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Sample records for minimizing worker exposure

  1. A comparative analysis of exposure doses between the radiation workers in dental and general hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Nam Hee; Chung, Woon Kwan; Dong, Kyung Rae; Ju, Yong Jin; Song, Ha Jin; Choi, Eun Jin

    2015-01-01

    Research and investigation is required for the exposure dose of radiation workers to work in the dental hospital as increasing interest in exposure dose of the dental hospital recently accordingly, study aim to minimize radiation exposure by making a follow-up study of individual exposure doses of radiation workers, analyzing the status on individual radiation exposure management, prediction the radiation disability risk levels by radiation, and alerting the workers to the danger of radiation exposure. Especially given the changes in the dental hospital radiation safety awareness conducted the study in order to minimize radiation exposure. This study performed analyses by a comparison between general and dental hospital, comparing each occupation, with the 116,220 exposure dose data by quarter and year of 5,811 subjects at general and dental hospital across South Korea from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2012. The following are the results obtained by analyzing average values year and quarter. In term of hospital, average doses were significantly higher in general hospitals than detal ones. In terms of job, average doses were higher in radiological technologists the other workers. Especially, they showed statistically significant differences between radiological technologists than dentists. The above-mentioned results indicate that radiation workers were exposed to radiation for the past 5 years to the extent not exceeding the dose limit (maximum 50 mSv y -1 ). The limitation of this study is that radiation workers before 2008 were excluded from the study. Objective evaluation standards did not apply to the work circumstance or condition of each hospital. Therefore, it is deemed necessary to work out analysis criteria that will be used as objective evaluation standard. It will be necessary to study radiation exposure in more precise ways on the basis of objective analysis standard in the future. Should try to minimize the radiation individual dose of

  2. A comparative analysis of exposure doses between the radiation workers in dental and general hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Nam Hee; Chung, Woon Kwan; Dong, Kyung Rae; Ju, Yong Jin; Song, Ha Jin [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Jin [Dept. of Public Health and Medicine, Dongshin University, Naju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Research and investigation is required for the exposure dose of radiation workers to work in the dental hospital as increasing interest in exposure dose of the dental hospital recently accordingly, study aim to minimize radiation exposure by making a follow-up study of individual exposure doses of radiation workers, analyzing the status on individual radiation exposure management, prediction the radiation disability risk levels by radiation, and alerting the workers to the danger of radiation exposure. Especially given the changes in the dental hospital radiation safety awareness conducted the study in order to minimize radiation exposure. This study performed analyses by a comparison between general and dental hospital, comparing each occupation, with the 116,220 exposure dose data by quarter and year of 5,811 subjects at general and dental hospital across South Korea from January 1, 2008 through December 31, 2012. The following are the results obtained by analyzing average values year and quarter. In term of hospital, average doses were significantly higher in general hospitals than detal ones. In terms of job, average doses were higher in radiological technologists the other workers. Especially, they showed statistically significant differences between radiological technologists than dentists. The above-mentioned results indicate that radiation workers were exposed to radiation for the past 5 years to the extent not exceeding the dose limit (maximum 50 mSv y{sup -1}). The limitation of this study is that radiation workers before 2008 were excluded from the study. Objective evaluation standards did not apply to the work circumstance or condition of each hospital. Therefore, it is deemed necessary to work out analysis criteria that will be used as objective evaluation standard. It will be necessary to study radiation exposure in more precise ways on the basis of objective analysis standard in the future. Should try to minimize the radiation individual dose of

  3. Occupational exposure to xenon-133 among hospital workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, M.

    1984-11-01

    During procedures for pulmonary ventilation studies on patients in hospitals, xenon-133 may escape into ambient air. Measurements of air concentrations were required to permit an evaluation of the exposure to which hospital workers are subjected. Two complementary methods of in situ measurements of air concentrations were employed: a commercial air monitor and evacuated blood sampling tubes. Personal dosimeters (TLDs) were exposed simultaneously with the commercial air monitor, and the results were compared. This report presents the results of the measurements of air concentrations during studies on patients. Substantial leakage of xenon-133 was noted, but workers received less than the maximum permissible dose. Personal dosimeters do not permit accurate evaluation of the skin doses resulting from exposure to xenon-133; measurements of air concentrations are required for such evaluation. A number of procedures are recommended to minimize leakage and personnel exposure

  4. Respiratory impairment due to asbestos exposure in brake-lining workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdinc, M.; Erdinc, E.; Cok, G.; Polatli, M.

    2003-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that exposure to asbestos causes pulmonary parenchyma fibrosis, pleural disease, and malignant neoplasm in asbestos-exposed workers. However, few data concerning brake-lining workers are available in the literature. In this study, we aimed to assess the long-term effects of chrysotile asbestos exposure on lung function and the risk of asbestos-related diseases in brake-lining workers. Seventy-four asbestos-exposed workers who processed brake-lining products and 12 unexposed office workers were offered pulmonary function tests (spirometry and transfer actor) in 1992 and 1999. In 1999, the mean duration of asbestos exposure was 0.00±4.07 and 11.02±4.81 years (7-31 years) in non smoking and smoking asbestos workers, respectively. Transfer factor (T L , CO) and transfer coefficient (K CO ) decline were significant in the 7-year follow-up in both smoking and non smoking asbestos workers. However, lung function indices of he control group, whom were all current smokers; were also found to be decreased, including FEF 75 , T L , CO and K CO . We found minimal reticular changes in 10 asbestos workers who were all current smokers, they underwent high-resolution computed tomography scans of the chest and we found that they ad peri bronchial thickening resulting from smoking. As a conclusion, even in the absence of radiographic asbestosis, T L , CO and K CO may decrease after mean 10-year duration of exposure to asbestos in brake-lining workers and this is more noticeable with cigarette burden

  5. The analysis of radiation exposure of hospital radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Tae Sik; Shin, Byung Chul; Moon, Chang Woo; Cho, Yeong Duk; Lee, Yong Hwan; Yum, Ha Yong

    2000-01-01

    This investigation was performed in order to improve the health care of radiation workers, to predict a risk, to minimize the radiation exposure hazard to them and for them to realize radiation exposure danger when they work in radiation area in hospital. The documentations checked regularly for personal radiation exposure in four university hospitals in Pusan city in Korea between January 1, 1993 and December 31, 1997 were analyz ed. There were 458 persons in this documented but 111 persons who worked less then one year were excluded and only 347 persons were included in this study. The average of yearly radiation exposure of 347 persons was 1.52±1.35 mSv. Though it was less than 5OmSv, the limitaion of radiation in law but 125 (36%) people received higher radiation exposure than non-radiation workers. Radiation workers under 30 year old have received radiation exposure of mean 1.87±1.01 mSv/year, mean 1.22±0.69 mSv between 31 and 40 year old and mean 0.97±0.43 mSv/year over, 41year old (p<0.001). Men received mean 1.67±1.54 mSv/year were higher than women who received mean 1.13±0.61 mSv/year (p<0.01). Radiation exposure in the department of nuclear medicine department in spite of low energy sources is higher than other departments that use radiations in hospital (p<0.05). And the workers who received mean 3.69±1.81 mSv/year in parts of management of radiation sources and injection of sources to patient receive high radiation exposure in nuclear medicine department (0<0.01). In department of diagnostic radiology high radiation exposure is in barium enema rooms where workers received mean 3.74±1.74 mSv/year and other parts where they all use fluoroscopy such as angiography room of mean 1.17±0.35 mSv/year and upper gastrointestinal room of mean 1.74±1.34 mSv/year represented higher radiation exposure than average radiation exposure in diagnostic radiology (p<0.01). Doctors and radiation technologists received higher radiation exposure of each mean 1.75±1

  6. Radiation exposure of uranium mill workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jha, Giridhar; Saha, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    The uranium mill workers at Jaduguda were covered by a regular film badge service from 1969 onwards. Since the log normal plot is useful in interpreting occupational exposure, a statistical analysis of the radiation exposure data was attempted. Exposure data for each year has been plotted as cumulative percentage and worker's population with exposure levels in different class intervals. The plot for each of the year under investigation shows an occupational exposure distribution more or less consistent with the log normal distribution function. The analysis shows that more than 98% of radiation workers received less than 200 mrem (2 mSv). (author)

  7. Evaluation on the Radiation Exposure of Radiation Workers in Proton Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Jang, Yo Jong; Kim, Tae Yoon; Jeong, Do Hyung; Choi, Gye Suk

    2012-01-01

    cumulative dose and exposure dose on a specific body part can bring health risks if one works in a same location for a long period. Therefore, radiation workers must thoroughly manage exposure dose and try their best to minimize it according to ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable) as the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends.

  8. Influence of exposure assessment and parameterization on exposure response. Aspects of epidemiologic cohort analysis using the Libby Amphibole asbestos worker cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Thomas F; Kopylev, Leonid

    2015-01-01

    Recent meta-analyses of occupational epidemiology studies identified two important exposure data quality factors in predicting summary effect measures for asbestos-associated lung cancer mortality risk: sufficiency of job history data and percent coverage of work history by measured exposures. The objective was to evaluate different exposure parameterizations suggested in the asbestos literature using the Libby, MT asbestos worker cohort and to evaluate influences of exposure measurement error caused by historically estimated exposure data on lung cancer risks. Focusing on workers hired after 1959, when job histories were well-known and occupational exposures were predominantly based on measured exposures (85% coverage), we found that cumulative exposure alone, and with allowance of exponential decay, fit lung cancer mortality data similarly. Residence-time-weighted metrics did not fit well. Compared with previous analyses based on the whole cohort of Libby workers hired after 1935, when job histories were less well-known and exposures less frequently measured (47% coverage), our analyses based on higher quality exposure data yielded an effect size as much as 3.6 times higher. Future occupational cohort studies should continue to refine retrospective exposure assessment methods, consider multiple exposure metrics, and explore new methods of maintaining statistical power while minimizing exposure measurement error.

  9. Worker exposures: How much in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, K.B.

    1985-01-01

    Basically, four categories of workers are involved with transport operations: handlers, drivers, health physics monitoring staff, and supervisory staff. In 1984, the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) published results of a study covering all four of these worker categories, all types of radioactive material, and all modes of transport used in the United Kingdom. The study covered occupationally related exposure during all normal transport operations of radioactive materials, but did not cover potential consequences of accidents. Although mainly concerned with exposure of workers, the study included the exposure of the public from the transport of irradiated Magnox fuel from the first generation of nuclear power stations. The current evaluation - based on measurements as distinct from earlier assessments which were theoretical estimates - shows that the public exposure is much lower than the calculated maximum based on pessimistic assumptions. For workers, the study concluded that the annual collective dose from the transport of all radioactive materials in the UK is approximately 1 man-sievert. This compares with an annual collective dose estimated at 500 man-sievert from all occupational exposure to ionizing radiation in the UK

  10. Dust exposure and health of workers in duck hatcheries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Thérèse Guillam

    2017-07-01

    Hatchery workers were at increased risk of compromised respiratory health due to dust exposure, particularly those who work in sorting rooms. Asthma and rhinitis were in excess in this population of workers. Thorough clinical examination of these workers should be performed and all exposures assessed.

  11. Medical management of three workers following a radiation exposure incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, R.A.; Sax, S.E.; Rumack, E.R.; Holness, D.L.

    1992-01-01

    The medical management of three individuals involved in an exposure incident to whole-body radiation at a nuclear generating plant of a Canadian electrical utility is described. The exposure incident resulted in the two highest whole-body radiation doses ever received in a single event by workers in a Canadian nuclear power plant. The individual whole-body doses (127.4 mSv, 92.0 mSv, 22.4 mSv) were below the threshold for acute radiation sickness but the exposures still presented medical management problems related to assessment and counseling. Serial blood counting and lymphocyte cytogenetic analysis to corroborate the physical dosimetry were performed. All three employees experienced somatic symptoms due to stress and one employee developed post-traumatic stress disorder. This incident indicates that there is a need in such radiation exposure accidents for early and continued counseling of exposed employees to minimize the risk of development of stress-related symptoms

  12. Medical management of three workers following a radiation exposure incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    House, R.A.; Sax, S.E.; Rumack, E.R.; Holness, D.L. (Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, St. Michael' s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1992-01-01

    The medical management of three individuals involved in an exposure incident to whole-body radiation at a nuclear generating plant of a Canadian electrical utility is described. The exposure incident resulted in the two highest whole-body radiation doses ever received in a single event by workers in a Canadian nuclear power plant. The individual whole-body doses (127.4 mSv, 92.0 mSv, 22.4 mSv) were below the threshold for acute radiation sickness but the exposures still presented medical management problems related to assessment and counseling. Serial blood counting and lymphocyte cytogenetic analysis to corroborate the physical dosimetry were performed. All three employees experienced somatic symptoms due to stress and one employee developed post-traumatic stress disorder. This incident indicates that there is a need in such radiation exposure accidents for early and continued counseling of exposed employees to minimize the risk of development of stress-related symptoms.

  13. ADEPT - an innovative tool to reduce worker exposure using virtual job planning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verzilov, Y.; Husain, A. [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Trifanov, A. [SoftBeam Ltd., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    Advanced Dose Exposure Planning Tool (ADEPT) is Kinectrics' innovative solution for assisting nuclear station staff to effectively minimize worker dose during inspection and maintenance activities. ADEPT is a PC-based software that provides 3D virtual reality job simulations for radioactive environments around the CANDU reactor components, namely, the horizontal feeder cabinet, the vertical feeder cabinet and the reactor face. ADEPT allows users to walk through a virtual job plan and receive a live radiation dose estimate for the planned work. A worker dose estimation is based on a predetermined radiation field around reactor components and a user-defined job description. Radiation fields are based on the Outage Activity Transport Monitoring (OATM) data. (author)

  14. ADEPT - an innovative tool to reduce worker exposure using virtual job planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verzilov, Y.; Husain, A.; Trifanov, A.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced Dose Exposure Planning Tool (ADEPT) is Kinectrics' innovative solution for assisting nuclear station staff to effectively minimize worker dose during inspection and maintenance activities. ADEPT is a PC-based software that provides 3D virtual reality job simulations for radioactive environments around the CANDU reactor components, namely, the horizontal feeder cabinet, the vertical feeder cabinet and the reactor face. ADEPT allows users to walk through a virtual job plan and receive a live radiation dose estimate for the planned work. A worker dose estimation is based on a predetermined radiation field around reactor components and a user-defined job description. Radiation fields are based on the Outage Activity Transport Monitoring (OATM) data. (author)

  15. Minimizing Exposure at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Home Page Pesticide Health and Safety Information Safe Use Practices Minimizing Exposure at Work Pesticides - Pennsylvania State University Cooperative Extension Personal Protective Equipment for Working

  16. Comparison between radioactive waste management and the exposure of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, G.P.; Santos, J.S.; González, J.A.; Pássaro, B.M.; Videira, H.S.; Lopes, A.B.; Buchpiguel, C.A.; Guimarães, M.I.C.C.

    2015-01-01

    Depending on how the radioactive waste is managed it can become an additional source of exposure to the worker. In order to minimize this exposure the amount of radioactive waste generated by a nuclear medicine center was analyzed, quantified, qualified and compared with the doses obtained by personal dosimetry in the Nuclear Medicine Service of InRad HCFMUSP. The greatest quantity of radioactive waste produced was of "9"9"mTc. Approximately 90% of the solid waste was non-compactable, such as needles and others, and the remaining 10% were of compactable waste (gauze, gloves and other). Among the years there has been a significant variation in the amount of waste, which is directly connected with the quantity of exams performed. The medium dose value observed was of 0.6 mSv per month for all the workers, including radiopharmacists, nurses and physicists (dosimeters positioned in thorax) and 1.6 mSv in wrist dosimeters. We observed that months with greater amount of waste coincided with months of higher doses. However, this increase was not significant and was not proportional due to optimization in handling the waste. (authors)

  17. Effects of a powered air-purifying respirator intervention on indium exposure reduction and indium related biomarkers among ITO sputter target manufacturing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hung-Hsin; Chen, Chang-Yuh; Lan, Cheng-Hang; Chang, Cheng-Ping; Peng, Chiung-Yu

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) worn by the workers, and to investigate the effect of this application on exposure and preclinical effects in terms of workplace measuring and biomarker monitoring in ITO sputter target manufacturing plants and workers, respectively. Fifty-four workers were recruited and investigated from 2010-2012, during which PAPRs were provided to on-site workers in September 2011. Each worker completed questionnaires and provided blood and urine samples for analysis of biomarkers of indium exposure and preclinical effects. Area and personal indium air samples were randomly collected from selected worksites and from participants. The penetration percentage of the respirator (concentration inside respirator divided by concentration outside respirator) was 6.6%. Some biomarkers, such as S-In, SOD, GPx, GST, MDA, and TMOM, reflected the decrease in exposure and showed lower levels, after implementation of PAPRs. This study is the first to investigate the efficacy of PAPRs for reducing indium exposure. The measurement results clearly showed that the implementation of PAPRs reduces levels of indium-related biomarkers. These findings have practical applications for minimizing occupational exposure to indium and for managing the health of workers exposed to indium.

  18. Planning of optimal work path for minimizing exposure dose during radiation work in radwaste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Park, Won Man; Kim, Kyung Soo; Whang, Joo Ho

    2005-01-01

    Since the safety of nuclear power plant has been becoming a big social issue, the exposure dose of radiation for workers has been one of the important factors concerning the safety problem. The existing calculation methods of radiation dose used in the planning of radiation work assume that dose rate dose not depend on the location within a work space, thus the variation of exposure dose by different work path is not considered. In this study, a modified numerical method was presented to estimate the exposure dose during radiation work in radwaste storage considering the effects of the distance between a worker and sources. And a new numerical algorithm was suggested to search the optimal work path minimizing the exposure dose in pre-defined work space with given radiation sources. Finally, a virtual work simulation program was developed to visualize the exposure dose of radiation during radiation works in radwaste storage and provide the capability of simulation for work planning. As a numerical example, a test radiation work was simulated under given space and two radiation sources, and the suggested optimal work path was compared with three predefined work paths. The optimal work path obtained in the study could reduce the exposure dose for the given test work. Based on the results, the developed numerical method and simulation program could be useful tools in the planning of radiation work

  19. Assessment of exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Moon, JeiKwon; Choi, ByungSeon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Ikjune; Kim, GeunHo; Seo, JaeSeok

    2014-01-01

    This paper is intended to suggest the method analyze and assess the exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments. To simulate a lot of decommissioning scenarios, decommissioning environments were designed in virtual reality. To simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers, human model also was designed in virtual environments. These virtual decommissioning environments made it possible to real-time simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers. This work was to be able to simulate scenarios of decommissioning so that exposure dose to workers could be measured and assessed. To establish the plan of exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities before decommissioning activities are accomplished, the method of simulation assessment was developed in virtual radiological environments. But this work was developed as a tool of simulation for single subject mode. Afterwards, the simulation environment for multi-subjects mode will be upgraded by simultaneous modules with networking environments. Then the much more practical method will be developed by changing number of workers and duration of time under any circumstances of decommissioning

  20. Assessment of exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Moon, JeiKwon; Choi, ByungSeon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, Ikjune; Kim, GeunHo; Seo, JaeSeok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    This paper is intended to suggest the method analyze and assess the exposure dose to workers in virtual decommissioning environments. To simulate a lot of decommissioning scenarios, decommissioning environments were designed in virtual reality. To simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers, human model also was designed in virtual environments. These virtual decommissioning environments made it possible to real-time simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers. This work was to be able to simulate scenarios of decommissioning so that exposure dose to workers could be measured and assessed. To establish the plan of exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities before decommissioning activities are accomplished, the method of simulation assessment was developed in virtual radiological environments. But this work was developed as a tool of simulation for single subject mode. Afterwards, the simulation environment for multi-subjects mode will be upgraded by simultaneous modules with networking environments. Then the much more practical method will be developed by changing number of workers and duration of time under any circumstances of decommissioning.

  1. Exposure of hospitality workers to environmental tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, M; Fawcett, J; Dickson, S; Berezowski, R; Garrett, N

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To determine quantitatively the extent of exposure of hospitality workers to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during the course of a work shift, and to relate these results to the customer smoking policy of the workplace. Subjects: Three categories of non-smoking workers were recruited: (1) staff from hospitality premises (bars and restaurants) that permitted smoking by customers; (2) staff from smokefree hospitality premises; and (3) government employees in smokefree workplaces. All participants met with a member of the study team before they began work, and again at the end of their shift or work day. At each meeting, participants answered questions from a standardised questionnaire and supplied a saliva sample. Main outcome measures: Saliva samples were analysed for cotinine. The difference between the first and second saliva sample cotinine concentrations indicated the degree of exposure to ETS over the course of the work shift. Results: Hospitality workers in premises allowing smoking by customers had significantly greater increases in cotinine than workers in smokefree premises. Workers in hospitality premises with no restrictions on customer smoking were more highly exposed to ETS than workers in premises permitting smoking only in designated areas. Conclusions: Overall, there was a clear association between within-shift cotinine concentration change and smoking policy. Workers in premises permitting customer smoking reported a higher prevalence of respiratory and irritation symptoms than workers in smokefree workplaces. Concentrations of salivary cotinine found in exposed workers in this study have been associated with substantial involuntary risks for cancer and heart disease. PMID:12035005

  2. Studies of the impact of occupational exposure of pharmaceutical workers on the development of antimicrobial drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarker, Md Moklesur Rahman; Islam, Kamrun Nahar; Huri, Hasniza Zaman; Rahman, Monzur; Imam, Hasan; Hosen, Md Biplob; Mohammad, Nur; Sarker, Md Zaidul Islam

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical workers involved with the production of antimicrobial drugs are exposed to various antimicrobial chemicals in different steps of manufacturing such as grinding, sieving, compression, granulation, mixing and filling. These exposures may lead to the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in bacteria. Scientific reports on the occupational health hazard of pharmaceutical workers involved in manufacturing antibiotics are scarce. The present study aimed to compare the degree of bacterial resistance in pharmaceutical workers in Bangladesh to that of individuals not involved in the pharmaceutical field. Twenty male workers from five local pharmaceutical companies and twenty male subjects not involved in the pharmaceutical field (non-pharmaceutical subjects) were randomly selected. Nasal fluid, mucus/cough and stool specimens were collected from each subject and were cultured separately at 37°C for 24 hours to obtain bacterial growth. The cultured species were then identified, isolated and subjected to microbial sensitivity testing against 18 different antibiotics from eight different groups by the disk diffusion method. Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp. and Escherichia coli were identified and isolated from the culture of nasal fluids, mucuses and stools, respectively. All the isolated species of bacteria exhibited significant enhancement of the degree of MDR in pharmaceutical workers compared with non-pharmaceutical subjects. Workers with a longer working history had greater degree of antibiotic resistance and vice versa. It can be certainly considered that the exposure of pharmaceutical workers to antibiotic agents resulted in a high incidence of multidrug resistance. Effective steps should be taken to minimize inherent exposure of pharmaceutical workers to antibiotics during work to prevent antimicrobial drug resistance.

  3. Personal exposure to inhalable cement dust among construction workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, S.M.; Thomassen, Y.; Fechter-Rink, E.; Kromhout, H.

    2009-01-01

    Objective- A case study was carried out to assess cement dust exposure and its determinants among construction workers and for comparison among workers in cement and concrete production.Methods- Full-shift personal exposure measurements were performed and samples were analysed for inhalable dust and

  4. Second-hand smoke exposure and mitigation strategies among home visitation workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keske, Robyn R; Rees, Vaughan W; Behm, Ilan; Wadler, Brianna M; Geller, Alan C

    2013-07-01

    Protection of workers from second-hand smoke (SHS) in occupational settings is an important policy priority, yet little attention has been given to SHS protection for home visitation health workers, who number almost 2 million in the USA. Self-reported SHS exposure, SHS mitigation strategies and suggestions for further SHS exposure reduction approaches were obtained from home visitation health workers in Massachusetts. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among Massachusetts Early Intervention workers (N=316) at their state-wide conference in April 2010. Eighty-three per cent of respondents reported at least 1 hour per month of SHS exposure, and 16% reported at least 11 hours per month. Nevertheless, only 22% of workers counselled clients on maintaining a smoke-free home. Fewer than 30% of workers had ever voiced concerns to their employing agency, and just 12% had raised their concerns directly with clients. Only 14% stated that their agency had rules designed to protect workers from SHS. SHS exposure occurs frequently among home visitation health workers. The data point to a substantial population who are not protected from SHS exposure by formal policies.

  5. National registry of workers occupational exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, P.G. da; Mota, H.C.; Alegre, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission started in 1987 a nationwide program in order to collect and maintain the radiation exposure records of the Brazilian workers. This data base consists of several files including: workers - personal data; institutions - section or department where the workers perform their activities; and annual doses - annual integrated doses and any relevant information regarding their exposures. The data base structure is introduced in the present work where its objectives are discussed taking into account the magnitude of the program as well as the difficulties of maintaining and the long term perspectives of a nationwide register of radiation occupational exposures. (author). 15 refs., 1 fig

  6. A study on exposure dose from injection work and elution work for radiation workers and frequent workers in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ju, Yong Jin; Chung, Woon Kwan; Dong, Kyung Rae; Choi, Eun Jin; Kwak, Jong Gil; Ryu, Jae Kwang

    2017-01-01

    Compared to other occupations, there is a greater risk of exposure to radiation due to the use of radioisotopes in nuclear medicine for diagnostic evaluations and therapy. To consider ways to reduce exposure dose for those in nuclear medicine involved in injection work and elution work among radiation workers as well as for sanitation workers and trainees among frequent workers an investigation into exposure dose and situational analysis from changes in yearly exposure dose evaluations, changes in work environment and changes in forms of inspection were conducted. Exposure dose measurements were taken by using EPD MK2 worn during working hours for one injection worker, one elution worker, two sanitation workers, and one trainee at a general hospital in the Seoul area for three days from July 18th to 20th 2016. Radiation from radioisotopes which are a part of nuclear medicine can significantly affect not only radiation workers who deal with radioisotopes directly but also frequency works as well. According to this study the annual dose limit for elution workers and injection workers were considered safe as the amount of exposure was not large enough to have a signifcant effect. The limits of this study consist in the duration of this study and the quantity of participants. Also there was a limitation of the measurement device involving accumulated exposure, where the EPD MK2 cannot check the changes in exposure according to a particular activity

  7. A study on exposure dose from injection work and elution work for radiation workers and frequent workers in nuclear medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Yong Jin; Chung, Woon Kwan [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Eun Jin; Kwak, Jong Gil [Dept. of Public Health and Medicine, Dongshin University Graduate School, Naju (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jae Kwang [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Compared to other occupations, there is a greater risk of exposure to radiation due to the use of radioisotopes in nuclear medicine for diagnostic evaluations and therapy. To consider ways to reduce exposure dose for those in nuclear medicine involved in injection work and elution work among radiation workers as well as for sanitation workers and trainees among frequent workers an investigation into exposure dose and situational analysis from changes in yearly exposure dose evaluations, changes in work environment and changes in forms of inspection were conducted. Exposure dose measurements were taken by using EPD MK2 worn during working hours for one injection worker, one elution worker, two sanitation workers, and one trainee at a general hospital in the Seoul area for three days from July 18th to 20th 2016. Radiation from radioisotopes which are a part of nuclear medicine can significantly affect not only radiation workers who deal with radioisotopes directly but also frequency works as well. According to this study the annual dose limit for elution workers and injection workers were considered safe as the amount of exposure was not large enough to have a signifcant effect. The limits of this study consist in the duration of this study and the quantity of participants. Also there was a limitation of the measurement device involving accumulated exposure, where the EPD MK2 cannot check the changes in exposure according to a particular activity.

  8. Can occupational exposure be optimized for medical workers?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubert, B.; Lefaure, C.

    1998-01-01

    Implementation of the principle of optimization (ALARA), an essential radiation protection regulations, remains very limited in the medical field, even though 80 % of workers whose exposure exceeds 50 mSv are to be found in this domain. The doses measured by legal dosimetry sometimes underestimate the real exposure of workers. It is therefore necessary to optimize the protection of occupational exposure in the medical field. This paper reviews the steps of the optimization procedure with emphasis on specificity of its application in this domain. Operating dosimetry as well as information on the residual risk due to low exposures and a better estimation of the risk/benefit factor for the patient are needed for satisfactory implementation. (author)

  9. Exposure of Ontario workers to radiofrequency fields from dielectric heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bitran, M.E.; Nishio, J.M.; Charron, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    As part of a program to assess and reduce the exposure of Ontario workers to non-ionizing radiations, stray electric and magnetic fields from 383 dielectric heaters were measured in 71 industrial establishments from 1988 to 1990. This represents a population of over 800 workers potentially exposed to radiofrequency (RE) electromagnetic fields. Electric and magnetic field strengths at the head, waist, and thigh levels of the operators, corrected by duty cycle, are presented for the different heater types surveyed. Worker exposure data and compliance with Ontario radiofrequency exposure guidelines are discussed. (author)

  10. Metal dust exposure and lung function deterioration among steel workers: an exposure-response relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Nurul Ainun; Mohd Tamrin, Shamsul Bahri; Ismail, Noor Hassim

    2016-07-01

    Metallic dust is a heterogeneous substance with respiratory sensitizing properties. Its long term exposure adversely affected lung function, thus may cause acute or chronic respiratory diseases. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a steel factory in Terengganu, Malaysia to assess the metal dust exposure and its relationship to lung function values among 184 workers. Metal dust concentrations values (Co, Cr, and Ni) for each worker were collected using air personal sampling. Lung function values (FEV 1 , FVC, and %FEV 1 /FVC) were determined using spirometer. Exposure to cobalt and chromium were 1-3 times higher than permissible exposure limit (PEL) while nickel was not exceeding the PEL. Cumulative of chromium was the predictor to all lung function values (FEV 1 , FVC, and %FEV 1 /FVC). Frequency of using mask was positively associated with FVC (Adj b = 0.263, P = 0.011) while past respiratory illnesses were negatively associated with %FEV 1 /FVC (Adj b = -1.452, P = 0.026). Only few workers (36.4%) were found to wear their masks all times during the working hours. There was an exposure-response relationship of cumulative metal dust exposure with the deterioration of lung function values. Improvement of control measures as well as proper and efficient use or personal protection equipment while at work could help to protect the respiratory health of workers.

  11. Noise Exposure and Hearing Capabilities of Quarry Workers in Ghana: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyamfi, Charles Kwame R; Amankwaa, Isaac; Owusu Sekyere, Frank; Boateng, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Although quarry operations have high economic significance, the effects they cause to the workers in terms of excessive noise production cannot be overlooked. This cross-sectional study assessed the extent of noise exposure and its influence on hearing capabilities among quarry workers in Ashanti region. The study involved 400 workers randomly selected from five quarries in Ashanti region from April to June 2012. Data was collected using structured questionnaires, physical examination, and audiological assessments. A logistic regression model was fitted to assess independent predictors of hearing loss. All the machines used at the various quarries produced noise that exceeded the minimum threshold with levels ranging from 85.5 dBA to 102.7 dBA. 176 (44%) of study respondents had hearing threshold higher than 25 dBA. 18% and 2% of these were moderately (41-55 dBA) and severely (71-90 dBA) impaired, respectively. Age, duration of work, and use of earplugs independently predicted the development of hearing loss. Use of earplugs showed a protective effect on the development of hearing loss (OR = 0.45; 95% CI = 0.25, 0.84). This study provides empirical evidence on the extent of damage caused to quarry workers as a result of excessive noise exposure. This will support the institution of appropriate protective measures to minimize this threat.

  12. Occupational exposure to Aspergillus and aflatoxins among food-grain workers in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Abida; Ali, Sana; Shahid, Mohd; Bhargava, Rakesh

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins are a metabolite of Aspergillus molds and are widespread in the natural environment. Workers who handle food grains are at increased risk of exposure to aflatoxins and subsequently certain respiratory conditions. In India, more than half of the employed population is engaged in some type of agricultural work, yet little known about the respiratory problems as a result of exposure to aflatoxins among workers who handle food grains in India. The aim of this study was to determine the risk of occupational exposure to aflatoxins in food-grain workers compared to workers who are not occupationally exposed to food grains. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and serum samples from 46 food-grain workers and 44 non-food-grain workers were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxins. Microscopy and culture of BAL samples were performed to detect Aspergillus species. Aflatoxins were detected in 32·6% of the food-grain workers and 9·1% of non food grain workers (Pworkers and 11·4% of non-food-grain workers had chronic respiratory symptoms. Occupational exposure to aflatoxins in food-grain workers was found to be associated with the increased presence of respiratory symptoms.

  13. Minimizing employee exposure to toxic chemical releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plummer, R.W.; Stobbe, T.J.; Mogensen, J.E.; Jeram, L.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book describes procedures for minimizing employee exposure to toxic chemical releases and suggested personal protective equipment (PPE) to be used in the event of such chemical release. How individuals, employees, supervisors, or companies perceive the risks of chemical exposure (risk meaning both probability of exposure and effect of exposure) determines to a great extent what precautions are taken to avoid risk. In Part I, the authors develop and approach which divides the project into three phases: kinds of procedures currently being used; the types of toxic chemical release accidents and injuries that occur; and, finally, integration of this information into a set of recommended procedures which should decrease the likelihood of a toxic chemical release and, if one does occur, will minimize the exposure and its severity to employees. Part II covers the use of personal protective equipment. It addresses the questions: what personal protective equipment ensembles are used in industry in situations where the release of a toxic or dangerous chemical may occur or has occurred; and what personal protective equipment ensembles should be used in these situations

  14. Chronic and acute exposures to the world trade center disaster and lower respiratory symptoms: area residents and workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Carey B; Friedman, Stephen M; Pillai, Parul S; Reibman, Joan; Berger, Kenneth I; Goldring, Roberta; Stellman, Steven D; Farfel, Mark

    2012-06-01

    We assessed associations between new-onset (post-September 11, 2001 [9/11]) lower respiratory symptoms reported on 2 surveys, administered 3 years apart, and acute and chronic 9/11-related exposures among New York City World Trade Center-area residents and workers enrolled in the World Trade Center Health Registry. World Trade Center-area residents and workers were categorized as case participants or control participants on the basis of lower respiratory symptoms reported in surveys administered 2 to 3 and 5 to 6 years after 9/11. We created composite exposure scales after principal components analyses of detailed exposure histories obtained during face-to-face interviews. We used multivariate logistic regression models to determine associations between lower respiratory symptoms and composite exposure scales. Both acute and chronic exposures to the events of 9/11 were independently associated, often in a dose-dependent manner, with lower respiratory symptoms among individuals who lived and worked in the area of the World Trade Center. Study findings argue for detailed assessments of exposure during and after events in the future from which potentially toxic materials may be released and for rapid interventions to minimize exposures and screen for potential adverse health effects.

  15. White paper on radiological monitoring of workers exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shettle, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This article comments the content of a white paper which aimed at proposing new regulatory bases to update the French Code of Labour and other legal texts related to the radiation protection of workers. The author briefly comments the objectives of this white paper (to put the initial regulatory basis into question again), briefly describes the adopted approach, the new definition of risk related to ionizing radiations within the frame of a global approach to the prevention of occupational risks. She notices and comments the removal of a reference to an exposure limit for the public as input criterion in the system of radiological monitoring of workers exposures. She also comments the introduction of some concepts: the concept of a worker submitted to a risk related to ionizing radiation, and the concept of exposure value entailing a strengthened preventive action. She indicates the different modalities adopted for exposure monitoring (radiological monitoring and dose follow-up), addresses the issue of communication of dosimetry data and the access to all dosimetry information for the person in charge of radiation protection, and finally briefly evokes the idea of publishing guides for each specific sectors

  16. The minimal melanogenesis dose/minimal erythema dose ratio declines with increasing skin pigmentation using solar simulator and narrowband ultraviolet B exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbak, Mette H; Philipsen, Peter A; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relation between pre-exposure skin pigmentation and the minimal melanogenesis dose (MMD)/minimal erythema dose (MED) ratio after a single narrowband ultraviolet B (nUVB) and solar simulator (Solar) exposure.......To investigate the relation between pre-exposure skin pigmentation and the minimal melanogenesis dose (MMD)/minimal erythema dose (MED) ratio after a single narrowband ultraviolet B (nUVB) and solar simulator (Solar) exposure....

  17. Personal exposure to inhalable cement dust among construction workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Susan; Kromhout, Hans; Thomassen, Yngvar; Fechter-Rink, Edeltraud

    2009-01-01

    A case study was carried out in 2006-2007 to assess the actual cement dust exposure among construction workers involved in a full-scale construction project and as a comparison among workers involved in various stages of cement and concrete production. Full-shift personal exposure measurements were performed for several job types. Inhalable dust and cement dust (based on analysis of elemental calcium) concentrations were determined. Inhalable dust exposures at the construction site ranged from 0.05 to 34 mg/m3, with a mean concentration of 1.0 mg/m3. For inhalable cement dust mean exposure was 0.3 mg/m3 (range 0.02-17 mg/m3). Reinforcement and pouring workers had the lowest average concentrations. Inhalable dust levels in the ready-mix and pre-cast concrete plants were, on average, below 0.5 mg/m3 for inhalable dust and below 0.2 mg/m3 for inhalable cement dust. Highest dust concentrations were measured in cement production, particularly during cleaning tasks (inhalable dust GM=55 mg/m3; inhalable cement dust GM=33 mg/m3) at which point the workers wore personal protective equipment. Elemental measurements showed highest but very variable cement percentages in the cement plant and very low percentages of cement during reinforcement work and pouring.

  18. The occupational exposure of radiation workers, 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, S; Yamada, N; Sakurai, K [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine

    1975-03-01

    Because the medical use of x-rays and radioisotopes is gradually increasing for diagnosis and therapy, radiation workers, special doctors, nurses and radiological technicians have occupational exposure. Procedures for monitoring external exposure of personnel include the wearing of a filmbadge or a pocket chamber. The results of filmbadge monitoring in Yamaguchi University Hospital for the last 10 years were described. In 1964, the total number of filmbadges that radiation workers used during a 2 week period of radiological examination and therapy was 610. This has been increasing yearly, and in 1972 it was 1999. Radiological technicians generally had low occupational exposure, and about 90 per cent of their filmbadges were exposed to less than 10 mR. Approximately 65 per cent of the filmbadges that nurses used were less than 10 mR, but some nurses who worked in radium therapy at the isotope ward suffered large doses. Some nurses had occasionally exposure higher than 100 mR in radiological examination. Some doctors sustained an occupational exposure of more than 150 mR. From these data, some problems on radiation monitoring using a filmbadge were discussed.

  19. The occupational exposure of radiation workers, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Shoji; Yamada, Norimasa; Sakurai, Koh

    1975-01-01

    Because the medical use of x-rays and radioisotopes is gradually increasing for diagnosis and therapy, radiation workers, special doctors, nurses and radiological technicians have occupational exposure. Procedures for monitoring external exposure of personnel include the wearing of a filmbadge or a pocket chamber. The results of filmbadge monitoring in Yamaguchi University Hospital for the last 10 years were described. In 1964, the total number of filmbadges that radiation workers used during a 2 week period of radiological examination and therapy was 610. This has been increasing yearly, and in 1972 it was 1999. Radiological technicians generally had low occupational exposure, and about 90 per cent of their filmbadges were exposed to less than 10 mR. Approximately 65 per cent of the filmbadges that nurses used were less than 10 mR, but some nurses who worked in radium therapy at the isotope ward suffered large doses. Some nurses had occasionally exposure higher than 100 mR in radiological examination. Some doctors sustained an occupational exposure of more than 150 mR. From these data, some problems on radiation monitoring using a filmbadge were discussed. (author)

  20. Exposure of highway maintenance workers to fine particulate matter and noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study we assessed the mixed exposure of highway maintenance workers to airborne particles, noise and gaseous co-pollutants. The aims were to provide a better understanding of the workers exposure to facilitate the evaluation of short-term effects on cardiovascular health ...

  1. Effects of occupational exposures and smoking on lung function in tile factory workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Maritta S; Sripaiboonkij, Penpatra; Jaakkola, Jouni J K

    2011-02-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the relations of occupational exposures in tile industry to lung function and to evaluate potential interaction between smoking and tile dust exposure containing silica. A cross-sectional study of 232 workers (response rate 100%) in a tile factory and 76 office workers (response rate 73%) from four factories in Thailand was conducted in 2006-2007. Participants answered a questionnaire and performed spirometry. Factory workers had lower spirometric functions than office workers, especially those with high dust exposure. There was a dose-response relation between duration of dust exposure and FEV1 and FVC, the adjusted effect of ≥ 21 years of exposure on FEV1 being -240 ml (-100 to -380) and on FVC -300 ml (-140 to -460). The adverse effect of dust on lung function was larger in current smokers suggesting synergism between smoking and tile dust exposure. This study provides evidence that long-term exposure to dust in tile industry is related to lung function reduction. There was a suggestion of synergistic effect between dust exposure and smoking. Tile factories should consider measures to reduce dust exposure and arrange spirometry surveillance for workers with such exposure. Smoking cessation should be promoted to prevent harmful effects of occupational tile dust exposure.

  2. Genotoxic Effects of Exposure to Gasoline Fumes on Petrol Pump Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Amrin; Barot, Darshana; Chandel, Divya

    2018-04-01

    Petrol pump workers are occupationally exposed to gasoline and its fumes consisting of several mutagenic chemicals. To evaluate the genotoxic effects of exposure to gasoline fumes on petrol pump workers. The study groups included 70 petrol pump workers (exposed group) and 70 healthy age-matched individuals with no known exposure (comparison group). Buccal micronucleus cytome assay (BMCyt) was performed to check the genotoxicity caused due to inhalation of gasoline fumes. The frequencies of micronucleated cells, nuclear bud, condensed chromatin cells, karyorrhectic cells, pyknotic cells, and karyolytic cells were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to the comparison group. Exposure to gasoline fumes is associated with increased frequency of cell abnormalities. This may lead to various health consequences including cancer in those occupationally exposed to gasoline fumes.

  3. Genotoxic Effects of Exposure to Gasoline Fumes on Petrol Pump Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Amrin Shaikh; Darshana Barot; Divya Chandel

    2018-01-01

    Background: Petrol pump workers are occupationally exposed to gasoline and its fumes consisting of several mutagenic chemicals. Objective: To evaluate the genotoxic effects of exposure to gasoline fumes on petrol pump workers. Methods: The study groups included 70 petrol pump workers (exposed group) and 70 healthy age-matched individuals with no known exposure (comparison group). Buccal micronucleus cytome assay (BMCyt) was performed to check the genotoxicity caused due to inhalation ...

  4. Alleged B. anthracis exposure claims in a workers' compensation setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Gregory; Dunning, Kari; Lockey, James E

    2006-01-01

    Workers' compensation insurance in some states may not provide coverage for medical evaluation costs of workplace exposures related to potential bioterrorism acts if there is no diagnosed illness or disease. Personal insurance also may not provide coverage for these exposures occurring at the workplace. Governmental entities, insurers, and employers need to consider how to address such situations and the associated costs. The objective of this study was to examine characteristics of workers and total costs associated with workers' compensation claims alleging potential exposure to the bioterrorism organism B. anthracis. We examined 192 claims referred for review to the Ohio Bureau of Workers' Compensation (OBWC) from October 10, 2001, through December 20, 2004. Although some cases came from out-of-state areas where B. anthracis exposure was known to exist, no Ohio claim was associated with true B. anthracis exposure or B. anthracis-related illness. Of the 155 eligible claims, 126 included medical costs averaging dollar 219 and ranging from dollar 24 to dollar 3,126. There was no difference in mean cost for government and non-government employees (p = 0.202 Wilcoxon). The number of claims and associated medical costs for evaluation and treatment of potential workplace exposure to B. anthracis were relatively small. These results can be attributed to several factors, including no documented B. anthracis exposures and disease in Ohio and prompt transmission of recommended diagnostic and prophylactic treatment protocols to physicians. How employers, insurers, and jurisdictions address payment for evaluation and treatment of potential or documented exposures resulting from a potential terrorism-related event should be addressed proactively.

  5. HANFORD CHEMICAL VAPORS WORKER CONCERNS and EXPOSURE EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ANDERSON, T.J.

    2006-01-01

    Chemical vapor emissions from underground hazardous waste storage tanks on the Hanford site in eastern Washington State are a potential concern because workers enter the tank farms on a regular basis for waste retrievals, equipment maintenance, and surveillance. Tank farm contractors are in the process of retrieving all remaining waste from aging single-shell tanks, some of which date to World War II, and transferring it to newer double-shell tanks. During the waste retrieval process, tank farm workers are potentially exposed to fugitive chemical vapors that can escape from tank headspaces and other emission points. The tanks are known to hold more than 1,500 different species of chemicals, in addition to radionuclides. Exposure assessments have fully characterized the hazards from chemical vapors in half of the tank farms. Extensive sampling and analysis has been done to characterize the chemical properties of hazardous waste and to evaluate potential health hazards of vapors at the ground surface, where workers perform maintenance and waste transfer activities. Worker concerns. risk communication, and exposure assessment are discussed, including evaluation of the potential hazards of complex mixtures of chemical vapors. Concentrations of vapors above occupational exposure limits-(OEL) were detected only at exhaust stacks and passive breather filter outlets. Beyond five feet from the sources, vapors disperse rapidly. No vapors have been measured above 50% of their OELs more than five feet from the source. Vapor controls are focused on limited hazard zones around sources. Further evaluations of vapors include analysis of routes of exposure and thorough analysis of nuisance odors

  6. [Health survey of plant workers for an occupational exposure to ammonium perchlorate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-xia; Shao, Yuan-peng; Wu, Feng-hong; Li, Yang-ping; Peng, Kai-liang

    2013-01-01

    To understand the occupational hazards of ammonium perchlorate dust on operating workers and to provide the basis preventive measures for protecting the workers' health. 36 workers exposed to ammonium perchlorate dust and 48 unexposed workers from one factory were selected as the exposure and control groups. Investigations on the general condition, sampling of dust in the workplaces and a special medical examination were conducted for two groups, including occupational history, clinical manifestations, blood routine test, hepatic and renal functions, indexes of thyroid hormone, spirometric test and chest X-ray. The total dust concentration of AP in the batch plant reached to 51.63 ± 43.27 mg/m(3), exceeding the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permission exposure limits. The systolic blood pressure in the exposure group was higher than that of the control group (146.14 ± 21.03 VS 134.67 ± 18.58), and the difference was statistically significant (P detection rates of the cumulative total symptoms, short of breath and skin itch symptoms in the exposure group were significantly higher than those in the control group (86.11% VS 66.67%; 30.56% VS 12.50%) (P detected on the left of lung door area in the control group. The systolic blood pressure of workers in the exposure group was significantly higher, which could not exclude related to the exposure to AP dust; The T(3) levels in the exposure workers were lower than those in the control group, which may due to AP exposure, suggesting that long-term chronic exposure to AP dust may affect thyroid function.

  7. Epidemiological study of workers at risk of internal exposure to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guseva Canu, I.

    2008-09-01

    This work is a pilot-study among nuclear fuel cycle workers potentially exposed to alpha radiation. Internal exposure from inhalation of uranium compounds during uranium conversion and enrichment operations was estimated at the AREVA NC Pierrelatte plant. A plant specific semi-quantitative job exposure matrix (JEM) was elaborated for 2709 workers employed at this plant between 1960 and 2006. The JEM has permitted to estimate the exposure to uranium and 16 other categories of pollutants and to calculate individual cumulative exposure score. Numerous correlations were detected between uranium compounds exposure and exposure to other pollutants, such as asbestos, ceramic refractive fibers, TCE and so on. 1968-2005 mortality follow-up showed an increasing risk of mortality from pleural cancer, rectal cancer and lymphoma on the basis of national mortality rates. Analyses of association between cancer mortality and uranium exposure suggested an increase in mortality due to lung cancer among workers exposed to slowly soluble uranium compounds derived from natural and reprocessed uranium. However these results are not statistically significant and based on a small number of observed deaths. These results are concordant with previously reported results from other cohorts of workers potentially exposed to uranium. Experimental studies of biokinetic and action mechanism of slowly soluble uranium oxides bear the biological plausibility of the observed results. Influence of bias was reduced by taking into account of possible confounding including co-exposure to other carcinogenic pollutants and tobacco consumption in the study. Nevertheless, at this stage statistical power of analyses is too limited to obtain more conclusive results. This pilot study shows the interest and feasibility of an epidemiological investigation among workers at risk of internal exposure to uranium and other alpha emitters at the national level. It demonstrates the importance of exposure assessment for

  8. Occupational Exposure to Diesel Particulate Matter in Municipal Household Waste Workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyong-Hui Lee

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to determine the following: 1 the exposure levels of municipal household waste (MHW workers to diesel particulate matter (DPM using elemental carbon (EC, organic carbon (OC, total carbon (TC, black carbon (BC, and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 as indicators; 2 the correlations among the indicators; 3 the optimal indicator for DPM; and 4 factors that influence personal exposure to DPM.A total of 72 workers in five MHW collection companies were assessed over a period of 7 days from June to September 2014. Respirable EC/OC samples were quantified using the thermal optical transmittance method. BC and PM 2.5 were measured using real-time monitors, an aethalometer and a laser photometer. All results were statistically analyzed for occupational and environmental variables to identify the exposure determinants of DPM.The geometric mean of EC, OC, TC, BC and PM 2.5 concentrations were 4.8, 39.6, 44.8, 9.1 and 62.0 μg/m3, respectively. EC concentrations were significantly correlated with the concentrations of OC, TC and BC, but not with those of PM 2.5. The exposures of the MHW collectors to EC, OC, and TC were higher than those of the drivers (p<0.05. Workers of trucks meeting Euro 3 emission standard had higher exposures to EC, OC, TC and PM 2.5 than those working on Euro 4 trucks (p<0.05. Multiple regression analysis revealed that the job task, European engine emission standard, and average driving speed were the most influential factors in determining worker exposure.We assessed MHW workers' exposure to DPM using parallel sampling of five possible indicators. Of these five indicators, EC was shown to be the most useful indicator of DPM exposure for MHW workers, and the job task, European emission standard, and average driving speed were the main determinants of EC exposure.

  9. A practical method to evaluate radiofrequency exposure of mast workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanko, T.; Hietanen, M.

    2008-01-01

    Assessment of occupational exposure to radiofrequency (RF) fields in telecommunication transmitter masts is a challenging task. For conventional field strength measurements using manually operated instruments, it is difficult to document the locations of measurements while climbing up a mast. Logging RF dosemeters worn by the workers, on the other hand, do not give any information about the location of the exposure. In this study, a practical method was developed and applied to assess mast workers' exposure to RF fields and the corresponding location. This method uses a logging dosemeter for personal RF exposure evaluation and two logging barometers to determine the corresponding height of the worker's position on the mast. The procedure is not intended to be used for compliance assessments, but to indicate locations where stricter assessments are needed. The applicability of the method is demonstrated by making measurements in a TV and radio transmitting mast. (authors)

  10. Genotoxic Effects of Exposure to Gasoline Fumes on Petrol Pump Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrin Shaikh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Petrol pump workers are occupationally exposed to gasoline and its fumes consisting of several mutagenic chemicals. Objective: To evaluate the genotoxic effects of exposure to gasoline fumes on petrol pump workers. Methods: The study groups included 70 petrol pump workers (exposed group and 70 healthy age-matched individuals with no known exposure (comparison group. Buccal micronucleus cytome assay (BMCyt was performed to check the genotoxicity caused due to inhalation of gasoline fumes. Results: The frequencies of micronucleated cells, nuclear bud, condensed chromatin cells, karyorrhectic cells, pyknotic cells, and karyolytic cells were significantly higher in the exposed workers compared to the comparison group. Conclusion: Exposure to gasoline fumes is associated with increased frequency of cell abnormalities. This may lead to various health consequences including cancer in those occupationally exposed to gasoline fumes.

  11. Occupational Exposure to Diesel Particulate Matter in Municipal Household Waste Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyong-Hui; Jung, Hye-Jung; Park, Dong-Uk; Ryu, Seung-Hun; Kim, Boowook; Ha, Kwon-Chul; Kim, Seungwon; Yi, Gwangyong; Yoon, Chungsik

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine the following: 1) the exposure levels of municipal household waste (MHW) workers to diesel particulate matter (DPM) using elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), total carbon (TC), black carbon (BC), and fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) as indicators; 2) the correlations among the indicators; 3) the optimal indicator for DPM; and 4) factors that influence personal exposure to DPM. A total of 72 workers in five MHW collection companies were assessed over a period of 7 days from June to September 2014. Respirable EC/OC samples were quantified using the thermal optical transmittance method. BC and PM 2.5 were measured using real-time monitors, an aethalometer and a laser photometer. All results were statistically analyzed for occupational and environmental variables to identify the exposure determinants of DPM. The geometric mean of EC, OC, TC, BC and PM 2.5 concentrations were 4.8, 39.6, 44.8, 9.1 and 62.0 μg/m3, respectively. EC concentrations were significantly correlated with the concentrations of OC, TC and BC, but not with those of PM 2.5. The exposures of the MHW collectors to EC, OC, and TC were higher than those of the drivers (pemission standard had higher exposures to EC, OC, TC and PM 2.5 than those working on Euro 4 trucks (pemission standard, and average driving speed were the most influential factors in determining worker exposure. We assessed MHW workers' exposure to DPM using parallel sampling of five possible indicators. Of these five indicators, EC was shown to be the most useful indicator of DPM exposure for MHW workers, and the job task, European emission standard, and average driving speed were the main determinants of EC exposure.

  12. EFFECTS OF EXPOSURE TO HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES IN POTTERY AND CERAMIC WORKERS

    OpenAIRE

    BASARAN, Nursen; ANLAR, Hatice Gul; BACANLI, Merve; SHUBAIR, Mohammed; BAL, Ceylan; TUTKUN, Engin; YILMAZ, Hinc

    2018-01-01

    During the last decade, the production and hence, the amount andthe types of exposure of hazardous chemicals have been increased in theoccupationally exposed workers. Most of these chemicals have deterious effectsin the living systems. The level of chemical exposure in the occupationalsettings and the biomonitoring of workers and also establishing the regulatoryendpoints are very important. The exposures of chemicals in the workplaces havebeen associated with the increase in allergy, organ an...

  13. Chronic occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium causes DNA damage in electroplating workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Xiao-Bin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Occupational exposure to chromium compounds may result in adverse health effects. This study aims to investigate whether low-level hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI exposure can cause DNA damage in electroplating workers. Methods 157 electroplating workers and 93 control subjects with no history of occupational exposure to chromium were recruited in Hangzhou, China. Chromium levels in erythrocytes were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes was evaluated with the alkaline comet assay by three parameters: Olive tail moment, tail length and percent of DNA in the comet tail (tail DNA%. Urinary 8-OHdG levels were measured by ELISA. Results Chromium concentration in erythrocytes was about two times higher in electroplating workers (median: 4.41 μg/L than that in control subjects (1.54 μg/L, P P P P Conclusion The findings in this study indicated that there was detectable chromium exposure in electroplating workers. Low-level occupational chromium exposure induced DNA damage.

  14. Minimizing radiation exposure during percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T T; Preminger, G M; Lipkin, M E

    2015-12-01

    Given the recent trends in growing per capita radiation dose from medical sources, there have been increasing concerns over patient radiation exposure. Patients with kidney stones undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) are at particular risk for high radiation exposure. There exist several risk factors for increased radiation exposure during PNL which include high Body Mass Index, multiple access tracts, and increased stone burden. We herein review recent trends in radiation exposure, radiation exposure during PNL to both patients and urologists, and various approaches to reduce radiation exposure. We discuss incorporating the principles of As Low As reasonably Achievable (ALARA) into clinical practice and review imaging techniques such as ultrasound and air contrast to guide PNL access. Alternative surgical techniques and approaches to reducing radiation exposure, including retrograde intra-renal surgery, retrograde nephrostomy, endoscopic-guided PNL, and minimally invasive PNL, are also highlighted. It is important for urologists to be aware of these concepts and techniques when treating stone patients with PNL. The discussions outlined will assist urologists in providing patient counseling and high quality of care.

  15. Chronic occupational exposure to hexavalent chromium causes DNA damage in electroplating workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu-Hui; Zhang, Xuan; Wang, Xu-Chu; Jin, Li-Fen; Yang, Zhang-Ping; Jiang, Cai-Xia; Chen, Qing; Ren, Xiao-Bin; Cao, Jian-Zhong; Wang, Qiang; Zhu, Yi-Min

    2011-04-12

    Occupational exposure to chromium compounds may result in adverse health effects. This study aims to investigate whether low-level hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) exposure can cause DNA damage in electroplating workers. 157 electroplating workers and 93 control subjects with no history of occupational exposure to chromium were recruited in Hangzhou, China. Chromium levels in erythrocytes were determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. DNA damage in peripheral lymphocytes was evaluated with the alkaline comet assay by three parameters: Olive tail moment, tail length and percent of DNA in the comet tail (tail DNA%). Urinary 8-OHdG levels were measured by ELISA. Chromium concentration in erythrocytes was about two times higher in electroplating workers (median: 4.41 μg/L) than that in control subjects (1.54 μg/L, P electroplating workers. Low-level occupational chromium exposure induced DNA damage.

  16. Personal exposure to inhalable cement dust among construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Susan; Thomassen, Yngvar; Fechter-Rink, Edeltraud; Kromhout, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Objective- A case study was carried out to assess cement dust exposure and its determinants among construction workers and for comparison among workers in cement and concrete production.Methods- Full-shift personal exposure measurements were performed and samples were analysed for inhalable dust and its cement content. Exposure variability was modelled with linear mixed models.Results- Inhalable dust concentrations at the construction site ranged from 0.05 to 34 mg/m(3), with a mean of 1.0 mg/m(3). Average concentration for inhalable cement dust was 0.3 mg/m(3) (GM; range 0.02-17 mg/m(3)). Levels in the ready-mix and pre-cast concrete plants were on average 0.5 mg/m(3) (GM) for inhalable dust and 0.2 mg/m(3) (GM) for inhalable cement dust. Highest concentrations were measured in cement production, particularly during cleaning tasks (inhalable dust GM = 55 mg/m(3); inhalable cement dust GM = 33 mg/m(3)) at which point the workers wore personal protective equipment. Elemental measurements showed highest but very variable cement percentages in the cement plant and very low percentages during reinforcement work and pouring. Most likely other sources were contributing to dust concentrations, particularly at the construction site. Within job groups, temporal variability in exposure concentrations generally outweighed differences in average concentrations between workers. 'Using a broom', 'outdoor wind speed' and 'presence of rain' were overall the most influential factors affecting inhalable (cement) dust exposure.Conclusion- Job type appeared to be the main predictor of exposure to inhalable (cement) dust at the construction site. Inhalable dust concentrations in cement production plants, especially during cleaning tasks, are usually considerably higher than at the construction site.

  17. Radiation exposure analysis of female nuclear medicine radiation workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ju Young [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering Graduate School, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hoon Hee [Dept. of Radiological Technologist, Shingu College, Sungnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    In this study, radiation workers who work in nuclear medicine department were analyzed to find the cause of differences of radiation exposure from General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition and Conduct, especially females working on nuclear medicine radiation, in order to pave the way for positive defense against radiation exposure. The subjects were 106 radiation workers who were divided into two groups of sixty-four males and forty-two females answered questions about their General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition, Conduct, and radiation exposure dose which was measured by TLD (Thermo Luminescence Dosimeter). The results of the analysis revealed that as the higher score of knowledge and conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in female groups, and as the higher score of conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in male groups. In the correlation analysis of female groups, the non-experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of knowledge and conduct was higher and the experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of recognition and conduct was higher. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of nuclear medicine radiation workers, the gender caused the meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of female groups compared to male groups. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of female groups, the factor of conduct showed a meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of the experienced in pregnancy was lower compared to the non-experienced. The conclusion of this study revealed that radiation exposure of female groups was lower than that of male groups. Therefore, male groups need to more actively defend themselves against radiation exposure. Among the female groups, the experienced in pregnancy who have an active defense tendency showed a lower radiation exposure. Thus

  18. Radiation exposure analysis of female nuclear medicine radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ju Young; Park, Hoon Hee

    2016-01-01

    In this study, radiation workers who work in nuclear medicine department were analyzed to find the cause of differences of radiation exposure from General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition and Conduct, especially females working on nuclear medicine radiation, in order to pave the way for positive defense against radiation exposure. The subjects were 106 radiation workers who were divided into two groups of sixty-four males and forty-two females answered questions about their General Characteristic, Knowledge, Recognition, Conduct, and radiation exposure dose which was measured by TLD (Thermo Luminescence Dosimeter). The results of the analysis revealed that as the higher score of knowledge and conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in female groups, and as the higher score of conduct was shown, the radiation exposure decreased in male groups. In the correlation analysis of female groups, the non-experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of knowledge and conduct was higher and the experienced in pregnancy showed decreasing amount of radiation exposure as the score of recognition and conduct was higher. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of nuclear medicine radiation workers, the gender caused the meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of female groups compared to male groups. In the regression analysis on related factors of radiation exposure dose of female groups, the factor of conduct showed a meaningful result and the amount of radiation exposure of the experienced in pregnancy was lower compared to the non-experienced. The conclusion of this study revealed that radiation exposure of female groups was lower than that of male groups. Therefore, male groups need to more actively defend themselves against radiation exposure. Among the female groups, the experienced in pregnancy who have an active defense tendency showed a lower radiation exposure. Thus

  19. Excessive exposures of diagnostic X-ray workers in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambiger, T.Y.; Shenoy, K.S.; Patel, P.H.

    1980-01-01

    The excessive exposures (i.e. exceeding 400 mrems per fortnight) of diagnostic X-ray workers revealed under the countrywide personnel monitoring programme in India have been analysed. The analysis covers the data collected over a period of ten years during 1965-1974. The radiation workers in medical X-ray diagnostic group receiving an excess dose are found to be less than 1%. Each case of the excess dose is throughly investigated and nongenuine cases are separated and causes for genuine excessive exposures are traced. The causes and the corrective measures are enumerated. (M.G.B.)

  20. Occupational Exposure of Petroleum Depot Workers to BTEX Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rezazadeh Azari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX are the most important toxic volatile compounds in the air and could be easily absorbed through the respiratory tract. In recent years, the risk of exposure to BTEX compounds, especially benzene as a carcinogen, has been considered in petroleum depot stations. Objective: To assess the occupational exposure of petroleum depot workers in Iran to BTEX compounds. Methods: After completing a questionnaire and assessing occupational exposure to BTEX compounds, 78 (46 exposed and 32 non-exposed depot workers were randomly selected to participate in this study. Air sampling and analysis of BTEX was conducted according to the NIOSH method No. 1501. Analysis of urinary hippuric acid, as an indicator of toluene exposure, was carried out according to NIOSH method No. 8300. Personal monitoring of the high exposure group to BTEX compounds was repeated to verify the results obtained in the first phase of the monitoring. Results: Among the 9 operating groups studied, occupational exposure to benzene and toluene was higher in quality control and gasoline loading operators—the median exposure ranged from 0.16 to 1.63 ppm for benzene and 0.2 to 2.72 ppm for toluene. Median exposure of other group members to BTEX compounds was below the detection limit of analytical method (0.07, 0.06, 0.05, and 0.05 ppm, respectively. The level of toluene exposure measured showed correlation with neither post-shift urinary hippuric acid (Spearman's rho=0.128, p=0.982 nor with the difference between post- and pre-shift urinary hippuric acid (Spearman's rho=0.089, p=0.847 in depot operational workers. Conclusion: Gasoline loading operators are exposed to a relatively high level of benzene.

  1. Current man-made mineral fibers (MMMF) exposures among ontario construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Dave K; Sahai, Dru; Kurtz, Lawrence A; Finkelstein, Murray M

    2004-05-01

    Current occupational exposures to man-made mineral fibers (MMMF), including refractory ceramic fibers (RCF), were measured as part of an exposure assessment program for an epidemiological study pertaining to cancer and mortality patterns of Ontario construction workers. The assessments were carried out at commercial and residential sites. A total of 130 MMMF samples (104 personal and 26 area) was collected and included 21 RCF (16 personal and 5 area). The samples were analyzed by the World Health Organization method in which both respirable and nonrespirable airborne fibers are counted. The results show that Ontario construction workers' full-shift exposure to MMMF (excluding RCF) is generally lower than the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) recommended threshold limit value-time-weighted average (TLV-TWA) of 1 fibers/cc and thus should not present any significant hazard. However, approximately 40% of the occupational exposures to RCF are higher than ACGIH's TLV-TWA of 0.2 fibers/cc and present a significant potential hazard. Workers generally wore adequate approved respiratory protection, especially while performing particularly dusty tasks such as blowing, spraying, and cutting, so the actual exposure received by workers was lower than the reported values. Adequate control measures such as ventilation and respiratory protection should always be used when work involves RCF.

  2. Evaluation of Dust Exposure among the Workers in Agricultural Industries in North-East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewangan, Krishna N; Patil, Mahesh R

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to quantify dust exposure among the workers in four different industrial settings: rice mills, flour mills, oil mills, and tea factories and to compare the obtained data with the permissible exposure limit (PEL) of Indian Union Ministry of Labour as well as to compare the dust exposure across activities and seasons. RespiCon(TM) particle sampler was used for collecting dust concentration in the breathing zone of the workers. In total, 149 workers participated in the study and 204 samples were collected. Samples were collected in the vicinity of different processing operations. Samples in the rice mills were collected for two consecutive years in two seasons; however samples from other industries were collected for 1 year. The results indicate that geometric mean (GM) of dust exposure was significantly (P workers are exposed to higher level of respirable dust as compared to the PEL, while total dust exposure to all the workers were higher than the PEL; thus, immediate reduction of dust exposure among the workers is necessary for preventing respiratory system impairment. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  3. Tumulus Disposal Demonstration Project assessment plan for potential worker exposure: Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styers, D.R.

    1989-03-01

    The purpose of the ''Assessment Plan for Potential Worker Exposure'' is to determine the potential radiological exposures to the workers as they dispose of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) on the Tumulus Disposal Demonstration Project (TDDP). An evaluation of the work procedures and precautions will be made so as to maintain the exposure levels As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). 10 refs., 10 figs

  4. Worker exposures from recycling surface contaminated radioactive scrap metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kluk, A.; Phillips, J.W.; Culp, J.

    1996-01-01

    Current DOE policy permits release from DOE control of real property with residual levels of surficial radioactive contamination if the contamination is below approved guidelines. If the material contains contamination that is evenly distributed throughout its volume (referred to as volumetric contamination), then Departmental approval for release must be obtained in advance. Several DOE sites presently recycle surface contaminated metal, although the quantities are small relative to the quantities of metal processed by typical mini-mills, hence the potential radiation exposures to mill workers from processing DOE metals and the public from the processed metal are at present also a very small fraction of their potential value. The exposures calculated in this analysis are based on 100% of the scrap metal being processed at the maximum contamination levels and are therefore assumed to be maximum values and not likely to occur in actual practice. This paper examines the relationship between the surface contamination limits established under DOE Order 5400.5, open-quotes Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment,close quotes and radiation exposures to workers involved in the scrap metal recycling process. The analysis is limited to surficial contamination at or below the guideline levels established in DOE Order 5400.5 at the time of release. Workers involved in the melting and subsequent fabrication of products are not considered radiation workers (no requirements for monitoring) and must be considered members of the public. The majority of the exposures calculated in this analysis range from tenths of a millirem per year (mrem/yr) to less than 5 mrem/yr. The incremental risk of cancer associated with these exposures ranges from 10 -8 cancers per year to 10 -6 cancers per year

  5. Exposure of iron foundry workers to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Øyvind; Sherson, D; Hansen, Å M

    1994-01-01

    Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in foundry workers has been evaluated by determination of benzo(a)pyrene-serum albumin adducts and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene. Benzo(a)pyrene binding to albumin and 1-hydroxypyrene were quantitatively measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay...... (ELISA) and reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), respectively. 70 male foundry workers and 68 matched controls were investigated. High and low exposure groups were defined from breathing zone hygienic samples, consisting of 16 PAH compounds in particulate and gaseous phase. Mean...... total PAH was 10.40 micrograms/m3 in the breathing zone, and mean dust adsorbed PAH was 0.15 microgram/m. All carcinogenic PAH was adsorbed to dust. Median benzo(a)pyrene-albumin adduct concentrations (10-90% percentiles) were similar in foundry workers (smokers 0.55 (0.27-1.00) and non-smokers 0.58 (0...

  6. Deterministic Effects of Occupational Exposures in the Mayak Nuclear Workers Cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azinova, T. V.; Okladnikova, N. D.; Sumina, M. V.; Pesternikova, V. S.; Osovets, V. S.; Druzhimina, M. B.; Seminikhina, N. g.

    2004-01-01

    A wide spread and utilization of nuclear energy in the recent decade leads to a stable increasing of contingents exposed to ionizing radiation sources. in order to predict radiation risks it's important to have and apply all the experience in assessment of health effects due to radiation exposures generated by now in different countries. the proposed report will present results of the long-term follow-up for a cohort of nuclear workers at the Mayak Production Association, with was the first nuclear facility in Russia. The established system of individual dosimetry of external exposure, monitoring of internal radiation and special system of medical follow-up of healthy nuclear workers during the last 50 years allowed collecting of the unique primary data to study radiation effects, their patterns and mechanisms specific of exposure dose. The study cohort includes 61 percent of males and 39 percent of females. The vital status is known for 90 percent of cases, 44 percent of workers are still alive and undergo regular medical examination in our Clinic. Unfortunately, by now 50 percent of workers have died. 6 percent of workers were lost for the follow-up. total doses from chronic external gamma rays in the cohort ranged from 0.6 to 10.8 Gy (annual exposure doses were from 0.001 to 7.4 Gy), Pu body burden was from 0.3 to 72.3 kBq. Most intensive chronic exposure of workers was registered during 1948 to 1958. At this time, 19 radiation accidents occurred at the Mayak PA. Thus, the highest incidence of deterministic effects was observed right at this period. In the cohort of Mayak nuclear workers there were diagnosed 60 cases of acute radiation syndrome (I to IV degrees of severity); 2079 cases of chronic radiation sickness; 120 cases of plutonium pneumoscelarosis; 5 cases of radiation cataracts; and over 400 cases of local radiation injuries. The report will present dependences of the observed effects on absorbed radiation dose and dose rate in terms of acute radiation

  7. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Katrina N; Sun, Kan; Fobil, Julius N; Neitzel, Richard L

    2016-01-19

    Electronic waste (e-waste) is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people's livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA) and community (70 dBA) noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman's ρ 0.46, p stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage.

  8. Urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin is associated with heavy metal exposure in welding workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Kai-Jen; Pan, Chih-Hong; Su, Chien-Ling; Lai, Ching-Huang; Lin, Wen-Yi; Ma, Chih-Ming; Ho, Shu-Chuan; Bien, Mauo-Ying; Chen, Cheng-Hsien; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2015-12-17

    Metals cause nephrotoxicity with acute and/or chronic exposure; however, few epidemiological studies have examined impacts of exposure to metal fumes on renal injury in welding workers. In total, 66 welding workers and 12 office workers were recruited from a shipyard located in southern Taiwan. Urine samples from each subject were collected at the beginning (baseline) and end of the work week (1-week exposure). Personal exposure to PM2.5 was measured. The 8-h mean PM2.5 was 50.3 μg/m(3) for welding workers and 27.4 μg/m(3) for office workers. iTRAQs coupled with LC-MS/MS were used to discover the pathways in response to welding PM2.5 in the urine, suggesting that extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interactions are a critical mechanism. ECM-receptor interaction-related biomarkers for renal injury, kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), were significantly elevated in welding workers post-exposure, as well as were urinary Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni levels. NGAL was more significantly associated with Al (r = 0.737, p welding PM2.5 exposure. Nephrotoxicity (e.g., renal tubular injury) may be an emerging concern in occupational health.

  9. Dust exposure and the risk of cancer in cement industry workers in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Dong-Hee; Kim, Tae-Woo; Jang, Seunghee; Ryu, Hyang-Woo

    2013-03-01

    Cement is used widely in the construction industry, though it contains hazardous chemicals such as hexavalent chromium. Several epidemiological studies have examined the association between cement dust exposure and cancer, but these associations have proved inconclusive. In the present study, we examined the association between dust exposure and cancer in cement industry workers in Korea. Our cohort consisted of 1,324 men who worked at two Portland cement manufacturing factories between 1997 and 2005. We calculated cumulative dust exposures, then categorized workers into high and low dust exposure groups. Cancer cases were identified between 1997 and 2005 by linking with the national cancer registry. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated for all workers and the high and low dust exposure groups, respectively. The SIR for overall cancers in all workers was increased (1.35, 95% CI: 1.01-1.78). The SIR for stomach cancer in the high dust exposure group was increased (2.18, 95% CI: 1.19-3.65), but there was no increased stomach cancer risk in the low dust exposure group. The SIR for rectal cancer in all workers was increased (3.05, 95% CI: 1.32-6.02). Rectal cancer risk was similar in the high and low exposure groups. Our findings suggest a potential association between exposure in the cement industry and an increased risk of stomach and rectal cancers. However, due to the small number of cases, this association should be further investigated in a study with a longer follow-up period and adjustment for confounders. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposures: workplace exposures, related perceptions of SHS risk, and reactions to smoking in catering workers in smoking and nonsmoking premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Sandy Qiuying; Fielding, Richard; Hedley, Anthony J; Wong, Lai-Chin; Lai, Hak Kan; Wong, C M; Repace, James L; McGhee, Sarah M

    2011-05-01

    Smoke-free workplace legislation often exempts certain venues. Do smoking (exempted) and nonsmoking (nonexempted) catering premises' workers in Hong Kong report different perceptions of risk from and reactions to nearby smoking as well as actual exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS)? In a cross-sectional survey of 204 nonsmoking catering workers, those from 67 premises where smoking is allowed were compared with workers from 36 nonsmoking premises in Hong Kong on measures of perceptions of risk and behavioral responses to self-reported SHS exposure, plus independent exposure assessment using urinary cotinine. Self-reported workplace SHS exposure prevalence was 57% (95% CI = 49%-65%) in premises prohibiting and 100% (95% CI = 92%-100%) in premises permitting smoking (p < .001). Workers in smoking-permitted premises perceived workplace air quality as poorer (odds ratio [OR] = 9.3, 95% CI = 4.2-20.9) with higher associated risks (OR = 3.7, 95% CI = 1.6-8.6) than workers in smoking-prohibited premises. Workers in smoking-prohibited premises were more bothered by (OR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1-0.5) and took more protective action to avoid SHS (OR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1-0.4) than workers in smoking-permitted premises. Nonwork exposure was negatively associated with being always bothered by nearby smoking (OR = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.1-0.9), discouraging nearby smoking (OR = 0.5, 95% CI = 0.2-1.1), and discouraging home smoking (OR = 0.4, 95% CI = 0.2-0.9). Urinary cotinine levels were inversely related to workers' avoidance behavior but positively related to their perceived exposure-related risks. Different workplace smoking restrictions predicted actual SHS exposure, exposure-related risk perception, and protective behaviors. Workers from smoking-permitted premises perceived greater SHS exposure-related risks but were more tolerant of these than workers in smoking-prohibited premises. This tolerance might indirectly increase both work and nonwork exposures.

  11. Lung cancer mortality among European rock/slag wool workers: exposure-response analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consonni, D; Boffetta, P; Andersen, A; Chang-Claude, J; Cherrie, J W; Ferro, G; Frentzel-Beyme, R; Hansen, J; Olsen, J; Plato, N; Westerholm, P; Saracci, R

    1998-08-01

    The purpose was to analyze the relationship between semi-quantitative indices of exposure to manmade vitreous fibers and lung cancer mortality among European rock/slag wool (RSW) workers. The study population comprised 9,603 male workers employed in RSW production in seven factories in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Germany, followed up for mortality as of 1990-91. Estimates of past exposure to respirable fibers were used to calculate cumulative exposure with a 15-year lag and maximum annual exposure based on employment history up to 1977. Rate ratios were estimated via multivariate Poisson regression, adjusting for country, age, calendar year, time since first employment, and employment status. A total of 159 lung cancer deaths were included in the analysis of which 97 among workers with more than one year of employment. We found nonstatistically significant trends in lung cancer risk according to cumulative exposure. Relative risks (RR) in the four quartiles were 1.0 (reference), 1.3 (95 percent confidence interval [CI] = 0.8-2.4), 1.2 (CI = 0.7-2.1), and 1.5 (CI = 0.7-3.0, P test for trend = 0.4). When workers with less than one year of employment were excluded, there was no increased risk; the RRs in the four quartiles were 1.0, 0.9 (CI = 0.4-2.0), 0.8 (CI = 0.3-1.9), and 1.0 (CI = 0.4-2.7). No trend was present according to maximum annual exposure. The results were not consistent among countries. We found a positive association between exposure to respirable fibers and lung cancer mortality. However, the lack of statistical significance, the dependence of the results on inclusion of short-term workers, the lack of consistency among countries, and the possible correlation between exposure to respirable fibers and to other agents reduce the weight of such evidence.

  12. Real-time assessment of exposure dose to workers in radiological environments during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, KwanSeong; Choi, ByungSeon; Moon, JeiKwon; Hyun, Dongjun; Lee, Jonghwan; Kim, IkJune; Kim, GeunHo; Seo, JaeSeok; Jeong, SeongYoung; Lee, JungJun; Song, HaeSang; Lee, SangWha; Son, BongKi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The method of exposure dose assessment to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. • The environments of simulation were designed under a virtual reality. • To assess exposure dose to workers, human model was developed within a virtual reality. - Abstract: This objective of this paper is to develop a method to simulate and assess the exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities. To simulate several scenarios, decommissioning environments were designed using virtual reality. To assess exposure dose to workers, a human model was also developed using virtual reality. The exposure dose was measured and assessed under the principle of ALARA in accordance with radiological environmental change. This method will make it possible to plan for the exposure dose to workers during decommissioning of nuclear facilities

  13. Cea-Expo: A facility exposure matrix to assess passed exposure to chemical carcinogens and radionuclides of nuclear workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Telle-Lamberton, M.; Bouville, P.; Bergot, D.; Gagneau, M.; Marot, S.; Telle-Lamberton, M.; Giraud, J.M.; Gelas, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    A 'Facility-Exposure Matrix' (FEM) is proposed to assess exposure to chemical carcinogens and radionuclides in a cohort of nuclear workers. Exposures are to be attributed in the following way: a worker reports to an administrative unit and/or is monitored for exposure to ionising radiation in a specific workplace. These units are connected with a list of facilities for which exposure is assessed through a group of experts. The entire process of the FEM applied in one of the nuclear centres included in the study shows that the FEM is feasible: exposure durations as well as groups of correlated exposures are presented but have to be considered as possible rather than positive exposures. Considering the number of facilities to assess (330), ways to simplify the method are proposed: (i) the list of exposures will be restricted to 18 chemical products retained from an extensive bibliography study; (ii) for each of the following classes of facilities: nuclear reactors, fuel fabrication, high-activity laboratories and radiation chemistry, accelerators and irradiators, waste treatment, biology, reprocessing, fusion, occupational exposure will be deduced from the information already gathered by the initial method. Besides taking into account confusion factors in the low doses epidemiological study of nuclear workers, the matrix should help in the assessment of internal contamination and chemical exposures in the nuclear industry. (author)

  14. The impact of asbestos exposure in Swedish construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvholm, Bengt; Englund, Anders

    2014-01-01

    To study the occurrence of pleural mesothelioma as a measure of the impact on health from asbestos exposure in the construction industry. The occurrence of pleural mesothelioma in different occupations, time periods and birth cohorts was studied in a cohort of construction workers. They were prospectively followed after they had participated in health examinations between 1971 and 1993. The analysis was restricted to men and in total 367,568 men was included in the analysis. In total there were 419 cases of pleural mesotheliomas between 1972 and 2009. As expected the age adjusted incidence was high in insulation workers and plumbers (39 and 16 cases per 100,000 person-years, respectively). However, only 21% of the pleural mesotheliomas occurred in those occupational groups. Occupational groups with many cases of pleural mesothelioma were concrete workers (N = 56), wood workers (N = 55), painters (N = 32), electricians (N = 48), and foremen (N = 37). The highest risk was in birth cohorts born between 1935 and 1945. Between 1995 and 2009 around one-third of all male cases in the country occurred in this birth cohort. The risk seemed to decrease considerably in men born after 1955. In Sweden a considerable proportion of pleural mesotheliomas occur among construction workers; and not only in jobs traditionally associated with asbestos exposure such as insulators and plumbers but also among electricians, for example. The results shows that asbestos exposure occurs in many occupational groups, indicating that safe handling of asbestos is a very difficult or even impossible task in the construction industry. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Bar workers' exposure to second-hand smoke: the effect of Scottish smoke-free legislation on occupational exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semple, Sean; Maccalman, Laura; Naji, Audrey Atherton; Dempsey, Scott; Hilton, Shona; Miller, Brian G; Ayres, Jon G

    2007-10-01

    To examine changes in bar workers' exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS) over a 12-month period before and after the introduction of Scottish smoke-free legislation on the 26 March 2006. A total of 371 bar workers were recruited from 72 bars in three cities: Aberdeen, Glasgow, Edinburgh and small towns in two rural regions (Borders and Aberdeenshire). Prior to the introduction of the smoke-free legislation, we visited all participants in their place of work and collected saliva samples, for the measurement of cotinine, together with details on work patterns, self-reported exposure to SHS at work and non-work settings and smoking history. This was repeated 2 months post-legislation and again in the spring of 2007. In addition, we gathered full-shift personal exposure data from a small number of Aberdeen bar workers using a personal aerosol monitor for fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) at the baseline and 2 months post-legislation visits. Data were available for 371 participants at baseline, 266 (72%) at 2 months post-legislation and 191 (51%) at the 1-year follow-up. The salivary cotinine level recorded in non-smokers fell from a geometric mean of 2.94 ng ml(-1) prior to introduction of the legislation to 0.41 ng ml(-1) at 1-year follow-up. Paired data showed a reduction in non-smokers' cotinine levels of 89% [95% confidence interval (CI) 85-92%]. For the whole cohort, the duration of workplace exposure to SHS within the last 7 days fell from 28.5 to 0.83 h, though some bar workers continued to report substantial SHS exposures at work despite the legislation. Smokers also demonstrated reductions in their salivary cotinine levels of 12% (95% CI 3-20%). This may reflect both the reduction in SHS exposure at work and falls in active cigarette smoking in this group. In a small sub-sample of bar workers, full-shift personal exposure to PM(2.5), a marker of SHS concentrations, showed average reductions of 86% between baseline and 2 months after implementation of the

  16. Cumulative exposure to dust and gases as determinants of lung function decline in tunnel construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, B; Ulvestad, B; Stewart, P; Eduard, W

    2004-03-01

    To study the relation between lung function decrease and cumulative exposure to dust and gases in tunnel construction workers. A total of 651 male construction workers (drill and blast workers, tunnel concrete workers, shotcreting operators, and tunnel boring machine workers) were followed up by spirometric measurements in 1989-2002 for an average of six years. Outdoor concrete workers, foremen, and engineers served as a low exposed referent population. The between worker component of variability was considerably reduced within the job groups compared to the whole population, suggesting that the workers within job groups had similar exposure levels. The annual decrease in FEV1 in low-exposed non-smoking workers was 21 ml and 24 ml in low-exposed ever smokers. The annual decrease in FEV1 in tunnel construction workers was 20-31 ml higher than the low exposed workers depending on job group for both non-smokers and ever smokers. After adjustment for age and observation time, cumulative exposure to nitrogen dioxide showed the strongest association with a decrease in FEV1 in both non-smokers, and ever smokers. Cumulative exposure to nitrogen dioxide appeared to be a major risk factor for lung function decreases in these tunnel construction workers, although other agents may have contributed to the observed effect. Contact with blasting fumes should be avoided, diesel exhaust emissions should be reduced, and respiratory devices should be used to protect workers against dust and nitrogen dioxide exposure.

  17. Occupational radiation protection: Protecting workers against exposure to ionizing radiation. Contributed papers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    Occupational exposure to ionizing radiation can occur in a range of industries, mining and milling; medical institutions, educational and research establishments and nuclear fuel cycle facilities. The term 'occupational exposure' refers to the radiation exposure incurred by a worker, which is attributable to the worker's occupation and committed during a period of work. According to the latest (2000) Report of the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), an estimated 11 million workers are monitored for exposure to ionizing radiation. They incur radiation doses attributable to their occupation, which range from a small fraction of the global average background exposure to natural radiation up to several times that value. It should be noted that the UNSCEAR 2000 Report describes a downward trend in the exposure of several groups of workers, but it also indicates that occupational exposure is affecting an increasingly large group of people worldwide. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources (BSS), which are co-sponsored by, inter alia, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) and the World Health Organization (WHO), establish a system of radiation protection which includes radiation dose limits for occupational exposure. Guidance supporting the requirements of the BSS for occupational protection is provided in three interrelated Safety Guides, jointly sponsored by the IAEA and the ILO. These Guides describe, for example, the implications for employers in discharging their main responsibilities (such as setting up appropriate radiation protection programmes) and similarly for workers (such as properly using the radiation monitoring devices provided to them). The IAEA i organized its first International Conference on Occupational Radiation Protection. The

  18. Measurements of Solar Ultraviolet Radiation Exposure at Work and at Leisure in Danish Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandahl, Kasper; Eriksen, Paul; Ibler, Kristina Sophie; Bonde, Jens Peter; Mortensen, Ole Steen

    2018-03-30

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is the main cause of skin cancer and may well present an occupational health and safety problem. In Denmark, skin cancer is a common disease in the general population, but detailed data on solar ultraviolet radiation exposure among outdoor workers are lacking. The aim of this study was to provide objective measurements of solar ultraviolet radiation exposure on working days and at leisure and compare levels of exposure between groups of mainly outdoor, equal-parts-outdoor-and-indoor and indoor workers. To this end, UV-B dosimeters with an aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) photodiode detector were used to measure the solar ultraviolet radiation exposure of 457 workers in the Danish summer season. Presented as semi-annual standard erythemal dose (SED) on working days, respectively, at leisure, the results are for mainly outdoor workers 214.2 SED and 64.8 SED, equal-parts-outdoor-and-indoor workers 131.4 SED and 64.8 SED, indoor workers 55.8 SED and 57.6 SED. The daily SED by month is significantly different (α = 0.05) between mainly outdoor, equal-parts-outdoor-and-indoor and indoor workers and across professional groups; some of which are exposed at very high levels that is roofers 361.8 SED. These findings substantiate that exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is indeed an occupational health and safety problem in Denmark. © 2018 The Authors. Photochemistry and Photobiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Photobiology.

  19. Health and safety problems among amang workers in the tin industry in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Shze Jer; Kandaiya, Sivamany

    1985-12-01

    Workers in amang plants are exposed to both internal and external radiation. The radioactivity level measured in the amang plants are presented. Safety measures are suggested to minimize the workers from radiation exposure.

  20. High Seroprevalence of Leptospira Exposure in Meat Workers in Northern Mexico: A Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Hernandez-Tinoco, Jesus; Sanchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Ramos-Nevarez, Agar; Cerrillo-Soto, Sandra Margarita; Saenz-Soto, Leandro; Martinez-Ramirez, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Background The seroepidemiology of Leptospira infection in workers occupationally exposed to raw meat has been poorly studied. This work aimed to determine the association between Leptospira exposure and the occupation of meat worker, and to determine the seroprevalence association with socio-demographic, work, clinical and behavioral characteristics of the meat workers studied. Methods We performed a case-control study in 124 meat workers and 124 age- and gender-matched control subjects in Durango City, Mexico. Sera of cases and controls were analyzed for anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay. Data of meat workers were obtained with the aid of a questionnaire. The association of Leptospira exposure with the characteristics of meat workers was analyzed by bivariate and multivariate analyses. Results Anti-Leptospira IgG antibodies were found in 22 (17.7%) of 124 meat workers and in eight (6.5%) of 124 controls (OR = 3.12; 95% CI: 1.33 - 7.33; P = 0.006). Seroprevalence of Leptospira infection was similar between male butchers (17.6%) and female butchers (18.2%) (P = 1.00). Multivariate analysis of socio-demographic, work and behavioral variables showed that Leptospira exposure was associated with duration in the activity, rural residence, and consumption of snake meat and unwashed raw fruits. Conclusions This is the first case-control study of the association of Leptospira exposure with the occupation of meat worker. Results indicate that meat workers represent a risk group for Leptospira exposure. Risk factors for Leptospira exposure found in this study may help in the design of optimal preventive measures against Leptospira infection. PMID:26858797

  1. Arsenic exposure to smelter workers. Clinical and neurophysiological studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blom, S.; Lagerkvist, B.; Linderholm, H.

    1985-08-01

    Forty-seven copper smelter workers, exposed to airborne arsenic for 8-40 years, were examined clinically with electromyography, and the motor and sensory conduction velocities in their arms and legs were determined. Fifty age-matched industrial workers not exposed to arsenic formed a reference group. The level of arsenic in the air at the smeltery was estimated to be below 500 micrograms/mT before 1975 and approximately 50 micrograms/mT thereafter. Urine analyses of arsenic showed a mean value of 71 micrograms/l (1 mumol/l) in the exposed group; this value is lower than that found in earlier studies reporting clinically detectable neuropathy. A slightly reduced nerve conduction velocity in two or more peripheral nerves was more common among the arsenic workers than the referents, and a statistically significant correlation between cumulative exposure to arsenic and reduced nerve conduction velocity in three peripheral motor nerves was found. This occurrence was interpreted as a sign of slight subclinical neuropathy. In conclusion the risk of clinically significant neuropathy is small when exposure is kept below 50 micrograms/mT in workroom air. The subclinical findings may be of interest in relation to the prevention of early adverse health effects from arsenic exposure.

  2. Risk of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation among medical workers in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, Jan M.; Band, Pierre R.; Garner, Michael J.; Krewski, Daniel; Shilnikova, Natalia S.; Jiang, Huixia; Ashmore, Patrick J.; Sont, Willem N.; Fair, Martha E.; Letourneau, Ernest G.; Semenciw, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Medical workers are exposed to chronic low dose ionizing radiation from a variety of sources. Potential cancer risks associated with ionizing radiation exposures have been derived from cohorts experiencing acute high intensity exposure, most notably the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Since such extrapolations are subject to uncertainty, direct information on the risk associated with chronic low dose occupational exposure to ionizing radiation is needed. We examined possible associations with cancer incidence and mortality in a cohort of medical workers ascertained by the National Dose Registry of Canada (NDR). Data from the NDR were used to assess the exposure to ionizing radiation incurred between 1951 to 1987 inclusive in a cohort of 67,562 subjects classified as medical workers. Standardized mortality (SMRs) and incidence (SIRs) ratios were ascertained by linking NDR data with the data maintained by Statistics Canada in the Canadian Mortality and in the Canadian Cancer Incidence Databases respectively. Dosimetry information was obtained from the National Dosimetry Services of the Radiation Protection Bureau of Health Canada. There were 23,580 male and 43,982 female medical workers in the cohort. During the follow-up period, 1309 incident cases of cancer (509 in males, 800 in females) and 1,325 deaths (823 in males, 502 in females) were observed. Mortality from cancer and non-cancer causes was generally below expected compared to the Canadian population. Thyroid cancer incidence was significantly elevated in both males and females, with a combined SIR of 1.74 and 90% confidence interval (90% CI: 1.40-2.10). Our result of an increased risk of thyroid cancer among medical workers occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation confirms previous reports. Over the last 50 years, radiation protection measures have been effective in reducing occupational exposures of medical workers to ionizing radiation to current very low levels. (author)

  3. Associations between Bisphenol A Exposure and Reproductive Hormones among Female Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Maohua; Yuan, Wei; Yang, Fen; Liang, Hong; Zhou, Zhijun; Li, Runsheng; Gao, Ersheng; Li, De-Kun

    2015-10-22

    The associations between Bisphenol-A (BPA) exposure and reproductive hormone levels among women are unclear. A cross-sectional study was conducted among female workers from BPA-exposed and unexposed factories in China. Women's blood samples were collected for assay of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), 17β-Estradiol (E2), prolactin (PRL), and progesterone (PROG). Their urine samples were collected for BPA measurement. In the exposed group, time weighted average exposure to BPA for an 8-h shift (TWA8), a measure incorporating historic exposure level, was generated based on personal air sampling. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine linear associations between urine BPA concentration and reproductive hormones after controlling for potential confounders. A total of 106 exposed and 250 unexposed female workers were included in this study. A significant positive association between increased urine BPA concentration and higher PRL and PROG levels were observed. Similar associations were observed after the analysis was carried out separately among the exposed and unexposed workers. In addition, a positive association between urine BPA and E2 was observed among exposed workers with borderline significance, while a statistically significant inverse association between urine BPA and FSH was observed among unexposed group. The results suggest that BPA exposure may lead to alterations in female reproductive hormone levels.

  4. Associations between Bisphenol A Exposure and Reproductive Hormones among Female Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maohua Miao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The associations between Bisphenol-A (BPA exposure and reproductive hormone levels among women are unclear. A cross-sectional study was conducted among female workers from BPA-exposed and unexposed factories in China. Women’s blood samples were collected for assay of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH, 17β-Estradiol (E2, prolactin (PRL, and progesterone (PROG. Their urine samples were collected for BPA measurement. In the exposed group, time weighted average exposure to BPA for an 8-h shift (TWA8, a measure incorporating historic exposure level, was generated based on personal air sampling. Multiple linear regression analyses were used to examine linear associations between urine BPA concentration and reproductive hormones after controlling for potential confounders. A total of 106 exposed and 250 unexposed female workers were included in this study. A significant positive association between increased urine BPA concentration and higher PRL and PROG levels were observed. Similar associations were observed after the analysis was carried out separately among the exposed and unexposed workers. In addition, a positive association between urine BPA and E2 was observed among exposed workers with borderline significance, while a statistically significant inverse association between urine BPA and FSH was observed among unexposed group. The results suggest that BPA exposure may lead to alterations in female reproductive hormone levels.

  5. Heart Rate, Stress, and Occupational Noise Exposure among Electronic Waste Recycling Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina N. Burns

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Electronic waste (e-waste is a growing occupational and environmental health issue around the globe. E-waste recycling is a green industry of emerging importance, especially in low-and middle-income countries where much of this recycling work is performed, and where many people’s livelihoods depend on this work. The occupational health hazards of e-waste recycling have not been adequately explored. We performed a cross-sectional study of noise exposures, heart rate, and perceived stress among e-waste recycling workers at a large e-waste site in Accra, Ghana. We interviewed 57 workers and continuously monitored their individual noise exposures and heart rates for up to 24 h. More than 40% of workers had noise exposures that exceeded recommended occupational (85 dBA and community (70 dBA noise exposure limits, and self-reported hearing difficulties were common. Workers also had moderate to high levels of perceived stress as measured via Cohen’s Perceived Stress Scale, and reported a variety of symptoms that could indicate cardiovascular disease. Noise exposures were moderately and significantly correlated with heart rate (Spearman’s ρ 0.46, p < 0.001. A mixed effects linear regression model indicated that a 1 dB increase in noise exposure was associated with a 0.17 increase in heart rate (p-value = 0.01 even after controlling for work activities, age, smoking, perceived stress, and unfavorable physical working conditions. These findings suggest that occupational and non-occupational noise exposure is associated with elevations in average heart rate, which may in turn predict potential cardiovascular damage.

  6. Personal exposure to wood dust among workers in NekaChoob factory in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mohammadyan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Inhalation of hardwood dust may produce a range of adverse health effects in the upper and lower respiratory system, including asthma, along with Sino-nasal cancer and nasopharyngeal cancer. This study was carried out to evaluate personal exposure to wood dust among workers in chipboard and furniture production saloons in Neka Choob factory, Iran. Materials and Methods: Gravimetric method No. 0500 recommended by National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health was used to determine the wood dust concentrations in the workers’ breathing zone. The sampling air was drawn through a polyvinyl chloride filter within the breathing zone, using a calibrated personal sampling pump. Results: The mean workers’ personal exposure to wood dust in furniture production saloon (2.87 ± 1.95 mgm-3 was higher than mean exposure of workers whom were working in chipboard saloon (0.93 ± 0.35 mgm-3. The mean workers’ exposure to wood dust for both saloons was 1.70 ± 1.53 mgm-3. Conclusion: The mean workers’ personal exposure to wood dust in Neka Choob factory was higher than Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL recommended by national (Iranian Committee for Review and Collection of OEL and European ::union:: Scientific Committee on OEL committees. All workers in furniture production saloon and three workers in chipboard saloon have a mean exposure higher than OEL.

  7. Prevalence of occupational exposure to carcinogens among workers of Arabic, Chinese and Vietnamese ancestry in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Terry; Carey, Renee N; Glass, Deborah C; Peters, Susan; Fritschi, Lin; Reid, Alison

    2015-09-01

    Although job-related diseases result in more deaths per year than job-related injuries, most research concerning ethnic minority workers has concerned accidents and injuries rather than disease-causing exposures such as carcinogens. We conducted a telephone-based cross-sectional survey to estimate the prevalence of occupational exposure to carcinogens among a sample of ethnic minority workers in Australia, and compared their exposure prevalence to that of a sample of the general Australian-born working population ('Australian workers'). One-third of the ethnic minority workers were exposed to at least one carcinogen at work. The likelihood of exposure to carcinogens was not significantly different from that of Australian workers, although the likelihood of exposure to individual carcinogens varied by ethnicity. Knowing the prevalence of exposure to carcinogens in the workplace in different ethnic groups will allow better targeted and informed occupational health and safety measures to be implemented where necessary. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Cement dust exposure-related emphysema in a construction worker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Karkhanis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although, smoking is considered the most important predisposing factor in development of emphysema; environmental exposures also play an important role. There have been several studies on work related respiratory symptoms and ventilatory disorders among employees of cement industry. We report a case of cement exposure related emphysema in 75 years old woman construction worker.

  9. Benzene exposure among auto-repair workers from workplace ambience: A pioneer study from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif Kamal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: In Pakistan, the reports on benzene exposure among workers in chemical industries are almost non-existing due to limited research work in the field of exposure science. This study aimed to investigate such exposure in a widely adopted occupation in Rawalpindi city. Material and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 60 blood samples (N = 20/group of mechanics (MCs, spray painters (PNs and control participants (CN were analyzed. The socio-economic and demographic information of workers and that of workplaces was documented using a short questionnaire. Results: We identified that the workers in spray-painting occupation are highly at risk of benzene exposure. The results showed that PNs were more at risk of exposure to benzene than MCs, and this exposure was significantly correlated with long working hours (r = 0.68, p < 0.001. Moreover, there are several limitations in workplace setups, which need to be addressed in order to mitigate workers health risk in this occupation. In addition to the reckless use of chemicals, other identified predictors of exposure included active and passive smoking, poor workplace hygiene and substandard ventilation. Conclusions: To mitigate workplace exposure, it is necessary to reduce working hours and encourage regular use of self-protective equipments and adoption of proper hygiene in chemical workplaces.

  10. Analysis of changed bio-signal to radiation exposure of nuclear medicine worker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hwun Jae; Lee, Sang Bock

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we are evaluated about bio-signal between general workers and nuclear medicine workers which is more radiation exposure relatively. In order to reciprocal evaluated two group, we experimented nuclear medicine workers in Chung-Buk National University Hospital at department of nuclear medicine and worker in Chon-Nam National University Hospital at CT room, general radiographic room, medical recording room, receipt room, general office room. Used of experimental equipments as follows, for a level of radiation measurement by pocket dosimeter which made by Arrow-Tech company, for heart rate and blood pressure measurement by TONOPORT V which made by GE medical systems company, for heat flux and skin temperature and energy expenditure measurement by Armband senseware 2000 which made by Bodymedia company. Result of experiment obtains as follows : 1) Individual radiation exposure is recorded 3.05 uSv at department of nuclear medicine and order as follows CT room, general radiograpic room, medical recording room, receipt room, general office room. Department of nuclear medicine more 1.5 times than other places. 2) Radiation accumulated dose is not related to Heat flux, Skin temperature, Energy expenditure. 3) Blood pressure is recorded equal to nuclear medical workers, general officer, general people about systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Compared to blood pressure between nuclear medical works which is more radiation exposure and other workers was not changed. Consequently, more radiation exposed workers at nuclear medicine field doesn't have hazard

  11. Controlling criteria for radiation exposure of astronauts and space workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Kazuaki

    1989-01-01

    Space workers likely to suffer from radiation exposure in the outer space are currently limited to the U.S. and Soviet Union, and only a small amount of data and information is available concerning the techniques and criteria for control of radiation exposure in this field. Criteria used in the Soviet Union are described first. The criteria (TRS-75), called the Radiation Safety Criteria for Space Navigation, are tentative ones set up in 1975. They are based on risk assessment. The standard radiation levels are established based on unit flight time: 50rem for 1 month, 80rem for 3 months, 110rem for 6 months and 150rem for 12 months. These are largely different from the emergency exposure limit of 100mSv (10rem) specified in a Japanese law, and the standard annual exposure value of 50mSv (5rem) for workers in nuclear power plants at normal times. For the U.S., J.A. Angelo, Jr., presented a paper titled 'Radiation Protection Issues and Techniques concerning Extended Manned Space Missions' at an IAEA meeting held in 1988. Though the criteria shown in the paper are not formal ones at the national level, similar criteria are expected to be adopted by the nation in the near future. The exposure limits recommended in the paper include a depth dose of 1-4Sv for the whole life span of a worker. (Nogami, K.)

  12. Virtual reality application for simulating and minimizing worker radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ki Doo; Hajek, Brian K.; Lee, Yon Sik; Shin, Yoo Jin

    2004-01-01

    To plan work and preclude unexpected radiation exposures in a nuclear power plant, a virtual nuclear plant is a good solution. For this, there are prerequisites such as displaying real time radiation exposure data onto an avatar and preventing speed reduction caused by multiple users on the net-based system. The work space is divided into several sections and radiation information is extracted section by section. Based on the simulation algorithm, real time processing is applied to the events and movements of the avatar. Because there are millions of parts in a nuclear power plant, it is almost impossible to model all of them. Several parts of virtual plant have been modeled using 3D internet virtual reality for the model development. Optimum one-click Active-X is applied for the system, which provides easy access to the virtual plant. Connection time on the net is 20-30 sec for initial loading and 3-4 sec for the 2nd and subsequent times

  13. Important exposure controls for protection against antineoplastic agents: Highlights for oncology health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alehashem, Maryam; Baniasadi, Shadi

    2018-01-01

    A great number of antineoplastic drugs (ANPDs) are used globally in cancer treatment. Due to their adverse health effects, occupational exposure to ANPDs is considered a potential health risk to health care workers. The current study aimed to evaluate safe-handling practices of ANPDs, exposure controls, and adverse health implications for health care providers exposed to ANDPs. Prevention measures, including engineering, administrative, and work practice controls, as well as personal protective equipment (PPE), were recorded daily through a questionnaire for six weeks. Acute adverse health effects experienced by health care workers were also documented. The implemented exposure controls for preparation, administration, cleaning, and waste disposal were not in accordance with the safe handling guidelines. Central nervous system disorders (26.33%) were the most frequent acute adverse effects reported by health care workers. A significant correlation was found between the number of experienced adverse effects and handling characteristics, including the number of preparations (r = 0.38, p health care workers were in danger of exposure to ANPDs and experienced acute adverse health effects. Implementation of appropriate exposure controls is required to prevent occupational exposure to ANPDs.

  14. Lead exposure in radiator repair workers: a survey of Washington State radiator repair shops and review of occupational lead exposure registry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Stephen G

    2003-07-01

    Radiator repair workers in Washington State have the greatest number of very elevated (> or =60 microg/dL) blood lead levels of any other worker population. The goals of this study were to determine the number of radiator repair workers potentially exposed to lead; estimate the extent of blood lead data underreporting to the Occupational Lead Exposure Registry; describe current safety and health practices in radiator repair shops; and determine appropriate intervention strategies to reduce exposure and increase employer and worker awareness. Lead exposure in Washington State's radiator repair workers was assessed by reviewing Registry data and conducting a statewide survey of radiator repair businesses. This study revealed that a total of 226 workers in Washington State (including owner-operators and all employees) conduct repair activities that could potentially result in excessive exposures to lead. Approximately 26% of radiator repair workers with elevated blood lead levels (> or =25 microg/dL) were determined to report to Washington State's Registry. This study also revealed a lack of awareness of lead's health effects, appropriate industrial hygiene controls, and the requirements of the Lead Standard. Survey respondents requested information on a variety of workplace health and safety issues and waste management; 80% requested a confidential, free-of-charge consultation. Combining data derived from an occupational health surveillance system and a statewide mail survey proved effective at characterizing lead exposures and directing public health intervention in Washington State.

  15. Occupational exposures among healthcare workers: A teaching hospital sample

    OpenAIRE

    Derya Öztürk Engin; Asuman İnan; Nurgül Ceran; Zeynel Abiddin Demir; Özgür Dağli; Emin Karagül; Seyfi Özyürek

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk for occupational injury associated with contaminated blood and body fluids. This study aims to examine the frequency and type of occupational injuries and to determine best practices after exposure. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Haydarpaşa Teaching Hospital in December 2010. The questionnaires were completed by healthcare workers with face-to-face interviews. The questionnaire was evaluated occupational injuries in the ho...

  16. Assessment of workers' exposure to bioaerosols in a French cheese factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Xavier; Duquenne, Philippe

    2014-07-01

    Hundreds of different cheeses are produced in France, where 23.9kg of cheese were consumed per inhabitant in 2009, when it was ranked the second cheese-consuming nation. To meet this considerable demand, a large number of cheese factories exist where many workers, especially cheese washers, may be exposed to fungal bioaerosols that can lead to adverse toxinic and allergic effects. Airborne bacteria, fragments, or microbial by-products (endotoxins) are also found and contribute to total worker exposure. However, there is almost no published data concerning worker exposure or characteristics of bioaerosols emitted during these activities. Here, we measured the parameters (concentrations, species present, and size distribution) of the culturable fungal bioaerosol emitted in a French natural-rind cheese-maturing cellar. Concentrations of airborne bacteria and endotoxins were also measured. The main tasks were investigated using stationary or personal sampling over three consecutive days. Depending on the work area, high concentrations of culturable mesophilic microorganisms were measured (using closed-face cassettes): from 10(4) to 2×10(8) CFU m(-3) for fungi and from 10(3) to 10(6) CFU m(-3) for bacteria. These concentrations are 10- to 100000-fold higher than those measured at two reference points (indoor and outdoor) that are assumed not to be contaminated by the plant's activities. Endotoxin concentrations were between 10 and 300 EU m(-3) in the plant. Exposure was further assessed by identifying the predominant culturable fungi (allergenic Mucor fuscus and Penicillium sp.) and by measuring particle size distributions (cascade impactor). Airborne fungal entities (spores, mycelium strands and fragments, agglomerates, etc.) were found with aerodynamic diameters from 3 to over 20 µm. A metrological approach was used to fully characterize the culturable fungal aerosols generated during cheese maturing in this plant. The results show that workers are exposed to

  17. Chronic exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides and neuropsychological functioning in farm workers: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris Andrés; Iglesias, Verónica Paz; Muñoz, María Pía; Cornejo, Claudia Alejandra; Achu, Eduardo; Baumert, Brittney; Hanchey, Arianna; Concha, Carlos; Brito, Ana María; Villalobos, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that acute poisoning from exposure to organophosphate (OP) pesticides in agricultural workers causes adverse health effects. However, neuropsychological and cognitive effects of chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides remain controversial. To identify, evaluate, and systematize existing evidence regarding chronic exposure to OP pesticides and neuropsychological effects in farmworkers. Using the PubMed search engine, a systematic review process was implemented and replicated according to the PRISMA statement. Eligibility criteria included workers over 18 years of age exposed to OP pesticides as well as assessment of neuropsychological and cognitive functioning. Search terms were in English and Spanish languages and included organophosphate and workers. Of the search results, 33 of 1,256 articles meet eligibility criteria. Twenty-four studies found an association between chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides and low neuropsychological performance in workers. We classified nine of the studies to have study design limitations. Studies indicated occupational exposure to OP pesticides is linked to difficulties in executive functions, psychomotor speed, verbal, memory, attention, processing speed, visual-spatial functioning, and coordination. Nine studies find no relationship between OP pesticides exposure and neuropsychological performance. Overall, evidence suggests an association between chronic occupational exposure to OP pesticides and neuropsychological effects. However, there is no consensus about the specific cognitive skills affected.

  18. [Occupational risk related to optical radiation exposure in construction workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobba, F; Modenese, A

    2012-01-01

    Optical Radiation is a relevant occupational risk in construction workers, mainly as a consequence of the exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) component of solar radiation (SR). Available data show that UV occupational limits are frequently exceeded in these workers, resulting in an increased occupational risk of various acute and chronic effects, mainly to skin and to the eye. One of the foremost is the carcinogenic effect: SR is indeed included in Group 1 IARC (carcinogenic to humans). UV exposure is related to an increase of the incidence of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). The incidence of these tumors, especially CMM, is constantly increasing in Caucasians in the last 50 years. As a conclusion, an adequate evaluation of the occupational risk related to SR, and adequate preventive measures are essential in construction workers. The role of occupational physicians in prevention is fundamental.

  19. Professional exposure of medical workers: radiation levels, radiation risk and personal dose monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai Guang

    2005-01-01

    The application of radiation in the field of medicine is the most active area. Due to the rapid and strong development of intervention radiology at present near 20 years, particularly, the medical workers become a popularize group which most rapid increasing and also receiving the must high of professional exposure dose. Because, inter alias, radiation protection management nag training have not fully follow up, the aware of radioactive protection and appropriate approach have tot fully meet the development and need, the professional exposure dose received by medical workers, especially those being engaged in intervention radiology, are more higher, as well as have not yet fully receiving the complete personal dose monitoring, the medical workers become the population group which should be paid the most attention to. The writer would advice in this paper that all medical workers who being received a professional radiation exposure should pay more attention to the safety and healthy they by is strengthening radiation protection and receiving complete personal dose monitoring. (authors)

  20. Chromosome aberrations in workers with exposure to α-particle radiation from internal deposits of plutonium: expectations from in vitro studies and comparisons with workers with predominantly external γ-radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curwen, Gillian B.; Tawn, E.J. [The University of Manchester, Centre for Integrated Genomic Medical Research (CIGMR), School of Population Health, Faculty of Medical and Human Sciences, Manchester (United Kingdom); Sotnik, Natalia V.; Azizova, Tamara V. [Southern Urals Biophysics Institute (SUBI), Ozyorsk, Chelyabinsk Region 456780 (Russian Federation); Cadwell, Kevin K. [Medical School, Newcastle University, Institute for Cell and Molecular Biosciences, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Hill, Mark A. [University of Oxford, CRUK/MRC Oxford Institute for Radiation Oncology, Gray Laboratories, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2015-05-15

    mFISH analysis of chromosome aberration profiles of 47 and 144 h lymphocyte cultures following exposure to 193 mGy α-particle radiation confirmed that the frequency of stable aberrant cells and stable cells carrying translocations remains constant through repeated cell divisions. Age-specific rates and in vitro dose-response curves were used to derive expected translocation yields in nine workers from the Mayak nuclear facility in Russia. Five had external exposure to γ-radiation, two of whom also had exposure to neutrons, and four had external exposure to γ-radiation and internal exposure to α-particle radiation from incorporated plutonium. Doubts over the appropriateness of the dose response used to estimate translocations from the neutron component made interpretation difficult in two of the workers with external exposure, but the other three had translocation yields broadly in line with expectations. Three of the four plutonium workers had translocation yields in line with expectations, thus supporting the application of the recently derived in vitro α-particle dose response for translocations in stable cells. Overall this report demonstrates that with adequate reference in vitro dose-response curves, translocation yield has the potential to be a useful tool in the validation of red bone marrow doses resulting from mixed exposure to external and internal radiation. (orig.)

  1. Biomonitoring-based exposure assessment of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene among workers at petroleum distribution facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heibati, Behzad; Godri Pollitt, Krystal J; Charati, Jamshid Yazdani; Ducatman, Alan; Shokrzadeh, Mohammad; Karimi, Ali; Mohammadyan, Mahmoud

    2018-03-01

    Elevated emissions of volatile organic compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and o, p, and m-xylenes (BTEX), are an occupational health concern at oil transfer stations. This exploratory study investigated personal exposure to BTEX through environmental air and urine samples collected from 50 male workers at a major oil distribution company in Iran. Airborne BTEX exposures were evaluated over 8h periods during work-shift by using personal passive samplers. Urinary BTEX levels were determined using solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography mass spectrometry for separation and detection. Mean exposure to ambient concentrations of benzene differed by workers' job type: tanker loading workers (5390μg/m 3 ), tank-gauging workers (830μg/m 3 ), drivers (81.9μg/m 3 ), firefighters (71.2μg/m 3 ) and office workers (19.8μg/m 3 ). Exposure across job type was similarly stratified across all personal exposures to BTEX measured in air samples with maximum concentrations found for tanker loading workers. Average exposures concentrations of BTEX measured in urine were 11.83 ppb benzene, 1.87 ppb toluene, 0.43 ppb ethylebenzene, and 3.76 ppb xylene. Personal air exposure to benzene was found to be positively associated with benzene concentrations measured in urine; however, a relationship was not observed to the other BTEX compounds. Urinary exposure profiles are a potentially useful, noninvasive, and rapid method for assessing exposure to benzene in a developing and relatively remote production region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Dust exposure in workers from grain storage facilities in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Zamora, María G; Medina-Escobar, Lourdes; Mora, Glend; Zock, Jan-Paul; van Wendel de Joode, Berna; Mora, Ana M

    2017-08-01

    About 12 million workers are involved in the production of basic grains in Central America. However, few studies in the region have examined the occupational factors associated with inhalable dust exposure. (i) To assess the exposure to inhalable dust in workers from rice, maize, and wheat storage facilities in Costa Rica; (ii) to examine the occupational factors associated with this exposure; and (iii) to measure concentrations of respirable and thoracic particles in different areas of the storage facilities. We measured inhalable (dust concentrations in 176 personal samples collected from 136 workers of eight grain storage facilities in Costa Rica. We also measured respirable (dust particles in several areas of the storage facilities. Geometric mean (GM) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) inhalable dust concentrations were 2.0mg/m 3 and 7.8 (range=dust concentrations were associated with job category [GM for category/GM for administrative staff and other workers (95% CI)=4.4 (2.6, 7.2) for packing; 20.4 (12.3, 34.7) for dehulling; 109.6 (50.1, 234.4) for unloading in flat bed sheds; 24.0 (14.5, 39.8) for unloading in pits; and 31.6 (18.6, 52.5) for drying], and cleaning task [15.8 (95% CI: 10.0, 26.3) in workers who cleaned in addition to their regular tasks]. Higher area concentrations of thoracic dust particles were found in wheat (GM and GSD=4.3mg/m 3 and 4.5) and maize (3.0mg/m 3 and 3.9) storage facilities, and in grain drying (2.3mg/m 3 and 3.1) and unloading (1.5mg/m 3 and 4.8) areas. Operators of grain storage facilities showed elevated inhalable dust concentrations, mostly above international exposure limits. Better engineering and administrative controls are needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Occupational exposure to diisocyanates in polyurethane foam factory workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Świerczyńska-Machura

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate health effects of occupational exposure to diisocyanates (DIC among polyurethane foam products factory workers. Material and Methods: Thirty workers had a physical examination, skin prick tests with common allergens, allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE antibodies to diisocyanates and pulmonary function tests. Concentrations of selected isocyanates in the workplace air samples as well as concentration of their metabolites in the urine samples collected from the workers of the plant were determined. Results: The most frequent work-related symptoms reported by the examined subjects were rhinitis and skin symptoms. Sensitization to at least 1 common allergen was noted in 26.7% of the subjects. Spirometry changes of bronchial obstruction of a mild degree was observed in 5 workers. The specific IgE antibodies to toluene diisocyanate (TDI and 4,4’-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate (MDI were not detected in any of the patients’ serum. Cellular profiles of the collected induced sputum (ISP did not reveal any abnormalities. Air concentrations of TDI isomers ranged 0.2–58.9 μg/m3 and in 7 cases they exceeded the Combined Exposure Index (CEI value for those compounds. Concentrations of TDI metabolites in post-shift urine samples were significantly higher than in the case of pre-shift urine samples and in 6 cases they exceeded the British Biological Monitoring Guidance Value (BMGV – 1 μmol amine/mol creatinine. We didn’t find a correlation between urinary concentrations of TDI, concentrations in the air and concentrations of toluenediamine (TDA in the post shift urine samples. Lack of such a correlation may be an effect of the respiratory protective equipment use. Conclusions: Determination of specific IgE in serum is not sensitive enough to serve as a biomarker. Estimation of concentrations of diisocyanate metabolites in urine samples and the presence of work-related allergic symptoms seem to be

  4. Personal exposure to pesticide among workers engaged in pesticide container recycling operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidotti, T L; Yoshida, K; Clough, V

    1994-12-01

    Pesticide container handling operations in western Canada were examined to determine the exposure of workers to residual pesticide in sorting, metal-container crushing, metal-container shredding, plastic-container shredding, metal washing, and metal melting. Environmental exposure monitoring and biological monitoring were applied, including measurement of pesticide deposition density on outer clothing (test coveralls and other protective wear), deposition on fabric and gauze patches under the outer clothing, inhalation of airborne pesticide residues, dislodgement of pesticide residues by hand washing, and pre- and postexposure urinary excretion of pesticide (2,4-D). Exposure levels were highly variable; some variability was accounted for by work practices or lapses in protection. The highest levels of exposure were observed for metal washing, metal crushing, and metal shredding; sorting and plastic shredding were intermediate, and metal melting was associated with very little exposure. Urinary 2,4-D excretion, as an indicator of internal dose, correlated most closely with exposure by the inhalation route, and both were highest for metal washing and shredding. Deposition of pesticide on garments was highest for metal crushing. Melting of washed metal does not appear to present a significant hazard of exposure. Recommendations are proposed for the protection of workers emphasizing health and safety guidelines, worker education, personal hygiene, exposure and health monitoring, and record-keeping, and specific recommendations for each process. These recommendations apply to all pesticide container recycling operations except melting of washed metal containers.

  5. Biological monitoring results for cadmium exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDiarmid, M A; Freeman, C S; Grossman, E A; Martonik, J

    1996-11-01

    As part of a settlement agreement with the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) involving exposure to cadmium (Cd), a battery production facility provided medical surveillance data to OSHA for review. Measurements of cadmium in blood, cadmium in urine, and beta 2-microglobulin in urine were obtained for more than 100 workers over an 18-month period. Some airborne Cd exposure data were also made available. Two subpopulations of this cohort were of primary interest in evaluating compliance with the medical surveillance provisions of the Cadmium Standard. These were a group of 16 workers medically removed from cadmium exposure due to elevations in some biological parameter, and a group of platemakers. Platemaking had presented a particularly high exposure opportunity and had recently undergone engineering interventions to minimize exposure. The effect on three biological monitoring parameters of medical removal protection in the first group and engineering controls in platemakers is reported. Results reveal that both medical removal from cadmium exposures and exposure abatement through the use of engineering and work practice controls generally result in declines in biological monitoring parameters of exposed workers. Implications for the success of interventions are discussed.

  6. Occupational exposure of medical radiation workers in Lithuania, 1950-2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samerdokiene, V.; Atkocius, V.; Kurtinaitis, J.; Valuckas, K.P.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents the summary of historical exposures, measurement practice and evolution of the recording of the individual doses of medical radiation workers during 1950-2003 in Lithuania. The aim of this study is to present occupational exposure of medical radiation workers in Lithuania since the earliest appearance period. Data from publications have been used for the earliest two periods prior to 1969; data from the archives of the largest hospitals, for the period 1970-1990 and data from Lithuanian Subdivision of Individual Dosimetry of Radiation Protection Center, for the period 1991-2003. The analysis of the data obtained from personal records allows to conclude that the average annual effective dose of Lithuanian medical radiation workers was greatly reduced in radiology, radiotherapy and nuclear medicine in all occupational categories from 1950 to 2003. During the last period 1991-2003 extremity doses clearly decreased and after 1994 were no longer present in Lithuania. (authors)

  7. Exposure to parvalbumin allergen and aerosols among herring processing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlman-Höglund, Anna; Renström, Anne; Acevedo, Fernando; Andersson, Eva

    2013-10-01

    There are increasing reports of allergies and respiratory symptoms among workers in the fish processing industry, coinciding with an increasing use of high-pressure water in the processing plants. However, few studies have measured exposure in these work environments. The aim of this study was to characterize the occupational exposure of workers to herring antigen and to screen environmental factors at a herring (Clupea harengus) plant in which new and more encapsulated filleting machines had been installed. To assist in this, a method to assess airborne exposure to herring allergen was needed. Exposure to airborne herring antigen, mould spores, and endotoxin were measured during work. Antigen exposure was assessed using a newly developed sensitive (detection limit, 0.1 ng ml(-1)) rabbit polyclonal sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against the major herring muscle protein allergen, parvalbumin. Aerosols were measured by mass concentration (DataRAM) and number of particles (Climet I-500). Personal geometric mean herring allergen exposure was 986 ng m(-3) at the old filleting workstations and 725 ng m(-3) at the new workstations (difference not significant). Outside the production room, the level was ~130 ng m(-3). Number of particles and mass concentration were both significantly lower around the new machines than around the old machines (P < 0.001 and P < 0.0001, respectively). The highest particle count was seen for the 0.3-0.5 μm fraction, with more than 400,000 particles per cubic metre air. Endotoxin concentration in the air varied between 3 and 92 EU m(-3), with the highest levels when the catch mainly contained herring that had eaten krill or seaweed. We developed a sensitive method to detect herring antigen. High exposure to herring antigen was measured during filleting work. The particles in the air around the fillet machines were mainly <0.5 μm and the newer encapsulated machines generated fewer particles. It is important to reduce occupational

  8. Workers' exposure to bioaerosols from three different types of composting facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifait, Laetitia; Marchand, Geneviève; Veillette, Marc; M'Bareche, Hamza; Dubuis, Marie-Eve; Pépin, Carole; Cloutier, Yves; Bernard, Yves; Duchaine, Caroline

    2017-10-01

    Composting is a natural dynamic biological process used to valorise putrescible organic matter. The composting process can involve vigorous movements of waste material piles, which release high concentrations of bioaerosols into the surrounding environment. There is a lack of knowledge concerning the dispersal of airborne microorganisms emitted by composting plants (CP) as well as the potential occupational exposure of composting workers. The aim of this study was to investigate the workers exposure to bioaerosols during working activities in three different types of composting facilities (domestic, manure, carcass) using two different quantification methods (cultivation and qPCR) for bacteria and moulds concentrations. As expected, even if there are differences between all CP frameworks, independently of the type of the raw compost used, the production of bioaerosols increases significantly during handling activities. Important concentrations of mesophilic moulds and mesophilic bacteria were noted in the working areas with a respective maximal concentration of 2.3 × 10 5 CFU/m 3 and 1.6 × 10 5 CFU/m 3 . A. fumigatus and thermophilic Actinomycetes were also detected in all working areas for the 3 CP. This study emphases the risks for workers to being in contact with aerosolized pathogens such as Mycobacterium and Legionella and more specifically, L. pneumophila. The presence of high concentration of these bacteria in CP suggests a potential occupational health risk. This study may lead to recommendations for the creation of limits for occupational exposure. There is a need for identifying the standards exposure limits to bioaerosols in CP and efficient recommendation for a better protection of workers' health.

  9. Terpene exposure and respiratory effects among workers in Swedish joinery shops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, K A; Levin, J O; Sandström, T; Lindström-Espeling, K; Lindén, G; Stjernberg, N L

    1997-04-01

    Exposure to monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and delta 3-carene) in joinery shops was studied in Sweden during the processing of Scot's pine, and the acute respiratory effects among the employees were evaluated. A cross-sectional study of 38 workers was carried out in 4 joinery shops. The investigation included personal air sampling of monoterpenes, biological monitoring of metabolites of alpha-pinene in the workers' urine, interviews following a standardized questionnaire, and dynamic spirometry. The personal exposure to monoterpenes in the joinery shops was 10-214 mg/m3. The correlation (correlation coefficient = 0.69) between exposure to alpha-pinene and verbenols (metabolites from alpha-pinene) in urine was relatively good. No acute effects on forced vital capacity or forced expiratory volume during 1 s were detected. The workers had significantly reduced preshift lung function values when compared with the values of a local reference group, even when smokers and ex-smokers were excluded. Personal exposure to the monoterpenes alpha-pinene, and delta 3-carene in joinery shops may exceed the present Swedish occupational exposure limit of 150 mg/m3 during the winter season when workroom air is commonly recirculated. The determination of metabolites of alpha-pinene (verbenols) in urine can be used as an index of exposure to fumes released during wood-treating processes. The results from the lung function tests indicate chronic rather than acute reactions in the airways. The fact that there were no major changes in lung function over a workshift indicates chronic reaction in the airways.

  10. Investigation of the radiological impact due to the dredging of sediments in the Minimes harbour of La Rochelle. Workers and population exposure to reinforced natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    As the city of La Rochelle is implementing a project of expansion of the Minimes yachting harbour which comprises the dredging of sediments (which may have been polluted by a rare earth production plant), this document reports the assessment of the radiological impact of this dredging activity on workers and on the population. A campaign of sediment coring has been performed in order to validate the reference coring station selection, to measure sand radiological activity and to measure the activity of the sediments to be dredged. The computed maximum efficient doses for the workers and for the population appear to be low, and very much less to the 1 mSv/year threshold

  11. Exposure to secondhand smoke at work: a survey of members of the Australian Liquor, Hospitality and Miscellaneous Workers Union.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Melissa; Wakefield, Melanie; Trotter, Lisa; Inglis, Graeme

    2003-10-01

    To measure workers' attitudes towards and experiences of exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) in the workplace. A stratified random sample of members from the Victorian Branch of the Australian Liquor, Hospitality and Miscellaneous Workers Union (LHMU) was interviewed by telephone in September 2001. Of the 1,078 respondents surveyed (77% response rate), hospitality workers comprised 49% of the sample, while the remainder comprised community services, property services and manufacturing workers. Overall, 54% of union members were employed in workplaces that did not completely ban smoking and 34% reported being exposed to SHS during their typical working day. Workplaces with total smoking bans had a high level of compliance with these restrictions, with no workers in these settings indicating exposure to SHS at work. Compared with other workers, hospitality workers reported working in environments that had more permissive smoking policies. Consistent with this, 56% of hospitality workers said they were exposed to SHS during a typical day at work compared with 11% of other workers. Overall, 79% of workers expressed concern about exposure to SHS, including 66% of smokers. Compared with other workers, hospitality workers reported a higher level of concern about exposure to SHS at work. These findings provide evidence that many workers, and especially those employed in the hospitality sector, are exposed to SHS during their working day and are concerned about the effects of such exposure on their health. These findings indicate that workplace smoke-free policies are effective in reducing worker exposure to SHS and demonstrate support for the extension of smoke-free policies to hospitality workplaces.

  12. Nickel exposure and plasma levels of biomarkers for assessing oxidative stress in nickel electroplating workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Yu-Chung; Gu, Po-Wen; Liu, Su-Hsun; Tzeng, I-Shiang; Chen, Jau-Yuan; Luo, Jiin-Chyuan John

    2017-07-01

    The mechanism of nickel-induced pathogenesis remains elusive. To examine effects of nickel exposure on plasma oxidative and anti-oxidative biomarkers. Biomarker data were collected from 154 workers with various levels of nickel exposure and from 73 controls. Correlations between nickel exposure and oxidative and anti-oxidative biomarkers were determined using linear regression models. Workers with a exposure to high nickel levels had significantly lower levels of anti-oxidants (glutathione and catalase) than those with a lower exposure to nickel; however, only glutathione showed an independent association after multivariable adjustment. Exposure to high levels of nickel may reduce serum anti-oxidative capacity.

  13. [Current status of hearing loss and related influencing factors in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S S; Yu, J N; He, C H; Mu, H X; Wang, C; Zhang, Y; Zhang, C Y; Yu, S F; Li, X L

    2016-12-20

    Objective: To investigate the current status of hearing loss and related influencing factors in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry. Methods: From August 2015 to March 2016, the investigation method of collecting the data of past occupational health examinations and measuring noise in working environment was used to enroll 8 672 male workers. Results: Of all workers, 11.6% were diagnosed with hearing loss. There were significant differences in the distribution of hearing impairment among workers exposed to noise at different ages, device types and types of work (χ(2)=17.80, 77.80 and 30.53, all P hearing loss in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry. Conclusion: The level of noise exposure and working years with noise exposure are main influencing factors for hearing loss in workers with noise exposure in refining and chemical industry.

  14. Pesticide Exposure and Cholinesterase Levels in Migrant Farm Workers in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thetkathuek, Anamai; Yenjai, Pornthip; Jaidee, Wanlop; Jaidee, Patchana; Sriprapat, Poonsak

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of pesticides in migrant farm workers from Cambodia after workplace exposure on fruit plantations in eastern Thailand. We studied 891 migrant farm workers employed on pineapple, durian, and rambutan plantations in Thailand. Data were collected via a detailed questionnaire survey and measurements of serum cholinesterase level (SChE). The majority of subjects was male (57.7%), with an average age of 30.3 years. Most subjects (76.8%) were moderately aware of good industrial hygiene practices. SChE level was divided into four groups based on the results. Only 4.4% had normal levels of cholinesterase activity, 20.5% had slightly reduced levels, 58.5% had markedly reduced levels and were "at risk," and 16.6% who had highest levels of cholinesterase inhibition were deemed to be in an "unsafe" range. SChE was classified into two groups, SChE value of 87.5 was "normal" and 39 acres, use a backpack sprayer, or have a low level of compliance with accepted industrial hygiene practices. These three classes of workers are at increased risk of chemical exposures and developing acute or chronic illness from pesticide exposures.

  15. EXPOSURES AND HEALTH OF FARM WORKER CHILDREN IN CALIFORNIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA STAR Program Center of Excellence in Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research at the University of California at Berkeley is currently conducting exposure and health studies for children of farm workers in the Salinas Valley of California. The Exp...

  16. Workers radiation protection. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiations in France: 2016 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2017-06-01

    National results of the individual monitoring of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation are reported for all civilian and military activities subject to authorization or declaration (i.e. medical and veterinary activities, nuclear industry, defence, non-nuclear industry and research), as well as for activities concerned by the enhanced exposure to natural radiation. 372 262 workers within activities subject to authorization or declaration were monitored by passive dosimetry in 2015, which represents an increase by 1.8 % compared to 2015. The average individual dose in 2016 was very close to the value in 2015. Furthermore, 14 218 workers received more than 1 mSv (i.e. the legal dose limit for the public), and 2 703 workers received more than 5 mSv. 1 worker received more than 20 mSv (i.e. the dose limit for the workers in the French regulation). As a result, the collective dose increased from 61.9 to 63.2 man.Sv (2 %), thus reaching the same level as in the years 2009 to 2013. Important differences are noticed according to the occupational activities: the average dose in the medical and veterinary field (which represents 61.2 % of the monitored workers) and that in the research field (3.1 % of the monitored workers) are less than 0.35 mSv; the average doses are higher in the nuclear field and in the non-nuclear industry (representing together 30.5 % of the monitored workers), respectively 1.15 mSv and 1.36 mSv. Concerning internal dosimetry, 279 659 individual examinations have been performed in 2016, 54 % of which are radio-toxicological analysis of excreta and 46 % are direct body counting. In 2016, 5 workers had a committed effective dose greater than or equal to 1 mSv and the maximum dose was 19.4 mSv. Data or trends relative to workers exposed to natural radioactivity are also dealt with in this report (air-crews, personnel subjected to radon exposure). In particular, results of aircrew dosimetry are reported: in 2016, the average individual dose of 19 875

  17. Workers radiation protection. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiations in France: 2015 results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    National results of the individual monitoring of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation are reported for all civilian and military activities subject to authorization or declaration (i.e. medical and veterinary activities, nuclear industry, defence, non-nuclear industry and research), as well as for activities concerned by the enhanced exposure to natural radiation. 365 830 workers within activities subject to authorization or declaration were monitored by passive dosimetry in 2015, which represents an increase by 1.7 % compared to 2014. The average individual dose in 2015 was very close to the value in 2014. Furthermore, 14 138 workers received more than 1 mSv (i.e. the legal dose limit for the public), and 2 606 workers received more than 5 mSv. 2 workers received more than 20 mSv (i.e. the dose limit for the workers in the French regulation). As a result, the collective dose increased from 56.3 to 61.9 man.Sv (10 %), thus reaching the same level as in the years 2009 to 2013. Important differences are noticed according to the occupational activities: the average dose in the medical and veterinary field (which represents 62.4 % of the monitored workers) and that in the research field (3.6 % of the monitored workers) are less than 0.4 mSv; the average doses are higher in the nuclear field and in the non-nuclear industry (representing together 30.1 % of the monitored workers), respectively 1.17 mSv and 1.38 mSv. Concerning internal dosimetry, 279 877 individual examinations have been performed in 2015, 52 % of which are radio-toxicological analysis of excreta and 48 % are direct body counting. In 2015, 2 workers had a committed effective dose greater than or equal to 1 mSv and the maximum dose was 3 mSv. Data or trends relative to workers exposed to natural radioactivity are also dealt with in this report (air crews, personnel subjected to radon exposure). In particular, results of aircrew dosimetry are reported: in 2015, the average individual dose of 19 565

  18. Hand exposure of nuclear medicine workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, J.; Wrzesien, M.; Olszewski, J.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Workers of Nuclear Medicine units labelling radiopharmaceuticals with technetium 99mTc are exposed to gamma radiation. The general opinion that individual dosimetry, with the aid of personal dose meters worn on the radiopharmacists' body, reflects true exposure of that occupational group is false. The use of ring dose meters worn on the fingers does not provide a true indication of the exposure of the radiopharmacists' hands. Measurements performed in 2001 - 2005 by the Institute of Occupational Medicine, with the use of dose meters placed on radiopharmacists' fingers, revealed that the equivalent dose to the hands ranged from 5.5 mSv to 95 mSv. Mean annual dose was 29 mSv. The finger dose meter is usually worn at the base of the middle finger, even if it is the fingertips that are most exposed to the radiation. In 2004-2005, we determined the distributions of the doses to the radiopharmacists' hands. The determinations were performed during one working day. During those determinations, thermo luminescence detectors were placed at 19 locations on the left and right hands. The subjects were 13 workers of 5 nuclear medicine units. The recorded doses ranged from 0.02 to 28 mSv for the left hand, and from 0.01 to 18 mSv for the right hand. The results show that the tips of the thumb, index finger and middle finger were the most exposed areas. The chances that the skin of those three fingertips receives yearly doses in excess of the current limit of 500 mSv are fairly high. It is recommended, therefore, to use annual dose constraints for the dose recorded by the ring dose meter at the level of 100 mSv per year as a safe limit to protect workers from the risk of exceeding the limit value for the dermal exposure. Whenever the dose value approaches 100 mSv/u, where u is the number of determinations of the partial doses performed during the period of one year, steps must be undertaken to explain the reasons why such a level has been reached and suitable

  19. Historical reconstruction of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposures for workers in a capacitor manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopf, Nancy B; Ruder, Avima M; Waters, Martha A

    2014-05-01

    We developed a semiquantitative job exposure matrix (JEM) for workers exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) at a capacitor manufacturing plant from 1946 to 1977. In a recently updated mortality study, mortality of prostate and stomach cancer increased with increasing levels of cumulative exposure estimated with this JEM (trend p values = 0.003 and 0.04, respectively). Capacitor manufacturing began with winding bales of foil and paper film, which were placed in a metal capacitor box (pre-assembly), and placed in a vacuum chamber for flood-filling (impregnation) with dielectric fluid (PCBs). Capacitors dripping with PCB residues were then transported to sealing stations where ports were soldered shut before degreasing, leak testing, and painting. Using a systematic approach, all 509 unique jobs identified in the work histories were rated by predetermined process- and plant-specific exposure determinants; then categorized based on the jobs' similarities (combination of exposure determinants) into 35 job exposure categories. The job exposure categories were ranked followed by a qualitative PCB exposure rating (baseline, low, medium, and high) for inhalation and dermal intensity. Category differences in other chemical exposures (solvents, etc.) prevented further combining of categories. The mean of all available PCB concentrations (1975 and 1977) for jobs within each intensity rating was regarded as a representative value for that intensity level. Inhalation (in microgram per cubic milligram) and dermal (unitless) exposures were regarded as equally important. Intensity was frequency adjusted for jobs with continuous or intermittent PCB exposures. Era-modifying factors were applied to the earlier time periods (1946-1974) because exposures were considered to have been greater than in later eras (1975-1977). Such interpolations, extrapolations, and modifying factors may introduce non-differential misclassification; however, we do believe our rigorous method

  20. Exposure to and precautions for blood and body fluids among workers in the funeral home franchises of Fort Worth, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwanyanwu, O C; Tabasuri, T H; Harris, G R

    1989-08-01

    In 1982 the Centers for Disease Control published a set of recommendations and measures to protect persons working in health care settings or performing mortician services from possible exposure to the human immunodeficiency virus. This study of a number of funeral homes in the Fort Worth area was designed to determine the level of exposure of funeral home workers to blood and other body fluids and also to assess existing protective measures and practices in the industry. Workers in 22 funeral home franchises were surveyed with a predesigned questionnaire. Eighty-five responses from 20 of the 22 establishments were received. All 85 respondents admitted exposure of varying degrees to blood and body fluids. Sixty persons (70%) admitted heavy exposure, that is, frequent splashes. Analysis of the responses showed that 81 of 85 (95.3%) persons consistently wore gloves while performing tasks that might expose them to blood or other body fluids. Of the 60 persons who were heavily exposed, 43 wore long-sleeved gowns, 27 wore waterproof aprons, 17 surgical masks, and 15 goggles. The study further revealed that 52.9% (45/85) of the respondents had sustained accidental cuts or puncture wounds on the job. In light of these findings it is important to target educational efforts to persons in this industry to help them minimize their risks of infection with blood and body fluid borne infections.

  1. Occupational exposure to HIV: a conflict situation for health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumakech, E; Achora, S; Berggren, V; Bajunirwe, F

    2011-12-01

    To determine the frequency of occupational exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the circumstances and predisposing factors, the high-risk groups, the extent to which exposures are reported and the post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) utilized by health-care workers (HCWs) and students in a Ugandan hospital. Occupational exposure to HIV is a low but potential risk of HIV infection to health workers. Self-administered questionnaire was given to 224 participants (including 98 HCWs and 126 students) in Mbarara Hospital, Uganda. Data were analysed with descriptive statistics using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 15.0 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA). Of the 224 participants surveyed, 19.2% reported having sustained injection needle stick injuries in the previous year, of which 4.46% occurred with HIV-infected blood. Other reported injuries were cannula needle stick injury (0.89%), suture needle stick injuries (3.13%), scalpel cut injuries (0.45%) and muco-cutaneous contamination (10.27%). The most affected groups were nurses-midwives for scalpel injuries and students for stick injuries. The predisposing factors reported included lack of protective devices and recapping of needles. Exposures were under-reported. Uptake of PEP was also low. Occupational exposure to HIV presents a conflict situation for HCWs. It remains a frequent occurrence particularly among student nurses-midwives, despite being avoidable. Its prophylactic treatment is hampered by poor reporting and investigation of exposures, and poor access to PEP. Strict adherence to universal precaution and proper handling of occupational exposure to HIV should be encouraged. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.

  2. Effect of exposure to a mixture of organic solvents on hearing thresholds in petrochemical industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukzadeh, Ziba; Shojaoddiny-Ardekani, Ahmad; Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Yazdi, Zohreh; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

    2014-10-01

    Hearing loss is one of the most common occupational diseases. In most workplaces, workers are exposed to noise and solvents simultaneously, so the potential risk of hearing loss due to solvents may be attributed to noise. In this study we aimed to assess the effect of exposure to mixed aromatic solvents on hearing in the absence of exposure to hazardous noise. In a cross-sectional study, 99 workers from the petrochemical industry with exposure to a mixture of organic solvents whose noise exposure was lower than 85 dBA were compared with 100 un-exposed controls. After measuring sound pressure level and mean concentration of each solvent in the workplace, pure-tone-audiometry was performed and the two groups were compared in terms of high-frequency and low-frequency hearing loss. T-tests and Chi-square tests were used to compare the two groups. The mean hearing threshold at all frequencies among petrochemical workers was normal (below 25 dB). We did not observe any significant association between solvent exposure and high-frequency or low-frequency hearing loss. This study showed that temporary exposure (less than 4 years) to a mixture of organic solvents, without exposure to noise, does not affect workers' hearing threshold in audiometry tests.

  3. Occupational exposure to respirable crystalline silica in the Iranian Mazandaran province industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadyan, Mahmoud; Rokni, Mohammad; Yosefinejad, Razieh

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated occupational exposure to silica dust of 48 workers in stone cutting, glass making, ceramic, and sand blasting plants in the north of Iran. Samples were collected from the breathing zone using a personal sampling pump and a size-selective cyclone. Sample filters and blanks were analysed using infrared spectroscopy. The mean sampling period was 4.83 h. Mean exposure of workers to crystalline silica dust in glass making, ceramic, sand blasting, and stone cutting was 0.129 mg m-3, 0.169 mg m-3, 0.313 mg m-3 and 0.318 mg m-3, respectively. As exposure at each of the workplaces is three to 12 times higher than the current national and international thresholds, these workers run a greater risk of lung cancer and mortality. Our findings call for specific ventilation design and personal protection improvements in the four plants as well as stricter enforcement of the existing regulations by the authorities.

  4. Lead toxicity on hematological parameters in workers with occupational exposure to lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dursun, N.; Koese, K.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of lead on hematological parameters were studied in lead exposed male workers occupied for 17.84+-4.22 years in a metal powder producing factory in Kayseri, Turkey and control male workers in same city. Blood lead and plasma zinc levels were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) and hematological parameters by Culture Counter S. The lead exposure workers had higher lead levels (13.81+- 9.21 mug/dl) as compared to control subjects (2.37+-0.10 mug/dl). No difference was observed in the plasma zinc levels of both groups. As indices of lead exposure, red blood cell (RBC) counts, hemoglobin (Hb), and hematocrit (Hct) values significantly decreased. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) significantly increased except MCV. There was also an increase in MCV, but it was not significant. (author)

  5. Acute myeloid and chronic lymphoid leukaemias and exposure to low-level benzene among petroleum workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, L; Schnatter, A R; Tang, G; Glass, D C

    2014-01-01

    Background: High benzene exposure causes acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). Three petroleum case–control studies identified 60 cases (241 matched controls) for AML and 80 cases (345 matched controls) for chronic lymphoid leukaemia (CLL). Methods: Cases were classified and scored regarding uncertainty by two haematologists using available diagnostic information. Blinded quantitative benzene exposure assessment used work histories and exposure measurements adjusted for era-specific circumstances. Statistical analyses included conditional logistic regression and penalised smoothing splines. Results: Benzene exposures were much lower than previous studies. Categorical analyses showed increased ORs for AML with several exposure metrics, although patterns were unclear; neither continuous exposure metrics nor spline analyses gave increased risks. ORs were highest in terminal workers, particularly for Tanker Drivers. No relationship was found between benzene exposure and risk of CLL, although the Australian study showed increased risks in refinery workers. Conclusion: Overall, this study does not persuasively demonstrate a risk between benzene and AML. A previously reported strong relationship between myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (potentially previously reported as AML) at our study's low benzene levels suggests that MDS may be the more relevant health risk for lower exposure. Higher CLL risks in refinery workers may be due to more diverse exposures than benzene alone. PMID:24357793

  6. Evaluation of worker's dose on a virtual dismantling environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hee Seong; Kim, Sung Hyun; Park, Byung Suk; Yoon, Ji Sup

    2007-01-01

    The motivation of this study is to provide a basis for a minimization of worker's dose during dismantling activities. In the present study, we proposed methods for identifying an existence of radioactivity which is contained in the dismantling objects and for evaluating a worker's dose under a virtual dismantling environment. To evaluate a worker's external dose, the shape of the exposure room in the KRR 2(Korean Research Reactor TRIGA MARK III) by 3D CAD was created and the radiation dose surrounding the facility by using MCNP- 4C(Monte Carlo N-Particle-4C) was calculated. The radiation field of the exposure room was visualized three dimensionally by using the radiation dose that was obtained by the code

  7. Prevalence of Hand-transmitted Vibration Exposure among Grass-cutting Workers using Objective and Subjective Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmir, N. A.; Yahya, M. N.

    2017-01-01

    Extended exposure to hand-transmitted vibration from vibrating machine is associated with an increased occurrence of symptoms of occupational disease related to hand disorder. The present case study is to determine the prevalence and correlation of significant subjective as well as objective variables that induce to hand arm vibration syndrome (HAVS) among hand-held grass-cutting workers in Malaysia. Thus, recommendations are made for grass-cutting workers and grass maintenance service management based on findings. A cross sectional study using adopted subjective Hand Arm Vibration Exposure Risk Assessment (HAVERA) questionnaire from Vibration Injury Network on hand disorder signs and symptoms was distributed to a sample of one hundred and sixty eight male workers from grass and turf maintenance industry that use vibrating machine as part of their work. For objective measure, hand-transmitted vibration measurement was collected on site during operation by the following ISO 5349-1, 2001. Two groups were identified in this research comprising of high exposure group and low-moderate exposure group. Workers also gave information about their personal identification, social history, workers’ health, occupational history and machine safety inspection. There was positive HAVS symptoms relationship between the low-moderate exposure group and high exposure group among hand-held grass-cutting workers. The prevalence ratio (PR) was considered high for experiencing white colour change at fingers and fingers go numb which are 3.63 (1.41 to 9.39) and 4.24 (2.18 to 8.27), respectively. The estimated daily vibration exposure, A(8) differs between 2.1 to 20.7 ms-2 for right hand while 2.7 to 29.1 ms-2 for left hand. The subjects claimed that the feel of numbness at left hand is much stronger compared to right hand. The results suggest that HAVS is diagnosed in Malaysia especially in agriculture sector. The A(8) indicates that the exposure value is more than exposure limit value

  8. Risk of bloodborne pathogen exposure among Zambian healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elayne Kornblatt Phillips

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Understanding the risks of bloodborne pathogen transmission is fundamental to prioritizing interventions when resources are limited. This study investigated the risks to healthcare workers in Zambia. Design: A survey was completed anonymously by a convenience sample of workers in three hospitals and two clinics in Zambia. Respondents provided information regarding job category, injuries with contaminated sharps, hepatitis B vaccination status and the availability of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP. Results: Nurses reported the largest number of injuries. The average annual sharps injury rate was 1.3 injuries per worker, and service workers (housekeepers, laundry, ward assistants had the highest rate of these injuries, 1.9 per year. Injuries were often related to inadequate disposal methods. Syringe needles accounted for the largest proportion of injuries (60%, and 15% of these injuries were related to procedures with a higher-than-average risk for infection. Most workers (88% reported the availability of PEP, and only 8% were fully vaccinated against hepatitis B. Conclusions: The injury risks identified among Zambian workers are serious and are exacerbated by the high prevalence of bloodborne pathogens in the population. This suggests that there is a high risk of occupationally acquired bloodborne pathogen infection. The findings also highlight the need for a hepatitis B vaccination program focused on healthcare workers. The risks associated with bloodborne pathogens threaten to further diminish an already scarce resource in Zambia – trained healthcare workers. To decrease these risks, we suggest the use of low-cost disposal alternatives, the implementation of cost-sensitive protective strategies and the re-allocation of some treatment resources to primary prevention. Keywords: Healthcare worker safety, Zambian healthcare workers, Bloodborne pathogen transmission, Sharps injury prevention, Infectious diseases

  9. [Night workers' exposure to harshness factors in France: Lessons learned from the 2010 SUMER Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havet, N; Huguet, M; Tonietta, J

    2017-11-01

    Despite the fact that French laws state that night work should be exceptional, the number of night workers has sharply increased in the past 20 years. At the same time, empirical and epidemiological studies indicate that night work has negative effects on workers' health. This is why the 2010 French pension act considered night work to be a drudgery. The aim of this study is to investigate whether night workers are more subject to other factors defined as contributing to the drudgery of work than are day workers. This article focuses on exposure to physical constraints (manual manipulation of heavy loads, awkward posture, exposure to mechanical vibrations) and aggressive physical environment (carcinogenic, mutagenic and reprotoxic chemicals [CMR], extreme temperature and noise). Our study used the 2010 Medical Monitoring Survey of Occupational Risks [Surveillance médicale des expositions aux risques professionnels, (SUMER)] that was conducted among a sample of around 50,000 employees representative of 21.7 million French employees. We used logistic regressions to explore the potential influence of night work on the probabilities of exposure to at least one CMR, noise, thermal nuisance and physical constraints. Even though descriptive statistics suggest that night workers are more exposed to drudgery of work than day workers, our multivariate logistic models indicate that the exposure is not always positively correlated with the number of nights worked. Moreover, the exposure differs according to gender and socio-occupational category. Our findings suggest that night workers are more exposed to several factors defined as contributing to the drudgery of work than are day workers. Thus, they seem to face multiple disadvantages in the labor market. Preventive measures in favor of night workers should be targeted at job content as much as work organization. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of the mortality among Cogema workers monitored for external radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz-Flamant, C.; Hitz, M.; Samson, E.; Rogel, A.; Telle-Lamberton, M.; Tirmarche, M.; Caer, S.; Quesne, B.

    2006-01-01

    The present study follows 9287 Cogema workers exposed to low level of ionizing radiation from the beginning of employment to the end of 1994. This paper presents analyses of the mortality of Cogema workers monitored for external radiation exposure and the relation between their mortality and their cumulative external radiation dose. Workers were followed up for an average of 13 years. The percentage of subjects lost to follow up was less than 1%. during the follow-up period, 441 deaths occurred. The mean cumulative dose among the whole cohort was 19.4 mSv. As expected, the mortality of the cohort was lower than that of the French national population. The healthy worker effect is often observed in other nuclear workers studies. Part of the healthy worker effect is explained by a proportion of unemployed persons in general population, with a higher mortality rate. All causes S.M.R. increased with calendar period and duration of employment. this increase was not significant for all cancers S.M.R. by duration of employment. This could illustrate the decrease of the initial selection at employment with time. A significant increase in risk was observed for all cancers excluding leukemia mortality with increase of radiation dose in the 15-country study. Significant excess of leukemia by cumulative radiation exposure was observed in the 3-country study and was borderline significant in the 15-country study and in the UK National register for radiation workers study. A positive trend, not statistically significant, by level of external doses was observed in our study for all cancers and leukemia excluding chronic lymphatic leukemia mortality, but the analyses lack of statistical power. A significant trend was observed only for non-Hodgkin lymphoma death, but considering the large number of statistic tests computed, this result must be carefully interpreted. A borderline significant trend was observed for lung cancer death, a significant increase risk of lung cancer death

  11. Occupational Exposure to Diagnostic Radiology in Workers without Training in Radiation Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, Enrique; Enriquez, Jesus G. Franco

    2004-01-01

    The physicians, technicians, nurses, and others involved in radiation areas constitute the largest group of workers occupationally exposed to man-made sources of radiation. Personnel radiation exposure must be monitored for safety and regulatory considerations, this assessment may need to be made over a period of one month or several months. The purpose of this study was to carry out an exploratory survey of occupational exposures associated with diagnostic radiology. The personnel dosimeters used in this study were thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs). The reported number of monitored workers was 110 of different departments of radiology of the Mexican Republic without education in radiation safety, included general fluoscopic/radiographic imaging, computed tomography and mammography procedures. Physicians and X-ray technologist in diagnostic radiology receive an average annual effective dose of 2.9 mSv with range from 0.18 to 5.64 mSv. The average level of occupational exposures is generally similar to the global average level of natural radiation exposure. The annual global per capita effective dose due to natural radiation sources is 2.4 mSv (UNSCEAR 2000 Report). There is not significant difference between average occupational exposures and natural radiation exposure for p < 0.05

  12. Quantification of ETS exposure in hospitality workers who have never smoked.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Stefanie; Brückner, Ulrike; Nowak, Dennis; Radon, Katja

    2010-08-12

    Environmental Tobacco Smoke (ETS) was classified as human carcinogen (K1) by the German Research Council in 1998. According to epidemiological studies, the relative risk especially for lung cancer might be twice as high in persons who have never smoked but who are in the highest exposure category, for example hospitality workers. In order to implement these results in the German regulations on occupational illnesses, a valid method is needed to retrospectively assess the cumulative ETS exposure in the hospitality environment. A literature-based review was carried out to locate a method that can be used for the German hospitality sector. Studies assessing ETS exposure using biological markers (for example urinary cotinine, DNA adducts) or questionnaires were excluded. Biological markers are not considered relevant as they assess exposure only over the last hours, weeks or months. Self-reported exposure based on questionnaires also does not seem adequate for medico-legal purposes. Therefore, retrospective exposure assessment should be based on mathematical models to approximate past exposure. For this purpose a validated model developed by Repace and Lowrey was considered appropriate. It offers the possibility of retrospectively assessing exposure with existing parameters (such as environmental dimensions, average number of smokers, ventilation characteristics and duration of exposure). The relative risk of lung cancer can then be estimated based on the individual cumulative exposure of the worker. In conclusion, having adapted it to the German hospitality sector, an existing mathematical model appears to be capable of approximating the cumulative exposure. However, the level of uncertainty of these approximations has to be taken into account, especially for diseases with a long latency period such as lung cancer.

  13. Impact of windows and daylight exposure on overall health and sleep quality of office workers: a case-control pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubekri, Mohamed; Cheung, Ivy N; Reid, Kathryn J; Wang, Chia-Hui; Zee, Phyllis C

    2014-06-15

    This research examined the impact of daylight exposure on the health of office workers from the perspective of subjective well-being and sleep quality as well as actigraphy measures of light exposure, activity, and sleep-wake patterns. Participants (N = 49) included 27 workers working in windowless environments and 22 comparable workers in workplaces with significantly more daylight. Windowless environment is defined as one without any windows or one where workstations were far away from windows and without any exposure to daylight. Well-being of the office workers was measured by Short Form-36 (SF-36), while sleep quality was measured by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). In addition, a subset of participants (N = 21; 10 workers in windowless environments and 11 workers in workplaces with windows) had actigraphy recordings to measure light exposure, activity, and sleep-wake patterns. Workers in windowless environments reported poorer scores than their counterparts on two SF-36 dimensions--role limitation due to physical problems and vitality--as well as poorer overall sleep quality from the global PSQI score and the sleep disturbances component of the PSQI. Compared to the group without windows, workers with windows at the workplace had more light exposure during the workweek, a trend toward more physical activity, and longer sleep duration as measured by actigraphy. We suggest that architectural design of office environments should place more emphasis on sufficient daylight exposure of the workers in order to promote office workers' health and well-being.

  14. [Health surveillance of workers with prior exposure to asbestos. Application in the metallurgy/metal mechanical field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivolta, G; Della Foglia, M; Donelli, S; Riboldi, L

    2006-01-01

    To improve the health surveillance program for workers with a known previous exposure to asbestos in a big metallurgic-mechanical industry from Lombardy, the sources of risk and the different exposure levels hare been reconstructed based on specific jobs. The eligibility criteria and a specific work program including information and organization supports hare been established by a work group composed by health physicians, workers and industrial hygienists. The major goals of the program were: to listen and support each worker who perceives worries about his health status; to prevent, if possible, diseases, especially cancer, resulting from exposure; to document the existing injuries for legal compensation. The resulting actions consist of counselling; indication to follow an adequate life and work style; indication, based on specific request of worker, of sanitary checks of first or eventually second level.

  15. Exposure to hazardous workplace noise and use of hearing protection devices among US workers--NHANES, 1999-2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tak, Sangwoo; Davis, Rickie R; Calvert, Geoffrey M

    2009-05-01

    To estimate the prevalence of workplace noise exposure and use of hearing protection devices (HPDs) at noisy work, NIOSH analyzed 1999-2004 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). A total of 9,275 currently employed workers aged > or =16 years were included in the weighted analysis. Hazardous workplace noise exposure was defined as self-reported exposure to noise at their current job that was so loud that the respondent had to speak in a raised voice to be heard. Industry and occupation were determined based on the respondent's current place and type of work. Twenty-two million US workers (17%) reported exposure to hazardous workplace noise. The weighted prevalence of workplace noise exposure was highest for mining (76%, SE = 7.0) followed by lumber/wood product manufacturing (55%, SE = 2.5). High-risk occupations included repair and maintenance, motor vehicle operators, and construction trades. Overall, 34% of the estimated 22 million US workers reporting hazardous workplace exposure reported non-use of HPDs. The proportion of noise-exposed workers who reported non-use of HPDs was highest for healthcare and social services (73.7%, SE = 8.1), followed by educational services (55.5%). Hearing loss prevention and intervention programs should be targeted at those industries and occupations identified to have a high prevalence of workplace noise exposure and those industries with the highest proportion of noise-exposed workers who reported non-use of HPDs. Published 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Chronic psychological effects of exposure to mercury vapour among chlorine-alkali plant workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranjić, N; Sinanović, O; Jakubović, R

    2003-01-01

    Quantitative assessment of nervous system function is essential in characterising the nature and extent of impairment in individuals experiencing symptoms following work-place mercury vapour exposure. The purpose of this study was the application of standardised tests of behavioural, psychomotor and memory function to understand the neuropsychological effects of mercury in occupationally exposed chlorine-alkali plant workers. The study comprised 45 workers at a chlorine-alkali plant with the mean age of 39.36 +/- 5.94 years, who had been exposed to daily inhalation of mercury vapour over long-term employment of 16.06 +/- 4.29 years. The cumulative mercury index was 155.32 +/- 95.02 micrograms/g creatinine, the mean of urinary mercury concentrations on the first day of the study was 119.50 +/- 157.24 micrograms/g creatinine, and the mean of urinary mercury concentrations 120 days after cessation of exposure was 21.70 +/- 26.07 micrograms/g creatinine. The analysis included tests of behavioural, psychomotor and memory function. The behavioural test battery consisted of: Environmental Worry Scale (EWS), Minnesota Modified Personal Inventory (MMPI-2), Purdue standard 25 minute test, and adapted, 10 minutes test, Bender's Visual-Motor Gestalt test (BGT), and Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPQ). The data were compared to a control group of 32 not directly exposed workers. In the mercury vapour exposed workers with relatively high level exposure to inorganic mercury vapour (TWA/TLV = 0.12 mg/m3/0.025 mg/m3) we identified somatic depression-hypochondria symptoms with higher scores for scales: hysteria (P introvert behaviour (EPQ, MMPI-2). The cognitive disturbances in mercury-exposed workers were identified as: concentration difficulty, psychomotor, perceptual and motor coordination disturbances, and brain effects. We identified fine tremor of the hands in 34 out of 45 mercury-exposed workers (BGT). The results point to a relationship between the duration of mercury

  17. An influence of occupational exposure on level of chromosome aberrations in nuclear power plant workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Birute Griciene; Grazina Slapsyte

    2007-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Objective. The workers of Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant (INPP) receive the highest occupational ionising radiation doses in Lithuania. Their occupational exposure results mainly from external low LET gamma radiation. Some workers receive additional internal and neutron exposure. Though exposure doses are generally low and don't exceed the annual dose limit, the higher doses are obtained during outages. The aim of the present study was to analyse chromosome aberration frequencies in lymphocytes of INPP workers exposed to the different types of ionising radiation. Methods. The blood sampling of 52 INPP male workers was performed in 2004-2006. For 29 workers radiation exposure resulted from the external gamma rays only. Their mean annual dose averaged over the 3-year period prior blood sampling was 11.7±8.7 mSv. The mean cumulative dose - 197.7±174.7 mSv. 15 workers had an intake of gamma radionuclides ( 60 Co, 137 Cs), contributing to the doses less than 0.1 mSv. Their mean cumulative dose - 278.2±191.9 mSv. The mean annual dose averaged over the 3-year period prior blood sampling was 11.8±5.3 mSv. For 8 subjects neutron doses below 0.2 mSv were recorded. Their mean annual dose averaged over the 3-year period prior blood sampling was 7.0±2.9 mSv. The mean cumulative dose was 241.8±93.0 mSv. Heparinized venous blood samples were taken and cultures were initiated according to the standard procedures. Phytohaemagglutinin (7.8 μg/ml) stimulated cultures were incubated at 37degC for 72 hours in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 12% heat-inactivated newborn calf serum, 40 μg/ml gentamycin. Colchicine was added to the culture during the initiation at a final concentration of 0,25 μg/ml. The harvested lymphocytes were treated with hypotonic KCl (0,075 M) and then fixed in methanol-glacial acetic acid (3:1). Flame-dried slides were stained with Giemsa, coded and scored blind. Generally 500 first-division cells per individual were

  18. Minimizing exposure in nuclear medicine through optimum use of shielding devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, B.L.; King, S.H.; Erdman, M.C.; Miller, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    Exposure to radiation from nuclear medicine nuclides can be minimized through the use of various shielding devices. This paper reviews the dose reductions achieved through use of various syringe shields, lead aprons, leaded gloves, and several types of eyeglass lenses for 67 Ga, 99m Tc, 131 I and 201 Tl. The authors have found that combination of devices can best provide for minimizing doses

  19. High-frequency hearing loss, occupational noise exposure and hypertension: a cross-sectional study in male workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ta-Yuan; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Huang, Kuei-Hung; Chen, Ren-Yin; Lai, Jim-Shoung; Bao, Bo-Ying

    2011-04-25

    The association between occupational noise exposure and hypertension is inconsistent because of an exposure bias caused by outer-ear measurements of noise levels among workers. This study used hearing loss values (HLVs) measured at 4 kHz and 6 kHz in both ears as a biomarker to investigate the chronic effects of noise exposure on hypertension in 790 aircraft-manufacturing workers. Participants were divided into a high hearing loss (HL) group (n = 214; average HLVs ≥ 30 decibel [dB] at 4 kHz or 6 kHz bilaterally; 83.1 ± 4.9 A-weighted decibel [dBA]), a median HL group (n = 302; 15 ≤ average HLVs workers had 1.48-fold (95% confidence interval [95%CI] = 1.02-2.15; p = 0.040) and 1.46-fold (95%CI = 1.03-2.05; p = 0.031) higher risks of hypertension relative to the low HL workers. Employment duration was significantly and positively correlated with the risk of hypertension among workers with average HLVs ≥ 15 dB at 4 kHz (p hearing loss is a good biomarker of occupational noise exposure and that noise-induced hearing loss may be associated with the risk of hypertension.

  20. Radiation measurements in Egyptian pyramids and tombs -- occupational exposure of workers and the public

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigu, J; Hussein, Mohamed I; Hussein, A Z

    2000-02-01

    A radiation survey of seven archaeological sites within Egyptian pyramids and tombs has been conducted in the Saggara area. Measurements were made of radon ({sup 222}Rn) and its short-lived decay products (progeny), as well as thoron ({sup 220}Rn) progeny and {gamma}-radiation. The results of these measurements have been used to calculate the maximum annual effective dose (MAD) and other important occupational radiation exposure variables. It was found that for the limited time to which occupational workers and visitors were exposed, their respective MAD values were lower than that recommended by the regulatory agency (i.e., 20 mSv per year for occupational workers and 1 mSv in a year for the public). However, it is shown that if the exposure times for occupational workers were to increase to 'normal' working schedules their MAD would be exceeded at three archaeological sites. Implementation of improved ventilation practices is recommended in those sites to reduce the exposure to occupational workers were their working schedules to be significantly increased. It is also recommended that further monitoring be conducted in the future to verify these results.

  1. Radiation measurements in Egyptian pyramids and tombs -- occupational exposure of workers and the public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigu, J.; Hussein, Mohamed I.; Hussein, A.Z.

    2000-01-01

    A radiation survey of seven archaeological sites within Egyptian pyramids and tombs has been conducted in the Saggara area. Measurements were made of radon ( 222 Rn) and its short-lived decay products (progeny), as well as thoron ( 220 Rn) progeny and γ-radiation. The results of these measurements have been used to calculate the maximum annual effective dose (MAD) and other important occupational radiation exposure variables. It was found that for the limited time to which occupational workers and visitors were exposed, their respective MAD values were lower than that recommended by the regulatory agency (i.e., 20 mSv per year for occupational workers and 1 mSv in a year for the public). However, it is shown that if the exposure times for occupational workers were to increase to 'normal' working schedules their MAD would be exceeded at three archaeological sites. Implementation of improved ventilation practices is recommended in those sites to reduce the exposure to occupational workers were their working schedules to be significantly increased. It is also recommended that further monitoring be conducted in the future to verify these results

  2. Laboratory results of some biological measures in workers exposed to lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secchi, G.C.; Alessio, L.

    1974-12-01

    Erthrocyte ALA-dehydratase (ALAD) activity and blood lead values were studied in different groups of subjects not occupationally exposed to lead and compared with values for exposed workers. The results lead to the conclusion that measurement of ALAD activity is more useful in evaluating possible exposure of general population groups to minimal quantities of lead than in the surveillance of workers in the lead industries.

  3. Asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions among shipyard workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanc, P.D.; Golden, J.A.; Gamsu, G.; Aberle, D.R.; Gold, W.M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors studied the roentgenograms, pulmonary function tests, and physical findings of 294 shipyard workers to evaluate asbestos exposure-cigarette smoking interactions. Roentgenographic parenchymal opacities, decreased pulmonary diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide, decreased flow at low lung volume, rales, and clubbing were each significantly related to the number of years elapsed since first exposure to asbestos and cigarette smoking status when analyzed by logistic regression. A dose-dependent cigarette smoking response that was consistent with synergism was present only for parenchymal opacities and decreased flow at low lung volume. These findings suggest that decreased flow at low lung volume, possibly reflecting peribronchiolar fibrosis, may be a functional corollary to smoking-associated parenchymal roentgenographic opacities among some asbestos-exposed individuals

  4. A novel approach to estimating potential maximum heavy metal exposure to ship recycling yard workers in Alang, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshpande, Paritosh C.; Tilwankar, Atit K.; Asolekar, Shyam R.

    2012-01-01

    The 180 ship recycling yards located on Alang–Sosiya beach in the State of Gujarat on the west coast of India is the world's largest cluster engaged in dismantling. Yearly 350 ships have been dismantled (avg. 10,000 ton steel/ship) with the involvement of about 60,000 workers. Cutting and scrapping of plates or scraping of painted metal surfaces happens to be the commonly performed operation during ship breaking. The pollutants released from a typical plate-cutting operation can potentially either affect workers directly by contaminating the breathing zone (air pollution) or can potentially add pollution load into the intertidal zone and contaminate sediments when pollutants get emitted in the secondary working zone and gets subjected to tidal forces. There was a two-pronged purpose behind the mathematical modeling exercise performed in this study. First, to estimate the zone of influence up to which the effect of plume would extend. Second, to estimate the cumulative maximum concentration of heavy metals that can potentially occur in ambient atmosphere of a given yard. The cumulative maximum heavy metal concentration was predicted by the model to be between 113 μg/Nm 3 and 428 μg/Nm 3 (at 4 m/s and 1 m/s near-ground wind speeds, respectively). For example, centerline concentrations of lead (Pb) in the yard could be placed between 8 and 30 μg/Nm 3 . These estimates are much higher than the Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Pb (0.5 μg/Nm 3 ). This research has already become the critical science and technology inputs for formulation of policies for eco-friendly dismantling of ships, formulation of ideal procedure and corresponding health, safety, and environment provisions. The insights obtained from this research are also being used in developing appropriate technologies for minimizing exposure to workers and minimizing possibilities of causing heavy metal pollution in the intertidal zone of ship recycling yards in India. -- Highlights

  5. Exposure to field vs. storage wheat dust: different consequences on respiratory symptoms and immune response among grain workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Coralie; Wild, Pascal; Dorribo, Victor; Savova-Bianchi, Dessislava; Laboissière, Audrey; Pralong, Jacques A; Danuser, Brigitta; Krief, Peggy; Millon, Laurence; Reboux, Gabriel; Niculita-Hirzel, Hélène

    2018-05-26

    The aim of this study was to understand the differential acute effects of two distinct wheat-related dusts, such as field or stored wheat dust handling, on workers' health and how those effects evolved at 6 month intervals. Exposure, work-related symptoms, changes in lung function, and blood samples of 81 workers handling wheat and 61 controls were collected during the high exposure season and 6 months after. Specific IgG, IgE, and precipitins against 12 fungi isolated from wheat dust were titrated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, dissociation-enhanced lanthanide fluorescence immunoassay, and electrosyneresis. The level of fungi was determined in the workers' environment. Levels of exhaled fraction of nitrogen monoxide (F E NO) and total IgE were obtained. Exposure response associations were investigated by mixed logistic and linear regression models. The recent exposure to field wheat dust was associated with a higher prevalence for five of six self-reported airway symptoms and with a lower F E NO than those in the control population. Exposure to stored wheat dust was only associated with cough. No acute impact of exposure on respiratory function was observed. Exposure to field wheat dust led to workers' sensitization against the three field fungi Aureobasidum, Cryptococcus, and Phoma, although exposure to storage wheat dust was associated with tolerance. The level of Ig remained stable 6 months after exposure. The clinical picture of workers exposed to field or storage wheat dust differed. The systematic characterization of the aerosol microbial profile may help to understand the reasons for those differences.

  6. Assessment of Industrial Antimony Exposure and Immunologic Function for Workers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chin-Ching; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2017-06-26

    This study investigated antimony exposure among employees in industries in Taiwan and evaluated whether their immunologic markers were associated with antimony exposure. We recruited 91 male workers and 42 male office administrators from 2 glass manufacturing plants, 1 antimony trioxide manufacturing plants, and 2 engineering plastic manufacturing plants. Air samples were collected at worksites and administrative offices, and each participant provided specimens of urine, blood, and hair to assay antimony levels. We also determined white blood cells, lymphocyte, and monocyte, IgA, IgE, and IgG in blood specimens. The mean antimony concentration in the air measured at worksites was much higher in the antimony trioxide plant (2.51 ± 0.57 mg/m³) than in plastic plants (0.21 ± 0.06 mg/m³) and glass plants (0.14 ± 0.01 mg/m³). Antimony levels in blood, urine, and hair measured for participants were correlated with worksites and were higher in workers than in administrators. The mean serum IgG, IgA, and IgE levels were lower in workers than in administrators ( p industrial plants than for administrators. This study suggests serum IgG, IgA, and IgE levels are negatively associated with antimony exposure.

  7. Estimating the whole-body exposure annual dose of radiation workers of petroleum nuclear well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Yizong; Gao Jianzheng; Liu Wenhong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: By imitating experiment of radioactive sources being installed, to estimate the annual whole-body exposure dose of radiation workers of petroleum nuclear determining wells; Methods: To compre the values of the theory, imitating experiment and γ individual dose monitor calculations. Results: The three values measured above tally with one anather. Conclusion: The annual whole-body exposure doses of radiation workers of petroleum nuclear determining wells are no more than 5 mSv. (authors)

  8. Effect of daily noise exposure monitoring on annual rates of hearing loss in industrial workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabinowitz, Peter M; Galusha, Deron; Kirsche, Sharon R; Cullen, Mark R; Slade, Martin D; Dixon-Ernst, Christine

    2011-06-01

    Occupational noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is prevalent, yet evidence on the effectiveness of preventive interventions is lacking. The effectiveness of a new technology allowing workers to monitor daily at-ear noise exposure was analysed. Workers in the hearing conservation program of an aluminium smelter were recruited because of accelerated rates of hearing loss. The intervention consisted of daily monitoring of at-ear noise exposure and regular feedback on exposures from supervisors. The annual rate of change in high frequency hearing average at 2, 3 and 4 KHz before intervention (2000-2004) and 4 years after intervention (2006-2009) was determined. Annual rates of loss were compared between 78 intervention subjects and 234 controls in other company smelters matched for age, gender and high frequency hearing threshold level in 2005. Individuals monitoring daily noise exposure experienced on average no further worsening of high frequency hearing (average rate of hearing change at 2, 3 and 4 KHz = -0.5 dB/year). Matched controls also showed decelerating hearing loss, the difference in rates between the two groups being significant (p hearing loss showed a similar trend but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.06). Monitoring daily occupational noise exposure inside hearing protection with ongoing administrative feedback apparently reduces the risk of occupational NIHL in industrial workers. Longer follow-up of these workers will help determine the significance of the intervention effect. Intervention studies for the prevention of NIHL need to include appropriate control groups.

  9. Exposure to disturbing noise and risk of long-term sickness absence among office workers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Thomas; Kristiansen, Jesper; Vinsløv Hansen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the association between selfreported exposure to disturbing noise and risk of long-term sickness absence (LTSA) for more than two consecutive weeks among office workers. Methods LTSA was measured using register data that were linked to survey data from 2,883 office workers ...

  10. Radiation exposure during ESWL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCullough, D.L.; Van Swearingen, F.L.; Dyer, R.B.; Appel, B.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses exposure to ionizing radiation by the ESWL patient and for health professionals. Although the patient is exposed acutely to the highest level of radiation, the lithotripter team is chronically exposed to ionizing radiation at varying levels. Attention to detail is important in reducing that exposure. The operator should follow the guidelines set forth in this chapter in order to minimize exposure to the patient, himself or herself, and to all co-workers. At the present time, investigation of an alternative modality for stone localization, ultrasound, is being investigated

  11. Dust exposure and chronic respiratory symptoms among coffee curing workers in Kilimanjaro: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakwari, Gloria; Bråtveit, Magne; Mamuya, Simon H D; Moen, Bente E

    2011-11-24

    Coffee processing causes organic dust exposure which may lead to development of respiratory symptoms. Previous studies have mainly focused on workers involved in roasting coffee in importing countries. This study was carried out to determine total dust exposure and respiratory health of workers in Tanzanian primary coffee-processing factories. A cross sectional study was conducted among 79 workers in two coffee factories, and among 73 control workers in a beverage factory. Personal samples of total dust (n = 45 from the coffee factories and n = 19 from the control factory) were collected throughout the working shift from the breathing zone of the workers. A questionnaire with modified questions from the American Thoracic Society questionnaire was used to assess chronic respiratory symptoms. Differences between groups were tested by using independent t-tests and Chi square tests. Poisson Regression Model was used to estimate prevalence ratio, adjusting for age, smoking, presence of previous lung diseases and years worked in dusty factories. All participants were male. The coffee workers had a mean age of 40 years and were older than the controls (31 years). Personal total dust exposure in the coffee factories were significantly higher than in the control factory (geometric mean (GM) 1.23 mg/m3, geometric standard deviation (GSD) (0.8) vs. 0.21(2.4) mg/m3). Coffee workers had significantly higher prevalence than controls for cough with sputum (23% vs. 10%; Prevalence ratio (PR); 2.5, 95% CI 1.0-5.9) and chest tightness (27% vs. 13%; PR; 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.2). The prevalence of morning cough, cough with and without sputum for 4 days or more in a week was also higher among coffee workers than among controls. However, these differences were not statistically significant. Workers exposed to coffee dust reported more respiratory symptoms than did the controls. This might relate to their exposure to coffee dust. Interventions for reduction of dust levels and provision of

  12. A Case-Crossover Study of Heat Exposure and Injury Risk in Outdoor Agricultural Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spector, June T; Bonauto, David K; Sheppard, Lianne; Busch-Isaksen, Tania; Calkins, Miriam; Adams, Darrin; Lieblich, Max; Fenske, Richard A

    2016-01-01

    Recent research suggests that heat exposure may increase the risk of traumatic injuries. Published heat-related epidemiological studies have relied upon exposure data from individual weather stations. To evaluate the association between heat exposure and traumatic injuries in outdoor agricultural workers exposed to ambient heat and internal heat generated by physical activity using modeled ambient exposure data. A case-crossover study using time-stratified referent selection among 12,213 outdoor agricultural workers with new Washington State Fund workers' compensation traumatic injury claims between 2000 and 2012 was conducted. Maximum daily Humidex exposures, derived from modeled meteorological data, were assigned to latitudes and longitudes of injury locations on injury and referent dates. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of injury for a priori daily maximum Humidex categories. The mean of within-stratum (injury day and corresponding referent days) standard deviations of daily maximum Humidex was 4.8. The traumatic injury odds ratio was 1.14 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.22), 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.25), and 1.10 (95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.20) for daily maximum Humidex of 25-29, 30-33, and ≥34, respectively, compared to < 25, adjusted for self-reported duration of employment. Stronger associations were observed during cherry harvest duties in the June and July time period, compared to all duties over the entire study period. Agricultural workers laboring in warm conditions are at risk for heat-related traumatic injuries. Combined heat-related illness and injury prevention efforts should be considered in high-risk populations exposed to warm ambient conditions in the setting of physical exertion.

  13. A Case-Crossover Study of Heat Exposure and Injury Risk in Outdoor Agricultural Workers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June T Spector

    Full Text Available Recent research suggests that heat exposure may increase the risk of traumatic injuries. Published heat-related epidemiological studies have relied upon exposure data from individual weather stations.To evaluate the association between heat exposure and traumatic injuries in outdoor agricultural workers exposed to ambient heat and internal heat generated by physical activity using modeled ambient exposure data.A case-crossover study using time-stratified referent selection among 12,213 outdoor agricultural workers with new Washington State Fund workers' compensation traumatic injury claims between 2000 and 2012 was conducted. Maximum daily Humidex exposures, derived from modeled meteorological data, were assigned to latitudes and longitudes of injury locations on injury and referent dates. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios of injury for a priori daily maximum Humidex categories.The mean of within-stratum (injury day and corresponding referent days standard deviations of daily maximum Humidex was 4.8. The traumatic injury odds ratio was 1.14 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.22, 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.06, 1.25, and 1.10 (95% confidence interval 1.01, 1.20 for daily maximum Humidex of 25-29, 30-33, and ≥34, respectively, compared to < 25, adjusted for self-reported duration of employment. Stronger associations were observed during cherry harvest duties in the June and July time period, compared to all duties over the entire study period.Agricultural workers laboring in warm conditions are at risk for heat-related traumatic injuries. Combined heat-related illness and injury prevention efforts should be considered in high-risk populations exposed to warm ambient conditions in the setting of physical exertion.

  14. Trade-offs between worker risk and public risk during remediation at DOE sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam, B.N.; Morris, J.; Blaylock, B.; Travis, C.

    1995-01-01

    Within the next 30 years, the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration Program will be responsible for remediating thousands of waste sites across the DOE complex. A major concern during remediation will be the protection of thousands of workers engaged in the remediation. In addition to well know safety hazards associated with conventional construction operations, remedial workers at DOE will encounter radiation and chemical exposures from radioactive, hazardous, and mixed waste. Although historically represented as minimal due to a paucity of data related to worker exposures during remediation, potential worker health risk is an important factor that must be taken into account in the selection of remedial strategies, and the potential risk reduction offered by a remedial strategy must be weighed against the potential worker risk incurred during its implementation. Analysis has shown a trend that the worker risk incurred outweighs,the benefits of risk reduction to the public

  15. Monitoring OH-PCBs in PCB transport worker's urine as a non-invasive exposure assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Yuki; Suzuki, Motoharu; Matsumura, Chisato; Okuno, Toshihiro; Tsurukawa, Masahiro; Fujimori, Kazuo; Kannan, Narayanan; Weber, Roland; Nakano, Takeshi

    2018-04-14

    In this study, we analyzed hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OH-PCBs) in urine of both PCB transport workers and PCB researchers. A method to monitor OH-PCB in urine was developed. Urine was solid-phase extracted with 0.1% ammonia/ methanol (v/v) and glucuronic acid/sulfate conjugates and then decomposed using β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase. After alkaline digestion/derivatization, the concentration of OH-PCBs was determined by HRGC/HRMS-SIM. In the first sampling campaign, the worker's OH-PCB levels increased several fold after the PCB waste transportation work, indicating exposure to PCBs. The concentration of OH-PCBs in PCB transport workers' urine (0.55~11 μg/g creatinine (Cre)) was higher than in PCB researchers' urine (PCB storage area. In the second sampling, after recommended PCB exposure reduction measures had been enacted, the worker's PCB levels did not increase during handling of PCB equipment. This suggests that applied safety measures improved the situation. Hydroxylated trichlorobiphenyls (OH-TrCBs) were identified as a major homolog of OH-PCBs in urine. Also, hydroxylated tetrachlorobiphenyls (OH-TeCBs) to hydroxylated hexachlorobiphenyls (OH-HxCBs) were detected. For the sum of ten selected major indicators, a strong correlation to total OH-PCBs were found and these can possibly be used as non-invasive biomarkers of PCB exposure in workers managing PCB capacitors and transformer oils. We suggest that monitoring of OH-PCBs in PCB management projects could be considered a non-invasive way to detect exposure. It could also be used as a tool to assess and improve PCB management. This is highly relevant considering the fact that in the next 10 years, approx. 14 million tons of PCB waste need to be managed. Also, the selected populations could be screened to assess whether exposure at work, school, or home has taken place.

  16. Noise exposure and hearing impairment among Chinese restaurant workers and entertainment employees in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Xiang Qian; Yu, Ignatius Tak Sun; Au, Dennis Kin Kwok; Chiu, Yuk Lan; Wong, Claudie Chiu Yi; Wong, Tze Wai

    2013-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a major concern in the non-manufacturing industries. This study aimed to investigate the occupational noise exposure and the NIHL among Chinese restaurant workers and entertainment employees working in the service industry in Hong Kong. This cross-sectional survey involved a total of 1,670 participants. Among them, 937 were randomly selected from the workers of Chinese restaurants and 733 were selected from workers in three entertainment sectors: radio and television stations; cultural performance halls or auditoria of the Leisure and Cultural Services Department (LCSD); and karaoke bars. Noise exposure levels were measured in the sampled restaurants and entertainment sectors. Each participant received an audiometric screening test. Those who were found to have abnormalities were required to take another diagnostic test in the health center. The "Klockhoff digit" method was used to classify NIHL in the present study. The main source of noise inside restaurants was the stoves. The mean hearing thresholds showed a typical dip at 3 to 6 KHz and a substantial proportion (23.7%) of the workers fulfilled the criteria for presumptive NIHL. For entertainment sectors, employees in radio and television stations generally had higher exposure levels than those in the halls or auditoria of the LCSD and karaoke bars. The mean hearing thresholds showed a typical dip at 6 KHz and a substantial proportion of the employees fulfilled the criteria for presumptive NIHL (38.6%, 95%CI: 35.1-42.1%). Being male, older, and having longer service and daily alcohol consumption were associated with noise-induced hearing impairment both in restaurant workers and entertainment employees. Excessive noise exposure is common in the Chinese restaurant and entertainment industries and a substantial proportion of restaurant workers and entertainment employees suffer from NIHL. Comprehensive hearing conservation programs should be introduced to the service industry

  17. Occupational noise exposure and hearing defects among sawmill workers in the south of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thepaksorn, Phayong; Koizumi, Akio; Harada, Kouji; Siriwong, Wattasit; Neitzel, Richard L

    2018-01-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate occupational noise exposure and hearing defects among sawmill workers in the south of Thailand. Seven hundred sawmill workers participated, of which 335 (47.9%) were male. The mean age of the sawmill workers was 33.5 years (SD 10.2), and more than 60% were workers had less than 5 years of work experience. Only about one in four workers (25%) had been trained in use of personal protective equipment (PPE), and half of the participants never or rarely wore PPE while working. The prevalence rate of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) was 22.8% (N = 42). Male workers had significantly higher risk than female workers (odds ratio [OR] = 2.21). Workers aged older than 25 years had significantly higher risks for NIHL (OR = 3.51-12.42) than workers younger than 25 years. Sawing workers had higher risk for NIHL than office workers (OR = 3.07).

  18. Personal exposures to airborne metals in London taxi drivers and office workers in 1995 and 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, G.D.; Lynam, D.R. [Air Conservation Department, Ethyl Corporation, 330 South Fourth Street, Richmond, VA (United States); Harrison, R.M. [The University of Birmingham, Environmental Health, School of Chemistry, Edgbaston, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    1999-09-01

    In 1995, a petroleum marketer introduced a diesel fuel additive in the UK containing Mn as MMT (methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl). A small study of personal exposures to airborne Mn in London was conducted before and after introduction of the additive to identify any major impact of the additive on exposures. In 1995, personal exposures to Mn were measured in two groups, taxi drivers and office workers (10 subjects per group) for two consecutive 7-day periods. A similar study was carried out in 1996 to determine if exposures had changed. Samples were also analyzed for Ca, Al, Mg and Pb. In 1996, exposures to aerosol mass as total suspended particulates (TSP) and PM{sub 2.5} were measured in addition to the metals. Manganese exposures in this cohort did not increase as a result of introduction of the additive. However, a significant source of Mn exposure was discovered during the conduct of these tests. The mean exposure to Mn was higher among the office workers in both years than that of the taxi drivers. This was due to the fact that approximately half the office workers commuted via the underground railway system where airborne dust and metal concentrations are significantly elevated over those in the general environment. Similar results have been noted in other cities having underground rail systems. Exposure to Mn, Pb, Ca, and Mg were not significantly different between the 2 years. Taxi drivers had higher exposures than office workers to Mg and Pb in both years. Commuting via the underground also had a significant impact on exposures to TSP, PM{sub 2.5}, Al, and Ca, but had little effect on exposures to Mg. The aerosol in the underground was particularly enriched in Mn, approximately 10-fold, when compared to the aerosol in the general environment. There are several possible sources for this Mn, including mechanical wear of the steel wheels on the steel rails, vaporization of metal from sparking of the third rail, or brake wear.

  19. Constructing Predictive Estimates for Worker Exposure to Radioactivity During Decommissioning: Analysis of Completed Decommissioning Projects - Master Thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dettmers, Dana Lee; Eide, Steven Arvid

    2002-10-01

    An analysis of completed decommissioning projects is used to construct predictive estimates for worker exposure to radioactivity during decommissioning activities. The preferred organizational method for the completed decommissioning project data is to divide the data by type of facility, whether decommissioning was performed on part of the facility or the complete facility, and the level of radiation within the facility prior to decommissioning (low, medium, or high). Additional data analysis shows that there is not a downward trend in worker exposure data over time. Also, the use of a standard estimate for worker exposure to radioactivity may be a best estimate for low complete storage, high partial storage, and medium reactor facilities; a conservative estimate for some low level of facility radiation facilities (reactor complete, research complete, pits/ponds, other), medium partial process facilities, and high complete research facilities; and an underestimate for the remaining facilities. Limited data are available to compare different decommissioning alternatives, so the available data are reported and no conclusions can been drawn. It is recommended that all DOE sites and the NRC use a similar method to document worker hours, worker exposure to radiation (person-rem), and standard industrial accidents, injuries, and deaths for all completed decommissioning activities.

  20. Young worker safety in construction: do family ties and workgroup size affect hazard exposures and safety practices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauscher, Kimberly J; Myers, Douglas J; Runyan, Carol W; Schulman, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how social aspects of the work environment influence exposures or safety practices affecting young construction workers. Our objective was to investigate whether working on a construction site with a small number of workers (≤10 vs. 11-50) or having a family-firm connection (working in a family-owned firm or one in which a family member also works) impacts hazard exposures and safety practices. Participants included 187 North Carolina construction workers 14 to 17 years old who were surveyed about their jobs. We conducted stratified analyses using cross-tabulations and chi-square statistics to measure associations between workgroup size (i.e., the total number of workers on a jobsite) and family-firm connections (yes/no) and hazard exposures (e.g., saws) and safety practices (e.g., supervision). Having a family-firm connection was associated with fewer hazard exposures and greater safety practices. Youth who worked on jobsites with a larger workgroup (11-50 workers) reported more hazards but also more safety practices. Family-firm connections, in particular, may have a protective effect for youth in construction. Even though the statistical significance of our findings on workgroup size was limited in places, the pattern of differences found suggest that further research in this area is warranted.

  1. Radon exposure, chromosomal aberrations, and genetic polymorphisms in selected Slovak cave workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musak, L.; Pec, M.; Vicanova, M.; Vodicka, P.; Hanova, M.; Buchancova, J.; Moravcikova, K.; Klimentova, G.; Vodickova, L.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of work was genotoxic risk assessment of the Slovak show cave workers employed by the Slovak Caves Administration in Liptovsky Mikulas. They are guides or administrators of the four Slovak show caves: Vazecka, Demanovska, Bystrianska, and Harmanecka. We examined 51 workers exposed to radon, with average age 35.64 years ± 6.63 (SD) and average exposition time 9.78 years ± 6.27 (SD). They are 43 men (i.e. 84.31 %) and 9 women (i.e. 15.69 %). The control group consisted of 32 healthy workers from Faculty Hospital in Martin. The workers were not exposed to any genotoxic agents. The average age is 31.84 years ± 5.84(SD). From every subject we evaluated 100 mitosis, i.e. 5100 mitosis from exposed workers and 3200 mitosis from control subjects. In exposed group we found in 111 cells chromosomal aberrations, this present 2.18 % Ab.c. ± 0.19 (SEM), and in control 1 st group 1.53 % ± 0.16 (SEM). There are 106 breaks (95.50%), and 5 exchanges (4.50%) on chromosomes. The highest number of Ab.c. we detected in workers of Vazecka (2.63 % Ab.c) and Bystrianska (2.00 % Ab.c.) caves. There is a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the mean number of Ab.c. in workers of cave Vazecka as compared to control. In 15 cases (i.e. 28.30 %) we found increase or high exposure to genotoxic agents, we found any difference between sex, and any dependence of the number of Ab.c. on age and time of exposure. The Vazecka cave workers showed three times higher mean effective doses all the year round (milliSievert) than workers additional caves. The measured values of radiation in the caves and mines exceeded the permissible limits and Regional Hygienist of the Central Slovakia declared in 1981 the risk zones and, at the same time, the monitoring of working atmosphere was initiated. Our evaluations referred to certain exposition of this carcinogen in cave workers too. The essence of prevention is based in the lowering of ionizing radiation and improvement of the sanitary

  2. Compliation of summary statistics for radiation worker exposure for the 200 Areas: 1978--1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides estimates of average annual radiation worker exposures for the 200 Areas of the Hanford Site for various facilities. The period of exposures extends from calendar year 1978 through 1993. These estimates were extracted from annual dosimetry reports

  3. [Study of work accidents related to human body fluids exposure among health workers at a university hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsamo, Ana Cristina; Felli, Vanda Elisa Andres

    2006-01-01

    This descriptive and exploratory study from a quantitative approach aimed to characterize workers who were victims of work accidents related to human body fluids exposure and to evaluate the accident victim care protocol. The population consisted of 48 workers who were victims of work accidents involving exposure to human body fluids, from July 2000 to June 2001. Data were collected through a form and interviews. Results showed that nursing workers presented higher accident risk levels and that 87.50% involved piercing and cutting material, such as needles and butterflies (70%). As to the accident-related situation/activity, the workers indicated that 25% were due to an "inadequate act during the procedure"; 19.64% mentioned that "it happened" and 29.17% answered that they did not have any suggestion. This study provided important tools to review and elaborate strategies to prevent accidents involving exposure to human body fluids.

  4. [Estimation of the excess of lung cancer mortality risk associated to environmental tobacco smoke exposure of hospitality workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, M José; Nebot, Manel; Juárez, Olga; Ariza, Carles; Salles, Joan; Serrahima, Eulàlia

    2006-01-14

    To estimate the excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with environmental tobacco (ETS) smoke exposure among hospitality workers. The estimation was done using objective measures in several hospitality settings in Barcelona. Vapour phase nicotine was measured in several hospitality settings. These measurements were used to estimate the excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with ETS exposure for a 40 year working life, using the formula developed by Repace and Lowrey. Excess lung cancer mortality risk associated with ETS exposure was higher than 145 deaths per 100,000 workers in all places studied, except for cafeterias in hospitals, where excess lung cancer mortality risk was 22 per 100,000. In discoteques, for comparison, excess lung cancer mortality risk is 1,733 deaths per 100,000 workers. Hospitality workers are exposed to ETS levels related to a very high excess lung cancer mortality risk. These data confirm that ETS control measures are needed to protect hospital workers.

  5. Investigation of the effect of occupational noise exposure on blood pressure and heart rate of steel industry workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanian, Zahra; Rostami, Reza; Hasanzadeh, Jafar; Hashemi, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of noise exposure on blood pressure and heart rate of steel industry workers. In the present cross-sectional study, 50 workers were selected from a steel company in Fars province, Iran, and exposed to 85, 95, and 105 dB noise levels for 5 minutes. The participants' blood pressure and heart rate were measured using Beurer BC16 pulse meter both before and after the exposure. The study results showed no significant difference in blood pressure and heart rate before and after the exposure. However, the workers' systolic blood pressure had increased compared to before the exposure; of course, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Besides, although the subjects' heart rate had reduced in comparison to before the exposure, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). No significant change was observed in blood pressure and heart rate after acute exposure to 85, 95, and 105 dB noise levels.

  6. Excessive Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke among Hospitality Workers in Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Navas-Acien

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the levels of secondhand smoke (SHS exposure of men and women in public places in Kyrgyzstan. This cross-sectional study involved 10 bars and restaurants in Bishkek the capital city of Kyrgyzstan. Smoking was allowed in all establishments. Median (interquartile range air nicotine concentrations were 6.82 (2.89, 8.86 μg/m3. Employees were asked about their smoking history and exposure to SHS at work. Employees were exposed to SHS for mean (SD 13.5 (3.6 hours a day and 5.8 (1.4 days a week. Women were exposed to more hours of SHS at work compared to men. Hospitality workers are exposed to excessive amounts of SHS from customers. Legislation to ban smoking in public places including bars and restaurants is urgently needed to protect workers and patrons from the harmful effects of SHS.

  7. Excessive Exposure to Secondhand Tobacco Smoke among Hospitality Workers in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnikov, Denis; Brimkulov, Nurlan; Shahrir, Shahida; Breysse, Patrick; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure of men and women in public places in Kyrgyzstan. This cross-sectional study involved 10 bars and restaurants in Bishkek the capital city of Kyrgyzstan. Smoking was allowed in all establishments. Median (interquartile range) air nicotine concentrations were 6.82 (2.89, 8.86) μg/m3. Employees were asked about their smoking history and exposure to SHS at work. Employees were exposed to SHS for mean (SD) 13.5 (3.6) hours a day and 5.8 (1.4) days a week. Women were exposed to more hours of SHS at work compared to men. Hospitality workers are exposed to excessive amounts of SHS from customers. Legislation to ban smoking in public places including bars and restaurants is urgently needed to protect workers and patrons from the harmful effects of SHS. PMID:20617012

  8. Bivariate Left-Censored Bayesian Model for Predicting Exposure: Preliminary Analysis of Worker Exposure during the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Caroline; Banerjee, Sudipto; Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Stenzel, Mark R; Sandler, Dale P; Blair, Aaron; Engel, Lawrence S; Kwok, Richard K; Stewart, Patricia A

    2017-01-01

    In April 2010, the Deepwater Horizon oil rig caught fire and exploded, releasing almost 5 million barrels of oil into the Gulf of Mexico over the ensuing 3 months. Thousands of oil spill workers participated in the spill response and clean-up efforts. The GuLF STUDY being conducted by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences is an epidemiological study to investigate potential adverse health effects among these oil spill clean-up workers. Many volatile chemicals were released from the oil into the air, including total hydrocarbons (THC), which is a composite of the volatile components of oil including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, and hexane (BTEXH). Our goal is to estimate exposure levels to these toxic chemicals for groups of oil spill workers in the study (hereafter called exposure groups, EGs) with likely comparable exposure distributions. A large number of air measurements were collected, but many EGs are characterized by datasets with a large percentage of censored measurements (below the analytic methods' limits of detection) and/or a limited number of measurements. We use THC for which there was less censoring to develop predictive linear models for specific BTEXH air exposures with higher degrees of censoring. We present a novel Bayesian hierarchical linear model that allows us to predict, for different EGs simultaneously, exposure levels of a second chemical while accounting for censoring in both THC and the chemical of interest. We illustrate the methodology by estimating exposure levels for several EGs on the Development Driller III, a rig vessel charged with drilling one of the relief wells. The model provided credible estimates in this example for geometric means, arithmetic means, variances, correlations, and regression coefficients for each group. This approach should be considered when estimating exposures in situations when multiple chemicals are correlated and have varying degrees of censoring. © The Author 2017

  9. High levels of sound pressure: acoustic reflex thresholds and auditory complaints of workers with noise exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Scalli Mathias Duarte

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The clinical evaluation of subjects with occupational noise exposure has been difficult due to the discrepancy between auditory complaints and auditory test results. This study aimed to evaluate the contralateral acoustic reflex thresholds of workers exposed to high levels of noise, and to compare these results to the subjects' auditory complaints.METHODS: This clinical retrospective study evaluated 364 workers between 1998 and 2005; their contralateral acoustic reflexes were compared to auditory complaints, age, and noise exposure time by chi-squared, Fisher's, and Spearman's tests.RESULTS: The workers' age ranged from 18 to 50 years (mean = 39.6, and noise exposure time from one to 38 years (mean = 17.3. We found that 15.1% (55 of the workers had bilateral hearing loss, 38.5% (140 had bilateral tinnitus, 52.8% (192 had abnormal sensitivity to loud sounds, and 47.2% (172 had speech recognition impairment. The variables hearing loss, speech recognition impairment, tinnitus, age group, and noise exposure time did not show relationship with acoustic reflex thresholds; however, all complaints demonstrated a statistically significant relationship with Metz recruitment at 3000 and 4000 Hz bilaterally.CONCLUSION: There was no significance relationship between auditory complaints and acoustic reflexes.

  10. Concern over radiation exposure and psychological distress among rescue workers following the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuoka Yutaka

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background On March 11, 2011, the Great East Japan Earthquake and tsunami that followed caused severe damage along Japans northeastern coastline and to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. To date, there are few reports specifically examining psychological distress in rescue workers in Japan. Moreover, it is unclear to what extent concern over radiation exposure has caused psychological distress to such workers deployed in the disaster area. Methods One month after the disaster, 424 of 1816 (24% disaster medical assistance team workers deployed to the disaster area were assessed. Concern over radiation exposure was evaluated by a single self-reported question. General psychological distress was assessed with the Kessler 6 scale (K6, depressive symptoms with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D, fear and sense of helplessness with the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory (PDI, and posttraumatic stress symptoms with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R. Results Radiation exposure was a concern for 39 (9.2% respondents. Concern over radiation exposure was significantly associated with higher scores on the K6, CES-D, PDI, and IES-R. After controlling for age, occupation, disaster operation experience, duration of time spent watching earthquake news, and past history of psychiatric illness, these associations remained significant in men, but did not remain significant in women for the CES-D and PDI scores. Conclusion The findings suggest that concern over radiation exposure was strongly associated with psychological distress. Reliable, accurate information on radiation exposure might reduce deployment-related distress in disaster rescue workers.

  11. Solar UV exposure among outdoor workers in Denmark measured with personal UV-B dosimeters: technical and practical feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandahl, Kasper; Mortensen, Ole Steen; Sherman, David Zim; Køster, Brian; Lund, Paul-Anker; Ibler, Kristina Sophie; Eriksen, Paul

    2017-10-10

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation is a well-known cause of skin cancer. This is problematic for outdoor workers. In Denmark alone, occupational skin cancer poses a significant health and safety risk for around 400,000 outdoor workers. Objective measures of solar ultraviolet radiation exposure are needed to help resolve this problem. This can be done using personal ultraviolet radiation dosimeters. We consider technical and practical feasibility of measuring individual solar ultraviolet exposure at work and leisure in professions with different á priori temporal high-level outdoor worktime, using aluminium gallium nitride (AlGaN) photodiode detector based personal UV-B dosimeters. Essential technical specifications including the spectral and angular responsivity of the dosimeters are described and pre-campaign dosimeter calibration applicability is verified. The scale and conduct of dosimeter deployment and campaign in-field measurements including failures and shortcomings affecting overall data collection are presented. Nationwide measurements for more than three hundred and fifty workers from several different professions were collected in the summer of 2016. On average, each worker's exposure was measured for a 2-week period, which included both work and leisure. Data samples of exposure at work during a Midsummer day show differences across professions. A construction worker received high-level occupational UV exposure most of the working day, except during lunch hour, accumulating to 5.1 SED. A postal service worker was exposed intermittently around noon and in the afternoon, preceded by no exposure forenoon when packing mail, accumulating to 1.6 SED. A crane fitter was exposed only during lunch hour, accumulating to 0.7 SED. These findings are in line with our specialist knowledge as occupational physicians. Large-scale use of personal UV-B dosimeters for measurement of solar ultraviolet radiation exposure at work and leisure in Denmark is indeed

  12. Retrospective internal radiation exposure assessment in occupational epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neton, J.W.; Flora, J.T.; Spitz, H.B.; Taulbee, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of workers at U.S. Department of Energy facilities are being conducted by the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to evaluate the health risk associated with exposure to sources of external and internal ionizing radiation. While exposure to external sources of radiation can be estimated from personal dosimeter data, reconstruction of exposure due to internally deposited radioactivity is more challenging because bioassay monitoring data is frequently less complete. Although comprehensive monitoring was provided for workers with the highest internal exposures, the majority of workers were monitored relatively infrequently. This monitoring was conducted to demonstrate compliance with regulations rather than to evaluate exposure for use in epidemiologic studies. Attributes of past internal monitoring programs that challenge accurate exposure assessment include: incomplete characterization of the workplace source term; a lack of timely measurements; insensitive and/or nonspecific bioassay measurements; and the presence of censored data. In spite of these limitations, many facilities have collected a large amount of worker and workplace monitoring information that can be used to evaluate internal exposure while minimizing worker misclassification. This paper describes a systematic approach for using the available worker and workplace monitoring data that can lead to either a qualitative or quantitative retrospective assessment of internal exposures. Various aspects of data analysis will be presented, including the evaluation of minimum detectable dose, the treatment of censored data, and the use of combinations of bioassay and workplace data to characterize exposures. Examples of these techniques applied to a cohort study involving chronic exposure scenarios to uranium are provided. A strategy for expressing exposure or dose in fundamental, unweighted units related to the quantity of radiation delivered to an organ will also

  13. Total and respirable dust exposures among carpenters and demolition workers during indoor work in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeskov, Lilli; Hanskov, Dorte Jessing Agerby; Brauer, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Within the construction industry the risk of lung disorders depends on the specific professions probably due to variations in the levels of dust exposure, and with dust levels depending on the work task and job function. We do not know the extent of exposure in the different professions...... was 3.90 (95 % confidence interval 1.13-13.5) mg/m(3). Dust exposure varied depending on work task for both professions. The dustiest work occurred during demolition, especially when it was done manually. Only few workers used personal respiratory protection and only while performing the dustiest work...... or the variation between the different work tasks. The purpose of this study was therefore to assess if there were differences in dust exposure between carpenters and demolition workers who were expected to have low and high dust exposure, respectively. METHODS: Through interviews of key persons...

  14. Mortality study of Los Alamos workers with higher exposures to plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelz, G.L.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Healy, J.W.; McInroy, J.F.; Tietjen, G.L.

    1983-01-01

    A group of white male workers with the highest internal depositions of plutonium at the Los Alamos National Laboratory was selected in 1974 for a study of mortality. This group of 224 persons includes all those with an estimated deposition (in 1974) of 10 nanocuries or more of plutonium, principally 239 Pu but also in some cases 238 Pu. Follow-up of these workers is 100% complete through 1980. Smoking histories were obtained on all persons. Exposure histories for external radiation and plutonium were reviewed for each subject. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated using rates for white males in the United States population, adjusted for age and year of death. SMRs are low for all causes of death (56; 95% CI 40, 75) or for all malignant neoplasms (54; 95% CI 23,106). Cancers of interest for plutonium exposures, including cancers of bone, lung, liver, and bone marrow/lymphatic systems, were infrequent or absent. The absence of a detectable excess of cancer deaths is consistent with the low calculated risk to these workers using current radiation risk coefficients. An alternate theory that suggests much higher risk of lung cancer due to synergistic effects of smoking and inhaled insoluble plutonium particles is not supported by this study

  15. Cause-specific mortality in British coal workers and exposure to respirable dust and quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, B.G.; MacCalman, L. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    In the 1950s the Pneumoconiosis Field Research (PFR) programme was set up to study the health of British coal workers. Studies included regular health surveys, an intensive characterisation of workers' individual exposures, and entry to a cohort followed up to the present for cause-specific mortality. This study reports on analyses of cause-specific mortality in a cohort of almost 18 000 men from 10 British collieries. External analyses used standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), comparing observed mortality with reference rates from the regions in which the collieries were situated. Causes investigated include lung and stomach cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular endpoints. Internal analyses used Cox regression models with time-dependent exposures adjusting for the confounding effects of age, smoking, cohort entry date and regional differences in population mortality rates. Several causes showed evidence of a healthy worker effect early in the follow-up, with a deficit in the SMR diminishing over time. For most of the causes there was a significant excess in the latter part of follow-up. Internal analyses found evidence of an association between increased risks of lung cancer and increased quartz exposure, particularly at a lag of 15 years. Risks of mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease showed increases with increased exposure to respirable dust. This paper adds to the evidence on the long-term effects of exposure to coalmine dust on mortality from respiratory diseases.

  16. Cause-specific mortality in British coal workers and exposure to respirable dust and quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brian G Miller; Laura MacCalman [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-15

    In the 1950s the Pneumoconiosis Field Research (PFR) programme was set up to study the health of British coal workers. Studies included regular health surveys, an intensive characterisation of workers' individual exposures, and entry to a cohort followed up to the present for cause-specific mortality. This study reports on analyses of cause-specific mortality in a cohort of almost 18?000 men from 10 British collieries. External analyses used standardised mortality ratios (SMRs), comparing observed mortality with reference rates from the regions in which the collieries were situated. Causes investigated include lung and stomach cancers, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cardiovascular endpoints. Internal analyses used Cox regression models with time-dependent exposures adjusting for the confounding effects of age, smoking, cohort entry date and regional differences in population mortality rates. Several causes showed evidence of a healthy worker effect early in the follow-up, with a deficit in the SMR diminishing over time. For most of the causes there was a significant excess in the latter part of follow-up. Internal analyses found evidence of an association between increased risks of lung cancer and increased quartz exposure, particularly at a lag of 15 years. Risks of mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease showed increases with increased exposure to respirable dust. This paper adds to the evidence on the long-term effects of exposure to coalmine dust on mortality from respiratory diseases.

  17. Effect of Exposure to a Mixture of Organic Solvents on Hearing Thresholds in Petrochemical Industry Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Loukzadeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hearing loss is one of the most common occupational diseases. In most workplaces, workers are exposed to noise and solvents simultaneously, so the potential risk of hearing loss due to solvents may be attributed to noise.  In this study we aimed to assess the effect of exposure to mixed aromatic solvents on hearing in the absence of exposure to hazardous noise.   Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, 99 workers from the petrochemical industry with exposure to a mixture of organic solvents whose noise exposure was lower than 85 dBA were compared with 100 un-exposed controls. After measuring sound pressure level and mean concentration of each solvent in the workplace, pure-tone-audiometry was performed and the two groups were compared in terms of high-frequency and low-frequency hearing loss. T-tests and Chi-square tests were used to compare the two groups.   Results: The mean hearing threshold at all frequencies among petrochemical workers was normal (below 25 dB. We did not observe any significant association between solvent exposure and high-frequency or low-frequency hearing loss.   Conclusion:  This study showed that temporary exposure (less than 4 years to a mixture of organic solvents, without exposure to noise, does not affect workers’ hearing threshold in audiometry tests.

  18. Evaluating the working conditions and exposure to abuse of Filipino home care workers in Israel: characteristics and clinical correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat

    2009-02-01

    Filipino home care workers provide the majority of around-the-clock personal care to frail individuals in Israel. To date, the working conditions as well as exposure to work-related abuse of Filipino home care workers in Israel have not been evaluated. A survey of 245 Filipino home care workers was conducted to evaluate their working conditions and exposure to abuse as well as their clinical correlates (e.g. burnout as measures by the Maslach Burnout Inventory). This was integrated with findings from interviews with Filipino home care workers, social workers, and family members of care recipients cared by Filipino home care workers. A majority of the workers (88%) reported paying large amounts of money in order to work in the country. Overall, 43% reported being asked to do more than was specified in their job description, 41% reported being verbally abused, and 40% reported not receiving adequate food. Almost half reported work-related injuries. The most consistent predictor of burnout (as measured by the Emotional Exhaustion and Depersonalization scales) was exposure to work-related abuse. Interview data identified system and societal barriers that prevent workers from using the legal system for their protection. The present study calls for further supervision of this caregiving arrangement. Psychoeducational programs directed towards all stakeholders (e.g. social workers, home care workers, care recipients, and family members of care recipients) are needed.

  19. Occupational Hazard Exposures and Depressive Symptoms of Pregnant Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Sherri S; Lee, Chien-Nan; Wu, Ying-Hsuan; Tu, Nai-Chi; Guo, Yue-Leon; Chen, Pau-Chung; Chen, Chi-Hsien

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence of exposure to occupational hazards and depressive mood with associated underlying risk factors among pregnant workers. Women at 12 weeks of gestation (n = 172) were recruited during regular prenatal screening. Data were obtained via questionnaires that explored job details and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. The most commonly encountered hazard was prolonged standing. The majority of women reported that the workplace provided no information on the safety or rights of pregnant women, but those exposed to at least four hazards had more access to such services (P workplace support were significantly associated with possible antenatal depressive symptoms. Pregnant workers are exposed to substantial levels of occupational hazards and may experience depressive symptoms; thus, their work conditions require monitoring and improvement.

  20. Exposure to respirable crystalline silica in South African farm workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanepoel, Andrew; Rees, David; Renton, Kevin; Kromhout, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Although listed in some publications as an activity associated with silica (quartz) exposure, agriculture is not widely recognized as an industry with a potential for silica associated diseases. Because so many people work in agriculture; and because silica exposure and silicosis are associated with serious diseases such as tuberculosis (TB), particular in those immunological compromised by the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), silica exposure in agriculture is potentially very important. But in South Africa (SA) very little is known about silica exposure in this industry. The objectives of this project are: (a) to measure inhalable and respirable dust and its quartz content on two typical sandy soil farms in the Free State province of SA for all major tasks done on the farms; and (b) to characterise the mineralogy soil type of these farms. Two typical farms in the sandy soil region of the Free State province were studied. The potential health effects faced by these farm workers from exposure to respirable crystalline silica are discussed.

  1. A novel approach to estimating potential maximum heavy metal exposure to ship recycling yard workers in Alang, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshpande, Paritosh C.; Tilwankar, Atit K.; Asolekar, Shyam R., E-mail: asolekar@iitb.ac.in

    2012-11-01

    The 180 ship recycling yards located on Alang-Sosiya beach in the State of Gujarat on the west coast of India is the world's largest cluster engaged in dismantling. Yearly 350 ships have been dismantled (avg. 10,000 ton steel/ship) with the involvement of about 60,000 workers. Cutting and scrapping of plates or scraping of painted metal surfaces happens to be the commonly performed operation during ship breaking. The pollutants released from a typical plate-cutting operation can potentially either affect workers directly by contaminating the breathing zone (air pollution) or can potentially add pollution load into the intertidal zone and contaminate sediments when pollutants get emitted in the secondary working zone and gets subjected to tidal forces. There was a two-pronged purpose behind the mathematical modeling exercise performed in this study. First, to estimate the zone of influence up to which the effect of plume would extend. Second, to estimate the cumulative maximum concentration of heavy metals that can potentially occur in ambient atmosphere of a given yard. The cumulative maximum heavy metal concentration was predicted by the model to be between 113 {mu}g/Nm{sup 3} and 428 {mu}g/Nm{sup 3} (at 4 m/s and 1 m/s near-ground wind speeds, respectively). For example, centerline concentrations of lead (Pb) in the yard could be placed between 8 and 30 {mu}g/Nm{sup 3}. These estimates are much higher than the Indian National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Pb (0.5 {mu}g/Nm{sup 3}). This research has already become the critical science and technology inputs for formulation of policies for eco-friendly dismantling of ships, formulation of ideal procedure and corresponding health, safety, and environment provisions. The insights obtained from this research are also being used in developing appropriate technologies for minimizing exposure to workers and minimizing possibilities of causing heavy metal pollution in the intertidal zone of ship recycling

  2. Workers radiation protection. Occupational exposure to ionizing radiations in France: 2015 results. 2016 Mission report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2016-06-01

    National results of the individual monitoring of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation are reported for all civilian and military activities subject to authorization or declaration (i.e. medical and veterinary activities, nuclear industry, defence, non-nuclear industry and research), as well as for activities concerned by the enhanced exposure to natural radiation. 365 830 workers within activities subject to authorization or declaration were monitored by passive dosimetry in 2015, which represents an increase by 1.7 % compared to 2014. The average individual dose in 2015 was very close to the value in 2014. Furthermore, 14 138 workers received more than 1 mSv (i.e. the legal dose limit for the public), and 2 606 workers received more than 5 mSv. 2 workers received more than 20 mSv (i.e. the dose limit for the workers in the French regulation). As a result, the collective dose increased from 56.3 to 61.9 man.Sv (10 %), thus reaching the same level as in the years 2009 to 2013. Important differences are noticed according to the occupational activities: the average dose in the medical and veterinary field (which represents 62.4 % of the monitored workers) and that in the research field (3.6 % of the monitored workers) are less than 0.4 mSv; the average doses are higher in the nuclear field and in the non-nuclear industry (representing together 30.1 % of the monitored workers), respectively 1.17 mSv and 1.38 mSv. Concerning internal dosimetry, 279 877 individual examinations have been performed in 2015, 52 % of which are radio-toxicological analysis of excreta and 48 % are direct body counting. In 2015, 2 workers had a committed effective dose greater than or equal to 1 mSv and the maximum dose was 3 mSv. Data or trends relative to workers exposed to natural radioactivity are also dealt with in this report (air crews, personnel subjected to radon exposure). In particular, results of aircrew dosimetry are reported: in 2015, the average individual dose of 19 565

  3. Pulmonary function, respiratory symptoms, and dust exposures among workers engaged in early manufacturing processes of tea: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Tzong-Shiun; Chung, Jui-Jung; Wang, Chung-Jing; Tsai, Perng-Jy; Kuo, Yau-Chang; Guo, How-Ran

    2012-02-13

    To evaluate pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in workers engaged in the early manufacturing processes of tea and to identify the associated factors, we conducted a study in a tea production area in Taiwan. We recruited tea workers who engaged in the early manufacturing process in the Mountain Ali area in Taiwan and a comparison group of local office workers who were matched for age, gender, and smoking habits. We performed questionnaire interviews, pulmonary function tests, skin prick tests, and measurement of specific IgE for tea on the participants and assessed tea dust exposures in the tea factories. The 91 participating tea workers had higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms than the comparison group (32 participants). Among tea workers, ball-rolling workers had the highest prevalence of symptoms and the highest exposures of inhalable dusts. At baseline, tea workers had similar pulmonary functions as the comparison group, but compared to the other tea workers ball-rolling workers had a lower ratio of the 1-second forced expiratory volume to forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) and a lower maximal mid-expiratory flow rate expressed as% of the predicted value--MMF (%pred). A total of 58 tea workers participated in the on-site investigation and the cross-shift lung function measurements. We found ball-rolling yielded the highest inhalable dust level, panning yielded the highest respirable dust level, and withering yielded the lowest levels of both dusts. Ball-rolling also yielded the highest coarse fraction (defined as inhalable dusts minus respirable dusts), which represented exposures from nose to tracheobronchial tract. During the shift, we observed significant declines in pulmonary function, especially in ball-rolling workers. Multiple regressions showed that age, height, work tasks, coarse fraction, and number of months working in tea manufacturing each year were independent predictors of certain pulmonary function parameters in tea workers. Tea

  4. Workers' dermal exposure to UV-curable acrylates in the furniture and Parquet industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surakka, J; Lindh, T; Rosén, G; Fischer, T

    2000-12-01

    The use of ultraviolet radiation-curable coatings (UV-coatings) has increased rapidly in the parquet and furniture industry. Work with UV-coatings involves risk from skin exposure to chemically reactive, concentrated acrylates that are known skin contact irritants and sensitizers. Yet, the methods and tools for measuring and quantifying dermal exposure from hazardous chemicals directly on the skin are limited and methods to measure skin exposure to UV-coatings in occupational or environmental settings have been lacking. Skin exposure to UV-coatings was measured employing a quantitative tape stripping method that we have developed for this purpose. A pilot study was performed at three workplaces. In the main study, workers' skin exposure to uncured UV-coatings was measured at seven workplaces and on two separate workdays (rounds 1 and 2) within a six-month period to determine exposure variation. Skin exposure was measured at four standardized sites on the hand, 3-4 times per work shift. The forehead was sampled once. A questionnaire was carried out with the workers in both rounds to find out factors that can affect skin exposure to UV-coatings. The pilot study indicated that both skin and surface contamination to TPGDA-containing UV-coatings were common and varied up to 2110 microgram on the sampling area of 10cm(2). In the main study skin contamination due to TPGDA was found on 16 of 23 workers, at 6 out of the 7 workplaces, and from 36 (5. 4%) of the 664 samples. In round one 8.6% (n=383) of the samples contained TPGDA and in round two 1.1 % (n=281). The average TPGDA mass on all the positive samples (n=36) was 30.4+/-77.0 microgram for the first and second rounds alone this mass was 30.6+/-80 (n=33) and 28.3+/-16.5 microgram (n=3), respectively. Despite the limited sampling area and sampling sites, we could find residues of TPGDA at all sampling times, even at the beginning of the work shift. This may be due to transfer of UV-coatings through contaminated

  5. Noise exposure and hearing impairment among Chinese restaurant workers and entertainment employees in Hong Kong.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Qian Lao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is a major concern in the non-manufacturing industries. This study aimed to investigate the occupational noise exposure and the NIHL among Chinese restaurant workers and entertainment employees working in the service industry in Hong Kong. METHODS: This cross-sectional survey involved a total of 1,670 participants. Among them, 937 were randomly selected from the workers of Chinese restaurants and 733 were selected from workers in three entertainment sectors: radio and television stations; cultural performance halls or auditoria of the Leisure and Cultural Services Department (LCSD; and karaoke bars. Noise exposure levels were measured in the sampled restaurants and entertainment sectors. Each participant received an audiometric screening test. Those who were found to have abnormalities were required to take another diagnostic test in the health center. The "Klockhoff digit" method was used to classify NIHL in the present study. RESULTS: The main source of noise inside restaurants was the stoves. The mean hearing thresholds showed a typical dip at 3 to 6 KHz and a substantial proportion (23.7% of the workers fulfilled the criteria for presumptive NIHL. For entertainment sectors, employees in radio and television stations generally had higher exposure levels than those in the halls or auditoria of the LCSD and karaoke bars. The mean hearing thresholds showed a typical dip at 6 KHz and a substantial proportion of the employees fulfilled the criteria for presumptive NIHL (38.6%, 95%CI: 35.1-42.1%. Being male, older, and having longer service and daily alcohol consumption were associated with noise-induced hearing impairment both in restaurant workers and entertainment employees. CONCLUSION: Excessive noise exposure is common in the Chinese restaurant and entertainment industries and a substantial proportion of restaurant workers and entertainment employees suffer from NIHL. Comprehensive hearing

  6. Developmental changes in maternal education and minimal exposure effects on vocabulary in English- and Spanish-learning toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Margaret; DeAnda, Stephanie; Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    The current research follows up on two previous findings: that children with minimal dual-language exposure have smaller receptive vocabularies at 16months of age and that maternal education is a predictor of vocabulary when the dominant language is English but not when it is Spanish. The current study extends this research to 22-month-olds to assess the developmental effects of minimal exposure and maternal education on direct and parent-report measures of vocabulary size. The effects of minimal exposure on vocabulary size are no longer present at 22months of age, whereas maternal education effects remain but only for English speakers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation of the Effect of Occupational Noise Exposure on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate of Steel Industry Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamanian, Zahra; Rostami, Reza; Hasanzadeh, Jafar; Hashemi, Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives. This study aimed to investigate the effect of noise exposure on blood pressure and heart rate of steel industry workers. Materials and Methods. In the present cross-sectional study, 50 workers were selected from a steel company in Fars province, Iran, and exposed to 85, 95, and 105 dB noise levels for 5 minutes. The participants' blood pressure and heart rate were measured using Beurer BC16 pulse meter both before and after the exposure. Results. The study results showed no significant difference in blood pressure and heart rate before and after the exposure. However, the workers' systolic blood pressure had increased compared to before the exposure; of course, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Besides, although the subjects' heart rate had reduced in comparison to before the exposure, the difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion. No significant change was observed in blood pressure and heart rate after acute exposure to 85, 95, and 105 dB noise levels. PMID:23781252

  8. Physical Exposures, Work Tasks, and OSHA-10 Training Among Temporary and Payroll Construction Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caban-Martinez, Alberto J; Santiago, Katerina M; Stillman, Jordan; Moore, Kevin J; Sierra, Danielle A; Chalmers, Juanita; Baniak, Melissa; Jordan, Melissa M

    2018-04-01

    We characterize and compare the self-reported physical exposures, work tasks, and OSHA-10 training in a non-probabilistic sample of temporary and payroll construction workers. In June 2016, a total of 250 payroll and temporary general laborers employed at Florida construction sites completed a survey at the job site as part of the falls reported among minority employees (FRAME) study. Workers employed through temp agencies (57.1%) were significantly more likely to report moving or lifting materials more than 100 pounds than payroll workers (38.5%; P < 0.01). Temporary construction workers with 10-hour OSHA training (22.2%) spent significantly less time with intense hand use/awkward hand posture than temporary workers without 10-hour OSHA training (46.9%; P = 0.048). Temp construction workers with OSHA 10-hour training reported less hazardous physical postures than workers without the same training.

  9. [Do hearing threshold levels in workers of the furniture industry reflect their exposure to noise?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska, Małgorzata; Dudarewicz, Adam; Czaja, Norman; Bortkiewicz, Alicja

    The aim of the study was to analyze the hearing status of employees of a furniture factory with respect to their exposure to noise and the presence of additional risk factors of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Noise measurements, questionnaire survey and assessment of hearing, using pure tone audiometry, were carried out in 50 male workers, aged 20-57 years, directly employed in the manufacture of furniture. The actual workers' hearing threshold levels (HTLs) were compared with the predictions calculated according to PN-ISO 1999:2000 based on age, gender and noise exposure. Workers under study were exposed to noise at daily noise exposure levels of 82.7-94.8 dB (mean: 90.9 dB) for a period of 3-14 years. In all subjects, mean HTL at 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz and 4000 Hz did not exceed 25 dB. Nevertheless, high frequency notches were found in 11% of audiograms. The actual workers' HTLs at 3000-6000 Hz were similar to those predicted using PN-ISO 1999:2000. There were statistical significant differences between HTLs in subgroups of people with higher (> 78 mm Hg) and lower (≤ 78 mm Hg) diastolic blood pressure, smokers and non-smokers, and those working with organic solvents. Hearing loss was more evident in subjects affected by the additional risk factors specified above. The results confirm the need to consider, in addition to noise, also some other NIHL risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, elevated blood pressure, and co-exposure to organic solvents when estimating the risk of NIHL and developing the hearing conservation programs for workers. Med Pr 2016;67(3):337-351. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  10. Quantitative evaluation of personal exposure to UV radiation of workers and general public

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sisto, R.; Borra, M.; Casale, G. R.; Militello, A.; Siani, A. M.

    2009-01-01

    Due to meteorological conditions variability and to the variability of exposure patterns, which can be largely different during a working day, personal dosemeters use can be necessary to obtain a correct quantitative evaluation of the radiation dose absorbed by an exposed worker. Different classes of personal dosemeters exist and, among them, electronic dosemeters and poly-sulphone film dosemeters. An experimental campaign is presented conduced in a cultivated area of Tuscany and some aspects are discussed about an experimental campaign performed on a population of volunteers on a central Italy beach near Rome. The aim of the present work is to show some relevant issues in a dosimetric approach to the exposure evaluation of outdoor workers and, in general, of the public during recreational activities. (authors)

  11. Second-hand smoke exposure among workers of restaurants, bars, and nightclubs in Lagos State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwakemi Ololade Odukoya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Lagos State Regulation of Smoking Law was passed in February 2014 and stipulates the total restriction of tobacco smoking in listed public places. Workers in hospitality venues are at a high risk of exposure to second-hand smoke (SHS. Therefore, their awareness of the health risks, attitudes toward SHS and their reported levels of exposure may play a crucial role in developing an effective monitoring, implementation, and enforcement mechanism. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional, descriptive study among workers in restaurants, bars, and nightclubs registered with the Lagos State Ministry of Tourism in the second quarter of the year 2014. We used a multistage sampling technique to select one respondent each from the 300 centers randomly selected to participate in the survey. Data were collected using a modified version of the World Health Organization Global tobacco surveillance system tools. Univariate and bivariate analysis were carried out. Exposure to SHS in the workplace and in other public places was treated as the outcome variable in the bivariate analysis. Results: Majority (75.3% of the respondents were aged between 21 and 40 years with a mean age of 27.7 + 8.6 years. Many (66% were waiters/waitresses and spent more than 8 h a day. Most (60.6% of the venues were indoor only establishments, and 26.8% had no form of smoking restrictions. Majority of the respondents were exposed to SHS at work, and this was higher in bars and nightclubs. A bivariate analysis of results showed that workers were exposed to SHS at work irrespective of workplace smoking restrictions or respondents smoking status. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates that second-hand smoke exposure is very high (65% in smokers; 65.6% in nonsmokers among workers in restaurants, bars, and nightclubs in Lagos State. We are therefore of the opinion that strict enforcement of law would ensure the protection of these workers.

  12. Effects of occupational heat exposure on female brick workers in West Bengal, India

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    Moumita Sett

    2014-02-01

    : We conclude that high heat exposure in brickfields during summer caused physiological strain in both categories of female brickfield workers. A coping strategy employed by the brick carriers was to reduce their walking speed and thus lose part of their earnings. The lost productivity for every degree rise in temperature is about 2% in the brickfields. This reduction will be exacerbated by climate change and may undermine the quality of life of female brickfield workers.

  13. Specific long non-coding RNAs response to occupational PAHs exposure in coke oven workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Chen; He, Zhini; Li, Jie; Li, Xiao; Bai, Qing; Zhang, Zhengbao; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Shan; Xiao, Xinhua; Wang, Fangping; Yan, Yan; Li, Daochuan; Chen, Liping; Zeng, Xiaowen; Xiao, Yongmei; Dong, Guanghui; Zheng, Yuxin; Wang, Qing; Chen, Wen

    2016-01-01

    To explore whether the alteration of lncRNA expression is correlated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposure and DNA damage, we examined PAHs external and internal exposure, DNA damage and lncRNAs (HOTAIR, MALAT1, TUG1 and GAS5) expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLCs) of 150 male coke oven workers and 60 non-PAHs exposure workers. We found the expression of HOTAIR, MALAT1, and TUG1 were enhanced in PBLCs of coke oven workers and positively correlated with the levels of external PAHs exposure (adjusted P trend  TUG1). However, only HOTAIR and MALAT1 were significantly associated with the level of internal PAHs exposure (urinary 1-hydroxypyrene) with adjusted β  = 0.298, P  = 0.024 for HOTAIR and β  = 0.090, P  = 0.034 for MALAT1. In addition, the degree of DNA damage was positively associated with MALAT1 and HOTAIR expression in PBLCs of all subjects (adjusted β  = 0.024, P  = 0.002 for HOTAIR and β  = 0.007, P  = 0.003 for MALAT1). Moreover, we revealed that the global histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) modification was positively associated with the degree of genetic damage ( β  = 0.061, P  < 0.001) and the increase of HOTAIR expression ( β  = 0.385, P  = 0.018). Taken together, our findings suggest that altered HOTAIR and MALAT1 expression might be involved in response to PAHs-induced DNA damage.

  14. Penicillin dust exposure and penicillin resistance among pharmaceutical workers in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farshad, Ali Asghar; Enferadi, Mojtaba; Bakand, Shahnaz; Jamshidi Orak, Rouhangiz; Mirkazemi, Roksana

    2016-07-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) adversely impacts the prevention and treatment of a wide range of infections and is considered as a serious threat to global public health. Occupational-related AMR is a neglected area of research. To assess exposure to penicillin dust, penicillin active materials, and to report the frequency of penicillin resistance among pharmaceutical workers in Tehran, Iran. A quasi-experimental study was conducted among workers on a penicillin production line in a pharmaceutical company (n = 60) and workers in a food producing company (n = 60). Data were collected via survey, air sampling, and throat swab. The mean overall concentrations of penicillin dust and penicillin active material were 6.6 and 4.3 mg/m 3 , respectively, in the pharmaceutical industry. Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) was detected in 45% (27) individuals in the exposed group, 92.6% of which showed penicillin resistance. Resistance was significantly higher among workers in penicillin production line (p = 0.014). High level of AMR among workers in penicillin production line is a health risk for the workers as well as society as a whole through the spread of drug resistant micro-organisms.

  15. Knowledge of outdoor workers on the effects of natural UV radiation and methods of protection against exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hault, K; Rönsch, H; Beissert, S; Knuschke, P; Bauer, A

    2016-04-01

    The most important but influenceable risk factor in the development of skin cancer is the unprotected exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In order to assure adequate and effective protection against UV exposure, a level of knowledge about solar radiation and its effects is required. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge of workers in outdoor professions on the effects of natural UV radiation and methods of protection against exposure. Forty outdoor workers were given a standardized questionnaire designed to ascertain their level of knowledge. The majority of participants knew exposure to solar radiation can be detrimental depending on exposure time. Eighty-three percentage recognized that people working regularly in an outdoor environment may be at risk due to high exposure. Long-sleeved clothing plus headgear and sunscreen containing sun-protecting substances were deemed adequate methods of protection by 83% and 85% respectively. Seventy percentage of the outdoor workers were familiar with the definition of the sun protection factor (SPF), yet only 25% correctly identified the amount of sunscreen needed to achieve the SPF as indicated on the product. A mere 8% of participants knew that symptoms of a sunburn first became apparent 3 h after sun exposure and only 18% were able to accurately gauge the amount of time they could spend in the sun before developing one. Although 30% had heard of the ultraviolet index (UVI), only 13% understood that protecting your skin using additional measures is recommended as of UVI 3. Overall, 30% of the outdoor workers thought themselves sufficiently protected against the harmful effects of the sun. While the participants of this study had a basic fundamental understanding of the effects of solar radiation and methods of protection against exposure, there remains an urgent need for further clarification across all demographic groups. © 2016 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  16. On exposure of workers in nuclear reactor facilities for test and in nuclear reactor facilities in research and development stage in fiscal 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The Law for Regulation on Nuclear Reactor requires the operators of nuclear reactors that the exposure dose of workers engaged in work for nuclear reactors should not exceed the limits specified in official notices that are issued based on the Law. The present article summarizes the contents of the Report on Radiation Management in 1988 submitted by the operators of nuclear reactor facilities for test and those of nuclear reactor facilities in research and development stage based on the Law, and the Report on Management of Exposure Dose of Workers submitted by them based on administrative notices. The reports demonstrate that the exposure of workers was below the permissible exposure dose in 1988 in all nuclear reactor facilities. The article presents data on the distribution of exposure dose among workers in all facilities with a nuclear reactor for test, and data on personal exposure of employees and non-employees and overall exposure of all workers in the facilities of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. (N.K.)

  17. Exposure to occupational air pollution and cardiac function in workers of the Esfahan Steel Industry, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golshahi, Jafar; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Saqira, Mohammad; Zavar, Reihaneh; Sadeghifar, Mostafa; Roohafza, Hamidreza

    2016-06-01

    Air pollution is recognized as an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease. We investigated association of exposure to occupational air pollution and cardiac function in the workers of the steel industry. Fifty male workers of the agglomeration and coke-making parts of the Esfahan Steel Company were randomly selected (n = 50). Workers in the administrative parts were studied as controls (n = 50). Those with known history of hypertension, dyslipidemia, or diabetes, and active smokers were not included. Data of age, body mass index, employment duration, blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, and lipid profile were gathered. Echocardiography was performed to evaluate cardiac function. Left ventricular ejection fraction was lower in workers of the agglomeration/coke-making parts than in controls (mean difference = 5 to 5.5 %, P steel industry is associated with left heart systolic dysfunction. Possible right heart insults due to air pollution exposure warrant further investigations.

  18. Real-time measurement of outdoor worker's exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation in Pretoria, South Africa

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    Mmathapelo Makgabutlane

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The city of Pretoria in South Africa receives considerable solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR because of its low latitude (22–35°S and relatively clear skies. Certain meteorological factors affect the amount of solar UVR that reaches the ground; the most dominant factors being stratospheric ozone, cloud cover and solar zenith angle. It is known that overexposure to solar UVR may lead to the development of adverse health conditions, the most significant being skin cancer. Outdoor workers spend a significant amount of time outside and are thus susceptible to this risk. In this case study, we estimated, for the first time, the real-time solar UVR exposure of an outdoor worker in Pretoria. Measurements were made on 27 and 28 May 2013 using a handheld ultraviolet index (UVI meter calibrated against a science-grade biometer at the South African Weather Service in Pretoria. Personal exposure estimation was used to discern the pattern in diurnal and annual sunburn risk for the outdoor worker. Ambient UVR levels ranged from 0 UVI to 4.66 UVI and the outdoor worker’s potential exposure estimates regularly exceeded 80% of these levels depending on the time of day. The risk of sunburn was evident; however, actual incidents would depend on individual skin photosensitivity and melanin content, as well as sun protection used. Further research is needed to determine the personal exposure estimations of outdoor workers in other provinces in which solar UVR levels may be equally high, or higher than those in Pretoria.

  19. Effect of 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate exposure on peak flowmetry in automobile paint shop workers in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourabedian, Siyamak; Barkhordari, Abdullah; Habibi, Ehsanallah; Rismanchiyan, Masoud; Zare, Mohsen

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of occupational exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) on peak flowmetry in automobile body paint shop workers in Iran. We studied a population of 43 car painters exposed to HDI at their workplaces. Peak expiratory flow was tested for one working week, from the start to the end of each shift. Air was sampled and HDI analysed in parallel, according to the OSHA 42 method. Daily and weekly HDI exposure averages were (0.42+/-0.1) mg m(-3) and (0.13+/-0.05) mg m(-3), respectively. On painting days, 72 % of workers showed more than a 10 % variation in peak expiratory flow. Inhalation exposure exceeded the threshold limit value (TLV) ten times over. This strongly suggests that HDI affected the peak flowmetry in the studied workers.

  20. On exposure management of workers in nuclear reactor facilities for test and in nuclear reactor facilities in research and development stage in fiscal 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The Law of Regulation on Nuclear Reactor requires the operators of nuclear reactors that the exposure dose of workers engaged in work for nuclear reactors should not exceed the limits specified in official notices that are issued based on the Law. The present article summarizes the contents of the Report on Radiation Management in 1993 submitted by the operators of nuclear reactor facilities for test and those of nuclear reactor facilities in research and development stage based on the Law, and the Report on Management of Exposure Dose of Workers submitted by them based on administrative notices. The reports demonstrate that the the exposure of workers was below the permissible exposure dose in 1993 in all nuclear reactor facilities. The article presents data on the distribution of exposure dose among workers in all facilities with a nuclear reactor for test, and data on personal exposure of employees and non-employees and overall exposure of all workers in the facilities of JAERI and PNC. (J.P.N.)

  1. "Occupational Exposure To Xylene In Workers, Employing At Pathology Wards Of Hospitals Belonging To The Qazvin University Of Medical Sciences "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Taheri SJ

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nowadays, aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and xylene are extensively used in the different environments and industries, causing adverse effects on individuals who are being exposed occupationally and environmentally to these hazardous compounds. In this study, occupational exposure to xylene in workers, employing at pathology wards of hospitals belonging to the Qazvin University of Medical Sciences have been investigated. Materials and Methods: Methyl Hiporic Acid (MHA as a main metabolite of xylene in urine was used to evaluate the workers exposure to this chemical. The urine samples were taken from all 30 workers from 4 hospitals, i.e. Kosar, Shahid Rajaei, Booali and Qods. Through this study, 30 administrative employees were also selected as control group. The direct DBA colorimetric method was used to measure MHA in the workers urine. Results: The results obtained from this study showed that, there were significant differences between MHA and working days, type of jobs, and length of exposure time. This study also showed that, there were no significant differences between urinary MHA concentration and sex, age, and smoking habit. Conclusion: Through this study, it was also clearly obtained that, xylene exposure can not affect on the total and direct serum bilirobin in the workers blood. Finally, it is worth mentioning that, although this study showed no acute exposure to xylene in hospitals pathology wards, the effect of chronic exposure to such compound cannot be ignored, therefore protecting workers against like these organic solvents are strongly recommended as their TLVs are considerably being reduced during these years

  2. Evaluation of public and worker exposure due to naturally occurring asbestos in gravel discovered during a road construction project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Robert A; Hargesheimer, John; Vaara, Leah

    2008-09-01

    During a repair and reconstruction project of an unpaved highway in a remote region of Alaska, workers discovered, after construction had commenced, that the materials used from a local material site contained asbestos (variously described as tremolite or actinolite). The regional geology indicated the presence of ultramafic rock, which often contains asbestos. Evaluation of asbestos exposure to workers, their equipment, and living quarters was required, as was the possible future exposure of workers and the general public to asbestos already used in the roadway construction. In addition, a decision was needed on whether to use materials from the contaminated site in the future. Of the almost 700 breathing zone air monitoring samples taken of the workers, 3% of the samples indicated exposures at or near 0.1 f/cc by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) 7400 phase contrast microscopy (PCM) procedure. Thirty-six of the PCM samples underwent transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis by the NIOSH 7402 procedure, which indicated that about 40% of the fibers were asbestos. After classifying samples by tasks performed by workers, analysis indicated that workers, such as road grader operators who ground or spread materials, had the highest exposures. Also, monitoring results indicated motorist exposure to be much less than 0.1 f/cc. The design phase of any proposed construction project in regions that contain ultramafic rock must consider the possibility of amphibole contamination of roadway materials, and budget for exploration and asbestos analysis of likely materials sites.

  3. Zinc exposure for female workers in a galvanizing plant in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccò, Matteo; Cattani, Silvia; Signorelli, Carlo

    2018-01-01

    Very little is known regarding the toxicokinetics of inhaled zinc, in particular in the case of female workers and for modern, low exposure settings. Our aim is to evaluate the relationship of external zinc levels to those of serum and urine for female workers. Eleven female workers (age: 41.7±8 years old, body mass index (BMI): 23.5±4.2 kg/m2) in a galvanizing plant were investigated. Exposure assessment consisted of personal/environmental air samples, and measurement of zinc in serum (collected at the end of first shift of the working week (T1)) and urine, collected before the first shift of the working week (T0), T1 and at the end of the last shift of the working week (T2). Both environmental and personal air samplings for zinc and zinc compounds were below the recommended by the German Research Foundation (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft - DFG) limit values of 2 mg/m3 (7.34±2.8 μg/m3 and 8.31±2.4 μg/ m3, respectively). Serum (118.6±20.9 μg /dl) and urine zinc levels were within reference values for female Italian subjects: the latter increased from 56.4±33.5 μg/dl at T0, to 59.8±37.0 μg/dl at T1, and ultimately 65.4±34.4 μg/dl at T2, but no significant trend was found. End of shift (Spearman's correlation coefficient p value = 0.027) and differential excretion of urinary zinc (both: T0 vs. T1 and T0 vs. T2) were correlated with airborne zinc concentration (p = 0.002 and 0.006, respectively). In general, our data suggests that urine may be a useful medium also for female in order to assess zinc exposure. Further studies are required in order to evaluate whether differential excretion may be useful for the biomonitoring of zinc exposure in the workplaces also for male workers. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2018;31(1):113-124. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  4. Chromosome intra- and inter-changes determined by G-banding in radiation workers with in vivo exposure to plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tawn, E Janet; Whitehouse, Caroline A

    2005-01-01

    Suggestions that exposure to intakes of alpha-emitting radionuclides such as plutonium could result in a specific profile of chromosome damage distinguishable from that of low LET irradiation have led to the re-analysis of the different types of chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes determined by G-banding in a group of 20 plutonium workers from the British Nuclear Fuels plc facility at Sellafield, UK. Comparisons were made with a group of workers with negligible plutonium intakes but similar external gamma doses and with an unexposed control group. Examination of simple translocation frequencies in the three groups indicated a significant difference (P = 0.033), with the higher frequency in the plutonium workers indicating that exposure from plutonium was contributing to the aberration yield. Slightly raised frequencies of both intra-chromosomal and complex aberrations were observed in the plutonium workers in comparison with the comparable external exposure group and the control group but the difference did not reach significance at the P = 0.05 level and there was no variation in the relative frequencies of the different aberration types between the three groups. There was, therefore, no firm indication from this study that either intra-chromosomal or complex aberrations could be used as a specific marker of high LET exposure in workers with historical intakes of plutonium

  5. Occupation and factors associated with exposure to the sun among beach workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eudes Euler de Souza Lucena

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Subjects were selected from five urban beaches to characterize the type of work conducted on urban beaches in the city of Natal, state of Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil, and determine potential associated factors among workers exposed to the sun. Data collection was based on a validated questionnaire. Results were obtained for 362 workers. Individuals were predominantly male (72.6% who worked under direct exposure to the sun (87.8%. Almost 95% had no more than 6 years of schooling and 87.91% earned an average monthly income of $318.75 dollars or more. Photoprotection was reported by 80.1%, among which sunscreen and caps/hats were predominant. Around 25% smoked and more than half did not consume alcohol. Male gender, no more than 6 years of schooling, daily exposure for up to 6 hours and use of photoprotection were the factors associated with the outdoor work category.

  6. Relation between sick leave and selected exposure variables among women semiconductor workers in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, H; Rampal, K

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To determine the relation between sick leave and selected exposure variables among women semiconductor workers. Methods: This was a cross sectional survey of production workers from 18 semiconductor factories. Those selected had to be women, direct production operators up to the level of line leader, and Malaysian citizens. Sick leave and exposure to physical and chemical hazards were determined by self reporting. Three sick leave variables were used; number of sick leave days taken in the past year was the variable of interest in logistic regression models where the effects of age, marital status, work task, work schedule, work section, and duration of work in factory and work section were also explored. Results: Marital status was strongly linked to the taking of sick leave. Age, work schedule, and duration of work in the factory were significant confounders only in certain cases. After adjusting for these confounders, chemical and physical exposures, with the exception of poor ventilation and smelling chemicals, showed no significant relation to the taking of sick leave within the past year. Work section was a good predictor for taking sick leave, as wafer polishing workers faced higher odds of taking sick leave for each of the three cut off points of seven days, three days, and not at all, while parts assembly workers also faced significantly higher odds of taking sick leave. Conclusion: In Malaysia, the wafer fabrication factories only carry out a limited portion of the work processes, in particular, wafer polishing and the processes immediately prior to and following it. This study, in showing higher illness rates for workers in wafer polishing compared to semiconductor assembly, has implications for the governmental policy of encouraging the setting up of wafer fabrication plants with the full range of work processes. PMID:12660374

  7. Exposure assessment and heart rate variability monitoring in workers handling titanium dioxide particles: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichihara, Sahoko [Mie University, Graduate School of Regional Innovation Studies (Japan); Li, Weihua [WHO Collaborating Centre for Research in Human Reproduction, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research (China); Omura, Seiichi [Tokyo Institute of Technology (Japan); Fujitani, Yuji [National Institute for Environmental Studies (Japan); Liu, Ying; Wang, Qiangyi [WHO Collaborating Centre for Research in Human Reproduction, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research (China); Hiraku, Yusuke [Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Environmental and Molecular Medicine (Japan); Hisanaga, Naomi [Aichi Gakusen University, Faculty of Human Science and Design (Japan); Wakai, Kenji [Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Preventive Medicine (Japan); Ding, Xuncheng [WHO Collaborating Centre for Research in Human Reproduction, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research (China); Kobayashi, Takahiro, E-mail: takakoba@airies.or.jp [Association for International Research Initiatives for Environmental Studies (Japan); Ichihara, Gaku, E-mail: gak@rs.tus.ac.jp [Tokyo University of Science, Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) particles are used for surface coating and in a variety of products such as inks, fibers, food, and cosmetics. The present study investigated possible respiratory and cardiovascular effects of TiO{sub 2} particles in workers exposed to this particle at high concentration in a factory in China. The diameter of particles collected on filters was measured by scanning electron microscopy. Real-time size-dependent particle number concentration was monitored in the nostrils of four workers using condensation particle counter and optical particle counter. Electrocardiogram was recorded using Holter monitors for the same four workers to record heart rate variability. Sixteen workers underwent assessment of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems. Mass-based individual exposure levels were also measured with personal cascade impactors. The primary particle diameter ranged from 46 to 562 nm. Analysis of covariance of the pooled data of the four workers showed that number of particles with a diameter <300 nm was associated positively with total number of N–N and negatively with total number of increase or decrease in successive RR intervals greater than 50 ms (RR50+/−) or percentage of RR 50+/− that were parameters of parasympathetic function. The total mass concentration was 9.58–30.8 mg/m{sup 3} during work, but significantly less before work (0.36 mg/m{sup 3}). The clear abnormality in respiratory function was not observed in sixteen workers who had worked for 10 months to 13 years in the factory. The study showed that exposure to particles with a diameter <300 nm might affect HRV in workers handling TiO{sub 2} particles. The results highlight the need to investigate the possible impact of exposure to nano-scaled particles on the autonomic nervous system.

  8. Occupational exposure and biological evaluation of lead in Iranian workers-a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Sayehmiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lead exposure is considered as a global health problem. The irreparable harmful effects of this heavy metal on human have been proven in various studies. Comparing to general population, workers in related industries are more exposed to lead. Several studies have investigated lead occupational exposure and its biological evaluation in Iran; however there is no overall estimate. Thus, the present study was conducted to determine the occupational exposure to lead and its biological evaluation in Iranian workers, using systematic review and meta-analysis. Material and Method: This study was carried out based on information obtained from databases including Magiran, Iranmedex, SID, Medlib, Trials Register, Scopus, Pubmed, Science Direct, Cochran, Embase, Medline, Web of Science, Springer, Online Library Wiley, and Google Scholar from 1991 to 2016, using standard key words. All of the reviewed papers which met the inclusion criteria have been evaluated. Data combination was performed according to Random Effects Model using Stata software version 11.1. Result: In the 34 qualified studies, the mean blood lead level (BLL concentration in Iranian workers was estimated 42.8µg/dl (95% CI: 35.15-50.49. The minimum and maximum BLL were belonged to west (28.348µg/dl and center (45.928µg/dl regions of Iran, respectively. Considering different occupations, the lowest mean value was reported in textile industry workers (12.3 µg/dl, while the highest value was for zinc-lead mine workers (72.6 µg/dl. Mean breathing air lead level of Iranian workers reported in 4 studies was estimated 0.23 mg/m3 (95% CI: 0.14-0.33. Conclusion: According to the high concentration of BLL and breathing air, it is recommended to increase protective measures and frequent screening. Scheduled clinical and paraclinical examination should also be performed for workers.

  9. Genotoxic Effects Due to Exposure to Chromium and Nickel Among Electroplating Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Safty, Amal Mohamed Kamal; Samir, Aisha Mohamed; Mekkawy, Mona Kamal; Fouad, Marwa Mohamed

    Using chromium and nickel for electroplating is important in many industries. This process induces variable adverse health effects among exposed workers. The aim of this study is to detect the genotoxic effects of combined exposure to chromium and nickel among electroplating workers. This study was conducted on 41 male workers occupationally exposed to chromium and nickel in the electroplating section of a factory compared to 41 male nonexposed individuals, where full history and clinical examination were performed. Laboratory investigations included measurement of serum chromium, nickel, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and micronuclei were measured in buccal cells. In exposed workers, serum chromium ranged from 0.09 to 7.20 µg/L, serum nickel ranged from 1.20 to 28.00 µg/L, serum 8-OHdG ranged from 1.09 to12.60 ng/mL, and these results were statistically significantly increased compared to nonexposed group ( P electroplating industry are at risk of significant cytogenetic damage.

  10. Effects of exposure to flour dust on respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function of mill workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy A. Mohammadien

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion: Flour mill workers in Sohag Governorate, like grain workers elsewhere, were at an increased risk of developing pulmonary symptoms, a strong association exists between exposure to flour dust and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms and functional impairments of the lungs. The result has implications for improved dust control measures in the grain industry in Egypt.

  11. An analysis of multimodal occupational exposure leading to blood borne infections among health care workers

    OpenAIRE

    N Lakshmi Priya; K Usha Krishnan; G Jayalakshmi; S Vasanthi

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs). Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2%) were interns and the clinical ...

  12. Effects of occupational noise exposure on changes in blood pressure of workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ali Yousefi Rizi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available    BACKGROUND: In most industries, workers are exposed to loud noise. Noise is considered as a nonspecific biological stressor that have adverse effects on human physiology. It is associated with hypertension which is in turn one of the most important preventable risk factors of cardiovascular disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of noise on changes of workers' blood pressure.    METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed on 90 individuals who were exposed to noise at one of the industries in Isfahan, Iran. Noise levels (in dBA were measured by means of a sound level meter. Data was collected using a demographic questionnaire and physical examination. Blood pressure was measured by a sphygmomanometer at workplace. The collected data was analyzed by t-tests.    RESULTS: The workers aged 31.5 ± 5.2 years and were exposed to mean noise level of 97.5 ± 10.1 dBA which was significantly above the standard level (85 dBA.The relationships between blood pressure, heart rate, and noise level were not significant. However, Pearson’s correlation indicated systolic blood pressure to have significant correlations with age (correlation coefficient = 0.302 and work experience (correlation coefficient = 0.299.    CONCLUSION: Workers exposed to noise levels above the standard, especially in the metal industry but their blood pressures haven’t any associated with noise. it mention that any changes in blood pressure resulting from occupational noise are likely to be small, careful controls, large sample sizes, and long time exposure to noise would be take to identify significant effects.       Keywords: Noise Exposure, Blood Pressure, Young Workers, Cardiovascular Disease, Metal Industries

  13. Depleted and enriched uranium exposure quantified in former factory workers and local residents of NL Industries, Colonie, NY USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnason, John G.; Pellegri, Christine N.; Moore, June L.; Lewis-Michl, Elizabeth L.; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Between 1958 and 1982, NL Industries manufactured components of enriched (EU) and depleted uranium (DU) at a factory in Colonie NY, USA. More than 5 metric tons of DU was deposited as microscopic DU oxide particles on the plant site and surrounding residential community. A prior study involving a small number of individuals (n=23) indicated some residents were exposed to DU and former workers to both DU and EU, most probably through inhalation of aerosol particles. Objectives: Our aim was to measure total uranium [U] and the uranium isotope ratios: 234 U/ 238 U; 235 U/ 238 U; and 236 U/ 238 U, in the urine of a cohort of former workers and nearby residents of the NLI factory, to characterize individual exposure to natural uranium (NU), DU, and EU more than 3 decades after production ceased. Methods: We conducted a biomonitoring study in a larger cohort of 32 former workers and 99 residents, who may have been exposed during its period of operation, by measuring Total U, NU, DU, and EU in urine using Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS). Results: Among workers, 84% were exposed to DU, 9% to EU and DU, and 6% to natural uranium (NU) only. For those exposed to DU, urinary isotopic and [U] compositions result from binary mixing of NU and the DU plant feedstock. Among residents, 8% show evidence of DU exposure, whereas none shows evidence of EU exposure. For residents, the [U] geometric mean is significantly below the value reported for NHANES. There is no significant difference in [U] between exposed and unexposed residents, suggesting that [U] alone is not a reliable indicator of exposure to DU in this group. Conclusions: Ninety four percent of workers tested showed evidence of exposure to DU, EU or both, and were still excreting DU and EU decades after leaving the workforce. The study demonstrates the advantage of measuring multiple isotopic ratios (e.g., 236 U/ 238 U and 235 U/ 238 U) over a single ratio ( 235 U/ 238 U

  14. The problems of individual monitoring for internal exposure of monazite storage facility workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekidin, A.; Kirdin, I.; Yarmoshenko, I.; Zhukovsky, M.

    2006-01-01

    traditionally two situations of internal inhalation exposure by alpha emitting nuclides are considered in radiological protection: occupational exposure due to inhalation of plutonium aerosols; inhalation exposure by 222 Rn daughters in working places and in home. for these situations the problems of radioactive aerosols intake, nuclide dynamics in human body, internal dosimetry, nuclide excretion, monitoring of internal exposure have been investigated in details especially for plutonium inhalation exposure. The results of these studies are presented in details in ICRP Publications and UNSCEAR reports. However there is very specific case in which the special analysis of internal inhalation exposure is need. it is the working places with anomalous, extremely high concentration of thoron ( 220 Rn) daughters. The problems of internal radiation exposure of workers in such working place are the main topic of this publication. (authors)

  15. Monitoring of exposure to selected metals in workers of a ferroalloy production plant using NAA and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Havranek, V.; Hnatowicz, V.; Bencko, V.; Fabianova, E.; Sysalova, J.

    1998-01-01

    Advantages and pitfalls of direct and biological monitoring of occupational exposure are briefly mentioned and a project aimed at evaluating exposure to chromium (and possibly manganese) in workers of a ferro-alloy production plant using both the above approaches is outlined. Facilities for NAA and PIXE at the Nuclear Physics Institute at Rez to be used in the project are described. Results of quality assurance of INAA method for analysis of workplace air born particulate matter and blood sampling are presented. Results from previous work relating to this Co-ordinated Research Programme - studying exposure of workers of a vanadium pentoxide production plant are also briefly reviewed. (author)

  16. Exposure to scenic lighting devices: risk to the health of entertainment professionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salsi, S.; Barlier-Salsi, A.

    2013-01-01

    The European directive 2006/25/EC on minimum health and safety requirements regarding the exposure of workers to the risks arising from optical radiation provides for risk assessment in workplaces. This is particularly important in entertainment, where intentional exposure to spotlights may be required for periods of 8 hours per working day. The aim of the study was to provide the lighting engineers with information, relative to the risks associated with spotlights, to help them to estimate the risks a priori of a lighting plan. This study consisted of determining the risks associated with 63 different spotlights, then distributing them into 4 groups of risks defined by the standard EN 62471, in calculating their permissible minimal exposure distance, corresponding to the use of 1 and 5 spotlights for a daily exposure time of 8 hours. This study highlighted that spotlights may cause health problems for entertainment workers. The classification proposed by the standard EN 62471 is not sufficient to estimate the risks of a lighting plan. Furthermore, the permissible minimal exposure distance and the permissible maximal exposure time do not constitute relevant parameters to reduce the risks to acceptable values. (authors)

  17. Evaluation of radiofrequency dielectric heaters workers exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benes, M.; Del Frate, S.; Villalta, R.

    2008-01-01

    Radiofrequency dielectric heaters (RFDH) are widely used in the woodworking industry for gluing laminates by applying pressure and RF heating. The workers operating such equipment remain in the vicinity of the machinery all day and can therefore be exposed to considerable levels of electric and magnetic field at RFs. This work describes the method used to measure the strength of fields generated by this particular machinery. This procedure is based on current methods cited in the literature and introduces the necessary modifications to meet this specific case. In particular, as there is often a scarcity of technical data available relating to such heaters, it is suggested that a spectrum analyser be used for measurements in the frequencies domain. On the basis of the data obtained the norms of reference are established, the instrumentation to be used in successive stages determined as well as the identification of possible sources of interference from spurious signals. Furthermore, a mapping of the field strengths is presented and the means of determining the decay curve as a function of distance. This last type of measurement is done to estimate the effectiveness of grounding the machinery. The report ends with an estimate of the exposure of workers to electromagnetic fields and also some recommendations for reducing risk. (authors)

  18. Worker exposure to methanol vapors during cleaning of semiconductor wafers in a manufacturing setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, Shannon; Moody, Emily; McKinley, Meg; Knutsen, Jeffrey; Madl, Amy; Paustenbach, Dennis

    2008-05-01

    An exposure simulation was conducted to characterize methanol exposure of workers who cleaned wafers in quality control departments within the semiconductor industry. Short-term (15 min) and long-term (2-4 hr) personal and area samples (at distances of 1 m and 3-6 m from the source) were collected during the 2-day simulation. On the first day, 45 mL of methanol were used per hour by a single worker washing wafers in a 102 m(3) room with a ventilation rate of about 10 air changes per hour (ACH). Virtually all methanol volatilized. To assess exposures under conditions associated with higher productivity, on the second day, two workers cleaned wafers simultaneously, together using methanol at over twice the rate of the first day (95 mL/hr). On this day, the ventilation rate was halved (5 ACH). Personal concentrations on the first day averaged 60 ppm (SD = 46 ppm) and ranged from 10-140 ppm. On the second day, personal concentrations for both workers averaged 118 ppm (SD = 50 ppm; range: 64-270 ppm). Area concentrations measured on the first day at 1 m from the source and throughout the balance of the room averaged 29 ppm (SD = 19 ppm; range: 4-83 ppm) and 18 ppm (SD = 12 ppm; range: 3-42 ppm), respectively. As expected, area concentrations measured on the second day were higher than the first and averaged 73 ppm (SD = 25 ppm; range: 27-140 ppm) at 1 meter and 48 ppm (SD = 13 ppm; range: 21-67 ppm) throughout the balance of the room. The results of this simulation suggest that the use of methanol to clean semiconductor wafers without the use of local exhaust ventilation and with relatively low room ventilation rates is unlikely to result in worker exposures exceeding the current ACGIH(R) threshold limit value of 200 ppm. This study also confirmed prior studies suggesting that when a relatively volatile chemical is located within arm's length (near field), breathing zone concentrations will be about two- to threefold greater than the room concentration when the air

  19. Biomechanical and psychosocial work exposures and musculoskeletal symptoms among vineyard workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Christophe; Courouve, Laurène; Bouée, Stéphane; Adjémian, Annie; Chrétien, Jean-Claude; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the associations between biomechanical and psychosocial work factors and musculoskeletal symptoms in vineyard workers. This cross-sectional study was based on a random sample of 2,824 male and 1,123 female vineyard workers in France. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Neck/shoulder, back and upper and lower extremity symptoms were evaluated using the Nordic questionnaire. Biomechanical exposures included 15 tasks related to vineyard activities. Psychosocial work factors included effort-reward imbalance and overcommitment, measured using the effort-reward imbalance model, and low job control and insufficient material means. Statistical analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis, and the results were adjusted for age, body mass index, educational level, work status and years in vineyard. Pruning-related factors increased the risk of upper extremity pain for both genders, of back pain for men and of neck/shoulder and lower extremity pain for women. Driving increased the risk of neck/shoulder and back pain among men. Psychosocial work factors, which were insufficient material means, overcommitment (both genders), effort-reward imbalance (men) and low job control (women), were associated with musculoskeletal symptoms, back and upper extremity pain for both genders and neck/shoulder and lower extremity pain for men. These results underlined that both biomechanical and psychosocial work factors may play a role in musculoskeletal pain among vineyard workers. Prevention policies focusing on both biomechanical and psychosocial work exposures may be useful to prevent musculoskeletal symptoms.

  20. Health impacts of exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) amongst a highly exposed workforce: survey of London casino workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, Paul A; Gray, Selena; Gilmore, Anna B

    2007-09-21

    Casino workers are exposed to high levels of secondhand smoke (SHS) at work, yet remain at risk of being excluded from smoke-free legislation around the world. If the prime motivation for smoke-free legislation is the protection of workers, then a workforce experiencing ill-health associated with SHS exposure should not be excluded from legislation. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms among a sample of casino workers, to identify any association between the reporting of symptoms and exposure to SHS at work, and to compare the prevalence of symptoms with that in other workers exposed to SHS. A postal questionnaire survey of 1568 casino workers in London. Using multivariate analysis we identified predictors of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms. 559 workers responded to the questionnaire (response of 36%). 91% of casino workers reported the presence of one or more sensory irritation symptoms in the previous four weeks, while the figure was 84% for respiratory symptoms. The presence of one or more sensory irritation symptoms was most strongly associated with reporting the highest exposure to SHS at work (OR 3.26; 1.72, 6.16). This was also true for reporting the presence of one or more respiratory irritation symptoms (OR 2.24; 1.34, 3.74). Prevalence of irritation symptoms in the casino workers was in general appreciably higher than that reported in studies of bar workers. Our research supports the need for comprehensive smoke-free legislation around the world, covering all indoor workplaces including casinos.

  1. Health impacts of exposure to second hand smoke (SHS amongst a highly exposed workforce: survey of London casino workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmore Anna B

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Casino workers are exposed to high levels of secondhand smoke (SHS at work, yet remain at risk of being excluded from smoke-free legislation around the world. If the prime motivation for smoke-free legislation is the protection of workers, then a workforce experiencing ill-health associated with SHS exposure should not be excluded from legislation. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms among a sample of casino workers, to identify any association between the reporting of symptoms and exposure to SHS at work, and to compare the prevalence of symptoms with that in other workers exposed to SHS. Methods A postal questionnaire survey of 1568 casino workers in London. Using multivariate analysis we identified predictors of respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms. Results 559 workers responded to the questionnaire (response of 36%. 91% of casino workers reported the presence of one or more sensory irritation symptoms in the previous four weeks, while the figure was 84% for respiratory symptoms. The presence of one or more sensory irritation symptoms was most strongly associated with reporting the highest exposure to SHS at work (OR 3.26; 1.72, 6.16. This was also true for reporting the presence of one or more respiratory irritation symptoms (OR 2.24; 1.34, 3.74. Prevalence of irritation symptoms in the casino workers was in general appreciably higher than that reported in studies of bar workers. Conclusion Our research supports the need for comprehensive smoke-free legislation around the world, covering all indoor workplaces including casinos.

  2. Concerning control of radiation exposure to workers in nuclear reactor facilities for testing and nuclear reactor facilities in research and development phase (fiscal 1987)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear reactor operator is required by the Nuclear Reactor Control Law to ensure that the radiation dose to workers engaged in the operations of his nuclear reactor is controlled below the permissible exposure doses that are specified in notifications issued based on the Law. The present note briefly summarizes the data given in the Reports on Radiation Control, which have been submitted according to the Nuclear Reactor Control Law by the operators of nuclear reactor facilities for testing and those in the research and development phase, and the Reports on Control of Radiation Exposure to Workers submitted in accordance with the applicable administrative notices. According to these reports, the measured exposure to workers in 1987 were below the above-mentioned permissible exposure doses in all these nuclear facilities. The 1986 and 1987 measurements of radiation exposure dose to workers in nuclear reactor facilities for testing are tabulated. The measurements cover dose distribution among the facilities' personnel and workers of contractors. They also cover the total exposure dose for all workers in each of four plants operated under the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation. (N.K.)

  3. Silica exposure to excavation workers during the excavation of a low level radiological waste pit and tritium disposal shafts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated the task-length average (TLA) respirable dust and respirable silica airborne concentrations to which construction workers excavating volcanic tuff at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) were exposed. These workers were excavating a low level radiological waste disposal pit of final dimensions 720 feet long, 132 feet wide and 60 feet deep. The objectives of this study were as follows: (1) evaluate exposures; (2) determine if the type of machinery used affects the respirable dust concentration in the breathing zone of the worker; (3) evaluate the efficacy of wetting the pit to reduce the respirable dust exposure; and (4) determine if exposure increases with increasing depth of pit due to the walls of the pit blocking the cross wind ventilation

  4. Study of the effectiveness of a participatory ergonomics intervention in reducing worker pain severity through physical exposure pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Andrew C; Frazer, Mardon B; Cole, Donald C; Kerr, Mickey S; Wells, Richard P; Norman, Robert W

    2005-02-01

    A participatory ergonomics programme was implemented in an automotive parts manufacturing factory. An ergonomics change team was formed composed of members from management and the organized labour union. It was hypothesized that the physical change projects implemented as part of this process would result in decreased worker exposures to peak and cumulative physical demands and reduced worker perceptions of physical effort and pain severity. A quasi-experimental design was employed, utilizing a sister plant in the corporation as a referent group. A longitudinal questionnaire approach was used to document pre-post changes in worker perceptions. In general, the physical change projects were rated as improvements by workers and were successful at reducing peak and/or cumulative mechanical exposures. However, there were few systematic changes in perceived effort or pain severity levels. Explanations include the confounding effects of differential production rate and staffing changes at the intervention and referent plants and/or insufficient overall intervention intensity due to a relatively short intervention period, plant and team ambivalence towards the process and the low overall impact on exposure of the particular changes implemented.

  5. Evaluation of the genotoxic effects of chronic low-dose ionizing radiation exposure on nuclear medicine workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Ali [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Medical School, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey)], E-mail: alibabam2001@yahoo.com; Tatar, Abdulgani; Oztas, Sitki [Department of Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Seven, Bedri; Varoglu, Erhan [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Medical School, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey); Yesilyurt, Ahmet [Department of Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, Ataturk University, 25240 Erzurum (Turkey); Ayan, Arif Kursad [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Medical School, Ataturk University, Erzurum (Turkey)

    2009-07-15

    Introduction: Nuclear medicine workers are occupationally exposed to chronic ionizing radiation. It is known that ionizing radiation may have damaging effects on chromosomes. In the present study, we investigated the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation on nuclear medicine workers. We used two different indicators of genotoxicity methods: sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus (MN). Methods: The present research was carried out using 21 nuclear medicine workers (11 females and 10 males) during two periods: during normal working conditions and after a 1-month vacation. The radiation dose varied from 1.20 to 48.56 mSv, which accumulated during the occupational exposure time between two vacations. Peripheral blood samples were taken from each subject for two distinct lymphocyte cultures (SCE and MN) in each period. Results: In nearly all subjects, SCE values increased significantly during radiation exposure compared to the postvacation period (P<.05). Similarly, MN frequencies in most of the subjects increased significantly during radiation exposure compared to the postvacation period (P<.05). Conclusions: This study revealed that both SCE and MN frequencies in most of the subjects were significantly higher during exposure to ionizing radiation than after a 1-month vacation period. However, this genotoxic effect was reversible in most of the subjects.

  6. Evaluation of the genotoxic effects of chronic low-dose ionizing radiation exposure on nuclear medicine workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, Ali; Tatar, Abdulgani; Oztas, Sitki; Seven, Bedri; Varoglu, Erhan; Yesilyurt, Ahmet; Ayan, Arif Kursad

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Nuclear medicine workers are occupationally exposed to chronic ionizing radiation. It is known that ionizing radiation may have damaging effects on chromosomes. In the present study, we investigated the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiation on nuclear medicine workers. We used two different indicators of genotoxicity methods: sister chromatid exchange (SCE) and micronucleus (MN). Methods: The present research was carried out using 21 nuclear medicine workers (11 females and 10 males) during two periods: during normal working conditions and after a 1-month vacation. The radiation dose varied from 1.20 to 48.56 mSv, which accumulated during the occupational exposure time between two vacations. Peripheral blood samples were taken from each subject for two distinct lymphocyte cultures (SCE and MN) in each period. Results: In nearly all subjects, SCE values increased significantly during radiation exposure compared to the postvacation period (P<.05). Similarly, MN frequencies in most of the subjects increased significantly during radiation exposure compared to the postvacation period (P<.05). Conclusions: This study revealed that both SCE and MN frequencies in most of the subjects were significantly higher during exposure to ionizing radiation than after a 1-month vacation period. However, this genotoxic effect was reversible in most of the subjects.

  7. Occupational exposure to second hand smoke and respiratory and sensory symptoms: A cross-sectional survey of hospital workers in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Radwan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Exposure to Second Hand Smoke (SHS has been associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, upper and lower respiratory tract diseases and an increased risk of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The majority of cases of mortality and morbidity is attributable to exposure of adults to SHS and is related to cardiovascular diseases and lung cancer. In Egypt, comprehensive smoke-free laws exist, however, in many workplaces they are poorly enforced consequently exposing workers to the detrimental health hazards of SHS. We aimed at determination of workplace exposure to Second Hand Smoke (SHS and its association with respiratory and sensory irritation symptoms in hospital workers in Port-said governorate in Egypt. Material and methods: A cross-sectional face to face survey was conducted by the use of a standardised questionnaire among 415 adult hospital workers; representing 50% of all employees (81% response rate; recruited from 4 randomly selected general hospitals in Port-said governorate in Egypt. Results: All hospitals employees reported exposure to SHS - on average 1.5 (SD = 2.5 hours of exposure per day. After controlling for potential confounders, exposure to SHS at work was significantly associated with an increased risk of wheezes (OR = 1.14, p < 0.01, shortness of breath (OR = 1.17, p < 0.01, phlegm (OR = 1.23, p < 0.01, running and irritated nose (OR = 1.14, p < 0.01 as well as a sore, scratchy throat (OR = 1.23. Conclusions: These findings point out that workplace exposure to SHS is evident in hospitals in Port-said governorate and that workers are adversely affected by exposure to it at work. This underlines the importance of rigorous enforcement of smoke-free policies to protect the workers' health in Egypt.

  8. Worker exposure and a risk assessment of malathion and fenthion used in the control of Mediterranean fruit fly in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, John W; Lee, Su-Gil; Heath, Linda M; Pisaniello, Dino L

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, an outbreak of Mediterranean fruit fly in Adelaide was controlled by South Australian Government workers applying organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) to domestic gardens. Residents made claims of adverse effects associated with allegations that worker application practices were poor and led to contamination of homes, residents and pets. The concerns led to a Parliamentary enquiry, the suspension of OP applications for fruit fly control, and the investigation of alternative methods of combating fruit fly in metropolitan Adelaide. The extent of exposure of workers and residents was not estimated. This paper describes a simulated application of the OPs concerned (fenthion and malathion) with measurements of potential exposure through inhalation, dermal contact and deposition of pesticides on surfaces. The data were used as part of a toxicological risk assessment to determine the likely impact of the use of these insecticides. Malathion, used as a 1% suspension in a protein bait mixture, was found to have little potential for airborne exposure, although some workers were found to have up to 0.315 microg/cm(2) malathion deposited on overalls (principally on forearms) and over 500 microg deposited on liner gloves and hats, respectively. Risks to workers and residents were low, with exposures likely to be a small fraction of the acceptable daily intake. Fenthion, used as a 0.05% foliar cover spray, was found between 0.02 and 0.23 mg/m(3) in air 10 m downwind from spray activity and was unlikely to pose a significant risk to residents, since exposures were of short durations of up to 20 min. Personal air samples of spray workers averaged 0.55 mg/m(3) (Workplace Exposure Standard 0.20mg/m(3)). Since workers were usually engaged in spraying for a large proportion of the day, this demonstrates the need for respiratory protective equipment. Maximum deposition of fenthion on workers overalls ranged from 0.06 to over 0.20 microg/cm(2), although little was found on

  9. Specific long non-coding RNAs response to occupational PAHs exposure in coke oven workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Gao

    Full Text Available To explore whether the alteration of lncRNA expression is correlated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs exposure and DNA damage, we examined PAHs external and internal exposure, DNA damage and lncRNAs (HOTAIR, MALAT1, TUG1 and GAS5 expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLCs of 150 male coke oven workers and 60 non-PAHs exposure workers. We found the expression of HOTAIR, MALAT1, and TUG1 were enhanced in PBLCs of coke oven workers and positively correlated with the levels of external PAHs exposure (adjusted Ptrend < 0.001 for HOTAIR and MALAT1, adjusted Ptrend = 0.006 for TUG1. However, only HOTAIR and MALAT1 were significantly associated with the level of internal PAHs exposure (urinary 1-hydroxypyrene with adjusted β = 0.298, P = 0.024 for HOTAIR and β = 0.090, P = 0.034 for MALAT1. In addition, the degree of DNA damage was positively associated with MALAT1 and HOTAIR expression in PBLCs of all subjects (adjusted β = 0.024, P = 0.002 for HOTAIR and β = 0.007, P = 0.003 for MALAT1. Moreover, we revealed that the global histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3 modification was positively associated with the degree of genetic damage (β = 0.061, P < 0.001 and the increase of HOTAIR expression (β = 0.385, P = 0.018. Taken together, our findings suggest that altered HOTAIR and MALAT1 expression might be involved in response to PAHs-induced DNA damage. Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Long non-coding RNA, Peripheral blood lymphocytes, DNA damage response, HOTAIR, MALAT

  10. Frequent Occupational Exposure to Fusarium Mycotoxins of Workers in the Swiss Grain Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Niculita-Hirzel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Type B trichotecens such as deoxynivalenol (DON, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON, nivalenol (NIV and zearalenone (ZEN are mycotoxins contaminating wheat and wheat dust. Mycotoxins are toxic upon ingestion and considered potentially toxic when inhaled. Whereas dietary exposure to mycotoxins is controlled in food, data on occupational exposure by inhalation by grain workers are scarce. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of DON, 3-ADON, 15-ADON, NIV and ZEN in aerosols generated during grain harvesting and unloading and the risk of exposure of grain workers. Aerosols were collected during the threshing of 78 winter wheat fields and grain unloading of 59 grain lots in six grain terminals in the Vaud region (Switzerland. The samples represented the diversity of the winter wheat cultivar and of the farming system (88 treated with fungicides, 46 untreated. Using a HPLC MS/MS method developed to quantify mycotoxins in aerosols, we report that the mycotoxin content of aerosols was not affected by the wheat cultivars or farming system, but that the incidence of the mycotoxins differed between activities. While wheat harvesting generated on average 28, 20 and 1 ng·m−3 of DON, NIV and ZEN, respectively, grain unloading generated 53, 46 and 4 ng·m−3. Personal sampling revealed that working in a cab was an efficient protective measure. However, it was not sufficient to avoid chronic exposure to multiple mycotoxins. The most exposed activity was the cleaning, exposing workers to DON, NIV and ZEN at concentrations as high as 65, 59 and 3 ng·m−3. These data provide valuable information for future studies of mycotoxin toxicity at relevant concentrations on respiratory health.

  11. Blood miRNAs as sensitive and specific biological indicators of environmental and occupational exposure to volatile organic compound (VOC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Mi-Kyung; Ryu, Jae-Chun

    2015-10-01

    To date, there is still shortage of highly sensitive and specific minimally invasive biomarkers for assessment of environmental toxicants exposure. Because of the significance of microRNA (miRNA) in various diseases, circulating miRNAs in blood may be unique biomarkers for minimally invasive prediction of toxicants exposure. We identified and validated characteristic miRNA expression profiles of human whole blood in workers exposed to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and compared the usefulness of miRNA indicator of VOCs with the effectiveness of the already used urinary biomarkers of occupational exposure. Using a microarray based approach we screened and detected deregulated miRNAs in their expression in workers exposed to VOCs (toluene [TOL], xylene [XYL] and ethylbenzene [EBZ]). Total 169 workers from four dockyards were enrolled in current study, and 50 subjects of them were used for miRNA microarray analysis. We identified 467 miRNAs for TOL, 211 miRNAs for XYL, and 695 miRNAs for XYL as characteristic discernible exposure indicator, which could discerned each VOC from the control group with higher accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity than urinary biomarkers. Current observations from this study point out that the altered levels of circulating miRNAs can be a reliable novel, minimally invasive biological indicator of occupational exposure to VOCs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Steel dust in the New York City subway system as a source of manganese, chromium, and iron exposures for transit workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chillrud, Steven N; Grass, David; Ross, James M; Coulibaly, Drissa; Slavkovich, Vesna; Epstein, David; Sax, Sonja N; Pederson, Dee; Johnson, David; Spengler, John D; Kinney, Patrick L; Simpson, H James; Brandt-Rauf, Paul

    2005-03-01

    The United States Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 reflected increasing concern about potential effects of low-level airborne metal exposure on a wide array of illnesses. Here we summarize results demonstrating that the New York City (NYC) subway system provides an important microenvironment for metal exposures for NYC commuters and subway workers and also describe an ongoing pilot study of NYC transit workers' exposure to steel dust. Results from the TEACH (Toxic Exposure Assessment, a Columbia and Harvard) study in 1999 of 41 high-school students strongly suggest that elevated levels of iron, manganese, and chromium in personal air samples were due to exposure to steel dust in the NYC subway. Airborne concentrations of these three metals associated with fine particulate matter were observed to be more than 100 times greater in the subway environment than in home indoor or outdoor settings in NYC. While there are currently no known health effects at the airborne levels observed in the subway system, the primary aim of the ongoing pilot study is to ascertain whether the levels of these metals in the subway air affect concentrations of these metals or related metabolites in the blood or urine of exposed transit workers, who due to their job activities could plausibly have appreciably higher exposures than typical commuters. The study design involves recruitment of 40 transit workers representing a large range in expected exposures to steel dust, the collection of personal air samples of fine particulate matter, and the collection of blood and urine samples from each monitored transit worker.

  13. Health effects of low dose exposures to external ionizing radiation in the French cohort of nuclear workers CEA-AREVA-EDF - 5287

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuraud, K.; Fournier, L.; Samson, E.; Caer-Lorho, S.; Laurier, D.; Laroche, P.; Le Guen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Populations of nuclear workers are particularly relevant to study health effects of low dose and low dose-rate exposures to ionizing radiation. In France, a cohort of nuclear workers employed by CEA, AREVA NC, or EDF, and badge-monitored for radiation exposure, has been followed-up. Annual exposure to penetrating photons was reconstructed for each worker. Standardized mortality ratios were calculated using national mortality rates as the reference. Estimates of radiation dose-mortality associations were obtained using a linear excess relative risk (ERR) model. A total of 59,004 workers were followed-up between 1968 and 2004, for an average of 25 years. The mean cumulative photons dose was 16.1 mSv. At the end of the follow-up, workers were 56 years old and 6,310 workers had died. A strong healthy worker effect was observed. Positive but imprecise estimates of ERR/Sv were observed for all solid cancers and leukemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A significant ERR/Sv was found for myeloid leukemia. This cohort study is the most informative ever conducted in France among nuclear workers. Results confirmed a healthy worker effect due to selection at hiring and health monitoring from occupational medicine. Observed dose-risk relationships were consistent with risks estimated in other studies, even if they remained associated to a large uncertainty. (authors)

  14. Biological exposure assessment to tetrachloroethylene for workers in the dry cleaning industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley David L

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of conducting biological tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene, PCE exposure assessments of dry cleaning employees in conjunction with evaluation of possible PCE health effects. Methods Eighteen women from four dry cleaning facilities in southwestern Ohio were monitored in a pilot study of workers with PCE exposure. Personal breathing zone samples were collected from each employee on two consecutive work days. Biological monitoring included a single measurement of PCE in blood and multiple measurements of pre- and post-shift PCE in exhaled breath and trichloroacetic acid (TCA in urine. Results Post-shift PCE in exhaled breath gradually increased throughout the work week. Statistically significant correlations were observed among the exposure indices. Decreases in PCE in exhaled breath and TCA in urine were observed after two days without exposure to PCE. A mixed-effects model identified statistically significant associations between PCE in exhaled breath and airborne PCE time weighted average (TWA after adjusting for a random participant effect and fixed effects of time and body mass index. Conclusion Although comprehensive, our sampling strategy was challenging to implement due to fluctuating work schedules and the number (pre- and post-shift on three consecutive days and multiplicity (air, blood, exhaled breath, and urine of samples collected. PCE in blood is the preferred biological index to monitor exposures, but may make recruitment difficult. PCE TWA sampling is an appropriate surrogate, although more field intensive. Repeated measures of exposure and mixed-effects modeling may be required for future studies due to high within-subject variability. Workers should be monitored over a long enough period of time to allow the use of a lag term.

  15. Depleted and enriched uranium exposure quantified in former factory workers and local residents of NL Industries, Colonie, NY USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnason, John G. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, The University at Albany, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Pellegri, Christine N. [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Moore, June L.; Lewis-Michl, Elizabeth L. [Bureau of Environmental and Occupational Epidemiology, Center for Environmental Health, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY (United States); Parsons, Patrick J., E-mail: patrick.parsons@health.ny.gov [Laboratory of Inorganic and Nuclear Chemistry, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, The University at Albany, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Background: Between 1958 and 1982, NL Industries manufactured components of enriched (EU) and depleted uranium (DU) at a factory in Colonie NY, USA. More than 5 metric tons of DU was deposited as microscopic DU oxide particles on the plant site and surrounding residential community. A prior study involving a small number of individuals (n=23) indicated some residents were exposed to DU and former workers to both DU and EU, most probably through inhalation of aerosol particles. Objectives: Our aim was to measure total uranium [U] and the uranium isotope ratios: {sup 234}U/{sup 238}U; {sup 235}U/{sup 238}U; and {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U, in the urine of a cohort of former workers and nearby residents of the NLI factory, to characterize individual exposure to natural uranium (NU), DU, and EU more than 3 decades after production ceased. Methods: We conducted a biomonitoring study in a larger cohort of 32 former workers and 99 residents, who may have been exposed during its period of operation, by measuring Total U, NU, DU, and EU in urine using Sector Field Inductively Coupled Plasma - Mass Spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS). Results: Among workers, 84% were exposed to DU, 9% to EU and DU, and 6% to natural uranium (NU) only. For those exposed to DU, urinary isotopic and [U] compositions result from binary mixing of NU and the DU plant feedstock. Among residents, 8% show evidence of DU exposure, whereas none shows evidence of EU exposure. For residents, the [U] geometric mean is significantly below the value reported for NHANES. There is no significant difference in [U] between exposed and unexposed residents, suggesting that [U] alone is not a reliable indicator of exposure to DU in this group. Conclusions: Ninety four percent of workers tested showed evidence of exposure to DU, EU or both, and were still excreting DU and EU decades after leaving the workforce. The study demonstrates the advantage of measuring multiple isotopic ratios (e.g., {sup 236}U/{sup 238}U and {sup 235}U

  16. Total prohibition of smoking but not partial restriction effectively reduced exposure to tobacco smoke among restaurant workers in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijula, Jere; Johnsson, Tom; Kaleva, Simo; Tuomi, Tapani; Reijula, Kari

    2013-10-01

    To assess work-related exposure to tobacco smoke in Finnish restaurants, a series of nationwide questionnaire surveys were conducted among restaurant workers and the levels of indoor air nicotine concentrations were measured in restaurants. The survey aimed to evaluate the impact of the smoke-free legislation in general and in particular after the total smoking ban launched in 2007. In 2003-2010, four national questionnaire surveys were conducted among restaurant workers and the concentration of nicotine in indoor air was measured in different types of restaurants, bars and nightclubs. Between 2003 and 2010, the proportion of restaurant workers reporting occupational exposure to tobacco smoke dropped from 59% to 11%. Among pub workers, the decrease was from 97% to 18% and in workers of dining restaurants from 49% to 10%, respectively. The median concentration of nicotine in indoor air of all restaurants decreased from 11.7 μg/m(3) to 0.1 μg/m(3). The most significant decrease was detected in pubs where the decrease was from 16.1 μg/m(3) to 0.1 μg/m(3). Among all restaurant workers, in 2003-2010 the prevalence of daily smokers was reduced from 39% to 31% in men and from 35% to 25% in women. Total prohibition of smoking but not partial restriction in restaurants was effective in reducing work-related exposure to tobacco smoke. Strict tobacco legislation may partly be associated with the significant decrease of daily smoking prevalence among restaurant workers.

  17. Circadian variation of melatonin, light exposure, and diurnal preference in day and night shift workers of both sexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papantoniou, Kyriaki; Pozo, Oscar J; Espinosa, Ana; Marcos, Josep; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Basagaña, Xavier; Ribas, Ferran Calduch; Mirabent, Joan; Martín, Jordi; Carenys, Gemma; Martín, Celia Reyes; Middleton, Benita; Skene, Debra J; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2014-07-01

    Light-at-night has been shown in experimental studies to disrupt melatonin production but this has only partly been confirmed in studies of night shift workers. In this cross-sectional study, we examined the circadian variation of melatonin in relation to shift status, individual levels of light-at-night exposure, and diurnal preference, an attribute reflecting personal preference for activity in the morning or evening. One hundred and seventeen workers (75 night and 42 day) of both sexes, ages 22 to 64 years, were recruited from four companies. Participants collected urine samples from all voids over 24 hours and wore a data logger continuously recording their light exposure. Sociodemographic, occupational, lifestyle, and diurnal preference information were collected by interview. Concentrations of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s), the main melatonin metabolite, were measured. Mean aMT6s levels were lower in night [10.9 ng/mg creatinine/hour; 95% confidence interval (CI), 9.5-12.6] compared with day workers (15.4; 95% CI, 12.3-19.3). The lowest aMT6s levels were observed in night workers with morning preference (6.4; 95% CI, 3.0-13.6). Peak time of aMT6s production occurred 3 hours later in night (08:42 hour, 95% CI, 07:48-09:42) compared with day workers (05:36 hour, 95% CI, 05:06-06:12). Phase delay was stronger among subjects with higher light-at-night exposure and number of nights worked. Night shift workers had lower levels and a delay in peak time of aMT6s production over a 24-hour period. Differences were modified by diurnal preference and intensity of light-at-night exposure. Night shift work affects levels and timing of melatonin production and both parameters may relate to future cancer risk. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Exposure dose evaluation of worker at radioactive waste incineration facility on KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Kyu; Jeon, Jong Seon; Kim, Youn Hwa; Lee, Jae Min; Lee, Gi Won

    2011-01-01

    An incineration treatment of inflammable radioactive wastes leads to have a reduction effect of disposal cost and also to contribute an enhancement of safety at a disposal site by taking the advantage of stabilization of the wastes which is accomplished by converting organic materials into inorganic materials. As it was required for an incineration technology, KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) has developed a pilot incineration process and then constructed a demonstration incineration facility having based on the operating experiences of the pilot process. In this study, worker exposure doses were evaluated to confirm safety of workers before the demonstration incineration facility will commence a commercial. (author)

  19. Dermal Exposure to Jet Fuel JP-8 Significantly Contributes to the Production of Urinary Naphthols in Fuel-Cell Maintenance Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Chao, Yi-Chun E.; Kupper, Lawrence L.; Serdar, Berrin; Egeghy, Peter P.; Rappaport, Stephen M.; Nylander-French, Leena A.

    2005-01-01

    Jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) is the major jet fuel used worldwide and has been recognized as a major source of chemical exposure, both inhalation and dermal, for fuel-cell maintenance workers. We investigated the contributions of dermal and inhalation exposure to JP-8 to the total body dose of U.S. Air Force fuel-cell maintenance workers using naphthalene as a surrogate for JP-8 exposure. Dermal, breathing zone, and exhaled breath measurements of naphthalene were obtained using tape-strip sam...

  20. Lessons learned from case studies of worker exposures to radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, M.D.; Guilmette, R.A.; Scott, B.R.

    1995-01-01

    Considerable efforts in the aerosol science and health protection communities are devoted to developing a defensible technical basis for measuring, modeling, and mitigating toxic aerosols. These efforts involve understanding aerosol source terms, projecting potential aerosol releases, describing their behavior in the workplace and environment, developing instruments and techniques to measure the aerosols, designing ways to contain or control the aerosols, modeling and measuring uptake by workers and other people, estimating health effects, and planning appropriate responses. To help in this effort, we have compiled a data base of case studies involving releases of aerosols and worker exposures in a wide range of industries. Sources of information have included personal communications, limited distribution reports, open literature publications, and reports of abnormal occurrences in U.S. Department of Energy facilities and among licensees of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The data base currently includes more than 100 cases. The case studies have been organized according to the radionuclides involved and the circumstances and consequences of the release. This information has been used to address a number of important questions, such as the adequacy of current aerosol sampling and monitoring procedures, areas needing improvement, and strategies for planning for or responding to accidents. One area of particular interest is related to strategies for prospective or retrospective characterization of aerosol source terms. In some cases, worker exposures have involved aerosols that are similar in particle size distribution, composition, and solubility to aerosols routinely produced in the normal process activities. In such cases, prospective characterization of aerosol source terms has provided relevant and useful information

  1. Reducing radiation exposures at nuclear power plants using virtual job planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verzilov, Y.; Husain, A.

    2014-01-01

    Advanced Dose Exposure Planning Tool (ADEPT) is an innovative solution for assisting nuclear station staff to effectively minimize worker dose during inspection and maintenance activities and to improve ALARA job planning. ADEPT combines visualization and simulation of the radioactive environment at a nuclear station to estimate worker dose. It allows users to walk through a virtual job plan and receive a live radiation dose estimate for the planned work. (author)

  2. Chronic low dose radiation exposure and oxidative stress in radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.S.; Bhatt, M.B.; Kulkarni, MM.; Rajan, R.; Singh, B.B.; Venkataraman, G.

    1996-01-01

    Free radicals have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases. In this study free radical stress due to low dose chronic radiation exposures of radiation workers was examined as a possible atherogenic risk factor. Data on lipid profiles, lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione content in blood indicated an absence of correlation with radiation doses up to 125 mSv. (author). 13 refs., 1 fig

  3. Issues in environmental control data used in DD ampersand ER worker dose exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.G.

    1995-01-01

    Sites for decontamination and decommissioning (DD) or environmental remediation (ER) are often from US DOE operations that began during and shortly after World War II. This paper discusses selected problems in the use of environmental data for DD and ER worker dose exposure calculations

  4. An analysis of multimodal occupational exposure leading to blood borne infections among health care workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, N Lakshmi; Krishnan, K Usha; Jayalakshmi, G; Vasanthi, S

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs). Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2%) were interns and the clinical practice that led to the occupational exposure was withdrawal of blood (45.7%). Good infection control practices and emphasis on appropriate disposal are needed to increase the occupational safety for HCWs.

  5. Studies of the occupational exposure of Malaysian plantation workers to paraquat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chester, G; Woollen, B H

    1982-02-01

    Studies carried out on the occupational exposure to paraquat of plantation workers in Malaysia comprised quantitative estimates of dermal and respiratory exposure of knapsack spray operators, carriers, and rubber tappers operating under their normal working conditions. Spray operators have been shown to be dermally exposed to paraquat by walking through recently sprayed vegetation and into their own spray, regular adjustment and unblocking of spray nozzles and leakage, and overfilling of knapsack spray tanks. Carriers also received measurable dermal exposure from walking through recently sprayed vegetation and accidental spillage when carrying and loading. The infrequent and negligible dermal exposure of tappers resulted from walking through recently sprayed vegetation. Determinations of the total airborne paraquat concentrations in the breathing zone show that spray operators and carriers are exposed to an order of 1% or less of the current TLV for respirable paraquat. No paraquat was detected in the breathing zones of tappers working in simultaneously sprayed blocks. The calculated ranges of dermal and respiratory exposures, when compared with published data on both the exposure to, and the toxicity of, paraquat, indicate that there should be no toxicological risk to any of the three groups studied as a result of using paraquat.

  6. Waste Minimization Policy at the Romanian Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrei, V.; Daian, I.

    2002-01-01

    The radioactive waste management system at Cernavoda Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) in Romania was designed to maintain acceptable levels of safety for workers and to protect human health and the environment from exposure to unacceptable levels of radiation. In accordance with terminology of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), this system consists of the ''pretreatment'' of solid and organic liquid radioactive waste, which may include part or all of the following activities: collection, handling, volume reduction (by an in-drum compactor, if appropriate), and storage. Gaseous and aqueous liquid wastes are managed according to the ''dilute and discharge'' strategy. Taking into account the fact that treatment/conditioning and disposal technologies are still not established, waste minimization at the source is a priority environmental management objective, while waste minimization at the disposal stage is presently just a theoretical requirement for future adopted technologies . The necessary operational and maintenance procedures are in place at Cernavoda to minimize the production and contamination of waste. Administrative and technical measures are established to minimize waste volumes. Thus, an annual environmental target of a maximum 30 m3 of radioactive waste volume arising from operation and maintenance has been established. Within the first five years of operations at Cernavoda NPP, this target has been met. The successful implementation of the waste minimization policy has been accompanied by a cost reduction while the occupational doses for plant workers have been maintained at as low as reasonably practicable levels. This paper will describe key features of the waste management system along with the actual experience that has been realized with respect to minimizing the waste volumes at the Cernavoda NPP

  7. Biomonitoring of complex occupational exposures to carcinogens: The case of sewage workers in Paris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Zabadi, Hamzeh; Ferrari, Luc; Laurent, Anne-Marie; Tiberguent, Aziz; Paris, Christophe; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2008-01-01

    Sewage workers provide an essential service in the protection of public and environmental health. However, they are exposed to varied mixtures of chemicals; some are known or suspected to be genotoxics or carcinogens. Thus, trying to relate adverse outcomes to single toxicant is inappropriate. We aim to investigate if sewage workers are at increased carcinogenic risk as evaluated by biomarkers of exposure and early biological effects. This cross sectional study will compare exposed sewage workers to non-exposed office workers. Both are voluntaries from Paris municipality, males, aged (20–60) years, non-smokers since at least six months, with no history of chronic or recent illness, and have similar socioeconomic status. After at least 3 days of consecutive work, blood sample and a 24-hour urine will be collected. A caffeine test will be performed, by administering coffee and collecting urines three hours after. Subjects will fill in self-administered questionnaires; one covering the professional and lifestyle habits while the a second one is alimentary. The blood sample will be used to assess DNA adducts in peripheral lymphocytes. The 24-hour urine to assess urinary 8-oxo-7, 8-dihydro-2'-deoxy-Guanosine (8-oxo-dG), and the in vitro genotoxicity tests (comet and micronucleus) using HeLa S3 or HepG2 cells. In parallel, occupational air sampling will be conducted for some Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Volatile Organic Compounds. A weekly sampling chronology at the offices of occupational medicine in Paris city during the regular medical visits will be followed. This protocol has been accepted by the French Est III Ethical Comitee with the number 2007-A00685-48. Biomarkers of exposure and of early biological effects may help overcome the limitations of environmental exposure assessment in very complex occupational or environmental settings

  8. Effects of occupational heat exposure on female brick workers in West Bengal, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sett, Moumita; Sahu, Subhashis

    2014-01-01

    Background Manual brick-manufacturing units in India engage a large number of female workers on a daily-wage basis for a period of 8 months per year. There are two groups of female workers in the brickfields: the brick molders and the brick carriers. These brickfields are mostly unorganized, and the workers are exposed to extreme conditions such as very high seasonal heat. The present trend of increasing temperatures, as a result of global warming and climate change, will put an additional burden on them. Objective This study aims to evaluate the effect of workplace heat exposure on the well-being, physiological load, and productivity of female brickfield workers in India. Design A questionnaire study (n=120), environmental temperature, and weekly work productivity analyses were evaluated for 8 months in the brickfields. Cardiac strain and walking speed (subset, n=40) were also studied and compared in hotter and colder days amongst the female brickfield workers. Results The subjects experience summer for about 5 months with additional heat stress radiating from the brick kiln. The weekly productivity data show a linear decline in productivity with increased maximum air temperature above 34.9°C. The cardiac parameters (peak heart rate (HRp), net cardiac cost (NCC), relative cardiac cost (RCC), and recovery heart rates) were significantly higher on hotter days (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGTout) index: 26.9°C to 30.74°C) than on cooler days (WBGTout index: 16.12°C to 19.37°C) for the brick molders; however, this is not the case for the brick carriers. As the brick carriers adapt to hotter days by decreasing their walking speed, their productivity decreases. Conclusion We conclude that high heat exposure in brickfields during summer caused physiological strain in both categories of female brickfield workers. A coping strategy employed by the brick carriers was to reduce their walking speed and thus lose part of their earnings. The lost productivity for every

  9. Effects of occupational heat exposure on female brick workers in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sett, Moumita; Sahu, Subhashis

    2014-01-01

    Manual brick-manufacturing units in India engage a large number of female workers on a daily-wage basis for a period of 8 months per year. There are two groups of female workers in the brickfields: the brick molders and the brick carriers. These brickfields are mostly unorganized, and the workers are exposed to extreme conditions such as very high seasonal heat. The present trend of increasing temperatures, as a result of global warming and climate change, will put an additional burden on them. This study aims to evaluate the effect of workplace heat exposure on the well-being, physiological load, and productivity of female brickfield workers in India. A questionnaire study (n=120), environmental temperature, and weekly work productivity analyses were evaluated for 8 months in the brickfields. Cardiac strain and walking speed (subset, n=40) were also studied and compared in hotter and colder days amongst the female brickfield workers. The subjects experience summer for about 5 months with additional heat stress radiating from the brick kiln. The weekly productivity data show a linear decline in productivity with increased maximum air temperature above 34.9°C. The cardiac parameters (peak heart rate (HRp), net cardiac cost (NCC), relative cardiac cost (RCC), and recovery heart rates) were significantly higher on hotter days (Wet Bulb Globe Temperature (WBGTout) index: 26.9°C to 30.74°C) than on cooler days (WBGTout index: 16.12°C to 19.37°C) for the brick molders; however, this is not the case for the brick carriers. As the brick carriers adapt to hotter days by decreasing their walking speed, their productivity decreases. We conclude that high heat exposure in brickfields during summer caused physiological strain in both categories of female brickfield workers. A coping strategy employed by the brick carriers was to reduce their walking speed and thus lose part of their earnings. The lost productivity for every degree rise in temperature is about 2% in the

  10. Investigation of the impact of noise exposure on blood pressure in tire manufacturing workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Baneshi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available    BACKGROUND: Noise can cause serious health problems. Regular use of personal health equipments can reduce such problems. This study has been designed to compare the blood pressure of tire manufacturing workers, who were exposed to noise (> 85 db and used personal health equipment, with a control group without noise exposure.    METHODS: In this case-control study, 70 workers who were exposed to noise (case group and 220 workers who were not (control group were recruited. Regular use of personal health equipment was compulsory. LEQ was calculated for both groups. To analyse the data, chi-square test and t-test were implemented. Finally multivariate regression model was developed.    RESULTS: No difference was seen between the groups in terms of basic characteristics (age, years of working, and BMI. Mean systolic blood pressure in case and control groups was 116.6 and 117.5, respectively; giving a P-value of 0.50. Mean diastolic blood pressure in case and control groups was 76.7 and 77.4, respectively; giving a P-value of 0.47. Results indicate no significant difference between blood pressure of cases and control groups.    CONCLUSION: We did not see any significant difference between the blood pressure of those exposed to noise, and regularly using personal health equipment, and those in the control group without noise exposure. Therefore, we strongly recommend use of such equipments.       Keywords: Tires Factory, Blood Pressure, Noise Exposure

  11. Health effects of exposure to organic dust in workers of a modern hatchery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skórska, Czesława; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Golec, Marcin; Cholewa, Grazyna; Chmielowiec-Korzeniowska, Anna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the presented study was to determine the health status of workers occupationally exposed to moderate amounts of organic dust, employed in a modern hatchery with an efficient ventilation system. A group of 32 hatchery workers was examined. As a reference group, 50 urban dwellers not exposed to any kind of organic dust were examined. All people were interviewed for the presence of work-related symptoms and subjected to physical and spirometric examinations. Blood sera were examined for the presence of precipitins against 13 antigens associated with organic dust, and for the presence of total and chicken-specific No significant differences were found between the spirometric values in the group of hatchery workers and the reference group. Positive precipitin reactions were noted mostly with the antigens of Gram-negative bacteria associated with organic dust. The frequencies of positive reactions to antigens of Escherichia coli and Acinetobacter baumannii in hatchery workers were significantly greater compared to the reference group (phatchery workers were significantly greater compared to the reference group (phatchery workers was nearly 3 times greater compared to the reference group, and the difference proved to be statistically significant (pchicken feathers were detected in the blood of hatchery workers and referents. In conclusion, the examined hatchery workers showed a moderate frequency of work-related symptoms, no decline in lung function and low reactivity to most microbial and bird protein allergens. These results suggest that the effects of exposure to organic dust in workers of modern hatcheries with an efficient ventilation system are less compared to the workers of poultry farms, such as broiler or egg laying houses.

  12. Total prohibition of smoking but not partial restriction effectively reduced exposure to tobacco smoke among restaurant workers in Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jere Reijula

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess work-related exposure to tobacco smoke in Finnish restaurants, a series of nationwide questionnaire surveys were conducted among restaurant workers and the levels of indoor air nicotine concentrations were measured in restaurants. The survey aimed to evaluate the impact of the smoke-free legislation in general and in particular after the total smoking ban launched in 2007. Materials and Methods: In 2003-2010, four national questionnaire surveys were conducted among restaurant workers and the concentration of nicotine in indoor air was measured in different types of restaurants, bars and nightclubs. Results: Between 2003 and 2010, the proportion of restaurant workers reporting occupational exposure to tobacco smoke dropped from 59% to 11%. Among pub workers, the decrease was from 97% to 18% and in workers of dining restaurants from 49% to 10%, respectively. The median concentration of nicotine in indoor air of all restaurants decreased from 11.7 μg/m³ to 0.1 μg/m³. The most significant decrease was detected in pubs where the decrease was from 16.1 μg/m³ to 0.1 μg/m³. Among all restaurant workers, in 2003-2010 the prevalence of daily smokers was reduced from 39% to 31% in men and from 35% to 25% in women. Conclusion: Total prohibition of smoking but not partial restriction in restaurants was effective in reducing work-related exposure to tobacco smoke. Strict tobacco legislation may partly be associated with the significant decrease of daily smoking prevalence among restaurant workers.

  13. Orthopaedic surgeries - assessment of ionising radiations exposure in health care workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leite, E.S.; Uva, A.S.

    2006-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: 1. Objectives: The health care workers are exposed to ionizing radiations during their activities. In the operating rooms, the ionizing radiations are used in orthopaedic surgery and the dose depends on some factors, like the characteristics of the equipment. This study aims to: Estimate the occupational dose of ionizing radiations exposure of the orthopaedic doctors and nurses during the orthopaedic surgeries, in a Portuguese operating room; Sensitize the health care workers to use the individual dosimeter and to adopt radiation preventive measures. 2. Population and methods The study was conducted on nine Orthopaedic doctors and two nurses of an operating room of a hospital in Lisbon neighborhoods. We made a risk evaluating concerning: the radiations dose in different points, corresponding to gonads, hands and crystalline lens levels of all the professionals, during the surgeries; the average period of radiation in the orthopaedic surgeries; the number of annual orthopaedic surgeries, looking for that in the surgeries registers, to estimate the annual ionizing radiations dose of each orthopaedic doctor and nurse. 3. Results The annual doses estimated at different levels for orthopaedic doctors were the following: gonads: between 20,63 and 68,75 mGy; hands: 4,95 16,50 mGy; crystalline lens: 8,25 27,50 mGy). For the orthopaedic nurses: gonads: 130,63 151,25 mGy; hands: 31,35 36,30 mGy; crystalline lens 52,25 60,25 mGy. 4. Conclusions Although the location and positions of health care workers are not the same during the different surgeries and the equipment has an automatic control of the X ray emission, the annual ionizing radiations dose exposure for health care workers is an important one. The risk rating justifies the use of individual dosimeters for better individual dose assessment as part of an ionizing radiations prevention program. As a matter of fact preventive measures begin with a good quantitative risk assessment of

  14. Occupational Exposure to Mercury among Workers in a Fluorescent Lamp Factory, Quisna Industrial Zone, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Al-Batanony

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the fast growth in the market of fluorescent lamps, particularly compact fluorescent light, the associated risk of mercury exposure, which is an essential component in all types of fluorescent lamps, has received increasing public attention worldwide. Even low doses of mercury are toxic. Objective: To study the health consequences of occupational exposure to mercury in workers of a fluorescent lamp factory. Methods: In a cross-sectional study 138 workers of a florescent lamp factory and 151 people who had no occupational exposure to mercury (the comparison group were studied. Environmental study of mercury and noise levels was done. For all participants a neurobehavioral test battery was administered, spirometry was performed and air conduction audiometry was done. Urinary mercury level was also measured for all participants. Results: Prominent symptoms among workers exposed to mercury included tremors, emotional lability, memory changes, neuromuscular changes, and performance deficits in tests of cognitive function. Among the exposed group, the mean urinary mercury level was significantly higher in those who had personality changes or had manifestations of mercury toxicity. With increasing duration of employment and urinary mercury level, the performance of participants in neurobehavioral test battery and spirometric parameters deteriorated. Conclusion: Neurobehavioral test battery must be used for studying subclinical central nervous system dysfunction in those with chronic exposure to mercury. The test is especially useful for evaluating the severity of mercury effects in epidemiological studies. This study also reinforces the need for effective preventive programs for florescent lamp industry workplaces especially in developing countries with the lowest unhygienic work conditions.

  15. Sex ratio of offspring and occupational exposure to fly ash : a historical cohort study of municipal solid waste incinerator workers in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, I.; Ogawa, Y. [National Inst. of Industrial Health, Tokyo (Japan); Kumagai, S. [Osaka Prefectural Inst. of Public Health, Osaka (Japan); Koda, S. [Kochi Medical School, Nangoku (Japan); Ueno, M. [All-Japan Prefectural and Municipal Workers Union, Tokyo (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    This paper described a cohort study which focused on risk assessment for cancer mortality and changes in the sex ratio of offspring among municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) workers in Japan. A baseline survey was conducted by survey with both MSWI workers as well as a reference population of waste collection workers. Questions were related to offspring, job history, and frequency of exposure to fly ash during incinerator work. A total of 5211 records were then analyzed as well as 10,571 children. Duration of exposure to fly ash was used as a surrogate exposure index. Results showed that longer exposure to fly ash influenced the sex ratio. Results of a multivariate analysis conducted to compute the odds ratio of female birth by different exposure indices were similar to results obtained in a univariate analysis. It was concluded that an association between duration of exposure to fly ash and changes in sex ratio was determined. 5 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Standard precautions: occupational exposure and behavior of health care workers in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayalu A Reda

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure to blood and body fluids is a serious concern for health care workers, and presents a major risk for the transmission of infections such as HIV and hepatitis viruses. The objective of this study was to investigate occupational exposures and behavior of health care workers (HCWs in eastern Ethiopia.We surveyed 475 HCWs working in 10 hospitals and 20 health centers in eastern Ethiopia using a structured questionnaire with a response rate of 84.4%. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis using logistic regression were performed.Life time risks of needle stick (30.5%; 95% CI 26.4-34.6% and sharps injuries (25.7%; 95% CI 21.8-29.6% were high. The one year prevalence of needle stick and sharps injury were 17.5% (95% CI 14.1-20.9% and 13.5% (95% CI 10.4-16.6% respectively. There was a high prevalence of life time (28.8%; 95% CI = 24.7-32.9% and one year (20.2%; 95% CI = 16.6-23.8% exposures to blood and body fluids. Two hundred thirteen (44.8% HCWs reported that they were dissatisfied by the supply of infection prevention materials. HCWs had sub-optimal practices and unfavorable attitudes related to standard precautions such as needle recapping (46.9% and discriminatory attitudes (30.5% toward HIV/AIDS patients.There was a high level of exposure to blood and body fluids among HCWs. We detected suboptimal practices and behavior that put both patients and HCWs at significant risk of acquiring occupational infections. Health authorities in the study area need to improve the training of HCWs and provision of infection prevention equipment. In addition, regular reporting and assessment of occupational exposures need to be implemented.

  17. Health Inequalities among Workers with a Foreign Background in Sweden: Do Working Conditions Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Rostila

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Employment and working conditions are key social determinants of health, yet current information is lacking regarding relationships between foreign background status, working conditions and health among workers in Sweden. This study utilized cross-sectional data from the 2010 Swedish Level of Living Survey (LNU and the Level of Living Survey for Foreign Born Persons and their Children (LNU-UFB to assess whether or not health inequalities exist between native Swedish and foreign background workers and if exposure to adverse psychosocial and physical working conditions contributes to the risk for poor health among foreign background workers. A sub-sample of 4,021 employed individuals aged 18–65 was analyzed using logistic regression. Eastern European, Latin American and Other Non-Western workers had an increased risk of both poor self-rated health and mental distress compared to native Swedish workers. Exposure to adverse working conditions only minimally influenced the risk of poor health. Further research should examine workers who are less integrated or who have less secure labor market attachments and also investigate how additional working conditions may influence associations between health and foreign background status.

  18. Effect of Contemporary Exposure to Mixed Organic Solvents and Occupational Noise on Hearing Thresholds of Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attarchi Mir Saeid

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mixed organic solvent exposure, as well as noise, has a wide spread in different industries. In recent years it has been propounded that simultaneous exposure to mixed organic solvents and occupational noise can establish a hearing loss that is more severe than hearing loss due to exposure to each of them separately.Materials & Methods: A descriptive- analytic study was conducted during 2008 in an automobile industry on 441 employees in three different groups. First group were assembly workers that only exposed to noise. The second group included employees in new painting saloon that exposed not only to noise but also to permissible levels of mixed organic solvents and the third group were employees in old painting saloon that exposed to noise and mixed organic solvents in more than threshold limit value (TLV level. The prevalence of hearing loss was compared between three groups on the basis of model 1 (mean hearing threshold in frequencies 0.5, 1 and 2 KHz more than 25dB and model 2 (mean hearing threshold in frequencies 3, 4, 6 and 8 KHz more than 25dB. Results: According to model 2, in workers exposed to noise in addition to mixed organic solvents, the rate of hearing loss, was significantly higher than workers exposed to noise alone (P<0.05, even after adjusting for confounding variables using logistic regression analysis (OR= 4.12 , P<0.001.Conclusion: In workers with simultaneous exposure to mixed organic solvents and noise, special attention must be paid to accurate accomplishment of hearing conservation programs including doing audiometric exams in shorter periods and take advantage of hearing protection devices with higher noise reduction rate (NRR.

  19. Effect of Nanoparticles Exposure on Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FENO in Workers Exposed to Nanomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Te Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FENO measurement is a useful diagnostic test of airway inflammation. However, there have been few studies of FENO in workers exposed to nanomaterials. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of nanoparticle (NP exposure on FENO and to assess whether the FENO is increased in workers exposed to nanomaterials (NM. In this study, both exposed workers and non-exposed controls were recruited from NM handling plants in Taiwan. A total of 437 subjects (exposed group = 241, non-exposed group = 196 completed the FENO and spirometric measurements from 2009–2011. The authors used a control-banding (CB matrix to categorize the risk level of each participant. In a multivariate linear regression analysis, this study found a significant association between risk level 2 of NP exposure and FENO. Furthermore, asthma, allergic rhinitis, peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR, and NF-κB were also significantly associated with FENO. When the multivariate logistic regression model was adjusted for confounders, nano-TiO2 in all of the NM exposed categories had a significantly increased risk in FENO > 35 ppb. This study found associations between the risk level of NP exposure and FENO (particularly noteworthy for Nano-TiO2. Monitoring FENO in the lung could open up a window into the role nitric oxide (NO may play in pathogenesis.

  20. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO TRICHLOROETHYLENE AND CANCER RISK FOR WORKERS AT THE PADUCAH GASEOUS DIFFUSION PLANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    BAHR, DEBRA E.; ALDRICH, TIMOTHY E.; SEIDU, DAZAR; BRION, GAIL M.; TOLLERUD, DAVID J.; MULDOON, SUSAN; REINHART, NANCY; YOUSEEFAGHA, AHMED; MCKINNEY, PAUL; HUGHES, THERESE; CHAN, CAROLINE; RICE, CAROL; BREWER, DAVID E.; FREYBERG, RONALD W.; MOHLENKAMP, ADRIANE MOSER; HAHN, KRISTEN; HORNUNG, RICHARD; HO, MONA; DASTIDAR, ANIRUDDHA; FREITAS, SAMANTHA; SAMAN, DANIEL; RAVDAL, HEGE; SCUTCHFIELD, DOUGLAS; EGER, KENNETH J.; MINOR, STEVE

    2016-01-01

    Objective The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) became operational in 1952; it is located in the western part of Kentucky. We conducted a mortality study for adverse health effects that workers may have suffered while working at the plant, including exposures to chemicals. Materials and Methods We studied a cohort of 6820 workers at the PGDP for the period 1953 to 2003; there were a total of 1672 deaths to cohort members. Trichloroethylene (TCE) is a specific concern for this workforce; exposure to TCE occurred primarily in departments that clean the process equipment. The Life Table Analysis System (LTAS) program developed by NIOSH was used to calculate the standardized mortality ratios for the worker cohort and standardized rate ratio relative to exposure to TCE (the U.S. population is the referent for age-adjustment). LTAS calculated a significantly low overall SMR for these workers of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.72–0.79). A further review of three major cancers of interest to Kentucky produced significantly low SMR for trachea, bronchus, lung cancer (0.75, 95% CI: 0.72–0.79) and high SMR for Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (1.49, 95% CI: 1.02–2.10). Results No significant SMR was observed for leukemia and no significant SRRs were observed for any disease. Both the leukemia and lung cancer results were examined and determined to reflect regional mortality patterns. However, the Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma finding suggests a curious amplification when living cases are included with the mortality experience. Conclusions Further examination is recommended of this recurrent finding from all three U.S. Gaseous Diffusion plants. PMID:21468904

  1. An analysis of multimodal occupational exposure leading to blood borne infections among health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Lakshmi Priya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs. Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2% were interns and the clinical practice that led to the occupational exposure was withdrawal of blood (45.7%. Good infection control practices and emphasis on appropriate disposal are needed to increase the occupational safety for HCWs.

  2. Inventory of the chemicals and the exposure of the workers' skin to these at two leather factories in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febriana, Sri Awalia; Jungbauer, Frank; Soebono, Hardyanto; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2012-07-01

    Tannery workers are exposed to hazardous chemicals. Tannery work is outsourced to newly industrialized countries (NICs) where attention into occupational health hazards is limited. In this study, we investigated the skin exposure to hazardous chemicals in tannery workers and determined the prevalence of occupational skin diseases (OSDs) at tanneries in a NIC. A cross-sectional study on the observation of the working process and an inventory and risk assessment of the chemicals used. Classification of chemicals as potential sensitizers/irritants and a qualitative assessment of exposure to these chemicals. Workers were examined and interviewed using Nordic Occupational Skin Questionnaire-2002/LONG. The risk of OSDs at the investigated tanneries was mainly related to the exposure of the workers' skin to chemicals in hot and humid environmental conditions. In 472 workers, 12% reported a current OSD and 9% reported a history of OSD. In 10% of all cases, an OSD was confirmed by a dermatologist and 7.4% had an occupational contact dermatitis (OCD). We observed that personal protective equipment (PPE) used was mainly because of skin problems in the past and not as a primary protection against OSD. We observed a high frequency and prolonged exposure to many skin hazardous factors in tannery work although PPE was relatively easily available and which was generally used as a secondary preventative measure. The observed point-prevalence in this study was at the same level as that reported for other high-risk OSDs in Western countries and other tanneries in NICs. However, the observed point-prevalence in this study was lower than that reported in India and Korea. The results of our study and those of other studies at tanneries from other NICs were probably influenced by Healthy Worker Survivor Effect (HWSE).

  3. Estimating number of workers potentially at risk of exposure to hardwood dust in certain industrial sectors in Italy using a national register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarselli, Alberto; Di Marzio, Davide

    2014-11-24

    Hardwood dust is a well-known human carcinogen and its use is common in several economic activities. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of occupational exposure to hardwood dust in certain sectors of Italian industry. Information on occupational exposures was collected from enterprise exposure registers that must by law be reported to the National Workers' Compensation Authority, as at 31 December 2011. Data stored in the database included economic activity sector, work force size and exposed workers. The number of workers potentially exposed was estimated for some of the industrial sectors from national occupational statistics in Italy. The economic sector with the highest number of potentially exposed workers to hardwood dust was that classified as the manufacture of other wooden furniture with 15,760 men and 2,771 women, while the highest percentage of enterprises that had sent data (according to the ISTAT 2001 census) was in building and repair of non-metallic ships (21%). The systematic recording of occupational exposures is a source of data that permits recognition of high risk situations and aids exposure assessment for epidemiological studies.

  4. Oxidative Stress and Genotoxicity of Long-Term Occupational Exposure to Low Levels of BTEX in Gas Station Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Xiong

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes (BTEX can lead to multiple health injuries. However, what remains uncertain is the effect of long-term exposure to low levels of BTEX. Thus, we determined the BTEX levels in the air from the refueling and office areas in gas stations. Then we collected workers’ (200 refueling vs. 52 office workers peripheral blood samples to analyze the serum total-superoxide dismutase (T-SOD, glutathione (GSH, malondialdehyde (MDA, and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG levels. DNA damage was analyzed by the comet assay and micronucleus test in buccal epithelial cells. We found that the levels of BTEX in refueling areas were significantly higher than those in office areas (p < 0.001. The serum T-SOD and GSH of refueling workers were significantly lower than those in office workers (p < 0.001. By contrast, the serum MDA and 8-OHdG of refueling workers were significantly higher than those of office workers (p < 0.001, MDA; p = 0.025, 8-OHdG. Furthermore, tail and Olive tail moments in refueling workers were longer (p = 0.004, tail moment; p = 0.001, Olive tail moment, and the micronucleus rate was higher (p < 0.001 than those in office workers. Taken together, long-term exposure to low levels of BTEX may reduce the antioxidant ability and increase the risk of DNA damage in refueling workers of gas stations.

  5. Asbestos exposure among construction workers during demolition of old houses in Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakooei, Hossein; Normohammadi, Mohhammad

    2014-01-01

    Air quality in demolition practices has seldom been evaluated in Iran. Accordingly, we evaluated asbestos exposure among Tehran construction workers during the demolition of old houses. To identify possible sources of asbestos exposure, including thermal insulations, chimney pipes and cement sheets, were all sampled. This study also were taken the personal air samples to evaluate any asbestos exposure during the demolition. The asbestos fibers found in the samples were analyzed by phase-contrast optical microscopy (PCM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and polarized light microscopy (PLM) methods. Personal monitoring of asbestos fiber levels indicated a range from 0.01 to 0.15 PCM f/ml (0.02-0.42 SEM f/ml). The geometric mean concentrations were 0.07 PCM f/ml (0.20 SEM f/ml), which is considerably higher than the threshold limit value (TLV) proposed by American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH), which is 0.1 f/ml. The analysis showed a presence in the bulk samples only chrysotile asbestos and an absence of the other type asbestos. Therefore, it might be expected that workers who worked in the demolition of old houses will suffer from negative effects of exposing to the asbestos fibers.

  6. Inventory of the chemicals and the exposure of the workers' skin to these at two leather factories in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Febriana, Sri Awalia; Jungbauer, Frank; Soebono, Hardyanto; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    Tannery workers are exposed to hazardous chemicals. Tannery work is outsourced to newly industrialized countries (NICs) where attention into occupational health hazards is limited. In this study, we investigated the skin exposure to hazardous chemicals in tannery workers and determined the

  7. The effect of the OSHA lead exposure in construction standard on blood lead levels among iron workers employed in bridge rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, S M; Goldberg, M; Doucette, J T

    1997-03-01

    Over 50,000 workers are at risk of occupational exposure to lead in the course of renovating the nation's deteriorating infrastructure. In mid-1993, to control exposure to lead in the construction setting OSHA promulgated a Lead in Construction Standard. In this study, we assessed the effect of the mandated changes in exposure conditions which followed the introduction of this new standard. We analyzed changes in baseline and maximum blood lead concentrations and in maximum increments in blood lead levels before and after introduction of the standard among iron workers employed in the renovation of a large, lead-painted, steel bridge in New York City. Results indicated that baseline and maximum blood lead levels fell significantly after the implementation of the provisions of the standard, as did maximum increments in blood lead concentrations. Seventy-six percent of the workers maintained blood lead concentrations below 20 micrograms/dl after the OSHA standard, as compared with 66% prior to its implementation. Increments of 20 micrograms/dl or more occurred considerably more frequently before introduction of the standard (13% before vs. 4% after; p = 0.01). Evidence of decreased exposure to lead was observed among iron workers who were present both before and after the introduction of the OSHA standard, as well as among iron workers newly hired after the OSHA provisions were put in place. These findings document the effectiveness of the OSHA construction lead standard in controlling exposure to lead in this complex and variable environment. The data indicate the utility of blood lead determinations in assessing the outcome of industrial hygiene interventions to reduce exposures to lead in the construction setting.

  8. Application of ALAP concept to exposure of workers at light-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, H.W.; Cottrell, W.D.; Jacobs, D.G.

    1975-11-01

    The application of the as-low-as-practicable (ALAP) philosophy to radiation exposure of workers at light-water reactors (LWR's) has recently received increased attention. The purpose of this project is to investigate the means by which occupational exposure at operating LWR's can be reduced to the lowest practicable levels. Nine such LWR stations, including 16 operating reactors, have been studied in phase I of the project to identify significant sources of exposure and to determine the magnitude of the exposures. A complete site review consists of compiling information from safety analysis reports (SAR's), plant technical specifications, and radiation exposure records and then making an on-site visit for discussions with plant personnel, observation of procedures, and measurement of radiation levels. In phase II, specific problem areas are being studied in-depth with regard to corrective measures to reduce exposure. Information has been collected on solving the problem of exposure from valve maintenance and repair. These corrective measures will be evaluated with respect to ease of application and cost effectiveness. The results of this study will serve as technical backup for the preparation of regulatory guides

  9. Dermal exposure to jet fuel JP-8 significantly contributes to the production of urinary naphthols in fuel-cell maintenance workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yi-Chun E; Kupper, Lawrence L; Serdar, Berrin; Egeghy, Peter P; Rappaport, Stephen M; Nylander-French, Leena A

    2006-02-01

    Jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP-8) is the major jet fuel used worldwide and has been recognized as a major source of chemical exposure, both inhalation and dermal, for fuel-cell maintenance workers. We investigated the contributions of dermal and inhalation exposure to JP-8 to the total body dose of U.S. Air Force fuel-cell maintenance workers using naphthalene as a surrogate for JP-8 exposure. Dermal, breathing zone, and exhaled breath measurements of naphthalene were obtained using tape-strip sampling, passive monitoring, and glass bulbs, respectively. Levels of urinary 1- and 2-naphthols were determined in urine samples and used as biomarkers of JP-8 exposure. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to investigate the relative contributions of dermal and inhalation exposure to JP-8, and demographic and work-related covariates, to the levels of urinary naphthols. Our results show that both inhalation exposure and smoking significantly contributed to urinary 1-naphthol levels. The contribution of dermal exposure was significantly associated with levels of urinary 2-naphthol but not with urinary 1-naphthol among fuel-cell maintenance workers who wore supplied-air respirators. We conclude that dermal exposure to JP-8 significantly contributes to the systemic dose and affects the levels of urinary naphthalene metabolites. Future work on dermal xenobiotic metabolism and toxicokinetic studies are warranted in order to gain additional knowledge on naphthalene metabolism in the skin and the contribution to systemic exposure.

  10. [Biological exposure-related injuries in workers in a health system of the health service of Galicia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cores Calvo, Juan; Muñiz Saborido, José Ramón; González Iglesias, Marta Clara

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the factors involved in biological exposure-related injuries occurring in worker from a health system in Galicia, Spain. The study was conducted in a health system of the Health Service of Galicia, that included four hospitals and 72 primary care centers, with nearly 6000 workers. The study used occupational injury data available o in the injury registry of the Health Service of Galicia for the year 2011. We identified 194 biohazard-related injuries. Exposures, locations, devices, tasks and causes of these incidents were analysed. The majority of biological exposures occurred through needlestick injuries (82%). The areas where more injuries occurred were in inpatient wards (37%) and operating rooms (25%). The devices most frequently involved were suture needles (15%) and insulin needles (15%). The most frequently recorded causes were lack of training and information, together with lack of biosafety devices. Worker training and information should be promoted along with the implementation of biosafety devices, as the latter measure alone does not seem sufficient to reduce the number of injuries. Copyright belongs to the Societat Catalana de Seguretat i Medicina del Treball.

  11. Management of tritium exposures for professionally exposed workers at Cernavoda 1 NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chitu, Catalina; Simionov, Vasile [CNE-PROD Cernavoda NPP, No. 1, Medgidiei Str. Cernavoda 905200 (Romania)

    2004-07-01

    Operating experience to date of CANDU reactors has indicated that the major contributor to the internal dose of professionally exposed workers is the tritiated heavy water (DTO). CANDU reactors are both moderated and cooled by heavy water (D{sub 2}O). Tritium is produced in CANDU reactors by neutron reactions with deuterium, boron, and lithium and by ternary fission. Even small leaks from these systems can produce important contaminations with tritiated water vapours of the air in the reactor building and thus increased individual and collective internal doses. Professionally exposed workers are subject to a combination of acute and chronic tritium exposure and HTO dosimetry program at Cernavoda NPP is based on multiple sample results. The routine urine bioassay program performs the monitoring and dosimetry functions for DTO. A specialized laboratory using Liquid Scintillation Spectrometry methods currently determines tritium activities in urine samples. The frequency of biological samples submission depends on the tritium concentration in the last sample. Dose assignments resulting from routinely measured weekly and monthly urinary levels of tritium oxide are based on the method of linear interpolation unless it is known that there has been no exposure between samples (vacation). All information about these doses is stored into a dedicated electronic database and used to make periodical reports and to ensure that the legal and administrative individual and annual limits are not exceeded. A chronic unprotected exposure to small tritium dose rate (< 50{mu}Sv/h) may lead to internal doses that exceed the intervention level. In case of acute exposure an increased daily water intake combined with a proper medical intervention could reduce the effective half time of tritium 2-3 times. (authors)

  12. Biomonitoring of diesel exhaust-exposed workers. DNA and hemoglobin adducts and urinary 1-hydroxypyrene as markers of exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Sabro; Andreassen, Åshild; Farmer, Peter B.

    1996-01-01

    Diesel exhaust-exposed workers have been shown to have an increased risk of lung cancer. A battery of biomarkers were evaluated for their ability to assess differences in exposure to genotoxic compounds in bus garage workers and mechanics and controls. Lymphocyte DNA adducts were analyzed using...... correlated with HPU but not with DNA adducts. The levels of HPU in urine were 0.11 micromol/mol creatinine compared to 0.05 in controls. All three assays applied were sensitive enough to evaluate a low level of exposure to environmental pollutants, with postlabelling and GC-MS as the most sensitive assays....... The study indicated that skin absorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) might be an important factor to consider when studying PAH exposure from air pollution sources....

  13. Endotoxin exposure and lung cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature on agriculture and cotton textile workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenters, Virissa; Basinas, Ioannis; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Boffetta, Paolo; Checkoway, Harvey; Coggon, David; Portengen, Lützen; Sim, Malcolm; Wouters, Inge M; Heederik, Dick; Vermeulen, Roel

    2010-04-01

    To examine the association between exposure to endotoxins and lung cancer risk by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies of workers in the cotton textile and agricultural industries; industries known for high exposure levels of endotoxins. Risk estimates were extracted from studies published before 2009 that met predefined quality criteria, including 8 cohort, 1 case-cohort, and 2 case-control studies of cotton textile industry workers, and 15 cohort and 2 case-control studies of agricultural workers. Summary risk estimates were calculated using random effects meta-analyses. Potential sources of heterogeneity were explored through subgroup analyses. The summary risk of lung cancer was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.57-0.90) for textile workers and 0.62 (0.52-0.75) for agricultural workers. The relative risk of lung cancer was below 1.0 for most subgroups defined according to sex, study design, outcome, smoking adjustment, and geographic area. Two studies provided quantitative estimates of endotoxin exposure and both studies tended to support a dose-dependent protective effect of endotoxins on lung cancer risk. Despite several limitations, this meta-analysis based on high-quality studies adds weight to the hypothesis that occupational exposure to endotoxin in cotton textile production and agriculture is protective against lung cancer.

  14. Planning Tools For Estimating Radiation Exposure At The National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbeke, J.; Young, M.; Brereton, S.; Dauffy, L.; Hall, J.; Hansen, L.; Khater, H.; Kim, S.; Pohl, B.; Sitaraman, S.

    2010-01-01

    A set of computational tools was developed to help estimate and minimize potential radiation exposure to workers from material activation in the National Ignition Facility (NIF). AAMI (Automated ALARA-MCNP Interface) provides an efficient, automated mechanism to perform the series of calculations required to create dose rate maps for the entire facility with minimal manual user input. NEET (NIF Exposure Estimation Tool) is a web application that combines the information computed by AAMI with a given shot schedule to compute and display the dose rate maps as a function of time. AAMI and NEET are currently used as work planning tools to determine stay-out times for workers following a given shot or set of shots, and to help in estimating integrated doses associated with performing various maintenance activities inside the target bay. Dose rate maps of the target bay were generated following a low-yield 10 16 D-T shot and will be presented in this paper.

  15. Dosimetry is Key to Good Epidemiology: Workers at Mallinckrodt Chemical Works had Seven Different Source Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Elizabeth D; Boice, John D; Golden, Ashley P; Girardi, David J; Cohen, Sarah S; Mumma, Michael T; Shore, Roy E; Leggett, Richard W; Kerr, George D

    2018-04-01

    Mallinckrodt Chemical Works was the earliest uranium processing facility in the Manhattan Project, beginning in 1942. Even then, concern existed about possible health effects resulting from exposure to radiation and pitchblende dust. This concern was well founded as the facility processed Belgian Congo pitchblende ore that was up to 60% pure uranium with high U content and up to 100 mg of radium per ton. Workers were exposed to external gamma radiation plus internal radiation from inhalation and ingestion of pitchblende dust (uranium, radium, and silica). Multiple sources of exposure were available for organ dose reconstruction to a degree unique for an epidemiologic study. Personal film badge measures available from 1945 captured external exposures. Additional external exposure included 15,518 occupational medical x-rays and 210 radiation exposure records from other facilities outside of Mallinckrodt employment. Organ dose calculations considered organ-specific coefficients that account for photon energy and job-specific orientation of workers to the radiation source during processing. Intakes of uranium and radium were based on 39,451 uranium urine bioassays and 2,341 breath radon measurements, and International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 68 biokinetic models were used to estimate organ-specific radiation absorbed dose. Estimates of exposure to airborne radon and its short-lived progeny were based on radon measurements in work areas where radium-containing materials were handled or stored, together with estimated exposure times in these areas based on job titles. Dose estimates for radon and its short-lived progeny were based on models and methods recently recommended in ICRP Publication 137. This comprehensive dosimetric approach follows methods outlined by the National Council on Radiation Protection Scientific Committee 6-9 for the Million Worker Study. Annual doses were calculated for six organs: lung, brain, heart, kidney, colon

  16. Chickenpox ARDS in a health care worker following occupational exposure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Knaggs, A

    2012-02-03

    A case is described of chickenpox acute respiratory distress syndrome in an ambulance driver after the inter-hospital transfer of a patient known to have chickenpox pneumonia. Following this exposure, he neither avoided patient contact nor received varicella zoster immune globulin. He subsequently required 13 days of ventilatory support before making a full recovery. The case described supports the contention that health care workers should be screened by serology for immunity to chickenpox before patient contact occurs, with subsequent vaccination of those who are non-immune, when the vaccine becomes available.

  17. Effects of bioaerosol exposure on respiratory health in compost workers: a 13-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kampen, V; Hoffmeyer, F; Deckert, A; Kendzia, B; Casjens, S; Neumann, H D; Buxtrup, M; Willer, E; Felten, C; Schöneich, R; Brüning, T; Raulf, M; Bünger, J

    2016-12-01

    To determine the risk of German compost workers developing chronic respiratory effects from long-term exposure to bioaerosols. Respiratory health was determined in 74 currently exposed compost workers and 37 non-exposed controls after 13 years of follow-up. In addition, 42 former compost workers (drop-outs) who left their work during the follow-up period were also examined. Respiratory symptoms and working conditions were assessed using identical questionnaires as at baseline. In addition, lung function was measured using the same spirometer as in the initial study. Sera from both surveys were tested for specific IgE and IgG antibodies to moulds and the risk of work-related symptoms was evaluated using regression approaches for prospective studies with binary data. In the follow-up period, the number of participants reporting cough significantly increased in compost workers and drop-outs compared to the controls. Working as a compost worker for at least 5 years increased the relative risk for cough (RR 1.28; 95% CI 1.2 to 1.4) and for cough with phlegm (RR 1.32; 95% CI 1.2 to 1.5). Current and former compost workers had slightly lower predicted percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 s and predicted percentage of forced vital capacity than controls, but decrease in lung function during follow-up was not different among the 3 groups. In addition, no significant changes could be detected in antibody concentrations. Our results suggest that chronic exposure to bioaerosols in composting plants is related to a significantly higher risk for cough with phlegm, indicating chronic bronchitis. However, compost workers showed no higher incidence of deterioration of pulmonary function over the study. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  18. Exploration of different methods for measuring DDT exposure among malaria vector-control workers in Limpopo Province, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalvie, M.A.; Myers, J.E.; Thompson, M.L.; Robins, T.G.; Omar, Shaheed; Riebow, John

    2004-01-01

    DDT compounds are used in many developing countries, including South Africa, for the control of malaria vectors. This study investigated biological exposures among workers in relation to job history. A cross-sectional study of 59 workers at the Malaria Control Centre (MCC) in Tzaneen, South Africa, was performed. Tests included a job history questionnaire and the measurement of serum o'p' and p'p' isomers of DDE, DDT, and DDD, corrected for serum total lipids. Forty-seven (80%) workers donated a blood sample for the determination of serum DDT. The mean number of years worked at the MCC (malaria years) was 15.8±7.8 years and the mean serum DDT was 94.3±57.1 μg/g of lipid. There were no significant associations between short-to-medium-term serum DDT exposure measures (o'p'-DDE and o'p' and p'p' isomers of DDD and DDT) and malaria years. The long-term exposure measure, p'p'-DDE, was significantly associated with malaria years (β-circumflex=3.0±1.2 μg/g lipid/year; P=0.001; n=47; adjusted for age), but only 27% variance of p'p'-DDE was explained. Blood total DDT uncorrected for lipid content was strongly related to corrected levels (β-circumflex=0.74±0.48, P=0.00, R 2 =0.77), but uncorrected p'p'-DDE had a weaker association (β-circumflex=0.0024±0.0013, P=0.074; R 2 =0.53) with malaria years than did corrected levels (β-circumflex=0.042±0.017; P=0.016; R 2 =0.56). The results show that serum DDT levels for malaria vector-control workers in South Africa with a long-term spraying history are high. Job history information on DDT exposures must be very detailed in order to provide valid estimates of exposure

  19. Assessment of exposure to hand-arm vibration and its related health effects in workers employed in stone cutting workshops of Hamadan city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Bayat

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The workers employed in stone cutting workplace are exposed to hand-arm vibration and its complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure to hand-arm vibration and its health effects on workers in the stone cutting workshops. Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, 40 workers of Hamadan city stone cutting who worked with stone cutting machines were examined. Measuring exposure to hand-arm vibration was performed by standard methods ISO 5349. Symptoms related hand-arm vibration syndrome using a questionnaire construction was studied. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Results: Results showed that 8-hour equivalent acceleration of hand-arm vibration exposure in stonecuttingworkers was exceeds the permissible exposure levels of country (Pv<0.05. Most average hand and arm vibration acceleration was measured in the Z axis. The average vibration acceleration hand-arm and cutting transverse and longitudinal cutting significant difference was observed (Pv<0.05. Conclusion: In regard to exposure level of stone cutting workers compared with the national exposure limit, the training of health care, non-smoking, and use of anti-vibration gloves, work rotations canthe effective in reducing the risk of health effects. Furthermore, it seems essential to track the health effects associated with human vibration by use of screening tests in the work place seem.

  20. External radiation dose and cancer mortality among French nuclear workers: considering potential confounding by internal radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, L; Laurent, O; Samson, E; Caër-Lorho, S; Laroche, P; Le Guen, B; Laurier, D; Leuraud, K

    2016-11-01

    French nuclear workers have detailed records of their occupational exposure to external radiation that have been used to examine associations with subsequent cancer mortality. However, some workers were also exposed to internal contamination by radionuclides. This study aims to assess the potential for bias due to confounding by internal contamination of estimates of associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality. A cohort of 59,004 workers employed for at least 1 year between 1950 and 1994 by CEA (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique), AREVA NC, or EDF (Electricité de France) and badge-monitored for external radiation exposure were followed through 2004 to assess vital status and cause of death. A flag based on a workstation-exposure matrix defined four levels of potential for internal contamination. Standardized mortality ratios were assessed for each level of the internal contamination indicator. Poisson regression was used to quantify associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality, adjusting for potential internal contamination. For solid cancer, the mortality deficit tended to decrease as the levels of potential for internal contamination increased. For solid cancer and leukemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia, adjusting the dose-response analysis on the internal contamination indicator did not markedly change the excess relative risk per Sievert of external radiation dose. This study suggests that in this cohort, neglecting information on internal dosimetry while studying the association between external dose and cancer mortality does not generate a substantial bias. To investigate more specifically the health effects of internal contamination, an effort is underway to estimate organ doses due to internal contamination.

  1. External radiation dose and cancer mortality among French nuclear workers. Considering potential confounding by internal radiation exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fournier, L.; Laurent, O.; Samson, E.; Caer-Lorho, S.; Laurier, D.; Leuraud, K. [Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety, Fontenay aux Roses (France). Ionizing Radiation Epidemiology Lab.; Laroche, P. [AREVA, Paris (France); Le Guen, B. [EDF, Saint Denis (France)

    2016-11-15

    French nuclear workers have detailed records of their occupational exposure to external radiation that have been used to examine associations with subsequent cancer mortality. However, some workers were also exposed to internal contamination by radionuclides. This study aims to assess the potential for bias due to confounding by internal contamination of estimates of associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality. A cohort of 59,004 workers employed for at least 1 year between 1950 and 1994 by CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), AREVA NC, or EDF (Electricite de France) and badge-monitored for external radiation exposure were followed through 2004 to assess vital status and cause of death. A flag based on a workstation-exposure matrix defined four levels of potential for internal contamination. Standardized mortality ratios were assessed for each level of the internal contamination indicator. Poisson regression was used to quantify associations between external radiation exposure and cancer mortality, adjusting for potential internal contamination. For solid cancer, the mortality deficit tended to decrease as the levels of potential for internal contamination increased. For solid cancer and leukemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukemia, adjusting the dose-response analysis on the internal contamination indicator did not markedly change the excess relative risk per Sievert of external radiation dose. This study suggests that in this cohort, neglecting information on internal dosimetry while studying the association between external dose and cancer mortality does not generate a substantial bias. To investigate more specifically the health effects of internal contamination, an effort is underway to estimate organ doses due to internal contamination.

  2. Flame retardant exposure: polybrominated diphenyl ethers in blood from Swedish workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjödin, A; Hagmar, L; Klasson-Wehler, E; Kronholm-Diab, K; Jakobsson, E; Bergman, A

    1999-08-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as additives in polymers and textiles to prohibit the development of fires. Because of the production and use of PBDEs, their lipophilic characteristics, and persistence, these compounds have become ubiquitous environmental contaminants. The aim of the present study was to determine potential exposures of PBDEs to clerks working full-time at computer screens and personnel at an electronics-dismantling plant, with hospital cleaners as a control group. Five PBDE congeners--2,2',4,4'-tetraBDE; 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaBDE; 2,2',4,4',5, 6'-hexaBDE; 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptaBDE; and decaBDE--were quantified in blood serum from all three categories of workers. Subjects working at the dismantling plant showed significantly higher levels of all PBDE congeners in their serum as compared to the control group. Decabromodiphenyl ether is present in concentrations of 5 pmol/g lipid weight (lw) in the personnel dismantling electronics; these concentrations are comparable to the concentrations of 2,2',4, 4'-tetraBDE. The latter compound was the dominating PBDE congener in the clerks and cleaners. The major compound in personnel at the dismantling plant was 2,2',3,4,4',5',6-heptaBDE. Concentrations of this PBDE congener are almost twice as high as for 2,2',4, 4'-tetraBDE in these workers and seventy times the level of this heptaBDE in cleaners. The total median PBDE concentrations in the serum from workers at the electronics-dismantling plant, clerks, and cleaners were 37, 7.3, and 5.4 pmol/g lw, respectively. The results show that decabromodiphenyl ether is bioavailable and that occupational exposure to PBDEs occurs at the electronics-dismantling plant.

  3. Effects on Chinese restaurant workers of exposure to cooking oil fumes: a cautionary note on urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chih-Hong; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Wu, Kuen-Yuh

    2008-12-01

    This study evaluates oxidative DNA damage in workers who are exposed to cooking oil fumes (COFs) in Chinese restaurants. The study participants were 387 nonsmoking Chinese restaurant workers, 202 kitchen staff, and 185 service staff at 23 Chinese restaurants in Taiwan. Airborne particulate matter and particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels were monitored in kitchens and dining areas. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) was used as an internal dose of exposure to COFs, and urinary 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) was used as an oxidative DNA damage marker. The relationship between workers' 8-OHdG and 1-OHP levels was estimated using linear mixed-effects models. Airborne particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons levels in kitchens significantly exceeded those in dining areas. The kitchen staff's geometric mean levels of urinary 8-OHdG (7.9 microg/g creatinine) and 1-OHP (4.5 microg/g creatinine) were significantly higher than those of the service staff, which were 5.4 and 2.7 microg/g creatinine, respectively. Urinary 1-OHP level, work in kitchens, gender, and work hours per day were four significant predictors of urinary 8-OHdG levels after adjustments are made for covariates. Oxidative DNA damage was associated with exposure of Chinese restaurant workers to COFs. Female restaurant workers had a greater oxidative stress response to COFs than male restaurant workers, providing additional evidence of the link between lung cancer in Chinese women and exposure to COFs.

  4. Remediation workers' exposure assessment feasibility study at the Department of Energy's Mound Site: Phase 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.W.; Back, D.A.

    1997-10-01

    The Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), subsequent to the implementation of a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the Departments of Energy (DOE) and Health and Human Services, conducts a program of independent occupational and environmental research studies with funding from DOE. This document on the DOE Mound site represents the second background site document prepared for the development of the NIOSH project entitled: Exposure Assessment of Hazardous Waste (HW), Decontamination (De), Dismantlement (Di), and Clean Up Workers (CW). The purpose of this document is to assemble information relevant to Remediation Workers performing HW, De, Di, and CW task activities at the DOE Mound site addressing four primary objectives. The objectives are: identification of Remediation Workers performing HW, De, Di, and CW task activities anticipated or in progress from the recent past through the next five to 10 years; demographic definition of the workforce performing these activities; identification of the technologies in use or proposed to be used (including considerations regarding health and safety impact upon the workforce); and assembly of summary information for potential chemical, mixed, and radiological contaminant exposure that may be encountered during these processes

  5. Evaluation of an external exposure of a worker during manipulation with waste packages stored in Bohunice radioactive waste treatment centre

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slimak, A.; Hrncir, T.; Necas, V.

    2012-01-01

    The paper briefly describes current state of radioactive waste management as well as radioactive waste treatment and conditioning technologies used in Bohunice Radioactive Waste Treatment Centre. Radioactive Waste management includes pretreatment, treatment, conditioning, storage, transport and disposal of radioactive waste. Presented paper deals with the evaluation of an external exposure of a worker during manipulation with fibre-reinforced concrete container stored under shelter object. The external exposure of a worker was evaluated using VISIPLAN 3D ALARA code. (Authors)

  6. Impact of exposure to low levels of mercury on the health of dental workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leda Freitas Jesus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the impact of exposure to mercury on the health of workers comparing dentists and dental assistants exposed to mercury by handling amalgam in a public dental clinic with a reference group which, in private offices, did not make use of the metal in their professional routine. Data collection included mercury levels in urine and air samples determined by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, questionnaires and direct observation. The difference between urine and air samples in both groups was statistically significant while mercury levels in air and urine showed positive associations. Mercury concentration in urine correlated with gender, practice time, and age of workers. Half of those exposed had complaints compatible with mercury contamination. Among the exposed, the most common complaints were cognitive and neurocognitive symptoms. Correlations between symptoms and exposure time and also number of amalgam fillings placed per week were positive. Amalgam handling resulted in environmental and biological contamination by mercury.

  7. Assessing the health effects associated with occupational radiation exposure in Korean radiation workers: protocol for a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Songwon; Lim, Wan Young; Lee, Dal Nim; Kim, Jung Un; Cha, Eun Shil; Bang, Ye Jin; Lee, Won Jin; Park, Sunhoo; Jin, Young Woo

    2018-03-30

    The cancer risk of radiation exposure in the moderate-to-high dose range has been well established. However, the risk remains unclear at low-dose ranges with protracted low-dose rate exposure, which is typical of occupational exposure. Several epidemiological studies of Korean radiation workers have been conducted, but the data were analysed retrospectively in most cases. Moreover, groups with relatively high exposure, such as industrial radiographers, have been neglected. Therefore, we have launched a prospective cohort study of all Korean radiation workers to assess the health effects associated with occupational radiation exposure. Approximately 42 000 Korean radiation workers registered with the Nuclear Safety and Security Commission from 2016 to 2017 are the initial target population of this study. Cohort participants are to be enrolled through a nationwide self-administered questionnaire survey between 24 May 2016 and 30 June 2017. As of 31 March 2017, 22 982 workers are enrolled in the study corresponding to a response rate of 75%. This enrolment will be continued at 5-year intervals to update information on existing study participants and recruit newly hired workers. Survey data will be linked with the national dose registry, the national cancer registry, the national vital statistics registry and national health insurance data via personal identification numbers. Age-specific and sex-specific standardised incidence and mortality ratios will be calculated for overall comparisons of cancer risk. For dose-response assessment, excess relative risk (per Gy) and excess absolute risk (per Gy) will be estimated with adjustments for birth year and potential confounders, such as lifestyle factors and socioeconomic status. This study has received ethical approval from the institutional review board of the Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences (IRB No. K-1603-002-034). All participants provided written informed consent prior to enrolment. The findings

  8. The Relationship between Occupational Exposure to Lead and Hearing Loss in a Cross-Sectional Survey of Iranian Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiasvand, Masoumeh; Mohammadi, Saber; Roth, Brett; Ranjbar, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Ototoxic effect of exposure to lead has been reported by many researchers. This study was undertaken with a view to investigate the relationship between blood lead level (BLL) and hearing loss in workers in a lead-acid battery manufacturing plant in Tehran, Iran. In a cross-sectional study, 609 male workers were recruited from different locations in the factory. Association between BLL and hearing loss in different frequencies were measured. Relationships were analyzed by logistic regressions. Statistical significance was defined as p-value workers with mean age 40 ± 7 years and mean noise exposure level of 80 (75-85) dB were evaluated. BLLs were categorized into four quartiles, and hearing loss in each quartile was compared to the first one. In our regression models, BLL was associated significantly with high frequency hearing loss, adjusted odds ratios for the comparison of the fourth, third, and second quartiles to the first one are respectively: 3.98 (95% CI: 1.63-9.71, p hearing loss, after adjusting for potential confounders (age, body mass index, work duration, smoking, and occupational noise exposure) in logistic regressions. It is concluded that periodic hearing assessment by pure tone audiometry in workers exposed to lead should be recommended. However, additional studies are required to clarify the mechanisms of lead ototoxicity.

  9. A survey of environmental exposure amongst locoshed workers by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.K.N.; Garg, A.N.

    1995-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) has been used for the determination of 16 elements in hair of locoshed workers (n=10) to study environmental exposure. A comparison of mean elemental contents with control (n=11) shows a significant enhancement for Cr, Th, Ca, Se and Na whereas Br and Sb show a declining trend. (author). 4 refs., 1 tab

  10. Livestock-associated MRSA ST398 carriage in pig slaughterhouse workers related to quantitative environmental exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, M.J.; Bos, M.E.H.; Duim, B.; Urlings, B.A.P.; Heres, L.; Wagenaar, J.A.; Heederik, D.J.J.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) carriage among workers in pig slaughterhouses and assess associated risk factors, including occupational exposure to LA-MRSA. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in three Dutch pig slaughterhouses was

  11. Fungi, beta-Glucan, and Bacteria in Nasal Lavage of Greenhouse Workers and Their Relation to Occupational Exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, A. M.; Tendal, K.; Thilsing, T.

    2013-01-01

    occupational exposure to fungi, -glucan, and bacteria and contents of fungi, -glucan, and bacteria in nasal lavage (NAL) of greenhouse workers. We also studied whether contents of microorganisms in NAL were related to gender, time of the work week, and runny nose. NAL samples (n 135) were taken Monday morning....... The ratios of fungi in NAL between Thursday at noon and Monday morning were 14 (median value) for men and 3.5 for women. Gender had no effect on the exposure level but had a significant effect on the content of fungi, -glucan, and bacteria in NAL, with the highest contents in NAL of men. On Thursdays......, the median content of fungi in NAL samples of men without runny noses was 9408 cfu per NAL sample, whereas the same content for women was 595 cfu per NAL sample. Workers with runny noses had fewer fungi in NAL than workers without runny noses. A higher content of -glucan per fungal spore was found in NAL...

  12. Impact of the Spanish smoking law on exposure to second-hand smoke and respiratory health in hospitality workers: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Esteve; Fu, Marcela; Pascual, José A; López, María J; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Schiaffino, Anna; Martínez-Sánchez, Jose M; Ariza, Carles; Saltó, Esteve; Nebot, Manel

    2009-01-01

    A smoke-free law came into effect in Spain on 1st January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, whose proprietors can choose among totally a smoke-free policy, a partial restriction with designated smoking areas, or no restriction on smoking on the premises. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers by assessing second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure and the frequency of respiratory symptoms before and one year after the ban. We formed a baseline cohort of 431 hospitality workers in Spain and 45 workers in Portugal and Andorra. Of them, 318 (66.8%) were successfully followed up 12 months after the ban, and 137 nonsmokers were included in this analysis. We obtained self-reported exposure to SHS and the presence of respiratory symptoms, and collected saliva samples for cotinine measurement. Salivary cotinine decreased by 55.6% after the ban among nonsmoker workers in venues where smoking was totally prohibited (from median of 1.6 ng/ml before to 0.5 ng/ml, phospitality venues where smoking was totally banned. Among nonsmoker hospitality workers in bars and restaurants where smoking was allowed, exposure to SHS after the ban remained similar to pre-law levels. The partial restrictions on smoking in Spanish hospitality venues do not sufficiently protect hospitality workers against SHS or its consequences for respiratory health.

  13. Hearing effects from intermittent and continuous noise exposure in a study of Korean factory workers and firefighters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung In-Sung

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Korea and surrounding countries in East Asia are believed to have the highest proportion in the world of high frequency hearing loss due to occupational noise exposure, yet there has been limited information published in international journals, and limited information for control of noise in local workplaces beyond strategies from western countries. We exploit medical surveillance information from two worker groups to enhance local knowledge about noise-induced hearing loss and explore the possible importance of shift work to risk. Methods Four-years of hearing data were evaluated for 81 male farm machine factory workers and 371 male firefighters who had successfully completed a health examination and questionnaires for the duration of the study period. The averages of hearing thresholds at 2, 3, and 4 kHz were used as the primary end-point for comparison. Repeat measure analysis adjusted for age, exposure duration and smoking status was used to measure the difference in hearing threshold between the two groups. Results Noise levels were measured in the factory at a mean of 82 dBA, with a range of 66-97. No concurrent measurements were taken for the firefighters, but historic comparison values showed a wider range but a similar mean of 76-79 dBA. Although losses during follow-up were negligible, the factory workers had significantly (P 25 dB loss. Firefighters also showed increased losses associated with longer exposure duration, but these were significantly less marked. Losses at lower frequencies ( Conclusions Korean work environments with continuous noise exposure in the measured range should consider implementation of a hearing conservation program. Further evaluation of hearing loss in workers exposed to irregular or intermittent high noise levels, such as firefighters, is also warranted.

  14. Occupational exposure levels of bioaerosol components are associated with serum levels of the acute phase protein Serum Amyloid A in greenhouse workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Thilsing, Trine; Bælum, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    to elevated levels of bioaerosols. The objective of this study is to assess whether greenhouse workers personal exposure to bioaerosol components was associated with serum levels of the acute phase proteins Serum Amyloid A (SAA) and C-reactive protein (CRP). METHODS: SAA and CRP levels were determined......-glucan. RESULTS: Serum levels of SAA and CRP were not significantly different in greenhouse workers and a reference group, or on the two work days. In a mixed model, SAA levels were positively associated with endotoxin exposure levels (p = 0.0007). Results for fungi were not clear. CRP levels were positively...... associated with endotoxin exposures (p = 0.022). Furthermore, when workers were categorized into three groups based on SAA and CRP serum levels endotoxin exposure was highest in the group with the highest SAA levels and in the group with middle and highest CRP levels. SAA and CRP levels were elevated...

  15. Perceptions of pesticides exposure risks by operators, workers, residents and bystanders in Greece, Italy and the UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remoundou, K.; Brennan, M. [Food and Society Group, Centre for Rural Economy, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE19 1AA (United Kingdom); Sacchettini, G. [Opera Research Centre, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Piacenza, 29100 Piacenza (Italy); Panzone, L. [Food and Society Group, Centre for Rural Economy, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE19 1AA (United Kingdom); Butler-Ellis, M.C. [Silsoe Spray Applications Unit, NIAB, Building 42, Wrest Park, Silsoe, Bedford MK45 4HP (United Kingdom); Capri, E. [Opera Research Centre, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Piacenza, 29100 Piacenza (Italy); Charistou, A.; Chaideftou, E. [Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 8 Stefanou Delta Street, Kifissia, Athens 14561 (Greece); Gerritsen-Ebben, M.G. [TNO Innovation for Life, Utrechtseweg 48, 3704 HE Zeist (Netherlands); Machera, K. [Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 8 Stefanou Delta Street, Kifissia, Athens 14561 (Greece); Spanoghe, P. [Department of Crop Protection, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Glass, R. [Food and Environmental Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York Y0411LZ (United Kingdom); Marchis, A. [Opera Research Centre, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Piacenza, 29100 Piacenza (Italy); Doanngoc, K. [Department of Crop Protection, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Hart, A. [Food and Environmental Research Agency, Sand Hutton, York Y0411LZ (United Kingdom); Frewer, L.J., E-mail: Lynn.Frewer@newcastle.ac.uk [Food and Society Group, Centre for Rural Economy, School of Agriculture, Food and Rural Development, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE19 1AA (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-01

    The EU Directive on the sustainable use of pesticides (EU128/2009/EC) requires European Member States to develop training activities targeting occupational exposure to pesticides, and communication material aimed at residents and bystanders. Risk perceptions, knowledge and attitudes associated with passive and occupational exposure to pesticide potentially influence the extent to which different stakeholders adopt self-protective behaviour. A methodology for assessing the link between attitudes, adoption of self-protective behaviours and exposure was developed and tested. A survey was implemented in the Greece, Italy and the UK, and targeted stakeholders associated with pesticide exposure linked to orchards, greenhouse crops and arable crops respectively. The results indicated that the adoption of protective measures is low for residents and bystanders, with the exception of residents in Greece, when compared to operators and workers, who tend to follow recommended safety practices. A regression analysis was used to examine the factors affecting the probability of adopting protective measures as well the as the level of exposure in the case of operators and workers where data are available. The results indicate that the likelihood of engaging in self-protective behaviour is not significantly affected by perceptions of own health being affected by pesticides for residents and bystanders. However, operators who perceive that their heath has been negatively affected by the use of pesticides are found to be more likely to adopt self-protective behaviours. Gender and country differences, in perceptions, attitudes and self-protection are also observed. Recommendations for improved communication, in particular for vulnerable groups, are provided. - Highlights: • Perceptions of risks associated with pesticide exposure were assessed • Surveys were conducted in Greece, Italy and the UK targeting vulnerable stakeholders • Perceptions of risk were associated with

  16. Perceptions of pesticides exposure risks by operators, workers, residents and bystanders in Greece, Italy and the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remoundou, K.; Brennan, M.; Sacchettini, G.; Panzone, L.; Butler-Ellis, M.C.; Capri, E.; Charistou, A.; Chaideftou, E.; Gerritsen-Ebben, M.G.; Machera, K.; Spanoghe, P.; Glass, R.; Marchis, A.; Doanngoc, K.; Hart, A.; Frewer, L.J.

    2015-01-01

    The EU Directive on the sustainable use of pesticides (EU128/2009/EC) requires European Member States to develop training activities targeting occupational exposure to pesticides, and communication material aimed at residents and bystanders. Risk perceptions, knowledge and attitudes associated with passive and occupational exposure to pesticide potentially influence the extent to which different stakeholders adopt self-protective behaviour. A methodology for assessing the link between attitudes, adoption of self-protective behaviours and exposure was developed and tested. A survey was implemented in the Greece, Italy and the UK, and targeted stakeholders associated with pesticide exposure linked to orchards, greenhouse crops and arable crops respectively. The results indicated that the adoption of protective measures is low for residents and bystanders, with the exception of residents in Greece, when compared to operators and workers, who tend to follow recommended safety practices. A regression analysis was used to examine the factors affecting the probability of adopting protective measures as well the as the level of exposure in the case of operators and workers where data are available. The results indicate that the likelihood of engaging in self-protective behaviour is not significantly affected by perceptions of own health being affected by pesticides for residents and bystanders. However, operators who perceive that their heath has been negatively affected by the use of pesticides are found to be more likely to adopt self-protective behaviours. Gender and country differences, in perceptions, attitudes and self-protection are also observed. Recommendations for improved communication, in particular for vulnerable groups, are provided. - Highlights: • Perceptions of risks associated with pesticide exposure were assessed • Surveys were conducted in Greece, Italy and the UK targeting vulnerable stakeholders • Perceptions of risk were associated with

  17. Comparison of asbestos-associated respiratory disease by medical examination between shipyard retiree and workers of active service with asbestos exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Tooru; Yoshida, Toshiaki; Fujisawa, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Ayako; Ikeda, Hideki; Kawano, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    We examined 407 shipyard workers with asbestos exposure (406 men and one woman; mean age, 60.4 years) for asbestos-associated respiratory disease using the multi-slice chest CT in addition to the regular examinations. After the examination, workers with suspicion of malignancy by the multi-slice CT, other examinations including biopsy were performed to make the final diagnosis. We divided these people into two groups as follows; retiree (133 cases, 132 men and one woman; mean age, 65.9 years) and workers of shipyard active service (274 cases, all men, mean age, 57.6 years). We compared the incidence of asbestos-associated respiratory disease, age, incubation time and work period at asbestos exposure in these two groups. 97 of 133 (72.9%) retired workers and 94 of 274 (34.4%) active service had asbestos-associated respiratory disease as follows: pleural plaque without calcification, 25 cases (18.8%) (retired) and 35 (12.8%) (active service); pleural plaque with calcification, 65 (48.7%) and 51 (18.6%); diffuse pleural thickening, 0 (0%) and 0 (0%); asbestosis, 5 (3.8%) and 6 (2.2%); lung cancer, 1 case (0.8%) and 2 cases (0.7%) and malignant pleural mesothelioma 1 case (0.8%) and none (0%). The rate of workers with total asbestos-associated respiratory disease in the retired group was significantly higher than that in active service (P<0.01). Especially pleural plaque with calcification were detected more in shipyard retired workers than active service workers. The incidence of pleural plaque is related to age and incubation time but not to work period at asbestos exposure. (author)

  18. Operational tank leak detection and minimization during retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertzel, J.S.

    1996-03-01

    This report evaluates the activities associated with the retrieval of wastes from the single-shell tanks proposed under the initial Single-Shell Tank Retrieval System. This report focuses on minimizing leakage during retrieval by using effective leak detection and mitigating actions. After reviewing the historical data available on single-shell leakage, and evaluating current leak detection technology, this report concludes that the only currently available leak detection method which can function within the most probable leakage range is the mass balance system. If utilized after each sluicing campaign, this method should allow detection at a leakage value well below the leakage value where significant health effects occur which is calculated for each tank. Furthermore, this report concludes that the planned sequence or sluicing activities will serve to further minimize the probability and volume of leaks by keeping liquid away from areas with the greatest potential for leaking. Finally, this report identifies a series of operational responses which when used in conjunction with the recommended sluicing sequence and leak detection methods will minimize worker exposure and environmental safety health risks

  19. Occupational radiation exposure in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Full text: This symposium forms an essential part of the continuing tradition of subjecting nuclear energy to periodic review to assess the adequacy of radiation protection practices and experiences and to identify those areas needing further study and development. Specifically, the symposium focused on a review of statistical data on radiation exposure experience to workers in the nuclear fuel cycle through 1978. The technical sessions were concerned with occupational exposures: experienced in Member States; in research and development facilities; in nuclear power plants; in nuclear Fuel reprocessing facilities; in waste management facilities; and techniques to minimize doses. A critical review was made of internal and external exposures to the following occupational groups: uranium miners; mill workers; fuel fabricators; research personnel, reactor workers; maintenance staff; hot cell workers; reprocessing plant personnel; waste management personnel. In particular, attention was devoted to the work activities causing the highest radiation exposures and successful techniques which have been used to minimize individual and collective doses. Also there was an exchange of information on the trends of occupational exposure over the lifespan of individual nuclear power plants and other facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle. During the last session there was a detailed panel discussion on the conclusions and future needs highlighted during the symposium. While past symposia on nuclear power and its fuel cycle have presented data on occupational dose statistics, this symposium was the first to focus attention on the experience and trends of occupational exposure in recent years. The papers presented an authoritative account of the status of the levels and trends of the average annual individual dose as well as the annual collective dose for occupational workers in most of the world up to 1979. From the data presented it became evident that considerable progress has been

  20. Do hearing threshold levels in workers of the furniture industry reflect their exposure to noise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Pawlaczyk-Łuszczyńska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to analyze the hearing status of employees of a furniture factory with respect to their exposure to noise and the presence of additional risk factors of noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL. Material and Methods: Noise measurements, questionnaire survey and assessment of hearing, using pure tone audiometry, were carried out in 50 male workers, aged 20–57 years, directly employed in the manufacture of furniture. The actual workers’ hearing threshold levels (HTLs were compared with the predictions calculated according to PN-ISO 1999:2000 based on age, gender and noise exposure. Results: Workers under study were exposed to noise at daily noise exposure levels of 82.7–94.8 dB (mean: 90.9 dB for a period of 3–14 years. In all subjects, mean HTL at 500 Hz, 1000 Hz, 2000 Hz and 4000 Hz did not exceed 25 dB. Nevertheless, high frequency notches were found in 11% of audiograms. The actual workers’ HTLs at 3000–6000 Hz were similar to those predicted using PN-ISO 1999:2000. There were statistical significant differences between HTLs in subgroups of people with higher (> 78 mm Hg and lower (≤ 78 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure, smokers and non-smokers, and those working with organic solvents. Hearing loss was more evident in subjects affected by the additional risk factors specified above. Conclusions: The results confirm the need to consider, in addition to noise, also some other NIHL risk factors, such as tobacco smoking, elevated blood pressure, and co-exposure to organic solvents when estimating the risk of NIHL and developing the hearing conservation programs for workers. Med Pr 2016;67(3:337–351

  1. Exposure to MRI-related magnetic fields and vertigo in MRI workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Kristel; Portengen, Lützen; Kromhout, Hans

    2016-03-01

    Vertigo has been reported by people working around magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners and was found to increase with increasing strength of scanner magnets. This suggests an association with exposure to static magnetic fields (SMF) and/or motion-induced time-varying magnetic fields (TVMF). This study assessed the association between various metrics of shift-long exposure to SMF and TVMF and self-reported vertigo among MRI workers. We analysed 358 shifts from 234 employees at 14 MRI facilities in the Netherlands. Participants used logbooks to report vertigo experienced during the work day at the MRI facility. In addition, personal exposure to SMF and TVMF was measured during the same shifts, using portable magnetic field dosimeters. Vertigo was reported during 22 shifts by 20 participants and was significantly associated with peak and time-weighted average (TWA) metrics of SMF as well as TVMF exposure. Associations were most evident with full-shift TWA TVMF exposure. The probability of vertigo occurrence during a work shift exceeded 5% at peak exposure levels of 409 mT and 477 mT/s and at full-shift TWA levels of 3 mT and 0.6 mT/s. These results confirm the hypothesis that vertigo is associated with exposure to MRI-related SMF and TVMF. Strong correlations between various metrics of shift-long exposure make it difficult to disentangle the effects of SMF and TVMF exposure, or identify the most relevant exposure metric. On the other hand, this also implies that several metrics of shift-long exposure to SMF and TVMF should perform similarly in epidemiological studies on MRI-related vertigo. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  2. Changes in hospitality workers' exposure to secondhand smoke following the implementation of New York's smoke-free law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, M C; Nonnemaker, J M; Chou, R; Hyland, A; Peterson, K K; Bauer, U E

    2005-08-01

    To assess the impact on hospitality workers' exposure to secondhand smoke of New York's smoke-free law that prohibits smoking in all places of employment, including restaurants, bars, and bowling facilities. Pre-post longitudinal follow up design. Restaurants, bars, and bowling facilities in New York State. At baseline, 104 non-smoking workers in restaurants, bars, and bowling facilities were recruited with newspaper ads, flyers, and radio announcements. Of these, 68 completed a telephone survey and provided at least one saliva cotinine specimen at baseline. At three, six, and 12 month follow up studies, 47, 38, and 32 workers from the baseline sample of 68 completed a telephone survey and provided at least one saliva cotinine specimen. The smoke-free law went into effect 24 July 2003. Self reported sensory and respiratory symptoms and exposure to secondhand smoke; self administered saliva cotinine specimens. Analyses were limited to subjects in all four study periods who completed a telephone survey and provided at least one saliva cotinine specimen. All analyses were limited to participants who completed both an interview and a saliva specimen for all waves of data collection (n = 30) and who had cotinine concentrations hospitality jobs decreased from 12.1 hours (95% confidence interval (CI) 8.0 to 16.3 hours) to 0.2 hours (95% CI -0.1 to 0.5 hours) (p law had its intended effect of protecting hospitality workers from exposure to secondhand smoke within three months of implementation. One year after implementation, the results suggest continued compliance with the law.

  3. Solar UVR exposures of three groups of outdoor workers on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gies, H.P.; Roy, C.R.; Toomey, S.; MacLennan, R.; Watson, M.

    1995-01-01

    The solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposures of three groups of outdoor workers, physical education (PE) teachers, ground staff/gardeners and lifeguards were measured using UVR-sensitive polysulfone (PS) film badges. The exposures all took place on the Sunshine Coast, Queensland over 5 consecutive weekdays in November 1992. For the three groups, the shoulder badges received greater UVR exposures than the chest badges, in agreement with previous studies. The PE teachers received the highest UVR exposures while the lifeguards received the least. One of the 5 days of the study was overcast with some rain showers and UVR doses for this day for all groups was significantly lower than on the other 4 days, however the ratio of exposure to ambient remained relatively constant. All groups had measured UVR exposures in excess of occupational guidelines, indicating that protective measures, including education and behaviour modification, which are becoming much more common in occupational situations in Australia, are both timely and necessary. (author)

  4. Exposure of ventilation system cleaning workers to harmful microbiological agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołofit-Szymczak, Małgorzata; Ławniczek-Wałczyk, Anna; Górny, Rafał L

    2013-01-01

    Regular inspection of the cleanliness of the ventilation systems, as well as their periodic cleaning and disinfection, if necessary, are the main factors of the proper maintenance of each system. Performing maintenance operations on the ventilation system, workers are exposed to risk associated with the exposure to harmful biological agents. The aim of this study was to assess the employees' exposure to bioaerosols during maintenance work on ventilation systems. Bioaerosol measurements were carried out using a button sampler. The microbial particles were collected on gelatin filters. Settled-dust samples from the inner surface of the air ducts and filter-mat samples were selected for the microbiological analysis. In the collected air, dust and filter samples the concentration of bacteria and fungi were determined. Bacteria and fungi concentrations ranged between 3.6 x 10(2)-2.2 x 10(4) CFU/m3 and 4.7 x 10(2)-4.5 x 10(3) CFU/m3 at workplaces where the operations connected with mechanical ventilation cleaning were performed and 2.2 x 10(4)-1.2 x 10(5) CFU/m2 and 9.8 x 10(1)-2.5 x 10(2) CFU/m3 at workplaces where filter exchange was performed, respectively. The qualitative analysis of microorganisms isolated from the air in all studied workplaces revealed that the most prevalent bacteria belonged to Bacillus genus. The average concentrations of bacteria and fungi in filter-mat samples were 3.3 x 10(3) CFU/cm2 and 1.4 x 10(4) CFU/cm2, respectively. In settled-dust samples, average concentrations were 591 CFU/100 cm2 and 52 CFU/100 cm2, for bacteria and fungi respectively. Workers cleaning ventilation systems are exposed to harmful biological agents classified into risk groups, 1 and 2, according to their level of the risk of infection. The research conducted in the workplace can be the basis of risk assessment related to exposure to harmful biological agents during maintenance work in ventilation.

  5. Cataract frequency and subtypes involved in workers assessed for their solar radiation exposure: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modenese, Alberto; Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2018-04-16

    Cataract is currently the primary cause of blindness worldwide, and one of its main risk factors is solar ultraviolet radiation exposure. According to the localization of lens opacities, three main subtypes of cataract are recognized: nuclear, cortical and posterior subcapsular cataract. One of the main determinants of individual long-term solar radiation exposure is outdoor work. We systematically reviewed scientific literature from the last 20 years to update the recent development of research on the risk of cataract in outdoor workers and on the specific subtypes involved, also investigating the methods applied to evaluate the occupational risk. A total of 15 studies were included in the review, of which 12 showed a positive association. The studies confirm the relationship of long-term occupational solar radiation exposure with cortical cataract and give new support for nuclear cataract, although no substantial new data were available to support a relation with the posterior subcapsular subtype. In most of the studies, the exposure assessment was not adequate to support a representative evaluation of the ocular risk; however, outdoor work is clearly a relevant risk factor for cataract. Further research providing a better evaluation of the relation between solar radiation exposure levels and lens damage in workers is needed and aimed to establish adequate occupational exposure limits and better preventive measures, studying also their effectiveness. © 2018 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. X-ray findings, lung function, and respiratory symptoms in black South African vermiculite workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessel, P.A.; Sluis-Cremer, G.K.

    1989-01-01

    Health effects have been documented among American vermiculite workers who mined and processed vermiculite contaminated with amphibole asbestos, viz., tremolite-actinolite. Workers mining and processing South Africa vermiculite (N = 172), which contains very little asbestos, underwent x-ray examination and lung function testing and completed a respiratory symptom questionnaire. The vermiculite workers were compared with other workers involved in the mining or refining of copper. Only two of the vermiculite workers showed evidence of small opacities of 1/0 or more (according to the ILO 1980 classification); lung function was comparable with the other groups of workers, and there was no excess of respiratory symptoms among the vermiculite workers. It is concluded that workers exposed to vermiculite that is minimally contaminated with asbestos are probably not at risk for pneumoconiosis, lung function impairment, or respiratory symptoms. It is likely that the health effects observed in other studies of vermiculite workers are the result of concomitant asbestos exposure. A risk of mesothelioma caused by the fiber content of the vermiculite cannot be excluded by this study

  7. Effect of chronic pesticide exposure in farm workers of a Mexico community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payán-Rentería, Rolando; Garibay-Chávez, Guadalupe; Rangel-Ascencio, Raul; Preciado-Martínez, Veronica; Muñoz-Islas, Laura; Beltrán-Miranda, Claudia; Mena-Munguía, Salvador; Jave-Suárez, Luis; Feria-Velasco, Alfredo; De Celis, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are frequently used substances worldwide, even when the use of some of them is forbidden due to the recognized adverse effect they have on the health of not only the people who apply the pesticides, but also of those that consume the contaminated products. The objectives of this study were to know the health issues of farm workers chronically exposed to pesticides, to evaluate possible damage at genetic level, as well as to explore some hepatic, renal, and hematological alterations. A transversal comparative study was performed between 2 groups, one composed of 25 farm workers engaged in pesticide spraying, and a control group of 21 workers not exposed to pesticides; both groups belonged to the Nextipac community in Jalisco, Mexico. Each member of both groups underwent a full medical history. Blood samples were taken from all farm workers in order to obtain a complete blood count and chemistry, clinical chemistry, lipid profile, liver and kidney function tests, erythrocyte cholinesterase quantification, lipid peroxidation profile, and free DNA fragment quantification. For the information analysis, central tendency and dispersion measurements were registered. In order to know the differences between groups, a cluster multivariate method was used, as well as prevalence reasons. The most used pesticides were mainly organophosphates, triazines and organochlorine compounds. The exposed group showed acute poisoning (20% of the cases) and diverse alterations of the digestive, neurological, respiratory, circulatory, dermatological, renal, and reproductive system probably associated to pesticide exposure. More importantly, they presented free DNA fragments in plasma (90.8 vs 49.05 ng/mL) as well as a higher level of lipid peroxidation (41.85 vs. 31.91 nmol/mL) in comparison with those data from unexposed farm workers. These results suggest that there exist health hazards for those farm workers exposed to pesticides, at organic and cellular levels.

  8. Differences between day and nonday workers in exposure to physical and psychosocial work factors in the Danish eldercare sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang; Garde, Anne Helene; Diderichsen, Finn

    2009-01-01

    The possible interaction between individual and occupational risk factors, the need for meaningful intervention, and the demand for valid shift work research make the accumulation of adverse exposures at certain times of the day of special relevance with respect to occupational health. The aim of the present study was therefore to examine whether there was a clustering of detrimental work factors among female eldercare workers in fixed evening or fixed night shifts when they are compared with workers in fixed day shifts. This cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted among 4590 female health care workers in the Danish eldercare sector. The participants worked in nursing homes, in home care, or in both. They answered questions on job demands, job control, and social support, together with questions on physical and psychological violence, physical workload, and passive smoking. We found that-compared with day workers-fixed nonday workers were more exposed to low job control, low support from leaders, physical and psychological violence, and high physical demands. Nonday workers were, however, less exposed to high demands. These differences remained after control for age, job title, and workplace. Exposures in the work environment of Danish eldercare workers varied between shifts. In a research perspective these findings stress the importance of adequate adjustment for work factors when the health effects of shift work are studied. Moreover, the results underscore the need for an increased awareness of work factors of special importance among nonday workers when interventions against shiftwork-related occupational disorders are designed.

  9. Exposure to fluoride in smelter workers in a primary aluminum industry in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susheela, A K; Mondal, N K; Singh, A

    2013-04-01

    Fluoride is used increasingly in a variety of industries in India. Emission of fluoride dust and fumes from the smelters of primary aluminum producing industries is dissipated in the work environment and poses occupational health hazards. To study the prevalence of health complaints and its association with fluoride level in body fluids of smelter workers in a primary aluminum producing industry. In an aluminum industry, health status of 462 smelter workers, 60 supervisors working in the smelter unit, 62 non-smelter workers (control group 1) and 30 administration staff (control group 2) were assessed between 2007 and 2009. Their health complaints were recorded and categorized into 4 groups: 1) gastro-intestinal complaints; 2) non-skeletal manifestations; 3) skeletal symptoms; and (4) respiratory problems. Fluoride level in body fluids, nails, and drinking water was tested by an ion selective electrode; hemoglobin level was tested using HemoCue. The total complaints reported by study groups were significantly higher than the control groups. Smelter workers had a significantly (pworkers; the nail fluoride content was also higher in smelter workers than non-smelter workers (pworkers with higher hemoglobin level had a significantly (pworkers were consuming water with high fluoride concentrations. A high percentage of participants was using substances with high fluoride contents. Industrial emission of fluoride is not the only important sources of fluoride exposure--consumption of substance with high levels of fluoride is another important route of entry of fluoride into the body. Measurement of hemoglobin provides a reliable indicator for monitoring the health status of employees at risk of fluorosis.

  10. The continuing Exposure to Noise in Workers in the Society and Living Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahrokh Ehtesham zadeh

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available As the industry develops in the societies, human being is more likely to exposed to high level of noises and be at risk of hearing loss. Urbanism and working in the situation which are not in accordance with the personal nature make people even more susceptible to risk factors of hearing loss. Exposure of workers to industrial noise has been the subject to several studies and it seems that reconsidering the situations in both society and nature can be a key to change environment for decreasing noise in the society.For example in Tehran, geographically, the slope of the earth from north to south is 5-10% which is a main factor contributing in noise pollution.Moreover, the source of most outdoor noise worldwide is mainly construction and transportation systems including motor vehicles, air craft noises and rail noises. Poor urban planning may give rise to noise pollution, since side-by-side industrial and residential buildings can result in noise pollution in the residential area.In the current article we have examined both conditions in the hearing condition of workers with high levels of noise exposure.

  11. Evaluation of the effects of occupational noise exposure on serum aldosterone and potassium among industrial workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Zare

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing literature indicates that occupational exposure to noise may have adverse effects on workers′ health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of exposure to different sound pressure levels (SPLs on serum aldosterone and potassium concentration among Iranian blue collar workers in Golgohar Mining and Industrial Company in Sirjan, Kerman Province, Iran. This case-control study was performed on 45 workers of Golgohar Mining and Industrial Company. The subjects consisted of 30 workers from manufacturing departments and 15 office employees of the mining company. The controls, mainly with administrative jobs were exposed to 72 dBA SPL. Cases, in two separate groups, were exposed to noise levels of 88 dBA and 103 dBA, respectively. Noise intensity was measured at the desired locations. Noise measurements were performed according to the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 9612. To measure the serum aldosterone and potassium concentrations, a 5 mL blood sample was taken from each worker at the specified time intervals and aldosterone concentration was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test in the laboratory. Repeated measurement and Spearman′s correlation coefficient analysis were used with α = 0.05. Exposure to the different levels of sound pressure resulted in different aldosterone concentrations and meanwhile an increase in the SPL did not affect the concentration of potassium. From 10:00 AM to 10:30 AM, as SPL increased, aldosterone concentrations did not increase significantly but from 13:30 PM to 14:00 PM, raised SPL led to a significant increase in aldosterone concentration. However, there was no correlation between the concentration of potassium and different factors. This study indicated that increases in SPLs affect aldosterone concentration but at the same time do not have significant effects on serum potassium level.

  12. Impact of the Spanish smoking law on exposure to second-hand smoke and respiratory health in hospitality workers: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteve Fernández

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A smoke-free law came into effect in Spain on 1st January 2006, affecting all enclosed workplaces except hospitality venues, whose proprietors can choose among totally a smoke-free policy, a partial restriction with designated smoking areas, or no restriction on smoking on the premises. We aimed to evaluate the impact of the law among hospitality workers by assessing second-hand smoke (SHS exposure and the frequency of respiratory symptoms before and one year after the ban. METHODS AND FINDING: We formed a baseline cohort of 431 hospitality workers in Spain and 45 workers in Portugal and Andorra. Of them, 318 (66.8% were successfully followed up 12 months after the ban, and 137 nonsmokers were included in this analysis. We obtained self-reported exposure to SHS and the presence of respiratory symptoms, and collected saliva samples for cotinine measurement. Salivary cotinine decreased by 55.6% after the ban among nonsmoker workers in venues where smoking was totally prohibited (from median of 1.6 ng/ml before to 0.5 ng/ml, p<0.01. Cotinine concentration decreased by 27.6% (p = 0.068 among workers in venues with designated smoking areas, and by 10.7% (p = 0.475 among workers in venues where smoking was allowed. In Portugal and Andorra, no differences between cotinine concentration were found before (1.2 ng/ml and after the ban (1.2 ng/ml. In Spain, reported respiratory symptom declined significantly (by 71.9%; p<0.05 among workers in venues that became smoke-free. After adjustment for potential confounders, salivary cotinine and respiratory symptoms decreased significantly among workers in Spanish hospitality venues where smoking was totally banned. CONCLUSIONS: Among nonsmoker hospitality workers in bars and restaurants where smoking was allowed, exposure to SHS after the ban remained similar to pre-law levels. The partial restrictions on smoking in Spanish hospitality venues do not sufficiently protect hospitality workers against SHS

  13. Radioepidemiological studies on the occupational exposure of workers in nuclear industry of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Shiquan; Li Suyun; Yuan Liyun; Wang Yinzhang

    1993-11-01

    The results of retrospective-cohort radioepidemiological studies on the workers exposed to occupational radiation in the uranium and nuclear plants and uranium mines governed by China National Nuclear Corporation is reported. Period of follow-up is 1971 ∼ 1985, total number of observation 40122, person years of follow-up 575411. The per caput dose of external radiation in workers of reactor, nuclear fuel reprocessing plants and research units was 57 mSv. For fuel element fabrication and gaseous diffusion plants, it was less than 5 mSv and about 3/4 of which came from the committed effective dose of internal radiation. SMR of total death and cancer death was generally less than 1.0 in exposure group of nuclear plants. There was no evidence of increment of the risk of radiogenic cancer. 31786 offsprings of workers in nuclear plants were subjected to the study on hereditary effects. The results was also negative. The only exception was uranium mines. Owing to the high concentration of radon before the 1960's, the average cumulative exposure of radon daughters of uranium miner was about 80 WLM, relative risk of miner lung cancer was about 2.0. the absolute risk coefficient was about 1/10 to 1/3 of the results of Western countries because of the low baseline rate of lung cancer in China. The excess relative risk coefficient was similar to the value presented by other countries. Radon contamination and increment of miner lung cancer encountered prominently in some non-uranium mines in China

  14. Combined exposures to workplace psychosocial stressors: relationships with mental health in a sample of NZ cleaners and clerical workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilley, R; Lamontagne, A D; Firth, H

    2011-05-01

    A combined measure of two common psychosocial stressors, called job pressure has previously been shown to be strongly associated with poor mental health in high status workers. This study tests the generalizability of this association to lower status workers. A national random sample of cleaners and clerical workers was obtained from the New Zealand (NZ) electoral roll by occupational title (n = 596). Cross-sectional data on job stressors, demographics, and mental health (GHQ-12) was collected by computer-assisted telephone interviews. Combined exposure to low job control, high job demands, and job insecurity (high job pressure) was associated with markedly elevated odds (13-fold or higher) of poor mental health after adjustment for age, sex, occupation, and education. Combined with previous findings this suggests simultaneous exposure to more than one occupational psychosocial stressor may greatly increase the risk of poor mental health among both lower and higher status workers. This report adds to the larger literature in this area, supporting the need for expanded policy and practice intervention to reduce job stressors across the working population. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Dermal, inhalation, and internal exposure to 1,6-HDI and its oligomers in car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, A; Yu, F; Vlaanderen, J; Tielemans, E; Preller, L; Bobeldijk, I; Deddens, J A; Latza, U; Baur, X; Heederik, D

    2006-09-01

    To study inhalation and dermal exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and its oligomers as well as personal protection equipment (PPE) use during task performance in conjunction with urinary hexamethylene diamine (HDA) in car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters. Personal task based inhalation samples (n = 95) were collected from six car body repair shops and five industrial painting companies using impingers with di-n-butylamine (DBA) in toluene. In parallel, dermal exposure was assessed using nitril rubber gloves. Gloves were submerged into DBA in toluene after sampling. Analysis for HDI and its oligomers was performed by LC-MS/MS. Urine samples were collected from 55 workers (n = 291) and analysed for HDA by GC-MS. Inhalation exposure was strongly associated with tasks during which aerosolisation occurs. Dermal exposure occurred during tasks that involve direct handling of paint. In car body repair shops associations were found between detectable dermal exposure and glove use (odds ratio (OR) 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09 to 0.57) and inhalation exposure level (OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.84 for a 10-fold increase). HDA in urine could be demonstrated in 36% and 10% of car body repair shop workers and industrial painting company workers respectively. In car body repair shops, the frequency of detectable HDA was significantly elevated at the end of the working day (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 4.22 for 3-6 pm v 0-8 am). In both branches HDA was detected in urine of approximately 25% of the spray painters. In addition HDA was detected in urine of a large proportion of non-spray painters in car body repair shops. Although (spray) painting with lacquers containing isocyanate hardeners results in the highest external exposures to HDI and oligomers, workers that do not perform paint related tasks may also receive a considerable internal dose.

  16. Changes in hospitality workers' exposure to secondhand smoke following the implementation of New York's smoke-free law

    OpenAIRE

    Farrelly, M; Nonnemaker, J; Chou, R; Hyland, A; Peterson, K; Bauer, U

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact on hospitality workers' exposure to secondhand smoke of New York's smoke-free law that prohibits smoking in all places of employment, including restaurants, bars, and bowling facilities.

  17. Risk of exposure to potential vector mosquitoes for rural workers in Northern Lao PDR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie-Anne A Tangena

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available One major consequence of economic development in South-East Asia has been a rapid expansion of rubber plantations, in which outbreaks of dengue and malaria have occurred. Here we explored the difference in risk of exposure to potential dengue, Japanese encephalitis (JE, and malaria vectors between rubber workers and those engaged in traditional forest activities in northern Laos PDR.Adult mosquitoes were collected for nine months in secondary forests, mature and immature rubber plantations, and villages. Human behavior data were collected using rapid participatory rural appraisals and surveys. Exposure risk was assessed by combining vector and human behavior and calculating the basic reproduction number (R0 in different typologies. Compared to those that stayed in the village, the risk of dengue vector exposure was higher for those that visited the secondary forests during the day (odds ratio (OR 36.0, for those living and working in rubber plantations (OR 16.2 and for those that tapped rubber (OR 3.2. Exposure to JE vectors was also higher in the forest (OR 1.4 and, similar when working (OR 1.0 and living in the plantations (OR 0.8. Exposure to malaria vectors was greater in the forest (OR 1.3, similar when working in the plantations (OR 0.9 and lower when living in the plantations (OR 0.6. R0 for dengue was >2.8 for all habitats surveyed, except villages where R0≤0.06. The main malaria vector in all habitats was Anopheles maculatus s.l. in the rainy season and An. minimus s.l. in the dry season.The highest risk of exposure to vector mosquitoes occurred when people visit natural forests. However, since rubber workers spend long periods in the rubber plantations, their risk of exposure is increased greatly compared to those who temporarily enter natural forests or remain in the village. This study highlights the necessity of broadening mosquito control to include rubber plantations.

  18. Chromium-induced skin damage among Taiwanese cement workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Tzu-Chieh; Wang, Po-Chih; Wu, Jyun-De; Sheu, Shiann-Cherng

    2016-10-01

    Little research has been done on the relationships between chromium exposure, skin barrier function, and other hygienic habits in cement workers. Our purpose was to investigate chromium-induced skin barrier disruption due to cement exposure among cement workers. One hundred and eight cement workers were recruited in this study. Urinary chromium concentration was used to characterize exposure levels. The biological exposure index was used to separate high and low chromium exposure. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was used to assess the skin barrier function. TEWL was significantly increased in workers with high chromium exposure levels than those with low chromium exposure levels (p = 0.048). A positive correlation was also found between urinary chromium concentration and TEWL (R = 0.28, p = 0.004). After adjusting for smoking status and glove use, a significant correlation between urinary chromium concentrations and TEWL remained. Moreover, workers who smoked and had a high chromium exposure had significantly increased TEWL compared to nonsmokers with low chromium exposure (p = 0.01). Skin barrier function of cement workers may have been disrupted by chromium in cement, and smoking might significantly enhance such skin barrier perturbation with chromium exposure. Decreased chromium skin exposure and smoking cessation should be encouraged at work. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Radiation exposure and central nervous system cancers: A case-control study among workers at two nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, A.V.; Flanders, W.D.; Frome, E.L.; Crawford-Brown, D.J.; Fry, S.A.

    1987-03-01

    A nested case-control study was conducted among workers employed between 1943 and 1977 at two nuclear facilities to investigate the possible association of primary malignant neoplasms of the central nervous system (CNS) with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external and internal sources. Eighty-nine white male and female workers, who according to the information on death certificates dies of primary CNS cancers, were identified as cases. Four matched controls were selected for each case. External radiation exposure data were available from film badge readings for individual workers, whereas radiation dose to lung from internally deposited radionuclides, mainly uranium, was estimated from area and personnel monitoring data and was used in analyses in lieu of the dose to the brain. Matched sets were included in the analyses only if information was available for the case and at least one of the corresponding controls. Thus, the analyses of external radiation included 27 cases and 90 matched controls, and 47 cases and 120 matched controls were analyzed for the effects of radiation from internally deposited uranium. No association was observed between deaths fron CNS cancers and occupational exposure to ionizing radiation from external or internal sources. However, due to the small number of monitored subjects and low doses, a weak association could not be ruled out. 43 refs., 1 fig., 15 tabs

  20. [Hospitality workers' exposure to environmental tobacco smoke before and after implementation of smoking ban in public places: a review of epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polańska, Kinga; Hanke, Wojciech; Konieczko, Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure induces serious negative health consequences, of which the increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, respiratory symptoms and poor pregnancy outcomes appear to be most important. Taking into account those health consequences of ETS exposure most countries have introduced legislation to ban or restrict smoking in public places. In this paper the effectiveness of the introduced legislation was analyzed with regard to the protection of hospitality workers from ETS exposure in the workplace. The analysis of 12 papers published after 2000 covered the year of publication, type of legislation, study population, hospitality venue (pub, bar, restaurant, disco) and type of markers or self-reported perception of exposure to ETS. The analysis indicates that the legislation to ban smoking in hospitality venues protects workers from ETS exposure when the venues are 100% tobacco smoke free. The reduction of the cotinine level in biological samples after the implementation of smoke free law was 57-89%, comparing to the biomarker level in the samples taken before the new law was introduced. About 90% of reduction in nicotine and PM levels was also noted. In addition, the positive self perception reported by workers proved the effectiveness of new legislation protecting them from ETS exposure.

  1. A reanalysis of cancer mortality in Canadian nuclear workers (1956–1994) based on revised exposure and cohort data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablotska, L B; Lane, R S D; Thompson, P A

    2014-01-01

    Background: A 15-country study of nuclear workers reported significantly increased radiation-related risks of all cancers excluding leukaemia, with Canadian data a major factor behind the pooled results. We analysed mortality (1956–1994) in the updated Canadian cohort and provided revised risk estimates. Methods: Employment records were searched to verify and revise exposure data and to restore missing socioeconomic status. Excess relative risks per sievert (ERR/Sv) of recorded radiation dose and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Poisson regression. Results: A significant heterogeneity of the dose–response for solid cancer was identified (P=0.02), with 3088 early (1956–1964) Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) workers having a significant increase (ERR/Sv=7.87, 95% CI: 1.88, 19.5), and no evidence of radiation risk for 42 228 workers employed by three nuclear power plant companies and post-1964 AECL (ERR/Sv=−1.20, 95% CI: workers and non-significantly increased in other workers. In analyses with separate terms for tritium and gamma doses, there was no evidence of increased risk from tritium exposure. All workers had mortality lower than the general population. Conclusion: Significantly increased risks for early AECL workers are most likely due to incomplete transfer of AECL dose records to the National Dose Registry. Analyses of the remainder of the Canadian nuclear workers (93.2%) provided no evidence of increased risk, but the risk estimate was compatible with estimates that form the basis of radiation protection standards. Study findings suggest that the revised Canadian cohort, with the exclusion of early AECL workers, would likely have an important effect on the 15-country pooled risk estimate of radiation-related risks of all cancer excluding leukaemia by substantially reducing the size of the point estimate and its significance. PMID:24231946

  2. EPA's proposed Worker Protection Standard and the burdens of the past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohme, Susanna Rankin

    2015-01-01

    An Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendation for extensive changes to the Agency's 40-year-old Worker Protection Standard is currently stalled in the "proposed rule" stage. The proposal, which was available for public comment until 18 August, would improve safety, training, and hazard communication policies for agricultural pesticides. Exposure to hazards, including high heat, heavy machinery, stoop labor, and pesticides, makes occupational illness uncommonly common among the USA's estimated 2.5 million farm workers. To consider the proposed revisions' likelihood of addressing historical gaps in farmworker protection. The proposal was compared to the existing Worker Protection Standard, and key aspects were analyzed in relation to existing science on farm labor hazards, as well as historic occupational health, labor and immigration policy. US law historically has left farm workers largely unprotected. These exclusions and delays have been tolerated in part thanks to the myth of the independent family farmer, but more significant is the stingy nativism that presumes to benefit from immigrant labor without assuming any responsibility to protect the humans who provide it. In the first half of the 1970s, workers lobbied for robust protections, but rule making was impeded by lack of data and by the disproportionate influence of agricultural employers who sought minimal regulation. In 1974, the EPA passed the first Worker Protection Standard for farm workers. Key aspects of the proposed revision include stronger protections against drift and re-entry exposures, better information provision and training, and increased protections for workers under 16 years. The proposed changes represent an improvement over existing legislation, but do not go far enough. The revision should be strengthened along lines suggested by farm workers themselves, and other labor laws must also be amended to give the men, women, and children who work in the fields of this country full

  3. Radiation exposures of workers and the public associated with the transport of radioactive material in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, G.; Fett, H.J.; Lange, F.

    2004-01-01

    Most radioactive material packages transported emit penetrating ionising radiation and radiation exposures of transport workers and the public may occur during their transport. The radiation exposures incurred by transport workers and members of the public can vary significantly depending on a number of factors: most important is the type of radiation emitted (primarily gamma and neutron radiation), the radiation field intensity in the surrounding of a package and conveyance and the duration of exposure to ionising radiation. The information and guidance material on occupational exposures has primarily been derived from a survey and analysis of personal monitoring data provided by a number of commercial transport operators in Germany known as major carrier and handler organisations of fuel cycle and non-fuel cycle material (in terms of the number of pack-ages and the activity carriaged). To some extent advantage was taken of compilations of statistical transport and exposure data collated within other transport safety analysis studies including research projects funded by the European Commission. The exposure data collected cover the time period of the last 4 - 8 years and are most representative for routine transport operations closely related to the movement phase of packaged radioactive material, i.e. receipt, vehicle loading, carriage, in-transit storage, intra-/intermodal transfer, vehicle unloading and delivery at the final destination of loads of radioactive material and packages and the related supervisory and health physics functions. Radiation dose monitoring of members of the public, however, is generally impracticable and, consequently, the information available relies on employing dose assessment models and reflects radiation exposures incurred by hypothetical or critical group individuals of members of the public under normal conditions of transport

  4. Ocular manifestations in bidi industry workers: Possible consequences of occupational exposure to tobacco dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal Saurabh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco consumption is the leading preventable cause of disease, disability, and premature death but little is known about its deleterious effect on the ocular health of workers handling tobacco. The goal of this study was to identify probable effects of occupational tobacco exposure among south Indian bidi-industry workers. This study included 310 females (mean age, 34.8 ± 10.9 years actively involved in bidi-rolling presenting with eye symptoms to a tertiary eye care hospital. Results suggested that a wide spectrum of ocular complications exist among these workers. Common ocular symptoms were defective vision, dull-aching headache and eye irritation. The main ocular findings were papillary conjunctival hyperplasia, hyperpigmentation of ocular surface, punctate epithelial erosion or superficial punctate keratitis, cataract or pseudophakia and segmental optic atrophy. Abstaining from work, supplementation of Vitamin B complex rich in B 12 and appropriate surgical or medical management reversed visual loss due to corneal disease or cataract but was not effective in optic neuropathy.

  5. Deposition of plutonium in the lung of a worker following an accidental inhalation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spitz, H.B.; Robinson, B.

    The deposition of PuO 2 in the lungs of an occupationally exposed worker is characterized by assay for plutonium in excreta samples and from in vivo measurements of 241 Am in the thoracic region. Chelation therapy by intravenous injection of 1 gm Ca-DTPA was initially performed shortly after the incident and repeated using 0.5 gm of the chelate four additional times in subsequent days post intake. Analysis of the air sampler filter retrieved from the site of the exposure identified the isotopic composition and particle size of the plutonium material inhaled by the worker. Chelation with Ca-DTPA did not significantly reduce the magnitude of the lung or systemic deposition as determined from assay of plutonium in urine samples collected from the worker. In vivo measurements for 241 Am verify the retention of the inhaled material in the lung and also indicate the ingrowth of an amount of 241 Am as a daughter product of the 241 Pu initially inhaled

  6. Medical Surveillance for Former Workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tim Takaro

    2009-05-29

    The Former Hanford Worker Medical Monitoring Program, directed by the Occupational and Environmental Medicine Program at the University of Washington, served former production and other non-construction workers who were potentially exposed to workplace hazards while working for the USDOE or its contractors at Hanford. The USDOE Former Workers Program arose from Congressional action in the Defense Authorization of 1993 (Public Law 102). Section 3162 stated that, “The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program for the identification and ongoing medical evaluation of current and former Department of Energy employees who are subject to significant health risks as a result of exposure of such employees to hazardous or radioactive substances during such employment.” (This also covers former employees of USDOE contractors and subcontractors.) The key objective has been to provide these former workers with medical evaluations in order to determine whether workers have experienced significant risk due to workplace exposure to hazards. Exposures to asbestos, beryllium, and noise can produce specific medical conditions: asbestosis, berylliosis, and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Each of these conditions can be identified by specific, non-invasive screening tests, which are widely available. Treatments are also available for individuals affected by these conditions. This project involved two phases. Phase I involved a needs and risk assessment, characterizing the nature and extent of workplace health hazards which may have increased the risk for long-term health effects. We categorized jobs and tasks by likelihood of exposures to specific workplace health hazards; and located and established contact with former Hanford workers. Phase II involved implementation of medical monitoring programs for former workers whose individual work history indicated significant risk for adverse health effects. We identified 118,000 former workers, employed from 1943 to 1997

  7. Hypersensitivity pneumonitis with Mycobacterium avium complex among spa workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraga-McHaley, Stephanie Ann; Landen, Michael; Krapfl, Heidi; Sewell, C Mack

    2013-01-01

    The New Mexico Department of Health (NMDOH) investigated the cause of two cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) in spa maintenance workers with laboratory confirmed Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC). The investigation occurred in tandem with worker protection and swimming pool regulatory investigations by the New Mexico Environment Department at the spa where the workers were employed. The investigation was conducted in order to identify unreported cases, exposure source(s), and to prevent further worker exposure. NMDOH surveyed 57 spa employees about symptoms and exposures, categorized jobs according to self-reported exposure to water, and computed odds ratios for symptom reporting by exposure category. Environmental isolates from spa water and filter swabs were cultured and compared to patient isolates by the Environmental and Applied Microbiology Team, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Workers with the highest exposure reported more HP-like symptoms (OR = 9.6), as did intermediate exposure workers (OR = 6.5), compared to workers with no aerosolized water exposure. Two of 13 environmental isolates were closely related to one of the patient isolates. Workers were likely exposed during spray cleaning of cartridge filters in a poorly ventilated work space. Recommendations include inhibiting organism growth in spa systems, assuring the use of respiratory protection, and adequately ventilating work spaces where filters and equipment are cleaned.

  8. Chronic exposure to adverse psychosocial work factors and high psychological distress among white-collar workers: A 5-year prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndjaboue, Ruth; Brisson, Chantal; Talbot, Denis; Vézina, Michel

    2017-03-01

    Prospective studies which evaluated whether the effects of chronic exposure to psychosocial work factors on mental health persisted over time are scarce. For the first time, this study evaluated: 1) the effect of chronic exposure to effort-reward imbalance over 5years on the prevalence of high psychological distress among men and women, and 2) the persistence of this effect over time. Overall, 1747 white-collar workers from three public organizations participated in a prospective study. Psychological distress and effort-reward imbalance were measured using validated questionnaires at baseline, and at 3- and 5-year follow-ups. Prevalence ratios (PRs) of high psychological distress were estimated using log-binomial regression according to baseline and repeated exposure. Compared to unexposed workers, those with repeated exposure to effort-reward imbalance had a higher prevalence of high psychological distress. Workers exposed only at some time-points also had a higher prevalence. The deleterious effect of repeated exposure observed at the 3-year follow-up persisted at the 5-year follow-up among women (PR=2.48 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.97-3.11) and men (PR=1.91 95% CI 1.20-3.04). These effects were greater than those found using a single baseline measurement. The current study supported a deleterious effect of repeated exposure to effort-reward imbalance on psychological distress, and a lack of adaptation to these effects over time among men and women. Since psychological distress may later lead to severe mental problems, current results highlight the need to consider exposure to these adverse work factors in primary and secondary preventions aimed at reducing mental health problems at work. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Occupational exposure of phosphate mine workers: airborne radioactivity measurements and dose assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khater, Ashraf E.; Hussein, M.A.; Hussein, Mohamed I.

    2004-01-01

    Under the Egyptian program for radiation safety and control, airborne radioactivity measurements and radiological dose assessment were conducted in some phosphate and uranium mines. Abu-Tartor mine is one of the biggest underground phosphate mines in Egypt. Airborne radioactivity, radon ( 222 Rn) and its short-lived decay products (progenies) and thoron ( 220 Rn), were measured in selected locations along the mine. The environmental gamma and workers dose equivalent rate (mSv/y) were measured inside and outside the mine using thermo-luminescence dosimeters (TLD). The results were presented and discussed. The calculated annual effective dose due to airborne radioactivity is the main source of occupational exposure and exceeding the maximum recommended level by ICRP-60 inside the mine tunnels. A number of recommendations are suggested to control the occupational exposures

  10. Change of exposure response over time and long-term risk of silicosis among a cohort of Chinese pottery workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yi; Bochmann, Frank; Morfeld, Peter; Ulm, Kurt; Liu, Yuewei; Wang, Heijiao; Yang, Lei; Chen, Weihong

    2011-07-01

    An analysis was conducted on a cohort of Chinese pottery workers to estimate the exposure-response relationship between respirable crystalline silica dust exposure and the incidence of radiographically diagnosed silicosis, and to estimate the long-term risk of developing silicosis until the age of 65. The cohort comprised 3,250 employees with a median follow-up duration of around 37 years. Incident cases of silicosis were identified via silicosis registries (Chinese X-ray stage I, similar to International Labor Organisation classification scheme profusion category 1/1). Individual exposure to respirable crystalline silica dust was estimated based on over 100,000 historical dust measurements. The association between dust exposure, incidence and long-time risk of silicosis was quantified by Poisson regression analysis adjusted for age and smoking. The risk of silicosis depended not only on the cumulative respirable crystalline silica dust exposures, but also on the time-dependent respirable crystalline silica dust exposure pattern (long-term average concentration, highest annual concentration ever experienced and time since first exposure). A long-term "excess" risk of silicosis of approximately 1.5/1,000 was estimated among workers with all annual respirable crystalline silica dust concentration estimates less than 0.1 mg/m(3), using the German measurement strategy. This study indicates the importance of proper consideration of exposure information in risk quantification in epidemiological studies.

  11. Change of Exposure Response over Time and Long-Term Risk of Silicosis among a Cohort of Chinese Pottery Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuewei Liu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available An analysis was conducted on a cohort of Chinese pottery workers to estimate the exposure-response relationship between respirable crystalline silica dust exposure and the incidence of radiographically diagnosed silicosis, and to estimate the long-term risk of developing silicosis until the age of 65. The cohort comprised 3,250 employees with a median follow-up duration of around 37 years. Incident cases of silicosis were identified via silicosis registries (Chinese X-ray stage I, similar to International Labor Organisation classification scheme profusion category 1/1. Individual exposure to respirable crystalline silica dust was estimated based on over 100,000 historical dust measurements. The association between dust exposure, incidence and long-time risk of silicosis was quantified by Poisson regression analysis adjusted for age and smoking. The risk of silicosis depended not only on the cumulative respirable crystalline silica dust exposures, but also on the time-dependent respirable crystalline silica dust exposure pattern (long-term average concentration, highest annual concentration ever experienced and time since first exposure. A long-term “excess” risk of silicosis of approximately 1.5/1,000 was estimated among workers with all annual respirable crystalline silica dust concentration estimates less than 0.1 mg/m3, using the German measurement strategy. This study indicates the importance of proper consideration of exposure information in risk quantification in epidemiological studies.

  12. Dermal, inhalation, and internal exposure to 1,6‐HDI and its oligomers in car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, A; Yu, F; Vlaanderen, J; Tielemans, E; Preller, L; Bobeldijk, I; Deddens, J A; Latza, U; Baur, X; Heederik, D

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To study inhalation and dermal exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) and its oligomers as well as personal protection equipment (PPE) use during task performance in conjunction with urinary hexamethylene diamine (HDA) in car body repair shop workers and industrial spray painters. Methods Personal task based inhalation samples (n = 95) were collected from six car body repair shops and five industrial painting companies using impingers with di‐n‐butylamine (DBA) in toluene. In parallel, dermal exposure was assessed using nitril rubber gloves. Gloves were submerged into DBA in toluene after sampling. Analysis for HDI and its oligomers was performed by LC‐MS/MS. Urine samples were collected from 55 workers (n = 291) and analysed for HDA by GC‐MS. Results Inhalation exposure was strongly associated with tasks during which aerosolisation occurs. Dermal exposure occurred during tasks that involve direct handling of paint. In car body repair shops associations were found between detectable dermal exposure and glove use (odds ratio (OR) 0.22, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.09 to 0.57) and inhalation exposure level (OR 1.34, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.84 for a 10‐fold increase). HDA in urine could be demonstrated in 36% and 10% of car body repair shop workers and industrial painting company workers respectively. In car body repair shops, the frequency of detectable HDA was significantly elevated at the end of the working day (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.07 to 4.22 for 3–6 pm v 0–8 am). In both branches HDA was detected in urine of ∼25% of the spray painters. In addition HDA was detected in urine of a large proportion of non‐spray painters in car body repair shops. Conclusion Although (spray) painting with lacquers containing isocyanate hardeners results in the highest external exposures to HDI and oligomers, workers that do not perform paint related tasks may also receive a considerable internal dose. PMID:16728504

  13. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and health effects among hospitality workers in Sweden--before and after the implementation of a smoke-free law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Matz; Boëthius, Göran; Axelsson, Sara; Montgomery, Scott M

    2008-08-01

    This study attempted to identify changes in exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, as well as symptoms and attitudes among hospitality workers after the introduction of extended smoke-free workplace legislation. A total of 37 volunteers working in bingo halls and casinos (gaming workers) and 54 bars and restaurant employees (other workers) in nine Swedish communities participated in the study. Altogether 71 of 91 persons (14 daily smokers and 57 nonsmokers) participated in both the pre-ban baseline survey and the follow-up 12 months after the ban. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, smoking habits, respiratory and sensory symptoms, and attitudes towards the ban were recorded, and spirometry was carried out. The frequency of reported respiratory and sensory symptoms was approximately halved among the nonsmokers in both occupational groups after the introduction of the ban. Initially 87% had exposure to environmental tobacco smoke that was over the nicotine cut-off level chosen to identify possible health risk ( <0.5 microg/m3) while, after the ban, it was only 22%, a relative risk of 0.25 (95% confidence interval 0.15-0.41). The risk decreased in both occupational groups, but gaming workers experienced the highest pre-ban exposure levels. Attitudes towards the legislation were largely positive, particularly after the ban. However, there was no notable change in lung function, and there was no notable reduction in the number of cigarettes consumed by smokers. The introduction of smoke-free legislation was associated with a substantial reduction in respiratory and sensory symptoms, as well as reduced exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at work, particularly among gaming workers.

  14. Positive and negative psychological impact after secondary exposure to politically motivated violence among body handlers and rehabilitation workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Shimon; Wexler, Isaiah D; Alkalay, Yasmin; Meiner, Zeev; Kreitler, Shulamith

    2008-12-01

    The positive and negative psychological impact of secondary exposure to politically motivated violence was examined among body handlers and hospital rehabilitation workers, 2 groups that differed in their proximity and immediacy to violent events. Survivors of politically motivated violence served as a comparison group. Body handlers experienced high levels of positive psychological impact and traumatic stress symptoms. Levels of positive psychological impact among on-scene body handlers were higher than those experienced by rehabilitation workers. Traumatic stress symptoms predicted positive psychological impact among body handlers. These findings indicate that proximity to stressors is associated with higher levels of positive and negative psychological impact. Physical proximity is a major contributory factor to both positive and negative psychological effects of secondary exposure to trauma.

  15. [Cardiovascular risk, occupation and exposure to occupational carcinogens in a group of workers in Salamanca].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Sánchez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Identify the cardiovascular risk factors in a group of workers in the province of Salamanca, protected by external prevention services, as regards exposure to occupational carcinogens, by sector of activity and gender. An observational descriptive epidemiological study was conducted. The sample selection was by stratified random sampling in each entity. The variables collected by questionnaire were, sociodemographic characteristics, exposure to occupational carcinogens, and cardiovascular risk factors (smoking, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes), using the clinical-work histories as a source of information. Statistically significant differences were observed in cardiovascular risk according to the exposure to occupational carcinogens (p cardiovascular risk in the work place. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Minimization of occupational radiation exposure in KWU built nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hock, R.; Hecht, G.

    1984-01-01

    The minimization of radiation exposure required by law is performed by engineering judgement. In some areas large sums of money have been spent with little return in collective dose savings. Cost benefit analysis may help to identify such areas. On the other hand uncertainties in cost-benefit analysis are rather large and engineering judgement is necessary to fill the gaps in cost benefit analysis too. Therefore with the exception of a few clear cut cases cost benefit analysis is not a means to make decisions in health physics matters more rational and cannot replace engineering judgement

  17. Exposure of ionizing radiation to non-radiation workers from nuclear medicine patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, J.; Smart, R.C.; McKay, E.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Occasionally, patients are required to have several tests in one day. They may be injected with radio-isotopes in the morning, have other investigations during the absorption period and then return to nuclear medicine for imaging later in the day. Recently, the NSW Department of Health issued a circular concerning exposure to sonographers from ionizing radiation emitted from nuclear medicine patients. The object of this study is to establish a model of emissions from nuclear medicine patients and to measure the exposure to other health workers who may be in close contact with these patients. Dose rate measurements were acquired for patients injected with 99 Tc m and 67 Ga for the following studies: heart, thyroid, lung, bone, biliary and lymphoma. Measurements were taken at 10 cm increments to 1 m and at time intervals of 0,1,2 and 24 h post-injection. In addition, 5 sonographers were issued with TLDs to be worn on the waist and fingers for a period of 3 months. The dose limit for a non-radiation worker is 1000 μSv (ICRP 60). The external dose rate measurements indicate that, assuming a sonographer is seated approximately 30 cm from a patient injected with 800 MBq 99 Tc m -HDP for a bone scan, 1 h post-injection, the sonographer would receive a dose of 11 μSv for a 30 min ultrasound scan. In practice, only 4 nuclear medicine patients were scanned in the ultrasound department during the 5 week monitoring period and the sonographers' TLDs recorded no radiation dose. In conclusion, the average exposure to sonographers from nuclear medicine patients is well within the limits recommended by the ICRP. However, in accordance with the ALARA principle where practicable, any ultrasound examination should be performed prior to nuclear medicine studies

  18. A method for assessing occupational exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields for electricity generation and transmission workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renew, D C; Cook, R F; Ball, M C

    2003-01-01

    A new method for assessing both current and historical occupational exposures to magnetic fields has been developed and used in health studies involving a cohort of electricity generation and transmission workers in England and Wales. The exposure values are derived by calculation from engineering and operational data about the power stations rather than from measurements. They are provided for each of 11 job categories for each year of operation of each power station represented in the cohort. The engineering data are used to determine the average magnetic fields in specified areas of work within the power station and then applied to information about the time spent in these areas by each of the job categories. The operational data are used to adjust the exposures for each year according to the power station output for the year. Earlier methods used measurements or the advice of panels of experts to provide exposure scores for a number of job categories across all power stations and years. Such methods were not able to distinguish exposures from different power facilities or during the different years of their operation. Measurement surveys at 10 power stations of the magnetic fields in the work areas gave confidence that the calculations were realistic. Exposure measurements on 215 workers at three power stations were compared in job groups with the exposures predicted by the method. The Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.86 and the slope and intercept of the line of best fit were 0.87 and 0.07 μT respectively. The method gives a good prediction of measured exposure and is being used for studies of occupational exposure to magnetic fields and leukaemia, and of cardiovascular disease, and a reanalysis of brain cancer

  19. Cobalt exposure and lung disease in tungsten carbide production. A cross-sectional study of current workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprince, N.L.; Oliver, L.C.; Eisen, E.A.; Greene, R.E.; Chamberlin, R.I.

    1988-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 1,039 tungsten carbide (TC) production workers was carried out. The purposes were (1) to evaluate the prevalence of interstitial lung disease (ILD) and work-related wheezing, (2) to assess correlations between cobalt exposure and pulmonary disease, (3) to compare lung disease in grinders of hard carbide versus nongrinders, and (4) to evaluate the effects of new and previous threshold limit values for cobalt of 50 and 100 micrograms/m3. We obtained medical and occupational histories, flow-volume loops, single breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO), and chest radiographs. Time-weighted average cobalt levels were determined at every step in the production process. Work-related wheeze occurred in 113 participants (10.9%). Profusion greater than or equal to 1/0 occurred in 26 (2.6%) and interstitial lung disease (defined as profusion greater than or equal to 1M, FVC or DLCO less than or equal to 70%, and FEV1/FVC% greater than or equal to 75) in 7 (0.7%). The relative odds of work-related wheeze was 2.1 times for present cobalt exposures exceeding 50 micrograms/m3 compared with exposures less than or equal to 50 micrograms/m3. The relative odds of profusion greater than or equal to 1/0 was 5.1 times for average lifetime cobalt exposures exceeding 100 micrograms/m3 compared with exposures less than or equal to 100 micrograms/m3 in those with latency exceeding 10 yr. ILD was found in three workers with very low average lifetime exposures (less than 8 micrograms/m3) and shorter latencies. Grinders of hard carbide had lower mean DLCO than nongrinders, even though their cobalt exposures were lower

  20. Differences between day and nonday workers in exposure to physical and psychosocial work factors in the Danish eldercare sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten; Tüchsen, Finn; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2009-01-01

    after control for age, job title, and workplace. CONCLUSIONS: Exposures in the work environment of Danish eldercare workers varied between shifts. In a research perspective these findings stress the importance of adequate adjustment for work factors when the health effects of shift work are studied....... Moreover, the results underscore the need for an increased awareness of work factors of special importance among nonday workers when interventions against shiftwork-related occupational disorders are designed.......OBJECTIVE: The possible interaction between individual and occupational risk factors, the need for meaningful intervention, and the demand for valid shift work research make the accumulation of adverse exposures at certain times of the day of special relevance with respect to occupational health...

  1. Dose Record Analysis of External Exposure of Workers in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andriambololona, R.; Ratovonjanahary, J. F.; Randriantsizafy, R. D.

    2004-01-01

    External personnel monitoring of workers in diagnostic radiology in Madagascar using thermoluminescence techniques has been studied in previous work for the period of 1990 to 2000. The study was based on the average of Hp(0.07) and Hp(10) and on the annual dose distribution. The results showed that mean doses are very low compared with the annual dose limits for workers of 20 mSv per year and are comparable with natural contribution of telluric X and gamma exposure which is evaluated as 3.21 mSv per year in Antananarivo. No trend in the average was observed, however, the last 4 years, the results showed a substantial decrease in the average from 2 mSv to 1 mSv. It was assumed that this was the impact of the implementation by radiation staff in their workplace of the in force regulation which is in compliance with the new basic safety standards. Indeed, since 1996, Madagascar-Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires (Madagascar-INSTN) and the Association Nationale de Radioprotection de Madagascar (ANARAPMAD), the Madagascar radiation protection society and associate member of IRPA, set up a national program for training of radiation workers. The number of workers trained during this period is evaluated as 50% of the total number of radiation workers in Madagascar. The present work is a continuation of the above mentioned survey during the period of 2001 to 2003. The training program was upgraded to involve personnel who will be in charge of radiation protection and safety in workplace and the training cycle lasts 2 years instead of 3 days in the previous program. The survey has been extended to include all radiation workers in Madagascar though the medical field is still the main application and represents more than 90 percent of the latter. The results shows that for this last 3 years, an other substantial decrease from 1 mSv to 0.5 mSv was observed in the average. In the dose distribution, more than 98 percent of the Hp(0.07) and more than 99

  2. Outlines of a study of some indicators of exposure of underground workers to radon in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beno, M; Nikodemova, D; Vladar, M; Fueloep, M; Vicanova, M [Inst. of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, Bratislava (Slovakia)

    1996-12-31

    In this paper some indicators of exposure of underground workers to radon in Slovakia which will be used for determination of miners radiation burden and for the radon dose estimate was explained. The projected study has a dose-effect scaffold and its projected goals are on the side of dose assessment: 1) to determine the professional exposure of underground workers to radon by personal dosimetry and to establish a database of integrated personal doses for future epidemiological studies; 2) to introduce the method of counting the radionuclide {sup 210}Pb in the bones and skulls of underground workers. On the side of effect assessment the goals are: 1) to find out if a dependence of the number of chromosomal aberrations (CA) and micronuclei in the lymphocytes from radon dose exists. The measurements of radon in mines, preferentially those by personal dosimeters as well as an existing database of radon concentration measurements in dwellings and caves will serve for the radon dose estimate; 2) to compare the DNA-repair rate in the lymphocytes of people professionally exposed to radon in Slovak caves with the same rate as assessed in unexposed people; 3) to find out the proportional role of confounding factors such as smoking, alcohol abuse, exposure to dust etc., which might influence upon the interpretation of the dose from radon to health response relationship; 4) to establish a central database of lung cancer cases in professionally exposed underground workers for future epidemiological studies. The direct method will rely upon determination of miners radiation burden based on the {sup 210}Pb activity deposited in skeleton. The experimental design to assess the effects will have three main methodological parts: 1) determination of the count of chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei using classical methods; 2) determination of the chromosomal changes using the fluorescent in situ hybridization method; 3) determination of the DNA-repair rate. (J.K.) 8 refs.

  3. Analysis of radioactivity increase of rad waste filled in fibre-reinforced concrete container regarding external exposure of workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baratova, D.; Hrncir, T.; Necas, V.

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with the assessment of the external radiation exposure of workers performing the individual tasks associated with disposal of the fibre-reinforced concrete containers in the National Radioactive Waste Repository in Mochovce. Models for fibre-reinforced concrete containers with maximum activity allowable for transport and for fibre-reinforced concrete containers contained radionuclides at the common level of activity concentration were created in order to analyze the option of fibre-reinforced concrete containers radioactivity increase. Calculations of individual effective doses have been carried out for three workers who work in the control area of the waste disposal facility dosimetrist, assistant and crane worker. (Authors)

  4. Background paper for regulations related to the exposure of uranium mine and mill workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Control Board is modifying the Atomic Energy Control Regulations to include a maximum permissible exposure to radon daughters for uranium mine and mill workers. In January 1976, after consultation with the uranium producers, union, and government regulatory bodies, the AECB issued a directive endorsing a maximum permissible annual occupational exposure to radon daughters of 4 Working Level Months (WLM). This exposure limit was an interim guideline to be applied for at least one year. The Board staff and members of the Mine Safety Advisory Committee have examined available evidence on the excess risk of lung cancer owing to exposure to radon daughters since then, and have assessed the arguments for both raising and lowering the exposure limit. The evidence is still not conclusive, and further studies, especially epidemiological ones, are needed. Nevertheless, the Board considers that the interim guideline is acceptable in the light of the present state of knowledge and that it should be incorporated into the regulations. This document explains why the Board has made this decision and discusses a number of related issues

  5. Radiation exposure of workers in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bujnova, A.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear medicine is an interdisciplinary department that deals with diagnosis and therapy using open sources. Therefore workers in nuclear medicine are in daily contact with ionizing radiation and thus it is essential to monitor a radiation load. Each work must therefore carry out monitoring of workers. It monitors compliance with the radiation limits set by law, allows an early detection of deviations from normal operation and to demonstrate whether the radiation protection at the workplace is optimized. This work describes the principles of monitoring of workers in nuclear medicine and monitoring methods for personal dosimetry. In the next section the author specifically deals with personal dosimetry at the Department of Nuclear Medicine St. Elizabeth Cancer Institute, Bratislava (KNM-Ba-OUSA). The main part of the work is to evaluate the results of a one-year monitoring of radiation workers KNM-Ba-OUSA. (author)

  6. Biological monitoring of arsenic exposure of gallium arsenide- and inorganic arsenic-exposed workers by determination of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites in urine and hair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamauchi, H.; Takahashi, K.; Mashiko, M.; Yamamura, Y. (St. Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki (Japan))

    1989-11-01

    In an attempt to establish a method for biological monitoring of inorganic arsenic exposure, the chemical species of arsenic were measured in the urine and hair of gallium arsenide (GaAs) plant and copper smelter workers. Determination of urinary inorganic arsenic concentration proved sensitive enough to monitor the low-level inorganic arsenic exposure of the GaAs plant workers. The urinary inorganic arsenic concentration in the copper smelter workers was far higher than that of a control group and was associated with high urinary concentrations of the inorganic arsenic metabolites, methylarsonic acid (MAA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA). The results established a method for exposure level-dependent biological monitoring of inorganic arsenic exposure. Low-level exposures could be monitored only by determining urinary inorganic arsenic concentration. High-level exposures clearly produced an increased urinary inorganic arsenic concentration, with an increased sum of urinary concentrations of inorganic arsenic and its metabolites (inorganic arsenic + MAA + DMAA). The determination of urinary arsenobetaine proved to determine specifically the seafood-derived arsenic, allowing this arsenic to be distinguished clearly from the arsenic from occupational exposure. Monitoring arsenic exposure by determining the arsenic in the hair appeared to be of value only when used for environmental monitoring of arsenic contamination rather than for biological monitoring.

  7. Health of radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.

    1979-11-01

    Radiation workers are healthier than the average person in the general population and appear to be as healthy as workers in other ΣsafeΣ industries. It is, however, assumed that there is no safe dose of radiation and that any exposure to radiation will cause a small increase in the incidence of cancer, this increase being directly proportional to the total radiation dose. On the basis of the risk estimates given by ICRP, radiation exposures up to 1 rem per year for 47 years are predicted to cause fewer work-related deaths than expected for the average worker in Canadian industry. Radiation exposures of 5 rem per year from age 18 to 65 would result in predicted risk which is about four times higher than that for most workers in Canada and might increase the chances of death before age 75 to nearly the same level as for the average member of the general public. (auth)

  8. Increased Suicide Risk among Workers following Toxic Metal Exposure at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant From 1952 to 2003: A Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LW Figgs

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suicide is a problem worldwide and occupation is an important risk factor. In the last decade, 55 200 deaths in the US were attributed to occupational risk factors. Objective: To determine if toxic metal exposure was associated with suicide risk among Paducah gaseous diffusion plant (PGDP workers. Methods: We assembled a cohort of 6820 nuclear industry workers employed from 1952 to 2003. A job-specific exposure matrix (JEM was used to determine metal exposure likelihood. Uranium exposure was also assessed by urinalysis. All suicide/self-injury International Classification for Disease (ICD codes were used to identify suicides. Standardized mortality ratios (SMR, odds ratios (OR, and hazard ratios (HR were used to estimate suicide risk. Results: PGDP suicide victims typically were younger white men. Within exposure likelihood categories, several suicide SMRs were typically elevated for several metals. Only beryllium exposure likelihood was associated with an increased HR. Uranium urine concentration was associated with an elevated suicide risk after stratification by urinalysis frequency. Conclusion: Suicide risk is associated with uranium exposure.

  9. [Assessment for effect of low level lead-exposure on neurobehavior in workers of printing house].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Q; Dai, F; Chen, Y

    1998-11-30

    WHO Neurobehavioral Core Test Battery (NCTB) was conducted among 28 lead-exposed workers (mean age 24.84, SD2.85) in printing house and 46 controls (mean age 22.78, SD1.45), in order to assess whether low level lead exposure may be related to neurobehavioral dysfunction. The items of test were: 1. Profile of mood state(POMS), (2) Simple reaction time, (3) Digit span, (4) Santa Anna manual dexterity, (5) Digit simbol, (6) Benton visual retention; and Prusuit aiming test. In all the NCTB test values, there was no significant difference between two groups. Multiple stepwise regression analysis shows that exposure duration is related to neurobehavior scores. Mild lead exposure may affect neurobehavior in some degree but not significant.

  10. Evaluation of internal occupational exposure of workers from nuclear medicine services by aerosol analysis containing 131I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, Luana Gomes; Sampaio, Camilla da Silva; Dantas, Ana Leticia Almeida; Lucena, Eder Augusto; Santos, Maristela Souza; Dantas, Bernardo Maranhao; Paula, Gustavo Affonso de

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the risk of internal occupational exposure associated with the incorporation of 131 I via inhalation, in Nuclear Medicine Services, using aerosol analysis techniques. Occupationally Exposed Individuals (IOE) involved in handling this radionuclide are subject to chronic exposure, which can lead to an increase in the committed effective dose. Results obtained in preliminary studies indicate the occurrence of incorporation of 131 I by workers involved in handling solutions for radioiodine therapy procedures. The evaluation was carried out in radiopharmacy lab (nuclear medicine service) of a public hospital located in the city of Rio de Janeiro. After confirmed the presence of the radioisotope, by a qualitative assessment, it was determined an experimental arrangement for sample collection and were detected and quantitated the presence of steam 131 I during routine work. The average concentration of activity obtained in this study was 3 Bq / m 3 . This value is below of Derived Concentration in Air (DCA) of 8.4 x 10 3 Bq of 131 I / m 3 corresponding to a committed effective dose of 1.76 x 10 -4 mSv. These results demonstrate that the studied area is safe in terms of internal exposure of workers. However, the presence of 131 I should be periodically reevaluated, since this type of exposure contributes to the increase of the individual effective doses. Based on the data obtained improvements were suggested in the exhaust system and the use of good work practices in order to optimize the exposures

  11. Occupational risk and lifetime exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapp, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Any lowering of annual radiation limits for occupational exposure should be based on industry experience with lifetime doses and not on a worst case career exposure of 47 years. Two decades of experience show a lifetime accumulation of less than 1.5 rem for workers with measurable exposure. This is 5% of the normal lifetime exposure of Americans to natural and medical radiation. Any epidemiology of the US nuclear power workforce's two decade long exposure would have to focus on excess leukemia. Application of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki cancer mortality shows that too few leukemias would be expressed to permit a feasible epidemiology. Ionizing radiation appears to be a mild carcinogen as compared to physical and chemical agents presented in the occupational environment. A realistic factor in determining any change in occupational exposure limits for ionizing radiation should take into account the past performance of the licensee and potential health effects applicable to the workplace. Specifically, the lifetime exposure data for workers at nuclear power plants and naval shipyards should be considered. The nuclear industry and the US Navy have detailed data on the annual exposure of workers with a combined collective exposure approaching 1 million worker-rem. The lifetime dose for naval personnel and shipyard workers averages 1.1 rem J 1990. Shipyard workers have an annual dose of 0.28 rem per work-year and a mean exposure time of 4.4 years. The data apply to workers with measurable dose

  12. Evaluation of Toluene Exposure in Workers at Industrial Area of Sidoarjo, Indonesia by Measurement of Urinary Hippuric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moch Sahri

    2013-12-01

    How to cite this article: Sahri M, Widajati N. Evaluation of Toluene Exposure in Workers at Industrial Area of Sidoarjo, Indonesia by Measurement of Urinary Hippuric Acid. Asia Pac J Med Toxicol 2013;2:145-9.

  13. Healthy worker survivor analysis in an occupational cohort study of Dutch agricultural workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spierenburg, E. A. J.; Smit, L. A. M.; Heederik, D.; Robbe, P.; Hylkema, M. N.; Wouters, I. M.

    High microbial exposures in farmers and agricultural workers are associated with less atopy. Although it has been speculated that healthy worker survival could be an explanation, this has not been studied so far. Therefore, we investigated the presence of healthy worker survival in a five-year

  14. Determining the effect of worker exposure conditions on the risk of hearing loss in noisy industrial workroom using Cox proportional hazard model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliabadi, Mohsen; Fereidan, Mohammad; Farhadian, Maryam; Tajik, Leila

    2015-01-01

    In noisy workrooms, exposure conditions such as noise level, exposure duration and use of hearing protection devices are contributory factors to hearing loss. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of exposure conditions on the risk of hearing loss using the Cox model. Seventy workers, employed in a press workshop, were selected to study their hearing threshold using an audiometric test. Their noise exposure histories also were analyzed. The results of the Cox model showed that the job type, smoking and the use of protection devices were effective to induce hearing loss. The relative risk of hearing loss in smokers was 1.1 times of non-smokers The relative risk of hearing loss in workers with the intermittent use of protection devices was 3.3 times those who used these devices continuously. The Cox model could analyze the effect of exposure conditions on hearing loss and provides useful information for managers in order to improve hearing conservation programs.

  15. Noise-induced hearing loss in Korean workers: co-exposure to organic solvents and heavy metals in nationwide industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Kim, KyooSang

    2014-01-01

    Noise exposure is a well-known contributor to work-related hearing loss. Recent biological evidence suggests that exposure to ototoxic chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals may be additional contributors to hearing loss. However, in industrial settings, it is difficult to determine the risks of hearing loss due to these chemicals in workplaces accompanied by excessive noise exposure. A few studies suggest that the effect of noise may be enhanced by ototoxic chemicals. Therefore, this study investigated whether co-exposure to organic solvents and/or heavy metals in the workplace modifies the risk of noise exposure on hearing loss in a background of excessive noise. We examined 30,072 workers nationwide in a wide range of industries from the Korea National Occupational Health Surveillance 2009. Data on industry-based exposure (e.g., occupational noise, heavy metals, and organic solvents) and subject-specific health outcomes (e.g., audiometric examination) were collected. Noise was measured as the daily 8-h time-weighted average level. Air conduction hearing thresholds were measured from 0.5 to 6 kHz, and pure-tone averages (PTA) (i.e., means of 2, 3, and 4 kHz) were computed. In the multivariate linear model, PTA increment with occupational noise were 1.64-fold and 2.15-fold higher in individuals exposed to heavy metals and organic solvents than in unexposed individuals, respectively. This study provides nationwide evidence that co-exposure to heavy metals and/or organic solvents may exacerbate the effect of noise exposure on hearing loss in workplaces. These findings suggest that workers in industries dealing with heavy metals or organic solvents are susceptible to such risks.

  16. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Korean Workers: Co-Exposure to Organic Solvents and Heavy Metals in Nationwide Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yoon-Hyeong; Kim, KyooSang

    2014-01-01

    Background Noise exposure is a well-known contributor to work-related hearing loss. Recent biological evidence suggests that exposure to ototoxic chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals may be additional contributors to hearing loss. However, in industrial settings, it is difficult to determine the risks of hearing loss due to these chemicals in workplaces accompanied by excessive noise exposure. A few studies suggest that the effect of noise may be enhanced by ototoxic chemicals. Therefore, this study investigated whether co-exposure to organic solvents and/or heavy metals in the workplace modifies the risk of noise exposure on hearing loss in a background of excessive noise. Methods We examined 30,072 workers nationwide in a wide range of industries from the Korea National Occupational Health Surveillance 2009. Data on industry-based exposure (e.g., occupational noise, heavy metals, and organic solvents) and subject-specific health outcomes (e.g., audiometric examination) were collected. Noise was measured as the daily 8-h time-weighted average level. Air conduction hearing thresholds were measured from 0.5 to 6 kHz, and pure-tone averages (PTA) (i.e., means of 2, 3, and 4 kHz) were computed. Results In the multivariate linear model, PTA increment with occupational noise were 1.64-fold and 2.15-fold higher in individuals exposed to heavy metals and organic solvents than in unexposed individuals, respectively. Conclusion This study provides nationwide evidence that co-exposure to heavy metals and/or organic solvents may exacerbate the effect of noise exposure on hearing loss in workplaces. These findings suggest that workers in industries dealing with heavy metals or organic solvents are susceptible to such risks. PMID:24870407

  17. Radiological Worker Training: Radiological Worker 2 study guides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-10-01

    Upon completion of this training course, the participant will have the knowledge to work safely in areas controlled for radiological purposes using proper radiological practices. Radiological Worker H Training, for the worker whose job assignment involves entry into Radiological Buffer Areas and all types of Radiation Contamination and Airborne Radioactivity Areas. This course is designed to prepare the worker to work safely in and around radiological areas and present methods to use to ensure individual radiation exposure is maintained As Low As Reasonably Achievable

  18. Psychiatric Hospital Workers' Exposure to Disturbing Patient Behavior and Its Relation to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, N Zoe; Ham, Elke; Dretzkat, Alecia

    2017-09-01

    Background About 10% of health-care workers experience post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); the rate is higher among workers exposed to aggression. Objective We extended this research by examining PTSD and exposure to violence and other disturbing patient behaviors, among nursing and other staff on inpatient psychiatric units (forensic and nonforensic). Method Surveys were completed online or in person by 219 respondents (30% response rate). Participants indicated which disturbing behaviors they had been exposed to and ranked the worst three behaviors in each of three categories: most unpleasant to work with, most disruptive to patient care, and most upsetting. Most ( n = 192) also completed the PTSD Checklist (PCL). Results All but two participants reported exposure to at least one disturbing behavior and ranked violence, feces smearing, and screaming constantly as the worst experiences overall. On the PCL, 24% scored above the cut off for probable PTSD. Nursing staff had the highest scores, with no difference between nursing staff on forensic versus nonforensic units. PCL score showed a small positive correlation with the number of disturbing behaviors experienced. Conclusion PTSD symptoms are common among psychiatric hospital workers, not only nursing staff. Future research using clinical assessment, longitudinal designs, and measurement of nonviolent disturbing behaviors is recommended.

  19. Effects of electromagnetic fields exposure on plasma hormonal and inflammatory pathway biomarkers in male workers of a power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhaopin; Fei, Ying; Liu, Hui [Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Dept. of Epidemiology and Health Statistics; Zhejiang Univ., Hangzhou (China). Chronic Disease Research Inst.; and others

    2016-01-15

    The potential health risks of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) have currently raised considerable public concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of EMF exposure on levels of plasma hormonal and inflammatory pathway biomarkers in male workers of an electric power plant. Seventy-seven male workers with high occupational EMF exposure and 77 male controls with low exposure, matched by age, were selected from a cross-sectional study. Moreover, high EMF exposure group was with walkie-talkies usage and exposed to power frequency EMF at the work places for a longer duration than control group. A questionnaire was applied to obtain relevant information, including sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle factors, and EMF exposures. Plasma levels of testosterone, estradiol, melatonin, NF-KB, heat-shock protein (HSP) 70, HSP27, and TET1 were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. EMF exposure group had statistically significantly lower levels of testosterone (β = -0.3 nmol/L, P = 0.015), testosterone/estradiol (T/E2) ratio (β = -15.6, P = 0.037), and NF-KB (β = -20.8 ng/L, P = 0.045) than control group. Moreover, joint effects between occupational EMF exposure and employment duration, mobile phone fees, years of mobile phone usage, and electric fees on levels of testosterone and T/E2 ratio were observed. Nevertheless, no statistically significant associations of EMF exposures with plasma estradiol, melatonin, HSP70, HSP27, and TET1 were found. The findings showed that chronic exposure to EMF could decrease male plasma testosterone and T/E2 ratio, and it might possibly affect reproductive functions in males. No significant associations of EMF exposure with inflammatory pathway biomarkers were found.

  20. Exposure scenarios for workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marquart, H.; Northage, C.; Money, C.

    2007-01-01

    The new European chemicals legislation REACH (Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and restriction of Chemicals) requires the development of Exposure Scenarios describing the conditions and risk management measures needed for the safe use of chemicals. Such Exposure Scenarios should integrate

  1. Predictive factors for percutaneous and mucocutaneous exposure among healthcare workers in a developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Türe

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine the risk factors for percutaneous and mucocutaneous exposures in healthcare workers (HCW in one of the largest centers of a middle income country, Turkey. This study has a retrospective design. HCWs who presented between August 2011 and June 2013, with Occupational Exposures (OEs (cases and those without (controls were included. Demographic information was collected from infection control committee documents. A questionnaire was used to ask the HCWs about their awareness of preventive measures. HCWs who work with intensive work loads such as those found in emergency departments or intensive care units have a higher risk of OEs. Having heavy workloads and hours increases the risk of percutaneous and mucocutaneous exposures. For that reason the most common occupation groups are nurses and cleaning staff who are at risk of OEs. Increasing work experience has reduced the frequency of OEs.

  2. Designing an international industrial hygiene database of exposures among workers in the asphalt industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, I; Kromhout, H; Cruise, P J; Brennan, P

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this project was to construct a database of exposure measurements which would be used to retrospectively assess the intensity of various exposures in an epidemiological study of cancer risk among asphalt workers. The database was developed as a stand-alone Microsoft Access 2.0 application, which could work in each of the national centres. Exposure data included in the database comprised measurements of exposure levels, plus supplementary information on production characteristics which was analogous to that used to describe companies enrolled in the study. The database has been successfully implemented in eight countries, demonstrating the flexibility and data security features adequate to the task. The database allowed retrieval and consistent coding of 38 data sets of which 34 have never been described in peer-reviewed scientific literature. We were able to collect most of the data intended. As of February 1999 the database consisted of 2007 sets of measurements from persons or locations. The measurements appeared to be free from any obvious bias. The methodology embodied in the creation of the database can be usefully employed to develop exposure assessment tools in epidemiological studies.

  3. Endotoxin exposure and lung cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the published literature on agriculture and cotton textile workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenters, V.C.; Basinas, I.; Beane Freeman, L.E.; Boffetta, P.; Checkoway, H.; Coggon, D.; Portengen, L.; Sim, M.; Wouters, I.M.; Heederik, D.; Vermeulen, R.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between exposure to endotoxins and lung cancer risk by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies of workers in the cotton textile and agricultural industries; industries known for high exposure levels of endotoxins. METHODS: Risk

  4. Attitudes, knowledge and practices of healthcare workers regarding occupational exposure of pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley T. Bhebhe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Healthcare-associated tuberculosis (TB has become a major occupational hazard for healthcare workers (HCWs. HCWs are inevitably exposed to TB, due to frequent interaction with patients with undiagnosed and potentially contagious TB. Whenever there is a possibility of exposure, implementation of infection prevention and control (IPC practices is critical.Objective: Following a high incidence of TB among HCWs at Maluti Adventist Hospital in Lesotho, a study was carried out to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices of HCWs regarding healthcare-associated TB infection and infection controls.Methods: This was a cross-sectional study performed in June 2011; it involved HCWs at Maluti Adventist Hospital who were involved with patients and/or sputum. Stratified sampling of 140 HCWs was performed, of whom, 129 (92.0% took part. A self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire was used.Results: Most respondents (89.2% had appropriate knowledge of transmission, diagnosis and prevention of TB; however, only 22.0% of the respondents knew the appropriate method of sputum collection. All of the respondents (100.0% were motivated and willing to implement IPC measures. A significant proportion of participants (36.4% reported poor infection control practices, with the majority of inappropriate practices being the administrative infection controls (> 80.0%. Only 38.8% of the participants reported to be using the appropriate N-95 respirator.Conclusion: Poor infection control practices regarding occupational TB exposure were demonstrated, the worst being the first-line administrative infection controls. Critical knowledge gaps were identified; however, there was encouraging willingness by HCWs to adapt to recommended infection control measures. Healthcare workers are inevitably exposed to TB, due to frequent interaction with patients with undiagnosed and potentially contagious TB. Implementation of infection prevention and control practices is

  5. Retrospective benzene and total hydrocarbon exposure assessment for a petroleum marketing and distribution worker epidemiology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, T W; Pearlman, E D; Schnatter, A R; Bowes, S M; Murray, N; Nicolich, M J

    1996-04-01

    A quantitative exposure-estimating algorithm for benzene and total hydrocarbons was developed for a case control study of petroleum marketing and distribution workers. The algorithm used a multiplicative model to adjust recently measured quantitative exposure data to past scenarios for which representative exposure measurement data did not exist. This was accomplished through the development of exposure modifiers to account for differences in the workplace, the materials handled, the environmental conditions, and the tasks performed. Values for exposure modifiers were obtained empirically and through physical/chemical relationships. Dates for changes that altered exposure potential were obtained from archive records, retired employee interviews, and from current operations personnel. Exposure modifiers were used multiplicatively, adjusting available measured data to represent the relevant exposure scenario and time period. Changes in exposure modifiers translated to step changes in exposure estimates. Though limited by availability of data, a validation exercise suggested that the algorithm provided accurate exposure estimates for benzene (compared with measured data in industrial hygiene survey reports); the estimates generally differed by an average of less than 20% from the measured values. This approach is proposed to quantify exposures retrospectively where there are sufficient data to develop reliable current era estimates and where a historical accounting of key exposure modifiers can be developed, but where there are insufficient historic exposure measurements to directly assess historic exposures.

  6. Evaluation of a Po-210 bioassay as an index of the exposure of uranium mine workers in Japan to radon daughters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okabayashi, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Masashi; Hongo, Shozo; Watanabe, Seiki.

    1975-01-01

    As an indicator nuclide for inhalation exposure of mine workders to Rn daughters in a Japanses uranium mine, 210 Po urinalyses of the workers and surveys of some environmental factors were conducted. An estimation study of concentrations of Rn daughters in a mine, indicated that about 800-50 pCi of 210 Po could have been accumulated in each miner's body. However, according to the results of urinalyses performed several times in 5 years, a statistical difference in the quantity of 210 Po in urine among miners and non-mining workers there was not clearly identified. Investigations of 210 Po concentrations in the mine's air, water, foods (of about 30 kinds) and cigarets, and investigations of feces-urine 210 Po ratios in humans revealed that these factors would greatly affect the metabolism and 210 Po excretion of the workers. In particular, some marine foods in Japan contained a great amount of 210 Po (several hundreds times that of other foods) and cigarets showed 0.3-0.8 pCi of 210 Po per gramme. Smokers definitely excreted more 210 Po in urine than non-smokers. Feces-urine ratios ranged between 5.2-42.9 in one human subject. Therefore, it can be concluded that 210 Po would not be a good indicator for human exposure to Rn daughters, unless great care is taken regarding the eating and smoking habits of mine workers, as well as the exposure conditions in the uranium mine. (Evans, J.)

  7. Potential Indoor Worker Exposure From Handling Area Leakage: Dose Calculation Methodology and Example Consequence Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nes, Razvan; Benke, Roland R.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently considering design options for preclosure facilities in a license application for a geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The Center for Nuclear Waste Regulatory Analyses (CNWRA) developed the PCSA Tool Version 3.0.0 software for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to aid in the regulatory review of a potential DOE license application. The objective of this paper is to demonstrate PCSA Tool modeling capabilities (i.e., a generic two-compartment, mass-balance model) for estimating radionuclide concentrations in air and radiological dose consequences to indoor workers in a control room from potential leakage of radioactively contaminated air from an adjacent handling area. The presented model computes internal and external worker doses from inhalation and submersion in a finite cloud of contaminated air in the control room and augments previous capabilities for assessing indoor worker dose. As a complement to the example event sequence frequency analysis in the companion paper, example consequence calculations are presented in this paper for the postulated event sequence. In conclusion: this paper presents a model for estimating radiological doses to indoor workers for the leakage of airborne radioactive material from handling areas. Sensitivity of model results to changes in various input parameters was investigated via illustrative example calculations. Indoor worker dose estimates were strongly dependent on the duration of worker exposure and the handling-area leakage flow rate. In contrast, doses were not very sensitive to handling-area exhaust ventilation flow rates. For the presented example, inhalation was the dominant radiological dose pathway. The two companion papers demonstrate independent analysis capabilities of the regulator for performing confirmatory calculations of frequency and consequence, which assist the assessment of worker

  8. Malignant pleural mesothelioma risk among nuclear workers: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz-Flamant, C; Guseva Canu, I; Laurier, D

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to ionising radiation has been suggested as a causal risk factor for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Studies of patients treated by radiotherapy for primary cancers have suggested that radiation contributes to the development of secondary MPM. Here we examined the risk to nuclear workers of MPM related to exposure to low doses of occupational radiation at low dose rates. All results concerning MPM risk in published studies of nuclear workers were examined for their association with radiation exposure and potential confounders. We found 19 relevant studies. Elevated risks of pleural cancer were reported in most (15/17) of these studies. Eight reported risks higher for radiation monitored workers than for other workers. However, of 12 studies that looked at associations with ionising radiation, only one reported a significant dose-risk association. Asbestos was an important confounder in most studies. We conclude that studies of nuclear workers have not detected an association between ionising radiation exposure and MPM. Further investigations should improve the consideration of asbestos exposure at the same time as they address the risk of MPM related to occupational exposure of nuclear workers to low doses of ionising radiation at low dose rates. (review)

  9. Malignant pleural mesothelioma risk among nuclear workers: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz-Flamant, C; Guseva Canu, I; Laurier, D, E-mail: camille.metz@irsn.fr [Laboratory of Epidemiology, Institute of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2011-03-01

    Exposure to ionising radiation has been suggested as a causal risk factor for malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Studies of patients treated by radiotherapy for primary cancers have suggested that radiation contributes to the development of secondary MPM. Here we examined the risk to nuclear workers of MPM related to exposure to low doses of occupational radiation at low dose rates. All results concerning MPM risk in published studies of nuclear workers were examined for their association with radiation exposure and potential confounders. We found 19 relevant studies. Elevated risks of pleural cancer were reported in most (15/17) of these studies. Eight reported risks higher for radiation monitored workers than for other workers. However, of 12 studies that looked at associations with ionising radiation, only one reported a significant dose-risk association. Asbestos was an important confounder in most studies. We conclude that studies of nuclear workers have not detected an association between ionising radiation exposure and MPM. Further investigations should improve the consideration of asbestos exposure at the same time as they address the risk of MPM related to occupational exposure of nuclear workers to low doses of ionising radiation at low dose rates. (review)

  10. Noise-induced hearing loss in Korean workers: co-exposure to organic solvents and heavy metals in nationwide industries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon-Hyeong Choi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Noise exposure is a well-known contributor to work-related hearing loss. Recent biological evidence suggests that exposure to ototoxic chemicals such as organic solvents and heavy metals may be additional contributors to hearing loss. However, in industrial settings, it is difficult to determine the risks of hearing loss due to these chemicals in workplaces accompanied by excessive noise exposure. A few studies suggest that the effect of noise may be enhanced by ototoxic chemicals. Therefore, this study investigated whether co-exposure to organic solvents and/or heavy metals in the workplace modifies the risk of noise exposure on hearing loss in a background of excessive noise. METHODS: We examined 30,072 workers nationwide in a wide range of industries from the Korea National Occupational Health Surveillance 2009. Data on industry-based exposure (e.g., occupational noise, heavy metals, and organic solvents and subject-specific health outcomes (e.g., audiometric examination were collected. Noise was measured as the daily 8-h time-weighted average level. Air conduction hearing thresholds were measured from 0.5 to 6 kHz, and pure-tone averages (PTA (i.e., means of 2, 3, and 4 kHz were computed. RESULTS: In the multivariate linear model, PTA increment with occupational noise were 1.64-fold and 2.15-fold higher in individuals exposed to heavy metals and organic solvents than in unexposed individuals, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study provides nationwide evidence that co-exposure to heavy metals and/or organic solvents may exacerbate the effect of noise exposure on hearing loss in workplaces. These findings suggest that workers in industries dealing with heavy metals or organic solvents are susceptible to such risks.

  11. Effect of age and social connection on perceived anxiety over radiation exposure among decontamination workers in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Tomoo; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Jinnouchi, Takanobu; Sato, Sei; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Nakano, Shinichi; Koyama, Kikuo; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2016-05-25

    To reveal the effect of age and other factors on perceived anxiety over radiation exposure among decontamination workers in Fukushima Prefecture, Japan. A survey questionnaire was sent to 1505 workers, with questions regarding age, presence of a written employment contract, previous residence, radiation passbook ownership, presence of close persons for consultation, knowledge of how to access public assistance, and a four-point scale of radiation-related anxiety (1= "Very much," 2= "Somewhat," 3= "A little bit," and 4= "None" ). The relationships between the degree of anxiety and variables were analyzed using the chi-square test and residual analysis. In all, 512 participants responded to the questionnaire. The mean age of participants was 46.2 years (SD: 13.1, range: 18-77). Of them, 50, 233, 168, and 61 workers chose "Very much," "Somewhat," "A little bit," and "None," respectively, on the anxiety scale. Chi-square test showed that participants aged 61 years and over had higher degrees of anxiety (panxiety increased if they did not have a written contract (p=0.042) or persons to consult (p=0.034) and if they routinely checked the dose rate (p=0.046). Decontamination workers who do not have a written contract or who are in socially isolated situations have greater anxiety over radiation exposure. Thus, it is important to both create supportive human relationships for consultation and enhance labor management in individual companies.

  12. Hearing loss among older construction workers: Updated analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement, John; Welch, Laura S; Ringen, Knut; Cranford, Kim; Quinn, Patricia

    2018-04-01

    A prior study of this construction worker population found significant noise-associated hearing loss. This follow-up study included a much larger study population and consideration of additional risk factors. Data included audiometry, clinical chemistry, personal history, and work history. Qualitative exposure metrics for noise and solvents were developed. Analyses compared construction workers to an internal reference group with lower exposures and an external worker population with low noise exposure. Among participants (n = 19 127) an overall prevalence of hearing loss of 58% was observed, with significantly increased prevalence across all construction trades. Construction workers had significantly increased risk of hearing loss compared to reference populations, with increasing risk by work duration. Noise exposure, solvent exposure, hypertension, and smoking were significant risk factors in multivariate models. Results support a causal relationship between construction trades work and hearing loss. Prevention should focus on reducing exposure to noise, solvents, and cigarette smoke. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. PON1 status does not influence cholinesterase activity in Egyptian agricultural workers exposed to chlorpyrifos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellison, Corie A.; Crane, Alice L.; Bonner, Matthew R.; Knaak, James B.; Browne, Richard W.; Lein, Pamela J.; Olson, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Animal studies have shown that paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotype can influence susceptibility to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). However, Monte Carlo analysis suggests that PON1 genotype may not affect CPF-related toxicity at low exposure conditions in humans. The current study sought to determine the influence of PON1 genotype on the activity of blood cholinesterase as well as the effect of CPF exposure on serum PON1 in workers occupationally exposed to CPF. Saliva, blood and urine were collected from agricultural workers (n = 120) from Egypt's Menoufia Governorate to determine PON1 genotype, blood cholinesterase activity, serum PON1 activity towards chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPOase) and paraoxon (POase), and urinary levels of the CPF metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy). The PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) but not the PON1 192 genotype had a significant effect on CPOase activity. However, both the PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) and PON1 192 (P ≤ 0.001) genotypes had a significant effect on POase activity. Workers had significantly inhibited AChE and BuChE after CPF application; however, neither CPOase activity nor POase activity was associated with ChE depression when adjusted for CPF exposure (as determined by urinary TCPy levels) and stratified by PON1 genotype. CPOase and POase activity were also generally unaffected by CPF exposure although there were alterations in activity within specific genotype groups. Together, these results suggest that workers retained the capacity to detoxify chlorpyrifos-oxon under the exposure conditions experienced by this study population regardless of PON1 genotype and activity and that effects of CPF exposure on PON1 activity are minimal. -- Highlights: ► CPF exposure resulted in an increase in TCPy and decreases in BuChE and AChE. ► CPOase activity decreased in subjects with the PON1 55LM and PON1 55 MM genotypes. ► Neither PON1 genotype nor CPOase activity had an effect on BuChE or AChE inhibition.

  14. PON1 status does not influence cholinesterase activity in Egyptian agricultural workers exposed to chlorpyrifos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, Corie A., E-mail: cellison@buffalo.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Crane, Alice L., E-mail: alcrane@buffalo.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Bonner, Matthew R., E-mail: mrbonner@buffalo.edu [Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Knaak, James B., E-mail: jbknaak@aol.com [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Browne, Richard W., E-mail: rwbrowne@buffalo.edu [Department of Biotechnical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Lein, Pamela J., E-mail: pjlein@ucdavis.edu [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of California School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95618 (United States); Olson, James R., E-mail: jolson@buffalo.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Animal studies have shown that paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotype can influence susceptibility to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). However, Monte Carlo analysis suggests that PON1 genotype may not affect CPF-related toxicity at low exposure conditions in humans. The current study sought to determine the influence of PON1 genotype on the activity of blood cholinesterase as well as the effect of CPF exposure on serum PON1 in workers occupationally exposed to CPF. Saliva, blood and urine were collected from agricultural workers (n = 120) from Egypt's Menoufia Governorate to determine PON1 genotype, blood cholinesterase activity, serum PON1 activity towards chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPOase) and paraoxon (POase), and urinary levels of the CPF metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy). The PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) but not the PON1 192 genotype had a significant effect on CPOase activity. However, both the PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) and PON1 192 (P ≤ 0.001) genotypes had a significant effect on POase activity. Workers had significantly inhibited AChE and BuChE after CPF application; however, neither CPOase activity nor POase activity was associated with ChE depression when adjusted for CPF exposure (as determined by urinary TCPy levels) and stratified by PON1 genotype. CPOase and POase activity were also generally unaffected by CPF exposure although there were alterations in activity within specific genotype groups. Together, these results suggest that workers retained the capacity to detoxify chlorpyrifos-oxon under the exposure conditions experienced by this study population regardless of PON1 genotype and activity and that effects of CPF exposure on PON1 activity are minimal. -- Highlights: ► CPF exposure resulted in an increase in TCPy and decreases in BuChE and AChE. ► CPOase activity decreased in subjects with the PON1 55LM and PON1 55 MM genotypes. ► Neither PON1 genotype nor CPOase activity had an effect on BuChE or AChE inhibition.

  15. Asymmetric Hearing Loss in Chinese Workers Exposed to Complex Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoxiao; Li, Nan; Zeng, Lin; Tao, Liyuan; Zhang, Hua; Yang, Qiuling; Qiu, Wei; Zhu, Liangliang; Zhao, Yiming

    2016-01-01

    Evaluate the audiometric asymmetry in Chinese industrial workers and investigate the effects of noise exposure, sex, and binaural average thresholds on audiometric asymmetry. Data collected from Chinese industrial workers during a cross-sectional study were reanalyzed. Of the 1388 workers, 266 met the inclusion criteria for this study. Each subject underwent a physical examination and an otologic examination and completed a health-related questionnaire. χ and t tests were used to examine the differences between the asymmetric and symmetric hearing loss groups. One hundred thirty-one subjects (49.2%) had a binaural hearing threshold difference of 15 dB or more for at least one frequency, and there was no statistically significant difference between the left and right ears. The asymmetric hearing loss group was not exposed to higher cumulative noise levels (t = 0.522, p = 0.602), and there was no dose-response relation between asymmetry and cumulative noise levels (χ = 6.502, p = 0.165). Men were 1.849 times more likely to have asymmetry than women were (95% confidence interval, 1.051 to 3.253). Among the workers with higher high-frequency hearing thresholds, audiometric asymmetry was 1.024 times more prevalent than that among those with lower high-frequency hearing thresholds (95% confidence interval, 1.004 to 1.044). The results indicated that occupational noise exposure contributed minimally to asymmetry, whereas sex and binaural average thresholds significantly affected audiometric asymmetry. There was no evidence that the left ears were worse than the right ears.

  16. Development of personnel exposure management system with personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamato, Ichiro; Yamamoto, Toshiki

    1992-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, large scale personnel exposure management systems have been developed and established by utilities. Though being common in the base, the implementations are specific by plants. Contractors must control their workers' exposures by their own methods and systems. To comply with the utilities' parental systems, contractors' systems tend to differ by plants, thus make it difficult for contractors to design a standard system that is common to all relevant plants. Circumstances being as such, however, we have developed a system which is applicable to various customer utilities with minimal variations, using personal computers with database management and data communication softwares, with relatively low cost. We hope that this system will develop to the standard model for all Japanese contractors' personnel exposure management systems. (author)

  17. Isocyanate exposure and asthma in the UK vehicle repair industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocks, S J; Jones, K; Piney, M; Agius, R M

    2015-12-01

    Organic diisocyanates are a common cause of occupational asthma, particularly in motor vehicle repair (MVR) workers. The UK Health & Safety Laboratory provides screening for urinary hexamethylenediamine (UHDA), a biomarker of exposure to 1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI). The UK Surveillance of Work-related and Occupational Respiratory Disease scheme (SWORD) has collected reports of occupational asthma since 1996. To compare trends in HDI exposure with trends in the incidence of work-related asthma attributed to isocyanates or paint spraying in MVR workers reported to SWORD. Two-level regression models were used to estimate trends in UHDA levels and work-related asthma in MVR workers reported to SWORD. The direction and magnitude of the trends were compared descriptively. From 2006 to 2014, there was a significant decline in the number of urine samples with detectable levels of UHDA (odds ratio = 0.96; 95% confidence intervals 0.94-0.98) and minimal change in those over the guidance value (1.03; 1.00-1.06). Over the same period, there was a significant decline in all asthma cases attributed to isocyanates or paint spraying reported to SWORD (0.90; 0.86-0.94) and a non-significant decline among MVR workers (0.94; 0.86-1.02). The simultaneous decrease in HDI exposure and incident cases of asthma reported to SWORD is temporally consistent with a reduction in exposure to airborne isocyanate leading to a reduction in asthma. Although this is not direct evidence of a causal relationship between the two trends, it is suggestive. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine.

  18. Work ability score of solvent-exposed workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furu, Heidi; Sainio, Markku; Hyvärinen, Hanna-Kaisa; Kaukiainen, Ari

    2018-03-28

    Occupational chronic solvent encephalopathy (CSE), characterized by neurocognitive dysfunction, often leads to early retirement. However, only the more severe cases are diagnosed with CSE, and little is known about the work ability of solvent-exposed workers in general. The aim was to study memory and concentration symptoms, work ability and the effect of both solvent-related and non-occupational factors on work ability, in an actively working solvent-exposed population. A questionnaire on exposure and health was sent to 3640 workers in four solvent-exposed fields, i.e. painters and floor-layers, boat builders, printers, and metal workers. The total number of responses was 1730. We determined the work ability score (WAS), a single question item of the Work Ability Index, and studied solvent exposure, demographic factors, Euroquest memory and concentration symptoms, chronic diseases, and employment status using univariate and multivariate analyses. The findings were compared to those of a corresponding national blue-collar reference population (n = 221), and a small cohort of workers with CSE (n = 18). The proportion of workers with memory and concentration symptoms was significantly associated with solvent exposure. The WAS of solvent-exposed workers was lower than that of the national blue-collar reference group, and the difference was significant in the oldest age group (those aged over 60). Solvent-exposed worker's WAS were higher than those of workers diagnosed with CSE. The WAS were lowest among painters and floor-layers, followed by metal workers and printers, and highest among boat builders. The strongest explanatory factors for poor work ability were the number of chronic diseases, age and employment status. Solvent exposure was a weak independent risk factor for reduced WAS, comparable to a level of high alcohol consumption. Even if memory and concentration symptoms were associated with higher solvent exposure, the effect of solvents on self

  19. Radiation exposure of patient and surgeon in minimally invasive kidney stone surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, A; Raif Karabacak, O; Yalçınkaya, F; Yiğitbaşı, O; Aktaş, C

    2016-05-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) are the standard treatments used in the endoscopic treatment of kidney stones depending on the location and the size of the stone. The purpose of the study was to show the radiation exposure difference between the minimally invasive techniques by synchronously measuring the amount of radiation the patients and the surgeon received in each session, which makes our study unique. This is a prospective study which included 20 patients who underwent PNL, and 45 patients who underwent RIRS in our clinic between June 2014 and October 2014. The surgeries were assessed by dividing them into three steps: step 1: the access sheath or ureter catheter placement, step 2: lithotripsy and collection of fragments, and step 3: DJ catheter or re-entry tube insertion. For the PNL and RIRS groups, mean stone sizes were 30mm (range 16-60), and 12mm (range 7-35); mean fluoroscopy times were 337s (range 200-679), and 37s (range 7-351); and total radiation exposures were 142mBq (44.7 to 221), and 4.4mBq (0.2 to 30) respectively. Fluoroscopy times and radiation exposures at each step were found to be higher in the PNL group compared to the RIRS group. When assessed in itself, the fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure were stable in RIRS, and the radiation exposure was the highest in step 1 and the lowest in step 3 in PNL. When assessed for the 19 PNL patients and the 12 RIRS patients who had stone sizes≥2cm, the fluoroscopy time in step 1, and the radiation exposure in steps 1 and 2 were found to be higher in the PNL group than the RIRS group (PPNL because it has short fluoroscopy time and the radiation exposure is low in every step. 4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Study of the hearing losses of industrial workers with occupational noise exposure, using statistical methods for the analysis of qualitative data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rop, I; Raber, A; Fischer, G H

    1979-01-01

    The application of a polychotomous generalization of the linear probabilistic model of Cox is described, which allows the investigation of the effects of different noise levels with various durations of exposure on hearing. If the model assumptions are not rejected, it is possible to separate the effect of noise exposure from the effect of age. The results will thus show to what extent the hearing losses of an industrial worker are due to presbyacusis or to noise exposure. An empirical investigation was based on the evaluation of hearing losses at the audiometric frequencies 1, 2 and 3 kHz in 35 212 industrial workers of both sexes. It was attempted to predict the distribution of hearing losses in the left and the right ear as an additive function of the effect of noise exposure, age and sex. The parameters describing the effect of age increased linearly. Noise levels equal to and above 85 dB(A) have a noxious influence on hearing. Furthermore, hearing loss does not increase continuously with duration of exposure; from 15 years onwards, no essential increase in hearing loss appears which can be attributed to noise at work.

  1. Formal recycling of e-waste leads to increased exposure to toxic metals: an occupational exposure study from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julander, Anneli; Lundgren, Lennart; Skare, Lizbet; Grandér, Margaretha; Palm, Brita; Vahter, Marie; Lidén, Carola

    2014-12-01

    Electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) contains multiple toxic metals. However, there is currently a lack of exposure data for metals on workers in formal recycling plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate workers' exposure to metals, using biomarkers of exposure in combination with monitoring of personal air exposure. We assessed exposure to 20 potentially toxic metals among 55 recycling workers and 10 office workers at three formal e-waste recycling plants in Sweden. Workers at two of the plants were followed-up after 6 months. We collected the inhalable fraction and OFC (37-mm) fraction of particles, using personal samplers, as well as spot samples of blood and urine. We measured metal concentrations in whole blood, plasma, urine, and air filters using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry following acid digestion. The air sampling indicated greater airborne exposure, 10 to 30 times higher, to most metals among the recycling workers handling e-waste than among the office workers. The exposure biomarkers showed significantly higher concentrations of chromium, cobalt, indium, lead, and mercury in blood, urine, and/or plasma of the recycling workers, compared with the office workers. Concentrations of antimony, indium, lead, mercury, and vanadium showed close to linear associations between the inhalable particle fraction and blood, plasma, or urine. In conclusion, our study of formal e-waste recycling shows that workers performing recycling tasks are exposed to multiple toxic metals. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. The difficulties in establishing an occupational exposure limit for carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenbecker, M.; Tsai, S.-J.; Jacobs, M.; Riediker, M.; Peters, T.; Liou, S.; Avila, A.; FossHansen, S.

    2018-05-01

    Concern over the health effects from the inhalation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) has been building for some time, and adverse health effects found in animal studies include acute and chronic respiratory damage, cardiac inflammation, and cancer including mesothelioma, heretofore only associated with asbestos exposure. The strong animal evidence of toxicity requires that the occupational hygiene community develops strategies for reducing or eliminating worker exposures to CNTs; part of this strategy involves the setting of occupational exposure limits (OELs) for CNTs. A number of government agencies and private entities have established OELs for CNTs; some are mass-based, while others rely on number concentration. We review these various proposed standards and discuss the pros and cons of each approach. We recommend that specific action be taken, including intensified outreach to employers and employees concerning the potential adverse health effects from CNT inhalation, the development of more nuanced OELs that reflect the complex nature of CNT exposure, a broader discussion of these issues among all interested parties, and further research into important unanswered questions including optimum methods to evaluate CNT exposures. We conclude that current animal toxicity evidence suggests that strong action needs to be taken to minimize exposures to CNTs, and that any CNT OEL should be consistent with the need to minimize exposures.

  3. Occupational exposure and health problems in small-scale industry workers in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: a situation analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rongo, L.M.B.; Barten, F.J.M.H.; Msamanga, G.I.; Heederik, D.; Dolmans, W.M.V.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Workers in informal small-scale industries (SSI) in developing countries involved in welding, spray painting, woodwork and metalwork are exposed to various hazards with consequent risk to health. Aim To assess occupational exposure and health problems in SSI in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.

  4. Epidemiological determinants of occupational exposure to HIV, HBV and HCV in health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadadi A

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health care workers (HCWs are at substantial risk of acquiring bloodborne pathogen infections through contact with blood and other potentially infectious materials. The main objectives of this study were to determine the epidemiological characteristics of occupational exposure to blood/body fluids, related risk factors of such exposure, and hepatitis B vaccination status among HCWs."nMethods: This cross-sectional study was conducted from December 2004 to June 2005 at three university hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Using a structured interview, we questioned HCWs who had the potential for high-risk exposure during the year preceding the study."nResults: With a total number of 467 exposures (52.9% and an annual rate of 0.5 exposures per HCW, 391 (43% of the 900 HCWs had at least one occupational exposure to blood and other infected fluids during the previous year. The highest rate of occupational exposure was found among nurses (26% and the housekeeping staff (20%. These exposures most commonly occurred in the medical and emergency wards (23% and 21%, respectively. The rate of exposure in HCWs with less than five years of experience was 54%. Percutaneous injury was reported in 280 participants (59%. The history of hepatitis B vaccination was positive in 85.93% of the exposed HCWs. Sixty-one percent had used gloves at the time of exposure. Hand washing was reported in 91.4% and consultation with an infectious disease specialist in 29.4%. There were 72 exposures to HIV, HBV and HCV; exposure to HBV was the most common. In 237 of the enrolled cases, the source was unknown. Job type, years of experience and hospital ward were the risk factors for exposure."nConclusion: Education, protective barriers and vaccination are important in the prevention of viral transmission among HCWs.

  5. 10-Year prospective study of noise exposure and hearing damage among construction workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Noah S; Neitzel, Rick; Stover, Bert; Sheppard, Lianne; Feeney, Patrick; Mills, David; Kujawa, Sharon

    2012-09-01

    To characterise the effects of noise exposure, including intermittent and peaky exposure, on hearing damage as assessed by standard pure-tone thresholds and otoacoustic emissions, a longitudinal study was conducted on newly hired construction apprentices and controls over a 10-year period. Among the 456 subjects recruited at baseline, 316 had at least two (mean 4.6) examinations and were included in this analysis. Annual examinations included hearing threshold levels (HTLs) for air conducted pure tones and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) amplitudes. Task-based occupational noise exposure levels and recreational exposures were estimated. Linear mixed models were fit for HTLs and DPOAEs at 3, 4 and 6 kHz in relation to time since baseline and average noise level since baseline, while controlling for hearing level at baseline and other risk factors. Estimated L(EQ) noise exposures were 87±3.6 dBA among the construction workers. Linear mixed modelling demonstrated significant exposure-related elevations in HTL of about 2-3 dB over a projected 10-year period at 3, 4 or 6 kHz for a 10 dB increase in exposure. The DPOAE models (using L1=40) predicted about 1 dB decrease in emission amplitude over 10 years for a 10 dB increase in exposure. The study provides evidence of noise-induced damage at an average exposure level around the 85 dBA level. The predicted change in HTLs was somewhat higher than would be predicted by standard hearing loss models, after accounting for hearing loss at baseline. Limited evidence for an enhanced effect of high peak component noise was observed, and DPOAEs, although similarly affected, showed no advantage over standard hearing threshold evaluation in detecting effects of noise on the ear and hearing.

  6. 10-Year prospective study of noise exposure and hearing damage among construction workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seixas, Noah S; Neitzel, Rick; Stover, Bert; Sheppard, Lianne; Feeney, Patrick; Mills, David; Kujawa, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To characterise the effects of noise exposure, including intermittent and peaky exposure, on hearing damage as assessed by standard pure-tone thresholds and otoacoustic emissions, a longitudinal study was conducted on newly hired construction apprentices and controls over a 10-year period. Methods Among the 456 subjects recruited at baseline, 316 had at least two (mean 4.6) examinations and were included in this analysis. Annual examinations included hearing threshold levels (HTLs) for air conducted pure tones and distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) amplitudes. Task-based occupational noise exposure levels and recreational exposures were estimated. Linear mixed models were fit for HTLs and DPOAEs at 3, 4 and 6 kHz in relation to time since baseline and average noise level since baseline, while controlling for hearing level at baseline and other risk factors. Results Estimated LEQ noise exposures were 87±3.6 dBA among the construction workers. Linear mixed modelling demonstrated significant exposure-related elevations in HTL of about 2–3 dB over a projected 10-year period at 3, 4 or 6 kHz for a 10 dB increase in exposure. The DPOAE models (using L1=40) predicted about 1 dB decrease in emission amplitude over 10 years for a 10 dB increase in exposure. Conclusions The study provides evidence of noise-induced damage at an average exposure level around the 85 dBA level. The predicted change in HTLs was somewhat higher than would be predicted by standard hearing loss models, after accounting for hearing loss at baseline. Limited evidence for an enhanced effect of high peak component noise was observed, and DPOAEs, although similarly affected, showed no advantage over standard hearing threshold evaluation in detecting effects of noise on the ear and hearing. PMID:22693267

  7. Doses to railroad workers from shipments of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Cottrell, W.D.

    1988-01-01

    Fissile and high-level radioactive wastes are currently transported over long distances by truck and by rail transportation systems. The primary form of fissile material is spent reactor fuel. Transportation operations within DOE are controlled through the Transportation Operations and Management System. DOE projected increases in the rate of shipments have generated concern by railroad companies that railroad workers may be exposed to levels of radiation sufficiently high that a radiation protection program may need to be implemented. To address railroad company concerns, the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has estimated doses to railroad workers for two exposure scenarios that were constructed using worker activity data obtained from CSX Transportation for crew and maintenance workers. This characterization of railroad worker activity patterns includes a quantitative evaluation of the duration and rate of exposure. These duration and exposure rate values were evaluated using each of three exposure rate vs. distance models to generate exposure estimates. 14 refs., 1 tab

  8. Particle release and control of worker exposure during laboratory-scale synthesis, handling and simulated spills of manufactured nanomaterials in fume hoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Ana S.; Kuijpers, Eelco; Kling, Kirsten I.; Levin, Marcus; Koivisto, Antti J.; Nielsen, Signe H.; Fransman, W.; Fedutik, Yijri; Jensen, Keld A.; Koponen, Ismo K.

    2018-02-01

    Fume hoods are one of the most common types of equipment applied to reduce the potential of particle exposure in laboratory environments. A number of previous studies have shown particle release during work with nanomaterials under fume hoods. Here, we assessed laboratory workers' inhalation exposure during synthesis and handling of CuO, TiO2 and ZnO in a fume hood. In addition, we tested the capacity of a fume hood to prevent particle release to laboratory air during simulated spillage of different powders (silica fume, zirconia TZ-3Y and TiO2). Airborne particle concentrations were measured in near field, far field, and in the breathing zone of the worker. Handling CuO nanoparticles increased the concentration of small particles (control during synthesis and handling of nanomaterials. An appropriate fume hood with adequate sash height and face velocity prevents 98.3% of particles release into the surrounding environment. Care should still be made to consider spills and high cleanliness to prevent exposure via resuspension and inadvertent exposure by secondary routes.

  9. Occupational radiation exposure and mortality: second analysis of the National Registry for Radiation Workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muirhead, C.R.; Goodill, A.A.; Haylock, R.G.E.; Vokes, J.; Little, M.P.; Jackson, D.A.; O'Hagan, J.A.; Thomas, J.M.; Kendall, G.M.; Silk, T.J.; Bingham, D.; Berridge, G.L.C.

    1999-01-01

    zero. For multiple myeloma there was an indication of an increasing trend in risk with external dose (p = 0.06), although the evidence for this trend disappeared after omitting workers monitored for exposure to internal emitters. The second NRRW analysis provides stronger inferences than the first on occupational radiation exposure and cancer mortality; the 90% confidence intervals for the risk per unit dose are tighter than before, and now exclude values which are greater than four times those seen among the Japanese A-bomb survivors, although they are also generally consistent with an observation of no raised risk. Furthermore, there is evidence, of borderline statistical significance, of an increasing risk for leukaemia excluding CLL, and, as with solid cancers, the data are consistent with the A-bomb findings. (author)

  10. 10 CFR Appendix C to Part 835 - Derived Air Concentration (DAC) for Workers From External Exposure During Immersion in a Cloud of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Exposure During Immersion in a Cloud of Airborne Radioactive Material C Appendix C to Part 835 Energy... Concentration (DAC) for Workers From External Exposure During Immersion in a Cloud of Airborne Radioactive...-infinite cloud of airborne radioactive material. The DACs listed in this appendix may be modified to allow...

  11. Primary DNA damage in chrome-plating workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambelunghe, A; Piccinini, R; Ambrogi, M; Villarini, M; Moretti, M; Marchetti, C; Abbritti, G; Muzi, G

    2003-06-30

    In order to evaluate the primary DNA damage due to occupational exposure to chromium (VI), DNA strand-breaks and apoptosis in peripheral lymphocytes were measured in a group of 19 chrome-plating workers. DNA strand-breaks was assessed by alkaline (pH>13) single-cell microgel electrophoresis ('comet') assay, while apoptosis was measured by flow-cytometry after propidium iodide staining of the cells. Concentrations of chromium in urine, erythrocytes and lymphocytes were investigated as biological indicators of exposure. A group of 18 hospital workers (control group I) and another 20 university personnel (control group II) without exposure to chromium were also studied as controls. The results of the study show that chrome-plating workers have higher levels of chromium in urine, erythrocytes and lymphocytes than unexposed workers. Comet tail moment values, assumed as index of DNA damage, are increased in chromium-exposed workers and results are significantly correlated to chromium lymphocyte concentrations. No difference emerged in the percentage of apoptotic nuclei in exposed and unexposed workers. The study confirms that measurements of chromium in erythrocytes and lymphocytes may provide useful information about recent and past exposure to hexavalent chromium at the workplace. The increase in DNA strand-breaks measured by comet assay suggests this test is valid for the biological monitoring of workers exposed to genotoxic compounds such as chromium (VI).

  12. Temporal Patterns of Exposure to Asbestos and Risk of Asbestosis: An Analysis of a Cohort of Asbestos Textile Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farioli, Andrea; Violante, Francesco S; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva; Pelucchi, Claudio; Spatari, Giovanna; Boffetta, Paolo; Pira, Enrico

    2018-01-12

    The aim of the study was to assess the risk of asbestosis death based on the temporal pattern of exposure to asbestos. We followed up a cohort of asbestos textile workers, employed in 1946 to 1984, until November 2013. We measured the duration of the employment, the time since last employment (TSLE), the age, and the year of first employment. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated through multivariable Cox regression models. We observed 51 asbestosis deaths among 1823 workers. The HR of asbestosis death increased with exposure duration (HR 2.4 for ≥15 years compared with <5 years, P trend = 0.014) and declined with TSLE (HR 0.3 for ≥25 compared with <5 years, P = 0.004). The risk of asbestosis mortality strongly declined for exposure starting after 1968. The risk of asbestosis death strongly declines in the decades after cessation of the exposure.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.

  13. Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery through right mini-thoracotomy: recommendations for good exposure, stable cardiopulmonary bypass, and secure myocardial protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Toshiaki

    2015-07-01

    An apparent advantage of minimally invasive mitral surgery through right mini-thoracotomy is cosmetic appearance. Possible advantages of this procedure are a shorter ventilation time, shorter hospital stay, and less blood transfusion. With regard to hard endpoints, such as operative mortality, freedom from reoperation, or cardiac death, this method is reportedly equivalent, but not superior, to the standard median sternotomy technique. However, perfusion-related complications (e.g., stroke, vascular damage, and limb ischemia) tend to occur more frequently in minimally invasive technique than with the standard technique. In addition, valve repair through a small thoracotomy is technically demanding. Therefore, screening out patients who are not appropriate for performing minimally invasive surgery is the first step. Vascular disease and inadequate anatomy can be evaluated with contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Peripheral cannulation should be carefully performed, using transesophageal echocardiography guidance. Preoperative detailed planning of the valve repair process is desirable because every step is time-consuming in minimally invasive surgery. Three-dimensional echocardiography is a powerful tool for this purpose. For satisfactory exposure and detailed observation of the valve, a special left atrial retractor and high-definition endoscope are useful. Valve repair can be performed in minimally invasive surgery as long as cardiopulmonary bypass is stable and bloodless exposure of the valve is obtained.

  14. Perceptions of pesticides exposure risks by operators, workers, residents and bystanders in Greece, Italy and the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remoundou, K; Brennan, M; Sacchettini, G; Panzone, L; Butler-Ellis, M C; Capri, E; Charistou, A; Chaideftou, E; Gerritsen-Ebben, M G; Machera, K; Spanoghe, P; Glass, R; Marchis, A; Doanngoc, K; Hart, A; Frewer, L J

    2015-02-01

    The EU Directive on the sustainable use of pesticides (EU128/2009/EC) requires European Member States to develop training activities targeting occupational exposure to pesticides, and communication material aimed at residents and bystanders. Risk perceptions, knowledge and attitudes associated with passive and occupational exposure to pesticide potentially influence the extent to which different stakeholders adopt self-protective behaviour. A methodology for assessing the link between attitudes, adoption of self-protective behaviours and exposure was developed and tested. A survey was implemented in the Greece, Italy and the UK, and targeted stakeholders associated with pesticide exposure linked to orchards, greenhouse crops and arable crops respectively. The results indicated that the adoption of protective measures is low for residents and bystanders, with the exception of residents in Greece, when compared to operators and workers, who tend to follow recommended safety practices. A regression analysis was used to examine the factors affecting the probability of adopting protective measures as well the as the level of exposure in the case of operators and workers where data are available. The results indicate that the likelihood of engaging in self-protective behaviour is not significantly affected by perceptions of own health being affected by pesticides for residents and bystanders. However, operators who perceive that their heath has been negatively affected by the use of pesticides are found to be more likely to adopt self-protective behaviours. Gender and country differences, in perceptions, attitudes and self-protection are also observed. Recommendations for improved communication, in particular for vulnerable groups, are provided. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Occupational exposure of NRM spectrometrists to static and radiofrequency fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlana, Tania; Ubeda, Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Occupational exposure to static and radiofrequency fields emitted by nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers was assessed through systematic field metering during operation of 19 devices in nine research centers. Whereas no measurable levels of radiofrequency radiation were registered outside the spectrometers, significant exposure to static field was detected, with maximum values recorded at the user s hand (B = 683.00 mT) and head thorax (B = 135.70 mT) during spectrometer manipulation. All values were well below the exposure limits set by the European standard for workers protection against the effects of acute field exposure only. As for potential effects of chronic exposure, waiting for more complete knowledge, adoption of technical and operational strategies for exposure minimizing is advisable. In this respect, the data revealed that compared with standard magnetic shielding, ultra-shield technology allows a 20-65-fold reduction of the field strength received by the operator. (authors)

  16. Worker Alienation and Compensation at the Savannah River Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwood, Loka; Wing, Steve

    2016-05-01

    Corporations operating U.S. nuclear weapons plants for the federal government began tracking occupational exposures to ionizing radiation in 1943. However, workers, scholars, and policy makers have questioned the accuracy and completeness of radiation monitoring and its capacity to provide a basis for workers' compensation. We use interviews to explore the limitations of broad-scale, corporate epidemiological surveillance through worker accounts from the Savannah River Site nuclear weapons plant. Interviewees report inadequate monitoring, overbearing surveillance, limited venues to access medical support and exposure records, and administrative failure to report radiation and other exposures at the plant. The alienation of workers from their records and toil is relevant to worker compensation programs and the accuracy of radiation dose measurements used in epidemiologic studies of occupational radiation exposures at the Savannah River Site and other weapons plants. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Evaluation of a Po-210 bioassay as an index of the exposure of uranium mine workers in Japan to radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabayashi, H; Suzuki, M; Hongo, S [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan); Watanabe, S

    1975-06-01

    As an indicator nuclide for inhalation exposure of mine workders to Rn daughters in a Japanses uranium mine, /sup 210/Po urinalyses of the workers and surveys of some environmental factors were conducted. An estimation study of concentrations of Rn daughters in a mine, indicated that about 800-50 pCi of /sup 210/Po could have been accumulated in each miner's body. However, according to the results of urinalyses performed several times in 5 years, a statistical difference in the quantity of /sup 210/Po in urine among miners and non-mining workers there was not clearly identified. Investigations of /sup 210/Po concentrations in the mine's air, water, foods (of about 30 kinds) and cigarets, and investigations of feces-urine /sup 210/Po ratios in humans revealed that these factors would greatly affect the metabolism and /sup 210/Po excretion of the workers. In particular, some marine foods in Japan contained a great amount of /sup 210/Po (several hundreds times that of other foods) and cigarets showed 0.3-0.8 pCi of /sup 210/Po per gramme. Smokers definitely excreted more /sup 210/Po in urine than non-smokers. Feces-urine ratios ranged between 5.2-42.9 in one human subject. Therefore, it can be concluded that /sup 210/Po would not be a good indicator for human exposure to Rn daughters, unless great care is taken regarding the eating and smoking habits of mine workers, as well as the exposure conditions in the uranium mine.

  18. [Prevalence of exposure to occupational risks in pregnant Spanish workers (the INMA Project-Valencia)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Galarzo, M Carmen; García, Ana M; Estarlich, Marisa; García García, Francisco; Esplugues, Ana; Rodríguez, Paz; Rebagliato, Marisa; Ballester, Ferran

    2009-01-01

    To describe the prevalence of exposure to occupational risks among pregnant women and analyze its relationship with personal and occupational characteristics using information collected in the Childhood and Environment (Infancia y Medio Ambiente [INMA])-Valencia cohort study. The INMA-Valencia cohort study started in 2004 with 855 pregnant women living in Valencia, Spain. Data on sociodemographic variables (age, education and country of birth) and occupational conditions (activity, occupation, type of contract, working hours and self-reported occupational exposure to physical load and psychosocial, physical, chemical and biological risks) in women with paid employment during pregnancy (n=649) were collected through face-to-face interviews with a structured questionnaire in week 32 of pregnancy. The prevalences of reported exposure to physical and psychosocial load and to physical pollutants (including non-ionizing radiations) were 56%, 63% and 62%, respectively. The prevalence of reported exposure to chemicals (including cleaning products) and biological pollutants was 22% and 6%, respectively. In general, the characteristics most closely associated with exposure to occupational risks were younger age, non-Spanish nationality, lower education, having a temporary contract or being self-employed. This study is the first to quantify the prevalence of exposure to occupational risks during pregnancy in a Spanish population-based sample. According to the data observed, surveillance and control actions should be intensified in pregnant workers, as some of the observed occupational exposures have been consistently associated with detrimental reproductive and developmental effects.

  19. Evaluation the total exposure of soil sample in Adaya site and the obtain risk assessments for the worker by Res Rad code program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadi, A. M.; Khadim, A. A. N.; Ibrahim, Z. H.; Ali, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    The present study aims to evaluation the total exposure to the worker in Adaya site risk assessment by using Res Rad code program. The study including 5 areas soil sample calculate in the site and analysis it by High Pure Germaniums (Hg) system made (CANBERRA) company. The soil sample simulation by (Res Rad) code program by inter the radioactive isotope concentration and the specification of the contamination zone area, depth and the cover depth of it. The total exposure of same sample was about 9 mSv/year and the (Heast 2001 Morbidity, FGR13 Morbidity) about 2.045 state every 100 worker in the year. There are simple different between Heast 2001 Morbidity and FGR13 Morbidity according to the Dose Conversion Factor (DCF) use it. The (FGR13 Morbidity) about 2.041 state every 100 worker in the year. (Author)

  20. Biochemical effects of lead exposure on oxidative stress and antioxidant status of battery manufacturing workers of Western Maharashtra, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanwat, Ganesh Haribhau; Patil, Arun Jalindar; Patil, Jyotsna A; Kshirsagar, Mandakini S; Sontakke, Ajit; Ayachit, Ram Krishna

    2016-03-01

    Lead induces oxidative stress and alters the antioxidant status of population exposed to high lead levels, i.e. battery manufacturing workers. The aim of this study was to know the current scenario of blood lead (PbB) levels and their effect on the oxidative stress parameter, i.e. serum lipid peroxide (LP), and antioxidant parameters, such as red blood cell (RBC)-superoxide dismutase (SOD), RBC-catalase (CAT), plasma ceruloplasmin (CP), and serum nitrite, of battery manufacturing workers. Forty-three battery manufacturing workers from Western Maharashtra, India, with ages between 19 and 42 years, were selected as study group and compared with 38 age-matched, healthy male subjects (control group). From both group subjects, 10 mL of blood sample was drawn by puncturing the antecubital vein, and PbB, serum LP, RBC-SOD, RBC-CAT, plasma CP, and serum nitrite were estimated using standard methods. The PbB levels of the battery manufacturing workers were significantly higher (pworkers as compared with the control subjects. Despite modern techniques used to reduce lead exposure in battery manufacturing workers, PbB levels remain high, inducing oxidative stress and altering the antioxidant status of battery manufacturing workers.

  1. Dose reconstruction modeling for medical radiation workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yeong Chull; Cha, Eun Shil; Lee, Won Jin

    2017-01-01

    Exposure information is a crucial element for the assessment of health risk due to radiation. Radiation doses received by medical radiation workers have been collected and maintained by public registry since 1996. Since exposure levels in the remote past are greater concern, it is essential to reconstruct unmeasured doses in the past using known information. We developed retrodiction models for different groups of medical radiation workers and estimate individual past doses before 1996. Reconstruction models for past radiation doses received by medical radiation workers were developed, and the past doses were estimated. Using these estimates, organ doses should be calculated which, in turn, will be used to explore a wide range of health risks of medical occupational radiation exposure. Reconstruction models for past radiation doses received by medical radiation workers were developed, and the past doses were estimated. Using these estimates, organ doses should be calculated which, in turn, will be used to explore a wide range of health risks of medical occupational radiation exposure.

  2. Dose reconstruction modeling for medical radiation workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yeong Chull; Cha, Eun Shil; Lee, Won Jin [Dept. of Preventive Medicine, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Exposure information is a crucial element for the assessment of health risk due to radiation. Radiation doses received by medical radiation workers have been collected and maintained by public registry since 1996. Since exposure levels in the remote past are greater concern, it is essential to reconstruct unmeasured doses in the past using known information. We developed retrodiction models for different groups of medical radiation workers and estimate individual past doses before 1996. Reconstruction models for past radiation doses received by medical radiation workers were developed, and the past doses were estimated. Using these estimates, organ doses should be calculated which, in turn, will be used to explore a wide range of health risks of medical occupational radiation exposure. Reconstruction models for past radiation doses received by medical radiation workers were developed, and the past doses were estimated. Using these estimates, organ doses should be calculated which, in turn, will be used to explore a wide range of health risks of medical occupational radiation exposure.

  3. Dose assessment of radiation workers at atomic energy authority (Inchas site) 1964-1994. Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gommaa, M A; Youssed, S K [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy, Cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    The present study reports the 1994 radiation exposure of workers at the nuclear research center, of the at atomic energy authority of egypt. Results indicated that 50% of the workers receive annual exposure of 3 mSv, 15% of workers received annual exposure less than 1 mSv, 28% of the workers received annual exposure of 7.5 mSv, and 7% of the workers received annual exposure in the range 10 to 20 mSv. The average annual exposure was estimated as 4.8 mSv. This result is comparable with the 1988-1993 results for nuclear research center workers. 3 tabs.

  4. Two-way portable radios: monitoring exposure to EMF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguiar Campos, Maria C.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Hand-held two-way portable radios, also known as push-to-talk radios (PTT), radiate intense electromagnetic fields (EMF). Increasingly used for communications inside buildings, these devices should not be neglected as EMF sources in workplace environments. In contrast to mobile-phones, push-to-talk radios usually operate in a lower frequency range (450 < f < 470 MHz), where the reference levels, established by ICNIRP for human exposure, are more restrictive. The intrinsic hazard potential associated to these devices has motivated this assessment of occupational exposure to EMF. In spite of relatively low power levels, usually no more than a few watts, and the intermittency of transmissions, push-to-talk radios are operated close to the body, therefore exposure takes place in the near-field region. Measurements of electromagnetic field intensities were carried out for two push-to-talk models, operating at power levels of 2 W and 5 W, with a broad-band field monitor, EMR-300 (W and G), coupled to an E-field triaxial probe (type 8.0). Intensities were measured at various points surrounding the transmitter, to assess exposure levels of other workers sitting nearby during communications. Results show significant electric field intensities at points less than 10 cm away from the source. A personal monitor with triaxial E and H-field shaped probes, RadMan XT (Narda), was used as a dosimeter by workers operating both radio models, during 8 hours. This device measures E and H-field intensities and stores these values as a percentage of ICNIRP occupational limits, in a data logger. Results of both kind of measurements show that intense EMF are emitted during transmissions. Therefore, workers should be informed about possible EMF hazards and trained to properly operate these transmitters, in order to minimize exposure risks. (author)

  5. Non-occupational physical activity levels of shift workers compared with non-shift workers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loef, Bette; Hulsegge, Gerben; Wendel-Vos, G C Wanda; Verschuren, W M Monique; Vermeulen, Roel C H; Bakker, Marije F.; van der Beek, Allard J.; Proper, Karin I

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Lack of physical activity (PA) has been hypothesised as an underlying mechanism in the adverse health effects of shift work. Therefore, our aim was to compare non-occupational PA levels between shift workers and non-shift workers. Furthermore, exposure-response relationships for

  6. Co-exposure to lead increases the renal response to low levels of cadmium in metallurgy workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambach, R; Lison, D; D'Haese, P C; Weyler, J; De Graef, E; De Schryver, A; Lamberts, L V; van Sprundel, M

    2013-10-24

    Research on the effect of co-exposure to Cd and Pb on the kidney is scarce. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of co-exposure to these metals on biomarkers of early renal effect. Cd in blood (Cd-B), Cd in urine (Cd-U), Pb in blood (Pb-B) and urinary renal biomarkers, i.e., microalbumin (μ-Alb), beta-2-microglobulin (β₂-MG), retinol binding protein (RBP), N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) were measured in 122 metallurgic refinery workers examined in a cross-sectional survey. The median Cd-B, Cd-U, Pb-B were: 0.8 μg/l (IQR = 0.5, 1.2), 0.5 μg/g creatinine (IQR = 0.3, 0.8) and 158.5 μg/l (IQR = 111.0, 219.3), respectively. The impact of Cd-B on the urinary excretion of NAG and IAP was only evident among workers with Pb-B concentrations ≥ 75th percentile. The association between Cd-U and the renal markers NAG and RBP was also evidenced when Pb-B ≥ 75th percentile. No statistically significant interaction terms were observed for the associations between Cd-B or Cd-U and the other renal markers under study (i.e., μ-Alb and β2-MG). Our findings indicate that Pb increases the impact of Cd exposure on early renal biomarkers. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Assessment of DNA damage in ceramic workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anlar, Hatice Gul; Taner, Gokce; Bacanli, Merve; Iritas, Servet; Kurt, Turker; Tutkun, Engin; Yilmaz, Omer Hinc; Basaran, Nursen

    2018-02-24

    It is known that ceramic workers are potentially exposed to complex mixture of chemicals such as silica, inorganic lead, lime, beryllium and aluminum that can be associated with an increased risk of several diseases. All operations in the ceramic industries such as mixing, moulding, casting, shaking out and finishing jobs, have been associated with the higher exposure levels and in most of the silica-related industries, average overall exposure exceeded permissible exposure levels for respirable crystalline silica. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible genotoxic damage in ceramic workers exposed to complex mixture of chemicals mainly crystalline silica. For this purpose, the blood and buccal epithelial cell samples were taken from the ceramic workers (n = 99) and their controls (n = 81). The genotoxicity was assessed by the alkaline comet assay in isolated lymphocytes and whole blood. Micronucleus (MN), binucleated (BN), pyknotic (PYC), condensed chromatin (CC), karyolytic (KYL), karyorrhectic (KHC) and nuclear bud (NBUD) frequencies in buccal epithelial cells and plasma 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) levels were also evaluated. In the study, 38 workers were diagnosed with silicosis, 9 workers were suspected to have silicosis, whereas 52 workers were found to be healthy. DNA damage in blood and lymphocytes; MN, CC + KHC, PYC frequencies in buccal epithelial cells and 8-oxodG levels in plasma were increased in workers compared to their controls. These results showed that occupational chemical mixture exposure in ceramic industry may cause genotoxic damage that can lead to important health problems in the workers.

  8. Recommended Vaccines for Healthcare Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccination Resources for Healthcare Professionals Recommended Vaccines for Healthcare Workers Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... for More Information Resources for Those Vaccinating HCWs Healthcare workers (HCWs) are at risk for exposure to ...

  9. Relevance of urinary 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene and 1-hydroxypyrene to assess exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures in metallurgy workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbeau, Damien; Persoons, Renaud; Marques, Marie; Hervé, Claire; Laffitte-Rigaud, Gilbert; Maitre, Anne

    2014-06-01

    In metallurgy, workers are exposed to mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in which some compounds are carcinogenic. Biomonitoring of PAH exposure has been performed by measuring urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), a metabolite of pyrene which is not carcinogenic. This study investigated the use of 3-hydroxybenzo(a)pyrene (3-OHBaP), a metabolite of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) which is the main carcinogenic component in PAHs, to improve carcinogen exposure assessment. We included 129 metallurgy workers routinely exposed to PAHs during working hours. Urinary samples were collected at three sampling times at the beginning and at the end of the working week for 1-OHP and 3-OHBaP analyses. Workers in anode production showed greater exposure to both biomarkers than those in cathode or silicon production, with respectively, 71, 40, and 30% of 3-OHBaP concentrations exceeding the value of 0.4 nmol mol(-1) creatinine. No difference was observed between the 3-OHBaP levels found at the end of the penultimate workday shift and those at the beginning of the last workday shift. Within these plants, the 1-OHP/3-OHBaP ratios varied greatly according to the workers' activity and emission sources. Using linear regression between these two metabolites, the 1-OHP level corresponding to the guidance value for 3-OHBaP ranged from 0.7 to 2.4 µmol mol(-1) creatinine, depending on the industrial sector. This study emphasizes the interest of monitoring urinary 3-OHBaP at the end of the last workday shift when working week exposure is relatively steady, and the irrelevance of a single guideline value for 1-OHP when assessing occupational health risk. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  10. Exposure to wet work in working Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegel, Tessa G; Nixon, Rosemary L; LaMontagne, Anthony D

    2012-02-01

    The Australian National Hazard Exposure Worker Surveillance (NHEWS) Survey 2008 was a cross-sectional survey undertaken by Safe Work Australia to inform the development of exposure prevention initiatives for occupational disease. This is a descriptive study of workplace exposures. To assess the occupational and demographic characteristics of workers reporting exposure to wet work. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted with 4500 workers. Two wet work exposure outcomes (frequent washing of hands and duration of time spent at work with the hands immersed in liquids) were analysed. The response rate for the study was 42.3%. For hand-washing, 9.8% [95% confidence interval (CI) 8.9-10.7] reported washing their hands more than 20 times per day. For immersion of hands in liquids, 4.5% (95% CI 3.9-5.1) reported immersion for more than 2 hr per day. Females were more likely to report exposure to frequent hand-washing than males [odds ratio (OR) 1.97, 95% CI 1.49-2.61]. Workers in the lowest occupational skill level jobs were more likely to report increased exposure to hands immersed in liquids than those in the highest (OR 6.41, 95% CI 3.78-10.88). Workers reporting skin exposure to chemicals were more likely to report exposure to hand-washing (OR 3.68, 95% CI 2.91-4.66) and immersion of the hands in liquids (OR 4.09, 95% CI 2.92-5.74). Specific groups of workers reported high levels of exposure to wet work. There were differences between the profiles of workers reporting frequent hand-washing and workers reporting increased duration of exposure to hands immersed in liquids. We also found a high correlation between wet work and chemical exposure. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  11. Asbestos-related radiographic findings among household contacts of workers exposed to Libby vermiculite: impact of workers' personal hygiene practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, Timothy J; Franzblau, Alfred; Dunning, Kari K; Borton, Eric K; Rohs, Amy M; Lockey, James E

    2013-11-01

    To explore the potential impact of worker hygiene by determining the prevalence of radiographic changes consistent with asbestos exposure among household contacts of workers exposed to Libby vermiculite that contained amphibole fibers. Workers and household contacts had chest radiographs and completed questionnaires regarding hygiene and potential exposure pathways. Participants included 191 household contacts of 118 workers. One household contact (0.5%) had localized pleural thickening, and three (1.6%) had irregular opacities at profusion category 1/0 or greater. Worker radiographs demonstrated pleural changes in 45% and irregular opacities at profusion category 1/0 or greater in 8%. Libby vermiculite-exposed workers demonstrated an elevated prevalence of pleural and interstitial chest radiographic changes. There was, however, no increased prevalence of similar changes among household contacts, likely because of personal hygiene measures taken by the majority of workers.

  12. Exposure to occupational dust and changes in pulmonary function among cobblestone paving workers of Jimma, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalkidan Abate Hassen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The classic diseases of "dusty" occupations may be on decline, but they are not yet extinct. Studies have found associations between changes in ambient particulate air pollution and increased cardiorespiratory morbidity and mortality. A cross-sectional comparative study design was employed on 127 male nonsmoker cobblestone paving workers and 194 matched employed office workers as a reference in order to assess changes in pulmonary function related to dust exposure among cobblestone road paving workers of Jimma zone, Ethiopia. Data was collected using structured questionnaires and spirometric measurements after ethical clearance was obtained. Data was analyzed using unpaired t-tests to examine the differences between the groups. P-values equal or less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant; odds were calculated at a 95% confidence interval. Cobblestone road paving workers had significantly higher odds of respiratory symptoms, dry cough (p < 0.05, cough (p < 0.01 and sore throat (p< 0.001 compared to the reference. The FEV1 for workers exposed to cobblestone road paving workers ranged between 3.12 - 4.73 L, with a mean of 3.96 ± 0.6 L, significantly lower than the reference groups who had a range of 3.3 - 4.78 L and a mean of 4.01 ± 0.6 L (p < 0.05. The mean value of the ratio of FEV1/FVC was significantly decreased in the cobblestone road paving workers compared to the controls (87.2 (SD 4.3 v 89.5 (SD 5.4, p = 0.01. In conclusion, the study revealed clear evidence of the need for health education and for the promotion of activities directed towards mitigating respiratory hazards in order to foster a safe and healthy work environment.

  13. Chromosome breakage in peripheral lymphocytes of thorium workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegerman, S.F.; Cummins, H.T.

    1979-01-01

    Cytogenic analysis of 21 thorium workers and 3 controls has not shown a significant elevation in the level of chromosome breakage in the workers' peripheral lymphocytes. The observation of a single dicentric chromosome in 100-cell samples from each of two workers with relatively long periods of occupational exposure and relatively high body burdens suggests, however, that such exposure might result in increases in chromosome aberration frequency

  14. VALIDITATION OF A LIGHT QUESTIONNAIRE WITH REAL-LIFE PHOTOPIC ILLUMINANCE MEASUREMENTS: THE HARVARD LIGHT EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT QUESTIONNAIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Archna; Rosner, Bernard; Lockley, Steven; Schernhammer, Eva S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Light exposure at night is now considered a probable carcinogen. To study the effects of light on chronic diseases like cancer, methods to measure light exposure in large observational studies are needed. We aimed to investigate the validity of self-reported current light exposure. Methods We developed a self-administered semiquantitative light questionnaire, the Harvard Light Exposure Assessment (H-LEA) questionnaire, and compared photopic scores derived from this questionnaire with actual photopic and circadian measures obtained from a real-life 7-day light meter application among 132 women (85 rotating night shift workers and 47 day workers) participating in the Nurses' Health Study II. Results After adjustment for age, BMI, collection day, and night work status, the overall partial Spearman correlation between self-report of light exposure and actual photopic light measurements was 0.72 (P<0.001; Kendall τ =0.57) and 0.73 (P<0.0001; Kendall τ =0.58) when correlating circadian light measurements. There were only minimal differences in accuracy of self-report of light exposure and photopic or circadian light measurement between day (r=0.77 and 0.78, respectively) and rotating night shift workers (r=0.68 and 0.69, respectively). Conclusions The results of this study provide evidence of the criterion validity of self-reported light exposure using the H-LEA questionnaire. Impact: This questionnaire is a practical method of assessing light exposure in large scale epidemiologic studies. PMID:21737411

  15. Lessons learned from case studies of inhalation exposures of workers to radioactive aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoover, M.D.; Fencl, A.F.; Newton, G.J. [and others

    1995-12-01

    Various Department of Energy requirements, rules, and orders mandate that lessons learned be identified, evaluated, shared, and incorporated into current practices. The recently issued, nonmandatory DOE standard for Development of DOE Lessons Learned Program states that a DOE-wide lessons learned program will {open_quotes}help to prevent recurrences of negative experiences, highlight best practices, and spotlight innovative ways to solve problems or perform work more safely, efficiently, and cost effectively.{close_quotes} Additional information about the lessons learned program is contained in the recently issued DOE handbook on Implementing U.S. Department of Energy Lessons Learned Programs and in October 1995 DOE SAfety Notice on Lessons Learned Programs. This report summarizes work in progress at ITRI to identify lessons learned for worker exposures to radioactive aerosols, and describes how this work will be incorporated into the DOE lessons learned program, including a new technical guide for measuring, modeling, and mitigating airborne radioactive particles. Follow-on work is focusing on preparation of {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes} training materials for facility designers, managers, health protection professionals, line supervisors, and workers.

  16. Lessons learned from case studies of inhalation exposures of workers to radioactive aerosols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoover, M.D.; Fencl, A.F.; Newton, G.J.

    1995-01-01

    Various Department of Energy requirements, rules, and orders mandate that lessons learned be identified, evaluated, shared, and incorporated into current practices. The recently issued, nonmandatory DOE standard for Development of DOE Lessons Learned Program states that a DOE-wide lessons learned program will open-quotes help to prevent recurrences of negative experiences, highlight best practices, and spotlight innovative ways to solve problems or perform work more safely, efficiently, and cost effectively.close quotes Additional information about the lessons learned program is contained in the recently issued DOE handbook on Implementing U.S. Department of Energy Lessons Learned Programs and in October 1995 DOE SAfety Notice on Lessons Learned Programs. This report summarizes work in progress at ITRI to identify lessons learned for worker exposures to radioactive aerosols, and describes how this work will be incorporated into the DOE lessons learned program, including a new technical guide for measuring, modeling, and mitigating airborne radioactive particles. Follow-on work is focusing on preparation of open-quotes lessons learnedclose quotes training materials for facility designers, managers, health protection professionals, line supervisors, and workers

  17. History of the occupational exposure to chemical substances in workers with laryngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Padron, Heliodora; Jova Rodriguez, Mario Candido; Rabelo Padua, Gladys

    2010-01-01

    A case-control study was realized to 400 patients, 200 of them histologically confirmed as incident cases of larynx cancer by the National Institute for Oncology and Radiobiology of Havana, and the others 200 as controls, coming from another hospitals. A survey was applied to both groups, collecting every theirs worker histories with emphasis on occupational exposure, that were codified by an expert group taking into account the carcinogens present according to the guided code of the Epidemiological Units of Environmental Cancer and the Fields Studies and Intervention of International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). According to the results obtained, all the patients, cases and controls, presented 1 526 tasks in their labour histories, that represented an average greater than 3 tasks for each one of them. They main activities were in the agriculture, the defence and the sugar cane industry. The most predominant exposures were to the abrasive dusts, motor emissions, mists of mineral oils, gasoline/petroleum/diesel/kerosene and pesticides. In general, the valuation of the chemical risk was considered of low intensity, 1-5% of the real time to the exposure and all had the certain probability of the agent's aggressor presence.

  18. N,N-dimethylformamide--influence of working conditions and skin penetration on the internal exposure of workers in synthetic textile production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbitzky, R; Angerer, J

    1998-07-01

    This study examined the external and internal exposure to the solvent N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) of 126 workers from a factory producing synthetic fibers. Air measurements were carried out using personal air samplers with diffusion tubes (Drager, ORSA 5). For the purpose of biological monitoring the levels of N-methylformamide (NMF) in urine were measured in preshift and postshift samples. Determinations were carried out using gas chromatography. Anamnestic data were collected with standardized questionnaires, including personal data, working history and current working conditions, and former and current illness with regard to the effects of DMF. Skin diseases were documented by a dermatologist. DMF concentrations measured in the air ranged between work areas. The German BAT value (15 mg NMF/l urine) was exceeded in 36 persons (29%) despite the use of breathing protection and protective gloves, without increased values being measured in the air. Increased absorption without higher-level exposure could particularly also be observed in employees with eczema. From the point of view of the prevention of disease, biological monitoring is the best instrument for exposure assessment of workers exposed to DMF.

  19. Persistent symptoms in agricultural workers exposed to organophosphate pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha E. Palacios N

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the prevalence of these symptoms and their relationship with pesticide exposure and the cholinesterase levels in agricultural workers. Methodology: an analytical cross-sectional study conducted in Mexico. Cholinesterase concentration and symptom frequency were assessed for 106 agricultural workers. Exposure was defined with a composed index of 15 variables. Results: symptom prevalence was 52 out of 100 workers. 31% of workers had 1 to 3 of the symptoms, 16% had 4 to 9 of them and 5% had 10 or more of the symptoms. There was an association, p = 0.03, between days of exposure and persistent symptoms. Likewise, there was an association between exposure level and the presence of probable and specific symptoms. Patients with the highest exposure level had 20% more chances of exhibiting symptoms. Cholinesterase concentration ranges were normal. Anemia was detected in 28% of the population. It was three times as frequent in females as in males (p < 0.001. Conclusions: it was possible to identify the increase of persistent symptoms in workers with cholinesterase levels that are usually considered to be normal.

  20. Workers exposure to electric fields in 400 kV substations and overhead line works

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elovaara, J.; Kuisti, H.; Korpinen, L.

    2010-01-01

    The maximum exposing electric field strength magnitude in the highly inhomogeneous 400 kV electric field under work conditions can reach the value of several tens of kV/m. In spite of this the average current density is, in Finland, always lower than 10 mA/m 2 . Furthermore, the total body currents or contact currents are in 400 kV works clearly less than the limit value proposed by the EU's draft for Directive. On the basis of the obtained results it can be concluded that from the limit value point of view it is not necessary to take further actions to reduce the exposure of the workers when they are working in 400 kV substations and on 400 kV overhead lines. However, because the transient peak values of the contact current can be painful and disturb work, it is advisable to develop a safe and reliable method to connect the worker and the work object in the common ground (equipotential bonding). (authors)

  1. Evaluation of health effects in Sequoyah Fuels Corporation workers from accidental exposure to uranium hexafluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.; Swint, M.J.; Kathren, R.L.

    1990-05-01

    Urine bioassay measurements for uranium and medical laboratory results were studied to determine whether there were any health effects from uranium intake among a group of 31 workers exposed to uranium hexafluoride (UF 6 ) and hydrolysis products following the accidental rupture of a 14-ton shipping cylinder in early 1986 at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation uranium conversion facility in Gore, Oklahoma. Physiological indicators studied to detect kidney tissue damage included tests for urinary protein, casts and cells, blood, specific gravity, and urine pH, blood urea nitrogen, and blood creatinine. We concluded after reviewing two years of follow-up medical data that none of the 31 workers sustained any observable health effects from exposure to uranium. The early excretion of uranium in urine showed more rapid systemic uptake of uranium from the lung than is assumed using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30 and Publication 54 models. The urinary excretion data from these workers were used to develop an improved systemic recycling model for inhaled soluble uranium. We estimated initial intakes, clearance rates, kidney burdens, and resulting radiation doses to lungs, kidneys, and bone surfaces. 38 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs

  2. Evaluation of health effects in Sequoyah Fuels Corporation workers from accidental exposure to uranium hexafluoride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.R. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Swint, M.J.; Kathren, R.L. (Hanford Environmental Health Foundation, Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Urine bioassay measurements for uranium and medical laboratory results were studied to determine whether there were any health effects from uranium intake among a group of 31 workers exposed to uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) and hydrolysis products following the accidental rupture of a 14-ton shipping cylinder in early 1986 at the Sequoyah Fuels Corporation uranium conversion facility in Gore, Oklahoma. Physiological indicators studied to detect kidney tissue damage included tests for urinary protein, casts and cells, blood, specific gravity, and urine pH, blood urea nitrogen, and blood creatinine. We concluded after reviewing two years of follow-up medical data that none of the 31 workers sustained any observable health effects from exposure to uranium. The early excretion of uranium in urine showed more rapid systemic uptake of uranium from the lung than is assumed using the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 30 and Publication 54 models. The urinary excretion data from these workers were used to develop an improved systemic recycling model for inhaled soluble uranium. We estimated initial intakes, clearance rates, kidney burdens, and resulting radiation doses to lungs, kidneys, and bone surfaces. 38 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  3. Exposure control practices for administering nitrous oxide: A survey of dentists, dental hygienists, and dental assistants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiano, James M; Steege, Andrea L; Sweeney, Marie H

    2017-06-01

    Engineering, administrative, and work practice controls have been recommended for many years to minimize exposure to nitrous oxide during dental procedures. To better understand the extent to which these exposure controls are used, the NIOSH Health and Safety Practices Survey of Healthcare Workers was conducted among members of professional practice organizations representing dentists, dental hygienists and dental assistants. The anonymous, modular, web-based survey was completed by 284 dental professionals in private practice who administered nitrous oxide to adult and/or pediatric patients in the seven days prior to the survey. Use of primary engineering controls (i.e., nasal scavenging mask and/or local exhaust ventilation (LEV) near the patient's mouth) was nearly universal, reported by 93% and 96% of respondents who administered to adult (A) and pediatric (P) patients, respectively. However, adherence to other recommended precautionary practices were lacking to varying degrees, and were essentially no different among those administering nitrous oxide to adult or pediatric patients. Examples of work practices which increase exposure risk, expressed as percent of respondents, included: not checking nitrous oxide equipment for leaks (41% A; 48% P); starting nitrous oxide gas flow before delivery mask or airway mask was applied to patient (13% A; 12% P); and not turning off nitrous oxide gas flow before turning off oxygen flow to the patient (8% A; 7% P). Absence of standard procedures to minimize worker exposure to nitrous oxide (13% of all respondents) and not being trained on safe handling and administration of nitrous oxide (3%) were examples of breaches of administrative controls which may also increase exposure risk. Successful management of nitrous oxide emissions should include properly fitted nasal scavenging masks, supplemental LEV (when nitrous oxide levels cannot be adequately controlled using nasal masks alone), adequate general ventilation, regular

  4. Gender differences in workers with identical repetitive industrial tasks: exposure and musculoskeletal disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordander, Catarina; Ohlsson, Kerstina; Balogh, Istvan; Hansson, Gert-Ake; Axmon, Anna; Persson, Roger; Skerfving, Staffan

    2008-08-01

    For unknown reasons, females run a higher risk than males of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether male and female workers, with identical repetitive work tasks, differ concerning risk of disorders, physical or psychosocial exposures. Employees in two industries were studied; one rubber manufacturing and one mechanical assembly plant. These industries were selected since in both, large groups of males and females worked side by side performing identical repetitive work tasks. Physical exposure was measured by technical equipment. Postures and movements were registered by inclinometry for the head and upper arms, and by electrogoniometry for the wrists. Muscular activity (muscular rest and %max) was registered by surface electromyography for m. trapezius and the forearm extensors (18 males and 19 females). Psychosocial work environment was evaluated by the demand-control-support model (85 males and 138 females). Musculoskeletal disorders were assessed (105 males and 172 females), by interview (last 7-days complaints), and by physical examination (diagnoses). Concerning physical exposure, females showed higher muscular activity related to maximal voluntary contractions [(%MVE); m. trapezius: females 18 (SD 9.2), males 12 (SD 4.3); forearm extensors: females 39 (SD 11), males 27 (SD 10), right side, 90th percentile]. Working postures and movements were similar between genders. Also, concerning psychosocial work environment, no significant gender differences were found. Females had higher prevalences of disorders [complaints: age-adjusted prevalence odds ratio (POR) 2.3 (95% CI 1.3-3.8) for neck/shoulders, 2.4 (1.4-4.0) for elbows/hands; diagnoses: neck/shoulder 1.9 (1.1-3.6), elbows/hands 4.1 (1.2-9.3)]. In 225 workers, PORs were adjusted for household work, personal recovery and exercise, which only slightly affected the risk estimates. In identical work tasks, females showed substantially higher muscular activity in

  5. Occupational radiation exposure in Korea: 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Je Ho; Kwon, Jeong Wan; Lee, Jai Ki

    2005-01-01

    Dose distribution of Korean radiation workers classified by occupational categories was analyzed. Statistics of the Occupational Radiation Exposure(ORE) in 2002 of the radiation workers in diagnostic and dental radiology were obtained from the Korea Food and Drug Agency(KFDA) who maintains the database for individual radiation dose records. Corresponding statistics for the rest of radiation workers were obtained by processing the individual annual doses provided by the Korea RadioIsotope Association(KRIA) after deletion of individual information. The ORE distribution was classified in term of 28 occupational categories, annual individual dose levels, age groups and gender of 52733 radiation workers as of the year of 2002. The total collective dose was 66.4 man-Sv and resulting average individual ORE was 1.26 mSv. Around 80% of the workers were exposed to minimal doses less than 1.2 mSv. However, it appeared that the recorded doses exceeded 20 mSv for 43 workers in the industrial radiography and for 147 workers in the field of radiology. Particularly, recorded doses of 23 workers in radiology exceeded the annual dose limits of 50 mSv, which is extraordinary when the working environment is considered. It is uncertain whether those doses are real or caused by careless placing of dosimeters in the imaging rooms while the X-ray units are in operation. No one in the workforce of 16 operating nuclear power plant units was exposed over 20 mSv in 2002. Number of workers was the largest in their 30's of age and the mean individual dose was the highest in their 20's. Women were around 20% of the radiation workers and their average dose was around one half of that of man workers

  6. Occupational health of miners at altitude: adverse health effects, toxic exposures, pre-placement screening, acclimatization, and worker surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vearrier, David; Greenberg, Michael I

    2011-08-01

    Mining operations conducted at high altitudes provide health challenges for workers as well as for medical personnel. To review the literature regarding adverse health effects and toxic exposures that may be associated with mining operations conducted at altitude and to discuss pre-placement screening, acclimatization issues, and on-site surveillance strategies. We used the Ovid ( http://ovidsp.tx.ovid.com ) search engine to conduct a MEDLINE search for "coal mining" or "mining" and "altitude sickness" or "altitude" and a second MEDLINE search for "occupational diseases" and "altitude sickness" or "altitude." The search identified 97 articles of which 76 were relevant. In addition, the references of these 76 articles were manually reviewed for relevant articles. CARDIOVASCULAR EFFECTS: High altitude is associated with increased sympathetic tone that may result in elevated blood pressure, particularly in workers with pre-existing hypertension. Workers with a history of coronary artery disease experience ischemia at lower work rates at high altitude, while those with a history of congestive heart failure have decreased exercise tolerance at high altitude as compared to healthy controls and are at higher risk of suffering an exacerbation of their heart failure. PULMONARY EFFECTS: High altitude is associated with various adverse pulmonary effects, including high-altitude pulmonary edema, pulmonary hypertension, subacute mountain sickness, and chronic mountain sickness. Mining at altitude has been reported to accelerate silicosis and other pneumoconioses. Miners with pre-existing pneumoconioses may experience an exacerbation of their condition at altitude. Persons traveling to high altitude have a higher incidence of Cheyne-Stokes respiration while sleeping than do persons native to high altitude. Obesity increases the risk of pulmonary hypertension, acute mountain sickness, and sleep-disordered breathing. NEUROLOGICAL EFFECTS: The most common adverse neurological

  7. Update on worker mortality data at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1979-01-01

    The subject of this paper is a study of the effects on mortality of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation at the Hanford plant. The Hanford plant, which is located in southeastern Washington State, was established in the early forties as an installation for plutonium production. Many workers employed by the various contractors hold jobs involving some exposure to radiation. Yearly records of this exposure, obtained from dosimeter readings, as well as occupational data, are maintained for all employees. Mortality data are obtained by having the Social Security Administration periodically search their records for deaths of persons identified in the personnel rosters of Hanford contractors. Published analyses of worker mortality at Hanford have included workers initially employed before 1965 and mortality up to April 1, 1974. In this paper, the mortality data are updated to include deaths up to May 1, 1977, workers employed 1965 and later, and the most recent exposure data. In addition to updating results of earlier analyses, this paper provides a discussion of the problems involved in analyzing and interpreting occupational exposure and mortality data. For a more detailed discussion of these problems the reader is referred to the papers noted above

  8. Investigation of potential biomarkers for the early diagnosis of cellular stability after the exposure of agricultural workers to pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JODEL S. ALVES

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Agricultural workers involved in the harvest of tobacco crops are regularly exposed to large quantities of pesticides. In order to determine how this exposure to pesticides induces genetic alterations in these workers, blood samples were obtained from 77 exposed individuals, as well as from 60 unexposed subjects. DNA damage was analyzed by the Comet assay and by the micronucleus (MN test. The antioxidant profile was evaluated by activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD, and the polymorphism of gene PON1 was used as a susceptibility biomarker. The content of inorganic elements in the blood samples was determined by PIXE analysis. Our results demonstrated that the damage frequency, damage index, the MN frequency, and the SOD activity were significantly elevated in the exposed relative to the unexposed group. A modulation of the MN results for the PON1 gene was observed in the exposed group. The concentrations of inorganic elements in the exposed group were higher compared to those of the unexposed group. In this study, we observed that genetic damage, and change in oxidative balance were induced by the exposure of workers to complex mixtures of pesticides in the presence of inorganic compounds, whereby an influence of the genotype was evident.

  9. Occupational skin diseases and prevention among sanitation workers in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuehua; Wang, Xinggang; Wu, Jianbo; Xu, Li

    2015-09-01

    Little research has been focused on the health status or the occupational protection awareness of sanitation workers. The policy recommendations on the occupational safety and health of sanitation workers based on the scientific research are also insufficient in developing countries like China. To study the incidence of dermatoses and the relevance with occupational exposure, protection awareness and protective measures among sanitation workers for better management and protection of the sanitation workers. 273 sanitation workers and 113 administrative staff from 11 streets of Wuhan were recruited. Dermatological problems were evaluated and recorded by physical examination. Occupational exposure, protection awareness, the use of protective equipments and personal history of skin disease were assessed by questionnaires. Compared with administrative staff, sanitation workers had much more occupational dermatological problems and had a much higher rate of harmful ultraviolet ray exposure. Young sanitation workers were more aware of occupational self-protection and a relatively higher rate of them using protective equipments compared with old ones. Exposure to multiple health hazards and the poor use of protective equipments are related to skin diseases in sanitation workers. Prejob training of self-protection and the use of protective equipments are recommended.

  10. Germany: Exposure of Transport Workers During the Transport of Most Frequently Transported NORM in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    The German national report to this CRP was focused on the following services according to the research agreement: (1) Status review, analysis and evaluation of the radiation exposure imposed by shipment and expected exposure of the shipment staff of the most relevant NORM in Germany; (2) Development of evaluation criteria and safety requirements to provide adequate safety standards for the transportation of NORM; (3) Development and application of procedures to determine the limits for exempt materials/consignments for transportation according to German Transport Regulations for all NORM. For the analysis and evaluation of the radiation exposure imposed by shipment of NORM for the following materials, a couple of transport scenarios were defined and the dose to transport workers was calculated. - Tantalum raw materials; - Raw phosphate; - Pipe scales and sludge from oil and gas exploitation; - Coa