Decision trees with minimum average depth for sorting eight elements
AbouEisha, Hassan M.
2015-11-19
We prove that the minimum average depth of a decision tree for sorting 8 pairwise different elements is equal to 620160/8!. We show also that each decision tree for sorting 8 elements, which has minimum average depth (the number of such trees is approximately equal to 8.548×10^326365), has also minimum depth. Both problems were considered by Knuth (1998). To obtain these results, we use tools based on extensions of dynamic programming which allow us to make sequential optimization of decision trees relative to depth and average depth, and to count the number of decision trees with minimum average depth.
Decision trees with minimum average depth for sorting eight elements
AbouEisha, Hassan M.; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail
2015-01-01
We prove that the minimum average depth of a decision tree for sorting 8 pairwise different elements is equal to 620160/8!. We show also that each decision tree for sorting 8 elements, which has minimum average depth (the number of such trees
Narasimha Murthy, K. V.; Saravana, R.; Vijaya Kumar, K.
2018-04-01
The paper investigates the stochastic modelling and forecasting of monthly average maximum and minimum temperature patterns through suitable seasonal auto regressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model for the period 1981-2015 in India. The variations and distributions of monthly maximum and minimum temperatures are analyzed through Box plots and cumulative distribution functions. The time series plot indicates that the maximum temperature series contain sharp peaks in almost all the years, while it is not true for the minimum temperature series, so both the series are modelled separately. The possible SARIMA model has been chosen based on observing autocorrelation function (ACF), partial autocorrelation function (PACF), and inverse autocorrelation function (IACF) of the logarithmic transformed temperature series. The SARIMA (1, 0, 0) × (0, 1, 1)12 model is selected for monthly average maximum and minimum temperature series based on minimum Bayesian information criteria. The model parameters are obtained using maximum-likelihood method with the help of standard error of residuals. The adequacy of the selected model is determined using correlation diagnostic checking through ACF, PACF, IACF, and p values of Ljung-Box test statistic of residuals and using normal diagnostic checking through the kernel and normal density curves of histogram and Q-Q plot. Finally, the forecasting of monthly maximum and minimum temperature patterns of India for the next 3 years has been noticed with the help of selected model.
An Improved CO2-Crude Oil Minimum Miscibility Pressure Correlation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hao Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Minimum miscibility pressure (MMP, which plays an important role in miscible flooding, is a key parameter in determining whether crude oil and gas are completely miscible. On the basis of 210 groups of CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure data, an improved CO2-crude oil system minimum miscibility pressure correlation was built by modified conjugate gradient method and global optimizing method. The new correlation is a uniform empirical correlation to calculate the MMP for both thin oil and heavy oil and is expressed as a function of reservoir temperature, C7+ molecular weight of crude oil, and mole fractions of volatile components (CH4 and N2 and intermediate components (CO2, H2S, and C2~C6 of crude oil. Compared to the eleven most popular and relatively high-accuracy CO2-oil system MMP correlations in the previous literature by other nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data, which have not been used to develop the new correlation, it is found that the new empirical correlation provides the best reproduction of the nine groups of CO2-oil MMP experimental data with a percentage average absolute relative error (%AARE of 8% and a percentage maximum absolute relative error (%MARE of 21%, respectively.
Modeling an Application's Theoretical Minimum and Average Transactional Response Times
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paiz, Mary Rose [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2015-04-01
The theoretical minimum transactional response time of an application serves as a ba- sis for the expected response time. The lower threshold for the minimum response time represents the minimum amount of time that the application should take to complete a transaction. Knowing the lower threshold is beneficial in detecting anomalies that are re- sults of unsuccessful transactions. On the converse, when an application's response time falls above an upper threshold, there is likely an anomaly in the application that is causing unusual performance issues in the transaction. This report explains how the non-stationary Generalized Extreme Value distribution is used to estimate the lower threshold of an ap- plication's daily minimum transactional response time. It also explains how the seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series model is used to estimate the upper threshold for an application's average transactional response time.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tit, N.; Kumar, N.; Pradhan, P.
1993-07-01
Exact numerical calculation of ensemble averaged length-scale dependent conductance for the 1D Anderson model is shown to support an earlier conjecture for a conductance minimum. Numerical results can be understood in terms of the Thouless expression for the conductance and the Wigner level-spacing statistics. (author). 8 refs, 2 figs
Object detection by correlation coefficients using azimuthally averaged reference projections.
Nicholson, William V
2004-11-01
A method of computing correlation coefficients for object detection that takes advantage of using azimuthally averaged reference projections is described and compared with two alternative methods-computing a cross-correlation function or a local correlation coefficient versus the azimuthally averaged reference projections. Two examples of an application from structural biology involving the detection of projection views of biological macromolecules in electron micrographs are discussed. It is found that a novel approach to computing a local correlation coefficient versus azimuthally averaged reference projections, using a rotational correlation coefficient, outperforms using a cross-correlation function and a local correlation coefficient in object detection from simulated images with a range of levels of simulated additive noise. The three approaches perform similarly in detecting macromolecular views in electron microscope images of a globular macrolecular complex (the ribosome). The rotational correlation coefficient outperforms the other methods in detection of keyhole limpet hemocyanin macromolecular views in electron micrographs.
Minimum Wages and Teen Employment: A Spatial Panel Approach
Charlene Kalenkoski; Donald Lacombe
2011-01-01
The authors employ spatial econometrics techniques and Annual Averages data from the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics for 1990-2004 to examine how changes in the minimum wage affect teen employment. Spatial econometrics techniques account for the fact that employment is correlated across states. Such correlation may exist if a change in the minimum wage in a state affects employment not only in its own state but also in other, neighboring states. The authors show that state minimum wages negat...
The Consequences of Indexing the Minimum Wage to Average Wages in the U.S. Economy.
Macpherson, David A.; Even, William E.
The consequences of indexing the minimum wage to average wages in the U.S. economy were analyzed. The study data were drawn from the 1974-1978 May Current Population Survey (CPS) and the 180 monthly CPS Outgoing Rotation Group files for 1979-1993 (approximate annual sample sizes of 40,000 and 180,000, respectively). The effects of indexing on the…
The classical correlation limits the ability of the measurement-induced average coherence
Zhang, Jun; Yang, Si-Ren; Zhang, Yang; Yu, Chang-Shui
2017-04-01
Coherence is the most fundamental quantum feature in quantum mechanics. For a bipartite quantum state, if a measurement is performed on one party, the other party, based on the measurement outcomes, will collapse to a corresponding state with some probability and hence gain the average coherence. It is shown that the average coherence is not less than the coherence of its reduced density matrix. In particular, it is very surprising that the extra average coherence (and the maximal extra average coherence with all the possible measurements taken into account) is upper bounded by the classical correlation of the bipartite state instead of the quantum correlation. We also find the sufficient and necessary condition for the null maximal extra average coherence. Some examples demonstrate the relation and, moreover, show that quantum correlation is neither sufficient nor necessary for the nonzero extra average coherence within a given measurement. In addition, the similar conclusions are drawn for both the basis-dependent and the basis-free coherence measure.
On the correlation between minimum thickness and central deflection during small punch test
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumar, Pradeep; Chattopadhyay, J.; Dutta, B.K.
2016-01-01
Present paper deals with a detailed study on the correlation between minimum thickness (t/t_0) and central deflection (δ/t_0). Such data are obtained during the deformation of a small punch test of miniaturized specimen. Finite element studies have been carried out to investigate the effect of various parameters which are expected to influence this correlation. The parameters under consideration are material hardening, material yield stress, coefficient of friction and initial thickness of the specimen. It is shown that the correlation remains unaffected with respect to change in material parameters. Similarly, the coefficient of friction beyond 0.2 also does not affect the correlation. However, change in thickness has significant effect on the correlation. A modification has been suggested in the existing correlation to consider the influence of thickness change. The modified correlation is then used to calculate fracture toughness using the experimental results quoted in the literature. It is shown that the modified correlation improves the fracture toughness prediction considerably.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ciorsac, Alecu, E-mail: aleciorsac@yahoo.co [Politehnica University of Timisoara, Department of Physical Education and Sport, 2 P-ta Victoriei, 300006, Timisoara (Romania); Craciun, Dana, E-mail: craciundana@gmail.co [Teacher Training Department, West University of Timisoara, 4 Boulevard V. Pirvan, Timisoara, 300223 (Romania); Ostafe, Vasile, E-mail: vostafe@cbg.uvt.r [Department of Chemistry, West University of Timisoara, 16 Pestallozi, 300115, Timisoara (Romania); Laboratory of Advanced Researches in Environmental Protection, Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen Interdisciplinary Research and Formation Platform, 4 Oituz, Timisoara, 300086 (Romania); Isvoran, Adriana, E-mail: aisvoran@cbg.uvt.r [Department of Chemistry, West University of Timisoara, 16 Pestallozi, 300115, Timisoara (Romania); Laboratory of Advanced Researches in Environmental Protection, Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen Interdisciplinary Research and Formation Platform, 4 Oituz, Timisoara, 300086 (Romania)
2011-04-15
Research highlights: lights: We focus our study on the glycolytic enzymes. We reveal correlation of hydrophobicity and flexibility along their chains. We also reveal fractal aspects of the glycolytic enzymes structures and surfaces. The glycolytic enzyme sequences are not random. Creation of fractal structures requires the operation of nonlinear dynamics. - Abstract: Nonlinear methods widely used for time series analysis were applied to glycolytic enzyme sequences to derive information concerning the correlation of hydrophobicity and average flexibility along their chains. The 20 sequences of different types of the 10 human glycolytic enzymes were considered as spatial series and were analyzed by spectral analysis, detrended fluctuations analysis and Hurst coefficient calculation. The results agreed that there are both short range and long range correlations of hydrophobicity and average flexibility within investigated sequences, the short range correlations being stronger and indicating that local interactions are the most important for the protein folding. This correlation is also reflected by the fractal nature of the structures of investigated proteins.
Brown, Gina; Imel, Brittany; Nelson, Alyssa; Hale, LaDonna S; Jansen, Nick
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study was to examine correlations between first-time Physician Assistant National Certifying Exam (PANCE) scores and pass/fail status, physician assistant (PA) program didactic grade point average (GPA), and specific selection criteria. This retrospective study evaluated graduating classes from 2007, 2008, and 2009 at a single program (N = 119). There was no correlation between PANCE performance and undergraduate grade point average (GPA), science prerequisite GPA, or health care experience. There was a moderate correlation between PANCE pass/fail and where students took science prerequisites (r = 0.27, P = .003) but not with the PANCE score. PANCE scores were correlated with overall PA program GPA (r = 0.67), PA pharmacology grade (r = 0.68), and PA anatomy grade (r = 0.41) but not with PANCE pass/fail. Correlations between selection criteria and PANCE performance were limited, but further research regarding the influence of prerequisite institution type may be warranted and may improve admission decisions. PANCE scores and PA program GPA correlations may guide academic advising and remediation decisions for current students.
Krijnen, WP
De Vries (1993) discusses Pearson's product-moment correlation, Spearman's rank correlation, and Kendall's rank-correlation coefficient for assessing the association between the rows of two proximity matrices. For each of these he introduces a weighted average variant and a rowwise variant. In this
KRIJNEN, WP
De Vries (1993) discusses Pearson's product-moment correlation, Spearman's rank correlation, and Kendall's rank-correlation coefficient for assessing the association between the rows of two proximity matrices. For each of these he introduces a weighted average variant and a rowwise variant. In this
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ciorsac, Alecu; Craciun, Dana; Ostafe, Vasile; Isvoran, Adriana
2011-01-01
Research highlights: → We focus our study on the glycolytic enzymes. → We reveal correlation of hydrophobicity and flexibility along their chains. → We also reveal fractal aspects of the glycolytic enzymes structures and surfaces. → The glycolytic enzyme sequences are not random. → Creation of fractal structures requires the operation of nonlinear dynamics. - Abstract: Nonlinear methods widely used for time series analysis were applied to glycolytic enzyme sequences to derive information concerning the correlation of hydrophobicity and average flexibility along their chains. The 20 sequences of different types of the 10 human glycolytic enzymes were considered as spatial series and were analyzed by spectral analysis, detrended fluctuations analysis and Hurst coefficient calculation. The results agreed that there are both short range and long range correlations of hydrophobicity and average flexibility within investigated sequences, the short range correlations being stronger and indicating that local interactions are the most important for the protein folding. This correlation is also reflected by the fractal nature of the structures of investigated proteins.
Bounds on Average Time Complexity of Decision Trees
Chikalov, Igor
2011-01-01
In this chapter, bounds on the average depth and the average weighted depth of decision trees are considered. Similar problems are studied in search theory [1], coding theory [77], design and analysis of algorithms (e.g., sorting) [38]. For any diagnostic problem, the minimum average depth of decision tree is bounded from below by the entropy of probability distribution (with a multiplier 1/log2 k for a problem over a k-valued information system). Among diagnostic problems, the problems with a complete set of attributes have the lowest minimum average depth of decision trees (e.g, the problem of building optimal prefix code [1] and a blood test study in assumption that exactly one patient is ill [23]). For such problems, the minimum average depth of decision tree exceeds the lower bound by at most one. The minimum average depth reaches the maximum on the problems in which each attribute is "indispensable" [44] (e.g., a diagnostic problem with n attributes and kn pairwise different rows in the decision table and the problem of implementing the modulo 2 summation function). These problems have the minimum average depth of decision tree equal to the number of attributes in the problem description. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2011.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chieh-Fan Chen
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This study analyzed meteorological, clinical and economic factors in terms of their effects on monthly ED revenue and visitor volume. Monthly data from January 1, 2005 to September 30, 2009 were analyzed. Spearman correlation and cross-correlation analyses were performed to identify the correlation between each independent variable, ED revenue, and visitor volume. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA model was used to quantify the relationship between each independent variable, ED revenue, and visitor volume. The accuracies were evaluated by comparing model forecasts to actual values with mean absolute percentage of error. Sensitivity of prediction errors to model training time was also evaluated. The ARIMA models indicated that mean maximum temperature, relative humidity, rainfall, non-trauma, and trauma visits may correlate positively with ED revenue, but mean minimum temperature may correlate negatively with ED revenue. Moreover, mean minimum temperature and stock market index fluctuation may correlate positively with trauma visitor volume. Mean maximum temperature, relative humidity and stock market index fluctuation may correlate positively with non-trauma visitor volume. Mean maximum temperature and relative humidity may correlate positively with pediatric visitor volume, but mean minimum temperature may correlate negatively with pediatric visitor volume. The model also performed well in forecasting revenue and visitor volume.
Lee, Anthony J; Mitchem, Dorian G; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G; Keller, Matthew C; Zietsch, Brendan P
2016-01-01
Popular theory suggests that facial averageness is preferred in a partner for genetic benefits to offspring. However, whether facial averageness is associated with genetic quality is yet to be established. Here, we computed an objective measure of facial averageness for a large sample ( N = 1,823) of identical and nonidentical twins and their siblings to test two predictions from the theory that facial averageness reflects genetic quality. First, we use biometrical modelling to estimate the heritability of facial averageness, which is necessary if it reflects genetic quality. We also test for a genetic association between facial averageness and facial attractiveness. Second, we assess whether paternal age at conception (a proxy of mutation load) is associated with facial averageness and facial attractiveness. Our findings are mixed with respect to our hypotheses. While we found that facial averageness does have a genetic component, and a significant phenotypic correlation exists between facial averageness and attractiveness, we did not find a genetic correlation between facial averageness and attractiveness (therefore, we cannot say that the genes that affect facial averageness also affect facial attractiveness) and paternal age at conception was not negatively associated with facial averageness. These findings support some of the previously untested assumptions of the 'genetic benefits' account of facial averageness, but cast doubt on others.
Choosing the best index for the average score intraclass correlation coefficient.
Shieh, Gwowen
2016-09-01
The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)(2) index from a one-way random effects model is widely used to describe the reliability of mean ratings in behavioral, educational, and psychological research. Despite its apparent utility, the essential property of ICC(2) as a point estimator of the average score intraclass correlation coefficient is seldom mentioned. This article considers several potential measures and compares their performance with ICC(2). Analytical derivations and numerical examinations are presented to assess the bias and mean square error of the alternative estimators. The results suggest that more advantageous indices can be recommended over ICC(2) for their theoretical implication and computational ease.
Ultrasonic correlator versus signal averager as a signal to noise enhancement instrument
Kishoni, Doron; Pietsch, Benjamin E.
1989-01-01
Ultrasonic inspection of thick and attenuating materials is hampered by the reduced amplitudes of the propagated waves to a degree that the noise is too high to enable meaningful interpretation of the data. In order to overcome the low Signal to Noise (S/N) ratio, a correlation technique has been developed. In this method, a continuous pseudo-random pattern generated digitally is transmitted and detected by piezoelectric transducers. A correlation is performed in the instrument between the received signal and a variable delayed image of the transmitted one. The result is shown to be proportional to the impulse response of the investigated material, analogous to a signal received from a pulsed system, with an improved S/N ratio. The degree of S/N enhancement depends on the sweep rate. This paper describes the correlator, and compares it to the method of enhancing S/N ratio by averaging the signals. The similarities and differences between the two are highlighted and the potential advantage of the correlator system is explained.
Surov, Alexey; Meyer, Hans Jonas; Wienke, Andreas
2017-07-01
Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique based on measure of water diffusion that can provide information about tissue microstructure, especially about cell count. Increase of cell density induces restriction of water diffusion and decreases apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). ADC can be divided into three sub-parameters: ADC minimum or ADC min , mean ADC or ADC mean and ADC maximum or ADC max Some studies have suggested that ADC min shows stronger correlations with cell count in comparison to other ADC fractions and may be used as a parameter for estimation of tumor cellularity. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to summarize correlation coefficients between ADC min and cellularity in different tumors based on large patient data. For this analysis, MEDLINE database was screened for associations between ADC and cell count in different tumors up to September 2016. For this work, only data regarding ADC min were included. Overall, 12 publications with 317 patients were identified. Spearman's correlation coefficient was used to analyze associations between ADC min and cellularity. The reported Pearson correlation coefficients in some publications were converted into Spearman correlation coefficients. The pooled correlation coefficient for all included studies was ρ=-0.59 (95% confidence interval (CI)=-0.72 to -0.45), heterogeneity Tau 2 =0.04 (pcorrelated moderately with tumor cellularity. The calculated correlation coefficient is not stronger in comparison to the reported coefficient for ADC mean and, therefore, ADC min does not represent a better means to reflect cellularity. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.
Racusin, J. L.; Oates, S. R.; De Pasquale, M.; Kocevski, D.
2016-01-01
We present a correlation between the average temporal decay (alpha X,avg, greater than 200 s) and early-time luminosity (LX,200 s) of X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts as observed by the Swift X-ray Telescope. Both quantities are measured relative to a rest-frame time of 200 s after the gamma-ray trigger. The luminosity â€" average decay correlation does not depend on specific temporal behavior and contains one scale-independent quantity minimizing the role of selection effects. This is a complementary correlation to that discovered by Oates et al. in the optical light curves observed by the Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope. The correlation indicates that, on average, more luminous X-ray afterglows decay faster than less luminous ones, indicating some relative mechanism for energy dissipation. The X-ray and optical correlations are entirely consistent once corrections are applied and contamination is removed. We explore the possible biases introduced by different light-curve morphologies and observational selection effects, and how either geometrical effects or intrinsic properties of the central engine and jet could explain the observed correlation.
A MAD Explanation for the Correlation between Bulk Lorentz Factor and Minimum Variability Timescale
Lloyd-Ronning, Nicole; Lei, Wei-hua; Xie, Wei
2018-04-01
We offer an explanation for the anti-correlation between the minimum variability timescale (MTS) in the prompt emission light curve of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and the estimated bulk Lorentz factor of these GRBs, in the context of a magnetically arrested disk (MAD) model. In particular, we show that previously derived limits on the maximum available energy per baryon in a Blandford-Znajek jet leads to a relationship between the characteristic MAD timescale in GRBs and the maximum bulk Lorentz factor: tMAD∝Γ-6, somewhat steeper than (although within the error bars of) the fitted relationship found in the GRB data. Similarly, the MAD model also naturally accounts for the observed anti-correlation between MTS and gamma-ray luminosity L in the GRB data, and we estimate the accretion rates of the GRB disk (given these luminosities) in the context of this model. Both of these correlations (MTS - Γ and MTS - L) are also observed in the AGN data, and we discuss the implications of our results in the context of both GRB and blazar systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S.Balaji
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Mobile Adhoc network is an instantaneous wireless network that is dynamic in nature. It supports single hop and multihop communication. In this infrastructure less network, clustering is a significant model to maintain the topology of the network. The clustering process includes different phases like cluster formation, cluster head selection, cluster maintenance. Choosing cluster head is important as the stability of the network depends on well-organized and resourceful cluster head. When the node has increased number of neighbors it can act as a link between the neighbor nodes which in further reduces the number of hops in multihop communication. Promisingly the node with more number of neighbors should also be available with enough energy to provide stability in the network. Hence these aspects demand the focus. In weight based cluster head selection, closeness and average minimum power required is considered for purging the ineligible nodes. The optimal set of nodes selected after purging will compete to become cluster head. The node with maximum weight selected as cluster head. Mathematical formulation is developed to show the proposed method provides optimum result. It is also suggested that weight factor in calculating the node weight should give precise importance to energy and node stability.
Regional correlations of VS30 averaged over depths less than and greater than 30 meters
Boore, David M.; Thompson, Eric M.; Cadet, Héloïse
2011-01-01
Using velocity profiles from sites in Japan, California, Turkey, and Europe, we find that the time-averaged shear-wave velocity to 30 m (VS30), used as a proxy for site amplification in recent ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and building codes, is strongly correlated with average velocities to depths less than 30 m (VSz, with z being the averaging depth). The correlations for sites in Japan (corresponding to the KiK-net network) show that VSz is systematically larger for a given VSz than for profiles from the other regions. The difference largely results from the placement of the KiK-net station locations on rock and rocklike sites, whereas stations in the other regions are generally placed in urban areas underlain by sediments. Using the KiK-net velocity profiles, we provide equations relating VS30 to VSz for z ranging from 5 to 29 m in 1-m increments. These equations (and those for California velocity profiles given in Boore, 2004b) can be used to estimate VS30 from VSz for sites in which velocity profiles do not extend to 30 m. The scatter of the residuals decreases with depth, but, even for an averaging depth of 5 m, a variation in logVS30 of ±1 standard deviation maps into less than a 20% uncertainty in ground motions given by recent GMPEs at short periods. The sensitivity of the ground motions to VS30 uncertainty is considerably larger at long periods (but is less than a factor of 1.2 for averaging depths greater than about 20 m). We also find that VS30 is correlated with VSz for z as great as 400 m for sites of the KiK-net network, providing some justification for using VS30 as a site-response variable for predicting ground motions at periods for which the wavelengths far exceed 30 m.
Zhou, Chenyi; Guo, Hong
2017-01-01
We report a diagrammatic method to solve the general problem of calculating configurationally averaged Green's function correlators that appear in quantum transport theory for nanostructures containing disorder. The theory treats both equilibrium and nonequilibrium quantum statistics on an equal footing. Since random impurity scattering is a problem that cannot be solved exactly in a perturbative approach, we combine our diagrammatic method with the coherent potential approximation (CPA) so that a reliable closed-form solution can be obtained. Our theory not only ensures the internal consistency of the diagrams derived at different levels of the correlators but also satisfies a set of Ward-like identities that corroborate the conserving consistency of transport calculations within the formalism. The theory is applied to calculate the quantum transport properties such as average ac conductance and transmission moments of a disordered tight-binding model, and results are numerically verified to high precision by comparing to the exact solutions obtained from enumerating all possible disorder configurations. Our formalism can be employed to predict transport properties of a wide variety of physical systems where disorder scattering is important.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng Yong; Zhang Xiong; Wu Lin; Mao Weiming; You Lisha
2006-01-01
The authors collect 119 γ-ray-loud Blazar (97 flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs) and 22 BL Lacertae objects (BL Lac)), and investigate respectively the correlation between the γ-ray emission (maximum, minimum, and average data) at 1 GeV and the radio emission at 8.4 GHz by discrete correlation function (DCF) method. Our main results are as follows: there is good correlation between the γ-ray in high state and average state and radio emissions for the whole 119 Blazar and 97 FSRQs. And there are no correlation between γ-ray emission and radio emission in low state. Our result shows that the γ-rays are associated with the radio emission from the jet, and that the γ-ray emission is likely to have come from the synchrotron self-compton model (SSC) process in this case. (authors)
Griffin, Tyler J.; Hilton, John, III.; Plummer, Kenneth; Barret, Devynne
2014-01-01
One of the most contentious potential sources of bias is whether instructors who give higher grades receive higher ratings from students. We examined the grade point averages (GPAs) and student ratings across 2073 general education religion courses at a large private university. A moderate correlation was found between GPAs and student evaluations…
Imdat, Yarim
2014-01-01
The aim of the study is to find the correlation that exists between physical activity level and grade point averages of faculty of education students. The subjects consist of 359 (172 females and 187 males) under graduate students To determine the physical activity levels of the students in this research, International Physical Activity…
Radhakrishnan, Srinivasan; Duvvuru, Arjun; Sultornsanee, Sivarit; Kamarthi, Sagar
2016-02-01
The cross correlation coefficient has been widely applied in financial time series analysis, in specific, for understanding chaotic behaviour in terms of stock price and index movements during crisis periods. To better understand time series correlation dynamics, the cross correlation matrices are represented as networks, in which a node stands for an individual time series and a link indicates cross correlation between a pair of nodes. These networks are converted into simpler trees using different schemes. In this context, Minimum Spanning Trees (MST) are the most favoured tree structures because of their ability to preserve all the nodes and thereby retain essential information imbued in the network. Although cross correlations underlying MSTs capture essential information, they do not faithfully capture dynamic behaviour embedded in the time series data of financial systems because cross correlation is a reliable measure only if the relationship between the time series is linear. To address the issue, this work investigates a new measure called phase synchronization (PS) for establishing correlations among different time series which relate to one another, linearly or nonlinearly. In this approach the strength of a link between a pair of time series (nodes) is determined by the level of phase synchronization between them. We compare the performance of phase synchronization based MST with cross correlation based MST along selected network measures across temporal frame that includes economically good and crisis periods. We observe agreement in the directionality of the results across these two methods. They show similar trends, upward or downward, when comparing selected network measures. Though both the methods give similar trends, the phase synchronization based MST is a more reliable representation of the dynamic behaviour of financial systems than the cross correlation based MST because of the former's ability to quantify nonlinear relationships among time
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kon, E. [Biomechanics Laboratory, III Clinic, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via Di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Di Martino, A., E-mail: a.dimartino@biomec.ior.it [Biomechanics Laboratory, III Clinic, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via Di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Filardo, G. [Biomechanics Laboratory, III Clinic, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via Di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Tetta, C.; Busacca, M. [Radiology, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna (Italy); Iacono, F. [Biomechanics Laboratory, III Clinic, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via Di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy); Delcogliano, M. [Orthopaedic Departement San Carlo di Nancy Hospital, Rome (Italy); Albisinni, U. [Radiology, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Bologna (Italy); Marcacci, M. [Biomechanics Laboratory, III Clinic, Rizzoli Orthopaedic Institute, Via Di Barbiano 1/10, 40136 Bologna (Italy)
2011-09-15
Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcome of hyaluronan-based arthroscopic autologous chondrocyte transplantation at a minimum of 5 years of follow-up and to correlate it with the MRI evaluation parameters. Methods: Fifty consecutive patients were included in the study and evaluated clinically using the Cartilage Standard Evaluation Form as proposed by ICRS and the Tegner score. Forty lesions underwent MRI evaluation at a minimum 5-year follow-up. For the description and evaluation of the graft, we employed the MOCART-scoring system. Results: A statistically significant improvement in all clinical scores was observed at 2 and over 5 years. The total MOCART score and the signal intensity (3D-GE-FS) of the repair tissue were statistically correlated to the IKDC subjective evaluation. Larger size of the treated cartilage lesions had a negative influence on the degree of defect repair and filling, the integration to the border zone and the subchondral lamina integrity, whereas more intensive sport activity had a positive influence on the signal intensity of the repair tissue, the repair tissue surface, and the clinical outcome. Conclusion: Our findings confirm the durability of the clinical results obtained with Hyalograft C and the usefulness of MRI as a non-invasive method for the evaluation of the repaired tissue and the outcome after second-generation autologous transplantation over time.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kon, E.; Di Martino, A.; Filardo, G.; Tetta, C.; Busacca, M.; Iacono, F.; Delcogliano, M.; Albisinni, U.; Marcacci, M.
2011-01-01
Objective: To evaluate the clinical outcome of hyaluronan-based arthroscopic autologous chondrocyte transplantation at a minimum of 5 years of follow-up and to correlate it with the MRI evaluation parameters. Methods: Fifty consecutive patients were included in the study and evaluated clinically using the Cartilage Standard Evaluation Form as proposed by ICRS and the Tegner score. Forty lesions underwent MRI evaluation at a minimum 5-year follow-up. For the description and evaluation of the graft, we employed the MOCART-scoring system. Results: A statistically significant improvement in all clinical scores was observed at 2 and over 5 years. The total MOCART score and the signal intensity (3D-GE-FS) of the repair tissue were statistically correlated to the IKDC subjective evaluation. Larger size of the treated cartilage lesions had a negative influence on the degree of defect repair and filling, the integration to the border zone and the subchondral lamina integrity, whereas more intensive sport activity had a positive influence on the signal intensity of the repair tissue, the repair tissue surface, and the clinical outcome. Conclusion: Our findings confirm the durability of the clinical results obtained with Hyalograft C and the usefulness of MRI as a non-invasive method for the evaluation of the repaired tissue and the outcome after second-generation autologous transplantation over time.
Averaging in spherically symmetric cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coley, A. A.; Pelavas, N.
2007-01-01
The averaging problem in cosmology is of fundamental importance. When applied to study cosmological evolution, the theory of macroscopic gravity (MG) can be regarded as a long-distance modification of general relativity. In the MG approach to the averaging problem in cosmology, the Einstein field equations on cosmological scales are modified by appropriate gravitational correlation terms. We study the averaging problem within the class of spherically symmetric cosmological models. That is, we shall take the microscopic equations and effect the averaging procedure to determine the precise form of the correlation tensor in this case. In particular, by working in volume-preserving coordinates, we calculate the form of the correlation tensor under some reasonable assumptions on the form for the inhomogeneous gravitational field and matter distribution. We find that the correlation tensor in a Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) background must be of the form of a spatial curvature. Inhomogeneities and spatial averaging, through this spatial curvature correction term, can have a very significant dynamical effect on the dynamics of the Universe and cosmological observations; in particular, we discuss whether spatial averaging might lead to a more conservative explanation of the observed acceleration of the Universe (without the introduction of exotic dark matter fields). We also find that the correlation tensor for a non-FLRW background can be interpreted as the sum of a spatial curvature and an anisotropic fluid. This may lead to interesting effects of averaging on astrophysical scales. We also discuss the results of averaging an inhomogeneous Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution as well as calculations of linear perturbations (that is, the backreaction) in an FLRW background, which support the main conclusions of the analysis
Sample-averaged biexciton quantum yield measured by solution-phase photon correlation.
Beyler, Andrew P; Bischof, Thomas S; Cui, Jian; Coropceanu, Igor; Harris, Daniel K; Bawendi, Moungi G
2014-12-10
The brightness of nanoscale optical materials such as semiconductor nanocrystals is currently limited in high excitation flux applications by inefficient multiexciton fluorescence. We have devised a solution-phase photon correlation measurement that can conveniently and reliably measure the average biexciton-to-exciton quantum yield ratio of an entire sample without user selection bias. This technique can be used to investigate the multiexciton recombination dynamics of a broad scope of synthetically underdeveloped materials, including those with low exciton quantum yields and poor fluorescence stability. Here, we have applied this method to measure weak biexciton fluorescence in samples of visible-emitting InP/ZnS and InAs/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals, and to demonstrate that a rapid CdS shell growth procedure can markedly increase the biexciton fluorescence of CdSe nanocrystals.
The minimum wage in the Czech enterprises
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eva Lajtkepová
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Although the statutory minimum wage is not a new category, in the Czech Republic we encounter the definition and regulation of a minimum wage for the first time in the 1990 amendment to Act No. 65/1965 Coll., the Labour Code. The specific amount of the minimum wage and the conditions of its operation were then subsequently determined by government regulation in February 1991. Since that time, the value of minimum wage has been adjusted fifteenth times (the last increase was in January 2007. The aim of this article is to present selected results of two researches of acceptance of the statutory minimum wage by Czech enterprises. The first research makes use of the data collected by questionnaire research in 83 small and medium-sized enterprises in the South Moravia Region in 2005, the second one the data of 116 enterprises in the entire Czech Republic (in 2007. The data have been processed by means of the standard methods of descriptive statistics and of the appropriate methods of the statistical analyses (Spearman correlation coefficient of sequential correlation, Kendall coefficient, χ2 - independence test, Kruskal-Wallis test, and others.
Smith, N; Zhong, P
2012-10-11
To investigate the roles of lithotripter shock wave (LSW) parameters and cavitation in stone comminution, a series of in vitro fragmentation experiments have been conducted in water and 1,3-butanediol (a cavitation-suppressive fluid) at a variety of acoustic field positions of an electromagnetic shock wave lithotripter. Using field mapping data and integrated parameters averaged over a circular stone holder area (R(h)=7 mm), close logarithmic correlations between the average peak pressure (P(+(avg))) incident on the stone (D=10 mm BegoStone) and comminution efficiency after 500 and 1000 shocks have been identified. Moreover, the correlations have demonstrated distinctive thresholds in P(+(avg)) (5.3 MPa and 7.6 MPa for soft and hard stones, respectively), that are required to initiate stone fragmentation independent of surrounding fluid medium and LSW dose. These observations, should they be confirmed using other shock wave lithotripters, may provide an important field parameter (i.e., P(+(avg))) to guide appropriate application of SWL in clinics, and facilitate device comparison and design improvements in future lithotripters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A Phosphate Minimum in the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) off Peru
Paulmier, A.; Giraud, M.; Sudre, J.; Jonca, J.; Leon, V.; Moron, O.; Dewitte, B.; Lavik, G.; Grasse, P.; Frank, M.; Stramma, L.; Garcon, V.
2016-02-01
The Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ) off Peru is known to be associated with the advection of Equatorial SubSurface Waters (ESSW), rich in nutrients and poor in oxygen, through the Peru-Chile UnderCurrent (PCUC), but this circulation remains to be refined within the OMZ. During the Pelágico cruise in November-December 2010, measurements of phosphate revealed the presence of a phosphate minimum (Pmin) in various hydrographic stations, which could not be explained so far and could be associated with a specific water mass. This Pmin, localized at a relatively constant layer ( 20minimum with a mean vertical phosphate decrease of 0.6 µM but highly variable between 0.1 and 2.2 µM. In average, these Pmin are associated with a predominant mixing of SubTropical Under- and Surface Waters (STUW and STSW: 20 and 40%, respectively) within ESSW ( 25%), complemented evenly by overlying (ESW, TSW: 8%) and underlying waters (AAIW, SPDW: 7%). The hypotheses and mechanisms leading to the Pmin formation in the OMZ are further explored and discussed, considering the physical regional contribution associated with various circulation pathways ventilating the OMZ and the local biogeochemical contribution including the potential diazotrophic activity.
Boore, D.M.; Thompson, E.M.; Cadet, H.
2011-01-01
Using velocity profiles from sites in Japan, California, Turkey, and Europe, we find that the time-averaged shear-wave velocity to 30 m (V S30), used as a proxy for site amplification in recent ground-motion prediction equations (GMPEs) and building codes, is strongly correlated with average velocities to depths less than 30 m (V Sz, with z being the averaging depth). The correlations for sites in Japan (corresponding to the KiK-net network) show that V S30 is systematically larger for a given V Sz than for profiles from the other regions. The difference largely results from the placement of the KiK-net station locations on rock and rocklike sites, whereas stations in the other regions are generally placed in urban areas underlain by sediments. Using the KiK-net velocity profiles, we provide equations relating V S30 to V Sz for z ranging from 5 to 29 m in 1-m increments. These equations (and those for California velocity profiles given in Boore, 2004b) can be used to estimate V S30 from V Sz for sites in which velocity profiles do not extend to 30 m. The scatter of the residuals decreases with depth, but, even for an averaging depth of 5 m, a variation in log V S30 of 1 standard deviation maps into less than a 20% uncertainty in ground motions given by recent GMPEs at short periods. The sensitivity of the ground motions to V S30 uncertainty is considerably larger at long periods (but is less than a factor of 1.2 for averaging depths greater than about 20 m). We also find that V S30 is correlated with V Sz for z as great as 400 m for sites of the KiK-net network, providing some justification for using V S30 as a site-response variable for predicting ground motions at periods for which the wavelengths far exceed 30 m.
Correlation of diffusion and perfusion MRI with Ki-67 in high-grade meningiomas.
Ginat, Daniel T; Mangla, Rajiv; Yeaney, Gabrielle; Wang, Henry Z
2010-12-01
Atypical and anaplastic meningiomas have a greater likelihood of recurrence than benign meningiomas. The risk for recurrence is often estimated using the Ki-67 labeling index. The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between Ki-67 and regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV) and between Ki-67 and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in atypical and anaplastic meningiomas. A retrospective review of the advanced imaging and immunohistochemical characteristics of atypical and anaplastic meningiomas was performed. The relative minimum ADC, relative maximum rCBV, and specimen Ki-67 index were measured. Pearson's correlation was used to compare these parameters. There were 23 cases with available ADC maps and 20 cases with available rCBV maps. The average Ki-67 among the cases with ADC maps and rCBV maps was 17.6% (range, 5-38%) and 16.7% (range, 3-38%), respectively. The mean minimum ADC ratio was 0.91 (SD, 0.26) and the mean maximum rCBV ratio was 22.5 (SD, 7.9). There was a significant positive correlation between maximum rCBV and Ki-67 (Pearson's correlation, 0.69; p = 0.00038). However, there was no significant correlation between minimum ADC and Ki-67 (Pearson's correlation, -0.051; p = 0.70). Maximum rCBV correlated significantly with Ki-67 in high-grade meningiomas.
Macia, Didac; Pujol, Jesus; Blanco-Hinojo, Laura; Martínez-Vilavella, Gerard; Martín-Santos, Rocío; Deus, Joan
2018-04-24
There is ample evidence from basic research in neuroscience of the importance of local cortico-cortical networks. Millimetric resolution is achievable with current functional MRI (fMRI) scanners and sequences, and consequently a number of "local" activity similarity measures have been defined to describe patterns of segregation and integration at this spatial scale. We have introduced the use of Iso-Distant local Average Correlation (IDAC), easily defined as the average fMRI temporal correlation of a given voxel with other voxels placed at increasingly separated iso-distant intervals, to characterize the curve of local fMRI signal similarities. IDAC curves can be statistically compared using parametric multivariate statistics. Furthermore, by using RGB color-coding to display jointly IDAC values belonging to three different distance lags, IDAC curves can also be displayed as multi-distance IDAC maps. We applied IDAC analysis to a sample of 41 subjects scanned under two different conditions, a resting state and an auditory-visual continuous stimulation. Multi-distance IDAC mapping was able to discriminate between gross anatomo-functional cortical areas and, moreover, was sensitive to modulation between the two brain conditions in areas known to activate and de-activate during audio-visual tasks. Unlike previous fMRI local similarity measures already in use, our approach draws special attention to the continuous smooth pattern of local functional connectivity.
The Effect of the Minimum Compensating Cash Balance on School District Investments.
Dembowski, Frederick L.
Banks are usually reimbursed for their checking account services either by a fixed service charge or by requiring a minimum or minimum-average compensating cash balance. This paper demonstrates how to determine the optimal minimum balance for a school district to maintain in its account. It is assumed that both the bank and the school district use…
The flattening of the average potential in models with fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bornholdt, S.
1993-01-01
The average potential is a scale dependent scalar effective potential. In a phase with spontaneous symmetry breaking its inner region becomes flat as the averaging extends over infinite volume and the average potential approaches the convex effective potential. Fermion fluctuations affect the shape of the average potential in this region and its flattening with decreasing physical scale. They have to be taken into account to find the true minimum of the scalar potential which determines the scale of spontaneous symmetry breaking. (orig.)
Minimum disturbance rewards with maximum possible classical correlations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pande, Varad R., E-mail: varad_pande@yahoo.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Pune, 411008 (India); Shaji, Anil [School of Physics, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Thiruvananthapuram, 695016 (India)
2017-07-12
Weak measurements done on a subsystem of a bipartite system having both classical and nonClassical correlations between its components can potentially reveal information about the other subsystem with minimal disturbance to the overall state. We use weak quantum discord and the fidelity between the initial bipartite state and the state after measurement to construct a cost function that accounts for both the amount of information revealed about the other system as well as the disturbance to the overall state. We investigate the behaviour of the cost function for families of two qubit states and show that there is an optimal choice that can be made for the strength of the weak measurement. - Highlights: • Weak measurements done on one part of a bipartite system with controlled strength. • Weak quantum discord & fidelity used to quantify all correlations and disturbance. • Cost function to probe the tradeoff between extracted correlations and disturbance. • Optimal measurement strength for maximum extraction of classical correlations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Zhifan; Msezane, Alfred Z.; Amusia, M. Ya.
1999-01-01
We have investigated the generalized oscillator strength (GOS) for a transition of the type np→(n+1)s, where n is the principal quantum number of the outermost filled shell of the atomic ground state, using the random-phase approximation with exchange. We find that the influence of correlation and exchange effects on the position of the characteristic minimum in the GOS of Ar(n=3) is insignificant. Also, our first Born approximation predicts the position of the minimum accurately provided that accurate target wave functions are employed. Our results agree excellently with measurements and are expected to be applicable equally to the corresponding subshells of Ne(n=2), Kr(n=4), and Xe(n=5). (c) 1999 The American Physical Society
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nazelie Kassabian
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Railway signaling is a safety system that has evolved over the last couple of centuries towards autonomous functionality. Recently, great effort is being devoted in this field, towards the use and exploitation of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS signals and GNSS augmentation systems in view of lower railway track equipments and maintenance costs, that is a priority to sustain the investments for modernizing the local and regional lines most of which lack automatic train protection systems and are still manually operated. The objective of this paper is to assess the sensitivity of the Linear Minimum Mean Square Error (LMMSE algorithm to modeling errors in the spatial correlation function that characterizes true pseudorange Differential Corrections (DCs. This study is inspired by the railway application; however, it applies to all transportation systems, including the road sector, that need to be complemented by an augmentation system in order to deliver accurate and reliable positioning with integrity specifications. A vector of noisy pseudorange DC measurements are simulated, assuming a Gauss-Markov model with a decay rate parameter inversely proportional to the correlation distance that exists between two points of a certain environment. The LMMSE algorithm is applied on this vector to estimate the true DC, and the estimation error is compared to the noise added during simulation. The results show that for large enough correlation distance to Reference Stations (RSs distance separation ratio values, the LMMSE brings considerable advantage in terms of estimation error accuracy and precision. Conversely, the LMMSE algorithm may deteriorate the quality of the DC measurements whenever the ratio falls below a certain threshold.
Flow Convergence Caused by a Salinity Minimum in a Tidal Channel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John C. Warner
2006-12-01
Full Text Available Residence times of dissolved substances and sedimentation rates in tidal channels are affected by residual (tidally averaged circulation patterns. One influence on these circulation patterns is the longitudinal density gradient. In most estuaries the longitudinal density gradient typically maintains a constant direction. However, a junction of tidal channels can create a local reversal (change in sign of the density gradient. This can occur due to a difference in the phase of tidal currents in each channel. In San Francisco Bay, the phasing of the currents at the junction of Mare Island Strait and Carquinez Strait produces a local salinity minimum in Mare Island Strait. At the location of a local salinity minimum the longitudinal density gradient reverses direction. This paper presents four numerical models that were used to investigate the circulation caused by the salinity minimum: (1 A simple one-dimensional (1D finite difference model demonstrates that a local salinity minimum is advected into Mare Island Strait from the junction with Carquinez Strait during flood tide. (2 A three-dimensional (3D hydrodynamic finite element model is used to compute the tidally averaged circulation in a channel that contains a salinity minimum (a change in the sign of the longitudinal density gradient and compares that to a channel that contains a longitudinal density gradient in a constant direction. The tidally averaged circulation produced by the salinity minimum is characterized by converging flow at the bed and diverging flow at the surface, whereas the circulation produced by the constant direction gradient is characterized by converging flow at the bed and downstream surface currents. These velocity fields are used to drive both a particle tracking and a sediment transport model. (3 A particle tracking model demonstrates a 30 percent increase in the residence time of neutrally buoyant particles transported through the salinity minimum, as compared to
Stockwell, Tim; Zhao, Jinhui; Sherk, Adam; Callaghan, Russell C; Macdonald, Scott; Gatley, Jodi
2017-07-01
Saskatchewan's introduction in April 2010 of minimum prices graded by alcohol strength led to an average minimum price increase of 9.1% per Canadian standard drink (=13.45 g ethanol). This increase was shown to be associated with reduced consumption and switching to lower alcohol content beverages. Police also informally reported marked reductions in night-time alcohol-related crime. This study aims to assess the impacts of changes to Saskatchewan's minimum alcohol-pricing regulations between 2008 and 2012 on selected crime events often related to alcohol use. Data were obtained from Canada's Uniform Crime Reporting Survey. Auto-regressive integrated moving average time series models were used to test immediate and lagged associations between minimum price increases and rates of night-time and police identified alcohol-related crimes. Controls were included for simultaneous crime rates in the neighbouring province of Alberta, economic variables, linear trend, seasonality and autoregressive and/or moving-average effects. The introduction of increased minimum-alcohol prices was associated with an abrupt decrease in night-time alcohol-related traffic offences for men (-8.0%, P prices may contribute to reductions in alcohol-related traffic-related and violent crimes perpetrated by men. Observed lagged effects for violent incidents may be due to a delay in bars passing on increased prices to their customers, perhaps because of inventory stockpiling. [Stockwell T, Zhao J, Sherk A, Callaghan RC, Macdonald S, Gatley J. Assessing the impacts of Saskatchewan's minimum alcohol pricing regulations on alcohol-related crime. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:492-501]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jain, S.; Jain, P.C.
1985-12-01
Linear regression analysis of the monthly average daily global irradiation and the sunshine duration data of 8 Zambian locations has been performed using the least square technique. Good correlation (r>0.95) is obtained in all the cases showing that the Angstrom equation is valid for Zambian locations. The values of the correlation parameters thus obtained show substantial unsystematic scatter. The analysis was repeated after incorporating the effects of (i) multiple reflections of radiation between the ground and the atmosphere, and (ii) not burning of the sunshine recorder chart, into the Angstrom equation. The surface albedo measurements at Lusaka were used. The scatter in the correlation parameters was investigated by graphical representation, by regression analysis of the data of the individual stations as well as the combined data of the 8 stations. The results show that the incorporation of none of the two effects reduces the scatter significantly. A single linear equation obtained from the regression analysis of the combined data of the 8 stations is found to be appropriate for estimating the global irradiation over Zambian locations with reasonable accuracy from the sunshine duration data. (author)
Cortesi, Nicola; Peña-Angulo, Dhais; Simolo, Claudia; Stepanek, Peter; Brunetti, Michele; Gonzalez-Hidalgo, José Carlos
2014-05-01
One of the key point in the develop of the MOTEDAS dataset (see Poster 1 MOTEDAS) in the framework of the HIDROCAES Project (Impactos Hidrológicos del Calentamiento Global en España, Spanish Ministery of Research CGL2011-27574-C02-01) is the reference series for which no generalized metadata exist. In this poster we present an analysis of spatial variability of monthly minimum and maximum temperatures in the conterminous land of Spain (Iberian Peninsula, IP), by using the Correlation Decay Distance function (CDD), with the aim of evaluating, at sub-regional level, the optimal threshold distance between neighbouring stations for producing the set of reference series used in the quality control (see MOTEDAS Poster 1) and the reconstruction (see MOREDAS Poster 3). The CDD analysis for Tmax and Tmin was performed calculating a correlation matrix at monthly scale between 1981-2010 among monthly mean values of maximum (Tmax) and minimum (Tmin) temperature series (with at least 90% of data), free of anomalous data and homogenized (see MOTEDAS Poster 1), obtained from AEMEt archives (National Spanish Meteorological Agency). Monthly anomalies (difference between data and mean 1981-2010) were used to prevent the dominant effect of annual cycle in the CDD annual estimation. For each station, and time scale, the common variance r2 (using the square of Pearson's correlation coefficient) was calculated between all neighbouring temperature series and the relation between r2 and distance was modelled according to the following equation (1): Log (r2ij) = b*°dij (1) being Log(rij2) the common variance between target (i) and neighbouring series (j), dij the distance between them and b the slope of the ordinary least-squares linear regression model applied taking into account only the surrounding stations within a starting radius of 50 km and with a minimum of 5 stations required. Finally, monthly, seasonal and annual CDD values were interpolated using the Ordinary Kriging with a
Wavelet Correlation Coefficient of 'strongly correlated' financial time series
Razdan, Ashok
2003-01-01
In this paper we use wavelet concepts to show that correlation coefficient between two financial data's is not constant but varies with scale from high correlation value to strongly anti-correlation value This studies is important because correlation coefficient is used to quantify degree of independence between two variables. In econophysics correlation coefficient forms important input to evolve hierarchial tree and minimum spanning tree of financial data.
Droplet squeezing through a narrow constriction: Minimum impulse and critical velocity
Zhang, Zhifeng; Drapaca, Corina; Chen, Xiaolin; Xu, Jie
2017-07-01
Models of a droplet passing through narrow constrictions have wide applications in science and engineering. In this paper, we report our findings on the minimum impulse (momentum change) of pushing a droplet through a narrow circular constriction. The existence of this minimum impulse is mathematically derived and numerically verified. The minimum impulse happens at a critical velocity when the time-averaged Young-Laplace pressure balances the total minor pressure loss in the constriction. Finally, numerical simulations are conducted to verify these concepts. These results could be relevant to problems of energy optimization and studies of chemical and biomedical systems.
Books average previous decade of economic misery.
Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios
2014-01-01
For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beer, M.
1980-01-01
The maximum likelihood method for the multivariate normal distribution is applied to the case of several individual eigenvalues. Correlated Monte Carlo estimates of the eigenvalue are assumed to follow this prescription and aspects of the assumption are examined. Monte Carlo cell calculations using the SAM-CE and VIM codes for the TRX-1 and TRX-2 benchmark reactors, and SAM-CE full core results are analyzed with this method. Variance reductions of a few percent to a factor of 2 are obtained from maximum likelihood estimation as compared with the simple average and the minimum variance individual eigenvalue. The numerical results verify that the use of sample variances and correlation coefficients in place of the corresponding population statistics still leads to nearly minimum variance estimation for a sufficient number of histories and aggregates
Average monthly and annual climate maps for Bolivia
Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.
2015-02-24
This study presents monthly and annual climate maps for relevant hydroclimatic variables in Bolivia. We used the most complete network of precipitation and temperature stations available in Bolivia, which passed a careful quality control and temporal homogenization procedure. Monthly average maps at the spatial resolution of 1 km were modeled by means of a regression-based approach using topographic and geographic variables as predictors. The monthly average maximum and minimum temperatures, precipitation and potential exoatmospheric solar radiation under clear sky conditions are used to estimate the monthly average atmospheric evaporative demand by means of the Hargreaves model. Finally, the average water balance is estimated on a monthly and annual scale for each 1 km cell by means of the difference between precipitation and atmospheric evaporative demand. The digital layers used to create the maps are available in the digital repository of the Spanish National Research Council.
Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery
Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios
2014-01-01
For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159
Calculation of the minimum critical mass of fissile nuclides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wright, R.Q.; Hopper, Calvin Mitchell
2008-01-01
The OB-1 method for the calculation of the minimum critical mass of fissile actinides in metal/water systems was described in a previous paper. A fit to the calculated minimum critical mass data using the extended criticality parameter is the basis of the revised method. The solution density (grams/liter) for the minimum critical mass is also obtained by a fit to calculated values. Input to the calculation consists of the Maxwellian averaged fission and absorption cross sections and the thermal values of nubar. The revised method gives more accurate values than the original method does for both the minimum critical mass and the solution densities. The OB-1 method has been extended to calculate the uncertainties in the minimum critical mass for 12 different fissile nuclides. The uncertainties for the fission and capture cross sections and the estimated nubar uncertainties are used to determine the uncertainties in the minimum critical mass, either in percent or grams. Results have been obtained for U-233, U-235, Pu-236, Pu-239, Pu-241, Am-242m, Cm-243, Cm-245, Cf-249, Cf-251, Cf-253, and Es-254. Eight of these 12 nuclides are included in the ANS-8.15 standard.
Correlation between impurities, defects and cell performance in semicrystalline silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doolittle, W.A.; Rohatgi, A.
1990-01-01
This paper reports that an in-depth analysis of Solarex CDS semicrystalline silicon has been performed and correlations between the efficiency and impurities, and defects present in the material have been made. Comparisons were made between cell performance and variations in interstitial oxygen, substitutional carbon, grain size, etch pit density, and trap location as a function of position in the ingot. The oxygen concentration was found to decrease with increasing distance from the bottom of the ingot while the carbon concentration as well as average grain size was found to increase. The best cell performance was obtained on wafers with minimum oxygen and maximum carbon (top). No correlation was found between etch pit density and cell performance. DLTS and JVT measurements revealed that samples with higher oxygen content (bottom) gave lower cell performance due to a large number of distributed states, possibly due to extended defects like oxygen precipitates. Low oxygen samples (top) showed predominately discrete states, improved cell performance and a doping dependent average trap density
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Zhifan [Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, and Department of Physics, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia 30314 (United States); Msezane, Alfred Z. [Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, and Department of Physics, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia 30314 (United States); Amusia, M. Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, (Israel)
1999-12-01
We have investigated the generalized oscillator strength (GOS) for a transition of the type np{yields}(n+1)s, where n is the principal quantum number of the outermost filled shell of the atomic ground state, using the random-phase approximation with exchange. We find that the influence of correlation and exchange effects on the position of the characteristic minimum in the GOS of Ar(n=3) is insignificant. Also, our first Born approximation predicts the position of the minimum accurately provided that accurate target wave functions are employed. Our results agree excellently with measurements and are expected to be applicable equally to the corresponding subshells of Ne(n=2), Kr(n=4), and Xe(n=5). (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.
Bhattacharya, Anindya; De, Rajat K
2010-08-01
Distance based clustering algorithms can group genes that show similar expression values under multiple experimental conditions. They are unable to identify a group of genes that have similar pattern of variation in their expression values. Previously we developed an algorithm called divisive correlation clustering algorithm (DCCA) to tackle this situation, which is based on the concept of correlation clustering. But this algorithm may also fail for certain cases. In order to overcome these situations, we propose a new clustering algorithm, called average correlation clustering algorithm (ACCA), which is able to produce better clustering solution than that produced by some others. ACCA is able to find groups of genes having more common transcription factors and similar pattern of variation in their expression values. Moreover, ACCA is more efficient than DCCA with respect to the time of execution. Like DCCA, we use the concept of correlation clustering concept introduced by Bansal et al. ACCA uses the correlation matrix in such a way that all genes in a cluster have the highest average correlation values with the genes in that cluster. We have applied ACCA and some well-known conventional methods including DCCA to two artificial and nine gene expression datasets, and compared the performance of the algorithms. The clustering results of ACCA are found to be more significantly relevant to the biological annotations than those of the other methods. Analysis of the results show the superiority of ACCA over some others in determining a group of genes having more common transcription factors and with similar pattern of variation in their expression profiles. Availability of the software: The software has been developed using C and Visual Basic languages, and can be executed on the Microsoft Windows platforms. The software may be downloaded as a zip file from http://www.isical.ac.in/~rajat. Then it needs to be installed. Two word files (included in the zip file) need to
Seasonal regional forecast of the minimum sea ice extent in the LapteV Sea
Tremblay, B.; Brunette, C.; Newton, R.
2017-12-01
Late winter anomaly of sea ice export from the peripheral seas of the Atctic Ocean was found to be a useful predictor for the minimum sea ice extent (SIE) in the Arctic Ocean (Williams et al., 2017). In the following, we present a proof of concept for a regional seasonal forecast of the min SIE for the Laptev Sea based on late winter coastal divergence quantified using a Lagrangian Ice Tracking System (LITS) forced with satellite derived sea-ice drifts from the Polar Pathfinder. Following Nikolaeva and Sesterikov (1970), we track an imaginary line just offshore of coastal polynyas in the Laptev Sea from December of the previous year to May 1 of the following year using LITS. Results show that coastal divergence in the Laptev Sea between February 1st and May 1st is best correlated (r = -0.61) with the following September minimum SIE in accord with previous results from Krumpen et al. (2013, for the Laptev Sea) and Williams et a. (2017, for the pan-Arctic). This gives a maximum seasonal predictability of Laptev Sea min SIE anomalies from observations of approximately 40%. Coastal ice divergence leads to formation of thinner ice that melts earlier in early summer, hence creating areas of open water that have a lower albedo and trigger an ice-albedo feedback. In the Laptev Sea, we find that anomalies of coastal divergence in late winter are amplified threefold to result in the September SIE. We also find a correlation coefficient r = 0.49 between February-March-April (FMA) anomalies of coastal divergence with the FMA averaged AO index. Interestingly, the correlation is stronger, r = 0.61, when comparing the FMA coastal divergence anomalies to the DJFMA averaged AO index. It is hypothesized that the AO index at the beginning of the winter (and the associated anomalous sea ice export) also contains information that impact the magnitude of coastal divergence opening later in the winter. Our approach differs from previous approaches (e.g. Krumpen et al and Williams et al
Talsma, D.
2008-01-01
The auto-adaptive averaging procedure proposed here classifies artifacts in event-related potential data by optimizing the signal-to-noise ratio. This method rank orders single trials according to the impact of each trial on the ERP average. Then, the minimum residual background noise level in the
Talsma, D.
2008-01-01
The auto-adaptive averaging procedure proposed here classifies artifacts in event-related potential data by optimizing the signal-to-noise ratio. This method rank orders single trials according to the impact of each trial on the ERP average. Then, the minimum residual background noise level in the
Completeness properties of the minimum uncertainty states
Trifonov, D. A.
1993-01-01
The completeness properties of the Schrodinger minimum uncertainty states (SMUS) and of some of their subsets are considered. The invariant measures and the resolution unity measures for the set of SMUS are constructed and the representation of squeezing and correlating operators and SMUS as superpositions of Glauber coherent states on the real line is elucidated.
Gonzalez, Eugenia C; Hernandez, Erika C; Coltrane, Ambrosia K; Mancera, Jayme M
2014-01-01
Researchers have reported positive associations between physical activity and academic achievement. However, a common belief is that improving academic performance comes at the cost of reducing time for and resources spent on extracurricular activities that encourage physical activity. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between self-reported physical activity and grade point average (GPA) for health science graduate students. Graduate students in health science programs completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and reported their academic progress. Most participants (76%) reported moderate to vigorous physical activity levels that met or exceeded the recommended levels for adults. However, there was no significant correlation between GPA and level of physical activity. Negative findings for this study may be associated with the limited range of GPA scores for graduate students. Future studies need to consider more sensitive measures of cognitive function, as well as the impact of physical activity on occupational balance and health for graduate students in the health fields. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.
Strips of hourly power options. Approximate hedging using average-based forward contracts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindell, Andreas; Raab, Mikael
2009-01-01
We study approximate hedging strategies for a contingent claim consisting of a strip of independent hourly power options. The payoff of the contingent claim is a sum of the contributing hourly payoffs. As there is no forward market for specific hours, the fundamental problem is to find a reasonable hedge using exchange-traded forward contracts, e.g. average-based monthly contracts. The main result is a simple dynamic hedging strategy that reduces a significant part of the variance. The idea is to decompose the contingent claim into mathematically tractable components and to use empirical estimations to derive hedging deltas. Two benefits of the method are that the technique easily extends to more complex power derivatives and that only a few parameters need to be estimated. The hedging strategy based on the decomposition technique is compared with dynamic delta hedging strategies based on local minimum variance hedging, using a correlated traded asset. (author)
The impact of NPP Krsko steam generator tube plugging on minimum DNBR at nominal conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lajtman, S.
1996-01-01
Typically, steam generator tube plugging (SGTP) both decreases the reactor coolant system (RCS) flow rate and the heat transfer surface area of the steam generator. At a constant thermal power and vessel outlet temperature, as tube plugging increases, the vessel average temperature, vessel inlet temperature and steam generator secondary side steam pressure decrease. This paper presents the analysis of impact of SGTP on Minimum Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (MDNBR) at NPP Krsko (NEK), using the Improved Thermal Design Procedure (ITDP), WRB-1 correlation, and COBRA-III-C computer code. No credit was given to high plugging percentage region power reduction resulting from turbine volumetric flow limitations. MDNBR is found to be decreasing with increasing plugging, but not under the limiting values. (author)
Scale-invariant Green-Kubo relation for time-averaged diffusivity
Meyer, Philipp; Barkai, Eli; Kantz, Holger
2017-12-01
In recent years it was shown both theoretically and experimentally that in certain systems exhibiting anomalous diffusion the time- and ensemble-averaged mean-squared displacement are remarkably different. The ensemble-averaged diffusivity is obtained from a scaling Green-Kubo relation, which connects the scale-invariant nonstationary velocity correlation function with the transport coefficient. Here we obtain the relation between time-averaged diffusivity, usually recorded in single-particle tracking experiments, and the underlying scale-invariant velocity correlation function. The time-averaged mean-squared displacement is given by 〈δ2¯〉 ˜2 DνtβΔν -β , where t is the total measurement time and Δ is the lag time. Here ν is the anomalous diffusion exponent obtained from ensemble-averaged measurements 〈x2〉 ˜tν , while β ≥-1 marks the growth or decline of the kinetic energy 〈v2〉 ˜tβ . Thus, we establish a connection between exponents that can be read off the asymptotic properties of the velocity correlation function and similarly for the transport constant Dν. We demonstrate our results with nonstationary scale-invariant stochastic and deterministic models, thereby highlighting that systems with equivalent behavior in the ensemble average can differ strongly in their time average. If the averaged kinetic energy is finite, β =0 , the time scaling of 〈δ2¯〉 and 〈x2〉 are identical; however, the time-averaged transport coefficient Dν is not identical to the corresponding ensemble-averaged diffusion constant.
Is there a minimum length in D=4 lattice quantum gravity?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Greensite, J.
1990-11-01
It is argued that, as in string theory, a minimum length exists in D=4 quantum gravity. The argument is based on a (naive) lattice regularization of tetrad gravity, where it appears that any formal reduction of the lattice spacing ε=χ n+1 -x n is countered by an increase in metric fluctuations. In D=4 dimensions, these fluctuations prevent the average physical separation between neighboring lattice points from falling below a certain minimum, which is on the order of the Planck length. (orig.)
Self-averaging correlation functions in the mean field theory of spin glasses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mezard, M.; Parisi, G.
1984-01-01
In the infinite range spin glass model, we consider the staggered spin σsub(lambda)associated with a given eigenvector of the interaction matrix. We show that the thermal average of sub(lambda)sup(2) is a self-averaging quantity and we compute it
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kwee, Regina
2010-01-01
Since the restart of the LHC in November 2009, ATLAS has collected inelastic pp collisions to perform first measurements on charged particle densities. These measurements will help to constrain various models describing phenomenologically soft parton interactions. Understanding the trigger efficiencies for different event types are therefore crucial to minimize any possible bias in the event selection. ATLAS uses two main minimum bias triggers, featuring complementary detector components and trigger levels. While a hardware based first trigger level situated in the forward regions with 2.2 < |η| < 3.8 has been proven to select pp-collisions very efficiently, the Inner Detector based minimum bias trigger uses a random seed on filled bunches and central tracking detectors for the event selection. Both triggers were essential for the analysis of kinematic spectra of charged particles. Their performance and trigger efficiency measurements as well as studies on possible bias sources will be presented. We also highlight the advantage of these triggers for particle correlation analyses. (author)
Impact of cigarette minimum price laws on the retail price of cigarettes in the USA.
Tynan, Michael A; Ribisl, Kurt M; Loomis, Brett R
2013-05-01
Cigarette price increases prevent youth initiation, reduce cigarette consumption and increase the number of smokers who quit. Cigarette minimum price laws (MPLs), which typically require cigarette wholesalers and retailers to charge a minimum percentage mark-up for cigarette sales, have been identified as an intervention that can potentially increase cigarette prices. 24 states and the District of Columbia have cigarette MPLs. Using data extracted from SCANTRACK retail scanner data from the Nielsen company, average cigarette prices were calculated for designated market areas in states with and without MPLs in three retail channels: grocery stores, drug stores and convenience stores. Regression models were estimated using the average cigarette pack price in each designated market area and calendar quarter in 2009 as the outcome variable. The average difference in cigarette pack prices are 46 cents in the grocery channel, 29 cents in the drug channel and 13 cents in the convenience channel, with prices being lower in states with MPLs for all three channels. The findings that MPLs do not raise cigarette prices could be the result of a lack of compliance and enforcement by the state or could be attributed to the minimum state mark-up being lower than the free-market mark-up for cigarettes. Rather than require a minimum mark-up, which can be nullified by promotional incentives and discounts, states and countries could strengthen MPLs by setting a simple 'floor price' that is the true minimum price for all cigarettes or could prohibit discounts to consumers and retailers.
Conklin, Annalijn I; Ponce, Ninez A; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody
2016-01-01
To describe the relationship between minimum wage and overweight and obesity across countries at different levels of development. A cross-sectional analysis of 27 countries with data on the legislated minimum wage level linked to socio-demographic and anthropometry data of non-pregnant 190,892 adult women (24-49 y) from the Demographic and Health Survey. We used multilevel logistic regression models to condition on country- and individual-level potential confounders, and post-estimation of average marginal effects to calculate the adjusted prevalence difference. We found the association between minimum wage and overweight/obesity was independent of individual-level SES and confounders, and showed a reversed pattern by country development stage. The adjusted overweight/obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of about 0.1 percentage points (PD 0.075 [0.065, 0.084]), and an average decrease of 0.01 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.014 [-0.019, -0.009]). The adjusted obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of 0.03 percentage points (PD 0.032 [0.021, 0.042]) and an average decrease of 0.03 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.032 [-0.036, -0.027]). This is among the first studies to examine the potential impact of improved wages on an important precursor of non-communicable diseases globally. Among countries with a modest level of economic development, higher minimum wage was associated with lower levels of obesity.
Tendon surveillance requirements - average tendon force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fulton, J.F.
1982-01-01
Proposed Rev. 3 to USNRC Reg. Guide 1.35 discusses the need for comparing, for individual tendons, the measured and predicted lift-off forces. Such a comparison is intended to detect any abnormal tendon force loss which might occur. Recognizing that there are uncertainties in the prediction of tendon losses, proposed Guide 1.35.1 has allowed specific tolerances on the fundamental losses. Thus, the lift-off force acceptance criteria for individual tendons appearing in Reg. Guide 1.35, Proposed Rev. 3, is stated relative to a lower bound predicted tendon force, which is obtained using the 'plus' tolerances on the fundamental losses. There is an additional acceptance criterion for the lift-off forces which is not specifically addressed in these two Reg. Guides; however, it is included in a proposed Subsection IWX to ASME Code Section XI. This criterion is based on the overriding requirement that the magnitude of prestress in the containment structure be sufficeint to meet the minimum prestress design requirements. This design requirement can be expressed as an average tendon force for each group of vertical hoop, or dome tendons. For the purpose of comparing the actual tendon forces with the required average tendon force, the lift-off forces measured for a sample of tendons within each group can be averaged to construct the average force for the entire group. However, the individual lift-off forces must be 'corrected' (normalized) prior to obtaining the sample average. This paper derives the correction factor to be used for this purpose. (orig./RW)
Fitting a function to time-dependent ensemble averaged data.
Fogelmark, Karl; Lomholt, Michael A; Irbäck, Anders; Ambjörnsson, Tobias
2018-05-03
Time-dependent ensemble averages, i.e., trajectory-based averages of some observable, are of importance in many fields of science. A crucial objective when interpreting such data is to fit these averages (for instance, squared displacements) with a function and extract parameters (such as diffusion constants). A commonly overlooked challenge in such function fitting procedures is that fluctuations around mean values, by construction, exhibit temporal correlations. We show that the only available general purpose function fitting methods, correlated chi-square method and the weighted least squares method (which neglects correlation), fail at either robust parameter estimation or accurate error estimation. We remedy this by deriving a new closed-form error estimation formula for weighted least square fitting. The new formula uses the full covariance matrix, i.e., rigorously includes temporal correlations, but is free of the robustness issues, inherent to the correlated chi-square method. We demonstrate its accuracy in four examples of importance in many fields: Brownian motion, damped harmonic oscillation, fractional Brownian motion and continuous time random walks. We also successfully apply our method, weighted least squares including correlation in error estimation (WLS-ICE), to particle tracking data. The WLS-ICE method is applicable to arbitrary fit functions, and we provide a publically available WLS-ICE software.
Prediction technique for minimum-heat-flux (MHF)- point condition of saturated pool boiling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishio, Shigefumi
1987-01-01
The temperature-controlled hypothesis for the minimum-heat-flux (MHF)-point condition, in which the MHF-point temperature is regarded as the controlling factor and is expected to be independent of surface configuration and dimensions, is inductively investigated for saturated pool-boiling. In this paper such features of the MHF-point condition are experimentally proved first. Secondly, a correlation of the MHF-point temperature is developed for the effect of system pressure. Finally, a simple technique based on this correlation is presented to estimate the effects of surface configuration, dimensions and system pressure on the minimum heat flux. (author)
Averaging and sampling for magnetic-observatory hourly data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. J. Love
2010-11-01
Full Text Available A time and frequency-domain analysis is made of the effects of averaging and sampling methods used for constructing magnetic-observatory hourly data values. Using 1-min data as a proxy for continuous, geomagnetic variation, we construct synthetic hourly values of two standard types: instantaneous "spot" measurements and simple 1-h "boxcar" averages. We compare these average-sample types with others: 2-h average, Gaussian, and "brick-wall" low-frequency-pass. Hourly spot measurements provide a statistically unbiased representation of the amplitude range of geomagnetic-field variation, but as a representation of continuous field variation over time, they are significantly affected by aliasing, especially at high latitudes. The 1-h, 2-h, and Gaussian average-samples are affected by a combination of amplitude distortion and aliasing. Brick-wall values are not affected by either amplitude distortion or aliasing, but constructing them is, in an operational setting, relatively more difficult than it is for other average-sample types. It is noteworthy that 1-h average-samples, the present standard for observatory hourly data, have properties similar to Gaussian average-samples that have been optimized for a minimum residual sum of amplitude distortion and aliasing. For 1-h average-samples from medium and low-latitude observatories, the average of the combination of amplitude distortion and aliasing is less than the 5.0 nT accuracy standard established by Intermagnet for modern 1-min data. For medium and low-latitude observatories, average differences between monthly means constructed from 1-min data and monthly means constructed from any of the hourly average-sample types considered here are less than the 1.0 nT resolution of standard databases. We recommend that observatories and World Data Centers continue the standard practice of reporting simple 1-h-average hourly values.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Krištoufek, Ladislav
Roč. 406 , č. 1 (2014), s. 169-175 ISSN 0378-4371 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-11402P Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GAP402/11/0948 Program:GA Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : correlations * econophysics * non-stationarity Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.732, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/kristoufek-0433529.pdf
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Al-Jarallah, M.I. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: mibrahim@kfupm.edu.sa; Fazal-ur-Rehman [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Musazay, M.S. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Aksoy, A. [Department of Physics, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)
2005-11-15
Measurements of radon exhalation for a total of 205 selected samples of construction materials used in Saudi Arabia were carried out using an active radon gas analyzer with an emanation container. It was found that granite samples were the main source of radon exhalation. The radon exhalation rates per unit area from these granite samples varied from below the minimum detection limit up to 13.1Bqm{sup -2}h{sup -1} with an average of 1.5 +/-1.9(1{sigma})Bqm{sup -2}h{sup -1}. The radium contents of 27 granite samples were measured using an HPGe-based {gamma} spectroscopy setup. The {sup 226}Ra content of the granites varied from below the minimum detection limit up to 297Bqkg{sup -1}, with an average of 83+/-73(1{sigma})Bqkg{sup -1}. The linear correlation coefficient between exhaled radon and radium content was found to be 0.90.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Annalijn I Conklin
Full Text Available To describe the relationship between minimum wage and overweight and obesity across countries at different levels of development.A cross-sectional analysis of 27 countries with data on the legislated minimum wage level linked to socio-demographic and anthropometry data of non-pregnant 190,892 adult women (24-49 y from the Demographic and Health Survey. We used multilevel logistic regression models to condition on country- and individual-level potential confounders, and post-estimation of average marginal effects to calculate the adjusted prevalence difference.We found the association between minimum wage and overweight/obesity was independent of individual-level SES and confounders, and showed a reversed pattern by country development stage. The adjusted overweight/obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of about 0.1 percentage points (PD 0.075 [0.065, 0.084], and an average decrease of 0.01 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.014 [-0.019, -0.009]. The adjusted obesity prevalence difference in low-income countries was an average increase of 0.03 percentage points (PD 0.032 [0.021, 0.042] and an average decrease of 0.03 percentage points in middle-income countries (PD -0.032 [-0.036, -0.027].This is among the first studies to examine the potential impact of improved wages on an important precursor of non-communicable diseases globally. Among countries with a modest level of economic development, higher minimum wage was associated with lower levels of obesity.
Schenker, Gabriela; Lenz, Armando; Körner, Christian; Hoch, Günter
2014-03-01
Temperature is the most important factor driving the cold edge distribution limit of temperate trees. Here, we identified the minimum temperatures for root growth in seven broad-leaved tree species, compared them with the species' natural elevational limits and identified morphological changes in roots produced near their physiological cold limit. Seedlings were exposed to a vertical soil-temperature gradient from 20 to 2 °C along the rooting zone for 18 weeks. In all species, the bulk of roots was produced at temperatures above 5 °C. However, the absolute minimum temperatures for root growth differed among species between 2.3 and 4.2 °C, with those species that reach their natural distribution limits at higher elevations also tending to have lower thermal limits for root tissue formation. In all investigated species, the roots produced at temperatures close to the thermal limit were pale, thick, unbranched and of reduced mechanical strength. Across species, the specific root length (m g(-1) root) was reduced by, on average, 60% at temperatures below 7 °C. A significant correlation of minimum temperatures for root growth with the natural high elevation limits of the investigated species indicates species-specific thermal requirements for basic physiological processes. Although these limits are not necessarily directly causative for the upper distribution limit of a species, they seem to belong to a syndrome of adaptive processes for life at low temperatures. The anatomical changes at the cold limit likely hint at the mechanisms impeding meristematic activity at low temperatures.
Disentangling multi-level systems: averaging, correlations and memory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wouters, Jeroen; Lucarini, Valerio
2012-01-01
We consider two weakly coupled systems and adopt a perturbative approach based on the Ruelle response theory to study their interaction. We propose a systematic way of parameterizing the effect of the coupling as a function of only the variables of a system of interest. Our focus is on describing the impacts of the coupling on the long term statistics rather than on the finite-time behavior. By direct calculation, we find that, at first order, the coupling can be surrogated by adding a deterministic perturbation to the autonomous dynamics of the system of interest. At second order, there are additionally two separate and very different contributions. One is a term taking into account the second-order contributions of the fluctuations in the coupling, which can be parameterized as a stochastic forcing with given spectral properties. The other one is a memory term, coupling the system of interest to its previous history, through the correlations of the second system. If these correlations are known, this effect can be implemented as a perturbation with memory on the single system. In order to treat this case, we present an extension to Ruelle's response theory able to deal with integral operators. We discuss our results in the context of other methods previously proposed for disentangling the dynamics of two coupled systems. We emphasize that our results do not rely on assuming a time scale separation, and, if such a separation exists, can be used equally well to study the statistics of the slow variables and that of the fast variables. By recursively applying the technique proposed here, we can treat the general case of multi-level systems
Effect of tank geometry on its average performance
Orlov, Aleksey A.; Tsimbalyuk, Alexandr F.; Malyugin, Roman V.; Leontieva, Daria A.; Kotelnikova, Alexandra A.
2018-03-01
The mathematical model of non-stationary filling of vertical submerged tanks with gaseous uranium hexafluoride is presented in the paper. There are calculations of the average productivity, heat exchange area, and filling time of various volumes tanks with smooth inner walls depending on their "height : radius" ratio as well as the average productivity, degree, and filling time of horizontal ribbing tank with volume 6.10-2 m3 with change central hole diameter of the ribs. It has been shown that the growth of "height / radius" ratio in tanks with smooth inner walls up to the limiting values allows significantly increasing tank average productivity and reducing its filling time. Growth of H/R ratio of tank with volume 1.0 m3 to the limiting values (in comparison with the standard tank having H/R equal 3.49) augments tank productivity by 23.5 % and the heat exchange area by 20%. Besides, we have demonstrated that maximum average productivity and a minimum filling time are reached for the tank with volume 6.10-2 m3 having central hole diameter of horizontal ribs 6.4.10-2 m.
Correlation Dimension Estimates of Global and Local Temperature Data.
Wang, Qiang
1995-11-01
The author has attempted to detect the presence of low-dimensional deterministic chaos in temperature data by estimating the correlation dimension with the Hill estimate that has been recently developed by Mikosch and Wang. There is no convincing evidence of low dimensionality with either global dataset (Southern Hemisphere monthly average temperatures from 1858 to 1984) or local temperature dataset (daily minimums at Auckland, New Zealand). Any apparent reduction in the dimension estimates appears to be due large1y, if not entirely, to effects of statistical bias, but neither is it a purely random stochastic process. The dimension of the climatic attractor may be significantly larger than 10.
Average cross sections for the 252Cf neutron spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dezso, Z.; Csikai, J.
1977-01-01
A number of average cross sections have been measured for 252 Cf neutrons in (n, γ), (n,p), (n,2n), (n,α) reactions by the activation method and for fission by fission chamber. Cross sections have been determined for 19 elements and 45 reactions. The (n,γ) cross section values lie in the interval from 0.3 to 200 mb. The data as a function of target neutron number increases up to about N=60 with minimum near to dosed shells. The values lie between 0.3 mb and 113 mb. These cross sections decrease significantly with increasing the threshold energy. The values are below 20 mb. The data do not exceed 10 mb. Average (n,p) cross sections as a function of the threshold energy and average fission cross sections as a function of Zsup(4/3)/A are shown. The results obtained are summarized in tables
Enhancement of Iris Recognition System Based on Phase Only Correlation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nuriza Pramita
2011-08-01
Full Text Available Iris recognition system is one of biometric based recognition/identification systems. Numerous techniques have been implemented to achieve a good recognition rate, including the ones based on Phase Only Correlation (POC. Significant and higher correlation peaks suggest that the system recognizes iris images of the same subject (person, while lower and unsignificant peaks correspond to recognition of those of difference subjects. Current POC methods have not investigated minimum iris point that can be used to achieve higher correlation peaks. This paper proposed a method that used only one-fourth of full normalized iris size to achieve higher (or at least the same recognition rate. Simulation on CASIA version 1.0 iris image database showed that averaged recognition rate of the proposed method achieved 67%, higher than that of using one-half (56% and full (53% iris point. Furthermore, all (100% POC peak values of the proposed method was higher than that of the method with full iris points.
MSEBAG: a dynamic classifier ensemble generation based on `minimum-sufficient ensemble' and bagging
Chen, Lei; Kamel, Mohamed S.
2016-01-01
In this paper, we propose a dynamic classifier system, MSEBAG, which is characterised by searching for the 'minimum-sufficient ensemble' and bagging at the ensemble level. It adopts an 'over-generation and selection' strategy and aims to achieve a good bias-variance trade-off. In the training phase, MSEBAG first searches for the 'minimum-sufficient ensemble', which maximises the in-sample fitness with the minimal number of base classifiers. Then, starting from the 'minimum-sufficient ensemble', a backward stepwise algorithm is employed to generate a collection of ensembles. The objective is to create a collection of ensembles with a descending fitness on the data, as well as a descending complexity in the structure. MSEBAG dynamically selects the ensembles from the collection for the decision aggregation. The extended adaptive aggregation (EAA) approach, a bagging-style algorithm performed at the ensemble level, is employed for this task. EAA searches for the competent ensembles using a score function, which takes into consideration both the in-sample fitness and the confidence of the statistical inference, and averages the decisions of the selected ensembles to label the test pattern. The experimental results show that the proposed MSEBAG outperforms the benchmarks on average.
Czarkowski, Marek; Oreziak, Artur; Radomski, Dariusz
2006-04-01
Coexistence of the goitre, proptosis and palpitations was observed in XIX century for the first time. Sinus tachyarytmias and atrial fibrillation are typical cardiac symptoms of hyperthyroidism. Atrial fibrillation occurs more often in patients with toxic goiter than in young patients with Grave's disease. These findings suggest that causes of atrial fibrillation might be multifactorial in the elderly. The aims of our study were to evaluate correlations between the parameters of atrial signal averaged ECG (SAECG) and the serum concentration of thyroid free hormones. 25 patient with untreated Grave's disease (G-B) (age 29,6 +/- 9,0 y.o.) and 26 control patients (age 29,3 +/- 6,9 y.o.) were enrolled to our study. None of them had history of atrial fibrillation what was confirmed by 24-hour ECG Holter monitoring. The serum fT3, fT4, TSH were determined in the venous blood by the immunoenzymatic method. Atrial SAECG recording with filtration by zero phase Butterworth filter (45-150 Hz) was done in all subjects. The duration of atrial vector magnitude (hfP) and root meat square of terminal 20ms of atrial vector magnitude (RMS20) were analysed. There were no significant differences in values of SAECG parameters (hfP, RMS20) between investigated groups. The positive correlation between hfP and serum fT3 concentration in group G-B was observed (Spearman's correlation coefficient R = 0.462, p Grave's disease depends not only on hyperthyroidism but on serum concentration of fT3 also.
Minimum size limits for yellow perch (Perca flavescens) in western Lake Erie
Hartman, Wilbur L.; Nepszy, Stephen J.; Scholl, Russell L.
1980-01-01
During the 1960's yellow perch (Perca flavescens) of Lake Erie supported a commercial fishery that produced an average annual catch of 23 million pounds, as well as a modest sport fishery. Since 1969, the resource has seriously deteriorated. Commercial landings amounted to only 6 million pounds in 1976, and included proportionally more immature perch than in the 1960's. Moreover, no strong year classes were produced between 1965 and 1975. An interagency technical committee was appointed in 1975 by the Lake Erie Committee of the Great Lakes Fishery Commission to develop an interim management strategy that would provide for greater protection of perch in western Lake Erie, where declines have been the most severe. The committee first determined the age structure, growth and mortality rates, maturation schedule, and length-fecundity relationship for the population, and then applied Ricker-type equilibrium yield models to determine the effects of various minimum length limits on yield, production, average stock weight, potential egg deposition, and the Abrosov spawning frequency indicator (average number of spawning opportunities per female). The committee recommended increasing the minimum length limit of 5.0 inches to at least 8.5 inches. Theoretically, this change would increase the average stock weight by 36% and potential egg deposition by 44%, without significantly decreasing yield. Abrosov's spawning frequency indicator would rise from the existing 0.6 to about 1.2.
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Illustration of the Minimum Limits for Correlation Coefficient for PM2.5 and PM10â2.5 Class II and III Methods C Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53... Methods and Reference Methods Pt. 53, Subpt. C, Fig. C-4 Figure C-4 to Subpart C of Part 53—Illustration...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yonetoku, Daisuke; Sawano, Tatsuya; Toyanago, Asuka [College of Science and Engineering, School of Mathematics and Physics, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Nakamura, Takashi [Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Takahashi, Keitaro, E-mail: yonetoku@astro.s.kanazawa-u.ac.jp, E-mail: takashi@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Faculty of Science, Kumamoto University, Kurokami, Kumamoto 860-8555 (Japan)
2014-07-01
Using 72 short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) with well determined spectral data observed by BATSE, we determine their redshift and luminosity by applying the E{sub p} -L{sub p} correlation for SGRBs found by Tsutsui et al. For 53 SGRBs with an observed flux brighter than 4 × 10{sup –6} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}, the cumulative redshift distribution up to z = 1 agrees well with that of 22 Swift SGRBs. This suggests that the redshift determination by the E{sub p} -L{sub p} correlation for SGRBs works well. The minimum event rate at z = 0 is estimated as R{sub on−axis}{sup min}=6.3{sub −3.9}{sup +3.1}× 10{sup −10} events Mpc{sup −3} yr{sup −1}, so that the minimum beaming angle is 0.°6-7.°8 assuming a merging rate of 10{sup –7}- 4 × 10{sup –6} events Mpc{sup –3} yr{sup –1} suggested from the binary pulsar data. Interestingly, this angle is consistent with that for SGRB 130603B of ∼4°-8°. On the other hand, if we assume a beaming angle of ∼6° suggested from four SGRBs with the observed beaming angle value, then the minimum event rate including off-axis SGRBs is estimated as R{sub all}{sup min}=1.15{sub −0.66}{sup +0.56} × 10{sup −7} events Mpc{sup −3} yr{sup −1}. If SGRBs are induced by the coalescence of binary neutron stars (NSs) and/or black holes (BHs), then this event rate leads to a minimum gravitational-wave detection rate of 3.8{sub −2.2}{sup +1.8} (146{sub −83}{sup +71}) events yr{sup −1} for an NS-NS (NS-BH) binary, respectively, by a worldwide network with KAGRA, advanced-LIGO, advanced-VIRGO, and GEO.
On the average luminosity of electron positron collider and positron-producing energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xie Jialin
1985-01-01
In this paper, the average luminosity of linac injected electron positron collider is investigated from the positron-producing energy point of view. When the energy of the linac injector is fixed to be less than the operating energy of the storage ring, it has been found that there exists a positron-producing energy to give optimum average luminosity. Two cases have been studied, one for an ideal storage ring with no single-beam instability and the other for practical storage ring with fast head-tail instability. The result indicates that there is a positron-producing energy corresponding to the minimum injection time, but this does not correspond to the optimum average luminosity for the practical storage rings. For Beijing Electron Positron Collider (BEPC), the positron-producing energy corresponding to the optimum average luminosity is about one tenth of the total injector energy
Harbor porpoise clicks do not have conditionally minimum time bandwidth product
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Beedholm, Kristian
2008-01-01
The hypothesis that odontocete clicks have minimal time frequency product given their delay and center frequency values is tested by using an in-phase averaged porpoise click compared with a pure tone weighted with the same envelope. These signals have the same delay and the same center frequency...... values but the time bandwidth product of the artificial click is only 0.76 that of the original. Therefore signals with the same parameters exist that have a lower time bandwidth product. The observation that porpoise clicks are in fact minimum phase is confirmed for porpoise clicks and this property...... is argued to be incompatible with optimal reception, if auditory filters are also minimum phase....
Nosé, M.; Ieda, A.; Christon, S. P.
2009-07-01
We examined long-term variations of ion composition in the plasma sheet, using energetic (9.4-212.1 keV/e) ion flux data obtained by the suprathermal ion composition spectrometer (STICS) sensor of the energetic particle and ion composition (EPIC) instrument on board the Geotail spacecraft. EPIC/STICS observations are available from 17 October 1992 for more than 16 years, covering the declining phase of solar cycle 22, all of solar cycle 23, and the early phase of solar cycle 24. This unprecedented long-term data set revealed that (1) the He+/H+ and O+/H+ flux ratios in the plasma sheet were dependent on the F10.7 index; (2) the F10.7 index dependence is stronger for O+/H+ than He+/H+; (3) the O+/H+ flux ratio is also weakly correlated with the ΣKp index; and (4) the He2+/H+ flux ratio in the plasma sheet appeared to show no long-term trend. From these results, we derived empirical equations related to plasma sheet ion composition and the F10.7 index and estimated that the average plasma ion mass changes from ˜1.1 amu during solar minimum to ˜2.8 amu during solar maximum. In such a case, the Alfvén velocity during solar maximum decreases to ˜60% of the solar minimum value. Thus, physical processes in the plasma sheet are considered to be much different between solar minimum and solar maximum. We also compared long-term variation of the plasma sheet ion composition with that of the substorm occurrence rate, which is evaluated by the number of Pi2 pulsations. No correlation or negative correlation was found between them. This result contradicts the O+ triggering substorm model, in which heavy ions in the plasma sheet increase the growth rate of the linear ion tearing mode and play an important role in localization and initiation of substorms. In contrast, O+ ions in the plasma sheet may prevent occurrence of substorms.
Physics at the CERN collider using a ''minimum bias'' trigger
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnison, G.; Astbury, A.; Grayer, G.; Haynes, W.J.; Nandi, A.K.; Roberts, C.; Scott, W.; Shah, T.P.; Bezaguet, A.; Boeck, R.; Calvetti, M.; Carroll, T.; Cennini, P.; Centro, S.; Ceradini, F.; Cittolin, S.; Demoulin, M.; DiBitinto, D.; Ellis, N.; Hoffmann, H.; Jank, W.; Jorat, G.; Kowalski, H.; Kryn, D.; Lacava, F.; Markiewicz, T.; Maurin, G.; Muirhead, H.; Muller, F.; Naumann, L.; Norton, A.; Petrucci, G.; Placci, A.; Revol, J.P.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Rohlf, J.; Rossi, P.; Rubbia, C.; Sadoulet, B.; Schinzel, D.; Tao, C.; Timmer, J.; Meer, S. van der; Vialle, J.P.; Vuillemin, V.; Xie, G.Y.; Zurfluh, E.; Cochet, C.; DeBeer, M.; Denegri, D.; Givernaud, A.; Laugier, J.P.; Leveque, A.; Locci, E.; Loret, M.; Malosse, J.J.; Rich, J.; Sass, R.; Saudraix, J.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Spiro, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Fontaine, G.; Geer, S.; Ghesquiere, C.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Mendiburu, J.P.; Orkin-Lecourtois, A.; Sajot, G.; Vrana, J.; Bacci, C.; Bowcock, T.J.V.; Corden, M.; Dallman, D.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Dowell, J.D.; Edwards, M.; Eggert, K.; Eisenhandler, E.; Erhard, P.; Faissner, H.; Frey, R.; Fruehwirth, R.; Garvey, J.; Giboni, K.L.; Gibson, W.R.; Gutierrez, P.; Hansl-Kozanecka, T.; Hodges, C.; Hoffmann, D.; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.; Kalmus, P.I.P.; Karimaeki, V.; Keeler, R.; Kenyon, I.; Kernan, A.; Kinnunen, R.; Kozanecki, W.; Lehmann, H.; Leuchs, K.; McMahon, T.; Moricca, M.; Paoluzi, L.; Piano Mortari, G.; Pimiae, M.; Radermacher, E.; Ransdell, J.; Reithler, H.; Salvi, G.; Salvini, G.; Strauss, J.; Sumorok, K.; Szoncso, F.; Smith, D.; Thompson, G.; Tscheslog, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Wahl, H.D.; Watkins, P.; Wilson, J.
1983-01-01
In this paper the physics of the events collected using this ''minimum bias trigger'' is described. After a brief description of the detector, I present results concerning particle production (pseudorapidity distributions, multiplicity and KNO scaling). Transverse energy distributions, long and short range correlations, and finally high psub(t) physics and jets. (orig./HSI)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
John E. Lavery
2012-10-01
Full Text Available We present evidence that one can calculate generically combinatorially expensive Lp and lp averages, 0 < p < 1, in polynomial time by restricting the data to come from a wide class of statistical distributions. Our approach differs from the approaches in the previous literature, which are based on a priori sparsity requirements or on accepting a local minimum as a replacement for a global minimum. The functionals by which Lp averages are calculated are not convex but are radially monotonic and the functionals by which lp averages are calculated are nearly so, which are the keys to solvability in polynomial time. Analytical results for symmetric, radially monotonic univariate distributions are presented. An algorithm for univariate lp averaging is presented. Computational results for a Gaussian distribution, a class of symmetric heavy-tailed distributions and a class of asymmetric heavy-tailed distributions are presented. Many phenomena in human-based areas are increasingly known to be represented by data that have large numbers of outliers and belong to very heavy-tailed distributions. When tails of distributions are so heavy that even medians (L1 and l1 averages do not exist, one needs to consider using lp minimization principles with 0 < p < 1.
Deformed special relativity with an energy barrier of a minimum speed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nassif, Claudio
2011-01-01
Full text: This research aims to introduce a new principle of symmetry in the flat space-time by means of the elimination of the classical idea of rest, and by including a universal minimum limit of speed in the quantum world. Such a limit, unattainable by the particles, represents a preferred inertial reference frame associated with a universal background field that breaks Lorentz symmetry. So there emerges a new relativistic dynamics where a minimum speed forms an inferior energy barrier. One of the interesting implications of the existence of such a minimum speed is that it prevents the absolute zero temperature for an ultracold gas, according to the third law of thermodynamics. So we will be able to provide a fundamental dynamical explanation for the third law by means of a connection between such a phenomenological law and the new relativistic dynamics with a minimum speed. In other words we say that our relevant investigation is with respect to the problem of the absolute zero temperature in the thermodynamics of an ideal gas. We have made a connection between the 3 rd law of Thermodynamics and the new dynamics with a minimum speed by means of a relation between the absolute zero temperature (T = 0 deg K) and a minimum average speed (V) for a gas with N particles (molecules or atoms). Since T = 0 deg K is thermodynamically unattainable, we have shown this is due to the impossibility of reaching V from the new dynamics standpoint. (author)
Do Minimum Wages Fight Poverty?
David Neumark; William Wascher
1997-01-01
The primary goal of a national minimum wage floor is to raise the incomes of poor or near-poor families with members in the work force. However, estimates of employment effects of minimum wages tell us little about whether minimum wages are can achieve this goal; even if the disemployment effects of minimum wages are modest, minimum wage increases could result in net income losses for poor families. We present evidence on the effects of minimum wages on family incomes from matched March CPS s...
Fitting a function to time-dependent ensemble averaged data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fogelmark, Karl; Lomholt, Michael A.; Irbäck, Anders
2018-01-01
Time-dependent ensemble averages, i.e., trajectory-based averages of some observable, are of importance in many fields of science. A crucial objective when interpreting such data is to fit these averages (for instance, squared displacements) with a function and extract parameters (such as diffusion...... method, weighted least squares including correlation in error estimation (WLS-ICE), to particle tracking data. The WLS-ICE method is applicable to arbitrary fit functions, and we provide a publically available WLS-ICE software....
Experimental and theoretical study on minimum achievable foil thickness during asymmetric rolling.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Delin Tang
Full Text Available Parts produced by microforming are becoming ever smaller. Similarly, the foils required in micro-machines are becoming ever thinner. The asymmetric rolling technique is capable of producing foils that are thinner than those produced by the conventional rolling technique. The difference between asymmetric rolling and conventional rolling is the 'cross-shear' zone. However, the influence of the cross-shear zone on the minimum achievable foil thickness during asymmetric rolling is still uncertain. In this paper, we report experiments designed to understand this critical influencing factor on the minimum achievable thickness in asymmetric rolling. Results showed that the minimum achievable thickness of rolled foils produced by asymmetric rolling with a rolling speed ratio of 1.3 can be reduced to about 30% of that possible by conventional rolling technique. Furthermore, the minimum achievable thickness during asymmetric rolling could be correlated to the cross-shear ratio, which, in turn, could be related to the rolling speed ratio. From the experimental results, a formula to calculate the minimum achievable thickness was established, considering the parameters cross-shear ratio, friction coefficient, work roll radius, etc. in asymmetric rolling.
Experimental and theoretical study on minimum achievable foil thickness during asymmetric rolling.
Tang, Delin; Liu, Xianghua; Song, Meng; Yu, Hailiang
2014-01-01
Parts produced by microforming are becoming ever smaller. Similarly, the foils required in micro-machines are becoming ever thinner. The asymmetric rolling technique is capable of producing foils that are thinner than those produced by the conventional rolling technique. The difference between asymmetric rolling and conventional rolling is the 'cross-shear' zone. However, the influence of the cross-shear zone on the minimum achievable foil thickness during asymmetric rolling is still uncertain. In this paper, we report experiments designed to understand this critical influencing factor on the minimum achievable thickness in asymmetric rolling. Results showed that the minimum achievable thickness of rolled foils produced by asymmetric rolling with a rolling speed ratio of 1.3 can be reduced to about 30% of that possible by conventional rolling technique. Furthermore, the minimum achievable thickness during asymmetric rolling could be correlated to the cross-shear ratio, which, in turn, could be related to the rolling speed ratio. From the experimental results, a formula to calculate the minimum achievable thickness was established, considering the parameters cross-shear ratio, friction coefficient, work roll radius, etc. in asymmetric rolling.
Anesthesiologists' perceptions of minimum acceptable work habits of nurse anesthetists.
Logvinov, Ilana I; Dexter, Franklin; Hindman, Bradley J; Brull, Sorin J
2017-05-01
Work habits are non-technical skills that are an important part of job performance. Although non-technical skills are usually evaluated on a relative basis (i.e., "grading on a curve"), validity of evaluation on an absolute basis (i.e., "minimum passing score") needs to be determined. Survey and observational study. None. None. The theme of "work habits" was assessed using a modification of Dannefer et al.'s 6-item scale, with scores ranging from 1 (lowest performance) to 5 (highest performance). E-mail invitations were sent to all consultant and fellow anesthesiologists at Mayo Clinic in Florida, Arizona, and Minnesota. Because work habits expectations can be generational, the survey was designed for adjustment based on all invited (responding or non-responding) anesthesiologists' year of graduation from residency. The overall mean±standard deviation of the score for anesthesiologists' minimum expectations of nurse anesthetists' work habits was 3.64±0.66 (N=48). Minimum acceptable scores were correlated with the year of graduation from anesthesia residency (linear regression P=0.004). Adjusting for survey non-response using all N=207 anesthesiologists, the mean of the minimum acceptable work habits adjusted for year of graduation was 3.69 (standard error 0.02). The minimum expectations for nurse anesthetists' work habits were compared with observational data obtained from the University of Iowa. Among 8940 individual nurse anesthetist work habits scores, only 2.6% were habits scores were significantly greater than the Mayo estimate (3.69) for the minimum expectations; all Phabits of nurse anesthetists within departments should not be compared with an appropriate minimum score (i.e., of 3.69). Instead, work habits scores should be analyzed based on relative reporting among anesthetists. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Imber, S. M.; Milan, S. E.; Lester, M.
2012-04-01
We present a long term study, from 1995 - 2011, of the latitude of the Heppner-Maynard Boundary (HMB) determined using the northern hemisphere SuperDARN radars. The HMB represents the equatorward extent of ionospheric convection. We find that the average latitude of the HMB at midnight is 61° magnetic latitude during the solar maximum of 2003, but it moves significantly poleward during solar minimum, averaging 64° latitude during 1996, and 68° during 2010. This poleward motion is observed despite the increasing number of low latitude radars built in recent years as part of the StormDARN network, and so is not an artefact of data coverage. We believe that the recent extreme solar minimum lead to an average HMB location that was further poleward than previous solar cycles. We also calculated the open-closed field line boundary (OCB) from auroral images during the years 2000-2002 and find that on average the HMB is located equatorward of the OCB by ~6°. We suggest that the HMB may be a useful proxy for the OCB when global auroral images are not available.
Analytical Derivation of the Inverse Moments of One-Sided Correlated Gram Matrices With Applications
Elkhalil, Khalil
2016-02-03
This paper addresses the development of analytical tools for the computation of the inverse moments of random Gram matrices with one side correlation. Such a question is mainly driven by applications in signal processing and wireless communications wherein such matrices naturally arise. In particular, we derive closed-form expressions for the inverse moments and show that the obtained results can help approximate several performance metrics such as the average estimation error corresponding to the Best Linear Unbiased Estimator (BLUE) and the Linear Minimum Mean Square Error (LMMSE) estimator or also other loss functions used to measure the accuracy of covariance matrix estimates.
Implications of Liebig’s law of the minimum for tree-ring reconstructions of climate
Stine, A. R.; Huybers, P.
2017-11-01
A basic principle of ecology, known as Liebig’s Law of the Minimum, is that plant growth reflects the strongest limiting environmental factor. This principle implies that a limiting environmental factor can be inferred from historical growth and, in dendrochronology, such reconstruction is generally achieved by averaging collections of standardized tree-ring records. Averaging is optimal if growth reflects a single limiting factor and noise but not if growth also reflects locally variable stresses that intermittently limit growth. In this study a collection of Arctic tree ring records is shown to follow scaling relationships that are inconsistent with the signal-plus-noise model of tree growth but consistent with Liebig’s Law acting at the local level. Also consistent with law-of-the-minimum behavior is that reconstructions based on the least-stressed trees in a given year better-follow variations in temperature than typical approaches where all tree-ring records are averaged. Improvements in reconstruction skill occur across all frequencies, with the greatest increase at the lowest frequencies. More comprehensive statistical-ecological models of tree growth may offer further improvement in reconstruction skill.
Resident characterization of better-than- and worse-than-average clinical teaching.
Haydar, Bishr; Charnin, Jonathan; Voepel-Lewis, Terri; Baker, Keith
2014-01-01
Clinical teachers and trainees share a common view of what constitutes excellent clinical teaching, but associations between these behaviors and high teaching scores have not been established. This study used residents' written feedback to their clinical teachers, to identify themes associated with above- or below-average teaching scores. All resident evaluations of their clinical supervisors in a single department were collected from January 1, 2007 until December 31, 2008. A mean teaching score assigned by each resident was calculated. Evaluations that were 20% higher or 15% lower than the resident's mean score were used. A subset of these evaluations was reviewed, generating a list of 28 themes for further study. Two researchers then, independently coded the presence or absence of these themes in each evaluation. Interrater reliability of the themes and logistic regression were used to evaluate the predictive associations of the themes with above- or below-average evaluations. Five hundred twenty-seven above-average and 285 below-average evaluations were evaluated for the presence or absence of 15 positive themes and 13 negative themes, which were divided into four categories: teaching, supervision, interpersonal, and feedback. Thirteen of 15 positive themes correlated with above-average evaluations and nine had high interrater reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient >0.6). Twelve of 13 negative themes correlated with below-average evaluations, and all had high interrater reliability. On the basis of these findings, the authors developed 13 recommendations for clinical educators. The authors developed 13 recommendations for clinical teachers using the themes identified from the above- and below-average clinical teaching evaluations submitted by anesthesia residents.
Rising above the Minimum Wage.
Even, William; Macpherson, David
An in-depth analysis was made of how quickly most people move up the wage scale from minimum wage, what factors influence their progress, and how minimum wage increases affect wage growth above the minimum. Very few workers remain at the minimum wage over the long run, according to this study of data drawn from the 1977-78 May Current Population…
UNUSUAL TRENDS IN SOLAR P-MODE FREQUENCIES DURING THE CURRENT EXTENDED MINIMUM
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tripathy, S. C.; Jain, K.; Hill, F.; Leibacher, J. W.
2010-01-01
We investigate the behavior of the intermediate-degree mode frequencies of the Sun during the current extended minimum phase to explore the time-varying conditions in the solar interior. Using contemporaneous helioseismic data from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) and the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI), we find that the changes in resonant mode frequencies during the activity minimum period are significantly greater than the changes in solar activity as measured by different proxies. We detect a seismic minimum in MDI p-mode frequency shifts during 2008 July-August but no such signature is seen in mean shifts computed from GONG frequencies. We also analyze the frequencies of individual oscillation modes from GONG data as a function of latitude and observe a signature of the onset of the solar cycle 24 in early 2009. Thus, the intermediate-degree modes do not confirm the onset of the cycle 24 during late 2007 as reported from the analysis of the low-degree Global Oscillations at Low Frequency frequencies. Further, both the GONG and MDI frequencies show a surprising anti-correlation between frequencies and activity proxies during the current minimum, in contrast to the behavior during the minimum between cycles 22 and 23.
2012-09-13
46, 1989. [75] S. Melkote and M.S. Daskin . An integrated model of facility location and transportation network design. Transportation Research Part A ... a work of the U.S. Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. AFIT/DS/ENS/12-09 THE AVERAGE NETWORK FLOW PROBLEM...focused thinking (VFT) are used sparingly, as is the case across the entirety of the supply chain literature. We provide a VFT tutorial for supply chain
Zalaletdinov, R. M.
1998-04-01
The averaging problem in general relativity is briefly discussed. A new setting of the problem as that of macroscopic description of gravitation is proposed. A covariant space-time averaging procedure is described. The structure of the geometry of macroscopic space-time, which follows from averaging Cartan's structure equations, is described and the correlation tensors present in the theory are discussed. The macroscopic field equations (averaged Einstein's equations) derived in the framework of the approach are presented and their structure is analysed. The correspondence principle for macroscopic gravity is formulated and a definition of the stress-energy tensor for the macroscopic gravitational field is proposed. It is shown that the physical meaning of using Einstein's equations with a hydrodynamic stress-energy tensor in looking for cosmological models means neglecting all gravitational field correlations. The system of macroscopic gravity equations to be solved when the correlations are taken into consideration is given and described.
Can households earning minimum wage in Nova Scotia afford a nutritious diet?
Williams, Patricia L; Johnson, Christine P; Kratzmann, Meredith L V; Johnson, C Shanthi Jacob; Anderson, Barbara J; Chenhall, Cathy
2006-01-01
To assess the affordability of a nutritious diet for households earning minimum wage in Nova Scotia. Food costing data were collected in 43 randomly selected grocery stores throughout NS in 2002 using the National Nutritious Food Basket (NNFB). To estimate the affordability of a nutritious diet for households earning minimum wage, average monthly costs for essential expenses were subtracted from overall income to see if enough money remained for the cost of the NNFB. This was calculated for three types of household: 1) two parents and two children; 2) lone parent and two children; and 3) single male. Calculations were also made for the proposed 2006 minimum wage increase with expenses adjusted using the Consumer Price Index (CPI). The monthly cost of the NNFB priced in 2002 for the three types of household was 572.90 dollars, 351.68 dollars, and 198.73 dollars, respectively. Put into the context of basic living, these data showed that Nova Scotians relying on minimum wage could not afford to purchase a nutritious diet and meet their basic needs, placing their health at risk. These basic expenses do not include other routine costs, such as personal hygiene products, household and laundry cleaners, and prescriptions and costs associated with physical activity, education or savings for unexpected expenses. People working at minimum wage in Nova Scotia have not had adequate income to meet basic needs, including a nutritious diet. The 2006 increase in minimum wage to 7.15 dollars/hr is inadequate to ensure that Nova Scotians working at minimum wage are able to meet these basic needs. Wage increases and supplements, along with supports for expenses such as childcare and transportation, are indicated to address this public health problem.
Employment effects of minimum wages
Neumark, David
2014-01-01
The potential benefits of higher minimum wages come from the higher wages for affected workers, some of whom are in low-income families. The potential downside is that a higher minimum wage may discourage employers from using the low-wage, low-skill workers that minimum wages are intended to help. Research findings are not unanimous, but evidence from many countries suggests that minimum wages reduce the jobs available to low-skill workers.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
JULIANA ALTAFIN GALLI
Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this research was evaluate the damage caused by the yellow beetle on 85 guava accessions and correlations of the damage with the climatological elements and the production of fruit in an orchard of guava conducted in organic system. Ten leaves by access were analyzed containing the injury of insect attack. Each leaf had its foliar area measured by leaf area meter and, after obtaining the total area, the leaf was covered with duct tape, and measure again. The averages were compared by Scott-Knott test at 5% probability. The 15 accessions with highest average damage had the data submitted to the correlation with the minimum and maximum temperature, precipitation and relative humidity. The production was obtained by the number of fruits/plant. The damages are negatively correlated with the mean relative humidity of 7:00h (local time in the period of 14 days prior to the assessments, and negatively affect production. The accessions Saito, L4P16, Monte Alto Comum 1 and L5P19 are promising in organic agriculture, for presenting good production and minor damage to insect attack, when compared to others.
Fields, Gary S.; Kanbur, Ravi
2005-01-01
Textbook analysis tells us that in a competitive labor market, the introduction of a minimum wage above the competitive equilibrium wage will cause unemployment. This paper makes two contributions to the basic theory of the minimum wage. First, we analyze the effects of a higher minimum wage in terms of poverty rather than in terms of unemployment. Second, we extend the standard textbook model to allow for incomesharing between the employed and the unemployed. We find that there are situation...
2010-02-08
... capital and reserve requirements to be issued by order or regulation with respect to a product or activity... minimum capital requirements. Section 1362(a) establishes a minimum capital level for the Enterprises... entities required under this section.\\6\\ \\3\\ The Bank Act's current minimum capital requirements apply to...
A Pareto-Improving Minimum Wage
Eliav Danziger; Leif Danziger
2014-01-01
This paper shows that a graduated minimum wage, in contrast to a constant minimum wage, can provide a strict Pareto improvement over what can be achieved with an optimal income tax. The reason is that a graduated minimum wage requires high-productivity workers to work more to earn the same income as low-productivity workers, which makes it more difficult for the former to mimic the latter. In effect, a graduated minimum wage allows the low-productivity workers to benefit from second-degree pr...
Hussein Gaber, Ammar Gaber; Liang, Fa-Ya; Yang, Jin-Shan; Wang, Ya-Jing; Zheng, Yi-Qing
2014-01-01
To investigate the clinical significance and correlation of the dysphonia severity index (DSI), the RBH (roughness [R]; breathiness [B]; hoarseness [H]) perceptual voice quality evaluation, and minimum glottal area (MGA) in patients with vocal fold nodules and validate the practicality of the DSI further. The DSI evaluation, the voice RBH perceptual evaluation, and the MGA were performed on 30 female patients with vocal fold nodules (the patient group) and 30 female volunteers with normal voices (the control group). The DSI determination was calculated using the following formula: DSI = 0.13 × MPT + 0.0053 × F(0)-High - 0.26 × I-Low - 1.18 × Jitter(%) + 12.4. The RBH evaluation was graded according to four scales. The MGA was measured by KayPENTAX Kips (7105) software. The differences among the DSI, the RBH grade, and MGA of the patients were compared. The median DSI values of the patient group and the control group were -0.81 and 3.79, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (P dysphonia in female patients with vocal nodules has significant clinical application and good correlation with MGA measurement. Copyright © 2014 The Voice Foundation. All rights reserved.
Detection of minimum-ionizing particles in hydrogenated amorphous silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaplan, S.N.; Fujieda, I.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Qureshi, S.; Ward, W.; Street, R.A.
1987-09-01
Based on previously-reported results of the successful detection of alpha particles and 1- and 2-MeV protons with hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si : H) diodes, detection of a single minimum-ionizing particle will require a total sensitive thickness of approximately 100 to 150 μm, either in the form of a single thick diode, or as a stack of several thinner diodes. Signal saturation at high dE/dx makes it necessary to simulate minimum ionization in order to evaluate present detectors. Two techniques, using pulsed infrared light, and pulsed x-rays, give single-pulse signals large enough for direct measurements. A third, using beta rays, requires multiple-transit signal averaging to produce signals measurable above noise. Signal amplitudes from the a-Si : H limit at 60% of the signal size from Si crystals extrapolated to the same thickness. This is consistent with an a-Si : H radiation ionization energy, W = 6 eV/electron-hole pair. Beta-ray signals are observed at the expected amplitude
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dam, H. van; Leege, P.F.A. de
1987-01-01
An analysis is presented of thermal systems with minimum critical mass, based on the use of materials with optimum neutron moderating and reflecting properties. The optimum fissile material distributions in the systems are obtained by calculations with standard computer codes, extended with a routine for flat fuel importance search. It is shown that in the minimum critical mass configuration a considerable part of the fuel is positioned in the reflector region. For 239 Pu a minimum critical mass of 87 g is found, which is the lowest value reported hitherto. (author)
Yahampath, Pradeepa
2017-12-01
Consider communicating a correlated Gaussian source over a Rayleigh fading channel with no knowledge of the channel signal-to-noise ratio (CSNR) at the transmitter. In this case, a digital system cannot be optimal for a range of CSNRs. Analog transmission however is optimal at all CSNRs, if the source and channel are memoryless and bandwidth matched. This paper presents new hybrid digital-analog (HDA) systems for sources with memory and channels with bandwidth expansion, which outperform both digital-only and analog-only systems over a wide range of CSNRs. The digital part is either a predictive quantizer or a transform code, used to achieve a coding gain. Analog part uses linear encoding to transmit the quantization error which improves the performance under CSNR variations. The hybrid encoder is optimized to achieve the minimum AMMSE (average minimum mean square error) over the CSNR distribution. To this end, analytical expressions are derived for the AMMSE of asymptotically optimal systems. It is shown that the outage CSNR of the channel code and the analog-digital power allocation must be jointly optimized to achieve the minimum AMMSE. In the case of HDA predictive quantization, a simple algorithm is presented to solve the optimization problem. Experimental results are presented for both Gauss-Markov sources and speech signals.
Correlation between auroral activity and rate of development of a storm in its main phase
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boroyev R.N.
2016-12-01
Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between the rate of storm development in its main phase (|ΔDst|/ΔT and the average value (ΣAE/ΔT of AE index for the main phase where |ΔDst| is the Dst-index variation, ΣAE is the total value of AE index for the main phase of magnetic storm, ΔT is the main phase duration. We considered storms initiated by corotating interaction region (CIR and interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME (magnetic cloud and ejecta. For CIR events, the value of ΣAE/ΔT is shown to correlate with the rate of storm development in its main phase in contrast to the storms initiated by the ICME. As found, there is a weak correlation between ΣAE/ΔT and the minimum value of Dst index for CIR and ICME events.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dutton, Spencer M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fisk, William J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
2015-01-01
For a stand-alone retail building, a primary school, and a secondary school in each of the 16 California climate zones, the EnergyPlus building energy simulation model was used to estimate how minimum mechanical ventilation rates (VRs) affect energy use and indoor air concentrations of an indoor-generated contaminant. The modeling indicates large changes in heating energy use, but only moderate changes in total building energy use, as minimum VRs in the retail building are changed. For example, predicted state-wide heating energy consumption in the retail building decreases by more than 50% and total building energy consumption decreases by approximately 10% as the minimum VR decreases from the Title 24 requirement to no mechanical ventilation. The primary and secondary schools have notably higher internal heat gains than in the retail building models, resulting in significantly reduced demand for heating. The school heating energy use was correspondingly less sensitive to changes in the minimum VR. The modeling indicates that minimum VRs influence HVAC energy and total energy use in schools by only a few percent. For both the retail building and the school buildings, minimum VRs substantially affected the predicted annual-average indoor concentrations of an indoor generated contaminant, with larger effects in schools. The shape of the curves relating contaminant concentrations with VRs illustrate the importance of avoiding particularly low VRs.
A minimum-size tokamak concept for conditions near ignition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehnert, B.
1983-01-01
Based on a combination of Alcator scaling and a recent theory on the Murakami density limit, a minimum-size tokamak concept (Minitor) is proposed. Even if this concept does not aim at alpha particle containment, it has the important goal of reaching plasma core temperatures and Lawson parameter values required for ignition, by ohmic heating alone and under macroscopically stable conditions. The minimized size, and the associated enhancement of the plasma current density, are found to favour high plasma temperatues, average densities, and beta values. The goal of this concept appears to be realizable by relatively modest technical means. (author)
A flexible time recording and time correlation analysis system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shenhav, N.J.; Leiferman, G.; Segal, Y.; Notea, A.
1983-01-01
A system was developed to digitize and record the time intervals between detection event pulses, feed to its input channels from a detection device. The accumulated data is transferred continuously in real time to a disc through a PDP 11/34 minicomputer. Even though the system was designed for a specific scope, i.e., the comparative study of passive neutron nondestructive assay methods, it can be characterized by its features as a general purpose time series recorder. The time correlation analysis is performed by software after completion of the data accumulation. The digitizing clock period is selectable and any value, larger than a minimum of 100 ns, may be selected. Bursts of up to 128 events with a frequency up to 10 MHz may be recorded. With the present recorder-minicomputer combination, the maximal average recording frequency is 40 kHz. (orig.)
2010-01-01
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum wage. 551.301 Section 551.301... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Minimum Wage Provisions Basic Provision § 551.301 Minimum wage. (a)(1) Except... employees wages at rates not less than the minimum wage specified in section 6(a)(1) of the Act for all...
Measured emotional intelligence ability and grade point average in nursing students.
Codier, Estelle; Odell, Ellen
2014-04-01
For most schools of nursing, grade point average is the most important criteria for admission to nursing school and constitutes the main indicator of success throughout the nursing program. In the general research literature, the relationship between traditional measures of academic success, such as grade point average and postgraduation job performance is not well established. In both the general population and among practicing nurses, measured emotional intelligence ability correlates with both performance and other important professional indicators postgraduation. Little research exists comparing traditional measures of intelligence with measured emotional intelligence prior to graduation, and none in the student nurse population. This exploratory, descriptive, quantitative study was undertaken to explore the relationship between measured emotional intelligence ability and grade point average of first year nursing students. The study took place at a school of nursing at a university in the south central region of the United States. Participants included 72 undergraduate student nurse volunteers. Emotional intelligence was measured using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, version 2, an instrument for quantifying emotional intelligence ability. Pre-admission grade point average was reported by the school records department. Total emotional intelligence (r=.24) scores and one subscore, experiential emotional intelligence(r=.25) correlated significantly (>.05) with grade point average. This exploratory, descriptive study provided evidence for some relationship between GPA and measured emotional intelligence ability, but also demonstrated lower than average range scores in several emotional intelligence scores. The relationship between pre-graduation measures of success and level of performance postgraduation deserves further exploration. The findings of this study suggest that research on the relationship between traditional and nontraditional
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lewis H Ziska
Full Text Available Assessments of climate change and food security often do not consider changes to crop production as a function of altered pest pressures. Evaluation of potential changes may be difficult, in part, because management practices are routinely utilized in situ to minimize pest injury. If so, then such practices, should, in theory, also change with climate, although this has never been quantified. Chemical (pesticide applications remain the primary means of managing pests in industrialized countries. While a wide range of climate variables can influence chemical use, minimum daily temperature (lowest 24 h recorded temperature in a given year can be associated with the distribution and thermal survival of many agricultural pests in temperate regions. The current study quantifies average pesticide applications since 1999 for commercial soybean grown over a 2100 km North-South latitudinal transect for seven states that varied in minimum daily temperature (1999-2013 from -28.6°C (Minnesota to -5.1°C (Louisiana. Although soybean yields (per hectare did not vary by state, total pesticide applications (kg of active ingredient, ai, per hectare increased from 4.3 to 6.5 over this temperature range. Significant correlations were observed between minimum daily temperatures and kg of ai for all pesticide classes. This suggested that minimum daily temperature could serve as a proxy for pesticide application. Longer term temperature data (1977-2013 indicated greater relative increases in minimum daily temperatures for northern relative to southern states. Using these longer-term trends to determine short-term projections of pesticide use (to 2023 showed a greater comparative increase in herbicide use for soybean in northern; but a greater increase in insecticide and fungicide use for southern states in a warmer climate. Overall, these data suggest that increases in pesticide application rates may be a means to maintain soybean production in response to rising
Bai, Mingsian R; Hsieh, Ping-Ju; Hur, Kur-Nan
2009-02-01
The performance of the minimum mean-square error noise reduction (MMSE-NR) algorithm in conjunction with time-recursive averaging (TRA) for noise estimation is found to be very sensitive to the choice of two recursion parameters. To address this problem in a more systematic manner, this paper proposes an optimization method to efficiently search the optimal parameters of the MMSE-TRA-NR algorithms. The objective function is based on a regression model, whereas the optimization process is carried out with the simulated annealing algorithm that is well suited for problems with many local optima. Another NR algorithm proposed in the paper employs linear prediction coding as a preprocessor for extracting the correlated portion of human speech. Objective and subjective tests were undertaken to compare the optimized MMSE-TRA-NR algorithm with several conventional NR algorithms. The results of subjective tests were processed by using analysis of variance to justify the statistic significance. A post hoc test, Tukey's Honestly Significant Difference, was conducted to further assess the pairwise difference between the NR algorithms.
LDPC Codes with Minimum Distance Proportional to Block Size
Divsalar, Dariush; Jones, Christopher; Dolinar, Samuel; Thorpe, Jeremy
2009-01-01
Low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes characterized by minimum Hamming distances proportional to block sizes have been demonstrated. Like the codes mentioned in the immediately preceding article, the present codes are error-correcting codes suitable for use in a variety of wireless data-communication systems that include noisy channels. The previously mentioned codes have low decoding thresholds and reasonably low error floors. However, the minimum Hamming distances of those codes do not grow linearly with code-block sizes. Codes that have this minimum-distance property exhibit very low error floors. Examples of such codes include regular LDPC codes with variable degrees of at least 3. Unfortunately, the decoding thresholds of regular LDPC codes are high. Hence, there is a need for LDPC codes characterized by both low decoding thresholds and, in order to obtain acceptably low error floors, minimum Hamming distances that are proportional to code-block sizes. The present codes were developed to satisfy this need. The minimum Hamming distances of the present codes have been shown, through consideration of ensemble-average weight enumerators, to be proportional to code block sizes. As in the cases of irregular ensembles, the properties of these codes are sensitive to the proportion of degree-2 variable nodes. A code having too few such nodes tends to have an iterative decoding threshold that is far from the capacity threshold. A code having too many such nodes tends not to exhibit a minimum distance that is proportional to block size. Results of computational simulations have shown that the decoding thresholds of codes of the present type are lower than those of regular LDPC codes. Included in the simulations were a few examples from a family of codes characterized by rates ranging from low to high and by thresholds that adhere closely to their respective channel capacity thresholds; the simulation results from these examples showed that the codes in question have low
Proton transport properties of poly(aspartic acid) with different average molecular weights
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nagao, Yuki, E-mail: ynagao@kuchem.kyoto-u.ac.j [Department of Mechanical Systems and Design, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Imai, Yuzuru [Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer (IDAC), Tohoku University, 4-1 Seiryo-cho, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Matsui, Jun [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ogawa, Tomoyuki [Department of Electronic Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-05 Aoba Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Miyashita, Tokuji [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials (IMRAM), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)
2011-04-15
Research highlights: Seven polymers with different average molecular weights were synthesized. The proton conductivity depended on the number-average degree of polymerization. The difference of the proton conductivities was more than one order of magnitude. The number-average molecular weight contributed to the stability of the polymer. - Abstract: We synthesized seven partially protonated poly(aspartic acids)/sodium polyaspartates (P-Asp) with different average molecular weights to study their proton transport properties. The number-average degree of polymerization (DP) for each P-Asp was 30 (P-Asp30), 115 (P-Asp115), 140 (P-Asp140), 160 (P-Asp160), 185 (P-Asp185), 205 (P-Asp205), and 250 (P-Asp250). The proton conductivity depended on the number-average DP. The maximum and minimum proton conductivities under a relative humidity of 70% and 298 K were 1.7 . 10{sup -3} S cm{sup -1} (P-Asp140) and 4.6 . 10{sup -4} S cm{sup -1} (P-Asp250), respectively. Differential thermogravimetric analysis (TG-DTA) was carried out for each P-Asp. The results were classified into two categories. One exhibited two endothermic peaks between t = (270 and 300) {sup o}C, the other exhibited only one peak. The P-Asp group with two endothermic peaks exhibited high proton conductivity. The high proton conductivity is related to the stability of the polymer. The number-average molecular weight also contributed to the stability of the polymer.
Van Dyke, Miriam E; Komro, Kelli A; Shah, Monica P; Livingston, Melvin D; Kramer, Michael R
2018-07-01
Despite substantial declines since the 1960's, heart disease remains the leading cause of death in the United States (US) and geographic disparities in heart disease mortality have grown. State-level socioeconomic factors might be important contributors to geographic differences in heart disease mortality. This study examined the association between state-level minimum wage increases above the federal minimum wage and heart disease death rates from 1980 to 2015 among 'working age' individuals aged 35-64 years in the US. Annual, inflation-adjusted state and federal minimum wage data were extracted from legal databases and annual state-level heart disease death rates were obtained from CDC Wonder. Although most minimum wage and health studies to date use conventional regression models, we employed marginal structural models to account for possible time-varying confounding. Quasi-experimental, marginal structural models accounting for state, year, and state × year fixed effects estimated the association between increases in the state-level minimum wage above the federal minimum wage and heart disease death rates. In models of 'working age' adults (35-64 years old), a $1 increase in the state-level minimum wage above the federal minimum wage was on average associated with ~6 fewer heart disease deaths per 100,000 (95% CI: -10.4, -1.99), or a state-level heart disease death rate that was 3.5% lower per year. In contrast, for older adults (65+ years old) a $1 increase was on average associated with a 1.1% lower state-level heart disease death rate per year (b = -28.9 per 100,000, 95% CI: -71.1, 13.3). State-level economic policies are important targets for population health research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hennigan, Barry; Johnson, Nils; McClure, John; Corcoran, David; Watkins, Stuart; Berry, Colin; Oldroyd, Keith G
2017-07-01
Using data from a commercial pressure wire system (St. Jude Medical) we previously developed an automated "smart" algorithm to determine a reproducible value for minimum FFR (smFFR) and confirmed that it correlated very closely with measurements made off-line by experienced coronary physiology core laboratories. In this study we used the same "smart" minimum algorithm to analyze data derived from a different, commercial pressure wire system (Philips Volcano) and compared the values obtained to both operator-defined steady state FFR and the online automated minimum FFR reported by the pressure wire analyser. For this analysis, we used the data collected during the VERIFY 2 study (Hennigan et al. in Circ Cardiovasc Interv, doi: 10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.116.004016 ) in which we measured FFR in 257 intermediate coronary stenoses (mean DS 48%) in 197 patients. Maximal hyperaemia was induced using intravenous adenosine (140 mcg/kg/min). We recorded both the online minimum FFR generated by the analyser and the operator-reported steady state FFR. Subsequently, the raw pressure tracings were coded, anonymised and 256/257 were subjected to further off-line analysis using the smart minimum FFR (smFFR) algorithm. The operator-defined steady state FFR correlated well with smFFR: r = 0.988 (p 0.05 among methods were rare but in these cases the two automated algorithms almost always agreed with each other rather than with the operator-reported value. Within the VERIFY 2 dataset, experienced operators reported a similar FFR value to both an online automated minimum (Philips Volcano) and off-line "smart" minimum computer algorithm. Thus, treatment decisions and clinical studies using either method will produce nearly identical results.
Potential minimum cost of electricity of superconducting coil tokamak power reactors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reid, R.L.; Peng, Y-K. M.
1989-01-01
The potential minimum cost of electricity (COE) for superconducting tokamak power reactors is estimated by increasing the physics (confinement, beta limit, bootstrap current fraction) and technology [neutral beam energy, toroidal field (TF) coil allowable stresses, divertor heat flux, superconducting coil critical field, critical temperature, and quench temperature rise] constraints far beyond those assumed for ITER until the point of diminishing returns is reached. A version of the TETRA systems code, calibrated with the ITER design and modified for power reactors, is used for this analysis, limiting this study to reactors with the same basic device configuration and costing algorithms as ITER. A minimum COE is reduced from >200 to about 80 mill/kWh when the allowable design constraints are raised to 2 times those of ITER. At 4 times the ITER allowables, a minimum COE of about 60 mill/kWh is obtained. The corresponding tokamak has a major radius of approximately 4 m, a plasma current close to 10 MA, an aspect ratio of 4, a confinement H- factor ≤3, a beta limit of approximately 2 times the first stability regime, a divertor heat flux of about 20 MW/m 2 , a Β max ≤ 18 T, and a TF coil average current density about 3 times that of ITER. The design constraints that bound the minimum COE are the allowable stresses in the TF coil, the neutral beam energy, and the 99% bootstrap current (essentially free current drive). 14 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lei, Xianliang; Li, Huixiong; Guo, YuMeng; Zhang, Qing; Zhang, Weiqiang; Zhang, Qian
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The minimum drag coefficient phenomenon (MDC) has been observed and further investigated. • Effects of heat flux, mass flux and pressure to MDC have been discussed. • A series of comparisons between existing correlations and data have been conducted. • Two correlations of drag coefficient are proposed for isothermal and nonisothermal flow. - Abstract: Hydraulic resistance and its components are of great importance for understanding the turbulence nature of supercritical fluid and establishing prediction methods. Under supercritical pressures, the hydraulic resistance of the fluid exhibits a “pit” in the regions near its pseudo-critical point, which is hereafter called the minimum drag coefficient phenomenon. However, this special phenomenon was paid a little attention before. Hence systematical experiments have been carried out to investigate the hydraulic resistance of supercritical pressure water in both adiabatic and heated horizontal tubes. Parametric effects of heat flux, pressure and mass fluxes to drag coefficient are further compared. It is found that almost all of the existing correlations don’t agree well with the experimental data due to the insufficient consideration of thermal-properties near the pseudocritical point. Two correlations of the drag coefficients are finally proposed by introducing the new variable of the derivative of density with respect to temperature or Prandtl number, which can better predict the drag coefficient of isothermal and nonisothermal flow respectively.
Minimum income protection in the Netherlands
van Peijpe, T.
2009-01-01
This article offers an overview of the Dutch legal system of minimum income protection through collective bargaining, social security, and statutory minimum wages. In addition to collective agreements, the Dutch statutory minimum wage offers income protection to a small number of workers. Its
A spectral measurement method for determining white OLED average junction temperatures
Zhu, Yiting; Narendran, Nadarajah
2016-09-01
The objective of this study was to investigate an indirect method of measuring the average junction temperature of a white organic light-emitting diode (OLED) based on temperature sensitivity differences in the radiant power emitted by individual emitter materials (i.e., "blue," "green," and "red"). The measured spectral power distributions (SPDs) of the white OLED as a function of temperature showed amplitude decrease as a function of temperature in the different spectral bands, red, green, and blue. Analyzed data showed a good linear correlation between the integrated radiance for each spectral band and the OLED panel temperature, measured at a reference point on the back surface of the panel. The integrated radiance ratio of the spectral band green compared to red, (G/R), correlates linearly with panel temperature. Assuming that the panel reference point temperature is proportional to the average junction temperature of the OLED panel, the G/R ratio can be used for estimating the average junction temperature of an OLED panel.
Kim, Byung Chan; Park, Seong-Ook
In order to determine exposure compliance with the electromagnetic fields from a base station's antenna in the far-field region, we should calculate the spatially averaged field value in a defined space. This value is calculated based on the measured value obtained at several points within the restricted space. According to the ICNIRP guidelines, at each point in the space, the reference levels are averaged over any 6min (from 100kHz to 10GHz) for the general public. Therefore, the more points we use, the longer the measurement time becomes. For practical application, it is very advantageous to spend less time for measurement. In this paper, we analyzed the difference of average values between 6min and lesser periods and compared it with the standard uncertainty for measurement drift. Based on the standard deviation from the 6min averaging value, the proposed minimum averaging time is 1min.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pernica Martin
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of the article is to assess – on the basis of a comparison of Czech and Slovak legislation relating to the conditions of the minimum wage indexation – whether it would be appropriate to use certain aspects of Slovak legislation in the Czech legislation and vice versa. When elaborating the article, some logical methods were used. In order to collect data, important employers were addressed in the South-Moravian Region. A carrying method used during the work was a comparison. Analyses were processed using the data of the Czech Statistical Office, the European Statistical Office and the Ministry of Labour and Social Affairs of the Czech Republic. To evaluate the research, the percentage representation of positive and negative responses and Pearson’s Chi-square test were used. The paper presents the results of research whose aim was to get the views of entrepreneurs regarding the minimum wage level and conditions of its indexation. Employers supported the idea of maintaining the institution of the minimum wage. A predominant portion of companies would welcome it if the minimum wage were derived on the basis of an average wage, and the vast majority of companies would welcome the annual indexation of the minimum wage by inflation.
Maximum And Minimum Temperature Trends In Mexico For The Last 31 Years
Romero-Centeno, R.; Zavala-Hidalgo, J.; Allende Arandia, M. E.; Carrasco-Mijarez, N.; Calderon-Bustamante, O.
2013-05-01
Based on high-resolution (1') daily maps of the maximum and minimum temperatures in Mexico, an analysis of the last 31-year trends is performed. The maps were generated using all the available information from more than 5,000 stations of the Mexican Weather Service (Servicio Meteorológico Nacional, SMN) for the period 1979-2009, along with data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). The data processing procedure includes a quality control step, in order to eliminate erroneous daily data, and make use of a high-resolution digital elevation model (from GEBCO), the relationship between air temperature and elevation by means of the average environmental lapse rate, and interpolation algorithms (linear and inverse-distance weighting). Based on the monthly gridded maps for the mentioned period, the maximum and minimum temperature trends calculated by least-squares linear regression and their statistical significance are obtained and discussed.
Chaotic Universe, Friedmannian on the average 2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marochnik, L S [AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kosmicheskikh Issledovanij
1980-11-01
The cosmological solutions are found for the equations for correlators, describing a statistically chaotic Universe, Friedmannian on the average in which delta-correlated fluctuations with amplitudes h >> 1 are excited. For the equation of state of matter p = n epsilon, the kind of solutions depends on the position of maximum of the spectrum of the metric disturbances. The expansion of the Universe, in which long-wave potential and vortical motions and gravitational waves (modes diverging at t ..-->.. 0) had been excited, tends asymptotically to the Friedmannian one at t ..-->.. identity and depends critically on n: at n < 0.26, the solution for the scalefactor is situated higher than the Friedmannian one, and lower at n > 0.26. The influence of finite at t ..-->.. 0 long-wave fluctuation modes leads to an averaged quasiisotropic solution. The contribution of quantum fluctuations and of short-wave parts of the spectrum of classical fluctuations to the expansion law is considered. Their influence is equivalent to the contribution from an ultrarelativistic gas with corresponding energy density and pressure. The restrictions are obtained for the degree of chaos (the spectrum characteristics) compatible with the observed helium abundance, which could have been retained by a completely chaotic Universe during its expansion up to the nucleosynthesis epoch.
Averages of ratios of the Riemann zeta-function and correlations of divisor sums
Conrey, Brian; Keating, Jonathan P.
2017-10-01
Nonlinearity has published articles containing a significant number-theoretic component since the journal was first established. We examine one thread, concerning the statistics of the zeros of the Riemann zeta function. We extend this by establishing a connection between the ratios conjecture for the Riemann zeta-function and a conjecture concerning correlations of convolutions of Möbius and divisor functions. Specifically, we prove that the ratios conjecture and an arithmetic correlations conjecture imply the same result. This provides new support for the ratios conjecture, which previously had been motivated by analogy with formulae in random matrix theory and by a heuristic recipe. Our main theorem generalises a recent calculation pertaining to the special case of two-over-two ratios.
Understanding the Minimum Wage: Issues and Answers.
Employment Policies Inst. Foundation, Washington, DC.
This booklet, which is designed to clarify facts regarding the minimum wage's impact on marketplace economics, contains a total of 31 questions and answers pertaining to the following topics: relationship between minimum wages and poverty; impacts of changes in the minimum wage on welfare reform; and possible effects of changes in the minimum wage…
Youth minimum wages and youth employment
Marimpi, Maria; Koning, Pierre
2018-01-01
This paper performs a cross-country level analysis on the impact of the level of specific youth minimum wages on the labor market performance of young individuals. We use information on the use and level of youth minimum wages, as compared to the level of adult minimum wages as well as to the median
Discretization of space and time: determining the values of minimum length and minimum time
Roatta , Luca
2017-01-01
Assuming that space and time can only have discrete values, we obtain the expression of the minimum length and the minimum time interval. These values are found to be exactly coincident with the Planck's length and the Planck's time but for the presence of h instead of ħ .
Minimum wage development in the Russian Federation
Bolsheva, Anna
2012-01-01
The aim of this paper is to analyze the effectiveness of the minimum wage policy at the national level in Russia and its impact on living standards in the country. The analysis showed that the national minimum wage in Russia does not serve its original purpose of protecting the lowest wage earners and has no substantial effect on poverty reduction. The national subsistence minimum is too low and cannot be considered an adequate criterion for the setting of the minimum wage. The minimum wage d...
Protograph based LDPC codes with minimum distance linearly growing with block size
Divsalar, Dariush; Jones, Christopher; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy
2005-01-01
We propose several LDPC code constructions that simultaneously achieve good threshold and error floor performance. Minimum distance is shown to grow linearly with block size (similar to regular codes of variable degree at least 3) by considering ensemble average weight enumerators. Our constructions are based on projected graph, or protograph, structures that support high-speed decoder implementations. As with irregular ensembles, our constructions are sensitive to the proportion of degree-2 variable nodes. A code with too few such nodes tends to have an iterative decoding threshold that is far from the capacity threshold. A code with too many such nodes tends to not exhibit a minimum distance that grows linearly in block length. In this paper we also show that precoding can be used to lower the threshold of regular LDPC codes. The decoding thresholds of the proposed codes, which have linearly increasing minimum distance in block size, outperform that of regular LDPC codes. Furthermore, a family of low to high rate codes, with thresholds that adhere closely to their respective channel capacity thresholds, is presented. Simulation results for a few example codes show that the proposed codes have low error floors as well as good threshold SNFt performance.
Minimum emittance of three-bend achromats
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Xiaoyu; Xu Gang
2012-01-01
The calculation of the minimum emittance of three-bend achromats (TBAs) made by Mathematical software can ignore the actual magnets lattice in the matching condition of dispersion function in phase space. The minimum scaling factors of two kinds of widely used TBA lattices are obtained. Then the relationship between the lengths and the radii of the three dipoles in TBA is obtained and so is the minimum scaling factor, when the TBA lattice achieves its minimum emittance. The procedure of analysis and the results can be widely used in achromats lattices, because the calculation is not restricted by the actual lattice. (authors)
Averages of $b$-hadron, $c$-hadron, and $\\tau$-lepton properties as of summer 2014
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amhis, Y.; et al.
2014-12-23
This article reports world averages of measurements of $b$-hadron, $c$-hadron, and $\\tau$-lepton properties obtained by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) using results available through summer 2014. For the averaging, common input parameters used in the various analyses are adjusted (rescaled) to common values, and known correlations are taken into account. The averages include branching fractions, lifetimes, neutral meson mixing parameters, $CP$ violation parameters, parameters of semileptonic decays and CKM matrix elements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daddy Setyawan
2011-01-01
There are several passive safety systems on APWR reactor design. One of the passive safety system is the cooling system with natural circulation air on the surface of concentric vertical cylinder containment wall. Since the natural circulation air performance in the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) application is related to safety, the cooling characteristics of natural circulation air on concentric vertical cylinder containment wall should be studied experimentally. This paper focuses on the experimental study of the heat transfer coefficient of natural circulation air with heat flux level varied on the characteristics of APWR concentric vertical cylinder containment wall. The procedure of this experimental study is composed of 4 stages as follows: the design of APWR containment with scaling 1:40, the assembling of APWR containment with its instrumentation, calibration and experimentation. The experimentation was conducted in the transient and steady-state with the variation of heat flux, from 119 W/m 2 until 575 W/m 2 . From The experimentation result obtained average heat transfer empirical correlation of natural convection Nu L = 0,008(Ra * L ) 0,68 for the concentric vertical cylinder geometry modelling of APWR. (author)
Selection effects on GRB spectral-energy correlations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nava, Lara; Ghirlanda, Giancarlo; Ghisellini, Gabriele
2009-01-01
Instrumental selection effects can act upon the estimates of the peak energy E peak obs , the fluence F and the peak flux P of GRBs. If this were the case, then the correlations involving the corresponding rest frame quantities (i.e. E peak , E obs and the peak luminosity L iso ) would be questioned. We estimated, as a function of E peak obs , the minimum peak flux necessary to trigger a GRB and the minimum fluence a burst must have to determine the value of E peak obs by considering different instruments (BATSE, Swift, BeppoSAX). We find that the latter dominates over the former. We then study the E peak obs -fluence (and flux) correlation in the observer plane. GRBs with redshift show well defined E peak obs -F and E peak obs -P correlations: in this planes the selection effects are present, but do not determine the found correlations. This is not true for Swift GRBs with redshift, for which the spectral analysis threshold does affect their distribution in the observer planes. Extending the sample to GRBs without z, we still find a significant E peak obs -F correlation, although with a larger scatter than that defined by GRBs with redshift. We find that 6% are outliers of the Amati correlation. The E peak obs -P correlation of GRBs with or without redshift is the same and no outlier is found among bursts without redshift.
J. N. Kochenderfer; G. W. Wendel; H. Clay Smith
1984-01-01
A "minimum-standard" forest truck road that provides efficient and environmentally acceptable access for several forest activities is described. Cost data are presented for eight of these roads constructed in the central Appalachians. The average cost per mile excluding gravel was $8,119. The range was $5,048 to $14,424. Soil loss was measured from several...
Correlating Atom Probe Crystallographic Measurements with Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction Data.
Breen, Andrew J; Babinsky, Katharina; Day, Alec C; Eder, K; Oakman, Connor J; Trimby, Patrick W; Primig, Sophie; Cairney, Julie M; Ringer, Simon P
2017-04-01
Correlative microscopy approaches offer synergistic solutions to many research problems. One such combination, that has been studied in limited detail, is the use of atom probe tomography (APT) and transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD) on the same tip specimen. By combining these two powerful microscopy techniques, the microstructure of important engineering alloys can be studied in greater detail. For the first time, the accuracy of crystallographic measurements made using APT will be independently verified using TKD. Experimental data from two atom probe tips, one a nanocrystalline Al-0.5Ag alloy specimen collected on a straight flight-path atom probe and the other a high purity Mo specimen collected on a reflectron-fitted instrument, will be compared. We find that the average minimum misorientation angle, calculated from calibrated atom probe reconstructions with two different pole combinations, deviate 0.7° and 1.4°, respectively, from the TKD results. The type of atom probe and experimental conditions appear to have some impact on this accuracy and the reconstruction and measurement procedures are likely to contribute further to degradation in angular resolution. The challenges and implications of this correlative approach will also be discussed.
Image-based correlation between the meso-scale structure and deformation of closed-cell foam
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Yongle, E-mail: yongle.sun@manchester.ac.uk [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Zhang, Xun [Henry Moseley X-ray Imaging Facility, School of Materials, The University of Manchester, Upper Brook Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Shao, Zhushan [School of Civil Engineering, Xi' an University of Architecture & Technology, Xi' an 710055 (China); Li, Q.M. [School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, The University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)
2017-03-14
In the correlation between structural parameters and compressive behaviour of cellular materials, previous studies have mostly focused on averaged structural parameters and bulk material properties for different samples. This study focuses on the meso-scale correlation between structure and deformation in a 2D foam sample generated from a computed tomography slice of Alporas™ foam, for which quasi-static compression was simulated using 2D image-based finite element modelling. First, a comprehensive meso-scale structural characterisation of the 2D foam was carried out to determine the size, aspect ratio, orientation and anisotropy of individual cells, as well as the length, straightness, inclination and thickness of individual cell walls. Measurements were then conducted to obtain the axial distributions of local structural parameters averaged laterally to compression axis. Second, the meso-scale deformation was characterised by cell-wall strain, cell area ratio, digital image correlation strain and local compressive engineering strain. According to the results, the through-width sub-regions over an axial length between the average (lower bound) and the maximum (upper bound) of cell size should be used to characterise the meso-scale heterogeneity of the cell structure and deformation. It was found that the first crush band forms in a sub-region where the ratio of cell-wall thickness to cell-wall length is a minimum, in which the collapse deformation is dominated by the plastic bending and buckling of cell walls. Other morphological parameters have secondary effect on the initiation of crush band in the 2D foam. The finding of this study suggests that the measurement of local structural properties is crucial for the identification of the “weakest” region which determines the initiation of collapse and hence the corresponding collapse load of a heterogeneous cellular material.
Image-based correlation between the meso-scale structure and deformation of closed-cell foam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Yongle; Zhang, Xun; Shao, Zhushan; Li, Q.M.
2017-01-01
In the correlation between structural parameters and compressive behaviour of cellular materials, previous studies have mostly focused on averaged structural parameters and bulk material properties for different samples. This study focuses on the meso-scale correlation between structure and deformation in a 2D foam sample generated from a computed tomography slice of Alporas™ foam, for which quasi-static compression was simulated using 2D image-based finite element modelling. First, a comprehensive meso-scale structural characterisation of the 2D foam was carried out to determine the size, aspect ratio, orientation and anisotropy of individual cells, as well as the length, straightness, inclination and thickness of individual cell walls. Measurements were then conducted to obtain the axial distributions of local structural parameters averaged laterally to compression axis. Second, the meso-scale deformation was characterised by cell-wall strain, cell area ratio, digital image correlation strain and local compressive engineering strain. According to the results, the through-width sub-regions over an axial length between the average (lower bound) and the maximum (upper bound) of cell size should be used to characterise the meso-scale heterogeneity of the cell structure and deformation. It was found that the first crush band forms in a sub-region where the ratio of cell-wall thickness to cell-wall length is a minimum, in which the collapse deformation is dominated by the plastic bending and buckling of cell walls. Other morphological parameters have secondary effect on the initiation of crush band in the 2D foam. The finding of this study suggests that the measurement of local structural properties is crucial for the identification of the “weakest” region which determines the initiation of collapse and hence the corresponding collapse load of a heterogeneous cellular material.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hitsuda, Yutaka; Igishi, Tadashi; Kawasaki, Yuji
2000-01-01
We attempted to determine the minimum number of slices required for quantification of overall emphysema by computed tomography (CT). Forty-nine patients underwent CT scanning with a 15-mm slice interval, and 13 to 18 slices per patient were obtained. The percentage of low attenuation area (LAA%) per slice was measured with a method that we reported on previously, utilizing a CT program and NIH image. The average LAA% values for 1, 2, 3, and 6 slices evenly spaced through the lungs [LAA% (1), LAA% (2), LAA% (3), and LAA% (6)] were compared with those for all slices [LAA% (All)]. The correlation coefficients for LAA% (1), LAA% (2), LAA% (3), and LAA% (6) with LAA% (All) were 0.961, 0.981, 0.993, and 0.997, respectively. Mean differences ±SD were -3.20±4.21%, -2.32±3.00, -0.20±1.84, and -0.16±1.26, respectively. From these results, we concluded that overall emphysema can be quantified by using at least three slices: one each of the upper, middle, and lower lung. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. D. B. Ehelepola
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Background: Meteorological factors affect dengue transmission. Mechanisms of the way in which different diurnal temperatures, ranging around different mean temperatures, influence dengue transmission were published after 2011. Objective: We endeavored to determine the correlation between dengue incidence and diurnal temperature ranges (DTRs in Colombo district, Sri Lanka, and to explore the possibilities of using our findings to improve control of dengue. Design: We calculated the weekly dengue incidence in Colombo during 2005–2014, after data on all of the reported dengue patients and estimated mid-year populations were collected. We obtained daily maximum and minimum temperatures from two Colombo weather stations, averaged, and converted them into weekly data. Weekly averages of DTR versus dengue incidence graphs were plotted and correlations observed. The count of days per week with a DTR of >7.5°C and 7.5°C with an 8-week lag period, and a positive correlation between dengue incidence and a DTR<7.5°C, also with an 8-week lag. Conclusions: Large DTRs were negatively correlated with dengue transmission in Colombo district. We propose to take advantage of that in local dengue control efforts. Our results agree with previous studies on the topic and with a mathematical model of relative vectorial capacity of Aedes aegypti. Global warming and declining DTR are likely to favor a rise of dengue, and we suggest a simple method to mitigate this.
30 CFR 57.19021 - Minimum rope strength.
2010-07-01
... feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.001L) For rope lengths 3,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×4.0. (b) Friction drum ropes. For rope lengths less than 4,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.0005L) For rope lengths 4,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×5.0. (c) Tail...
30 CFR 56.19021 - Minimum rope strength.
2010-07-01
... feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0-0.001L) For rope lengths 3,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×4.0 (b) Friction drum ropes. For rope lengths less than 4,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0-0.0005L) For rope lengths 4,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×5.0 (c) Tail ropes...
The Control Based on Internal Average Kinetic Energy in Complex Environment for Multi-robot System
Yang, Mao; Tian, Yantao; Yin, Xianghua
In this paper, reference trajectory is designed according to minimum energy consumed for multi-robot system, which nonlinear programming and cubic spline interpolation are adopted. The control strategy is composed of two levels, which lower-level is simple PD control and the upper-level is based on the internal average kinetic energy for multi-robot system in the complex environment with velocity damping. Simulation tests verify the effectiveness of this control strategy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hojatollah Daneshmand
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Nowadays, a lot of attention is paid to the application of intelligent systems in predicting natural phenomena. Artificial neural network systems, fuzzy logic, and adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference are used in this field. Daily minimum temperature of the meteorology station of the city of Mashhad, in northeast of Iran, in a 42-year statistical period, 1966-2008, has been received from the Iranian meteorological organization. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system is used for modeling and forecasting the monthly minimum temperature. To find appropriate inputs, three approaches, i.e. spectral analysis, correlation coefficient, and the knowledge of experts,are used. By applying fast Fourier transform to the parameter of monthly minimum temperature and climate indices, and by using correlation coefficient and the knowledge of experts, 3 indices, Nino 1 + 2, NP, and PNA, are selected as model inputs. A hybrid training algorithm is used to train the system. According to simulation results, a correlation coefficient of 0.987 between the observed values and the predicted values, as well as amean absolute percentage deviations of 27.6% indicate an acceptable estimation of the model.
Averages of b-hadron, c-hadron, and τ-lepton properties as of summer 2016
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amhis, Y. [LAL, Universite Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Banerjee, S. [University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Ben-Haim, E. [Universite Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, LPNHE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris (France); Bernlochner, F.; Dingfelder, J.; Duell, S. [University of Bonn, Bonn (Germany); Bozek, A. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Bozzi, C. [INFN, Sezione di Ferrara, Ferrara (Italy); Chrzaszcz, M. [H. Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Krakow (Poland); Physik-Institut, Universitaet Zuerich, Zurich (Switzerland); Gersabeck, M. [University of Manchester, School of Physics and Astronomy, Manchester (United Kingdom); Gershon, T. [University of Warwick, Department of Physics, Coventry (United Kingdom); Gerstel, D.; Serrano, J. [Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille (France); Goldenzweig, P. [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik, Karlsruhe (Germany); Harr, R. [Wayne State University, Detroit, MI (United States); Hayasaka, K. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan); Hayashii, H. [Nara Women' s University, Nara (Japan); Kenzie, M. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Kuhr, T. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich (Germany); Leroy, O. [Aix Marseille Univ., CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM, Marseille (France); Lusiani, A. [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Lyu, X.R. [University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Miyabayashi, K. [Niigata University, Niigata (Japan); Naik, P. [University of Bristol, H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, Bristol (United Kingdom); Nanut, T. [J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Oyanguren Campos, A. [Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Valencia (Spain); Patel, M. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom); Pedrini, D. [INFN, Sezione di Milano-Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Petric, M. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland); Rama, M. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Roney, M. [University of Victoria, Victoria, BC (Canada); Rotondo, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Schneider, O. [Institute of Physics, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (EPFL), Lausanne (Switzerland); Schwanda, C. [Institute of High Energy Physics, Vienna (Austria); Schwartz, A.J. [University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Shwartz, B. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (SB RAS), Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Tesarek, R. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States); Tonelli, D. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy); Trabelsi, K. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba (Japan); SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Hayama (Japan); Urquijo, P. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Van Kooten, R. [Indiana University, Bloomington, IN (United States); Yelton, J. [University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (US); Zupanc, A. [J. Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (SI); University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Ljubljana (SI); Collaboration: Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFLAV)
2017-12-15
This article reports world averages of measurements of b-hadron, c-hadron, and τ-lepton properties obtained by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group using results available through summer 2016. For the averaging, common input parameters used in the various analyses are adjusted (rescaled) to common values, and known correlations are taken into account. The averages include branching fractions, lifetimes, neutral meson mixing parameters, CP violation parameters, parameters of semileptonic decays, and Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements. (orig.)
NGA-West 2 GMPE average site coefficients for use in earthquake-resistant design
Borcherdt, Roger D.
2015-01-01
Site coefficients corresponding to those in tables 11.4–1 and 11.4–2 of Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures published by the American Society of Civil Engineers (Standard ASCE/SEI 7-10) are derived from four of the Next Generation Attenuation West2 (NGA-W2) Ground-Motion Prediction Equations (GMPEs). The resulting coefficients are compared with those derived by other researchers and those derived from the NGA-West1 database. The derivation of the NGA-W2 average site coefficients provides a simple procedure to update site coefficients with each update in the Maximum Considered Earthquake Response MCER maps. The simple procedure yields average site coefficients consistent with those derived for site-specific design purposes. The NGA-W2 GMPEs provide simple scale factors to reduce conservatism in current simplified design procedures.
30 CFR 77.1431 - Minimum rope strength.
2010-07-01
... feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.001L) For rope lengths 3,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×4.0 (b) Friction drum ropes. For rope lengths less than 4,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.0005L) For rope lengths 4,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×5.0 (c) Tail ropes...
Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allison, Lee John; Allport, Phillip; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Auerbach, Benjamin; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Backus Mayes, John; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Balek, Petr; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Bartsch, Valeria; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernat, Pauline; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Thorsten Tobias; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boutouil, Sara; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Byszewski, Marcin; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Charfeddine, Driss; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Chen, Yujiao; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiefari, Giovanni; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cooper-Smith, Neil; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Dobos, Daniel; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Dwuznik, Michal; Dyndal, Mateusz; Ebke, Johannes; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Engelmann, Roderich; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Florez Bustos, Andres Carlos; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Glonti, George; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goeringer, Christian; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Gupta, Shaun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guttman, Nir; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holmes, Tova Ray; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Hurwitz, Martina; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Inamaru, Yuki; Ince, Tayfun; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; König, Sebastian; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kurumida, Rie; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laier, Heiko; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeno, Tadashi; Maeno Kataoka, Mayuko; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Mahmoud, Sara; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marques, Carlos; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Homero; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Mechnich, Joerg; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Meric, Nicolas; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Mueller, Thibaut; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Nanava, Gizo; Narayan, Rohin; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Perrino, Roberto; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Qureshi, Anum; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rao, Kanury; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Rodrigues, Luis; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Matthew; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savard, Pierre; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R~Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellers, Graham; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soueid, Paul; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Topilin, Nikolai; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Tran, Huong Lan; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urbaniec, Dustin; Urquijo, Phillip; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virzi, Joseph; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chao; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittig, Tobias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wright, Michael; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz
2015-10-01
The paper presents studies of Bose--Einstein Correlations (BEC) for pairs of like-sign charged particles measured in the kinematic range $p_{\\rm T} >$ 100 MeV and $|\\eta|<$ 2.5 in proton--proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 0.9 and 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The integrated luminosities are approximately 7 $\\mu$b$^{-1}$, 190 $\\mu$b$^{-1}$ and 12.4 nb$^{-1}$ for 0.9 TeV, 7 TeV minimum-bias and 7 TeV high-multiplicity data samples, respectively. The multiplicity dependence of the BEC parameters characterizing the correlation strength and the correlation source size are investigated for charged-particle multiplicities of up to 240. A saturation effect in the multiplicity dependence of the correlation source size is observed using the high-multiplicity 7 TeV data sample. The dependence of the BEC parameters on the average transverse momentum of the particle pair is also investigated.
Chadsuthi, Sudarat; Iamsirithaworn, Sopon; Triampo, Wannapong; Modchang, Charin
2015-01-01
Influenza is a worldwide respiratory infectious disease that easily spreads from one person to another. Previous research has found that the influenza transmission process is often associated with climate variables. In this study, we used autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation plots to determine the appropriate autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model for influenza transmission in the central and southern regions of Thailand. The relationships between reported influenza cases and the climate data, such as the amount of rainfall, average temperature, average maximum relative humidity, average minimum relative humidity, and average relative humidity, were evaluated using cross-correlation function. Based on the available data of suspected influenza cases and climate variables, the most appropriate ARIMA(X) model for each region was obtained. We found that the average temperature correlated with influenza cases in both central and southern regions, but average minimum relative humidity played an important role only in the southern region. The ARIMAX model that includes the average temperature with a 4-month lag and the minimum relative humidity with a 2-month lag is the appropriate model for the central region, whereas including the minimum relative humidity with a 4-month lag results in the best model for the southern region.
Measurements and IRI Model Predictions During the Recent Solar Minimum
Bilitza, Dieter; Brown, Steven A.; Wang, Mathew Y.; Souza, Jonas R.; Roddy, Patrick A.
2012-01-01
Cycle 23 was exceptional in that it lasted almost two years longer than its predecessors and in that it ended in an extended minimum period that proved all predictions wrong. Comparisons of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) with CHAMP and GRACE in-situ measurements of electron density during the minimum have revealed significant discrepancies at 400-500 km altitude. Our study investigates the causes for these discrepancies with the help of ionosonde and Planar Langmuir Probe (PLP) data from the Communications/Navigation Outage Forecasting System (C/NOFS) satellite. Our C/NOFS comparisons confirm the earlier CHAMP and GRACE results. But the ionosonde measurements of the F-peak plasma frequency (foF2) show generally good agreement throughout the whole solar cycle. At mid-latitude stations yearly averages of the data-model difference are within 10% and at low latitudes stations within 20%. The 60-70% differences found at 400-500 km altitude are not seen at the F peak. We will discuss how these seemingly contradicting results from the ionosonde and in situ data-model comparisons can be explained and which parameters need to be corrected in the IRI model.
Metazoan meiofauna within the oxygen-minimum zone off Chile: Results of the 2001-PUCK expedition
Veit-Köhler, Gritta; Gerdes, Dieter; Quiroga, Eduardo; Hebbeln, Dierk; Sellanes, Javier
2009-07-01
A quantitative study of metazoan meiofauna was carried out at continental shelf and slope stations affected by the oxygen-minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific off Chile. Densities of meiobenthos at the investigated stations off Antofagasta (22°S), Concepción (36°S), and Chiloé (42°S) ranged from 1282.1 to 8847.8 ind 10 cm -2. Oxygen deficiency led only to average abundances, despite higher food availability and freshness at the corresponding sites. Sediment organic carbon, chlorophyll- a, and phaeopigment contents were used as measures of the input from water-column primary production, which accumulated at the oxygen-minimum zone stations. The highest abundances were found at a station with an oxygen content of 0.79 mL L -1, which was slightly elevated from what is defined as oxygen minimum (0.5 mL L -1). The most oxygenated site yielded the lowest densities. Meiofauna assemblages became more diverse with increasing bottom-water oxygenation, whereas nematodes were the most abundant taxon at every station, followed by annelids, copepods, and nauplii.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boccaccini, L.V.
1986-07-01
To take advantages of the semi-implicit computer models - to solve the two phase flow differential system - a proper averaging procedure is also needed for the source terms. In fact, in some cases, the correlations normally used for the source terms - not time averaged - fail using the theoretical time step that arises from the linear stability analysis used on the right handside. Such a time averaging procedure is developed with reference to the bubbly flow regime. Moreover, the concept of mass that must be exchanged to reach equilibrium from a non-equilibrium state is introduced to limit the mass transfer during a time step. Finally some practical calculations are performed to compare the different correlations for the average mass transfer rate developed in this work. (orig.) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Um, Junshik; McFarquhar, Greg M.
2013-01-01
The optimal orientation averaging scheme (regular lattice grid scheme or quasi Monte Carlo (QMC) method), the minimum number of orientations, and the corresponding computing time required to calculate the average single-scattering properties (i.e., asymmetry parameter (g), single-scattering albedo (ω o ), extinction efficiency (Q ext ), scattering efficiency (Q sca ), absorption efficiency (Q abs ), and scattering phase function at scattering angles of 90° (P 11 (90°)), and 180° (P 11 (180°))) within a predefined accuracy level (i.e., 1.0%) were determined for four different nonspherical atmospheric ice crystal models (Gaussian random sphere, droxtal, budding Bucky ball, and column) with maximum dimension D=10μm using the Amsterdam discrete dipole approximation at λ=0.55, 3.78, and 11.0μm. The QMC required fewer orientations and less computing time than the lattice grid. The calculations of P 11 (90°) and P 11 (180°) required more orientations than the calculations of integrated scattering properties (i.e., g, ω o , Q ext , Q sca , and Q abs ) regardless of the orientation average scheme. The fewest orientations were required for calculating g and ω o . The minimum number of orientations and the corresponding computing time for single-scattering calculations decreased with an increase of wavelength, whereas they increased with the surface-area ratio that defines particle nonsphericity. -- Highlights: •The number of orientations required to calculate the average single-scattering properties of nonspherical ice crystals is investigated. •Single-scattering properties of ice crystals are calculated using ADDA. •Quasi Monte Carlo method is more efficient than lattice grid method for scattering calculations. •Single-scattering properties of ice crystals depend on a newly defined parameter called surface area ratio
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yi Jiao
2011-05-01
Full Text Available In the continuing efforts to reduce the beam emittance of an electron storage ring composed of theoretical minimum emittance (TME lattice, down to a level of several tens of picometers, nonlinear dynamics grows to be a great challenge to the performance of the storage ring because of the strong sextupoles needed to compensate for its large global natural chomaticities coupled with its small average dispersion function. To help in dealing with the challenge of nonlinear optimization, we propose a novel variation of theoretical minimum emittance (TME lattice, named as “modified-TME” lattice, with minimal emittance about 3 times of the exact theoretical minimum, while with more compact layout, lower phase advance per cell, smaller natural chromaticities, and more relaxed optical functions than that in a TME cell, by using horizontally defocusing quadrupole closer to the dipole or simply combined-function dipole with horizontally defocusing gradient. We present approximate scaling formulas to describe the relationships of the design parameters in a modified-TME cell. The applications of modified-TME lattice in the PEP-X storage ring design are illustrated and the proposed lattice appears a good candidate for synchrotron radiation light source with extremely low emittance.
High accurate volume holographic correlator with 4000 parallel correlation channels
Ni, Kai; Qu, Zongyao; Cao, Liangcai; Su, Ping; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan
2008-03-01
Volume holographic correlator allows simultaneously calculate the two-dimensional inner product between the input image and each stored image. We have recently experimentally implemented in VHC 4000 parallel correlation channels with better than 98% output accuracy in a single location in a crystal. The speckle modulation is used to suppress the sidelobes of the correlation patterns, allowing more correlation spots to be contained in the output plane. A modified exposure schedule is designed to ensure the hologram in each channel with unity diffraction efficiency. In this schedule, a restricted coefficient was introduced into the original exposure schedule to solve the problem that the sensitivity and time constant of the crystal will change as a time function when in high-capacity storage. An interleaving method is proposed to improve the output accuracy. By unifying the distribution of the input and stored image patterns without changing the inner products between them, this method could eliminate the impact of correlation pattern variety on calculated inner product values. Moreover, by using this method, the maximum correlation spot size is reduced, which decreases the required minimum safe clearance between neighboring spots in the output plane, allowing more spots to be parallely detected without crosstalk. The experimental results are given and analyzed.
Enders, Philip; Adler, Werner; Schaub, Friederike; Hermann, Manuel M; Diestelhorst, Michael; Dietlein, Thomas; Cursiefen, Claus; Heindl, Ludwig M
2017-10-24
To compare a simultaneously optimized continuous minimum rim surface parameter between Bruch's membrane opening (BMO) and the internal limiting membrane to the standard sequential minimization used for calculating the BMO minimum rim area in spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). In this case-control, cross-sectional study, 704 eyes of 445 participants underwent SD-OCT of the optic nerve head (ONH), visual field testing, and clinical examination. Globally and clock-hour sector-wise optimized BMO-based minimum rim area was calculated independently. Outcome parameters included BMO-globally optimized minimum rim area (BMO-gMRA) and sector-wise optimized BMO-minimum rim area (BMO-MRA). BMO area was 1.89 ± 0.05 mm 2 . Mean global BMO-MRA was 0.97 ± 0.34 mm 2 , mean global BMO-gMRA was 1.01 ± 0.36 mm 2 . Both parameters correlated with r = 0.995 (P < 0.001); mean difference was 0.04 mm 2 (P < 0.001). In all sectors, parameters differed by 3.0-4.2%. In receiver operating characteristics, the calculated area under the curve (AUC) to differentiate glaucoma was 0.873 for BMO-MRA, compared to 0.866 for BMO-gMRA (P = 0.004). Among ONH sectors, the temporal inferior location showed the highest AUC. Optimization strategies to calculate BMO-based minimum rim area led to significantly different results. Imposing an additional adjacency constraint within calculation of BMO-MRA does not improve diagnostic power. Global and temporal inferior BMO-MRA performed best in differentiating glaucoma patients.
Derbyshire, Paul; McCann, Maureen C; Roberts, Keith
2007-06-17
Cell elongation is mainly limited by the extensibility of the cell wall. Dicotyledonous primary (growing) cell walls contain cellulose, xyloglucan, pectin and proteins, but little is known about how each polymer class contributes to the cell wall mechanical properties that control extensibility. We present evidence that the degree of pectin methyl-esterification (DE%) limits cell growth, and that a minimum level of about 60% DE is required for normal cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. When the average DE% falls below this level, as in two gibberellic acid (GA) mutants ga1-3 and gai, and plants expressing pectin methyl-esterase (PME1) from Aspergillus aculeatus, then hypocotyl elongation is reduced. Low average levels of pectin DE% are associated with reduced cell elongation, implicating PMEs, the enzymes that regulate DE%, in the cell elongation process and in responses to GA. At high average DE% other components of the cell wall limit GA-induced growth.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Derbyshire Paul
2007-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell elongation is mainly limited by the extensibility of the cell wall. Dicotyledonous primary (growing cell walls contain cellulose, xyloglucan, pectin and proteins, but little is known about how each polymer class contributes to the cell wall mechanical properties that control extensibility. Results We present evidence that the degree of pectin methyl-esterification (DE% limits cell growth, and that a minimum level of about 60% DE is required for normal cell elongation in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. When the average DE% falls below this level, as in two gibberellic acid (GA mutants ga1-3 and gai, and plants expressing pectin methyl-esterase (PME1 from Aspergillus aculeatus, then hypocotyl elongation is reduced. Conclusion Low average levels of pectin DE% are associated with reduced cell elongation, implicating PMEs, the enzymes that regulate DE%, in the cell elongation process and in responses to GA. At high average DE% other components of the cell wall limit GA-induced growth.
12 CFR 564.4 - Minimum appraisal standards.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum appraisal standards. 564.4 Section 564.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY APPRAISALS § 564.4 Minimum appraisal standards. For federally related transactions, all appraisals shall, at a minimum: (a...
The minimum wage in the Czech enterprises
Eva Lajtkepová
2010-01-01
Although the statutory minimum wage is not a new category, in the Czech Republic we encounter the definition and regulation of a minimum wage for the first time in the 1990 amendment to Act No. 65/1965 Coll., the Labour Code. The specific amount of the minimum wage and the conditions of its operation were then subsequently determined by government regulation in February 1991. Since that time, the value of minimum wage has been adjusted fifteenth times (the last increase was in January 2007). ...
MORIKAWA Masayuki
2013-01-01
This paper, using prefecture level panel data, empirically analyzes 1) the recent evolution of price-adjusted regional minimum wages and 2) the effects of minimum wages on firm profitability. As a result of rapid increases in minimum wages in the metropolitan areas since 2007, the regional disparity of nominal minimum wages has been widening. However, the disparity of price-adjusted minimum wages has been shrinking. According to the analysis of the effects of minimum wages on profitability us...
Quality control of radiation counting systems and measurement of minimum detectable activity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Song, Byoung Chul; Han, Sung Sim; Kim, Young Bok; Jee, Kwang Yong; Sohn, Se Chul
2004-01-01
Various radiation counters have been using to determine radioactivity of radwastes for disposal. A radiation counting system was set up using a radiation detector chosen in this study and its stability was investigated through the periodic determination of background and counting efficiencies in accordance with a quality control program to increase the confidence level. The average background level for the γ-spectrometer was 1.59 cps and the average counting level for the standard sample was 45248 dps within 20 confidence levels. The average alpha background level for the low background α/β counting system was 0.31 cpm and the efficiency for alpha counting was 34.38 %. The average beta background level for the α/β counting system was 1.30 cpm and the efficiency for beta counting was 46.5%. The background level in the region of 3H and 14C for the liquid scintillation counting system was 2.52 and 3.31 cpm and the efficiency for alpha counting was 58.5 and 95.6%, respectively. The minimum detectable activity for the γ-spectrometer was found to be 3.2 Bq/mL and 3.8 Bq/mL for the liquid scintillation counter, and 20.5 and 23.0 Bq/mL, respectively for the α and β counting system
U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of a variety of averages for each state or territory as well as the national average, including each quality measure, staffing, fine amount and number of...
41 CFR 50-201.1101 - Minimum wages.
2010-07-01
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum wages. 50-201... Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 201-GENERAL REGULATIONS § 50-201.1101 Minimum wages. Determinations of prevailing minimum wages or changes therein will be published in the Federal Register by the...
Schurr, Karl; Sherrington, Catherine; Wallbank, Geraldine; Pamphlett, Patricia; Olivetti, Lynette
2012-07-01
To determine the reliability of the minimum sit-to-stand height test, its responsiveness and its relationship to leg muscle strength among rehabilitation unit inpatients and outpatients. Reliability study using two measurers and two test occasions. Secondary analysis of data from two clinical trials. Inpatient and outpatient rehabilitation services in three public hospitals. Eighteen hospital patients and five others participated in the reliability study. Seventy-two rehabilitation unit inpatients and 80 outpatients participated in the clinical trials. The minimum sit-to-stand height test was assessed using a standard procedure. For the reliability study, a second tester repeated the minimum sit-to-stand height test on the same day. In the inpatient clinical trial the measures were repeated two weeks later. In the outpatient trial the measures were repeated five weeks later. Knee extensor muscle strength was assessed in the clinical trials using a hand-held dynamometer. The reliability for the minimum sit-to-stand height test was excellent (intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) 0.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81-0.96). The standard error of measurement was 34 mm. Responsiveness was moderate in the inpatient trial (effect size: 0.53) but small in the outpatient trial (effect size: 0.16). A small proportion (8-17%) of variability in minimum sit-to-stand height test was explained by knee extensor muscle strength. The minimum sit-to-stand height test has excellent reliability and moderate responsiveness in an inpatient rehabilitation setting. Responsiveness in an outpatient rehabilitation setting requires further investigation. Performance is influenced by factors other than knee extensor muscle strength.
Minimum area requirements for an at-risk butterfly based on movement and demography.
Brown, Leone M; Crone, Elizabeth E
2016-02-01
Determining the minimum area required to sustain populations has a long history in theoretical and conservation biology. Correlative approaches are often used to estimate minimum area requirements (MARs) based on relationships between area and the population size required for persistence or between species' traits and distribution patterns across landscapes. Mechanistic approaches to estimating MAR facilitate prediction across space and time but are few. We used a mechanistic MAR model to determine the critical minimum patch size (CMP) for the Baltimore checkerspot butterfly (Euphydryas phaeton), a locally abundant species in decline along its southern range, and sister to several federally listed species. Our CMP is based on principles of diffusion, where individuals in smaller patches encounter edges and leave with higher probability than those in larger patches, potentially before reproducing. We estimated a CMP for the Baltimore checkerspot of 0.7-1.5 ha, in accordance with trait-based MAR estimates. The diffusion rate on which we based this CMP was broadly similar when estimated at the landscape scale (comparing flight path vs. capture-mark-recapture data), and the estimated population growth rate was consistent with observed site trends. Our mechanistic approach to estimating MAR is appropriate for species whose movement follows a correlated random walk and may be useful where landscape-scale distributions are difficult to assess, but demographic and movement data are obtainable from a single site or the literature. Just as simple estimates of lambda are often used to assess population viability, the principles of diffusion and CMP could provide a starting place for estimating MAR for conservation. © 2015 Society for Conservation Biology.
Inverse methods for estimating primary input signals from time-averaged isotope profiles
Passey, Benjamin H.; Cerling, Thure E.; Schuster, Gerard T.; Robinson, Todd F.; Roeder, Beverly L.; Krueger, Stephen K.
2005-08-01
Mammalian teeth are invaluable archives of ancient seasonality because they record along their growth axes an isotopic record of temporal change in environment, plant diet, and animal behavior. A major problem with the intra-tooth method is that intra-tooth isotope profiles can be extremely time-averaged compared to the actual pattern of isotopic variation experienced by the animal during tooth formation. This time-averaging is a result of the temporal and spatial characteristics of amelogenesis (tooth enamel formation), and also results from laboratory sampling. This paper develops and evaluates an inverse method for reconstructing original input signals from time-averaged intra-tooth isotope profiles. The method requires that the temporal and spatial patterns of amelogenesis are known for the specific tooth and uses a minimum length solution of the linear system Am = d, where d is the measured isotopic profile, A is a matrix describing temporal and spatial averaging during amelogenesis and sampling, and m is the input vector that is sought. Accuracy is dependent on several factors, including the total measurement error and the isotopic structure of the measured profile. The method is shown to accurately reconstruct known input signals for synthetic tooth enamel profiles and the known input signal for a rabbit that underwent controlled dietary changes. Application to carbon isotope profiles of modern hippopotamus canines reveals detailed dietary histories that are not apparent from the measured data alone. Inverse methods show promise as an effective means of dealing with the time-averaging problem in studies of intra-tooth isotopic variation.
Energy expenditure, economic growth, and the minimum EROI of society
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fizaine, Florian; Court, Victor
2016-01-01
We estimate energy expenditure for the US and world economies from 1850 to 2012. Periods of high energy expenditure relative to GDP (from 1850 to 1945), or spikes (1973–74 and 1978–79) are associated with low economic growth rates, and periods of low or falling energy expenditure are associated with high and rising economic growth rates (e.g. 1945–1973). Over the period 1960–2010 for which we have continuous year-to-year data for control variables (capital formation, population, and unemployment rate) we estimate that, statistically, in order to enjoy positive growth, the US economy cannot afford to spend more than 11% of its GDP on energy. Given the current energy intensity of the US economy, this translates in a minimum societal EROI of approximately 11:1 (or a maximum tolerable average price of energy of twice the current level). Granger tests consistently reveal a one way causality running from the level of energy expenditure (as a fraction of GDP) to economic growth in the US between 1960 and 2010. A coherent economic policy should be founded on improving net energy efficiency. This would yield a “double dividend”: increased societal EROI (through decreased energy intensity of capital investment), and decreased sensitivity to energy price volatility. - Highlights: •We estimate energy expenditures as a fraction of GDP for the US, the world (1850–2012), and the UK (1300–2008). •Statistically speaking, the US economy cannot afford to allocate more than 11% of its GDP to energy expenditures in order to have a positive growth rate. •This corresponds to a maximum tolerable average price of energy of twice the current level. •In the same way, US growth is only possible if its primary energy system has at least a minimum EROI of approximately 11:1.
Robustness of quantum correlations against linear noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guo, Zhihua; Cao, Huaixin; Qu, Shixian
2016-01-01
Relative robustness of quantum correlations (RRoQC) of a bipartite state is firstly introduced relative to a classically correlated state. Robustness of quantum correlations (RoQC) of a bipartite state is then defined as the minimum of RRoQC of the state relative to all classically correlated ones. It is proved that as a function on quantum states, RoQC is nonnegative, lower semi-continuous and neither convex nor concave; especially, it is zero if and only if the state is classically correlated. Thus, RoQC not only quantifies the endurance of quantum correlations of a state against linear noise, but also can be used to distinguish between quantum and classically correlated states. Furthermore, the effects of local quantum channels on the robustness are explored and characterized. (paper)
Minimum Wage Laws and the Distribution of Employment.
Lang, Kevin
The desirability of raising the minimum wage long revolved around just one question: the effect of higher minimum wages on the overall level of employment. An even more critical effect of the minimum wage rests on the composition of employment--who gets the minimum wage job. An examination of employment in eating and drinking establishments…
29 CFR 505.3 - Prevailing minimum compensation.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prevailing minimum compensation. 505.3 Section 505.3 Labor... HUMANITIES § 505.3 Prevailing minimum compensation. (a)(1) In the absence of an alternative determination...)(2) of this section, the prevailing minimum compensation required to be paid under the Act to the...
Estimation of the simple correlation coefficient.
Shieh, Gwowen
2010-11-01
This article investigates some unfamiliar properties of the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient for the estimation of simple correlation coefficient. Although Pearson's r is biased, except for limited situations, and the minimum variance unbiased estimator has been proposed in the literature, researchers routinely employ the sample correlation coefficient in their practical applications, because of its simplicity and popularity. In order to support such practice, this study examines the mean squared errors of r and several prominent formulas. The results reveal specific situations in which the sample correlation coefficient performs better than the unbiased and nearly unbiased estimators, facilitating recommendation of r as an effect size index for the strength of linear association between two variables. In addition, related issues of estimating the squared simple correlation coefficient are also considered.
Averages of B-Hadron, C-Hadron, and tau-lepton properties as of early 2012
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Amhis, Y.; et al.
2012-07-01
This article reports world averages of measurements of b-hadron, c-hadron, and tau-lepton properties obtained by the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) using results available through the end of 2011. In some cases results available in the early part of 2012 are included. For the averaging, common input parameters used in the various analyses are adjusted (rescaled) to common values, and known correlations are taken into account. The averages include branching fractions, lifetimes, neutral meson mixing parameters, CP violation parameters, parameters of semileptonic decays and CKM matrix elements.
A note on moving average models for Gaussian random fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Linda Vadgård; Thorarinsdottir, Thordis L.
The class of moving average models offers a flexible modeling framework for Gaussian random fields with many well known models such as the Matérn covariance family and the Gaussian covariance falling under this framework. Moving average models may also be viewed as a kernel smoothing of a Lévy...... basis, a general modeling framework which includes several types of non-Gaussian models. We propose a new one-parameter spatial correlation model which arises from a power kernel and show that the associated Hausdorff dimension of the sample paths can take any value between 2 and 3. As a result...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shin, Sung Ui; Chang, Jung Min; Bae, Min Sun; Lee, Su Hyun; Cho, Nariya; Seo, Mirinae; Kim, Won Hwa; Moon, Woo Kyung
2015-01-01
To compare the average glandular dose (AGD) and diagnostic performance of mediolateral oblique (MLO) digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) plus cranio-caudal (CC) digital mammography (DM) with two-view DM, and to evaluate the correlation of AGD with breast thickness and density. MLO and CC DM and DBT images of both breasts were obtained in 149 subjects. AGDs of DBT and DM per exposure were recorded, and their correlation with breast thickness and density were evaluated. Paired data of MLO DBT plus CC DM and two-view DM were reviewed for presence of malignancy in a jack-knife alternative free-response ROC (JAFROC) method. The AGDs of both DBT and DM, and differences in AGD between DBT and DM (ΔAGD), were correlated with breast thickness and density. The average JAFROC figure of merit (FOM) was significantly higher on the combined technique than two-view DM (P = 0.005). In dense breasts, the FOM and sensitivity of the combined technique was higher than that of two-view DM (P = 0.003) with small ΔAGD. MLO DBT plus CC DM provided higher diagnostic performance than two-view DM in dense breasts with a small increase in AGD. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shin, Sung Ui; Chang, Jung Min; Bae, Min Sun; Lee, Su Hyun; Cho, Nariya; Seo, Mirinae; Kim, Won Hwa; Moon, Woo Kyung [Seoul National University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-01-15
To compare the average glandular dose (AGD) and diagnostic performance of mediolateral oblique (MLO) digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) plus cranio-caudal (CC) digital mammography (DM) with two-view DM, and to evaluate the correlation of AGD with breast thickness and density. MLO and CC DM and DBT images of both breasts were obtained in 149 subjects. AGDs of DBT and DM per exposure were recorded, and their correlation with breast thickness and density were evaluated. Paired data of MLO DBT plus CC DM and two-view DM were reviewed for presence of malignancy in a jack-knife alternative free-response ROC (JAFROC) method. The AGDs of both DBT and DM, and differences in AGD between DBT and DM (ΔAGD), were correlated with breast thickness and density. The average JAFROC figure of merit (FOM) was significantly higher on the combined technique than two-view DM (P = 0.005). In dense breasts, the FOM and sensitivity of the combined technique was higher than that of two-view DM (P = 0.003) with small ΔAGD. MLO DBT plus CC DM provided higher diagnostic performance than two-view DM in dense breasts with a small increase in AGD. (orig.)
Do Some Workers Have Minimum Wage Careers?
Carrington, William J.; Fallick, Bruce C.
2001-01-01
Most workers who begin their careers in minimum-wage jobs eventually gain more experience and move on to higher paying jobs. However, more than 8% of workers spend at least half of their first 10 working years in minimum wage jobs. Those more likely to have minimum wage careers are less educated, minorities, women with young children, and those…
Does the Minimum Wage Affect Welfare Caseloads?
Page, Marianne E.; Spetz, Joanne; Millar, Jane
2005-01-01
Although minimum wages are advocated as a policy that will help the poor, few studies have examined their effect on poor families. This paper uses variation in minimum wages across states and over time to estimate the impact of minimum wage legislation on welfare caseloads. We find that the elasticity of the welfare caseload with respect to the…
29 CFR 4.159 - General minimum wage.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true General minimum wage. 4.159 Section 4.159 Labor Office of... General minimum wage. The Act, in section 2(b)(1), provides generally that no contractor or subcontractor... a contract less than the minimum wage specified under section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards...
ship between IS-month mating mass and average lifetime repro
African Journals Online (AJOL)
1976; Elliol, Rae & Wickham, 1979; Napier, et af., 1980). Although being in general agreement with results in the literature, it is evident that the present phenotypic correlations between I8-month mating mass and average lifetime lambing and weaning rate tended to be equal to the highest comparable estimates in the ...
The Health Effects of Income Inequality: Averages and Disparities.
Truesdale, Beth C; Jencks, Christopher
2016-01-01
Much research has investigated the association of income inequality with average life expectancy, usually finding negative correlations that are not very robust. A smaller body of work has investigated socioeconomic disparities in life expectancy, which have widened in many countries since 1980. These two lines of work should be seen as complementary because changes in average life expectancy are unlikely to affect all socioeconomic groups equally. Although most theories imply long and variable lags between changes in income inequality and changes in health, empirical evidence is confined largely to short-term effects. Rising income inequality can affect individuals in two ways. Direct effects change individuals' own income. Indirect effects change other people's income, which can then change a society's politics, customs, and ideals, altering the behavior even of those whose own income remains unchanged. Indirect effects can thus change both average health and the slope of the relationship between individual income and health.
Dopant density from maximum-minimum capacitance ratio of implanted MOS structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brews, J.R.
1982-01-01
For uniformly doped structures, the ratio of the maximum to the minimum high frequency capacitance determines the dopant ion density per unit volume. Here it is shown that for implanted structures this 'max-min' dopant density estimate depends upon the dose and depth of the implant through the first moment of the depleted portion of the implant. A a result, the 'max-min' estimate of dopant ion density reflects neither the surface dopant density nor the average of the dopant density over the depletion layer. In particular, it is not clear how this dopant ion density estimate is related to the flatband capacitance. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Addai, Emmanuel Kwasi, E-mail: emmanueladdai41@yahoo.com; Gabel, Dieter; Krause, Ulrich
2016-04-15
Highlights: • Ignition sensitivity of a highly flammable dust decreases upon addition of inert dust. • Minimum ignition temperature of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • Minimum ignition energy of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%. - Abstract: The risks associated with dust explosions still exist in industries that either process or handle combustible dust. This explosion risk could be prevented or mitigated by applying the principle of inherent safety (moderation). This is achieved by adding an inert material to a highly combustible material in order to decrease the ignition sensitivity of the combustible dust. The presented paper deals with the experimental investigation of the influence of adding an inert dust on the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of the combustible/inert dust mixtures. The experimental investigation was done in two laboratory scale equipment: the Hartmann apparatus and the Godbert-Greenwald furnace for the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature test respectively. This was achieved by mixing various amounts of three inert materials (magnesium oxide, ammonium sulphate and sand) and six combustible dusts (brown coal, lycopodium, toner, niacin, corn starch and high density polyethylene). Generally, increasing the inert materials concentration increases the minimum ignition energy as well as the minimum ignition temperatures until a threshold is reached where no ignition was obtained. The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Addai, Emmanuel Kwasi; Gabel, Dieter; Krause, Ulrich
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Ignition sensitivity of a highly flammable dust decreases upon addition of inert dust. • Minimum ignition temperature of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • Minimum ignition energy of a highly flammable dust increases when inert concentration increase. • The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%. - Abstract: The risks associated with dust explosions still exist in industries that either process or handle combustible dust. This explosion risk could be prevented or mitigated by applying the principle of inherent safety (moderation). This is achieved by adding an inert material to a highly combustible material in order to decrease the ignition sensitivity of the combustible dust. The presented paper deals with the experimental investigation of the influence of adding an inert dust on the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of the combustible/inert dust mixtures. The experimental investigation was done in two laboratory scale equipment: the Hartmann apparatus and the Godbert-Greenwald furnace for the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature test respectively. This was achieved by mixing various amounts of three inert materials (magnesium oxide, ammonium sulphate and sand) and six combustible dusts (brown coal, lycopodium, toner, niacin, corn starch and high density polyethylene). Generally, increasing the inert materials concentration increases the minimum ignition energy as well as the minimum ignition temperatures until a threshold is reached where no ignition was obtained. The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penev, V.N.; Shklovskaya, A.I.
1980-01-01
The results of additional studies on the production of secondary particles having large transverse momentum (main secondary particles) in π - -p-interactions at 40 GeV/c are presented. Correlations between secondary particles are investigated in two channels: (1) π - p→πsub(psub(T)>0.8 +- )+...; (2) π - p→πsub(psub(T)>0.8 +- )+πsub(psub(T)>0.8 +- )+..., where πsub(psub(T)>0.8 +- ) are π-mesons having transverse momentum larger than 0.8 GeV/c. For the first type events (1) the rapidity distribution and the average rapidity of the particles accompanying the main particle are obtained. The rapidity distribution depends on the transverse momentum of the accompanying particles. The asimuthal asymmetry increases with increasing of this momentum. The average rapidity is independent of the asimuthal angle, but very strongly depends on the rapidity of the main particle - it decreases with the increase of rapidity. It is also shown, that the average difference between the averaae rapidities of the main particle and the accompanying particles are influenced by the combination of their charges. The average difference is minimum for identical charges and very strongly increases for the opposite charges. The obtained rapidity distribution is studied for events, in which two π +- -mesons of large momentum psub(T)>0.8 GeV/c are produced (type 2). The rapidity distribution of each of the π +- -mesons is broader than the center of mass rapidity distribution. This fact could be an indication of a presence of correlations in the production of two π +- -mesons. The distribution of the absolute difference between the rapidity of the π +- -mesons is given as well and its peak is at zero difference. These results indicate, that the possibility is highest for production of two π +- -mesons of almost equal transverse momentum. The obtained charge particle multiplicity distribution shows that the average multiplicity is lower than the corresponding values for all inelastic
New Minimum Wage Research: A Symposium.
Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; And Others
1992-01-01
Includes "Introduction" (Ehrenberg); "Effect of the Minimum Wage [MW] on the Fast-Food Industry" (Katz, Krueger); "Using Regional Variation in Wages to Measure Effects of the Federal MW" (Card); "Do MWs Reduce Employment?" (Card); "Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages" (Neumark,…
Teaching the Minimum Wage in Econ 101 in Light of the New Economics of the Minimum Wage.
Krueger, Alan B.
2001-01-01
Argues that the recent controversy over the effect of the minimum wage on employment offers an opportunity for teaching introductory economics. Examines eight textbooks to determine topic coverage but finds little consensus. Describes how minimum wage effects should be taught. (RLH)
Identification of scalp EEG circadian variation using a novel correlation sum measure
Shahidi Zandi, Ali; Boudreau, Philippe; Boivin, Diane B.; Dumont, Guy A.
2015-10-01
Objective. In this paper, we propose a novel method to determine the circadian variation of scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) in both individual and group levels using a correlation sum measure, quantifying self-similarity of the EEG relative energy across waking epochs. Approach. We analysed EEG recordings from central-parietal and occipito-parietal montages in nine healthy subjects undergoing a 72 h ultradian sleep-wake cycle protocol. Each waking epoch (˜1 s) of every nap opportunity was decomposed using the wavelet packet transform, and the relative energy for that epoch was calculated in the desired frequency band using the corresponding wavelet coefficients. Then, the resulting set of energy values was resampled randomly to generate different subsets with equal number of elements. The correlation sum of each subset was then calculated over a range of distance thresholds, and the average over all subsets was computed. This average value was finally scaled for each nap opportunity and considered as a new circadian measure. Main results. According to the evaluation results, a clear circadian rhythm was identified in some EEG frequency ranges, particularly in 4-8 Hz and 10-12 Hz. The correlation sum measure not only was able to disclose the circadian rhythm on the group data but also revealed significant circadian variations in most individual cases, as opposed to previous studies only reporting the circadian rhythms on a population of subjects. Compared to a naive measure based on the EEG absolute energy in the frequency band of interest, the proposed measure showed a clear superiority using both individual and group data. Results also suggested that the acrophase (i.e., the peak) of the circadian rhythm in 10-12 Hz occurs close to the core body temperature minimum. Significance. These results confirm the potential usefulness of the proposed EEG-based measure as a non-invasive circadian marker.
Zonally averaged chemical-dynamical model of the lower thermosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kasting, J.F.; Roble, R.G.
1981-01-01
A zonally averaged numerical model of the thermosphere is used to examine the coupling between neutral composition, including N 2 , O 2 and O, temperature, and winds at solstice for solar minimum conditions. The meridional circulation forced by solar heating results in a summer-to-winter flow, with a winter enhancement in atomic oxygen density that is a factor of about 1.8 greater than the summer hemisphere at 160 km. The O 2 and N 2 variations are associated with a latitudinal gradient in total number density, which is required to achieve pressure balance in the presence of large zonal jets. Latitudinal profiles OI (5577A) green line emission intensity are calculated by using both Chapman and Barth mechanisms. Composition of the lower thermosphere is shown to be strongly influenced by circulation patterns initiated in the stratosphere and lower mesosphere, below the lower boundary used in the model
Changes in atmospheric circulation between solar maximum and minimum conditions in winter and summer
Lee, Jae Nyung
2008-10-01
Statistically significant climate responses to the solar variability are found in Northern Annular Mode (NAM) and in the tropical circulation. This study is based on the statistical analysis of numerical simulations with ModelE version of the chemistry coupled Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) general circulation model (GCM) and National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis. The low frequency large scale variability of the winter and summer circulation is described by the NAM, the leading Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) of geopotential heights. The newly defined seasonal annular modes and its dynamical significance in the stratosphere and troposphere in the GISS ModelE is shown and compared with those in the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. In the stratosphere, the summer NAM obtained from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis as well as from the ModelE simulations has the same sign throughout the northern hemisphere, but shows greater variability at low latitudes. The patterns in both analyses are consistent with the interpretation that low NAM conditions represent an enhancement of the seasonal difference between the summer and the annual averages of geopotential height, temperature and velocity distributions, while the reverse holds for high NAM conditions. Composite analysis of high and low NAM cases in both the model and observation suggests that the summer stratosphere is more "summer-like" when the solar activity is near a maximum. This means that the zonal easterly wind flow is stronger and the temperature is higher than normal. Thus increased irradiance favors a low summer NAM. A quantitative comparison of the anti-correlation between the NAM and the solar forcing is presented in the model and in the observation, both of which show lower/higher NAM index in solar maximum/minimum conditions. The summer NAM in the troposphere obtained from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis has a dipolar zonal structure with maximum
30 CFR 75.1431 - Minimum rope strength.
2010-07-01
..., including rotation resistant). For rope lengths less than 3,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.001L) For rope lengths 3,000 feet or greater: Minimum Value=Static Load×4.0 (b) Friction drum ropes. For rope lengths less than 4,000 feet: Minimum Value=Static Load×(7.0−0.0005L) For rope lengths 4,000 feet...
Currency crises and the evolution of foreign exchange market: Evidence from minimum spanning tree
Jang, Wooseok; Lee, Junghoon; Chang, Woojin
2011-02-01
We examined the time series properties of the foreign exchange market for 1990-2008 in relation to the history of the currency crises using the minimum spanning tree (MST) approach and made several meaningful observations about the MST of currencies. First, around currency crises, the mean correlation coefficient between currencies decreased whereas the normalized tree length increased. The mean correlation coefficient dropped dramatically passing through the Asian crisis and remained at the lowered level after that. Second, the Euro and the US dollar showed a strong negative correlation after 1997, implying that the prices of the two currencies moved in opposite directions. Third, we observed that Asian countries and Latin American countries moved away from the cluster center (USA) passing through the Asian crisis and Argentine crisis, respectively.
Mental health care and average happiness: strong effect in developed nations.
Touburg, Giorgio; Veenhoven, Ruut
2015-07-01
Mental disorder is a main cause of unhappiness in modern society and investment in mental health care is therefore likely to add to average happiness. This prediction was checked in a comparison of 143 nations around 2005. Absolute investment in mental health care was measured using the per capita number of psychiatrists and psychologists working in mental health care. Relative investment was measured using the share of mental health care in the total health budget. Average happiness in nations was measured with responses to survey questions about life-satisfaction. Average happiness appeared to be higher in countries that invest more in mental health care, both absolutely and relative to investment in somatic medicine. A data split by level of development shows that this difference exists only among developed nations. Among these nations the link between mental health care and happiness is quite strong, both in an absolute sense and compared to other known societal determinants of happiness. The correlation between happiness and share of mental health care in the total health budget is twice as strong as the correlation between happiness and size of the health budget. A causal effect is likely, but cannot be proved in this cross-sectional analysis.
The ancient Egyptian civilization: maximum and minimum in coincidence with solar activity
Shaltout, M.
It is proved from the last 22 years observations of the total solar irradiance (TSI) from space by artificial satellites, that TSI shows negative correlation with the solar activity (sunspots, flares, and 10.7cm Radio emissions) from day to day, but shows positive correlations with the same activity from year to year (on the base of the annual average for each of them). Also, the solar constant, which estimated fromth ground stations for beam solar radiations observations during the 20 century indicate coincidence with the phases of the 11- year cycles. It is known from sunspot observations (250 years) , and from C14 analysis, that there are another long-term cycles for the solar activity larger than 11-year cycle. The variability of the total solar irradiance affecting on the climate, and the Nile flooding, where there is a periodicities in the Nile flooding similar to that of solar activity, from the analysis of about 1300 years of the Nile level observations atth Cairo. The secular variations of the Nile levels, regularly measured from the 7 toth 15 century A.D., clearly correlate with the solar variations, which suggests evidence for solar influence on the climatic changes in the East African tropics The civilization of the ancient Egyptian was highly correlated with the Nile flooding , where the river Nile was and still yet, the source of the life in the Valley and Delta inside high dry desert area. The study depends on long -time historical data for Carbon 14 (more than five thousands years), and chronical scanning for all the elements of the ancient Egyptian civilization starting from the firs t dynasty to the twenty six dynasty. The result shows coincidence between the ancient Egyptian civilization and solar activity. For example, the period of pyramids building, which is one of the Brilliant periods, is corresponding to maximum solar activity, where the periods of occupation of Egypt by Foreign Peoples corresponding to minimum solar activity. The decline
Abediseid, Walid
2012-12-21
The exact average complexity analysis of the basic sphere decoder for general space-time codes applied to multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wireless channel is known to be difficult. In this work, we shed the light on the computational complexity of sphere decoding for the quasi- static, lattice space-time (LAST) coded MIMO channel. Specifically, we drive an upper bound of the tail distribution of the decoder\\'s computational complexity. We show that when the computational complexity exceeds a certain limit, this upper bound becomes dominated by the outage probability achieved by LAST coding and sphere decoding schemes. We then calculate the minimum average computational complexity that is required by the decoder to achieve near optimal performance in terms of the system parameters. Our results indicate that there exists a cut-off rate (multiplexing gain) for which the average complexity remains bounded. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Evaluation of Navigation System Accuracy Indexes for Deviation Reading from Average Range
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexey Boykov
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The method for estimating the mean of square error, kurtosis and error correlation coefficient for deviations from the average range of three navigation parameter indications from the outputs of three information sensors is substantiated and developed.
30 CFR 281.30 - Minimum royalty.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minimum royalty. 281.30 Section 281.30 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE LEASING OF MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Financial Considerations § 281.30 Minimum royalty...
Global-scale high-resolution ( 1 km) modelling of mean, maximum and minimum annual streamflow
Barbarossa, Valerio; Huijbregts, Mark; Hendriks, Jan; Beusen, Arthur; Clavreul, Julie; King, Henry; Schipper, Aafke
2017-04-01
Quantifying mean, maximum and minimum annual flow (AF) of rivers at ungauged sites is essential for a number of applications, including assessments of global water supply, ecosystem integrity and water footprints. AF metrics can be quantified with spatially explicit process-based models, which might be overly time-consuming and data-intensive for this purpose, or with empirical regression models that predict AF metrics based on climate and catchment characteristics. Yet, so far, regression models have mostly been developed at a regional scale and the extent to which they can be extrapolated to other regions is not known. We developed global-scale regression models that quantify mean, maximum and minimum AF as function of catchment area and catchment-averaged slope, elevation, and mean, maximum and minimum annual precipitation and air temperature. We then used these models to obtain global 30 arc-seconds (˜ 1 km) maps of mean, maximum and minimum AF for each year from 1960 through 2015, based on a newly developed hydrologically conditioned digital elevation model. We calibrated our regression models based on observations of discharge and catchment characteristics from about 4,000 catchments worldwide, ranging from 100 to 106 km2 in size, and validated them against independent measurements as well as the output of a number of process-based global hydrological models (GHMs). The variance explained by our regression models ranged up to 90% and the performance of the models compared well with the performance of existing GHMs. Yet, our AF maps provide a level of spatial detail that cannot yet be achieved by current GHMs.
G+K 1Σ+/sub g/ double-minimum excited state of H2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glover, R.M.; Weinhold, F.
1977-01-01
We have obtained a Born--Oppenheimer potential curve for the previously uncharacterized third 1 Σ + /sub g/ state of H 2 , using a correlated 20-term wavefunction of generalized James--Coolidge type. We find this potential curve to have a double-minimum character, with the inner (Rydberg-like) and outer (''ionic'') wells having minima at about 1.99 and 3.30 bohr, respectively, and an intervening maximum at 2.76 bohr. Unlike the extensively studied E+F double-minimum state, the outer well here appears to be the deeper, by some 450 cm -1 in our calculation. The inner and outer minima can apparently be associated with spectral lines that in experimental tables have previously been attributed to distinct G and K electronic states. The appropriate spectroscopic term symbol of this combined state is accordingly G+K 1 Σ + /sub g/ (1ssigma3dsigma+2pπ 2 )
State cigarette minimum price laws - United States, 2009.
2010-04-09
Cigarette price increases reduce the demand for cigarettes and thereby reduce smoking prevalence, cigarette consumption, and youth initiation of smoking. Excise tax increases are the most effective government intervention to increase the price of cigarettes, but cigarette manufacturers use trade discounts, coupons, and other promotions to counteract the effects of these tax increases and appeal to price-sensitive smokers. State cigarette minimum price laws, initiated by states in the 1940s and 1950s to protect tobacco retailers from predatory business practices, typically require a minimum percentage markup to be added to the wholesale and/or retail price. If a statute prohibits trade discounts from the minimum price calculation, these laws have the potential to counteract discounting by cigarette manufacturers. To assess the status of cigarette minimum price laws in the United States, CDC surveyed state statutes and identified those states with minimum price laws in effect as of December 31, 2009. This report summarizes the results of that survey, which determined that 25 states had minimum price laws for cigarettes (median wholesale markup: 4.00%; median retail markup: 8.00%), and seven of those states also expressly prohibited the use of trade discounts in the minimum retail price calculation. Minimum price laws can help prevent trade discounting from eroding the positive effects of state excise tax increases and higher cigarette prices on public health.
Huamaní, Charles; Gutiérrez, César; Mezones-Holguín, Edward
2011-03-01
To evaluate the correlation and concordance between the 'Peruvian National Exam of Medicine' (ENAM) and the Mean Grade Point Average (GPA) in recently graduated medical students in the period 2007 to 2009. We carried out a secondary data analysis, using the records of the physicians applying to the Rural and Urban Marginal Service in Health of Peru (SERUMS) processes for the years 2008 to 2010. We extracted from these registers, the grades obtained in the ENAM and GPA. We performed a descriptive analysis using medians and 1st and 3rd quartiles (q1/q3); we calculated the correlation between both scores using the Spearman correlation coefficient, additionally, we conducted a lineal regression analysis, and the concordance was measured using the Bland and Altman coefficient. A total of 6 117 physicians were included, the overall median for the GPA was 13.4 (12.7/14.2) and for the ENAM was 11.6 (10.2/13.0).Of the total assessed, 36.8% failed the TEST. We observed an increase in annual median of ENAM scores, with the consequent decrease in the difference between both grades. The correlation between ENAM and PPU is direct and moderate (0.582), independent from the year, type of university management (Public or Private) and location. However, the concordance between both ratings is regular, with a global coefficient of 0.272 (CI 95%: 0.260 to 0.284). Independently of the year, location or type of university management, there is a moderate correlation between the ENAM and the PPU; however, there is only a regular concordance between both grades.
Operator product expansion and its thermal average
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mallik, S [Saha Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Calcutta (India)
1998-05-01
QCD sum rules at finite temperature, like the ones at zero temperature, require the coefficients of local operators, which arise in the short distance expansion of the thermal average of two-point functions of currents. We extend the configuration space method, applied earlier at zero temperature, to the case at finite temperature. We find that, upto dimension four, two new operators arise, in addition to the two appearing already in the vacuum correlation functions. It is argued that the new operators would contribute substantially to the sum rules, when the temperature is not too low. (orig.) 7 refs.
The Peculiar Solar Minimum 23/24 Revealed by the Microwave Butterfly Diagram
Gopalswamy, Natchimuthuk; Yashiro, Seiji; Makela, Pertti; Shibasaki, Kiyoto; Hathaway, David
2010-01-01
The diminished polar magnetic field strength during the minimum between cycles 23 and 24 is also reflected in the thermal radio emission originating from the polar chromosphere. During solar minima, the polar corona has extended coronal holes containing intense unipolar flux. In microwave images, the coronal holes appear bright, with a brightness enhancement of 500 to 2000 K with respect to the quiet Sun. The brightness enhancement corresponds to the upper chromosphere, where the plasma temperature is approx.10000 K. We constructed a microwave butterfly diagram using the synoptic images obtained by the Nobeyama radioheliograph (NoRH) showing the evolution of the polar and low latitude brightness temperature. While the polar brightness reveals the chromospheric conditions, the low latitude brightness is attributed to active regions in the corona. When we compared the microwave butterfly diagram with the magnetic butterfly diagram, we found a good correlation between the microwave brightness enhancement and the polar field strength. The microwave butterfly diagram covers part of solar cycle 22, whole of cycle 23, and part of cycle 24, thus enabling comparison between the cycle 23/24 and cycle 22/23 minima. The microwave brightness during the cycle 23/24 minimum was found to be lower than that during the cycle 22/23 minimum by approx.250 K. The reduced brightness temperature is consistent with the reduced polar field strength during the cycle 23/24 minimum seen in the magnetic butterfly diagram. We suggest that the microwave brightness at the solar poles is a good indicator of the speed of the solar wind sampled by Ulysses at high latitudes..
Vertical and horizontal extension of the oxygen minimum zone in the eastern South Pacific Ocean
Fuenzalida, Rosalino; Schneider, Wolfgang; Garcés-Vargas, José; Bravo, Luis; Lange, Carina
2009-07-01
Recent hydrographic measurements within the eastern South Pacific (1999-2001) were combined with vertically high-resolution data from the World Ocean Circulation Experiment, high-resolution profiles and bottle casts from the World Ocean Database 2001, and the World Ocean Atlas 2001 in order to evaluate the vertical and horizontal extension of the oxygen minimum zone (oxygen minimum zone to be 9.82±3.60×10 6 km 2 and 2.18±0.66×10 6 km 3, respectively. The oxygen minimum zone is thickest (>600 m) off Peru between 5 and 13°S and to about 1000 km offshore. Its upper boundary is shallowest (zone in some places. Offshore, the thickness and meridional extent of the oxygen minimum zone decrease until it finally vanishes at 140°W between 2° and 8°S. Moving southward along the coast of South America, the zonal extension of the oxygen minimum zone gradually diminishes from 3000 km (15°S) to 1200 km (20°S) and then to 25 km (30°S); only a thin band is detected at ˜37°S off Concepción, Chile. Simultaneously, the oxygen minimum zone's maximum thickness decreases from 300 m (20°S) to less than 50 m (south of 30°S). The spatial distribution of Ekman suction velocity and oxygen minimum zone thickness correlate well, especially in the core. Off Chile, the eastern South Pacific Intermediate Water mass introduces increased vertical stability into the upper water column, complicating ventilation of the oxygen minimum zone from above. In addition, oxygen-enriched Antarctic Intermediate Water clashes with the oxygen minimum zone at around 30°S, causing a pronounced sub-surface oxygen front. The new estimates of vertical and horizontal oxygen minimum zone distribution in the eastern South Pacific complement the global quantification of naturally hypoxic continental margins by Helly and Levin [2004. Global distribution of naturally occurring marine hypoxia on continental margins. Deep-Sea Research I 51, 1159-1168] and provide new baseline data useful for studies on the
Taylor, Julie Lounds; Henninger, Natalie A.; Mailick, Marsha R.
2015-01-01
This study examined correlates of participation in postsecondary education and employment over 12?years for 73 adults with autism spectrum disorders and average-range IQ whose families were part of a larger, longitudinal study. Correlates included demographic (sex, maternal education, paternal education), behavioral (activities of daily living,…
9 CFR 147.51 - Authorized laboratory minimum requirements.
2010-01-01
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Authorized laboratory minimum requirements. 147.51 Section 147.51 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... Authorized Laboratories and Approved Tests § 147.51 Authorized laboratory minimum requirements. These minimum...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christopher A Rábago
Full Text Available Temporal-spatial, kinematic variability, and dynamic stability measures collected during perturbation-based assessment paradigms are often used to identify dysfunction associated with gait instability. However, it remains unclear which measures are most reliable for detecting and tracking responses to perturbations. This study systematically determined the between-session reliability and minimum detectable change values of temporal-spatial, kinematic variability, and dynamic stability measures during three types of perturbed gait. Twenty young healthy adults completed two identical testing sessions two weeks apart, comprised of an unperturbed and three perturbed (cognitive, physical, and visual walking conditions in a virtual reality environment. Within each session, perturbation responses were compared to unperturbed walking using paired t-tests. Between-session reliability and minimum detectable change values were also calculated for each measure and condition. All temporal-spatial, kinematic variability and dynamic stability measures demonstrated fair to excellent between-session reliability. Minimal detectable change values, normalized to mean values ranged from 1-50%. Step width mean and variability measures demonstrated the greatest response to perturbations with excellent between-session reliability and low minimum detectable change values. Orbital stability measures demonstrated specificity to perturbation direction and sensitivity with excellent between-session reliability and low minimum detectable change values. We observed substantially greater between-session reliability and lower minimum detectable change values for local stability measures than previously described which may be the result of averaging across trials within a session and using velocity versus acceleration data for reconstruction of state spaces. Across all perturbation types, temporal-spatial, orbital and local measures were the most reliable measures with the
Addai, Emmanuel Kwasi; Gabel, Dieter; Krause, Ulrich
2016-04-15
The risks associated with dust explosions still exist in industries that either process or handle combustible dust. This explosion risk could be prevented or mitigated by applying the principle of inherent safety (moderation). This is achieved by adding an inert material to a highly combustible material in order to decrease the ignition sensitivity of the combustible dust. The presented paper deals with the experimental investigation of the influence of adding an inert dust on the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature of the combustible/inert dust mixtures. The experimental investigation was done in two laboratory scale equipment: the Hartmann apparatus and the Godbert-Greenwald furnace for the minimum ignition energy and the minimum ignition temperature test respectively. This was achieved by mixing various amounts of three inert materials (magnesium oxide, ammonium sulphate and sand) and six combustible dusts (brown coal, lycopodium, toner, niacin, corn starch and high density polyethylene). Generally, increasing the inert materials concentration increases the minimum ignition energy as well as the minimum ignition temperatures until a threshold is reached where no ignition was obtained. The permissible range for the inert mixture to minimize the ignition risk lies between 60 to 80%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Solar wind and coronal structure near sunspot minimum - Pioneer and SMM observations from 1985-1987
Mihalov, J. D.; Barnes, A.; Hundhausen, A. J.; Smith, E. J.
1990-01-01
Changes in solar wind speed and magnetic polarity observed at the Pioneer spacecraft are discussed here in terms of the changing magnetic geometry implied by SMM coronagraph observations over the period 1985-1987. The pattern of recurrent solar wind streams, the long-term average speed, and the sector polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field all changed in a manner suggesting both a temporal variation, and a changing dependence on heliographic latitude. Coronal observations during this epoch show a systematic variation in coronal structure and the magnetic structure imposed on the expanding solar wind. These observations suggest interpretation of the solar wind speed variations in terms of the familiar model where the speed increases with distance from a nearly flat interplanetary current sheet, and where this current sheet becomes aligned with the solar equatorial plane as sunspot minimum approaches, but deviates rapidly from that orientation after minimum.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mary Hokazono
Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Transcranial Doppler (TCD detects stroke risk among children with sickle cell anemia (SCA. Our aim was to evaluate TCD findings in patients with different sickle cell disease (SCD genotypes and correlate the time-averaged maximum mean (TAMM velocity with hematological characteristics. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study in the Pediatric Hematology sector, Universidade Federal de São Paulo. METHODS: 85 SCD patients of both sexes, aged 2-18 years, were evaluated, divided into: group I (62 patients with SCA/Sß0 thalassemia; and group II (23 patients with SC hemoglobinopathy/Sß+ thalassemia. TCD was performed and reviewed by a single investigator using Doppler ultrasonography with a 2 MHz transducer, in accordance with the Stroke Prevention Trial in Sickle Cell Anemia (STOP protocol. The hematological parameters evaluated were: hematocrit, hemoglobin, reticulocytes, leukocytes, platelets and fetal hemoglobin. Univariate analysis was performed and Pearson's coefficient was calculated for hematological parameters and TAMM velocities (P < 0.05. RESULTS: TAMM velocities were 137 ± 28 and 103 ± 19 cm/s in groups I and II, respectively, and correlated negatively with hematocrit and hemoglobin in group I. There was one abnormal result (1.6% and five conditional results (8.1% in group I. All results were normal in group II. Middle cerebral arteries were the only vessels affected. CONCLUSION: There was a low prevalence of abnormal Doppler results in patients with sickle-cell disease. Time-average maximum mean velocity was significantly different between the genotypes and correlated with hematological characteristics.
Conklin, Annalijn I; Ponce, Ninez A; Crespi, Catherine M; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit; Heymann, Jody
2018-04-01
To examine changes in minimum wage associated with changes in women's weight status. Longitudinal study of legislated minimum wage levels (per month, purchasing power parity-adjusted, 2011 constant US dollar values) linked to anthropometric and sociodemographic data from multiple Demographic and Health Surveys (2000-2014). Separate multilevel models estimated associations of a $10 increase in monthly minimum wage with the rate of change in underweight and obesity, conditioning on individual and country confounders. Post-estimation analysis computed predicted mean probabilities of being underweight or obese associated with higher levels of minimum wage at study start and end. Twenty-four low-income countries. Adult non-pregnant women (n 150 796). Higher minimum wages were associated (OR; 95 % CI) with reduced underweight in women (0·986; 0·977, 0·995); a decrease that accelerated over time (P-interaction=0·025). Increasing minimum wage was associated with higher obesity (1·019; 1·008, 1·030), but did not alter the rate of increase in obesity prevalence (P-interaction=0·8). A $10 rise in monthly minimum wage was associated (prevalence difference; 95 % CI) with an average decrease of about 0·14 percentage points (-0·14; -0·23, -0·05) for underweight and an increase of about 0·1 percentage points (0·12; 0·04, 0·20) for obesity. The present longitudinal multi-country study showed that a $10 rise in monthly minimum wage significantly accelerated the decline in women's underweight prevalence, but had no association with the pace of growth in obesity prevalence. Thus, modest rises in minimum wage may be beneficial for addressing the protracted underweight problem in poor countries, especially South Asia and parts of Africa.
Determination of average activating thermal neutron flux in bulk samples
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Doczi, R.; Csikai, J.; Doczi, R.; Csikai, J.; Hassan, F. M.; Ali, M.A.
2004-01-01
A previous method used for the determination of the average neutron flux within bulky samples has been applied for the measurements of hydrogen contents of different samples. An analytical function is given for the description of the correlation between the activity of Dy foils and the hydrogen concentrations. Results obtained by the activation and the thermal neutron reflection methods are compared
Minimum Price Guarantees In a Consumer Search Model
M.C.W. Janssen (Maarten); A. Parakhonyak (Alexei)
2009-01-01
textabstractThis paper is the first to examine the effect of minimum price guarantees in a sequential search model. Minimum price guarantees are not advertised and only known to consumers when they come to the shop. We show that in such an environment, minimum price guarantees increase the value of
Averaging models: parameters estimation with the R-Average procedure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Noventa
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The Functional Measurement approach, proposed within the theoretical framework of Information Integration Theory (Anderson, 1981, 1982, can be a useful multi-attribute analysis tool. Compared to the majority of statistical models, the averaging model can account for interaction effects without adding complexity. The R-Average method (Vidotto & Vicentini, 2007 can be used to estimate the parameters of these models. By the use of multiple information criteria in the model selection procedure, R-Average allows for the identification of the best subset of parameters that account for the data. After a review of the general method, we present an implementation of the procedure in the framework of R-project, followed by some experiments using a Monte Carlo method.
Wage inequality, minimum wage effects and spillovers
Stewart, Mark B.
2011-01-01
This paper investigates possible spillover effects of the UK minimum wage. The halt in the growth in inequality in the lower half of the wage distribution (as measured by the 50:10 percentile ratio) since the mid-1990s, in contrast to the continued inequality growth in the upper half of the distribution, suggests the possibility of a minimum wage effect and spillover effects on wages above the minimum. This paper analyses individual wage changes, using both a difference-in-differences estimat...
Removal of the ballistocardiographic artifact from EEG-fMRI data: a canonical correlation approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assecondi, Sara; Hallez, Hans; Staelens, Steven; Lemahieu, Ignace; Bianchi, Anna M; Huiskamp, Geertjan M
2009-01-01
The simultaneous recording of electroencephalogram (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can give new insights into how the brain functions. However, the strong electromagnetic field of the MR scanner generates artifacts that obscure the EEG and diminish its readability. Among them, the ballistocardiographic artifact (BCGa) that appears on the EEG is believed to be related to blood flow in scalp arteries leading to electrode movements. Average artifact subtraction (AAS) techniques, used to remove the BCGa, assume a deterministic nature of the artifact. This assumption may be too strong, considering the blood flow related nature of the phenomenon. In this work we propose a new method, based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and blind source separation (BSS) techniques, to reduce the BCGa from simultaneously recorded EEG-fMRI. We optimized the method to reduce the user's interaction to a minimum. When tested on six subjects, recorded in 1.5 T or 3 T, the average artifact extracted with BSS-CCA and AAS did not show significant differences, proving the absence of systematic errors. On the other hand, when compared on the basis of intra-subject variability, we found significant differences and better performance of the proposed method with respect to AAS. We demonstrated that our method deals with the intrinsic subject variability specific to the artifact that may cause averaging techniques to fail.
Optimized cylindrical invisibility cloak with minimum layers of non-magnetic isotropic materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu Zhenzhong; Feng Yijun; Xu Xiaofei; Zhao Junming; Jiang Tian
2011-01-01
We present optimized design of cylindrical invisibility cloak with minimum layers of non-magnetic isotropic materials. Through an optimization procedure based on genetic algorithm, simpler cloak structure and more realizable material parameters can be achieved with better cloak performance than that of an ideal non-magnetic cloak with a reduced set of parameters. We demonstrate that a cloak shell with only five layers of two normal materials can result in an average 20 dB reduction in the scattering width for all directions when covering the inner conducting cylinder with the cloak. The optimized design can substantially simplify the realization of the invisibility cloak, especially in the optical range.
Minimum Variance Portfolios in the Brazilian Equity Market
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexandre Rubesam
2013-03-01
Full Text Available We investigate minimum variance portfolios in the Brazilian equity market using different methods to estimate the covariance matrix, from the simple model of using the sample covariance to multivariate GARCH models. We compare the performance of the minimum variance portfolios to those of the following benchmarks: (i the IBOVESPA equity index, (ii an equally-weighted portfolio, (iii the maximum Sharpe ratio portfolio and (iv the maximum growth portfolio. Our results show that the minimum variance portfolio has higher returns with lower risk compared to the benchmarks. We also consider long-short 130/30 minimum variance portfolios and obtain similar results. The minimum variance portfolio invests in relatively few stocks with low βs measured with respect to the IBOVESPA index, being easily replicable by individual and institutional investors alike.
Minimum Covers of Fixed Cardinality in Weighted Graphs.
White, Lee J.
Reported is the result of research on combinatorial and algorithmic techniques for information processing. A method is discussed for obtaining minimum covers of specified cardinality from a given weighted graph. By the indicated method, it is shown that the family of minimum covers of varying cardinality is related to the minimum spanning tree of…
Melt density and the average composition of basalt
Stolper, E.; Walker, D.
1980-01-01
Densities of residual liquids produced by low pressure fractionation of olivine-rich melts pass through a minimum when pyroxene and plagioclase joint the crystallization sequence. The observation that erupted basalt compositions cluster around the degree of fractionation from picritic liquids corresponding to the density minimum in the liquid line of descent may thus suggest that the earth's crust imposes a density fiber on the liquids that pass through it, favoring the eruption of the light liquids at the density minimum over the eruption of denser more fractionated and less fractionated liquids.
FEL system with homogeneous average output
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Douglas, David R.; Legg, Robert; Whitney, R. Roy; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas Joseph
2018-01-16
A method of varying the output of a free electron laser (FEL) on very short time scales to produce a slightly broader, but smooth, time-averaged wavelength spectrum. The method includes injecting into an accelerator a sequence of bunch trains at phase offsets from crest. Accelerating the particles to full energy to result in distinct and independently controlled, by the choice of phase offset, phase-energy correlations or chirps on each bunch train. The earlier trains will be more strongly chirped, the later trains less chirped. For an energy recovered linac (ERL), the beam may be recirculated using a transport system with linear and nonlinear momentum compactions M.sub.56, which are selected to compress all three bunch trains at the FEL with higher order terms managed.
Who Benefits from a Minimum Wage Increase?
John W. Lopresti; Kevin J. Mumford
2015-01-01
This paper addresses the question of how a minimum wage increase affects the wages of low-wage workers. Most studies assume that there is a simple mechanical increase in the wage for workers earning a wage between the old and the new minimum wage, with some studies allowing for spillovers to workers with wages just above this range. Rather than assume that the wages of these workers would have remained constant, this paper estimates how a minimum wage increase impacts a low-wage worker's wage...
Impacts of Canada's minimum age for tobacco sales (MATS) laws on youth smoking behaviour, 2000-2014.
Callaghan, Russell Clarence; Sanches, Marcos; Gatley, Jodi; Cunningham, James K; Chaiton, Michael Oliver; Schwartz, Robert; Bondy, Susan; Benny, Claire
2018-01-13
Recently, the US Institute of Medicine has proposed that raising the minimum age for tobacco purchasing/sales to 21 years would likely lead to reductions in smoking behavior among young people. Surprisingly few studies, however, have assessed the potential impacts of minimum-age tobacco restrictions on youth smoking. To estimate the impacts of Canadian minimum age for tobacco sales (MATS) laws on youth smoking behaviour. A regression-discontinuity design, using seven merged cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey, 2000-2014. Survey respondents aged 14-22 years (n=98 320). Current Canadian MATS laws are 18 years in Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Quebec, the Yukon and Northwest Territories, and 19 years of age in the rest of the country. Current, occasional and daily smoking status; smoking frequency and intensity; and average monthly cigarette consumption. In comparison to age groups slightly younger than the MATS, those just older had significant and abrupt increases immediately after the MATS in the prevalence of current smokers (absolute increase: 2.71%; 95% CI 0.70% to 4.80%; P=0.009) and daily smokers (absolute increase: 2.43%; 95% CI 0.74% to 4.12%; P=0.005). Average past-month cigarette consumption within age groups increased immediately following the MATS by 18% (95% CI 3% to 39%; P=0.02). There was no evidence of significant increases in smoking intensity for daily or occasional smokers after release from MATS restrictions. The study provides relevant evidence supporting the effectiveness of Canadian MATS laws for limiting smoking among tobacco-restricted youth. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao, Qili [Robotics and Mechatronics Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); Institute of Robotics and Automatic Information System, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Shirinzadeh, Bijan [Robotics and Mechatronics Research Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Monash University, Clayton 3800 (Australia); Cui, Maosheng [Biotechnology Lab of Animal Reproduction, Tianjin Animal Sciences, Tianjin 300112 (China); Sun, Mingzhu; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Xin, E-mail: zhaoxin@nankai.edu.cn [Institute of Robotics and Automatic Information System, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)
2015-07-28
A novel weighing method for cells with spherical and other regular shapes is proposed in this paper. In this method, the relationship between the cell mass and the minimum aspiration pressure to immobilize the cell (referred to as minimum immobilization pressure) is derived for the first time according to static theory. Based on this relationship, a robotic cell weighing process is established using a traditional micro-injection system. Experimental results on porcine oocytes demonstrate that the proposed method is able to weigh cells at an average speed of 16.3 s/cell and with a success rate of more than 90%. The derived cell mass and density are in accordance with those reported in other published results. The experimental results also demonstrated that this method is able to detect less than 1% variation of the porcine oocyte mass quantitatively. It can be conducted by a pair of traditional micropipettes and a commercial pneumatic micro-injection system, and is expected to perform robotic operation on batch cells. At present, the minimum resolution of the proposed method for measuring the cell mass can be 1.25 × 10{sup −15 }kg. Above advantages make it very appropriate for quantifying the amount of the materials injected into or moved out of the cells in the biological applications, such as nuclear enucleations and embryo microinjections.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao, Qili; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Cui, Maosheng; Sun, Mingzhu; Liu, Yaowei; Zhao, Xin
2015-01-01
A novel weighing method for cells with spherical and other regular shapes is proposed in this paper. In this method, the relationship between the cell mass and the minimum aspiration pressure to immobilize the cell (referred to as minimum immobilization pressure) is derived for the first time according to static theory. Based on this relationship, a robotic cell weighing process is established using a traditional micro-injection system. Experimental results on porcine oocytes demonstrate that the proposed method is able to weigh cells at an average speed of 16.3 s/cell and with a success rate of more than 90%. The derived cell mass and density are in accordance with those reported in other published results. The experimental results also demonstrated that this method is able to detect less than 1% variation of the porcine oocyte mass quantitatively. It can be conducted by a pair of traditional micropipettes and a commercial pneumatic micro-injection system, and is expected to perform robotic operation on batch cells. At present, the minimum resolution of the proposed method for measuring the cell mass can be 1.25 × 10 −15 kg. Above advantages make it very appropriate for quantifying the amount of the materials injected into or moved out of the cells in the biological applications, such as nuclear enucleations and embryo microinjections
Meta-omic signatures of microbial metal and nitrogen cycling in marine oxygen minimum zones
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jennifer B. Glass
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Iron (Fe and copper (Cu are essential cofactors for microbial metalloenzymes, but little is known about the metalloenyzme inventory of anaerobic marine microbial communities despite their importance to the nitrogen cycle. We compared dissolved O2, NO3-, NO2-, Fe and Cu concentrations with nucleic acid sequences encoding Fe and Cu-binding proteins in 21 metagenomes and 9 metatranscriptomes from Eastern Tropical North and South Pacific oxygen minimum zones and 7 metagenomes from the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Station. Dissolved Fe concentrations increased sharply at upper oxic-anoxic transition zones, with the highest Fe:Cu molar ratio (1.8 occurring at the anoxic core of the Eastern Tropical North Pacific oxygen minimum zone and matching the predicted maximum ratio based on data from diverse ocean sites. The relative abundance of genes encoding Fe-binding proteins was negatively correlated with O2, driven by significant increases in genes encoding Fe-proteins involved in dissimilatory nitrogen metabolisms under anoxia. Transcripts encoding cytochrome c oxidase, the Fe- and Cu-containing terminal reductase in aerobic respiration, were positively correlated with O2 content. A comparison of the taxonomy of genes encoding Fe- and Cu-binding vs. bulk proteins in OMZs revealed that Planctomycetes represented a higher percentage of Fe genes while Thaumarchaeota represented a higher percentage of Cu genes, particularly at oxyclines. These results are broadly consistent with higher relative abundance of genes encoding Fe-proteins in the genome of a marine planctomycete vs. higher relative abundance of genes encoding Cu-proteins in the genome of a marine thaumarchaeote. These findings highlight the importance of metalloenzymes for microbial processes in oxygen minimum zones and suggest preferential Cu use in oxic habitats with Cu > Fe vs. preferential Fe use in anoxic niches with Fe > Cu.
On the normalization of the minimum free energy of RNAs by sequence length.
Trotta, Edoardo
2014-01-01
The minimum free energy (MFE) of ribonucleic acids (RNAs) increases at an apparent linear rate with sequence length. Simple indices, obtained by dividing the MFE by the number of nucleotides, have been used for a direct comparison of the folding stability of RNAs of various sizes. Although this normalization procedure has been used in several studies, the relationship between normalized MFE and length has not yet been investigated in detail. Here, we demonstrate that the variation of MFE with sequence length is not linear and is significantly biased by the mathematical formula used for the normalization procedure. For this reason, the normalized MFEs strongly decrease as hyperbolic functions of length and produce unreliable results when applied for the comparison of sequences with different sizes. We also propose a simple modification of the normalization formula that corrects the bias enabling the use of the normalized MFE for RNAs longer than 40 nt. Using the new corrected normalized index, we analyzed the folding free energies of different human RNA families showing that most of them present an average MFE density more negative than expected for a typical genomic sequence. Furthermore, we found that a well-defined and restricted range of MFE density characterizes each RNA family, suggesting the use of our corrected normalized index to improve RNA prediction algorithms. Finally, in coding and functional human RNAs the MFE density appears scarcely correlated with sequence length, consistent with a negligible role of thermodynamic stability demands in determining RNA size.
How unprecedented a solar minimum was it?
Russell, C T; Jian, L K; Luhmann, J G
2013-05-01
The end of the last solar cycle was at least 3 years late, and to date, the new solar cycle has seen mainly weaker activity since the onset of the rising phase toward the new solar maximum. The newspapers now even report when auroras are seen in Norway. This paper is an update of our review paper written during the deepest part of the last solar minimum [1]. We update the records of solar activity and its consequent effects on the interplanetary fields and solar wind density. The arrival of solar minimum allows us to use two techniques that predict sunspot maximum from readings obtained at solar minimum. It is clear that the Sun is still behaving strangely compared to the last few solar minima even though we are well beyond the minimum phase of the cycle 23-24 transition.
Minimum-Cost Reachability for Priced Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Behrmann, Gerd; Fehnker, Ansgar; Hune, Thomas Seidelin
2001-01-01
This paper introduces the model of linearly priced timed automata as an extension of timed automata, with prices on both transitions and locations. For this model we consider the minimum-cost reachability problem: i.e. given a linearly priced timed automaton and a target state, determine...... the minimum cost of executions from the initial state to the target state. This problem generalizes the minimum-time reachability problem for ordinary timed automata. We prove decidability of this problem by offering an algorithmic solution, which is based on a combination of branch-and-bound techniques...
Rahaman, Md. Mashiur; Islam, Hafizul; Islam, Md. Tariqul; Khondoker, Md. Reaz Hasan
2017-12-01
Maneuverability and resistance prediction with suitable accuracy is essential for optimum ship design and propulsion power prediction. This paper aims at providing some of the maneuverability characteristics of a Japanese bulk carrier model, JBC in calm water using a computational fluid dynamics solver named SHIP Motion and OpenFOAM. The solvers are based on the Reynolds average Navier-Stokes method (RaNS) and solves structured grid using the Finite Volume Method (FVM). This paper comprises the numerical results of calm water test for the JBC model with available experimental results. The calm water test results include the total drag co-efficient, average sinkage, and trim data. Visualization data for pressure distribution on the hull surface and free water surface have also been included. The paper concludes that the presented solvers predict the resistance and maneuverability characteristics of the bulk carrier with reasonable accuracy utilizing minimum computational resources.
Minimum Q Electrically Small Antennas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kim, O. S.
2012-01-01
Theoretically, the minimum radiation quality factor Q of an isolated resonance can be achieved in a spherical electrically small antenna by combining TM1m and TE1m spherical modes, provided that the stored energy in the antenna spherical volume is totally suppressed. Using closed-form expressions...... for a multiarm spherical helix antenna confirm the theoretical predictions. For example, a 4-arm spherical helix antenna with a magnetic-coated perfectly electrically conducting core (ka=0.254) exhibits the Q of 0.66 times the Chu lower bound, or 1.25 times the minimum Q....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Husen, S.; Clinton, J. F.; Kissling, E.
2011-01-01
One-dimensional (1D) velocity models are still widely used for computing earthquake locations at seismological centers or in regions where three-dimensional (3D) velocity models are not available due to the lack of data of sufficiently high quality. The concept of the minimum 1D model with appropriate station corrections provides a framework to compute initial hypocenter locations and seismic velocities for local earthquake tomography. Since a minimum 1D model represents a solution to the coupled hypocenter-velocity problem it also represents a suitable velocity model for earthquake location and data quality assessment, such as evaluating the consistency in assigning pre-defined weighting classes and average picking error. Nevertheless, the use of a simple 1D velocity structure in combination with station delays raises the question of how appropriate the minimum 1D model concept is when applied to complex tectonic regions with significant three-dimensional (3D) variations in seismic velocities. In this study we compute one regional minimum 1D model and three local minimum 1D models for selected subregions of the Swiss Alpine region, which exhibits a strongly varying Moho topography. We compare the regional and local minimum 1D models in terms of earthquake locations and data quality assessment to measure their performance. Our results show that the local minimum 1D models provide more realistic hypocenter locations and better data fits than a single model for the Alpine region. We attribute this to the fact that in a local minimum 1D model local and regional effects of the velocity structure can be better separated. Consequently, in tectonically complex regions, minimum 1D models should be computed in sub-regions defined by similar structure, if they are used for earthquake location and data quality assessment. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Husen, S.; Clinton, J. F. [Swiss Seismological Service, ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland); Kissling, E. [Institute of Geophysics, ETH Zuerich, Zuerich (Switzerland)
2011-10-15
One-dimensional (1D) velocity models are still widely used for computing earthquake locations at seismological centers or in regions where three-dimensional (3D) velocity models are not available due to the lack of data of sufficiently high quality. The concept of the minimum 1D model with appropriate station corrections provides a framework to compute initial hypocenter locations and seismic velocities for local earthquake tomography. Since a minimum 1D model represents a solution to the coupled hypocenter-velocity problem it also represents a suitable velocity model for earthquake location and data quality assessment, such as evaluating the consistency in assigning pre-defined weighting classes and average picking error. Nevertheless, the use of a simple 1D velocity structure in combination with station delays raises the question of how appropriate the minimum 1D model concept is when applied to complex tectonic regions with significant three-dimensional (3D) variations in seismic velocities. In this study we compute one regional minimum 1D model and three local minimum 1D models for selected subregions of the Swiss Alpine region, which exhibits a strongly varying Moho topography. We compare the regional and local minimum 1D models in terms of earthquake locations and data quality assessment to measure their performance. Our results show that the local minimum 1D models provide more realistic hypocenter locations and better data fits than a single model for the Alpine region. We attribute this to the fact that in a local minimum 1D model local and regional effects of the velocity structure can be better separated. Consequently, in tectonically complex regions, minimum 1D models should be computed in sub-regions defined by similar structure, if they are used for earthquake location and data quality assessment. (authors)
Fluxes by eddy correlation over heterogeneous landscape: How shall we apply the Reynolds average?
Dobosy, R.
2007-12-01
Top-down estimates of carbon exchange across the earth's surface are implicitly an integral scheme, deriving bulk exchanges over large areas. Bottom-up estimates explicitly integrate the individual components of exchange to derive a bulk value. If these approaches are to be properly compared, their estimates should represent the same quantity. Over heterogeneous landscape, eddy-covariance flux computations from towers or aircraft intended for comparison with top-down approach face a question of the proper definition of the mean or base state, the departures from which yield the fluxes by Reynolds averaging. 1)≠Use a global base state derived over a representative sample of the surface, insensitive to land use. The departure quantities then fail to sum to zero over any subsample representing an individual surface type, violating Reynolds criteria. Yet fluxes derived from such subsamples can be directly composed into a bulk flux, globally satisfying Reynolds criteria. 2)≠Use a different base state for each surface type. satisfying Reynolds criteria individually. Then some of the flux may get missed if a surface's characteristics significantly bias its base state. Base state≠(2) is natural for tower samples. Base state≠(1) is natural for airborne samples over heterogeneous landscape, especially in patches smaller than an appropriate averaging length. It appears (1) incorporates a more realistic sample of the flux, though desirably there would be no practical difference between the two schemes. The schemes are related by the expression w¯*a*)C - w¯'a¯')C = w¯'ã¯)C+ wtilde ¯a¯')C+ wtilde ¯ã¯)C Here w is vertical motion, and a is some scalar, such as CO2. The star denotes departure from the global base state≠(1), and the prime from the base state≠(2), defined only over surface class≠C. The overbar with round bracket denotes average over samples drawn from class≠C, determined by footprint model. Thus a¯')C = 0 but a¯*)C ≠ 0 in general. The
Stochastic variational approach to minimum uncertainty states
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Illuminati, F.; Viola, L. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Padova Univ. (Italy)
1995-05-21
We introduce a new variational characterization of Gaussian diffusion processes as minimum uncertainty states. We then define a variational method constrained by kinematics of diffusions and Schroedinger dynamics to seek states of local minimum uncertainty for general non-harmonic potentials. (author)
Minimum entropy production principle
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Maes, C.; Netočný, Karel
2013-01-01
Roč. 8, č. 7 (2013), s. 9664-9677 ISSN 1941-6016 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : MINEP Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics http://www.scholarpedia.org/article/Minimum_entropy_production_principle
Distribution of the minimum path on percolation clusters: A renormalization group calculation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hipsh, Lior.
1993-06-01
This thesis uses the renormalization group for the research of the chemical distance or the minimal path on percolation clusters on a 2 dimensional square lattice. Our aims are to calculate analytically (iterative calculation) the fractal dimension of the minimal path. d min. , and the distributions of the minimum paths, l min for different lattice sizes and for different starting densities (including the threshold value p c ). For the distributions. We seek for an analytic form which describes them. The probability to get a minimum path for each linear size L is calculated by iterating the distribution of l min for the basic cell of size 2*2 to the next scale sizes, using the H cell renormalization group. For the threshold value of p and for values near to p c . We confirm a scaling in the form: P(l,L) =f1/l(l/(L d min ). L - the linear size, l - the minimum path. The distribution can be also represented in the Fourier space, so we will try to solve the renormalization group equations in this space. A numerical fitting is produced and compared to existing numerical results. In order to improve the agreement between the renormalization group and the numerical simulations, we also present attempts to generalize the renormalization group by adding more parameters, e.g. correlations between bonds in different directions or finite densities for occupation of bonds and sites. (author) 17 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chrien, R.E.
1986-10-01
The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou, Yongxi; Ernzerhof, Matthias; Bahmann, Hilke
2015-01-01
Drawing on the adiabatic connection of density functional theory, exchange-correlation functionals of Kohn-Sham density functional theory are constructed which interpolate between the extreme limits of the electron-electron interaction strength. The first limit is the non-interacting one, where there is only exchange. The second limit is the strong correlated one, characterized as the minimum of the electron-electron repulsion energy. The exchange-correlation energy in the strong-correlation limit is approximated through a model for the exchange-correlation hole that is referred to as nonlocal-radius model [L. O. Wagner and P. Gori-Giorgi, Phys. Rev. A 90, 052512 (2014)]. Using the non-interacting and strong-correlated extremes, various interpolation schemes are presented that yield new approximations to the adiabatic connection and thus to the exchange-correlation energy. Some of them rely on empiricism while others do not. Several of the proposed approximations yield the exact exchange-correlation energy for one-electron systems where local and semi-local approximations often fail badly. Other proposed approximations generalize existing global hybrids by using a fraction of the exchange-correlation energy in the strong-correlation limit to replace an equal fraction of the semi-local approximation to the exchange-correlation energy in the strong-correlation limit. The performance of the proposed approximations is evaluated for molecular atomization energies, total atomic energies, and ionization potentials
Minimum emittance in TBA and MBA lattices
Xu, Gang; Peng, Yue-Mei
2015-03-01
For reaching a small emittance in a modern light source, triple bend achromats (TBA), theoretical minimum emittance (TME) and even multiple bend achromats (MBA) have been considered. This paper derived the necessary condition for achieving minimum emittance in TBA and MBA theoretically, where the bending angle of inner dipoles has a factor of 31/3 bigger than that of the outer dipoles. Here, we also calculated the conditions attaining the minimum emittance of TBA related to phase advance in some special cases with a pure mathematics method. These results may give some directions on lattice design.
Minimum emittance in TBA and MBA lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Gang; Peng Yuemei
2015-01-01
For reaching a small emittance in a modern light source, triple bend achromats (TBA), theoretical minimum emittance (TME) and even multiple bend achromats (MBA) have been considered. This paper derived the necessary condition for achieving minimum emittance in TBA and MBA theoretically, where the bending angle of inner dipoles has a factor of 3 1/3 bigger than that of the outer dipoles. Here, we also calculated the conditions attaining the minimum emittance of TBA related to phase advance in some special cases with a pure mathematics method. These results may give some directions on lattice design. (authors)
Multifractal Detrended Cross-Correlation Analysis of agricultural futures markets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Lingyun; Chen Shupeng
2011-01-01
Highlights: → We investigated cross-correlations between China's and US agricultural futures markets. → Power-law cross-correlations are found between the geographically far but correlated markets. → Multifractal features are significant in all the markets. → Cross-correlation exponent is less than averaged GHE when q 0. - Abstract: We investigated geographically far but temporally correlated China's and US agricultural futures markets. We found that there exists a power-law cross-correlation between them, and that multifractal features are significant in all the markets. It is very interesting that the geographically far markets show strong cross-correlations and share much of their multifractal structure. Furthermore, we found that for all the agricultural futures markets in our studies, the cross-correlation exponent is less than the averaged generalized Hurst exponents (GHE) when q 0.
Sweet, Fred A; Sweet, Andrea
2015-09-01
Retrospective review of prospectively accrued patient cohort. To report minimum 2 years' follow-up after a single-surgeon series of 47 consecutive patients in whom fixed sagittal imbalance or segmental kyphosis was treated with a novel unilateral transforaminal annular release. Fixed sagittal imbalance has been treated most recently with pedicle subtraction osteotomy with great success but is associated with significant blood loss and neurologic risk. Forty-seven consecutive patients with fixed sagittal imbalance (n = 29) or segmental kyphosis (n = 18) were treated by a single surgeon with a single-level transforaminal anterior release (TFAR) to effect an opening wedge correction. Sagittal and coronal correction was performed with in situ rod contouring. An interbody cage was captured in the disc space with rod compression. Radiographic and clinical outcome analysis was performed with a minimum 2-year follow-up (range 2-7.8 years). The average increase in lordosis was 36° (range 24°-56°) in the fixed sagittal deformity group. Coronal corrections averaged 34° (range 18°-48°). The average improvement in plumb line was 13.6 cm. There were four pseudarthroses, one at the TFAR. Average blood loss was 578 mL (range 200-1,200). One patient had a transient grade 4/5 anterior tibialis weakness. There were no vascular injuries or permanent neurologic deficits. There were significant improvements in the Oswestry Disability Index (p imbalance with relatively low blood loss and was found to be neurologically safe in this single-surgeon series. Therapeutic study, Level IV (case series, no control group). Copyright © 2015 Scoliosis Research Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Csorgo, T.; Kittel, W.; Novak, T.
2010-01-01
L3 preliminary data of two-particle Bose-Einstein correlations are reported for hadronic Z^0 decays in e+e- annihilation at LEP. The invariant relative momentum Q is identified as the eigenvariable of the measured correlation function. Significant anti-correlations are observed in the Bose-Einstein correlation function in a broad region of 0.5 - 1.6 GeV with a minimum at Q close to 0.8 GeV. Absence of Bose-Einstein correlations is demonstrated in the region above Q >= 1.6 GeV. The effective source size is found to decrease with increasing value of the transverse mass of the pair, similarly to hadron-hadron and heavy ion reactions. These feautes and our data are described well by the non-thermal tau-model, which is based on strong space-time momentum-correlations.
41 CFR 50-202.2 - Minimum wage in all industries.
2010-07-01
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Minimum wage in all... Public Contracts PUBLIC CONTRACTS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR 202-MINIMUM WAGE DETERMINATIONS Groups of Industries § 50-202.2 Minimum wage in all industries. In all industries, the minimum wage applicable to...
29 CFR 525.13 - Renewal of special minimum wage certificates.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Renewal of special minimum wage certificates. 525.13... minimum wage certificates. (a) Applications may be filed for renewal of special minimum wage certificates.... (c) Workers with disabilities may not continue to be paid special minimum wages after notice that an...
An Empirical Analysis of the Relationship between Minimum Wage ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
An Empirical Analysis of the Relationship between Minimum Wage, Investment and Economic Growth in Ghana. ... In addition, the ratio of public investment to tax revenue must increase as minimum wage increases since such complementary changes are more likely to lead to economic growth. Keywords: minimum wage ...
12 CFR 3.6 - Minimum capital ratios.
2010-01-01
... should have well-diversified risks, including no undue interest rate risk exposure; excellent control... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum capital ratios. 3.6 Section 3.6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MINIMUM CAPITAL RATIOS; ISSUANCE...
12 CFR 615.5330 - Minimum surplus ratios.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum surplus ratios. 615.5330 Section 615.5330 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS, LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Surplus and Collateral Requirements § 615.5330 Minimum...
A proof of the theorem regarding the distribution of lift over the span for minimum induced drag
Durand, W F
1931-01-01
The proof of the theorem that the elliptical distribution of lift over the span is that which will give rise to the minimum induced drag has been given in a variety of ways, generally speaking too difficult to be readily followed by the graduate of the average good technical school of the present day. In the form of proof this report makes an effort to bring the matter more readily within the grasp of this class of readers.
On the origin of the correlations between Gamma-Ray Burst observables
Dado, S; De Rújula, Alvaro; Dado, Shlomo; Dar, Arnon
2007-01-01
Several pairs of observable properties of Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are known to be correlated. Many such correlations are straightforward predictions of the 'cannonball' model of GRBs. We extend our previous discussions of the subject to a wealth of new data, and to correlations between 'lag-time', 'variability' and 'minimum rise-time', with other observables. Schaefer's recent systematic analysis of the observations of many GRBs of known red-shift gives us a good and updated data-basis for our study.
5 CFR 551.601 - Minimum age standards.
2010-01-01
... ADMINISTRATION UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Child Labor § 551.601 Minimum age standards. (a) 16-year... subject to its child labor provisions, with certain exceptions not applicable here. (b) 18-year minimum... occupation found and declared by the Secretary of Labor to be particularly hazardous for the employment of...
12 CFR 932.8 - Minimum liquidity requirements.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum liquidity requirements. 932.8 Section... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL REQUIREMENTS § 932.8 Minimum liquidity requirements. In addition to meeting the deposit liquidity requirements contained in § 965.3 of this chapter, each Bank...
Solar wind and coronal structure near sunspot minimum: Pioneer and SMM observations from 1985-1987
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mihalov, J.D.; Barnes, A.; Hundhausen, A.J.; Smith, E.J.
1990-01-01
The solar wind speeds observed in the outer heliosphere (20 to 40 AU heliocentric distance, approximately) by Pioneers 10 an 11, and at a heliocentric distance of 0.7 AU by the Pioneer Venus spacecraft, reveal a complex set of changes in the years near the recent sunspot minimum, 1985-1987. The pattern of recurrent solar wind streams, the long-term average speed, and the sector polarity of the interplanetary magnetic field all changed in a manner suggesting both a temporal variation, and a changing dependence on heliographic latitude. Coronal observations made from the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft during the same epoch show a systematic variation in coronal structure and (by implication) the magnetic structure imposed on the expanding solar wind. These observations suggest interpretation of the solar wind speed variations in terms of the familiar model where the speed increases with distance from a nearly flat interplanetary current sheet (or with heliomagnetic latitude), and where this current sheet becomes aligned with the solar equatorial plane as sunspot minimum approaches, but deviates rapidly from that orientation after minimum. The authors confirm here that this basic organization of the solar wind speed persists in the outer heliosphere with an orientation of the neutral sheet consistent with that inferred at a heliocentric distance of a few solar radii, from the coronal observations
[Hospitals failing minimum volumes in 2004: reasons and consequences].
Geraedts, M; Kühnen, C; Cruppé, W de; Blum, K; Ohmann, C
2008-02-01
In 2004 Germany introduced annual minimum volumes nationwide on five surgical procedures: kidney, liver, stem cell transplantation, complex oesophageal, and pancreatic interventions. Hospitals that fail to reach the minimum volumes are no longer allowed to perform the respective procedures unless they raise one of eight legally accepted exceptions. The goal of our study was to investigate how many hospitals fell short of the minimum volumes in 2004, whether and how this was justified, and whether hospitals that failed the requirements experienced any consequences. We analysed data on meeting the minimum volume requirements in 2004 that all German hospitals were obliged to publish as part of their biannual structured quality reports. We performed telephone interviews: a) with all hospitals not achieving the minimum volumes for complex oesophageal, and pancreatic interventions, and b) with the national umbrella organisations of all German sickness funds. In 2004, one quarter of all German acute care hospitals (N=485) performed 23,128 procedures where minimum volumes applied. 197 hospitals (41%) did not meet at least one of the minimum volumes. These hospitals performed N=715 procedures (3.1%) where the minimum volumes were not met. In 43% of these cases the hospitals raised legally accepted exceptions. In 33% of the cases the hospitals argued using reasons that were not legally acknowledged. 69% of those hospitals that failed to achieve the minimum volumes for complex oesophageal and pancreatic interventions did not experience any consequences from the sickness funds. However, one third of those hospitals reported that the sickness funds addressed the issue and partially announced consequences for the future. The sickness funds' umbrella organisations stated that there were only sparse activities related to the minimum volumes and that neither uniform registrations nor uniform proceedings in case of infringements of the standards had been agreed upon. In spite of the
The Distribution of the Sample Minimum-Variance Frontier
Raymond Kan; Daniel R. Smith
2008-01-01
In this paper, we present a finite sample analysis of the sample minimum-variance frontier under the assumption that the returns are independent and multivariate normally distributed. We show that the sample minimum-variance frontier is a highly biased estimator of the population frontier, and we propose an improved estimator of the population frontier. In addition, we provide the exact distribution of the out-of-sample mean and variance of sample minimum-variance portfolios. This allows us t...
Seattle's minimum wage ordinance did not affect supermarket food prices by food processing category.
Spoden, Amanda L; Buszkiewicz, James H; Drewnowski, Adam; Long, Mark C; Otten, Jennifer J
2018-06-01
To examine the impacts of Seattle's minimum wage ordinance on food prices by food processing category. Supermarket food prices were collected for 106 items using a University of Washington Center for Public Health Nutrition market basket at affected and unaffected supermarket chain stores at three times: March 2015 (1-month pre-policy enactment), May 2015 (1-month post-policy enactment) and May 2016 (1-year post-policy enactment). Food items were categorized into four food processing groups, from minimally to ultra-processed. Data were analysed across time using a multilevel, linear difference-in-differences model at the store and price level stratified by level of food processing. Six large supermarket chain stores located in Seattle ('intervention') affected by the policy and six same-chain but unaffected stores in King County ('control'), Washington, USA. One hundred and six food and beverage items. The largest change in average price by food item was +$US 0·53 for 'processed foods' in King County between 1-month post-policy and 1-year post-policy enactment (P food processing level strata in Seattle v. King County stores at 1-month or 1-year post-policy enactment. Supermarket food prices do not appear to be differentially impacted by Seattle's minimum wage ordinance by level of the food's processing. These results suggest that the early implementation of a city-level minimum wage policy does not alter supermarket food prices by level of food processing.
Spin chain model for correlated quantum channels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rossini, Davide [International School for Advanced Studies SISSA/ISAS, via Beirut 2-4, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Giovannetti, Vittorio; Montangero, Simone [NEST-CNR-INFM and Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: monta@sns.it
2008-11-15
We analyze the quality of the quantum information transmission along a correlated quantum channel by studying the average fidelity between input and output states and the average output purity, giving bounds for the entropy of the channel. Noise correlations in the channel are modeled by the coupling of each channel use with an element of a one-dimensional interacting quantum spin chain. Criticality of the environment chain is seen to emerge in the changes of the fidelity and of the purity.
Anufriieva, Elena V.; Shadrin, Nickolai V.
2014-01-01
Arctodiaptomus salinus inhabits water bodies across Eurasia and North Africa. Based on our own data and that from the literature, we analyzed the influences of several factors on the intra- and inter-population variability of this species. A strong negative linear correlation between temperature and average body size in the Crimean and African populations was found, in which the parameters might be influenced by salinity. Meanwhile, asignificant negative correlation between female body size a...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lazar Bireescu
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The main objective of sustainable agriculture is the protection of environment and natural vegetal and soil resources. Accordingly, the objective of this research was to assess the impact of technological systems by minimum tillage on soil biological activity, using the Pedo-Biological Diagnosis of Soil Resources. Our research was conducted on haplic chernozem from Experimental Station of UASVM of Iasi, Romania, during the seasonal dynamic, to the soybean crop, on unfertilized and fertilized agrofond, using moderate mineral doses (N80P80 as average of 2009–2010 period, under minimum tillage (2x disk, paraplow, chisel compared to conventional (plugging at 20 cm and 30 cm. In the case of soil works with chisel and paraplow without return of furrow, the Pedo-Biological Diagnosis highlights an increase of soil physiological potential, in the both variants (unfertilized and fertilized, unlike the method of alternating the depth of plugging that proved to be ineffective.
24 CFR 891.145 - Owner deposit (Minimum Capital Investment).
2010-04-01
... General Program Requirements § 891.145 Owner deposit (Minimum Capital Investment). As a Minimum Capital... Investment shall be one-half of one percent (0.5%) of the HUD-approved capital advance, not to exceed $25,000. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Owner deposit (Minimum Capital...
Minimum Wages and the Distribution of Family Incomes
Dube, Arindrajit
2017-01-01
Using the March Current Population Survey data from 1984 to 2013, I provide a comprehensive evaluation of how minimum wage policies influence the distribution of family incomes. I find robust evidence that higher minimum wages shift down the cumulative distribution of family incomes at the bottom, reducing the share of non-elderly individuals with incomes below 50, 75, 100, and 125 percent of the federal poverty threshold. The long run (3 or more years) minimum wage elasticity of the non-elde...
7 CFR 1610.5 - Minimum Bank loan.
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum Bank loan. 1610.5 Section 1610.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL TELEPHONE BANK, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOAN POLICIES § 1610.5 Minimum Bank loan. A Bank loan will not be made unless the applicant qualifies for a Bank...
Minimum Wage Effects in the Longer Run
Neumark, David; Nizalova, Olena
2007-01-01
Exposure to minimum wages at young ages could lead to adverse longer-run effects via decreased labor market experience and tenure, and diminished education and training, while beneficial longer-run effects could arise if minimum wages increase skill acquisition. Evidence suggests that as individuals reach their late 20s, they earn less the longer…
29 CFR 783.43 - Computation of seaman's minimum wage.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computation of seaman's minimum wage. 783.43 Section 783.43...'s minimum wage. Section 6(b) requires, under paragraph (2) of the subsection, that an employee...'s minimum wage requirements by reason of the 1961 Amendments (see §§ 783.23 and 783.26). Although...
12 CFR 931.3 - Minimum investment in capital stock.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum investment in capital stock. 931.3... CAPITAL STANDARDS FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK CAPITAL STOCK § 931.3 Minimum investment in capital stock. (a) A Bank shall require each member to maintain a minimum investment in the capital stock of the Bank, both...
Minimum-Cost Reachability for Priced Timed Automata
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Behrmann, Gerd; Fehnker, Ansgar; Hune, Thomas Seidelin
2001-01-01
This paper introduces the model of linearly priced timed automata as an extension of timed automata, with prices on both transitions and locations. For this model we consider the minimum-cost reachability problem: i.e. given a linearly priced timed automaton and a target state, determine...... the minimum cost of executions from the initial state to the target state. This problem generalizes the minimum-time reachability problem for ordinary timed automata. We prove decidability of this problem by offering an algorithmic solution, which is based on a combination of branch-and-bound techniques...... and a new notion of priced regions. The latter allows symbolic representation and manipulation of reachable states together with the cost of reaching them....
Newell, Felicia D; Williams, Patricia L; Watt, Cynthia G
2014-05-09
This paper aims to assess the affordability of a nutritious diet for households earning minimum wage in Nova Scotia (NS) from 2002 to 2012 using an economic simulation that includes food costing and secondary data. The cost of the National Nutritious Food Basket (NNFB) was assessed with a stratified, random sample of grocery stores in NS during six time periods: 2002, 2004/2005, 2007, 2008, 2010 and 2012. The NNFB's cost was factored into affordability scenarios for three different household types relying on minimum wage earnings: a household of four; a lone mother with three children; and a lone man. Essential monthly living expenses were deducted from monthly net incomes using methods that were standardized from 2002 to 2012 to determine whether adequate funds remained to purchase a basic nutritious diet across the six time periods. A 79% increase to the minimum wage in NS has resulted in a decrease in the potential deficit faced by each household scenario in the period examined. However, the household of four and the lone mother with three children would still face monthly deficits ($44.89 and $496.77, respectively, in 2012) if they were to purchase a nutritiously sufficient diet. As a social determinant of health, risk of food insecurity is a critical public health issue for low wage earners. While it is essential to increase the minimum wage in the short term, adequately addressing income adequacy in NS and elsewhere requires a shift in thinking from a focus on minimum wage towards more comprehensive policies ensuring an adequate livable income for everyone.
Employment Effects of Minimum and Subminimum Wages. Recent Evidence.
Neumark, David
Using a specially constructed panel data set on state minimum wage laws and labor market conditions, Neumark and Wascher (1992) presented evidence that countered the claim that minimum wages could be raised with no cost to employment. They concluded that estimates indicating that minimum wages reduced employment on the order of 1-2 percent for a…
Minimum Wage Effects on Educational Enrollments in New Zealand
Pacheco, Gail A.; Cruickshank, Amy A.
2007-01-01
This paper empirically examines the impact of minimum wages on educational enrollments in New Zealand. A significant reform to the youth minimum wage since 2000 has resulted in some age groups undergoing a 91% rise in their real minimum wage over the last 10 years. Three panel least squares multivariate models are estimated from a national sample…
Trends in Intense Typhoon Minimum Sea Level Pressure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen L. Durden
2012-01-01
Full Text Available A number of recent publications have examined trends in the maximum wind speed of tropical cyclones in various basins. In this communication, the author focuses on typhoons in the western North Pacific. Rather than maximum wind speed, the intensity of the storms is measured by their lifetime minimum sea level pressure (MSLP. Quantile regression is used to test for trends in storms of extreme intensity. The results indicate that there is a trend of decreasing intensity in the most intense storms as measured by MSLP over the period 1951–2010. However, when the data are broken into intervals 1951–1987 and 1987–2010, neither interval has a significant trend, but the intensity quantiles for the two periods differ. Reasons for this are discussed, including the cessation of aircraft reconnaissance in 1987. The author also finds that the average typhoon intensity is greater in El Nino years, while the intensity of the strongest typhoons shows no significant relation to El Nino Southern Oscillation.
Model of geophysical fields representation in problems of complex correlation-extreme navigation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Volodymyr KHARCHENKO
2015-09-01
Full Text Available A model of the optimal representation of spatial data for the task of complex correlation-extreme navigation is developed based on the criterion of minimum deviation of the correlation functions of the original and the resulting fields. Calculations are presented for one-dimensional case using the approximation of the correlation function by Fourier series. It is shown that in the presence of different geophysical map data fields their representation is possible by single template with optimal sampling without distorting the form of the correlation functions.
Zero forcing parameters and minimum rank problems
Barioli, F.; Barrett, W.; Fallat, S.M.; Hall, H.T.; Hogben, L.; Shader, B.L.; Driessche, van den P.; Holst, van der H.
2010-01-01
The zero forcing number Z(G), which is the minimum number of vertices in a zero forcing set of a graph G, is used to study the maximum nullity/minimum rank of the family of symmetric matrices described by G. It is shown that for a connected graph of order at least two, no vertex is in every zero
Minimum bias measurement at 13 TeV
Orlando, Nicola; The ATLAS collaboration
2017-01-01
The modelling of Minimum Bias (MB) is a crucial ingredient to learn about the description of soft QCD processes and to simulate the environment at the LHC with many concurrent pp interactions (pile-up). We summarise the ATLAS minimum bias measurements with proton-proton collision at 13 TeV center-of-mass-energy at the Large Hadron Collider.
Minimum airflow reset of single-duct VAV terminal boxes
Cho, Young-Hum
Single duct Variable Air Volume (VAV) systems are currently the most widely used type of HVAC system in the United States. When installing such a system, it is critical to determine the minimum airflow set point of the terminal box, as an optimally selected set point will improve the level of thermal comfort and indoor air quality (IAQ) while at the same time lower overall energy costs. In principle, this minimum rate should be calculated according to the minimum ventilation requirement based on ASHRAE standard 62.1 and maximum heating load of the zone. Several factors must be carefully considered when calculating this minimum rate. Terminal boxes with conventional control sequences may result in occupant discomfort and energy waste. If the minimum rate of airflow is set too high, the AHUs will consume excess fan power, and the terminal boxes may cause significant simultaneous room heating and cooling. At the same time, a rate that is too low will result in poor air circulation and indoor air quality in the air-conditioned space. Currently, many scholars are investigating how to change the algorithm of the advanced VAV terminal box controller without retrofitting. Some of these controllers have been found to effectively improve thermal comfort, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency. However, minimum airflow set points have not yet been identified, nor has controller performance been verified in confirmed studies. In this study, control algorithms were developed that automatically identify and reset terminal box minimum airflow set points, thereby improving indoor air quality and thermal comfort levels, and reducing the overall rate of energy consumption. A theoretical analysis of the optimal minimum airflow and discharge air temperature was performed to identify the potential energy benefits of resetting the terminal box minimum airflow set points. Applicable control algorithms for calculating the ideal values for the minimum airflow reset were developed and
Correlation dimension of financial market
Nie, Chun-Xiao
2017-05-01
In this paper, correlation dimension is applied to financial data analysis. We calculate the correlation dimensions of some real market data and find that the dimensions are significantly smaller than those of the simulation data based on geometric Brownian motion. Based on the analysis of the Chinese and US stock market data, the main results are as follows. First, by calculating three data sets for the Chinese and US market, we find that large market volatility leads to a significant decrease in the dimensions. Second, based on 5-min stock price data, we find that the Chinese market dimension is significantly larger than the US market; this shows a significant difference between the two markets for high frequency data. Third, we randomly extract stocks from a stock set and calculate the correlation dimensions, and find that the average value of these dimensions is close to the dimension of the original set. In addition, we analyse the intuitional meaning of the relevant dimensions used in this paper, which are directly related to the average degree of the financial threshold network. The dimension measures the speed of the average degree that varies with the threshold value. A smaller dimension means that the rate of change is slower.
On the normalization of the minimum free energy of RNAs by sequence length.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Edoardo Trotta
Full Text Available The minimum free energy (MFE of ribonucleic acids (RNAs increases at an apparent linear rate with sequence length. Simple indices, obtained by dividing the MFE by the number of nucleotides, have been used for a direct comparison of the folding stability of RNAs of various sizes. Although this normalization procedure has been used in several studies, the relationship between normalized MFE and length has not yet been investigated in detail. Here, we demonstrate that the variation of MFE with sequence length is not linear and is significantly biased by the mathematical formula used for the normalization procedure. For this reason, the normalized MFEs strongly decrease as hyperbolic functions of length and produce unreliable results when applied for the comparison of sequences with different sizes. We also propose a simple modification of the normalization formula that corrects the bias enabling the use of the normalized MFE for RNAs longer than 40 nt. Using the new corrected normalized index, we analyzed the folding free energies of different human RNA families showing that most of them present an average MFE density more negative than expected for a typical genomic sequence. Furthermore, we found that a well-defined and restricted range of MFE density characterizes each RNA family, suggesting the use of our corrected normalized index to improve RNA prediction algorithms. Finally, in coding and functional human RNAs the MFE density appears scarcely correlated with sequence length, consistent with a negligible role of thermodynamic stability demands in determining RNA size.
Minimum wall pressure coefficient of orifice plate energy dissipater
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wan-zheng Ai
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Orifice plate energy dissipaters have been successfully used in large-scale hydropower projects due to their simple structure, convenient construction procedure, and high energy dissipation ratio. The minimum wall pressure coefficient of an orifice plate can indirectly reflect its cavitation characteristics: the lower the minimum wall pressure coefficient is, the better the ability of the orifice plate to resist cavitation damage is. Thus, it is important to study the minimum wall pressure coefficient of the orifice plate. In this study, this coefficient and related parameters, such as the contraction ratio, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate diameter to the flood-discharging tunnel diameter; the relative thickness, defined as the ratio of the orifice plate thickness to the tunnel diameter; and the Reynolds number of the flow through the orifice plate, were theoretically analyzed, and their relationships were obtained through physical model experiments. It can be concluded that the minimum wall pressure coefficient is mainly dominated by the contraction ratio and relative thickness. The lower the contraction ratio and relative thickness are, the larger the minimum wall pressure coefficient is. The effects of the Reynolds number on the minimum wall pressure coefficient can be neglected when it is larger than 105. An empirical expression was presented to calculate the minimum wall pressure coefficient in this study.
Topside measurements at Jicamarca during solar minimum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. L. Hysell
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Long-pulse topside radar data acquired at Jicamarca and processed using full-profile analysis are compared to data processed using more conventional, range-gated approaches and with analytic and computational models. The salient features of the topside observations include a dramatic increase in the Te/Ti temperature ratio above the F peak at dawn and a local minimum in the topside plasma temperature in the afternoon. The hydrogen ion fraction was found to exhibit hyperbolic tangent-shaped profiles that become shallow (gradually changing above the O+-H+ transition height during the day. The profile shapes are generally consistent with diffusive equilibrium, although shallowing to the point of changes in inflection can only be accounted for by taking the effects of E×B drifts and meridional winds into account. The SAMI2 model demonstrates this as well as the substantial effect that drifts and winds can have on topside temperatures. Significant quiet-time variability in the topside composition and temperatures may be due to variability in the mechanical forcing. Correlations between topside measurements and magnetometer data at Jicamarca support this hypothesis.
The effect of correlated observations on the performance of distributed estimation
Ahmed, Mohammed
2013-12-01
Estimating unknown signal in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) requires sensor nodes to transmit their observations of the signal over a multiple access channel to a Fusion Center (FC). The FC uses the received observations, which is corrupted by observation noise and both channel fading and noise, to find the minimum Mean Square Error (MSE) estimate of the signal. In this paper, we investigate the effect of the source-node correlation (the correlation between sensor node observations and the source signal) and the inter-node correlation (the correlation between sensor node observations) on the performance of the Linear Minimum Mean Square Error (LMMSE) estimator for three correlation models in the presence of channel fading. First, we investigate the asymptotic behavior of the achieved distortion (i.e., MSE) resulting from both the observation and channel noise in a non-fading channel. Then, the effect of channel fading is considered and the corresponding distortion outage probability, the probability that the distortion exceeds a certain value, is found. By representing the distortion as a ratio of indefinite quadratic forms, a closed-form expression is derived for the outage probability that shows its dependency on the correlation. Finally, the new representation of the outage probability allows us to propose an iterative solution for the power allocation problem to minimize the outage probability under total and individual power constraints. Numerical simulations are provided to verify our analytic results. © 2013 IEEE.
76 FR 15368 - Minimum Security Devices and Procedures
2011-03-21
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Minimum Security Devices and Procedures... concerning the following information collection. Title of Proposal: Minimum Security Devices and Procedures... security devices and procedures to discourage robberies, burglaries, and larcenies, and to assist in the...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gramkow, Claus
1999-01-01
In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belo...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion......In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
June Liu
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Australia relies heavily on rabbit haemorrhagic disease virus (RHDV for the biological control of introduced European wild rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus, which are significant economic and environmental pests. An endemic non-pathogenic rabbit calicivirus termed RCV-A1 also occurs in wild rabbits in Australian and provides partial protection against lethal RHDV infection, thus interfering with effective rabbit control. Despite its obvious importance for rabbit population management, little is known about the epidemiology of this benign rabbit calicivirus. METHODS: We determined the continent-wide distribution and prevalence of RCV-A1 by analysing 1,805 serum samples from wild rabbit populations at 78 sites across Australia for the presence of antibodies to RCV-A1 using a serological test that specifically detects RCV-A1 antibodies and does not cross-react with co-occurring RHDV antibodies. We also investigated possible correlation between climate variables and prevalence of RCV-A1 by using generalised linear mixed effect models. RESULTS: Antibodies to RCV-A1 were predominantly detected in rabbit populations in cool, high rainfall areas of the south-east and south-west of the continent. There was strong support for modelling RCV-A1 prevalence as a function of average annual rainfall and minimum temperature. The best ranked model explained 26% of the model structural deviance. According to this model, distribution and prevalence of RCV-A1 is positively correlated with periods of above average rainfall and negatively correlated with periods of drought. IMPLICATIONS: Our statistical model of RCV-A1 prevalence will greatly increase our understanding of RCV-A1 epidemiology and its interaction with RHDV in Australia. By defining the environmental conditions associated with the prevalence of RCV-A1, it also contributes towards understanding the distribution of similar viruses in New Zealand and Europe.
A minimum bit error-rate detector for amplify and forward relaying systems
Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Aissa, Sonia
2012-01-01
In this paper, a new detector is being proposed for amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying system when communicating with the assistance of L number of relays. The major goal of this detector is to improve the bit error rate (BER) performance of the system. The complexity of the system is further reduced by implementing this detector adaptively. The proposed detector is free from channel estimation. Our results demonstrate that the proposed detector is capable of achieving a gain of more than 1-dB at a BER of 10 -5 as compared to the conventional minimum mean square error detector when communicating over a correlated Rayleigh fading channel. © 2012 IEEE.
A minimum bit error-rate detector for amplify and forward relaying systems
Ahmed, Qasim Zeeshan
2012-05-01
In this paper, a new detector is being proposed for amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying system when communicating with the assistance of L number of relays. The major goal of this detector is to improve the bit error rate (BER) performance of the system. The complexity of the system is further reduced by implementing this detector adaptively. The proposed detector is free from channel estimation. Our results demonstrate that the proposed detector is capable of achieving a gain of more than 1-dB at a BER of 10 -5 as compared to the conventional minimum mean square error detector when communicating over a correlated Rayleigh fading channel. © 2012 IEEE.
Stephenson, D. B.
1997-10-01
The skill in predicting spatially varying weather/climate maps depends on the definition of the measure of similarity between the maps. Under the justifiable approximation that the anomaly maps are distributed multinormally, it is shown analytically that the choice of weighting metric, used in defining the anomaly correlation between spatial maps, can change the resulting probability distribution of the correlation coefficient. The estimate of the numbers of degrees of freedom based on the variance of the correlation distribution can vary from unity up to the number of grid points depending on the choice of weighting metric. The (pseudo-) inverse of the sample covariance matrix acts as a special choice for the metric in that it gives a correlation distribution which has minimal kurtosis and maximum dimension. Minimal kurtosis suggests that the average predictive skill might be improved due to the rarer occurrence of troublesome outlier patterns far from the mean state. Maximum dimension has a disadvantage for analogue prediction schemes in that it gives the minimum number of analogue states. This metric also has an advantage in that it allows one to powerfully test the null hypothesis of multinormality by examining the second and third moments of the correlation coefficient which were introduced by Mardia as invariant measures of multivariate kurtosis and skewness. For these reasons, it is suggested that this metric could be usefully employed in the prediction of weather/climate and in fingerprinting anthropogenic climate change. The ideas are illustrated using the bivariate example of the observed monthly mean sea-level pressures at Darwin and Tahitifrom 1866 1995.
Increasing average period lengths by switching of robust chaos maps in finite precision
Nagaraj, N.; Shastry, M. C.; Vaidya, P. G.
2008-12-01
Grebogi, Ott and Yorke (Phys. Rev. A 38, 1988) have investigated the effect of finite precision on average period length of chaotic maps. They showed that the average length of periodic orbits (T) of a dynamical system scales as a function of computer precision (ɛ) and the correlation dimension (d) of the chaotic attractor: T ˜ɛ-d/2. In this work, we are concerned with increasing the average period length which is desirable for chaotic cryptography applications. Our experiments reveal that random and chaotic switching of deterministic chaotic dynamical systems yield higher average length of periodic orbits as compared to simple sequential switching or absence of switching. To illustrate the application of switching, a novel generalization of the Logistic map that exhibits Robust Chaos (absence of attracting periodic orbits) is first introduced. We then propose a pseudo-random number generator based on chaotic switching between Robust Chaos maps which is found to successfully pass stringent statistical tests of randomness.
A minimum spanning forest based classification method for dedicated breast CT images
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pike, Robert; Sechopoulos, Ioannis; Fei, Baowei
2015-01-01
Purpose: To develop and test an automated algorithm to classify different types of tissue in dedicated breast CT images. Methods: Images of a single breast of five different patients were acquired with a dedicated breast CT clinical prototype. The breast CT images were processed by a multiscale bilateral filter to reduce noise while keeping edge information and were corrected to overcome cupping artifacts. As skin and glandular tissue have similar CT values on breast CT images, morphologic processing is used to identify the skin based on its position information. A support vector machine (SVM) is trained and the resulting model used to create a pixelwise classification map of fat and glandular tissue. By combining the results of the skin mask with the SVM results, the breast tissue is classified as skin, fat, and glandular tissue. This map is then used to identify markers for a minimum spanning forest that is grown to segment the image using spatial and intensity information. To evaluate the authors’ classification method, they use DICE overlap ratios to compare the results of the automated classification to those obtained by manual segmentation on five patient images. Results: Comparison between the automatic and the manual segmentation shows that the minimum spanning forest based classification method was able to successfully classify dedicated breast CT image with average DICE ratios of 96.9%, 89.8%, and 89.5% for fat, glandular, and skin tissue, respectively. Conclusions: A 2D minimum spanning forest based classification method was proposed and evaluated for classifying the fat, skin, and glandular tissue in dedicated breast CT images. The classification method can be used for dense breast tissue quantification, radiation dose assessment, and other applications in breast imaging
Bernhardt, Jase; Carleton, Andrew M.
2018-05-01
The two main methods for determining the average daily near-surface air temperature, twice-daily averaging (i.e., [Tmax+Tmin]/2) and hourly averaging (i.e., the average of 24 hourly temperature measurements), typically show differences associated with the asymmetry of the daily temperature curve. To quantify the relative influence of several land surface and atmosphere variables on the two temperature averaging methods, we correlate data for 215 weather stations across the Contiguous United States (CONUS) for the period 1981-2010 with the differences between the two temperature-averaging methods. The variables are land use-land cover (LULC) type, soil moisture, snow cover, cloud cover, atmospheric moisture (i.e., specific humidity, dew point temperature), and precipitation. Multiple linear regression models explain the spatial and monthly variations in the difference between the two temperature-averaging methods. We find statistically significant correlations between both the land surface and atmosphere variables studied with the difference between temperature-averaging methods, especially for the extreme (i.e., summer, winter) seasons (adjusted R2 > 0.50). Models considering stations with certain LULC types, particularly forest and developed land, have adjusted R2 values > 0.70, indicating that both surface and atmosphere variables control the daily temperature curve and its asymmetry. This study improves our understanding of the role of surface and near-surface conditions in modifying thermal climates of the CONUS for a wide range of environments, and their likely importance as anthropogenic forcings—notably LULC changes and greenhouse gas emissions—continues.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patricia Bouyer
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Two-player quantitative zero-sum games provide a natural framework to synthesize controllers with performance guarantees for reactive systems within an uncontrollable environment. Classical settings include mean-payoff games, where the objective is to optimize the long-run average gain per action, and energy games, where the system has to avoid running out of energy. We study average-energy games, where the goal is to optimize the long-run average of the accumulated energy. We show that this objective arises naturally in several applications, and that it yields interesting connections with previous concepts in the literature. We prove that deciding the winner in such games is in NP inter coNP and at least as hard as solving mean-payoff games, and we establish that memoryless strategies suffice to win. We also consider the case where the system has to minimize the average-energy while maintaining the accumulated energy within predefined bounds at all times: this corresponds to operating with a finite-capacity storage for energy. We give results for one-player and two-player games, and establish complexity bounds and memory requirements.
76 FR 30243 - Minimum Security Devices and Procedures
2011-05-24
... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Minimum Security Devices and Procedures.... Title of Proposal: Minimum Security Devices and Procedures. OMB Number: 1550-0062. Form Number: N/A... respect to the installation, maintenance, and operation of security devices and procedures to discourage...
Does increasing the minimum wage reduce poverty in developing countries?
Gindling, T. H.
2014-01-01
Do minimum wage policies reduce poverty in developing countries? It depends. Raising the minimum wage could increase or decrease poverty, depending on labor market characteristics. Minimum wages target formal sector workers—a minority of workers in most developing countries—many of whom do not live in poor households. Whether raising minimum wages reduces poverty depends not only on whether formal sector workers lose jobs as a result, but also on whether low-wage workers live in poor househol...
A hybrid correlation analysis with application to imaging genetics
Hu, Wenxing; Fang, Jian; Calhoun, Vince D.; Wang, Yu-Ping
2018-03-01
Investigating the association between brain regions and genes continues to be a challenging topic in imaging genetics. Current brain region of interest (ROI)-gene association studies normally reduce data dimension by averaging the value of voxels in each ROI. This averaging may lead to a loss of information due to the existence of functional sub-regions. Pearson correlation is widely used for association analysis. However, it only detects linear correlation whereas nonlinear correlation may exist among ROIs. In this work, we introduced distance correlation to ROI-gene association analysis, which can detect both linear and nonlinear correlations and overcome the limitation of averaging operations by taking advantage of the information at each voxel. Nevertheless, distance correlation usually has a much lower value than Pearson correlation. To address this problem, we proposed a hybrid correlation analysis approach, by applying canonical correlation analysis (CCA) to the distance covariance matrix instead of directly computing distance correlation. Incorporating CCA into distance correlation approach may be more suitable for complex disease study because it can detect highly associated pairs of ROI and gene groups, and may improve the distance correlation level and statistical power. In addition, we developed a novel nonlinear CCA, called distance kernel CCA, which seeks the optimal combination of features with the most significant dependence. This approach was applied to imaging genetic data from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopmental Cohort (PNC). Experiments showed that our hybrid approach produced more consistent results than conventional CCA across resampling and both the correlation and statistical significance were increased compared to distance correlation analysis. Further gene enrichment analysis and region of interest (ROI) analysis confirmed the associations of the identified genes with brain ROIs. Therefore, our approach provides a powerful tool for finding
The SME gauge sector with minimum length
Belich, H.; Louzada, H. L. C.
2017-12-01
We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory.
The SME gauge sector with minimum length
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Belich, H.; Louzada, H.L.C. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil)
2017-12-15
We study the gauge sector of the Standard Model Extension (SME) with the Lorentz covariant deformed Heisenberg algebra associated to the minimum length. In order to find and estimate corrections, we clarify whether the violation of Lorentz symmetry and the existence of a minimum length are independent phenomena or are, in some way, related. With this goal, we analyze the dispersion relations of this theory. (orig.)
Akibat Hukum Bagi Bank Bila Kewajiban Modal Inti Minimum Tidak Terpenuhi
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Indira Retno Aryatie
2012-02-01
Full Text Available As an implementation of the Indonesian Banking Architecture policy, the government issues Bank Indonesia Regulation No. 9/16/ PBI/2007 on Minimum Tier One Capital that increases the minimum capital to 100 billion rupiah. This writing discusses the legal complication that a bank will face should it fail to fulfil the minimum ratio. Sebagai tindak lanjut dari kebijakan Arsitektur Perbankan Indonesia, pemerintah mengeluarkan Peraturan Bank Indonesia 9/16/PBI/2007 tentang Kewajiban Modal Inti Minimum Bank yang menaikkan modal inti minimum bank umum menjadi 100 miliar rupiah. Tulisan ini membahas akibat hukum yang akan dialami bank bila kewajiban modal minimum tersebut gagal dipenuhi.
Richardson, Michelle; Abraham, Charles; Bond, Rod
2012-01-01
A review of 13 years of research into antecedents of university students' grade point average (GPA) scores generated the following: a comprehensive, conceptual map of known correlates of tertiary GPA; assessment of the magnitude of average, weighted correlations with GPA; and tests of multivariate models of GPA correlates within and across…
The impact of minimum wage adjustments on Vietnamese wage inequality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John; Torm, Nina
Using Vietnamese Labour Force Survey data we analyse the impact of minimum wage changes on wage inequality. Minimum wages serve to reduce local wage inequality in the formal sectors by decreasing the gap between the median wages and the lower tail of the local wage distributions. In contrast, local...... wage inequality is increased in the informal sectors. Overall, the minimum wages decrease national wage inequality. Our estimates indicate a decrease in the wage distribution Gini coefficient of about 2 percentage points and an increase in the 10/50 wage ratio of 5-7 percentage points caused...... by the adjustment of the minimum wages from 2011to 2012 that levelled the minimum wage across economic sectors....
Risk control and the minimum significant risk
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Seiler, F.A.; Alvarez, J.L.
1996-01-01
Risk management implies that the risk manager can, by his actions, exercise at least a modicum of control over the risk in question. In the terminology of control theory, a management action is a control signal imposed as feedback on the system to bring about a desired change in the state of the system. In the terminology of risk management, an action is taken to bring a predicted risk to lower values. Even if it is assumed that the management action taken is 100% effective and that the projected risk reduction is infinitely well known, there is a lower limit to the desired effects that can be achieved. It is based on the fact that all risks, such as the incidence of cancer, exhibit a degree of variability due to a number of extraneous factors such as age at exposure, sex, location, and some lifestyle parameters such as smoking or the consumption of alcohol. If the control signal is much smaller than the variability of the risk, the signal is lost in the noise and control is lost. This defines a minimum controllable risk based on the variability of the risk over the population considered. This quantity is the counterpart of the minimum significant risk which is defined by the uncertainties of the risk model. Both the minimum controllable risk and the minimum significant risk are evaluated for radiation carcinogenesis and are shown to be of the same order of magnitude. For a realistic management action, the assumptions of perfectly effective action and perfect model prediction made above have to be dropped, resulting in an effective minimum controllable risk which is determined by both risk limits. Any action below that effective limit is futile, but it is also unethical due to the ethical requirement of doing more good than harm. Finally, some implications of the effective minimum controllable risk on the use of the ALARA principle and on the evaluation of remedial action goals are presented
Unsupervised Idealization of Ion Channel Recordings by Minimum Description Length
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gnanasambandam, Radhakrishnan; Nielsen, Morten S; Nicolai, Christopher
2017-01-01
and characterize an idealization algorithm based on Rissanen's Minimum Description Length (MDL) Principle. This method uses minimal assumptions and idealizes ion channel recordings without requiring a detailed user input or a priori assumptions about channel conductance and kinetics. Furthermore, we demonstrate...... that correlation analysis of conductance steps can resolve properties of single ion channels in recordings contaminated by signals from multiple channels. We first validated our methods on simulated data defined with a range of different signal-to-noise levels, and then showed that our algorithm can recover...... channel currents and their substates from recordings with multiple channels, even under conditions of high noise. We then tested the MDL algorithm on real experimental data from human PIEZO1 channels and found that our method revealed the presence of substates with alternate conductances....
42 CFR 84.197 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.197... Cartridge Respirators § 84.197 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Respirators shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type and...
42 CFR 84.174 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.174... Air-Purifying Particulate Respirators § 84.174 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (a) Except..., durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type of respirator it contains...
Design of a minimum emittance nBA lattice
Lee, S. Y.
1998-04-01
An attempt to design a minimum emittance n-bend achromat (nBA) lattice has been made. One distinct feature is that dipoles with two different lengths were used. As a multiple bend achromat, five bend achromat lattices with six superperiod were designed. The obtained emittace is three times larger than the theoretical minimum. Tunes were chosen to avoid third order resonances. In order to correct first and second order chromaticities, eight family sextupoles were placed. The obtained emittance of five bend achromat lattices is almost equal to the minimum emittance of five bend achromat lattice consisting of dipoles with equal length.
Quantum mechanics the theoretical minimum
Susskind, Leonard
2014-01-01
From the bestselling author of The Theoretical Minimum, an accessible introduction to the math and science of quantum mechanicsQuantum Mechanics is a (second) book for anyone who wants to learn how to think like a physicist. In this follow-up to the bestselling The Theoretical Minimum, physicist Leonard Susskind and data engineer Art Friedman offer a first course in the theory and associated mathematics of the strange world of quantum mechanics. Quantum Mechanics presents Susskind and Friedman’s crystal-clear explanations of the principles of quantum states, uncertainty and time dependence, entanglement, and particle and wave states, among other topics. An accessible but rigorous introduction to a famously difficult topic, Quantum Mechanics provides a tool kit for amateur scientists to learn physics at their own pace.
Minimum resolvable power contrast model
Qian, Shuai; Wang, Xia; Zhou, Jingjing
2018-01-01
Signal-to-noise ratio and MTF are important indexs to evaluate the performance of optical systems. However,whether they are used alone or joint assessment cannot intuitively describe the overall performance of the system. Therefore, an index is proposed to reflect the comprehensive system performance-Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast (MRP) model. MRP is an evaluation model without human eyes. It starts from the radiance of the target and the background, transforms the target and background into the equivalent strips,and considers attenuation of the atmosphere, the optical imaging system, and the detector. Combining with the signal-to-noise ratio and the MTF, the Minimum Resolvable Radiation Performance Contrast is obtained. Finally the detection probability model of MRP is given.
Averaging of nonlinearity-managed pulses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zharnitsky, Vadim; Pelinovsky, Dmitry
2005-01-01
We consider the nonlinear Schroedinger equation with the nonlinearity management which describes Bose-Einstein condensates under Feshbach resonance. By using an averaging theory, we derive the Hamiltonian averaged equation and compare it with other averaging methods developed for this problem. The averaged equation is used for analytical approximations of nonlinearity-managed solitons
Reformers, Batting Averages, and Malpractice: The Case for Caution in Value-Added Use
Gleason, Daniel
2014-01-01
The essay considers two analogies that help to reveal the limitations of value-added modeling: the first, a comparison with batting averages, shows that the model's reliability is quite limited even though year-to-year correlation figures may seem impressive; the second, a comparison between medical malpractice and so-called educational…
42 CFR 84.134 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84.134... Respirators § 84.134 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. Supplied-air respirators shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type and...
42 CFR 84.1134 - Respirator containers; minimum requirements.
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Respirator containers; minimum requirements. 84... Combination Gas Masks § 84.1134 Respirator containers; minimum requirements. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section each respirator shall be equipped with a substantial, durable container...
42 CFR 84.74 - Apparatus containers; minimum requirements.
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Apparatus containers; minimum requirements. 84.74...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.74 Apparatus containers; minimum requirements. (a) Apparatus may be equipped with a substantial, durable container bearing markings which show the applicant's name, the type...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gutowski, M.; Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT
1999-01-01
The tetrahedral structure of the lowest triplet state of the WF 4 complex was examined using different variants of the density functional theory (DFT) and conventional ab initio methods. The low-level, conventional, ab initio methods, such as SCF, MP2, MP3, and CISD, predict the tetrahedral structure to be a minimum, whereas the DFT schemes predict an imaginary frequency for the e vibrational mode. Only after recovering electron correlation effects at the MP4 and higher levels, the conventional electronic structure methods also predict the T d structure to be a second-order stationary point. This is not the correlation but the exchange part of the DFT functionals which is responsible for the discrepancy between the DFT and low-level, conventional, ab initio predictions. The lowering of symmetry to C 2v leads to a minimum on the lowest triplet potential energy surface and the electronic energy difference between the T d and C 2v stationary points amounts to 0.85 and 0.96 kcal/mol at the B3LYP and CCSD(T) levels, respectively
Minimum K-S estimator using PH-transform technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Somchit Boonthiem
2016-07-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an improvement of the Minimum Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S estimator using proportional hazards transform (PH-transform technique. The data of experiment is 47 fire accidents data of an insurance company in Thailand. This experiment has two operations, the first operation, we minimize K-S statistic value using grid search technique for nine distributions; Rayleigh distribution, gamma distribution, Pareto distribution, log-logistic distribution, logistic distribution, normal distribution, Weibull distribution, lognormal distribution, and exponential distribution and the second operation, we improve K-S statistic using PHtransform. The result appears that PH-transform technique can improve the Minimum K-S estimator. The algorithms give better the Minimum K-S estimator for seven distributions; Rayleigh distribution, logistic distribution, gamma distribution, Pareto distribution, log-logistic distribution, normal distribution, Weibull distribution, log-normal distribution, and exponential distribution while the Minimum K-S estimators of normal distribution and logistic distribution are unchanged
OPTIMAL CORRELATION ESTIMATORS FOR QUANTIZED SIGNALS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, M. D.; Chou, H. H.; Gwinn, C. R.
2013-01-01
Using a maximum-likelihood criterion, we derive optimal correlation strategies for signals with and without digitization. We assume that the signals are drawn from zero-mean Gaussian distributions, as is expected in radio-astronomical applications, and we present correlation estimators both with and without a priori knowledge of the signal variances. We demonstrate that traditional estimators of correlation, which rely on averaging products, exhibit large and paradoxical noise when the correlation is strong. However, we also show that these estimators are fully optimal in the limit of vanishing correlation. We calculate the bias and noise in each of these estimators and discuss their suitability for implementation in modern digital correlators.
OPTIMAL CORRELATION ESTIMATORS FOR QUANTIZED SIGNALS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, M. D.; Chou, H. H.; Gwinn, C. R., E-mail: michaeltdh@physics.ucsb.edu, E-mail: cgwinn@physics.ucsb.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)
2013-03-10
Using a maximum-likelihood criterion, we derive optimal correlation strategies for signals with and without digitization. We assume that the signals are drawn from zero-mean Gaussian distributions, as is expected in radio-astronomical applications, and we present correlation estimators both with and without a priori knowledge of the signal variances. We demonstrate that traditional estimators of correlation, which rely on averaging products, exhibit large and paradoxical noise when the correlation is strong. However, we also show that these estimators are fully optimal in the limit of vanishing correlation. We calculate the bias and noise in each of these estimators and discuss their suitability for implementation in modern digital correlators.
The Einstein-Hilbert gravitation with minimum length
Louzada, H. L. C.
2018-05-01
We study the Einstein-Hilbert gravitation with the deformed Heisenberg algebra leading to the minimum length, with the intention to find and estimate the corrections in this theory, clarifying whether or not it is possible to obtain, by means of the minimum length, a theory, in D=4, which is causal, unitary and provides a massive graviton. Therefore, we will calculate and analyze the dispersion relationships of the considered theory.
Reducing tobacco use and access through strengthened minimum price laws.
McLaughlin, Ian; Pearson, Anne; Laird-Metke, Elisa; Ribisl, Kurt
2014-10-01
Higher prices reduce consumption and initiation of tobacco products. A minimum price law that establishes a high statutory minimum price and prohibits the industry's discounting tactics for tobacco products is a promising pricing strategy as an alternative to excise tax increases. Although some states have adopted minimum price laws on the basis of statutorily defined price "markups" over the invoice price, existing state laws have been largely ineffective at increasing the retail price. We analyzed 3 new variations of minimum price laws that hold great potential for raising tobacco prices and reducing consumption: (1) a flat rate minimum price law similar to a recent enactment in New York City, (2) an enhanced markup law, and (3) a law that incorporates both elements.
CFD-DEM Simulation of Minimum Fluidisation Velocity in Two Phase Medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H Khawaja
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this work, CFD-DEM (computational fluid dynamics - discrete element method has been used to model the 2 phase flow composed of solid particle and gas in the fluidised bed. This technique uses the Eulerian and the Langrangian methods to solve fluid and particles respectively. Each particle is treated as a discrete entity whose motion is governed by Newton's laws of motion. The particle-particle and particle-wall interaction is modelled using the classical contact mechanics. The particles motion is coupled with the volume averaged equations of the fluid dynamics using drag law. In fluidised bed, particles start experiencing drag once the fluid is passing through. The solid particles response to it once drag experienced is just equal to the weight of the particles. At this moment pressure drop across the bed is just equal to the weight of particles divide by the cross-section area. This is the first regime of fluidization, also referred as ‘the regime of minimum fluidization’. In this study, phenomenon of minimum fluidization is studied using CFD-DEM simulation with 4 different sizes of particles 0.15 mm, 0.3 mm, 0.6 mm, and 1.2 mm diameters. The results are presented in the form of pressure drop across the bed with the fluid superficial velocity. The achieved results are found in good agreement with the experimental and theoretical data available in literature.
Fourier analysis of spherically averaged momentum densities for some gaseous molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tossel, J.A.; Moore, J.H.
1981-01-01
The spherically averaged autocorrelation function, B(r), of the position-space wavefunction, psi(anti r), is calculated by numerical Fourier transformation from spherically averaged momentum densities, rho(p), obtained from either theoretical wavefunctions or (e,2e) electron-impact ionization experiments. Inspection of B(r) for the π molecular orbitals of C 4 H 6 established that autocorrelation function differences, ΔB(r), can be qualitatively related to bond lengths and numbers of bonding interactions. Differences between B(r) functions obtained from different approximate wavefunctions for a given orbital can be qualitatively understood in terms of wavefunction difference, Δpsi(1anti r), maps for these orbitals. Comparison of the B(r) function for the 1αsub(u) orbital of C 4 H 6 obtained from (e,2e) momentum densities with that obtained from an ab initio SCF MO wavefunction shows differences consistent with expected correlation effects. Thus, B(r) appears to be a useful quantity for relating spherically averaged momentum distributions to position-space wavefunction differences. (orig.)
12 CFR 567.2 - Minimum regulatory capital requirement.
2010-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum regulatory capital requirement. 567.2... Regulatory Capital Requirements § 567.2 Minimum regulatory capital requirement. (a) To meet its regulatory capital requirement a savings association must satisfy each of the following capital standards: (1) Risk...
29 CFR 525.24 - Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages. 525.24 Section 525.24 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR... Special Minimum Wages. The Advisory Committee on Special Minimum Wages, the members of which are appointed...
Anufriieva, Elena V; Shadrin, Nickolai V
2014-03-01
Arctodiaptomus salinus inhabits water bodies across Eurasia and North Africa. Based on our own data and that from the literature, we analyzed the influences of several factors on the intra- and inter-population variability of this species. A strong negative linear correlation between temperature and average body size in the Crimean and African populations was found, in which the parameters might be influenced by salinity. Meanwhile, a significant negative correlation between female body size and the altitude of habitats was found by comparing body size in populations from different regions. Individuals from environments with highly varying abiotic parameters, e.g. temporary reservoirs, had a larger body size than individuals from permanent water bodies. The changes in average body mass in populations were at 11.4 times, whereas, those in individual metabolic activities were at 6.2 times. Moreover, two size groups of A. salinus in the Crimean and the Siberian lakes were observed. The ratio of female length to male length fluctuated between 1.02 and 1.30. The average size of A. salinus in populations and its variations were determined by both genetic and environmental factors. However, the parities of these factors were unequal in either spatial or temporal scales.
Radial behavior of the average local ionization energies of atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Politzer, P.; Murray, J.S.; Grice, M.E.; Brinck, T.; Ranganathan, S.
1991-01-01
The radial behavior of the average local ionization energy bar I(r) has been investigated for the atoms He--Kr, using ab initio Hartree--Fock atomic wave functions. bar I(r) is found to decrease in a stepwise manner with the inflection points serving effectively to define boundaries between electronic shells. There is a good inverse correlation between polarizability and the ionization energy in the outermost region of the atom, suggesting that bar I(r) may be a meaningful measure of local polarizabilities in atoms and molecules
Generalized Heteroskedasticity ACF for Moving Average Models in Explicit Forms
Samir Khaled Safi
2014-01-01
The autocorrelation function (ACF) measures the correlation between observations at different distances apart. We derive explicit equations for generalized heteroskedasticity ACF for moving average of order q, MA(q). We consider two cases: Firstly: when the disturbance term follow the general covariance matrix structure Cov(wi, wj)=S with si,j ¹ 0 " i¹j . Secondly: when the diagonal elements of S are not all identical but sij = 0 " i¹j, i.e. S=diag(s11, s22,&hellip...
Statistical physics when the minimum temperature is not absolute zero
Chung, Won Sang; Hassanabadi, Hassan
2018-04-01
In this paper, the nonzero minimum temperature is considered based on the third law of thermodynamics and existence of the minimal momentum. From the assumption of nonzero positive minimum temperature in nature, we deform the definitions of some thermodynamical quantities and investigate nonzero minimum temperature correction to the well-known thermodynamical problems.
Nonidentical particle correlations in STAR
Erazmus, B; Renault, G; Retière, F; Szarwas, P; 10.1556/APH.21.2004.2-4.33
2004-01-01
The correlation function of nonidentical particles is sensitive to the relative space-time asymmetries in particle emission. Analysing pion-kaon, pion-proton and kaon-proton correlation functions, measured in the Au+Au collisions by the STAR experiment at RHIC, we show that pions, kaons and protons are not emitted at the same average space-time coordinates. The shifts between pion, kaon and proton sources are consistent with the picture of a transverse collective flow. Results of the first measurement of proton-lambda correlations at STAR are in agreement with recent CERN and AGS data.
42 CFR 422.382 - Minimum net worth amount.
2010-10-01
... that CMS considers appropriate to reduce, control or eliminate start-up administrative costs. (b) After... section. (c) Calculation of the minimum net worth amount—(1) Cash requirement. (i) At the time of application, the organization must maintain at least $750,000 of the minimum net worth amount in cash or cash...
Minimum Competencies in Undergraduate Motor Development. Guidance Document
National Association for Sport and Physical Education, 2004
2004-01-01
The minimum competency guidelines in Motor Development described herein at the undergraduate level may be gained in one or more motor development course(s) or through other courses provided in an undergraduate curriculum. The minimum guidelines include: (1) Formulation of a developmental perspective; (2) Knowledge of changes in motor behavior…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, Song; Guan, Wenxian; Wang, Hao; Pan, Liang; Zhou, Zhuping; Yu, Haiping; Liu, Tian; Yang, Xiaofeng; He, Jian; Zhou, Zhengyang
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Gastric cancers’ ADC values were significantly lower than normal gastric wall. • Gastric adenocarcinomas with different differentiation had different ADC values. • Gastric adenocarcinomas’ ADC values correlated with histologic differentiations. • Gastric cancers’ ADC values correlated with Lauren classifications. • Mean ADC value was better than min ADC value in characterizing gastric cancers. - Abstract: Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlations between histological differentiation and Lauren classification of gastric cancer and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) value of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Materials and methods: Sixty-nine patients with gastric cancer lesions underwent preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (3.0T) and surgical resection. DWI was obtained with a single-shot, echo-planar imaging sequence in the axial plane (b values: 0 and 1000 s/mm 2 ). Mean and minimum ADC values were obtained for each gastric cancer and normal gastric walls by two radiologists, who were blinded to the histological findings. Histological type, degree of differentiation and Lauren classification of each resected specimen were determined by one pathologist. Mean and minimum ADC values of gastric cancers with different histological types, degrees of differentiation and Lauren classifications were compared. Correlations between ADC values and histological differentiation and Lauren classification were analyzed. Results: The mean and minimum ADC values of gastric cancers, as a whole and separately, were significantly lower than those of normal gastric walls (all p values <0.001). There were significant differences in the mean and minimum ADC values among gastric cancers with different histological types, degrees of differentiation and Lauren classifications (p < 0.05). Mean and minimum ADC values correlated significantly (all p < 0.001) with histological differentiation (r = 0.564, 0.578) and Lauren
The difference between alternative averages
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James Vaupel
2012-09-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND Demographers have long been interested in how compositional change, e.g., change in age structure, affects population averages. OBJECTIVE We want to deepen understanding of how compositional change affects population averages. RESULTS The difference between two averages of a variable, calculated using alternative weighting functions, equals the covariance between the variable and the ratio of the weighting functions, divided by the average of the ratio. We compare weighted and unweighted averages and also provide examples of use of the relationship in analyses of fertility and mortality. COMMENTS Other uses of covariances in formal demography are worth exploring.
The Unusual Minimum of Cycle 23: Observations and Interpretation
Martens, Petrus C.; Nandy, D.; Munoz-Jaramillo, A.
2009-05-01
The current minimum of cycle 23 is unusual in its long duration, the very low level to which Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) has fallen, and the small flux of the open polar fields. The deep minimum of TSI seems to be related to an unprecedented dearth of polar faculae, and hence to the small amount of open flux. Based upon surface flux transport models it has been suggested that the causes of these phenomena may be an unusually vigorous meridional flow, or even a deviation from Joy's law resulting in smaller Joy angles than usual for emerging flux in cycle 23. There is also the possibility of a connection with the recently inferred emergence in polar regions of bipoles that systematically defy Hale's law. Much speculation has been going on as to the consequences of this exceptional minimum: are we entering another global minimum, is this the end of the 80 year period of exceptionally high solar activity, or is this just a statistical hiccup? Dynamo simulations are underway that may help answer this question. As an aside it must be mentioned that the current minimum of TSI puts an upper limit in the TSI input for global climate simulations during the Maunder minimum, and that a possible decrease in future solar activity will result in a very small but not insignificant reduction in the pace of global warming.
Minimum Wages and Skill Acquisition: Another Look at Schooling Effects.
Neumark, David; Wascher, William
2003-01-01
Examines the effects of minimum wage on schooling, seeking to reconcile some of the contradictory results in recent research using Current Population Survey data from the late 1970s through the 1980s. Findings point to negative effects of minimum wages on school enrollment, bolstering the findings of negative effects of minimum wages on enrollment…
14 CFR 91.155 - Basic VFR weather minimums.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic VFR weather minimums. 91.155 Section...) AIR TRAFFIC AND GENERAL OPERATING RULES GENERAL OPERATING AND FLIGHT RULES Flight Rules Visual Flight Rules § 91.155 Basic VFR weather minimums. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section and...
Correlation and network analysis of global financial indices.
Kumar, Sunil; Deo, Nivedita
2012-08-01
Random matrix theory (RMT) and network methods are applied to investigate the correlation and network properties of 20 financial indices. The results are compared before and during the financial crisis of 2008. In the RMT method, the components of eigenvectors corresponding to the second largest eigenvalue form two clusters of indices in the positive and negative directions. The components of these two clusters switch in opposite directions during the crisis. The network analysis uses the Fruchterman-Reingold layout to find clusters in the network of indices at different thresholds. At a threshold of 0.6, before the crisis, financial indices corresponding to the Americas, Europe, and Asia-Pacific form separate clusters. On the other hand, during the crisis at the same threshold, the American and European indices combine together to form a strongly linked cluster while the Asia-Pacific indices form a separate weakly linked cluster. If the value of the threshold is further increased to 0.9 then the European indices (France, Germany, and the United Kingdom) are found to be the most tightly linked indices. The structure of the minimum spanning tree of financial indices is more starlike before the crisis and it changes to become more chainlike during the crisis. The average linkage hierarchical clustering algorithm is used to find a clearer cluster structure in the network of financial indices. The cophenetic correlation coefficients are calculated and found to increase significantly, which indicates that the hierarchy increases during the financial crisis. These results show that there is substantial change in the structure of the organization of financial indices during a financial crisis.
Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature
Savage, M. J.
2016-02-01
Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass
Relativistic quantum correlations in bipartite fermionic states
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The influences of relative motion, the size of the wave packet and the average momentum of the particles on different types of correlations present in bipartite quantum states are investigated. In particular, the dynamics of the quantum mutual information, the classical correlation and the quantum discord on the ...
A note on minimum-variance theory and beyond
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng Jianfeng [Department of Informatics, Sussex University, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom); Tartaglia, Giangaetano [Physics Department, Rome University ' La Sapienza' , Rome 00185 (Italy); Tirozzi, Brunello [Physics Department, Rome University ' La Sapienza' , Rome 00185 (Italy)
2004-04-30
We revisit the minimum-variance theory proposed by Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780-4), discuss the implications of the theory on modelling the firing patterns of single neurons and analytically find the optimal control signals, trajectories and velocities. Under the rate coding assumption, input control signals employed in the minimum-variance theory should be Fitts processes rather than Poisson processes. Only if information is coded by interspike intervals, Poisson processes are in agreement with the inputs employed in the minimum-variance theory. For the integrate-and-fire model with Fitts process inputs, interspike intervals of efferent spike trains are very irregular. We introduce diffusion approximations to approximate neural models with renewal process inputs and present theoretical results on calculating moments of interspike intervals of the integrate-and-fire model. Results in Feng, et al (2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 7287-304) are generalized. In conclusion, we present a complete picture on the minimum-variance theory ranging from input control signals, to model outputs, and to its implications on modelling firing patterns of single neurons.
A note on minimum-variance theory and beyond
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feng Jianfeng; Tartaglia, Giangaetano; Tirozzi, Brunello
2004-01-01
We revisit the minimum-variance theory proposed by Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780-4), discuss the implications of the theory on modelling the firing patterns of single neurons and analytically find the optimal control signals, trajectories and velocities. Under the rate coding assumption, input control signals employed in the minimum-variance theory should be Fitts processes rather than Poisson processes. Only if information is coded by interspike intervals, Poisson processes are in agreement with the inputs employed in the minimum-variance theory. For the integrate-and-fire model with Fitts process inputs, interspike intervals of efferent spike trains are very irregular. We introduce diffusion approximations to approximate neural models with renewal process inputs and present theoretical results on calculating moments of interspike intervals of the integrate-and-fire model. Results in Feng, et al (2002 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 35 7287-304) are generalized. In conclusion, we present a complete picture on the minimum-variance theory ranging from input control signals, to model outputs, and to its implications on modelling firing patterns of single neurons
MEDOF - MINIMUM EUCLIDEAN DISTANCE OPTIMAL FILTER
Barton, R. S.
1994-01-01
The Minimum Euclidean Distance Optimal Filter program, MEDOF, generates filters for use in optical correlators. The algorithm implemented in MEDOF follows theory put forth by Richard D. Juday of NASA/JSC. This program analytically optimizes filters on arbitrary spatial light modulators such as coupled, binary, full complex, and fractional 2pi phase. MEDOF optimizes these modulators on a number of metrics including: correlation peak intensity at the origin for the centered appearance of the reference image in the input plane, signal to noise ratio including the correlation detector noise as well as the colored additive input noise, peak to correlation energy defined as the fraction of the signal energy passed by the filter that shows up in the correlation spot, and the peak to total energy which is a generalization of PCE that adds the passed colored input noise to the input image's passed energy. The user of MEDOF supplies the functions that describe the following quantities: 1) the reference signal, 2) the realizable complex encodings of both the input and filter SLM, 3) the noise model, possibly colored, as it adds at the reference image and at the correlation detection plane, and 4) the metric to analyze, here taken to be one of the analytical ones like SNR (signal to noise ratio) or PCE (peak to correlation energy) rather than peak to secondary ratio. MEDOF calculates filters for arbitrary modulators and a wide range of metrics as described above. MEDOF examines the statistics of the encoded input image's noise (if SNR or PCE is selected) and the filter SLM's (Spatial Light Modulator) available values. These statistics are used as the basis of a range for searching for the magnitude and phase of k, a pragmatically based complex constant for computing the filter transmittance from the electric field. The filter is produced for the mesh points in those ranges and the value of the metric that results from these points is computed. When the search is concluded, the
Split-plot fractional designs: Is minimum aberration enough?
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kulahci, Murat; Ramirez, Jose; Tobias, Randy
2006-01-01
Split-plot experiments are commonly used in industry for product and process improvement. Recent articles on designing split-plot experiments concentrate on minimum aberration as the design criterion. Minimum aberration has been criticized as a design criterion for completely randomized fractional...... factorial design and alternative criteria, such as the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions, are suggested (Wu and Hamada (2000)). The need for alternatives to minimum aberration is even more acute for split-plot designs. In a standard split-plot design, there are several types of two...... for completely randomized designs. Consequently, we provide a modified version of the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions design criterion to be used for split-plot designs....
Applicability of the minimum entropy generation method for optimizing thermodynamic cycles
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cheng Xue-Tao; Liang Xin-Gang
2013-01-01
Entropy generation is often used as a figure of merit in thermodynamic cycle optimizations.In this paper,it is shown that the applicability of the minimum entropy generation method to optimizing output power is conditional.The minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number do not correspond to the maximum output power when the total heat into the system of interest is not prescribed.For the cycles whose working medium is heated or cooled by streams with prescribed inlet temperatures and prescribed heat capacity flow rates,it is theoretically proved that both the minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number correspond to the maximum output power when the virtual entropy generation induced by dumping the used streams into the environment is considered.However,the minimum principle of entropy generation is not tenable in the case that the virtual entropy generation is not included,because the total heat into the system of interest is not fixed.An irreversible Carnot cycle and an irreversible Brayton cycle are analysed.The minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number do not correspond to the maximum output power if the heat into the system of interest is not prescribed.
Applicability of the minimum entropy generation method for optimizing thermodynamic cycles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng Xue-Tao; Liang Xin-Gang
2013-01-01
Entropy generation is often used as a figure of merit in thermodynamic cycle optimizations. In this paper, it is shown that the applicability of the minimum entropy generation method to optimizing output power is conditional. The minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number do not correspond to the maximum output power when the total heat into the system of interest is not prescribed. For the cycles whose working medium is heated or cooled by streams with prescribed inlet temperatures and prescribed heat capacity flow rates, it is theoretically proved that both the minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number correspond to the maximum output power when the virtual entropy generation induced by dumping the used streams into the environment is considered. However, the minimum principle of entropy generation is not tenable in the case that the virtual entropy generation is not included, because the total heat into the system of interest is not fixed. An irreversible Carnot cycle and an irreversible Brayton cycle are analysed. The minimum entropy generation rate and the minimum entropy generation number do not correspond to the maximum output power if the heat into the system of interest is not prescribed. (general)
Minimum Moduli in Von Neumann Algebras | Gopalraj | Quaestiones ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper we answer a question raised in [12] in the affirmative, namely that the essential minimum modulus of an element in a von. Neumann algebra, relative to any norm closed two-sided ideal, is equal to the minimum modulus of the element perturbed by an element from the ideal. As a corollary of this result, we ...
Correlation between developmental disorders and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fukuda, Kuniaki; Endo, Shoichi; Goda, Tomoko; Ota, Akira; Akita, Yuji; Furukawa, Seikyo (Kagawa Children' s National Sanatorium, Zentsuji (Japan))
1994-08-01
We investigated the prevalence of developmental disorders in very low birth weight infants, their risk factors during the neonatal period, and the correlation between their neurological symptoms and their MRI findings. Seventy-three infants, who were followed up for more than 5 years in the developmental clinic, were enrolled. The developmental disorders included 6 patients with cerebral palsy (CP) and 6 patients with mental retardation (MR). The types of CP were as follows: spastic diplegia (3), spastic quadriplegia (2), athetotic quadriplegia (1). Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and mechanical ventilation (MV) were significant risk factors for CP and MR and retinopathy was also a significant risk factor for MR. Periventricular areas of bright signal intensity on T2 (TR 2000 msec/TE 120 mse) weighted images, compatible with old, small white matter infarcts, gliosis or demyelination, were observed in only three of the seven patients. We measured the width of anterior horns, the maximum diameter of cerebrum, and the minimum thickness of white matter in occipital lobe on T1 (TR 500 msec/TE 20 msec) weighted transaxial images in eight patients (five patients with CP, three patients with MR). The maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters were significantly smaller in patients with CP or MR than those in controls, respectively. The DQ of patients significantly correlated with the maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters in left occipital lobe significantly correlated with DQ. (author).
Correlation between developmental disorders and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuda, Kuniaki; Endo, Shoichi; Goda, Tomoko; Ota, Akira; Akita, Yuji; Furukawa, Seikyo
1994-01-01
We investigated the prevalence of developmental disorders in very low birth weight infants, their risk factors during the neonatal period, and the correlation between their neurological symptoms and their MRI findings. Seventy-three infants, who were followed up for more than 5 years in the developmental clinic, were enrolled. The developmental disorders included 6 patients with cerebral palsy (CP) and 6 patients with mental retardation (MR). The types of CP were as follows: spastic diplegia (3), spastic quadriplegia (2), athetotic quadriplegia (1). Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and mechanical ventilation (MV) were significant risk factors for CP and MR and retinopathy was also a significant risk factor for MR. Periventricular areas of bright signal intensity on T2 (TR 2000 msec/TE 120 mse) weighted images, compatible with old, small white matter infarcts, gliosis or demyelination, were observed in only three of the seven patients. We measured the width of anterior horns, the maximum diameter of cerebrum, and the minimum thickness of white matter in occipital lobe on T1 (TR 500 msec/TE 20 msec) weighted transaxial images in eight patients (five patients with CP, three patients with MR). The maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters were significantly smaller in patients with CP or MR than those in controls, respectively. The DQ of patients significantly correlated with the maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters in left occipital lobe significantly correlated with DQ. (author)
Subjective well-being and minimum wages: Evidence from U.S. states.
Kuroki, Masanori
2018-02-01
This paper investigates whether increases in minimum wages are associated with higher life satisfaction by using monthly-level state minimum wages and individual-level data from the 2005-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The magnitude I find suggests that a 10% increase in the minimum wage is associated with a 0.03-point increase in life satisfaction for workers without a high school diploma, on a 4-point scale. Contrary to popular belief that higher minimum wages hurt business owners, I find little evidence that higher minimum wages lead to the loss of well-being among self-employed people. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
A Divergence Median-based Geometric Detector with A Weighted Averaging Filter
Hua, Xiaoqiang; Cheng, Yongqiang; Li, Yubo; Wang, Hongqiang; Qin, Yuliang
2018-01-01
To overcome the performance degradation of the classical fast Fourier transform (FFT)-based constant false alarm rate detector with the limited sample data, a divergence median-based geometric detector on the Riemannian manifold of Heimitian positive definite matrices is proposed in this paper. In particular, an autocorrelation matrix is used to model the correlation of sample data. This method of the modeling can avoid the poor Doppler resolution as well as the energy spread of the Doppler filter banks result from the FFT. Moreover, a weighted averaging filter, conceived from the philosophy of the bilateral filtering in image denoising, is proposed and combined within the geometric detection framework. As the weighted averaging filter acts as the clutter suppression, the performance of the geometric detector is improved. Numerical experiments are given to validate the effectiveness of our proposed method.
Six months into Myanmar's minimum wage: Reflecting on progress ...
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
2016-04-25
Apr 25, 2016 ... Participants examined recent results from an IDRC-funded enterprise survey, ... of a minimum wage, and how they have coped with the new situation.” ... Debate on the impact of minimum wages on employment continues ...
Do minimum wages reduce poverty? Evidence from Central America ...
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
2010-12-16
Dec 16, 2010 ... Raising minimum wages has traditionally been considered a way to protect poor ... However, the effect of raising minimum wages remains an empirical question ... More than 70 of Vietnamese entrepreneurs choose to start a ...
Role of correlations of lattice vibrations in channeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrett, J.H.; Jackson, D.P.
1980-01-01
Computer simulations of channeling have been done using correlated thermal displacements of the lattice atoms. For the channeling minimum yield and half angles, results are given as a function of temperature. For the surface yield, results are given as a function of angle from the axial direction to supplement earlier results as a function of temperature. In all quantities correlations cause effects qualitatively similar to a reduction in vibration amplitude, although the reduction varies from quantity to quantity. These variations are consistent with the idea that correlations will be most important for a trajectory aligned with the rows and of decreasing importance as the direction of a trajectory approaches a random direction. The largest effect occurs for the surface yield wherein there is a reduction of about 15% for the cases studied so far. (orig.)
High Grazing Angle and High Resolution Sea Clutter: Correlation and Polarisation Analyses
2007-03-01
the azimuthal correlation. The correlation between the HH and VV sea clutter data is low. A CA-CFAR ( cell average constant false-alarm rate...to calculate the power spectra of correlation profiles. The frequency interval of the traditional Discrete Fourier Transform is NT1 Hz, where N and...sea spikes, the Entropy-Alpha decomposition of sea spikes is shown in Figure 30. The process first locates spikes using a cell -average constant false
Coupling between minimum scattering antennas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, J.; Lessow, H; Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans
1974-01-01
Coupling between minimum scattering antennas (MSA's) is investigated by the coupling theory developed by Wasylkiwskyj and Kahn. Only rotationally symmetric power patterns are considered, and graphs of relative mutual impedance are presented as a function of distance and pattern parameters. Crossed...
Correlation length estimation in a polycrystalline material model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simonovski, I.; Cizelj, L.
2005-01-01
This paper deals with the correlation length estimated from a mesoscopic model of a polycrystalline material. The correlation length can be used in some macroscopic material models as a material parameter that describes the internal length. It can be estimated directly from the strain and stress fields calculated from a finite-element model, which explicitly accounts for the selected mesoscopic features such as the random orientation, shape and size of the grains. A crystal plasticity material model was applied in the finite-element analysis. Different correlation lengths were obtained depending on the used set of crystallographic orientations. We determined that the different sets of crystallographic orientations affect the general level of the correlation length, however, as the external load is increased the behaviour of correlation length is similar in all the analyzed cases. The correlation lengths also changed with the macroscopic load. If the load is below the yield strength the correlation lengths are constant, and are slightly higher than the average grain size. The correlation length can therefore be considered as an indicator of first plastic deformations in the material. Increasing the load above the yield strength creates shear bands that temporarily increase the values of the correlation lengths calculated from the strain fields. With a further load increase the correlation lengths decrease slightly but stay above the average grain size. (author)
29 CFR 510.23 - Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Agricultural activities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. Agriculture activities eligible for an extended phase-in of the minimum...
Is a Minimum Wage an Appropriate Instrument for Redistribution?
A.A.F. Gerritsen (Aart); B. Jacobs (Bas)
2016-01-01
textabstractWe analyze the redistributional (dis)advantages of a minimum wage over income taxation in competitive labor markets, without imposing assumptions on the (in)efficiency of labor rationing. Compared to a distributionally equivalent tax change, a minimum-wage increase raises involuntary
Correlation methods in cutting arcs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prevosto, L; Kelly, H, E-mail: prevosto@waycom.com.ar [Grupo de Descargas Electricas, Departamento Ing. Electromecanica, Universidad Tecnologica Nacional, Regional Venado Tuerto, Laprida 651, Venado Tuerto (2600), Santa Fe (Argentina)
2011-05-01
The present work applies similarity theory to the plasma emanating from transferred arc, gas-vortex stabilized plasma cutting torches, to analyze the existing correlation between the arc temperature and the physical parameters of such torches. It has been found that the enthalpy number significantly influence the temperature of the electric arc. The obtained correlation shows an average deviation of 3% from the temperature data points. Such correlation can be used, for instance, to predict changes in the peak value of the arc temperature at the nozzle exit of a geometrically similar cutting torch due to changes in its operation parameters.
Correlation methods in cutting arcs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prevosto, L; Kelly, H
2011-01-01
The present work applies similarity theory to the plasma emanating from transferred arc, gas-vortex stabilized plasma cutting torches, to analyze the existing correlation between the arc temperature and the physical parameters of such torches. It has been found that the enthalpy number significantly influence the temperature of the electric arc. The obtained correlation shows an average deviation of 3% from the temperature data points. Such correlation can be used, for instance, to predict changes in the peak value of the arc temperature at the nozzle exit of a geometrically similar cutting torch due to changes in its operation parameters.
De Luca, G.; Magnus, J.R.
2011-01-01
In this article, we describe the estimation of linear regression models with uncertainty about the choice of the explanatory variables. We introduce the Stata commands bma and wals, which implement, respectively, the exact Bayesian model-averaging estimator and the weighted-average least-squares
The impact of the minimum wage on health.
Andreyeva, Elena; Ukert, Benjamin
2018-03-07
This study evaluates the effect of minimum wage on risky health behaviors, healthcare access, and self-reported health. We use data from the 1993-2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, and employ a difference-in-differences strategy that utilizes time variation in new minimum wage laws across U.S. states. Results suggest that the minimum wage increases the probability of being obese and decreases daily fruit and vegetable intake, but also decreases days with functional limitations while having no impact on healthcare access. Subsample analyses reveal that the increase in weight and decrease in fruit and vegetable intake are driven by the older population, married, and whites. The improvement in self-reported health is especially strong among non-whites, females, and married.
Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California.
S Barnert, Elizabeth; S Abrams, Laura; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka
2017-03-13
Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one.
Pion correlation from Skyrmion--anti-Skyrmion annihilation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, Y.; Amado, R.D.
1995-01-01
We study two pion correlations from Skyrmion and anti-Skyrmion collision, using the product ansatz and an approximate random grooming method for nucleon projection. The spatial-isospin coupling inherent in the Skyrme model, along with empirical averages, leads to correlations not only among pions of like charges but also among unlike charge types
A new method for the measurement of two-phase mass flow rate using average bi-directional flow tube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, B. J.; Uh, D. J.; Kang, K. H.; Song, C. H.; Paek, W. P.
2004-01-01
Average bi-directional flow tube was suggested to apply in the air/steam-water flow condition. Its working principle is similar with Pitot tube, however, it makes it possible to eliminate the cooling system which is normally needed to prevent from flashing in the pressure impulse line of pitot tube when it is used in the depressurization condition. The suggested flow tube was tested in the air-water vertical test section which has 80mm inner diameter and 10m length. The flow tube was installed at 120 of L/D from inlet of test section. In the test, the pressure drop across the average bi-directional flow tube, system pressure and average void fraction were measured on the measuring plane. In the test, fluid temperature and injected mass flow rates of air and water phases were also measured by a RTD and two coriolis flow meters, respectively. To calculate the phasic mass flow rates : from the measured differential pressure and void fraction, Chexal drift-flux correlation was used. In the test a new correlation of momentum exchange factor was suggested. The test result shows that the suggested instrumentation using the measured void fraction and Chexal drift-flux correlation can predict the mass flow rates within 10% error of measured data
SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE AVERAGE RUNOFF IN THE IZA AND VIȘEU WATERSHEDS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
HORVÁTH CS.
2015-03-01
Full Text Available The average runoff represents the main parameter with which one can best evaluate an area’s water resources and it is also an important characteristic in al river runoff research. In this paper we choose a GIS methodology for assessing the spatial evolution of the average runoff, using validity curves we identifies three validity areas in which the runoff changes differently with altitude. The tree curves were charted using the average runoff values of 16 hydrometric stations from the area, eight in the Vișeu and eight in the Iza river catchment. Identifying the appropriate areas of the obtained correlations curves (between specific average runoff and catchments mean altitude allowed the assessment of potential runoff at catchment level and on altitudinal intervals. By integrating the curves functions in to GIS we created an average runoff map for the area; from which one can easily extract runoff data using GIS spatial analyst functions. The study shows that from the three areas the highest runoff corresponds with the third zone but because it’s small area the water volume is also minor. It is also shown that with the use of the created runoff map we can compute relatively quickly correct runoff values for areas without hydrologic control.
47 CFR 25.205 - Minimum angle of antenna elevation.
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum angle of antenna elevation. 25.205 Section 25.205 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.205 Minimum angle of antenna elevation. (a) Earth station...
An Experimental study on a Method of Computing Minimum flow rate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cho, Yeon Sik; Kim, Tae Hyun; Kim, Chang Hyun
2009-01-01
Many pump reliability problems in the Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) are being attributed to the operation of the pump at flow rates well below its best efficiency point(BEP). Generally, the manufacturer and the user try to avert such problems by specifying a minimum flow, below which the pump should not be operated. Pump minimum flow usually involves two considerations. The first consideration is normally termed the 'thermal minimum flow', which is that flow required to prevent the fluid inside the pump from reaching saturation conditions. The other consideration is often referred to as 'mechanical minimum flow', which is that flow required to prevent mechanical damage. However, the criteria for specifying such a minimum flow are not clearly understood by all parties concerned. Also various factor and information for computing minimum flow are not easily available as considering for the pump manufacturer' proprietary. The objective of this study is to obtain experimental data for computing minimum flow rate and to understand the pump performances due to low flow operation. A test loop consisted of the pump to be used in NPPs, water tank, flow rate measurements and piping system with flow control devices was established for this study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roham Vali, Mohammad Nasrollahzadeh Masouleh* and Siamak Mashhady Rafie1
2013-04-01
Full Text Available There is no data on the effect of maximum and minimum doses of furosemide on heart's work performance and amount of fractional shortening (FS in echocardiography of rabbit. This study was designed to validate probability of the mentionable effect. Twenty-four healthy female New Zealand white rabbits were divided into four equal groups. Maximum and minimum doses of furosemide were used for the first and second groups and the injection solution for the third and fourth groups was sodium chloride 0.9% which had the same calculated volumes of furosemide for the first two groups, respectively. The left ventricle FS in statutory times (0, 2, 5, 15, 30 minutes was determined by echocardiography. Measurements of Mean±SD, maximum and minimum amounts for FS values in all groups before injection and in statutory times were calculated. Statistical analysis revealed non-significant correlation between the means of FS. The results of this study showed that furosemide can be used as a diuretic agent for preparing a window approach in abdominal ultrasonography examination with no harmful effect on cardiac function.
Parameterization of ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doyle, Barney L.
2016-03-15
A MS Excel program has been written that calculates ion channeling half-angles and minimum yields in cubic bcc, fcc and diamond lattice crystals. All of the tables and graphs in the three Ion Beam Analysis Handbooks that previously had to be manually looked up and read from were programed into Excel in handy lookup tables, or parameterized, for the case of the graphs, using rather simple exponential functions with different power functions of the arguments. The program then offers an extremely convenient way to calculate axial and planar half-angles, minimum yields, effects on half-angles and minimum yields of amorphous overlayers. The program can calculate these half-angles and minimum yields for 〈u v w〉 axes and [h k l] planes up to (5 5 5). The program is open source and available at (http://www.sandia.gov/pcnsc/departments/iba/ibatable.html).
Abboud, S.; Blatt, C. M.; Lown, B.; Graboys, T. B.; Sadeh, D.; Cohen, R. J.
1987-01-01
An advanced non invasive signal averaging technique was used to detect late potentials in two groups of patients: Group A (24 patients) with coronary artery disease (CAD) and without sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) and Group B (8 patients) with CAD and sustained VT. Recorded analog data were digitized and aligned using a cross correlation function with fast Fourier transform schema, averaged and band pass filtered between 60 and 200 Hz with a non-recursive digital filter. Averaged filtered waveforms were analyzed by computer program for 3 parameters: (1) filtered QRS (fQRS) duration (2) interval between the peak of the R wave peak and the end of fQRS (R-LP) (3) RMS value of last 40 msec of fQRS (RMS). Significant change was found between Groups A and B in fQRS (101 -/+ 13 msec vs 123 -/+ 15 msec; p < .0005) and in R-LP vs 52 -/+ 11 msec vs 71-/+18 msec, p <.002). We conclude that (1) the use of a cross correlation triggering method and non-recursive digital filter enables a reliable recording of late potentials from the body surface; (2) fQRS and R-LP durations are sensitive indicators of CAD patients susceptible to VT.
26 CFR 5c.168(f)(8)-4 - Minimum investment of lessor.
2010-04-01
... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum investment of lessor. 5c.168(f)(8)-4....168(f)(8)-4 Minimum investment of lessor. (a) Minimum investment. Under section 168(f)(8)(B)(ii), an... has a minimum at risk investment which, at the time the property is placed in service under the lease...
30 CFR 18.97 - Inspection of machines; minimum requirements.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inspection of machines; minimum requirements... TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Field Approval of Electrically Operated Mining Equipment § 18.97 Inspection of machines; minimum...
Force-induced unzipping of DNA with long-range correlated sequence
Allahverdyan, A. E.; Gevorkian, Zh. S.
2002-01-01
We consider force-induced unzipping transition for a heterogeneous DNA model with a long-range correlated base-sequence. It is shown that as compared to the uncorrelated situation, long-range correlations smear the unzipping phase-transition, change its universality class and lead to non-self-averaging: the averaged behavior strongly differs from the typical ones. Several basic scenarios for this typical behavior are revealed and explained. The results can be relevant for explaining the biolo...
Elemental GCR Observations during the 2009-2010 Solar Minimum Period
Lave, K. A.; Israel, M. H.; Binns, W. R.; Christian, E. R.; Cummings, A. C.; Davis, A. J.; deNolfo, G. A.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Stone, E. C.;
2013-01-01
Using observations from the Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) onboard the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE), we present new measurements of the galactic cosmic ray (GCR) elemental composition and energy spectra for the species B through Ni in the energy range approx. 50-550 MeV/nucleon during the record setting 2009-2010 solar minimum period. These data are compared with our observations from the 1997-1998 solar minimum period, when solar modulation in the heliosphere was somewhat higher. For these species, we find that the intensities during the 2009-2010 solar minimum were approx. 20% higher than those in the previous solar minimum, and in fact were the highest GCR intensities recorded during the space age. Relative abundances for these species during the two solar minimum periods differed by small but statistically significant amounts, which are attributed to the combination of spectral shape differences between primary and secondary GCRs in the interstellar medium and differences between the levels of solar modulation in the two solar minima. We also present the secondary-to-primary ratios B/C and (Sc+Ti+V)/Fe for both solar minimum periods, and demonstrate that these ratios are reasonably well fit by a simple "leaky-box" galactic transport model that is combined with a spherically symmetric solar modulation model.
Minimum qualifications for nuclear criticality safety professionals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ketzlach, N.
1990-01-01
A Nuclear Criticality Technology and Safety Training Committee has been established within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Nuclear Criticality Safety and Technology Project to review and, if necessary, develop standards for the training of personnel involved in nuclear criticality safety (NCS). The committee is exploring the need for developing a standard or other mechanism for establishing minimum qualifications for NCS professionals. The development of standards and regulatory guides for nuclear power plant personnel may serve as a guide in developing the minimum qualifications for NCS professionals
A minimum achievable PV electrical generating cost
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabisky, E.S.
1996-01-01
The role and share of photovoltaic (PV) generated electricity in our nation's future energy arsenal is primarily dependent on its future production cost. This paper provides a framework for obtaining a minimum achievable electrical generating cost (a lower bound) for fixed, flat-plate photovoltaic systems. A cost of 2.8 $cent/kWh (1990$) was derived for a plant located in Southwestern USA sunshine using a cost of money of 8%. In addition, a value of 22 $cent/Wp (1990$) was estimated as a minimum module manufacturing cost/price
What Can We Learn about GRB from the Variability Timescale Related Correlations?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xie, Wei; Lei, Wei-Hua; Wang, Ding-Xiong, E-mail: leiwh@hust.edu.cn [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)
2017-04-01
Recently, two empirical correlations related to the minimum variability timescale (MTS) of the light curves are discovered in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). One is the anti-correlation between MTS and Lorentz factor Γ, and the other is the anti-correlation between the MTS and gamma-ray luminosity L {sub γ}. Both of the two correlations might be used to explore the activity of the central engine of GRBs. In this paper, we try to understand these empirical correlations by combining two popular black hole central engine models (namely, the Blandford and Znajek mechanism (BZ) and the neutrino-dominated accretion flow (NDAF)). By taking the MTS as the timescale of viscous instability of the NDAF, we find that these correlations favor the scenario in which the jet is driven by the BZ mechanism.
What Can We Learn about GRB from the Variability Timescale Related Correlations?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xie, Wei; Lei, Wei-Hua; Wang, Ding-Xiong
2017-01-01
Recently, two empirical correlations related to the minimum variability timescale (MTS) of the light curves are discovered in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). One is the anti-correlation between MTS and Lorentz factor Γ, and the other is the anti-correlation between the MTS and gamma-ray luminosity L γ . Both of the two correlations might be used to explore the activity of the central engine of GRBs. In this paper, we try to understand these empirical correlations by combining two popular black hole central engine models (namely, the Blandford and Znajek mechanism (BZ) and the neutrino-dominated accretion flow (NDAF)). By taking the MTS as the timescale of viscous instability of the NDAF, we find that these correlations favor the scenario in which the jet is driven by the BZ mechanism.
Saletu, M; Hauer, C; Anderer, P; Saletu-Zyhlarz, G; Gruber, G; Oberndorfer, S; Mandl, M; Popovic, R; Saletu, B
2000-03-24
There is evidence that daytime tiredness is caused by apnea/hypopnea with oxygen desaturation and/or by sleep fragmentation due to arousals. The aim of this study was to investigate objective and subjective sleep and awakening quality and daytime vigilance--objectified by midmorning mapping of vigilance-controlled EEG (V-EEG)--in sleep apnea patients (N: 18), as compared with age- and sex-matched normal controls (N: 18) as well as to correlate nocturnal respiratory distress and arousals to daytime brain function. Statistical analyses demonstrated a deterioration in subjective and objective sleep and awakening quality in apnea patients. Midmorning V-EEG mapping in apnea patients exhibited less total power, more delta and theta, less alpha and beta activity, as well as a slower dominant frequency and centroid of the total activity compared to controls, which suggests a vigilance decrement. The Spearman rank correlation between 6 polysomnographically registered respiratory variables and 36 diurnal quantitative EEG measures demonstrated the following: the higher the apnea, apnea-hypopnea, snoring and desaturation indices and the lower the minimum and average low oxygen saturation, the more pronounced was diurnal tiredness. Eleven arousal measures based on ASDA criteria showed the following significant correlations: the higher the nocturnal arousal index and the more arousals due to hypopneas, the greater was daytime tiredness. On the other hand, the greater the average frequency change during arousals and the more spontaneous arousals, the better was daytime vigilance. Our findings show that, in contrast to the lengthy Multiple Sleep Latency (MSLT) and Maintenance of Wakefulness (MWT) tests which evaluate sleep pressure under resting conditions conducive to sleep, V-EEG mapping provides a brief objective measure of a sleep apnea patient's daytime tiredness under conditions of wakefulness more appropriate to reflect the patient's everyday life.
Mahmoudvand, Zahra; Kamkar, Mehran; Shahmoradi, Leila; Nejad, Ahmadreza Farzaneh
2016-04-01
Determination of minimum data set (MDS) in echocardiography reports is necessary for documentation and putting information in a standard way, and leads to the enhancement of electrocardiographic studies through having access to precise and perfect reports and also to the development of a standard database for electrocardiographic reports. to determine the minimum data set of echocardiography reporting system to exchange with Iran's electronic health record (EHR) system. First, a list of minimum data set was prepared after reviewing texts and studying cardiac patients' records. Then, to determine the content validity of the prepared MDS, the expert views of 10 cardiologists and 10 health information management (HIM) specialists were obtained; to estimate the reliability of the set, test-retest method was employed. Finally, the data were analyzed using SPSS software. The highest degree of consensus was found for the following MDSs: patient's name and family name (5), accepting doctor's name and family name, familial death records due to cardiac disorders, the image identification code, mitral valve, aortic valve, tricuspid valve, pulmonary valve, left ventricle, hole, atrium valve, Doppler examination of ventricular and atrial movement models and diagnoses with an average of. To prepare a model of echocardiography reporting system to exchange with EHR system, creation a standard data set is the vital point. Therefore, based on the research findings, the minimum reporting system data to exchange with Iran's electronic health record system include information on entity, management, medical record, carried-out acts, and the main content of the echocardiography report, which the planners of reporting system should consider.
Setting a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction in California
Barnert, Elizabeth S.; Abrams, Laura S.; Maxson, Cheryl; Gase, Lauren; Soung, Patricia; Carroll, Paul; Bath, Eraka
2018-01-01
Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction. Findings Existing evidence suggests that children lack the cognitive maturity to comprehend or benefit from formal juvenile justice processing, and diverting children from the system altogether is likely to be more beneficial for the child and for public safety. Research limitations/implications Based on current evidence and theory, the authors argue that minimum age legislation that protects children from contact with the juvenile justice system and treats them as children in need of services and support, rather than as delinquents or criminals, is an important policy goal for California and for other national and international jurisdictions lacking a minimum age law. Originality/value California has no law specifying a minimum age for juvenile justice jurisdiction, meaning that young children of any age can be processed in the juvenile justice system. This policy brief provides a rationale for a minimum age law in California and other states and jurisdictions without one. Paper type Conceptual paper PMID:28299968
Planetary tides during the Maunder sunspot minimum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smythe, C.M.; Eddy, J.A.
1977-01-01
Sun-centered planetary conjunctions and tidal potentials are here constructed for the AD1645 to 1715 period of sunspot absence, referred to as the 'Maunder Minimum'. These are found to be effectively indistinguishable from patterns of conjunctions and power spectra of tidal potential in the present era of a well established 11 year sunspot cycle. This places a new and difficult restraint on any tidal theory of sunspot formation. Problems arise in any direct gravitational theory due to the apparently insufficient forces and tidal heights involved. Proponents of the tidal hypothesis usually revert to trigger mechanisms, which are difficult to criticise or test by observation. Any tidal theory rests on the evidence of continued sunspot periodicity and the substantiation of a prolonged period of solar anomaly in the historical past. The 'Maunder Minimum' was the most drastic change in the behaviour of solar activity in the last 300 years; sunspots virtually disappeared for a 70 year period and the 11 year cycle was probably absent. During that time, however, the nine planets were all in their orbits, and planetary conjunctions and tidal potentials were indistinguishable from those of the present era, in which the 11 year cycle is well established. This provides good evidence against the tidal theory. The pattern of planetary tidal forces during the Maunder Minimum was reconstructed to investigate the possibility that the multiple planet forces somehow fortuitously cancelled at the time, that is that the positions of the slower moving planets in the 17th and early 18th centuries were such that conjunctions and tidal potentials were at the time reduced in number and force. There was no striking dissimilarity between the time of the Maunder Minimum and any period investigated. The failure of planetary conjunction patterns to reflect the drastic drop in sunspots during the Maunder Minimum casts doubt on the tidal theory of solar activity, but a more quantitative test
Akdenur, B; Okkesum, S; Kara, S; Günes, S
2009-11-01
In this study, electromyography signals sampled from children undergoing orthodontic treatment were used to estimate the effect of an orthodontic trainer on the anterior temporal muscle. A novel data normalization method, called the correlation- and covariance-supported normalization method (CCSNM), based on correlation and covariance between features in a data set, is proposed to provide predictive guidance to the orthodontic technique. The method was tested in two stages: first, data normalization using the CCSNM; second, prediction of normalized values of anterior temporal muscles using an artificial neural network (ANN) with a Levenberg-Marquardt learning algorithm. The data set consists of electromyography signals from right anterior temporal muscles, recorded from 20 children aged 8-13 years with class II malocclusion. The signals were recorded at the start and end of a 6-month treatment. In order to train and test the ANN, two-fold cross-validation was used. The CCSNM was compared with four normalization methods: minimum-maximum normalization, z score, decimal scaling, and line base normalization. In order to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method, prevalent performance-measuring methods, and the mean square error and mean absolute error as mathematical methods, the statistical relation factor R2 and the average deviation have been examined. The results show that the CCSNM was the best normalization method among other normalization methods for estimating the effect of the trainer.
Quality control methods in accelerometer data processing: defining minimum wear time.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carly Rich
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: When using accelerometers to measure physical activity, researchers need to determine whether subjects have worn their device for a sufficient period to be included in analyses. We propose a minimum wear criterion using population-based accelerometer data, and explore the influence of gender and the purposeful inclusion of children with weekend data on reliability. METHODS: Accelerometer data obtained during the age seven sweep of the UK Millennium Cohort Study were analysed. Children were asked to wear an ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer for seven days. Reliability coefficients(r of mean daily counts/minute were calculated using the Spearman-Brown formula based on the intraclass correlation coefficient. An r of 1.0 indicates that all the variation is between- rather than within-children and that measurement is 100% reliable. An r of 0.8 is often regarded as acceptable reliability. Analyses were repeated on data from children who met different minimum daily wear times (one to 10 hours and wear days (one to seven days. Analyses were conducted for all children, separately for boys and girls, and separately for children with and without weekend data. RESULTS: At least one hour of wear time data was obtained from 7,704 singletons. Reliability increased as the minimum number of days and the daily wear time increased. A high reliability (r = 0.86 and sample size (n = 6,528 was achieved when children with ≥ two days lasting ≥10 hours/day were included in analyses. Reliability coefficients were similar for both genders. Purposeful sampling of children with weekend data resulted in comparable reliabilities to those calculated independent of weekend wear. CONCLUSION: Quality control procedures should be undertaken before analysing accelerometer data in large-scale studies. Using data from children with ≥ two days lasting ≥10 hours/day should provide reliable estimates of physical activity. It's unnecessary to include only children
Cytokines as a predictor of clinical response following hip arthroscopy: minimum 2-year follow-up.
Shapiro, Lauren M; Safran, Marc R; Maloney, William J; Goodman, Stuart B; Huddleston, James I; Bellino, Michael J; Scuderi, Gaetano J; Abrams, Geoffrey D
2016-08-01
Hip arthroscopy in patients with osteoarthritis has been shown to have suboptimal outcomes. Elevated cytokine concentrations in hip synovial fluid have previously been shown to be associated with cartilage pathology. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a relationship exists between hip synovial fluid cytokine concentration and clinical outcomes at a minimum of 2 years following hip arthroscopy. Seventeen patients without radiographic evidence of osteoarthritis had synovial fluid aspirated at time of portal establishment during hip arthroscopy. Analytes included fibronectin-aggrecan complex as well as a multiplex cytokine array. Patients completed the modified Harris Hip Score, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index and the International Hip Outcomes Tool pre-operatively and at a minimum of 2 years following surgery. Pre and post-operative scores were compared with a paired t-test, and the association between cytokine values and clinical outcome scores was performed with Pearson's correlation coefficient with an alpha value of 0.05 set as significant. Sixteen of seventeen patients completed 2-year follow-up questionnaires (94%). There was a significant increase in pre-operative to post-operative score for each clinical outcome measure. No statistically significant correlation was seen between any of the intra-operative cytokine values and either the 2-year follow-up scores or the change from pre-operative to final follow-up outcome values. No statistically significant associations were seen between hip synovial fluid cytokine concentrations and 2-year follow-up clinical outcome assessment scores for those undergoing hip arthroscopy.
29 CFR 510.22 - Industries eligible for minimum wage phase-in.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Industries eligible for minimum wage phase-in. 510.22... REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT IN PUERTO RICO Classification of Industries § 510.22 Industries eligible for minimum wage phase-in...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HAN Li-Bo; GONG Xiao-Long; CAO Li; WU Da-Jin
2007-01-01
An approximate Fokker-P1anck equation for the logistic growth model which is driven by coloured correlated noises is derived by applying the Novikov theorem and the Fox approximation. The steady-state probability distribution (SPD) and the mean of the tumour cell number are analysed. It is found that the SPD is the single extremum configuration when the degree of correlation between the multiplicative and additive noises, λ, is in -1＜λ ≤ 0 and can be the double extrema in 0＜λ＜1. A configuration transition occurs because of the variation of noise parameters. A minimum appears in the curve of the mean of the steady-state tumour cell number, 〈x〉, versus λ. The position and the value of the minimum are controlled by the noise-correlated times.
Bose-Einstein correlations between kaons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akesson, T.; Batley, R.; Breuker, H.; Dam, P.; Eidelman, S.; Fabian, C.W.; Frandsen, P.; Goerlach, U.; Heck, B.; Hilke, H.J.; Jeffreys, P.; Kalinovsky, A.; Kesseler, G.; Lans, J. van der; Lindsay, J.; Markou, A.; Mjoernmark, U.; Nielsen, B.S.; Olsen, L.H.; Rosselet, L.; Rosso, E.; Rudge, A.; Schindler, R.; Willis, W.J.; Witzeling, W.; Albrow, M.G.; Cockerill, D.; Evans, W.M.; Gibson, M.; Hiddleston, J.; MacCubbin, N.A.; Williamson, J.; Benary, O.; Dagan, S.; Lissauer, D.; Oren, Y.; Boeggild, H.; Botner, O.; Dahl-Jensen, E.; Dahl-Jensen, I.; Damgaard, G.; Hansen, K.H.; Hooper, J.; Moeller, R.; Brody, H.; Frankel, S.; Frati, W.; Molzon, W.; Vella, E.; Zajc, W.A.; Burkert, V.; Carter, J.R.; Cecil, P.; Chung, S.U.; Gordon, H.; Ludlam, T.; Winik, M.; Woody, C.; Cleland, W.E.; Kroeger, R.; Sullivan, M.; Thompson, J.A.
1985-01-01
Bose-Einstein correlations between identical charged kaons are observed in αα, pp, and panti p collisions at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings. The average radial extension of the K-emitting region is found to be (2.4+-0.9) fm. (orig.)
13 CFR 107.830 - Minimum duration/term of financing.
2010-01-01
... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum duration/term of financing... INVESTMENT COMPANIES Financing of Small Businesses by Licensees Structuring Licensee's Financing of An Eligible Small Business: Terms and Conditions of Financing § 107.830 Minimum duration/term of financing. (a...
42 CFR 84.117 - Gas mask containers; minimum requirements.
2010-10-01
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. 84.117... SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Gas Masks § 84.117 Gas mask containers; minimum requirements. (a) Gas masks shall be equipped with a substantial...
Non-identical particle correlations in STAR
Erazmus, B; Renault, G; Retière, F; Szarwas, P
2004-01-01
The correlation function of non-identical particles is sensitive to the relative space-time asymmetries in particle emission. Analysing pion kaon, pion-proton and kaon-proton correlation functions, measured in the Au+Au collisions by the STAR experiment at RHIC, we show that pions, kaons and protons are not emitted at the same average space-time coordinates. The shifts between pion, kaon and proton sources are consistent with the picture of a transverse collective flow. Results of the first measurement of proton-lambda correlations at STAR are in agreement with recent CERN and AGS data.
Do Minimum Wages in Latin America and the Caribbean Matter? Evidence from 19 Countries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristensen, Nicolai; Cunningham, Wendy
of if and how minimum wages affect wage distributions in LAC countries. Although there is no single minimum wage institution in the LAC region, we find regional trends. Minimum wages affect the wage distribution in both the formal and, especially, the informal sector, both at the minimum wage and at multiples...... of the minimum. The minimum does not uniformly benefit low-wage workers: in countries where the minimum wage is relatively low compared to mean wages, the minimum wage affects the more disadvantaged segments of the labor force, namely informal sector workers, women, young and older workers, and the low skilled...
Self-Averaging Property of Minimal Investment Risk of Mean-Variance Model.
Shinzato, Takashi
2015-01-01
In portfolio optimization problems, the minimum expected investment risk is not always smaller than the expected minimal investment risk. That is, using a well-known approach from operations research, it is possible to derive a strategy that minimizes the expected investment risk, but this strategy does not always result in the best rate of return on assets. Prior to making investment decisions, it is important to an investor to know the potential minimal investment risk (or the expected minimal investment risk) and to determine the strategy that will maximize the return on assets. We use the self-averaging property to analyze the potential minimal investment risk and the concentrated investment level for the strategy that gives the best rate of return. We compare the results from our method with the results obtained by the operations research approach and with those obtained by a numerical simulation using the optimal portfolio. The results of our method and the numerical simulation are in agreement, but they differ from that of the operations research approach.
Self-Averaging Property of Minimal Investment Risk of Mean-Variance Model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takashi Shinzato
Full Text Available In portfolio optimization problems, the minimum expected investment risk is not always smaller than the expected minimal investment risk. That is, using a well-known approach from operations research, it is possible to derive a strategy that minimizes the expected investment risk, but this strategy does not always result in the best rate of return on assets. Prior to making investment decisions, it is important to an investor to know the potential minimal investment risk (or the expected minimal investment risk and to determine the strategy that will maximize the return on assets. We use the self-averaging property to analyze the potential minimal investment risk and the concentrated investment level for the strategy that gives the best rate of return. We compare the results from our method with the results obtained by the operations research approach and with those obtained by a numerical simulation using the optimal portfolio. The results of our method and the numerical simulation are in agreement, but they differ from that of the operations research approach.
Reliability of Structural Systems with Correlated Elements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thoft-Christensen, Palle; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard
1982-01-01
Calculation of the probability of failure of a system with correlation members is usually a difficult and time-consuming numerical problem. However, for some types of systems with equally correlated elements this calculation can be performed in a simple way. This has suggested two new methods bas...... on so-called average and equivalent correlation coefficients. By using these methods approximate values for the probability of failure can easily be calculated. The accuracy of these methods is illustrated with examples....
29 CFR 552.100 - Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. 552... § 552.100 Application of minimum wage and overtime provisions. (a)(1) Domestic service employees must receive for employment in any household a minimum wage of not less than that required by section 6(a) of...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herzog, Ulrike; Bergou, Janos A.
2004-01-01
We consider two different optimized measurement strategies for the discrimination of nonorthogonal quantum states. The first is ambiguous discrimination with a minimum probability of inferring an erroneous result, and the second is unambiguous, i.e., error-free, discrimination with a minimum probability of getting an inconclusive outcome, where the measurement fails to give a definite answer. For distinguishing between two mixed quantum states, we investigate the relation between the minimum-error probability achievable in ambiguous discrimination, and the minimum failure probability that can be reached in unambiguous discrimination of the same two states. The latter turns out to be at least twice as large as the former for any two given states. As an example, we treat the case where the state of the quantum system is known to be, with arbitrary prior probability, either a given pure state, or a uniform statistical mixture of any number of mutually orthogonal states. For this case we derive an analytical result for the minimum probability of error and perform a quantitative comparison with the minimum failure probability
Minimum alcohol pricing policies in practice: A critical examination of implementation in Canada.
Thompson, Kara; Stockwell, Tim; Wettlaufer, Ashley; Giesbrecht, Norman; Thomas, Gerald
2017-02-01
There is an interest globally in using Minimum Unit Pricing (MUP) of alcohol to promote public health. Canada is the only country to have both implemented and evaluated some forms of minimum alcohol prices, albeit in ways that fall short of MUP. To inform these international debates, we describe the degree to which minimum alcohol prices in Canada meet recommended criteria for being an effective public health policy. We collected data on the implementation of minimum pricing with respect to (1) breadth of application, (2) indexation to inflation and (3) adjustments for alcohol content. Some jurisdictions have implemented recommended practices with respect to minimum prices; however, the full harm reduction potential of minimum pricing is not fully realised due to incomplete implementation. Key concerns include the following: (1) the exclusion of minimum prices for several beverage categories, (2) minimum prices below the recommended minima and (3) prices are not regularly adjusted for inflation or alcohol content. We provide recommendations for best practices when implementing minimum pricing policy.
Correlation of gravestone decay and air quality 1960-2010
Mooers, H. D.; Carlson, M. J.; Harrison, R. M.; Inkpen, R. J.; Loeffler, S.
2017-03-01
Evaluation of spatial and temporal variability in surface recession of lead-lettered Carrara marble gravestones provides a quantitative measure of acid flux to the stone surfaces and is closely related to local land use and air quality. Correlation of stone decay, land use, and air quality for the period after 1960 when reliable estimates of atmospheric pollution are available is evaluated. Gravestone decay and SO2 measurements are interpolated spatially using deterministic and geostatistical techniques. A general lack of spatial correlation was identified and therefore a land-use-based technique for correlation of stone decay and air quality is employed. Decadally averaged stone decay is highly correlated with land use averaged spatially over an optimum radius of ≈7 km even though air quality, determined by records from the UK monitoring network, is not highly correlated with gravestone decay. The relationships among stone decay, air-quality, and land use is complicated by the relatively low spatial density of both gravestone decay and air quality data and the fact that air quality data is available only as annual averages and therefore seasonal dependence cannot be evaluated. However, acid deposition calculated from gravestone decay suggests that the deposition efficiency of SO2 has increased appreciably since 1980 indicating an increase in the SO2 oxidation process possibly related to reactions with ammonia.
How to average logarithmic retrievals?
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. Funke
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Calculation of mean trace gas contributions from profiles obtained by retrievals of the logarithm of the abundance rather than retrievals of the abundance itself are prone to biases. By means of a system simulator, biases of linear versus logarithmic averaging were evaluated for both maximum likelihood and maximum a priori retrievals, for various signal to noise ratios and atmospheric variabilities. These biases can easily reach ten percent or more. As a rule of thumb we found for maximum likelihood retrievals that linear averaging better represents the true mean value in cases of large local natural variability and high signal to noise ratios, while for small local natural variability logarithmic averaging often is superior. In the case of maximum a posteriori retrievals, the mean is dominated by the a priori information used in the retrievals and the method of averaging is of minor concern. For larger natural variabilities, the appropriateness of the one or the other method of averaging depends on the particular case because the various biasing mechanisms partly compensate in an unpredictable manner. This complication arises mainly because of the fact that in logarithmic retrievals the weight of the prior information depends on abundance of the gas itself. No simple rule was found on which kind of averaging is superior, and instead of suggesting simple recipes we cannot do much more than to create awareness of the traps related with averaging of mixing ratios obtained from logarithmic retrievals.
19 CFR 144.33 - Minimum quantities to be withdrawn.
2010-04-01
... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum quantities to be withdrawn. 144.33 Section 144.33 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... Warehouse § 144.33 Minimum quantities to be withdrawn. Unless by special authority of the Commissioner of...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rahul Tripathi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Forecasting of rice area, production, and productivity of Odisha was made from the historical data of 1950-51 to 2008-09 by using univariate autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models and was compared with the forecasted all Indian data. The autoregressive (p and moving average (q parameters were identified based on the significant spikes in the plots of partial autocorrelation function (PACF and autocorrelation function (ACF of the different time series. ARIMA (2, 1, 0 model was found suitable for all Indian rice productivity and production, whereas ARIMA (1, 1, 1 was best fitted for forecasting of rice productivity and production in Odisha. Prediction was made for the immediate next three years, that is, 2007-08, 2008-09, and 2009-10, using the best fitted ARIMA models based on minimum value of the selection criterion, that is, Akaike information criteria (AIC and Schwarz-Bayesian information criteria (SBC. The performances of models were validated by comparing with percentage deviation from the actual values and mean absolute percent error (MAPE, which was found to be 0.61 and 2.99% for the area under rice in Odisha and India, respectively. Similarly for prediction of rice production and productivity in Odisha and India, the MAPE was found to be less than 6%.
Extracting Credible Dependencies for Averaged One-Dependence Estimator Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LiMin Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Of the numerous proposals to improve the accuracy of naive Bayes (NB by weakening the conditional independence assumption, averaged one-dependence estimator (AODE demonstrates remarkable zero-one loss performance. However, indiscriminate superparent attributes will bring both considerable computational cost and negative effect on classification accuracy. In this paper, to extract the most credible dependencies we present a new type of seminaive Bayesian operation, which selects superparent attributes by building maximum weighted spanning tree and removes highly correlated children attributes by functional dependency and canonical cover analysis. Our extensive experimental comparison on UCI data sets shows that this operation efficiently identifies possible superparent attributes at training time and eliminates redundant children attributes at classification time.
Glycogen with short average chain length enhances bacterial durability
Wang, Liang; Wise, Michael J.
2011-09-01
Glycogen is conventionally viewed as an energy reserve that can be rapidly mobilized for ATP production in higher organisms. However, several studies have noted that glycogen with short average chain length in some bacteria is degraded very slowly. In addition, slow utilization of glycogen is correlated with bacterial viability, that is, the slower the glycogen breakdown rate, the longer the bacterial survival time in the external environment under starvation conditions. We call that a durable energy storage mechanism (DESM). In this review, evidence from microbiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology will be assembled to support the hypothesis of glycogen as a durable energy storage compound. One method for testing the DESM hypothesis is proposed.
Minimum distraction gap: how much ankle joint space is enough in ankle distraction arthroplasty?
Fragomen, Austin T; McCoy, Thomas H; Meyers, Kathleen N; Rozbruch, S Robert
2014-02-01
The success of ankle distraction arthroplasty relies on the separation of the tibiotalar articular surfaces. The purpose of this study was to find the minimum distraction gap needed to ensure that the tibiotalar joint surfaces would not contact each other with full weight-bearing while under distraction. Circular external fixators were mounted to nine cadaver ankle specimens. Each specimen was then placed into a custom-designed load chamber. Loads of 0, 350, and 700N were applied to the specimen. Radiographic joint space was measured and joint contact pressure was monitored under each load. The external fixator was then sequentially distracted, and the radiographic joint space was measured under the three different loads. The experiment was stopped when there was no joint contact under 700N of load. The radiographic joint space was measured and the initial (undistracted) radiographic joint space was subtracted from it yielding the distraction gap. The minimum distraction gap (mDG) that would provide total unloading was calculated. The average mDG was 2.4 mm (range, 1.6 to 4.0 mm) at 700N of load, 4.4 mm (range, 3.7 to 5.8 mm) at 350N of load, and 4.9 mm (range, 3.7 to 7.0 mm) at 0N of load. These results suggest that if the radiographic joint space of on a standing X-ray of an ankle undergoing distraction arthroplasty shows a minimum of 5.8 mm of DG, then there will be no contact between joint surfaces during full weight-bearing. Therefore, 5 mm of radiographic joint space, as recommended historically, may not be adequate to prevent contact of the articular surfaces during weight-bearing.
A Minimum Spanning Tree Representation of Anime Similarities
Wibowo, Canggih Puspo
2016-01-01
In this work, a new way to represent Japanese animation (anime) is presented. We applied a minimum spanning tree to show the relation between anime. The distance between anime is calculated through three similarity measurements, namely crew, score histogram, and topic similarities. Finally, the centralities are also computed to reveal the most significance anime. The result shows that the minimum spanning tree can be used to determine the similarity anime. Furthermore, by using centralities c...
Start of Eta Car's X-ray Minimum
Corcoran, Michael F.; Liburd, Jamar; Hamaguchi, Kenji; Gull, Theodore; Madura, Thomas; Teodoro, Mairan; Moffat, Anthony; Richardson, Noel; Russell, Chris; Pollock, Andrew;
2014-01-01
Analysis of Eta Car's X-ray spectrum in the 2-10 keV band using quicklook data from the XRay Telescope on Swift shows that the flux on July 30, 2014 was 4.9 plus or minus 2.0×10(exp-12) ergs s(exp-1)cm(exp-2). This flux is nearly equal to the X-ray minimum flux seen by RXTE in 2009, 2003.5, and 1998, and indicates that Eta Car has reached its X-ray minimum, as expected based on the 2024-day period derived from previous 2-10 keV observations with RXTE.
The Impact Of Minimum Wage On Employment Level And ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This research work has been carried out to analyze the critical impact of minimum wage of employment level and productivity in Nigeria. A brief literature on wage and its determination was highlighted. Models on minimum wage effect are being look into. This includes research work done by different economist analyzing it ...
30 CFR 77.606-1 - Rubber gloves; minimum requirements.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. 77.606-1... COAL MINES Trailing Cables § 77.606-1 Rubber gloves; minimum requirements. (a) Rubber gloves (lineman's gloves) worn while handling high-voltage trailing cables shall be rated at least 20,000 volts and shall...
Do minimum wages reduce poverty? Evidence from Central America ...
International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)
In all three countries, these multiple minimum wages are negotiated among representatives of the central government, labour unions and the chambers of commerce. Minimum wage legislation applies to all private-sector employees, but in all three countries a large part of the work force is self-employed or works as unpaid ...
The Minimum Wage, Restaurant Prices, and Labor Market Structure
Aaronson, Daniel; French, Eric; MacDonald, James
2008-01-01
Using store-level and aggregated Consumer Price Index data, we show that restaurant prices rise in response to minimum wage increases under several sources of identifying variation. We introduce a general model of employment determination that implies minimum wage hikes cause prices to rise in competitive labor markets but potentially fall in…
Phase correlation and clustering of a nearest neighbour coupled oscillators system
Ei-Nashar, H F
2002-01-01
We investigated the phases in a system of nearest neighbour coupled oscillators before complete synchronization in frequency occurs. We found that when oscillators under the influence of coupling form a cluster of the same time-average frequency, their phases start to correlate. An order parameter, which measures this correlation, starts to grow at this stage until it reaches maximum. This means that a time-average phase locked state is reached between the oscillators inside the cluster of the same time- average frequency. At this strength the cluster attracts individual oscillators or a cluster to join in. We also observe that clustering in averaged frequencies orders the phases of the oscillators. This behavior is found at all the transition points studied.
Phase correlation and clustering of a nearest neighbour coupled oscillators system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
EI-Nashar, Hassan F.
2002-09-01
We investigated the phases in a system of nearest neighbour coupled oscillators before complete synchronization in frequency occurs. We found that when oscillators under the influence of coupling form a cluster of the same time-average frequency, their phases start to correlate. An order parameter, which measures this correlation, starts to grow at this stage until it reaches maximum. This means that a time-average phase locked state is reached between the oscillators inside the cluster of the same time- average frequency. At this strength the cluster attracts individual oscillators or a cluster to join in. We also observe that clustering in averaged frequencies orders the phases of the oscillators. This behavior is found at all the transition points studied. (author)
Topside measurements at Jicamarca during solar minimum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. L. Hysell
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Long-pulse topside radar data acquired at Jicamarca and processed using full-profile analysis are compared to data processed using more conventional, range-gated approaches and with analytic and computational models. The salient features of the topside observations include a dramatic increase in the T_{e}/T_{i} temperature ratio above the F peak at dawn and a local minimum in the topside plasma temperature in the afternoon. The hydrogen ion fraction was found to exhibit hyperbolic tangent-shaped profiles that become shallow (gradually changing above the O^{+}-H^{+} transition height during the day. The profile shapes are generally consistent with diffusive equilibrium, although shallowing to the point of changes in inflection can only be accounted for by taking the effects of E×B drifts and meridional winds into account. The SAMI2 model demonstrates this as well as the substantial effect that drifts and winds can have on topside temperatures. Significant quiet-time variability in the topside composition and temperatures may be due to variability in the mechanical forcing. Correlations between topside measurements and magnetometer data at Jicamarca support this hypothesis.
Noise sensitivity of portfolio selection in constant conditional correlation GARCH models
Varga-Haszonits, I.; Kondor, I.
2007-11-01
This paper investigates the efficiency of minimum variance portfolio optimization for stock price movements following the Constant Conditional Correlation GARCH process proposed by Bollerslev. Simulations show that the quality of portfolio selection can be improved substantially by computing optimal portfolio weights from conditional covariances instead of unconditional ones. Measurement noise can be further reduced by applying some filtering method on the conditional correlation matrix (such as Random Matrix Theory based filtering). As an empirical support for the simulation results, the analysis is also carried out for a time series of S&P500 stock prices.
DiBenedetto, Maria K.
2010-01-01
The current investigation sought to determine whether self-regulatory variables: "study strategies" and "self-satisfaction" correlate with first and second generation college students' grade point averages, and to determine if these two variables would improve the prediction of their averages if used along with high school grades and SAT scores.…
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gramkow, Claus
2001-01-01
In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong ...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherent in the least squares estimation.......In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...
Library correlation nuclide identification algorithm
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Russ, William R.
2007-01-01
A novel nuclide identification algorithm, Library Correlation Nuclide Identification (LibCorNID), is proposed. In addition to the spectrum, LibCorNID requires the standard energy, peak shape and peak efficiency calibrations. Input parameters include tolerances for some expected variations in the calibrations, a minimum relative nuclide peak area threshold, and a correlation threshold. Initially, the measured peak spectrum is obtained as the residual after baseline estimation via peak erosion, removing the continuum. Library nuclides are filtered by examining the possible nuclide peak areas in terms of the measured peak spectrum and applying the specified relative area threshold. Remaining candidates are used to create a set of theoretical peak spectra based on the calibrations and library entries. These candidate spectra are then simultaneously fit to the measured peak spectrum while also optimizing the calibrations within the bounds of the specified tolerances. Each candidate with optimized area still exceeding the area threshold undergoes a correlation test. The normalized Pearson's correlation value is calculated as a comparison of the optimized nuclide peak spectrum to the measured peak spectrum with the other optimized peak spectra subtracted. Those candidates with correlation values that exceed the specified threshold are identified and their optimized activities are output. An evaluation of LibCorNID was conducted to verify identification performance in terms of detection probability and false alarm rate. LibCorNID has been shown to perform well compared to standard peak-based analyses
Trends of climatic changes considering over years 1894-1993 and 1894-2003 for Sarajevo
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majstorovic, Zeljko; Toromanovic, Aida; Halilovic, Senada
2004-01-01
Linear trends of changes in climatic parameters have been observed for Sarajevo and we considered correlation with world's trends and mutual correlation of years .1894-1993 and 1894-2003, both for the same meteorological station Sarajevo. In purpose of ascertaining correlation with global climate's changes, Sarajevo's records have been studied over the primary climatic parameters: average annual temperatures, absolute annual maximum and minimum temperatures, annual sum of rainfalls and drought index. We used method of adding of linear trends. Correlation with global tendency of climate has be shown as follow: - We notice increase of average temperature about 0.7 o C in past 100 years - We notice a rapid increase of absolute minimum temperature in compare with values of absolute maximum temperatures. - Annual sum of rainfalls doesn't show drastic changes. - We notice asymmetry trend for some actual seasons. - We notice increase of drought. During correlation of trends for years 1894-1993 and 1894-2003 has been noticed rapid increase of temperature and drought-index, while considering rainfalls there has not been drastic changes. (Author)
Construction of Protograph LDPC Codes with Linear Minimum Distance
Divsalar, Dariush; Dolinar, Sam; Jones, Christopher
2006-01-01
A construction method for protograph-based LDPC codes that simultaneously achieve low iterative decoding threshold and linear minimum distance is proposed. We start with a high-rate protograph LDPC code with variable node degrees of at least 3. Lower rate codes are obtained by splitting check nodes and connecting them by degree-2 nodes. This guarantees the linear minimum distance property for the lower-rate codes. Excluding checks connected to degree-1 nodes, we show that the number of degree-2 nodes should be at most one less than the number of checks for the protograph LDPC code to have linear minimum distance. Iterative decoding thresholds are obtained by using the reciprocal channel approximation. Thresholds are lowered by using either precoding or at least one very high-degree node in the base protograph. A family of high- to low-rate codes with minimum distance linearly increasing in block size and with capacity-approaching performance thresholds is presented. FPGA simulation results for a few example codes show that the proposed codes perform as predicted.
Quantitative Research on the Minimum Wage
Goldfarb, Robert S.
1975-01-01
The article reviews recent research examining the impact of minimum wage requirements on the size and distribution of teenage employment and earnings. The studies measure income distribution, employment levels and effect on unemployment. (MW)
Application of Minimum-time Optimal Control System in Buck-Boost Bi-linear Converters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. M. M. Shariatmadar
2017-08-01
Full Text Available In this study, the theory of minimum-time optimal control system in buck-boost bi-linear converters is described, so that output voltage regulation is carried out within minimum time. For this purpose, the Pontryagin's Minimum Principle is applied to find optimal switching level applying minimum-time optimal control rules. The results revealed that by utilizing an optimal switching level instead of classical switching patterns, output voltage regulation will be carried out within minimum time. However, transient energy index of increased overvoltage significantly reduces in order to attain minimum time optimal control in reduced output load. The laboratory results were used in order to verify numerical simulations.
Temporal correlation functions of concentration fluctuations: an anomalous case.
Lubelski, Ariel; Klafter, Joseph
2008-10-09
We calculate, within the framework of the continuous time random walk (CTRW) model, multiparticle temporal correlation functions of concentration fluctuations (CCF) in systems that display anomalous subdiffusion. The subdiffusion stems from the nonstationary nature of the CTRW waiting times, which also lead to aging and ergodicity breaking. Due to aging, a system of diffusing particles tends to slow down as time progresses, and therefore, the temporal correlation functions strongly depend on the initial time of measurement. As a consequence, time averages of the CCF differ from ensemble averages, displaying therefore ergodicity breaking. We provide a simple example that demonstrates the difference between these two averages, a difference that might be amenable to experimental tests. We focus on the case of ensemble averaging and assume that the preparation time of the system coincides with the starting time of the measurement. Our analytical calculations are supported by computer simulations based on the CTRW model.
On the Minimum Cable Tensions for the Cable-Based Parallel Robots
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peng Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the minimum cable tension distributions in the workspace for cable-based parallel robots to find out more information on the stability. First, the kinematic model of a cable-based parallel robot is derived based on the wrench matrix. Then, a noniterative polynomial-based optimization algorithm with the proper optimal objective function is presented based on the convex optimization theory, in which the minimum cable tension at any pose is determined. Additionally, three performance indices are proposed to show the distributions of the minimum cable tensions in a specified region of the workspace. An important thing is that the three performance indices can be used to evaluate the stability of the cable-based parallel robots. Furthermore, a new workspace, the Specified Minimum Cable Tension Workspace (SMCTW, is introduced, within which all the minimum tensions exceed a specified value, therefore meeting the specified stability requirement. Finally, a camera robot parallel driven by four cables for aerial panoramic photographing is selected to illustrate the distributions of the minimum cable tensions in the workspace and the relationship between the three performance indices and the stability.
Energy and environmental norms on Minimum Vital Flux
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maran, S.
2008-01-01
By the end of the year will come into force the recommendations on Minimum Vital flow and operators of hydroelectric power plants will be required to make available part of water of their derivations in order to protect river ecosystems. In this article the major energy and environmental consequences of these rules, we report some quantitative evaluations and are discusses the proposals for overcoming the weaknesses of the approach in the estimation of Minimum Vital Flux [it
MINIMUM BRACING STIFFNESS FOR MULTI-COLUMN SYSTEMS: THEORY
ARISTIZÁBAL-OCHOA, J. DARÍO
2011-01-01
A method that determines the minimum bracing stiffness required by a multi-column elastic system to achieve non-sway buckling conditions is proposed. Equations that evaluate the required minimum stiffness of the lateral and torsional bracings and the corresponding “braced" critical buckling load for each column of the story level are derived using the modified stability functions. The following effects are included: 1) the types of end connections (rigid, semirigid, and simple); 2) the bluepr...
Towards a mathematical foundation of minimum-variance theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Feng Jianfeng [COGS, Sussex University, Brighton (United Kingdom); Zhang Kewei [SMS, Sussex University, Brighton (United Kingdom); Wei Gang [Mathematical Department, Baptist University, Hong Kong (China)
2002-08-30
The minimum-variance theory which accounts for arm and eye movements with noise signal inputs was proposed by Harris and Wolpert (1998 Nature 394 780-4). Here we present a detailed theoretical analysis of the theory and analytical solutions of the theory are obtained. Furthermore, we propose a new version of the minimum-variance theory, which is more realistic for a biological system. For the new version we show numerically that the variance is considerably reduced. (author)
Minimum Wage Policy and Country’s Technical Efficiency
Karim, Mohd Zaini Abd; Chan, Sok-Gee; Hassan, Sallahuddin
2016-01-01
Recently, the government has decided that Malaysia would introduce a minimum wage policy. However, some quarters argued against the idea of a nationwide minimum wage asserting that it will lead to an increase in the cost of doing business and thus will hurt Malaysian competitiveness. Although standard economic theory unambiguously implies that wage floors have a negative impact on employment, the existing empirical literature is not so clear. Some studies have found the expected negative impa...
Fermat and the Minimum Principle
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Arguably, least action and minimum principles were offered or applied much earlier. This (or these) principle(s) is/are among the fundamental, basic, unifying or organizing ones used to describe a variety of natural phenomena. It considers the amount of energy expended in performing a given action to be the least required ...
Second Law Analysis of the Optimal Fin by Minimum Entropy Generation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2005-01-01
Based on the entropy generation concept of thermodynamics, this paper established a general theoretical model for the analysis of entropy generation to optimize fms, in which the minimum entropy generation was selected as the object to be studied. The irreversibility due to heat transfer and friction was taken into account so that the minimum entropygeneration number has been analyzed with respect to second law of thermodynamics in the forced cross-flow. The optimum dimensions of cylinder pins were discussed. It's found that the minimum entropy generation number depends on parameters related to the fluid and fin physical parameters. Variations of the minimum entropy generation number with different parameters were analyzed.
The Effect of Minimum Wages on Adolescent Fertility: A Nationwide Analysis.
Bullinger, Lindsey Rose
2017-03-01
To investigate the effect of minimum wage laws on adolescent birth rates in the United States. I used a difference-in-differences approach and vital statistics data measured quarterly at the state level from 2003 to 2014. All models included state covariates, state and quarter-year fixed effects, and state-specific quarter-year nonlinear time trends, which provided plausibly causal estimates of the effect of minimum wage on adolescent birth rates. A $1 increase in minimum wage reduces adolescent birth rates by about 2%. The effects are driven by non-Hispanic White and Hispanic adolescents. Nationwide, increasing minimum wages by $1 would likely result in roughly 5000 fewer adolescent births annually.
Vingilis-Jaremko, Larissa; Maurer, Daphne; Gao, Xiaoqing
2014-04-01
We examined how recent biased face experience affects the influence of averageness on judgments of facial attractiveness among 8- and 9-year-old children attending a girls' school, a boys' school, and a mixed-sex school. We presented pairs of individual faces in which one face was transformed 50% toward its group average, whereas the other face was transformed 50% away from that average. Across blocks, the faces varied in age (adult, 9-year-old, or 5-year-old) and sex (male or female). We expected that averageness might influence attractiveness judgments more strongly for same-age faces and, for children attending single-sex schools, same-sex faces of that age because their prototype(s) should be best tuned to the faces they see most frequently. Averageness influenced children's judgments of attractiveness, but the strength of the influence was not modulated by the age of the face, nor did the effects of sex of face differ across schools. Recent biased experience might not have affected the results because of similarities between the average faces of different ages and sexes and/or because a minimum level of experience with a particular group of faces may be adequate for the formation of a veridical prototype and its influence on judgments of attractiveness. The results suggest that averageness affects children's judgments of the attractiveness of the faces they encounter in everyday life regardless of age or sex of face. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bose-Einstein correlation in Landau's model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hama, Y.; Padula, S.S.
1986-01-01
Bose-Einstein correlation is studied by taking an expanding fluid given by Landau's model as the source, where each space-time point is considered as an independent and chaotic emitting center with Planck's spectral distribution. As expected, the correlation depends on the relative angular positions as well as on the overall localization of the measuring system and it turns out that the average dimension of the source increases with the multiplicity N/sub ch/
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
De Avillez, Miguel A. [Department of Mathematics, University of Évora, R. Romão Ramalho 59, 7000 Évora (Portugal); Breitschwerdt, Dieter, E-mail: mavillez@galaxy.lca.uevora.pt [Zentrum für Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universität Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, D-10623 Berlin (Germany)
2017-09-01
Tracking the thermal evolution of plasmas, characterized by an n -distribution, using numerical simulations, requires the determination of the emission spectra and of the radiative losses due to free–free emission from the corresponding temperature-averaged and total Gaunt factors. Detailed calculations of the latter are presented and associated with n -distributed electrons with the parameter n ranging from 1 (corresponding to the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution) to 100. The temperature-averaged and total Gaunt factors with decreasing n tend toward those obtained with the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution. Radiative losses due to free–free emission in a plasma evolving under collisional ionization equilibrium conditions and composed by H, He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe ions, are presented. These losses decrease with a decrease in the parameter n , reaching a minimum when n = 1, and thus converge with the loss of thermal plasma. Tables of the thermal-averaged and total Gaunt factors calculated for n -distributions, and a wide range of electron and photon energies, are presented.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
De Avillez, Miguel A.; Breitschwerdt, Dieter
2017-01-01
Tracking the thermal evolution of plasmas, characterized by an n -distribution, using numerical simulations, requires the determination of the emission spectra and of the radiative losses due to free–free emission from the corresponding temperature-averaged and total Gaunt factors. Detailed calculations of the latter are presented and associated with n -distributed electrons with the parameter n ranging from 1 (corresponding to the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution) to 100. The temperature-averaged and total Gaunt factors with decreasing n tend toward those obtained with the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution. Radiative losses due to free–free emission in a plasma evolving under collisional ionization equilibrium conditions and composed by H, He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, S, and Fe ions, are presented. These losses decrease with a decrease in the parameter n , reaching a minimum when n = 1, and thus converge with the loss of thermal plasma. Tables of the thermal-averaged and total Gaunt factors calculated for n -distributions, and a wide range of electron and photon energies, are presented.
The debate on the economic effects of minimum wage legislation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Santos Miguel Ruesga-Benito
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The minimum wage establishment has its origin in the first third of the last century. Since its creation has been a focus of continuing controversy and an unfinished debate on economics field. This work reviews the effects of the minimum wage on employment and other macroeconomic variables, from both theoretical and empirical perspectives. The method is based on the revision of the literature and the main economic indicators. The central contribution of this paper is providing a general reflection on theoretical and empirical analysis about the debate on minimum wage and its effects. The results showed that some labor policies are taking account the effects of austerity strategies, shifting the attention towards the implementation of minimum wages or their updating, in order to reduce the growing inequalities in the distribution of income, and even poverty levels.
Do minimum wages improve early life health? Evidence from developing countries.
Majid, Muhammad Farhan; Mendoza Rodríguez, José M; Harper, Sam; Frank, John; Nandi, Arijit
2016-06-01
The impact of legislated minimum wages on the early-life health of children living in low and middle-income countries has not been examined. For our analyses, we used data from the Demographic and Household Surveys (DHS) from 57 countries conducted between 1999 and 2013. Our analyses focus on height-for-age z scores (HAZ) for children under 5 years of age who were surveyed as part of the DHS. To identify the causal effect of minimum wages, we utilized plausibly exogenous variation in the legislated minimum wages during each child's year of birth, the identifying assumption being that mothers do not time their births around changes in the minimum wage. As a sensitivity exercise, we also made within family comparisons (mother fixed effect models). Our final analysis on 49 countries reveal that a 1% increase in minimum wages was associated with 0.1% (95% CI = -0.2, 0) decrease in HAZ scores. Adverse effects of an increase in the minimum wage were observed among girls and for children of fathers who were less than 35 years old, mothers aged 20-29, parents who were married, parents who were less educated, and parents involved in manual work. We also explored heterogeneity by region and GDP per capita at baseline (1999). Adverse effects were concentrated in lower-income countries and were most pronounced in South Asia. By contrast, increases in the minimum wage improved children's HAZ in Latin America, and among children of parents working in a skilled sector. Our findings are inconsistent with the hypothesis that increases in the minimum wage unconditionally improve child health in lower-income countries, and highlight heterogeneity in the impact of minimum wages around the globe. Future work should involve country and occupation specific studies which can explore not only different outcomes such as infant mortality rates, but also explore the role of parental investments in shaping these effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lagrangian averaging with geodesic mean.
Oliver, Marcel
2017-11-01
This paper revisits the derivation of the Lagrangian averaged Euler (LAE), or Euler- α equations in the light of an intrinsic definition of the averaged flow map as the geodesic mean on the volume-preserving diffeomorphism group. Under the additional assumption that first-order fluctuations are statistically isotropic and transported by the mean flow as a vector field, averaging of the kinetic energy Lagrangian of an ideal fluid yields the LAE Lagrangian. The derivation presented here assumes a Euclidean spatial domain without boundaries.
Koral, Korgün; Mathis, Derek; Gimi, Barjor; Gargan, Lynn; Weprin, Bradley; Bowers, Daniel C; Margraf, Linda
2013-08-01
To test whether there is correlation between cell densities and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) metrics of common pediatric cerebellar tumors. This study was reviewed for issues of patient safety and confidentiality and was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and was compliant with HIPAA. The need for informed consent was waived. Ninety-five patients who had preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and surgical pathologic findings available between January 2003 and June 2011 were included. There were 37 pilocytic astrocytomas, 34 medulloblastomas (23 classic, eight desmoplastic-nodular, two large cell, one anaplastic), 17 ependymomas (13 World Health Organization [WHO] grade II, four WHO grade III), and seven atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors. ADCs of solid tumor components and normal cerebellum were measured. Tumor-to-normal brain ADC ratios (hereafter, ADC ratio) were calculated. The medulloblastomas and ependymomas were subcategorized according to the latest WHO classification, and tumor cellularity was calculated. Correlation was sought between cell densities and mean tumor ADCs, minimum tumor ADCs, and ADC ratio. When all tumors were considered together, negative correlation was found between cellularity and mean tumor ADCs (ρ = -0.737, P correlation between cellularity and ADC ratio. Negative correlation was found between cellularity and minimum tumor ADC in atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumors (ρ = -0.786, P correlation was found between cellularity and mean tumor ADC and ADC ratio. There was no correlation between the ADC metrics and cellularity of the pilocytic astrocytomas, medulloblastomas, and ependymomas. Negative correlation was found between cellularity and ADC metrics of common pediatric cerebellar tumors. Although ADC metrics are useful in the preoperative diagnosis of common pediatric cerebellar tumors and this utility is generally attributed to differences in cellularity of tumors
Moore, C S; Wood, T J; Beavis, A W; Saunderson, J R
2013-07-01
The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between the quality of visually graded patient (clinical) chest images and a quantitative assessment of chest phantom (physical) images acquired with a computed radiography (CR) imaging system. The results of a previously published study, in which four experienced image evaluators graded computer-simulated postero-anterior chest images using a visual grading analysis scoring (VGAS) scheme, were used for the clinical image quality measurement. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and effective dose efficiency (eDE) were used as physical image quality metrics measured in a uniform chest phantom. Although optimal values of these physical metrics for chest radiography were not derived in this work, their correlation with VGAS in images acquired without an antiscatter grid across the diagnostic range of X-ray tube voltages was determined using Pearson's correlation coefficient. Clinical and physical image quality metrics increased with decreasing tube voltage. Statistically significant correlations between VGAS and CNR (R=0.87, pchest CR images acquired without an antiscatter grid. A statistically significant correlation has been found between the clinical and physical image quality in CR chest imaging. The results support the value of using CNR and eDE in the evaluation of quality in clinical thorax radiography.
77 FR 43196 - Minimum Internal Control Standards and Technical Standards
2012-07-24
... NATIONAL INDIAN GAMING COMMISSION 25 CFR Parts 543 and 547 Minimum Internal Control Standards [email protected] . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Part 543 addresses minimum internal control standards (MICS) for Class II gaming operations. The regulations require tribes to establish controls and implement...
Minimum-error discrimination of entangled quantum states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu, Y.; Coish, N.; Kaltenbaek, R.; Hamel, D. R.; Resch, K. J.; Croke, S.
2010-01-01
Strategies to optimally discriminate between quantum states are critical in quantum technologies. We present an experimental demonstration of minimum-error discrimination between entangled states, encoded in the polarization of pairs of photons. Although the optimal measurement involves projection onto entangled states, we use a result of J. Walgate et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 4972 (2000)] to design an optical implementation employing only local polarization measurements and feed-forward, which performs at the Helstrom bound. Our scheme can achieve perfect discrimination of orthogonal states and minimum-error discrimination of nonorthogonal states. Our experimental results show a definite advantage over schemes not using feed-forward.
UPGMA and the normalized equidistant minimum evolution problem
Moulton, Vincent; Spillner, Andreas; Wu, Taoyang
2017-01-01
UPGMA (Unweighted Pair Group Method with Arithmetic Mean) is a widely used clustering method. Here we show that UPGMA is a greedy heuristic for the normalized equidistant minimum evolution (NEME) problem, that is, finding a rooted tree that minimizes the minimum evolution score relative to the dissimilarity matrix among all rooted trees with the same leaf-set in which all leaves have the same distance to the root. We prove that the NEME problem is NP-hard. In addition, we present some heurist...
Pay equity, minimum wage and equality at work
Rubery, Jill
2003-01-01
Reviews the underlying causes of pay discrimination embedded within the organization of the labour market and structures of pay and reward. Discusses the need to focus on pay equity as part of a general strategy of promoting equity and decent work and examines the case for using minimum wage policies in comparison to more targeted equal pay policies to reduce gender pay equity. Identifies potential obstacles to or support for such policies and describes experiences of the use of minimum wages...
A theory of compliance with minimum wage legislation
Jellal, Mohamed
2012-01-01
In this paper, we introduce firm heterogeneity in the context of a model of non-compliance with minimum wage legislation. The introduction of heterogeneity in the ease with which firms can be monitored for non compliance allows us to show that non-compliance will persist in sectors which are relatively difficult to monitor, despite the government implementing non stochastic monitoring. Moreover, we show that the incentive not to comply is an increasing function of the level of the minimum wag...
The minimum yield in channeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Uguzzoni, A.; Gaertner, K.; Lulli, G.; Andersen, J.U.
2000-01-01
A first estimate of the minimum yield was obtained from Lindhard's theory, with the assumption of a statistical equilibrium in the transverse phase-space of channeled particles guided by a continuum axial potential. However, computer simulations have shown that this estimate should be corrected by a fairly large factor, C (approximately equal to 2.5), called the Barrett factor. We have shown earlier that the concept of a statistical equilibrium can be applied to understand this result, with the introduction of a constraint in phase-space due to planar channeling of axially channeled particles. Here we present an extended test of these ideas on the basis of computer simulation of the trajectories of 2 MeV α particles in Si. In particular, the gradual trend towards a full statistical equilibrium is studied. We also discuss the introduction of this modification of standard channeling theory into descriptions of the multiple scattering of channeled particles (dechanneling) by a master equation and show that the calculated minimum yields are in very good agreement with the results of a full computer simulation
The Effects of Minimum Wage Throughout the Wage Distribution in Indonesia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sri Gusvina Dewi
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The global financial crisis in 2007 followed by Indonesia’s largest labor demonstration in 2013 encouraged turmoils on Indonesia labor market. This paper examines the effect of the minimum wage on wage distribution in 2007 and 2014 and how the minimum wage increases in 2014 affected the distribution of wage differences between 2007 and 2014. This study employs recentered influence function (RIF regression method to estimate the wage function by using unconditional quantile regression. Furthermore, to measure the effect of the minimum wage increase in 2014 on the distribution of wage differences, it uses the Oaxaca–Blinder decomposition method. Using balanced panel data from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS, it found that the minimum wage mitigates wage disparity in 2007 and 2014. The minimum wage policy in 2014 leads to an increase in the wage difference between 2007 and 2014, with the largest wage difference being in the middle distribution.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v7i2.6125
Fluctuations and correlations of conserved charges near the QCD critical point
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu Weijie; Wu Yueliang
2010-01-01
We study the fluctuations and correlations of conserved charges, such as the baryon number, the electric charge and the strangeness, at the finite temperature and the nonzero baryon chemical potential in an effective model. The fluctuations are calculated up to the fourth-order and the correlations to the third-order. We find that the second-order fluctuations and correlations have a peak or valley structure when the chiral phase transition takes place with the increase of the baryon chemical potential; the third-order fluctuations and correlations change their signs during the chiral phase transition; and the fourth-order fluctuations have two maxima and one minimum. We also depict contour plots of various fluctuations and correlations of conserved charges in the plane of temperature and the baryon chemical potential. It is found that higher-order fluctuations and correlations of conserved charges are superior to the second-order ones to be used to search for the critical point in heavy ion collision experiments.
Eddy correlation measurements of oxygen uptake in deep ocean sediments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Berg, P.; Glud, Ronnie Nøhr; Hume, A.
2010-01-01
.62 +/- 0.23 (SE, n = 7), 1.65 +/- 0.33 (n = 2), and 1.43 +/- 0.15 (n = 25) mmol m(-2) d(-1). The very good agreement between the eddy correlation flux and the chamber flux serves as a new, important validation of the eddy correlation technique. It demonstrates that the eddy correlation instrumentation......Abstract: We present and compare small sediment-water fluxes of O-2 determined with the eddy correlation technique, with in situ chambers, and from vertical sediment microprofiles at a 1450 m deep-ocean site in Sagami Bay, Japan. The average O-2 uptake for the three approaches, respectively, was 1...... available today is precise and can resolve accurately even very small benthic O-2 fluxes. The correlated fluctuations in vertical velocity and O-2 concentration that give the eddy flux had average values of 0.074 cm s(-1) and 0.049 mu M. The latter represents only 0.08% of the 59 mu M mean O-2 concentration...
Nursing Minimum Data Set Based on EHR Archetypes Approach.
Spigolon, Dandara N; Moro, Cláudia M C
2012-01-01
The establishment of a Nursing Minimum Data Set (NMDS) can facilitate the use of health information systems. The adoption of these sets and represent them based on archetypes are a way of developing and support health systems. The objective of this paper is to describe the definition of a minimum data set for nursing in endometriosis represent with archetypes. The study was divided into two steps: Defining the Nursing Minimum Data Set to endometriosis, and Development archetypes related to the NMDS. The nursing data set to endometriosis was represented in the form of archetype, using the whole perception of the evaluation item, organs and senses. This form of representation is an important tool for semantic interoperability and knowledge representation for health information systems.
Minimum Energy Decentralized Estimation in a Wireless Sensor Network with Correlated Sensor Noises
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krasnopeev Alexey
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Consider the problem of estimating an unknown parameter by a sensor network with a fusion center (FC. Sensor observations are corrupted by additive noises with an arbitrary spatial correlation. Due to bandwidth and energy limitation, each sensor is only able to transmit a finite number of bits to the FC, while the latter must combine the received bits to estimate the unknown parameter. We require the decentralized estimator to have a mean-squared error ( that is within a constant factor to that of the best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE. We minimize the total sensor transmitted energy by selecting sensor quantization levels using the knowledge of noise covariance matrix while meeting the target requirement. Computer simulations show that our designs can achieve energy savings up to when compared to the uniform quantization strategy whereby each sensor generates the same number of bits, irrespective of the quality of its observation and the condition of its channel to the FC.
Minimum Energy Decentralized Estimation in a Wireless Sensor Network with Correlated Sensor Noises
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krasnopeev Alexey
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Consider the problem of estimating an unknown parameter by a sensor network with a fusion center (FC. Sensor observations are corrupted by additive noises with an arbitrary spatial correlation. Due to bandwidth and energy limitation, each sensor is only able to transmit a finite number of bits to the FC, while the latter must combine the received bits to estimate the unknown parameter. We require the decentralized estimator to have a mean-squared error (MSE that is within a constant factor to that of the best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE. We minimize the total sensor transmitted energy by selecting sensor quantization levels using the knowledge of noise covariance matrix while meeting the target MSE requirement. Computer simulations show that our designs can achieve energy savings up to 70 % when compared to the uniform quantization strategy whereby each sensor generates the same number of bits, irrespective of the quality of its observation and the condition of its channel to the FC.
Quantum correlations for bipartite continuous-variable systems
Ma, Ruifen; Hou, Jinchuan; Qi, Xiaofei; Wang, Yangyang
2018-04-01
Two quantum correlations Q and Q_P for (m+n)-mode continuous-variable systems are introduced in terms of average distance between the reduced states under the local Gaussian positive operator-valued measurements, and analytical formulas of these quantum correlations for bipartite Gaussian states are provided. It is shown that the product states do not contain these quantum correlations, and conversely, all (m+n)-mode Gaussian states with zero quantum correlations are product states. Generally, Q≥ Q_{P}, but for the symmetric two-mode squeezed thermal states, these quantum correlations are the same and a computable formula is given. In addition, Q is compared with Gaussian geometric discord for symmetric squeezed thermal states.
Recent Immigrants as Labor Market Arbitrageurs: Evidence from the Minimum Wage*
Cadena, Brian C.
2014-01-01
This paper investigates the local labor supply effects of changes to the minimum wage by examining the response of low-skilled immigrants’ location decisions. Canonical models emphasize the importance of labor mobility when evaluating the employment effects of the minimum wage; yet few studies address this outcome directly. Low-skilled immigrant populations shift toward labor markets with stagnant minimum wages, and this result is robust to a number of alternative interpretations. This mobility provides behavior-based evidence in favor of a non-trivial negative employment effect of the minimum wage. Further, it reduces the estimated demand elasticity using teens; employment losses among native teens are substantially larger in states that have historically attracted few immigrant residents. PMID:24999288
Recent Immigrants as Labor Market Arbitrageurs: Evidence from the Minimum Wage.
Cadena, Brian C
2014-03-01
This paper investigates the local labor supply effects of changes to the minimum wage by examining the response of low-skilled immigrants' location decisions. Canonical models emphasize the importance of labor mobility when evaluating the employment effects of the minimum wage; yet few studies address this outcome directly. Low-skilled immigrant populations shift toward labor markets with stagnant minimum wages, and this result is robust to a number of alternative interpretations. This mobility provides behavior-based evidence in favor of a non-trivial negative employment effect of the minimum wage. Further, it reduces the estimated demand elasticity using teens; employment losses among native teens are substantially larger in states that have historically attracted few immigrant residents.
EFFECTS DISTRIBUTIVE THE WAGE MINIMUM IN MARKET OF LABOR CEARENSE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joyciane Coelho Vasconcelos
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This paper analyses the contribution of the minimum wage (MW for the devolution of income from the labor market at Ceará in the period 2002-2012. This research was based on National Sample Survey (PNAD of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE.It was used the simulation methodology proposed in DiNardo, Fortin and Lemieux (1996 from the estimated counterfactual Kernel density functions. The simulations were performed for females and males. The results revealed by the decompositions than the minimum wage, the degree of formalization and the personal attributes had impacts not concentrators to workers female and male. However, for women, the de-concentrating effect of the minimum wage is more intense in the sample compared to men. In summary, the simulations indicate the importance of the minimum wage to reduce the dispersion of labor income in recent years.
USING GENETIC ALGORTIHM TO SOLVE STEINER MINIMUM SPANNING TREE PROBLEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Öznur İŞÇİ
2006-03-01
Full Text Available Genetic algorithms (GA are a stochastic research methods, and they produce solutions that are close to optimum or near optimum. In addition to GA's successful application to traveling salesman problem, square designation, allocation, workshop table, preparation of lesson/examination schedules, planning of communication networks, assembling line balanced, minimum spanning tree type many combinatorial optimization problems it would be applicable to make the best comparison in optimization. In this study a Java program is developed to solve Steiner minimum spanning tree problem by genetic algorithm and its performance is examined. According to the tests carried out on the problems that were given before in the literature, results that are close to optimum are obtained in by GA approach that is recommended in this study. For the predetermined points in the study, length and gain are calculated for Steiner minimum spanning tree problem and minimum spanning tree problem.
Chelton, Dudley B.; Schlax, Michael G.
1991-01-01
The sampling error of an arbitrary linear estimate of a time-averaged quantity constructed from a time series of irregularly spaced observations at a fixed located is quantified through a formalism. The method is applied to satellite observations of chlorophyll from the coastal zone color scanner. The two specific linear estimates under consideration are the composite average formed from the simple average of all observations within the averaging period and the optimal estimate formed by minimizing the mean squared error of the temporal average based on all the observations in the time series. The resulting suboptimal estimates are shown to be more accurate than composite averages. Suboptimal estimates are also found to be nearly as accurate as optimal estimates using the correct signal and measurement error variances and correlation functions for realistic ranges of these parameters, which makes it a viable practical alternative to the composite average method generally employed at present.
29 CFR 510.24 - Governmental entities eligible for minimum wage phase-in.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Governmental entities eligible for minimum wage phase-in..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION OF THE MINIMUM WAGE PROVISIONS OF THE 1989 AMENDMENTS TO THE... eligible for minimum wage phase-in. (a) The Commonwealth government of Puerto Rico has been determined to...
M-AMST: an automatic 3D neuron tracing method based on mean shift and adapted minimum spanning tree.
Wan, Zhijiang; He, Yishan; Hao, Ming; Yang, Jian; Zhong, Ning
2017-03-29
Understanding the working mechanism of the brain is one of the grandest challenges for modern science. Toward this end, the BigNeuron project was launched to gather a worldwide community to establish a big data resource and a set of the state-of-the-art of single neuron reconstruction algorithms. Many groups contributed their own algorithms for the project, including our mean shift and minimum spanning tree (M-MST). Although M-MST is intuitive and easy to implement, the MST just considers spatial information of single neuron and ignores the shape information, which might lead to less precise connections between some neuron segments. In this paper, we propose an improved algorithm, namely M-AMST, in which a rotating sphere model based on coordinate transformation is used to improve the weight calculation method in M-MST. Two experiments are designed to illustrate the effect of adapted minimum spanning tree algorithm and the adoptability of M-AMST in reconstructing variety of neuron image datasets respectively. In the experiment 1, taking the reconstruction of APP2 as reference, we produce the four difference scores (entire structure average (ESA), different structure average (DSA), percentage of different structure (PDS) and max distance of neurons' nodes (MDNN)) by comparing the neuron reconstruction of the APP2 and the other 5 competing algorithm. The result shows that M-AMST gets lower difference scores than M-MST in ESA, PDS and MDNN. Meanwhile, M-AMST is better than N-MST in ESA and MDNN. It indicates that utilizing the adapted minimum spanning tree algorithm which took the shape information of neuron into account can achieve better neuron reconstructions. In the experiment 2, 7 neuron image datasets are reconstructed and the four difference scores are calculated by comparing the gold standard reconstruction and the reconstructions produced by 6 competing algorithms. Comparing the four difference scores of M-AMST and the other 5 algorithm, we can conclude that
On the road again: traffic fatalities and auto insurance minimums
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pavel A. Yakovlev
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Prior research on policy-induced moral hazard effects in the auto insurance market has focused on the impact of compulsory insurance, no-fault liability, and tort liability laws on traffic fatalities. In contrast, this paper examines the moral hazard effect of a previously overlooked policy variable: minimum auto insurance coverage. We hypothesize that state-mandated auto insurance minimums may “over-insure” some drivers, lowering their incentives to drive carefully. Using a longitudinal panel of American states from 1982 to 2006, we find that policy-induced increases in auto insurance minimums are associated with higher traffic fatality rates, ceteris paribus.
What's So Peculiar about the Cycle 23/24 Solar Minimum?
Sheeley, N. R., Jr.
2010-06-01
Traditionally, solar physicists become anxious around solar minimum, as they await the high-latitude sunspot groups of the new cycle. Now, we are in an extended sunspot minimum with conditions not seen in recent memory, and interest in the sunspot cycle has increased again. In this paper, I will describe some of the characteristics of the current solar minimum, including its great depth, its extended duration, its weak polar magnetic fields, and its small amount of open flux. Flux transport simulations suggest that these characteristics are a consequence of temporal variations of the Sun's large-scale meridional circulation.
Time trends in minimum mortality temperatures in Castile-La Mancha (Central Spain): 1975-2003
Miron, Isidro J.; Criado-Alvarez, Juan José; Diaz, Julio; Linares, Cristina; Mayoral, Sheila; Montero, Juan Carlos
2008-03-01
The relationship between air temperature and human mortality is described as non-linear, with mortality tending to rise in response to increasingly hot or cold ambient temperatures from a given minimum mortality or optimal comfort temperature, which varies from some areas to others according to their climatic and socio-demographic characteristics. Changes in these characteristics within any specific region could modify this relationship. This study sought to examine the time trend in the maximum temperature of minimum organic-cause mortality in Castile-La Mancha, from 1975 to 2003. The analysis was performed by using daily series of maximum temperatures and organic-cause mortality rates grouped into three decades (1975-1984, 1985-1994, 1995-2003) to compare confidence intervals ( p ARIMA models (Box-Jenkins) and cross-correlation functions (CCF) at seven lags. We observed a significant decrease in comfort temperature (from 34.2°C to 27.8°C) between the first two decades in the Province of Toledo, along with a growing number of significant lags in the summer CFF (1, 3 and 5, respectively). The fall in comfort temperature is attributable to the increase in the effects of heat on mortality, due, in all likelihood, to the percentage increase in the elderly population.
Preference of small molecules for local minimum conformations when binding to proteins.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qi Wang
2007-09-01
Full Text Available It is well known that small molecules (ligands do not necessarily adopt their lowest potential energy conformations when binding to proteins. Analyses of protein-bound ligand crystal structures have reportedly shown that many of them do not even adopt the conformations at local minima of their potential energy surfaces (local minimum conformations. The results of these analyses raise a concern regarding the validity of virtual screening methods that use ligands in local minimum conformations. Here we report a normal-mode-analysis (NMA study of 100 crystal structures of protein-bound ligands. Our data show that the energy minimization of a ligand alone does not automatically stop at a local minimum conformation if the minimum of the potential energy surface is shallow, thus leading to the folding of the ligand. Furthermore, our data show that all 100 ligand conformations in their protein-bound ligand crystal structures are nearly identical to their local minimum conformations obtained from NMA-monitored energy minimization, suggesting that ligands prefer to adopt local minimum conformations when binding to proteins. These results both support virtual screening methods that use ligands in local minimum conformations and caution about possible adverse effect of excessive energy minimization when generating a database of ligand conformations for virtual screening.
Minimum-B mirrors plus EBT principles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoshikawa, S.
1983-01-01
Electrons are heated at the minimum B location(s) created by the multipole field and the toroidal field. Resulting hot electrons can assist plasma confinement by (1) providing mirror, (2) creating azimuthally symmetric toroidal confinement, or (3) creating modified bumpy torus
Spacetime averaging of exotic singularity universes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dabrowski, Mariusz P.
2011-01-01
Taking a spacetime average as a measure of the strength of singularities we show that big-rips (type I) are stronger than big-bangs. The former have infinite spacetime averages while the latter have them equal to zero. The sudden future singularities (type II) and w-singularities (type V) have finite spacetime averages. The finite scale factor (type III) singularities for some values of the parameters may have an infinite average and in that sense they may be considered stronger than big-bangs.
Minimum Wage and Community College Attendance: How Economic Circumstances Affect Educational Choices
Williams, Betsy
2013-01-01
How do changes in minimum wages affect community college enrollment and employment? In particular, among adults without associate's or bachelor's degrees who may earn near the minimum wage, do endowment effects of a higher minimum wage encourage school attendance? Among adults without associate's or bachelor's degrees who may earn near the minimum…
Angular correlations and high energy evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kovner, Alex; Lublinsky, Michael
2011-01-01
We address the question of to what extent JIMWLK evolution is capable of taking into account angular correlations in a high energy hadronic wave function. Our conclusion is that angular (and indeed other) correlations in the wave function cannot be reliably calculated without taking into account Pomeron loops in the evolution. As an example we study numerically the energy evolution of angular correlations between dipole scattering amplitudes in the framework of the large N c approximation to JIMWLK evolution (the 'projectile dipole model'). Target correlations are introduced via averaging over an (isotropic) ensemble of anisotropic initial conditions. We find that correlations disappear very quickly with rapidity even inside the saturation radius. This is in accordance with our physical picture of JIMWLK evolution. The actual correlations inside the saturation radius in the target QCD wave function, on the other hand, should remain sizable at any rapidity.
Correlation of Hydronephrosis Index to Society of Fetal Urology Hydronephrosis Scale
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krishnan Venkatesan
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose. We seek to correlate conventional hydronephrosis (HN grade and hydronephrosis index (HI. Methods. We examined 1207 hydronephrotic kidneys by ultrasound. HN was classified by Society of Fetal Urology guidelines. HN was then gauged using HI, a reproducible, standardized, and dimensionless measurement of renal area. We then calculated average HI for each HN grade. Results. Comparing HI to standard SFU HN grade, average HI is 89.3 for grade I; average HI is 83.9 for grade II; average HI is 73.0 for grade III; average HI is 54.6 for SFU grade IV. Conclusions. HI correlates well with SFU HN grade. The HI serves as a quantitative measure of HN. HI can be used to track HN over time. Versus conventional grading, HI may be more sensitive in defining severe (grades III and IV HN, and in indicating resolving, stable, or worsening HN, thus providing more information for clinical decision-making and HN management.
22 CFR 151.4 - Minimum limits for motor vehicle insurance.
2010-04-01
... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Minimum limits for motor vehicle insurance. 151.4 Section 151.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE DIPLOMATIC PRIVILEGES AND IMMUNITIES COMPULSORY LIABILITY INSURANCE FOR DIPLOMATIC MISSIONS AND PERSONNEL § 151.4 Minimum limits for motor vehicle...
Reference respiratory waveforms by minimum jerk model analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anetai, Yusuke, E-mail: anetai@radonc.med.osaka-u.ac.jp; Sumida, Iori; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yagi, Masashi; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Kazuhiko [Department of Radiation Oncology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Yamadaoka 2-2, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Ota, Seiichi [Department of Medical Technology, Osaka University Hospital, Yamadaoka 2-15, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)
2015-09-15
Purpose: CyberKnife{sup ®} robotic surgery system has the ability to deliver radiation to a tumor subject to respiratory movements using Synchrony{sup ®} mode with less than 2 mm tracking accuracy. However, rapid and rough motion tracking causes mechanical tracking errors and puts mechanical stress on the robotic joint, leading to unexpected radiation delivery errors. During clinical treatment, patient respiratory motions are much more complicated, suggesting the need for patient-specific modeling of respiratory motion. The purpose of this study was to propose a novel method that provides a reference respiratory wave to enable smooth tracking for each patient. Methods: The minimum jerk model, which mathematically derives smoothness by means of jerk, or the third derivative of position and the derivative of acceleration with respect to time that is proportional to the time rate of force changed was introduced to model a patient-specific respiratory motion wave to provide smooth motion tracking using CyberKnife{sup ®}. To verify that patient-specific minimum jerk respiratory waves were being tracked smoothly by Synchrony{sup ®} mode, a tracking laser projection from CyberKnife{sup ®} was optically analyzed every 0.1 s using a webcam and a calibrated grid on a motion phantom whose motion was in accordance with three pattern waves (cosine, typical free-breathing, and minimum jerk theoretical wave models) for the clinically relevant superior–inferior directions from six volunteers assessed on the same node of the same isocentric plan. Results: Tracking discrepancy from the center of the grid to the beam projection was evaluated. The minimum jerk theoretical wave reduced the maximum-peak amplitude of radial tracking discrepancy compared with that of the waveforms modeled by cosine and typical free-breathing model by 22% and 35%, respectively, and provided smooth tracking for radial direction. Motion tracking constancy as indicated by radial tracking discrepancy
Reference respiratory waveforms by minimum jerk model analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anetai, Yusuke; Sumida, Iori; Takahashi, Yutaka; Yagi, Masashi; Mizuno, Hirokazu; Ogawa, Kazuhiko; Ota, Seiichi
2015-01-01
Purpose: CyberKnife"® robotic surgery system has the ability to deliver radiation to a tumor subject to respiratory movements using Synchrony"® mode with less than 2 mm tracking accuracy. However, rapid and rough motion tracking causes mechanical tracking errors and puts mechanical stress on the robotic joint, leading to unexpected radiation delivery errors. During clinical treatment, patient respiratory motions are much more complicated, suggesting the need for patient-specific modeling of respiratory motion. The purpose of this study was to propose a novel method that provides a reference respiratory wave to enable smooth tracking for each patient. Methods: The minimum jerk model, which mathematically derives smoothness by means of jerk, or the third derivative of position and the derivative of acceleration with respect to time that is proportional to the time rate of force changed was introduced to model a patient-specific respiratory motion wave to provide smooth motion tracking using CyberKnife"®. To verify that patient-specific minimum jerk respiratory waves were being tracked smoothly by Synchrony"® mode, a tracking laser projection from CyberKnife"® was optically analyzed every 0.1 s using a webcam and a calibrated grid on a motion phantom whose motion was in accordance with three pattern waves (cosine, typical free-breathing, and minimum jerk theoretical wave models) for the clinically relevant superior–inferior directions from six volunteers assessed on the same node of the same isocentric plan. Results: Tracking discrepancy from the center of the grid to the beam projection was evaluated. The minimum jerk theoretical wave reduced the maximum-peak amplitude of radial tracking discrepancy compared with that of the waveforms modeled by cosine and typical free-breathing model by 22% and 35%, respectively, and provided smooth tracking for radial direction. Motion tracking constancy as indicated by radial tracking discrepancy affected by respiratory
29 CFR 783.26 - The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement.
2010-07-01
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. 783.26... The section 6(b)(2) minimum wage requirement. Section 6(b), with paragraph (2) thereof, requires the... prescribed by” paragraph (1) of the subsection is the minimum wage rate applicable according to the schedule...
A study of Solar-Enso correlation with southern Brazil tree ring index (1955- 1991)
Rigozo, N.; Nordemann, D.; Vieira, L.; Echer, E.
The effects of solar activity and El Niño-Southern Oscillation on tree growth in Southern Brazil were studied by correlation analysis. Trees for this study were native Araucaria (Araucaria Angustifolia)from four locations in Rio Grande do Sul State, in Southern Brazil: Canela (29o18`S, 50o51`W, 790 m asl), Nova Petropolis (29o2`S, 51o10`W, 579 m asl), Sao Francisco de Paula (29o25`S, 50o24`W, 930 m asl) and Sao Martinho da Serra (29o30`S, 53o53`W, 484 m asl). From these four sites, an average tree ring Index for this region was derived, for the period 1955-1991. Linear correlations were made on annual and 10 year running averages of this tree ring Index, of sunspot number Rz and SOI. For annual averages, the correlation coefficients were low, and the multiple regression between tree ring and SOI and Rz indicates that 20% of the variance in tree rings was explained by solar activity and ENSO variability. However, when the 10 year running averages correlations were made, the coefficient correlations were much higher. A clear anticorrelation is observed between SOI and Index (r=-0.81) whereas Rz and Index show a positive correlation (r=0.67). The multiple regression of 10 year running averages indicates that 76% of the variance in tree ring INdex was explained by solar activity and ENSO. These results indicate that the effects of solar activity and ENSO on tree rings are better seen on long timescales.
Comments on the 'minimum flux corona' concept
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Antiochos, S.K.; Underwood, J.H.
1978-01-01
Hearn's (1975) models of the energy balance and mass loss of stellar coronae, based on a 'minimum flux corona' concept, are critically examined. First, it is shown that the neglect of the relevant length scales for coronal temperature variation leads to an inconsistent computation of the total energy flux F. The stability arguments upon which the minimum flux concept is based are shown to be fallacious. Errors in the computation of the stellar wind contribution to the energy budget are identified. Finally we criticize Hearn's (1977) suggestion that the model, with a value of the thermal conductivity modified by the magnetic field, can explain the difference between solar coronal holes and quiet coronal regions. (orig.) 891 WL [de
Minimum wakefield achievable by waveguide damped cavity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, X.E.; Kroll, N.M.
1995-01-01
The authors use an equivalent circuit to model a waveguide damped cavity. Both exponentially damped and persistent (decay t -3/2 ) components of the wakefield are derived from this model. The result shows that for a cavity with resonant frequency a fixed interval above waveguide cutoff, the persistent wakefield amplitude is inversely proportional to the external Q value of the damped mode. The competition of the two terms results in an optimal Q value, which gives a minimum wakefield as a function of the distance behind the source particle. The minimum wakefield increases when the resonant frequency approaches the waveguide cutoff. The results agree very well with computer simulation on a real cavity-waveguide system
UBV photometry of dwarf novae in the brightness minimum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voloshina, I.B.; Lyutyj, V.M.
1983-01-01
Photoelectric one-night observations of the dwarf novae SS Cyg at minimum light evidence for the existence of eclipses in this system at the moments of conjuctions. The orbital inclination of the system is estimated to be i approximately 70 deg C. The components of this system are low-massive (white and red dwarf stars) and low-luminous objects. As the optical luminosity of the dwarf novae at the minimum light is dependent on the accretion disk and hot spot at its periphery, where the substance jet run out from a nondegenerated component falls, eclipses should be associated with the disk and hot spot. The white dwarf star contributes greatly to the luminosity at the minimum light, but its eclipses are possible only at i approximately 90 deg
CONSEQUENCES OF INCREASING THE MINIMUM WAGE IN UKRAINE TWICE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Volodymyr Boreiko
2017-03-01
Full Text Available In the article the views of scientists on the role of incomes of the poorest people in providing of economic development of the country and consequences of increasing the minimum wage in Ukraine twice are investigated; the dynamics of change in Ukraine minimum wage during a decade are analyzed and decline in living standards of population during this period is shown; measures, which should be taken for non-inflationary growth in incomes of the population, are grounded; it is disclosed that such measures should include unification of income tax for individuals and single social contribution and restoration of a progressive taxation of incomes of the working population. Key words: minimum wage, household income, the poorest part of the population, the economy of country, tax system.
Minimum Time Path Planning for Robotic Manipulator in Drilling/ Spot Welding Tasks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qiang Zhang
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a minimum time path planning strategy is proposed for multi points manufacturing problems in drilling/spot welding tasks. By optimizing the travelling schedule of the set points and the detailed transfer path between points, the minimum time manufacturing task is realized under fully utilizing the dynamic performance of robotic manipulator. According to the start-stop movement in drilling/spot welding task, the path planning problem can be converted into a traveling salesman problem (TSP and a series of point to point minimum time transfer path planning problems. Cubic Hermite interpolation polynomial is used to parameterize the transfer path and then the path parameters are optimized to obtain minimum point to point transfer time. A new TSP with minimum time index is constructed by using point-point transfer time as the TSP parameter. The classical genetic algorithm (GA is applied to obtain the optimal travelling schedule. Several minimum time drilling tasks of a 3-DOF robotic manipulator are used as examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Minimum wage hikes and the wage growth of low-wage workers
Joanna K Swaffield
2012-01-01
This paper presents difference-in-differences estimates of the impact of the British minimum wage on the wage growth of low-wage employees. Estimates of the probability of low-wage employees receiving positive wage growth have been significantly increased by the minimum wage upratings or hikes. However, whether the actual wage growth of these workers has been significantly raised or not depends crucially on the magnitude of the minimum wage hike considered. Findings are consistent with employ...
Quantifying meta-correlations in financial markets
Kenett, Dror Y.; Preis, Tobias; Gur-Gershgoren, Gitit; Ben-Jacob, Eshel
2012-08-01
Financial markets are modular multi-level systems, in which the relationships between the individual components are not constant in time. Sudden changes in these relationships significantly affect the stability of the entire system, and vice versa. Our analysis is based on historical daily closing prices of the 30 components of the Dow Jones Industrial Average (DJIA) from March 15th, 1939 until December 31st, 2010. We quantify the correlation among these components by determining Pearson correlation coefficients, to investigate whether mean correlation of the entire portfolio can be used as a precursor for changes in the index return. To this end, we quantify the meta-correlation - the correlation of mean correlation and index return. We find that changes in index returns are significantly correlated with changes in mean correlation. Furthermore, we study the relationship between the index return and correlation volatility - the standard deviation of correlations for a given time interval. This parameter provides further evidence of the effect of the index on market correlations and their fluctuations. Our empirical findings provide new information and quantification of the index leverage effect, and have implications to risk management, portfolio optimization, and to the increased stability of financial markets.
30 CFR 77.1706 - First aid training program; minimum requirements.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid training program; minimum... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 77.1706 First aid training program; minimum requirements. (a) All first aid training programs required under the provisions of §§ 77.1703 and 77.1704 shall...
30 CFR 77.1707 - First aid equipment; location; minimum requirements.
2010-07-01
... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false First aid equipment; location; minimum... OF UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 77.1707 First aid equipment; location; minimum requirements. (a) Each operator of a surface coal mine shall maintain a supply of the first aid equipment set forth...
13 CFR 108.210 - Minimum capital requirements for NMVC Companies.
2010-01-01
... NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Qualifications for the NMVC Program Capitalizing A Nmvc Company § 108.210 Minimum capital requirements for NMVC Companies. You must have Regulatory Capital of at... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum capital requirements for...
The impact of minimum wage adjustments on Vietnamese wage inequality
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John; Torm, Nina
Using Vietnamese Labour Force Survey data we analyse the impact of minimum wage changes on wage inequality. Minimum wages serve to reduce local wage inequality in the formal sectors by decreasing the gap between the median wages and the lower tail of the local wage distributions. In contrast, local...
Minimum number of transfer units and reboiler duty for multicomponent distillation columns
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pleşu, Valentin; Bonet Ruiz, Alexandra Elena; Bonet, Jordi; Llorens, Joan; Iancu, Petrica
2013-01-01
Some guidelines to evaluate distillation columns, considering only basic thermodynamic data and principles, are provided in this paper. The method allows a first insight to the problem by simple calculations, without requiring column variables to ensure rational use of energy and low environmental impact. The separation system is approached by two complementary ways: minimum and infinite reflux flow rate. The minimum reflux provides the minimum energy requirements, and the infinite reflux provides the feasibility conditions. The difficulty of separation can be expressed in terms of number of transfer units (NTU). The applicability of the method is not mathematically limited by the number of components in the mixture. It is also applicable to reactive distillation. Several mixtures, including reactive distillation, are rigorously simulated as illustrative examples, to verify the applicability of the approach. The separation of the mixtures, performed by distillation columns, is feasible if a minimum NTU can be calculated between the distillate and bottom products. Once verified the feasibility of the separation, the maximum thermal efficiency depends only on boiling point of bottom and distillate streams. The minimum energy requirements corresponding to the reboiler can be calculated from the maximum thermal efficiency, and the variation of entropy and enthalpy of mixing between distillate and bottom streams. -- Highlights: • Feasibility analysis complemented with difficulty of separation parameters • Minimum and infinite reflux simplified models for distillation columns • Minimum number of transfer units (NTU) for packed columns at early design stages • Calculation of minimum energy distillation requirements at early design stages • Thermodynamic cycle approach and efficiency for distillation columns
Spatially varying cross-correlation coefficients in the presence of nugget effects
Kleiber, William; Genton, Marc G.
2012-01-01
We derive sufficient conditions for the cross-correlation coefficient of a multivariate spatial process to vary with location when the spatial model is augmented with nugget effects. The derived class is valid for any choice of covariance functions, and yields substantial flexibility between multiple processes. The key is to identify the cross-correlation coefficient matrix with a contraction matrix, which can be either diagonal, implying a parsimonious formulation, or a fully general contraction matrix, yielding greater flexibility but added model complexity. We illustrate the approach with a bivariate minimum and maximum temperature dataset in Colorado, allowing the two variables to be positively correlated at low elevations and nearly independent at high elevations, while still yielding a positive definite covariance matrix. © 2012 Biometrika Trust.