity nanopreparations determined on an experimental model of tuberculosis in 65 white male mice imbrednoy line BALB/c. Infectivity dose amount 5х106 colony forming units injected into the sinus venosus animal eyes. Isoniazid, nanoparticles and nanocomposite began administered 14 days after infection by intramuscular injection daily. Treatment efficacy was determined by comparing the evaluation criteria in the experimental and control groups of animals. Evaluated the following indicators: survival index, body mass index and weight of target organ, lesions index, index smear and inoculation of affected organs. Conducted pathological examination. Results. When using isoniazid, which had resistant pathogens, with silver nanoparticles full and significant inhibition of the growth of the M.tuberculosis observed in 49,2% of cases. When the concentration of the nanoparticles 5 mcg/ml in the composite bactericidal activity reached 91,3%. The minimum inhibitory concentration of silver nanoperticles in combination with isoniazid was 2,5 mcg/ml, the minimum bactericidal — 5 mcg /ml. There have been changes in the M.tuberculosis morphometry under the influence of the

  13. In Vitro Anticariogenic Effects of Drymocallis rupestris Extracts and Their Quality Evaluation by HPLC-DAD-MS3 Analysis

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    Sebastian Granica

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, for the first time, we investigated in vitro inhibitory effects of Drymocallis rupestris extracts and their subfractions obtained with solvents of different polarity (aqueous, 50% ethanolic, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanolic against bacterial viability and caries virulence factors of Streptococcus spp. strains. The diethyl ether subfraction (PRU2 showed bacteriostatic and bactericidal activity against mutans streptococci, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs in the range of 0.75–1.5 mg/mL and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs in the range of 1.5–3 mg/mL. Furthermore, PRU2 inhibited biofilm formation by Streptococci in a dose-dependent manner. It was also found that all five D. rupestris preparations exhibited diverse inhibitory effects on de novo synthesis of water-insoluble and water-soluble α-d-glucans by glucosyltransferases of the mutans group streptococci. The phytochemical profile of investigated samples was determined by spectrophotometric and chromatographic (HPLC-DAD-MS3 methods. The high polyphenol (total phenol, phenolic acids, tannins, proantocyanidins, and flavonoids contents were found which correlated with anticariogenic activity of the analyzed samples. The results demonstrate that D. rupestris extracts and their subfractions could become useful supplements for pharmaceutical products as a new anticariogenic agent in a wide range of oral care products. Further studies are necessary to clarify which phytoconstituents of D. rupestris are responsible for anticaries properties.

  14. Alpha amylase assisted synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles: Structural characterization and application as antibacterial agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Razi; Mohsin, Mohd [Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Ahmad, Tokeer [Department of Chemistry, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India); Sardar, Meryam, E-mail: msardar@jmi.ac.in [Department of Biosciences, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110025 (India)

    2015-02-11

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Green synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles using an enzyme alpha amylase has been described. • The morphology and shape depends upon the concentration of the alpha amylase enzyme. • The biosynthesized nanoparticles show good bactericidal effect against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. • The bactericidal effect was further confirmed by Confocal microscopy and TEM. - Abstract: The enzyme alpha amylase was used as the sole reducing and capping agent for the synthesis of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The biosynthesized nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) methods. The XRD data confirms the monophasic crystalline nature of the nanoparticles formed. TEM data shows that the morphology of nanoparticles depends upon the enzyme concentration used at the time of synthesis. The presence of alpha amylase on TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was confirmed by FTIR. The nanoparticles were investigated for their antibacterial effect on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration value of the TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was found to be 62.50 μg/ml for both the bacterial strains. The inhibition was further confirmed using disc diffusion assay. It is evident from the zone of inhibition that TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles possess potent bactericidal activity. Further, growth curve study shows effect of inhibitory concentration of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles against S. aureus and E. coli. Confocal microscopy and TEM investigation confirm that nanoparticles were disrupting the bacterial cell wall.

  15. Bactericidal Permeability-Increasing Proteins Shape Host-Microbe Interactions

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    Fangmin Chen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We characterized bactericidal permeability-increasing proteins (BPIs of the squid Euprymna scolopes, EsBPI2 and EsBPI4. They have molecular characteristics typical of other animal BPIs, are closely related to one another, and nest phylogenetically among invertebrate BPIs. Purified EsBPIs had antimicrobial activity against the squid’s symbiont, Vibrio fischeri, which colonizes light organ crypt epithelia. Activity of both proteins was abrogated by heat treatment and coincubation with specific antibodies. Pretreatment under acidic conditions similar to those during symbiosis initiation rendered V. fischeri more resistant to the antimicrobial activity of the proteins. Immunocytochemistry localized EsBPIs to the symbiotic organ and other epithelial surfaces interacting with ambient seawater. The proteins differed in intracellular distribution. Further, whereas EsBPI4 was restricted to epithelia, EsBPI2 also occurred in blood and in a transient juvenile organ that mediates hatching. The data provide evidence that these BPIs play different defensive roles early in the life of E. scolopes, modulating interactions with the symbiont.

  16. Effect of fentanyl target-controlled infusions on isoflurane minimum anaesthetic concentration and cardiovascular function in red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavez, Juan C; Hawkins, Michelle G; Pascoe, Peter J; Knych, Heather K DiMaio; Kass, Philip H

    2011-07-01

    To determine the impact of three different target plasma concentrations of fentanyl on the minimum anaesthetic concentration (MAC) for isoflurane in the red-tailed hawk and the effects on the haemodynamic profile. Experimental study. Six healthy adult red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) of unknown sex with body weights (mean ± SD) of 1.21 ± 0.15 kg. This study was undertaken in two phases. In the first phase anaesthesia was induced with isoflurane in oxygen via facemask and maintained with isoflurane delivered in oxygen via a Bain circuit. Following instrumentation baseline determination of the MAC for isoflurane was made for each animal using the bracketing method and a supramaximal electrical stimulus. End-tidal isoflurane concentration (E'Iso) was then set at 0.75 × MAC and after an appropriate equilibration period a bolus of fentanyl (20 μg kg(-1)) was administered intravenously (IV) in order to determine the pharmacokinetics of fentanyl in the isoflurane-anaesthetized red-tailed hawk. During the second phase anaesthesia was induced in a similar manner and E'Iso was set at 0.75 × MAC for each individual. Fentanyl was infused IV to achieve target plasma concentrations between 8 and 32 ng mL(-1). At each fentanyl plasma concentration, the MAC for isoflurane and cardiovascular variables were determined. Data were analyzed by use of repeated-measures anova. Mean ± SD fentanyl plasma concentrations and isoflurane MACs were 0 ± 0, 8.51 ± 4, 14.85 ± 4.82 and 29.25 ± 11.52 ng mL(-1), and 2.05 ± 0.45%, 1.42 ± 0.53%, 1.14 ± 0.31% and 0.93 ± 0.32% for the target concentrations of 0, 8, 16 and 32 ng mL(-1), respectively. At these concentrations fentanyl significantly (p = 0.0016) decreased isoflurane MAC by 31%, 44% and 55%, respectively. Dose had no significant effect on heart rate, systolic, diastolic or mean arterial blood pressure. Fentanyl produced a dose-related decrease of isoflurane MAC with minimal effects on measured cardiovascular parameters in

  17. Antimicrobial activity of Piper nigrum L. and Cassia didymobotyra L. leaf extract on selected food borne pathogens

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    Mohd. Sayeed Akthar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of leaf extract of Piper nigrum (P. nigrum and Cassia didymobotyra (C. didymobotyra (aqueous, methanol, ethanol and petroleum ether against the food borne pathogenic bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Escherichia coli (E. coli, Salmonella typhimurium and Pseudomonas aeruginosa] and fungi [Aspergillus spp. and Candida albicans (C. albicans] and also to investigate the presence of various phytochemicals in the leaf extracts of tested plants. Methods: The antimicrobial activity was determined by disc diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, minimum bactericidal and fungicidal concentration were determined by serial dilution method. Results: Methanol leaf extract of test plants exhibited greater antimicrobial activity against the selected bacterial and fungal strains. The MIC results showed that ethanol, methanol and petroleum ether leaf extract of P. nigrum inhibited the growth of S. aureus and E. coli at concentration of 12.5 mg/mL. While, ethanol and methanol leaf extracts of C. didymobotyra inhibited the growth of S. aureus at concentration of 6.25 mg/mL. The MIC values for ethanol, methanol and petroleum ether leaf extract of P. nigrum inhibited the growth of C. albicans at concentration of 25.0 mg/mL. While, it was reported that at concentration of 12.5 mg/mL methanol leaf extract of P. nigrum was against the Aspergillus spp. The MIC values of methanol leaf extract of C. didymobotyra inhibited the growth of C. albicans and Aspergillus spp. at concentration of 12.5 mg/mL and 6.25 mg/mL, respectively. The minimum bactericidal concentration of ethanol, methanol leaf extract of P. nigrum for E. coli and ethanol, methanol leaf extract of C. didymobotyra for S. aureus was recorded at concentration 12.5 mg/mL. The minimum fungicidal concentration of ethanol and methanol leaf extract of P. nigrum and C. didymobotyra on C. albicans was recorded at concentration of 25.0 mg

  18. Mutant prevention concentration and PK-PD relationships of enrofloxacin for Pasteurella multocida in buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaje, R M; Sidhu, P K; Kaur, G; Rampal, S

    2013-12-01

    This study validated the use of mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) modeling approach for optimization of dose regimen of enrofloxacin to contain the emergence of Pasteurella multocida resistance. The PK and PD characteristics of enrofloxacin were investigated in buffalo calves after intramuscular administration at a dose rate of 12 mg/kg. The concentration of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in serum were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The serum peak concentration (Cmax), terminal half-life (t1/2K10), volume of distribution (Vd(area)/F) and mean residence time (MRT) of enrofloxacin were 1.89 ± 0.35 μg/ml, 5.14 ± 0.66 h, 5.59 ± 0.99 l/kg/h and 8.52 ± 1.29 h, respectively. The percent metabolite conversion ratio of ciprofloxacin to enrofloxacin was 79. The binding of enrofloxacin to plasma proteins was 11%. The MIC, MBC and MPC for enrofloxacin against P. multocida were 0.05, 0.06 μg/ml and 1.50 μg/ml.In vitro and ex-vivo bactericidal activity of enrofloxacin was concentration dependent. Modeling of ex-vivo growth inhibition data to the sigmoid Emax equation provided AUC24h/MIC values to produce bacteriostatic (19 h), bactericidal (43 h) and bacterial eradication (64 h). PK-PD data in conjunction with MPC and MIC90 data predicted dosage schedules for enrofloxacin that may achieve optimum efficacy in respect of bacteriological and clinical cure and minimize the risk of emergence of resistance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Contribution of the autolysin AtlA to the bactericidal activity of amoxicillin against Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravetti, Anne-Lise; Mesnage, Stéphane; Lefort, Agnès; Chau, Françoise; Eckert, Catherine; Garry, Louis; Arthur, Michel; Fantin, Bruno

    2009-04-01

    The bactericidal activity of amoxicillin was investigated against Enterococcus faecalis JH2-2 and against an isogenic mutant deficient in the production of the N-acetylglucosaminidase AtlA. Comparison of the two strains indicated that this autolysin contributes to killing by amoxicillin both in vitro and in a rabbit model of experimental endocarditis.

  20. Whole Genome Sequence Analysis of Pig Respiratory Bacterial Pathogens with Elevated Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations for Macrolides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayao, Denise Ann Estarez; Seddon, Jennifer M; Gibson, Justine S; Blackall, Patrick J; Turni, Conny

    2016-10-01

    Macrolides are often used to treat and control bacterial pathogens causing respiratory disease in pigs. This study analyzed the whole genome sequences of one clinical isolate of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, Haemophilus parasuis, Pasteurella multocida, and Bordetella bronchiseptica, all isolated from Australian pigs to identify the mechanism underlying the elevated minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for erythromycin, tilmicosin, or tulathromycin. The H. parasuis assembled genome had a nucleotide transition at position 2059 (A to G) in the six copies of the 23S rRNA gene. This mutation has previously been associated with macrolide resistance but this is the first reported mechanism associated with elevated macrolide MICs in H. parasuis. There was no known macrolide resistance mechanism identified in the other three bacterial genomes. However, strA and sul2, aminoglycoside and sulfonamide resistance genes, respectively, were detected in one contiguous sequence (contig 1) of A. pleuropneumoniae assembled genome. This contig was identical to plasmids previously identified in Pasteurellaceae. This study has provided one possible explanation of elevated MICs to macrolides in H. parasuis. Further studies are necessary to clarify the mechanism causing the unexplained macrolide resistance in other Australian pig respiratory pathogens including the role of efflux systems, which were detected in all analyzed genomes.

  1. Preparation and evaluation of tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil nanoparticle suspensions of different particle sizes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojin; Wang, Ting; Lu, Mengmeng; Zhu, Luyan; Wang, Yan; Zhou, WenZhong

    2014-01-01

    Three tilmicosin-loaded hydrogenated castor oil nanoparticle (TMS-HCO-NP) suspensions of different particle sizes were prepared with different polyvinyl alcohol surfactant concentrations using a hot homogenization and ultrasonic technique. The in vitro release, in vitro antibacterial activity, mammalian cytotoxicity, acute toxicity in mice, and stability study were conducted to evaluate the characteristics of the suspensions. The in vitro tilmicosin release rate, antibacterial activity, mammalian cytotoxicity, acute toxicity in mice, and stability of the suspensions were evaluated. When prepared with polyvinyl alcohol concentrations of 0.2%, 1%, and 5%, the mean diameters of the nanoparticles in the three suspensions were 920±35 nm, 452±10 nm, and 151±4 nm, respectively. The three suspensions displayed biphasic release profiles similar to that of freeze-dried TMS-HCO-NP powders, with the exception of having a faster initial release. Moreover, suspensions of smaller-sized particles showed faster initial release, and lower minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations. Time-kill curves showed that within 12 hours, the suspension with the 151 nm particles had the most potent bactericidal activity, but later, the suspensions with larger-sized particles showed increased antibacterial activity. None of the three suspensions were cytotoxic at clinical dosage levels. At higher drug concentrations, all three suspensions showed similar concentration-dependent cytotoxicity. The suspension with the smallest-sized particle showed significantly more acute toxicity in mice, perhaps due to faster drug release. All three suspensions exhibited good stability at 4°C and at room temperature for at least 6 months. These results demonstrate that TMS-HCO-NP suspensions can be a promising formulation for tilmicosin, and that nanoparticle size can be an important consideration for formulation development.

  2. Percutaneous external fixator pins with bactericidal micron-thin sol-gel films for the prevention of pin tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Haibo; Knabe, Christine; Radin, Shula; Garino, Jonathan; Ducheyne, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Risk of infection is considerable in open fractures, especially when fracture fixation devices are used to stabilize the fractured bones. Overall deep infection rates of 16.2% have been reported. The infection rate is even greater, up to 32.2%, with external fixation of femoral fractures. The use of percutaneous implants for certain clinical applications, such as percutaneous implants for external fracture fixation, still represents a challenge today. Currently, bone infections are very difficult to treat. Very potent antibiotics are needed, which creates the risk of irreversible damage to other organs, when the antibiotics are administered systemically. As such, controlled, local release is being pursued, but no such treatments are in clinical use. Herein, the use of bactericidal micron-thin sol-gel films on metallic fracture fixation pins is reported. The data demonstrates that triclosan (2,4,4'-trichloro-2'-hydroxydiphenylether), an antimicrobial agent, can be successfully incorporated into micron-thin sol-gel films deposited on percutaneous pins. The sol-gel films continuously release triclosan in vitro for durations exceeding 8 weeks (longest measured time point). The bactericidal effect of the micron-thin sol-gel films follows from both in vitro and in vivo studies. Inserting percutaneous pins in distal rabbit tibiae, there were no signs of infection around implants coated with a micron-thin sol-gel/triclosan film. Healing had progressed normally, bone tissue growth was normal and there was no epithelial downgrowth. This result was in contrast with the results in rabbits that received control, uncoated percutaneous pins, in which abundant signs of infection and epithelial downgrowth were observed. Thus, well-adherent, micron-thin sol-gel films laden with a bactericidal molecule successfully prevented pin tract infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Microwave, sonochemical and combustion synthesized CuO nanostructures and their electrical and bactericidal properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karunakaran, C.; Manikandan, G.; Gomathisankar, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •CuO nanoleaves synthesized by CTAB-assisted hydrothermal method. •CuO nanodiscs synthesized by CTAB-assisted sonochemical method. •Combustion synthesized CuO is highly porous. •Synthetic method and morphology influence CuO bactericidal activity. -- Abstract: Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB)-assisted microwave synthesis of CuO provides nanoleaves and in the absence of CTAB the shape of CuO is irregular. Sonochemical synthesis of CuO using CTAB gives nanodiscs whereas irregularly shaped flake-like structure is obtained without CTAB. Combustion synthesized CuO is highly porous with innumerable large holes. CTAB does not provide any structure in combustion synthesis. Transmission electron micrographs (TEM) display the constituent nanoparticles of microwave and sonochemically synthesized CuO. The powder X-ray diffractogram (XRD) shows the sample obtained by sonochemical method in the absence of CTAB as a mixture of monoclinic CuO, cubic Cu 2 O, and orthorhombic Cu(OH) 2 . But the rest of the samples are pure CuO in monoclinic phase. The selected area electron diffractograms (SAED) of the microwave and sonochemically synthesized samples, in the presence as well as in the absence of CTAB, confirm the monoclinic phase of CuO and indicates the presence of amorphous CuO in traces. All the samples are characteristic of Fourier Transform infrared (FT-IR) Cu–O stretching frequencies. The method of synthesis and also the morphology influence the electrical properties as well as the bactericidal activity of CuO

  4. Efficacy of (+-Lariciresinol to Control Bacterial Growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli O157:H7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivek K. Bajpai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to assess the antibacterial potential of a polyphenolic compound (+-lariciresinol isolated from Rubia philippinensis against selected foodborne pathogens Staphylococcus aureus KCTC1621 and Escherichia coli O157:H7. (+-Lariciresinol at the tested concentrations (250 μg/disk evoked a significant antibacterial effect as a diameter of inhibition zones (12.1–14.9 mm with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, and minimum bactericidal concentration values of 125–250 and 125–250 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, (+-lariciresinol at MIC showed reduction in bacterial cell viabilities, efflux of potassium (K+ ions and release of 260 nm materials against E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus KCTC1621. Moreover, deteriorated cell wall morphology of E. coli O157:H7 and S. aureus KCTC1621 cells treated with (+-lariciresinol at MIC further confirmed its inhibitory effect against the tested pathogens, suggesting it to be an alternative means of antimicrobials.

  5. Evaluation of bactericidal and anti-biofilm properties of a novel surface-active organosilane biocide against healthcare associated pathogens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa biolfilm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Murray

    Full Text Available Healthcare acquired infections (HAI pose a great threat in hospital settings and environmental contamination can be attributed to the spread of these. De-contamination and, significantly, prevention of re-contamination of the environment could help in preventing/reducing this threat. Goldshield (GS5 is a novel organosilane biocide marketed as a single application product with residual biocidal activity. We tested the hypothesis that GS5 could provide longer-term residual antimicrobial activity than existing disinfectants once applied to surfaces. Thus, the residual bactericidal properties of GS5, Actichlor and Distel against repeated challenge with Staphylococcus aureus ATCC43300 were tested, and showed that GS5 alone exhibited longer-term bactericidal activity for up to 6 days on 316I stainless steel surfaces. Having established efficacy against S. aureus, we tested GS5 against common healthcare acquired pathogens, and demonstrated that, on average, a 1 log10 bactericidal effect was exhibited by GS5 treated surfaces, although biocidal activity varied depending upon the surface type and the species of bacteria. The ability of GS5 to prevent Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation was measured in standard microtitre plate assays, where it had no significant effect on either biofilm formation or development. Taken together the data suggests that GS5 treatment of surfaces may be a useful means to reducing bacterial contamination in the context of infection control practices.

  6. Effects of carprofen and meloxicam with or without butorphanol on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Kazuto; Okano, Yoshihiko; Yamashita, Maiko; Umar, Mohammed A; Kushiro, Tokiko; Muir, William W

    2008-01-01

    Sparing effects of carprofen and meloxicam with or without butorphanol on the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane were determined in 6 dogs. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane in oxygen, and MAC was determined by use of a tail clamp method. The dogs were administered a subcutaneous injection of carprofen (4 mg/kg) or meloxicam (0.2 mg/kg), or no medication (control) one hour prior to induction of anesthesia. Following the initial determination of MAC, butorphanol (0.3 mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly, and MAC was determined again. The sevoflurane MACs for carprofen alone (2.10 +/- 0.26%) and meloxicam alone (2.06 +/- 0.20%) were significantly less than the control (2.39 +/- 0.26%). The sevoflurane MACs for the combination of carprofen with butorphanol (1.78 +/- 0.20%) and meloxicam with butorphanol (1.66 +/- 0.29%) were also significantly less than the control value after the administration of butorphanol (2.12 +/- 0.28%). The sevoflurane sparing effects of the combinations of carprofen with butorphanol and meloxicam with butorphanol were additive.

  7. Effect of LongZhang Gargle on Biofilm Formation and Acidogenicity of Streptococcus mutans In Vitro

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    Yutao Yang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus mutans, with the ability of high-rate acid production and strong biofilm formation, is considered the predominant bacterial species in the pathogenesis of human dental caries. Natural products which may be bioactive against S. mutans have become a hot spot to researches to control dental caries. LongZhang Gargle, completely made from Chinese herbs, was investigated for its effects on acid production and biofilm formation by S. mutans in this study. The results showed an antimicrobial activity of LongZhang Gargle against S. mutans planktonic growth at the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 16% and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of 32%. Acid production was significantly inhibited at sub-MIC concentrations. Biofilm formation was also significantly disrupted, and 8% was the minimum concentration that resulted in at least 50% inhibition of biofilm formation (MBIC50. A scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed an effective disruption of LongZhang Gargle on S. mutans biofilm integrity. In addition, a confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM suggested that the extracellular polysaccharides (EPS synthesis could be inhibited by LongZhang Gargle at a relatively low concentration. These findings suggest that LongZhang Gargle may be a promising natural anticariogenic agent in that it suppresses planktonic growth, acid production, and biofilm formation against S. mutans.

  8. The Antibacterial Effect of Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Stachys schtschegleevii (Poulk Leave on Bacteria Causing Urinary Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atefe Bayat

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The medical herb Poulk is used for the treatment of infectious diseases in urinary tract, vagina, respiratory tract, rheumatism, ear infections, and other inflammatory conditions. In this study, the antibacterial effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts of Poulk on bacterial infection of urine, was investigated. Methods: In this experimental study, techniques for determining minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of bacterial growth, minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC, and disk diffusion were used to investigate the antibacterial effects of Poulk on the mentioned bacteria. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan’s tests. Significance level was considered p<0.05. Results: In this study, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes bacteria showed sensitivity to aqueous and methanolic extracts of Poulk in different concentrations. Proteus mirabilis bacteria with an inhibition zone diameter of (2.00±0.2 mm was the most resistant and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria with an inhibition zone diameter of (20.50±0.2mm was the most sensitive bacteria to the extract effect. The effect of methanolic and aqueous extracts on staphylococcus aureus was the same. Hydro-methanolic extracts showed MIC and MBC, but aqueous extracts had no bactericidal effect on the bacteria. Conclusion: The findings of this research indicate that aqueous and methanolic extracts of poulk have strong antibacterial effects                on Enterobacter aerogenes and Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus (bacteria causing urinary infections, but no effect on Proteus mirabilis.

  9. In vitro activity and in vivo animal model efficacy of IB-367 alone and in combination with imipenem and colistin against Gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonetti, Oriana; Cirioni, Oscar; Ghiselli, Roberto; Orlando, Fiorenza; Silvestri, Carmela; Mazzocato, Susanna; Kamysz, Wojciech; Kamysz, Elzbieta; Provinciali, Mauro; Giacometti, Andrea; Guerrieri, Mario; Offidani, Annamaria

    2014-05-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of IB-367 and its bactericidal effect for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, associated to a synergic study to test the antibiotic combinations between the peptide and colistin or imipenem. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), the synergy test and killing study were carried out to evaluate the IB-367 activity. In the in vivo model, a wound was incised through the panniculus carnosus of BALB/c mice, and then inoculated with 5 × 107 colony-forming units of P. aeruginosa and E. coli. For each strain, the study included an infected or not infected group that did not receive any treatment, and five contaminated groups treated with local IB- 367, intraperitoneal imipenem, intraperitoneal colistin, topical IB-367 local plus intraperitoneal imipenem or intraperitoneal colistin. All isolates were inhibited by IB-367 at concentrations of 4-64 mg/l. Killing by IB-367 was shown to be very rapid: its activity on all Gram-negative bacteria was completed within a 40 min exposure period at a concentration of 2 × MIC/l. Synergy was demonstrated when IB-367 was combined with colistin or imipenem. In in vivo studies, the groups treated with topical IB-367 and intraperitoneal colistin showed the best results in terms of bacterial load inhibition either for Pseudomonas or for E. coli. The good in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy, as well as, the synergic interactions with antibiotics suggest that IB-367 is a promising candidate for potential application in the treatment of wound Gram-negative infections. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Growth, delayed fluorescence and pigment composition of four Prorocentrum minimum strains growing at two salinities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAJA BERDEN-ZRIMEC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prorocentrum minimum is a potentially harmful and widely distributed marine dinoflagellate. Several P. minimum strains have already been studied, showing phylogenetical relations of strains isolated from the same geographical regions. Similarity among the strains was further examined on the basis of their physiology. Pigment composition and concentration, as well as delayed fluorescence (DF decay kinetics and intensity, were measured in four P. minimum strains isolated from the Baltic and Adriatic Seas. The strains were grown at two salinities characteristic of the Baltic (8 PSU and North Adriatic Seas (32 PSU. Strain differences in DF decay kinetics and growth did not always follow their genetic relations. While two strains showed similarities to the previously described strains from the Baltic and Adriatic Seas in DF parameters, the other two strains seemed to be specific. The differences among strains isolated from the same sea could stem from adaptations to conditions in the specific habitats. Cluster analysis based on the ratio of individual carotenoid pigments concentrations to the chlorophyll a concentration or to total carotenoids were not conclusive in showing relations among the strains. Among the measured pigments, only peridinin concentration depended on salinity in all st

  11. In situ quantification of ultra-low O2 concentrations in oxygen minimum zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten; Lehner, Philipp; Borisov, Sergey M.

    2016-01-01

    based on the palladium(II)-benzoporphyrin luminophore, immobilized in a perfluorinated matrix with high O2 permeability. The trace sensor has a detection limit of ∼5 nmol L−1 with a dynamic range extending up to ∼2 μmol L−1. The sensor demonstrates a response time ..., and fully reversible response to hydrostatic pressure and temperature. The sensor showed excellent stability for continuously measurements during depth profiling in Oxygen Minimum Zones (OMZ). The novel sensor was deployed in situ using a Trace Oxygen Profiler instrument (TOP) equipped with two additional O...

  12. Reduction in chlorhexidine efficacy against multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii international clone II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, M; Kawamura, K; Matsui, M; Suzuki, M; Suzuki, S; Shibayama, K; Arakawa, Y

    2017-03-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii international clone II (IC II) can cause severe clinical outcomes. Differential evaluation of bactericidal efficacy of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and benzethonium chloride (BZT) disinfectants against IC II and non-IC II isolates. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of CHX and BZT were determined for 137 A. baumannii IC II, 99 non-IC II and 69 non-baumannii isolates, further classified according to MIC values into disinfectant-reduced susceptible (DRS) and disinfectant-susceptible (DS) groups. Time-kill curves and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were evaluated for representative isolates in each group. CHX and BZT MIC 90 s for IC II isolates were 100 and 175mg/L, respectively, but those for non-IC II and non-baumannii isolates were <100mg/L. Nevertheless, time-kill curves indicated that CHX and BZT reduced live bacterial cell number by 5 log 10 for IC II and non-IC II isolates within 30s when used at 1000mg/L, comparable to practical use concentrations. CHX MBC at 30s was 1000mg/L for IC II and non-IC II isolates, and was not influenced by addition of 3% bovine serum albumin (BSA); BZT MBC at 30s was 100mg/L without BSA and increased up to 500mg/L upon addition of BSA. No significant differences in BSA were found between DRS and DS isolates. CHX and BZT were effective against Acinetobacter spp. including IC II at a concentration of 1000mg/L and exposure for at least 30s, but their concentrations should be considered carefully to ensure sufficient effects in both clinical and healthcare settings. Copyright © 2016 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Antimicrobial and Antiproliferative Activity of Bauhinia forficata Link and Cnidoscolus quercifolius Extracts commonly Used in Folk Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Erika P; de F Lima, Rennaly; de Almeida, Carolina M; Freires, Irlan A; Rosalen, Pedro L; Ruiz, Ana Ltg; Granville-Garcia, Ana F; Godoy, Gustavo P; Pereira, Jozinete V; de Brito Costa, Edja Mm

    2017-08-01

    Bauhinia forficata and Cnidoscolus quercifolius plants are commonly used in folk medicine. However, few studies have investigated their therapeutic potential. Herein, we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of B. forficata and C. quercifolius extracts against microorganisms of clinical relevance and their antiproliferative potential against tumor cells. The following tests were performed: Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)/minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), inhibition of biofilm adhesion, and effects on cell morphology. Antiproliferative tests were carried out with human keratinocytes and six tumor lines. Bauhinia forficata showed antimicrobial activity only against C. albicans with MIC of 15.62 ug/mL and MFC higher than 2000 ug/mL. It also inhibited biofilm adhesion and caused alterations in cell morphology. Cnidoscolus quercifolius showed no significant activity (MIC > 2.0 mg/mL) against the strains. Bauhinia forficata and C. quercifolius extracts showed cytostatic activity against the tumor cells. Bauhinia forficata has promising anti-Cand/da activity and should be further investigated for its therapeutic potential. The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of infectious processes has an important function nowadays, due to the limitations of the use of synthetic antibiotics available, related specifically to the microbial resistance emergence.

  14. Release of Gentamicin and Vancomycin from Preformed Spacers in Infected Total Hip Arthroplasties: Measurement of Concentrations and Inhibitory Activity in Patients’ Drainage Fluids and Serum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Regis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gentamicin (G and vancomycin (V concentrations in drainage fluids obtained from patients during the first 24 hours after implantation of antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA spacers in two-stage revision of infected total hip arthroplasty were studied. The inhibitory activity of drainage fluids against different multiresistant clinical isolates was investigated as well. Seven hips were treated by implantation of industrial G-loaded spacers. Vancomycin was added by manually mixing with PMMA bone cement. Serum and drainage fluid samples were collected 1, 4, and 24 hours after spacer implantation. Antibiotics concentrations and drains bactericidal titer of combination were determined against multiresistant staphylococcal strains. The release of G and V from PMMA cement at the site of infection was prompt and effective. Serum levels were below the limit of detection. The local release kinetics of G and V from PMMA cement was similar, exerting a pronounced, combined inhibitory effect in the implant site. The inhibitory activity of drainage fluids showed substantial intersubject variability related to antibiotic concentrations and differed according to the pathogens tested. Gentamicin and vancomycin were released from temporary hip spacers at bactericidal concentrations, and their use in combination exerted strong inhibition against methicillin-resistant S. aureus and Coagulase Negative Staphylococci strains.

  15. Null bactericidal effect of ultraviolet radiation emitted by LEDs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alcántara Muñoz

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This research has aimed to assess the bactericidal effect of ultraviolet light emitted by LEDS on the growth on Petri dishes of microorganisms whose legal limits in foods have been established. An electrically fed apparatus has been designed with precise timing and a camera to prevent light spillage, in which two ultraviolet radiation emission devices were connected by LED technology at different wavelengths: through an array of LEDS emitting at around 350nm, and a single specific emission LED at 280nm. 1000 cfu of E. Coli and S. aureus sown on PCA were used as prototypes of gram negative and positive bacteria, respectively, onto which ultraviolet light was radiated at different time intervals, by means of both devices, with the whole experiment being carried out in triplicate . In none of the three series of treatments at the two wavelengths were reductions in microbial growth observed. The series of sowings on PCA were done on unseeded plates in order to be able to discard the likelihood of subsequent recontamination.

  16. Biofilm-forming activity of bacteria isolated from toilet bowl biofilms and the bactericidal activity of disinfectants against the isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Miho; Gomi, Mitsuhiro; Matsumune, Norihiko; Niizeki, Kazuma; Sakagami, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the sanitary conditions of toilets, the bacterial counts of the toilet bowl biofilms in 5 Kansai area and 11 Kansai and Kanto area homes in Japan were measured in winter and summer seasons, respectively. Isolates (128 strains) were identified by analyzing 16S ribosomal RNA sequences. The number of colonies and bacterial species from biofilms sampled in winter tended to be higher and lower, respectively, than those in summer. Moreover, the composition of bacterial communities in summer and winter samples differed considerably. In summer samples, biofilms in Kansai and Kanto areas were dominated by Blastomonas sp. and Mycobacterium sp., respectively. Methylobacterium sp. was detected in all toilet bowl biofilms except for one sample. Methylobacterium sp. constituted the major presence in biofilms along with Brevundimonas sp., Sphingomonas sp., and/or Pseudomonas sp. The composition ratio of the sum of their genera was 88.0 from 42.9% of the total bacterial flora. The biofilm formation abilities of 128 isolates were investigated, and results suggested that Methylobacterium sp. and Sphingomonas sp. were involved in biofilm formation in toilet bowls. The biofilm formation of a mixed bacteria system that included bacteria with the highest biofilm-forming ability in a winter sample was greater than mixture without such bacteria. This result suggests that isolates possessing a high biofilm-forming activity are involved in the biofilm formation in the actual toilet bowl. A bactericidal test against 25 strains indicated that the bactericidal activities of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) tended to be higher than those of polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) and N-benzyl-N,N-dimethyldodecylammonium chloride (ADBAC). In particular, DDAC showed high bactericidal activity against approximately 90% of tested strains under the 5 h treatment.

  17. Synthetic Peptides Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibit Antimicrobial Activity against E. coli ATCC 11775, S. maltophilia ATCC 13636 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huertas Méndez, Nataly De Jesús; Vargas Casanova, Yerly; Gómez Chimbi, Anyelith Katherine; Hernández, Edith; Leal Castro, Aura Lucia; Melo Diaz, Javier Mauricio; Rivera Monroy, Zuly Jenny; García Castañeda, Javier Eduardo

    2017-03-12

    Linear, dimeric, tetrameric, and cyclic peptides derived from lactoferricin B-containing non-natural amino acids and the RWQWR motif were synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism. The antibacterial activity of peptides against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC 13636, and Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076 was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. The synthetic bovine lactoferricin exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli ATCC 11775 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076. The dimeric peptide (RRWQWR)₂K-Ahx exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strain. The monomeric, cyclic, tetrameric, and palindromic peptides containing the RWQWR motif exhibited high and specific activity against E. coli ATCC 11775. The results suggest that short peptides derived from lactoferricin B could be considered as potential candidates for the development of antibacterial agents against infections caused by E. coli .

  18. Introducing Urtica dioica, A Native Plant of Khuzestan, As an Antibacterial Medicinal Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motamedi, Hossein; Seyyednejad, Seyyed Mansour; Bakhtiari, Ameneh; Vafaei, Mozhan

    2014-11-01

    Urtica dioica is a flowering plant with long history of use in folk medicine and as a food source. This study examined in vitro antibacterial potential of alcoholic extracts of U. dioica. Hydroalcoholic extracts from aerial parts were prepared using aqueous solution of ethanol and methanol and their inhibitory effects against clinical isolates was examined by disc diffusion method at different doses. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) indexes were also investigated. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was also performed to find structural changes of affected bacteria consequent to exposing with extracts. Both extracts were active against Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Escherichia coli with respectively 16, 10, 18, and 14 mm (methanolic) and 11, 9, 17, and 16 mm (ethanolic) inhibition zone. The MIC of ethanolic extract against S. epidermidis and E. coli was respectively 10 and 40 mg/mL. The MIC of methanolic extract against S. aureus and S. epidermidis was 40 and 10 mg/mL, respectively. The MBC was found only for S. epidermidis (20 mg/mL). In SEM analysis the round shape of S. epidermidis was changed and irregular shapes were appeared, which suggest that the main target of these extracts was cell wall. Extracts of U. dioica showed significant antibacterial effect against some clinically important pathogenic bacteria. Based on the obtained results it can be concluded that U. dioica is useful as antibacterial and bactericidal agent in treating infectious diseases.

  19. Potential of fermented papaya beverage in the prevention of foodborne illness incidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koh, S.P.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Foodborne illness is recognized as an emerging infectious disease. The incidence of foodborne infections is common and the majority cases are undiagnosed or unreported. Apart from some diarrhea or minor gastrointestinal problem, some foodborne pathogenic microbes may cause death, particularly to those people with weakened immune system. In this study, we have developed a new fermented papaya beverage using symbiotic culture of yeast and acetic acid bacteria under controlled biofermentation process. An in-vitro assessment of fermented papaya beverage against few foodborne pathogenic microorganism was conducted to determine its minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC>99. Three types of foodborne pathogen: Escherichia coli O157, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 53648, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (isolated from infectious chicken were selected. From minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC>99 assay, both fermented papaya pulp and leaves beverages have shown 100% killing rate against three selected foodborne pathogenic microbes. Inversely, non-fermented papaya pulp and leaves beverages indicated no inhibition at all. In fact, further dilution of fermented papaya pulp and leaves beverages demonstrated different degree of MBC>99 and brix value, but the pH value remained less than 3.5. These findings indicated the combination of soluble solid compounds presents in both fermented papaya beverage and product acidity play an important role in the inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms. The preliminary promising results of this work have shown that the great potential of fermented papaya beverages as a preventive measure to reduce the incidence of foodborne illness.

  20. Activity of TDT 067 (terbinafine in Transfersome) against agents of onychomycosis, as determined by minimum inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghannoum, Mahmoud; Isham, Nancy; Herbert, Jacqueline; Henry, William; Yurdakul, Sam

    2011-05-01

    TDT 067 is a novel carrier-based dosage form (liquid spray) of 15 mg/ml of terbinafine in Transfersome that has been developed to deliver terbinafine to the nail bed to treat onychomycosis. In this study, we report the in vitro activities of TDT 067 against dermatophytes, compared with those of the Transfersome vehicle, naked terbinafine, and commercially available terbinafine (1%) spray. The MICs of TDT 067 and comparators against 25 clinical strains each of Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, and Epidermophyton floccosum were determined according to the CLSI M38-A2 susceptibility method (2008). Minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) were determined by subculturing visibly clear wells from the MIC microtiter plates. TDT 067 demonstrated potent activity against the dermatophyte strains tested, with an MIC range of 0.00003 to 0.015 μg/ml. Overall, TDT 067 MIC(50) values (defined as the lowest concentrations to inhibit 50% of the strains tested) were 8-fold and 60-fold lower than those of naked terbinafine and terbinafine spray, respectively. The Transfersome vehicle showed minimal inhibitory activity. TDT 067 demonstrated lower MFC values for T. rubrum and E. floccosum than naked terbinafine and terbinafine spray. TDT 067 has more potent antifungal activity against dermatophytes that cause nail infection than conventional terbinafine preparations. The Transfersome vehicle appears to potentiate the antifungal activity of terbinafine. Clinical investigation of TDT 067 for the topical treatment of onychomycosis is warranted.

  1. Two approaches to form antibacterial surface: Doping with bactericidal element and drug loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhorukova, I.V.; Sheveyko, A.N.; Kiryukhantsev-Korneev, Ph.V. [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky pr. 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Anisimova, N.Y.; Gloushankova, N.A.; Zhitnyak, I.Y. [N.N Blokhin Russian Cancer Research Center of RAMS, Kashirskoe shosse 24, Moscow 115478 (Russian Federation); Benesova, J. [Institute of Experimental Medicine of the ASCR, Vídenska 1083, Prague 14220 (Czech Republic); Institute of Biophysics, 2nd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, V Uvalu 84, Prague 15006 (Czech Republic); Amler, E. [Institute of Experimental Medicine of the ASCR, Vídenska 1083, Prague 14220 (Czech Republic); Faculty of Biomedical Engineering, Czech Technical University in Prague (Czech Republic); Shtansky, D.V., E-mail: shtansky@shs.misis.ru [National University of Science and Technology “MISIS”, Leninsky pr. 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Bioactive materials with rate-controlled release of antibacterial agent. • Ag{sup +} ion release from TiCaPCON-Ag films depended on Ag content. • TiCaPCON-coated Ti network structure with blind pores loaded with co-amoxiclav. • Strong bactericidal effect of drug-loaded samples. • Antibacterial yet biocompatible and bioactive surfaces. - Abstract: Two approaches (surface doping with bactericidal element and loading of antibiotic into specially formed surface microcontainers) to the fabrication of antibacterial yet biocompatible and bioactive surfaces are described. A network structure with square-shaped blind pores of 2.6 ± 0.6 × 10{sup −3} mm{sup 3} for drug loading was obtained by selective laser sintering (SLS). The SLS-fabricated samples were loaded with 0.03, 0.3, 2.4, and 4 mg/cm{sup 2} of co-amoxiclav (amoxicillin and clavulanic acid). Ag-doped TiCaPCON films with 0.4, 1.2, and 4.0 at.% of Ag were obtained by co-sputtering of composite TiC{sub 0.5}-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} and metallic Ag targets. The surface structure of SLS-prepared samples and cross-sectional morphology of TiCaPCON-Ag films were studied by scanning electron microscopy. The through-thickness of Ag distribution in the TiCaPCON-Ag films was obtained by glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy. The kinetics of Ag ion release in normal saline solution was studied using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Bacterial activity of the samples was evaluated against S. epidermidis, S. aureus, and K. pneum. ozaenae using the agar diffusion test and photometric method by controlling the variation of optical density of the bacterial suspension over time. Cytocompatibility of the Ag-doped TiCaPCON films was observed in vitro using chondrocytic and MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells. The viability and proliferation of chondrocytic cells were determined using the MTS assay and PicoGreen assay tests, respectively. The alkaline phosphatase (ALP

  2. Antimycobacterial natural products from Moroccan medicinal plants: Chemical composition, bacteriostatic and bactericidal profile of Thymus satureioides and Mentha pulegium essential oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marwa Chraibi; Abdellah Farah; Sara Lebrazi; Oumaima El Amine; Mohammed Iraqui Houssaini; Kawtar Fikri-Benbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the susceptibility of Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium smegmatis in vitro to the essential oils obtained from two medicinal plants: Thymus satureioides(T. satureioides) and Mentha pulegium(M. pulegium), and to study their chemical composition.Methods: The aerial parts of T. satureioides and M. pulegium(leaves and stems) were hydro-distillated using a Clevenger-type apparatus and essential oils were analyzed and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Antimycobacterial screening of essential oils was performed on the basis of the inhibition zone diameter by disc diffusion method against two mycobacterial strains whereas the minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration were determined by using the micro-dilution method.Results: Chemical analysis of their aerial part’s essential oils gave as major compounds,borneol(34.26%), carvacrol(31.21%) and thymol(3.71%) for T. satureioides and R(+)-pulegone(75.48%), carvone(6.66%) and dihydrocarvone(4.64%) for M. pulegium.Thereafter their antimycobacterial effect evaluation, using the micro-dilution method,indicated that minimal inhibitory concentration values of T. satureioides essential oil ranged from 0.062% to 0.015%(v/v) and from 0.125% to 0.031%(v/v) for M. pulegium respectively against Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium smegmatis.Conclusions: It is clearly evident from the results obtained that the Moroccan medicinal plants have great potential to be used as anti-tuberculosis agents. These findings may help scientists to undertake several research projects to discover useful natural product as new anti-tuberculosis drug.

  3. Antimycobacterial natural products from Moroccan medicinal plants:Chemical composition, bacteriostatic and bactericidal profile of Thymus satureioides and Mentha pulegium essential oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marwa Chraibi; Abdellah Farah; Sara Lebrazi; Oumaima El Amine; Mohammed Iraqui Houssaini; Kawtar Fikri-Benbrahim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the susceptibility of Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium smegmatis in vitro to the essential oils obtained from two medicinal plants: Thymus satureioides (T. satureioides) and Mentha pulegium (M. pulegium), and to study their chemical composition. Methods: The aerial parts of T. satureioides and M. pulegium (leaves and stems) were hydro-distillated using a Clevenger-type apparatus and essential oils were analyzed and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Antimycobacterial screening of essential oils was performed on the basis of the inhibition zone diameter by disc diffusion method against two mycobacterial strains whereas the minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration were determined by using the micro-dilution method. Results: Chemical analysis of their aerial part's essential oils gave as major compounds, borneol (34.26%), carvacrol (31.21%) and thymol (3.71%) for T. satureioides and R(+)-pulegone (75.48%), carvone (6.66%) and dihydrocarvone (4.64%) for M. pulegium. Thereafter their antimycobacterial effect evaluation, using the micro-dilution method, indicated that minimal inhibitory concentration values of T. satureioides essential oil ranged from 0.062%to 0.015%(v/v) and from 0.125%to 0.031%(v/v) for M. pulegium respectively against Mycobacterium aurum and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Conclusions: It is clearly evident from the results obtained that the Moroccan medicinal plants have great potential to be used as anti-tuberculosis agents. These findings may help scientists to undertake several research projects to discover useful natural product as new anti-tuberculosis drug.

  4. Survival of Bactericidal Antibiotic Treatment by a Persister Subpopulation of Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gitte Maegaard; Ng, Yin; Gram, Lone

    2013-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes can cause the serious infection listeriosis, which despite antibiotic treatment has a high mortality. Understanding the response of L. monocytogenes to antibiotic exposure is therefore important to ensure treatment success. Some bacteria survive antibiotic treatment...... by formation of persisters, which are a dormant antibiotic-tolerant subpopulation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether L. monocytogenes can form persisters and how bacterial physiology affects the number of persisters in the population. A stationary-phase culture of L. monocytogenes was adjusted...... that eradication of persisters is possible. Our study adds L. monocytogenes to the list of bacterial species capable of surviving bactericidal antibiotics in a dormant stage, and this persister phenomenon should be borne in mind when developing treatment regimens....

  5. Study on the Antimicrobial activity and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of Essential Oils of Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.V.N.Srujan and M.Sravanthi

    Full Text Available Antibacterial activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of essential oils of garlic, clove and cinnamon were estimated by using various bacterial pathogens. Among the bacterial pathogens tested against essential oil of garlic, Staphylococcus aureus was found to be highly sensitive followed by E.coli. L.monocytogenes and S.pyogenes were found to be less sensitive. The essential oil of clove was found to be most active against S.aureus followed by E.coli. B.cereus and C. jejuni. The essential oil of cinnamon was also most active against S.aureus followed by E.coli and C.jejuni. Essential oil of cinnamon was found to be active against all the bacterial pathogens tested, when compared to garlic and clove oils. However Staph. aureus, E. coli and C.jejuni were found to be most sensitive to the action of essential oils of garlic, clove and cinnamon. Among the bacterial pathogens tested against essential oils of spices to know the MIC by agar diffusion method, C.jejuni was found to be most sensitive to the essential oil of garlic followed by E.coli, S. typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus. L. monocytogenes and Methicillin resistant Staph. aureus were found to be comparatively less sensitive. Essential oil of clove was also found to be highly effective against C.jejuni followed by E.coli, S.typhimurium and S.aureus. Again L.monocytogenes and Methicillin resistant S.aureus were comparatively less sensitive to the action of essential oil of clove. All most all the bacterial pathogens tested were found to be sensitive to the essential oil of cinnamon. However C.jejuni and E.coli were found to be most sensitive followed by S.typhimurium, Staph. aureus and Methicillin resistant Staph. aureus . [Vet. World 2011; 4(7.000: 311-316

  6. Antibacterial activity of fumaria indica (hausskn.) pugsley against selected bacterial strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toor, Y.; Nawaz, K.; Hussain, K.

    2015-01-01

    Antibacterial properties of methanolic extracts of F. indica prepared in different doses against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains i.e. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus (1), Staphylococcus aureus (2), Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli (1), Escherichia coli (2) and Neisseria gonorrhoeae using agar well diffusion method (inhibition zone measurements) compared to gentamicin as standard antibiotic. Results showed significant activities against the test organisms with overall satisfactory statistics. Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus strains as well as Neisseria gonorrhoeae showed more inhibition to methanolic extracts of F. indica. Minimum inhibitory as well as minimum bactericidal concentrations against all strains except Shigella sonnei were also recorded. Studies showed promising horizons for the use of F. indica as an active antibacterial component in modern drug formulations. (author)

  7. Do Minimum Wages Fight Poverty?

    OpenAIRE

    David Neumark; William Wascher

    1997-01-01

    The primary goal of a national minimum wage floor is to raise the incomes of poor or near-poor families with members in the work force. However, estimates of employment effects of minimum wages tell us little about whether minimum wages are can achieve this goal; even if the disemployment effects of minimum wages are modest, minimum wage increases could result in net income losses for poor families. We present evidence on the effects of minimum wages on family incomes from matched March CPS s...

  8. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Essential Oils of Some Coniferous Plants Cultivated in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Taghreed A; El-Hela, Atef A; El-Hefnawy, Hala M; Al-Taweel, Areej M; Perveen, Shagufta

    2017-01-01

    Family Cupressaceae is the largest coniferous plant family. Essential oils of many species belonging to family Cupressaceae are known to have several biological activities specially antimicrobial activity. The essential oils from aerial parts of Calocedrus decurrens Torr., Cupressus sempervirens stricta L. and Tetraclinis articulata (Vahl) Mast. were prepared by hydrodistillation. The chemical composition of the essential oils has been elucidated by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis. The prepared essential oils were examined against selected species of Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and Candida species. Broth dilution methods were used to detect minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC). Sixteen compounds were identified in the essential oils of both Calocedrus decurrens and Cupressus sempervirens L. and fifteen compounds were identified in the essential oil of Tetraclinis articulata . δ-3-Carene (43.10%), (+)-Cedrol (74.03%) and Camphor (21.23%) were the major constituents in the essential oils of Calocedrus decurrens , Cupressus sempervirens L. and Tetraclinis articulata , respectively. The essential oils showed strong antimicrobial activities against the selected microorganisms in concentration range 0.02 3- 3.03 µL/mL. This study could contribute to the chemotaxonomic characterization of family Cupressaceae. In addition, it proved that the essential oils under investigation possess potential antimicrobial properties.

  9. Bactericidal application and cytotoxic activity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles with an extract of the red seaweed Pterocladiella capillacea on the HepG2 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Kassas, Hala Yassin; Attia, Azza Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Nano-biotechnology is recognized as offering revolutionary changes in various fields of medicine. Biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles have a wide range of applications. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were biosynthesized with an aqueous extract of Pterocladiella (Pterocladia) capillacea, used as a reducing and stabilizing agent, and characterized using UV-VIS spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infra red (FT-IR) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive analysis (EDX). The biosynthesized AgNPs were tested for cytotoxic activity in a human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line cultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, 1% antibiotic and antimycotic solution and 2 mM glutamine. Bacterial susceptibility to AgNPs was assessed with Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis [Gram+ve] and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli [Gram-ve]. The agar well diffusion technique was adopted to evaluate the bactericidal activity of the biosynthesized AgNPs using Ampicillin and Gentamicin as gram+ve and gram-ve antibacterial standard drugs, respectively. The biosynthesized AgNPs were 11.4±3.52 nm in diameter. FT-IR analysis showed that carbonyl groups from the amino acid residues and proteins could assist in formation and stabilization of AgNPs. The AgNPs showed potent cytotoxic activity against the human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cell line at higher concentrations. The results also showed that the biosynthesized AgNPs inhibited the entire panel of tested bacteria with a marked specificity towards Bacillus subtillus. Cytotoxic activity of the biosynthesized AgNPs may be due to the presence of alkaloids present in the algal extract. Our AgNPs appear more bactericidal against gram-positive bacteria (B. subtillus).

  10. High in vitro antimicrobial activity of β-peptoid-peptide hybrid oligomers against planktonic and biofilm cultures of Staphylococcus epidermidis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yang; Knapp, Kolja Michael; Yang, Liang

    2013-01-01

    antibiotic vancomycin. Susceptibility and time-kill assays were performed to investigate activity against planktonic cells, whilst confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to investigate the dynamics of the activity against cells within biofilms. All tested peptidomimetics were bactericidal against both...... exponentially growing and stationary-phase S. epidermidis cells with similar killing kinetics. At the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), all peptidomimetics inhibited biofilm formation, whilst peptidomimetics at concentrations above the MIC (80-160μg/mL) eradicated young (6-h-old) biofilms, whilst even...... higher concentrations were needed to eradicate mature (24-h-old) biofilms completely. Chiral and guanidinylated hybrids exhibited the fastest killing effects against slow-growing cells and had more favourable antibiofilm properties than analogues only containing lysine or lacking chirality in the β...

  11. Antibacterial activity of Ocimum gratissimum L. essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Vataru Nakamura

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil (EO of Ocimum gratissimum inhibited Staphylococcus aureus at a concentration of 0.75 mg/ml. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs for Shigella flexineri, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella sp., and Proteus mirabilis were at concentrations ranging from 3 to 12 mg/ml. The endpoint was not reached for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (>=24 mg/ml. The MICs of the reference drugs used in this study were similar to those presented in other reports. The minimum bactericidal concentration of EO was within a twofold dilution of the MIC for this organism. The compound that showed antibacterial activity in the EO of O. gratissimum was identified as eugenol and structural findings were further supported by gas chromatography/mass spectra retention time data. The structure was supported by spectroscopic methods.

  12. How Will Higher Minimum Wages Affect Family Life and Children's Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Heather D; Romich, Jennifer

    2018-06-01

    In recent years, new national and regional minimum wage laws have been passed in the United States and other countries. The laws assume that benefits flow not only to workers but also to their children. Adolescent workers will most likely be affected directly given their concentration in low-paying jobs, but younger children may be affected indirectly by changes in parents' work conditions, family income, and the quality of nonparental child care. Research on minimum wages suggests modest and mixed economic effects: Decreases in employment can offset, partly or fully, wage increases, and modest reductions in poverty rates may fade over time. Few studies have examined the effects of minimum wage increases on the well-being of families, adults, and children. In this article, we use theoretical frameworks and empirical evidence concerning the effects on children of parental work and family income to suggest hypotheses about the effects of minimum wage increases on family life and children's well-being.

  13. Entropy concentration and the empirical coding game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünwald, P.D.

    2008-01-01

    We give a characterization of maximum entropy/minimum relative entropy inference by providing two 'strong entropy concentration' theorems. These theorems unify and generalize Jaynes''concentration phenomenon' and Van Campenhout and Cover's 'conditional limit theorem'. The theorems characterize

  14. Simulated minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) for a real-time UAV airborne radioactivity monitoring system with HPGe and LaBr_3 detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Xiao-Bin; Meng, Jia; Wang, Peng; Cao, Ye; Huang, Xi; Wen, Liang-Sheng; Chen, Da

    2016-01-01

    An automatic real-time UAV airborne radioactivity monitoring system with high-purity germanium (HPGe) and lanthanum bromide (LaBr_3) detectors (NH-UAV) was developed to precisely obtain small-scope nuclide information in major nuclear accidents. The specific minimum detectable activity concentration (MDAC) calculation method for NH-UAV in the atmospheric environment was deduced in this study for a priori evaluation and quantification of the suitability of NH-UAV in the Fukushima nuclear accident, where the MDAC values of this new equipment were calculated based on Monte Carlo simulation. The effects of radioactive source term size and activity concentration on the MDAC values were analyzed to assess the detection performance of NH-UAV in more realistic environments. Finally, the MDAC values were calculated at different shielding thicknesses of the HPGe detector to improve the detection capabilities of the HPGe detector, and the relationship between the MDAC and the acquisition time of the system was deduced. The MDAC calculation method and data results in this study may be used as a reference for in-situ radioactivity measurement of NH-UAV. - Highlights: • A real-time UAV airborne radioactivity monitoring system (NH-UAV) was developed. • The efficiency calculations and MDAC values are given. • NH-UAV is able to monitor major nuclear accidents, such as the Fukushima accident. • The source term size can influence the detection sensitivity of the system. • The HPGe detector possesses measurement thresholds on activity concentration.

  15. Calcium and Zinc Containing Bactericidal Glass Coatings for Biomedical Metallic Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Esteban-Tejeda

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present work presents new bactericidal coatings, based on two families of non-toxic, antimicrobial glasses belonging to B2O3–SiO2–Na2O–ZnO and SiO2–Na2O–Al2O3–CaO–B2O3 systems. Free of cracking, single layer direct coatings on different biomedical metallic substrates (titanium alloy, Nb, Ta, and stainless steel have been developed. Thermal expansion mismatch was adjusted by changing glass composition of the glass type, as well as the firing atmosphere (air or Ar according to the biomedical metallic substrates. Formation of bubbles in some of the glassy coatings has been rationalized considering the reactions that take place at the different metal/coating interfaces. All the obtained coatings were proven to be strongly antibacterial versus Escherichia coli (>4 log.

  16. Identification of new drug candidates against Borrelia burgdorferi using high-throughput screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pothineni VR

    2016-04-01

    unique compounds, which inhibited >90% of B. ­burgdorferi growth at a concentration of <25 µM. These 150 unique compounds comprise many safe antibiotics, chemical compounds, and also small molecules from plant sources. Of the 150 unique compounds, 101 compounds are FDA approved. We selected the top 20 FDA-approved molecules based on safety and potency and studied their minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration. The promising safe FDA-approved candidates that show low minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values can be chosen as lead molecules for further advanced studies. Keywords: Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, BacTiter-Glo assay, high-throughput screening, persisters

  17. Complement activation and formation of the membrane attack complex on serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis in the presence or absence of serum bactericidal activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drogari-Apiranthitou, M.; Kuijper, E. J.; Dekker, N. [=Nick; Dankert, J.

    2002-01-01

    Encapsulated meningococci are complement sensitive only in the presence of bactericidal antibodies by yet-unexplored mechanisms. The objective of this study was to investigate the involvement of major bacterial surface constituents on complement activation and membrane attack complex (MAC) formation

  18. Bactericidal effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in endodontics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aun, Carlos E.; Barberini, Alexandre F.; Camargo, Selma C. C.; Silva Kfouri, Luciana; Lorenzetti Simionato, Maria R.

    1999-05-01

    The success of endodontic therapy is based on the elimination of bacterial colonization from the endodontic system and periapical tissues. Recent studies have been showing the bactericidal effect of laser in root canal treatment. The propose of the study is to evaluate the effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in contaminated root canal treatment. The propose of the study is to evaluate the effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation in contaminated root canals from upper central incisor. For the experiment 12 teeth were selected, respect at the apical third, sterilized, and 10 μm Streptococcus sanguis liquid culture were inoculated in the root canals. The laser test groups were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser at standard setting of 15Hz, 100mj and 1,5 W for 10, 20 and 30 seconds each in slow helicoidal movements from the apex to the top using a 300 micrometers fiber. After the procedure the specimens were placed in Tryptic Soy Agar, the number of colony forming units was evaluated. The experiment showed a significant reduction on viability of Streptococcus sanguis at the respective time of 20 and 30 seconds.

  19. Bactericidal effect of the photocatalystic reaction of titanium dioxide using visible wavelengths on Streptococcus mutans biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan-Hee; Lee, Eun-Song; Kang, Si-Mook; de Josselin de Jong, Elbert; Kim, Baek-Il

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) photocatalysis induced by the application of clinically acceptable visible light at 405nm on the growth of Streptococcus mutans biofilms. S. mutans biofilms were grown on a hydroxyapatite (HA) disk and deposited in a rutile-type TiO 2 solution at a concentration of 0.1mg/mL. TiO 2 photocatalysis was measured for exposure to visible light (405nm) and ultraviolet (UV) light (254nm) produced by light-emitting diodes for 10, 20, 30, and 40min. After two treatments, the number of colonies formed in the final S. mutans biofilm on the HA disk were measured to confirm their viability, and the morphological changes of S. mutans were evaluated using scanning electronic microscopy. The bactericidal effects of 254- and 405-nm light resulted in > 5-log and 4-log reductions, respectively (p7-log reduction after 40min of treatment in both treatment groups relative to the control group. It was confirmed that the antibacterial effect could be shown by causing the photocatalytic reaction of TiO 2 in S. mutans biofilm even at the wavelength of visible light (405nm) as at the wavelength of ultraviolet light (254nm). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of medicinal plants and colloidal silver efficiency against Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection in Litopenaeus vannamei cultured at low salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Covarrubias, María Soledad; García-Aguilar, Noemí; Bolan-Mejía, María Del; Puello-Cruz, Ana Carmela

    2016-11-22

    In shrimp aquaculture, reduction in the use of synthetic antibiotics is a priority due to the high incidence of resistant bacteria (Vibrio) in the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. An increasing number of studies show bactericidal activity of natural treatments in aquaculture. The effectiveness of neem (Azadirachta indica) and oregano (Lippia berlandieri) aqueous extracts and colloidal silver against V. parahaemolyticus were evaluated in low salinity shrimp culture. Results show that aqueous extracts of oregano and neem each present a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 62.50 mg ml-1 and inhibitory halos of 12.0 to 19.0 mm. Colloidal silver gave a MIC of 2 mg ml-1, and the inhibitory halos were found to be between 11.8 and 18.8 mm, depending on treatment concentrations. An in vivo challenge test was conducted on white shrimp postlarvae cultured at low salinity (5 practical salinity units, PSU), and a significant increase (p colloidal silver 90%), when compared to the control (0%) in the challenge test. However, no significant differences were observed between treatments, suggesting that they all act as alternative bactericidal source agents against V. parahaemolyticus infections for L. vannamei postlarvae when cultured at 5 PSU.

  1. Rising above the Minimum Wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even, William; Macpherson, David

    An in-depth analysis was made of how quickly most people move up the wage scale from minimum wage, what factors influence their progress, and how minimum wage increases affect wage growth above the minimum. Very few workers remain at the minimum wage over the long run, according to this study of data drawn from the 1977-78 May Current Population…

  2. Airborne plutonium and americium concentrations measured from the top of Rattlesnake Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehmel, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    Airborne plutonium-239+240 and americium-241 blowing from offsite was measured in an initial experiment at the top of Rattlesnake Mountain. Average airborne concentration measured was similar to fallout concentrations. Airborne plutonium concentrations were independent of wind speed for seven wind speed increments between 0.5 and 31 m/sec. In contrast the airborne americium concentration was a minimum at a wind speed of approximately 7 m/sec. Similarly, the airborne solids concentration in μg/m 3 was a minimum at an intermediate wind speed increment of 7 to 11 m/sec

  3. Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, H. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany); Winkler, R. [GSF-Forschungszentrum fuer Umwelt und Gesundheit, Inst. fuer Strahlenschutz, Oberschleissheim (Germany)

    1994-10-01

    Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration was investigated from 1982 to 1992 at a semi-natural location 10 km north of Munich, southern Germany. For this period the continuous measurement yielded a long-term average of 8.6 Bq.m{sup -3} (arithmetic mean) and 6.9 Bq.m{sup -3} (geometric mean), from which an average annual effective dose of 0.14 mSv due to outdoor radon can be derived. A long-term trend of the radon concentration was not detectable over the whole period of observation. However, by time series analysis, a long-term cyclic pattern was identified with two maxima (1984-1986, 1989-1991) and two minima (1982-1983, 1987-1988). The seasonal pattern is characterized by an autumn maximum and an early summer minimum. On average, the seasonal maximum in October was found to be higher by a factor of 2 than the June minimum. The diurnal variation of the radon concentration shows a maximum in the early morning and a minimum in the afternoon. On average, this maximum is a factor of 2 higher than the minimum. In the long term a seasonal pattern was observed for diurnal variation, with an average diurnal maximum to minimum ratio of 1.5 in winter compared with 3.5 in the summer months. The radon concentration is correlated with a meteorological parameter (stagnation index) which takes into account horizontal and vertical exchange processes and the wash-out of aerosols in the lower atmosphere. (orig.)

  4. Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoetzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1994-01-01

    Long-term variation of outdoor radon equilibrium equivalent concentration was investigated from 1982 to 1992 at a semi-natural location 10 km north of Munich, southern Germany. For this period the continuous measurement yielded a long-term average of 8.6 Bq.m -3 (arithmetic mean) and 6.9 Bq.m -3 (geometric mean), from which an average annual effective dose of 0.14 mSv due to outdoor radon can be derived. A long-term trend of the radon concentration was not detectable over the whole period of observation. However, by time series analysis, a long-term cyclic pattern was identified with two maxima (1984-1986, 1989-1991) and two minima (1982-1983, 1987-1988). The seasonal pattern is characterized by an autumn maximum and an early summer minimum. On average, the seasonal maximum in October was found to be higher by a factor of 2 than the June minimum. The diurnal variation of the radon concentration shows a maximum in the early morning and a minimum in the afternoon. On average, this maximum is a factor of 2 higher than the minimum. In the long term a seasonal pattern was observed for diurnal variation, with an average diurnal maximum to minimum ratio of 1.5 in winter compared with 3.5 in the summer months. The radon concentration is correlated with a meteorological parameter (stagnation index) which takes into account horizontal and vertical exchange processes and the wash-out of aerosols in the lower atmosphere. (orig.)

  5. Antimicrobial Activity of Diterpenes from Viguiera arenaria against Endodontic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos H. G. Martins

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Six pimarane-type diterpenes isolated from Viguiera arenaria Baker and two semi-synthetic derivatives were evaluated in vitro against a panel of representative microorganisms responsible for dental root canal infections. The microdilution method was used for the determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC against Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella nigrescens, Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella buccae, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides fragilis, Actinomyces naeslundii, Actinomyces viscosus, Peptostreptococcus micros, Enterococcus faecalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. The compounds ent-pimara-8(14,15-dien-19-oic acid, its sodium salt and ent-8(14,15-pimaradien-3β-ol were the most active, displaying MIC values ranging from 1 to 10 μg mL-1. The results also allow us to conclude that minor structural differences among these diterpenes significantly influence their antimicrobial activity, bringing new perspectives to the discovery of new chemicals for use as a complement to instrumental endodontic procedures.

  6. Antibacterial Activity of the Extracts Obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum majorana, and Trigonella foenum-graecum on Highly Drug-Resistant Gram Negative Bacilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roula Abdel-Massih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to determine the antimicrobial activity of three selected plants (Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum majorana, and Trigonella foenum-graecum against Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL—producing Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae— and to identify the specific plant fraction responsible for the antimicrobial activity. The plants were extracted with ethanol to yield the crude extract which was further subfractionated by different solvents to obtain the petroleum ether, the dichloromethane, the ethyl acetate, and the aqueous fractions. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentrations (MBC were determined using broth microdilution. The MICs ranged between 1.25 and 80 g/l. The majority of these microorganisms were inhibited by 80 and 40 g/l of the crude extracts. The petroleum ether fraction of Origanum majorana significantly inhibited 94% of the tested strains. Ethyl acetate extracts of all selected plants exhibited relatively low MICs and could be therefore described as strong antibacterial.

  7. Synthetic Peptides Derived from Bovine Lactoferricin Exhibit Antimicrobial Activity against E. coli ATCC 11775, S. maltophilia ATCC 13636 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly De Jesús Huertas Méndez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Linear, dimeric, tetrameric, and cyclic peptides derived from lactoferricin B–containing non-natural amino acids and the RWQWR motif were synthesized, purified, and characterized using RP-HPLC, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and circular dichroism. The antibacterial activity of peptides against Escherichia coli ATCC 11775, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia ATCC 13636, and Salmonella enteritidis ATCC 13076 was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined. The synthetic bovine lactoferricin exhibited antibacterial activity against E. coli ATCC 11775 and S. enteritidis ATCC 13076. The dimeric peptide (RRWQWR2K-Ahx exhibited the highest antibacterial activity against the tested bacterial strain. The monomeric, cyclic, tetrameric, and palindromic peptides containing the RWQWR motif exhibited high and specific activity against E. coli ATCC 11775. The results suggest that short peptides derived from lactoferricin B could be considered as potential candidates for the development of antibacterial agents against infections caused by E. coli.

  8. Antibacterial potential of essential oils of the needles of Pinus halepensis against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghalem Bachir Raho

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the in vitro antimicrobial activities of essential oil of the needles of Pinus halepensis (P. halepensis. Methods: The antibacterial activity of essential oil of the needles of P. halepensis was determined using the agar well diffusion technique and disc diffusion method against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, and Escherichia coli ATCC 25922. Results: The diameter of zones of inhibition exhibited by the essential oil was between 6 and 17 mm. The essential oils was compared favorably with gentamycin used as a standard control. The minimum inhibitory concentration determined by the agar well diffusion method was 0.52 mg/ mL for Staphylococcus aureus and 2.15 mg/mL for Escherichia coli. The minimum bactericidal concentration of the oils against the two microorganisms was 4.17 mg/mL. Conclusions: The results obtained from this study reveal that P. halepensis essential oils possess antibacterial activities and can be used as antimicrobial agents in the search for new drugs.

  9. Antibacterial, cytotoxicity and anticoagulant activities from Hypnea esperi and Caulerpa prolifera marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selim, Samy; Amin, Abeer; Hassan, Sherif; Hagazey, Mohamed

    2015-03-01

    Extracts from 2 algal species (Hypnea esperi and Caulerpa prolifera) from Suez Canal region, Egypt were screened for the production of antibacterial compounds against some pathogenic bacteria. The bacteria tested included Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Algal species displayed antibacterial activity. The methanolic extracts showed variable response by producing various zones of inhibition against studied bacteria. The tested Gram-negative bacteria were less affected by studied algal extracts than Gram-positive bacteria. We determined some biopotentials properties such as cytotoxicity and anticoagulant activity of most potent algal active extracts. The secondary metabolites of only Hypnea esperi algal extract effectively prevented the blood clotting to the extent of 120 seconds. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) indicated that all potent tested algal extract C inhibits Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was between 1 and 1.4mg/ml. The algal isolates from Egypt have been found showing promising results against infectious bacteria instead of some synthetic antibiotics.

  10. Phytochemical profiling as a solution to palliate disinfectant limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiro, J; Gomes, I; Borges, A; Bastos, M M S M; Maillard, J-Y; Borges, F; Simões, M

    2016-10-01

    The indiscriminate use of biocides for general disinfection has contributed to the increased incidence of antimicrobial tolerant microorganisms. This study aims to assess the potential of seven phytochemicals (tyrosol, caffeic acid, ferulic acid, cinnamaldehyde, coumaric acid, cinnamic acid and eugenol) in the control of planktonic and sessile cells of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol showed antimicrobial properties, minimum inhibitory concentrations of 3-5 and 5-12 mM and minimum bactericidal concentrations of 10-12 and 10-14 mM against S. aureus and E. coli, respectively. Cinnamic acid was able to completely control adhered bacteria with effects comparable to peracetic acid and sodium hypochlorite and it was more effective than hydrogen peroxide (all at 10 mM). This phytochemical caused significant changes in bacterial membrane hydrophilicity. The observed effectiveness of phytochemicals makes them interesting alternatives and/or complementary products to commonly used biocidal products. Cinnamic acid is of particular interest for the control of sessile cells.

  11. The Effect of a Silver Nanoparticle Polysaccharide System on Streptococcal and Saliva-Derived Biofilms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigina Cellini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we studied the antimicrobial properties of a nanocomposite system based on a lactose-substituted chitosan and silver nanoparticles: Chitlac-nAg. Twofold serial dilutions of the colloidal Chitlac-nAg solution were both tested on Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Streptococcus oralis planktonic phase and biofilm growth mode as well as on saliva samples. The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations of Chitlac-nAg were evaluated together with its effect on sessile cell viability, as well as both on biofilm formation and on preformed biofilm. In respect to the planktonic bacteria, Chitlac-nAg showed an inhibitory/bactericidal effect against all streptococcal strains at 0.1% (v/v, except for S. mitis ATCC 6249 that was inhibited at one step less. On preformed biofilm, Chitlac-nAg at a value of 0.2%, was able to inhibit the bacterial growth on the supernatant phase as well as on the mature biofilm. For S. mitis ATCC 6249, the biofilm inhibitory concentration of Chitlac-nAg was 0.1%. At sub-inhibitory concentrations, the Streptococcal strains adhesion capability on a polystyrene surface showed a general reduction following a concentration-dependent-way; a similar effect was obtained for the metabolic biofilm activity. From these results, Chitlac-nAg seems to be a promising antibacterial and antibiofilm agent able to hinder plaque formation.

  12. Essential oils from Origanum vulgare and Salvia officinalis exhibit antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities against Streptococcus pyogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijesundara, Niluni M; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2018-04-01

    In the present study, essential oils (EOs) extracted from oregano, sage, cloves, and ginger were evaluated for the phytochemical profile, antibacterial, and anti-biofilm activities against Streptococcus pyogenes. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of EOs. The minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs) were determined using MTT assay and fixed biofilms were observed through scan electron microscopy. The oregano and sage EOs showed the lowest MIC as well as MBC of 0.25-0.5 mg/mL. Time kill assay results showed that oregano and sage EOs exhibited bactericidal effects within 5 min and 4 h, respectively. Both oregano and sage extracts acts as a potent anti-biofilm agent with dual actions, preventing and eradicating the biofilm. The microscopic visualization of biofilms treated with EOs have shown morphological and density changes compared to the untreated control. Oregano EO was constituted predominantly carvacrol (91.6%) and in sage EO, higher levels of α-thujone (28.5%) and camphor (16.6%) were revealed. EOs of oregano and sage inhibit the growth and biofilm formation of S. pyogenes. Effective concentrations of oregano and sage EOs and their phytochemicals can be used in developing potential plant-derived antimicrobial agents in the management of streptococcal pharyngitis. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the plant extracts′ combinations against dental caries and plaque microorganisms: An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B R Chandra Shekar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral health status has witnessed marked advances in many industrialized countries. However, dental caries is consistently increasing in developing countries, and periodontal diseases are among most common afflictions to humankind. Approach best suited for developing countries is to focus on the prevention with innovative strategies. Hence, evolution of novel, innovative strategies to prevent dental caries and periodontal diseases is need of hour. Objective: To determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of combinations of Acacia nilotica, Murraya koenigii L. Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, and Psidium guajava against dental caries and plaque microorganisms and to qualitatively identify various phytochemical constituents in individual plant extracts and their quadruple combinations. Materials and Methods: MIC of the combinations of A. nilotica, M. koenigii L. Sprengel, Eucalyptus hybrid, and P. guajava on Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus (dental caries bacteria, Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus salivarius (primary plaque colonizers, Fusobacterium nucleatum (secondary plaque colonizer, and Porphyromonas gingivalis (tertiary plaque colonizer was determined using broth dilution method. Series of dilutions of quadruple combinations ranging from 0.05% to 1.5% were prepared. 100 μL of each serial dilution of quadruple combinations was added to each tube containing bacterial culture. The optical density was noted after incubation in each tube to estimate the MIC for each bacterium. Results: MIC of the polyherbal combinations on S. mutans, S. sanguis, S. salivarius, L. acidophilus, F. nucleatum, and P. gingivalis was found to be 0.25%, 0.05%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.25%, and 0.25%, respectively. Conclusion: The quadruple combinations of these four plant extracts could be considered in the evolution of an indigenous polyherbal mouth rinse as the formulation inhibited all the bacteria tested in the present study at low

  14. Silver-loaded nanotubular structures enhanced bactericidal efficiency of antibiotics with synergistic effect in vitro and in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu N

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Na Xu,1,2,* Hao Cheng,3,4,* Jiangwen Xu,1 Feng Li,3 Biao Gao,1 Zi Li,3 Chenghao Gao,3 Kaifu Huo,5 Jijiang Fu,1,2 Wei Xiong3 1The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, School of Materials and Metallurgy, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, 2Institute of Biology and Medicine, Wuhan University of Science and Technology, 3Orthopaedic Department, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China; 4Biomaterials Innovation Research Center, Division of Biomedical Engineering, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 5Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Antibiotic-resistant bacteria have become a major issue due to the long-term use and abuse of antibiotics in treatments in clinics. The combination therapy of antibiotics and silver (Ag nanoparticles is an effective way of both enhancing the antibacterial effect and decreasing the usage of antibiotics. Although the method has been proved to be effective in vitro, no in vivo tests have been carried out at present. Herein, we described a combination therapy of local delivery of Ag and systemic antibiotics treatment in vitro in an infection model of rat. Ag nanoparticle-loaded TiO2 nanotube (NT arrays (Ag-NTs were fabricated on titanium implants for a customized release of Ag ion. The antibacterial properties of silver combined with antibiotics vancomycin, rifampin, gentamicin, and levofloxacin, respectively, were tested in vitro by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC assay, disk diffusion assay, and antibiofilm formation test. Enhanced antibacterial activity of combination therapy was observed for all the chosen bacterial strains, including gram-negative Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922, gram

  15. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Alouatta spp. Feces to Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Lara

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano, Origanum vulgaris (oregano, Thymus vulgaris (thyme, Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary, Cymbopogon nardus (citronella, Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass, and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus against Escherichia coli (n=22 strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC were determined for each isolate using the broth microdilution technique. Essential oils of Mexican oregano (MIC mean = 1818 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2618 μg mL−1, thyme (MIC mean = 2618 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2909 μg mL−1, and oregano (MIC mean = 3418 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 4800 μg mL−1 showed the best antibacterial activity, while essential oils of eucalyptus, rosemary, citronella, and lemongrass displayed no antibacterial activity at concentrations greater than or equal to 6400 μg mL−1. Our results confirm the antimicrobial potential of some essential oils, which deserve further research.

  16. Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Escherichia coli Strains Isolated from Alouatta spp. Feces to Essential Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carregaro, Adriano Bonfim; Santurio, Deise Flores; de Sá, Mariangela Facco; Santurio, Janio Moraes; Alves, Sydney Hartz

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils from Lippia graveolens (Mexican oregano), Origanum vulgaris (oregano), Thymus vulgaris (thyme), Rosmarinus officinalis (rosemary), Cymbopogon nardus (citronella), Cymbopogon citratus (lemongrass), and Eucalyptus citriodora (eucalyptus) against Escherichia coli (n = 22) strains isolated from Alouatta spp. feces. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined for each isolate using the broth microdilution technique. Essential oils of Mexican oregano (MIC mean = 1818 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2618 μg mL−1), thyme (MIC mean = 2618 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 2909 μg mL−1), and oregano (MIC mean = 3418 μg mL−1; MBC mean = 4800 μg mL−1) showed the best antibacterial activity, while essential oils of eucalyptus, rosemary, citronella, and lemongrass displayed no antibacterial activity at concentrations greater than or equal to 6400 μg mL−1. Our results confirm the antimicrobial potential of some essential oils, which deserve further research. PMID:27313638

  17. Enhanced biomimic bactericidal surfaces by coating with positively-charged ZIF nano-dagger arrays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Yugen

    2017-10-01

    Cicada wing surfaces are covered with dense patterns of nano-pillar structure that prevent bacterial growth by rupturing adhered microbial cells. To mimic the natural nano-pillar structure, we developed a general and simple method to grow metal organic framework (MOF) nano-dagger arrays on a wide range of surfaces. These nano-daggers possess high bactericidal activity, with log reduction >7 for Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. It was hypothesized that the positively-charged ZIF-L nano-dagger surfaces enhance bacterial cell adhesion, facilitating selective and efficient bacteria killing by the rigid and sharp nano-dagger tips. This research provides a safe and clean antimicrobial surface technology which does not require external chemicals and will not cause drug resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A Comparative Study of Face Milling of D2 Steel Using Al2O3 Based Nanofluid Minimum Quantity Lubrication and Minimum Quantity Lubrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ahsan Ul Haq

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the effects of process parameters feed, depth of cut and flow rate, on the temperature during face milling of the D2 tool steel under two different lubricant conditions, Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL and Nanofluid Minimum Quantity Lubrication (NFMQL. Distilled water with the flow rate range 200-400 ml/hr was used in MQL. 2% by weight concentration of Al2O3 nanoparticles with distilled water as the base fluid used as NFMQL with same flow rate. Response surface methodology RSM central composite design CCD was used to design experiment run, modeling, and analysis. ANOVA was used for the adequacy and validation of the system. The comparison shows that NFMQL condition reduced more temperature during machining.

  19. Interaction between maropitant and carprofen on sparing of the minimum alveolar concentration for blunting adrenergic response (MAC-BAR) of sevoflurane in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, Sho; Ooyama, Norihiko; Tamura, Jun; Umar, Mohammed Ahmed; Ishizuka, Tomohito; Itami, Takaharu; Miyoshi, Kenjiro; Sano, Tadashi; Yamashita, Kazuto

    2017-03-18

    Maropitant, a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, may provide analgesic effects by blocking pharmacological action of substance P. Carprofen is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug commonly used for pain control in dogs. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of a combination of maropitant and carprofen on the minimum alveolar concentration for blunting adrenergic response (MAC-BAR) of sevoflurane in dogs. Six healthy adult beagle dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane four times with a minimum of 7-day washout period. On each occasion, maropitant (1 mg/kg) alone, carprofen (4 mg/kg) alone, a combination of maropitant (1 mg/kg) and carprofen (4 mg/kg), or saline (0.1 ml/kg) was subcutaneously administered at 1 hr prior to the first electrical stimulation for the sevoflurane MAC-BAR determination. The sevoflurane MAC-BAR was significantly reduced by maropitant alone (2.88 ± 0.73%, P=0.010), carprofen alone (2.96 ± 0.38%, P=0.016) and the combination (2.81 ± 0.51%, P=0.0003), compared with saline (3.37 ± 0.56%). There was no significant difference in the percentage of MAC-BAR reductions between maropitant alone, carprofen alone and the combination. The administration of maropitant alone and carprofen alone produced clinically significant sparing effects on the sevoflurane MAC-BAR in dogs. However, the combination of maropitant and carprofen did not produce any additive effect on the sevoflurane MAC-BAR reduction. Anesthetic premedication with a combination of maropitant and carprofen may not provide any further sparing effect on anesthetic requirement in dogs.

  20. Employment effects of minimum wages

    OpenAIRE

    Neumark, David

    2014-01-01

    The potential benefits of higher minimum wages come from the higher wages for affected workers, some of whom are in low-income families. The potential downside is that a higher minimum wage may discourage employers from using the low-wage, low-skill workers that minimum wages are intended to help. Research findings are not unanimous, but evidence from many countries suggests that minimum wages reduce the jobs available to low-skill workers.

  1. Do minimum wages improve early life health? Evidence from developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Muhammad Farhan; Mendoza Rodríguez, José M; Harper, Sam; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit

    2016-06-01

    The impact of legislated minimum wages on the early-life health of children living in low and middle-income countries has not been examined. For our analyses, we used data from the Demographic and Household Surveys (DHS) from 57 countries conducted between 1999 and 2013. Our analyses focus on height-for-age z scores (HAZ) for children under 5 years of age who were surveyed as part of the DHS. To identify the causal effect of minimum wages, we utilized plausibly exogenous variation in the legislated minimum wages during each child's year of birth, the identifying assumption being that mothers do not time their births around changes in the minimum wage. As a sensitivity exercise, we also made within family comparisons (mother fixed effect models). Our final analysis on 49 countries reveal that a 1% increase in minimum wages was associated with 0.1% (95% CI = -0.2, 0) decrease in HAZ scores. Adverse effects of an increase in the minimum wage were observed among girls and for children of fathers who were less than 35 years old, mothers aged 20-29, parents who were married, parents who were less educated, and parents involved in manual work. We also explored heterogeneity by region and GDP per capita at baseline (1999). Adverse effects were concentrated in lower-income countries and were most pronounced in South Asia. By contrast, increases in the minimum wage improved children's HAZ in Latin America, and among children of parents working in a skilled sector. Our findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that increases in the minimum wage unconditionally improve child health in lower-income countries, and highlight heterogeneity in the impact of minimum wages around the globe. Future work should involve country and occupation specific studies which can explore not only different outcomes such as infant mortality rates, but also explore the role of parental investments in shaping these effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibition of growth of highly resistant bacterial and fungal pathogens by a natural product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafidh, Rand R; Abdulamir, Ahmed S; Vern, Law Se; Abu Bakar, Fatimah; Abas, Faridah; Jahanshiri, Fatemeh; Sekawi, Zamberi

    2011-01-01

    The continuous escalation of resistant bacteria against a wide range of antibiotics necessitates discovering novel unconventional sources of antibiotics. B. oleracea L (red cabbage) is health-promoting food with proven anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. However, it has not been researched adequately for its antimicrobial activity on potential resistant pathogens. The methanol crude extract of B. oleracea L. was investigated for a possible anti-microbial activity. The screening method was conducted using disc diffusion assay against 22 pathogenic bacteria and fungi. It was followed by evaluation of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Moreover, the antibacterial and the antifungal activities were confirmed using the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and the minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC), respectively. Remarkable, antibacterial activity was evident particularly against highly infectious microorganisms such as Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium as well as against human fungal pathogens, Trichophyton rubrum and Aspergillus terreus. Red cabbage is a rich source of phenolic compounds, anthocyanins being the most abundant class, which might explain its potent antimicrobial action. This extract is potentially novel for future antimicrobials, inexpensive, and readily available at a large scale for pharmaceutical companies for further investigation and processing.

  3. The dlt genes play a role in antimicrobial tolerance of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Martin; Rybtke, Morten; Givskov, Michael; Høiby, Niels; Twetman, Svante; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim

    2016-09-01

    Microbial biofilms are tolerant to antibiotic treatment and therefore cause problematic infections. Knowledge about the molecular mechanisms underlying biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance will aid the development of antibiofilm drugs. Screening of a Streptococcus mutans transposon mutant library for genes that are important for biofilm-associated antimicrobial tolerance provided evidence that the dlt genes play a role in the tolerance of S. mutans biofilms towards gentamicin. The minimum bactericidal concentration for biofilm cells (MBC-B) for a dltA transposon mutant was eight-fold lower than that of the wild-type. The minimum bactericidal concentration for planktonic cells (MBC-P) was only slightly reduced, indicating that the mechanism involved in the observed antimicrobial tolerance has a predominant role specifically in biofilms. Experiments with a knockout dltA mutant and complemented strain confirmed that the dlt genes in S. mutans play a role in biofilm-associated tolerance to gentamicin. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analyses of biofilms grown on glass slides showed that the dltA mutant produced roughly the same amount of biofilm as the wild-type, indicating that the reduced antimicrobial tolerance of the dltA mutant is not due to a defect in biofilm formation. The products of the dlt genes have been shown to mediate alanylation of teichoic acids, and in accordance the dltA mutant showed a more negatively charged surface than the wild-type, which likely is an important factor in the reduced tolerance of the dltA mutant biofilms towards the positively charged gentamicin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  4. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF DRACONTOMELON DAO EXTRACTS ON METHICILLIN-RESISTANT S. AUREUS (MRSA) AND E. COLI MULTIPLE DRUG RESISTANCE (MDR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuniati, Yuniati; Hasanah, Nurul; Ismail, Sjarif; Anitasari, Silvia; Paramita, Swandari

    2018-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus , methicillin-resistant and Escherichia coli , multidrug-resistant included in the list of antibiotic-resistant priority pathogens from WHO. As multidrug-resistant bacteria problem is increasing, it is necessary to probe new sources for identifying antimicrobial compounds. Medicinal plants represent a rich source of antimicrobial agents. One of the potential plants for further examined as antibacterial is Dracontomelon dao (Blanco) Merr. & Rolfe. The present study designed to find the antibacterial activity of D. dao stem bark extracts on Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and E. coli Multiple Drug Resistance (MDR), followed by determined secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity and determined the value of MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) and MBC (minimum bactericidal concentration). D. dao stem bark extracted using 60% ethanol. Disc diffusion test methods used to find the antibacterial activity, following by microdilution methods to find the value of MIC and MBC. Secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity determined by bioautography using TLC (thin layer chromatography) methods. D. dao stem bark extracts are sensitive to MSSA, MRSA and E.coli MDR bacteria. The inhibition zone is 16.0 mm in MSSA, 11.7 mm in MRSA and 10.7 mm in E. coli MDR. The entire MBC/MIC ratios for MSSA, MRSA and E.coli MDR is lower than 4. The ratio showed bactericidal effects of D. dao stem bark extracts. In TLC results, colorless bands found to be secondary metabolites with antibacterial activity. D. dao stem bark extracts are potential to develop as antibacterial agent especially against MRSA and E. coli MDR strain.

  5. Evaluation of the of antibacterial efficacy of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and tri-sodium citrate (TSC) silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Arindam; Dasgupta, Abhirup; Kumar, Vijay; Tyagi, Aakriti; Verma, Anita Kamra

    2015-09-01

    We present silver nanoparticles as the new age broad spectrum antibiotic. Siver nanoparticles exhibit unique physical and chemical properties that make them suitable for understanding their biological potential as antimicrobials. In this study, we explored the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles (TSC-AgNPs) and silver nanoparticles doped with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP-AgNPs) against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, Escherichia coli (DH5α) and Staphylococcus aureus, (ATCC 13709). Nucleation and growth kinetics during the synthesis process of AgNPs were precisely controlled using citrate (TSC) and further doped with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). This resulted in the formation of two different sized nanoparticles 34 and 54 nm with PDI of 0.426 and 0.643. The physical characterization was done by nanoparticle tracking analysis and scanning electron microscopy, the results of which are in unison with the digital light scattering data. We found the bactericidal effect for both TSC-AgNPs and PVP-AgNPs to be dose-dependent as determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) against E. coli and S. aureus. Interestingly, we also observed that AgNPs showed enhanced antimicrobial activity with a MIC of 26.75 and 13.48 µg/ml for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively, while MBC for AgNPs are 53.23 and 26.75 µg/ml for E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. Moreover, AgNPs showed increased DNA degradation as observed confirming its higher efficacy as antibacterial agent than the PVP doped AgNPs.

  6. Bactericidal activity of M protein conserved region antibodies against group A streptococcal isolates from the Northern Thai population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pruksachatkunakorn Chulabhorn

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most group A streptococcal (GAS vaccine strategies have focused on the surface M protein, a major virulence factor of GAS. The amino-terminus of the M protein elicits antibodies, that are both opsonic and protective, but which are type specific. J14, a chimeric peptide that contains 14 amino acids from the M protein conserved C-region at the carboxy-terminus, offers the possibility of a vaccine which will elicit protective opsonic antibodies against multiple different GAS strains. In this study, we searched for J14 and J14-like sequences and the number of their repeats in the C-region of the M protein from GAS strains isolated from the Northern Thai population. Then, we examined the bactericidal activity of J14, J14.1, J14-R1 and J14-R2 antisera against multiple Thai GAS strains. Results The emm genes of GAS isolates were sequenced and grouped as 14 different J14-types. The most diversity of J14-types was found in the C1-repeat. The J14.1 type was the major sequence in the C2 and C3-repeats. We have shown that antisera raised against the M protein conserved C-repeat region peptides, J14, J14.1, J14-R1 and J14-R2, commonly found in GAS isolates from the Northern Thai population, are able to kill GAS of multiple different emm types derived from an endemic area. The mean percent of bactericidal activities for all J14 and J14-like peptide antisera against GAS isolates were more than 70%. The mean percent of bactericidal activity was highest for J14 antisera followed by J14-R2, J14.1 and J14-R1 antisera. Conclusion Our study demonstrated that antisera raised against the M protein conserved C-repeat region are able to kill multiple different strains of GAS isolated from the Northern Thai population. Therefore, the four conserved "J14" peptides have the potential to be used as GAS vaccine candidates to prevent streptococcal infections in an endemic area.

  7. Long-term measurement of radon concentration in the family house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muellerova, M.; Holy, K.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this report was monitored the family house with radon concentration above radon limit for inhabited areas during one year. We were studied radon concentration changes in different rooms this house. Knowledge concerning of variations of radon activity concentration in family house were obtained. Daily variations show a maximum in the morning and a minimum in the afternoon. The seasonal variations show a minimum in spring months (March -April) and a maximum in early autumn (September). The radon concentration in the upstairs room was similar but ten-times lower than radon concentration in the downstairs room. In next period, the obtained results will be analysed in detail and different model describing the behaviour of radon in indoor air will be tested too. (authors)

  8. Minimum Wages and Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    Fields, Gary S.; Kanbur, Ravi

    2005-01-01

    Textbook analysis tells us that in a competitive labor market, the introduction of a minimum wage above the competitive equilibrium wage will cause unemployment. This paper makes two contributions to the basic theory of the minimum wage. First, we analyze the effects of a higher minimum wage in terms of poverty rather than in terms of unemployment. Second, we extend the standard textbook model to allow for incomesharing between the employed and the unemployed. We find that there are situation...

  9. Experimental investigation on the minimum ignition temperature of hybrid mixtures of dusts and gases or solvents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, Emmanuel Kwasi; Gabel, Dieter; Krause, Ulrich

    2016-01-15

    Investigations on the minimum ignition temperatures (MIT) of hybrid mixtures of dusts with gases or solvents were performed in the modified Godbert-Greenwald (GG) furnace. Five combustible dusts and six flammable gases (three ideal and three real) were used. The test protocol was according to EN 50281-2-1 for dust-air mixtures whereas in the case of gases, solvents and hybrid mixtures this standard was used with slight modification. The experimental results demonstrated a significant decrease of the MIT of gas, solvent or dust and an increase in the likelihood of explosion when a small amount of dust, which was either below the minimum explosion concentration or not ignitable by itself, was mixed with gas and vice versa. For example, the MIT of toluene decreased from 540°C to 455°C when small amount of lycopodium was added. It was also confirmed that a hybrid mixture explosion is possible even when both dust and vapour or gas concentrations are respectively lower than their minimum explosion concentration (MEC) and lower explosion limit (LEL). Another example is CN4, the MEC of which of 304 g/m(3) decreased to 37 g/m(3) when propane was added, even though the concentrations of the gas was below its LEL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A proposal of comparative Maunder minimum cosmogenic isotope measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attolini, M.R.; Nanni, T.; Galli, M.; Povinec, P.

    1989-01-01

    There are at present contraddictory conclusions about solar activity and cosmogenic isotope production variation during Maunder Minimum. The interaction of solar wind with galactic cosmic rays, the dynamic behaviour of the Sun either as a system having an internal clock, and/or as a forced non linear system, are important aspects that can shed new light on solar physics, the Earth-Sun relationship and the climatic variation. An essential progress in the matter might be made by clarifying the cosmogenic isotope production during the mentioned interval. As it seems that during Maunder Minimum the Be10 production oscillates of about a factor of two, the authors have also to expect short scale enhanced variations in tree rings radiocarbon concentrations for the same interval. It is therefore highly desirable that for the same interval, that the authors would identify with 1640-1720 AD, detailed concentration measurements both of Be10 (in dated polar ice in addition to those of Beer et al.) and of tree ring radiocarbon, be made with cross-checking, in samples of different latitudes, longitudes and within short and large distance of the sea. The samples could be taken, as for example in samples from the central Mediterranean region, in the Baltic region and in other sites from central Europe and Asia

  11. In vitro antibiotic susceptibility of Mycoplasma iguanae proposed sp. nov. isolated from vertebral lesions of green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Megan E; Demcovitz, Dina L; Plourdé, Daisy R; Rotstein, David S; Brown, Daniel R

    2006-06-01

    Mycoplasma iguanae proposed species nova was isolated from vertebral abscesses of two feral iguanas (Iguana iguana) from Florida. Three strains were evaluated for sensitivity to a variety of antibiotics. The minimum inhibitory concentrations for M. iguanae, assessed by broth dilution methods, of clindamycin, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, and tylosin (all doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tylosin were bacteriostatic from 0.1 to 0.5 microg/ml, whereas enrofloxacin was bactericidal at 20 ng/ml. An enrofloxacin dosage of 5-10 mg/kg achieves peak plasma concentrations >1 microg/ml, with an elimination half-life of 6-20 hr, in alligators. Although concentrations achieved in the vertebrae by i.m. or i.v. injection are probably lower than those in plasma, these data suggest that enrofloxacin may be useful to treat M. iguanae mycoplasmosis in iguanas.

  12. Serum bactericidal assay for the evaluation of typhoid vaccine using a semi-automated colony-counting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Mi Seon; Sahastrabuddhe, Sushant; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun; Yang, Jae Seung

    2016-08-01

    Typhoid fever, mainly caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), is a life-threatening disease, mostly in developing countries. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is widely used to quantify antibodies against S. Typhi in serum but does not provide information about functional antibody titers. Although the serum bactericidal assay (SBA) using an agar plate is often used to measure functional antibody titers against various bacterial pathogens in clinical specimens, it has rarely been used for typhoid vaccines because it is time-consuming and labor-intensive. In the present study, we established an improved SBA against S. Typhi using a semi-automated colony-counting system with a square agar plate harboring 24 samples. The semi-automated SBA efficiently measured bactericidal titers of sera from individuals immunized with S. Typhi Vi polysaccharide vaccines. The assay specifically responded to S. Typhi Ty2 but not to other irrelevant enteric bacteria including Vibrio cholerae and Shigella flexneri. Baby rabbit complement was more appropriate source for the SBA against S. Typhi than complements from adult rabbit, guinea pig, and human. We also examined the correlation between SBA and ELISA for measuring antibody responses against S. Typhi using pre- and post-vaccination sera from 18 human volunteers. The SBA titer showed a good correlation with anti-Vi IgG quantity in the serum as determined by Spearman correlation coefficient of 0.737 (P measure functional antibody titers against S. Typhi in sera from human subjects immunized with typhoid vaccines. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  13. Delayed bactericidal response of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to bedaquiline involves remodelling of bacterial metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koul, A.; Vranckx, L.; Dhar, N.

    2014-01-01

    Bedaquiline (BDQ), an ATP synthase inhibitor, is the first drug to be approved for treatment of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in decades. Though BDQ has shown excellent efficacy in clinical trials, its early bactericidal activity during the first week of chemotherapy is minimal. Here, using...... microfluidic devices and time-lapse microscopy of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we confirm the absence of significant bacteriolytic activity during the first 3-4 days of exposure to BDQ. BDQ-induced inhibition of ATP synthesis leads to bacteriostasis within hours after drug addition. Transcriptional...... and proteomic analyses reveal that M. tuberculosis responds to BDQ by induction of the dormancy regulon and activation of ATP-generating pathways, thereby maintaining bacterial viability during initial drug exposure. BDQ-induced bacterial killing is significantly enhanced when the mycobacteria are grown on non...

  14. Pharmacodynamics of oxytetracycline administered alone and in combination with carprofen in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brentnall, C; Cheng, Z; McKellar, Q A; Lees, P

    2012-09-15

    The pharmacodynamics (PD) of oxytetracycline was investigated against a strain of Mannheimia haemolytica. In vitro measurements, comprising minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration and time-kill curves, were conducted in five matrices; Mueller Hinton Broth (MHB), cation-adjusted MHB (CAMHB) and calf serum, exudate and transudate. MICs were much higher in the biological fluids than in MHB and CAMHB. Ratios of MIC were, serum: CAMHB 19 : 1; exudate:CAMHB 16.1; transudate:CAMHB 14 : 1. Ex vivo data, generated in the tissue cage model of inflammation, demonstrated that oxytetracycline, administered to calves intramuscularly at a dose rate of 20 mg/kg, did not inhibit the growth of M haemolytica in serum, exudate and transudate, even at peak concentration. However, using in vitro susceptibility in CAMHB and in vivo-determined pharmacokinetic (PK) variables, average and minimum oxytetracycline concentrations relative to MIC (C(av)/MIC and C(min)/MIC) predicted achievement of efficacy for approximately 48 hours after dosing. Similar C(av)/MIC and C(min)/MIC data were obtained when oxytetracycline was administered in the presence of carprofen. PK-PD integration of data for oxytetracycline, based on MICs determined in the three biological fluids, suggests that it possesses, at most, limited direct killing activity against M haemolytica. These data raise questions concerning the mechanism(s) of action of oxytetracycline, when administered at clinically recommended dose rates.

  15. Phytochemical characterization, antimicrobial activity and reducing potential of seed oil, latex, machine oil and presscake of Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Amit Kumar; Gangwar, Mayank; Kumar, Dharmendra; Nath, Gopal; Kumar Sinha, Akhoury Sudhir; Tripathi, Yamini Bhushan

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial activity, phytochemical studies and thin layer chromatography analysis of machine oil, hexane extract of seed oil and methanol extract of presscake & latex of Jatropha curcas Linn (family Euphorbiaceae). J. curcas extracts were subjected to preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening to detect the major phytochemicals followed by its reducing power and content of phenol and flavonoids in different fractions. Thin layer chromatography was also performed using different solvent systems for the analysis of a number of constituents in the plant extracts. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the disc diffusion method, while the minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration were calculated by micro dilution method. The methanolic fraction of latex and cake exhibited marked antifungal and antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, steroids, glycosides, phenols and flavonoids. Reducing power showed dose dependent increase in concentration compared to standard Quercetin. Furthermore, this study recommended the isolation and separation of bioactive compounds responsible for the antibacterial activity which would be done by using different chromatographic methods such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), GC-MS etc. The results of the above study suggest that all parts of the plants possess potent antibacterial activity. Hence, it is important to isolate the active principles for further testing of antimicrobial and other biological efficacy.

  16. The Application of Bactericidal Silver Nanoparticles in Wound Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geewoo Nam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Even with the prevalence of wounds, the medical technol‐ ogy for efficiently managing skin damage is still primitive. The disruption of any of the numerous healing processes can lead to problems in the time-sensitive healing actions of the dermal and epidermal layers. Bacterial infection is one of the major obstacles to proper wound healing as it poses a danger of causing long-term negative effects. Keeping the wound free of bacteria is imperative to the proper and hasty repair of dermal wounds. Silver has been widely used to treat wounds for its bactericidal properties. Although the mechanism of silver’s antibacterial action is not fully understood, it exhibits a significant antimicrobial efficacy against a wide spectrum of bacterial species. A number of different approaches to the mechanism are reported and presented in this review. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs have been reported to exhibit enhanced antibac‐ terial activity due to their increased surface-area-to-volume ratio. AgNPs are capable of various modifications, signifi‐ cantly broadening the therapeutic properties of the mate‐ rial as a result. This review explores the different aspects of silver and silver nanoparticles, and their antibacterial properties, which can be applied in the field of wound treatments.

  17. 75 FR 6151 - Minimum Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-08

    ... capital and reserve requirements to be issued by order or regulation with respect to a product or activity... minimum capital requirements. Section 1362(a) establishes a minimum capital level for the Enterprises... entities required under this section.\\6\\ \\3\\ The Bank Act's current minimum capital requirements apply to...

  18. A Pareto-Improving Minimum Wage

    OpenAIRE

    Eliav Danziger; Leif Danziger

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows that a graduated minimum wage, in contrast to a constant minimum wage, can provide a strict Pareto improvement over what can be achieved with an optimal income tax. The reason is that a graduated minimum wage requires high-productivity workers to work more to earn the same income as low-productivity workers, which makes it more difficult for the former to mimic the latter. In effect, a graduated minimum wage allows the low-productivity workers to benefit from second-degree pr...

  19. Effect of organically modified clay on mechanical properties, cytotoxicity and bactericidal properties of poly(ɛ-caprolactone) nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sachin; Mishra, Anupam; Chatterjee, Kaushik

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of organically-modified clay nanoparticles in poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) for developing biodegradable composites. PCL nanocomposites reinforced with two different types of organically-modified clay (Cloisite 30B, C30B and Cloisite 93A, C93A) were prepared by melt-mixing. Morphology of PCL/clay nanocomposites characterized by scanning electron microscopy indicated good dispersion of nanoclay in the PCL matrix. Reinforcement of nanoclay in PCL enhanced mechanical properties without affecting thermal and degradation properties of PCL. Cytocompatibility of PCL/clay nanocomposites was studied using both osteoblasts and endothelial cells in vitro. Both composites (PCL/C30B and PCL/C93A) were cytotoxic with high toxicity observed for C30B even at low content of 1 wt %. The cytotoxicity was found to arise due to leachables from PCL/clay composites. Electrical conductivity measurements of aqueous media confirmed leaching of cationic surfactant from the PCL/clay composites PCL matrix. Both composites were found to be bactericidal but C30B was more effective than C93A. Taken together, it was observed that organically-modified nanoclay as fillers in PCL improves mechanical properties and imparts bactericidal properties but with increased risk of toxicity. These PCL/clay composites may be useful as stronger packaging material with antibacterial properties but are not suited as biomedical implants or for food packaging applications.

  20. Bactericidal effect of bovine lactoferrin, LFcin, LFampin and LFchimera on antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Villaseñor, Héctor; Canizalez-Román, Adrian; Reyes-Lopez, Magda; Nazmi, Kamram; de la Garza, Mireya; Zazueta-Beltrán, Jorge; León-Sicairos, Nidia; Bolscher, Jan G M

    2010-06-01

    Increased prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has become a major threat to the health sector worldwide due to their virulence, limited therapeutic options and distribution in both hospital and community settings. Discovery and development of new agents to combat antibiotic-resistant bacteria is thus needed. This study therefore aimed to evaluate the ability of bovine lactoferrin (LF), peptides from two antimicrobial domains lactoferricin B (LFcin17-30) and lactoferrampin (LFampin265-284) and a chimeric construct (LFchimera) containing both peptides, as potential bactericidal agents against clinical isolates of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Results in kinetics of growth show that LF chimera and peptides inhibited the growth of both bacterial species. By confocal microscopy and flow cytometry it was observed that LF and FITC-labeled peptides are able to interact with these bacteria and cause membrane permeabilization, as monitored by propidium iodide staining, these effects were decreased by preincubation with lipopolysaccharide in E. coli. By electron microscopy, a clear cellular damage was observed in bacteria after treatments with LFchimera and peptides, suggesting that interaction and membrane disruption are probably involved as a mechanism of action. In conclusion, results show that LFchimera, LF and peptides have potential as bactericidal agents in the antibiotic-resistant strains of S. aureus and E. coli and also the work strongly suggest that LFcin17-30 and LFampin265-284 acts synergistically with antibiotics against multidrug resistant EPEC and MRSA in vitro.

  1. Bactericidal Activity of Ceragenin CSA-13 in Cell Culture and in an Animal Model of Peritoneal Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucki, Robert; Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Wnorowska, Urszula; Byfield, Fitzroy J; Piktel, Ewelina; Wątek, Marzena; Janmey, Paul A; Savage, Paul B

    2015-10-01

    Ceragenins constitute a novel family of cationic antibiotics characterized by a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities, which have mostly been assessed in vitro. Using a polarized human lung epithelial cell culture system, we evaluated the antibacterial activities of the ceragenin CSA-13 against two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1 and Xen5). Additionally, the biodistribution and bactericidal activity of a CSA-13-IRDye 800CW derivate were assessed using an animal model of peritoneal infection after PAO1 challenge. In cell culture, CSA-13 bactericidal activities against PAO1 and Xen5 were higher than the activities of the human cathelicidin peptide LL-37. Increased CSA-13 activity was observed in polarized human lung epithelial cell cultures subjected to butyric acid treatment, which is known to increase endogenous LL-37 production. Eight hours after intravenous or intraperitoneal injection, the greatest CSA-13-IRDye 800CW accumulation was observed in mouse liver and kidneys. CSA-13-IRDye 800CW administration resulted in decreased bacterial outgrowth from abdominal fluid collected from animals subjected to intraperitoneal PAO1 infection. These observations indicate that CSA-13 may synergistically interact with antibacterial factors that are naturally present at mucosal surfaces and it maintains its antibacterial activity in the infected abdominal cavity. Cationic lipids such as CSA-13 represent excellent candidates for the development of new antibacterial compounds. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Evaluation of safety of Hammada salicornica in cell culture

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    F. Hosseini Hamedani

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: A pharmaceutical products that is planned to be used in clinic, should not only have beneficial effects but also be safe too. Preclinical studies in animals are costly and need considering ethical issues. Cell culture can be used before animal tests. Considering useful effects of these methods, we have evaluated safety of total methanol extract of Hammada salicornica and its aqueous and petroleum ether fractions in cell culture.Methods: Total methanol extract was prepared with the standard method of maceration. Different fractions were prepared by liquid-liquid fractionation and the extracts were then dried with rotary evaporator. After determination of bactericidal concentration of the extracts, 400 ug/mL, the cytotoxicity was tested at various concentrations regarding the minimum antibacterial concentration by MTT test. Hep-2c and VERO cell lines were used in MTT test. A range of concentrations (10-500 ug/mL of the extracts were prepared and were added to about 70% confluent 96 well plates. After exposure for 48 h, MTT solution was added to the wells, and 4 h later formazan crystals were solubilized and optical densities were read at 570 nm. Results: Cytotoxicity Index was calculated and significance test was performed using t-test comparing the Index of the test and control group at each concentration. No significant difference was observed. Conclusion: Various fractions of H. salicornica were not cytotoxic at concentrations above bactericidal concentrations (up to 500 ug/mL. The results need to be confirmed in animal studies before using in human subjects.

  3. Studies on the biocidal and cell membrane disruption potentials of stem bark extracts of Afzelia africana (Smith

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    DAVID A AKINPELU

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We had recently reported antibacterial activity in the crude extract of the stem bark of Afzelia africana (Akinpelu et al., 2008. In this study, we assessed the biocidal and cell membrane disruption potentials of fractions obtained from the crude extract of the plant. The aqueous (AQ and butanol (BL fractions exhibited appreciable antibacterial activities against the test bacteria. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the AQ and BL fractions ranged between 0.313 and 2.5 mg/ml, while their minimum bactericidal concentrations varied between 0.625 and 5.0 mg/ml. Also, the AQ fraction killed about 95.8% of E. coli cells within 105 min at a concentration of 5 mg/ml, while about 99.1% of Bacillus pumilus cells were killed by this fraction at the same concentration and exposure time. A similar trend was observed for the BL fraction. At a concentration of 5 mg/ml, the butanol fraction leaked 9.8 μg/ml of proteins from E. coli cells within 3 h, while the aqueous fraction leaked 6.5 μg/ml of proteins from the same organisms at the same concentration and exposure time. We propose that the stem bark of Afzelia africana is a potential source of bioactive compounds of importance to the pharmaceutical industry.

  4. Development of Titanium Dioxide (TiO2 ) Nanocoatings on Food Contact Surfaces and Method to Evaluate Their Durability and Photocatalytic Bactericidal Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemmireddy, Veerachandra K; Farrell, Glenn D; Hung, Yen-Con

    2015-08-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2 ) is a well-known photocatalyst for its excellent bactericidal property under UVA light. The purpose of this study was to develop physically stable TiO2 coatings on food contact surfaces using different binding agents and develop methods to evaluate their durability and microbicidal property. Several types of organic and inorganic binders such as polyvinyl alcohol, polyethylene glycol, polyurethane, polycrylic, sodium and potassium silicates, shellac resin, and other commercial binders were used at 1:1 to 1:16 nanoparticle to binder weight ratios to develop a formulation for TiO2 coating on stainless steel surfaces. Among the tested binders, polyurethane, polycrylic, and shellac resin were found to be physically more stable when used in TiO2 coating at 1:4 to 1:16 weight ratio. The physical stability of TiO2 coatings was determined using adhesion strength and scratch hardness tests by following standard ASTM procedures. Further, wear resistance of the coatings was evaluated based on a simulated cleaning procedure used in food processing environments. TiO2 coating with polyurethane at a 1:8 nanoparticle to binder weight ratio showed the highest scratch hardness (1.08 GPa) followed by coating with polycrylic (0.68 GPa) and shellac (0.14 GPa) binders. Three different techniques, namely direct spreading, glass cover-slip, and indented coupon were compared to determine the photocatalytic bactericidal property of TiO2 coatings against Escherichia coli 0157:H7 at 2 mW/cm(2) UVA light intensity. Under the tested conditions, the indented coupon technique was found to be the most appropriate method to determine the bactericidal property of TiO2 coatings and showed a reduction of 3.5 log CFU/cm(2) in 2 h. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Minimum critical mass systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dam, H. van; Leege, P.F.A. de

    1987-01-01

    An analysis is presented of thermal systems with minimum critical mass, based on the use of materials with optimum neutron moderating and reflecting properties. The optimum fissile material distributions in the systems are obtained by calculations with standard computer codes, extended with a routine for flat fuel importance search. It is shown that in the minimum critical mass configuration a considerable part of the fuel is positioned in the reflector region. For 239 Pu a minimum critical mass of 87 g is found, which is the lowest value reported hitherto. (author)

  6. Vaginal oxytetracycline concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thin, R N; Al Rawi, Z H; Simmons, P D; Treharne, J; Tabaqchali, S

    1979-01-01

    Although tetracycline preparations are widely used in departments of genitourinary medicine, or sexually transmitted diseases clinics, little is known of the concentrations of these preparations in genital secretions. For this reason a microbiological method was used for estimating oxytetracycline concentrations in vaginal secretions. These concentrations varied from 0.6 to 6.5 microgram/ml in 19 women who had had sexual contact with a man with non-specific urethritis and who were taking oxytetracycline dihydrate 250 mg four times daily. They were well in excess of the minimum inhibitory concentration of oxytetracycline (0.2 microgram/ml) for the strains of Chlamydia trachomatis isolated from the patients with positive culture results. Thus, oxytetracycline 250 mg four times daily appears to be a satisfactory regimen for the treatment of chlamydial genital infection in women. PMID:509190

  7. Distribution of dissolved manganese in the Peruvian Upwelling and Oxygen Minimum Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedamati, Jagruti; Chan, Catherine; Moffett, James W.

    2015-05-01

    The geochemistry of manganese (Mn) in seawater is dominated by its redox chemistry, as Mn(II) is soluble and Mn(IV) forms insoluble oxides, and redox transformations are mediated by a variety of processes in the oceans. Dissolved Mn (DMn) accumulates under reducing conditions and is depleted under oxidizing conditions. Thus the Peruvian upwelling region, characterized by highly reducing conditions over a broad continental shelf and a major oxygen minimum zone extending far offshore, is potentially a large source of Mn to the eastern Tropical South Pacific. In this study, DMn was determined on cruises in October 2005 and February 2010 in the Peruvian Upwelling and Oxygen Minimum Zone, to evaluate the relationship between Mn, oxygen and nitrogen cycle processes. DMn concentrations were determined using simple dilution and matrix-matched external standardization inductively coupled mass spectrometry. Surprisingly, DMn was depleted under the most reducing conditions along the Peruvian shelf. Concentrations of dissolved Mn in surface waters increased offshore, indicating that advection of Mn offshore from the Peruvian shelf is a minor source. Subsurface Mn maxima were observed within the oxycline rather than within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), indicating they arise from remineralization of organic matter rather than reduction of Mn oxides. The distribution of DMn appears to be dominated by non-redox processes and inputs from the atmosphere and from other regions associated with specific water masses. Lower than expected DMn concentrations on the shelf probably reflect limited fluvial inputs from the continent and efficient offshore transport. This behavior is in stark contrast to Fe, reported in a companion study which is very high on the shelf and undergoes dynamic redox cycling.

  8. Minimum inhibitory concentration of Brazilian Brachyspira hyodysenteriae strains

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    Amanda G.S. Daniel

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objectives of this study were to characterize Brachyspira hyodysenteriae isolates and to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of strains obtained from pigs in Brazil based on the minimal inhibitory concentration test (MIC. The MIC was performed for 22 B. hyodysenteriae isolates obtained from 2011 to 2013 using the following antimicrobial drugs: tylosin, tiamulin, valnemulin, doxycycline, lincomycin and tylvalosin. Outbreaks of swine dysentery were diagnosed based on clinical presentation, bacterial isolation, gross and microscopic lesions, duplex PCR for B. hyodysenteriae and B. pilosicoli and nox gene sequencing. All obtained MIC values were consistently higher or equal to the microbiological cut-off described in the literature. The MIC 90 values for the tested drugs were 8μg/ml for doxycycline, >4μg/ml for valnemulin, 8μg/ml for tiamulin, 32μg/ml for tylvalosin, >64μg/ml for lincomycin and >128μg/ml for tylosin. These results largely corroborate those reported in the literature. Tiamulin, doxycycline and tylvalosin showed the lowest MIC results. All of the samples subjected to phylogenetic analysis based on the nox gene sequence exhibited similar results, showing 100% identity to B. hyodysenteriae. This is the first study describing the MIC pattern of B. hyodysenteriae isolated in Brazil.

  9. Effects of constant rate infusions of dexmedetomidine or MK-467 on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hector, Rachel C; Rezende, Marlis L; Mama, Khursheed R; Steffey, Eugene P; Knych, Heather K; Hess, Ann M; Honkavaara, Juhana M; Raekallio, Marja R; Vainio, Outi M

    2017-07-01

    To determine the effects of low and high dose infusions of dexmedetomidine and a peripheral α 2 -adrenoceptor antagonist, MK-467, on sevoflurane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) in dogs. Crossover experimental study. Six healthy, adult Beagle dogs weighing 12.6±0.9 kg (mean±standard deviation). Dogs were anesthetized with sevoflurane in oxygen. After a 60-minute instrumentation and equilibration period, the MAC of sevoflurane was determined in triplicate using the tail clamp technique. PaCO 2 and temperature were maintained at 40±5 mmHg (5.3±0.7 kPa) and 38±0.5 ºC, respectively. After baseline MAC determination, dogs were administered two incremental loading and infusion doses of either dexmedetomidine (1.5 μg kg -1 then 1.5 μg kg -1  hour -1 and 4.5 μg kg -1 then 4.5 μg kg -1  hour -1 ) or MK-467 (90 μg kg -1 then 90 μg kg -1  hour -1 and 180 μg kg -1 then 180 μg kg -1  hour -1 ); loading doses were administered over 10 minutes. MAC was redetermined in duplicate starting 30 minutes after the start of drug administration at each dose. End-tidal sevoflurane concentrations were corrected for calibration and adjusted to sea level. A repeated-measures analysis was performed and comparisons between doses were conducted using Tukey's method. Statistical significance was considered at pbenefits of the addition of a peripheral α 2 -adrenergic antagonist to inhalation anesthesia in dogs. Copyright © 2017 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antibacterial Activity and Antibiotic-Enhancing Effects of Honeybee Venom against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

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    Sang Mi Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, along with other antibiotic resistant bacteria, has become a significant social and clinical problem. There is thus an urgent need to develop naturally bioactive compounds as alternatives to the few antibiotics that remain effective. Here we assessed the in vitro activities of bee venom (BV, alone or in combination with ampicillin, penicillin, gentamicin or vancomycin, on growth of MRSA strains. The antimicrobial activity of BV against MRSA strains was investigated using minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC, minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC and a time-kill assay. Expression of atl which encodes murein hydrolase, a peptidoglycan-degrading enzyme involved in cell separation, was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The MICs of BV were 0.085 µg/mL and 0.11 µg/mL against MRSA CCARM 3366 and MRSA CCARM 3708, respectively. The MBC of BV against MRSA 3366 was 0.106 µg/mL and that against MRSA 3708 was 0.14 µg/mL. The bactericidal activity of BV corresponded to a decrease of at least 3 log CFU/g cells. The combination of BV with ampicillin or penicillin yielded an inhibitory concentration index ranging from 0.631 to 1.002, indicating a partial and indifferent synergistic effect. Compared to ampicillin or penicillin, both MRSA strains were more susceptible to the combination of BV with gentamicin or vancomycin. The expression of atl gene was increased in MRSA 3366 treated with BV. These results suggest that BV exhibited antibacterial activity and antibiotic-enhancing effects against MRSA strains. The atl gene was increased in MRSA exposed to BV, suggesting that cell division was interrupted. BV warrants further investigation as a natural antimicrobial agent and synergist of antibiotic activity.

  11. Study of Gentamicin Effect on Staphylococcus Aureus in the Presence of Electromagnetic Field

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    Asghar Tanomand

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:  Nowadays  the  medical,  therapeutic  and  pharmacological  application  of  magnetic  fields  (MF  and  its  biological  effect  has  raised  question  about  the  safety  of  MF.  This  study  aimed  at  scrutinizing the effect of static MF on the resistance of S. aureus to antibiotic.  Materials and Methods: This prospective, case–control study was conducted to evaluate the effect of  low intensity (0.5 mT static MF on the growth rate and the antibiotic resistance of S. aureus sensitive to  gentamicin. The studied bacterium is a nosocomial type and the growth rate was calculated by colony  counting to understand the effect of MF on it. In the next stage, the rate of bacterial growth along with  the different concentration of antibiotic was studied and the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC  and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC were determined.  Results: It is concluded that the 0.5 mT MF didn't affect the growth rate of S. aureus after 24 and 48 hours.  The 0.5 mT MF induced a 50 percent decline of MIC and MBC of gentamicin after a 48 hour incubation (MIC  = 4 6g /cc, MBC = 8 6g /cc in the case group vs. MIC = 8 6g /cc, MBC = 16 6g /cc in the control group.  Conclusion: Low–intensity MF didn't affect the bacterial growth rate. However, the bactericidal effects  of gentamicin were greater in the presence of MF. It is possible to apply the static MF for enhancing the  effect of antibiotic on S. aureus.

  12. 5 CFR 551.301 - Minimum wage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for all...

  13. Pharmacological synergism of bee venom and melittin with antibiotics and plant secondary metabolites against multi-drug resistant microbial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ani, Issam; Zimmermann, Stefan; Reichling, Jürgen; Wink, Michael

    2015-02-15

    The goal of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of bee venom and its main component, melittin, alone or in two-drug and three-drug combinations with antibiotics (vancomycin, oxacillin, and amikacin) or antimicrobial plant secondary metabolites (carvacrol, benzyl isothiocyanate, the alkaloids sanguinarine and berberine) against drug-sensitive and antibiotic-resistant microbial pathogens. The secondary metabolites were selected corresponding to the molecular targets to which they are directed, being different from those of melittin and the antibiotics. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were evaluated by the standard broth microdilution method, while synergistic or additive interactions were assessed by checkerboard dilution and time-kill curve assays. Bee venom and melittin exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity against 51 strains of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with strong anti-MRSA and anti-VRE activity (MIC values between 6 and 800 µg/ml). Moreover, bee venom and melittin showed significant antifungal activity (MIC values between 30 and 100 µg/ml). Carvacrol displayed bactericidal activity, while BITC exhibited bacteriostatic activity against all MRSA and VRE strains tested (reference strains and clinical isolates), both compounds showed a remarkable fungicidal activity with minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) values between 30 and 200 µg/ml. The DNA intercalating alkaloid sanguinarine showed bactericidal activity against MRSA NCTC 10442 (MBC 20 µg/ml), while berberine exhibited bacteriostatic activity against MRSA NCTC 10442 (MIC 40 µg/ml). Checkerboard dilution tests mostly revealed synergism of two-drug combinations against all the tested microorganisms with FIC indexes between 0.24 and 0.50, except for rapidly growing mycobacteria in which combinations exerted an additive effect (FICI = 0.75-1). In time-kill assays all three

  14. Antimicrobial activity of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. from Northeast Brazil against clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus

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    Itácio Q. M. Padilha

    Full Text Available Mimosa tenuiflora is a native plant of Northeast Brazil where it is popularly known as ''jurema-preta'' and it is widely used in folk medicine. In this work the anti-Staphylococcus aureus activity of ethanol extract of M tenuiflora was evaluated by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of clinical isolates by the agar dilution method, and by time-kill assay using a reference strain. MIC values against 30 isolates were 0,18 mg/mL (16/30 or 0,36 mg/mL (14/30, and also the reference strain. In the reference strains, at concentrations up to 4x MIC, only bacteriostatic effect was observed, but at 8x MIC a fast bactericidal effect was observed.

  15. [On the bactericidal action of dibromoisocyanuric acid; experiments concerning the disinfection of hands (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottardi, W; Puritscher, M

    1976-07-01

    The action of dibromoisocyanuric acid (DBI), C12, Br2, trichloroisocyanuric acid (TCI) and chloramine T against Staph. aureus SG 511 was compared. Using the suspension test DBI and Br2 showed the strongest, chloramine T however, the weakest bactericidal power (Tab 2). Under the conditions of the "Hygienic disinfection of hands" a 0.005 M solution of DBI met the requirements specified in the "Richtlinien für die Prüfung chemischer Desinfektionsmittel" (3. Ed., Stuttgart: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 1972), and was comparable to a chloramine T solution containing the same amount of active halogen (Tab. 3). The decrease of disinfection power compared with the suspension test can be attributed to a great error induced by protein.

  16. Bactericidal effect of blue LED light irradiated TiO2/Fe3O4 particles on fish pathogen in seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, T.C.; Yao, K.S.; Yeh, N.; Chang, C.I.; Hsu, H.C.; Gonzalez, F.; Chang, C.Y.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses blue LED light (λ max = 475 nm) activated TiO 2 /Fe 3 O 4 particles to evaluate the particles' photocatalytic activity efficiency and bactericidal effects in seawater of variable salinities. Different TiO 2 to Fe 3 O 4 mole ratios have been synthesized using sol-gel method. The synthesized particles contain mainly anatase TiO 2 , Fe 3 O 4 and FeTiO 3 . The study has identified TiO 2 /Fe 3 O 4 's bactericidal effect to marine fish pathogen (Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida BCRC17065) in seawater. The SEM photo reveals the surface destruction in bacteria incubated with blue LED irradiated TiO 2 /Fe 3 O 4 . The result of this study indicates that 1) TiO 2 /Fe 3 O 4 acquires photocatalytic activities in both the freshwater and the seawater via blue LED irradiation, 2) higher photocatalytic activities appear in solutions of higher TiO 2 /Fe 3 O 4 mole ratio, and 3) photocatalytic activity decreases as salinity increases. These results suggest that the energy saving blue LED light is a feasible light source to activate TiO 2 /Fe 3 O 4 photocatalytic activities in both freshwater and seawater.

  17. Activity of endodontic antibacterial agents against selected anaerobic bacteria

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    Ferreira Cláudio Maniglia

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of substances used as antibacterial agents (solutions of 10% calcium hydroxide, camphorated paramonochlorophenol - PMCC, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate and 10% castor oil plant detergent on anaerobic bacteria (Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 25586, Prevotella nigrescens ATCC 33563, Clostridium perfringens ATCC 13124 and Bacteroides fragilis ATCC 25285, using a broth dilution technique, was evaluated in vitro. For determination of minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericide concentrations (MIC and MBC, two culture broths, Reinforced Clostridial Medium (RCM and supplemented Brucella, standardized inoculum and serially diluted solutions were used. All antibacterial agents presented antimicrobial activity that varied for different bacteria. There were no differences in the performance of the two broths. Chlorhexidine digluconate was the most effective, with the lowest MICs, followed by castor oil detergent, PMCC and calcium hydroxide. C. perfringens and B. fragilis were the most resistant bacteria to all agents.

  18. Expanding the potential of NAI-107 for treating serious ESKAPE pathogens: synergistic combinations against Gram-negatives and bactericidal activity against non-dividing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunati, Cristina; Thomsen, Thomas T; Gaspari, Eleonora; Maffioli, Sonia; Sosio, Margherita; Jabes, Daniela; Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Donadio, Stefano

    2018-02-01

    To characterize NAI-107 and related lantibiotics for their in vitro activity against Gram-negative pathogens, alone or in combination with polymyxin, and against non-dividing cells or biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus. NAI-107 was also evaluated for its propensity to select or induce self-resistance in Gram-positive bacteria. We used MIC determinations and chequerboard experiments to establish the antibacterial activity of the examined compounds against target microorganisms. Time-kill assays were used to evaluate killing of exponential and stationary-phase cells. The effects on biofilms (growth inhibition and biofilm eradication) were evaluated using biofilm-coated pegs. The frequency of spontaneous resistant mutants was evaluated by either direct plating or by continuous sub-culturing at 0.5 × MIC levels, followed by population analysis profiles. The results showed that NAI-107 and its brominated variant are highly active against Neisseria gonorrhoeae and some other fastidious Gram-negative pathogens. Furthermore, all compounds strongly synergized with polymyxin against Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and showed bactericidal activity. Surprisingly, NAI-107 alone was bactericidal against non-dividing A. baumannii cells. Against S. aureus, NAI-107 and related lantibiotics showed strong bactericidal activity against dividing and non-dividing cells. Activity was also observed against S. aureus biofilms. As expected for a lipid II binder, no significant resistance to NAI-107 was observed by direct plating or serial passages. Overall, the results of the current work, along with previously published results on the efficacy of NAI-107 in experimental models of infection, indicate that this lantibiotic represents a promising option in addressing the serious threat of antibiotic resistance. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial

  19. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF SATUREJA HORTENSIS L. TOWARDS PATHOGENIC MICROBIAL STRAINS

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    Kotyuk L. A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides the information on the component composition of ethereal oil of Satureja hortensis cultivated in Zhytomyr Polissya. In the ethereal oil of summer savory, 19 components were identified: carvacrol (89,07%, γ-terpinene (3,53%, α-thujone (1,7%, camphora (1,48%, terpinen-4 ol 4 (0,91%, β-bisabolen (0,56%, β-caryophyllene (0,45%, bitsiklogermakren (0,38% para-cymene (0,34%, 1,8-cineole (0,33%, trans-sabinengidrat (0.25%, 1-octen-3-ol (0.20%, spatulenol (0,18%, β-thujone (0,14%, eugenol (0,11%, geranylacetate (0,11%, humulene (0,09%, α-terpinene (0,09%, octanol-3 (0,07%. A high carvacrol content determines antimicrobial properties of summer savory. The antimicrobial activity of S. hortensis extract was studied in accordance with the common methodology of determining the sensitivity of microorganisms to antibacterial preparations. The aboveground part of plants harvested in the last ten-day period of August, in the flowering phase, was used in the experiments. The raw material was reduced to fragments of 1-1.5mm according to the requirements of pharmacopoeia. The extract of S. hortensis was obtained by the method of maceration in 40% ethyl alcohol at a ratio of 1:5 and the concentration of 200mg/ml. The availability of antimicrobial activity of extracted substances in the structure of the substances studied was determined by the way of comparison of their minimum inhibiting concentrations (MIC and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentrations (MBC/MFC with those in 40% ethyl alcohol. The paper investigates the biological activity of 40 % ethanol extract of Satureja hortensis herb grown under the conditions of Ukrainian Polissya as to golden staphylococcus (Staphylococcus aureus, coliform bacillus Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans which are pathogenic in reference to other organisms. It has been shown that S. hortensis extract was characterized by antimicrobial activity since extracted substances

  20. Pentaclethra macroloba tannins fractions active against methicillin-resistant staphylococcal and Gram-negative strains showing selective toxicity

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    Ivana Correa Ramos Leal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of the vegetal species Pentaclethra macroloba (Willd. Kuntze, Fabaceae, was fractioned and the antibacterial activity was determined. The active ethyl acetate (ea fraction showed activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae multiresistant bacteria. Gallic acid derivatives were identified as the main compounds in inactive subfractions from the ea fraction, while the active one afforded ellagic acid as the major constituent when submitted to acid hydrolysis reaction, which suggests the presence of hydrolysable tannins. The minimum bactericidal concentration analysis showed a bactericide mechanism of action for the tannin subfraction found. The antibacterial mechanism of action of the active tannin subfraction against S. aureus reference strains (ATCC 29213 e 33591 was proposed adopting an in vitro assay of protein synthesis inhibition. For this, bacterial cells were labeled with [35S] methionine in the presence of the subfraction. The protein synthesis inhibition was observed at 256 µg/mL of this subfraction. At this concentration it did not present cytotoxicity in eukaryotic cells by the neutral red technique, suggesting selective toxicity. The present study is the first in vitro investigation of the antibacterial properties of tannin fractions obtained from a polar extract of P. macroloba.

  1. Pentaclethra macroloba tannins fractions active against methicillin-resistant staphylococcal and Gram-negative strains showing selective toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Correa Ramos Leal

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract of the vegetal species Pentaclethra macroloba (Willd. Kuntze, Fabaceae, was fractioned and the antibacterial activity was determined. The active ethyl acetate (ea fraction showed activity against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus spp. and Enterococcus spp. and Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Klebsiella pneumoniae multiresistant bacteria. Gallic acid derivatives were identified as the main compounds in inactive subfractions from the ea fraction, while the active one afforded ellagic acid as the major constituent when submitted to acid hydrolysis reaction, which suggests the presence of hydrolysable tannins. The minimum bactericidal concentration analysis showed a bactericide mechanism of action for the tannin subfraction found. The antibacterial mechanism of action of the active tannin subfraction against S. aureus reference strains (ATCC 29213 e 33591 was proposed adopting an in vitro assay of protein synthesis inhibition. For this, bacterial cells were labeled with [35S] methionine in the presence of the subfraction. The protein synthesis inhibition was observed at 256 µg/mL of this subfraction. At this concentration it did not present cytotoxicity in eukaryotic cells by the neutral red technique, suggesting selective toxicity. The present study is the first in vitro investigation of the antibacterial properties of tannin fractions obtained from a polar extract of P. macroloba.

  2. Selection of an optimal antiseptic solution for intraoperative irrigation: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Meurs, S J; Gawlitta, D; Heemstra, K A; Poolman, R W; Vogely, H C; Kruyt, M C

    2014-02-19

    With increasing bacterial antibiotic resistance and an increased infection risk due to more complicated surgical procedures and patient populations, prevention of surgical infection is of paramount importance. Intraoperative irrigation with an antiseptic solution could provide an effective way to reduce postoperative infection rates. Although numerous studies have been conducted on the bactericidal or cytotoxic characteristics of antiseptics, the combination of these characteristics for intraoperative application has not been addressed. Bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis) and human cells were exposed to polyhexanide, hydrogen peroxide, octenidine dihydrochloride, povidone-iodine, and chlorhexidine digluconate at various dilutions for two minutes. Bactericidal properties were calculated by means of the quantitative suspension method. The cytotoxic effect on human fibroblasts and mesenchymal stromal cells was determined by a WST-1 metabolic activity assay. All of the antiseptics except for polyhexanide were bactericidal and cytotoxic at the commercially available concentrations. When diluted, only povidone-iodine was bactericidal at a concentration at which some cell viability remained. The other antiseptics tested showed no cellular survival at the minimal bactericidal concentration. Povidone-iodine diluted to a concentration of 1.3 g/L could be the optimal antiseptic for intraoperative irrigation. This should be established by future clinical studies.

  3. Enhanced bactericidal potency of nanoliposomes by modification of the fusion activity between liposomes and bacterium

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    Ma YF

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Yufan Ma,1 Zhao Wang,1,2 Wen Zhao,1 Tingli Lu,1 Rutao Wang,1,2 Qibing Mei,1 Tao Chen1–3 1Key Laboratory for Space Bioscience and Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China; 2Shaanxi Liposome Research Center, Xi'an, Shaanxi, People's Republic of China; 3Xi'an Libang Pharmaceuticals Co, Ltd, Xi'an, People's Republic of China Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa represents a good model of antibiotic resistance. These organisms have an outer membrane with a low level of permeability to drugs that is often combined with multidrug efflux pumps, enzymatic inactivation of the drug, or alteration of its molecular target. The acute and growing problem of antibiotic resistance of Pseudomonas to conventional antibiotics made it imperative to develop new liposome formulations to overcome these mechanisms, and investigate the fusion between liposome and bacterium. Methods: The rigidity, stability and charge properties of phospholipid vesicles were modified by varying the cholesterol, 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE, and negatively charged lipids 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol sodium salt (DMPG, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phopho-L-serine sodium salt (DMPS, 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate monosodium salt (DMPA, nature phosphatidylserine sodium salt from brain and nature phosphatidylinositol sodium salt from soybean concentrations in liposomes. Liposomal fusion with intact bacteria was monitored using a lipid-mixing assay. Results: It was discovered that the fluid liposomes-bacterium fusion is not dependent on liposomal size and lamellarity. A similar degree of fusion was observed for liposomes with a particle size from 100 to 800 nm. The fluidity of liposomes is an essential pre-request for liposomes fusion with bacteria. Fusion was almost completely inhibited by incorporation of cholesterol into fluid liposomes. The increase in the

  4. Minimum income protection in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Peijpe, T.

    2009-01-01

    This article offers an overview of the Dutch legal system of minimum income protection through collective bargaining, social security, and statutory minimum wages. In addition to collective agreements, the Dutch statutory minimum wage offers income protection to a small number of workers. Its

  5. Towards Finding the Global Minimum of the D-Wave Objective Function for Improved Neural Network Regressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorband, J. E.

    2017-12-01

    The D-Wave 2X has successfully been used for regression analysis to derive carbon flux data from OCO-2 CO2 concentration using neural networks. The samples returned from the D-Wave should represent the minimum of an objective function presented to it. An accurate as possible minimum function value is needed for this analysis. Samples from the D-Wave are near minimum, but seldom are the global minimum of the function due to quantum noise. Two methods for improving the accuracy of minimized values represented by the samples returned from the D-Wave are presented. The first method finds a new sample with a minimum value near each returned D-Wave sample. The second method uses all the returned samples to find a more global minimum sample. We present three use-cases performed using the former method. In the first use case, it is demonstrated that an objective function with random qubits and coupler coefficients had an improved minimum. In the second use case, the samples corrected by the first method can improve the training of a Boltzmann machine neural network. The third use case demonstrated that using the first method can improve virtual qubit accuracy.The later method was also performed on the first use case.

  6. Antimicrobial activity of nisin against the swine pathogen Streptococcus suis and its synergistic interaction with antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Geneviève; Piché, Fanny; Frenette, Michel; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Grenier, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is known to cause severe infections in pigs, including meningitis, endocarditis and pneumonia. Furthermore, this bacterium is considered an emerging zoonotic agent. Recently, increased antibiotic resistance in S. suis has been reported worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of nisin, a bacteriocin of the lantibiotic class, as an antibacterial agent against the pathogen S. suis serotype 2. In addition, the synergistic activity of nisin in combination with conventional antibiotics was assessed. Using a plate assay, the nisin-producing strain Lactococcus lactis ATCC 11454 proved to be capable of inhibiting the growth of S. suis (n=18) belonging to either sequence type (ST)1, ST25, or ST28. In a microdilution broth assay, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of purified nisin ranged between 1.25 and 5 μg/mL while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was between 5 and 10 μg/mL toward S. suis. The use of a capsule-deficient mutant of S. suis indicated that the presence of this polysaccharidic structure has no marked impact on susceptibility to nisin. Following treatment of S. suis with nisin, transmission electron microscopy observations revealed lysis of bacteria resulting from breakdown of the cell membrane. A time-killing curve showed a rapid bactericidal activity of nisin. Lastly, synergistic effects of nisin were observed in combination with several antibiotics, including penicillin, amoxicillin, tetracycline, streptomycin and ceftiofur. This study brought clear evidence supporting the potential of nisin for the prevention and treatment of S. suis infections in pigs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Production of TiO2 films with bactericidal properties deposited on paper substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisboa, A.J.T.; Vasconcelos, J.S.; Vasconcelos, A.C.S.; Vasconcelos, N.S.L.S.; Rangel, J.H.G.; Oliveira, M.M.O. [Universidade Federal do Maranha (UFMA), MA (Brazil); Longo, E.; Varela, J. A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of this work was to obtain anatase-phase titanium oxide films deposited on paper substrates, using the polymeric precursor (Pechini) method. The oxide was mixed with a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution and deposited on a paper substrate. The samples were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), to check their surface phase. Bactericidal assays using Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria for the anatase TiO2 film deposited on paper substrate indicated that the method was efficient, since the bacteria were eliminated after a given exposure time. However, the method proved to be more efficient when exposing samples contaminated with E. coli to UV irradiation for 30 and 45 min and then to sunlight for 90 min, since this resulted in the elimination of all the bacteria. (author)

  8. Production of TiO2 films with bactericidal properties deposited on paper substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisboa, A.J.T.; Vasconcelos, J.S.; Vasconcelos, A.C.S.; Vasconcelos, N.S.L.S.; Rangel, J.H.G.; Oliveira, M.M.O.; Longo, E.; Varela, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to obtain anatase-phase titanium oxide films deposited on paper substrates, using the polymeric precursor (Pechini) method. The oxide was mixed with a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution and deposited on a paper substrate. The samples were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission gun scanning electron microscopy (FEG-SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), to check their surface phase. Bactericidal assays using Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria for the anatase TiO2 film deposited on paper substrate indicated that the method was efficient, since the bacteria were eliminated after a given exposure time. However, the method proved to be more efficient when exposing samples contaminated with E. coli to UV irradiation for 30 and 45 min and then to sunlight for 90 min, since this resulted in the elimination of all the bacteria. (author)

  9. Antimicrobial activity of different disinfectants against cariogenic microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra UZER CELIK

    Full Text Available Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro antimicrobial effects of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX, polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHBM, and octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT on cariogenic microorganisms by using their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC. CHX, PHBM, and OCT were diluted in distilled water to the final test concentrations. Using the in-tube dilution method, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and Actinomyces viscosus were cultivated on blood agar and Mueller–Hinton broth (MHB at 37°C for 48 h. They were read using a spectrophotometer to detect MIC. To determine MBC, samples in the range of the turbidity threshold after 24 h were transferred onto blood agar and evaluated for growth after 24 h. Different MICs and MBCs were observed in all disinfectants against each microorganism. The lowest MIC and MBC against S. mutans (60 mg/L were obtained from PHBM. The lowest values against L. rhamnosus (15 mg/L, 30 mg/L, A. viscosus (30 mg/L, and L. acidophilus (15 mg/L, 30 mg/L were determined by OCT. PHBM and OCT have the potential to be replaced with CHX because they were effective against cariogenic microorganisms.

  10. Study on Salting out-Steam Distillation Extraction Technology and Antibacterial Activities of Essential Oil from Cumin Seeds

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    Hong Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different factors on the yield of essential oil from were discussed, and the extraction conditions of essential oil from cumin seeds by salting out-steam distillation technology based on single-factor test and orthogonal experiment, as well as its antibacterial activities on several common food spoilage bacteria were studied in this paper. The results showed that, the impact order of the influence factors was liquid/solid ratio > distilling time > NaCl concentration, and optimized extraction conditions were as follows, liquid to material ratio 15:1, soaking time 1 h, 4% NaCl, steam distilling time 3 h. The yield of essential oil was up to 4.48% under these conditions. The results of antibacterial activity assays showed that the essential oil from cumin seeds exhibited the different antibacterial activities against some food borne pathogens, especially it presented the best inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of 6.25 and 12.5 mg/mL respectively, followed by Staphylococcus albus and Staphylococcus aureus, the lowest for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella dysenteriae

  11. Antibacterial activities of medicinal plants against multidrug resistant urinary tract pathogens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, M.A.; Adnan, M.; Rahman, H.; Allah, A.; Hashem, A.

    2017-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacterial pathogens have become a serious global health concern. Main etiological agents for UTI are Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Recently, medicinal plants have found great popularity in medical treatment for different kinds of infections including urinary tract infections. The study has been planned to evaluate the efficacy of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins and crude extracts of medicinal plants i.e. Syzygium aromaticum, Glycerrhiza glabra,Laurus nobilis and Brassica rapa against MDR urinary tract pathogens through agar well diffusion method. To investigate the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBCs), dilution method was used. Quantitative evaluations of phytochemicals indicated the presence of alkaloids in higher concentrations. Results obtained for the antibacterial activities, the crude extracts of the four plants showed significantly higher inhibition zones as compared to other phytochemicals. The MIC values obtained for different extracts varying from 7.5-15 mg/ml. Comparig the activities of the extracts of the the four medicinal plants it was found that Syzygium aromaticum was the most potent plant against the tested bacterial pathogens indicating its strong candidateship for the drug development. (author)

  12. Continuous measurements of outdoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, T.; Ikebe, Y.; Suzuki, K.; Ueno, K.; Komura, K.; Kato, I.; Jin Yihe

    1993-01-01

    The authors studied and developed an electrostatic 222 Rn monitor and have measured continuously outdoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations at Nagoya University since 1985. Four 222 Rn monitors were newly constructed to measure outdoor 222 Rn concentrations at other locations. The 222 Rn concentrations at Nagoya and Kasugai show a clear diurnal variation in autumn, and a seasonal pattern of a spring-summer minimum and a autumn-winter maximum. The results at Toki are the same pattern as that at Nagoya except spring. The concentrations at Kanazawa show a slight seasonal variation. A clear diurnal variation is observed in summer. (4 figs.)

  13. Antimicrobial Activity of Isothiocyanates from Cruciferous Plants against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA

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    Carla Dias

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purified isothiocyanates from cruciferous plants (Brassicacea, Syn. Cruciferae plants were evaluated against 15 isolates of methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolated from diabetic foot-ulcer patients aiming the study of the potential usage of allyl-isothiocyanate, benzyl-isothiocyanate and 2-phenylethyl-isothiocyanate against this important bacteria. Disc diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration methods were used to access the antimicrobial activity. The index (Ia and rate (Ra of the antibacterial activity for each compound were calculated. The results showed a highly dose-dependent compound and chemical structure antibacterial effectiveness. The results showed a strong relation between the chemical structure of isothiocyanates and its antibacterial effectiveness. The benzyl-isothiocyanate was the most effective with a minimum inhibitory concentration varying between 2.9 and 110 µg·mL−1 with an antibacterial activity rate up to 87%. Moreover, their antibacterial activity was mainly bactericidal. This study provides scientific evidence that isothiocyanates have an interesting biological value and must be considered as an important tool to be used against MRSA.

  14. Chemical compounds and antimicrobial activity of petitgrain (Citrus aurantium L. var. amara essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gniewosz Małgorzata

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to its low cost and easy availability on the market, the petitgrain oil is commonly used in food, cosmetics, and aromatherapy. Objective: The examination of chemical composition and antibacterial activity of commercial petitgrain oil. Methods: Identification of chemical components of the petitgrain oil was performed by gas chromatography (GC. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentrations (MBC/MFC were determined using macrodilution method for the reference strains of bacteria and fungi. Results: Twenty components were identified. The petitgrain oil contained mostly oxygenated monoterpene hydrocarbons (98.01%, and the main components included linalyl acetate (48.06% and linalool (26.88%. The MIC/MBC of the petitgrain oil for bacteria was in the range of 0.63-5.0/1.25-5.0 mg/ml and for fungi in the range of 1.25-40/5.0-80 mg/ml. Conclusion: The petitgrain oil had higher antibacterial activity than antifungal activity. Bacillus subtilis among the tested bacteria and Aspergillus niger and Penicillium expansum among the fungi were found to be highly inhibited by the petitgrain oil.

  15. TOTAL PHENOLIC CONTENT, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF THE EXTRACT OF EPHEDRA PROCERA FISCH. ET MEY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehkordi, Naser Vahed; Kachouie, Mehrdad Ataie; Pirbalouti, Abdollah Ghasemi; Malekpoor, Fatemeh; Rabei, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Ephedra prcera belonging to the family Ephedraceae is a poison and medicinal plant. The main aim of present study was to determine total phenolic content and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of ethanolic extract from the aerial parts of E. procera collected from a natural habitat in Chaharmahal va Bakhtiari province, Southwestern Iran. The total phenolic content of the extract by Folin-Ciocalteu method and the antioxidant activity using DPPH assay were determined. The antibacterial activity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extract were evaluated against five bacteria, including Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enteobacter aeogenes, Bacillus ceirus and Staphylococcus aureus. Total phenolic content in the extract of E. procera was 0.718 mg tannic acid/g dry weight extract. The results indicated that the ethanolic extract of E. piocera exhibited radical scavenging activity. In addition, the results of this study confirmed that the ethanolic extract of E. procera exhibited antibacterial activity. In conclusion, the extract of E. piocera could be an important source of phenolic components with antioxidant capacity and antibacterial activity.

  16. Effects of gamma irradiation of the 60 Co on antimicrobial action of plant extracts of bark and leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Edvane Borges da; Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Amaral, Ademir de Jesus; Xisto, Kesia; Araujo, Rosilma de Oliveira

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential for antimicrobial activity in vitro of extracts of bark and leaves of S. terebinthifolius treated with 60 Co gamma radiation. 5,0 doses were used; 7.5 and 10 kGy, being held non-irradiated controls. To determine the antimicrobial activity was applied to the disc diffusion technique to evaluate the diameter of the inhibition zones against Gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, alcohol-acid-resistant and yeast. Antimicrobial activity was considered significant for halos ≥ 15 mm. The results indicate an intensification of antimicrobial action of bark extracts, the 5.0 kGy, against S. aureus. Was held the micro dilution in broth to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of peels extracts, compared to eight clinical isolates of S. aureus. The MBC values showed that ionizing radiation did not produce the increased of anti bacteriostatic action of S. terebinthifolius, but the results indicated that S. terebinthifolius bark extracts can be used as an antimicrobial agent and ionizing radiation as an important alternative in this conservation feature

  17. Biogenic synthesis of palladium nanoparticles and their applications as catalyst and antimicrobial agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Munmi; Borah, Debajit; Bora, Popymita; Silva, Ana R; Das, Pankaj

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes a simple in-situ process of synthesizing highly dispersed palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) using aqueous leaf extract of GarciniapedunculataRoxb as bio-reductant and starch (0.3%) as bio-stabilizer. The PdNPs are characterized by techniques like FTIR, TEM, SEM-EDX, XRD and XPS analysis. It is worthnoting thatwhen the synthesis of nanoparticles was carried out in absence of starch, agglomeration of particles has been noticed.The starch-assisted PdNPs showed excellent aqueous-phase catalytic activities for three important reactions: the Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions of aryl halides (aryl bromides and iodides) with arylboronic acids; selective oxidations of alcohols to corresponding carbonyl compounds; and reduction of toxic Cr(VI) to nontoxic Cr(III). Our catalyst could be reused up to four cycles without much compromising with its activity. Furthermore, the material also demonstrated excellent antimicrobial and anti-biofilm activities against a novel multidrug resistant clinical bacterial isolate Cronobactersakazakii strain AMD04. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of PdNPswere found to be 0.06 and 0.12 mM respectively.

  18. Effects of gamma irradiation of the {sup 60} Co on antimicrobial action of plant extracts of bark and leaves of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi; Efeitos da radiacao gama do {sup 60} Co sobre a acao antimicrobiana de extratos vegetais de cascas e folhas de Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Edvane Borges da; Santos, Gustavo Henrique Farias dos; Amaral, Ademir de Jesus [Universidade Federal da Pernambuco (GERAR/DEN/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Energia Nuclear. Grupo de Estudos em Radioprotecao e Radioecologia; Lima, Jeniffer Maiza de Souza [Universidade Federal da Pernambuco (CAV/UFPE), Vitoria de Santo Antao, PE (Brazil); Xisto, Kesia; Araujo, Rosilma de Oliveira [Universidade Federal da Pernambuco (DA/UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Antibioticos

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the potential for antimicrobial activity in vitro of extracts of bark and leaves of S. terebinthifolius treated with {sup 60}Co gamma radiation. 5,0 doses were used; 7.5 and 10 kGy, being held non-irradiated controls. To determine the antimicrobial activity was applied to the disc diffusion technique to evaluate the diameter of the inhibition zones against Gram-positive bacteria, gram-negative bacteria, alcohol-acid-resistant and yeast. Antimicrobial activity was considered significant for halos ≥ 15 mm. The results indicate an intensification of antimicrobial action of bark extracts, the 5.0 kGy, against S. aureus. Was held the micro dilution in broth to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of peels extracts, compared to eight clinical isolates of S. aureus. The MBC values showed that ionizing radiation did not produce the increased of anti bacteriostatic action of S. terebinthifolius, but the results indicated that S. terebinthifolius bark extracts can be used as an antimicrobial agent and ionizing radiation as an important alternative in this conservation feature.

  19. Antimicrobial Activity of Allicin against Colonizing Group B Streptococci Isolated from Pregnant Women in Ardabil, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Jannati

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Group B streptococci (GBS are the major cause of neonatal and maternal infections. They are susceptible to penicillin, ampicillin and first-generation cephalosporins. However, resistance to other antibiotics such as erythromycin and clindamycin is common among GBS strains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of allicin against colonizing GBS strains in vitro.   Methods: Garlic extract was prepared and allicin was purified using semi-preparative HPLC procedure. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC of allicin were determined for 52 GBS strains using microdilution method in Todd Hewitt broth medium.   Results: MIC of allicin was 64-128 µg/mL (MIC90 = 128 and MBC of allicin was 128 to 512µg/mL (MBC90 = 256 for GBS strains.   Conclusion: The results of this study showed that allicin can inhibit growth of GBS in vitro. Further studies on allicin might be worthy of evaluation as a therapeutic agent in treatment of GBS infections.

  20. Antibacterial Activity of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton Hassk. Leaf Extract against Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surasak Limsuwan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extract of Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton Hassk. leaf was evaluated for antibacterial activity against 47 clinical isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes. The extract exhibited good anti-S. pyogenes activity against all the tested isolates with similar minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC, 3.91–62.5 μg mL−1 and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC, 3.91–62.5 μg mL−1 ranges. No surviving cells were detected at 16 h after treatment with 8 × MIC of the extract. The extract-treated cells demonstrated no lysis and cytoplasmic leakage through the bacterial membrane. Electron micrographs further revealed that the extract did not cause any dramatic changes on the treated cells. Rhodomyrtone, an isolated compound, exhibited good anti-S. pyogenes activity (14 isolates, expressed very low MIC (0.39–1.56 μg mL−1 and MBC (0.39-1.56 μg mL−1 values. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa leaf extract and rhodomyrtone displayed promising antibacterial activity against clinical isolates of S. pyogenes.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of topically applied sparfloxacin in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satia Milan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Fluoroquinolones are antimicrobial agents that have a broad spectrum of activity and are widely used against many of the ocular pathogens, responsible for conjunctivitis, blepharitis, corneal ulcers etc. The aim of our study was to evaluate the ocular pharmacokinetics of sparfloxacin (0.3% w/v in the aqueous humour of rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pharmacokinetics of topically administered sparfloxacin were determined after a single application of 50 µl topically. The aqueous humour samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 hours after instillation. High Performance Thin Layer Chromatographic method was used to analyse the drug concentration in the aqueous humour samples. RESULTS: Fifteen minutes after the instillation of 50 µl of sparfloxacin 0.3% solution, the mean concentration in aqueous humour was found to be 1.4 µg/ml, which reaches the peak level of 3.7 µg/ml after 1.3 hours. At 6 hours, the sparfloxacin aqueous levels were 0.562 µg/ml. The clinical efficacy was predicted based on the Maximum Concentration (Cmax: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Area Under the Concentration-time curve (AUC:MIC ratios. CONCLUSION: The sparfloxacin levels in aqueous humour of rabbits are sufficiently high up to the 6 hours after instillation in the conjunctival sac to provide bactericidal effect against most of the ocular pathogens. Both Cmax:MIC and AUC:MIC ratios are high enough to provide bactericidal effect against most of the ocular pathogens. Sparfloxacin (0.3% ophthalmic preparation has excellent penetration through cornea.

  2. Detection and characterisation of Complement protein activity in bovine milk by bactericidal sequestration assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maye, Susan; Stanton, Catherine; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Kelly, Philip M

    2015-08-01

    While the Complement protein system in human milk is well characterised, there is little information on its presence and activity in bovine milk. Complement forms part of the innate immune system, hence the importance of its contribution during milk ingestion to the overall defences of the neonate. A bactericidal sequestration assay, featuring a Complement sensitive strain, Escherichia coli 0111, originally used to characterise Complement activity in human milk was successfully applied to freshly drawn bovine milk samples, thus, providing an opportunity to compare Complement activities in both human and bovine milks. Although not identical in response, the levels of Complement activity in bovine milk were found to be closely comparable with that of human milk. Differential counts of Esch. coli 0111 after 2 h incubation were 6.20 and 6.06 log CFU/ml, for raw bovine and human milks, respectively - the lower value representing a stronger Complement response. Exposing bovine milk to a range of thermal treatments e.g. 42, 45, 65, 72, 85 or 95 °C for 10 min, progressively inhibited Complement activity by increasing temperature, thus confirming the heat labile nature of this immune protein system. Low level Complement activity was found, however, in 65 and 72 °C heat treated samples and in retailed pasteurised milk which highlights the outer limit to which high temperature, short time (HTST) industrial thermal processes should be applied if retention of activity is a priority. Concentration of Complement in the fat phase was evident following cream separation, and this was also reflected in the further loss of activity recorded in low fat variants of retailed pasteurised milk. Laboratory-based churning of the cream during simulated buttermaking generated an aqueous (buttermilk) phase with higher levels of Complement activity than the fat phase, thus pointing to a likely association with the milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) layer.

  3. Antimicrobial effects of Turkish propolis, pollen, and laurel on spoilage and pathogenic food-related microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkmen, Osman; Ozcan, Mehmet Musa

    2008-09-01

    The antimicrobial activities of propolis extract, pollen extract, and essential oil of laurel (Laurus nobilis L.) at concentrations from 0.02% to 2.5% (vol/vol) were investigated on bacteria (Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Enterococcus faecalis, and Listeria monocytogenes), yeasts (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida rugosa), and molds (Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus oryzae). Pollen has no antimicrobial effects on the bacteria and fungi tested in the concentrations used. Propolis showed a bactericidal effect at 0.02% on B. cereus and B. subtilis, at 1.0% on S. aureus and E. faecalis, and at 0.2% on L. monocytogenes. The minimum inhibitory concentration of propolis for fungi was 2.5%. Propolis and laurel were ineffective against E. coli and S. typhimurium at the concentrations tested. The results showed that the antimicrobial activity were concentration dependent. Propolis and essential oil of laurel may be used as biopreservative agents in food processing and preservation.

  4. Effect of higher minimum inhibitory concentrations of quaternary ammonium compounds in clinical E. coli isolates on antibiotic susceptibilities and clinical outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet-Bataillon, S; Branger, B; Cormier, M; Bonnaure-Mallet, M; Jolivet-Gougeon, A

    2011-10-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are cationic surfactants used as preservatives and environmental disinfectants. Limited data are available regarding the effect of QACs in the clinical setting. We performed a prospective cohort study in 153 patients with Escherichia coli bacteraemia from February to September 2008 at University Hospital in Rennes. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of antibiotics and QACs alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) were determined by the agar dilution method. The capacity of biofilm production was assayed using the Crystal Violet method, and mutation frequencies by measuring the capacity of strains to generate resistance to rifampicin. Logistic regression analysis showed that one of the significant factors related to low MICs for ADBAC (≤16 mg/L) and DDAC (≤8 mg/L), was cotrimoxazole susceptibility (odds ratio: 3.72; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-11.24; P=0.02 and OR: 3.61; 95% CI: 1.56-7.56; PAntibiotic susceptibility to cotrimoxazole was strongly associated with susceptibility to amoxicillin and nalidixic acid (PE. coli isolates and antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Short communication: Interaction of the isomers carvacrol and thymol with the antibiotics doxycycline and tilmicosin: In vitro effects against pathogenic bacteria commonly found in the respiratory tract of calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissels, W; Wu, X; Santos, R R

    2017-02-01

    Bovine respiratory disease is the major problem faced by cattle, specially calves, leading to reduced animal performance and increased mortality, consequently causing important economic losses. Hence, calves must be submitted to antibiotic therapy to counteract this infection usually initiated by the combination of environmental stress factors and viral infection, altering the animal's defense mechanism, and thus allowing lung colonization by the opportunistic bacteria Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. Essential oils appear to be candidates to replace antibiotics or to act as antibiotic adjuvants due to their antimicrobial properties. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the 4 essential oil components carvacrol, thymol, trans-anethole, and 1,8 cineole as antibacterial agents or as adjuvants for the antibiotics doxycycline and tilmicosin against M. haemolytica and P. multocida. Bacteria were cultured according to standard protocols, followed by the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration. A checkerboard assay was applied to detect possible interactions between components, between antibiotics, and between components and antibiotics. Doxycycline at 0.25 and 0.125 μg/mL inhibited the growth of P. multocida and M. haemolytica, respectively, whereas tilmicosin MIC values were 1.0 and 4.0 μg/mL for P. multocida and M. haemolytica, respectively. Carvacrol MIC values were 2.5 and 1.25 mM for P. multocida and M. haemolytica, respectively, whereas thymol MIC values were 1.25 and 0.625 mM for P. multocida and M. haemolytica, respectively. Trans-anethole and 1,8 cineole did not present any antibacterial effect even at 40 mM against the investigated pathogens. All minimum bactericidal concentration values were the same as MIC, except when thymol was tested against M. haemolytica, being twice the MIC data (i.e., 1.25 mM thymol). Based on fractional inhibitory concentration checkerboard assay, no

  6. Application of the atomic absorption technical to available the concentration of silver ions incorporated in glass matrix by ionic exchange process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendes, E.; Silva, K.F.; Teixeira, A.; Silva, L.; Paula, M.M.S.; Angioletto, E.; Riella, H.G.; Fiori, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    Ion specimens can be incorporated in glasses or natural clays by ionic exchange process with different concentrations dependent of matrix's type and of the ionic exchange parameters. In particular, the incorporation of silver ions presents high interest by its biocidal properties. A compound contending ion silver specimens presents bactericidal and fungicidal properties with effect proportional to ion concentration. This work presents results about application of the atomic absorption technical to determine the silver ion concentration incorporated in a glass matrix by ionic exchange process. The ionic exchange experiments were realized with different AgNO 3 concentration and constant temperature. After ionic exchange process, the glass samples were submitted to characterization by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy and Atomic Absorption Techniques. The comparative results between different techniques showed that atomic absorption technical is adequate to determine ion silver concentration incorporated in the glass matrix after ionic exchange process. (author)

  7. Phytochemical characterization, antimicrobial activity and reducing potential of seed oil, latex, machine oil and presscake of Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Sharma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aims to evaluate the antimicrobial activity, phytochemical studies and thin layer chromatography analysis of machine oil, hexane extract of seed oil and methanol extract of presscake& latex of Jatropha curcas Linn (family Euphorbiaceae. Materials and Methods: J. curcas extracts were subjected to preliminary qualitative phytochemical screening to detect the major phytochemicals followed by its reducing power and content of phenol and flavonoids in different fractions. Thin layer chromatography was also performed using different solvent systems for the analysis of a number of constituents in the plant extracts. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by the disc diffusion method, while the minimum inhibitory concentration, minimum bactericidal concentration and minimum fungicidal concentration were calculated by micro dilution method. Results: The methanolic fraction of latex and cake exhibited marked antifungal and antibacterial activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, terpenoids, steroids, glycosides, phenols and flavonoids. Reducing power showed dose dependent increase in concentration compared to standard Quercetin. Furthermore, this study recommended the isolation and separation of bioactive compounds responsible for the antibacterial activity which would be done by using different chromatographic methods such as high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, GC-MS etc. Conclusion: The results of the above study suggest that all parts of the plants possess potent antibacterial activity. Hence, it is important to isolate the active principles for further testing of antimicrobial and other biological efficacy.

  8. Computation of distribution of minimum resolution for log-normal distribution of chromatographic peak heights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joe M

    2011-10-28

    General equations are derived for the distribution of minimum resolution between two chromatographic peaks, when peak heights in a multi-component chromatogram follow a continuous statistical distribution. The derivation draws on published theory by relating the area under the distribution of minimum resolution to the area under the distribution of the ratio of peak heights, which in turn is derived from the peak-height distribution. Two procedures are proposed for the equations' numerical solution. The procedures are applied to the log-normal distribution, which recently was reported to describe the distribution of component concentrations in three complex natural mixtures. For published statistical parameters of these mixtures, the distribution of minimum resolution is similar to that for the commonly assumed exponential distribution of peak heights used in statistical-overlap theory. However, these two distributions of minimum resolution can differ markedly, depending on the scale parameter of the log-normal distribution. Theory for the computation of the distribution of minimum resolution is extended to other cases of interest. With the log-normal distribution of peak heights as an example, the distribution of minimum resolution is computed when small peaks are lost due to noise or detection limits, and when the height of at least one peak is less than an upper limit. The distribution of minimum resolution shifts slightly to lower resolution values in the first case and to markedly larger resolution values in the second one. The theory and numerical procedure are confirmed by Monte Carlo simulation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Understanding the Minimum Wage: Issues and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment Policies Inst. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    This booklet, which is designed to clarify facts regarding the minimum wage's impact on marketplace economics, contains a total of 31 questions and answers pertaining to the following topics: relationship between minimum wages and poverty; impacts of changes in the minimum wage on welfare reform; and possible effects of changes in the minimum wage…

  10. Youth minimum wages and youth employment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marimpi, Maria; Koning, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    This paper performs a cross-country level analysis on the impact of the level of specific youth minimum wages on the labor market performance of young individuals. We use information on the use and level of youth minimum wages, as compared to the level of adult minimum wages as well as to the median

  11. Bactericidal performance of visible-light responsive titania photocatalyst with silver nanostructures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Show Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Titania dioxide (TiO(2 photocatalyst is primarily induced by ultraviolet light irradiation. Visible-light responsive anion-doped TiO(2 photocatalysts contain higher quantum efficiency under sunlight and can be used safely in indoor settings without exposing to biohazardous ultraviolet light. The antibacterial efficiency, however, remains to be further improved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using thermal reduction method, here we synthesized silver-nanostructures coated TiO(2 thin films that contain a high visible-light responsive antibacterial property. Among our tested titania substrates including TiO(2, carbon-doped TiO(2 [TiO(2 (C] and nitrogen-doped TiO(2 [TiO(2 (N], TiO(2 (N showed the best performance after silver coating. The synergistic antibacterial effect results approximately 5 log reductions of surviving bacteria of Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Acinetobacter baumannii. Scanning electron microscope analysis indicated that crystalline silver formed unique wire-like nanostructures on TiO(2 (N substrates, while formed relatively straight and thicker rod-shaped precipitates on the other two titania materials. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggested that proper forms of silver on various titania materials could further influence the bactericidal property.

  12. Discretization of space and time: determining the values of minimum length and minimum time

    OpenAIRE

    Roatta , Luca

    2017-01-01

    Assuming that space and time can only have discrete values, we obtain the expression of the minimum length and the minimum time interval. These values are found to be exactly coincident with the Planck's length and the Planck's time but for the presence of h instead of ħ .

  13. Minimum wage development in the Russian Federation

    OpenAIRE

    Bolsheva, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyze the effectiveness of the minimum wage policy at the national level in Russia and its impact on living standards in the country. The analysis showed that the national minimum wage in Russia does not serve its original purpose of protecting the lowest wage earners and has no substantial effect on poverty reduction. The national subsistence minimum is too low and cannot be considered an adequate criterion for the setting of the minimum wage. The minimum wage d...

  14. Selection of antibiotic resistance at very low antibiotic concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandegren, Linus

    2014-05-01

    Human use of antibiotics has driven the selective enrichment of pathogenic bacteria resistant to clinically used drugs. Traditionally, the selection of resistance has been considered to occur mainly at high, therapeutic levels of antibiotics, but we are now beginning to understand better the importance of selection of resistance at low levels of antibiotics. The concentration of an antibiotic varies in different body compartments during treatment, and low concentrations of antibiotics are found in sewage water, soils, and many water environments due to natural production and contamination from human activities. Selection of resistance at non-lethal antibiotic concentrations (below the wild-type minimum inhibitory concentration) occurs due to differences in growth rate at the particular antibiotic concentration between cells with different tolerance levels to the antibiotic. The minimum selective concentration for a particular antibiotic is reached when its reducing effect on growth of the susceptible strain balances the reducing effect (fitness cost) of the resistance determinant in the resistant strain. Recent studies have shown that resistant bacteria can be selected at concentrations several hundred-fold below the lethal concentrations for susceptible cells. Resistant mutants selected at low antibiotic concentrations are generally more fit than those selected at high concentrations but can still be highly resistant. The characteristics of selection at low antibiotic concentrations, the potential clinical problems of this mode of selection, and potential solutions will be discussed.

  15. Oxidation of dibenzothiophene (DBT by Serratia marcescens UCP 1549 formed biphenyl as final product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Araújo Hélvia W

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The desulphurization of dibenzothiophene (DBT, a recalcitrant thiophenic fossil fuel component by Serratia marcescens (UCP 1549 in order for reducing the Sulphur content was investigated. The Study was carried out establishing the growth profile using Luria Bertani medium to different concentrations of DBT during 120 hours at 28°C, and orbital Shaker at 150 rpm. Results The results indicated that concentrations of DBT 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mM do not affected the growth of the bacterium. The DBT showed similar Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MCB (3.68 mM. The desulphurization of DBT by S. marcescens was used with 96 hours of growth on 2 mM of DBT, and was determined by gas chromatography (GC and GC-mass spectrometry. In order to study the desulphurization process by S. marcescens was observed the presence of a sulfur-free product at 16 hours of cultivation. Conclusions The data suggests the use of metabolic pathway “4S” by S. marcescens (UCP 1549 and formed biphenyl. The microbial desulphurization process by Serratia can be suggest significant reducing sulphur content in DBT, and showed promising potential for reduction of the sulfur content in diesel oil.

  16. Minimum emittance of three-bend achromats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaoyu; Xu Gang

    2012-01-01

    The calculation of the minimum emittance of three-bend achromats (TBAs) made by Mathematical software can ignore the actual magnets lattice in the matching condition of dispersion function in phase space. The minimum scaling factors of two kinds of widely used TBA lattices are obtained. Then the relationship between the lengths and the radii of the three dipoles in TBA is obtained and so is the minimum scaling factor, when the TBA lattice achieves its minimum emittance. The procedure of analysis and the results can be widely used in achromats lattices, because the calculation is not restricted by the actual lattice. (authors)

  17. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Padina pavonica and Enteromorpha sp. from the Tunisian Mediterranean coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Besbes Hlila

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the antioxidant and the antimicrobial activities of the marine seaweeds Padina pavonica (P. pavonica and Enteromorpha sp. from the Tunisian Mediterranean coast. Methods: The acetone and water were used for algae extraction to envisage the antimicrobial activity versus Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis and against four Candida. The microdilution method was used to evaluate this activity. In vitro, total phenolic content and the antioxidant activity including 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging and 2,2'-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS were also studied. Results: The highest amount of phenolic compound was found in the P. pavonica acetonic extract [(90.61 ± 0.11 mg catechin equivalent/g extract]. This brown algae sample demonstrated greater DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging ability potential in comparison to other green seaweed, Enteromorpha sp. The maximum antimicrobial activity was shown by the P. pavonica acetonic extract against all the pathogenic strains tested (minimum inhibitory concentrations = minimum inhibitory bactericidal = minimum inhibitory fungicidal concentrations = 0.04 mg/mL. Those activities might be due to phenolic substances present in this fraction. Conclusions: The present results highlight the possible use of P. pavonica as source of antioxidant and antimicrobial compounds.

  18. Antibacterial effects of Solanum tuberosum peel ethanol extract in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanpour Raana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, medicinal plants are being widely used due to being natural, available, and cheaper than synthetic drugs and having minimum side effects. Since there were reports about the antibacterial properties of Solanum tuberosum (SE, the aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effects of SE ethanol extract in vitro condition on Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods: Ethanol extract of SE peel was prepared by maceration method. Initially, antibacterial activity of ethanol extract of SE was qualitatively determined by disk diffusion test; then, the minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration were qualitatively determined by micro-dilution method. Results: SE peel extract had antibacterial properties and its effect was more pronounced on gram-positive bacteria, especially S. aureus (0.62±0.00 mg/ml. The extract had antibacterial activity on gram-negative bacteria, P. aeruginosa, too (8.33±2.88 mg/ml. Conclusion: SE peel extract has antibacterial activity and its effect on gram-positive bacteria was more pronounced than the investigated gram-negative bacteria. Therefore, it is suggested that SE peel constituent compounds be determined and to determine the exact mechanism of its antibacterial properties, and more comprehensive research be done to apply it, clinically.

  19. Comparison of tritium concentrations in rainwater, simulated infiltrating water, and groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Yoshiyuki; Saito, Masaaki; Imaizumi, Hiroshi; Kato, Norio; Kitaoka, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    The tritium concentration in initial groundwater(i.e., freshly infiltrating rainwater) is necessary for groundwater dating. We collected simulated infiltrating water as the initial groundwater and examined its characteristics for tritium concentration. First, in Tokyo, the tritium concentration of simulated infiltrating water was compared with that of rainwater, atmospheric moisture, groundwater, spring water, and sap water. While rainwater, atmospheric moisture, and simulated infiltrating water remarkably changed month-to-month or with every rainfall event, groundwater and spring water were nearly constant throughout the year. Second, we collected the simulated infiltrating water monthly at four sampling sites widely dispersed across Japan(i.e., Sapporo, Niigata, Tokyo, and Matsuyama) from 2004 to 2010. Sapporo and Niigata showed high tritium concentrations as compared with the relatively low concentrations in Tokyo and Matsuyama. These results indicate that we can obtain annual maximum and minimum concentrations at each site, and that we can estimate the tritium concentration in initial groundwater at each site by using a mixing model composed of these maximum and minimum concentrations. (author)

  20. Tritium concentrations in flow from selected springs that discharge to the Snake River, Twin Falls-Hagerman area, Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    Concern has been expressed that some of the approximately 30,900 curies of tritium disposed to the Snake River Plain aquifer from 1952 to 1988 at the INEL (idaho National Engineering Laboratory) have migrated to springs discharging to the Snake River in the Twin Falls-Hagerman area. To document tritium concentrations in springflow, 17 springs were sampled in November 1988 and 19 springs were sampled in March 1989. Tritium concentrations were less than the minimum detectable concentration of 0.5 pCi/mL (picocuries/mL) in November 1988 and less than the minimum detectable concentration of 0.2 pCi/mL in March 1989 the minimum detectable concentration was smaller in March 1989. The maximum contaminant level of tritium in drinking water as established by the US Environmental Protection Agency is 20 pCi/mL. US Environmental Protection Agency sample analyses indicate that the tritium concentration has decreased in the Snake River near Buhl since the 1970's. In 1974-79, tritium concentrations were less than 0.3 ± 0.2 pCi/mL in 3 of 20 samples; in 1983-88, 17 of 23 samples contaminated less than 0.3 ± 0.2 pCi/mL of tritium; the minimum detectable concentration is 0.2 pCi/mL. On the basis of decreasing tritium concentrations in the Snake River, their correlation to cessation of atmospheric weapons tests tritium concentrations in springflow less than the minimum detectable concentration, and the distribution of tritium in groundwater at the INEL, aqueous disposal of tritium at the INEL has had no measurable effect on tritium concentrations in springflow from the Snake River Plain aquifer and in the Snake River near Buhl. 15 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Study on the Bactericidal Mechanism of Atmospheric-Pressure Low-Temperature Plasma against Escherichia coli and Its Application in Fresh-Cut Cucumbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Sun

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasma (APLTP was used to study the bactericidal mechanism against Escherichia coli (E. coli and its application in the sterilization of fresh-cut cucumbers. The morphological changes of E. coli cells subjected to APLTP were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Cell death was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy (FM. Cell membrane permeability was measured by conductivity changes, and the amount of soluble protein leakage in the bacterial supernatant was determined by measurement of protein concentration. Additionally, the effects of APLTP on the physicochemical and sensory quality of fresh-cut cucumber were studied by assessing the changes of moisture content, soluble solid content (SSC, pH value, color, relative conductivity, malondialdehyde (MDA level, vitamin C (Vc content, aroma composition and microstructure. The results showed that the E. coli cell morphology was changed due to the charged particles and active components produced by APLTP. The E. coli cell wall and cell membrane ruptured, cell content leaked out, cells lost the ability to reproduce and self-replicate, and the function of cell metabolism was directly affected and led to E. coli inactivation. In addition, there was no significant effect on physicochemical properties and sensory quality of fresh-cut cucumbers.

  2. 30 CFR 57.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.001L) For rope lengths 3,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×4.0. (b) Friction drum ropes. For rope lengths less than 4,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.0005L) For rope lengths 4,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×5.0. (c) Tail...

  3. 30 CFR 56.19021 - Minimum rope strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0-0.001L) For rope lengths 3,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×4.0 (b) Friction drum ropes. For rope lengths less than 4,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0-0.0005L) For rope lengths 4,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×5.0 (c) Tail ropes...

  4. Activity of essential oil-based microemulsions against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms developed on stainless steel surface in different culture media and growth conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campana, Raffaella; Casettari, Luca; Fagioli, Laura; Cespi, Marco; Bonacucina, Giulia; Baffone, Wally

    2017-01-16

    Food safety is a fundamental concern for both consumers and the food industry, especially as the numbers of reported cases of food-associated infections continue to increase. Industrial surfaces can provide a suitable substrate for the development and persistence of bacterial organized in biofilms that represent a potential source of food contamination. The negative consumer perception of chemical disinfectants has shifted the attention to natural substances, such as plant extracts. The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using the essential oils (EOs) in the fight against S. aureus biofilms. First, the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC), Minimum Biofilm Inhibitory Concentration (MBIC), Minimum Biofilm Eradication Concentration (MBEC) of eleven EOs against S. aureus were determined. Cinnamomum cassia and Salvia officinalis EOs showed the greatest antibacterial properties with 1.25% MIC and MBC, 1.25% MBIC and 2.5% MBEC respectively. Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry analysis revealed cinnamaldehyde (82.66%) and methoxy cinnamaldehyde (10.12%) as the most abundant substances of C. cassia, while cis-thujone (23.90%), camphor (19.22%) and 1.8-cineole (10.62%) of S. officinalis. Three different microemulsions, formulated with C. cassia, S. officinalis or both, were finally tested against S. aureus biofilms in different culture media and growth conditions, causing a >3 logarithmic reductions in S. aureus 24h-old biofilms and desiccated biofilms, and up to 68% of biofilm removal after 90min of exposure. The obtained data suggest the potential use of EOs, alone or in combination, for the formulation of sanitizers as alternative or in support in the disinfection of contaminated surfaces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Use of geostatistics on broiler production for evaluation of different minimum ventilation systems during brooding phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thayla Morandi Ridolfi de Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to evaluate different minimum ventilation systems, in relation to air quality and thermal comfort using geostatistics in brooding phase. The minimum ventilation systems were: Blue House I: exhaust fans + curtain management (end of the building; Blue House II: exhaust fans + side curtain management; and Dark House: exhaust fans + flag. The climate variables evaluated were: dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, air velocity, carbon dioxide and ammonia concentration, during winter time, at 9 a.m., in 80 equidistant points in brooding area. Data were evaluated by geostatistic technique. The results indicate that Wider broiler houses (above 15.0 m width present the greatest ammonia and humidity concentration. Blue House II present the best results in relation to air quality. However, none of the studied broiler houses present an ideal thermal comfort.

  6. 30 CFR 77.1431 - Minimum rope strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.001L) For rope lengths 3,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×4.0 (b) Friction drum ropes. For rope lengths less than 4,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.0005L) For rope lengths 4,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×5.0 (c) Tail ropes...

  7. A Phosphate Minimum in the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) off Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulmier, A.; Giraud, M.; Sudre, J.; Jonca, J.; Leon, V.; Moron, O.; Dewitte, B.; Lavik, G.; Grasse, P.; Frank, M.; Stramma, L.; Garcon, V.

    2016-02-01

    The Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) off Peru is known to be associated with the advection of Equatorial SubSurface Waters (ESSW), rich in nutrients and poor in oxygen, through the Peru-Chile UnderCurrent (PCUC), but this circulation remains to be refined within the OMZ. During the Pelágico cruise in November-December 2010, measurements of phosphate revealed the presence of a phosphate minimum (Pmin) in various hydrographic stations, which could not be explained so far and could be associated with a specific water mass. This Pmin, localized at a relatively constant layer ( 20minimum with a mean vertical phosphate decrease of 0.6 µM but highly variable between 0.1 and 2.2 µM. In average, these Pmin are associated with a predominant mixing of SubTropical Under- and Surface Waters (STUW and STSW: 20 and 40%, respectively) within ESSW ( 25%), complemented evenly by overlying (ESW, TSW: 8%) and underlying waters (AAIW, SPDW: 7%). The hypotheses and mechanisms leading to the Pmin formation in the OMZ are further explored and discussed, considering the physical regional contribution associated with various circulation pathways ventilating the OMZ and the local biogeochemical contribution including the potential diazotrophic activity.

  8. Application of neutral electrolyzed water to disinfection of alginate impression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamatsu, Yuki; Chen, Ker-Kong; Nagamatsu, Hiroshi; Kozono, Yoshio; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Neutral electrolyzed water was developed with new concepts of long-term good durability and minimum corrosiveness to metal in addition to its excellent bactericidal activities similar to acid type of electrolyzed waters. The present study examined the bactericidal effects of the neutral electrolyzed water on disinfection of the alginate impression of a dental arch model contaminated by bacteria. Only 1-min immersion in neutral electrolyzed water could sufficiently disinfect the alginate impression including the metallic tray under ultrasonic with no significant differences from acid electrolyzed waters. No bactericidal effects were found in any electrolyzed water when used as mixing water. Considering the advantages and disadvantages of each electrolyzed water in a comprehensive way, it was suggested that neutral electrolyzed water may be the most appropriate for the disinfection of alginate impression.

  9. Bactericidal activity of culture fluid components of Lactobacillus fermentum strain 90 TS-4 (21) clone 3, and their capacity to modulate adhesion of Candida albicans yeast-like fungi to vaginal epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anokhina, I V; Kravtsov, E G; Protsenko, A V; Yashina, N V; Yermolaev, A V; Chesnokova, V L; Dalin, M V

    2007-03-01

    Antagonistic activities of L. fermentum strain 90 TS-4 (21), L. casei ATCC 27216, and L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 and bactericidal activity of lactobacillus culture fluid towards E. coli strain K12, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis test cultures were studied. The bactericidal effect of L. fermentum strain 90 TS-4 (21) clone 3 culture fluid preparation (pH 6.0) on the test cultures was dose-dependent. Adhesion of C. albicans yeast-like fungi to vaginal epitheliocytes was more pronounced for strains isolated from women with asymptomatic infection than for strains isolated from women with manifest forms. L. fermentum strain 90 TS-4 (21) clone 3 culture fluid preparation modulated adhesion of yeast-like fungi only if the fungal strain was initially highly adherent.

  10. Antibacterial Efficacy of Lytic Bacteriophages against Antibiotic-Resistant Klebsiella Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khajeh Karamoddini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is a leading and highly prevalent problem in the treatment of infectious diseases. Bacteriophages (phages appear to be effective and safe alternatives for the treatment of resistant infections because of their specificity for bacterial species and lack of infectivity in eukaryotic cells. The present study aimed to isolate bacteriophages against Klebsiella spp. and evaluate their efficacy against antibiotic-resistant species. Seventy-two antibiotic-resistant Klebsiella spp. were isolated from samples of patients who referred to the Ghaem Hospital (Mashhad, Iran. Lytic bacteriophages against Klebsiella spp. were isolated from wastewater of the septic tank of the same hospital. Bactericidal activity of phages against resistant Klebsiella spp. was tested in both liquid (tube method; after 1 and 24 h of incubation and solid (double-layer agar plate method; after 24 h of incubation phases. In each method, three different concentrations of bacteriophages (low: 107 PFU/mL were used. Bacteriophages showed promising bactericidal activity at all assessed concentrations, regardless of the test method and duration of incubation. Overall, bactericidal effects were augmented at higher concentrations. In the tube method, higher activity was observed after 24 h of incubation compared to the 1-h incubation. The bactericidal effects were also higher in the tube method compared to the double-layer agar plate method after 24 h of incubation. The findings of the present study suggest that bacteriophages possess effective bactericidal activity against resistant Klebsiella spp. These bactericidal activities are influenced by phage concentration, duration of incubation, and test method.

  11. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of baobab (Adansonia digitata leaves and stem bark extracts on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Sani Sambo Datsugwai

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical analysis and antibacterial activity of methanolic and ethanolic leaf and stem bark extracts of baobab tree on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were carried out using agar well diffusion method. The clinical bacterial isolates of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were obtained from Microbiology laboratory, Kaduna State University, Kaduna. The bacteria isolates were re-confirmed and identified based on their morphology, cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. The bacteria isolates were confirmed to be Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of Alkaloids, Saponins, Flavonoids, Tannins and Terpenoids. The methanolic leaf extract showed a wide range of activity on test isolates, with varying zones of inhibitions as 12 mm, 10 mm, 7 mm, and 4 mm against Staphylococcus aureus and 13 mm, 9 mm, 7 mm, and 3 mm against Escherichia coli at concentration of 1000 mg/ml, 500 mg/ml, 200 mg/ml and 100 mg/ml respectively. The ethanolic leaf extract also showed a wide range of activity on test isolates with varying zones of inhibitions, such as 11mm, 6mm, 5mm and 3mm against S. aureus and 8mm, 7mm, 5mm, and 4mm against E. coli at the concentration of 1000 mg/ml, 500mg/ml, 200 mg/ml and 100mg/ml for each respectively. The methanolic stem bark extract showed less antibacterial activity against the test isolates with the inhibition of 5mm and 4mm against S. aureus and 4mm and 3mm against E.coli at concentration of 1000 mg/ml and 500 mg/ml respectively with no zones of inhibition at concentration of 200 mg/ml and 100mg/ml. The ethanolic stem bark extract also showed no antibacterial activity with no zones of inhibition against the test isolates at concentration of 1000 mg/ml, 500 mg/ml, 200mg/ml and 100 mg/ml. The methanolic leaf extract inhibited the growth of S. aureus and E.coli at concentration of 100 mg/ml with minimum bactericidal concentration at 100 mg/ml. The

  12. 12 CFR 564.4 - Minimum appraisal standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 564.4 Section 564.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.4 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally related transactions, all appraisals shall, at a minimum: (a...

  13. Minimum inhibitory (MIC) and minimum microbicidal concentration (MMC) of polihexanide and triclosan against antibiotic sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadian, Ojan; Wehse, Katrin; Hübner, Nils-Olaf; Koburger, Torsten; Bagel, Simone; Jethon, Frank; Kramer, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Background: An in-vitro study was conducted investigating the antimicrobial efficacy of polihexanide and triclosan against clinical isolates and reference laboratory strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Methods: The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal microbicidal concentration (MMC) were determined following DIN 58940-81 using a micro-dilution assay and a quantitative suspension test following EN 1040. Polihexanide was tested in polyethylene glycol 4000, triclosan in aqueous solutions. Results: Against all tested strains the MIC of polihexanide ranged between 1–2 µg/mL. For triclosan the MICs varied depending on strains ranging between 0.5 µg/mL for the reference strains and 64 µg/mL for two clinical isolates. A logRF >5 without and logRF >3 with 0.2% albumin burden was achieved at 0.6 µg/mL triclosan. One exception was S. aureus strain H-5-24, where a triclosan concentration of 0.6 µg/mL required 1 minute without and 10 minutes with albumin burden to achieve the same logRFs. Polihexanide achieved a logRF >5 without and logRF >3 with albumin burden at a concentration of 0.6 µg/mL within 30 sec. The exception was the North-German epidemic MRSA strain, were an application time of 5 minutes was required. Conclusion: The clinical isolates of E. coli generally showed higher MICs against triclosan, both in the micro-dilution assay as well in the quantitative suspension test than comparable reference laboratory strains. For polihexanide and triclosan strain dependant susceptibility was shown. However, both antimicrobial compounds are effective when used in concentrations common in practice. PMID:22242087

  14. The minimum wage in the Czech enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Eva Lajtkepová

    2010-01-01

    Although the statutory minimum wage is not a new category, in the Czech Republic we encounter the definition and regulation of a minimum wage for the first time in the 1990 amendment to Act No. 65/1965 Coll., the Labour Code. The specific amount of the minimum wage and the conditions of its operation were then subsequently determined by government regulation in February 1991. Since that time, the value of minimum wage has been adjusted fifteenth times (the last increase was in January 2007). ...

  15. Antibacterial properties studies of trunk barks of Terminalia ivorensis, a commercial and medicinal species on some methicillin-resistant Staphylococci species strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, K; Zirihi, G N; Guessennd-Kouadio, N; Oussou, K R; Dosso, M

    2014-09-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus infections are a worldwide concern. Terminalia ivorensis, of Combretaceae family plant, is widely used traditional medicinal in Côte d'Ivoire to treat dermal diseases (affection in which Staphylococci are implied) including local inflammation and also to treat voice-loss. This study focused to investigate the effect in vitro of the extracts of trunk barks of Terminalia ivorensis on some methicillin/oxacillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, coagulase-negative S. and reference strain of S. aureus ATCC 25923. Antibacterial activity of aqueous, 70% ethanolic 70% and aqueous residue extracts was assessed using agar disc-diffusion method and liquid medium microdilution method in 96 multi-well micro-titer plates. This method led us to determine minimum inhibition concentration (M.I.C.) and minimum bactericidal concentration (M.B.C.). The presence of chemical groups major was detected qualitatively. Aqueous and 70% ethanolic 70% extracts showed significant activity against all the bacteria except aqueous residue when compared with the standard antibiotic oxacillin (5 µg/ml). M.I.C. for aqueous and 70% ethanolic 70% extracts ranged from 0,83-16,67 mg/ml and 0,156-13,33 mg/ml respectively. Viable cell determination revealed the bactericidal nature of the two barks extracts. The 70% ethanolic 70% extract exhibited the highest activity according to the M.B.C. values. The phytochemical analysis indicates the presence of tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpen/sterols, coumarins, polyphenols and traces of alkaloid. The in-vitro antibacterial efficacy shown by the barks of this plant and his lushness in chimical compounds, would justify use of this one in the traditional treatment of some diseases of microbial origin. These compounds could be suggested to provide alternative solution to the development of new therapeutic agents.

  16. Evaluation of the in vitro activity of levornidazole, its metabolites and comparators against clinical anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jiali; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Shi; Zhu, Demei; Huang, Haihui; Chen, Yuancheng; Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yingyuan

    2014-12-01

    This study evaluated the in vitro anti-anaerobic activity and spectrum of levornidazole, its metabolites and comparators against 375 clinical isolates of anaerobic bacteria, including Gram-negative bacilli (181 strains), Gram-negative cocci (11 strains), Gram-positive bacilli (139 strains) and Gram-positive cocci (44 strains), covering 34 species. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of levornidazole, its five metabolites and three comparators against these anaerobic isolates were determined by the agar dilution method. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of levornidazole and metronidazole were measured against 22 strains of Bacteroides fragilis. Levornidazole showed good activity against B. fragilis, other Bacteroides spp., Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens and Peptostreptococcus magnus, evidenced by MIC90 values of 0.5, 1, 0.25, 2 and 1mg/L, respectively. The activity of levornidazole and the comparators was poor for Veillonella spp. Generally, levornidazole displayed activity similar to or slightly higher than that of metronidazole, ornidazole and dextrornidazole against anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli, Gram-positive bacilli and Gram-positive cocci, especially B. fragilis. Favourable anti-anaerobic activity was also seen with levornidazole metabolites M1 and M4 but not M2, M3 or M5. For the 22 clinical B. fragilis strains, MBC50 and MBC90 values of levornidazole were 2mg/L and 4mg/L, respectively. Both MBC50/MIC50 and MBC90/MIC90 ratios of levornidazole were 4, similar to those of metronidazole. Levornidazole is an important anti-anaerobic option in clinical settings in terms of its potent and broad-spectrum in vitro activity, bactericidal property, and the anti-anaerobic activity of its metabolites M1 and M4. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  17. Minimum Wages and Regional Disparity: An analysis on the evolution of price-adjusted minimum wages and their effects on firm profitability (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    MORIKAWA Masayuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper, using prefecture level panel data, empirically analyzes 1) the recent evolution of price-adjusted regional minimum wages and 2) the effects of minimum wages on firm profitability. As a result of rapid increases in minimum wages in the metropolitan areas since 2007, the regional disparity of nominal minimum wages has been widening. However, the disparity of price-adjusted minimum wages has been shrinking. According to the analysis of the effects of minimum wages on profitability us...

  18. 41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum wages. 50-201... Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published in the Federal Register by the...

  19. Antimicrobial 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid and chlorhexidine resist inactivation by dentine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakko, M; Tjäderhane, L; Sorsa, T; Hietala, P; Rautemaa, R

    2016-04-01

    To compare the antibacterial activity of 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid (HICA) with currently used root canal medicaments and to examine their interactions with potential inhibitors in nutrient-deficient and nutrient-rich conditions. First, the antibacterial activity of single concentrations of HICA, calcium hydroxide solution or slurry, chlorhexidine digluconate or acetate was tested against Enterococcus faecalis with and without potential inhibitors: dentine powder (DP), hydroxyapatite or bovine serum albumin, in a low concentration of peptone water. Relative viable counts were determined by culture at 1, 24 and 48 h. In the second set of experiments, the activity of three concentrations of HICA was evaluated against two isolates of E. faecalis with and without potential inhibitors in nutrient-rich thioglycollate broth using a modification of a standard microdilution method. The minimum bactericidal concentration was determined by culture at 1, 24 and 48 h. Concentrations of ≥33 mg mL(-1) of HICA were found to be bactericidal against E. faecalis in both nutrient-deficient and nutrient-rich environments at 24- to 48-h incubation, whereas the initial activity of Ca(OH)2 slurry was lost at 48-h incubation. HICA tolerated well all tested potential inhibitors up to 19 mg mL(-1) . DP concentrations higher than this inhibited its activity in a dose-dependent manner in both environments. DP demonstrated moderate antibacterial activity, and it enhanced the otherwise limited activity of Ca(OH)2 slurry and solution. DP did not impact on the activity of chlorhexidine. These results support the long-term antibacterial activity of HICA and indicate its tolerance to clinically relevant concentrations of dentine and other inhibitors commonly present in the root canal system. Therefore, HICA may have potential as an interappointment medication in the treatment of root canal infections. © 2015 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Minimum Wage Laws and the Distribution of Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Kevin

    The desirability of raising the minimum wage long revolved around just one question: the effect of higher minimum wages on the overall level of employment. An even more critical effect of the minimum wage rests on the composition of employment--who gets the minimum wage job. An examination of employment in eating and drinking establishments…

  1. 29 CFR 505.3 - Prevailing minimum compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevailing minimum compensation. 505.3 Section 505.3 Labor... HUMANITIES § 505.3 Prevailing minimum compensation. (a)(1) In the absence of an alternative determination...)(2) of this section, the prevailing minimum compensation required to be paid under the Act to the...

  2. Biosynthesis and recovery of rod-shaped tellurium nanoparticles and their bactericidal activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zare, Bijan; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Sepehrizadeh, Zargham [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6451 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shakibaie, Mojtaba [Department of Pharmacognosy and Biotechnology, School of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutics Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 76175-493 Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaie, Sassan [Department of Medical Biotechnology, School of Advanced Medical Technologies, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza, E-mail: shahverd@sina.tums.ac.ir [Department of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology and Biotechnology Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, P.O. Box 14155-6451 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► Biosynthesis of rod shape tellurium nanoparticles with a hexagonal crystal structure. ► Extraction procedure for isolation of tellurium nanoparticles from Bacillus sp. BZ. ► Extracted tellurium nanoparticles have good bactericidal activity against some bacteria. -- Abstract: In this study, a tellurium-transforming Bacillus sp. BZ was isolated from the Caspian Sea in northern Iran. The isolate was identified by various tests and 16S rDNA analysis, and then used to prepare elemental tellurium nanoparticles. The isolate was subsequently used for the intracellular biosynthesis of elemental tellurium nanoparticles. The biogenic nanoparticles were released by liquid nitrogen and purified by an n-octyl alcohol water extraction system. The shape, size, and composition of the extracted nanoparticles were characterized. The transmission electron micrograph showed rod-shaped nanoparticles with dimensions of about 20 nm × 180 nm. The energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction spectra respectively demonstrated that the extracted nanoparticles consisted of only tellurium and have a hexagonal crystal structure. This is the first study to demonstrate a biological method for synthesizing rod-shaped elemental tellurium by a Bacillus sp., its extraction and its antibacterial activity against different clinical isolates.

  3. Biosynthesis and recovery of rod-shaped tellurium nanoparticles and their bactericidal activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, Bijan; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Sepehrizadeh, Zargham; Shakibaie, Mojtaba; Rezaie, Sassan; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Biosynthesis of rod shape tellurium nanoparticles with a hexagonal crystal structure. ► Extraction procedure for isolation of tellurium nanoparticles from Bacillus sp. BZ. ► Extracted tellurium nanoparticles have good bactericidal activity against some bacteria. -- Abstract: In this study, a tellurium-transforming Bacillus sp. BZ was isolated from the Caspian Sea in northern Iran. The isolate was identified by various tests and 16S rDNA analysis, and then used to prepare elemental tellurium nanoparticles. The isolate was subsequently used for the intracellular biosynthesis of elemental tellurium nanoparticles. The biogenic nanoparticles were released by liquid nitrogen and purified by an n-octyl alcohol water extraction system. The shape, size, and composition of the extracted nanoparticles were characterized. The transmission electron micrograph showed rod-shaped nanoparticles with dimensions of about 20 nm × 180 nm. The energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction spectra respectively demonstrated that the extracted nanoparticles consisted of only tellurium and have a hexagonal crystal structure. This is the first study to demonstrate a biological method for synthesizing rod-shaped elemental tellurium by a Bacillus sp., its extraction and its antibacterial activity against different clinical isolates.

  4. Evaluation of Antibacterial and Antifungal Properties of Alchornea laxiflora (Benth. Pax. & Hoffman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Akinpelu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Alchornea laxiflora leaf extract was tested against a range of microorganisms using standard microbiological methods for antimicrobial activities. The extract inhibited the growth of all the bacterial and 15 fungal isolates tested. The zones of inhibition exhibited against the test bacteria ranged between 12 mm and 24 mm and between 11 mm and 24 mm for the extract and the antibiotic streptomycin, respectively. The zones of inhibition observed against the fungal isolates by the extract ranged between 12 mm and 23 mm. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs exhibited by the extract against test bacteria ranged between 0.78 mg/mL–25 mg/mL and 1.56 mg/mL–25 mg/mL, respectively, while the MICs and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs values for the test fungi ranged between 8.75 mg/mL–35.00 mg/mL and 8.75 mg/mL–35.00 mg/L, respectively. The preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, and reducing sugars as major phytoconstituents in the extract. A. laxiflora leaf extract is a potent source of antibacterial and antifungal compounds; further studies on the extract are ongoing in our laboratories to elucidate the probable mechanism(s of action on bacteria and fungi found to be susceptible to the extract.

  5. Influence of vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration on the treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano, Alex; Marco, Francesc; Martínez, José A; Pisos, Elena; Almela, Manel; Dimova, Veselka P; Alamo, Dolores; Ortega, Mar; Lopez, Josefina; Mensa, Josep

    2008-01-15

    Vancomycin treatment failure in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia is not uncommon, even when MRSA is susceptible to vancomycin. The aim of our study was to evaluate whether vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration has any influence on the mortality associated with MRSA bacteremia. A total of 414 episodes of MRSA bacteremia were prospectively followed-up from 1991 through 2005. MIC of vancomycin for the first isolate was determined by E-test. Clinical variables recorded were age, comorbidity, prior administration of vancomycin, use of corticosteroids, prognosis of underlying disease, source of bacteremia, the need for mechanical ventilation, shock, and mortality. A "treatment group" variable was created and defined as follows: (1) receipt of empirical vancomycin and an isolate with a vancomycin MIC of 1 microg/mL (38 episodes), (2) receipt of empirical vancomycin and an isolate with a vancomycin MIC of 1.5 microg/mL (90 episodes), (3) receipt of empirical vancomycin and an isolate with a vancomycin MIC of 2 microg/mL (40 episodes), and (4) receipt of inappropriate empirical therapy (246 episodes). Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. Episodes caused by strains with a vancomycin MIC of 2 microg/mL were independently associated with a lower risk of shock (odds ratio [OR], 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.15-0.75). Multivariate analysis selected receipt of empirical vancomycin and an isolate with a vancomycin MIC of 2 microg/mL (OR, 6.39; 95% CI, 1.68-24.3), receipt of inappropriate empirical therapy (OR, 3.62; 95% CI, 1.20-10.9), increasing age (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00-1.04), use of corticosteroids (OR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.04-3.29), an ultimately (OR, 10.2; 95% CI, 2.85-36.8) or rapidly (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.06-3.10) fatal underlying disease, high-risk (OR, 3.60; 95% CI, 1.89-6.88) and intermediate-risk (OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.17-4.04) sources of bacteremia, and shock (OR, 7.38; 95% CI, 4.11-13.3) as the best predictors of

  6. Effect of influenza infection on the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of pulmonary macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nugent, K.M.; Pesanti, E.L.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of mouse-adapted influenza A/PR/8/34 virus on pulmonary macrophage function was evaluated by using an in vitro system which allowed direct virus interaction with macrophages and then separate analysis of the steps required for bacterial clearance by macrophages. Infection of macrophages with this virus resulted in the appearance of a hemagglutinating activity on the macrophage surface; expression of this activity was inhibited by amantadine, 2-deoxyglucose, and cycloheximide and by pretreatment of the virus inoculum with with ultraviolet light and specific antiserum. After influenza infection, net ingestion of viable Staphylococcus aureus by macrophage monolayers was unaltered and there was no change in the fraction of the monolayer which ingested cocci over a wide range of bacterial inputs. Influenza-infected microphages also inactivated intracellular S. aureus at a rate indistinguishable from controls. Therefore, these in vitro studies do not support the hypothesis that the defect in pulmonary antibacterial mechanisms associated with influenza infections results from a direct effect of virus infection on either the phagocytic or bactericidal activity of resistant pulmonary macarophages

  7. Antimicrobial Activity of Chlorhexidine, Peracetic acid/ Peroxide hydrogen and Alcohol based compound on Isolated Bacteria in Madani Heart Hospital, Tabriz, Azerbaijan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghotaslou, Reza; Bahrami, Nashmil

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of present study was to investigate the effect of chemical agents on the clinical isolates in Madani Heart Hospital, Tabriz, Iran. Methods: The minimum bactericide concentration (MBC) of disinfectants including chlorhexidine (Fort), peracetic acid (Micro) and an alcohol based compound (Deconex) on selected bacteria at various dilutions were determined by the standard