WorldWideScience

Sample records for minimized side effects

  1. Minimizing quality deteriorations of refrigerated foodstuffs as a side effect of defrosting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimization scheme for traditional refrigeration systems with hysteresis controllers and scheduled defrosts. It aims at minimizing the side effect of defrost cycles on the storage quality of refrigerated foodstuffs in supermarkets. By utilizing the thermal mass of air...... and products inside a display cabinet, this optimization scheme forces the compressor to work harder and cool down more prior to the scheduled defrosts, thus guaranteeing the product temperature after defrost cycles still to be within a controlled safe level....

  2. Minimally invasive radical pancreatectomy for left-sided pancreatic cancer: Current status and future perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Chang Moo; Lee, Sung Hwan; Lee, Woo Jung

    2014-01-01

    Minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy has been regarded as a safe and effective treatment for benign and borderline malignant pancreatic lesions. However, its application for left-sided pancreatic cancer is still being debated. The clinical evidence for radical antegrade modular pancreatosplenectomy (RAMPS)-based minimally invasive approaches for left-sided pancreatic cancer was reviewed. Potential indications and surgical concepts for minimally invasive RAMPS were suggested. Despite the limited clinical evidence for minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy in left-sided pancreatic cancer, the currently available clinical evidence supports the use of laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy under oncologic principles in well-selected left sided pancreatic cancers. A pancreas-confined tumor with an intact fascia layer between the pancreas and left adrenal gland/kidney positioned more than 1 or 2 cm away from the celiac axis is thought to constitute a good condition for the use of margin-negative minimally invasive RAMPS. The use of minimally invasive (laparoscopic or robotic) anterior RAMPS is feasible and safe for margin-negative resection in well-selected left-sided pancreatic cancer. The oncologic feasibility of the procedure remains to be determined; however, the currently available interim results indicate that even oncologic outcomes will not be inferior to those of open radical distal pancreatosplenectomy. PMID:24605031

  3. Target Essentiality and Centrality Characterize Drug Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiujuan; Thijssen, Bram; Yu, Haiyuan

    2013-01-01

    Author Summary The ultimate goal of medical research is to develop effective treatments for disease with minimal side effects. Currently, about 20% of drug candidates failed at clinical trial phases II and III due to safety issues. Therefore, understanding the determining factors of drug side effects is of paramount importance to human health and the pharmaceutical industry. Here, we present the first systematic study to uncover key factors leading to drug side effects within the framework of...

  4. Efficient hiding of confidential high-utility itemsets with minimal side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jerry Chun-Wei; Hong, Tzung-Pei; Fournier-Viger, Philippe; Liu, Qiankun; Wong, Jia-Wei; Zhan, Justin

    2017-11-01

    Privacy preserving data mining (PPDM) is an emerging research problem that has become critical in the last decades. PPDM consists of hiding sensitive information to ensure that it cannot be discovered by data mining algorithms. Several PPDM algorithms have been developed. Most of them are designed for hiding sensitive frequent itemsets or association rules. Hiding sensitive information in a database can have several side effects such as hiding other non-sensitive information and introducing redundant information. Finding the set of itemsets or transactions to be sanitised that minimises side effects is an NP-hard problem. In this paper, a genetic algorithm (GA) using transaction deletion is designed to hide sensitive high-utility itemsets for PPUM. A flexible fitness function with three adjustable weights is used to evaluate the goodness of each chromosome for hiding sensitive high-utility itemsets. To speed up the evolution process, the pre-large concept is adopted in the designed algorithm. It reduces the number of database scans required for verifying the goodness of an evaluated chromosome. Substantial experiments are conducted to compare the performance of the designed GA approach (with/without the pre-large concept), with a GA-based approach relying on transaction insertion and a non-evolutionary algorithm, in terms of execution time, side effects, database integrity and utility integrity. Results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm hides sensitive high-utility itemsets with fewer side effects than previous studies, while preserving high database and utility integrity.

  5. Review Article: Fabricated Microparticles: An Innovative Method to Minimize the Side Effects of NSAIDs in Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Shaivad Shabee Hulhasan; Moin, Afrasim; Veerabhadrappa, Gangadharappa Hosahalli

    2016-01-01

    Microparticles are polymeric bodies ranging 1-1000 µm that constitute a variety of forms such as microcapsules, microspheres, microcages, microshells, microrods, biosensors microparticles, radiolabeled microparticles, and so forth. This review focuses on general microparticles, mainly microcapsules and microspheres. Nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the mostcommonly prescribed medications in the world. Most of the NSAIDs available have severe side effects. With increased awareness of NSAID-induced gastrointestinal (GI) side effects, safety has become a priority in treatment of arthritis and other inflammatory diseases with NSAIDs. A trend in NSAID development has been to improve therapeutic efficacy while reducing the severity of GI side effects by altering dosage through modified release to optimize drug delivery. One such approach is the use of fabricated microparticles such as microcapsules and microspheres as carriers of drugs. Microparticles provide delivery of macromolecules and micromolecules via different routes and effectively control the release profile of such drugs. Microcapsules and microspheres are compatible with most natural and synthetic polymers and can be used for several routes of administration, including parenteral, oral, nasal, intra-ocular, topical, and the like. Because of greater stability and multiple manufacturing techniques, microspheres and microcapsules are preferred as drug carriers over other colloidal drug delivery systems. Microparticles provide effective protection of the encapsulated agent against degradation by enzymatic activities, controlled and confined delivery of drugs from a few hours to months, and ingenious administration compared to alternative forms of controlled-release parenteral dosages, such as macro-sized implants. This comprehensive overview of fabricated microparticles describes microencapsulation technologies to produce microparticles for targeted therapy of arthritis and other

  6. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  7. Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side effects are problems that occur when cancer treatment affects healthy tissues or organs. Learn about side effects caused by cancer treatment. Know what signs and symptoms to call your doctor about. Learn about treatments for side effects.

  8. Early and Late Side Effects Associated with Photo(chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günseli Öztürk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phototherapy (PUVA ve UVB is a widely used and effective treatment method for a variety of dermatological diseases. Adverse effects associated with phototherapy can be classified as acute and chronic side effects. Acute side effects are mostly related with UV doses and drug intolerance, and include itching, nausea, erythema, edema and phototoxic reactions that sometimes blister formation is seen. Acute side effects are usually moderate and transient. Chronic side effects of phototherapy are early aging of skin, pigmentary changes and increased risk of skin carcinogenesis. The major concern is development of skin cancer. This risk is especially related to long-term exposure and high cumulative doses of PUVA, increase in time and is persistent. Therefore, risk/advantage ratio of phototherapy should be carefully evaluated in each patient, and treatment protocols with minimal UV exposure should be chosen according to the phototherapy guides. Follow-up of the patients for long terms is important in prevention or in reduction of this risk by detecting and treating any premalignant or malignant lesion early. In this article, acute and chronic side effects of phototherapy are reviewed with recent literature findings.

  9. Blood pressure control with selective vagal nerve stimulation and minimal side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, Dennis T. T.; Gierthmuehlen, Mortimer; Cota, Oscar; Espinosa, Nayeli; Boeser, Fabian; Herrera, Taliana C.; Stieglitz, Thomas; Zentner, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Hypertension is the largest threat to patient health and a burden to health care systems. Despite various options, 30% of patients do not respond sufficiently to medical treatment. Mechanoreceptors in the aortic arch relay blood pressure (BP) levels through vagal nerve (VN) fibers to the brainstem and trigger the baroreflex, lowering the BP. Selective electrical stimulation of these nerve fibers reduced BP in rats. However, there is no technique described to localize and stimulate these fibers inside the VN without inadvertent stimulation of non-baroreceptive fibers causing side effects like bradycardia and bradypnea. Approach. We present a novel method for selective VN stimulation to reduce BP without the aforementioned side effects. Baroreceptor compound activity of rat VN (n = 5) was localized using a multichannel cuff electrode, true tripolar recording and a coherent averaging algorithm triggered by BP or electrocardiogram. Main results. Tripolar stimulation over electrodes near the barofibers reduced the BP without triggering significant bradycardia and bradypnea. The BP drop was adjusted to 60% of the initial value by varying the stimulation pulse width and duration, and lasted up to five times longer than the stimulation. Significance. The presented method is robust to impedance changes, independent of the electrode's relative position, does not compromise the nerve and can run on implantable, ultra-low power signal processors.

  10. Effectiveness of two-sided UV-C treatments in inhibiting natural microflora and extending the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allende, Ana; McEvoy, James L; Luo, Yaguang; Artes, Francisco; Wang, Chien Y

    2006-05-01

    The use of UV-C radiation treatments to inhibit the microbial growth and extend the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce was investigated. Initially, UV-C resistance of 20 bacterial strains from different genera often associated with fresh produce (Enterobacter, Erwinia, Escherichia, Leuconostoc, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, Rahnela, Salmonella, Serratia and Yersinia) were tested in vitro. Most of the bacterial strains were inhibited with the minimum dose (30 J m(-2)). Erwinia carotovora, Leuconostoc carnosum, Salmonella typhimurium, and Yersinia aldovae were the most resistant strains requiring a UV-C dose of 85 J m(-2) to completely inhibit growth. An in vivo study consisted of treating minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce (Lactuca sativa) with UV-C at three radiation doses (1.18, 2.37 and 7.11 kJ m(-2)) on each side of the leaves and storing the product under passive MAP conditions at 5 degrees C for up to 10 days. The gas composition inside packages varied significantly among the treatments, with CO2 concentrations positively and O2 concentrations negatively correlating with the radiation dose. All the radiation doses were effective in reducing the natural microflora of the product, although the highest doses showed the greatest microbial inhibitions. Taking into account the microbial limit set by Spanish legislation [Boletín Oficial del Estado (BOE), 2001. Normas de higiene para la elaboración, distribución y comercio de comidas preparadas, Madrid, Spain, Real Decreto 3484/2000, pp. 1435-1441], all UV-C treatments extended the shelf-life of the product. However, the 7.11 kJ m(-2) dose induced tissue softening and browning after 7 days of storage at 5 degrees C. Therefore, the use of two sided UV-C radiation, at the proper dose, is effective in reducing the natural microflora and extending the shelf-life of minimally processed 'Red Oak Leaf' lettuce.

  11. Application of response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm in minimizing warpage on side arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimee, N. A.; Fathullah, M.; Shayfull, Z.; Nasir, S. M.; Hazwan, M. H. M.

    2017-09-01

    The plastic injection moulding process produces large numbers of parts of high quality with great accuracy and quickly. It has widely used for production of plastic part with various shapes and geometries. Side arm is one of the product using injection moulding to manufacture it. However, there are some difficulties in adjusting the parameter variables which are mould temperature, melt temperature, packing pressure, packing time and cooling time as there are warpage happen at the tip part of side arm. Therefore, the work reported herein is about minimizing warpage on side arm product by optimizing the process parameter using Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and with additional artificial intelligence (AI) method which is Genetic Algorithm (GA).

  12. Side Effects (Management)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer care is relieving side effects, called symptom management, palliative care, or supportive care. It is important ... treat them. To learn about the symptoms and management of the long-term side effects of cancer ...

  13. Medications and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to fully work. You might feel some side effects of your medication before your feel the benefits – ... as sleepiness, anxiety or headache) is a side effect or a symptom of your illness. Many side ...

  14. Radiation Therapy Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation therapy has side effects because it not only kills or slows the growth of cancer cells, it can also affect nearby healthy cells. Many people who get radiation therapy experience fatigue. Other side effects depend on the part of the body that is being treated. Learn more about possible side effects.

  15. Intranasal corticosteroids topical characteristics: side effects, formulation, and volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, David A; Blaiss, Michael S

    2013-01-01

    Guidelines from throughout the world recommend intranasal corticosteroids (INSs) as first-line treatment for most patients with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis. In general, limited comparative studies between different INSs have not indicated that one particular steroid moiety is more effective than another in controlling symptoms of allergic rhinitis. However, there are numerous formulations available with different ingredients that may influence a patient's adherence to treatment. This article looks at topical features with these agents, specifically, formulations, vehicles (aqueous vs aerosol), and side effects such as epistaxis and nasal septal perforation. Topical side effects are minimal with INSs with the exception of epistaxis. There are major differences in formulations, volumes, and vehicles between INSs, which could affect adherence. Physicians need to be aware of the different INS attributes to try to match patients' preferences in order to achieve better adherence and improve outcomes in sufferers of allergic rhinitis.

  16. Managing the side effects of multiple sclerosis therapy: pharmacotherapy options for patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommer, Paulus S; Zettl, Uwe K

    2018-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated and neurodegenerative disease with an unpredictable outcome. Immune-modulatory treatment aims at decreasing long-term disability. With the increasing number of treatment options, it is essential to fully digest the possible side effects of the available therapeutics and to monitor patients is essential. Areas covered: All approved disease-modifying drugs (DMD) for MS are discussed in this review. Mode of action, adverse effects, reported risks for infections and malignancies, and pregnancy related issues are discussed in the review. The authors also provide suggestions for monitoring therapy. For all approved DMDs the pivotal studies have been included for possible side effects, as well as reports by health authorities. For this manuscript, PubMed was checked for reports on side effects for various drugs. Expert opinion: Treatment options in MS are manifold, each carrying different risks. The safety-risk profile for approved agents is favorable. Knowing and monitoring these possible side effects is essential to minimize risks associated with treatment. Presently, the long-term experience for some of these therapies is missing and this must be addressed.

  17. [Prevention of side effects and complications after operation for partial ileal bypass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirchuk, K K; Sedletskiĭ, Iu I

    2014-01-01

    Side effects and complications of the application of partial ileal bypass used for dislipidemia were analyzed in 162 patients with atherosclerosis. It was shown, that the partial ileal bypass operation could lead to the development of series of undesirable side effects such as diarrhea, hypovitaminosis B12, off-state intestine enteritis. The application of modification of partial ileal bypass such as formation of ileo-ileoanastomosis 5-6 cm long near ileocecal valve with the maintenance of its functions disposed the diarrhea and minimized the risk of the development of hypovitaminosis B12 after operation. It is possible to prevent the development of enteritis of off-state loop of the small intestine by using microanastomosis between off-state and functioning iliac intestine. The partial ileal bypass operation didn't influence on body weight, wouldn't increase the risk of stone formation in the gallbladder and kidneys. The risk of the development of hypovitaminosis B12 is minimal after operation.

  18. Clozapine-Induced Cardiovascular Side Effects and Autonomic Dysfunction: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica W. Y. Yuen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Clozapine is the antipsychotic of choice for treatment-resistant schizophrenia and has minimal risk for extrapyramidal symptoms. Therapeutic benefits, however, are accompanied by a myriad of cardiometabolic side-effects. The specific reasons for clozapine's high propensity to cause adverse cardiometabolic events remain unknown, but it is believed that autonomic dysfunction may play a role in many of these.Objective: This systematic review summarizes the literature on autonomic dysfunction and related cardiovascular side effects associated with clozapine treatment.Method: A search of the EMBASE, MEDLINE, and EBM Cochrane databases was conducted using the search terms antipsychotic agents, antipsychotic drug*, antipsychotic*, schizophrenia, schizophren*, psychos*, psychotic*, mental ill*, mental disorder*, neuroleptic*, cardiovascular*, cardiovascular diseases, clozapine*, clozaril*, autonomic*, sympathetic*, catecholamine*, norepinephrine, noradrenaline, epinephrine, adrenaline.Results: The search yielded 37 studies that were reviewed, of which only 16 studies have used interventions to manage cardiovascular side effects. Side effects reported in the studies include myocarditis, orthostatic hypotension and tachycardia. These were attributed to sympathetic hyperactivity, decreased vagal contribution, blockade of cholinergic and adrenergic receptors, reduced heart rate variability and elevated catecholamines with clozapine use. Autonomic neuropathy was identified by monitoring blood pressure and heart rate changes in response to stimuli and by spectral analysis of heart rate variability. Metoprolol, lorazepam, atenolol, propranolol, amlodipine, vasopressin and norepinephrine infusion were used to treat tachycardia and fluctuations in blood pressure, yet results were limited to case reports.Conclusion: The results indicate there is a lack of clinical studies investigating autonomic dysfunction and a limited use of interventions to manage

  19. Long term results after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in patients with craniopharyngioma: maximal tumor control with minimal side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrabi, Semi B; Adeberg, Sebastian; Welzel, Thomas; Rieken, Stefan; Habermehl, Daniel; Debus, Jürgen; Combs, Stephanie E

    2014-09-16

    There are already numerous reports about high local control rates in patients with craniopharyngioma but there are only few studies with follow up times of more than 10 years. This study is an analysis of long term control, tumor response and side effects after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) for patients with craniopharyngioma. 55 patients who were treated with FSRT for craniopharyngioma were analyzed. Median age was 37 years (range 6-70 years), among them eight children craniopharyngioma. Overall treatment was tolerated well with almost no severe acute or chronic side effects. One patient developed complete anosmia, another one's initially impaired vision deteriorated further. In 83.6% of the cases with radiological follow up a regression of irradiated tumor residues was monitored, in 7 cases complete response was achieved. 44 patients presented themselves initially with endocrinologic dysfunction none of them showed signs of further deterioration during follow up. No secondary malignancies were observed. Long term results for patients with craniopharyngioma after stereotactic radiotherapy are with respect to low treatment related side effects as well as to local control and overall survival excellent.

  20. Warfarin Side Effects: Watch for Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warfarin side effects: Watch for interactions Although commonly used to treat blood clots, warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) can have dangerous side effects or ... bleeding. Here are precautions to take to avoid warfarin side effects. By Mayo Clinic Staff If you' ...

  1. Do the benefits outweigh the side effects of colorectal cancer surveillance? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augestad, Knut Magne; Rose, Johnie; Crawshaw, Benjamin; Cooper, Gregory; Delaney, Conor

    2014-05-15

    Most patients treated with curative intent for colorectal cancer (CRC) are included in a follow-up program involving periodic evaluations. The survival benefits of a follow-up program are well delineated, and previous meta-analyses have suggested an overall survival improvement of 5%-10% by intensive follow-up. However, in a recent randomized trial, there was no survival benefit when a minimal vs an intensive follow-up program was compared. Less is known about the potential side effects of follow-up. Well-known side effects of preventive programs are those of somatic complications caused by testing, negative psychological consequences of follow-up itself, and the downstream impact of false positive or false negative tests. Accordingly, the potential survival benefits of CRC follow-up must be weighed against these potential negatives. The present review compares the benefits and side effects of CRC follow-up, and we propose future areas for research.

  2. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicines, talk to your health care provider about possible side effects. Tell your health care provider about your lifestyle and point out any possible side effects that would be especially hard for you to ...

  3. Probiotics: Safety and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Probiotics Safety and Side Effects Past Issues / Winter 2016 ... Says About the Safety and Side Effects of Probiotics Whether probiotics are likely to be safe for ...

  4. Full Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Inhibition Combined with Partial Monoacylglycerol Lipase Inhibition: Augmented and Sustained Antinociceptive Effects with Reduced Cannabimimetic Side Effects in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudeshna; Kinsey, Steven G; Liu, Qing-Song; Hruba, Lenka; McMahon, Lance R; Grim, Travis W; Merritt, Christina R; Wise, Laura E; Abdullah, Rehab A; Selley, Dana E; Sim-Selley, Laura J; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Lichtman, Aron H

    2015-08-01

    Inhibition of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) or monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), the primary hydrolytic enzymes for the respective endocannabinoids N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) and 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), produces antinociception but with minimal cannabimimetic side effects. Although selective inhibitors of either enzyme often show partial efficacy in various nociceptive models, their combined blockade elicits augmented antinociceptive effects, but side effects emerge. Moreover, complete and prolonged MAGL blockade leads to cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) receptor functional tolerance, which represents another challenge in this potential therapeutic strategy. Therefore, the present study tested whether full FAAH inhibition combined with partial MAGL inhibition would produce sustained antinociceptive effects with minimal cannabimimetic side effects. Accordingly, we tested a high dose of the FAAH inhibitor PF-3845 (N-​3-​pyridinyl-​4-​[[3-​[[5-​(trifluoromethyl)-​2-​pyridinyl]oxy]phenyl]methyl]-​1-​piperidinecarboxamide; 10 mg/kg) given in combination with a low dose of the MAGL inhibitor JZL184 [4-nitrophenyl 4-(dibenzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl(hydroxy)methyl)piperidine-1-carboxylate] (4 mg/kg) in mouse models of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. This combination of inhibitors elicited profound increases in brain AEA levels (>10-fold) but only 2- to 3-fold increases in brain 2-AG levels. This combination produced significantly greater antinociceptive effects than single enzyme inhibition and did not elicit common cannabimimetic effects (e.g., catalepsy, hypomotility, hypothermia, and substitution for Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol in the drug-discrimination assay), although these side effects emerged with high-dose JZL184 (i.e., 100 mg/kg). Finally, repeated administration of this combination did not lead to tolerance to its antiallodynic actions in the carrageenan assay or CB1 receptor functional tolerance. Thus, full FAAH inhibition

  5. Side Effects: Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatigue is a common side effect of many cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and surgery. Anemia and pain can also cause fatigue. Learn about symptoms and way to manage fatigue.

  6. Not all side effects associated with tricyclic antidepressant therapy are true side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiwan, Syed; Drossman, Douglas A; Morris, Carolyn B; Dalton, Chris; Toner, Brenda B; Diamant, Nicholas E; Hu, J B; Whitehead, William E; Leserman, Jane; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I

    2009-04-01

    Patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders treated with tricyclic antidepressants sometimes report nongastrointestinal symptoms; it is unclear whether these are drug side effects or reflect a behavioral tendency to report symptoms. We evaluated whether symptoms reported before treatment with a tricyclic antidepressant (desipramine) increased in number or worsened in severity after 2 weeks of treatment and assessed the baseline factors that predispose patients to report symptoms. Female patients in a multicenter National Institutes of Health trial for functional bowel disorders completed a 15-item symptom questionnaire at baseline (before randomization), 2 weeks after they were given desipramine (n = 81) or placebo (n = 40), and at study completion (12 weeks). Patients were asked about the severity and frequency of 15 symptoms. Results were analyzed from 57 patients given desipramine who completed the questionnaires. Symptoms reported as side effects to have occurred more frequently and also worsened at week 2 in the group given desipramine included dizziness, dry mouth/thirstiness, lightheadedness, jittery feelings/tremors, and flushing. Symptoms that did not change in severity or showed improvement at week 2 in the group given desipramine included morning tiredness, nausea, blurred vision, headaches, appetite reduction, and trouble sleeping. Psychologic distress but not desipramine blood level correlated with symptom reporting. Most symptoms often attributed to side effects of desipramine were present before treatment; only a few, related to anticholinergic effects, worsened 2 weeks after treatment, suggesting that most so-called side effects were not associated specifically with desipramine use. Such symptoms might instead be associated with psychologic distress.

  7. Minimizing Cardiovascular Adverse Effects of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs in Patients with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi T. Khasawneh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of atypical antipsychotic agents has rapidly increased in the United States and worldwide in the last decade. Nonetheless, many health care practitioners do not appreciate the significance of the cardiovascular side effects that may be associated with their use and the means to minimize them. Thus, atypical antipsychotic medications can cause cardiovascular side effects such as arrhythmias and deviations in blood pressure. In rare cases, they may also cause congestive heart failure, myocarditis, and sudden death. Patients with schizophrenia have a higher risk of cardiovascular mortality than healthy individuals, possibly because of excessive smoking, the underlying disorder itself, or a combination of both factors. Increased awareness of these potential complications can allow pharmacists and physicians to better manage and monitor high risk patients. Accurate assessments are very important to avoid medications from being given to patients inappropriately. Additionally, monitoring patients regularly via blood draws and checking blood pressure, heart rate, and electrocardiogram can help catch any clinical problems and prevent further complications. Finally, patient and family-member education, which pharmacists in particular can play key roles in, is central for the management and prevention of side effects, which is known to reflect positively on morbidity and mortality in these patients.

  8. Side Effects: Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarrhea, a side effect of cancer treatment, may cause symptoms such as loose, watery stools. Diarrhea can lead to dehydration and malnutrition in cancer patients. Learn about ways to treat and manage diarrhea during cancer treatment.

  9. Side Effects: Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Controlling pain is an important part of your cancer treatment plan. Learn how to track levels of pain. Find out how pain, a side effect of cancer treatment, is treated using acupuncture, biofeedback, and physical therapy.

  10. Sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids

    2002-01-01

    The majority of psychotropic drugs entail sexual side effects. The sexual side effects may reduce quality of life and may give rise to non-compliance. For example, 30-60 per cent of patients treated with antidepressants are known to develop a sexual dysfunction. However, some psychotropic drugs...... with no or very few sexual side effects have begun to emerge. The treatment of sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs may consist of: modified sexual habits, reduction in dosage, switching to another medication, possibly in combination with different psychotropic agents, other varieties...

  11. Side Effects: Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anemia is a side effect of cancer treatments, including chemotherapy and radiation therapy. It can make women and men feel fatigued, dizzy, and short of breath. Learn how to manage fatigue caused by anemia during cancer treatment.

  12. What side effects are problematic for patients prescribed antipsychotic medication? The Maudsley Side Effects (MSE) measure for antipsychotic medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wykes, T; Evans, J; Paton, C; Barnes, T R E; Taylor, D; Bentall, R; Dalton, B; Ruffell, T; Rose, D; Vitoratou, S

    2017-10-01

    Capturing service users' perspectives can highlight additional and different concerns to those of clinicians, but there are no up to date, self-report psychometrically sound measures of side effects of antipsychotic medications. Aim To develop a psychometrically sound measure to identify antipsychotic side effects important to service users, the Maudsley Side Effects (MSE) measure. An initial item bank was subjected to a Delphi exercise (n = 9) with psychiatrists and pharmacists, followed by service user focus groups and expert panels (n = 15) to determine item relevance and language. Feasibility and comprehensive psychometric properties were established in two samples (N43 and N50). We investigated whether we could predict the three most important side effects for individuals from their frequency, severity and life impact. MSE is a 53-item measure with good reliability and validity. Poorer mental and physical health, but not psychotic symptoms, was related to side-effect burden. Seventy-nine percent of items were chosen as one of the three most important effects. Severity, impact and distress only predicted 'putting on weight' which was more distressing, more severe and had more life impact in those for whom it was most important. MSE is a self-report questionnaire that identifies reliably the side-effect burden as experienced by patients. Identifying key side effects important to patients can act as a starting point for joint decision making on the type and the dose of medication.

  13. End effect braking force reduction in high-speed single-sided linear induction machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiri, Abbas; Shoulaie, Abbas

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new analytical equation to model the end effect braking force of SLIM is derived. ► Equations for efficiency, power factor and output thrust are analytically derived. ► The effect of design variables on the performance of the motor is analyzed. ► An optimization method is employed to minimize the end effect braking force (EEBF). ► The results show that EEBF is minimized by appropriate selection of motor parameters. - Abstract: Linear induction motors have been widely employed in industry because of their simple structure and low construction cost. However, they suffer from low efficiency and power factor. In addition, existence of so called end effect influences their performance especially in high speeds. The end effect deteriorates the performance of the motor by producing braking force. So, in this paper, by using Duncan equivalent circuit model, a new analytical equation is proposed to model end effect braking force. Employing the proposed equation and considering all phenomena involved in the single-sided linear induction motor, a simple design procedure is presented and the effect of different design variables on the performance of the motor is analyzed. A multi-objective optimization method based on genetic algorithm is introduced to maximize efficiency and power factor, as well as to minimize the end effect braking force, simultaneously. Finally, to validate the optimization results, 2D finite element method is employed.

  14. Long term results after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) in patients with craniopharyngioma: maximal tumor control with minimal side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrabi, Semi B; Adeberg, Sebastian; Welzel, Thomas; Rieken, Stefan; Habermehl, Daniel; Debus, Jürgen; Combs, Stephanie E

    2014-01-01

    There are already numerous reports about high local control rates in patients with craniopharyngioma but there are only few studies with follow up times of more than 10 years. This study is an analysis of long term control, tumor response and side effects after fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) for patients with craniopharyngioma. 55 patients who were treated with FSRT for craniopharyngioma were analyzed. Median age was 37 years (range 6–70 years), among them eight children < 18 years. Radiotherapy (RT) was indicated for progressive disease after neurosurgical resection or postoperatively after repeated resection or partial resection. A median dose of 52.2 Gy (50 – 57.6 Gy) was applied with typical dose per fraction of 1.8 Gy five times per week. The regular follow up examinations comprised in addition to contrast enhanced MRI scans thorough physical examinations and clinical evaluation. During median follow up of 128 months (2 – 276 months) local control rate was 95.3% after 5 years, 92.1% after 10 years and 88.1% after 20 years. Overall survival after 10 years was 83.3% and after 20 years 67.8% whereby none of the deaths were directly attributed to craniopharyngioma. Overall treatment was tolerated well with almost no severe acute or chronic side effects. One patient developed complete anosmia, another one’s initially impaired vision deteriorated further. In 83.6% of the cases with radiological follow up a regression of irradiated tumor residues was monitored, in 7 cases complete response was achieved. 44 patients presented themselves initially with endocrinologic dysfunction none of them showed signs of further deterioration during follow up. No secondary malignancies were observed. Long term results for patients with craniopharyngioma after stereotactic radiotherapy are with respect to low treatment related side effects as well as to local control and overall survival excellent

  15. Nightguard vital bleaching: side effects and patient satisfaction 10 to 17 years post-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boushell, Lee W; Ritter, André V; Garland, Glenn E; Tiwana, Karen K; Smith, Lynn R; Broome, Angela; Leonard, Ralph H

    2012-06-01

      The long-term patient satisfaction and safety of nightguard vital bleaching (NGVB) requires further evaluation.   The purpose of this study was to evaluate patients' satisfaction and identify side effects of NGVB up to 17 years post-treatment.   Thirty-one participants who had completed previous NGVB studies using 10% carbamide peroxide were contacted at least 10 years post-treatment (range 10-17 years, average 12.3 years). Participants reported shade satisfaction (very satisfied [VS], partially satisfied [PS], or not satisfied [NS]) as well as potential complications. Participants had teeth # 6 to 11 examined for tooth vitality, gingival inflammation (Löe's Gingival Index [GI]), and radiographically for external cervical resorption (ECR).   All of the participants had successful lightening of their teeth. Sixty-one percent (19) had not retreated their teeth. Of those who had not retreated their teeth and who responded to the question of whitening satisfaction, 31% (4/13) were VS, 54% (7/13) were PS, and 15% (2/13) were NS with their current shade. Of those who had retreated their teeth, all were VS or PS. Ninety-one percent of the examined teeth had GI = 0 (normal), 7% had GI = 1 (mild inflammation), and 2% had GI = 2 (moderate inflammation). Sixty-nine percent of teeth tested responded to a cold stimulus. Radiographs did not detect ECR or apical lesions. No participant reported having a gingival biopsy post-treatment, and 87% would whiten again.   Patient satisfaction with NGVB may last as long as 12.3 years in average (range 10-17 years) post-treatment. GI and ECR findings were considered within the normal expectations for the sample studied, suggesting minimal clinical post-NGVB side effects up to 17 years. Nightguard vital bleaching provides patient satisfaction with minimal side effects up to 17 years post-treatment. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The Social Side Effects of Acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischkowski, Dominik

    About 23% of all adults in the US take acetaminophen during an average week (Kaufman, Kelly, Rosenberg, Anderson, & Mitchell, 2002) because acetaminophen is an effective physical painkiller and easily accessible over the counter. The physiological side effects of acetaminophen are well documented and generally mild when acetaminophen is consumed in the appropriate dosage. In contrast, the psychological and social side effects of acetaminophen are largely unknown. Recent functional neuroimaging research suggests that the experience of physical pain is fundamentally related to the experience of empathy for the pain of other people, indicating that pharmacologically reducing responsiveness to physical pain also reduces cognitive, affective, and behavioral responsiveness to the pain of others. I tested this hypothesis across three double-blind between-subjects drug intervention studies. Two experiments showed that acetaminophen had moderate effects on empathic affect, specifically personal distress and empathic concern, and a small effect on empathic cognition, specifically perceived pain, when facing physical and social pain of others. The same two experiments and a third experiment also showed that acetaminophen can increase the willingness to inflict pain on other people, i.e., actual aggressive behavior. This effect was especially pronounced among people low in dispositional empathic concern. Together, these findings suggest that the physical pain system is more involved in the regulation of social cognition, affect, and behavior than previously assumed and that the experience of physical pain and responsiveness to the pain of others share a common neurochemical basis. Furthermore, these findings suggest that acetaminophen has unappreciated but serious social side effects, and that these side effects may depend on psychological characteristics of the drug consumer. This idea is consistent with recent theory and research on the context-dependency of neurochemical

  17. Running away from side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casla, S; Hojman, P; Márquez-Rodas, I

    2015-01-01

    The number of breast cancer survivors increases every year, thanks to the development of new treatments and screening techniques. However, patients present with numerous side effects that may affect their quality of life. Exercise has been demonstrated to reduce some of these side effects...... be an integrative complementary intervention to improve physiological, physical and psychological factors that affect survival and quality of life of these patients. For that reason, the main objective of this review is to provide a general overview of exercise benefits in breast cancer patients and recommendations...

  18. Side effects affected my daily activities a lot”: a qualitative exploration of the impact of contraceptive side effects in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain A

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Aparna Jain,1 Laura Reichenbach,1 Iqbal Ehsan,2 Ubaidur Rob2 1Evidence Project, Population Council, Washington, DC, USA; 2Evidence Project, Population Council, Dhaka, Bangladesh Purpose: In a country like Bangladesh that has made great progress in contraceptive use with one of the lowest levels of fertility and highest levels of contraceptive use, understanding what factors influence women’s decisions to discontinue a contraceptive method and not switch to a new method is critical in designing interventions and programs that will help enable Bangladesh to reach its FP2020 goals. Research on side effects has focused on physical manifestations like headaches, moodiness, abdominal pain, and menstrual irregularities. While physical effects alone may stop women from continuing a contraceptive method, less is known about how side effects influence women’s daily activities and lives. The purpose of this study is to understand the ways that side effects affect Bangladeshi women’s participation in different social settings.Methods: Thirty-five in-depth interviews with married women who recently discontinued or switched to a different contraceptive method were conducted in Sylhet and Khulna Divisions. Interviews explored reasons for discontinuation including experience of side effects and impact of side effects on women’s lives.Results: Key themes emerged including that side effects are not only experienced physically but are barriers to women’s participation in many aspects of their lives. The spheres of life that most commonly appeared to be influenced by side effects include religion, household, and sexual intimacy irrespective of method used or residence.Conclusion: Family planning providers need to be aware of these additional consequences associated with contraceptive side effects to provide tailored counseling that recognizes these issues and helps women to mitigate them. For Bangladesh to achieve its FP2020 goals, understanding the

  19. Side Effects: Sleep Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep problems are a common side effect during cancer treatment. Learn how a polysomnogram can assess sleep problems. Learn about the benefits of managing sleep disorders in men and women with cancer.

  20. Side Effects of Leukotriene Receptor Antagonists in Asthmatic Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Semiha Bahceci; Nacaroglu, Hikmet Tekin; Unsal Karkiner, Canan Sule; Gunay, Ilker; Can, Demet

    2015-10-01

    Leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRAs) are drugs which have been widely used more than ten years. As the use of LTRAs increases, our knowledge with respect to their side effects increases as well. The objective of our study was to evaluat the observed side effects of LTRAs used in patients with astma. 1024 patients treated only with LTRAs owing to asthma or early wheezing were included in the study for a five-year period. The observed side effects of LTRAs in these patients were retrospectively investigated. The side effects were divided into two parts as psychiatric and non-psychiatric. Among the 1024 cases included in the study, 67.5% of the patients out of 41 with side effects were male, 32.5% were female and the average age was 6.5 years. The rate of patients with asthma was 63.41% and 36.58% of the patients had early wheezing. It was determined that sex, age and diagnosis (early wheezing or asthma) of the patients were ineffective in the emergence of side effects. The average period for the emergence of side effects was the first month. It was observed that hyperactivity was the most frequently observed psychiatric side effect and that abdominal pain was the non-psychiatric side effect. The side effects of LTRAs were common in children. Therefore, patients must be informed at the beginning of the treatment and they must be evaluated at certain intervals.

  1. Effects and side effects of inspections and accountability in education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wolff, I.; Janssens, F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of studies into effects and side effects of control mechanisms in education. We focus on effects and side effects of inspection visits and public performance indicators. A first conclusion is that the studies do not provide us with a clear answer to the question of

  2. The Need of Slanted Side Holes for Venous Cannulae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joong Yull Park

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Well-designed cannulae must allow good flow rate and minimize nonphysiologic load. Venous cannulae generally have side holes to prevent the rupture of blood vessel during perfusion. Optimizing side hole angle will yield more efficient and safe venous cannulae. A numerical modeling was used to study the effect of the angle (0°–45° and number (0–12 of side holes on the performance of cannulae. By only slanting the side holes, it increases the flow rate up to 6% (in our models. In addition, it was found that increasing the number of side holes reduces the shear rate up to 12% (in our models. A new parameter called “penetration depth” was introduced to describe the interfering effect of stream jets from side holes, and the result showed that the 45°-slanted side holes caused minimum interfering for the flow in cannula. Our quantitative hemodynamic analysis study provides important guidelines for venous cannulae design.

  3. Measuring side effects after radiotherapy for pharynx cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Data on side effects after radiotherapy is needed to establish the benefits and drawbacks of new treatments, but side effects are not quantified as easily as survival or local control. Side effects may be quantified using physical measures. Unfortunately, only few endpoints exist where a physical...... measure is obtainable, and the case of a patient-relevant measure is even rarer. Radiotherapy is often followed by complex symptoms not easily quantifiable by the observer. Quantitative patient reported side effects can be retrieved using validated questionnaires, but this kind of data is often difficult...... to interpret and the correlation with clinically observable or measurable changes not straightforward. The exploitation of the possibilities of highly conformal radiotherapy and multimodality treatment depends on a better understanding of the correlation between dose, volume, modifying factors, and side...

  4. Cancer treatment: fertility and sexual side effects in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer treatment: fertility and sexual side effects in women To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bladder cancer Types of Sexual Side Effects For women, the most common sexual side effects include: Loss ...

  5. Metabolic Side Effects of Lithium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cagdas Eker

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is an alkaline ion being used since 19th century. After its widespread use in psychiatric disorders, observed side effects caused skepticism about its therapeutic efficacy. Despite several disadvantages, lithium is one of the indispensible drugs used in affective disorders, especially in bipolar disorder. It became a necessity for physicians to recognize its side effects since lithium is still accepted as a gold standard in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Adverse effects of chronic administration of lithium on several organ systems are widely known. In this article metabolic effects of lithium on thyroid and parathyroid glands, body mass index and kidneys will be discussed along with their mechanisms, clinical findings, possible risk factors and treatment. One of the most common side effect of lithium is hypothyroidism. It has the same clinical and biochemical properties as primary hypothyroidism and observed as subclinical hypothyroidism in the first place. Hypothyroidism, even its subclinical form, may be associated with non-response or inadequate response and is indicated as a risk factor for development of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Therefore, hypothyroidism should be screened no matter how severe it is and should be treated with thyroid hormone in the presence of clinical hypothyroidism. Weight gain due to lithium administration disturbs the compliance to treatment and negatively affects the course of the illness. Increased risk for diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and stroke because of weight gain constitute other centers of problem. Indeed, it is of importance to determine the risk factors before treatment, to follow up the weight, to re-organize nutritional habits and to schedule exercises. Another frequent problematic side effect of lithium treatment is renal dysfunction which clinically present as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with the common symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia. Nephrogenic diabetes

  6. Side Effects: Appetite Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatments may lower your appetite. Side effects such as nausea, fatigue, or mouth sores can also making eating difficult. Learn how to eat well to avoid losing weight or becoming dehydrated, so you stay strong during treatment.

  7. Foreknowledge, Caring, and the Side-Effect Effect in Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellizzoni, Sandra; Siegal, Michael; Surian, Luca

    2009-01-01

    Children and adults often judge that the side effects of the actions of an uncaring story agent have been intentional if the effects are harmful but not if these are beneficial, creating an asymmetrical "side-effect" effect. The authors report 3 experiments involving 4- and 5-year-olds (N = 188) designed to clarify the role of foreknowledge and…

  8. Biomaterial-based regional chemotherapy: Local anticancer drug delivery to enhance chemotherapy and minimize its side-effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukiewicz, Katarzyna; Zak, Jerzy K

    2016-05-01

    Since the majority of anticancer pharmacological agents affect not only cancer tissue but also normal cells, chemotherapy is usually accompanied with severe side effects. Regional chemotherapy, as the alternative version of conventional treatment, leads to the enhancement of the therapeutic efficiency of anticancer drugs and, simultaneously, reduction of toxic effects to healthy tissues. This paper provides an insight into different approaches of local delivery of chemotherapeutics, such as the injection of anticancer agents directly into tumor tissue, the use of injectable in situ forming drug carriers or injectable platforms in a form of implants. The wide range of biomaterials used as reservoirs of anticancer drugs is described, i.e. poly(ethylene glycol) and its copolymers, polyurethanes, poly(lactic acid) and its copolymers, poly(ɛ-caprolactone), polyanhydrides, chitosan, cellulose, cyclodextrins, silk, conducting polymers, modified titanium surfaces, calcium phosphate based biomaterials, silicone and silica implants, as well as carbon nanotubes and graphene. To emphasize the applicability of regional chemotherapy in cancer treatment, the commercially available products approved by the relevant health agencies are presented. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Coping – Late Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  10. Perspectives of Nanotechnology in Minimally Invasive Therapy of Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamin Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer, the most common type of cancer among women in the western world, affects approximately one out of every eight women over their lifetime. In recognition of the high invasiveness of surgical excision and severe side effects of chemical and radiation therapies, increasing efforts are made to seek minimally invasive modalities with fewer side effects. Nanoparticles (<100 nm in size have shown promising capabilities for delivering targeted therapeutic drugs to cancer cells and confining the treatment mainly within tumors. Additionally, some nanoparticles exhibit distinct properties, such as conversion of photonic energy into heat, and these properties enable eradication of cancer cells. In this review, current utilization of nanostructures for cancer therapy, especially in minimally invasive therapy, is summarized with a particular interest in breast cancer.

  11. Patients' oral hydration levels and incidence of immediate to short-term mild side-effects in contrast agent enhanced MRI diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonker, Leon; Fallahi, Farshid

    2015-01-01

    . • Oral hydration is likely to have minimal role in affecting side-effects

  12. Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation KidsHealth / For Parents / Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation What's in this article? What to ...

  13. Side-effects of topical steroids: A long overdue revisit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coondoo, Arijit; Phiske, Meghana; Verma, Shyam; Lahiri, Koushik

    2014-10-01

    The introduction of topical steroids (TS) of varying potency have rendered the therapy of inflammatory cutaneous disorders more effective and less time-consuming. However the usefulness of these has become a double edged sword with constantly rising instances of abuse and misuse leading to serious local, systemic and psychological side effects. These side effects occur more with TS of higher potency and on particular areas of the body like face and genitalia. The article reviews the side effects of TS with special mention about peadiatric age group, also includes the measures for preventing the side effects.

  14. Side-effects of topical steroids: A long overdue revisit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arijit Coondoo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of topical steroids (TS of varying potency have rendered the therapy of inflammatory cutaneous disorders more effective and less time-consuming. However the usefulness of these has become a double edged sword with constantly rising instances of abuse and misuse leading to serious local, systemic and psychological side effects. These side effects occur more with TS of higher potency and on particular areas of the body like face and genitalia.The article reviews the side effects of TS with special mention about peadiatric age group, also includes the measures for preventing the side effects.

  15. Side Effect Perceptions and Their Impact on Treatment Decisions in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Erika A; Pachur, Thorsten; Colditz, Graham A

    2017-04-01

    Side effects prompt some patients to forego otherwise-beneficial therapies. This study explored which characteristics make side effects particularly aversive. We used a psychometric approach, originating from research on risk perception, to identify the factors (or components) underlying side effect perceptions. Women ( N = 149) aged 40 to 74 years were recruited from a patient registry to complete an online experiment. Participants were presented with hypothetical scenarios in which an effective and necessary medication conferred a small risk of a single side effect (e.g., nausea, dizziness). They rated a broad range of side effects on several characteristics (e.g., embarrassing, treatable). In addition, we collected 4 measures of aversiveness for each side effect: choosing to take the medication, willingness to pay to avoid the side effect (WTP), negative affective attitude associated with the side effect, and how each side effect ranks among others in terms of undesirability. A principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify the components underlying side effect perceptions. Then, for each aversiveness measure separately, regression analyses were used to determine which components predicted differences in aversiveness among the side effects. The PCA revealed 4 components underlying side effect perceptions: affective challenge (e.g., frightening), social challenge (e.g., disfiguring), physical challenge (e.g., painful), and familiarity (e.g., common). Side effects perceived as affectively and physically challenging elicited the highest levels of aversiveness across all 4 measures. Understanding what side effect characteristics are most aversive may inform interventions to improve medical decisions and facilitate the translation of novel biomedical therapies into clinical practice.

  16. Comparison of side effects in myelography with iopamidol and metrizamide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong; Kang, Heung Sik; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Seoul Heui; Kwon, Oh Sung; Myung, Ho Gin

    1986-01-01

    The study was conducted to compare the side effects in myelography of the two non-ionic water-soluble contrast medias, lopamidol (Niopam) and Metrizamide (Amipaque). A total of 111 patients were examined, 64 with lopamidol and 47 with Metrizamide. Side effects consisted of headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, urinary difficulty, muscular pain, seizure, neurobehavioral disturbance, neurological sign change, vital sign change and etc. The common side effects were headache, nausea, vomiting and dizziness in order of frequency. Most of the side effects were subsided within 24 hours following myelography. lopamidol myelography caused fewer and milder side effects than Metrizamide study. The side effects were more commonly observed in cervical, thoracic or total myelography than in lumbar myelography with either lopamidol or Metrizamide. There was no significant correlation between incidence of the side effects and premedication with phenobarbital or valium injection before myelography and CSF sampling during the procedure.

  17. Comparison of side effects in myelography with iopamidol and metrizamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong; Kang, Heung Sik; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Seoul Heui; Kwon, Oh Sung; Myung, Ho Gin [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-12-15

    The study was conducted to compare the side effects in myelography of the two non-ionic water-soluble contrast medias, lopamidol (Niopam) and Metrizamide (Amipaque). A total of 111 patients were examined, 64 with lopamidol and 47 with Metrizamide. Side effects consisted of headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, urinary difficulty, muscular pain, seizure, neurobehavioral disturbance, neurological sign change, vital sign change and etc. The common side effects were headache, nausea, vomiting and dizziness in order of frequency. Most of the side effects were subsided within 24 hours following myelography. lopamidol myelography caused fewer and milder side effects than Metrizamide study. The side effects were more commonly observed in cervical, thoracic or total myelography than in lumbar myelography with either lopamidol or Metrizamide. There was no significant correlation between incidence of the side effects and premedication with phenobarbital or valium injection before myelography and CSF sampling during the procedure.

  18. A survey of gas-side fouling in industrial heat-transfer equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marner, W. J.; Suitor, J. W.

    1983-11-01

    Gas-side fouling and corrosion problems occur in all of the energy intensive industries including the chemical, petroleum, primary metals, pulp and paper, glass, cement, foodstuffs, and textile industries. Topics of major interest include: (1) heat exchanger design procedures for gas-side fouling service; (2) gas-side fouling factors which are presently available; (3) startup and shutdown procedures used to minimize the effects of gas-side fouling; (4) gas-side fouling prevention, mitigation, and accommodation techniques; (5) economic impact of gas-side fouling on capital costs, maintenance costs, loss of production, and energy losses; and (6) miscellaneous considerations related to gas-side fouling. The present state-of-the-art for industrial gas-side fouling is summarized by a list of recommendations for further work in this area.

  19. Central nervous system side effects associated with zolpidem treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toner, L C; Tsambiras, B M; Catalano, G; Catalano, M C; Cooper, D S

    2000-01-01

    Zolpidem is one of the newer medications developed for the treatment of insomnia. It is an imidazopyridine agent that is an alternative to the typical sedative-hypnotic agents. Zolpidem use is gaining favor because of its efficacy and its side effect profile, which is milder and less problematic than that of the benzodiazepines and barbiturates used to treat insomnia. Still, side effects are not uncommon with zolpidem use. We report a series of cases in which the patients developed delirium, nightmares and hallucinations during treatment with zolpidem. We will review its pharmacology, discuss previous reports of central nervous system side effects, examine the impact of drug interactions with concurrent use of antidepressants, examine gender differences in susceptibility to side effects, and explore the significance of protein binding in producing side effects.

  20. Systematic identification of proteins that elicit drug side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Al Banchaabouchi, Mumna; Campillos, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Side effect similarities of drugs have recently been employed to predict new drug targets, and networks of side effects and targets have been used to better understand the mechanism of action of drugs. Here, we report a large-scale analysis to systematically predict and characterize proteins...... that cause drug side effects. We integrated phenotypic data obtained during clinical trials with known drug-target relations to identify overrepresented protein-side effect combinations. Using independent data, we confirm that most of these overrepresentations point to proteins which, when perturbed, cause......) is responsible for hyperesthesia in mice, which, in turn, can be prevented by a drug that selectively inhibits HTR7. Taken together, we show that a large fraction of complex drug side effects are mediated by individual proteins and create a reference for such relations....

  1. Side effects of retinoid therapy on the quality of vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergler-Czop Beata

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Retinoids are compounds chemically related to vitamin A, which are frequently used in dermatological practice (1. They are characterized by numerous mechanisms of action leading to normalization of keratinocyte proliferation and maturation. They have anti-seborrhoeic, immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects (1, 2. A number of side effects to retinoid treatment have been recorded; one group of such side effects relates to eyes and vision. Dry eye syndrome and blepharoconjunctivitis are the most common side effects, appearing in 20-50 % of patients treated with retinoids. They often contribute to the occurrence of other side-effects such as eye discomfort and contact lens intolerance. Due to the widespread use in clinical practice, the adverse effects, including ocular side effects, should be studied. To confirm the variety of adverse effects of retinoids, several case reports of rare side-effects are presented.

  2. Chemotherapy Side Effects: A Cause of Heart Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can chemotherapy side effects increase the risk of heart disease? Answers from Timothy J. Moynihan, M.D. Chemotherapy side effects may increase the risk of heart disease, including weakening of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy) and ...

  3. Framing effects on expectations, decisions, and side effects experienced: the case of influenza immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, A M; Pennie, R A; Dales, R E

    1996-11-01

    To examine the effects of using positive or negative frames to describe influenza vaccine benefits and side effects on patients' expectations, decisions, decisional conflict, and reported side effects. 292 previously unimmunized patients with chronic respiratory or cardiac disease were randomly assigned to receive benefit/risk information that was framed: (1) positively as the percentage who remain free of influenza and have no vaccine side effects, or (2) negatively as the percentage who acquire influenza and have vaccine side effects. Questionnaires elicited expectations, decisions, and decisional conflict. Vaccines were telephoned 3 days later for a self-report of local and systemic side effects and work absenteeism. Both groups had similar immunization rates and decisional conflict scores. The positive frame group had lower and more realistic expectations of vaccine side effects, fewer systemic side effects, and less work absenteeism (p framing did not influence patients' decisions, possibly due to the patients' awareness of their higher risk of influenza complications and greater desire to follow recommendations. The common practice of using negative frames when describing probabilities of side effects may need to be reexamined, considering its deleterious influence on self-reported side effects and work absenteeism.

  4. The role side effects play in the choice of antiepileptic therapy in brain tumor-related epilepsy: a comparative study on traditional antiepileptic drugs versus oxcarbazepine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschio, Marta; Dinapoli, Loredana; Vidiri, Antonello; Pace, Andrea; Fabi, Alessandra; Pompili, Alfredo; Carapella, Maria Carmine; Jandolo, Bruno

    2009-01-01

    Background Seizure control doesn't represent the only challenging goal in patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy. Side effects have often taken precedence for patients' quality of life. Methods We performed an observational retrospective study on patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy: 35 who had assumed oxcarbazepine monotherapy and 35 patients who had undergone treatment with traditional antiepileptic drugs. Primary variable of efficacy was the mean seizure frequency per month and safety variables were the drop-out for side effects and total incidence of side effects. We applied the Propensity Score technique to minimize selection bias. Results Our results showed a similar efficacy of oxcarbazepine and traditional antiepileptic drugs over time, but the difference in safety and tolerability between the two groups was significant: traditional AEDs caused more side effects, both serious and non serious. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of taking into consideration not only seizure control but also the appearance of side effects when choosing antiepileptic drugs in this patients population. PMID:19419544

  5. Side Effects: Nausea and Vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Types of nausea and vomiting caused by cancer treatment include: anticipatory, acute, and delayed. Controlling these side effects will help to prevent serious problems such as malnutrition and dehydration in people with cancer.

  6. Drug side effect extraction from clinical narratives of psychiatry and psychology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sunghwan; Kocher, Jean-Pierre A; Chute, Christopher G; Savova, Guergana K

    2011-12-01

    To extract physician-asserted drug side effects from electronic medical record clinical narratives. Pattern matching rules were manually developed through examining keywords and expression patterns of side effects to discover an individual side effect and causative drug relationship. A combination of machine learning (C4.5) using side effect keyword features and pattern matching rules was used to extract sentences that contain side effect and causative drug pairs, enabling the system to discover most side effect occurrences. Our system was implemented as a module within the clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System. The system was tested in the domain of psychiatry and psychology. The rule-based system extracting side effects and causative drugs produced an F score of 0.80 (0.55 excluding allergy section). The hybrid system identifying side effect sentences had an F score of 0.75 (0.56 excluding allergy section) but covered more side effect and causative drug pairs than individual side effect extraction. The rule-based system was able to identify most side effects expressed by clear indication words. More sophisticated semantic processing is required to handle complex side effect descriptions in the narrative. We demonstrated that our system can be trained to identify sentences with complex side effect descriptions that can be submitted to a human expert for further abstraction. Our system was able to extract most physician-asserted drug side effects. It can be used in either an automated mode for side effect extraction or semi-automated mode to identify side effect sentences that can significantly simplify abstraction by a human expert.

  7. Reported Sildenafil Side Effects in Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Leigh Siehr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sildenafil, a phosphodiestase type 5 inhibitor, was approved in 2005 for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH in adults, and is commonly used off-label for pediatric patients. Little is known, however, about sildenafil’s side effects in this population.Methods: Single institution, longitudinal survey-based study performed in an outpatient pediatric cardiology clinic. Pediatric patients on sildenafil (alone or in combination with other PH therapies completed questionnaires regarding frequency of vascular, gastrointestinal, neurologic and hematologic side effects. Results: Between January 2011 and May 2014, 66 pediatric patients with PH on sildenafil filled out 214 surveys, 32 patients (96 surveys on monotherapy, and 43 patients (118 surveys on sildenafil plus an endothelin receptor antagonist (bosentan or ambrisentan and/or a prostacyclin (epoprostenol or treprostinil. Overall, 30% of respondents identified at least one side effect. For all patients on sildenafil, incidence of side effects by system was 37% gastrointestinal, 35% vascular and 22% neurologic. For patients on sildenafil monotherapy, incidence of side effects by system was 24% gastrointestinal, 21% vascular and 18% neurologic compared to patients on combination therapy who reported an incidence of 48% gastrointestinal, 45% vascular and 25% neurologic.Conclusion: Incidence of vascular, gastrointestinal and neurologic side effect in pediatric patients on sildenafil therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension was 30%. Side effects were more common in patients on combination therapy with an endothelin receptor antagonist and/or prostacyclin than in patients on sildenafil monotherapy.

  8. Gastrointestinal Side Effects of Antiarrhythmic Medications: A Review of Current Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amjad, Waseem; Qureshi, Waqas; Farooq, Ali; Sohail, Umair; Khatoon, Salma; Pervaiz, Sarah; Narra, Pratyusha; Hasan, Syeda M; Ali, Farman; Ullah, Aman; Guttmann, Steven

    2017-09-03

    Antiarrhythmic drugs are commonly prescribed cardiac drugs. Due to their receptor mimicry with several of the gastrointestinal tract receptors, they can frequently lead to gastrointestinal side effects. These side effects are the most common reasons for discontinuation of these drugs by the patients. Knowledge of these side effects is important for clinicians that manage antiarrhythmic drugs. This review focuses on the gastrointestinal side effects of these drugs and provides a detailed up-to-date literature review of the side effects of these drugs. The review provides case reports reported in the literature as well as possible mechanisms that lead to gastrointestinal side effects.

  9. Side Effects and Interactions of the Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor Febuxostat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Andreas; Gresser, Ursula

    2018-05-25

    The paper addresses the safety of febuxostat and summarizes reports on side effects and interactions of febuxostat published by the cut-off date (last day of literature search) of 20 March 2018. Publications on side effects and the interactions of febuxostat were considered. Information concerning the occurrence of side effects and interactions in association with the treatment with febuxostat was collected and summarized in the review. The incidence of severe side effects was much less frequent than mild side effects (1.2⁻3.8% to 20.1⁻38.7%). The rate and range of febuxostat side effects are low at doses of up to 120 mg and only increase with a daily dose of over 120 mg. The publications reveal no age-dependent increase in side effects for febuxostat. In patients with impaired renal function, no increase in adverse events is described with a dose of up to 120 mg of febuxostat per day. Patients with impaired liver function had no elevated risk for severe side effects. A known allopurinol intolerance increases the risk of skin reactions during treatment with febuxostat by a factor of 3.6. No correlation between treatment with febuxostat and agranulocytosis has been confirmed. Possible interactions with very few medications (principally azathioprine) are known for febuxostat. Febuxostat is well tolerated and a modern and safe alternative to allopurinol therapy.

  10. Side Effects and Their Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumors. Donate Now Subscribe for e-updates Please leave this field empty ... tumors and their treatments bring an array of possible side effects in to a patient’s life. Fatigue, cognitive changes, and mood changes are ...

  11. Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hair loss, also called alopecia, is a side effect of cancer treatments, such as chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Learn how to cope with and manage hair loss. Listen to tips from others who have experienced hair loss.

  12. The role side effects play in the choice of antiepileptic therapy in brain tumor-related epilepsy: a comparative study on traditional antiepileptic drugs versus oxcarbazepine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carapella Maria Carmine

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seizure control doesn't represent the only challenging goal in patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy. Side effects have often taken precedence for patients' quality of life. Methods We performed an observational retrospective study on patients with brain tumor-related epilepsy: 35 who had assumed oxcarbazepine monotherapy and 35 patients who had undergone treatment with traditional antiepileptic drugs. Primary variable of efficacy was the mean seizure frequency per month and safety variables were the drop-out for side effects and total incidence of side effects. We applied the Propensity Score technique to minimize selection bias. Results Our results showed a similar efficacy of oxcarbazepine and traditional antiepileptic drugs over time, but the difference in safety and tolerability between the two groups was significant: traditional AEDs caused more side effects, both serious and non serious. Conclusion This study highlights the importance of taking into consideration not only seizure control but also the appearance of side effects when choosing antiepileptic drugs in this patients population.

  13. Side-effects of topical steroids: A long overdue revisit

    OpenAIRE

    Coondoo, Arijit; Phiske, Meghana; Verma, Shyam; Lahiri, Koushik

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of topical steroids (TS) of varying potency have rendered the therapy of inflammatory cutaneous disorders more effective and less time-consuming. However the usefulness of these has become a double edged sword with constantly rising instances of abuse and misuse leading to serious local, systemic and psychological side effects. These side effects occur more with TS of higher potency and on particular areas of the body like face and genitalia. The article reviews the side effe...

  14. Effect of weight, height and BMI on injury outcome in side impact crashes without airbag deployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Chinmoy; Tomosaburo, Okabe; Vimalathithan, K; Jeyabharath, M; Muthukumar, M; Satheesh, N; Narahari, S

    2014-11-01

    A comprehensive analysis is performed to evaluate the effect of weight, height and body mass index (BMI) of occupants on side impact injuries at different body regions. The accident dataset for this study is based on the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) for accident year 2000-08. The mean BMI values for driver and front passenger are estimated from all types of crashes using NASS database, which clearly indicates that mean BMI has been increasing over the years in the USA. To study the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, BMI was split into three groups namely (1) thin (BMI30). For more clear identification of the effect of BMI in side impact injuries, a minimum gap of three BMI is set in between each adjacent BMI groups. Car model years from MY1995-1999 to MY2000-2008 are chosen in order to identify the degree of influence of older and newer generation of cars in side impact injuries. Impact locations particularly side-front (F), side-center (P) and side-distributed (Y) are chosen for this analysis. Direction of force (DOF) considered for both near side and far side occupants are 8 o'clock, 9 o'clock, 10 o'clock and 2 o'clock, 3 o'clock and 4 o'clock respectively. Age <60 years is also one of the constraints imposed on data selection to minimize the effect of bone strength on the occurrence of occupant injuries. AIS2+ and AIS3+ injury risk in all body regions have been plotted for the selected three BMI groups of occupant, delta-V 0-60kmph, two sets (old and new) of car model years. The analysis is carried with three approaches: (a) injury risk percentage based on simple graphical method with respect to a single variable, (b) injury distribution method where the injuries are marked on the respective anatomical locations and (c) logistic regression, a statistical method, considers all the related variables together. Lower extremity injury risk appears to be high for thin BMI group. It is found that BMI does not have much

  15. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Constipation Take these steps: Eat high-fiber foods such as: ● ● Whole-grain breads and cereals ● ● Fruits and vegetables ● ● Nuts and seeds Turn this ...

  16. Reirradiation on recurrent cervical cancer case: Treatment response and side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, M. F.; Supriana, N.; Nuranna, L.; Prihartono, J.

    2017-08-01

    Management of recurrent cervical cancer by reirradiation after radiation treatment remains controversial. In Indonesia, there is currently no data about reirradiation tumor response and side effects. This study aims to assess the tumor response to and side effects of reirradiation, the effect of time interval between first radiation treatment and cancer recurrence on the tumor response and side effects, and the effect of tumor size on tumor response. A cohort retrospective study with no comparison was done with the Radiotherapy Department at Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta. Participants were recurrent cervical cancer patients undergoing reirradiation. Data was collected from patients’ medical records and follow-up phone calls. Twenty-two patients participated in this study. Nine patients (40.9%) had complete responses, 10 patients (45.5%) had partial responses, 1 patient (4.5%) had a stable response, and 2 patients (9.1%) had tumor progressions. In general, 15 patients (68.2%) had no to light side effects (grade 0-2 RTOG) and 7 patients (31.8%) had severe side effects (grade 3-4 RTOG). Four patients (18.1%) had severe gastrointestinal acute side effects, 6 patients (27.3%) had severe gastrointestinal late side effects, 2 patients (9.1%) had severe urogenital side effects, and there were no patients had severe urogenital late side effects. There was no significant difference in tumor response between patients with time interval between first radiation treatment and recurrence of 4 cm. Reirradiation can be considered as a modality in recurrent cervical cancer management since good tumor response was achieved and the majority of patients had no to light side effects (grade 0-2 RTOG). This study found no correlation between tumor response, side effects, and time gap between first radiation treatment and recurrence of 4 cm.

  17. Are peripheral opioid antagonists the solution to opioid side effects?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bates, John J

    2012-02-03

    Opioid medication is the mainstay of therapy for severe acute and chronic pain. Unfortunately, the side effects of these medications can affect patient comfort and safety, thus limiting their proven therapeutic potential. Whereas the main analgesic effects of opioids are centrally mediated, many of the common side effects are mediated via peripheral receptors. Novel peripheral opioid antagonists have been recently introduced that can block the peripheral actions of opioids without affecting centrally mediated analgesia. We review the clinical and experimental evidence of their efficacy in ameliorating opioid side effects and consider what further information might be useful in defining their role. IMPLICATIONS: The major analgesic effects of opioid medication are mediated within the brain and spinal cord. Many of the side effects of opioids are caused by activation of receptors outside these areas. Recently developed peripherally restricted opioid antagonists have the ability to block many opioid side effects without affecting analgesia.

  18. Significant reduction in blood loss in patients undergoing minimal extracorporeal circulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerritsen, W. B.; van Boven, W. J.; Smelt, M.; Morshuis, W. J.; van Dongen, H. P.; Haas, F. J.; Aarts, L. P.

    2006-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown differences in blood loss and allogeneic transfusion requirements between on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Recently a new concept, the mini-extracorporeal circulation, was introduced to minimize the side effects of extracorporeal

  19. Medication side effects among people with epilepsy taking phenobarbital in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elafros, Melissa A; Bui, Esther; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2014-11-01

    Phenobarbital remains one of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs worldwide, yet there are limited data regarding side effects associated with its use in routine clinical care settings in low-income countries. Available data suggests that phenobarbital is as effective as other first-line drugs for treating tonic-clonic seizures, but side effect reports differ widely between high and low-income settings. A better understanding of phenobarbital side effect profile and severity in low-income settings is warranted given its role in efforts to decrease the epilepsy treatment gap. We used the Liverpool adverse events profile (LEAP) to assess side effects in consecutive patients with epilepsy on phenobarbital seeking care in rural Zambia. Data regarding age, gender, medication dose, and medication adherence were also collected. T-tests and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used to assess predictors of LEAP score and medication adherence. Thirty-five patients receiving a mean dose of 2.1mg/kg/day (SD: 2.78 mg/kg/day) of phenobarbital were assessed. All participants reported at least one side effect in the previous four weeks with a median of 6 symptoms (IQR: 4-8) and a mean side effects score of 28/76 (SD: 5.38). Over half reported sleepiness and dizziness. Memory problems and depression were also common (both 46%). Total LAEP score was not associated with age (p=0.88), gender (p=0.17), or phenobarbital dose (p=0.13). Medication adherence was not associated with side effects total score (p=0.56). Rural Zambian adults taking phenobarbital at doses recommended by the World Health Organization report a significant number of side effects. The most common side effects reported were similar to those reported in high-income countries. The significant burden of phenobarbital-associated side effects in this African cohort is in contrast to data from non-randomized clinical trials in China that reported phenobarbital to be well-tolerated with few side effects. Additional

  20. The C-2 derivatives of salvinorin A, ethoxymethyl ether Sal B and β-tetrahydropyran Sal B, have anti-cocaine properties with minimal side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewald, Amy W M; Bosch, Peter J; Culverhouse, Aimee; Crowley, Rachel Saylor; Neuenswander, Benjamin; Prisinzano, Thomas E; Kivell, Bronwyn M

    2017-08-01

    Kappa-opioid receptor (KOPr) agonists have pre-clinical anti-cocaine and analgesic effects. However, side effects including sedation, dysphoria, aversion, anxiety and depression limit their therapeutic development. The unique structure of salvinorin A has been used to develop longer acting KOPr agonists. We evaluate two novel C-2 analogues of salvinorin A, ethoxymethyl ether Sal B (EOM Sal B) and β-tetrahydropyran Sal B (β-THP Sal B) alongside U50,488 for their ability to modulate cocaine-induced behaviours and side effects, pre-clinically. Anti-cocaine properties of EOM Sal B were evaluated using the reinstatement model of drug seeking in self-administering rats. EOM Sal B and β-THP Sal B were evaluated for effects on cocaine-induced hyperactivity, spontaneous locomotor activity and sucrose self-administration. EOM Sal B and β-THP Sal B were evaluated for aversive, anxiogenic and depressive-like effects using conditioned place aversion (CPA), elevated plus maze (EPM) and forced swim tests (FSTs), respectively. EOM Sal B (0.1, 0.3 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) dose dependently attenuated drug seeking, and EOM Sal B (0.1 mg/kg, i.p.) and β-THP Sal B (1 mg/kg, i.p.) attenuated cocaine-induced hyperactivity. No effects on locomotor activity, open arm times (EPM) or swimming behaviours (FST) were seen with EOM (0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) or β-THP Sal B (1 or 2 mg/kg, i.p.). However, β-THP Sal B decreased time spent in the drug-paired chamber. EOM Sal B is more potent than Sal A and β-THP Sal B in reducing drug-seeking behaviour with fewer side effects. EOM Sal B showed no effects on sucrose self-administration (0.1 mg/kg), locomotor, depressive-like, aversive-like or anxiolytic effects.

  1. The side-effects to CPAP treatment inventory: the development and initial validation of a new tool for the measurement of side-effects to CPAP treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broström, Anders; Arestedt, Kristofer Franzén; Nilsen, Per; Strömberg, Anna; Ulander, Martin; Svanborg, Eva

    2010-12-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), but side-effects are common. No validated self-rating scale measuring side-effects to CPAP treatment exists today. The aim was to develop the side-effects to CPAP treatment inventory (SECI), and investigate the validity and reliability of the instrument among patients with OSAS. SECI was developed on the basis of: (1) in-depth interviews with 23 patients; (2) examination of the scientific literature and (3) consensus agreement of a multi-professional expert panel. This yielded 15 different types of side-effects related to CPAP treatment. Each side-effect has three sub-questions (scales): perceived frequency (a) and magnitude (b) of the side-effect, as well as its perceived impact on CPAP use (c). A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. A total of 329 patients with OSAS with an average use of CPAP treatment for 39 months (2 weeks to 182 months) were recruited. Data were collected with SECI, and obtained from medical records (clinical variables and data related to CPAP treatment). Construct validity was confirmed with factor analysis (principal component analysis with orthogonal rotation). A logical two-factor solution, the device subscale and symptom subscale, emerged across all three scales. The symptom subscale describing physical and psychological side-effects and the device subscale described mask and device-related side-effects. Internal consistency reliability of the three scales was good (Cronbach's α = 0.74-0.86) and acceptable for the subscales (Cronbach's α = 0.62-0.86). The satisfactory measurement properties of this new instrument are promising and indicate that SECI can be used to measure side-effects to CPAP treatment. © 2010 European Sleep Research Society.

  2. Effects of side lying on lung function in older individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, F; Dean, E; Ross, J; Abboud, R T

    1999-05-01

    Body positioning exerts a strong effect on pulmonary function, but its effect on other components of the oxygen transport pathway are less well understood, especially the effects of side-lying positions. This study investigated the interrelationships between side-lying positions and indexes of lung function such as spirometry, alveolar diffusing capacity, and inhomogeneity of ventilation in older individuals. Nineteen nonsmoking subjects (mean age=62.8 years, SD=6.8, range=50-74) with no history of cardiac or pulmonary disease were tested over 2 sessions. The test positions were sitting and left side lying in one session and sitting and right side lying in the other session. In each of the positions, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), single-breath pulmonary diffusing capacity (DLCO/VA), and the slope of phase III (DN2%/L) of the single-breath nitrogen washout test to determine inhomogeneity of ventilation were measured. Compared with measurements obtained in the sitting position, FVC and FEV1 were decreased equally in the side-lying positions, but no change was observed in DLCO/VA or DN2%/L. Side-lying positions resulted in decreases in FVC and FEV1, which is consistent with the well-documented effects of the supine position. These findings further support the need for prescriptive rather than routine body positioning of patients with risks of cardiopulmonary compromise and the need to use upright positions in which lung volumes and capacities are maximized.

  3. Side effects after lumbar iohexol myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, T.; Stovner, L.J.; Myhr, G.; Dale, L.G.

    1990-01-01

    Side effects of iohexol lumbar myelography have been analyzed with respect to the influence of the type of radiological abnormality, sex and age in a group of 200 patients. Headache, postural headache, nausea and back/leg pain were significantly more frequent in patients without definite radiological abnormalities. Postural headache, nausea, dizziness and mental symptoms were more frequent in women, while headache, postural headache, nausea, dizziness, minor mental symptoms (i.e. anxiety or depression) and pain became less frequent with age. This pattern is similar to that reported after lumbar puncture. Young women without definite clinical signs of nerve root lesions probably have the greatest risk of experiencing side effects after iohexol lumbar myelography. (orig.)

  4. Side effects during subcutaneous immunotherapy in children with allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tophof, Max A; Hermanns, Anne; Adelt, Thomas; Eberle, Peter; Gronke, Christine; Friedrichs, Frank; Knecht, Roland; Mönter, Ernst; Schöpfer, Helmut; Schwerk, Nicolaus; Steinbach, Jörg; Umpfenbach, Hans-Ulrich; Weißhaar, Christian; Wilmsmeyer, Brigitte; Bufe, Albrecht

    2018-05-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only causal form of therapy for IgE-mediated allergic diseases. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) is considered safe and well tolerated in adults, yet there is less evidence of safety in the pediatric population. A non-interventional prospective observing longitudinal study was carried out to determine the incidence of local and systemic side effects by SCIT, routinely performed in pediatric patients. A total of 581 pediatric patients were observed in 18 study centers between March 2012 and October 2014, recording 8640 treatments and 10 015 injections. A total of 54.6% of the patients experienced immediate local side effects at least once; delayed local side effects were seen in 56.1%. Immediate systemic adverse reactions occurred in 2.2% of patients; 7.4% experienced delayed systemic side effects. However, severe systemic side effects (grade III in the classification of Ring and Messmer) were seen in 0.03% of all treatments, all appearing within 30 minutes after the injections. No grade IV reactions were observed. In addition, many potential risk factors were investigated, yet only a few were found to be associated with the occurrence of side effects. Subcutaneous immunotherapy is a safe form of therapy in pediatric patients, with similar rates of local side effects compared to adult patients and low rates of severe systemic side effects. However, local and systemic reactions occurring later than 30 minutes after injection were observed more often than expected, which makes it essential to be attentive on behalf of pediatricians, patients, and parents. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  5. Side effects associated with current and prospective antimigraine pharmacotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Hernández, Abimael; Marichal-Cancino, Bruno A; MaassenVanDenBrink, Antoinette; Villalón, Carlos M

    2018-01-01

    Migraine is a neurovascular disorder. Current acute specific antimigraine pharmacotherapies target trigeminovascular 5-HT 1B/1D , 5-HT 1F and CGRP receptors but, unfortunately, they induce some cardiovascular and central side effects that lead to poor treatment adherence/compliance. Therefore, new antimigraine drugs are being explored. Areas covered: This review considers the adverse (or potential) side effects produced by current and prospective antimigraine drugs, including medication overuse headache (MOH) produced by ergots and triptans, the side effects observed in clinical trials for the new gepants and CGRP antibodies, and a section discussing the potential effects resulting from disruption of the cardiovascular CGRPergic neurotransmission. Expert opinion: The last decades have witnessed remarkable developments in antimigraine therapy, which includes acute (e.g. triptans) and prophylactic (e.g. β-adrenoceptor blockers) antimigraine drugs. Indeed, the triptans represent a considerable advance, but their side effects (including nausea, dizziness and coronary vasoconstriction) preclude some patients from using triptans. This has led to the development of the ditans (5-HT 1F receptor agonists), the gepants (CGRP receptor antagonists) and the monoclonal antibodies against CGRP or its receptor. The latter drugs represent a new hope in the antimigraine armamentarium, but as CGRP plays a role in cardiovascular homeostasis, the potential for adverse cardiovascular side effects remains latent.

  6. Skin eruptions following treatment with Iodine-131 for hyperthyroidism. A rare and un-reported early/intermediate side effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, A. K.; AL-Nahhas, A.; Ansari, S. M.; Islam, N.

    2005-01-01

    Iodine-131 ( 131I ) is a well-established method for the treatment of hyperthyroidism. Following such therapy, patients may experience symptoms relating to early or delayed side effects that can be prevented or minimized if necessary measures are taken. We have noticed an unusual side effect of 131I therapy in the form of a skin eruption (iododerma) and aimed at assessing the frequency and severity of this side effect. Retrospective review of 141 patients treated with 131I between January 1994 to December 2000 (86 F, 55 M; mean age 41.35±11.02 years) was performed. The dose of 131I ranged from 250.500 MBq. Post therapy clinical and biochemical evaluation of thyroid function was done at 6 weeks, 3, 6, and 9 months then annually. Of the 141 treated patients, 3 patients (2.1%) presented with iododerma 4.6 weeks after 131I therapy administration. Lesions were observed at both ankles and lower legs in all 3 cases. All lesions disappeared within 6 months with no residual effect. No other skin lesions were seen thereafter during the follow-up period. Iododerma is a rare complication of 131I therapy that has not been reported before. It appears within 4.6 weeks after therapy and is a self-limiting condition. (author)

  7. In vivo assessment of antiretroviral therapy-associated side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Milton Ramos-Sanchez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy has been associated with side effects, either from the drug itself or in conjunction with the effects of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Here, we evaluated the side effects of the protease inhibitor (PI indinavir in hamsters consuming a normal or high-fat diet. Indinavir treatment increased the hamster death rate and resulted in an increase in triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose serum levels and a reduction in anti-oxLDL auto-antibodies. The treatment led to histopathological alterations of the kidney and the heart. These results suggest that hamsters are an interesting model for the study of the side effects of antiretroviral drugs, such as PIs.

  8. Side effects of vagus nerve stimulation during physical exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, D.M.; de Vos, Cecilia Cecilia Clementine; Vosman, I.; Driesse, M.J.; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria

    2012-01-01

    RATIONALE: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a treatment option in the case of refractory epilepsy. However, several side effects have been reported, including dyspnea, coughing and bradycardias [JCA 2010: 22;213-222]. Although some patients experience hardly any side effects from the stimulation

  9. Integrative relational machine-learning for understanding drug side-effect profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresso, Emmanuel; Grisoni, Renaud; Marchetti, Gino; Karaboga, Arnaud Sinan; Souchet, Michel; Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Smaïl-Tabbone, Malika

    2013-06-26

    Drug side effects represent a common reason for stopping drug development during clinical trials. Improving our ability to understand drug side effects is necessary to reduce attrition rates during drug development as well as the risk of discovering novel side effects in available drugs. Today, most investigations deal with isolated side effects and overlook possible redundancy and their frequent co-occurrence. In this work, drug annotations are collected from SIDER and DrugBank databases. Terms describing individual side effects reported in SIDER are clustered with a semantic similarity measure into term clusters (TCs). Maximal frequent itemsets are extracted from the resulting drug x TC binary table, leading to the identification of what we call side-effect profiles (SEPs). A SEP is defined as the longest combination of TCs which are shared by a significant number of drugs. Frequent SEPs are explored on the basis of integrated drug and target descriptors using two machine learning methods: decision-trees and inductive-logic programming. Although both methods yield explicit models, inductive-logic programming method performs relational learning and is able to exploit not only drug properties but also background knowledge. Learning efficiency is evaluated by cross-validation and direct testing with new molecules. Comparison of the two machine-learning methods shows that the inductive-logic-programming method displays a greater sensitivity than decision trees and successfully exploit background knowledge such as functional annotations and pathways of drug targets, thereby producing rich and expressive rules. All models and theories are available on a dedicated web site. Side effect profiles covering significant number of drugs have been extracted from a drug ×side-effect association table. Integration of background knowledge concerning both chemical and biological spaces has been combined with a relational learning method for discovering rules which explicitly

  10. Finasteride and sexual side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataram Mysore

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Finasteride, a 5-alpha reductase inhibitor, widely used in the medical management of male pattern hairloss, has been reported to cause sexual side effects. This article critically examines the evidence available and makes recommendations as to how a physician should counsel a patient while prescribing the drug.

  11. Patient-provider communication and hormonal therapy side effects in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jenny J; Chao, Jennifer; Bickell, Nina A; Wisnivesky, Juan P

    2017-09-01

    Side effects from hormonal therapy (HT) for breast cancer treatment occur frequently and are associated with worse quality of life and HT non-adherence. Whether improved patient-physician communication is associated with patients' reporting of side effects is unknown. We undertook this study to assess factors associated with women's reports of HT side effects. Between December 2012 and April 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of breast cancer patients undergoing HT in an urban medical center. Descriptive statistics, univariate analyses, and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate associations. Of the 100 participants, 67% reported having HT side effects. However, when prompted, an additional 9% reported experiencing specific HT-related symptoms. Despite very high communication scores, one-third of participants reported they had not discussed side effects with providers. Multivariate analysis showed that after controlling for age, education, race, and medication beliefs, women who had difficulty asking providers for more information were more likely to report side effects (odds ratio 8.27, 95% confidence interval 1.01-69.88). Although HT side effects often occur and are bothersome, patient-provider discussions about side effects remain suboptimal. Providers should actively ask patients about medication side effects so that they can be addressed to improve quality of life and potentially, medication adherence.

  12. A hierarchical anatomical classification schema for prediction of phenotypic side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Somin; Gupta, Aishwarya; Dokania, Shubham; Kanji, Rakesh; Bagler, Ganesh

    2018-01-01

    Prediction of adverse drug reactions is an important problem in drug discovery endeavors which can be addressed with data-driven strategies. SIDER is one of the most reliable and frequently used datasets for identification of key features as well as building machine learning models for side effects prediction. The inherently unbalanced nature of this data presents with a difficult multi-label multi-class problem towards prediction of drug side effects. We highlight the intrinsic issue with SIDER data and methodological flaws in relying on performance measures such as AUC while attempting to predict side effects.We argue for the use of metrics that are robust to class imbalance for evaluation of classifiers. Importantly, we present a 'hierarchical anatomical classification schema' which aggregates side effects into organs, sub-systems, and systems. With the help of a weighted performance measure, using 5-fold cross-validation we show that this strategy facilitates biologically meaningful side effects prediction at different levels of anatomical hierarchy. By implementing various machine learning classifiers we show that Random Forest model yields best classification accuracy at each level of coarse-graining. The manually curated, hierarchical schema for side effects can also serve as the basis of future studies towards prediction of adverse reactions and identification of key features linked to specific organ systems. Our study provides a strategy for hierarchical classification of side effects rooted in the anatomy and can pave the way for calibrated expert systems for multi-level prediction of side effects.

  13. [Side Effects of Smoking Cessation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Raffael; Huwiler, Bernhard

    2018-06-01

    Side Effects of Smoking Cessation Abstract. We present the case of a clozapine intoxication associated with aspiration pneumonia due to smoking cessation. Clozapine is mainly metabolized by CYP1A2. CYP1A2 is induced by cigarette smoking, which may change the plasma level of clozapine, especially if consuming habits change.

  14. Side effects of external tooth bleaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruzell, E.M.; Pallesen, Ulla; Thoresen, N.R.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The study was performed to assess the risk of at-home and in-office bleaching procedures, and to recognise potential predictors for side effects. Design Multi-centre, questionnaire-based prospective study with follow-ups at around 14 days and around one year post-treatment. Setting...... General practices and university clinics during the years 2007‑2009 in Scandinavia. Subjects Patients with tooth bleaching as part of the treatment plan. Results The prevalence of experienced tooth sensitivity at first follow-up was independent of bleaching procedure (at-home = 50.3% [n = 143]; in...... attributed to the bleaching treatment in the at-home and in-office groups, respectively. Predictors for side effects were tooth sensitivity, surface loss and gingivitis when observed at inclusion. Treatment-related predictors were bleaching concentration and contact between tray and gingiva. Conclusions...

  15. Side effects of sugammadex use in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Sarı

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is accepted that sugammadex show its effectsmore rapidly than the other neuromuscular block antagonistsin many studies, however especially in pediatriccases, it is seen that about its reliability and side effectsare limited in some studies. In our retrospective study,we aimed to present our experiences on sugammadexin terms of its side effects in the pediatric cases in ourhospital for a 1-year period.Methods: The patient files and intraoperative anesthesiarecords, postoperative 24th hour and after postoperative24th hour of the cases that underwent the application ofsugammadex under general anesthesia in pediatric surgeryoperating room in a 1-year period were analyzed.Results: Totally 46 patients received sugammadex; infants(28 days-23 months (n=24, children (2 years-11years (n=16 and adolescent (11-17 years (n=6. Noneof the patients showed hypersensitivity and statisticallysignificant side effects correlated to sugammadex.Conclusion: We think that sugammadex may open newdoors in pediatric patient group with its features. However,more documentation is needed about the safety inpediatric patient group, particularly in infants. J Clin ExpInvest 2013; 4 (3: 265-268Key words: Sugammadex, pediatric patient, side effect

  16. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Bleeding Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Bleeding Problems “My nurse said that chemotherapy could make ... with a clean cloth. Keep pressing until the bleeding stops. If you bruise: Put ice on the ...

  17. CHECKPOINT INHIBITOR IMMUNE THERAPY: Systemic Indications and Ophthalmic Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvin, Lauren A; Shields, Carol L; Orloff, Marlana; Sato, Takami; Shields, Jerry A

    2018-06-01

    To review immune checkpoint inhibitor indications and ophthalmic side effects. A literature review was performed using a PubMed search for publications between 1990 and 2017. Immune checkpoint inhibitors are designed to treat system malignancies by targeting one of three ligands, leading to T-cell activation for attack against malignant cells. These ligands (and targeted drug) include cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4, ipilimumab), programmed death protein 1 (PD-1, pembrolizumab, nivolumab), and programmed death ligand-1 (PD-L1, atezolizumab, avelumab, durvalumab). These medications upregulate the immune system and cause autoimmune-like side effects. Ophthalmic side effects most frequently manifest as uveitis (1%) and dry eye (1-24%). Other side effects include myasthenia gravis (n = 19 reports), inflammatory orbitopathy (n = 11), keratitis (n = 3), cranial nerve palsy (n = 3), optic neuropathy (n = 2), serous retinal detachment (n = 2), extraocular muscle myopathy (n = 1), atypical chorioretinal lesions (n = 1), immune retinopathy (n = 1), and neuroretinitis (n = 1). Most inflammatory side effects are managed with topical or periocular corticosteroids, but advanced cases require systemic corticosteroids and cessation of checkpoint inhibitor therapy. Checkpoint inhibitors enhance the immune system by releasing inhibition on T cells, with risk of autoimmune-like side effects. Ophthalmologists should include immune-related adverse events in their differential when examining cancer patients with new ocular symptoms.

  18. Image-guided conformation arc therapy for prostate cancer: Early side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soete, Guy; Verellen, Dirk; Michielsen, Dirk; Rappe, Bernard; Keuppen, Frans; Storme, Guy

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate early side effects in prostate cancer patients treated with image-guided conformation arc therapy (IGCAT) using a minimultileaf collimator and daily X-ray-assisted patient positioning. Methods and Materials: Between May 2000 and November 2004, 238 cT1-T3N0M0 tumors were treated with doses of 70 or 78 Gy. Seventy patients also received neoadjuvant or concurrent hormonal treatment. Median follow-up is 18 months (range, 4-55 months). Radiation Therapy Oncology Group and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer toxicity scoring system was used to evaluate early side effects. Results: Grade 1, 2, and >2 acute side effects occurred in 19, 6, and 0% (gastrointestinal) and 37, 16, and 0% (genitourinary) of the patients. No relation between radiation dose and early side effects was observed. Conclusion: Patients treated with image-guided conformation arc therapy experience a low rate of Grade 2 (i.e., requiring medication) early side effects. The definitive evaluation of late side effects and biochemical control requires further follow-up

  19. Assessment of utility side financial benefits of demand side management considering environmental impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeygunawardane, Saranga Kumudu

    2018-02-01

    Any electrical utility prefers to implement demand side management and change the shape of the demand curve in a beneficial manner. This paper aims to assess the financial gains (or losses) to the generating sector through the implementation of demand side management programs. An optimization algorithm is developed to find the optimal generation mix that minimizes the daily total generating cost. This daily total generating cost includes the daily generating cost as well as the environmental damage cost. The proposed optimization algorithm is used to find the daily total generating cost for the base case and for several demand side management programs using the data obtained from the Sri Lankan power system. Results obtained for DSM programs are compared with the results obtained for the base case to assess the financial benefits of demand side management to the generating sector.

  20. Genome-wide pharmacogenomic study of citalopram-induced side effects in STAR*D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, D E; Clark, S L; Åberg, K; Hettema, J M; Bukszár, J; McClay, J L; Souza, R P; van den Oord, E J C G

    2012-07-03

    Affecting about 1 in 12 Americans annually, depression is a leading cause of the global disease burden. While a range of effective antidepressants are now available, failure and relapse rates remain substantial, with intolerable side effect burden the most commonly cited reason for discontinuation. Thus, understanding individual differences in susceptibility to antidepressant therapy side effects will be essential to optimize depression treatment. Here we perform genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify genetic variation influencing susceptibility to citalopram-induced side effects. The analysis sample consisted of 1762 depression patients, successfully genotyped for 421K single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR(*)D) study. Outcomes included five indicators of citalopram side effects: general side effect burden, overall tolerability, sexual side effects, dizziness and vision/hearing side effects. Two SNPs met our genome-wide significance criterion (qeffects of citalopram on vision/hearing side effects (P=3.27 × 10(-8), q=0.026). The second genome-wide significant finding, representing a haplotype spanning ∼30 kb and eight genotyped SNPs in a gene desert on chromosome 13, was associated with general side effect burden (P=3.22 × 10(-7), q=0.096). Suggestive findings were also found for SNPs at LAMA1, AOX2P, EGFLAM, FHIT and RTP2. Although our findings require replication and functional validation, this study demonstrates the potential of GWAS to discover genes and pathways that potentially mediate adverse effects of antidepressant medications.

  1. The timeliness of patients reporting the side effects of chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, Ian; Carey, Mariko; Boyes, Allison; Hall, Alix; Noble, Natasha; Bryant, Jamie; Walsh, Justin; Sanson-Fisher, Rob

    2018-05-03

    To explore the actions cancer patients reported they would take in response to a range of common side effects of chemotherapy and whether these were considered appropriate based on current guidelines and evidence; and to explore the sociodemographic and cancer-related variables associated with patients selecting the appropriate action (immediate medical attention or reporting) for two potentially life-threatening side effects: fever, and unusual bleeding and bruising. Four hundred thirty-six medical oncology and haematology patients receiving chemotherapy completed two surveys to provide demographic, disease and treatment characteristics, and details on how they would respond if they experienced a range of specified side effects of chemotherapy (for example, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and skin rash or nail changes). The proportion of patients reporting the appropriate action for each side effect was calculated. Multiple logistic regressions examined the patient demographic and cancer characteristics associated with selecting the appropriate action (seeking immediate medical attention) for two potentially life-threatening side effects of chemotherapy: high fever of 38 °C or more, and unusual bleeding or bruising. Two thirds of patients indicated that they would seek immediate medical attention for high fever (67%), but only 41% would seek immediate attention for bleeding or bruising. Cancer type and time since diagnosis were significantly associated with patients indicating that they would seek immediate medical attention for high fever; while time since diagnosis was the only variable significantly associated with patients reporting that they would seek immediate medical attention for unusual bleeding or bruising. For chronic side effects, like skin rash or nail changes, and tingling or numbness, which usually do not require urgent reporting, only between 12 and 16% would report them immediately. A significant proportion of patients reported that they would

  2. Side effects after diagnostic lumbar puncture and lumbar iohexol myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, T.; Stovner, L.J.; Salvesen, R.; Dale, L.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective, controlled study was performed to compare side effect incidences after lumbar iohexol myelography (n=97) and diagnostic lumbar puncture (n=85). No significant side effect incidence differences (iohexol vs. controls) were found regarding number of patients with any side effect (63 vs. 73%), headache (44 vs. 54%), nausea, dizziness, visual, auditory, or psychic symptoms. Early-onset headache occurred significantly more often in the iohexol group (16 vs 5%), while postural headache occurred most frequently after lumbar puncture (25 vs. 41%). These results suggest that apart from the slight early-onset headache, most side effets after lumbar iohexol myelography are related to the puncture per se, not to the contrast agent. (orig.)

  3. Atenolol versus pindolol: side-effects in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, E C; Greminger, P; Siegenthaler, W; Vetter, H; Vetter, W

    1985-01-01

    This randomized crossover out-patient study was designed to compare the antihypertensive effects of atenolol and pindolol. After a wash-out period of two weeks in pretreated cases, 107 patients with essential hypertension were given either atenolol 100 mg once-daily or pindolol 20 mg slow release (SR) once-daily. Both atenolol and pindolol lowered blood pressure over the 24 week period. The diastolic blood pressure reduction was significantly greater (p less than 0.01) with atenolol than with pindolol. Before beta-blocker therapy, many patients had already experienced side-effects such as fatigue, sleep disturbances and dreams. This probably relates to the high sensitivity of the analogue scale used to assess side-effects, and to the high incidence of such symptoms in untreated patients. As the study progressed there was a reduction in the frequency of fatigue (p less than 0.03) and dreams (p less than 0.05) in both groups, whereas sleep disturbances significantly increased under pindolol (p less than 0.05) but decreased under atenolol (p less than 0.05). The only important side-effect difference between the two beta-blockers was the higher incidence of sleep disturbances with pindolol which may be due to the higher lipophilicity of this beta-blocker.

  4. Mixed waste and waste minimization: The effect of regulations and waste minimization on the laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dagan, E.B.; Selby, K.B.

    1993-08-01

    The Hanford Site is located in the State of Washington and is subject to state and federal environmental regulations that hamper waste minimization efforts. This paper addresses the negative effect of these regulations on waste minimization and mixed waste issues related to the Hanford Site. Also, issues are addressed concerning the regulations becoming more lenient. In addition to field operations, the Hanford Site is home to the Pacific Northwest Laboratory which has many ongoing waste minimization activities of particular interest to laboratories

  5. Effects of realistic force feedback in a robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi Dalvand, Mohsen; Shirinzadeh, Bijan; Nahavandi, Saeid; Smith, Julian

    2014-06-01

    Robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery systems not only have the advantages of traditional laparoscopic procedures but also restore the surgeon's hand-eye coordination and improve the surgeon's precision by filtering hand tremors. Unfortunately, these benefits have come at the expense of the surgeon's ability to feel. Several research efforts have already attempted to restore this feature and study the effects of force feedback in robotic systems. The proposed methods and studies have some shortcomings. The main focus of this research is to overcome some of these limitations and to study the effects of force feedback in palpation in a more realistic fashion. A parallel robot assisted minimally invasive surgery system (PRAMiSS) with force feedback capabilities was employed to study the effects of realistic force feedback in palpation of artificial tissue samples. PRAMiSS is capable of actually measuring the tip/tissue interaction forces directly from the surgery site. Four sets of experiments using only vision feedback, only force feedback, simultaneous force and vision feedback and direct manipulation were conducted to evaluate the role of sensory feedback from sideways tip/tissue interaction forces with a scale factor of 100% in characterising tissues of varying stiffness. Twenty human subjects were involved in the experiments for at least 1440 trials. Friedman and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were employed to statistically analyse the experimental results. Providing realistic force feedback in robotic assisted surgery systems improves the quality of tissue characterization procedures. Force feedback capability also increases the certainty of characterizing soft tissues compared with direct palpation using the lateral sides of index fingers. The force feedback capability can improve the quality of palpation and characterization of soft tissues of varying stiffness by restoring sense of touch in robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery operations.

  6. A unified frame of predicting side effects of drugs by using linear neighborhood similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Yue, Xiang; Liu, Feng; Chen, Yanlin; Tu, Shikui; Zhang, Xining

    2017-12-14

    Drug side effects are one of main concerns in the drug discovery, which gains wide attentions. Investigating drug side effects is of great importance, and the computational prediction can help to guide wet experiments. As far as we known, a great number of computational methods have been proposed for the side effect predictions. The assumption that similar drugs may induce same side effects is usually employed for modeling, and how to calculate the drug-drug similarity is critical in the side effect predictions. In this paper, we present a novel measure of drug-drug similarity named "linear neighborhood similarity", which is calculated in a drug feature space by exploring linear neighborhood relationship. Then, we transfer the similarity from the feature space into the side effect space, and predict drug side effects by propagating known side effect information through a similarity-based graph. Under a unified frame based on the linear neighborhood similarity, we propose method "LNSM" and its extension "LNSM-SMI" to predict side effects of new drugs, and propose the method "LNSM-MSE" to predict unobserved side effect of approved drugs. We evaluate the performances of LNSM and LNSM-SMI in predicting side effects of new drugs, and evaluate the performances of LNSM-MSE in predicting missing side effects of approved drugs. The results demonstrate that the linear neighborhood similarity can improve the performances of side effect prediction, and the linear neighborhood similarity-based methods can outperform existing side effect prediction methods. More importantly, the proposed methods can predict side effects of new drugs as well as unobserved side effects of approved drugs under a unified frame.

  7. Pharmacogenomic study of side-effects for antidepressant treatment options in STAR*D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, S L; Adkins, D E; Aberg, K; Hettema, J M; McClay, J L; Souza, R P; van den Oord, E J C G

    2012-06-01

    Understanding individual differences in susceptibility to antidepressant therapy side-effects is essential to optimize the treatment of depression. We performed genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to search for genetic variation affecting the susceptibility to side-effects. The analysis sample consisted of 1439 depression patients, successfully genotyped for 421K single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression (STAR*D) study. Outcomes included four indicators of side-effects: general side-effect burden, sexual side-effects, dizziness and vision/hearing-related side-effects. Our criterion for genome-wide significance was a prespecified threshold ensuring that, on average, only 10% of the significant findings are false discoveries. Thirty-four SNPs satisfied this criterion. The top finding indicated that 10 SNPs in SACM1L mediated the effects of bupropion on sexual side-effects (p = 4.98 × 10(-7), q = 0.023). Suggestive findings were also found for SNPs in MAGI2, DTWD1, WDFY4 and CHL1. Although our findings require replication and functional validation, this study demonstrates the potential of GWAS to discover genes and pathways that could mediate adverse effects of antidepressant medication.

  8. Neglected Side Effects After Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anders Ullmann; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A series of previously neglected sexually related side effects to radical prostatectomy (RP) has been identified over the recent years. These include orgasm-associated incontinence (OAI), urinary incontinence in relation to sexual stimulation (UISS), altered perception of orgasm, or...

  9. MINIMALLY INVASIVE APPROACH FOR RIGHT-SIDED COLON CANCER, COMPLICATED BY LARGE-BOWEL OBSTRUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Chernookov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The case demonstrates an opportunity of safe and successful colonic stenting to treat bowel obstruction with following laparoscopic radical intervention for right-sided colon cancer localization. The colonic stent as a “bridge to the surgery” improves immediate results and surviving rate in elderly patients with complicated right-sided colon cancer and severe concomitant disease.

  10. Side effects of curative radiotherapy of the prostatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziegler, F.; Metzger, H.; Huebener, K.H.; Kurtz, B.

    1984-01-01

    The side effects of primary percutaneous radiotherapy in 100 patients with prostatic cancer were evaluated and classified into different degrees of gravity. It was shown that especially chronic side effects are benign in most of all cases. Severe - but not vitally dangerous - complications in bladder and intestine are rare (3%); their percentage corresponds roughly to the average mortality rate of surgical intervention (radical prostatectomy). Contrary to operation, troubles of the sexual function appear only in one third of the patients. Taking into consideration the similar therapeutic results of intervention and radiotherapy, radiotherapy is more favorable with respect to side effects. This essential aspects should be considered when making a decision whether to apply a surgical or radiotherapeutic treatment. (orig.) [de

  11. Water side corrosion prevention in boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeid, A.

    1993-01-01

    Corrosion may be defined as a naturally occurring physical and chemical deterioration of a material due to reaction with the environment or surrounding atmosphere. In boilers the material is subjected on both sides to two different media which may cause severe corrosion. At the water side the content of O 2 considered one of the principal factors which determine the extent of corrosion in the boiler tubes. This paper deals with certain conditions that result in the increase of O 2 in the boiler water and hence increase the corrosion rate, to minimize the effect of these conditions a chemical treatment was carried out the results obtained indicated the success of the treatment procedure in corrosion prevention and boiler material protection. The treatment is traditional. But the study indicates how a simple mean could be applied to solve a serious problem. 4 tab

  12. Side effects of oral antibiotics in small children with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Karin Riisager; Bregnballe, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    or/and stomach pain during antibiotic treatment. 48% reported their child to be eating little during antibiotic treatment and of these 87% were reporting diarrhoea or/and stomach pain. Half of the children with diarrhoea or/and stomach pain got treatment for the side effects. Conclusion: Most...... of the small children with CF suffered from side effect of antibiotics, but only half of them got treatment for the side effects....

  13. Patients knowledge about side effects of orthodontic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Amalia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Disharmonious of dental arrangement can possibly create problems for the patient, such as the masticatory function, esthetical, psychosocial, and also the increased risk of trauma and periodontal disease. These are reasons for a patient to seek orthodontic treatment. The aim of this study was to know the patient’s knowledge about the side effects possibility that they receive during orthodontic treatment. The side effects include pain experience during orthodontic treatment, the possibility of soft tissue damage, email demineralization, loss of tooth vitality, periodontal problem, root resorption, temporomandibular joint disorders, and relapse. A cross-sectional study was conducted in patients who registered at Orthodontic Department, Faculty of Dentistry, Universitas Indonesia on March-June 2009. The participants of this study were 100 patients, consist of 86 women and 14 men respectively. Twenty-seven questions about the side-effects of orthodontic treatment were used to obtain the patient’s knowledge and the result was categorized into 3 groups, good, average and poor. The result of the study showed that patient’s knowledge about the side effect of pain experience during orthodontic treatment was average and the patient’s knowledge about the possibility of soft tissue damage due to orthodontic treatment was good. However, the patient’s knowledge about the possibility of email demineralization, loss of tooth vitality, periodontal problem, root resorption, temporomandibular joint disorders and relapse due to orthodontic treatment was low.

  14. The dark side of interval temporal logic: marking the undecidability border

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bresolin, Davide; Monica, Dario Della; Goranko, Valentin

    2014-01-01

    Unlike the Moon, the dark side of interval temporal logics is the one we usually see: their ubiquitous undecidability. Identifying minimal undecidable interval logics is thus a natural and important issue in that research area. In this paper, we identify several new minimal undecidable logics amo...... undecidability results, this work contributes to bringing the identification of the dark side of interval temporal logics very close to the definitive picture....

  15. Beyond the technological fix. [Detrimental and unforeseen side effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinberg, A.M.

    1978-03-01

    Both technological and social fixes are likely to bring with them deterimental and unforeseen side effects. Although the perceived side effects of nuclear energy can undoubtedly be ameliorated by improved technology, a permanent institutional infrastructure will probably also be required. It is pointed out that confinement of nuclear energy to relatively few large sites rather than many small sites may be a first step toward creating this permanent institutional infrastructure.

  16. Impact of brand or generic labeling on medication effectiveness and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faasse, Kate; Martin, Leslie R; Grey, Andrew; Gamble, Greg; Petrie, Keith J

    2016-02-01

    Branding medication with a known pharmaceutical company name or product name bestows on the drug an added assurance of authenticity and effectiveness compared to a generic preparation. This study examined the impact of brand name and generic labeling on medication effectiveness and side effects. 87 undergraduate students with frequent headaches took part in the study. Using a within-subjects counterbalanced design, each participant took tablets labeled either as brand name "Nurofen" or "Generic Ibuprofen" to treat each of 4 headaches. In reality, half of the tablets were placebos, and half were active ibuprofen (400 mg). Participants recorded their headache pain on a verbal descriptor and visual analogue scale prior to taking the tablets, and again 1 hour afterward. Medication side effects were also reported. Pain reduction following the use of brand name labeled tablets was similar in active ibuprofen or a placebo. However, if the tablets had a generic label, placebo tablets were significantly less effective compared to active ibuprofen. Fewer side effects were attributed to placebo tablets with brand name labeling compared to the same placebo tablets with a generic label. Branding of a tablet appears to have conferred a treatment benefit in the absence of an active ingredient, while generic labeled tablets were substantially less effective if they contained no active ingredient. Branding is also associated with reduced attribution of side effects to placebo tablets. Future interventions to improve perceptions of generics may have utility in improving treatment outcomes from generic drugs. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Cisplatin as an Anti-Tumor Drug: Cellular Mechanisms of Activity, Drug Resistance and Induced Side Effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florea, Ana-Maria; Büsselberg, Dietrich

    2011-01-01

    Platinum complexes are clinically used as adjuvant therapy of cancers aiming to induce tumor cell death. Depending on cell type and concentration, cisplatin induces cytotoxicity, e.g., by interference with transcription and/or DNA replication mechanisms. Additionally, cisplatin damages tumors via induction of apoptosis, mediated by the activation of various signal transduction pathways, including calcium signaling, death receptor signaling, and the activation of mitochondrial pathways. Unfortunately, neither cytotoxicity nor apoptosis are exclusively induced in cancer cells, thus, cisplatin might also lead to diverse side-effects such as neuro- and/or renal-toxicity or bone marrow-suppression. Moreover, the binding of cisplatin to proteins and enzymes may modulate its biochemical mechanism of action. While a combination-chemotherapy with cisplatin is a cornerstone for the treatment of multiple cancers, the challenge is that cancer cells could become cisplatin-resistant. Numerous mechanisms of cisplatin resistance were described including changes in cellular uptake, drug efflux, increased detoxification, inhibition of apoptosis and increased DNA repair. To minimize cisplatin resistance, combinatorial therapies were developed and have proven more effective to defeat cancers. Thus, understanding of the biochemical mechanisms triggered by cisplatin in tumor cells may lead to the design of more efficient platinum derivates (or other drugs) and might provide new therapeutic strategies and reduce side effects

  18. Cisplatin as an Anti-Tumor Drug: Cellular Mechanisms of Activity, Drug Resistance and Induced Side Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florea, Ana-Maria [Department of Neuropathology, Heinrich-Heine University, Düsseldorf (Germany); Büsselberg, Dietrich, E-mail: dib2015@qatar-med.cornell.edu [Weil Cornell Medical College in Qatar, Qatar Foundation-Education City, P.O. Box 24144, Doha (Qatar)

    2011-03-15

    Platinum complexes are clinically used as adjuvant therapy of cancers aiming to induce tumor cell death. Depending on cell type and concentration, cisplatin induces cytotoxicity, e.g., by interference with transcription and/or DNA replication mechanisms. Additionally, cisplatin damages tumors via induction of apoptosis, mediated by the activation of various signal transduction pathways, including calcium signaling, death receptor signaling, and the activation of mitochondrial pathways. Unfortunately, neither cytotoxicity nor apoptosis are exclusively induced in cancer cells, thus, cisplatin might also lead to diverse side-effects such as neuro- and/or renal-toxicity or bone marrow-suppression. Moreover, the binding of cisplatin to proteins and enzymes may modulate its biochemical mechanism of action. While a combination-chemotherapy with cisplatin is a cornerstone for the treatment of multiple cancers, the challenge is that cancer cells could become cisplatin-resistant. Numerous mechanisms of cisplatin resistance were described including changes in cellular uptake, drug efflux, increased detoxification, inhibition of apoptosis and increased DNA repair. To minimize cisplatin resistance, combinatorial therapies were developed and have proven more effective to defeat cancers. Thus, understanding of the biochemical mechanisms triggered by cisplatin in tumor cells may lead to the design of more efficient platinum derivates (or other drugs) and might provide new therapeutic strategies and reduce side effects.

  19. Cost-effectiveness analysis in minimally invasive spine surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khouja, Lutfi T; Baron, Eli M; Johnson, J Patrick; Kim, Terrence T; Drazin, Doniel

    2014-06-01

    Medical care has been evolving with the increased influence of a value-based health care system. As a result, more emphasis is being placed on ensuring cost-effectiveness and utility in the services provided to patients. This study looks at this development in respect to minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS) costs. A literature review using PubMed, the Cost-Effectiveness Analysis (CEA) Registry, and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database (NHS EED) was performed. Papers were included in the study if they reported costs associated with minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS). If there was no mention of cost, CEA, cost-utility analysis (CUA), quality-adjusted life year (QALY), quality, or outcomes mentioned, then the article was excluded. Fourteen studies reporting costs associated with MISS in 12,425 patients (3675 undergoing minimally invasive procedures and 8750 undergoing open procedures) were identified through PubMed, the CEA Registry, and NHS EED. The percent cost difference between minimally invasive and open approaches ranged from 2.54% to 33.68%-all indicating cost saving with a minimally invasive surgical approach. Average length of stay (LOS) for minimally invasive surgery ranged from 0.93 days to 5.1 days compared with 1.53 days to 12 days for an open approach. All studies reporting EBL reported lower volume loss in an MISS approach (range 10-392.5 ml) than in an open approach (range 55-535.5 ml). There are currently an insufficient number of studies published reporting the costs of MISS. Of the studies published, none have followed a standardized method of reporting and analyzing cost data. Preliminary findings analyzing the 14 studies showed both cost saving and better outcomes in MISS compared with an open approach. However, more Level I CEA/CUA studies including cost/QALY evaluations with specifics of the techniques utilized need to be reported in a standardized manner to make more accurate conclusions on the cost effectiveness of

  20. Quantitative prediction of drug side effects based on drug-related features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanqing; Zhang, Wen

    2017-09-01

    Unexpected side effects of drugs are great concern in the drug development, and the identification of side effects is an important task. Recently, machine learning methods are proposed to predict the presence or absence of interested side effects for drugs, but it is difficult to make the accurate prediction for all of them. In this paper, we transform side effect profiles of drugs as their quantitative scores, by summing up their side effects with weights. The quantitative scores may measure the dangers of drugs, and thus help to compare the risk of different drugs. Here, we attempt to predict quantitative scores of drugs, namely the quantitative prediction. Specifically, we explore a variety of drug-related features and evaluate their discriminative powers for the quantitative prediction. Then, we consider several feature combination strategies (direct combination, average scoring ensemble combination) to integrate three informative features: chemical substructures, targets, and treatment indications. Finally, the average scoring ensemble model which produces the better performances is used as the final quantitative prediction model. Since weights for side effects are empirical values, we randomly generate different weights in the simulation experiments. The experimental results show that the quantitative method is robust to different weights, and produces satisfying results. Although other state-of-the-art methods cannot make the quantitative prediction directly, the prediction results can be transformed as the quantitative scores. By indirect comparison, the proposed method produces much better results than benchmark methods in the quantitative prediction. In conclusion, the proposed method is promising for the quantitative prediction of side effects, which may work cooperatively with existing state-of-the-art methods to reveal dangers of drugs.

  1. The Effect of Microneedle Thickness on Pain During Minimally Invasive Facial Procedures: A Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Billur; Ozel, Bora; Bulam, Hakan; Guney, Kirdar; Tuncer, Serhan; Cenetoglu, Seyhan

    2014-07-01

    Minimally invasive procedures are becoming increasingly popular because they require minimal downtime and are effective for achieving a more youthful appearance. The choice of needle for minimally invasive procedures can be a major factor in the patient's comfort level, which in turn affects the physician's comfort level. In this comparative study, the authors assessed levels of pain and bruising after participants were injected with 30-gauge or 33-gauge (G) microneedles, which are commonly used for minimally invasive injection procedures. Twenty healthy volunteers were recruited for this prospective study. Eight injection points (4 on each side of the face) were determined for each patient. All participants received injections of saline with both microneedles in a randomized, blinded fashion. Levels of pain and bruising were assessed and analyzed for significance. The highest level of pain was in the malar region, and the lowest level was in the glabella. Although all pain scores were lower for the 33-G microneedle, the difference was significant only for the forehead. Because most minimally invasive procedures require multiple injections during the same sitting, the overall procedure was evaluated as well. Assessment of the multiple-injection process demonstrated a significant difference in pain level, favoring the 33-G needle. Although the difference in bruising was not statistically significant between the 2 needles, the degree of bruising was lower with the 33-G needle. For procedures that involve multiple injections to the face (such as mesotherapy and injection of botulinum toxin A), thinner needles result in less pain, making the overall experience more comfortable for the patient and the physician. 3. © 2014 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc.

  2. Cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cher, Daniel J; Frasco, Melissa A; Arnold, Renée Jg; Polly, David W

    2016-01-01

    Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) disorders are common in patients with chronic lower back pain. Minimally invasive surgical options have been shown to be effective for the treatment of chronic SIJ dysfunction. To determine the cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive SIJ fusion. Data from two prospective, multicenter, clinical trials were used to inform a Markov process cost-utility model to evaluate cumulative 5-year health quality and costs after minimally invasive SIJ fusion using triangular titanium implants or non-surgical treatment. The analysis was performed from a third-party perspective. The model specifically incorporated variation in resource utilization observed in the randomized trial. Multiple one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. SIJ fusion was associated with a gain of approximately 0.74 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) at a cost of US$13,313 per QALY gained. In multiple one-way sensitivity analyses all scenarios resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) dysfunction due to degenerative sacroiliitis or SIJ disruption.

  3. Experimental research on end-to-side anastomosis of peripheral nerves and effect of FK506 on end-to-side anastomosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L M; Wu, Y X; Zhang, X P; Li, X H

    2014-01-01

    To study the effects of end-to-side anastomosis of initially-denatured nerves at different times. 60 male Wistar albino rats were used to fabricate animal models for the experiment on end-to-side anastomosis of peripheral nerves and 50 female Wistar albino rats were used to fabricate animal models for the experiment on the effect of FK506 on end-to-side anastomosis. Bilateral common peroneal nerve, tibialis anterior muscle electrophysiological and histological examinations, tibialis anterior muscle wet muscle weight determination, and motor end plate examination were performed 3 months after operation. All recovery rates of action potential, single muscle contraction force and tetanic contraction force of the FK506 experimental group are significantly higher than those of the control group and the sectional area of muscle fiber is also higher than that of the control group of normal saline. The best time for end-to-side anastomosis of nerves should be controlled within 2 weeks and the effect of end-to-side anastomosis of nerves will gradually become unsatisfactory. FK506 plays a role in promoting functional rehabilitation following nerve end-to-side anastomosis (Tab. 7, Fig. 4, Ref. 31).

  4. The SIDER database of drugs and side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Letunic, Ivica; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2016-01-01

    , targets and side effects into a more complete picture of the therapeutic mechanism of actions of drugs and the ways in which they cause adverse reactions. To this end, we have created the SIDER ('Side Effect Resource', http://sideeffects.embl.de) database of drugs and ADRs. The current release, SIDER 4......% of which can be compared to the frequency under placebo treatment. SIDER furthermore contains a data set of drug indications, extracted from the package inserts using Natural Language Processing. These drug indications are used to reduce the rate of false positives by identifying medical terms that do...

  5. Hallucinatory Side Effects of ADHD Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trial and postmarketing surveillance data for drugs used in treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were analyzed to determine the frequency of hallucinations and other psychotic side effects, in a study at the US Food and Drug Administration, and Department of Health and Human Services, Maryland.

  6. Minimizing the Pacman effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritson, D.; Chou, W.

    1997-10-01

    The Pacman bunches will experience two deleterious effects: tune shift and orbit displacement. It is known that the tune shift can be compensated by arranging crossing planes 900 relative to each other at successive interaction points (lPs). This paper gives an analytical estimate of the Pacman orbit displacement for a single as well as for two crossings. For the latter, it can be minimized by using equal phase advances from one IP to another. In the LHC, this displacement is in any event small and can be neglected

  7. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Swelling (Fluid Retention)

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Swelling (Fluid retention) “My hands and feet were swollen and puffy. My nurse helped me understand why I had to stop eating salty ...

  8. Elementary affine $lambda$-calculus with multithreading and side effects

    OpenAIRE

    Madet, Antoine; Amadio, Roberto M.

    2011-01-01

    Linear logic provides a framework to control the complexity of higher-order functional programs. We present an extension of this framework to programs with multithreading and side effects focusing on the case of elementary time. Our main contributions are as follows. First, we provide a new combinatorial proof of termination in elementary time for the functional case. Second, we develop an extension of the approach to a call-by-value $lambda$-calculus with multithreading and side effects. Thi...

  9. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Nausea and Vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Nausea and Vomiting “I take medicine so I won’t feel sick ...

  10. Side Effects of Adjuvant Radiotherapy in Patients With Testicular Seminoma Stage I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamulin, M.; Grgic, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study the side effects of adjuvant radiotherapy of testicular seminoma stage I patients were followed up in the period between 13 to 84 months (median 28 months). The most frequent side effects in these patients during radiotherapy were gastrointestinal problems (nausea/vomiting), psychologic and cognitive problems and minor sexual problems. The reported side effects were treated by antimmimetics and anxiolytics. After radiotherapy, the side effects persisted in 6 % of patients but therapy was needed only in few. Healthy children were born to 76 % of patients in the age group 18 - 39 years after radiotherapy. The present study shows that adjuvant irradiation of paraaortal lymph nodes with total a dose of 24 Gy in 16 daily fractions in testicular seminoma patients causes acceptable side effects with acceptable quality of life and fertility, however in conditions of individual approach and family consulting. (author)

  11. Side Flow Effect on Surface Generation in Nano Cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feifei; Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-12-01

    The side flow of material in nano cutting is one of the most important factors that deteriorate the machined surface quality. The effects of the crystallographic orientation, feed, and the cutting tool geometry, including tool edge radius, rake angle and inclination angle, on the side flow are investigated employing molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that the stagnation region is formed in front of tool edge and it is characterized by the stagnation radius R s and stagnation height h s . The side flow is formed because the material at or under the stagnation region is extruded by the tool edge to flow to the side of the tool edge. Higher stagnation height would increase the size of the side flow. The anisotropic nature of the material which partly determines the stagnation region also influences the side flow due to the different deformation mechanism under the action of the tool edge. At different cutting directions, the size of the side flow has a great difference which would finally affect the machined surface quality. The cutting directions of {100} , {110} , and {110}  are beneficial to obtain a better surface quality with small side flow. Besides that, the side flow could be suppressed by reducing the feed and optimizing the cutting tool geometry. Cutting tool with small edge radius, large positive rake angle, and inclination angle would decrease the side flow and consequently improve the machined surface quality.

  12. Effects and side effects of inspections and accountability in education: an overview of empirical studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wolf, Inge F.; Janssens, F.J.G.

    This paper presents an overview of studies into effects and side effects of control mechanisms in education. We focus on effects and side effects of inspection visits and public performance indicators. A first conclusion is that the studies do not provide us with a clear answer to the question of

  13. Side effects and risks of radioiodine treatment of benign thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.; Hohenberger, W.; Wolf, F.; Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen

    1990-01-01

    Radioiodine treatment is considered to be the treatment of choice in benign thyroid diseases because of its very low side effects. Real and hypothetic risks and side effects have to be differentiated. Both may occur early and late after the treatment. Radioiodinethyroiditis in small volumes at high doses is very rare. Exacerbation of a thyroid storm (0.34%) as well as local compressions accompanied with reactive edema of the thyroid are early real side effects of radioiodine treatment. Late real side effects are failure of treatment (7-30% of thyrotoxicosis) and induction of hypothyroidism (4-20% of functional autonomy and increasing frequency in Graves' diseases with time). Late hypothetic risks are somatic (1-9/10000 bis 1-9/100000) or genetic (1-9/100000). An early risk might be the misdiagnosis of an additional thyroid carcinoma. (orig.) [de

  14. The side effects of the THPS (tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate) treatment in oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cynthia de A.; Lopes, Eduardo Gullo M.; Paiva, Eva M.de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Tecnologia de Materiais e Controle de Corrosao; Penna, Monica de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Biotecnologia e Tratamentos Ambientais

    2009-07-01

    PETROBRAS has been using THPS biocide since 2000 to control sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and H{sub 2}S generation in FPSO's tanks, storage tanks, seawater injection systems, produced water systems and hydrostatic testings. The advantage of this product over other biocides is to be effective against sessile SRB and to have low environmental impact and low risk to operators' health. Since 2005 the use of THPS was also extended to oil pipelines and has being demonstrating high efficacy in controlling sessile SRB and sulfide formation, even in fluids with very low water cut (BSW < 1%). However, some deleterious effects were observed when THPS (formulated with 75% of active ingredient) was dosed continuously in the produced fluids, in high concentration and/or for long periods. This paper presents the results of THPS treatment in two PETROBRAS' oil pipelines and describes the side effects that were detected during the biocide injection. The actions taken to minimize these harmful effects, without losing the good biocide efficiency were also presented. (author)

  15. Effects of yoga on cancer-related fatigue and global side-effect burden in older cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprod, Lisa K; Fernandez, Isabel D; Janelsins, Michelle C; Peppone, Luke J; Atkins, James N; Giguere, Jeffrey; Block, Robert; Mustian, Karen M

    2015-01-01

    Sixty percent of cancer survivors are 65years of age or older. Cancer and its treatments lead to cancer-related fatigue and many other side effects, in turn, creating substantial global side-effect burden (total burden from all side effects) which, ultimately, compromises functional independence and quality of life. Various modes of exercise, such as yoga, reduce cancer-related fatigue and global side-effect burden in younger cancer survivors, but no studies have specifically examined the effects of yoga on older cancer survivors. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a 4-week yoga intervention (Yoga for Cancer Survivors: YOCAS©®) on overall cancer-related fatigue, and due to its multidimensional nature, the subdomains of cancer-related fatigue (general, physical, emotional, and mental) and global side-effect burden in older cancer survivors. We conducted a secondary analysis on data from a multicenter phase III randomized controlled clinical trial with 2 arms (standard care and standard care plus a 4-week YOCAS©® intervention). The sample for this secondary analysis was 97 older cancer survivors (≥60years of age), between 2months and 2years post-treatment, who participated in the original trial. Participants in the YOCAS©® intervention arm reported significantly lower cancer-related fatigue, physical fatigue, mental fatigue, and global side-effect burden than participants in the standard care arm following the 4-week intervention period (peffective standardized yoga intervention for reducing cancer-related fatigue, physical fatigue, mental fatigue, and global side-effect burden among older cancer survivors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ketamine for Pain Management-Side Effects & Potential Adverse Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Cheryl A; Ivester, Julius R

    2017-12-01

    An old anesthetic agent, ketamine is finding new use in lower doses for analgesic purposes. There are concerns stemming from its potential side effects-specifically psychomimetic effects. These side effects are directly related to dose amount. The doses used for analgesic purposes are much lower than those used for anesthesia purposes. A literature review was performed to ascertain potential side effects and/or adverse events when using ketamine for analgesia purposes. The search included CINAHL, PubMed, and Ovid using the search terms "ketamine," "ketamine infusion," "pain," "adverse events," "practice guideline," and "randomized controlled trial." Searches were limited to full-text, peer-reviewed articles and systematic reviews. Initially 1,068 articles were retrieved. The search was then narrowed by using the Boolean connector AND with various search term combinations. After adjusting for duplication, article titles and abstracts were reviewed, leaving 25 articles for an in-depth analysis. Specific exclusion criteria were then applied. The literature supports the use of ketamine for analgesic purposes, and ketamine offers a nonopioid option for the management of some pain conditions. Because ketamine is still classified as an anesthetic agent, health care institutions should develop their own set of policies and protocols for the administration of ketamine. By using forethought and understanding of the properties of ketamine, appropriate care may be planned to mitigate potential side effects and adverse events so that patients are appropriately cared for and their pain effectively managed. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Side-gate modulation effects on high-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Xiaolong; Ye, Weiguang; Wu, Zefei; Han, Yu; Han, Tianyi; He, Yuheng; Cai, Yuan; Wang, Ning

    2014-01-01

    High-quality BN-Graphene-BN nanoribbon capacitors with double side-gates of graphene have been experimentally realized. The double side-gates can effectively modulate the electronic properties of graphene nanoribbon capacitors. By applying anti-symmetric side-gate voltages, we observed significant upward shifting and flattening of the V-shaped capacitance curve near the charge neutrality point. Symmetric side-gate voltages, however, only resulted in tilted upward shifting along the opposite direction of applied gate voltages. These modulation effects followed the behavior of graphene nanoribbons predicted theoretically for metallic side-gate modulation. The negative quantum capacitance phenomenon predicted by numerical simulations for graphene nanoribbons modulated by graphene side-gates was not observed, possibly due to the weakened interactions between the graphene nanoribbon and side-gate electrodes caused by the Ga + beam etching process

  18. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Hair Loss (Alopecia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Hair Loss (Alopecia) “Losing my hair was hard at first. ... and anywhere on your body may fall out. Hair loss is called alopecia. When will my hair start ...

  19. Dynamics of energy-related CO2 emissions in China during 1980-2002: the relative importance of energy supply-side and demand-side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Libo Wu; Kaneko, Shinji; Matsuoka, Shunji

    2006-01-01

    Based on a newly developed model that integrates energy production, transformation and consumption processes, this paper compares the relative importance of some traditionally recognized factors operating on the energy demand side with a body of newly defined factors on the supply side, in terms of their contribution to trends in China's CO 2 emissions related to the total primary energy supply (C-TPES). Before 1996, changes in China's C-TPES were mainly driven by changes on the energy demand side. Factors operating on the energy supply side played trivial roles. During the period 1996-2000, however, increasing demand-side effects declined dramatically and at the same time decreasing effects from supply side expanded significantly. Such changes resulted directly in a decline in the C-TPES. The decreasing effects from international trade as well as statistical imbalances between supply and demand reinforced the declining trend. The shrinkage of demand side effects mainly arose from the slowdown of economic growth and speed of decrease in energy intensity. The expansion of supply-side effects was principally attributed to the speed of decrease in gross unit consumption in transformation sectors, especially in electricity sector. Therefore, the acceleration of efficiency improvements in end-use and transformation sectors accounted for the decline in the C-TPES over the period 1996-2000. (author)

  20. Self-Limited Kleptomania Symptoms as a Side Effect of Duloxetine

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Christopher W. T.; Gallagher, Keith E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Impulse control disorders (ICDs) have been described as a side effect of dopamine agonists, frequently used in neurodegenerative conditions affecting the nigrostriatal pathway. Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (e.g., duloxetine) have dose-dependent differential affinity for monoaminergic transporters, inhibiting the dopamine transporter at higher doses, thus increasing availability of synaptic dopamine, with the potential for similar impulse control side effects. Cas...

  1. Lymphedema as a Cancer Treatment Side Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Considerations How Cancer is Treated Side Effects Dating, Sex, and Reproduction Advanced Cancer For Children For Teens For Young Adults For Older Adults Prevention and Healthy Living Cancer.Net Videos Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog ...

  2. Drug target identification using side-effect similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campillos, Monica; Kuhn, Michael; Gavin, Anne-Claude

    2008-01-01

    Targets for drugs have so far been predicted on the basis of molecular or cellular features, for example, by exploiting similarity in chemical structure or in activity across cell lines. We used phenotypic side-effect similarities to infer whether two drugs share a target. Applied to 746 marketed...... drugs, a network of 1018 side effect-driven drug-drug relations became apparent, 261 of which are formed by chemically dissimilar drugs from different therapeutic indications. We experimentally tested 20 of these unexpected drug-drug relations and validated 13 implied drug-target relations by in vitro...... binding assays, of which 11 reveal inhibition constants equal to less than 10 micromolar. Nine of these were tested and confirmed in cell assays, documenting the feasibility of using phenotypic information to infer molecular interactions and hinting at new uses of marketed drugs....

  3. Nursing-led management of side effects of radiation: evidence-based recommendations for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirier P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Patricia PoirierUniversity of Maine School of Nursing, Orono, ME, USAAbstract: It has been estimated that 50%–60% of patients diagnosed with cancer will receive radiation therapy at some point in their treatment. Although radiation therapy can play a significant role in the cure or control of cancer, and the palliation of symptoms, it also has side effects. Side effects of radiation therapy can interfere with patient quality of life and daily functioning. Severe side effects can lead to delays in treatment, potentially affecting the outcome of treatment. All patients receiving radiation therapy are at risk of fatigue and skin reactions in the area of the body being treated. Other side effects of radiation therapy are specific to the part of the body being treated. Radiation therapy to the head and neck area may cause oral mucositis, dryness, and nutritional deficiencies. Radiation therapy to the chest or lung area may lead to difficulty in swallowing and eating. Radiation therapy to the pelvis frequently causes diarrhea. There are many nursing interventions available to manage the side effects of treatment based on best available evidence and expert opinion. Nurses in all settings are essential in helping patients manage the side effects of treatment and maintain their quality of life. The purpose of this review is to provide nurses with evidence-based recommendations and suggestions for managing common acute side effects of radiation therapy.Keywords: evidence-based practice, radiation therapy, side effects, nursing management

  4. Price Competition in Two-Sided Markets with Heterogeneous Consumers and Network Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Klein, T.J.

    We model a two-sided market with heterogeneous customers and two heterogeneous network effects. In our model, customers on each market side care differently about both the number and the type of customers on the other side. Examples of two-sided markets are online platforms or daily newspapers. In

  5. Parental Expectation of Side Effects Following Vaccination Is Self-fulfilling: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Louise E; Weinman, John; Amlôt, Richard; Yiend, Jenny; Rubin, G James

    2018-06-02

    One of the major factors contributing to parental refusal of vaccinations is the perception that vaccines cause side effects. Although symptoms are commonly reported following vaccinations, their causes are not always straightforward. Although some may be directly attributable to the vaccine itself, others may reflect pre-existing or coincidental symptoms that are misattributed to the vaccine. To investigate psychological factors associated with parental report of side effects following vaccination with the child influenza vaccine, and parental intention to re-vaccinate one's child the following year. A prospective cohort study was run in primary care practices in London in the 2016-2017 influenza season (ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT02909855). Two hundred seventy parents from 14 practices completed a questionnaire before their child's vaccination. Follow-up questionnaires were completed 3 days after vaccination and one month after vaccination. Parental report of side effects and vaccination intention for the subsequent year were measured. Parental report of side effects was strongly associated with pre-vaccination expectation of side effects. Suggestions received from the media, National Health Service (NHS) vaccination leaflet, and health care workers, as well as uncertainty-related beliefs, perceived sensitivity of the child to medicines, pessimism, and anxiety were also associated with reporting side effects. Side effect report was associated with lower vaccination intention for the following influenza season. Side effect perception following vaccination is influenced by psychological factors, in particular expectations. Perceiving side effects reduces future vaccination intention. Future public health communications should aim to decrease unrealistic expectations of side effects to increase vaccine uptake.

  6. Predicting the neurobehavioral side effects of dexamethasone in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Warris, Lidewij T.; van den Akker, Erica L. T.; Aarsen, Femke K.; Bierings, Marc B.; van den Bos, Cor; Tissing, Wim J. E.; Sassen, Sebastiaan D. T.; Veening, Margreet A.; Zwaan, Christian M.; Pieters, Rob; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.

    2016-01-01

    Although dexamethasone is an effective treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), it can induce a variety of serious neurobehavioral side effects. We hypothesized that these side effects are influenced by glucocorticoid sensitivity at the tissue level. We therefore prospectively studied

  7. Side effects of ionizing radiation on healthy tissues and organs at risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cosset, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Ionizing radiations induce cell death, causing deterministic or stochastic side-effects. This paper briefly summarizes the biological mechanisms of early and late side-effects of ionizing radiations on healthy tissue. (author)

  8. Side effects of creatine supplementation in athletes.

    OpenAIRE

    Francaux, Marc; Poortmans, Jacques R

    2006-01-01

    Context: Allegations about side effects of creatine supplementation by athletes have been published in the popular media and scientific publications. Purpose: To examine the experimental evidence relating to the physiological effects of creatine supplementation. Results: One of the purported effects of oral creatine supplementation is increased muscle mass. A review of the literature reveals a 1.0% to 2.3% increase in body mass, which is attributed to fat-free mass and, more specifically, to ...

  9. Cataplexy as a side effect of modafinil in a patient without narcolepsy☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Eduardo; Pereira, Danielle; da Silva Behrens, Nilce Sanny Costa; de Almeida Fonseca, Hassana; Calvancanti, Paola Oliveira; de Araújo Lima, Taís Figueiredo; Pradella-Hallinan, Marcia; Castro, Juliana; Tufik, Sergio; Coelho, Fernando Morgadinho Santos

    2014-01-01

    Narcolepsy is a disease in which there is diurnal excessive sleepiness with sleep attacks and a prevalence in the general population of 1/4000 individuals. Classically, it is characterized by cataplexy, sleep paralysis, hypnagogic hallucinations and fragmented sleep. The use of modafinil in the treatment of narcolepsy is the first option of treatment for diurnal excessive sleepiness. Although considered a safe drug for use in patients with narcolepsy, being utilized for more than 20 years, modafinil possesses a series of side effects, some of them still not fully researched or described. Side effects such as headache, nausea, anxiety, insomnia, lumbago, diarrhea, dyspepsia, rhinitis and vertigo are the most frequent. However, the clinical follow-up of patients under treatment with modafinil must be intensive and the side effects ought to be noted and evaluated. The under-response to treatment or the unexpected side effects must always be directed to differential diagnostics. The objective of this article is to describe an unexpected side effect of the use of modafinil in a patient with incorrect diagnosis of narcolepsy. PMID:26483900

  10. Nonsurgical, image-guided, minimally invasive therapy for thyroid nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gharib, Hossein; Hegedüs, Laszlo; Pacella, Claudio Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    evaluation. These techniques have also been applied to recurrent locoregional cervical thyroid cancer with encouraging initial results, although still limited data. Conclusions: Surgery and radioiodine remain as conventional and established treatments for nodular goiters. However, the new image......Context: Nodular thyroid disease is very common. Most nodules are asymptomatic, are benign by fine-needle aspiration, remain stable, and can be followed by observation alone in the majority of the patients. Occasionally, nodules grow or cause symptoms requiring treatment. So far, surgery has been...... our main option for treatment. Objective: In this review, we discuss nonsurgical, minimally invasive approaches for small thyroid masses, including indications, efficacy, side effects, and costs. Evidence Acquisition: We selected recent publications related to minimally invasive thyroid techniques...

  11. Side effects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.S. van der; Lenders, J.W.M.; Thien, Th.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the experiences and complaints of patients who underwent 24 h blood pressure monitoring. METHODS: Two groups of hypertensive patients of a tertiary outpatient clinic were asked to fill in a nine-item questionnaire about the side effects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

  12. Safety and side effects of cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamaschi, Mateus Machado; Queiroz, Regina Helena Costa; Zuardi, Antonio Waldo; Crippa, José Alexandre S

    2011-09-01

    Cannabidiol (CBD), a major nonpsychotropic constituent of Cannabis, has multiple pharmacological actions, including anxiolytic, antipsychotic, antiemetic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, little is known about its safety and side effect profile in animals and humans. This review describes in vivo and in vitro reports of CBD administration across a wide range of concentrations, based on reports retrieved from Web of Science, Scielo and Medline. The keywords searched were "cannabinoids", "cannabidiol" and "side effects". Several studies suggest that CBD is non-toxic in non-transformed cells and does not induce changes on food intake, does not induce catalepsy, does not affect physiological parameters (heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature), does not affect gastrointestinal transit and does not alter psychomotor or psychological functions. Also, chronic use and high doses up to 1,500 mg/day of CBD are reportedly well tolerated in humans. Conversely, some studies reported that this cannabinoid can induce some side effects, including inhibition of hepatic drug metabolism, alterations of in vitro cell viability, decreased fertilization capacity, and decreased activities of p-glycoprotein and other drug transporters. Based on recent advances in cannabinoid administration in humans, controlled CBD may be safe in humans and animals. However, further studies are needed to clarify these reported in vitro and in vivo side effects.

  13. Length and elasticity of side reins affect rein tension at trot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Hilary M; Larson, Britt; Kaiser, LeeAnn J; Lavagnino, Michael

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the horse's contribution to tension in the reins. The experimental hypotheses were that tension in side reins (1) increases biphasically in each trot stride, (2) changes inversely with rein length, and (3) changes with elasticity of the reins. Eight riding horses trotted in hand at consistent speed in a straight line wearing a bit and bridle and three types of side reins (inelastic, stiff elastic, compliant elastic) were evaluated in random order at long, neutral, and short lengths. Strain gauge transducers (240 Hz) measured minimal, maximal and mean rein tension, rate of loading and impulse. The effects of rein type and length were evaluated using ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc tests. Rein tension oscillated in a regular pattern with a peak during each diagonal stance phase. Within each rein type, minimal, maximal and mean tensions were higher with shorter reins. At neutral or short lengths, minimal tension increased and maximal tension decreased with elasticity of the reins. Short, inelastic reins had the highest maximal tension and rate of loading. Since the tension variables respond differently to rein elasticity at different lengths, it is recommended that a set of variables representing different aspects of rein tension should be reported. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. May disordered protein cause serious drug side effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tou, Weng Ieong; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian

    2014-04-01

    Insomnia is a self-reported disease where patients lose their ability to initiate and maintain sleep, leading to daytime performance impairment. Several drug targets to ameliorate insomnia symptoms have been discovered; however, these drug targets lead to serious side effects. Thus, we characterize the structural properties of these sleep-related receptors and the clock complex and discuss a possible drug design that will reduce side effects. Computational prediction shows that disordered property is shared. Over 30% of the structure of CLOCK, PER1/2/3, BMAL-1, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-M1, melatonin receptor and casein kinase I are structurally disordered (the remaining proteins represent insomnia drugs might be closely related to the protein architecture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Side effects after ambulatory lumbar iohexol myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sand, T.; Myhr, G.; Stovner, L.J.; Dale, L.G.; Tangerud, A.

    1989-01-01

    Side effect incidences after ambulatory (22G needle and two h bed rest) and after non-ambulatory (22 and 20G needles and 20 h bed rest) lumbar iohexol myelography have been estimated and compared. Headache incidence was significantly greater in ambulatory (50%, n=107) as compared to nonambulatory myelography (26%, n=58). Headaches in the ambulatory group tended to be of shorter duration and the difference between severe headaches in ambulatory and non-ambulatory groups was not significant. Serious adverse reactions did not occur and none of the ambulatory patients required readmission because of side effects. The headache was predominantly postural and occurred significantly earlier in the ambulatory group. Headache incidence was significantly greater after 20G needle myelography (44%, n=97) as compared to 22G needle iohexol myelography (26%, n=58). The results support the hypothesis that CSF leakage is a major cause of headache after lumbar iohexol myelography. (orig.)

  16. Health Related Quality of Life in Patients with Side-Effects after Antimuscarinic Treatment for Overactive Bladder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Aram; Lee, Kyu-Sung; Jung, Rangrhee; Na, Selee; Kim, Joon-Chul; Kim, Hyeong Gon; Choo, Myung-Soo

    2017-09-01

    Drug therapy is the mainstay of treatment for overactive bladder (OAB), but antimuscarinic agents possess side-effects. These side-effects decrease the patients' quality of life. We therefore assessed the impact of side-effects on health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) through an analysis of EQ-5D questionnaire. This study was designed to investigate the patients' satisfaction by quality weight of health status as affected by the side-effects of OAB medications. Patients who had OAB symptoms lasting longer than 3 months and have experienced side-effects after any antimuscarinic treatments filled in the EQ-5D questionnaire. The enrolled patients had two EQ-5D questionnaires for two different health statuses, i.e., presence or absence of side-effects. Quality weight was calculated using the ED-5D health status score with Korean tariff. One hundred patients were enrolled and completed the HR-QoL questionnaire. The most prevalent side-effect was dry mouth (61%) and 28% patients had dry mouth and constipation concurrently. Most of the patients with side-effects tried to endure and overcome these side-effects (79%), but 10% desired a change in medication, and 6% stopped medication altogether. The quality weight of EQ-5D without side-effects was 0.863, while the quality weight with side-effects was 0.666 (P effects and 57 in those with side-effects, supporting the results of quality weight assessment. Overactive bladder patients may enjoy a better quality of life if side-effects associated with antimuscarinic therapy are fewer. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. "There is a chain of connections": using syndemics theory to understand HIV treatment side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marilou

    2018-07-01

    Side effects are central to the experience of living longer with HIV but rarely have they been studied alone. Unlike other aspects of that experience, like quality of life, treatment adherence, chronicity, episodic disability, aging, health, and viral load suppression, side effects have not benefited from the same level of empirical and theoretical engagement from qualitative researchers. In this paper, we draw on syndemics theory and 50 qualitative interviews to better understand the experience of HIV treatment side effects. Two main categories were identified in the data: side effects as a product and side effects as a risk factor. The first category suggests that side effects are not just the product of taking antiretroviral drugs. They are also the product of particular conditions and tend to cluster with other health problems. The second category puts forward the idea that side effects can act as a syndemic risk factor by exposing PLWH to a greater risk of developing health problems and creating conditions in which psychosocial issues are more likely to emerge. The paper concludes by calling for more research on the complex nature of side effects and for the development of comprehensive approaches for the assessment and management of side effects.

  18. Autism and Obesity: Co-Occurring Conditions or Drug Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0374 TITLE: Autism and Obesity: Co-Occurring Conditions or Drug Side Effects? PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Zohreh...SUBTITLE Autism and Obesity: Co-Occurring Conditions or Drug Side Effects? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0374 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...project is to better understand the relationship between autism and obesity. It is not clear if obesity is co-occurring with autism or is related to

  19. Muscle-related side-effects of statins: from mechanisms to evidence-based solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Beth A; Thompson, Paul D

    2015-06-01

    This article highlights the recent findings regarding statin-associated muscle side effects, including mechanisms and treatment as well as the need for more comprehensive clinical trials in statin myalgia. Statin myalgia is difficult to diagnose and treat, as major clinical trials have not routinely assessed muscle side-effects, there are few clinically relevant biomarkers and assessment tools for the symptoms, many apparent statin-related muscle symptoms may be nonspecific and related to other drugs or health conditions, and prevalence estimates vary widely. Data thus suggest that only 30-50% of patients with self-reported statin myalgia actually experience muscle pain on statins during blinded, placebo-controlled trials. In addition, evidence to date involving mechanisms underlying statin myalgia and its range of symptoms and presentations supports the hypothesis that there are multiple, interactive and potentially additive mechanisms underlying statin-associated muscle side-effects. There are likely multiple and interactive mechanisms underlying statin myalgia, and recent studies have produced equivocal data regarding prevalence of statin-associated muscle side-effects, contributing factors and effectiveness of common interventions. Therefore, more clinical trials on statin myalgia are critical to the field, as are systematic resources for quantifying, predicting and reporting statin-associated muscle side-effects.

  20. A side effect resource to capture phenotypic effects of drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Campillos, Monica; Letunic, Ivica

    2010-01-01

    The molecular understanding of phenotypes caused by drugs in humans is essential for elucidating mechanisms of action and for developing personalized medicines. Side effects of drugs (also known as adverse drug reactions) are an important source of human phenotypic information, but so far research...

  1. Cutaneous Side-effects of Immunomodulators in MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun, C; Bertagna, M; Cohen, M

    2011-09-01

    Local skin reactions to subcutaneous injections of interferon beta (IFNB) or glatiramer acetate (GA) in multiple sclerosis (MS) are frequent, while severe cutaneous toxicity is rare. Both IFNB and GA are immunomodulatory drugs that have excellent safety profiles and are currently used for treatment of MS. They are administered by SC injection every other day for IFNB-1b, three times a week for IFNB-1a or daily for 20 mg for GA. The most common adverse effects, which occur in approximately 20-60% of patients, include pain, inflammation and induration at the injection sites. Another adverse effect is frank panniculitis followed by localized lipoatrophy at the injection sites, which has been described in half of the patients receiving GA injections but is also described with Subcutaneous IFNB-1b. No guidelines have yet been established for the treatment of skin reactions, which is a frequent point for discussion between neurologists and dermatologists. In addition, no treatment has been found for established lipoatrophy. The prevention and management of cutaneous side-effects include patient education, regular examination and manual palpation of all injection sites. Non-steroid antiinflammatory gels, local corticosteroids or endermology can help patients to resolve side-effects and to continue immunomodulatory treatment.

  2. Supply- and demand-side effects of power sector planning with demand-side management options and SO2 emission constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrestha, R.M.; Marpaung, C.O.P.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the implications of SO 2 emission mitigation constraints in the power sector planning in Indonesia--a developing country--during 2003-2017 from a long term integrated resource planning perspective. A decomposition model is developed to assess the contributions of supply- and demand-side effects to the total changes in CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x emissions from the power sector due to constraints on SO 2 emissions. The results of the study show that both the supply- and demand-side effects would act towards the reduction of CO 2 , SO 2 and NO x emissions. However, the supply-side effect would play the dominant role in emission mitigations from the power sector in Indonesia. The average incremental SO 2 abatement cost would increase from US$ 970 to US$ 1271 per ton of SO 2 , while electricity price would increase by 2-18% if the annual SO 2 emission reduction target is increased from 10% to 25%

  3. Managing the oral side-effects of medications used to treat multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockburn, N; Pateman, K; Taing, M W; Pradhan, A; Ford, P J

    2017-09-01

    Many medications used to manage multiple sclerosis (MS) affect oral health. This review aimed to identify the oral side-effects of the current drugs recommended in Australia to treat MS and make dental practitioners aware of the range of symptoms. The Australian Therapeutic Guidelines and the Australian Medicines Handbook were searched for medications used to treat MS. For each medication, the generic name, class, route of administration, dosage and drug company reported side-effects were extracted from the online Monthly Index of Medical Specialties (MIMs) database. Meyler's Side-effect of Drugs Encyclopaedia was used to identify any additional oral adverse reactions to medications used to treat MS. Fourteen drugs were identified for the treatment of MS progression and 13 drugs for the treatment of MS symptoms. For these medications, 18 oral side-effects were documented: xerostomia was the most common, followed by dysgeusia, dysphagia, mouth ulceration and sinusitis. Anticholinergic drugs caused xerostomia while immunosuppressants resulted in more infection-related side-effects. Dental practitioners should be aware of the range of symptoms likely to be reported by this population. Clinicians are encouraged to continue providing dental care for their patients who develop MS and refer complex cases to specialists. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  4. Steiner minimal trees in small neighbourhoods of points in Riemannian manifolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikin, V. M.

    2017-07-01

    In contrast to the Euclidean case, almost no Steiner minimal trees with concrete boundaries on Riemannian manifolds are known. A result describing the types of Steiner minimal trees on a Riemannian manifold for arbitrary small boundaries is obtained. As a consequence, it is shown that for sufficiently small regular n-gons with n≥ 7 their boundaries without a longest side are Steiner minimal trees. Bibliography: 22 titles.

  5. Membrane Transporters as Mediators of Cisplatin Effects and Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Ciarimboli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transporters are important mediators of specific cellular uptake and thus, not only for effects, but also for side effects, metabolism, and excretion of many drugs such as cisplatin. Cisplatin is a potent cytostatic drug, whose use is limited by its severe acute and chronic nephro-, oto-, and peripheral neurotoxicity. For this reason, other platinum derivatives, such as carboplatin and oxaliplatin, with less toxicity but still with antitumoral action have been developed. Several transporters, which are expressed on the cell membranes, have been associated with cisplatin transport across the plasma membrane and across the cell: the copper transporter 1 (Ctr1, the copper transporter 2 (Ctr2, the P-type copper-transporting ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B, the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2, and the multidrug extrusion transporter 1 (MATE1. Some of these transporters are also able to accept other platinum derivatives as substrate. Since membrane transporters display a specific tissue distribution, they can be important molecules that mediate the entry of platinum derivatives in target and also nontarget cells possibly mediating specific effects and side effects of the chemotherapeutic drug. This paper summarizes the literature on toxicities of cisplatin compared to that of carboplatin and oxaliplatin and the interaction of these platinum derivatives with membrane transporters.

  6. Factors effecting paint performance on wood siding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher G. Hunt; R. Sam Williams; Mark Knaebe; Peter Sotos; Steven Lacher

    2009-01-01

    Several different studies are compared to assess the effectiveness of commercial water repellent preservatives (WRP’s) in the late 1990’s on vertical and horizontal siding. Besides WRP, variables included wood species, exposure location (Wisconsin or Mississippi), and solid color stain vs. primer + paint. Data on substrate checking and paint flaking are presented....

  7. Cutaneous side-effects during therapy of melanoma by vemurafenib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ankudowicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vemurafenib is a selective inhibitor of serine-threonine kinase BRAF used in the treatment of advanced melanoma with BRAF mutation. Effectiveness of this drug was confirmed in a large clinical trial, which led to the increase of its usage. During treatment with vemurafenib, particular attention should be paid to the numerous side effects, including those concerning the skin. Vemurafenib is highly toxic to the skin. Skin lesions occurring during the treatment of melanoma with this medicament can be divided into: early (observed 3 to 6 weeks after beginning treatment, late (observed 6 weeks after beginning treatment and hypersensitivity reactions to vemurafenib. Objective. Presentation of vemurafenib toxic effects on the skin and side effects that can be caused by this drug. Case report. We present a 58-year-old woman with metastatic melanoma who was treated with vemurafenib. During the course of therapy, numerous adverse reactions, including inflammatory tumors, emergence of a number of melanocytic naevi, skin horns, alopecia, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, and palmar erythrodysesthesia were observed. She was treated with anti-inflammatory drugs, an antibiotic, circulation-improving preparations and local moisturizing and keratolytic treatment. The patient remains under the care of oncologists and dermatologists. Conclusions. The new generation anti-cancer drugs bring hope for a cure or prolongation of life, but can also significantly reduce the quality of life by inducing both general and local adverse side effects. Oncological patients should also be taken care of by dermatologists.

  8. Tamoxifen treatment and gynecologic side effects : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, MJE; De Vries, EGE; Willemse, PHB; Ten Hoor, KA; Hollema, H; Van der Zee, AGJ

    Objective: To review the literature on tamoxifen side effects on the female genital tract and psychosexual function in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Data Sources: We used the English-language literature in MEDLINE and reference lists from selected articles. Search terms included:

  9. Effect of side chain position on solar cell performance in cyclopentadithiophene-based copolymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Kyu; Seo, Jung Hwa; Cho, Nam Sung; Cho, Shinuk

    2012-01-01

    The photovoltaic properties of a series of low band-gap conjugated copolymers, in which alkyl side chains were substituted at various positions, were investigated using donor–acceptor (D–A) conjugated copolymers consisting of a cyclopentadithiophene derivative and dithienyl-benzothiadiazole. The base polymer, which has no alkyl side chains, yielded promising power conversion efficiency of 3.8%. Polymers with alkyl side chains, however, exhibited significantly decreased performance. In addition, the effects of processing additive became negligible. The results indicate that substituted side chains, which were introduced to improve solubility, critically affected the optical and electronic properties of D–A conjugated copolymers. Furthermore, the position of the side chain was also very important for controlling the morphological properties of the D–A conjugated copolymers. - Highlights: ► Effect of side chain position on solar cell performance was investigated. ► Polymer without alkyl chains yielded promising power conversion efficiency of 3.8%. ► Position of side chains critically affected the optical and electronic properties.

  10. A mixture of honey bee products ameliorates the genotoxic side effects of cyclophosphamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha Aly Fahmy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the protective role of a mixture of honey bee products (honey, royal jelly and pollen grains against the genotoxicity induced by the anticancer drug cyclophosphamide (CP. Methods: The study included chromosomal aberration analysis in mice bone marrow cells, induction of morphological sperm abnormalities, DNA fragmentation and histopathological changes induced in liver cells of mice. CP was injected intraperitoneally at the dose of 20 mg/ kg body weight. The mixture of honey bee products was administrated orally for different periods of time 5, 10 and 15 days with a dose exactly equivalent to the daily intake of human beings. Results: The results revealed that honey mixture ameliorated the genotoxic side effects of CP. For chromosomal aberrations the percentage reached 25.20 ± 1.30 for CP treated group, while it reached half of that value 12.30 ± 0.54 in CP-group pretreated with honey mixture for 15 days. Breaks, fragments and multiple aberrations were the most pronounced types of aberrations induced after CP treatment and honey mixture reduced these types of abnormalities. CP induced significant percentage of sperm abnormalities 8.52 ± 0.17 compared to control 3.10 ± 0.10. The percentage of sperm abnormalities reached nearly to the control value in CP- mice treated with honey mixture for 15 days. Honey also reduced the incidence of liver DNA damage induced by CP. The results also indicated that CP had a marked damaging effect on liver tissue including severe dilatation, congestion of main blood vessels and massive infiltration of inflammatory cells with irregular general pattern of the tissue. These effects were greatly ameliorated by using oral administration of honey mixture for different periods of time. Conclusions: The results concluded that honey bee mixture can be used as chemopreventive agent for minimizing the genotoxic side effects of the anticancer drug CP and open the field for its use in many applications.

  11. Co-optimization of Energy and Demand-Side Reserves in Day-Ahead Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surender Reddy, S.; Abhyankar, A. R.; Bijwe, P. R.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a new multi-objective day-ahead market clearing (DAMC) mechanism with demand-side reserves/demand response (DR) offers, considering realistic voltage-dependent load modeling. The paper proposes objectives such as social welfare maximization (SWM) including demand-side reserves, and load served error (LSE) minimization. In this paper, energy and demand-side reserves are cleared simultaneously through co-optimization process. The paper clearly brings out the unsuitability of conventional SWM for DAMC in the presence of voltage-dependent loads, due to reduction of load served (LS). Under such circumstances multi-objective DAMC with DR offers is essential. Multi-objective Strength Pareto Evolutionary Algorithm 2+ (SPEA 2+) has been used to solve the optimization problem. The effectiveness of the proposed scheme is confirmed with results obtained from IEEE 30 bus system.

  12. Decreasing the Burden of Side Effects Through Positive Message Framing: an Experimental Proof-of-Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Marcel; Rief, Winfried; Doering, Bettina K

    2018-05-21

    Informing patients about treatment side effects increases the occurrence and intensity of side effects. Since the obligatory informed consent procedure in drug treatments requires transparency and nocebo research suggests that the informed consent of a drug leads to an increased occurrence of the mentioned side effects, the aim of this proof of concept study was to determine the effect of two different framings of informed consent on the occurrence, intensity, and perceived threat of side effects. Healthy male participants (n = 80) were randomized to one of two framing groups. The positive framing group was informed that the common side effect dizziness was a sign that the drug had started to work, while the neutral framing group was told that dizziness is an unpleasant but well-known side effect. Side effects were measured after the administration of metoprolol, an antihypertensive agent. Post hoc moderator analyses investigated the effect of pre-existing negative beliefs about the general harm of medication on the framing manipulation. Metoprolol-specific drug-attributed side effects were rated significantly less threatening in the positive framing group. The between-group effect size (Cohen's d) was small (d = 0.38, p = 0.049). Exploratory post hoc moderator analyses suggest that participants who believed that medication is a source of harmful effects benefited from positive framing, compared to neutral framing of drug-attributed side effects. Positive framing was partially effective in decreasing specific side effect measures, particularly among participants with a tendency to believe that medicine is harmful. Informed consent procedures should therefore be personalized, focusing on patients with negative treatment beliefs.

  13. Nanomedicinal products: a survey on specific toxicity and side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brand W

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Walter Brand,1,* Cornelle W Noorlander,1,* Christina Giannakou,2,3 Wim H De Jong,2 Myrna W Kooi,1 Margriet VDZ Park,2 Rob J Vandebriel,2 Irene EM Bosselaers,4 Joep HG Scholl,5 Robert E Geertsma2 1Centre for Safety of Substances and Products, 2Centre for Health Protection, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM, Bilthoven, 3Department of Toxicogenomics, Maastricht University, Maastricht, 4Section Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmacokinetics, Medicines Evaluation Board (CBG-MEB, Utrecht, 5Research & Analysis Department, Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb, ‘s-Hertogenbosch, the Netherlands *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Due to their specific properties and pharmacokinetics, nanomedicinal products (NMPs may present different toxicity and side effects compared to non-nanoformulated, conventional medicines. To facilitate the safety assessment of NMPs, we aimed to gain insight into toxic effects specific for NMPs by systematically analyzing the available toxicity data on approved NMPs in the European Union. In addition, by comparing five sets of products with the same active pharmaceutical ingredient (API in a conventional formulation versus a nanoformulation, we aimed to identify any side effects specific for the nano aspect of NMPs. The objective was to investigate whether specific toxicity could be related to certain structural types of NMPs and whether a nanoformulation of an API altered the nature of side effects of the product in humans compared to a conventional formulation. The survey of toxicity data did not reveal nanospecific toxicity that could be related to certain types of structures of NMPs, other than those reported previously in relation to accumulation of iron nanoparticles (NPs. However, given the limited data for some of the product groups or toxicological end points in the analysis, conclusions with regard to (a lack of potential nanomedicine-specific effects need to be

  14. Side effects of AAS abuse: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turillazzi, E; Perilli, G; Di Paolo, M; Neri, M; Riezzo, I; Fineschi, V

    2011-05-01

    Anabolic - androgenic steroids (AAS) were originally developed to promote growth of skeletal muscle. AAS abuse is commonly associated with bodybuilders, weightlifters, and other athletes. The issue of AAS toxicity is not yet completely understood since the adverse effects outline a varied scenario with side effects reported affecting many organs and systems in humans. The true incidence of AAS related medical problems is not known, due to several drawbacks in human studies. The entity of side effects depends on the sex, the dose, the duration of treatment, whether they are taken during exercise training or under sedentary conditions, and the susceptibility of the individuals themselves to androgen exposure partly depending on genetic factors. Both the acute and the chronic effects can lead to toxicity, but generally the serious and even fatal effects depend on the time and the duration of AAS administration. A limitation of human studies is represented by the fact that information about the intake of steroids are, generally, self reported and it is hardly possible to assess the exact dosage. AAS are often used in combination with other dugs or substances, so it is difficult to separate their toxic effects from those caused by the other drugs abused. Hence experimental studies conducted on animal models are mandatory to investigate the mechanisms underlying to AAS toxicity and the organ alterations due to these substances. Finally, clinicians should be aware of the complex and varied pattern of toxicity so as to be able to perform correct diagnoses and treatments.

  15. Underreporting of side effects of standard first-line ART in the routine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Malawi Medical Journal; 23(4): 116-118 December 2011. Side effects of standard first line in ART 116. Underreporting of side effects of standard first-line. ART in the routine setting in Blantyre, Malawi. Abstract. Introduction. In the Malawi ART programme, 92% of 250,000 patients are using the standard first-line regime of ...

  16. Cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cher, Daniel J; Frasco, Melissa A; Arnold, Renée JG; Polly, David W

    2016-01-01

    Background Sacroiliac joint (SIJ) disorders are common in patients with chronic lower back pain. Minimally invasive surgical options have been shown to be effective for the treatment of chronic SIJ dysfunction. Objective To determine the cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive SIJ fusion. Methods Data from two prospective, multicenter, clinical trials were used to inform a Markov process cost-utility model to evaluate cumulative 5-year health quality and costs after minimally invasive SIJ fusion using triangular titanium implants or non-surgical treatment. The analysis was performed from a third-party perspective. The model specifically incorporated variation in resource utilization observed in the randomized trial. Multiple one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Results SIJ fusion was associated with a gain of approximately 0.74 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) at a cost of US$13,313 per QALY gained. In multiple one-way sensitivity analyses all scenarios resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) <$26,000/QALY. Probabilistic analyses showed a high degree of certainty that the maximum ICER for SIJ fusion was less than commonly selected thresholds for acceptability (mean ICER =$13,687, 95% confidence interval $5,162–$28,085). SIJ fusion provided potential cost savings per QALY gained compared to non-surgical treatment after a treatment horizon of greater than 13 years. Conclusion Compared to traditional non-surgical treatments, SIJ fusion is a cost-effective, and, in the long term, cost-saving strategy for the treatment of SIJ dysfunction due to degenerative sacroiliitis or SIJ disruption. PMID:26719717

  17. The frequency of occurrence and severity of side-effects of immersion virtual reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, E C; Price, K R

    1994-06-01

    Virtual reality (VR) has become increasingly well-known over the last few years. However, little is known about the side-effects of prolonged immersion in VR. This study set out to investigate the frequency of occurrence and severity of side-effects of using an immersion VR system. Out of 146 subjects, 61% reported symptoms of malaise at some point during a 20-min immersion and 10-min post-immersion period. These ranged from symptoms such as dizziness, stomach awareness, headaches, eyestrain and lightheadedness to severe nausea. These symptoms caused 5% of the subjects to withdraw from the experiment before completing their 20-min immersion period. Further research needs to be conducted that attempts to identify those factors that play a causative role in the side-effects of the VR system, and that looks for methods of reducing these side-effects.

  18. Of ants and men the unexpected side effects of complexity in society

    CERN Document Server

    Green, David G

    2014-01-01

    Why do things go wrong? Why, despite all the planning and care in the world, do things go from bad to worse? This book argues that it is because we are like the ants. Just as ants create an anthill without being aware of it, unintended side effects of human activity create all manner of social trends and crises. The book traces the way these trends emerge and the role they play in some of the major issues of our time. One of the greatest challenges today is the complexity of our social and economic systems. Every action has side effects that people often ignore or fail to see. The book examines the ways in which limitations in our thinking and behaviour lead to unintended side effects. It looks at the role played by complex networks of interactions. Finally, it looks at the way side effects of new technologies, especially computers and communication, have created an Information Revolution, the full repercussions of which are yet to be seen. In our race to create new technologies and sustain indefinite economi...

  19. Cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive sacroiliac joint fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cher DJ

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Cher,1 Melissa A Frasco,2 Renée JG Arnold,2,3 David W Polly4,5 1Clinical Affairs, SI-BONE, Inc., San Jose, CA, USA; 2Division of Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Quorum Consulting, Inc., San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Department of Preventive Medicine, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA; 4Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA; 5Department of Neurosurgery, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA Background: Sacroiliac joint (SIJ disorders are common in patients with chronic lower back pain. Minimally invasive surgical options have been shown to be effective for the treatment of chronic SIJ dysfunction. Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive SIJ fusion. Methods: Data from two prospective, multicenter, clinical trials were used to inform a Markov process cost-utility model to evaluate cumulative 5-year health quality and costs after minimally invasive SIJ fusion using triangular titanium implants or non-surgical treatment. The analysis was performed from a third-party perspective. The model specifically incorporated variation in resource utilization observed in the randomized trial. Multiple one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed. Results: SIJ fusion was associated with a gain of approximately 0.74 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs at a cost of US$13,313 per QALY gained. In multiple one-way sensitivity analyses all scenarios resulted in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER <$26,000/QALY. Probabilistic analyses showed a high degree of certainty that the maximum ICER for SIJ fusion was less than commonly selected thresholds for acceptability (mean ICER =$13,687, 95% confidence interval $5,162–$28,085. SIJ fusion provided potential cost savings per QALY gained compared to non-surgical treatment after a treatment horizon of greater than 13 years. Conclusion: Compared to traditional non-surgical treatments

  20. Side Effects of Nitrification Inhibitors on Non Target Microbial Processes in Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Johannes Carl Gottlieb Ottow; Gero Benckiser; Ferisman Tindaon

    2011-01-01

    Agricultural chemicals have been used extensively in modern agriculture and toxicological studies suggest a great potential for inducing undesirable effects on non target organisms. A model experiment was conducted in order to determine side effects of three nitrification inhibitors (NIs, 3,4dimethylpyrazolephosphate = DMPP, 4-Chlormethylpyrazole phosphate = ClMPP and dicyandiamide = DCD) on non target microbial processes in soils. Side effects and dose response curve of three NIs were quanti...

  1. Minimal Length Effects on Tunnelling from Spherically Symmetric Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benrong Mu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate effects of the minimal length on quantum tunnelling from spherically symmetric black holes using the Hamilton-Jacobi method incorporating the minimal length. We first derive the deformed Hamilton-Jacobi equations for scalars and fermions, both of which have the same expressions. The minimal length correction to the Hawking temperature is found to depend on the black hole’s mass and the mass and angular momentum of emitted particles. Finally, we calculate a Schwarzschild black hole's luminosity and find the black hole evaporates to zero mass in infinite time.

  2. Side effects of antiviral therapy in hepatitis C virus infection-sarcoidosis - case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodor, D; Teodor, Andra; Grigore, Lucia; Jugănariu, Gabriela; Dorobăţ, Carmen Mihaela; Miftode, Egidia; Azoicăi, Doina

    2012-01-01

    Standard therapy in chronic hepatitis C virus infection is still a combination of peginterferon alfa2a/2b and ribavirin for 48 weeks. As of side effects, there are organic side effects, such as hematologic disorders, and functional side effects, reflected in the quality of life of hepatitis C patients. Up to 30% of the patients develop specific side effects such as headache, fever, fatigue. Sarcoidosis, known as a granulomatous disease of uncertain cause, is an uncommon finding in this category of patients. This cause-effect relation is accounted for by the convergent action of peginterferon and ribavirin of stimulating type 1 T helper cells and reducing type 2 helper T cells activation. We present the case of male patient known with chronic hepatitis C who developed pulmonary sarcoidosis following antiviral therapy. The first manifestation of the disease was unexplained fever accompanied by pulmonary tract disease. The diagnosis was established by immunophenotyping in bronchial aspirate

  3. Personal coping strategies for managing the side effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study describes the burden of side effects from ARV treatment as experienced by a sample of HIV/AIDS patients and identifies the personal strategies they used to cope with ... The most common adverse effects reported were tiredness, nightmares, mood swings, nausea, poor appetite, insomnia, vomiting and dizziness.

  4. Travoprost with sofZia® preservative system lowered intraocular pressure of Japanese normal tension glaucoma with minimal side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mizoue S

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Shiro Mizoue,1 Tadashi Nakano,2 Nobuo Fuse,3 Aiko Iwase,4 Shun Matsumoto,5 Keiji Yoshikawa6 On behalf of the IOP CHANGE Study Group7 1Department of Ophthalmology, Ehime University Graduate School of Medicine, Ehime, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Jikei University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan; 3Department of Integrative Genomics, Tohoku Medical Megabank Organization, Miyagi, Japan; 4Tajimi Iwase Eye Clinic, Gifu, Japan; 5Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Teishin Hospital, 6Yoshikawa Eye Clinic, Tokyo, Japan; 7IOP CHecked and Assessed in Normal tension Glaucoma by Exceptional Glaucomatologists Study Group, Japan Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of travoprost with sofZia® preservative system for lowering the intraocular pressure (IOP of Japanese normal tension glaucoma (NTG patients. Methods: In this prospective, multicenter, open-label study, Japanese NTG patients with baseline IOPs <20 mmHg were enrolled after three consecutive time measurements taken at screening and baseline visits. Travoprost with sofZia® was instilled once daily. Lowering effect on IOP, conjunctival hyperemia, superficial punctate keratopathy, and adverse events were examined at week 4, 8, and 12 after drug instillation. Results: One-hundred and three of the 107 enrolled patients (baseline IOP =15.2±2.0 mmHg [mean ± standard deviation] completed the study. The mean IOP value as well as percent reduction was significantly reduced at each visit after travoprost with sofZia® initiation (P<0.0001. The conjunctival hyperemia score was 1 or less throughout the study, though it increased significantly over time. No significant change was observed in superficial punctate keratopathy. The cumulative incidence of side effects such as eyelash changes, eyelid pigmentation, and deepening of the upper lid was 47.6%, 27.2%, and 16.5%, respectively. Conclusion: Travoprost preserved with sofZia® effectively lowered the IOP of Japanese NTG patients. It was

  5. Proton Minibeam Radiation Therapy Reduces Side Effects in an In Vivo Mouse Ear Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girst, Stefanie, E-mail: stefanie.girst@unibw.de [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Greubel, Christoph; Reindl, Judith [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Siebenwirth, Christian [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Zlobinskaya, Olga [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Walsh, Dietrich W.M. [Institut für Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik (LRT2), Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Ilicic, Katarina [Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel [Research Unit Analytical Pathology, Helmholtz Zentrum München, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Oberschleißheim (Germany); and others

    2016-05-01

    Purpose: Proton minibeam radiation therapy is a novel approach to minimize normal tissue damage in the entrance channel by spatial fractionation while keeping tumor control through a homogeneous tumor dose using beam widening with an increasing track length. In the present study, the dose distributions for homogeneous broad beam and minibeam irradiation sessions were simulated. Also, in an animal study, acute normal tissue side effects of proton minibeam irradiation were compared with homogeneous irradiation in a tumor-free mouse ear model to account for the complex effects on the immune system and vasculature in an in vivo normal tissue model. Methods and Materials: At the ion microprobe SNAKE, 20-MeV protons were administered to the central part (7.2 × 7.2 mm{sup 2}) of the ear of BALB/c mice, using either a homogeneous field with a dose of 60 Gy or 16 minibeams with a nominal 6000 Gy (4 × 4 minibeams, size 0.18 × 0.18 mm{sup 2}, with a distance of 1.8 mm). The same average dose was used over the irradiated area. Results: No ear swelling or other skin reactions were observed at any point after minibeam irradiation. In contrast, significant ear swelling (up to fourfold), erythema, and desquamation developed in homogeneously irradiated ears 3 to 4 weeks after irradiation. Hair loss and the disappearance of sebaceous glands were only detected in the homogeneously irradiated fields. Conclusions: These results show that proton minibeam radiation therapy results in reduced adverse effects compared with conventional homogeneous broad-beam irradiation and, therefore, might have the potential to decrease the incidence of side effects resulting from clinical proton and/or heavy ion therapy.

  6. Secondary-side feed-and-bleed effectiveness in pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annunziato, A.

    1994-01-01

    An analysis is presented of physical phenomena occurring during secondary-side feed-and-bleed, which is being considered as an accident management procedure for pressurized water reactors. Problem areas related to the reliability of this procedure are identified and discussed. Secondary-side feed-and-bleed, as examined in the LOBI (which is the Light Water Reactor Off-Normal Behavior Investigation) integral system test facility, was not successful because of a delay in the secondary-side heat removal caused by the release of stored heat from the steam generator downcomer wall. Countercurrent flow limiting in the hot leg was another major phenomenon that can influence the effectiveness of this procedure. The discussion of the experimental results is complemented by relevant calculations by RELAP5/MOD3. In general, it was found that the effectiveness of the feed-and-bleed procedure is maximized if the number of steam generators used to implement it is reduced

  7. A one-sided sequential test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racz, A.; Lux, I. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1996-04-16

    The applicability of the classical sequential probability ratio testing (SPRT) for early failure detection problems is limited by the fact that there is an extra time delay between the occurrence of the failure and its first recognition. Chien and Adams developed a method to minimize this time for the case when the problem can be formulated as testing the mean value of a Gaussian signal. In our paper we propose a procedure that can be applied for both mean and variance testing and that minimizes the time delay. The method is based on a special parametrization of the classical SPRT. The one-sided sequential tests (OSST) can reproduce the results of the Chien-Adams test when applied for mean values. (author).

  8. Herbal medicines for the treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that Japanese herbal medicines, called Kampo, have beneficial effects on cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects. Rikkunshito ameliorates cisplatin-induced anorexia through an antagonistic effect on the 5-HT receptors and by increasing the serum ghrelin levels. Hangeshashinto improves irinotecan-induced diarrhea and chemotherapy-induced mucositis by inhibiting the activity of β-glucuronidase as well as the synthesis of prostaglandin E2. Goshajinkigan prevents oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity, possibly through suppressing functional alterations of the transient receptor potential channels. In this review, we will summarize the currently available literature regarding the clinical efficacy and potential mechanisms of Kampo medicines in the treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects.

  9. Minimalism and the Pragmatic Frame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Falcato

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the debate between literalism and contextualism in semantics, Kent Bach’s project is often taken to stand on the latter side of the divide. In this paper I argue this is a misleading assumption and justify it by contrasting Bach’s assessment of the theoretical eliminability of minimal propositions arguably expressed by well-formed sentences with standard minimalist views, and by further contrasting his account of the division of interpretative processes ascribable to the semantics and pragmatics of a language with a parallel analysis carried out by the most radical opponent to semantic minimalism, i.e., by occasionalism. If my analysis proves right, the sum of its conclusions amounts to a refusal of Bach’s main dichotomies.

  10. Impact of side-effects of atypical antipsychotics on non-compliance, relapse and cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, A; Williams, P; Meddis, D

    2003-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotics generally have milder side-effects than conventional antipsychotics, but also differ among themselves in this respect. This study aimed to compare the impact of different side-effect profiles of individual atypical antipsychotics on non-compliance, relapse and cost in schizophrenia. A state-transition model was built using literature data supplemented by expert opinion. The model found that quetiapine and ziprasidone were similar in estimated non-compliance and relapse rates. Olanzapine and risperidone had higher estimated non-compliance and relapse rates, and incremental, 1-year, per-patient direct costs, using US-based cost data, of approximately $530 (95% confidence interval [CI] approximately $275, $800), and approximately $485 (95% CI approximately $235, $800), respectively, compared with quetiapine. Incremental costs attributable to different side-effect profiles were highly significant. This study shows that differing side-effect profiles of the newer antipsychotic agents are likely to lead to different compliance rates, and consequent variation in relapse rates. The cost implications of these heterogenous clinical outcomes are substantial.

  11. Polyglycerol-opioid conjugate produces analgesia devoid of side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Rodríguez, Sara; Quadir, Mohiuddin A; Gupta, Shilpi; Walker, Karolina A; Zhang, Xuejiao; Spahn, Viola; Labuz, Dominika; Rodriguez-Gaztelumendi, Antonio; Schmelz, Martin; Joseph, Jan; Parr, Maria K; Machelska, Halina; Haag, Rainer; Stein, Christoph

    2017-07-04

    Novel painkillers are urgently needed. The activation of opioid receptors in peripheral inflamed tissue can reduce pain without central adverse effects such as sedation, apnoea, or addiction. Here, we use an unprecedented strategy and report the synthesis and analgesic efficacy of the standard opioid morphine covalently attached to hyperbranched polyglycerol (PG-M) by a cleavable linker. With its high-molecular weight and hydrophilicity, this conjugate is designed to selectively release morphine in injured tissue and to prevent blood-brain barrier permeation. In contrast to conventional morphine, intravenous PG-M exclusively activated peripheral opioid receptors to produce analgesia in inflamed rat paws without major side effects such as sedation or constipation. Concentrations of morphine in the brain, blood, paw tissue, and in vitro confirmed the selective release of morphine in the inflamed milieu. Thus, PG-M may serve as prototype of a peripherally restricted opioid formulation designed to forego central and intestinal side effects.

  12. Side effects of anabolic androgenic steroids: pathological findings and structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Andreas; Thieme, Detlef

    2010-01-01

    Side effects of anabolic steroids with relevance in forensic medicine are mainly due to life-threatening health risks with potential fatal outcome and cases of uncertain limitations of criminal liability after steroid administration. Both problems are typically associated with long-term abuse and excessive overdose of anabolic steroids. Side effects may be due to direct genomic or nongenomic activities (myotrophic, hepatotoxic), can result from down-regulation of endogenous biosynthesis (antiandrogenic) or be indirect consequence of steroid biotransformation (estrogenic).Logically, there are no systematic clinical studies available and the number of causally determined fatalities is fairly limited. The following compilation reviews typical abundant observations in cases where nonnatural deaths (mostly liver failure and sudden cardiac death) were concurrent with steroid abuse. Moreover, frequent associations between structural characteristics and typical side effects are summarized.

  13. The Glasgow antipsychotic side-effects scale for clozapine in inpatients and outpatients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignjatović Ristić, Dragana; Cohen, Dan; Obradović, Andrea; Nikić-Đuričić, Katarina; Drašković, Marija; Hinić, Darko

    2018-02-01

    The inconsistency in clinician and patient ratings of clozapine-induced side effects underscore the need to supplement clinician-based estimates of side effects with patient-reported ones. The main aims of the study are validation of the Glasgow antipsychotic side-effects scale for clozapine (GASS-C) in Serbian inpatients/outpatients with schizophrenia or schizo-affective disorder and recommendations for its future use, based on common and rare clozapine-associated side-effects. The GASS-C was administered to 95 outpatients/inpatients diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective, or chronic psychotic disorder. The scale showed good overall reliability, with an internal consistency coefficient of α = 0.84, an average retest coefficient of rho = 0.76, and a Spearman-Brown coefficient of validity of 0.81. Side effects were absent or mild in 64.2% of the patients, moderate in 31.6%, severe in 4.2%; 14% of the subjects considered their symptoms distressing. The most commonly reported side-effects were drowsiness, thirst, frequent urination, and dry mouth. Women reported more side effects than men, and patients not in a relationship reported significantly fewer side effects than patients in a relationship. Results indicate a weak positive correlation (rho = 0.231; p = .025) between severity of side effects and clozapine dose. The GASS-C showed good psychometric characteristics in clinical population of patients on clozapine. In future studies, clozapine serum concentrations should be measured when using the GASS-C to monitor side effects.

  14. The Effect and Side Effect of Dipyridamole in Myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hyung In; Lee, Dong Soo; Yeo, Jeong Suk; Bae, Sang Kyun; Choi, Chang Woon; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon

    1993-01-01

    Dipyridamole is an agent that may be used to noninvasively evaluate coronary artery disease. The effect of dipyridamole infusion its generally related to its induced peripheral vasodilatory effect. In normal person, heart rate is generally increased slightly while blood pressure decrease, but the achieved double product and related myocardial oxygen consumption have no significant change. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect and side effect of dipyridamole, and to compare different response to dipyridamole among the patients. We evaluated 847 patients who underwent dipyridamole stress myocardial SPECT. 93.6% of them had induced hypotension 0.9% showed no change of blood pressure, 5.5% had increased blood pressure 8.3% had no change of pulse rate more than 10% of basal pulse rate. Among diabetes, 16.9% was not change of pulse rate, 6.7% in non-diabetes. There was no significant correlation between age and rate pressure product rest(RPPr), in patients without perfusion defects on SPECT(y=7.1x+48.4r=0.13 p>0.01). As increasing age, RPPs/RPPr was declined(y=-11.6x+68.9 r=0.17 p<0.01), similar results were obtained in patients with perfusion defect. The size of perfusion defect on myocardial SPECT have no correlation between RPPr and RPPs/RPPr. The side effects of dipyridamole included chest pain and chest tightness, headache, abdominal pain, dizziness, nausea, and dyspnea. As increasing age, dipyridamole-induced cardiac work at rest was increased, cardiac response to dipyridamole was decreased.

  15. What matters when judging intentionality-moral content or normative status? Testing the rational scientist model of the side-effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, C; Hayes, B K

    2018-06-01

    Previous work has demonstrated a "side-effect effect," such that intentionality is more likely to be attributed to agents who bring about negatively valenced as opposed to positively valenced side effects. The rational-scientist model explains this by suggesting that norm-violating side effects are more informative for inferring intentionality than norm-conforming side effects. In the present study we reexamined this account, addressing limitations of previous empirical tests (e.g., Uttich & Lombrozo, Cognition 116: 87-100, 2010). Side-effect valence and norm status were manipulated factorially, enabling an examination of the impact of norm status on intentionality judgments in both positively and negatively valenced side effects. Additionally, the impact of side-effect norm status on the perceived valences of side effects and agents was examined. Effects of norm status were found for both positive and negative side effects. Violation of an ostensibly neutral norm led to negative perceptions of the side effect. However, a norm status effect on intentionality judgments persisted when these effects were controlled. These results support the view that the side-effect effect is the result of the rational use of social-cognitive evidence.

  16. Lateral side impact against kerbstones and its influence on side airbag sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olders, S. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. fuer Kraftfahrwesen

    2001-07-01

    High level requirements are made to the control units and sensors of side airbag systems with regard to the reaction time until activation, because there is only a short deformation zone within the lateral zone of a vehicle. For further development of these systems and in order to minimise the possibility of erroneous activation, these airbag systems are tested in many impact configurations relevant to airbag activation and in so-called misuse tests. One of these non-deployment requirements is the kerbstone impact. Since the load on the occupants is only minimal in this impact configuration, activation of the side airbags is not necessary. Kerbstone impacts can be simulated realistically at the Institute for Automotive Engineering Aachen (Institut fuer Kraftfahrwesen Aachen (ika)) - by means of sled tests. By varying the boundary test conditions, additional information can be gathered regarding the positioning of sensors and the signal curves for adjustment of airbag electronics. (orig.)

  17. Pretreatment with divided doses of steroids strongly decreases side effects of OKT3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelman, F. J.; Buysmann, S.; Surachno, J.; Wilmink, J. M.; Schellekens, P. T.; ten Berge, I. J.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to attenuate side effects of OKT3 by variation of the time interval between administration of corticosteroids and OKT3 in renal allograft recipients. In view of a maximal lymphocytopenia at six hours following MPNS, we postulated a greater preventive action on side effects

  18. Late side effects of Ruthenium 106 therapy for uveal melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langmann, G.; Faulborn, J.; Poier, E.

    1994-01-01

    When effectiveness is evaluated in brachytherapy with Ruthenium 106 special emphasis has to be put on tumor destruction and late side effects responsible for the definite functional results. We evaluated the late side effects of 22 uveal melanomas, which had been treated with 106 Ruthenium plaques. The tumor prominences ranged from 3 to 10 mm, the diameter from 4 to 9 disc diameters. In 4 patients the tumor involved the posterior pole, 14 melanomas were located in the midperiphery of the fundus, 4 tumors were ciliary body melanomas. The total radiation dose of the apex ranged from 100 to 240 Gy with a corresponding dose to the sclera between 540 to 1000 Gy. Because of the short half life of the plaque we have been using different dose rates (1.6-11 Gy/h). In 17/22 eyes adequate regression could be achieved by Ruthenium therapy alone. In one case additional laser treatment of the macular part of the melanoma had to be performed, Gamma Knife therapy was necessary in another melanoma with 10 mm tumor prominence. 3 recurrences led to enucleation. The mean follow up was 4.8 years ranging from 1 to 7 years. In 2/22 patients opticopathy caused severe visual impairment, in another 2 patients radiation maculopathy and opticopathy was observed. 7/22 developed vasculopathy with neovascularization treated by photocoagulation. In one case of focal radiation maculopathy laser treatment could prevent further visual impairment. The following factors are responsible for a higher incidence of late side effects: 1. High dose rate of the plaques in combination with a high radiation dose to the sclera 2. Location of the tumor within a minimum distance of 2 disc diameters to the optic nerve or macula 3. Tumor location at the ciliary body Laser treatment in case of neovascularization and focal radiation maculopathy is the only effective treatment with regard to late side effects. Ischemic maculopathy and radiation opticopathy are responsible for late visual impairment. (authors)

  19. Pharmacy customers' knowledge of side effects of purchased medicines in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Veronika J; Taxis, Katja; Dreser, Anahi

    2009-01-01

    To analyse pharmacy customers' knowledge and information sources about side effects of medicines they purchased and factors associated with this knowledge. Cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interviews with customers of 52 randomly selected community pharmacies in Morelos state, Mexico. Customers were included if they were older than 18 years, bought at least one drug either with or without medical prescription, and agreed to take part in the survey. Data were analysed using a multinomial logistic regression model. A total of 1445 customers buying 1946 drugs were surveyed (age 42.9 +/- 15.7 years, 56.9% female); 627 (59%) of 1055 customers who purchased prescription-only medicines (POM) did so without a prescription. Of all customers interviewed, 172 (11.9%) affirmed that the bought medicine(s) could cause harm. Only half of those (87 or 6%) were able to identify correctly at least one side effect of the purchased medicines. The majority received the information about side effects from a physician. Customers in semirural areas knew less about side effects (odds ratio: 0.26; 95% CI: 0.11-0.61; P = 0.00); whereas customers buying medicines for chronic pain, hypertension or diabetes knew more (odds ratio 2.63; 95% CI: 1.44-4.80; P = 0.00). The overall majority of customers did not know that medicines they bought could be harmful. This is particularly alarming because they frequently used POM without consulting a physician.

  20. Effectiveness and efficacy of minimally invasive lung volume reduction surgery for emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertl, Daniela; Eisenmann, Alexander; Holzer, Ulrike; Renner, Anna-Theresa; Valipour, A

    2014-01-01

    Lung emphysema is a chronic, progressive and irreversible destruction of the lung tissue. Besides non-medical therapies and the well established medical treatment there are surgical and minimally invasive methods for lung volume reduction (LVR) to treat severe emphysema. This report deals with the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive methods compared to other treatments for LVR in patients with lung emphysema. Furthermore, legal and ethical aspects are discussed. No clear benefit of minimally invasive methods compared to surgical methods can be demonstrated based on the identified and included evidence. In order to assess the different methods for LVR regarding their relative effectiveness and safety in patients with lung emphysema direct comparative studies are necessary.

  1. Hypertension as risk factor for radiation induced side-effects in breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehler, F.K.; Rhomberg, W.; Doringer, W.

    1992-01-01

    130 breast cancer patients were retrospectively evaluated for side-effects to estimate the influence of arterial hypertension. All were treated with mastecomy and irradiation (telecobalt). 79 patients had normal blood pressure, 51 showed arterial hypertension. Hypertension proved to be the strongest endogeneous factor for the development of side-effects. In contrast to the patients with normal blood pressure those with hypertension showed significant more arm lymphedema (p [de

  2. The Economic Side Effects of Dangerous Drug Announcements.

    OpenAIRE

    Dranove, David; Olsen, Chris

    1994-01-01

    Immediately prior to the passage of the 1962 Food and Drug Administration Amendments, there were a number of drugs recalled from markets worldwide. Announcements about the dangerous side effects of these drugs were associated with lower-share prices for their manufacturers and the industry as a whole. We perform several analyses to sort out alternative explanations for the observed declines. We find that dangerous drug announcements had no effect on the sales of other drugs and didn't affect ...

  3. INFLUENCE OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON ARTIFICIAL ABORTION-INDUCED SIDE EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽颖

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of electroecupuncture (EA) of acupoints of Ren, Spleen and Stomach Meridians on artificial abortion-induced side effects was observed in 100 artificial abortion women. In comparison with 45 artificial abortion women in the control group (who had not accepted EA treatment), EA possessed significant effects in relieving abdominal pain, reducing vaginal bleeding duration, lowering infection rate and infertility rate after artificial abortion operation.

  4. Symptoms and side effects in chronic non-cancer pain: patient report vs. systematic assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Torsten; Christrup, Lona Louring; Højsted, J

    2011-01-01

    relieving distressing symptoms and managing the side effects of analgesics are essential in order to improve quality of life and functional capacity in chronic non-cancer pain patients. A quick, reliable and valid tool for assessing symptoms and side effects is needed in order to optimize treatment....... We aimed to investigate the symptoms reported by chronic non-cancer pain patients after open-ended questioning vs. a systematic assessment using a list of symptoms, and to assess whether the patients could distinguish between the symptoms and the side effects induced by analgesics....

  5. Symptoms and side effects in chronic non-cancer pain:patient report vs. systematic assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Torsten; Christrup, Lona Louring; Højsted, Jette

    2011-01-01

    relieving distressing symptoms and managing the side effects of analgesics are essential in order to improve quality of life and functional capacity in chronic non-cancer pain patients. A quick, reliable and valid tool for assessing symptoms and side effects is needed in order to optimize treatment....... We aimed to investigate the symptoms reported by chronic non-cancer pain patients after open-ended questioning vs. a systematic assessment using a list of symptoms, and to assess whether the patients could distinguish between the symptoms and the side effects induced by analgesics....

  6. Wrist and Hand Ultrasound: Reliability of Side-to-Side Comparisons of Very Small (Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Federica; Romano, Nicola; Muda, Alessandro; Martinoli, Carlo; Tagliafico, Alberto

    2018-04-24

    In ultrasound (US) examinations of clinically relevant very small structures of the wrist and hand, the healthy contralateral side can be used as a reference to identify subtle abnormalities. Intraindividual side-to-side variability must be minimal. The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of side-to-side US evaluations of very small structures of the wrist and hand. Forty-one healthy volunteers were prospectively studied. Small structures of the wrist and hand were evaluated bilaterally by 2 musculoskeletal radiologists in separate sessions. The first annular pulleys of the second finger and the thumb, sagittal band of the third finger, extensor and flexor retinacula, ulnar collateral ligament of the thumb, radial collateral ligament of the second finger, and palmar cutaneous branches of the median and ulnar nerves were considered. To assess intra- and inter-reader agreement, 10 of 41 (24%) examinations were repeated. Nonparametric statistics were used. Data were not normally distributed (P > .001). Intra-reader agreement was κ = 0.674 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.57-0.78), and inter-reader agreement was κ = 0.935 (95% CI, 0.92-0.95). The mean value ± SD for all of the structures was 0.78 ± 0.44 mm. The overall coefficient of variation was 9.8% ± 0.07%. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.96-0.98). In clinical practice, the healthy contralateral side can be used as a reference during a real-time musculoskeletal US evaluation of small (structures. © 2018 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  7. Pharmacogenomic and clinical data link non-pharmacokinetic metabolic dysregulation to drug side effect pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, Daniel C.; Filipp, F. V.; Bordbar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Drug side effects cause a significant clinical and economic burden. However, mechanisms of drug action underlying side effect pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we integrate pharmacogenomic and clinical data with a human metabolic network and find that non-pharmacokinetic metabolic pathways...

  8. Norms Inform Mental State Ascriptions: A Rational Explanation for the Side-Effect Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttich, Kevin; Lombrozo, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind, the capacity to understand and ascribe mental states, has traditionally been conceptualized as analogous to a scientific theory. However, recent work in philosophy and psychology has documented a "side-effect effect" suggesting that moral evaluations influence mental state ascriptions, and in particular whether a behavior is…

  9. Cutaneous, gastrointestinal, hepatic, endocrine, and renal side-effects of anti-PD-1 therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Lars; Forschner, Andrea; Loquai, Carmen; Goldinger, Simone M; Zimmer, Lisa; Ugurel, Selma; Schmidgen, Maria I; Gutzmer, Ralf; Utikal, Jochen S; Göppner, Daniela; Hassel, Jessica C; Meier, Friedegund; Tietze, Julia K; Thomas, Ioannis; Weishaupt, Carsten; Leverkus, Martin; Wahl, Renate; Dietrich, Ursula; Garbe, Claus; Kirchberger, Michael C; Eigentler, Thomas; Berking, Carola; Gesierich, Anja; Krackhardt, Angela M; Schadendorf, Dirk; Schuler, Gerold; Dummer, Reinhard; Heinzerling, Lucie M

    2016-06-01

    Anti-programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1) antibodies represent an effective treatment option for metastatic melanoma as well as for other cancer entities. They act via blockade of the PD-1 receptor, an inhibitor of the T-cell effector mechanisms that limit immune responses against tumours. As reported for ipilimumab, the anti-PD-1 antibodies pembrolizumab and nivolumab can induce immune-related adverse events (irAEs). These side-effects affect skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver, endocrine system and other organ systems. Since life-threatening and fatal irAEs have been reported, adequate diagnosis and management are essential. In total, 496 patients with metastatic melanoma from 15 skin cancer centers were treated with pembrolizumab or nivolumab; 242 side-effects were described in 138 patients. In 116 of the 138 patients, side-effects affected the skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver, endocrine, and renal system. Rare side-effects included diabetes mellitus, lichen planus, and pancreas insufficiency due to pancreatitis. Anti-PD1 antibodies can induce a plethora of irAEs. The knowledge of them will allow prompt diagnosis and improve the management resulting in decreased morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Constraining the dark side with observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez-Tejedor, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this talk is to use the observational evidences pointing out to the existence of a dark side in the universe in order to infer some of the properties of the unseen material. We will work within the Unified Dark Matter models, in which both, Dark Matter and Dark Energy appear as the result of one unknown component. By modeling effectively this component with a classical scalar field minimally coupled to gravity, we will use the observations to constrain the form of the dark action. Using the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies we will see that we are restringed to the use of purely kinetic actions, previously studied in cosmology by Scherrer. Finally we arrive to a simple action which fits both cosmological and astrophysical observations

  11. Constraining the dark side with observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez-Tejedor, Alberto [Dpto. de Fisica Teorica, Universidad del PaIs Vasco, Apdo. 644, 48080, Bilbao (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    The main purpose of this talk is to use the observational evidences pointing out to the existence of a dark side in the universe in order to infer some of the properties of the unseen material. We will work within the Unified Dark Matter models, in which both, Dark Matter and Dark Energy appear as the result of one unknown component. By modeling effectively this component with a classical scalar field minimally coupled to gravity, we will use the observations to constrain the form of the dark action. Using the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies we will see that we are restringed to the use of purely kinetic actions, previously studied in cosmology by Scherrer. Finally we arrive to a simple action which fits both cosmological and astrophysical observations.

  12. EFFECT OF SHOULDER SIDE PACK ON DYNAMIC POSTURAL STABILITY IN YOUNG HEALTHY FEMALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enas ELsayed Mohamed Abutaleb

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Control of balance is a complex motor skill that involves integration of sensory inputs and the planning and execution of flexible movement patterns. Carrying side packs is famous in our society especially shoulder side packs. Most students carry shoulder side packs and they don't care about the way to carry them to be more balanced. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of carrying shoulder side pack on dynamic postural stability and to determine the best way of carrying a shoulder side pack either on the dominant side or non-dominant side that doesn’t affect dynamic postural stability in young healthy female. Methods: Sixty female volunteers aged from 18 to 25 years old participated in the study. Biodex balance system was used to measure the dynamic postural stability in three different occasions (without carrying a shoulder side pack, with carrying a shoulder side pack on the dominant side, and on the non-dominant side with a rest period in between. Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance (ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post hoc test were used to compare dynamic posture balance without carrying and during carrying a shoulder side pack on dominant and non-dominant sides. Analysis revealed that overall, anteroposterior and mediolateral stability indexes reduced significantly (P<0.0001 when carrying shoulder side pack on dominant side in comparison with when carrying shoulder side pack on non-dominant side and without carrying bag. Conclusion: It was concluded that carrying a shoulder side pack on the non-dominant side didn't disturb the postural stability when compared to carrying on the dominant side so, we recommend the students to carry shoulder side packs on the non-dominant side.

  13. Effectiveness and efficacy of minimally invasive lung volume reduction surgery for emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pertl, Daniela

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available [english] Lung emphysema is a chronic, progressive and irreversible destruction of the lung tissue. Besides non-medical therapies and the well established medical treatment there are surgical and minimally invasive methods for lung volume reduction (LVR to treat severe emphysema. This report deals with the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of minimally invasive methods compared to other treatments for LVR in patients with lung emphysema. Furthermore, legal and ethical aspects are discussed. No clear benefit of minimally invasive methods compared to surgical methods can be demonstrated based on the identified and included evidence. In order to assess the different methods for LVR regarding their relative effectiveness and safety in patients with lung emphysema direct comparative studies are necessary.

  14. CAN MELATONIN BE EFFECTIVELY USED TO DIMINISH SIDE EFFECTS OF VARIOUS PSYCHOTROPIC DRUGS AND ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Aleksandrovich Bekker

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To study and summarize the existing evidence base for the use of melatonin as a mean to counteract or diminish the side effects of various psychotropic drugs and electroconvulsive therapy, and to provide the reader with relevant conclusions. Methodology. The authors have searched for the scientific literature regarding the use of melatonin as a mean to counteract or diminish the side effects of various psychotropic drugs and electroconvulsive therapy, using the PubMed and Google Scholar as a search tool. Then the authors thoroughly reviewed the data they found. The resulting review is presented in this article. Results. The data we have obtained from this review of the literature indicate that melatonin can be effectively used both in monotherapy and in combination with other therapeutic means in order to reduce several different side effects of psychotropic drugs and electroconvulsive therapy. Melatonin also deserves further study in this regard. The evidence base for its use in this manner is very variable in quality for different side effects. For now, the greatest evidence base exists regarding the potential effectiveness of melatonin in the prevention and treatment of drug-induced insomnia, memory and cognitive impairment, akathisia, tardive dyskinesias, and metabolic syndrome. Practical implications. The results we have obtained can be widely applied in psychiatry, neurology and addiction medicine, as well as in all those areas of general medicine, which make use of psychotropic drugs.

  15. Optimization of Peripheral Finned-Tube Evaporators Using Entropy Generation Minimization

    OpenAIRE

    Pussoli, Bruno; Barbosa Jr., Jader; da Silva, Luciana; Kaviany, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    The peripheral finned-tube (PFT) is a new geometry for enhanced air-side heat transfer under moisture condensate blockage (evaporators). It consists of individual hexagonal (peripheral) fin arrangements with radial fins whose bases are attached to the tubes and tips are interconnected with the peripheral fins. In this paper, experimentally validated semi-empirical models for the air-side heat transfer and pressure drop are combined with the entropy generation minimization theory to determine ...

  16. R-ketamine: a rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant without psychotomimetic side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C; Shirayama, Y; Zhang, J-c; Ren, Q; Yao, W; Ma, M; Dong, C; Hashimoto, K

    2015-01-01

    Although the efficacy of racemate ketamine, a rapid onset and sustained antidepressant, for patients with treatment-resistant depression was a serendipitous finding, clinical use of ketamine is limited, due to psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. Behavioral and side-effect evaluation tests were applied to compare the two stereoisomers of ketamine. To elucidate their potential therapeutic mechanisms, we examined the effects of these stereoisomers on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)–TrkB signaling, and synaptogenesis in selected brain regions. In the social defeat stress and learned helplessness models of depression, R-ketamine showed a greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant effect than S-ketamine (esketamine). Furthermore, R-ketamine induced a more potent beneficial effect on decreased dendritic spine density, BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus from depressed mice compared with S-ketamine. However, neither stereoisomer affected these alterations in the nucleus accumbens of depressed mice. In behavioral tests for side effects, S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, precipitated behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperlocomotion, prepulse inhibition deficits and rewarding effects. In addition, a single dose of S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, caused a loss of parvalbumin (PV)-positive cells in the prelimbic region of the medial PFC and DG. These findings suggest that, unlike S-ketamine, R-ketamine can elicit a sustained antidepressant effect, mediated by increased BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the PFC, DG and CA3. R-ketamine appears to be a potent, long-lasting and safe antidepressant, relative to S-ketamine, as R-ketamine appears to be free of psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. PMID:26327690

  17. Prediction of Central Nervous System Side Effects Through Drug Permeability to Blood-Brain Barrier and Recommendation Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jun; Yang, Jing; Jiang, Zhenran

    2018-04-01

    Drug side effects are one of the public health concerns. Using powerful machine-learning methods to predict potential side effects before the drugs reach the clinical stages is of great importance to reduce time consumption and protect the security of patients. Recently, researchers have proved that the central nervous system (CNS) side effects of a drug are closely related to its permeability to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Inspired by this, we proposed an extended neighborhood-based recommendation method to predict CNS side effects using drug permeability to the BBB and other known features of drug. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to predict CNS side effects considering drug permeability to the BBB. Computational experiments demonstrated that drug permeability to the BBB is an important factor in CNS side effects prediction. Moreover, we built an ensemble recommendation model and obtained higher AUC score (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) and AUPR score (area under the precision-recall curve) on the data set of CNS side effects by integrating various features of drug.

  18. An Elementary affine λ-calculus with multithreading and side effects (extended version)

    OpenAIRE

    Madet, Antoine; Amadio, Roberto M.

    2011-01-01

    Linear logic provides a framework to control the complexity of higher-order functional programs. We present an extension of this framework to programs with multithreading and side effects focusing on the case of elementary time. Our main contributions are as follows. First, we provide a new combinatorial proof of termination in elementary time for the functional case. Second, we develop an extension of the approach to a call-by-value $lambda$-calculus with multithreading and side effects. Thi...

  19. Sleep Disturbance During Smoking Cessation: Withdrawal or Side Effect of Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashare, Rebecca L; Lerman, Caryn; Tyndale, Rachel F; Hawk, Larry W; George, Tony P; Cinciripini, Paul; Schnoll, Robert A

    2017-06-01

    The nicotine-metabolite ratio (NMR) predicts treatment response and is related to treatment side effect severity. Sleep disturbance may be one important side effect, but understanding sleep disturbance effects on smoking cessation is complicated by the fact that nicotine withdrawal also produces sleep disturbance. To evaluate the effects of withdrawal and treatment side effects on sleep disturbance. This is a secondary analysis of data from a clinical trial (Lerman et al., 2015) of 1,136 smokers randomised to placebo ( n = 363), transdermal nicotine (TN; n = 381), or varenicline ( n = 392) and stratified based on NMR (559 slow metabolisers; 577 normal metabolisers). Sleep disturbance was assessed at baseline and at 1-week following the target quit date (TQD). We also examined whether sleep disturbance predicted 7-day point-prevalence abstinence at end-of-treatment (EOT). The varenicline and TN groups exhibited greater increases in sleep disturbance (vs. placebo; treatment × time interaction; p = 0.005), particularly among those who quit smoking at 1-week post-TQD. There was a main effect of NMR ( p = 0.04), but no interactions with treatment. TN and varenicline attenuated withdrawal symptoms unrelated to sleep (vs. placebo). Greater baseline sleep disturbance predicted relapse at EOT ( p = 0.004). Existing treatments may not mitigate withdrawal-related sleep disturbance and adjunctive treatments that target sleep disturbance may improve abstinence rates.

  20. Depressive symptoms as a side effect of the sustained release form of methylphenidate in a 7-year-old boy with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakić Aneta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hyperkinetic disorder or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a clinical entity consisting of a cluster of symptoms including hyperactivity, attention disorder and impulse control disorder group. In the context of ADHD etiology we may say that genetic, clinical and imaging studies point out a disruption of the brain dopamine system, which is corroborated by the clinical effectiveness of stimulant drugs, which increase extracellular dopamine in the brain. Basically, it is a biological and not psychological disorder, which is important both for the comprehension and therapeutical approach to this problem. Today, the best recommended approach regarding children with ADHD is a combination of two therapeutic modalities: pharmacotherapy and behavioral treatment. The first-choice drugs for this disorder belong to the group of sympathomimetics - psychostimulants and atomoxetine (more recently. As the firstchoice therapy, methylphenydate in sustained release form has numerous advantages. Like all drugs, methylphenidate has its unwanted side effects. Most common are: loss of appetite, weight loss, sleeping disorders, irritability, headache. These side effects are well-known and documented in the literature. By analysing the available literature we have found cases of psychiatric side effects such as: psychosis, mania, visual hallucinations, agitation, suicidal ideas. We have not found examples of ADHD in children who use increased dosage of sustained release of methylphenidate leading to depressive symptomatology. On the other side, methylphenidate may be prescribed for off-label use in treatmentresistant cases of depression. Case report. The case of a 7- year-old boy diagnosed with ADHD was on a minimal dose of sustained release form of methylphenidate. After initial titration of the drug, i.e. after raising the dose to the next level the boy developed clinical signs of depression. The treatment was ceased and depressive

  1. A systematic review of the psychiatric side-effects of efavirenz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenedi, Christopher A; Goforth, Harold W

    2011-11-01

    Concerns regarding the use of efavirenz in patients with a history of mental illness may predispose clinicians to not offer this agent to psychiatrically ill populations in spite of the convenience of once daily dosing, which can result in improved adherence in these at-risk populations. This systematic review examines the current data regarding the neuropsychiatric effects of efavirenz, and also attempts to provide guidance to clinicians using efavirenz to treat patients with mental illness. The review identified high rates of neuropsychiatric side effects including vivid dreams, insomnia and mood changes in approximately 50% of patients who initiate efavirenz. The effects begin quickly, commonly peak in the first 2 weeks, and are generally mild and transient in nature. Isolated case reports and uncontrolled data suggest higher rates of severe side effects; however, there is no clear evidence of a broadly increased risk of suicide or dangerous behavior for patients taking efavirenz as part of their antiretroviral regimen.

  2. Side effects of cancer therapies. International classification and documentation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seegenschmiedt, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    The publication presents and explains verified, international classification and documentation systems for side effects induced by cancer treatments, applicable in general and clinical practice and clinical research, and covers in a clearly arranged manner the whole range of treatments, including acute and chronic side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, surgery, or combined therapies. The book fills a long-felt need in tumor documentation and is a major contribution to quality assurance in clinical oncology in German-speaking countries. As most parts of the book are bilingual, presenting German and English texts and terminology, it satisfies the principles of interdisciplinarity and internationality. The tabulated form chosen for presentation of classification systems and criteria facilitate the user's approach as well as application in daily work. (orig./CB) [de

  3. Spontaneous mental associations with the words "side effect": Implications for informed and shared decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Sonya; Pachur, Thorsten; Wheeler, Courtney; McGuire, Jaclyn; Waters, Erika A

    2017-10-01

    To gain insight into patients' medical decisions by exploring the content of laypeople's spontaneous mental associations with the term "side effect." An online cross-sectional survey asked 144 women aged 40-74, "What are the first three things you think of when you hear the words 'side effect?"' Data were analyzed using content analysis, chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests. 17 codes emerged and were grouped into 4 themes and a Miscellaneous category: Health Problems (70.8% of participants), Decision-Relevant Evaluations (52.8%), Negative Affect (30.6%), Practical Considerations (18.1%) and Miscellaneous (9.7%). The 4 most frequently identified codes were: Risk (36.1%), Health Problems-Specific Symptoms (35.4%), Health Problems-General Terms (32.6%), and Negative Affect-Strong (19.4%). Code and theme frequencies were generally similar across demographic groups (ps>0.05). The term "side effect" spontaneously elicited comments related to identifying health problems and expressing negative emotions. This might explain why the mere possibility of side effects triggers negative affect for people making medical decisions. Some respondents also mentioned decision-relevant evaluations and practical considerations in response to side effects. Addressing commonly-held associations and acknowledging negative affects provoked by side effects are first steps healthcare providers can take towards improving informed and shared patient decision making. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The evaluation-mediation hypothesis: does the specification of potential side effects influence the perceived risk of medication?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimer, T.

    1998-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: starting from the assumptions of support theory, this project analyzed the extent to which the specification of potential side effects influences the perceived risk associated, with a particular medication. Respondents were presented with an instruction leaflet for a medication which indicated (a) the overall probability that a side effect will occur or (b) the probability of occurrence of several specific side effects. Support theory predicts that the cognitive availability of potential side effects and therefore the perceived risk increases as a function of the specificity with which the side effects are presented. In contrast the evaluation-mediation hypothesis predicts that a more detailed presentation of potential side effects enhances the perceived quality of the information leaflet and thereby leads to a reduction of perceived risk. Support for the evaluation-mediation hypothesis was found in a series of studies which included the editing hypothesis and the elaboration likelihood model as additional explanations: the more detailed the information about potential side effects, the lower the estimated risk of suffering a side effect on taking the medication. As predicted, the influence of presentation specificity on perceived risk was mediated almost exclusively by the perceived quality of the information leaflet. A current series of studies seeks to support the evaluation-mediation hypothesis in a completely different domain, the perceived risk of environmental pollution by motor vehicles. (author)

  5. FCNC Effects in a Minimal Theory of Fermion Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Buras, Andrzej J; Pokorski, Stefan; Ziegler, Robert

    2011-01-01

    As a minimal theory of fermion masses we extend the SM by heavy vectorlike fermions, with flavor-anarchical Yukawa couplings, that mix with chiral fermions such that small SM Yukawa couplings arise from small mixing angles. This model can be regarded as an effective description of the fermionic sector of a large class of existing flavor models and thus might serve as a useful reference frame for a further understanding of flavor hierarchies in the SM. Already such a minimal framework gives rise to FCNC effects through exchange of massive SM bosons whose couplings to the light fermions get modified by the mixing. We derive general formulae for these corrections and discuss the bounds on the heavy fermion masses. Particularly stringent bounds, in a few TeV range, come from the corrections to the Z couplings.

  6. Effects of gamma radiation in cauliflower (Brassica spp) minimally processed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Thomaz, Fernanda S.; Trindade, Reginaldo A.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Alencar, Severino M.

    2007-01-01

    Consumers demand for health interests and the latest diet trends. The consumption of vegetables worldwide has increased every year over the past decade, consequently, less extreme treatments or additives are being required. Minimally processed foods have fresh-like characteristics and satisfy the new consumer demand. Food irradiation is an exposure process of the product to controlled sources of gamma radiation with the intention to destroy pathogens and to extend the shelf life. Minimally processed cauliflower (Brassica oleraceae) exposed to low dose of gamma radiation does not show any change in sensory attributes. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the low doses of gamma radiation on sensorial aspects like appearance, texture and flavor of minimally processed cauliflower. (author)

  7. Significance of surface functionalization of Gold Nanorods for reduced effect on IgG stability and minimization of cytotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alex, Sruthi Ann; Rajiv, Sundaramoorthy; Chakravarty, Sujay; Chandrasekaran, N.; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2017-01-01

    Gold nanorods (AuNRs) used for biomedical applications could be encountered by biomolecules in the bloodstream, of which IgG is the most abundant antibody. With a view to mitigate their side effect on encountered proteins, the effect of Au concentration (5–40 μM) and functionalization (CTAB-positive;PSS-negative; PEG-neutral) of AuNRs was investigated on the stability of a model protein, IgG (1 μM). Electron microscopic images and particle size analyses indicated least aggregation behavior for PEG-AuNRs, which can be correlated to their neutral charge (from zeta potential analyses) or stearic hindrance of PEG chains. Variations in tryptophan domain were probed by UV–visible absorption and fluorescence quenching studies. Synchronous fluorescence study helped to provide information regarding variations in the hydrophobic region of IgG. The denaturation studies also indicated the stability of AuNR–IgG complex formation. These studies showed that positively charged IgG (pI: 7.8 ± 1.0) was mostly affected by negatively charged PSS-AuNRs and least affected by PEG-AuNRs. This was verified by secondary structural investigations performed using CD and FTIR spectroscopy. For cytotoxicity studies on human lymphocytes, CTAB-AuNRs are known to show higher toxicity compared to PSS-AuNRs and PEG-AuNRs (least). Though PSS-functionalized AuNRs were shown to affect cells to a lesser degree based on the negative charge of cell membrane, they could hamper with positively charged biomolecules in the bloodstream before they reach the target, which must also be considered for choosing the right AuNR functionalization. Thus, this work indicates the effect of different AuNR functionalization on protein and cellular toxicity and stresses the necessity to use neutral particles to mitigate their side effect for theranostic applications. - Highlights: • Comprehensive evaluation of AuNR functionalization on protein and cellular toxicity. • Minimizes structural changes in IgG as a

  8. Significance of surface functionalization of Gold Nanorods for reduced effect on IgG stability and minimization of cytotoxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alex, Sruthi Ann; Rajiv, Sundaramoorthy [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India); Chakravarty, Sujay [UGC-DAE CSR, Kalpakkam, Node, Kokilamedu (India); Chandrasekaran, N. [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India); Mukherjee, Amitava, E-mail: amit.mookerjea@gmail.com [Centre for Nanobiotechnology, VIT University, Vellore (India)

    2017-02-01

    Gold nanorods (AuNRs) used for biomedical applications could be encountered by biomolecules in the bloodstream, of which IgG is the most abundant antibody. With a view to mitigate their side effect on encountered proteins, the effect of Au concentration (5–40 μM) and functionalization (CTAB-positive;PSS-negative; PEG-neutral) of AuNRs was investigated on the stability of a model protein, IgG (1 μM). Electron microscopic images and particle size analyses indicated least aggregation behavior for PEG-AuNRs, which can be correlated to their neutral charge (from zeta potential analyses) or stearic hindrance of PEG chains. Variations in tryptophan domain were probed by UV–visible absorption and fluorescence quenching studies. Synchronous fluorescence study helped to provide information regarding variations in the hydrophobic region of IgG. The denaturation studies also indicated the stability of AuNR–IgG complex formation. These studies showed that positively charged IgG (pI: 7.8 ± 1.0) was mostly affected by negatively charged PSS-AuNRs and least affected by PEG-AuNRs. This was verified by secondary structural investigations performed using CD and FTIR spectroscopy. For cytotoxicity studies on human lymphocytes, CTAB-AuNRs are known to show higher toxicity compared to PSS-AuNRs and PEG-AuNRs (least). Though PSS-functionalized AuNRs were shown to affect cells to a lesser degree based on the negative charge of cell membrane, they could hamper with positively charged biomolecules in the bloodstream before they reach the target, which must also be considered for choosing the right AuNR functionalization. Thus, this work indicates the effect of different AuNR functionalization on protein and cellular toxicity and stresses the necessity to use neutral particles to mitigate their side effect for theranostic applications. - Highlights: • Comprehensive evaluation of AuNR functionalization on protein and cellular toxicity. • Minimizes structural changes in IgG as a

  9. PREVENTION OF CUTANEOUS SIDE EFFECTS OF TOPICAL TRETINOIN: USE OF ORAL VITAMINE E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G FAGHIHI

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous folicles. Tretinoin is used as one of the topical treatments for acne vulgaris. It has different cutaneous side effects such as erythema, scaling, irritation and photosensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral Vitamine E in preventing the cutaneous side effects of topical tretinoin in acne patients.
    Methods: A clinical trial was performed in AI-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan for six months in 2000. 80 patients with mild to moderate facial acne were randomized into 2 groups. Group 1 (controls received topical solution of tretinoin 0.05 percent nightly and group 2 (cases received daily oral 100mg of Vit. E in addition. All patients were followed at 1, 4 and 6 weeks after initiation of treatment. Children under 12 years old, pregnant or lactating women were excluded.
    Results: At the end of one week, no cutaneous side effects were observed in 25 percent (10 of group 1 and 15 percent (6 of group 2 (P > 0.05. At the end of 4 weeks, 25 percent (10 of group 1 and 60 percent (24 of group 2 were without any cutaneous complications, while at the end of 6 weeks, 35 percent (14 of group 1 in comparison to 75 percent (30 of group 2 were free of any cutaneous side effects (P < 0.05. The most common side effect in both groups was exfoliation.
    Discussion: Daily oral 100 mg of Vit. E has been effective in preventing cutaneous complications of topical tretinoin in acne management, but there is a delay of one week in its onset of action. Meanwhile, Vitamine E is a safe modality with no undesirable effects in acne patients.

  10. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women “Talk with your doctor before you start treatment. Ask how chemotherapy could affect your ability to have ...

  11. Side effects of rational dose iodine-131 therapy for metastatic well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Nostrand, D.; Neutze, J.; Atkins, F.

    1986-01-01

    Benua, Leeper, and others (BEL) have advocated the estimation of radiation exposure to the blood to select a more rational maximum safe dose of radioiodine (dosimetry) to treat metastatic functioning well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. After adopting the BEL dosimetry approach, we reviewed the immediate (during hospitalization) and intermediate (from discharge up to 3 mo) side effects after our initial 15 therapies in ten patients. The doses ranged from 51 mCi (1887 MBq) to 450 mCi (16.65 GBq). Immediate side effects were observed in 12/15 (80%), are described in detail, and were as follows: gastrointestinal 10/15, salivary 9/15, nonsalivary neck pain, swelling, etc. 2/15, pulmonary 0/15. Intermediate side effects were observed in 10/15 (67%), are described in detail, and were as follows: gastrointestinal 0/15, salivary 3/15, nonsalivary neck pain, swelling, etc. 3/15, nasal complaints 2/15, transient bone marrow suppression 9/10, pulmonary 0/15. No patient required blood transfusions or had complications secondary to reduced blood counts. All patient complaints resolved; however, several patients may have reduced baseline blood counts one year after therapy. No other long-term side effect has been noted but the mean follow-up has been only 15 mo. In our opinion, we have not observed any side effect to date which would contraindicate the continued use and evaluation of the BEL dosimetry approach

  12. Side effects of rational dose iodine-131 therapy for metastatic well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Nostrand, D.; Neutze, J.; Atkins, F.

    1986-10-01

    Benua, Leeper, and others (BEL) have advocated the estimation of radiation exposure to the blood to select a more rational maximum safe dose of radioiodine (dosimetry) to treat metastatic functioning well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. After adopting the BEL dosimetry approach, we reviewed the immediate (during hospitalization) and intermediate (from discharge up to 3 mo) side effects after our initial 15 therapies in ten patients. The doses ranged from 51 mCi (1887 MBq) to 450 mCi (16.65 GBq). Immediate side effects were observed in 12/15 (80%), are described in detail, and were as follows: gastrointestinal 10/15, salivary 9/15, nonsalivary neck pain, swelling, etc. 2/15, pulmonary 0/15. Intermediate side effects were observed in 10/15 (67%), are described in detail, and were as follows: gastrointestinal 0/15, salivary 3/15, nonsalivary neck pain, swelling, etc. 3/15, nasal complaints 2/15, transient bone marrow suppression 9/10, pulmonary 0/15. No patient required blood transfusions or had complications secondary to reduced blood counts. All patient complaints resolved; however, several patients may have reduced baseline blood counts one year after therapy. No other long-term side effect has been noted but the mean follow-up has been only 15 mo. In our opinion, we have not observed any side effect to date which would contraindicate the continued use and evaluation of the BEL dosimetry approach.

  13. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men “I talked with my doctor ... learn what sexual changes or changes to your fertility you may have. The changes you may have ...

  14. Antiepileptic drug behavioral side effects and baseline hyperactivity in children and adolescents with new onset epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Shanna M; Follansbee-Junger, Katherine; Smith, Aimee W; Combs, Angela; Ollier, Shannon; Hater, Brooke; Modi, Avani C

    2018-01-01

    To examine baseline psychological functioning and antiepileptic drug (AED) behavioral side effects in new onset epilepsy and determine, by age, whether baseline psychological functioning predicts AED behavioral side effects 1 month following AED initiation. A retrospective chart review was conducted between July 2011 and December 2014 that included youths with new onset epilepsy. As part of routine interdisciplinary care, caregivers completed the Behavior Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition: Parent Rating Scale to report on baseline psychological functioning at the diagnostic visit and the Pediatric Epilepsy Side Effects Questionnaire to identify AED behavioral side effects at the 1-month follow-up clinic visit following AED initiation. Children (age = 2-11 years) and adolescents (age = 12-18 years) were examined separately. A total of 380 youths with new onset epilepsy (M age  = 8.9 ± 4.3 years; 83.4% Caucasian; 34.8% focal epilepsy, 41.1% generalized epilepsy, 23.7% unclassified epilepsy) were included. Seventy percent of youths had at-risk or clinically elevated baseline psychological symptoms. Children had significantly greater AED behavioral side effects (M = 25.08 ± 26.36) compared to adolescents (M = 12.36 ± 17.73), regardless of AED. Valproic acid demonstrated significantly greater behavioral side effects compared to all other AEDs, with the exception of levetiracetam. Higher hyperactivity/impulsivity at baseline significantly predicted higher AED behavioral side effects 1 month after AED initiation in both age groups. Younger children seem to be more prone to experience behavioral side effects, and these are likely to be higher if youths with epilepsy have baseline hyperactivity/impulsivity. Baseline psychological screening, specifically hyperactivity, can be used as a precision medicine tool for AED selection. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  15. Lymphadenitis as a Rare Side Effect of H1N1 Vaccine in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Gundogdu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 5-year-old boy who had the complaint of swelling and pain on the right vaccine shot and right axillary areas. The right axillary area was diagnosed as reactive lymphadenitis, which we believe is a rare local side effect of the swine flu vaccine. The key message to take away from this case is that the patient had lymphadenitis as a local side effect of the swine flu vaccine. Lymphadenitis should be reported as a possible local side effect of the swine flu vaccine.

  16. Lymphadenitis as a Rare Side Effect of H1N1 Vaccine in a Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Zuhal; Seyhogullari, Mualla

    2010-01-01

    We present a 5-year-old boy who had the complaint of swelling and pain on the right vaccine shot and right axillary areas. The right axillary area was diagnosed as reactive lymphadenitis, which we believe is a rare local side effect of the swine flu vaccine. The key message to take away from this case is that the patient had lymphadenitis as a local side effect of the swine flu vaccine. Lymphadenitis should be reported as a possible local side effect of the swine flu vaccine. PMID:21209734

  17. Physiological and skill demands of 'on-side' and 'off-side' games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbett, Tim J; Jenkins, David G; Abernethy, Bruce

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the physiological and skill demands of 'on-side' and 'off-side' games in elite rugby league players. Sixteen male rugby league players participated in 'on-side' and 'off-side' games. Both small-sided games were played in a 40- × 40-m playing area. The 'off-side' game permitted players to have 3 'plays' while in possession of the ball. Players were permitted to pass backward or forward (to an 'off-side' player). The 'on-side' game also permitted players to have 3 'plays' while in possession of the ball. However, players were only permitted to pass backward to players in an 'on-side' position. Heart rate and movement patterns (via global positioning system) were recorded continuously throughout both games. Data were collected on the distance covered, number of high-acceleration and velocity efforts, and recovery between efforts. Video footage was also taken to track the performance of the players. Post hoc inspection of the footage was undertaken to count the number of possessions and the number and quality of disposals. In comparison to 'on-side' games, 'off-side' games had a greater number of involvements ("touches"), passes, and effective passes. However, the cognitive demands of 'on-side' games were greater than 'off-side' games. 'Off-side' games resulted in a greater total distance covered, greater distance covered in mild and moderate accelerations, and greater distance covered in low, moderate, and high-velocity efforts. There were also a greater number of short duration recovery periods between efforts in 'off-side' games. The results of this study demonstrate that 'off-side' games provide greater physiological and skill demands than 'on-side' games. 'Off-side' games may provide a practical alternative to 'on-side' games for the development of skill and fitness in elite rugby league players.

  18. Side-to-side 3D coverage path planning approach for agricultural robots to minimize skip/overlap areas between swaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hameed, Ibrahim; la Cour-Harbo, Anders; Osen, O. L.

    2016-01-01

    Automated path planning is important for the automation and optimization of field operations. It can provide the waypoints required for guidance, navigation and control of agricultural robots and autonomous tractors throughout the execution of these field operations. In agriculture, field...... operations are usually repeated in the same field and from year to year as well, therefore, it should be carried out in a manner that minimizes environmental impact and cost taking into account the topographic land features. Current 3D terrain field coverage path planning algorithms are simply 2D coverage...

  19. Laparoscopic side-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy for chronic pancreatitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoichi Deie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical pancreatic duct (PD drainage for chronic pancreatitis in children is relatively rare. It is indicated in cases of recurrent pancreatitis and PD dilatation that have not responded to medical therapy and therapeutic endoscopy. We performed laparoscopic side-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy for two paediatric patients with chronic pancreatitis. The main PD was opened easily by electrocautery after locating the dilated PD by intraoperative ultrasonography. The dilated PD was split longitudinally from the pancreatic tail to the pancreatic head by laparoscopic coagulation shears or electrocautery after pancreatography. A laparoscopic side-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy was performed by a one-layered technique using continuous 4-0 polydioxanone (PDS sutures from the pancreatic tail to the pancreatic head. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications or recurrences. This procedure has cosmetic advantages compared with open surgery for chronic pancreatitis. Laparoscopic side-to-side pancreaticojejunostomy in children is feasible and effective for the treatment of chronic pancreatitis.

  20. Calcium vitamin D3 supplementation in clinical practice: side effect and satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Sanaei, Maryam; Banasiri, Mohammad; Shafiee, Gita; Rostami, Mahsa; Alizad, Saba; Ebrahimi, Mehdi; Larijani, Bagher; Heshmat, Ramin

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to assess side effects and satisfaction about OsteoCalVitFort (500?mg calcium and 400 I.U. of vitamin D3) usage. Methods A total 186 people were participated with range age from 18 to 65?years old. Each participant received 1 pack that contains 60 OsteoCalVitFort tablet and used two tablet OsteoCalVitFort daily (1 tablet after breakfast and 1 after dinner). By a phone call, side effects and satisfaction about OsteoCalVitFort were assessed. Results Th...

  1. Metabolic and Endocrine Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Tahiroglu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available omorbid psychiatric disorders, frequent hospitalization, multiple outpatient treatment, prior history of hypertension, obesity and lipid dysregulation are associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome in children. Side effects of antipsychotic drugs and their management have recently become a major subject of research due to enhanced antipsychotic drug usage in child and adolescents. Prevention strategies are usually preferred to secondary or tertiary strategies in the management of metabolic syndrome associated with antipsychotic drugs. Clinicians should present multidisciplinary approach to endocrine and metabolic side effects due to antipsychotic use in pediatric patient groups and avoid multiple drug use in such patients. In this paper, we briefly reviewed metabolic side effects of second generation antipsychotic drugs in child and adolescent population, possible mechanisms of susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and pharmacological and non pharmacological treatment approach to prevention of weight gain.

  2. The effect of a multidimensional exercise programme on symptoms and side-effects in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christina; Adamsen, Lis; Møller, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 6-week intervention with structured physical activity, relaxation, body-awareness techniques and massage on the symptoms/side-effects of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The study was prospective and exploratory, and 54 patients....../side-effects than patients with no evidence of disease (n=28) (P=0.027). The results indicate that a six weeks multidimensional exercise intervention undertaken by cancer patients with or without residual disease while undergoing chemotherapy can lead to a reduction in treatment-related symptoms....

  3. Balancing opioid-induced gastrointestinal side effects with pain management: Insights from the online community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Cynthia B; Reid, Mark W; Arnold, Corey; Patel, Haridarshan; Ursos, Lyann; Sa'adon, Roee; Pourmorady, Jonathan; Spiegel, Brennan M R

    2015-01-01

    Opioids cause gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, pain, and (in 40 percent) constipation that diminish patients' quality of life. Outside traditional surveys, little is known about the opioid-induced constipation (OIC) patient experience and its impact on pain management. The purpose of this study was to use data from social media platforms to qualitatively examine patient beliefs about OIC and other prominent GI side effects, their impact on effective pain management and doctor-patient interaction. The authors collected Tweets from March 25 to July 31, 2014, and e-forum posts from health-related social networking sites regardless of timestamp. The authors identified specific keywords related to opioids and GI side effects to locate relevant content in the dataset, which was then manually coded using ATLAS.ti software. The authors examined 2,519,868 Tweets and more than 1.8 billion e-forum posts, of which, 88,586 Tweets and 9,767 posts satisfied the search criteria. Three thousand three individuals experienced opioidinduced GI side effects, mostly related to phenanthrenes (n = 1,589), and 1,274 (42.4 percent) individuals described constipation. Over-the-counter medications and nonevidence-based natural approaches were most commonly used to alleviate constipation. Many individuals questioned, rotated, reduced, or stopped their opioid treatments as a result of their GI side effects. Investigation of social media reveals a struggle to balance pain management with opioid-induced GI side effects, especially constipation. Individuals are often unprepared to treat OIC, to modify opioid regiments without medical advice, and to resort to using natural remedies and treatments lacking scientific evidence of effectiveness. These results identify opportunities to improve physician-patient communication and explore effective treatment alternatives.

  4. PREVENTION OF CUTANEOUS SIDE EFFECTS OF TOPICAL TRETINOIN: USE OF ORAL VITAMINE E

    OpenAIRE

    G FAGHIHI

    2001-01-01

    Introduction: Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous folicles. Tretinoin is used as one of the topical treatments for acne vulgaris. It has different cutaneous side effects such as erythema, scaling, irritation and photosensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral Vitamine E in preventing the cutaneous side effects of topical tretinoin in acne patients...

  5. Side-effects in ascending cervical myelography using iopamidol and metrizamide - a double blind study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockenheimer, S.; Eichenlaub, H.

    1986-01-01

    A double blind study was performed to examine the side-effects of Metrizamide (group 1) and of Jopamidol (group 2) in ascending cervical myelography. Both groups were compared to a control group (group 3) comprising patients who had undergone lumbar puncture only. EEG was taken of the patients in groups 1 and 2 before as well as 6 and 24 h after intervention. Side-effects were collected by means of a questionnaire. Response time, concentration, memory and mood were examined psychometrically. Training effects or defensive attitudes in the multiple test examinations were checked against another control group of patients (group 4) which had no myelographic nor lumbar-puncture-induced impairment. Statistical findings corroborated our clinical impression that side-effects occurred after Metrizamide administration at a more than simply random rate. (orig.) [de

  6. National survey addressing the information needs of primary care physicians: Side effect management of patients on androgen deprivation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeyonggo, Tony; Locke, Jennifer; Giudice, Maria Elizabeth Del; Alibhai, Shabbir; Fleshner, Neil Eric; Warde, Padraig

    2014-03-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a common treatment for prostate cancer with numerous side effects. We assess primary care physicians' (PCPs) knowledge of ADT side effects and their interest in increasing their knowledge in this area. A list of active Canadian PCPs was obtained using the Canadian Medical Directory. A cross-sectional survey was distributed to 600 randomly selected physicians. We collected PCPs' demographic information, experience with ADT management, knowledge regarding ADT side effects and desired sources for obtaining knowledge on ADT management. In total, we received 103 completed questionnaires. Of these, 89% of PCPs had patients on ADT. One-third of respondents prescribed ADT and over half of them administered ADT annually. Thirty-eight percent felt their knowledge of ADT side effects was inadequate and 50% felt uncomfortable counselling patients on ADT. Many PCPs were less familiar with the incidence of functional side effects of ADT (i.e., hot flashes, fatigue and erectile dysfunction) compared to life-threatening side effects (i.e., cardiovascular events, metabolic syndrome, fractures). In terms of increasing their knowledge of ADT side effects, 82% of PCPs would use educational resources if they were available (52% and 32% preferred continued medical education [CME] events and educational pamphlets, respectively). PCPs play an important role in managing ADT side effects. There is poor awareness of the prevalence of ADT side effects, and many are uncomfortable in managing these side effects. These areas may be addressed through CME programs and educational pamphlets.

  7. The study of CD side to side error in line/space pattern caused by post-exposure bake effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Guo, Eric; Ge, Haiming; Lu, Max; Wu, Yijun; Tian, Mingjing; Yan, Shichuan; Wang, Ran

    2016-10-01

    In semiconductor manufacturing, as the design rule has decreased, the ITRS roadmap requires crucial tighter critical dimension (CD) control. CD uniformity is one of the necessary parameters to assure good performance and reliable functionality of any integrated circuit (IC) [1] [2], and towards the advanced technology nodes, it is a challenge to control CD uniformity well. The study of corresponding CD Uniformity by tuning Post-Exposure bake (PEB) and develop process has some significant progress[3], but CD side to side error happening to some line/space pattern are still found in practical application, and the error has approached to over the uniformity tolerance. After details analysis, even though use several developer types, the CD side to side error has not been found significant relationship to the developing. In addition, it is impossible to correct the CD side to side error by electron beam correction as such error does not appear in all Line/Space pattern masks. In this paper the root cause of CD side to side error is analyzed and the PEB module process are optimized as a main factor for improvement of CD side to side error.

  8. Effects of thermal fluctuations on non-minimal regular magnetic black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawad, Abdul; Shahzad, M.U.

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the effects of thermal fluctuations on a regular black hole (RBH) of the non-minimal Einstein-Yang-Mill theory with gauge field of magnetic Wu-Yang type and a cosmological constant. We consider the logarithmic corrected entropy in order to analyze the thermal fluctuations corresponding to non-minimal RBH thermodynamics. In this scenario, we develop various important thermodynamical quantities, such as entropy, pressure, specific heats, Gibb's free energy and Helmholtz free energy. We investigate the first law of thermodynamics in the presence of logarithmic corrected entropy and non-minimal RBH. We also discuss the stability of this RBH using various frameworks such as the γ factor (the ratio of heat capacities), phase transition, grand canonical ensemble and canonical ensemble. It is observed that the non-minimal RBH becomes globally and locally more stable if we increase the value of the cosmological constant. (orig.)

  9. Effects of thermal fluctuations on non-minimal regular magnetic black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawad, Abdul [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Shahzad, M.U. [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); University of Central Punjab, CAMS, UCP Business School, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2017-05-15

    We analyze the effects of thermal fluctuations on a regular black hole (RBH) of the non-minimal Einstein-Yang-Mill theory with gauge field of magnetic Wu-Yang type and a cosmological constant. We consider the logarithmic corrected entropy in order to analyze the thermal fluctuations corresponding to non-minimal RBH thermodynamics. In this scenario, we develop various important thermodynamical quantities, such as entropy, pressure, specific heats, Gibb's free energy and Helmholtz free energy. We investigate the first law of thermodynamics in the presence of logarithmic corrected entropy and non-minimal RBH. We also discuss the stability of this RBH using various frameworks such as the γ factor (the ratio of heat capacities), phase transition, grand canonical ensemble and canonical ensemble. It is observed that the non-minimal RBH becomes globally and locally more stable if we increase the value of the cosmological constant. (orig.)

  10. Do the emotional side-effects of hormonal contraceptives come from pharmacologic or psychological mechanisms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Stephen A; Dowell, Matt; Pedulla, Dominic; McCauley, Larry

    2004-01-01

    Hormonal preparations have become one of the most popular methods used for controlling fertility. The literature over the last 40 years continues to reveal how their numerous side effects negatively impact many users and even society at large. Three large cohort trials were the first to demonstrate, on a grand scale, certain emotional and behavioral associations with contraceptive use. Current contraceptive use was associated with an increase rate in depression, divorce, tranquilizer use, sexual dysfunction, and suicide and other violent and accidental deaths. Despite the advent of more "user friendly" contraceptives, the discontinuation rate secondary to side effects has changed little through the years. While in rare cases hormonal preparations can be deadly to the user, there is substantial evidence that their negative effect issues more from their emotional and behavioral properties. This paper reviews the results of over seven studies which further characterize these prominent associations, particularly with hormonal contraception, in an attempt to demonstrate their association with the intrinsic pharmacologic properties of hormonal preparations. Hormonal contraceptive users, in contrast with non users, were found to have higher rates of depression, anxiety, fatigue, neurotic symptoms, sexual disturbances, compulsion, anger, and negative menstrual effects. The question of whether the association of these maladies is directly due to the effect of taking exogenous hormones versus the psychological impact of the contraceptive behavior itself had yet to be studied. Seven small randomized-controlled trials were found in a review of the literature which studied this hypothesis in a direct way. They do not support the origination of these side effects being from the pharmacological properties of hormones. No association was found between hormone levels and emotional functioning in females. Psychiatric evaluations among IUD and oral contraceptive pill (OCP) users

  11. Exploring Tradeoffs in Demand-Side and Supply-Side Management of Urban Water Resources Using Agent-Based Modeling and Evolutionary Computation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lufthansa Kanta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Urban water supply systems may be managed through supply-side and demand-side strategies, which focus on water source expansion and demand reductions, respectively. Supply-side strategies bear infrastructure and energy costs, while demand-side strategies bear costs of implementation and inconvenience to consumers. To evaluate the performance of demand-side strategies, the participation and water use adaptations of consumers should be simulated. In this study, a Complex Adaptive Systems (CAS framework is developed to simulate consumer agents that change their consumption to affect the withdrawal from the water supply system, which, in turn influences operational policies and long-term resource planning. Agent-based models are encoded to represent consumers and a policy maker agent and are coupled with water resources system simulation models. The CAS framework is coupled with an evolutionary computation-based multi-objective methodology to explore tradeoffs in cost, inconvenience to consumers, and environmental impacts for both supply-side and demand-side strategies. Decisions are identified to specify storage levels in a reservoir that trigger: (1 increases in the volume of water pumped through inter-basin transfers from an external reservoir; and (2 drought stages, which restrict the volume of water that is allowed for residential outdoor uses. The proposed methodology is demonstrated for Arlington, Texas, water supply system to identify non-dominated strategies for an historic drought decade. Results demonstrate that pumping costs associated with maximizing environmental reliability exceed pumping costs associated with minimizing restrictions on consumer water use.

  12. The effect of qualifying language on perceptions of drug appeal, drug experience, and estimates of side-effect incidence in DTC advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joel

    2007-01-01

    This study examined how the use of qualifying language in direct-to-consumer (DTC) pharmaceutical advertising affects consumers' perceptions of drug appeal, anticipated pleasantness of drug usage, and the expected incidence of side-effect occurrence. A sample of 669 individuals participated in a 2 x 8 complete factorial design. The design manipulated the number of side effects associated with drug use and the type of qualifying language used to describe the side effects. The eight experimental qualifying language cells represented one control condition (no qualifying language), three cells where each of three types of qualifying language were presented individually, and four cells where qualifying language was combined. The results indicate that qualifying language has a profound effect on drug perceptions, especially when used in combination. Drug appeal and the anticipated drug-using experience almost always were more positive in the presence of qualifying language. Qualifying language appears to exert its influence by causing individuals to reduce their estimate of the likelihood of experiencing individual side effects. Policy implications of the research, particularly for evaluation of "fair balance" and the reporting of side effects, are presented.

  13. Intentions to use Hypnosis to Control the Side Effects of Cancer and its Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohl, Stephanie J.; Stossel, Lauren; Schnur, Julie B.; Tatrow, Kristin; Gherman, Amfiana; Montgomery, Guy H.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that hypnosis is an effective intervention for reducing distress, pain and other side effects associated with cancer and its treatment. However, hypnosis has failed to be adopted into standard clinical practice. This study (n=115) investigated overall intentions to use hypnosis to control side effects of cancer and its treatment, as well as demographic predictors of such intentions among healthy volunteers. Results suggest that the vast majority of patients (89%) would be willing to use hypnosis to control side effects associated with cancer treatment. Mean intention levels did not differ by gender, ethnicity, education or age. These results indicate that in the general public, there is a willingness to consider the use of hypnosis, and that willingness is not determined by demographic factors. This broad acceptance of hypnosis argues for more widespread dissemination. PMID:21049742

  14. Incidence of neuropsychiatric side effects of efavirenz in HIV-positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... HIV-positive treatment-naïve patients in public-sector ... current depression or other mental disorders would increase ... medication and the importance of adherence is discussed ..... neuropsychiatric side effects, substance abuse and emotional ... All authors contributed towards the conceptualisation and.

  15. Exploring the Process of Conveying Information about Side Effects: A Qualitative Study among Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therése Kairuz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explored how a sample of Australian pharmacists would convey information about the side effects of a medicine, if they were to counsel a patient. A qualitative method was selected and written responses to a case-based scenario were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The grounded theory approach elicited a fluid and dynamic model for side effect counselling. The study identified strategies for counselling, such as encouraging adherence through emphasising the benefits of the medication, referral to the prescriber, and providing empathy and reassurance to ease anxiety and address concerns. Pharmacists acknowledged the potential for risk, although only a minority used numerical descriptors. The final themes or outcomes were that pharmacists aim to allay fears, minimise harm and promote medication use when counselling about side effects. Professional empathy, the acknowledgment of patient concerns, and the importance of providing tailored information to promote medication adherence, emerged as features of the quality use of medicines. This study contributes to existing literature by identifying the role of allaying patients’ fears when conveying side effect information. It also describes a process to convey tailored information. Implications for practice include the importance of effective use of communication strategies to encourage adherence, as the appropriate use of medication can lead to positive health outcomes.

  16. Minimally invasive transcanal myringotomy for pediatric early stage congenital cholesteatoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Chul Ho; Jung, Eun Kyung; Sung, Chung Man; Kim, Seung Beom; Kim, Young Yoon; Seong, Jong Yuap; Kang, Sung Hoon; Cho, Yong Beom

    2016-11-01

    Recently, minimally invasive transcanal myringotomy (MITM), which is a useful surgical technique for early stage congenital cholesteatoma (CC) in children, was introduced. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the short-term surgical results of MITM in pediatric early stage CC. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 24 patients who underwent MITM between January 2013 and October 2015. The patients' ages ranged from 1 to 16 years (mean, 2.6 years). There were 17 male and 7 female patients. The right side (n = 13) was affected twice as often as the left side (n = 11). The most common site was the anterosuperior quadrant (15 cases). The diameter of the CC on axial computed tomography images ranged from 2.8 to 5.7 mm (mean, 3.9 mm). CCs were graded according to Potsic's system: 18 cases were classified as stage I, 3 case as stage II, and 3 cases as stage III. AllCCs except 1 were closed type. In21 patients, the tympanic membrane closed naturally without recurrence. Three patients showed small persistent dry perforation. Natural closure occurred in these patients, who were treated with paper patches. MITM is a simple, effective technique for removing an early stage CC from the middle ear, and it can minimize operative time, length of hospitalization, and postoperative morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Histone deacetylase inhibitors reverse age-related increases in side effects of haloperidol in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo-Ortiz, Janitza L; Fisher, Daniel W; Rodríguez, Guadalupe; Fang, Deyu; Csernansky, John G; Dong, Hongxin

    2017-08-01

    Older patients can be especially susceptible to antipsychotic-induced side effects, and the pharmacodynamic mechanism underlying this phenomenon remains unclear. We hypothesized that age-related epigenetic alterations lead to decreased expression and functionality of the dopamine D2 receptor (D2R), contributing to this susceptibility. In this study, we treated young (2-3 months old) and aged (22-24 months old) C57BL/6 mice with the D2R antagonist haloperidol (HAL) once a day for 14 days to evaluate HAL-induced motor side effects. In addition, we pretreated separate groups of young and aged mice with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors valproic acid (VPA) or entinostat (MS-275) and then administered HAL. Our results show that the motor side effects of HAL are exaggerated in aged mice as compared to young mice and that HDAC inhibitors are able to reverse the severity of these deficits. HAL-induced motor deficits in aged mice are associated with an age- and drug-dependent decrease in striatal D2R protein levels and functionality. Further, histone acetylation was reduced while histone tri-methylation was increased at specific lysine residues of H3 and H4 within the Drd2 promoter in the striatum of aged mice. HDAC inhibitors, particularly VPA, restored striatal D2R protein levels and functionality and reversed age- and drug-related histone modifications at the Drd2 promoter. These results suggest that epigenetic changes at the striatal Drd2 promoter drive age-related increases in antipsychotic side effect susceptibility, and HDAC inhibitors may be an effective adjunct treatment strategy to reduce side effects in aged populations.

  18. Chitosan Oligosaccharide Reduces Propofol Requirements and Propofol-Related Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Propofol is one of the main sedatives but its negative side effects limit its clinical application. Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS, a kind of natural product with anti-pain and anti-inflammatory activities, may be a potential adjuvant to propofol use. A total of 94 patients receiving surgeries were evenly and randomly assigned to two groups: 10 mg/kg COS oral administration and/or placebo oral administration before being injected with propofol. The target-controlled infusion of propofol was adjusted to maintain the values of the bispectral index at 50. All patients’ pain was evaluated on a four-point scale and side effects were investigated. To explore the molecular mechanism for the functions of COS in propofol use, a mouse pain model was established. The activities of Nav1.7 were analyzed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG cells. The results showed that the patients receiving COS pretreatment were likely to require less propofol than the patients pretreated with placebo for maintaining an anesthetic situation (p < 0.05. The degrees of injection pain were lower in a COS-pretreated group than in a propofol-pretreated group. The side effects were also more reduced in a COS-treated group than in a placebo-pretreated group. COS reduced the activity of Nav1.7 and its inhibitory function was lost when Nav1.7 was silenced (p > 0.05. COS improved propofol performance by affecting Nav1.7 activity. Thus, COS is a potential adjuvant to propofol use in surgical anesthesia.

  19. Factors associated with the perception of side-effects relating to the use of contraceptive methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Erasmus

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Limited research has been done in South Africa regarding the incidence of side-effects and perceptions of these among users of contraceptives. Numerous knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP surveys have been conducted by the Human Sciences Research Council (Erasmus 1981a; Erasmus 1981b; Erasmus 1982 ; Groenewald 1978 ; Lótter, Van Tonder 1976; Mostert, Malherbe 1974; Mostert 1974; Strydom 1981; Van der Merwe 1982 and in some of these studies questions concerning side-effects were included to determine reasons for discontinuation of specific contraceptive methods. The literature concerning research on side-effects related to contraceptive use usually pertains either to clinical studies

  20. Side effects due to irradiation of patients with mammary carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohenberg, G [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Strahlentherapeutische Klinik; Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Klinische Strahlenbiologie)

    1976-09-01

    The essay gives a brief survey of possible side effects occurring in irradiating patients with carinomas of the breast. Special attention is paid to difficulties concerning differential diagnosis and occurring in differentiating radiation reactions from secondary blastomas in the skeleton system. The problems concerning lymphatic oedema in the arm, and changes in the lungs and the effects of radiotherapy on the haematopoictic system are dealt with.

  1. Pharmacogenetics of clozapine treatment response and side-effects in schizophrenia: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriretnakumar, Venuja; Huang, Eric; Müller, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Clozapine (CLZ) is the most effective treatment for treatment-resistant schizophrenia (SCZ) patients, with potential added benefits of reduction in suicide risk and aggression. However, CLZ is also mainly underused due to its high risk for the potentially lethal side-effect of agranulocytosis as well as weight gain and related metabolic dysregulation. Pharmacogenetics promises to enable the prediction of patient treatment response and risk of adverse effects based on patients' genetics, paving the way toward individualized treatment. This article reviews pharmacogenetics studies of CLZ response and side-effects with a focus on articles from January 2012 to February 2015, as an update to the previous reviews. Pharmacokinetic genes explored primarily include CYP1A2, while pharmacodynamic genes consisted of traditional pharmacogenetic targets such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor as well novel mitochondrial genes, NDUFS-1 and translocator protein. Pharmacogenetics is a promising avenue for individualized medication of CLZ in SCZ, with several consistently replicated gene variants predicting CLZ response and side-effects. However, a large proportion of studies have yielded mixed results. Large-scale Genome-wide association studies (e.g., CRESTAR) and targeted gene studies with standardized designs (response measurements, treatment durations, plasma level monitoring) are required for further progress toward clinical translation. Additionally, in order to improve study quality, we recommend accounting for important confounders, including polypharmacy, baseline measurements, treatment duration, gender, and age at onset.

  2. Calcium vitamin D3 supplementation in clinical practice: side effect and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaei, Maryam; Banasiri, Mohammad; Shafiee, Gita; Rostami, Mahsa; Alizad, Saba; Ebrahimi, Mehdi; Larijani, Bagher; Heshmat, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess side effects and satisfaction about OsteoCalVitFort (500 mg calcium and 400 I.U. of vitamin D3) usage. A total 186 people were participated with range age from 18 to 65 years old. Each participant received 1 pack that contains 60 OsteoCalVitFort tablet and used two tablet OsteoCalVitFort daily (1 tablet after breakfast and 1 after dinner). By a phone call, side effects and satisfaction about OsteoCalVitFort were assessed. The rate of constipating (8.0 %) and bloating (12.5 %) were decreased significantly after OsteoCalVitFort supplement intake (1.2 %, and 0.6 %, respectively). Similar results were observed in metallic taste in mouth, tiredness, weakness, loss of appetite, bone/muscle pain and mental/mood change after Calcium Vitamin D3 supplementation intake. Totally, 94 % of patients were satisfied about OsteoCalVitFort usage. The results of the research indicate despite the high quality of OsteoCalVitFort supplement, there are no side effects which have been seen in other supplements.

  3. Comparison of the Efficacy and Side Effects of Chlorhexidine Mouthrinses with (Hexidine and without (Epimax Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mogharehabed

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Although Epimax mouthwash did not show any side effects, it was less suitable and caused more dental stain. Ethanol-free Hexidine mouthwash seems to be more proper for gingivitis, but its side effects are required to be taken into consideration.

  4. Computational Analysis of an effect of aerodynamic pressure on the side view mirror geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murukesavan, P.; Mu'tasim, M. A. N.; Sahat, I. M.

    2013-12-01

    This paper describes the evaluation of aerodynamic flow effects on side mirror geometry for a passenger car using ANSYS Fluent CFD simulation software. Results from analysis of pressure coefficient on side view mirror designs is evaluated to analyse the unsteady forces that cause fluctuations to mirror surface and image blurring. The fluctuation also causes drag forces that increase the overall drag coefficient, with an assumption resulting in higher fuel consumption and emission. Three features of side view mirror design were investigated with two input velocity parameters of 17 m/s and 33 m/s. Results indicate that the half-sphere design shows the most effective design with less pressure coefficient fluctuation and drag coefficient.

  5. A side-effect free method for identifying cancer drug targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Md Izhar; Ong, Seng-Kai; Mujawar, Shama; Pawar, Shrikant; More, Pallavi; Paul, Somnath; Lahiri, Chandrajit

    2018-04-27

    Identifying effective drug targets, with little or no side effects, remains an ever challenging task. A potential pitfall of failing to uncover the correct drug targets, due to side effect of pleiotropic genes, might lead the potential drugs to be illicit and withdrawn. Simplifying disease complexity, for the investigation of the mechanistic aspects and identification of effective drug targets, have been done through several approaches of protein interactome analysis. Of these, centrality measures have always gained importance in identifying candidate drug targets. Here, we put forward an integrated method of analysing a complex network of cancer and depict the importance of k-core, functional connectivity and centrality (KFC) for identifying effective drug targets. Essentially, we have extracted the proteins involved in the pathways leading to cancer from the pathway databases which enlist real experimental datasets. The interactions between these proteins were mapped to build an interactome. Integrative analyses of the interactome enabled us to unearth plausible reasons for drugs being rendered withdrawn, thereby giving future scope to pharmaceutical industries to potentially avoid them (e.g. ESR1, HDAC2, F2, PLG, PPARA, RXRA, etc). Based upon our KFC criteria, we have shortlisted ten proteins (GRB2, FYN, PIK3R1, CBL, JAK2, LCK, LYN, SYK, JAK1 and SOCS3) as effective candidates for drug development.

  6. An Internet-based survey on characteristics of laser tattoo removal and associated side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Annette; Rittmann, Ines; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Landthaler, Michael; Bäumler, Wolfgang

    2014-03-01

    Tattoo removal by laser therapy is a frequently performed procedure in dermatological practices. Quality-switched ruby, alexandrite, or Nd:YAG lasers are the most suitable treatment devices. Although these techniques are regarded as safe, both temporary and permanent side effects might occur. Little has been published on the frequency of complications associated with laser tattoo removal. We performed an Internet survey in German-speaking countries on characteristics of laser tattoo removal and associated side effects. A total number of 157 questionnaires entered the final analysis. Motivations for laser tattoo removal were mainly considering the tattoo as youthful folly (29%), esthetic reasons (28%), and 6% indicated medical problems. One third of participants were unsatisfied with the result of laser tattoo removal, and a complete removal of the tattoo pigment was obtained in 38% only. Local transient side effects occurred in nearly all participants, but an important rate of slightly visible scars (24%) or even important scarring (8%) was reported. Every fourth participant described mild or intense tan when the laser treatment was performed, and the same number of people indicated UV exposure following laser therapy, which should normally be avoided in these circumstances. As reported in the literature, nearly half of the participants experienced hypopigmentation in the treated area. Our results show that from the patients' point of view there is an important rate of side effects occurring after laser tattoo removal. Appropriate pretreatment counseling with regard to realistic expectations, possible side effects, and the application of test spots is mandatory to ensure patient satisfaction. Laser treatment should be performed by appropriately trained personnel only.

  7. Symptom response and side-effects of olanzapine and risperidone in young adults with recent onset schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bruggen, Johanna; Tijssen, Jans; Dingemans, Petrus; Gersons, Berthold; Linszen, Donald

    2003-01-01

    The symptom response and side-effects of olanzapine and risperidone were compared in patients with recent onset schizophrenia. Actively symptomatic patients n=44) randomly, received olanzapine 15 mg (median dose) or risperidone 4 mg (median dose). Symptom response and side-effects were measured

  8. The Effects of popcorn time on Netflix in a two–sided market

    OpenAIRE

    Ghini, Matteo Blomberg

    2016-01-01

    My thesis discusses the effects on legal streaming agents of entry of free, but illegal, substitutes, in a two–sided video streaming market. Legal streaming agents rely on support from two very different, but inevitably linked, groups: studios and consumers, while their free counterparts rely on support only from consumers. As a result, the pricing decisions for legal streaming agents are far more complex than those of firms operating in regular single–sided markets and of firms ...

  9. Isolated left-sided partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onan, İsmihan Selen; Sen, Onur; Gökalp, Selman; Onan, Burak

    2017-09-01

    Isolated left-sided partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection with intact interatrial septum is a rare diagnosis in childhood. In these cases, a vertical vein drains the left upper pulmonary lobe into the brachiocephalic vein and finally to the right atrium. Surgical treatment is performed to prevent right ventricular failure and pulmonary artery disease in advanced age. In this report, the rare entity of isolated left-sided anomalous pulmonary venous connection in a 14-year-old girl and successful minimally invasive surgery without cardiopulmonary bypass are described.

  10. Short-term side effects and patient-reported outcomes of bleomycin sclerotherapy in vascular malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Joana M; Richter, Gresham T; Becton, David; Salem, Omar; Hill, Sarah E M; Crary, Shelley E

    2018-06-01

    Vascular malformations (VM) are congenital lesions that can be debilitating and cause significant aesthetic and functional limitations. The chemotherapeutic agent bleomycin has been utilized as a sclerosant, directly injected percutaneously into the VM. Unfortunately, little is known about the benefits and short-term side effects of bleomycin with intralesional injections. An IRB approved, retrospective chart review was performed on patients with VM who had been treated with intralesional bleomycin. Data included type of VM, number of treatments, total bleomycin dose per m², and adverse effects. A questionnaire was administered to available patients to assess subjective outcomes and side effects. Forty-six patients were treated with 141 procedures of bleomycin sclerotherapy for VM. Patient ages ranged from 1 to 20 years (median age 10 years). The median cumulative bleomycin dose was 16.3 units/m²/person (range of 1.7-97.0 units/m²/person). Sixty-three percent of patients were reached for a questionnaire to assess short-term side effects. Ninety percent of patients surveyed were satisfied to very satisfied with the results from the procedure. About 24% of patients experienced transient nausea, vomiting and/or local hyperpigmentation. Bleomycin sclerotherapy can be an effective treatment of VM with repeat exposure with minor risk of short-term side effects, however, long-term risks are of great concern. Further studies are required to assess systemic absorption and long-term risks. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Herbal medicines for the treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects

    OpenAIRE

    Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Takeda, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that Japanese herbal medicines, called Kampo, have beneficial effects on cancer chemotherapy-induced side effects. Rikkunshito ameliorates cisplatin-induced anorexia through an antagonistic effect on the 5-HT receptors and by increasing the serum ghrelin levels. Hangeshashinto improves irinotecan-induced diarrhea and chemotherapy-induced mucositis by inhibiting the activity of β-glucuronidase as well as the synthesis of prostaglandin E2. Goshajinkigan prevents o...

  12. Choreatic Side Effects of Deep Brain Stimulation of the Anteromedial Subthalamic Nucleus for Treatment-Resistant Obsessive-Compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulders, Anne E P; Leentjens, Albert F G; Schruers, Koen; Duits, Annelien; Ackermans, Linda; Temel, Yasin

    2017-08-01

    Patients with treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are potential candidates for deep brain stimulation (DBS). The anteromedial subthalamic nucleus (STN) is among the most commonly used targets for DBS in OCD. We present a patient with a 30-year history of treatment-resistant OCD who underwent anteromedial STN-DBS. Despite a clear mood-enhancing effect, stimulation caused motor side effects, including bilateral hyperkinesia, dyskinesias, and sudden large amplitude choreatic movements of arms and legs when stimulating at voltages greater than approximately 1.5 V. DBS at lower amplitudes and at other contact points failed to result in a significant reduction of obsessions and compulsions without inducing motor side effects. Because of this limitation in programming options, we decided to reoperate and target the ventral capsule/ventral striatum (VC/VS), which resulted in a substantial reduction in key obsessive and compulsive symptoms without serious side effects. Choreatic movements and hemiballismus have previously been linked to STN dysfunction and have been incidentally reported as side effects of DBS of the dorsolateral STN in Parkinson disease (PD). However, in PD, these side effects were usually transient, and they rarely interfered with DBS programming. In our patient, the motor side effects were persistent, and they made optimal DBS programming impossible. To our knowledge, such severe and persistent motor side effects have not been described previously for anteromedial STN-DBS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Using evidence to improve satisfaction with medication side-effects education on a neuro-medical surgical unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Susan L; Wirges, Ashley M

    2013-10-01

    Patient satisfaction is viewed as a significant indicator of quality of care. More specifically, improving patient satisfaction related to communication about medications and potential side effects can improve healthcare outcomes. Patient satisfaction scores related to medication side effects on a neuro-medical surgical unit were monitored following a quality improvement program. These patients frequently experience cognitive impairment and functional difficulties that can affect the way they understand and handle medications. The purpose of this quality improvement practice change was to (a) develop an educational approach for post acute neurosurgical patients and (b) evaluate whether the use of the approach is successful in improving patient satisfaction scores related to medication education on side effects. The quality improvement program interventions included (a) patient informational handouts inserted into admission folders, (b) nurse education about the importance of providing education on side effects to patient and discussion of their involvement with the program, (c) unit flyers with nurse education, and (d) various communications with bedside nurses through personal work mail and emails. The primary focus was for nurses to employ the "teach back" method to review and reinforce the medication side-effect teaching with patients. Evaluation of the data showed an increase in patient satisfaction after the implementation of the "Always Ask" program.

  14. Effects of small-sided games on physical conditioning and performance in young soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katis, Athanasios; Kellis, Eleftherios

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, first, the movement actions performed during two different small-sided games and, second, their effects on a series of field endurance and technical tests. Thirty-four young soccer players (age: 13 ± 0.9 yrs; body mass: 62.3 ± 15.1 kg; height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m) participated in the study. Small-sided games included three-a-side (3 versus 3 players) and six-a-side (6 versus 6 players) games consisting of 10 bouts of 4 min duration with 3 min active recovery between bouts. Soccer player performance was evaluated using five field tests: a) 30m sprint, b) throw-in for distance, c) Illinois Agility Test, d) dribbling the ball and e) horizontal jump before, in the middle and after the implementation of both game situations. Heart rate was monitored during the entire testing session. Each game was also filmed to measure soccer movements within the game. The ANOVA analysis indicated that the three-a- side games displayed significantly higher heart rate values compared with the six-a-side games (p players performed more long passes and headed the ball more often during the six-a-side (p performance (p performance were observed (p physical conditioning and technical improvement than six-a-side games and their use for training young soccer players is recommended. Key pointsThree-a-side games display higher HR compared with six-a-side games.In the three-a-side games players performed more short passes, kicks, dribbles, tackles and scored more goals compared with the six-a-side games.Impairment in endurance and field test performance was observed mainly after three-a-side games.The use of the three-a-side games to develop physical fitness and technique in young soccer players is recommended.

  15. Interindividual testing of water-soluble oral contrast media in respect of diagnostic ranking, side effects and taste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staebler, A.; Fink, U.; Siuda, S.; Neville, S.

    1989-01-01

    Three groups of patients (n = 55, 52 and 54) were examined with the X-ray contrast media Gastrografin, Peritrast-Oral GI, and Telebrix Gastro to assess the diagnostic ranking, side effects and taste of watersoluble oral contrast media. No significant differences were seen in respect of diagnostic ranking and side effects. Side effects were exclusively abdominal symptoms; there was no difference with regard to laxative action. Telebrix Gastroas accepted significantly better in respect of taste than Gastrografin and Peritrast-Oral GI. (orig.) [de

  16. Potential functional and pathological side effects related to off-target pharmacological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, James J; Van Vleet, Terry R; Mittelstadt, Scott W; Blomme, Eric A G

    2017-09-01

    Most pharmaceutical companies test their discovery-stage proprietary molecules in a battery of in vitro pharmacology assays to try to determine off-target interactions. During all phases of drug discovery and development, various questions arise regarding potential side effects associated with such off-target pharmacological activity. Here we present a scientific literature curation effort undertaken to determine and summarize the most likely functional and pathological outcomes associated with interactions at 70 receptors, enzymes, ion channels and transporters with established links to adverse effects. To that end, the scientific literature was reviewed using an on-line database, and the most commonly reported effects were summarized in tabular format. The resultant table should serve as a practical guide for research scientists and clinical investigators for the prediction and interpretation of adverse side effects associated with molecules interacting with components of this screening battery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Large-scale automatic extraction of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs from full-text oncological articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-06-01

    Targeted anticancer drugs such as imatinib, trastuzumab and erlotinib dramatically improved treatment outcomes in cancer patients, however, these innovative agents are often associated with unexpected side effects. The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these side effects are not well understood. The availability of a comprehensive knowledge base of side effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs has the potential to illuminate complex pathways underlying toxicities induced by these innovative drugs. While side effect association knowledge for targeted drugs exists in multiple heterogeneous data sources, published full-text oncological articles represent an important source of pivotal, investigational, and even failed trials in a variety of patient populations. In this study, we present an automatic process to extract targeted anticancer drug-associated side effects (drug-SE pairs) from a large number of high profile full-text oncological articles. We downloaded 13,855 full-text articles from the Journal of Oncology (JCO) published between 1983 and 2013. We developed text classification, relationship extraction, signaling filtering, and signal prioritization algorithms to extract drug-SE pairs from downloaded articles. We extracted a total of 26,264 drug-SE pairs with an average precision of 0.405, a recall of 0.899, and an F1 score of 0.465. We show that side effect knowledge from JCO articles is largely complementary to that from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) drug labels. Through integrative correlation analysis, we show that targeted drug-associated side effects positively correlate with their gene targets and disease indications. In conclusion, this unique database that we built from a large number of high-profile oncological articles could facilitate the development of computational models to understand toxic effects associated with targeted anticancer drugs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Material and Side Walls on Hull Deflection during a Blast Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-13

    ARL-CR-0822 ● DEC 2017 US Army Research Laboratory The Effect of Material and Side Walls on Hull Deflection during a Blast Event...Army Research Laboratory The Effect of Material and Side Walls on Hull Deflection during a Blast Event prepared by Danielle Abell SURVICE...Walls on Hull Deflection during a Blast Event 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W911QX-16-D-0014 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S

  19. Statistical Significance and Effect Size: Two Sides of a Coin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xitao

    This paper suggests that statistical significance testing and effect size are two sides of the same coin; they complement each other, but do not substitute for one another. Good research practice requires that both should be taken into consideration to make sound quantitative decisions. A Monte Carlo simulation experiment was conducted, and a…

  20. Configuring the Mesh Size, Side Taper and Wing Depth of Penaeid Trawls to Reduce Environmental Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, Matt K.; Sterling, David J.; Millar, Russell B.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of reducing mesh size while concomitantly varying the side taper and wing depth of a generic penaeid-trawl body were investigated to improve engineering performance and minimize bycatch. Five trawl bodies (with the same codends) were tested across various environmental (e.g. depth and current) and biological (e.g. species and sizes) conditions. The first trawl body comprised 41-mm mesh and represented conventional designs (termed the ‘41 long deep-wing'), while the remaining trawl bodies were made from 32-mm mesh and differed only in their side tapers, and therefore length (i.e. 1N3B or ‘long’ and ∼28o to the tow direction vs 1N5B or ‘short’ and ∼35o) and wing depths (‘deep’–97 T vs ‘shallow’–60 T). There were incremental drag reductions (and therefore fuel savings – by up to 18 and 12% per h and ha trawled) associated with reducing twine area via either modification, and subsequently minimizing otter-board area in attempts to standardize spread. Side taper and wing depth had interactive and varied effects on species selectivity, but compared to the conventional 41 long deep-wing trawl, the 32 short shallow-wing trawl (i.e. the least twine area) reduced the total bycatch by 57% (attributed to more fish swimming forward and escaping). In most cases, all small-meshed trawls also caught more smaller school prawns Metapenaeus macleayi but to decrease this effect it should be possible to increase mesh size slightly, while still maintaining the above engineering benefits and species selectivity. The results support precisely optimizing mesh size as a precursor to any other anterior penaeid-trawl modifications designed to improve environmental performance. PMID:24911786

  1. Physically Embedded Minimal Self-Replicating Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fellermann, Harold

    Self-replication is a fundamental property of all living organisms, yet has only been accomplished to limited extend in manmade systems. This thesis is part of the ongoing research endeavor to bridge the two sides of this gap. In particular, we present simulation results of a minimal life...... for any model above the atomistic scale. This is achieved by deriving an alternative scaling procedure for interaction parameters in the model. We perform system-level simulations of the design which attempt to account for theoretical, and experimental knowledge, as well as results from other...

  2. Symptoms and side effects in chronic non-cancer pain: patient report vs. systematic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, T; Christrup, L L; Højsted, J; Villesen, H H; Albjerg, T H; Ravn-Nielsen, L V; Sjøgren, P

    2011-01-01

    relieving distressing symptoms and managing the side effects of analgesics are essential in order to improve quality of life and functional capacity in chronic non-cancer pain patients. A quick, reliable and valid tool for assessing symptoms and side effects is needed in order to optimize treatment. We aimed to investigate the symptoms reported by chronic non-cancer pain patients after open-ended questioning vs. a systematic assessment using a list of symptoms, and to assess whether the patients could distinguish between the symptoms and the side effects induced by analgesics. patients treated with either opioids and/or adjuvant analgesics were asked to report their symptoms spontaneously, followed by a 41-item investigator-developed symptom checklist. A control group also filled in the checklist. a total of 62 patients and 64 controls participated in the study. The numbers of symptoms reported by the patients (9.9 ± 5.9) were significantly higher than those reported by the controls (3.2 ± 3.9) (Pside effects due to analgesics was: (1) Dry mouth (42%); (2) Sweating (34%); (3) Weight gain (29%); (4) Memory deficits (24%); (5) Fatigue (19%); and (6) Concentration deficits (19%). the number of symptoms reported using systematic assessment was eightfold higher than those reported voluntarily. Fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, dry mouth, sweating and weight gain were the most frequently reported. The patients reported the side effects of their analgesics to contribute substantially to the reported symptoms. 2010 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.

  3. Local Side Effects of Sublingual and Oral Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, Giovanni; Nowak-Węgrzyn, Anna; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is increasingly used worldwide, and several products have been recently registered as drugs for respiratory allergy by the European Medicine Agency and the Food and Drug Administration. Concerning inhalant allergens, the safety of SLIT is overall superior to that of subcutaneous immunotherapy in terms of systemic adverse events. No fatality has been ever reported, and episodes of anaphylaxis were described only exceptionally. Looking at the historical and recent trials, most (>90%) adverse events are "local" and confined to the site of administration. For this reason, a specific grading system has been developed by the World Allergy Organization to classify and describe local adverse events. There is an increasing amount of literature concerning oral desensitization for food allergens, referred to as oral immunotherapy. Also, in this case, local side effects are predominant, although systemic adverse events are more frequent than with inhalant allergens. We review herein the description of local side effects due to SLIT, with a special focus on large trials having a declared sample size calculation. The use of the Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities nomenclature for adverse events is mentioned in this context, as recommended by regulatory agencies. It is expected that a uniform classification/grading of local adverse events will improve and harmonize the surveillance and reporting on the safety of SLIT. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Coping with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life from the perspective of cancer patients: A qualitative empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Koktved, Dorte Pallesen; Nielsen, Lene Lyngø

    Aim The aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of how patients cope with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life. Background Patients receiving cancer treatment experience acute side effects and need individualized information and guidance in order to manage treatment......-related adverse events in everyday life. However development in cancer treatment and the societal demands for efficiency may limit the possibility for individualized support. Methods Nine patients were interviewed from March to July 2009 to explore the patients’ experience of coping with side effects in daily...... their identity but the side effects can control the daily life. Patients do not always possess the knowledge of how to handle the side effects and adaptation to the institutional efficiency can lead to lack of confidence and feelings of responsibility and guilt concerning coping with these side effects...

  5. Relation between therapeutic response and side effects induced by methylphenidate as observed by parents and teachers of children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhat Venkataramana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The desired (therapeutic and undesired (side effects of methylphenidate might have underlying correlations. The aim of this study was to explore the strength and the possible sources of these correlations. Methods One hundred and fifty-seven children with ADHD (6-12 years were administered placebo and methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg in a divided b.i.d. dose, each for a one-week period, in a double-blind, crossover trial. Therapeutic response was assessed using the Conners' Global Index for parents (CGI-Parents and teachers (CGI-Teachers, while side effects were assessed using the Barkley Side Effects Rating Scale (SERS. Results The side effect profile as assessed by the SERS was similar to that of previous studies with insomnia, decreased appetite, and headaches showing significant treatment effects (p Conclusion The greater "mood/anxiety" side effects on methylphenidate and placebo, the less the parents observe improvement of their children while treated with methylphenidate. This suggests that the correlations between "mood/anxiety" side effects and poor response to treatment may be driven by observer effects rather than biological commonalities between therapeutic and side effects of methylphenidate.

  6. Time course of late rectal- and urinary bladder side effects after MRI-guided adaptive brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georg, P.; Georg, D.; Poetter, R.; Doerr, W. [Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Medical University Vienna (Austria). Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology; Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Comprehensive Cancer Centre; Boni, A.; Ghabuous, A. [Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Goldner, G.; Schmid, M.P. [Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Comprehensive Cancer Centre

    2013-07-15

    Background and purpose: To analyze the time course of late rectal- and urinary bladder complications after brachytherapy for cervical cancer and to compare the incidence- and prevalence rates thereof. Patients and methods: A total of 225 patients were treated with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided brachytherapy with or without chemotherapy. Late side effects were assessed prospectively using the Late Effects in Normal Tissue - Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic (LENT/SOMA) scale. The parameters analyzed were time to onset, duration, actuarial incidence- (occurrence of new side effects during a defined time period) and prevalence rates (side effects existing at a defined time point). Results: Median follow-up was 44 months. Side effects (grade 1-4) in rectum and bladder were present in 31 and 49 patients, 14 and 27 months (mean time to onset) after treatment, respectively. All rectal and 76 % of bladder side effects occurred within 3 years after radiotherapy. Mean duration of rectal events was 19 months; 81 % resolved within 3 years of their initial diagnosis. Mean duration of bladder side effects was 20 months; 61 % resolved within 3 years. The 3- and 5-year actuarial complication rates were 16 and 19 % in rectum and 18 and 28 % in bladder, respectively. The corresponding prevalence rates were 9 and 2 % (rectum) and 18 and 21 % (bladder), respectively. Conclusion: Late side effects after cervical cancer radiotherapy are partially reversible, but their time course is organ-dependent. The combined presentation of incidence- and prevalence rates provides the most comprehensive information. (orig.)

  7. Time course of late rectal- and urinary bladder side effects after MRI-guided adaptive brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georg, P.; Georg, D.; Poetter, R.; Doerr, W.; Medical University Vienna; Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien; Boni, A.; Ghabuous, A.; Goldner, G.; Schmid, M.P.; Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose: To analyze the time course of late rectal- and urinary bladder complications after brachytherapy for cervical cancer and to compare the incidence- and prevalence rates thereof. Patients and methods: A total of 225 patients were treated with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided brachytherapy with or without chemotherapy. Late side effects were assessed prospectively using the Late Effects in Normal Tissue - Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic (LENT/SOMA) scale. The parameters analyzed were time to onset, duration, actuarial incidence- (occurrence of new side effects during a defined time period) and prevalence rates (side effects existing at a defined time point). Results: Median follow-up was 44 months. Side effects (grade 1-4) in rectum and bladder were present in 31 and 49 patients, 14 and 27 months (mean time to onset) after treatment, respectively. All rectal and 76 % of bladder side effects occurred within 3 years after radiotherapy. Mean duration of rectal events was 19 months; 81 % resolved within 3 years of their initial diagnosis. Mean duration of bladder side effects was 20 months; 61 % resolved within 3 years. The 3- and 5-year actuarial complication rates were 16 and 19 % in rectum and 18 and 28 % in bladder, respectively. The corresponding prevalence rates were 9 and 2 % (rectum) and 18 and 21 % (bladder), respectively. Conclusion: Late side effects after cervical cancer radiotherapy are partially reversible, but their time course is organ-dependent. The combined presentation of incidence- and prevalence rates provides the most comprehensive information. (orig.)

  8. Pharmacy customers' knowledge of side effects of purchased medicines in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirtz, Veronika J.; Taxis, Katja; Dreser, Anahi

    To analyse pharmacy customers' knowledge and information sources about side effects of medicines they purchased and factors associated with this knowledge. Cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interviews with customers of 52 randomly selected community pharmacies in Morelos state, Mexico.

  9. Minimization of spin tune spread by matching dispersion prime at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Kewisch, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huang, H. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-08-31

    At RHIC, the spin polarization is preserved with a pair of Siberian snakes on the oppo- site sides in each ring. The polarized proton beam with finite spin tune spread might cross spin resonances multiple times in two cases, one is when beam going through strong spin intrinsic resonances during acceleration, the other is when sweeping spin flipper’ frequency across the spin tune to flip the direction of spin polarization. The consequence is loss of spin polarization in both cases. Therefore, a scheme of min- imizing the spin tune spread by matching the dispersion primes at the two snakes was introduced based on the fact that the spin tune spread is proportional to the difference of dispersion primes at the two snakes. The scheme was implemented at fixed energies for the spin flipper study and during beam acceleration for better spin polarization transmission efficiency. The effect of minimizing the spin tune spread by matching the dispersion primes was observed and confirmed experimentally. The principle of minimizing the spin tune spread by matching the dispersion primes, the impact on the beam optics, and the effect of a narrower spin tune spread are presented in this report.

  10. Sexual side effects of serotonergic antidepressants: mediated by inhibition of serotonin on central dopamine release?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijlsma, Elisabeth Y; Chan, Johnny S W; Olivier, Berend; Veening, Jan G; Millan, Mark J; Waldinger, Marcel D; Oosting, Ronald S

    2014-06-01

    Antidepressant-induced sexual dysfunction adversely affects the quality of life of antidepressant users and reduces compliance with treatment. Animal models provide an instructive approach for examining potential sexual side effects of novel drugs. This review discusses the stability and reproducibility of our standardized test procedure that assesses the acute, subchronic and chronic effects of psychoactive compounds in a 30 minute mating test. In addition, we present an overview of the effects of several different (putative) antidepressants on male rat sexual behavior, as tested in our standardized test procedure. By comparing the effects of these mechanistically distinct antidepressants (paroxetine, venlafaxine, bupropion, buspirone, DOV 216,303 and S32006), this review discusses the putative mechanism underlying sexual side effects of antidepressants and their normalization. This review shows that sexual behavior is mainly inhibited by antidepressants that increase serotonin neurotransmission via blockade of serotonin transporters, while those that mainly increase the levels of dopamine and noradrenaline are devoid of sexual side effects. Those sexual disturbances cannot be normalized by simultaneously increasing noradrenaline neurotransmission, but are normalized by increasing both noradrenaline and dopamine neurotransmission. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the sexual side effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors may be mediated by their inhibitory effects on dopamine signaling in sex brain circuits. Clinical development of novel antidepressants should therefore focus on compounds that simultaneously increase both serotonin and dopamine signaling. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Capecitabine induced hypertriglyceridaemia: An underreported and potentially severe side effect

    OpenAIRE

    Tabchi S; Joseph K

    2014-01-01

    A 57 year-old-woman, with no previous history of dyslipedemia, developed severe hypertriglyceridemia while being treated with capecitabine for metastatic breast cancer. Capecitabine was not discontinued and serum triglyceride levels were normalized after 4 weeks of treatment with fenofibrate. Capecitabine induced hypertriglyceridemia, as a rare drug-related side effect, seems to be often overlooked by clinicians.

  12. Minimizing the Effect of Substantial Perturbations in Military Water Systems for Increased Resilience and Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey M. James

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A model predictive control (MPC framework, exploiting both feedforward and feedback control loops, is employed to minimize large disturbances that occur in military water networks. Military installations’ need for resilient and efficient water supplies is often challenged by large disturbances like fires, terrorist activity, troop training rotations, and large scale leaks. This work applies the effectiveness of MPC to provide predictive capability and compensate for vast geographical differences and varying phenomena time scales using computational software and actual system dimensions and parameters. The results show that large disturbances are rapidly minimized while maintaining chlorine concentration within legal limits at the point of demand and overall water usage is minimized. The control framework also ensures pumping is minimized during peak electricity hours, so costs are kept lower than simple proportional control. Thecontrol structure implemented in this work is able to support resiliency and increased efficiency on military bases by minimizing tank holdup, effectively countering large disturbances, and efficiently managing pumping.

  13. End-to-side neurorraphy: a long-term study of neural regeneration in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasidis, G; Watanabe, O; Mackinnon, S E; Strasberg, S R; Haughey, B H; Hunter, D A

    1998-10-01

    This study evaluated long-term reinnervation of an end-to-side neurorraphy and the resultant functional recovery in a rat model. The divided distal posterior tibial nerve was repaired to the side of an intact peroneal nerve. Control groups included a cut-and-repair of the posterior tibial nerve and an end-to-end repair of the peroneal nerve to the posterior tibial nerve. Evaluations included walking-track analysis, nerve conduction studies, muscle mass measurements, retrograde nerve tracing, and histologic evaluation. Walking tracks indicated poor recovery of posterior tibial nerve function in the experimental group. No significant difference in nerve conduction velocities was seen between the experimental and control groups. Gastrocnemius muscle mass measurements revealed no functional recovery in the experimental group. Similarly, retrograde nerve tracing revealed minimal motor neuron staining in the experimental group. However, some sensory staining was seen within the dorsal root ganglia of the end-to-side group. Histologic study revealed minimal myelinated axonal regeneration in the experimental group as compared with findings in the other groups. These results suggest that predominantly sensory regeneration occurs in an end-to-side neurorraphy at an end point of 6 months.

  14. Combination of same-side with opposite-side flavour tagging

    CERN Document Server

    Calvo, M; Musy, M

    2010-01-01

    A considerable number of CP violation measurements require the most possible accurate knowledge of the flavour at production of the reconstructed $B$ meson. The performance of different flavour tagging methods will be measured from control channels. One of the possible tagging methods that can be used is the one known as $Same Side kaon$. In this note we present how to calibrate the response of the tagging algorithms using the data and combine the result with the so called $Opposite Side tagging$. Also trigger and selection effects are briefly discussed.

  15. Treatment side effects and follow-up of malignant melanoma; Therapienebenwirkungen und Nachsorge bei malignem Melanom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, T. [Klinikum der Stadt Ludwigshafen gGmbH, Zentralinstitut fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Loquai, C. [Universitaetsmedizin der Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, Hautklinik und Poliklinik, Mainz (Germany)

    2015-01-30

    Side effects in the therapy of malignant melanoma are primarily of importance for radiologists in advanced tumor stages. The available treatment options and their respective side effect profiles have undergone a profound change in recent years after the introduction of modern oncological therapies (e.g. immunotherapy and targeted therapy) with an increasing focus on individual tumor biology and differ significantly from those of classical chemotherapy. The immunotherapeutic agents, in particular ipilimumab, take on a special position because of their specific immune-mediated mechanisms of action and the associated side effects, so-called immune-related adverse events (irAE). The majority of the treatment effects are manifested on the skin (> 50 %) and are generally not detectable by diagnostic radiology. Only a comparatively small proportion of treatment side effects is detectable with diagnostic imaging (15-20 %) but as in the example of therapy-induced colitis with ipilimumab, may be rapidly fatal. In addition to colitis (10-20 %) further therapy side effects apparent in diagnostic imaging are hypophysitis (1.8-17 %), thyroiditis (0.8 %), myositis (1.7 %), fasciitis and sarcoid-like lymph node alterations (6.8 %). To detect radiologically detectable side effects early on and to delineate them especially from tumor progression and (opportunistic) infections, detailed knowledge of the therapeutic methods for melanoma, the mechanisms of action and in particular the sometimes very specific side effects is imperative for radiologists. (orig.) [German] Nebenwirkungen der Therapie des malignen Melanoms sind fuer den Radiologen primaer in fortgeschrittenen Tumorstadien von Bedeutung. Die zur Verfuegung stehenden Therapieoptionen und ihre jeweiligen Nebenwirkungsprofile haben sich in den letzten Jahren nach Einfuehrung moderner onkologischer Therapieoptionen, die sich zunehmend an der individuellen Tumorbiologie orientieren (zielgerichtete Therapie, Immuntherapie), einem

  16. Side effects from intense pulsed light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen-Petersen, Daniel; Erlendsson, Andres M; Nash, J F

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Intense pulsed light (IPL) is a mainstream treatment for hair removal. Side effects after IPL are known, but risk factors remain to be investigated. The objective of this study was to assess the contribution of skin pigmentation, fluence level, and ultraviolet radiation...... stacking of 46 J/cm2. Areas were subsequently randomized to no UVR or single solar-simulated UVR exposure of 3 Standard Erythema Dose at 30 minutes or 24 hours after IPL. Each area had a corresponding control, resulting in 15 treatment sites. Follow-up visits were scheduled up to 4 weeks after IPL. Outcome...... measures were: (i) blinded clinical skin reactions; (ii) objectively measured erythema and pigmentation; (iii) pain measured by visual analog scale (VAS); (iv) histology (H&E, Fontana-Masson); and (v) mRNA-expression of p53. RESULTS: Fifteen subjects with FST II-IV completed the protocol. IPL induced...

  17. Side-to-side sutureless vascular anastomosis with magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, Detlev; Sweis, Ranya; Heitmann, Christoph; Yasui, Koji; Olbrich, Kevin C; Levin, L Scott; Sharkawy, A Adam; Klitzman, Bruce

    2004-09-01

    vessel wall after several weeks to incorporate the magnets, making the magnetic force unnecessary; and warrants further study in vessels with different sizes, flow rates, and locations. We present a magnet-based device used to perform side-to-side peripheral vascular anastomoses. Its advantages include the ability to anastomose vessels without requiring circumferential surgical exposure. Vascular anastomosis performed with these magnets demonstrated 100% patency in the dog, lacked apparent aneurysm or other potentially catastrophic failure, and demonstrated remodeling of the vessel wall after several weeks, to incorporate the magnets, making indefinite retention of field strength unnecessary. This technique could enable minimally invasive procedures, such as complex reconstructive and revascularizing surgery, and warrants further study in vessels with different sizes, flow rates, and locations.

  18. Clinically insubstantial cognitive side effects of bitemporal electroconvulsive therapy at 0.5 msec pulse width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnell, Ronald L; Swartz, Conrad M; Thomson, Alice

    2011-11-01

    We measured cognitive side effects from bitemporal electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) using stimuli of 0.5 msec pulse width 900 milliamperes (mA). Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) and 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-21) were rated within 36 hours before and 36 hours after a series of 6 bitemporal ECT sessions on 15 patients age ≥45. MMSE remained high after ECT (pre-ECT mean 29, standard deviation [SD] 1.60, post-ECT mean 28.53, SD 1.36) with no significant change. The mean HRSD-21 fell from 27.5 to 16.3. Post-ECT MMSE was significantly and markedly higher than in previous studies of bitemporal ECT; all had used ECT stimuli of pulse width at least 1 msec. With stimuli of 0.5 msec pulse width and 900 mA, 6 bitemporal ECTs did not decrease MMSE score. This result leaves no opportunity for further decrease in basic cognitive side effects, and complements published reports of stronger physiological effects with stimuli of 0.5 msec pulse width and 900 mA. ECT stimuli of 0.5 msec pulse width and 900 mA are more desirable than wider pulse widths. Six bitemporal ECT sessions using these stimuli generally will not have more cognitive side effects than treatments with other placements, allowing maintenance of full efficacy with clinically insubstantial side effects.

  19. Antiepileptic Drug Behavioral Side Effects in Individuals with Mental Retardation and the Use of Behavioral Measurement Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalachnik, John E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Behavioral psychology measurement methods helped assess antiepileptic drug behavioral side effects in five individuals with mental retardation who could not verbally communicate presence of side effects. When the suspected antiepileptic drug was altered, an 81% reduction of maladaptive behaviors occurred. The measurement methods enabled systematic…

  20. Which Depressive Symptoms and Medication Side Effects Are Perceived by Patients as Interfering Most with Occupational Functioning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond W. Lam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Major depressive disorder (MDD is associated with significant impairment in occupational functioning. This study sought to determine which depressive symptoms and medication side effects were perceived by patients with MDD to have the greatest interference on work functioning. Methods. 164 consecutive patients with MDD by DSM-IV criteria completed a standard assessment that included a self-rated questionnaire about the degree to which symptoms and side effects interfered with work functioning. Results. The symptoms perceived by patients as interfering most with work functioning were fatigue and low energy, insomnia, concentration and memory problems, anxiety, and irritability. The medication side effects rated as interfering most with work functioning were daytime sedation, insomnia, headache, and agitation/anxiety. There were no differences between men and women in symptoms or side effects that were perceived as interfering with work functioning. Limitations. This was a cross-sectional study; only subjective assessments of work functioning were obtained; the fact that patients were using varied medications acts as a potential confound. Conclusions. Specific depressive symptoms and medication side effects were perceived by patients as interfering more with occupational functioning than others. These factors should be considered in treatment selection (e.g., in the choice of antidepressant in working patients with MDD.

  1. Clinical application and side effects of non-ionic, low-osmolar contrast media: Iopromide (Ultavist)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Tae; Suh, Jung Ho; Suh, Jin Suk; Lee, Yeon Hee

    1988-01-01

    Generally non-ionic, water-soluble contrast media has been known to be considerably better than the conventional ionic contrast agents, because of its physiochemical properties which are more hydrophilic, lower in osmolality than the ionic agents of equivalent iodine concentration. It means that the non-ionic agent has less side reaction and better general tolerance. Iopromide (Ultavist) is a newly developed non-ionic contrast media that is suitable for angiography. Some non-ionic contrast media such as Metrizamide and lopamidol were clinically introduced and proved tobe the most compromising agents for neuroradiographic study, but lopromide is not yet freely available in the vascular study. In order to evaluate the clinical fitness and its side effects of lopromide for angiography various type of angiography were done in 136 patients using lopromide and 51 received Diatrizoate meglumine (DTM). Similar volumes of the contrast media was administered at similar rate to both groups. The results were as the follows: 1. In celiac angiography of 31 patients with lopromide (Ultravist 370) and 18 with DTM 60, there were observed 9.7% mild pain and 25.8% mild heat sensation in lopromide. In DTM 60 mild pain was approximately 3 times more frequently observed than lopromide. Heat sensation is mild and similar in frequency of both groups. There was no clinically significant side effects related to the osmolality and its difference between two groups. 2. In peripheral angiography of 47 patients with lopromide 300 and 24 with DTM 60, there were observed 19.1% mild, 6.4 moderate in pain and 46.8% mild, 1% moderate heat sensation in lopromide. But in DTM there were 33.3% mild, 58.3% moderate and 8.3% severe pain, and also 70.8% mild and 16.7% moderate heat sensation in DTM were observed. lopromide is more advantageous and better contrast agents than the DTM for peripheral vascular study on the point of low side effect related to osmolality. 3. In renal angiography, there was no

  2. Movement side effects of antipsychotic drugs in adults with and without intellectual disability: UK population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Rory; Horsfall, Laura; Strydom, André; Osborn, David; Walters, Kate; Hassiotis, Angela

    2017-08-03

    To measure the incidence of movement side effects of antipsychotic drugs in adults with intellectual disability and compare rates with adults without intellectual disability. Cohort study using data from The Health Improvement Network. UK primary care. Adults with intellectual disability prescribed antipsychotic drugs matched to a control group of adults without intellectual disability prescribed antipsychotic drugs. New records of movement side effect including acute dystonias, akathisia, parkinsonism, tardive dyskinaesia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome. 9013 adults with intellectual disability and a control cohort of 34 242 adults without intellectual disability together contributed 148 709 person-years data. The overall incidence of recorded movement side effects was 275 per 10 000 person-years (95% CI 256 to 296) in the intellectual disability group and 248 per 10 000 person-years (95% CI 237 to 260) in the control group. The incidence of any recorded movement side effect was significantly greater in people with intellectual disability compared with those without (incidence rate ratio 1.30, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.42, pmovement side effects between the groups were not due to differences in the proportions prescribed first and second-generation antipsychotic drugs. This study provides evidence to substantiate the long-held assumption that people with intellectual disability are more susceptible to movement side effects of antipsychotic drugs. Assessment for movement side effects should be integral to antipsychotic drug monitoring in people with intellectual disability. Regular medication review is essential to ensure optimal prescribing in this group. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Capecitabine induced hypertriglyceridaemia: An underreported and potentially severe side effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabchi S

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A 57 year-old-woman, with no previous history of dyslipedemia, developed severe hypertriglyceridemia while being treated with capecitabine for metastatic breast cancer. Capecitabine was not discontinued and serum triglyceride levels were normalized after 4 weeks of treatment with fenofibrate. Capecitabine induced hypertriglyceridemia, as a rare drug-related side effect, seems to be often overlooked by clinicians.

  4. Major side-effect of metrizamide. A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, Hiroshi; Yoshida, Akimasa; Ohtsuka, Tadahiro; Takaki, Shuichi; Matsukado, Yasuhiko

    1987-10-01

    We have presented a case showing a major side-effect following metrizamide CT cisternography. The patient was a 68-year-old woman who developed anaphylactic shock and a disturbance of consciousness 6 hours after metrizamide CT cisternography with a dose of 850 mg of iodine. In spite of vigorous therapy, she died 60 hours after the shock. Examples of anaphylactic shock by metrizamide administered intrathecally have been reported very rarely. The pathogenesis of this case was presumably due to anaphylactic shock, but other etiological factors, such as a hypothalamic dysfunction due to a disturbed glucose metabolism of the brain, may also be suspected.

  5. Complications of minimally invasive cosmetic procedures: Prevention and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren L Levy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, facial rejuvenation procedures to circumvent traditional surgery have become increasingly popular. Office-based, minimally invasive procedures can promote a youthful appearance with minimal downtime and low risk of complications. Injectable botulinum toxin (BoNT, soft-tissue fillers, and chemical peels are among the most popular non-invasive rejuvenation procedures, and each has unique applications for improving facial aesthetics. Despite the simplicity and reliability of office-based procedures, complications can occur even with an astute and experienced injector. The goal of any procedure is to perform it properly and safely; thus, early recognition of complications when they do occur is paramount in dictating prevention of long-term sequelae. The most common complications from BoNT and soft-tissue filler injection are bruising, erythema and pain. With chemical peels, it is not uncommon to have erythema, irritation and burning. Fortunately, these side effects are normally transient and have simple remedies. More serious complications include muscle paralysis from BoNT, granuloma formation from soft-tissue filler placement and scarring from chemical peels. Thankfully, these complications are rare and can be avoided with excellent procedure technique, knowledge of facial anatomy, proper patient selection, and appropriate pre- and post-skin care. This article reviews complications of office-based, minimally invasive procedures, with emphasis on prevention and management. Practitioners providing these treatments should be well versed in this subject matter in order to deliver the highest quality care.

  6. Regulating Effect of Asymmetrical Impeller on the Flow Distributions of Double-sided Centrifugal Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ce; Liu, Yixiong; Yang, Dengfeng; Wang, Benjiang

    2017-11-01

    To achieve the rebalance of flow distributions of double-sided impellers, a method of improving the radius of rear impeller is presented in this paper. It is found that the flow distributions of front and rear impeller can be adjusted effectively by increasing the radius of rear impeller, thus improves the balance of flow distributions of front and rear impeller. Meanwhile, the working conversion mode process of double-sided centrifugal compressor is also changed. Further analysis shows that the flowrates of blade channels in front impeller are mainly influenced by the circumferential distributions of static pressure in the volute. But the flowrates of rear impeller blade channels are influenced by the outlet flow field of bent duct besides the effects of static pressure distributions in the volute. In the airflow interaction area downstream, the flowrate of blade channel is obviously smaller. By increasing the radius of rear impeller, the work capacity of rear impeller is enhanced, the working mode conversion process from parallel working mode of double-sided impeller to the single impeller working mode is delayed, and the stable working range of double-sided compressor is broadened.

  7. Psychiatric and behavioral side effects of antiepileptic drugs in adults with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baibing; Choi, Hyunmi; Hirsch, Lawrence J; Katz, Austen; Legge, Alexander; Buchsbaum, Richard; Detyniecki, Kamil

    2017-11-01

    Psychiatric and behavioral side effects (PBSEs) are common, undesirable effects associated with antiepileptic drug (AED) use. The objective of the study was to compare the PBSE profiles of older and newer AEDs in a large specialty practice-based sample of patients diagnosed with epilepsy. As part of the Columbia and Yale AED Database Project, we reviewed patient records including demographics, medical history, AED use, and side effects for 4085 adult patients (age: 18 years) newly started on an AED regimen. Psychiatric and behavioral side effects were determined by patient or physician report in the medical record, which included depressive mood, psychosis, anxiety, suicidal thoughts, irritability, aggression, and tantrum. Significant non-AED predictors of PBSE rate were first determined from 83 variables using logistic regression. Predictors were then controlled for in the comparison analysis of the rate of PBSEs and intolerable PBSEs (PBSEs that led to dosage reduction or discontinuation) between 18 AEDs. Psychiatric and behavioral side effects occurred in 17.2% of patients and led to intolerability in 13.8% of patients. History of psychiatric condition(s), secondary generalized seizures, absence seizures, and intractable epilepsy were associated with increased incidence of PBSE. Levetiracetam (LEV) had the greatest PBSE rate (22.1%). This was statistically significant when compared with the aggregate of the other AEDs (P<0.001, OR=6.87). Levetiracetam was also significantly (P<0.001) associated with higher intolerability rate (17.7%), dose decreased rate (9.4%), and complete cessation rate (8.3%), when compared with the aggregate of the other AEDs. Zonisamide (ZNS) was also significantly associated with a higher rate of PBSE (9.7%) and IPBSE (7.9%, all P<0.001). On the other hand, carbamazepine (CBZ), clobazam (CLB), gabapentin (GBP), lamotrigine (LTG), oxcarbazepine (OXC), phenytoin (PHT), and valproate (VPA) were significantly associated with a decreased PBSE

  8. Novel Profiling Model and Side Effects of Helical Scan Silicon Heads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hozoi, A.; Groenland, J.P.J.; Albertini, J.B.; Lodder, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    Partial erasure of track edges was directly measured from triple-track patterns using a novel model to interpret the output profiles. The model is based on representing the read head as the sum of a reference width, wavelength independent, and two side reading effective widths that are wavelength

  9. EFFECTS OF SMALL-SIDED GAMES ON PHYSICAL CONDITIONING AND PERFORMANCE IN YOUNG SOCCER PLAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Katis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine, first, the movement actions performed during two different small-sided games and, second, their effects on a series of field endurance and technical tests. Thirty-four young soccer players (age: 13 ± 0.9 yrs; body mass: 62.3 ± 15.1 kg; height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m participated in the study. Small-sided games included three-a-side (3 versus 3 players and six-a-side (6 versus 6 players games consisting of 10 bouts of 4 min duration with 3 min active recovery between bouts. Soccer player performance was evaluated using five field tests: a 30m sprint, b throw-in for distance, c Illinois Agility Test, d dribbling the ball and e horizontal jump before, in the middle and after the implementation of both game situations. Heart rate was monitored during the entire testing session. Each game was also filmed to measure soccer movements within the game. The ANOVA analysis indicated that the three-a- side games displayed significantly higher heart rate values compared with the six-a-side games (p < 0.05. The number of short passes, kicks, tackles, dribbles and scoring goals were significantly higher during the three-a-side compared with the six-a-side game condition (p < 0. 05 while players performed more long passes and headed the ball more often during the six-a-side (p < 0.05. After the three-a-side games, there was a significant decline in sprint and agility performance (p < 0.05, while after both game conditions significant alterations in the throw-in and the horizontal jump performance were observed (p < 0.05. The results of the present study indicated that three-a-side games provide higher stimulus for physical conditioning and technical improvement than six-a-side games and their use for training young soccer players is recommended

  10. A Rare Side Effect due to TNF-Alpha Blocking Agent: Acute Pleuropericarditis with Adalimumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonism is an important treatment strategy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, vasculitis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Adalimumab is one of the well-known tumor necrosis factor-alpha blocking agents. There are several side effects reported in patients with adalimumab therapy. Cardiac side effects of adalimumab are rare. Only a few cardiac side effects were reported. A 61-year-old man treated with adalimumab for the last 6 months due to psoriatic arthritis presented with typically acute pleuropericarditis. Chest X-ray and echocardiography demonstrated marked pericardial effusion. Patient was successfully evaluated for the etiology of acute pleuro-pericarditis. Every etiology was excluded except the usage of adalimumab. Adalimumab was discontinued, and patient was treated with 1200 mg of ibuprofen daily. Control chest X-ray and echocardiography after three weeks demonstrated complete resolution of both pleural and pericardial effusions. This case clearly demonstrated the acute onset of pericarditis with adalimumab usage. Acute pericarditis and pericardial effusion should be kept in mind in patients with adalimumab treatment.

  11. Image-guided preoperative prediction of pyramidal tract side effect in deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, C.; Zhao, Y.; Sauleau, P.; Malrain, C.; Jannin, P.; Haegelen, C.

    2016-03-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the medial globus pallidus is a surgical procedure for treating patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Its therapeutic effect may be limited by the presence of pyramidal tract side effect (PTSE). PTSE is a contraction time-locked to the stimulation when the current spreading reaches the motor fibers of the pyramidal tract within the internal capsule. The lack of side-effect predictive model leads the neurologist to secure an optimal electrode placement by iterating clinical testing on an awake patient during the surgical procedure. The objective of the study was to propose a preoperative predictive model of PTSE. A machine learning based method called PyMAN (for Pyramidal tract side effect Model based on Artificial Neural network) that accounted for the current of the stimulation, the 3D electrode coordinates and the angle of the trajectory, was designed to predict the occurrence of PTSE. Ten patients implanted in the medial globus pallidus have been tested by a clinician to create a labeled dataset of the stimulation parameters that trigger PTSE. The kappa index value between the data predicted by PyMAN and the labeled data was .78. Further evaluation studies are desirable to confirm whether PyMAN could be a reliable tool for assisting the surgeon to prevent PTSE during the preoperative planning.

  12. [Randomised study on histaminelike side-effects of 5 common plasmasubstitutes in orthopedic surgery (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöning, B; Koch, H

    1975-12-01

    Preceding anaesthesia 750 randomised patients, sub-divided into 5 different age groups, were given 500 ml of a standard plasma-substitute at a flow rate of 25-30 ml/min. There was direct correlation (p=0.1%) of the frequency of side-effects to the substance used; none, however, to the age or general surgical risk. Side-effects were observed in 21.3% with derivates of gelatin as compared to 3.7% with Macrodex and Plasmasteril combined. The rate of more serious anaphylactoid reactions was 6% with Haemaccel, 1.3% with Gelifundol-S, 0.67% with Macrodex and less than 0.67% with Neo-Plasmagel. The study reveals that serious side-effects may be expected in orthopaedictic patients after application of plasma substitutes. As a prophylactic procedure for those patients we recommend, therefore, the application of these substances only after careful consideration of the indications for their use.

  13. Interdisciplinary documentation of treatment side effects in oncology. Present status and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seegenschmiedt, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    Background: The documentation of acute and chronic treatment sequelae is a decisive precondition for the appropriate evaluation of the treatment quality of any cancer therapy. Methods and results: Interdisciplinary (inter)national efforts have resulted in a new consensus for recording of treatment sequelae in oncology. While the acute treatment side effects (day 1 to 90 after treatment) are recommended to be documented and evaluated using the Common Toxicity Criteria (CTC), for the chronic treatment side effects (day 91 and thereafter) the Late Effect Normal Tissue (LENT) criteria are to be implemented. The latter classification system allows to differentiate between the Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic (SOMA) toxicity aspects. Both classification systems can be implemented not only for clinical applications using radiotherapy or chemotherapy alone but also for combinations with each other or with other treatment modalities. This allows for an effective interdisciplinary comparison between different treatment concepts not only within each institution but also in multicenter trials. Conclusions: Prospective documentation and evaluation of treatment toxicity in oncology should be intensified and systematically included in future mono- and multi-institutional clinical trials. (orig.) [de

  14. Linezolid induced black hairy tongue: a rare side effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aijazi, Ishma; Abdulla, Fadhil M

    2014-01-01

    Linezolid induced black hairy tongue is a rare benign reversible side effect of linezolid therapy. We report a case of a 61 year old diabetic lady who developed thrombocytopenia and black hairy discoloration of the tongue after being prescribed linezolid for foot osteomyelitis by the orthopaedic surgeon. Patient was encouraged to practice good oral dental hygiene, advised to use a soft tooth brush, regular mouth wash and baking soda containing tooth paste. The condition resolved four weeks after cessation of the antibiotic therapy.

  15. [Rare side effects in management of hyperthyroidism. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohár, Gábor; Kovács, Mónika; Györkös, Andrea; Gasztonyi, Beáta

    2016-05-29

    The authors present the case history of a patient suffering from hyperthyroidism. The diagnostic procedures revealed the presence of propylthiouracyl induced vasculitis with renal involvement, that recovered completely after the withdrawal of propylthiouracyl and corticosteroid treatment. Thereafter, the patient was treated with thiamasol, that caused agranulocytosis with fever. After transient litium carbonate therapy a succesful thyreoidectomy was performed. Cumulative serious side effects of antithyroid drugs are rare. This case highlights some of the challenges and complications encountered in the management of hyperthyroidism.

  16. Exploring consumer opinions on the presentation of side-effects information in Australian Consumer Medicine Information leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Vivien; Raynor, David K; Blalock, Susan J; Aslani, Parisa

    2016-06-01

    Consumer Medicine Information (CMI) is a brand-specific and standardized source of written medicine information available in Australia for all prescription medicines. Side-effect information is poorly presented in CMI and may not adequately address consumer information needs. To explore consumer opinions on (i) the presentation of side-effect information in existing Australian CMI leaflets and alternative study-designed CMIs and (ii) side-effect risk information and its impact on treatment decision making. Fuzzy trace, affect heuristic, frequency hypothesis and cognitive-experiential theories were applied when revising existing CMI side-effects sections. Together with good information design, functional linguistics and medicine information expertise, alternative ramipril and clopidogrel CMI versions were proposed. Focus groups were then conducted to address the study objectives. Three focus groups (n = 18) were conducted in Sydney, Australia. Mean consumer age was 58 years (range 50-65 years), with equal number of males and females. All consumers preferred the alternative CMIs developed as part of the study, with unequivocal preference for the side-effects presented in a simple tabular format, as it allowed quick and easy access to information. Consumer misunderstandings reflected literacy and numeracy issues inherent in consumer risk appraisal. Many preferred no numerical information and a large proportion preferred natural frequencies. One single method of risk presentation in CMI is unable to cater for all consumers. Consumer misunderstandings are indicative of possible health literacy and numeracy factors that influence consumer risk appraisal, which should be explored further. © 2014 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Family Planning in a Sub-district near Kumasi, Ghana: Side Effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    African Journal of Reproductive Health September 2011; 15(3): 121 ... women recognized at least one family planning method, half of all recent or ... use of Primolut N tablets, addressing real and perceived side effects of family ... planning programs, research and policy. ... Utah to improve the quality of life in communities.

  18. Effects of Mach Numbers on Side Force, Yawing Moment and Surface Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohail, Muhammad Amjad; Muhammad, Zaka; Husain, Mukkarum; Younis, Muhammad Yamin

    2011-09-01

    In this research, CFD simulations are performed for air vehicle configuration to compute the side force effect and yawing moment coefficients variations at high angle of attack and Mach numbers. As the angle of attack is increased then lift and drag are increased for cylinder body configurations. But when roll angle is given to body then side force component is also appeared on the body which causes lateral forces on the body and yawing moment is also produced. Now due to advancement of CFD methods we are able to calculate these forces and moment even at supersonic and hypersonic speed. In this study modern CFD techniques are used to simulate the hypersonic flow to calculate the side force effects and yawing moment coefficient. Static pressure variations along the circumferential and along the length of the body are also calculated. The pressure coefficient and center of pressure may be accurately predicted and calculated. When roll angle and yaw angle is given to body then these forces becomes very high and cause the instability of the missile body with fin configurations. So it is very demanding and serious problem to accurately predict and simulate these forces for the stability of supersonic vehicles.

  19. Computer-mediated communication as a channel for social resistance : The strategic side of SIDE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spears, R; Lea, M; Corneliussen, RA; Postmes, T; Ter Haar, W

    2002-01-01

    In two studies, the authors tested predictions derived from the social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE) concerning the potential of computer-mediated communication (CMC) to serve as a means to resist powerful out-groups. Earlier research using the SIDE model indicates that the

  20. The Effects of Minimal Length, Maximal Momentum, and Minimal Momentum in Entropic Force

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Wen Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The modified entropic force law is studied by using a new kind of generalized uncertainty principle which contains a minimal length, a minimal momentum, and a maximal momentum. Firstly, the quantum corrections to the thermodynamics of a black hole are investigated. Then, according to Verlinde’s theory, the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP corrected entropic force is obtained. The result shows that the GUP corrected entropic force is related not only to the properties of the black holes but also to the Planck length and the dimensionless constants α0 and β0. Moreover, based on the GUP corrected entropic force, we also derive the modified Einstein’s field equation (EFE and the modified Friedmann equation.

  1. Evaluation of demand-side management programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolbe, A.L.; O'Loughlin, M.P.

    1990-01-01

    Over the past few years, the attention accorded to demand-side management (DSM) measures has called into question the traditional cost minimization approach for evaluating such programs. Two broad approaches to DSM seem to be generally used: one examining the problem from multiple perspectives and the other including various practical methods used in-house by utility planners. Whatever the standard used to evaluate DSM, there remains at least one problem which cannot be quantified. The customers who participate in a DSM program cannot only take into account the effects of DSM on their electricity bills; their comfort can also be affected. This lowering of comfort constitutes a legitimate cost which can explain why some apparently sensible DSM measures are not adopted. A method is proposed to incorporate this cost. It establishes a way to evaluate DSM program tradeoffs that, from the perspective of standard economic theory, maximizes social welfare; explains why at least one of the perspectives in the multiple perspective approach needs to be modified to incorporate all customer costs; and outlines how the proposed standard can be implemented. 8 refs

  2. Minimal doses of hydroxyurea for sickle cell disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S.P. Lima

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of hydroxyurea (HU can improve the clinical course of sickle cell disease. However, several features of HU treatment remain unclear, including the predictability of drug response and determination of adequate doses, considering positive responses and minimal side effects. In order to identify adequate doses of HU for treatment of sickle cell disease, 10 patients, 8 with sickle cell anemia and 2 with Sß thalassemia (8SS, 2Sß, were studied for a period of 6 to 19 months in an open label dose escalation trial (10 to 20 mg kg-1 day-1. Hemoglobin (Hb, fetal hemoglobin (Hb F and mean corpuscular volume (MCV values and reticulocyte, neutrophil and platelet counts were performed every two weeks during the increase of the HU dose and every 4 weeks when the maximum HU dose was established. Reduction in the number of vasoocclusive episodes was also considered in order to evaluate the efficiency of the treatment. The final Hb and Hb F concentrations, and MCV values were significantly higher than the initial values, while the final reticulocyte and neutrophil counts were significantly lower. There was an improvement in the concentration of Hb (range: 0.7-2.0 g/dl at 15 mg HU kg-1 day-1, but this concentration did not increase significantly when the HU dose was raised to 20 mg kg-1 day-1. The concentration of Hb F increased significantly (range: 1.0-18.1% when 15 mg HU was used, and continued to increase when the dose was raised to 20 mg kg-1 day-1. The final MCV values increased 11-28 fl (femtoliters. However, reticulocyte (range: 51-205 x 109/l and neutrophil counts (range: 9.5-1.3 x 109/l obtained at this dose were significantly lower than those obtained with 15 mg kg-1 day-1. All patients reported a decrease in frequency or severity of vasoocclusive episodes. These results suggest that a hydroxyurea dose of 15 mg kg-1 day-1 seems to be adequate for treatment of sickle cell disease in view of the minimal side effects observed and the improvement

  3. Quantization of the minimal and non-minimal vector field in curved space

    OpenAIRE

    Toms, David J.

    2015-01-01

    The local momentum space method is used to study the quantized massive vector field (the Proca field) with the possible addition of non-minimal terms. Heat kernel coefficients are calculated and used to evaluate the divergent part of the one-loop effective action. It is shown that the naive expression for the effective action that one would write down based on the minimal coupling case needs modification. We adopt a Faddeev-Jackiw method of quantization and consider the case of an ultrastatic...

  4. MODIFIED AES WITH RANDOM S BOX GENERATION TO OVERCOME THE SIDE CHANNEL ASSAULTS USING CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Navaneetha Krishnan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of any communication system with secure and complex cryptographic algorithms highly depends on concepts of data security which is crucial in the current technological world. The security and complexity of the cryptography algorithms need to get increased by randomization of secret keys. To overcome the issues associated to data security and for improvising it during encryption and decryption process over the encrypting device, a novel Secure Side Channel Assault Prevention (SSCAP approach has been projected which will eliminate outflow of side channel messages and also provides effective security over the encrypting device. An effective Enriched AES (E-AES encryption algorithm is proposed to reduce the side channel attack; the modified algorithm in this research shows its improvement in the Generation of Random Multiple S - Box (GRM S-Box which makes it hard to the attacks to break the text which is in encrypted form. Our novel SSCAP approach also improves the security over the original information; it widely minimizes the leakage of the side channel information. Attackers cannot easily get a clue about the proposed S-Box Generation technique. Our E-AES algorithm will be implemented in cloud environment thereby improving the cloud security. The proposed SSCAP approach is judged against the existing security based algorithms on the scale of encryption and decryption time, time taken for generating the key, and performance. The proposed work proves to outperform over all other methods used in the past.

  5. [Side effects of biologic therapies in psoriasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenburg, A; Augustin, M; Zouboulis, C C

    2018-04-01

    The introduction of biologics has revolutionized the treatment of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis. Due to the continuous expansion of biological therapies for psoriasis, it is particularly important to acknowledge efficacy and safety of the compounds not only in clinical trials but also in long-term registry-based observational studies. Typical side effects and significant risks of antipsoriatic biologic therapies considering psoriatic control groups are presented. A selective literature search was conducted in PubMed and long-term safety studies of the psoriasis registries PsoBest, PSOLAR and BADBIR were evaluated. To assess the long-term safety of biologics, the evaluation of the course of large patient cohorts in long-term registries is of particular medical importance. Newer biologic drugs seem to exhibit a better safety profile than older ones.

  6. Risperidone-Induced Renal Damage and Metabolic Side Effects: The Protective Effect of Resveratrol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedat Bilgiç

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible protective qualities of resveratrol (RSV against the side effects of risperidone (RIS in an experimental model in rat kidneys with histologic and biochemical assessments. Materials and Methods. Experimental procedures were performed on 35 female Sprague Dawley rats. Rats were randomly divided into five groups: control, untreated rats (n=7 were in group 1; group 2 was given 2 mg/kg/day RIS (n=7; group 3 was treated with 2 mg/kg/day RIS and 20 mg/kg/day RSV (n=7; group 4 was treated with 2 mg/kg/day RIS and 40 mg/kg/day RSV (n=7; and group 5 was treated with 2 mg/kg/day RIS and 80 mg/kg/day RSV (n=7. All treatments were administered for two weeks by gavage. On treatment day 15, kidney tissues were removed for analysis. Results. The results showed that RSV treatment reduced weight gain induced by RIS. In addition, RSV increased the total antioxidant status (TAS and decreased serum creatinine (Cr, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, oxidative stress index (OSI, and total oxidant status (TOS levels significantly (p<0.05. Conclusion. This study revealed that treatment with RSV might protect kidney tissues against the side effects of RIS. RSV could be an effective course of therapy to enhance therapeutic efficacy.

  7. Multinational study exploring patients' perceptions of side-effects induced by chemo-radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhlmann, Christina H; Iversen, Trine Zeeberg; Okera, Meena

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: We aimed to prospectively assess the incidence, severity and patients' perceptions of side-effects induced by radiotherapy and concomitant weekly cisplatin. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This multinational survey included patients with a diagnosis of gynaecological or head and neck cancer schedu...

  8. Rat brain CYP2D enzymatic metabolism alters acute and chronic haloperidol side-effects by different mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miksys, Sharon; Wadji, Fariba Baghai; Tolledo, Edgor Cole; Remington, Gary; Nobrega, Jose N; Tyndale, Rachel F

    2017-08-01

    Risk for side-effects after acute (e.g. parkinsonism) or chronic (e.g. tardive dyskinesia) treatment with antipsychotics, including haloperidol, varies substantially among people. CYP2D can metabolize many antipsychotics and variable brain CYP2D metabolism can influence local drug and metabolite levels sufficiently to alter behavioral responses. Here we investigated a role for brain CYP2D in acutely and chronically administered haloperidol levels and side-effects in a rat model. Rat brain, but not liver, CYP2D activity was irreversibly inhibited with intracerebral propranolol and/or induced by seven days of subcutaneous nicotine pre-treatment. The role of variable brain CYP2D was investigated in rat models of acute (catalepsy) and chronic (vacuous chewing movements, VCMs) haloperidol side-effects. Selective inhibition and induction of brain, but not liver, CYP2D decreased and increased catalepsy after acute haloperidol, respectively. Catalepsy correlated with brain, but not hepatic, CYP2D enzyme activity. Inhibition of brain CYP2D increased VCMs after chronic haloperidol; VCMs correlated with brain, but not hepatic, CYP2D activity, haloperidol levels and lipid peroxidation. Baseline measures, hepatic CYP2D activity and plasma haloperidol levels were unchanged by brain CYP2D manipulations. Variable rat brain CYP2D alters side-effects from acute and chronic haloperidol in opposite directions; catalepsy appears to be enhanced by a brain CYP2D-derived metabolite while the parent haloperidol likely causes VCMs. These data provide novel mechanistic evidence for brain CYP2D altering side-effects of haloperidol and other antipsychotics metabolized by CYP2D, suggesting that variation in human brain CYP2D may be a risk factor for antipsychotic side-effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Side-effects of cowpea treatment with botanical insecticides on two parasitoids of Callosobruchus maculatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boeke, S.J.; Sinzogan, A.A.C.; Almeida, de R.P.; Boer, de P.W.M.; Jeong, G.S.; Kossou, D.K.; Loon, van J.J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Studies on the protective effect of botanical products against pest insects have infrequently been extended to side-effects on natural enemies. Indirect effects of botanicals on the storability of seeds could occur through their possible negative impact on biological control agents. Four plant

  10. The association of long-term treatment-related side effects with cancer-specific and general quality of life among prostate cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kimberly M; Kelly, Scott P; Luta, George; Tomko, Catherine; Miller, Anthony B; Taylor, Kathryn L

    2014-08-01

    To examine the association between treatment-related side effects and cancer-specific and general quality of life (QOL) among long-term prostate cancer survivors. Within the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, we conducted telephone interviews with prostate cancer survivors (N = 518) who were 5-10 years after diagnosis. We assessed demographic and clinical information, sexual, urinary, and bowel treatment-related side effects (Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite), cancer-specific QOL (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy--total score), and general QOL (the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 12's physical and mental subscales). Participants were aged 74.6 years on average, primarily White (88.4%), and married (81.7%). Pearson correlation coefficients between the 3 treatment-related side effect domains (urinary, sexual, and bowel) and QOL ranged between 0.14 and 0.42 (P functioning and greater bowel side effects were independently associated with poorer cancer-specific QOL (P functions were also associated with poorer general QOL on the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 12's physical component summary and mental component summary (P side effects demonstrated the strongest association with all QOL outcomes. Treatment-related side effects persisted for up to 10 years after diagnosis and continued to be associated with men's QOL. These results suggest that each of the treatment-related side effects was independently associated with cancer-specific QOL. Compared with the other Expanded Prostate Cancer Index Composite domains, bowel side effects had the strongest association with cancer-specific and general QOL. These associations emphasize the tremendous impact that bowel side effects continue to have for men many years after their initial diagnosis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Potential of a precrash lateral occupant movement in side collisions of (electric) minicars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierlinger, T; Lienkamp, M; Unger, J; Unselt, T

    2015-01-01

    In minicars, the survival space between the side structure and occupant is smaller than in conventional cars. This is an issue in side collisions. Therefore, in this article a solution is studied in which a lateral seat movement is imposed in the precrash phase. It generates a pre-acceleration and an initial velocity of the occupant, thus reducing the loads due to the side impact. The assessment of the potential is done by numerical simulations and a full-vehicle crash test. The optimal parameters of the restraint system including the precrash movement, time-to-fire of head and side airbag, etc., are found using metamodel-based optimization methods by minimizing occupant loads according to European New Car Assessment Programme (Euro NCAP). The metamodel-based optimization approach is able to tune the restraint system parameters. The numerical simulations show a significant averaged reduction of 22.3% in occupant loads. The results show that the lateral precrash occupant movement offers better occupant protection in side collisions.

  12. The Role of Evidence Based Nursing in Prevention of Gastrointestinal Side Effects of Chemotherapy in Children with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Pouresmail

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, due to the broad spectrum of pediatric cancers are treated by the chemotherapy drugs, but these drugs have side effects and gastrointestinal toxicity is the most prevalent. One of the main roles of nurses is to better health through patient education and care for him. Evidence-based nursing is a process during which the nurse can use the available research evidence, their clinical expertise and the patient has to take appropriate decisions. This study reviews the role of evidence-based nursing in the prevention of gastrointestinal side effects of chemotherapy in children with cancer was conducted.   Materials and Methods: Seeking information was performing through databases PubMed, SID, Since Direct, magiran, Ovid and etc. Within the years 2014-2002, the key issues in terms of evidence-based nursing, gastrointestinal side effect, chemotherapy was performed and 20 were studied English equivalents.   Results: The most common gastrointestinal side effects in children undergoing chemotherapy are oral ulcers, vomiting, diarrhea, and dysphagia. Different strategies for prevention studies suggest that these effects need to perform their roles in teaching and nursing care. Nurses can use the results of studies such as music, ginger, semi sitting positions during chemotherapy, use of ice and etc. To prevent vomiting, the use of  Persica for oral wound healing, hygiene perform especially hand washing for preventing diarrhea. The most important roles of nursing are recommended, Education on prevention of chemotherapy complications, adverse effects of proper nutrition and etc.   Conclusion: Nurses can play an effective role in the education and care to relieve symptoms and prevent progression of gastrointestinal side effects of chemotherapy.   Key words: Evidence-based nursing, Gastrointestinal side effects, Chemotherapy, Cancer  

  13. Gastrointestinal Side Effects of the Radioiodine Therapy for the Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma Two Days after Prescription

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashnehsaz, Mehran; Takavar, Abbas; Izadyar, Sina; Zakariaee, Seyed Salman; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Paydar, Reza; Geramifar, Parham

    2016-01-01

    Iodine-131 (I-131) therapy is one of the conventional approaches in the treatment of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The radioiodine agents also accumulate in the other organs that cause pain and damage to the patients. Radioiodine therapy is associated with various gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities. In this study, GI side effects of the radioiodine therapy were investigated. GI toxicities of the radioiodine therapy were studied in 137 patients with histologically proven DTC in Jun-Nov 2014. All the patients were treated by radioiodine agents in the research institute of Shariati Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The patients were examined 48 h after prescription (before discharge) and their GI side effects were registered. Correlation of the age, gender, administered dose, administered dose per body weight as the independent factors, and GI side effects were analyzed using the Pearson correlation test with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Regression coefficients and linearity of the variable were investigated by MATLAB software. Line fitting was performed using MATLAB curve-fitting toolbox. From the subjects, 38 patients had GI complaints (30.4%). Significant factors influencing GI side effects were dose per body weight and administered doses. There was no significant correlation between age and gender as the independent parameters and GI complaints. The most prevalent GI side effect was nausea that occurs in 26.4% of the patients. From the results, it could be concluded that the GI side effects could be prevented by administering a safe radioiodine dose value less than 5,550 MBq

  14. Management of side effects during and post-treatment in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palesh, Oxana; Scheiber, Caroline; Kesler, Shelli; Mustian, Karen; Koopman, Cheryl; Schapira, Lidia

    2018-03-01

    Cancer-related fatigue, insomnia, and cancer-related cognitive impairment are commonly experienced symptoms that share psychological and physical manifestations. One or more of these symptoms will affect nearly all patients at some point during their course of treatment or survivorship. These side effects are burdensome and reduce patients' quality of life well beyond their cancer diagnosis and associated care treatments. Cancer-related fatigue, insomnia, and cancer-related cognitive impairment are likely to have multiple etiologies that make it difficult to identify the most effective method to manage them. In this review, we summarized the information on cancer-related fatigue, insomnia, and cancer-related cognitive impairment incidence and prevalence among breast cancer patients and survivors as well as recent research findings on pharmaceutical, psychological, and exercise interventions that have shown effectiveness in the treatment of these side effects. Our review revealed that most current pharmaceutical interventions tend to ameliorate symptoms only temporarily without addressing the underlying causes. Exercise and behavioral interventions are consistently more effective at managing chronic symptoms and possibly address an underlying etiology. Future research is needed to investigate effective interventions that can be delivered directly in clinic to a large portion of patients and survivors. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Technological Minimalism: A Cost-Effective Alternative for Course Design and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo, George

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the use of minimum levels of technology, or technological minimalism, for Web-based multimedia course content. Highlights include cost effectiveness; problems with video streaming, the use of XML for Web pages, and Flash and Java applets; listservs instead of proprietary software; and proper faculty training. (LRW)

  16. Mode Conversion of High-Field-Side-Launched Fast Waves at the Second Harmonic of Minority Hydrogen in Advanced Tokamak Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sund, R.; Scharer, J.

    2003-01-01

    Under advanced tokamak reactor conditions, the Ion-Bernstein wave (IBW) can be generated by mode conversion of a fast magnetosonic wave incident from the high-field side on the second harmonic resonance of a minority hydrogen component, with near 100% efficiency. IBWs have the recognized capacity to create internal transport barriers through sheared plasma flows resulting from ion absorption. The relatively high frequency (around 200 MHz) minimizes parasitic electron absorption and permits the converted IBW to approach the 5th tritium harmonic. It also facilitates compact antennas and feeds, and efficient fast wave launch. The scheme is applicable to reactors with aspect ratios < 3 such that the conversion and absorption layers are both on the high field side of the magnetic axis. Large machine size and adequate separation of the mode conversion layer from the magnetic axis minimize poloidal field effects in the conversion zone and permit a 1-D full-wave analysis. 2-D ray tracing of the IBW indicates a slightly bean-shaped equilibrium allows access to the tritium resonance

  17. A self-rating scale for patient-perceived side effects of inhaled corticosteroids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijkstra Antoon

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient-reported side effect questionnaires offer a simple method for the systematic measurement of drug-related side effects. In order to measure patients' inhaled corticosteroids (ICS related side effect perceptions the 14-day retrospective Inhaled Corticosteroid Questionnaire (ICQ was developed. In this research we aim to assess the construct validity and reliability of the ICQ and test its responsiveness to dose changes in adult asthma patients. Methods In a cross-sectional study, current inhaler users with asthma completed the ICQ (27 with non ICS inhaler; 61 BDP equivalent daily ICS low dose ≤400 μg; 62 mid dose 401–800 μg; and 105 with high dose >800 μg. We generated 3 construct validity hypotheses: 1 a hierarchical dose-response pattern for scoring of the individual items on the ICQ, and statistically significant differences in the scores of each of the 15 ICQ domains by ICS dose group 2 an association between ICS dose and ICQ scoring after adjusting for appropriate confounders in multiple regression; 3 greater convergence between local side effect domains than between systemic and local domains of the scale. Test-retest reliability was assessed on a randomly selected subgroup of patients (n = 73 who also completed the ICQ a second time after 7 days. In a separate longitudinal study, 61 patients with asthma completed the ICQ at baseline and after changing their daily ICS dose, at 2- and 6- months, in order to test the ICQ's responsiveness. Results All three construct validity hypotheses were well supported: 1 a statistically significant difference existed in scores for 14 domains, the high ICS dose group scoring highest; 2 ICS dose independently predicted ICQ scoring after adjusting for confounders; 3 greater convergence existed between local ICQ domains than between local and systemic domains. The ICQ had good reproducibility: test-retest intraclass correlation coefficients were ≥0.69 for all but the 'Facial

  18. Radiogenic Side Effects After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Photon Radiotherapy of Choroidal Melanoma in 212 Patients Treated Between 1997 and 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunavoelgyi, Roman [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Dieckmann, Karin [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Gleiss, Andreas [Section of Clinical Biometrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Sacu, Stefan; Kircher, Karl; Georgopoulos, Michael [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Georg, Dietmar [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Zehetmayer, Martin [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Poetter, Richard [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate side effects of hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy for patients with choroidal melanoma. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and twelve patients with choroidal melanoma unsuitable for ruthenium-106 brachytherapy or local resection were treated stereotactically at the Medical University of Vienna between 1997 and 2007 with a Linac with 6-MV photon beams in five fractions with 10, 12, or 14 Gy per fraction. Examinations for radiogenic side effects were performed at baseline and every 3 months in the first 2 years, then every 6 months until 5 years and then once a year thereafter until 10 years after radiotherapy. Adverse side effects were assessed using slit-lamp examination, funduscopy, gonioscopy, tonometry, and, if necessary, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography. Evaluations of incidence of side effects are based on an actuarial analysis. Results: One hundred and eighty-nine (89.2%) and 168 (79.2%) of the tumors were within 3 mm of the macula and the optic disc, respectively. The five most common radiotherapy side effects were retinopathy and optic neuropathy (114 cases and 107 cases, respectively), cataract development (87 cases), neovascular glaucoma (46 cases), and corneal epithelium defects (41 cases). In total, 33.6%, 38.5%, 51.2%, 75.5%, and 77.6% of the patients were free of any radiation retinopathy, optic neuropathy, cataract, neovascular glaucoma, or corneal epithelium defects 5 years after radiotherapy, respectively. Conclusion: In centrally located choroidal melanoma hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy shows a low to moderate rate of adverse long-term side effects comparable with those after proton beam radiotherapy. Future fractionation schemes should seek to further reduce adverse side effects rate while maintaining excellent local tumor control.

  19. Radiogenic Side Effects After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Photon Radiotherapy of Choroidal Melanoma in 212 Patients Treated Between 1997 and 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunavoelgyi, Roman; Dieckmann, Karin; Gleiss, Andreas; Sacu, Stefan; Kircher, Karl; Georgopoulos, Michael; Georg, Dietmar; Zehetmayer, Martin; Poetter, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate side effects of hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy for patients with choroidal melanoma. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and twelve patients with choroidal melanoma unsuitable for ruthenium-106 brachytherapy or local resection were treated stereotactically at the Medical University of Vienna between 1997 and 2007 with a Linac with 6-MV photon beams in five fractions with 10, 12, or 14 Gy per fraction. Examinations for radiogenic side effects were performed at baseline and every 3 months in the first 2 years, then every 6 months until 5 years and then once a year thereafter until 10 years after radiotherapy. Adverse side effects were assessed using slit-lamp examination, funduscopy, gonioscopy, tonometry, and, if necessary, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography. Evaluations of incidence of side effects are based on an actuarial analysis. Results: One hundred and eighty-nine (89.2%) and 168 (79.2%) of the tumors were within 3 mm of the macula and the optic disc, respectively. The five most common radiotherapy side effects were retinopathy and optic neuropathy (114 cases and 107 cases, respectively), cataract development (87 cases), neovascular glaucoma (46 cases), and corneal epithelium defects (41 cases). In total, 33.6%, 38.5%, 51.2%, 75.5%, and 77.6% of the patients were free of any radiation retinopathy, optic neuropathy, cataract, neovascular glaucoma, or corneal epithelium defects 5 years after radiotherapy, respectively. Conclusion: In centrally located choroidal melanoma hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy shows a low to moderate rate of adverse long-term side effects comparable with those after proton beam radiotherapy. Future fractionation schemes should seek to further reduce adverse side effects rate while maintaining excellent local tumor control.

  20. Health care resource use and costs associated with possible side effects of high oral corticosteroid use in asthma: a claims-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luskin, Allan T; Antonova, Evgeniya N; Broder, Michael S; Chang, Eunice Y; Omachi, Theodore A; Ledford, Dennis K

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of possible oral corticosteroid (OCS)-related side effects and health care resource use and costs in patients with asthma. This was a cross-sectional, matched-cohort, retrospective study using a commercial claims database. Adults with asthma diagnosis codes and evidence of asthma medication use were studied. Patients with high OCS use (≥30 days of OCS annually) were divided into those who did versus those who did not experience OCS-related possible side effects. Their health care resource use and costs were compared using linear regression or negative binomial regression models, adjusting for age, sex, geographic region, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease status. After adjustment, high OCS users with possible side effects were more likely to have office visits (23.0 vs 19.6; P possible side effects. Emergency department visits were similar between the groups. High OCS users with possible side effects had higher adjusted total annual mean health care costs ($25,168) than those without such side effects ($21,882; P =0.009). Among high OCS users, patients with possible OCS-related side effects are more likely to use health care services than those without such side effects. Although OCS may help control asthma and manage exacerbations, OCS side effects may result in additional health care resource use and costs, highlighting the need for OCS-sparing asthma therapies.

  1. Combining automatic table classification and relationship extraction in extracting anticancer drug-side effect pairs from full-text articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong; Wang, QuanQiu

    2015-02-01

    Anticancer drug-associated side effect knowledge often exists in multiple heterogeneous and complementary data sources. A comprehensive anticancer drug-side effect (drug-SE) relationship knowledge base is important for computation-based drug target discovery, drug toxicity predication and drug repositioning. In this study, we present a two-step approach by combining table classification and relationship extraction to extract drug-SE pairs from a large number of high-profile oncological full-text articles. The data consists of 31,255 tables downloaded from the Journal of Oncology (JCO). We first trained a statistical classifier to classify tables into SE-related and -unrelated categories. We then extracted drug-SE pairs from SE-related tables. We compared drug side effect knowledge extracted from JCO tables to that derived from FDA drug labels. Finally, we systematically analyzed relationships between anti-cancer drug-associated side effects and drug-associated gene targets, metabolism genes, and disease indications. The statistical table classifier is effective in classifying tables into SE-related and -unrelated (precision: 0.711; recall: 0.941; F1: 0.810). We extracted a total of 26,918 drug-SE pairs from SE-related tables with a precision of 0.605, a recall of 0.460, and a F1 of 0.520. Drug-SE pairs extracted from JCO tables is largely complementary to those derived from FDA drug labels; as many as 84.7% of the pairs extracted from JCO tables have not been included a side effect database constructed from FDA drug labels. Side effects associated with anticancer drugs positively correlate with drug target genes, drug metabolism genes, and disease indications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The outbreak fingolimod cardiovascular side effects in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis patient: A longitudinal study in an Iranian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Abdar

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fingolimod (FTY-720 has shown efficacy in relapsing multiple sclerosis (MS, while some side effects of this drug have been recognized that the most important is cardiovascular side effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardiovascular side effects of FTY-720. However, the effect of fingolimod on cardiac has not been well recognized. This study was designed to evaluate the cardiovascular side effects of fingolimod in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS patient in an Iranian population. METHODS: This prospective clinical trial study was performed on 200 RRMS patients. The patients received a single daily oral dose of fingolimod 0.5 mg. During the first 6 hours after the first fingolimod dose, the patients’ vital signs and electrocardiographic traces were continuously monitored. Moreover, the patients followed up over 6 months after receiving fingolimod. RESULTS: The results showed that pulse rate (P < 0.001, systolic blood pressure (BP (P < 0.001, and diastolic BP (P < 0.001 were decreased significantly during 6 hours after receiving the first dose of fingolimod. The most reduction in vital sign was observed in 3 hours. Arrhythmia, bradycardia, and dizziness were the other complications of fingolimod, which were detected in our study. CONCLUSION: All the side effects such as hypotension and bradycardia were happened in first 3 hours after receiving the fingolimod. Indeed, we advise clinicians to monitor the patients for first 6 hours after initiation of fingolimod to decrease worse side effects

  3. Hormonal contraception and physiology: a research-based theory of discontinuation due to side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitzthum, Virginia J; Ringheim, Karin

    2005-03-01

    Side effects influence the acceptability and continuation of hormonal contraceptives. Counseling the client about the management of side effects is a principal approach advocated for increasing continuation. Evidence of a biological basis for variation in women's tolerance of hormonal contraceptives argues, however, that greater attention should be given to altering the product rather than principally attempting to alter a woman's ability to deal with the product. Discontinuation rates for hormonal contraceptives, largely attributable to side effects and health concerns, are high in nearly all less-developed countries for which Demographic and Health Survey data are available. Oral contraceptives appear to be particularly problematic for Latin American women, most notably in Bolivia. Clinical trials suggest substantial variation in the physiological response to exogenous hormones, and new evidence confirms the hypothesis that the normal hormonal profiles of Bolivian women are significantly lower than those of women in the United States. These findings suggest a need for more population-specific physiological research linked to analyses of the possible association between endogenous hormone differences and contraceptive continuation. Appropriately adjusting the level of the steroid delivered may benefit women's health and improve the acceptability and continuation of hormonal contraceptives.

  4. Age and Gender Related Renal Side Effects of Cisplatin in Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pezeshki, Zahra; Maleki, Maryam; Talebi, Ardeshir; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2017-06-25

    Backgrounds: Cisplatin (CDDP) is a choice of anti-cancer drug for cancer chemotherapy with serious side effects such as nephrotoxicity. It seems that age is an important factor influencing the side effects of CDDP. This study was designed to determine the role of age and gender simultaneously in CDDP induced renal toxicity. Methods: 40 Wistar male and female rats were assigned as 6 groups in 3 different age categories (10, 16, and 20 weeks old). The single dose of CDDP (7.5 mg/kg, ip) was administrated, and a week later measurements were performed. Results: Body weight changes in male (not in female) animals aged 16 and 20 weeks were more than 10 weeks old animals (PGender difference in serum level of Cr, BUN and nitrite, and Cr-clearance were observed in animals aged10 weeks (Pgender depended, and may be different at various ages. Creative Commons Attribution License

  5. Association of Type D personality to perceived side effects and adherence in CPAP-treated patients with OSAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broström, Anders; Strömberg, Anna; Mårtensson, Jan; Ulander, Martin; Harder, Lena; Svanborg, Eva

    2007-12-01

    Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the treatment of choice for obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), but side effects are common and long-term adherence low. The Type D (distressed) personality is defined as a combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition. The association of Type D personality with adherence has not been studied in CPAP-treated patients with OSAS. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of Type D personality in OSAS patients with CPAP treatment longer than 6 months and the association with self-reported side effects and adherence. A cross-sectional descriptive design was used. A total of 247 OSAS patients with a mean use of CPAP treatment for 55 months (6-182 months) were included. Data collection was achieved by two questionnaires; the Type D scale 14 (DS14) (Type D personality), SECI (side effects of CPAP), as well as from medical records (clinical variables and objective adherence to CPAP treatment). Type D personality occurred in 30% of the patients with OSAS and significantly (P < 0.05-0.001) increased the perceived frequency and severity of a broad range of side effects. The objective adherence was significantly lower (P < 0.001) for OSAS patients with Type D compared to OSAS patients without Type D, both with regard to a mean use of 4 h per night and 85% of the self-rated sleep time per night. The additional effect of a Type D personality on perceived side effects and adherence to CPAP treatment found in this study could be used by healthcare personnel when evaluating patients waiting for treatment.

  6. Social identity performance : Extending the strategic side of SIDE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klein, Olivier; Spears, Russell; Reicher, Stephen

    This article extends the social identity model of deindividuation effects (SIDE) by considering the various ways in which relations of visibility to an audience can affect the public expression of identity-relevant norms (identity performance). It is suggested that social identity performance can

  7. Anti-Stigma HIV-Related Social Advertising: No Evidence for Side Effects on Condom Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, Florian; Hauck, Patricia; Mayr, Johanna; Negwer, Flavia

    2017-10-17

    Recent campaigns try to reduce social stigma associated with persons living with HIV. For example, a German campaign raised awareness that infection is unlikely in low-risk day-to-day interactions. Research has yet to show that there are no harmful side effects. This is essential because such messages promote a less threatening picture of HIV and thus may unintentionally increase complacency. We tested the possible side effects on the willingness to have sex without condoms. An experiment was conducted in which participants were exposed to anti-stigma messages or not. Anti-stigma messages did not elicit an increase in the willingness to have sex without condoms.

  8. Sediment sorting at a side channel bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Denderen, Pepijn; Schielen, Ralph; Hulscher, Suzanne

    2017-04-01

    Side channels have been constructed to reduce the flood risk and to increase the ecological value of the river. In various Dutch side channels large aggradation in these channels occurred after construction. Measurements show that the grain size of the deposited sediment in the side channel is smaller than the grain size found on the bed of the main channel. This suggest that sorting occurs at the bifurcation of the side channel. The objective is to reproduce with a 2D morphological model the fining of the bed in the side channel and to study the effect of the sediment sorting on morphodynamic development of the side channel. We use a 2D Delft3D model with two sediment fractions. The first fraction corresponds with the grain size that can be found on the bed of the main channel and the second fraction corresponds with the grain size found in the side channel. With the numerical model we compute several side channel configurations in which we vary the length and the width of the side channel, and the curvature of the upstream channel. From these computations we can derive the equilibrium state and the time scale of the morphodynamic development of the side channel. Preliminary results show that even when a simple sediment transport relation is used, like Engelund & Hansen, more fine sediment enters the side channel than coarse sediment. This is as expected, and is probably related to the bed slope effects which are a function of the Shields parameter. It is expected that by adding a sill at the entrance of the side channel the slope effect increases. This might reduce the amount of coarse sediment which enters the side channel even more. It is unclear whether the model used is able to reproduce the effect of such a sill correctly as modelling a sill and reproducing the correct hydrodynamic and morphodynamic behaviour is not straightforward in a 2D model. Acknowledgements: This research is funded by STW, part of the Dutch Organization for Scientific Research under

  9. Preservation of bursal-sided tendon in partial-thickness articular-sided rotator cuff tears: a novel arthroscopic transtendon anatomic repair technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sang-Jin; Jeong, Jae-Hoon; Jeon, Yoon Sang; Kim, Rag Gyu

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce a novel arthroscopic transtendon anatomic repair technique that spares the intact bursal-sided tendon in articular-sided partial-thickness rotator cuff tears (PTRCT) and to present shoulder functional outcomes in patients with symptomatic articular-sided PCRCT that involves more than 50 % of its thickness after arthroscopic repair using a novel technique. Eighteen patients with symptomatic articular-sided PCRCT involving more than 50 % of the tendon's thickness underwent arthroscopic repair using a devised technique. The devised technique restores only the torn articular portion of the rotator cuff at the anatomical footprint using a suture anchor, and preserves the integrity of the corresponding bursal-sided tendon by tying knots at the most lateral bursal side on the subacromial space. Clinical and functional outcome using ASES and Constant scores were evaluated. The structural integrity of the rotator cuff was evaluated by MRI at 6 months postoperatively. Pain relief and shoulder functional outcomes were encouraging during the recovery phase after operation. ASES (preoperative 54.0 ± 10.3 to postoperative 92.6 ± 8.0), Constant score (61.2 ± 8.5-88.0 ± 5.3), VAS for pain (4.9 ± 2.6-0.6 ± 0.7) improved significantly after arthroscopic transtendon anatomic repair (p rotator cuff retears on 6-month MRI. No complications related to surgical procedures had occurred. The devised technique of arthroscopic transtendon repair provided satisfactory functional outcomes without postoperative discomforts. This technique minimizes over-tightening of the articular layer and reduces tension mismatches between the articular and bursal layers, which are considered as important factors for improvement of postoperative shoulder motion.

  10. The PsyLOG mobile application: development of a tool for the assessment and monitoring of side effects of psychotropic medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzman, Martina Rojnic; Andlauer, Olivier; Burmeister, Kai; Dvoracek, Boris; Lencer, Rebekka; Koelkebeck, Katja; Nawka, Alexander; Riese, Florian

    2017-06-01

    Mobile health interventions are regarded as affordable and accessible tools that can enhance standard psychiatric care. As part of the mHealth Psycho-Educational Intervention Versus Antipsychotic-Induced Side Effects (mPIVAS) project (www.psylog.eu), we developed the mobile application "PsyLOG" based on mobile "smartphone" technology to monitor antipsychotic-induced side effects. The aim of this paper is to describe the rationale and development of the PsyLOG and its clinical use. The PsyLOG application runs on smartphones with Android operating system. The application is currently available in seven languages (Croatian, Czech, English, French, German, Japanese and Serbian). It consists of several categories: "My Drug Effects", "My Life Styles", "My Charts", "My Medication", "My Strategies", "My Supporters", "Settings" and "About". The main category "My Drug Effects" includes a list of 30 side effects with the possibility to add three additional side effects. Side effects are each accompanied by an appropriate description and the possibility to rate its severity on a visual analogue scale from 0-100%. The PsyLOG application is intended to enhance the link between patients and mental health professionals, serving as a tool that more objectively monitors side-effects over certain periods of time. To the best of our knowledge, no such applications have so far been developed for patients taking antipsychotic medication or for their therapists.

  11. Comparing Demand Side Management approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molderink, Albert; Bakker, Vincent; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria

    2012-01-01

    Due to increasing energy prices and the greenhouse effect, a more efficient energy supply is desirable, preferably based on renewable sources. To cope with the decrease of flexibility due to the introduction of renewables in production side of the supply chain, a more flexible consumer side is

  12. Side effects of permanent I125 prostate seed implants in 667 patients treated in Leeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottomley, David; Ash, Dan; Al-Qaisieh, Bashar; Carey, Brendan; Joseph, Joji; St Clair, Shaun; Gould, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To report the side effects and complications after I-125 seeds prostate implant after 8.5 years experience. Methods and materials: Six hundred and sixty seven (667) patients were treated between March 1995 and December 2001. The median follow up is 31 months with a maximum of 98.2 months. Morbidity data were collected from a review of patient case-notes. Patients also provided prospective data on urinary symptoms using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) scoring chart before treatment and at regular follow up. Patients were also sent a questionnaire detailing symptoms and side effects following their brachytherapy. This enabled them to record urinary, bowel and sexual function side effects independently. Logistic regression analysis was carried out to identify the risk of catheterisation in relation to the pre-implant prostate volume and potential implant factors such as the number of seeds and needles and implant dose. Result: The urinary symptom score rises in the first few months after implantation and returns to within one or two points of the pre-treatment score within one year. Nine patients reported incontinence prior to treatment and 15, 12 and 10 patients reported incontinence 6, 12 and 24 months after treatment, respectively. Catheterisation was reported in 97 (14.5%) patients. At six months 84.9% of patients reported no change in bowel function and 78.9% at 12 months. 6.4% of patients complained of some increased bowel frequency at 6 months and 5.7% at 12 months. 402 (77.2%) patients reported being fully potent before treatment and that this fell to 32.4% after treatment. Logistic regression showed that the most significant factors which correlate with the probability of catheterisation are the pre-treatment prostate volume and the number of seeds and needles implanted. Conclusion: The side effects and complications after prostate brachytherapy as reported here and elsewhere confirm that the treatment is not only convenient but also

  13. Ocular side effect of tinidazole: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Kauser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular side effects in the form of punctate epithelial erosions with the use of tinidazole - a 5-nitroimidazole group of drugs is very rare. A 32-year-old male was prescribed tablet tinidazole for the treatment of amoebiasis but developed adverse effects in the form of blisters on both upper and lower lips with itching and burning sensation, itching and burning on penile and anal area associated with punctate epithelial erosions of cornea of both the eyes. All these are rare manifestations but punctate epithelial erosions of cornea has never been reported in the literature so far. Punctate epithelial erosions of cornea have not previously been reported and should be added to the list of complications of tinidazole. Hence, this case is being reported .

  14. Side effects and risks of radioiodine treatment of benign thyroid diseases. Nebenwirkungen und Risiken bei der Radiojodtherapie gutartiger Schilddruesenerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, W.; Hohenberger, W.; Wolf, F. (Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Nuklearmedizinische Klinik mit Poliklinik Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). Chirurgische Klinik mit Poliklinik)

    1990-12-01

    Radioiodine treatment is considered to be the treatment of choice in benign thyroid diseases because of its very low side effects. Real and hypothetic risks and side effects have to be differentiated. Both may occur early and late after the treatment. Radioiodinethyroiditis in small volumes at high doses is very rare. Exacerbation of a thyroid storm (0.34%) as well as local compressions accompanied with reactive edema of the thyroid are early real side effects of radioiodine treatment. Late real side effects are failure of treatment (7-30% of thyrotoxicosis) and induction of hypothyroidism (4-20% of functional autonomy and increasing frequency in Graves' diseases with time). Late hypothetic risks are somatic (1-9/10000 bis 1-9/100000) or genetic (1-9/100000). An early risk might be the misdiagnosis of an additional thyroid carcinoma. (orig.).

  15. Developmental changes in maternal education and minimal exposure effects on vocabulary in English- and Spanish-learning toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Margaret; DeAnda, Stephanie; Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    The current research follows up on two previous findings: that children with minimal dual-language exposure have smaller receptive vocabularies at 16months of age and that maternal education is a predictor of vocabulary when the dominant language is English but not when it is Spanish. The current study extends this research to 22-month-olds to assess the developmental effects of minimal exposure and maternal education on direct and parent-report measures of vocabulary size. The effects of minimal exposure on vocabulary size are no longer present at 22months of age, whereas maternal education effects remain but only for English speakers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rigidity of minimal submanifolds with flat normal bundle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rigidity of minimal submanifolds with flat normal bundle. 461. = a. ∫. M u2(1+q)+ 2 a f 2 − 2. ∫. M u2q+1f 〈∇f, ∇u〉. − (2q + 1). ∫. M u2qf 2|∇u|2, which gives a .... that depends on n, ϵ and q. We now try to transform (2.15) the right hand side only involved u in the power two. For that, we use Young's inequality: ab ≤ βsas.

  17. Are sexual side effects of prolactin-raising antipsychotics reducible to serum prolactin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegtering, Henderikus; van den Bosch, Rob; Castelein, Stynke; Bruggeman, Richard; Sytema, Sjoerd; van Os, Jim

    Objective: To assess the degree to which sexual side effects (SSE) are associated with prolactin-raising antipsychotics, and to what degree such SSE are reducible to serum prolactin levels. Method: A large sample (n = 264) of patients treated for 6 weeks with protactin-raising and prolactin-sparing

  18. Side-Effects of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs on the Liver in Dogs and Hepatoprotective Effect of Plant Remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szweda Magdalena

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatoprotective effect of plant drugs against hepatic tissue injury induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs was assessed on Beagle dogs. The adverse effects of carprofen and robenacoxib on the hepatic tissue were evaluated on the basis of histopathological examination of liver sections. It was demonstrated that the use of NSAIDs with liquorice and composed plant remedy Pectosol¯ caused a reduction of hepatic adverse effects induced by the administration of NSAIDs. This fact indicates a hepatoprotective effect of the tested plant remedies during the treatment with NSAIDs. However, the results require further studies on a larger group of animals. Liquorice and Pectosol¯ reduce the hepatic side effects, which develop after the treatment with carprofen and, to a lesser extent, robenacoxib in young Beagles. Such studies allow to investigate the negative and positive effects of using robenacoxib and carprofen in dogs and, therefore, help to limit the NSAID-induced side effects on the liver in these animals.

  19. On the Importance of "Front-Side Mechanics" in Athletics Sprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Thomas; Danielsen, Jørgen; Alnes, Leif Olav; McGhie, David; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Ettema, Gertjan

    2018-05-16

    Practitioners have, for many years, argued that athletic sprinters should optimize front-side mechanics (leg motions occurring in front of the extended line through the torso) and minimize back-side mechanics. This study aimed to investigate if variables related to front- and back-side mechanics can be distinguished from other previously highlighted kinematic variables (spatiotemporal variables and variables related to segment configuration and velocities at touchdown) in how they statistically predict performance. A total of 24 competitive sprinters (age: 23.1 [3.4] y, height: 1.81 [0.06] m, body mass: 75.7 [5.6] kg, and 100-m personal best: 10.86 [0.22] s) performed two 20-m starts from block and 2 to 3 flying sprints over 20 m. Kinematics were recorded in 3D using a motion tracking system with 21 cameras at a 250 Hz sampling rate. Several front- and back-side variables, including thigh (r = .64) and knee angle (r = .51) at lift-off and maximal thigh extension (r = .66), were largely correlated (P mechanics were crucial for sprint performance among the investigated sprinters.

  20. Acute side effects during 3-D-planned conformal radiotherapy of prostate cancer. Differences between patient's self-reported questionnaire and the corresponding doctor's report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldner, G.; Wachter-Gerstner, N.; Wachter, S.; Dieckmann, K.; Janda, M.; Poetter, R.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Radiotherapy-induced side effects are often scored retrospectively according to the EORTC/RTOG scores for organs at risk by reviewing the medical records. Some studies could prove an over- or underestimation of side effects as assessed by the medical professionals. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate differences in side effects as described by the doctors and the patients. Patients and Methods: 47 patients with prostate cancer were questioned about their side effects by a radiotherapist and asked to fill in a questionnaire at the start, in the middle and at the end of radiotherapy. The data of this questionnaire and the doctor's report were scored according to the German version of the EORTC/RTOG scores for gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) side effects and subsequently compared. We distinguished between ''moderate'' disagreement (better/worse by one grade, assessed by the doctor) and ''pronounced'' disagreement (better/worse by two grades, assessed by the doctor). Results: The number of GI and GU side effects increased during radiotherapy both according to data obtained from the doctor and the patient questionnaire. Comparing doctors' reports with patients' questionnaires, for GI side effects an agreement was found in 22/47 patients, ''moderately better'' scores by the doctor's report were found in 13/47 patients, and ''moderately worse'' scores in 9/47 patients on average. ''Pronouncedly better and worse'' scores were found in 2/47 patients. For GU side effects an agreement was seen in 22/47 patients, ''moderately better'' scores in 17/47 patients and ''moderately worse'' scores in 3/47 patients. Regarding GU side effects, only pronouncedly better scores, as assessed by the doctor, were found in a mean of 4/47 patients. If the EORTC/RTOG score is used in its original English version, a difference is found, particularly in the assessment of GU side effects, resulting in an higher amount of agreement concerning GU side effects

  1. Shielding Effectiveness Analysis and Modification of the Coupling Effect Transmission Line Method on Cavities with Multi-Sided Apertures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Hu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Because the traditional transmission line method treats electromagnetic waves as excitation sources and the cavity as a rectangular waveguide whose terminal is shorted, the transmission line method can only calculate shielding effectiveness in the center line of the cavity with apertures on one side. In this paper, the aperture coupling effect of different sides was analyzed based on vector analysis. According to the field intensity distribution of different transport modes in the rectangular waveguide, the calculation model of cavity shielding effectiveness in any position is proposed, which can solve the question of the calculation model of shielding effectiveness in any position in the traditional method of equivalent transmission methods. Further expansion of the equivalent transmission lines model is adopted to study the shielding effectiveness of different aperture cavities, and the coupling effect rule of the incident angle, the number of apertures, and the size of the cavity is obtained, which can provide the technical support for the design of electromagnetic shielding cavities for electronic equipment.

  2. Side Effects of Nitrification Inhibitors on Non Target Microbial Processes in Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Carl Gottlieb Ottow

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural chemicals have been used extensively in modern agriculture and toxicological studies suggest a great potential for inducing undesirable effects on non target organisms. A model experiment was conducted in order to determine side effects of three nitrification inhibitors (NIs, 3,4dimethylpyrazolephosphate = DMPP, 4-Chlor-methylpyrazole phosphate = ClMPP and dicyandiamide = DCD on non target microbial processes in soils. Side effects and dose response curve of three NIs were quantified under laboratory conditions using silty clay, loam and a sandy soils. Dehydrogenase, dimethylsulfoxide reductase as well as nitrogenase activity (NA and potential denitrification capacity were measured as common and specific non target microbial processes. The influence of 5-1000 times the base concentration, dose response curves were examined, and no observable effect level = NOEL, as well as effective dose ED10 and ED50 (10% and 50% inhibition were calculated. The NOEL for microbial non target processes were about 30–70 times higher than base concentration in all investigated soils. The potential denitrification capacity revealed to be the most sensitive parameter. ClMPP exhibited the strongest influence on the non target microbial processes in the three soils. The NOEL, ED10 and ED50 values were higher in clay than in loamy or sandy soil. The NIs was the most effective in sandy soils.

  3. A Smart Grid Framework for Optimally Integrating Supply-Side, Demand-Side and Transmission Line Management Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chukwuka Monyei

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A coordinated centralized energy management system (ConCEMS is presented in this paper that seeks to integrate for optimal grid operation—the supply side energy management system (SSEMS, home energy management system (HEMS and transmission line management system (TLMS. ConCEMS in ensuring the optimal operation of an IEEE 30-bus electricity network harmonizes the individual objective function of SSEMS, HEMS and TLMS to evolve an optimal dispatch of participating demand response (DR loads that does not violate transmission line ampacity limits (TLMS constraint while minimizing consumer cost (HEMS constraint and supply side operations cost (SSEMS constraint. An externally constrained genetic algorithm (ExC-GA that is influenced by feedback from TLMS is also presented that intelligently varies the dispatch time of participating DR loads to meet the individual objective functions. Hypothetical day ahead dynamic pricing schemes (Price1, Price2 and Price3 have also been adopted alongside an existing time of use (Price0 pricing scheme for comparison and discussion while a dynamic thermal line rating (DTLR algorithm has also been incorporated to dynamically compute power limits based on real time associated data.

  4. Health care resource use and costs associated with possible side effects of high oral corticosteroid use in asthma: a claims-based analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luskin AT

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Allan T Luskin,1 Evgeniya N Antonova,2 Michael S Broder,3 Eunice Y Chang,3 Theodore A Omachi,2 Dennis K Ledford4 1HealthyAirways, Madison, WI, 2Genentech, Inc., South San Francisco, 3Partnership for Health Analytic Research, LLC, Beverly Hills, CA, 4Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Medicine, James A. Haley Veterans’ Hospital, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA Background: The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of possible oral corticosteroid (OCS-related side effects and health care resource use and costs in patients with asthma.Methods: This was a cross-sectional, matched-cohort, retrospective study using a commercial claims database. Adults with asthma diagnosis codes and evidence of asthma medication use were studied. Patients with high OCS use (≥30 days of OCS annually were divided into those who did versus those who did not experience OCS-related possible side effects. Their health care resource use and costs were compared using linear regression or negative binomial regression models, adjusting for age, sex, geographic region, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease status.Results: After adjustment, high OCS users with possible side effects were more likely to have office visits (23.0 vs 19.6; P<0.001 and hospitalizations (0.44 vs 0.22; P<0.001 than those without possible side effects. Emergency department visits were similar between the groups. High OCS users with possible side effects had higher adjusted total annual mean health care costs ($25,168 than those without such side effects ($21,882; P=0.009.Conclusion: Among high OCS users, patients with possible OCS-related side effects are more likely to use health care services than those without such side effects. Although OCS may help control asthma and manage exacerbations, OCS side effects may result in additional health care resource use and costs, highlighting the need

  5. Scheduling Non-Preemptible Jobs to Minimize Peak Demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Yaw

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines an important problem in smart grid energy scheduling; peaks in power demand are proportionally more expensive to generate and provision for. The issue is exacerbated in local microgrids that do not benefit from the aggregate smoothing experienced by large grids. Demand-side scheduling can reduce these peaks by taking advantage of the fact that there is often flexibility in job start times. We focus attention on the case where the jobs are non-preemptible, meaning once started, they run to completion. The associated optimization problem is called the peak demand minimization problem, and has been previously shown to be NP-hard. Our results include an optimal fixed-parameter tractable algorithm, a polynomial-time approximation algorithm, as well as an effective heuristic that can also be used in an online setting of the problem. Simulation results show that these methods can reduce peak demand by up to 50% versus on-demand scheduling for household power jobs.

  6. Implementation of lean construction techniques for minimizing the risks effect on project construction time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama Hamed Issa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The construction projects involve various risk factors which have various impacts on time objective that may lead to time-overrun. This study suggests and applies a new technique for minimizing risk factors effect on time using lean construction principles. The lean construction is implemented in this study using the last planner system through execution of an industrial project in Egypt. Evaluating the effect of using the new tool is described in terms of two measurements: Percent Expected Time-overrun (PET and Percent Plan Completed (PPC. The most important risk factors are identified and assessed, while PET is quantified at the project start and during the project execution using a model for time-overrun quantification. The results showed that total project time is reduced by 15.57% due to decreasing PET values, while PPC values improved. This is due to minimizing and mitigating the effect of most of the risk factors in this project due to implementing lean construction techniques. The results proved that the quantification model is suitable for evaluating the effect of using lean construction techniques. In addition, the results showed that average value of PET due to factors affected by lean techniques represents 67% from PET values due to all minimized risk factors.

  7. Age-related differences in renal side-effects of radiation and chemotherapy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.T.M. Jongejan (Mieke)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThe improved life-expectancy of cancer patient has brought to light late sequelae of oncology therapy. This is especially true for pediatric patients. Renal damage is one of the adverse side-effects of anti-tumor therapy that may occur. Studies conceming damaging effects of

  8. Cardiovascular Side Effects of Atomoxetine and Its Interactions with Inhibitors of the Cytochrome P450 System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood and adolescence. Classically, stimulants have been used in the treatment of this condition. Atomoxetine (Strattera; Eli Lilly and Company is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI, one of the first medications in the nonstimulant class of medications that has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of ADHD. Atomoxetine is a phenoxypropylamine derivative and is structurally related to the antidepressant fluoxetine. The common side effects reported with the use of atomoxetine include mainly GI disturbances. Cardiovascular side effects are less commonly reported. The increase in the noradrenergic tone may explain some of the side effects noted with the use of this medication. Here, we present a case of a patient who presented with syncope, orthostatic hypotension, and tachycardia and discuss the various clinical implications based on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug.

  9. A Low Mass On-Chip Readout Scheme for Double-Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irmler, C., E-mail: christian.irmler@oeaw.ac.at [HEPHY Vienna – Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); Bergauer, T.; Frankenberger, A.; Friedl, M.; Gfall, I. [HEPHY Vienna – Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria); Higuchi, T. [University of Tokyo, Kavli Institute for Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Ishikawa, A. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Joo, C. [Seoul National University, High Energy Physics Laboratory, 25-107 Shinlim-dong, Kwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kah, D.H.; Kang, K.H. [Kyungpook National University, Department of Physics, 1370 Sankyuk Dong, Buk Gu, Daegu 702-701 (Korea, Republic of); Rao, K.K. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Experimental High Energy Physics Group, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Kato, E. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Mohanty, G.B. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Experimental High Energy Physics Group, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Negishi, K. [Tohoku University, Department of Physics, Aoba Aramaki Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Onuki, Y.; Shimizu, N. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Tsuboyama, T. [KEK, 1-1 Oho, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Valentan, M. [HEPHY Vienna – Institute of High Energy Physics of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, Nikolsdorfer Gasse 18, A-1050 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-12-21

    B-factories like the KEKB in Tsukuba, Japan, operate at relatively low energies and thus require detectors with very low material budget in order to minimize multiple scattering. On the other hand, front-end chips with short shaping time like the APV25 have to be placed as close to the sensor strips as possible to reduce the capacitive load, which mainly determines the noise figure. In order to achieve both – minimal material budget and low noise – we developed a readout scheme for double-sided silicon detectors, where the APV25 chips are placed on a flexible circuit, which is glued onto the top side of the sensor. The bottom-side strips are connected by two flexible circuits, which are bent around the edge of the sensor. This so-called “Origami” design will be utilized to build the Silicon Vertex Detector of the Belle II experiment, which will consist of four layers made from ladders with up to five double-sided silicon strip sensors in a row. Each ladder will be supported by two ribs made of a carbon fiber and Airex foam core sandwich. The heat dissipated by the front-end chips will be removed by a highly efficient two-phase CO{sub 2} system. Thanks to the Origami concept, all APV25 chips are aligned in a row and thus can be cooled by a single thin cooling pipe per ladder. We present the concept and the assembly procedure of the Origami chip-on-sensor modules.

  10. A Low Mass On-Chip Readout Scheme for Double-Sided Silicon Strip Detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irmler, C.; Bergauer, T.; Frankenberger, A.; Friedl, M.; Gfall, I.; Higuchi, T.; Ishikawa, A.; Joo, C.; Kah, D.H.; Kang, K.H.; Rao, K.K.; Kato, E.; Mohanty, G.B.; Negishi, K.; Onuki, Y.; Shimizu, N.; Tsuboyama, T.; Valentan, M.

    2013-01-01

    B-factories like the KEKB in Tsukuba, Japan, operate at relatively low energies and thus require detectors with very low material budget in order to minimize multiple scattering. On the other hand, front-end chips with short shaping time like the APV25 have to be placed as close to the sensor strips as possible to reduce the capacitive load, which mainly determines the noise figure. In order to achieve both – minimal material budget and low noise – we developed a readout scheme for double-sided silicon detectors, where the APV25 chips are placed on a flexible circuit, which is glued onto the top side of the sensor. The bottom-side strips are connected by two flexible circuits, which are bent around the edge of the sensor. This so-called “Origami” design will be utilized to build the Silicon Vertex Detector of the Belle II experiment, which will consist of four layers made from ladders with up to five double-sided silicon strip sensors in a row. Each ladder will be supported by two ribs made of a carbon fiber and Airex foam core sandwich. The heat dissipated by the front-end chips will be removed by a highly efficient two-phase CO 2 system. Thanks to the Origami concept, all APV25 chips are aligned in a row and thus can be cooled by a single thin cooling pipe per ladder. We present the concept and the assembly procedure of the Origami chip-on-sensor modules

  11. Self-Limited Kleptomania Symptoms as a Side Effect of Duloxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. T. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Impulse control disorders (ICDs have been described as a side effect of dopamine agonists, frequently used in neurodegenerative conditions affecting the nigrostriatal pathway. Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (e.g., duloxetine have dose-dependent differential affinity for monoaminergic transporters, inhibiting the dopamine transporter at higher doses, thus increasing availability of synaptic dopamine, with the potential for similar impulse control side effects. Case Presentation. A 19-year-old Asian-American female with a history of depression developed new-onset stealing behaviors after an increase in her dose of duloxetine from 60 mg to 90 mg; she described these actions as “compulsive” and irresistible, later experiencing either relief or guilt, features compatible with an ICD. Her symptoms eventually subsided with continued use of 90 mg of duloxetine. Discussion. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first report of a patient developing new-onset ICD behaviors after being placed on a higher dose of duloxetine, which can inhibit the dopamine transporter and cause difficulty with impulse control. The self-resolving nature of the symptoms may result from compensatory upregulation of dopamine transporters, increasing reuptake of dopamine. Asian populations may be at a higher risk due to the frequent occurrence of CYP2D6 polymorphisms, which decrease the conversion of duloxetine to its inactive metabolites.

  12. Minimizing the effect of exponential trends in detrended fluctuation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Na; Shang Pengjian; Kamae, Santi

    2009-01-01

    The detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and its extensions (MF-DFA) have been used extensively to determine possible long-range correlations in time series. However, recent studies have reported the susceptibility of DFA to trends which give rise to spurious crossovers and prevent reliable estimation of the scaling exponents. In this report, a smoothing algorithm based on the discrete laplace transform (DFT) is proposed to minimize the effect of exponential trends and distortion in the log-log plots obtained by MF-DFA techniques. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated on monofractal and multifractal data corrupted with exponential trends.

  13. Functionally Graded Ceramics Fabricated with Side-by-Side Tape Casting for Use in Magnetic Refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bulatova, Regina; Bahl, Christian; Andersen, Kjeld Bøhm

    2015-01-01

    Functionally graded ceramic tapes have been fabricated by a side-by-side tape casting technique. This study shows the possibility and describes the main principles of adjacent coflow of slurries resulting in formation of thin plates of graded ceramic material. Results showed that the small...... variations of solvent and binder system concentrations have a substantial effect on slurry viscosity. Varying these parameters showed that side-by-side tape casting with a well-defined interface area is possible for slurries with viscosities above 3500 mPa s at a casting shear rate of 3.3 s -1...... of developing this graded ceramic tape casting was applications of these specific magnetocaloric properties within the magnetic refrigeration technology....

  14. Numerical study of two side-by-side cylinders with unequal diameters at low Reynolds number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Y Y; Wang, X K; Tan, S K

    2012-01-01

    Two-dimensional laminar flow about two side-by-side unequal cylinders with different diameter ratios d/D and centre-to-centre spacing ratios T/D at Re=300 (based on the larger cylinder diameter) was simulated using a CFD software. Comparisons of experimental and numerical results were made to elucidate the degree of interference due to d/D and T/D and their effects on the flow patterns and vortex shedding frequencies. The findings showed that the flow patterns behind two unequal cylinders were distinctly different from that behind two equal side-by-side cylinders, with distinct in-phase and anti-phase vortex shedding, and random switching of modes of vortex shedding.

  15. A survey of post-discharge side effects of conscious sedation using chloral hydrate in pediatric CT and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, S.C.; Adamson, S.D.; Tatman, L.H.; Berbaum, K.S. [Department of Radiology, Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Background. Limited information is available on post-discharge side effects of chloral hydrate sedation in pediatric imaging. Objective. To prospectively study the post-discharge side effects of chloral hydrate sedation in pediatric CT and MR imaging. Materials and methods. A total of 119 children undergoing CT and MRI were sedated using chloral hydrate with 89 % success (mean initial dose, 72 mg/kg body weight) and 98 % success after augmentation (mean total, 78 mg/kg body weight). The frequency of each post-discharge side effect was correlated with other side effects and 12 patient/technical parameters. Results. The survey was completed in 80 children. Sleepiness lasted for > 4 h in 28 %. Unsteadiness occurred in 68 % and hyperactivity in 29 %. Appetite became poor in 14 % and vomiting occurred in 15 %. Normal activity was resumed after > 4 h in 54 %. Sleep deprivation did not result in increased success or earlier onset of sedation and might be associated with hyperactivity. A higher dose did not result in an increased success rate or earlier onset of sedation within the dose range used in this study. Conclusion. Data on the post-discharge side effects of chloral hydrate sedation will be useful to radiologists, technologists, and nurses explaining to parents about sedation using this agent. (orig.) With 2 tabs., 24 refs.

  16. A survey of post-discharge side effects of conscious sedation using chloral hydrate in pediatric CT and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, S.C.; Adamson, S.D.; Tatman, L.H.; Berbaum, K.S.

    1999-01-01

    Background. Limited information is available on post-discharge side effects of chloral hydrate sedation in pediatric imaging. Objective. To prospectively study the post-discharge side effects of chloral hydrate sedation in pediatric CT and MR imaging. Materials and methods. A total of 119 children undergoing CT and MRI were sedated using chloral hydrate with 89 % success (mean initial dose, 72 mg/kg body weight) and 98 % success after augmentation (mean total, 78 mg/kg body weight). The frequency of each post-discharge side effect was correlated with other side effects and 12 patient/technical parameters. Results. The survey was completed in 80 children. Sleepiness lasted for > 4 h in 28 %. Unsteadiness occurred in 68 % and hyperactivity in 29 %. Appetite became poor in 14 % and vomiting occurred in 15 %. Normal activity was resumed after > 4 h in 54 %. Sleep deprivation did not result in increased success or earlier onset of sedation and might be associated with hyperactivity. A higher dose did not result in an increased success rate or earlier onset of sedation within the dose range used in this study. Conclusion. Data on the post-discharge side effects of chloral hydrate sedation will be useful to radiologists, technologists, and nurses explaining to parents about sedation using this agent. (orig.)

  17. The minimally tuned minimal supersymmetric standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essig, Rouven; Fortin, Jean-Francois

    2008-01-01

    The regions in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with the minimal amount of fine-tuning of electroweak symmetry breaking are presented for general messenger scale. No a priori relations among the soft supersymmetry breaking parameters are assumed and fine-tuning is minimized with respect to all the important parameters which affect electroweak symmetry breaking. The superpartner spectra in the minimally tuned region of parameter space are quite distinctive with large stop mixing at the low scale and negative squark soft masses at the high scale. The minimal amount of tuning increases enormously for a Higgs mass beyond roughly 120 GeV

  18. Side effects and complications of intraosseous anesthesia and conventional oral anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Peñarrocha-Oltra, David; Ata-Ali, Javier; Oltra-Moscardó, María J.; Peñarrocha-Diago, María; Peñarrocha, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the side effects and complications following intraosseous anesthesia (IA), comparing them with those of the conventional oral anesthesia techniques. Material and method: A simple-blind, prospective clinical study was carried out. Each patient underwent two anesthetic techniques: conventional (local infiltration and locoregional anesthetic block) and intraosseous, for respective dental operations. In order to allow comparison of IA versus conventional anesthesia, the two ...

  19. Optimum distributed generation placement with voltage sag effect minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Soma; Goswami, Swapan Kumar; Chatterjee, Amitava

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A new optimal distributed generation placement algorithm is proposed. ► Optimal number, sizes and locations of the DGs are determined. ► Technical factors like loss, voltage sag problem are minimized. ► The percentage savings are optimized. - Abstract: The present paper proposes a new formulation for the optimum distributed generator (DG) placement problem which considers a hybrid combination of technical factors, like minimization of the line loss, reduction in the voltage sag problem, etc., and economical factors, like installation and maintenance cost of the DGs. The new formulation proposed is inspired by the idea that the optimum placement of the DGs can help in reducing and mitigating voltage dips in low voltage distribution networks. The problem is configured as a multi-objective, constrained optimization problem, where the optimal number of DGs, along with their sizes and bus locations, are simultaneously obtained. This problem has been solved using genetic algorithm, a traditionally popular stochastic optimization algorithm. A few benchmark systems radial and networked (like 34-bus radial distribution system, 30 bus loop distribution system and IEEE 14 bus system) are considered as the case study where the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is aptly demonstrated.

  20. Slim edges in double-sided silicon 3D detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povoli, M; Dalla Betta, G-F; Bagolini, A; Boscardin, M; Giacomini, G; Vianello, E; Zorzi, N

    2012-01-01

    Minimization of the insensitive edge area is one of the key requirements for silicon radiation detectors to be used in future silicon trackers. In 3D detectors this goal can be achieved with the active edge, at the expense of a high fabrication process complexity. In the framework of the ATLAS 3D sensor collaboration, we produced modified 3D silicon sensors with a double-sided technology. While this approach is not suitable to obtain active edges, because it does not use a support wafer, it allows for a new type of edge termination, the slim edge. In this paper we report on the development of the slim edge, from numerical simulations to design and testing, proving that it works effectively without increasing the fabrication complexity of silicon 3D detectors, and that it could be further optimized to reduce the insensitive edge region to less than 100 μm.

  1. The prevalence and management of side effects of lithium and anticonvulsants as mood stabilizers in bipolar disorder from a clinical perspective: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dols, A.; Sienaert, P.; van Gerven, H.; Schouws, S.N.T.M.; Stevens, A.; Kupka, R.W.; Stek, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    Side effects are among the most frequent reasons preventing patients from taking their medication. Although the management of side effects is an important issue in clinical practice, particularly in patients with physical comorbidities, research on clinical management of side effects is rather

  2. Leakage and field emission in side-gate graphene field effect transistors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Bartolomeo, A., E-mail: dibant@sa.infn.it; Iemmo, L.; Romeo, F.; Cucolo, A. M. [Physics Department “E.R. Caianiello,” University of Salerno, via G. Paolo II, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); CNR-SPIN Salerno, via G. Paolo II, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Giubileo, F. [CNR-SPIN Salerno, via G. Paolo II, 84084 Fisciano (Italy); Russo, S.; Unal, S. [Physics Department, University of Exeter, Stocker Road 6, Exeter, Devon EX4 4QL (United Kingdom); Passacantando, M.; Grossi, V. [Department of Physical and Chemical Sciences, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio, 67100 Coppito, L' Aquila (Italy)

    2016-07-11

    We fabricate planar graphene field-effect transistors with self-aligned side-gate at 100 nm from the 500 nm wide graphene conductive channel, using a single lithographic step. We demonstrate side-gating below 1 V with conductance modulation of 35% and transconductance up to 0.5 mS/mm at 10 mV drain bias. We measure the planar leakage along the SiO{sub 2}/vacuum gate dielectric over a wide voltage range, reporting rapidly growing current above 15 V. We unveil the microscopic mechanisms driving the leakage, as Frenkel-Poole transport through SiO{sub 2} up to the activation of Fowler-Nordheim tunneling in vacuum, which becomes dominant at higher voltages. We report a field-emission current density as high as 1 μA/μm between graphene flakes. These findings are important for the miniaturization of atomically thin devices.

  3. Westinghouse Hanford Company waste minimization actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1988-09-01

    Companies that generate hazardous waste materials are now required by national regulations to establish a waste minimization program. Accordingly, in FY88 the Westinghouse Hanford Company formed a waste minimization team organization. The purpose of the team is to assist the company in its efforts to minimize the generation of waste, train personnel on waste minimization techniques, document successful waste minimization effects, track dollar savings realized, and to publicize and administer an employee incentive program. A number of significant actions have been successful, resulting in the savings of materials and dollars. The team itself has been successful in establishing some worthwhile minimization projects. This document briefly describes the waste minimization actions that have been successful to date. 2 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs

  4. GLYX-13, a NMDA receptor glycine-site functional partial agonist, induces antidepressant-like effects without ketamine-like side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgdorf, Jeffrey; Zhang, Xiao-lei; Nicholson, Katherine L; Balster, Robert L; Leander, J David; Stanton, Patric K; Gross, Amanda L; Kroes, Roger A; Moskal, Joseph R

    2013-04-01

    Recent human clinical studies with the NMDA receptor (NMDAR) antagonist ketamine have revealed profound and long-lasting antidepressant effects with rapid onset in several clinical trials, but antidepressant effects were preceded by dissociative side effects. Here we show that GLYX-13, a novel NMDAR glycine-site functional partial agonist, produces an antidepressant-like effect in the Porsolt, novelty induced hypophagia, and learned helplessness tests in rats without exhibiting substance abuse-related, gating, and sedative side effects of ketamine in the drug discrimination, conditioned place preference, pre-pulse inhibition and open-field tests. Like ketamine, the GLYX-13-induced antidepressant-like effects required AMPA/kainate receptor activation, as evidenced by the ability of NBQX to abolish the antidepressant-like effect. Both GLYX-13 and ketamine persistently (24 h) enhanced the induction of long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission and the magnitude of NMDAR-NR2B conductance at rat Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in vitro. Cell surface biotinylation studies showed that both GLYX-13 and ketamine led to increases in both NR2B and GluR1 protein levels, as measured by Western analysis, whereas no changes were seen in mRNA expression (microarray and qRT-PCR). GLYX-13, unlike ketamine, produced its antidepressant-like effect when injected directly into the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). These results suggest that GLYX-13 produces an antidepressant-like effect without the side effects seen with ketamine at least in part by directly modulating NR2B-containing NMDARs in the MPFC. Furthermore, the enhancement of 'metaplasticity' by both GLYX-13 and ketamine may help explain the long-lasting antidepressant effects of these NMDAR modulators. GLYX-13 is currently in a Phase II clinical development program for treatment-resistant depression.

  5. The minimal non-minimal standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bij, J.J. van der

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter I discuss a class of extensions of the standard model that have a minimal number of possible parameters, but can in principle explain dark matter and inflation. It is pointed out that the so-called new minimal standard model contains a large number of parameters that can be put to zero, without affecting the renormalizability of the model. With the extra restrictions one might call it the minimal (new) non-minimal standard model (MNMSM). A few hidden discrete variables are present. It is argued that the inflaton should be higher-dimensional. Experimental consequences for the LHC and the ILC are discussed

  6. Nonlinear side effects of fs pulses inside corneal tissue during photodisruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterkamp, A.; Ripken, T.; Mamom, T.; Drommer, W.; Welling, H.; Ertmer, W.; Lubatschowski, H.

    In order to evaluate the potential for refractive surgery, fs laser pulses of 150-fs pulse duration were used to process corneal tissue of dead and living animal eyes. By focusing the laser radiation down to spot sizes of several microns, very precise cuts could be achieved inside the treated cornea, accompanied with minimum collateral damage to the tissue by thermal or mechanical effects. During histo-pathological analysis by light and transmission electron microscopy considerable side effects of fs photodisruption were found. Due to the high intensities at the focal region several nonlinear effects occurred. Self-focusing, photodissociation, UV-light production were observed, leading to streak formation inside the cornea.

  7. Acceptability and perceived side effects of insecticide indoor residual spraying under different resistance management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Américo David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess household acceptability and perceived side effects of residual indoor pyrethroid (PYR, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides sprayed by annual rotation (ROT, spatial mosaic (MOS, and a single insecticide (DDT or PYR in communities of the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire to assess the acceptability and perceived side effects of indoor insecticides was administered to one member of 30% of the families in eight villages of Chiapas. The association of different insecticide treatments with their responses was evaluated (Chi-square. The intensity of side effects indicated under different treatments was compared in an ordered logistic model, using a severity index as the response variable. RESULTS: Insecticide spraying as a probable cause of symptoms was identified by 2.1% of interviewees. A significantly high percentage of persons with blurred vision, dizziness, sneezing, coughing, numbness, watery eyes, and itching lived in villages under MOS and ROT and a high severity index was significantly associated with ROT treatment. Reduction of mosquito bites and cockroaches were the perceived main benefits, and most villagers that perceived no benefits lived in DDT treated villages. Most of the interviewees welcomed spraying (83.7%, but the smell and having to remove furniture from houses were the main arguments against it. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptability correlated with insecticide spray coverage, although the most frequent suggestion for improvement was to increase the understanding of the objectives of spraying in the communities. The frequency of side effects was low, but higher in localities where a combination of insecticides was applied. This is a limitation for the use of this type of resistance management strategy in public health.

  8. Side effect experiences of South Korean women in their twenties and thirties after facial plastic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim YA

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Young A Kim,1 Hyang-In Cho Chung2 1Department of Nursing, Jeju National University College of Nursing, Jeju-si, Republic of Korea; 2Department of Nursing, Chonnam National University College of Nursing, Gwangju, Republic of Korea Background: Rates of plastic surgery procedures have increased dramatically over the past several decades, especially for the women in South Korea.Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the subjective experience of South Korean women in their twenties and thirties with facial plastic surgery (FPS side effects.Participants and methods: Seven women who have suffered from FPS side effects participated in this study. Data were collected from July to September 2015 through individual in-depth interviews using open-ended questions and analyzed using Colaizzi’s method, which is a Husserlian phenomenological approach.Results: Six themes, and 25 subthemes, were found. Major themes were “choosing FPS to gain a new self”, “facing an unintended self”, “trying to accept a changed self”, “making efforts to overcome the situation”, “coming to know a new world”, and “pursuing a new lifestyle”.Conclusion: This study raises social awareness on the risk of plastic surgery side effects, which could prevent unnecessary plastic surgery. It also suggests the need for a deeper understanding of women’s biopsychosocial suffering from plastic surgery side effects. Keywords: cosmetic surgery, aesthetic plastic surgery, qualitative research, interview 

  9. Side effects of Deferasirox Iron Chelation in Patients with Beta Thalassemia Major or Intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtadha Al-Khabori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Chelating agents remain the mainstay in reducing the iron burden and extending patient survival in homozygous beta-thalassemia but adverse and toxic effects may increase with the institution and long term use of this essential therapy. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of deferasirox (DFX side effects in patients with thalassemia major or intermedia.Methods: A retrospective study of 72 patients (mean age: 20.3±0.9 yrs; 36 male, 36 female with thalassemia major or intermedia treated at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, was performed to assess the incidence of side effects related to deferasirox over a mean of 16.7 month follow-up period.Results: Six patients experienced rashes and 6 had gastro-intestinal upset. DFX was discontinued in 18 patients for the following reasons: persistent progressive rise(s in serum creatinine (7 patients; 40% mean serum creatinine rise from baseline, feeling unwell (2, severe diarrhea (1, pregnancy (1, death unrelated to chelator (2 and rise in serum transaminases (2. Three patients were reverted to desferoxamine and deferiprone combination therapy as DFX was no longer biochemically effective after 18 months of therapy. There was no correlation between baseline serum ferritin and serum creatinine or a rise in serum creatinine. Cardiac MRI T2* did not change with DFX therapy. However, there was an improvement in liver MRI T2* (p=0.013.Conclusion: Renal side effects related to deferasirox appear to be higher than those reported in published clinical trials. Further larger studies are required to confirm these findings.

  10. Image-guided preoperative prediction of pyramidal tract side effect in deep brain stimulation: proof of concept and application to the pyramidal tract side effect induced by pallidal stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgarten, Clement; Zhao, Yulong; Sauleau, Paul; Malrain, Cecile; Jannin, Pierre; Haegelen, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the medial globus pallidus (GPm) is a surgical procedure for treating patients suffering from Parkinson���s disease. Its therapeutic effect may be limited by the presence of pyramidal tract side effect (PTSE). PTSE is a contraction time-locked to the stimulation when the current spreading reaches the motor fibers of the pyramidal tract within the internal capsule. The objective of the study was to propose a preoperative predictive model of PTSE. A machine learning-ba...

  11. Bronchoalveolar lavage in patients with interstitial lung diseases: side effects and factors affecting fluid recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, D P; Haslam, P L; Townsend, P J; Primett, Z; Collins, J V; Turner-Warwick, M

    1986-05-01

    One hundred and seventy patients with interstitial lung diseases undergoing bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), were contrasted with 51 patients undergoing fibreoptic bronchoscopy alone to define the factors which predispose to post-lavage side-effects. Transient post-bronchoscopy fall in the peak expired flow (PEF) greater than or equal to 20% occurred in both groups (24% and 23% respectively), and thus was probably related to the bronchoscopy procedure. Post-lavage pyrexia (greater than or equal to 1 degree C) occurred only in the patients undergoing BAL (26%), p less than 0.001. Only 4% with pyrexia required antibiotics, and only 2% with falls in PEF needed bronchodilator therapy. The only significant clinical association was more frequent pyrexia in patients on treatment with prednisolone, particularly in women (p less than 0.01). Pyrexia was also associated with higher lavage fluid introduction volumes (greater than 240 ml). Side effects did not relate to the percentages of lavage fluid recovered, although smokers had lower recoveries and, recoveries tended to be higher in sarcoidosis than cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis. Serial lavages in 25 patients caused no significant increase in side effects.

  12. Assessing unilateral merger effects in a two-sided market : An application to the Dutch daily newspaper market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filistrucchi, L.; Klein, T.J.; Michielsen, T.O.

    2012-01-01

    We compare different methods to assess unilateral merger effects in a two-sided market by applying them to a hypothetical merger in the Dutch newspaper industry. We first specify and estimate a structural model of demand for differentiated products in both the readership and the advertising sides of

  13. Effect of small sided handball game on aerobic capacity and repeated sprint ability of male handball players

    OpenAIRE

    CHITTIBABU, Balasubramanian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of four and eight weeks small-sided handball game on aerobic capacity and repeated sprint ability of male handball players. Sixteen (16) male university handball players volunteered to act as subjects and were randomly assigned to small-sided handball game group (SSHG) and control group (CG).  Small-sided handball game was administered three days in a week for eight weeks. Subjects were measured on aerobic capacity, total sprint time and ...

  14. Comparison of side effects of pentagastrin test and calcium stimulation test in patients with increased basal calcitonin concentration: the gender-specific differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubl, Philipp; Gincu, Tatiana; Keilani, Mohammad; Ponhold, Lothar; Crevenna, Richard; Niederle, Bruno; Hacker, Marcus; Li, Shuren

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the side effects of the pentagastrin test and the calcium stimulation test in patients with increased basal calcitonin concentration, especially the gender-specific differences of side effects. A total of 256 patients (123 females and 133 males, mean age of 56 ± 27 years, range 21-83 years) had both pentagastrin and calcium stimulation tests. All patients filled in a questionnaire regarding the side effects within 30 min after completion of the stimulation tests. The differences of side effects between female and male patients as well as between the pentagastrin stimulation test and the calcium stimulation test were evaluated. Warmth feeling was the most frequent occurring side effect in all patients who had both pentagastrin and calcium stimulation tests, followed by nausea, altered gustatory sensation, and dizziness. The incidences of urgency to micturate (p stimulation test. Significant higher incidences of urgency to micturate (p stimulation test as compared with those by pentagastrin test in female patients. The incidences of nausea (p stimulation test than by calcium stimulation test. There is a significant gender-specific difference in side effects induced by calcium stimulation test. Female patients have fewer side effects by pentagastrin test than by calcium stimulation test. Male patients may tolerate the calcium stimulation test better than the pentagastrin test.

  15. 单面与双面信息广告重复效应的实证研究%An Empirical Study on One-sided VS Two-sided Advertising's Repetition Effect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代祺; 梁樑

    2011-01-01

    By introducing the variable of business ethics perception and integrating Optimal Arousal Theory, Processing Fluency Model, Attribution Theory and Two Factor Theory, the study compares the repetition effects differences between one and two-sided advertisements. Using inter-group experiment design, the results suggest that two-sided advertisements are processed less fluently than one-sided ones, but the percentage of accurate recall and advertisement response are higher than its counterpart. The repetition effects are inverted U shape for one-side advertisements and monotonic increase for two-sided advertisements. Thus, the wearing out effects of two-sided advertisements is delayed. The diversity in perception of business ethics play important role in determining this differences.%通过引入企业道德感知变量,并在整合最优唤醒理论、加工流畅模型、归因理论和两因素理论的基础上,深入剖析了单、双面信息广告重复效应的差异.研究结果表明:双面信息广告比单面信息广告加工更困难,但消费者对其广告正确回忆率更高,广告反应也更积极.单面信息广告的重复效应呈现先增后减的倒U趋势,而双面信息广告的重复效应呈单调递增趋势,疲劳效应延迟出现.消费者对企业道德感知的差异在很大程度上决定了单、双面信息广告重复效应的差异.

  16. Immediate side effects of stereotactic radiotherapy and radiosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner-Wasik, Maria; Rudoler, Shari; Preston, Peter E.; Hauck, Walter W.; Downes, Beverly M.; Leeper, Dennis; Andrews, David; Corn, Benjamin W.; Curran, Walter J.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Despite increased utilization of fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy (SRT) or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), the incidence and nature of immediate side effects (ISE) associated with these treatment techniques are not well defined. We report immediate side effects from a series of 78 patients. Materials and Methods: Intracranial lesions in 78 adult patients were treated with SRT or SRS, using a dedicated linear accelerator. Those lesions included 13 gliomas, 2 ependymomas, 19 metastatic tumors, 15 meningiomas, 12 acoustic neuromas, 4 pituitary adenomas, 1 optic neuroma, 1 chondrosarcoma, and 11 arteriovenous malformations (AVM). SRT was used in 51 and SRS in 27 patients. Mean target volume was 9.0 cc. Eleven patients received prior external-beam radiation therapy within 2 months before SRT/SRS. Any side effects occurring during and up to 2 weeks after the course of radiation were defined as ISE and were graded as mild, moderate, or severe. The incidence of ISE and the significance of their association with several treatment and pretreatment variables were analyzed. Results: Overall, 28 (35%) of 78 patients experienced one or more ISE. Most of the ISE (87%) were mild, and consisted of nausea (in 5), dizziness/vertigo (in 5), seizures (in 6), and new persistent headaches (in 17). Two episodes of worsening neurological deficit and 2 of orbital pain were graded as moderate. Two patients experienced severe ISE, requiring hospitalization (1 seizure and 1 worsening neurological deficit). ISE in 6 cases prompted computerized tomography of the brain, which revealed increased perilesional edema in 3 cases. The incidence of ISE by diagnosis was as follows: 46% (6 of 13) for gliomas, 50% (6 of 12) for acoustic neuromas, 36% (4 of 11) for AVM, 33% (5 of 15) for meningiomas, and 21% (4 of 19) for metastases. A higher incidence of dizziness/vertigo (4 of 12 = 33%) was seen among acoustic neuroma patients than among other patients (p < 0.01). There was no

  17. Side-effects of improving CERN's spam filter

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    To further improve the fight against spam (unsolicited email), CERN implemented in June a mechanism that returns electronic mail messages to the sender if the originating server is wrongly configured. This "reverse DNS lookup" is an increasingly widespread technique to identify whether the sending e-mail server is legitimate and has a valid host name. This change has nearly doubled the spam rejection efficiency at CERN. However, it has a known side-effect. A small number of correspondents are sending legitimate electronic mail to CERN from mail servers that are incorrectly configured (in technical terms, they do not have a reverse DNS registration). These persons will have their messages returned to them with an error message, provided their sender address is valid. The typical error message that the correspondent receives in such cases is "Relaying denied. No reverse DNS configured for IP". If a correspondent complains to you that emails they are sending you at CERN are being returned with...

  18. Self-reported hair loss in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria treated with omalizumab: an under-reported, transient side effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinou, G N; Chioti, A G; Daniilidis, M

    2016-09-01

    Omalizumab has been recently approved for treating patients with refractory to H1- antihistamines chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). Although hair loss is listed among omalizumab side effects, there are no available data to estimate its frequency. We describe for the first time hair loss as a side effect associated with omalizumab administration in three women, 38, 62 and 70 years old, suffering from refractory to H1-antihistamines CSU. This information was retrieved from their Chronic Urticaria Quality of Life Questionnaires. Despite this side effect, all patients agreed to continue omalizumab regular administration. Hair loss appeared to be transient, lasting up to four months. All cases finally benefited from omalizumab continuation.

  19. Radiotherapy and 'new' drugs-new side effects?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niyazi, Maximilian; Maihoefer, Cornelius; Krause, Mechthild; Rödel, Claus; Budach, Wilfried; Belka, Claus

    2011-01-01

    Targeted drugs have augmented the cancer treatment armamentarium. Based on the molecular specificity, it was initially believed that these drugs had significantly less side effects. However, currently it is accepted that all of these agents have their specific side effects. Based on the given multimodal approach, special emphasis has to be placed on putative interactions of conventional cytostatic drugs, targeted agents and other modalities. The interaction of targeted drugs with radiation harbours special risks, since the awareness for interactions and even synergistic toxicities is lacking. At present, only limited is data available regarding combinations of targeted drugs and radiotherapy. This review gives an overview on the current knowledge on such combined treatments. Using the following MESH headings and combinations of these terms pubmed database was searched: Radiotherapy AND cetuximab/trastuzumab/panitumumab/nimotuzumab, bevacizumab, sunitinib/sorafenib/lapatinib/gefitinib/erlotinib/sirolimus, thalidomide/lenalidomide as well as erythropoietin. For citation crosscheck the ISI web of science database was used employing the same search terms. Several classes of targeted substances may be distinguished: Small molecules including kinase inhibitors and specific inhibitors, antibodies, and anti-angiogenic agents. Combination of these agents with radiotherapy may lead to specific toxicities or negatively influence the efficacy of RT. Though there is only little information on the interaction of molecular targeted radiation and radiotherapy in clinical settings, several critical incidents are reported. The addition of molecular targeted drugs to conventional radiotherapy outside of approved regimens or clinical trials warrants a careful consideration especially when used in conjunction in hypo-fractionated regimens. Clinical trials are urgently needed in order to address the open question in regard to efficacy, early and late toxicity

  20. Minoxidil use in dermatology, side effects and recent patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Alfredo; Cantisani, Carmen; Melis, Luca; Iorio, Alessandra; Scali, Elisabetta; Calvieri, Stefano

    2012-05-01

    Minoxidil, a vasodilator medication known for its ability to slow or stop hair loss and promote hair regrowth, was first introduced, exclusively as an oral drug, to treat high blood pressure. It was however discovered to have the important side-effect of increasing growth or darkening of fine body hairs; this led to the development of a topical formulation as a 2% concentration solution for the treatment of female androgenic alopecia or 5% for treating male androgenic alopecia. Measurable changes disappear within months after discontinuation of treatment. The mechanism by which it promotes hair growth is not fully understood. Minoxidil is a potassium channel opener, causing hyperpolarization of cell membranes and it is also a vasodilator, it is speculated that, by widening blood vessels and opening potassium channels, it allows more oxygen, blood and nutrients to the follicle. This can also cause follicles in the telogen phase to shed, usually soon to be replaced by new, thicker hairs in a new anagen phase. It needs to be applied regularly, once or twice daily, for hair gained to be maintained, and side effects are common. The most common adverse reactions of the topical formulation are limited to irritant and allergic contact dermatitis on the scalp. There have been cases of allergic reactions to the nonactive ingredient propylene glycol, which is found in some topical solution especially if they are galenic. Increased hair loss which can occur during Minoxidil use, is due to the synchronization of the hair cycle that the treatment induces. In this review, we described its mechanism of action, use in dermatology and some patents related to alternative treatment of allergic reactions due to its use.

  1. Coping with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life from the perspective of cancer patients: A qualitative empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Koktved, Dorte Pallesen; Nielsen, Lene Lyngø

    Aim The aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of how patients cope with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life. Background Patients receiving cancer treatment experience acute side effects and need individualized information and guidance in order to manage treatment......-related adverse events in everyday life. However development in cancer treatment and the societal demands for efficiency may limit the possibility for individualized support. Methods Nine patients were interviewed from March to July 2009 to explore the patients’ experience of coping with side effects in daily...

  2. The flip side of “Spice”: The adverse effects of synthetic cannabinoids as discussed on a Swedish Internet forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soussan Christophe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND - Synthetic cannabinoids in smoking mixtures (such as Spice or as raw powder are sold for recreational use as an alternative to herbal cannabis (hashish and marijuana. Although clinical case studies have documented an array of side effects, there is also information available at Internet based drug discussion forums. AIM - Our study investigates experiences of side effects from use of synthetic cannabinoids, as described and anonymously shared on Swedish online discussion forums. METHODS - A systematic search yielded 254 unique and publicly available self-reports from the Swedish forum flashback.org. These texts were analysed thematically, which resulted in 32 sub-themes, which were combined into three overarching themes. RESULTS & CONCLUSION - The experiences of negative side effects were described as (1 Adverse reactions during acute intoxication; (2 Hangover the day after intoxication; (3 Dependency and withdrawal after long-term use. The first theme was characterized by an array of fierce and unpredictable side effects as tachycardia, anxiety, fear and nausea. The acute intoxication reactions were congruent with the side effects published in clinical case studies. The day after intoxication included residual effects of dullness, apathy, nausea and headache. Long-term use resulted in dependency and experiences of being emotionally numb and disconnected. Furthermore, withdrawal was described as sweating, shaking, loss of appetite and insomnia. Both the hangover and the long-term effects have previously been given little scientific attention and need to be investigated further. Drug related Internet discussion forums constitute an overlooked source of information which can aid in the identification of previously unknown risks and effects

  3. Short- and Long-Term Effects of Conscious, Minimally Conscious and Unconscious Brand Logos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordts, Sarah; Soetens, Eric; Van den Bussche, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Unconsciously presented information can influence our behavior in an experimental context. However, whether these effects can be translated to a daily life context, such as advertising, is strongly debated. What hampers this translation is the widely accepted notion of the short-livedness of unconscious representations. The effect of unconscious information on behavior is assumed to rapidly vanish within a few hundreds of milliseconds. Using highly familiar brand logos (e.g., the logo of McDonald's) as subliminal and supraliminal primes in two priming experiments, we assessed whether these logos were able to elicit behavioral effects after a short (e.g., 350 ms), a medium (e.g., 1000 ms), and a long (e.g., 5000 ms) interval. Our results demonstrate that when real-life information is presented minimally consciously or even unconsciously, it can influence our subsequent behavior, even when more than five seconds pass between the presentation of the minimally conscious or unconscious information and the behavior on which it exerts its influence. PMID:23658681

  4. Short- and long-term effects of conscious, minimally conscious and unconscious brand logos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscarella, Charlotte; Brintazzoli, Gigliola; Gordts, Sarah; Soetens, Eric; Van den Bussche, Eva

    2013-01-01

    Unconsciously presented information can influence our behavior in an experimental context. However, whether these effects can be translated to a daily life context, such as advertising, is strongly debated. What hampers this translation is the widely accepted notion of the short-livedness of unconscious representations. The effect of unconscious information on behavior is assumed to rapidly vanish within a few hundreds of milliseconds. Using highly familiar brand logos (e.g., the logo of McDonald's) as subliminal and supraliminal primes in two priming experiments, we assessed whether these logos were able to elicit behavioral effects after a short (e.g., 350 ms), a medium (e.g., 1000 ms), and a long (e.g., 5000 ms) interval. Our results demonstrate that when real-life information is presented minimally consciously or even unconsciously, it can influence our subsequent behavior, even when more than five seconds pass between the presentation of the minimally conscious or unconscious information and the behavior on which it exerts its influence.

  5. Short- and long-term effects of conscious, minimally conscious and unconscious brand logos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Muscarella

    Full Text Available Unconsciously presented information can influence our behavior in an experimental context. However, whether these effects can be translated to a daily life context, such as advertising, is strongly debated. What hampers this translation is the widely accepted notion of the short-livedness of unconscious representations. The effect of unconscious information on behavior is assumed to rapidly vanish within a few hundreds of milliseconds. Using highly familiar brand logos (e.g., the logo of McDonald's as subliminal and supraliminal primes in two priming experiments, we assessed whether these logos were able to elicit behavioral effects after a short (e.g., 350 ms, a medium (e.g., 1000 ms, and a long (e.g., 5000 ms interval. Our results demonstrate that when real-life information is presented minimally consciously or even unconsciously, it can influence our subsequent behavior, even when more than five seconds pass between the presentation of the minimally conscious or unconscious information and the behavior on which it exerts its influence.

  6. Analysis and minimization of overtraining effect in rule-based classifiers for computer-aided diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qiang; Doi Kunio

    2006-01-01

    Computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) schemes have been developed to assist radiologists detect various lesions in medical images. In CAD schemes, classifiers play a key role in achieving a high lesion detection rate and a low false-positive rate. Although many popular classifiers such as linear discriminant analysis and artificial neural networks have been employed in CAD schemes for reduction of false positives, a rule-based classifier has probably been the simplest and most frequently used one since the early days of development of various CAD schemes. However, with existing rule-based classifiers, there are major disadvantages that significantly reduce their practicality and credibility. The disadvantages include manual design, poor reproducibility, poor evaluation methods such as resubstitution, and a large overtraining effect. An automated rule-based classifier with a minimized overtraining effect can overcome or significantly reduce the extent of the above-mentioned disadvantages. In this study, we developed an 'optimal' method for the selection of cutoff thresholds and a fully automated rule-based classifier. Experimental results performed with Monte Carlo simulation and a real lung nodule CT data set demonstrated that the automated threshold selection method can completely eliminate overtraining effect in the procedure of cutoff threshold selection, and thus can minimize overall overtraining effect in the constructed rule-based classifier. We believe that this threshold selection method is very useful in the construction of automated rule-based classifiers with minimized overtraining effect

  7. Minimalism

    CERN Document Server

    Obendorf, Hartmut

    2009-01-01

    The notion of Minimalism is proposed as a theoretical tool supporting a more differentiated understanding of reduction and thus forms a standpoint that allows definition of aspects of simplicity. This book traces the development of minimalism, defines the four types of minimalism in interaction design, and looks at how to apply it.

  8. In vivo evaluation on the effects of HemoHIM in promoting anticancer activities and reducing the side-effects of anticancer drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran; Ju, Eun Jin; Cho, Eun Hee

    2009-07-01

    In this project, we aimed to obtain the preclinical in vivo evaluation data for the development of the herbal composition (HemoHIM) as the auxiliary agent for the anticancer treatment that can reduce the side-effects of anticancer drugs and enhance their anticancer activities. Firstly, in vitro studies showed that HemoHIM did not show any effects on the tumor cell growth inhibition by 2 anticancer drugs (cisplatin, 5-FU), which indicated that at least HemoHIM does not exert any adverse effects on the activities of anticancer drugs. Next, the in vivo studies with mice implanted with tumor cells(B16F0, LLC1) showed that HemoHIM partially enhanced the anticancer activities of drugs (cisplatin, 5-FU), and improved endogenous anticancer immune activities. Furthermore, in the same animal models, HemoHIM effectively reduced the side-effects of anticancer drugs (liver and renal toxicities by cisplatin, immune and hematopoietic disorders by 5-FU). These results collectively showed that HemoHIM can enhance the activities of anticancer drugs and reduce their side-effects in vitro and in vivo and HemoHIM does not exert any adverse effects on the efficacy of anticancer drugs. The results of this project can be utilized as the basic preclinical data for the development and approval of HemoHIM as the auxiliary agent for the anticancer treatment

  9. In vivo evaluation on the effects of HemoHIM in promoting anticancer activities and reducing the side-effects of anticancer drugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Sung Kee; Jung, U Hee; Park, Hae Ran; Ju, Eun Jin; Cho, Eun Hee

    2009-07-15

    In this project, we aimed to obtain the preclinical in vivo evaluation data for the development of the herbal composition (HemoHIM) as the auxiliary agent for the anticancer treatment that can reduce the side-effects of anticancer drugs and enhance their anticancer activities. Firstly, in vitro studies showed that HemoHIM did not show any effects on the tumor cell growth inhibition by 2 anticancer drugs (cisplatin, 5-FU), which indicated that at least HemoHIM does not exert any adverse effects on the activities of anticancer drugs. Next, the in vivo studies with mice implanted with tumor cells(B16F0, LLC1) showed that HemoHIM partially enhanced the anticancer activities of drugs (cisplatin, 5-FU), and improved endogenous anticancer immune activities. Furthermore, in the same animal models, HemoHIM effectively reduced the side-effects of anticancer drugs (liver and renal toxicities by cisplatin, immune and hematopoietic disorders by 5-FU). These results collectively showed that HemoHIM can enhance the activities of anticancer drugs and reduce their side-effects in vitro and in vivo and HemoHIM does not exert any adverse effects on the efficacy of anticancer drugs. The results of this project can be utilized as the basic preclinical data for the development and approval of HemoHIM as the auxiliary agent for the anticancer treatment

  10. Side effects after radiotherapy of age-related macular degeneration with the Nijmegen technique.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoyng, C.B.; Tromp, A.I.; Meulendijks, C.F.M.; Leys, A.; Maazen, R.W.M. van der; Deutman, A.F.; Vingerling, J.R.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In a randomized trial concerning radiotherapy for age-related macular degeneration, fluorescein angiograms were taken of controls and patients. In this study the frequency of side effects in eyes receiving radiotherapy with the Nijmegen technique is compared with the findings in the eyes

  11. "Every method seems to have its problems"- Perspectives on side effects of hormonal contraceptives in Morogoro Region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebet, Joy J; McMahon, Shannon A; Greenspan, Jesse A; Mosha, Idda H; Callaghan-Koru, Jennifer A; Killewo, Japhet; Baqui, Abdullah H; Winch, Peter J

    2015-11-03

    Family planning has been shown to be an effective intervention for promoting maternal, newborn and child health. Despite family planning's multiple benefits, women's experiences of - or concerns related to - side effects present a formidable barrier to the sustained use of contraceptives, particularly in the postpartum period. This paper presents perspectives of postpartum, rural, Tanzanian women, their partners, public opinion leaders and community and health facility providers related to side effects associated with contraceptive use. Qualitative interviews were conducted with postpartum women (n = 34), their partners (n = 23), community leaders (n = 12) and health providers based in both facilities (n = 12) and communities (n = 19) across Morogoro Region, Tanzania. Following data collection, digitally recorded data were transcribed, translated and coded using thematic analysis. Respondents described family planning positively due to the health and economic benefits associated with limiting and spacing births. However, side effects were consistently cited as a reason that women and their partners choose to forgo family planning altogether, discontinue methods, switch methods or use methods in an intermittent (and ineffective) manner. Respondents detailed side effects including excessive menstrual bleeding, missed menses, weight gain and fatigue. Women, their partners and community leaders also described concerns that contraceptives could induce sterility in women, or harm breastfeeding children via contamination of breast milk. Use of family planning during the postpartum period was viewed as particularly detrimental to a newborn's health in the first months of life. To meet Tanzania's national target of increasing contraceptive use from 34 to 60 % by 2015, appropriate counseling and dialogue on contraceptive side effects that speaks to pressing concerns outlined by women, their partners, communities and service providers are needed.

  12. Unintended Side Effects of Digital Transition: Perspectives of Japanese Experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Sugiyama

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The core of the digital transition is the representation of all kinds of real-world entities and processes and an increasing number of cognitive processes by digital information and algorithms on computers. These allow for seemingly unlimited storage, operation, retrieval, and transmission capacities that make digital tools economically available for all domains of society and empower human action, particularly combined with real-world interfaces such as displays, robots, sensors, 3D printers, etc. Digital technologies are general-purpose technologies providing unprecedented potential benefits for sustainability. However, they will bring about a multitude of potential unintended side effects, and this demands a transdisciplinary discussion on unwanted societal changes as well as a shift in science from analog to digital modeling and structure. Although social discourse has begun, the topical scope and regional coverage have been limited. Here, we report on an expert roundtable on digital transition held in February 2017 in Tokyo, Japan. Drawing on a variety of disciplinary backgrounds, our discussions highlight the importance of cultural contexts and the need to bridge local and global conversations. Although Japanese experts did mention side effects, their focus was on how to ensure that AI and robots could coexist with humans. Such a perspective is not well appreciated everywhere outside Japan. Stakeholder dialogues have already begun in Japan, but greater efforts are needed to engage a broader collection of experts in addition to stakeholders to broaden the social debate.

  13. Understanding the side effects of emission trading: implications for waste management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braschel, Nina; Posch, Alfred; Pierer, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    The trading of emission allowances is an important market instrument in climate policy. However, the inclusion of certain branches of industry in the trading system not only provides incentives for emission reduction, it also entails unwanted side effects. Thus, the objective of the present study is to identify such side effects-positive and negative-by examining the potential impact of waste management inclusion in the European Union Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS). Desk research was supplemented with qualitative and quantitative empirical analysis (based on expert interviews and a questionnaire) in order to analyse the related perceptions and expectations of actors and stakeholders. The impact of waste management inclusion in the EU ETS is analysed in terms of the following three areas: (i) costs and cost pass-through, (ii), competitiveness and market position, and (iii) carbon leakage. Concerning expectations in the area of costs, both the interviewed experts and the practitioners surveyed thought that costs were likely to increase or that they could be passed on to customers. However, experts and practitioners differed with respect to the possibility of carbon leakage. Clearly, increased knowledge of the possible impact arising from inclusion of the waste sector in the EU ETS would enable managers to become more proactive and to manage waste streams and treatment options more economically.

  14. The dysfunctional side effects of quantitative indicator production: illustration from mental health care (a message from Chicken Little).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, P E

    1984-01-01

    In the current context of economic conservation, accountability and retrenchment from social programs, justification is required in order to maintain human service capacity. In this effort, evaluation is a key component. Yet desire to base action upon information resulting from evaluation must be tempered by increased attention to the effects of the evaluation process. All too often premature application of quantitative indicators formerly used for individual assessment and research to bureaucratic decision making produces side effects that are dysfunctional in nature. Frequently these side effects influence service delivery directly. More insidious, because they are less easily discerned, are distortions introduced into the data by evaluation pressure. These not only delay effects on service but also impair understanding of the very process they are meant to illuminate. In order to illustrate this phenomenon, the author reviews a general literature and utilized examples from mental health care. Common themes are identified and a tentative theory of side effect generation proposed.

  15. Analytical minimization of overall conductance and heat transfer area in refrigeration and heat pump systems and its numerical confirmation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, J.; Bhattacharyya, Souvik; Ram Gopal, M.

    2007-01-01

    Minimization of heat exchanger area for a specified capacity is very important in the design of refrigeration and heat pump systems, yielding space, weight and cost benefits. In this study, minimization of overall conductance and total area per unit capacity of refrigeration and heat pump systems has been performed analytically. The analysis is performed for constant temperature heat sources and sinks considering both internal and external irreversibilities. Expressions are obtained for optimum hot and cold side refrigerant temperatures, conductance and heat exchanger area ratios. The analytical results have been confirmed by those obtained from a detailed numerical simulation of actual ammonia based refrigeration and heat pump systems, and good agreement is observed. Such theoretical models can be employed as simple yet effective design guidelines for real systems as demonstrated here

  16. Assessment side light effects in patients after implantation of different models IOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Chuprov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate the side effects of light in patients after implantation of IOLs of different models.Methods: the study involved 192 patients (216 eyes operated for cataract (3 groups of patients. the average age of patients was 63±0.78 years. Follow-up was 12 months. the first group included 63 patients (72 eyes after cataract extraction and implantation of the national refractive-diffractive trifocal IOL MIOL-Record 3. the second group included 64 patients (70 eyes after cataract extraction and implantation of domestic bifocal IOL refractive-diffractive MIOL-Acсord. the third group consisted of 65 patients (74 eyes after cataract extraction and IOL implantation domestic monofocal MIOL-2. the postoperative questionnaire (using a detailed oral interview was conducted after 1 week, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. the patient is asked about the presence of these light effects: flashes of light, circles of light scatter at the sight of the light source, flash, glitter, glimmer, blindingly bright light.Results: At 2.77% (2 patients of cases in patients with MIOL-Record 3 in a detailed survey in the postoperative period revealed light effects. In patients with MIOL-Accord and MIOL-2 light effects were 2.85% (2 patients and 1.35% (1 patient. the difference between the groups was not statistically reliable.Conclusion: this study found no statistically significant increase of side light effects in patients with multifocal IOLs comparedwith monofocal IOLs.

  17. Assessment side light effects in patients after implantation of different models IOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Chuprov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to evaluate the side effects of light in patients after implantation of IOLs of different models.Methods: the study involved 192 patients (216 eyes operated for cataract (3 groups of patients. the average age of patients was 63±0.78 years. Follow-up was 12 months. the first group included 63 patients (72 eyes after cataract extraction and implantation of the national refractive-diffractive trifocal IOL MIOL-Record 3. the second group included 64 patients (70 eyes after cataract extraction and implantation of domestic bifocal IOL refractive-diffractive MIOL-Acсord. the third group consisted of 65 patients (74 eyes after cataract extraction and IOL implantation domestic monofocal MIOL-2. the postoperative questionnaire (using a detailed oral interview was conducted after 1 week, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. the patient is asked about the presence of these light effects: flashes of light, circles of light scatter at the sight of the light source, flash, glitter, glimmer, blindingly bright light.Results: At 2.77% (2 patients of cases in patients with MIOL-Record 3 in a detailed survey in the postoperative period revealed light effects. In patients with MIOL-Accord and MIOL-2 light effects were 2.85% (2 patients and 1.35% (1 patient. the difference between the groups was not statistically reliable.Conclusion: this study found no statistically significant increase of side light effects in patients with multifocal IOLs comparedwith monofocal IOLs.

  18. Bladder Contracture – A Rare and Serious Side Effect of Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Instillation of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG is an effective treatment for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC. The high incidence of side effects may limit its tolerability in patients. Local side effects including cystitis and hematuria are common but generally self-limiting. Bladder contractures are a rare but serious consequence of BCG treatment. In this case, an 82 year-old male developed BCG reactivation and subsequent bladder contractures following transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP three years post-BCG. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of BCG reactivation post-TURP leading to the rare but serious effect of bladder contractures.

  19. Minimal Walking Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foadi, Roshan; Frandsen, Mads Toudal; A. Ryttov, T.

    2007-01-01

    Different theoretical and phenomenological aspects of the Minimal and Nonminimal Walking Technicolor theories have recently been studied. The goal here is to make the models ready for collider phenomenology. We do this by constructing the low energy effective theory containing scalars......, pseudoscalars, vector mesons and other fields predicted by the minimal walking theory. We construct their self-interactions and interactions with standard model fields. Using the Weinberg sum rules, opportunely modified to take into account the walking behavior of the underlying gauge theory, we find...... interesting relations for the spin-one spectrum. We derive the electroweak parameters using the newly constructed effective theory and compare the results with the underlying gauge theory. Our analysis is sufficiently general such that the resulting model can be used to represent a generic walking technicolor...

  20. Steam consumption minimization model in a multiple evaporation effect in a sugar plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villada, Fernando; Valencia, Jaime A; Moreno, German; Murillo, J. Joaquin

    1992-01-01

    In this work, a mathematical model to minimize the steam consumption in a multiple effect evaporation system is shown. The model is based in the dynamic programming technique and the results are tested in a Colombian sugar mill

  1. Patient satisfaction and side effects in primary care: An observational study comparing homeopathy and conventional medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thurneysen André

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study is part of a nationwide evaluation of complementary medicine in Switzerland (Programme Evaluation of Complementary Medicine PEK and was funded by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health. The main objective of this study is to investigate patient satisfaction and perception of side effects in homeopathy compared with conventional care in a primary care setting. Methods We examined data from two cross-sectional studies conducted in 2002–2003. The first study was a physician questionnaire assessing structural characteristics of practices. The second study was conducted on four given days during a 12-month period in 2002/2003 using a physician and patient questionnaire at consultation and a patient questionnaire mailed to the patient one month later (including Europep questionnaire. The participating physicians were all trained and licensed in conventional medicine. An additional qualification was required for medical doctors providing homeopathy (membership in the Swiss association of homeopathic physicians SVHA. Results A total of 6778 adult patients received the questionnaire and 3126 responded (46.1%. Statistically significant differences were found with respect to health status (higher percentage of chronic and severe conditions in the homeopathic group, perception of side effects (higher percentage of reported side effects in the conventional group and patient satisfaction (higher percentage of satisfied patients in the homeopathic group. Conclusion Overall patient satisfaction was significantly higher in homeopathic than in conventional care. Homeopathic treatments were perceived as a low-risk therapy with two to three times fewer side effects than conventional care

  2. The psychiatric side-effects of rimonabant Os efeitos-colaterais psiquiátricos do rimonabanto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício A. Moreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Experimental evidence has suggested that drugs that enhance cannabinoid type-1 (CB1 receptor activity may induce anxiolytic and antidepressant effects, whilst the opposite has been reported with antagonists. Thus, the objective of the present review is to discuss the potential psychiatric side-effects of CB1 receptor antagonists, such as rimonabant, which has been recently marketed in several countries for the treatment of smoking cessation, obesity and associated metabolic disorders. METHOD: Literature searches were performed in PubMed and SciELO databases up to February 2009. The terms searched were "obesity", "rimonabant", "cannabinoids", "unwanted effects", "diabetes", "smoking cessation" and "side-effects". RESULTS: Clinical trials have revealed that rimonabant may promote weight loss in obese patients, although it may also induce symptoms of anxiety and depression. DISCUSSION: Patients taking CB1 receptor antagonists should be carefully investigated for psychiatric side-effects. These drugs should not be prescribed for those already suffering from mental disorders. Nevertheless, the development of new compounds targeting the endocannabinoid system for the treatment of several conditions would be necessary and opportune.OBJETIVO: Evidência experimental sugere que drogas que aumentam a atividade dos receptores canabinóides tipo 1 (CB1 podem induzir efeitos ansiolíticos ou antidepressivos, enquanto que o oposto tem sido relatado com antagonistas. Assim, o objetivo da presente revisão é discutir os potenciais efeitos-colaterais psiquiátricos de antagonistas do receptor CB1, como o rimonabanto, que foi recentemente liberado para comercialização em diversos países para o tratamento do tabagismo, obesidade e de desordens metabólicas associadas. MÉTODO: Foi realizada uma busca na literatura no PubMed e Scielo até fevereiro de 2009, com os termos "obesity", "rimonabant", "cannabinoids", "unwanted effects", "diabetes

  3. Minimal Flavour Violation and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Isidori, Gino

    2012-01-01

    We review the formulation of the Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV) hypothesis in the quark sector, as well as some "variations on a theme" based on smaller flavour symmetry groups and/or less minimal breaking terms. We also review how these hypotheses can be tested in B decays and by means of other flavour-physics observables. The phenomenological consequences of MFV are discussed both in general terms, employing a general effective theory approach, and in the specific context of the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the SM.

  4. Daily-diary evaluated side-effects of conformal versus conventional prostatic cancer radiotherapy technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widmark, A.; Fransson, P.; Franzen, L.; Littbrand, B.; Henriksson, R.

    1997-01-01

    Conventional 4-field box radiotherapy technique induces high morbidity for patients with localized prostatic cancer. Using a patient daily diary, the present study compared side-effects after conventional radiotherapy with conformal radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Fifty-eight patients treated with the conventional technique (with or without sucralfate) were compared with 72 patients treated with conformal technique. The patient groups were compared with an age-matched control population. Patients treated with conformal technique were also evaluated regarding acute and late urinary problems. Results showed that patients treated with conformal technique reported significantly fewer side-effects as compared with conventional technique. Patients treated with sucralfate also showed slightly decreased intestinal morbidity in comparison to non-sucralfate group. Acute and late morbidity evaluated by the patients was decreased after conformal radiotherapy as compared with the conventional technique. Sucralfate may be of value if conformal radiotherapy is used for dose escalation in prostatic cancer patients. (orig.)

  5. Cholestatic hepatitis as a possible new side-effect of oxycodone: a case report

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    Ho Vincent

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Oxycodone is a widely-used semisynthetic opioid analgesic that has been used for over eighty years. Oxycodone is known to cause side effects such as nausea, pruritus, dizziness, constipation and somnolence. As far as we are aware cholestatic hepatitis as a result of oxycodone use has not been reported so far in the world literature. Case presentation A 34-year-old male presented with cholestatic jaundice and severe pruritus after receiving oxycodone for analgesia post-T11 vertebrectomy. Extensive laboratory investigations and imaging studies did not reveal any other obvious cause for his jaundice and a liver biopsy confirmed canalicular cholestatis suggestive of drug-induced hepatotoxicity. The patient's symptoms and transaminases normalised on withdrawal of oxycodone confirming that oxycodone was the probable cause of the patient's hepatotoxicity. Conclusion We conclude that cholestatic hepatitis is possibly a rare side effect of oxycodone use. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of this potentially serious picture of drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

  6. 'Triune' Protection and its Implications for the Minimal State

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    Jinglei Hu

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing the libertarian ideal, Robert Nozick’s Minimal State has been a classic model wherein individual rights are taken for granted, from which state power is derivative, and legitimate only if it protects and reinforces individual rights. However, the “protection” is not so limited as it appears to be and the feedback from the state to individuals is not always positive. A microscopic analysis of the “protection” proffered by minimal state reveals three constituents (retribution, preemption and prevention or preventive restraints, with “preventive restraints” being the most controversial and extensive, and conflicting with the rights as “side-constraints”. By rejecting “utilitarianism of rights”, Nozick sets out to optimally secure rights, yet in so doing, he could hardly reconcile the clash between “constraints” and “restraints”, the inviolable rights supposed to be protected and the protective measures supposed to limit rights

  7. Loss Minimizing Operation of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Based Wind Generation Systems Considering Reactive Power Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baohua, Zhang; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with control techniques for minimizing the operating loss of doubly fed induction generator based wind generation systems when providing reactive power. The proposed method achieves its goal through controlling the rotor side q-axis current in the synchronous reference frame...

  8. Probing the dark side of the Universe with weak gravitational lensing effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Li-Ping; Fan Zu-Hui

    2014-01-01

    Arising from gravitational deflections of light rays by large-scale structures in the Universe, weak-lensing effects have been recognized as one of the most important probes in cosmological studies. In this paper, we review the main progress in weak-lensing analyses, and discuss the challenges in future investigations aiming to understand the dark side of the Universe with unprecedented precisions. (invited reviews)

  9. Yoga-Based Rehabilitation Program in Reducing Physical and Emotional Side Effects in Patients With Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-23

    Alopecia; Anxiety; Breast Carcinoma; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Colorectal Carcinoma; Depression; Fatigue; Lung Carcinoma; Nausea and Vomiting; Pain; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Sleep Disorder; Weight Change

  10. Prevalence and Side Effects of Energy Drink Consumption among Medical Students at Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia

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    Naif A. Bawazeer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks are freely available at markets and shops on the university campus without regulation or proper education regarding its side effects. The caffeine amount within energy drinks is high and could become an addictive substance or cause intoxication. Therefore, this study aims to assess the prevalence of energy drink consumption and its reported side effects among medical students. Methods:A total number of 257 medical students from Umm Al-Qura University completed a questionnaire about energy drinks that was administrated electronically from September through November, 2012. Results:Out of the 257 participants, 27.2% (n=70 reported consuming at least one energy drink per month, with 61.5% (n=48 being males. Males consume significantly more energy drinks than females (p=0.0001. The students consumed energy drinks to get energy in general (32.8% and while studying for exams or finishing a project (31.4%. Other reasons given include, lack of sleep (12.8%, just to be like friends (11.4%, or driving (8.5%. Heart palpitations are the most common side effect in our sample (20%, followed by insomnia (10%, headache and tremors (5.7%, nausea and vomiting (4.2% and nervousness (2.8%. Conclusion: Energy drinks consumption is common practice among medical students and the main reason cited for consumption is the need for energy during general activities. Approximately one-third of the consumers manifested some side effect after consumption. We recommend the need to create public awareness about energy drinks. Further studies are recommended to assess the educational level of students consuming energy drinks, about the dangerous side effects.

  11. Side effects of endobronchial laser treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierkesmann, R.; Huzly, A.

    1985-03-01

    Side effects that have occurred in over 250 endobronchial laser treatments are reported. The laser has been used in severe tracheal and in bronchial obstructions. In two cases significant bleeding had to be treated with tamponade. In one patient an emphysema of the mediastinum developed, in 2 further patients a small pneumothorax. Perforation of the airway was not detected and no special treatment was necessary. Three patients with life-threatening tracheal stenoses and one patient with severe stenosis of both the mainstem bronchi due to metastasis in the bifurcation lymph node had a large defect in the tracheal or bronchial wall with a deep necrosis five to twelve weeks after laser treatment; all these patients had extensive radiotherapy in addition. One patient died due to severe respiratory insufficiency, probably caused by smoke intoxication. After the laser treatment, rubber-like fibrin-rich plaques may develop, which can lead to life-threatening obstructions of the airway. It is recommended that laser bronchoscopy should be performed with the rigid bronchoscope. After treatment of tracheal lesion an endoscopic check must be performed within 24 hours. The combination of laser treatment and radiotherapy seems to involve a certain risk of large defects in the bronchial wall due to necrosis of the tumor.

  12. Side Effects of Chloroquine and Primaquine and Symptom Reduction in Malaria Endemic Area (Mâncio Lima, Acre, Brazil

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    Cássio Braga e Braga

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Side effects of antimalarial drug can overlap with malaria symptoms. We evaluated 50 patients with vivax malaria in Mâncio Lima, Acre, treated with chloroquine and primaquine. Patients were evaluated for the presence of 21 symptoms before and after treatment and for reported side effects of these drugs after treatment was started. The most frequent symptoms before medication were headache, fever, chills, sweating, arthralgia, back pain, and weakness, which were present in between 40% and 76% of respondents. The treatment reduced the occurrence of these symptoms and reduced the lack of appetite, but gastrointestinal symptoms and choluria increased in frequency. There were no reports of pale stools before medication, but 12% reported the occurrence of this symptom after treatment started. Other symptoms such as blurred vision (54%, pruritus (22%, paresthesia (6%, insomnia (46%, and “stings” into the skin (22% were reported after chloroquine was taken. The antimalarial drugs used to treat P. vivax malaria reduce much of the systemic and algic symptoms but cause mainly gastrointestinal side effects that may lead to lack of adherence to drug treatment. It is important to guide the patient for the appearance and the transience of such side effects in order to avoid abandoning treatment.

  13. Minimal changes in health status questionnaires: distinction between minimally detectable change and minimally important change

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    Knol Dirk L

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Changes in scores on health status questionnaires are difficult to interpret. Several methods to determine minimally important changes (MICs have been proposed which can broadly be divided in distribution-based and anchor-based methods. Comparisons of these methods have led to insight into essential differences between these approaches. Some authors have tried to come to a uniform measure for the MIC, such as 0.5 standard deviation and the value of one standard error of measurement (SEM. Others have emphasized the diversity of MIC values, depending on the type of anchor, the definition of minimal importance on the anchor, and characteristics of the disease under study. A closer look makes clear that some distribution-based methods have been merely focused on minimally detectable changes. For assessing minimally important changes, anchor-based methods are preferred, as they include a definition of what is minimally important. Acknowledging the distinction between minimally detectable and minimally important changes is useful, not only to avoid confusion among MIC methods, but also to gain information on two important benchmarks on the scale of a health status measurement instrument. Appreciating the distinction, it becomes possible to judge whether the minimally detectable change of a measurement instrument is sufficiently small to detect minimally important changes.

  14. A Diffusion Model for Two-sided Service Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homma, Koichi; Yano, Koujin; Funabashi, Motohisa

    A diffusion model is proposed for two-sided service systems. ‘Two-sided’ refers to the existence of an economic network effect between two different and interrelated groups, e.g., card holders and merchants in an electronic money service. The service benefit for a member of one side depends on the number and quality of the members on the other side. A mathematical model by J. H. Rohlfs explains the network (or bandwagon) effect of communications services. In Rohlfs' model, only the users' group exists and the model is one-sided. This paper extends Rohlfs' model to a two-sided model. We propose, first, a micro model that explains individual behavior in regard to service subscription of both sides and a computational method that drives the proposed model. Second, we develop macro models with two diffusion-rate variables by simplifying the micro model. As a case study, we apply the models to an electronic money service and discuss the simulation results and actual statistics.

  15. Plasmapheresis reverses all side-effects of a cisplatin overdose – a case report and treatment recommendation

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    Ploner Ferdinand

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cisplatin is widely used as an antineoplastic agent since it is effective against a broad spectrum of different tumours. Nevertheless, it has several potential side effects affecting different organ systems and an overdose may lead to life-threatening complications and even death. Case presentation We report on a 46-year old woman with non-small cell lung cancer who accidentally received 225 mg/m2 of cisplatin, which was threefold the dose as scheduled, within a 3-day period. Two days later, the patient presented with hearing loss, severe nausea and vomiting, acute renal failure as well as elevated liver enzymes. In addition, she developed a severe myelodepression. After plasmapheresis on two consecutive days and vigorous supportive treatment, the toxicity-related symptoms improved and the patient recovered without any sequelae. Conclusion To date, no general accepted guidelines for the treatment of cisplatin overdoses are available. Along with the experience from other published cases, our report shows that plasmapheresis is capable of lowering cisplatin plasma and serum levels efficiently. Therefore, plasma exchange performed as soon as possible can ameliorate all side effects of a cisplatin overdose and be a potential tool for clinicians for treatment. However, additional intensive supportive treatment-modalities are necessary to control all occurring side effects.

  16. Effectiveness of 308-nm Excimer Laser Therapy in Treating Alopecia Areata, Determined by Examining the Treated Sides of Selected Alopecic Patches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Ji Won; Moon, Jong Hyuk; Bang, Chan Yl; Shin, Jeonghyun; Choi, Gwang Seong

    2015-01-01

    Some studies have reported the use of 308-nm excimer laser therapy for treating alopecia areata (AA); however, the effectiveness of this therapy on a theoretical basis has not yet been comparatively analyzed. To determine the therapeutic effect of excimer laser therapy on AA. One alopecic patch was divided into control and treated sides in 10 patients with AA. Then, 308-nm excimer laser therapy was administered twice a week for 12 weeks. Photograph and phototrichogram analyses were performed. Photographic assessments by both dermatologists and individuals of the general population showed objective improvements after excimer laser therapy. On the treated side, the hair count and hair diameter had statistically increased after treatment. However, only the hair diameter was found to be significantly high in the treated half when it was compared with the control side. The 308-nm excimer laser has a therapeutic effect on AA, which is proven by photograph and phototrichogram analysis by a side-by-side comparison. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Renal Side Effects of Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs in Neonates

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    Marc Gewillig

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs like ibuprofen or indomethacin are commonly prescribed drugs to induce pharmacologic closure of a patent ductus arteriosus in preterm neonates. Based on a recently published Cochrane meta-analysis, both drugs are equally effective to induce closure. Drug choice can therefore be based on differences in side effects or pharmaco-economic arguments. The current review quantifies the negative impact of either ibuprofen or indomethacin on renal function, including diuresis, glomerular filtration rate and renal tubular function. Both ibuprofen and indomethacin have a quantifiable impact on renal function. However, compared to ibuprofen, the negative impact of indomethacin is more pronounced.

  18. Modeling occupants in far-side impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Clay; Fildes, Brian; Gibson, Tom

    2011-10-01

    Far-side impacts are not part of any regulated NCAP, FMVSS, or similar test regime despite accounting for 43 percent of the seriously injured persons and 30 percent of the harm in U.S. side impact crashes. Furthermore, injuries to the head and thorax account for over half of the serious injuries sustained by occupants in far-side crashes. Despite this, there is no regulated or well-accepted anthropomorphic test device (ATD) or computer model available to investigate far-side impacts. As such, this presents an opportunity to assess a computer model that can be used to measure the effect of varying restraint parameters on occupant biomechanics in far-side impacts. This study sets out to demonstrate the modified TASS human facet model's (MOTHMO) capabilities in modeling whole-body response in far-side impacts. MOTHMO's dynamic response was compared to that of postmortem human subjects (PMHS), WorldSID, and Thor-NT in a series of far-side sled tests. The advantages, disadvantages, and differences of using MOTHMO compared to ATDs were highlighted and described in terms of model design and instrumentation. Potential applications and improvements for MOTHMO were also recommended. The results showed that MOTHMO is capable of replicating the seat belt-to-shoulder complex interaction, pelvis impacts, head displacement, neck and shoulder belt loading from inboard mounted belts, and impacts from multiple directions. Overall, the model performed better than Thor-NT and at least as well as WorldSID when compared to PMHS results. Though WorldSID and Thor-NT ATDs were capable of reproducing many of these impact loads, measuring the seat belt-to-shoulder complex interaction and thoracic deflection at multiple sites and directions was less accurately handled. This study demonstrated that MOTHMO is capable of modeling whole-body response in far-side impacts. Furthermore, MOTHMO can be used as a virtual design tool to explore the effect of varying restraint parameters on occupant

  19. Influence of psychiatric diagnosis on treatment uptake and interferon side effects in patients with hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing Yuan J; Shadbolt, Bruce; Teoh, Narci; Blunn, Anne; To, Caroline; Rodriguez-Morales, Ilys; Chitturi, Shivakumar; Kaye, Graham; Rodrigo, Kalyana; Farrell, Geoff

    2014-06-01

    Pegylated-interferon-α/ribavirin (PEG-IFN/RBV) treatment can cure hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection but has frequent neuropsychiatric side-effects. Patients with pre-existing psychiatric illness may not be offered therapy. We established prevalence of self-reported psychiatric comorbidity among HCV-infected patients in a hospital-liver clinic, and determined the impact of such diagnoses on uptake and tolerance to PEG-IFN/RBV. All HCV cases referred for assessment in Australian Capital Territory/surrounding regions April 2004-March 2012 were entered into a clinical database. We conducted univariate and multivariate analyses of variables correlating with uptake of antiviral therapy and frequency of treatment-related side-effects. Of 773 referred patients, 235 (30%) described pre-existing psychiatric illness. Among these, 26% received antiviral therapy, compared with 30% of 538 without psychiatric comorbidity. History of depression (usually validated by liaison psychiatry) was associated with higher incidence of treatment-related neuropsychiatric side-effects (odds ratio 2.79 [1.35-5.70], P schizophrenia: three (11%) received antiviral therapy, compared with 30% admitting depression and 20% with bipolar affective disorder (all assessed by psychiatrist). In most schizophrenia cases, the reason for not offering antiviral treatment was psychological illness, yet none of five treated (these three plus two others in a psychiatric rehabilitation facility) experienced worsening psychiatric symptoms. A history of depression is common with hepatitis C but does not affect initiation of antiviral treatment, despite substantially increased risk of psychiatric side-effects. In contrast, pre-existing schizophrenia appears to influence treatment decisions, despite little evidence that PEG-IFN/RBV exacerbates the psychiatric condition, and well-supervised antiviral therapy can have good outcomes.

  20. Minimal flavour violation an effective field theory approach

    CERN Document Server

    D'Ambrosio, G.; Isidori, G.; Strumia, A.

    2002-01-01

    We present a general analysis of extensions of the Standard Model which satisfy the criterion of Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV). We define this general framework by constructing a low-energy effective theory containing the Standard Model fields, with one or two Higgs doublets and, as the only source of SU(3)^5 flavour symmetry breaking, the background values of fields transforming under the flavour group as the ordinary Yukawa couplings. We analyse present bounds on the effective scale of dimension-six operators, which range between 1 and 10 TeV, with the most stringent constraints imposed by B -> X_s gamma. In this class of theories, it is possible to relate predictions for FCNC processes in B physics to those in K physics. We compare the sensitivity of various experimental searches in probing the hypothesis of MFV. Within the two-Higgs-doublet scenario, we develop a general procedure to obtain all tan(beta)-enhanced Higgs-mediated FCNC amplitudes, discussing in particular their impact in B -> l^+l^-, Delta...

  1. Driver injury in near- and far-side impacts: Update on the effect of front passenger belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parenteau, Chantal S; Viano, David C

    2018-04-03

    This is a study that updates earlier research on the influence of a front passenger on the risk for severe driver injury in near-side and far-side impacts. It includes the effects of belt use by the driver and passenger, identifies body regions involved in driver injury, and identifies the sources for severe driver head injury. 1997-2015 NASS-CDS data were used to investigate the risk for Maximum Abbreviated Injury Scale (MAIS) 4 + F driver injury in near-side and far-side impacts by front passenger belt use and as a sole occupant in the driver seat. Side impacts were identified with GAD1 = L or R without rollover (rollover ≤ 0). Front-outboard occupants were included without ejection (ejection = 0). Injury severity was defined by MAIS and fatality (F) by TREATMNT = 1 or INJSEV = 4. Weighted data were determined. The risk for MAIS 4 + F was determined using the number of occupants with known injury status MAIS 0 + F. Standard errors were determined. Overall, belted drivers had greater risks for severe injury in near-side than far-side impacts. As a sole driver, the risk was 0.969 ± 0.212% for near-side and 0.313 ± 0.069% for far-side impacts (P impacts. The risk was 2.17 times greater with an unbelted passenger (NS). The driver's risk was 0.782 ± 0.431% with an unbelted passenger and 0.361% ± 0.114% with a belted passenger in far-side impacts. The risk was 1.57 times greater with an unbelted passenger (P impacts, the leading sources for AIS 4+ head injury were the left B-pillar, roof, and other vehicle. For far-side impacts, the leading sources were the other occupant, right interior, and roof (8.5%). Seat belt use by a passenger lowered the risk of severe driver injury in side impacts. The reduction was 54% in near-side impacts and 36% in far-side impacts. Belted drivers experienced mostly head and thoracic AIS 4+ injuries. Head injuries in the belted drivers were from contact with the side interior and the other occupant, even with a belted passenger.

  2. The effect of depression and side effects of antiepileptic drugs on injuries in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gur-Ozmen, S; Mula, M; Agrawal, N; Cock, H R; Lozsadi, D; von Oertzen, T J

    2017-09-01

    People with epilepsy are at increased risk of accidents and injuries but, despite several studies on this subject, data regarding preventable causes are still contradictory. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between injuries, side effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) and depression. Data from a consecutive sample of adult patients with epilepsy attending the outpatient clinics at St George's University Hospital in London were included. All patients were asked if they had had any injury since the last clinic appointment and completed the Liverpool Adverse Event Profile (LAEP) and Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy. Among 407 patients (243 females, mean age 43.1 years), 71 (17.4%) reported injuries since the last appointment. A two-step cluster analysis revealed two clusters with the major cluster (53.5% of the injured group) showing a total score for LAEP ≥45, a positive Neurological Disorders Depression Inventory for Epilepsy screening and presence of AED polytherapy. A total score for LAEP ≥45 was the most important predictor. Antiepileptic drug treatment should be reviewed in patients reporting injuries in order to evaluate the potential contribution and burden of AED side effects. © 2017 EAN.

  3. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura: A rare side effect in a patient treated with Imiquimod for lentigo maligna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Whatling

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Topical Imiquimod is increasingly used in the treatment of lentigo maligna (LM for patients not suitable or willing for surgery. It acts as an immune response modifier and is recommended for use with caution in patients with autoimmune disorders. A review of the literature did not reveal any reported cases of Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP with the use of Imiquimod so far. We report a case of a 55-year-old woman with a history of Addison's and Graves' disease who had been diagnosed with lentigo maligna on the right nasal ala. Within two days of commencing of topical Imiquimod treatment, she was admitted to the hospital with extensive cutaneous and mucosal bruising and treated as acute Idiopathic Throbocytopenic Purpura. Deranged platelets were reversed promptly with treatment and Imiquimod discontinued. We demonstrate that Idiopathic Throbocytopenic Purpura is a potential life-threatening side effect of Imiquimod treatment and patients who have autoimmune disorders are at increased risk of developing this side effect. We recommend that Imiquimod is contraindicated in patients with autoimmune disease. Here we describe the clinical presentation and review the relevant literature on Imiquimod treatment for lentigo maligna and its potential side effects.

  4. Antipsychotic Medication in Children and Adolescents : A Descriptive Review of the Effects on Prolactin Level and Associated Side Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; van Harten, Peter N.; Boot, Annemieke M.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    Objective: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. Method: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine,

  5. Antipsychotic medication in children and adolescents: a descriptive review of the effects on prolactin level and associated side effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Y.; Harten, P.N. van; Boot, A.M.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. METHOD: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine,

  6. Cutaneous side-effects in patients on long-term treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osio, A; Mateus, C; Soria, J-C; Massard, C; Malka, D; Boige, V; Besse, B; Robert, C

    2009-09-01

    Acute and subacute cutaneous side-effects of epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRIs) are very frequent and well known. Much less is known about the chronic cutaneous effects of these drugs and about their potential psychosocial impact on patients. We performed a retrospective study of patients treated with EGFRIs for more than 6 months. All patients had a detailed dermatological examination. The primary cancer, associated chemotherapies, skin treatment, evolution of skin symptoms and their impact on quality of life (QoL) as evaluated by the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) were noted. Seven men and nine women were identified. The mean length of EGFRI treatment was 10 months (range 6-27). At the time of examination, all patients (100%) had cutaneous side-effects. Grade I or II folliculitis was found in 37.5% of the patients. Additional skin manifestations were xerosis (100%), mucositis (69%), hair abnormalities (87.5%), eyelash trichomegaly (62.5%), facial hypertrichosis (56%), painful paronychia (56%) and onycholysis (44%). Dose reduction or EGFRI discontinuation for skin toxicity were needed in six patients (37.5%). DLQI evaluation showed a moderate to strong impact on QoL in four patients (25%). Cutaneous side-effects are found in 100% of patients treated with EGFRIs for more than 6 months and have a significant effect on patients' QoL. The clinical spectrum of skin manifestation varies over time. As the use of EGFRIs rapidly increases, it is critical for us to improve our knowledge in the understanding and managment of these skin manifestations.

  7. Common SSRI side-effects in older adults associated with genetic polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter and receptors: Data from a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Lauren D.; Dixon, David; Nowotny, Petra; Lotrich, Francis E.; Pollock, Bruce G.; Kristjansson, Sean D.; Doré, Peter M.; Lenze, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Antidepressant side-effects are a significant public health issue, associated with poor adherence, premature treatment discontinuation and in rare cases significant harm. This is especially relevant for older adults, who assume the largest and most serious burden of medication side-effects. We investigated the association between antidepressant side-effects and genetic variation in the serotonin system in anxious, older adults participating in a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the SSRI escitalopram. Method Adults (n=177) aged ≥ 60 years were randomized to active treatment or placebo for 12-weeks. Side-effects were assessed using the UKU side effect rating scale. Genetic polymorphisms were putative functional variants in the promoters of the serotonin transporter and 1A and 2A receptors (5-HTTLPR (L/S + rs25531), HTR1A rs6295, HTR2A rs6311, respectively). Results Four significant drug-placebo side-effect differences were found, including increased duration of sleep, dry mouth, diarrhea and diminished sexual desire. Analyses using putative high- vs low-transcription genotype groupings revealed 6 pharmacogenetic effects: greater dry mouth and decreased sexual desire for the low- and high-expressing genotypes of the serotonin transporter, respectively, and greater diarrhea with the low-transcription genotype of the 1A receptor. Diminished sexual desire was experienced significantly more in those with high-expressing genotype and either the serotonin transporter, 1A or 2A receptors. There was not a significant relationship between drug concentration and side-effects nor a mean difference in drug concentration between low- and high-expressing genotypes. Conclusion Genetic variation in the 5HT system may predict who develops common SSRI side-effects and why. More work is needed to further characterize this genetic modulation and to translate research findings into strategies useful for more personalized patient care. PMID:24021217

  8. Turning to account the implicit side effects of hydroelectric projects implying reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, S.

    1996-01-01

    Operation of the hydroelectric projects including relatively important water reservoirs provides implicitly side effects favorable to water management (increase of minimum provided flows, flood routing, etc) and to related fields (additional facilities for water supply, extension of the public utility networks as: road, telecommunication, electric lines, favoring the tourism and recreative activities). The paper suggests methodologies for economic and financial assessment of these effects, the turning to account of which, may increase the efficiency of the hydroelectric development and may stimulate the interest for new investments in the field.(author). 3 figs., 5 refs

  9. Late gastrointestinal and urogenital side-effects after radiotherapy – Incidence and prevalence. Subgroup-analysis within the prospective Austrian–German phase II multicenter trial for localized prostate cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Maximilian P.; Pötter, Richard; Bombosch, Valentin; Sljivic, Samir; Kirisits, Christian; Dörr, Wolfgang; Goldner, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In general late side-effects after prostate cancer radiotherapy are presented by the use of actuarial incidence rates. The aim of this analysis was to describe additional relevant aspects of late side effects after prostate cancer radiotherapy. Materials and methods: All 178 primary prostate-cancer patients were treated within the Austrian–German multicenter trial by three-dimensional radiotherapy up to a local dose of 70 Gy (low/intermediate-risk) or 74 Gy (high-risk), respectively. Late gastrointestinal/urogenital (GI/GU) side-effects were prospectively assessed by the use of EORTC/RTOG score. Maximum side-effects, actuarial incidence rate and prevalence rates, initial appearance and duration of ⩾grade 2 toxicity were evaluated. Results: Median follow-up was 74 months. Late GI/GU side-effects ⩾grade 2 were detected in 15% (27/178) and 22% (40/178). The corresponding 5-year actuarial incidence rates for GI/GU side-effects were 19% and 23%, whereas the prevalence was 1–2% and 2–7% after 5 years, respectively. Late side effects ⩾grade 2 appeared within 5 years after radiotherapy in all patients with GI side-effects (27/27) and in 85% (34/40) of the patients with GU side-effects, respectively and lasted for less than 3 years in 90% (GI) and 98% (GU). Conclusions: This study demonstrates that the majority of late GI and GU side effects after primary external beam radiotherapy for prostate cancer are transient. Using only actuarial incidence rates for reporting side effects may lead to misinterpretation or overestimation. The combination of incidence and prevalence rates provides a more comprehensive view on the complex issue of late side effects.

  10. Unrestricted and Restricted Access to Sugammadex and Side Effect Profile in a Teaching Hospital Centre for Year 2014- Database Audit Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao Kadam, Vasanth; Howell, Stuart

    2018-02-01

    Sugammadex is used for the rapid reversal of neuro muscular block. It was used on an unrestricted basis in our facility prior to July 2014 but has subsequently been restricted due to the removal of cost subsidies. Our aim is to determine the impact of restricting the use of Sugammadex on clinical outcomes. A retrospective audit was conducted for the period January 1st to December 31st 2014. Sugammadex use was unrestricted during the first 6 months of this period and restricted over the following period. Patients who had endotracheal intubation for any surgery were included in the audit. Non- intubated patients, patients with incomplete data and patients who were intubated and transferred to the intensive care unit were excluded. The Operating Room Information System and medical records were used to obtain information on the operating theatre time, post-anesthesia care unit time and side effects such as postoperative nausea and vomiting, oxygen-de-saturation during recovery and anaphylaxis; Sugammadex usage and cost data obtained from the hospital pharmacy. 1347 and 1302 patients were included for the unrestricted and restricted periods, respectively. There were no significant differences between the time periods with respect to patient characteristics (Age, ASA) or side effects (oxygen de-saturation, nausea). While mean time in theatre was similar across the time periods, mean recovery time was significantly longer during the restricted period (P Sugammadex dose was 200 mg and its usage dropped by 54% in the restricted time. The cost of sugammadex was $180 AUD and Neostigmine $1.80 AUD. Though unrestricting Sugammadex reduced recovery time but has had minimal impact on other clinical outcomes. Neostigmine represents a cheaper alternative and its use remains standard practice in our facility.

  11. Dose comparison and side effect profile of metformin extended release versus metformin immediate release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hameed, M.; Khan, K.; Salman, S.; Mehmood, N.

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus type 2 is very common worldwide, with majority of cases in Asia Pacific region. Metformin is the first line therapy, along with lifestyle modification for all type 2 diabetics as recommended by ADA. Metformin is available as conventional Metformin Immediate Release (MIR) and Metformin Extended Release (MXR). Metformin XR has better gastrointestinal tolerability and fewer side effects as compared to Metformin IR, with similar efficacy regarding anti-hyperglycaemic effects. The objective of this study was to determine whether metformin XR is as effective as Metformin IR in maintaining glycaemic control at equivalent doses or even at reduced doses; and to compare the side effect profile of the two preparations. Methods: This randomized control trial was conducted at Medical and Endocrinology OPD of Jinnah Hospital Lahore A total of 90 type 2 diabetics of both genders were recruited using nonprobability purposive sampling. Patients were randomized into 3 groups; 30 in each group. Group 1 received Metformin IR 1000 mg twice daily; group 2 received metformin XR 1000mg twice daily; and group 3 received metformin XR 500 mg twice daily, for a period of three months. HbA1c was done at baseline and after three months of therapy along with fasting blood sugars and random blood sugars weekly. Results: The mean age of patients was 46+-9 years, with 54% being males and 46% being females. There was a 1% reduction in HbA1c in group 1, 0.7% reduction in group 2 and only 0.4% reduction in group 3. Similarly, all three therapies were equally effective in reducing blood sugar fasting and blood sugar random at three months. Side effects namely diarrhoea, dyspepsia and flatulence were greatest with Metformin IR (40%) but less than half with Metformin XR at equivalent dose and negligible at half the dose. Conclusions: All three Metformin groups were effective in reduction of HbA1C and glycaemic control clinically and there is no statistical difference in HbA1c reduction

  12. Minimal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Sauvigny, Friedrich; Jakob, Ruben; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    Minimal Surfaces is the first volume of a three volume treatise on minimal surfaces (Grundlehren Nr. 339-341). Each volume can be read and studied independently of the others. The central theme is boundary value problems for minimal surfaces. The treatise is a substantially revised and extended version of the monograph Minimal Surfaces I, II (Grundlehren Nr. 295 & 296). The first volume begins with an exposition of basic ideas of the theory of surfaces in three-dimensional Euclidean space, followed by an introduction of minimal surfaces as stationary points of area, or equivalently

  13. Hazardous waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.

    1990-01-01

    This book presents an overview of waste minimization. Covers applications of technology to waste reduction, techniques for implementing programs, incorporation of programs into R and D, strategies for private industry and the public sector, and case studies of programs already in effect

  14. Effectiveness of radiation processing for elimination of Salmonella Typhimurium from minimally processed pineapple (Ananas comosus Merr.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashidhar, Ravindranath; Dhokane, Varsha S; Hajare, Sachin N; Sharma, Arun; Bandekar, Jayant R

    2007-04-01

    The microbiological quality of market samples of minimally processed (MP) pineapple was examined. The effectiveness of radiation treatment in eliminating Salmonella Typhimurium from laboratory inoculated ready-to-eat pineapple slices was also studied. Microbiological quality of minimally processed pineapple samples from Mumbai market was poor; 8.8% of the samples were positive for Salmonella. D(10) (the radiation dose required to reduce bacterial population by 90%) value for S. Typhimurium inoculated in pineapple was 0.242 kGy. Inoculated pack studies in minimally processed pineapple showed that the treatment with a 2-kGy dose of gamma radiation could eliminate 5 log CFU/g of S. Typhimurium. The pathogen was not detected from radiation-processed samples up to 12 d during storage at 4 and 10 degrees C. The processing of market samples with 1 and 2 kGy was effective in improving the microbiological quality of these products.

  15. Non-minimally coupled tachyon and inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piao Yunsong; Huang Qingguo; Zhang Xinmin; Zhang Yuanzhong

    2003-01-01

    In this Letter, we consider a model of tachyon with a non-minimal coupling to gravity and study its cosmological effects. Regarding inflation, we show that only for a specific coupling of tachyon to gravity this model satisfies observations and solves various problems which exist in the single and multi tachyon inflation models. But noting in the string theory the coupling coefficient of tachyon to gravity is of order g s , which in general is very small, we can hardly expect that the non-minimally coupling of tachyon to gravity could provide a reasonable tachyon inflation scenario. Our work may be a meaningful try for the cosmological effect of tachyon non-minimally coupled to gravity

  16. Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects: What to Do about Changes When You Urinate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapy Side Effects: Changes when you urinate Ask about drinks or foods that you may need to avoid. Some things can make these problems worse. Your doctor or nurse may suggest that you limit or don’t have: I Drinks with alcohol (such as beer, wine, and liquor) I Drinks with caffeine (such as ...

  17. Can understanding the packing of side chains improve the design of protein-protein interactions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Alice; O'Hern, Corey; Regan, Lynne

    2011-03-01

    With the long-term goal to improve the design of protein-protein interactions, we have begun extensive computational studies to understand how side-chains of key residues of binding partners geometrically fit together at protein-peptide interfaces, e.g. the tetratrico-peptide repeat protein and its cognate peptide). We describe simple atomic-scale models of hydrophobic dipeptides, which include hard-core repulsion, bond length and angle constraints, and Van der Waals attraction. By completely enumerating all minimal energy structures in these systems, we are able to reproduce important features of the probability distributions of side chain dihedral angles of hydrophic residues in the protein data bank. These results are the crucial first step in developing computational models that can predict the side chain conformations of residues at protein-peptide interfaces. CSO acknowledges support from NSF grant no. CMMT-1006527.

  18. Comparison of side effects of oxytetracycline and talc pleurodesis: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Chemical pleurodesis is widely recommended in the treatment of refractory pleural effusion or pulmonary air leak of different etiologies. Although several agents have been used, many questions have remained unanswered about their toxicity. Talc is the most commonly used agent for the treatment, with rare, serious complications reported. Oxytetracycline pleurodesis in clinical practice has been described in a few studies, but literature reveals no experimental studies using this agent. We performed a prospective, randomized, observer-blinded, controlled study to evaluate the changes in lung histology and systemic response to pleurodesis with oxytetracycline and talc in acute and subacute phases in a rat model. Methods Forty-two male albino Wistar rats were divided into three groups and 3 subgroups with 7 animals in each. Group 1 was given oxytetracycline, 35 mg/kg; Group 2 was given talc slurry, 60 mg/kg in 0.5 mL saline solution, and Group 3 was given only 0.5 mL saline intrapleurally. In subgroups "a" the nimls were sacrificed at the postoperative 72nd hour and, in subgroups "b", on the postoperative day 7. The surfaces were graded by microscopic examination. Results Oxytetracycline produced alveolar collapse, hemorrhage, edema, inflammation at the postoperative 72nd hour and hemorrhage on the postoperative day 7, while talc produced significant edema, inflammation, proliferation, fibrosis at the postoperative 72nd hour and hemorrhage, edema, inflammation, proliferation, and fibrosis on the postoperative day 7 (p oxytetracycline on the postoperative day 7. On contralateral side, oxytetracycline and talc produced significant hemorrhage on the postoperative day 7 (p oxytetracycline were more pronounced, whereas the side effects of talc were prolonged to subacute phase. We propose that the occasional side effects in humans may be related to these changes as were observed in our rat model, and like talc, oxytetracycline must be used cautiously in patients

  19. Alleviation of harmful effect in stillage reflux in food waste ethanol fermentation based on metabolic and side-product accumulation regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongzhi; Yang, Jian; Jia, Yan; Wang, Qunhui; Ma, Xiaoyu; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-10-01

    Stillage reflux fermentation in food waste ethanol fermentation could reduce sewage discharge but exert a harmful effect because of side-product accumulation. In this study, regulation methods based on metabolic regulation and side-product alleviation were conducted. Result demonstrated that controlling the proper oxidation-reduction potential value (-150mV to -250mV) could reduce the harmful effect, improve ethanol yield by 21%, and reduce fermentation time by 20%. The methods of adding calcium carbonate to adjust the accumulated lactic acid showed that ethanol yield increased by 17.3%, and fermentation time decreased by 20%. The accumulated glyceal also shows that these two methods can reduce the harmful effect. Fermentation time lasted for seven times without effect, and metabolic regulation had a better effect than side-product regulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-reported Improvement in Side Effects and Quality of Life With Integrative Medicine in Breast Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hack, Carolin C; Hackl, Janina; Hüttner, Nina B M; Langemann, Hanna; Schwitulla, Judith; Dietzel-Drentwett, Svenja; Fasching, Peter A; Beckmann, Matthias W; Theuser, Anna-Katharin

    2018-05-01

    Although the demand from patients for integrative medicine is increasing, complementary medicine services are still quite heterogeneous and have not been incorporated into clinical routine. The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate improvements in side effects and quality of life associated with a hospital-based integrative medicine program in the modern breast cancer patient care setting. In a cross-sectional study, integrative health counseling and treatment were evaluated in women with breast cancer. Over a 15-month period, data for 75 patients from an integrative medicine consultancy service with standardized operating procedures were collected at the University Breast Center for Franconia. At baseline, the patients answered a questionnaire on their medical history, symptoms, and the treatment goals they were hoping to achieve with integrative medicine. In the follow-up, patient-reported outcomes related to side effects of conventional cancer treatment and patients' quality of life were analyzed. Among 60 patients with the therapy goal of reducing the side effects of conventional treatment, 46 (76.7%) were successful. Among 57 patients hoping to improve disease-related quality of life, 46 (82%) reported success. Whereas patients with metastatic disease achieved a reduction in the side effects of conventional therapy, quality-of-life improvements were predominantly achieved by patients with a good treatment prognosis. Breast cancer patients benefit from the counseling and treatment provided with integrative medicine in all phases of tumor disease. Integrative treatment services should be included as part of patient care in clinical routine work to offer patients the maximum quality of care and safety with complementary therapies.

  1. Efficacy and cognitive side effects of tiagabine and topiramate in patients with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, N; Glogau, S; Hoffmann, J; Rademacher, M; Elger, C E; Helmstaedter, C

    2005-05-01

    Whereas the efficacy of the newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) is well established, there remain questions regarding their cognitive side effects. Therefore, we performed a comparative open randomized trial with TPM and TGB as add-on therapy, with particular consideration of cognition, mood, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Forty-one patients with refractory epilepsy were randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups (TPM vs TGB) and received neuropsychological testing at baseline (T1), after titration (3 months, T2), and during the maintenance phase (another 3 months, T3). Tests included measures of intelligence, attention, working memory, episodic memory, language, and self-report questionnaires regarding mood and HRQOL. Twenty patients (8 TPM, 12 TGB) discontinued the trial for different reasons (no group difference). Seizure outcome (intention-to-treat analysis) was comparably good in both groups (8.1% seizure free, 29.7% seizure reduction>50%). From baseline to after the titration paired sample t tests revealed significant deterioration in verbal fluency, language comprehension, working memory, and visual block tapping under TPM and a deterioration in verbal memory (delayed free recall) in the TGB group. These functions remained stable in the maintenance phase. Self-report measures initially indicated concerns about AED side effects in both groups and concerns about worse cognitive functioning and depression under TPM. In the maintenance phase the TGB group reported feeling a lack of energy, whereas patients on TPM demonstrated improvement on all QOLIE scales on a descriptive level. This study demonstrates the comparable efficacy of TPM and TGB. Consistent with previous reports, TPM but not TGB appears to be associated with persistent negative cognitive side effects on frontal lobe-associated functions, the degree of which may be estimated by the fact that this effect was observed with a very small sample size. In contrast, in patients taking

  2. Management of arthropod pathogen vectors in North America: Minimizing adverse effects on pollinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Howard; Bargar, Timothy A.; Hladik, Michelle L.; Lubelczyk, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Tick and mosquito management is important to public health protection. At the same time, growing concerns about declines of pollinator species raise the question of whether vector control practices might affect pollinator populations. We report the results of a task force of the North American Pollinator Protection Campaign (NAPPC) that examined potential effects of vector management practices on pollinators, and how these programs could be adjusted to minimize negative effects on pollinating species. The main types of vector control practices that might affect pollinators are landscape manipulation, biocontrol, and pesticide applications. Some current practices already minimize effects of vector control on pollinators (e.g., short-lived pesticides and application-targeting technologies). Nontarget effects can be further diminished by taking pollinator protection into account in the planning stages of vector management programs. Effects of vector control on pollinator species often depend on specific local conditions (e.g., proximity of locations with abundant vectors to concentrations of floral resources), so planning is most effective when it includes collaborations of local vector management professionals with local experts on pollinators. Interventions can then be designed to avoid pollinators (e.g., targeting applications to avoid blooming times and pollinator nesting habitats), while still optimizing public health protection. Research on efficient targeting of interventions, and on effects on pollinators of emerging technologies, will help mitigate potential deleterious effects on pollinators in future management programs. In particular, models that can predict effects of integrated pest management on vector-borne pathogen transmission, along with effects on pollinator populations, would be useful for collaborative decision-making.

  3. Side effects and opioid addiction in radiation-induced mucositis pain control in head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Atsuhito; Shoji, Kazuhiko; Mizuta, Masanobu; Morita, Mami; Iki, Takehiro; Kojima, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Radiation therapy in head and neck malignancy may trigger mucositis poorly controlled by nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Having already reported early opioid efficacy in radiation-induced mucositis pain in head and neck cancer, we discuss whether this resulted in severe side effects and opioid addiction. Of 11 persons (26.2%) with nausea, 3 could not tolerate opioid. Of 33 (78.6%) with constipation, all were controlled by purgatives. Seven had mild sleepiness. None had severe opioid side effects in radiation-induced mucositis pain treatment, but I showed opioid dependence after 128-days opioid administration. While opioid administration in radiation-induced mucositis pain may not cause addiction, lomg-term opioid use should be carefully monitored. (author)

  4. Patient Experience of Symptoms and Side Effects when Treated with Osimertinib for Advanced Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer: A Qualitative Interview Substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydén, Anna; Blackhall, Fiona; Kim, Hye Ryun; Pillai, Rathi N; Braam, Lauren; Martin, Mona L; Walding, Andrew

    2017-10-01

    Capturing the patient experience during treatment is important to both regulatory authorities and to patients starting treatment. We identified the symptoms and side effects experienced by patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer during osimertinib treatment, to understand treatment expectations, satisfaction, and the level of difficulty coping with the side effects experienced during treatment. Qualitative interviews (approximately 4-6 weeks after treatment initiation and again after approximately 4 months of treatment) were conducted during the phase I/II AURA clinical trial of osimertinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor-sensitizing and T790M resistance mutations. During the first interview (23 patients), the most commonly reported symptoms/side effects were coughing, itching, tiredness (each reported by 56.5% of patients), and rash (43.5%). During the second interview (21 patients), compared with the first interview, shortness of breath and diarrhea were reported by more patients (57.1 and 38.1%, respectively; both increased from 34.8%); tiredness remained predominant (42.9%); and itching (38.1%), coughing (38.1%), and rash (14.3%) were reported by fewer patients. At both interviews, the most frequently reported symptoms/side effects were also those most often rated by patients for bothersomeness and severity, and generally received mean scores in the low-to-moderate range. However, several rarely expressed symptoms/side effects (e.g., abdominal pain, frequent day time urination) received high bothersomeness ratings. At the second interview, patients were highly satisfied with osimertinib and had a low level of difficulty in coping with side effects during treatment. These data enhance our understanding of patients' experiences of symptoms/side effects, which could increase the accuracy of the osimertinib benefit-risk assessment, guide management of adverse events, and improve the information given to patients

  5. Minimizing the effect of process mismatch in a neuromorphic system using spike-timing-dependent adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Katherine; Murray, Alan

    2008-05-01

    This paper investigates whether spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) can minimize the effect of mismatch within the context of a depth-from-motion algorithm. To improve noise rejection, this algorithm contains a spike prediction element, whose performance is degraded by analog very large scale integration (VLSI) mismatch. The error between the actual spike arrival time and the prediction is used as the input to an STDP circuit, to improve future predictions. Before STDP adaptation, the error reflects the degree of mismatch within the prediction circuitry. After STDP adaptation, the error indicates to what extent the adaptive circuitry can minimize the effect of transistor mismatch. The circuitry is tested with static and varying prediction times and chip results are presented. The effect of noisy spikes is also investigated. Under all conditions the STDP adaptation is shown to improve performance.

  6. Psychiatric side effects of ketamine in hospitalized medical patients administered subanesthetic doses for pain control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Keith G

    2014-08-01

    To assess the psychiatric side effects of ketamine when administered in subanesthetic doses to hospitalized patients. It is hypothesized that such effects occur frequently. In this retrospective study, the medical records of 50 patients hospitalized on medical and surgical units at our facility who had continuous intravenous infusions of ketamine for pain or mild sedation were reviewed. Patient progress in the days following the start of ketamine infusion was reviewed and response to ketamine was noted. Twenty-two percent of the patients were noted to have some type of psychiatric reaction to ketamine, including agitation, confusion, and hallucinations. These reactions were relatively short lived, namely, occurring during or shortly after the infusions. No association was found between patient response to ketamine and gender, age, or infusion rate. Awareness of the psychiatric side effects of ketamine is an important consideration for clinicians administering this medication either for pain control or for depressive illness.

  7. Side effects, complications and outcome of thoracoscopic sympathectomy for palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis in 406 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Pedro M; Freixinet, Jorge L; Hussein, Mohamed; Valencia, Jose M; Gil, Rita M; Herrero, Jorge; Caballero-Hidalgo, Araceli

    2008-09-01

    Thoracic sympathectomy (TS) is the treatment of choice for severe primary hyperhidrosis. However, complications, side effects and satisfaction have not been well defined. To analyze the complications, side effects, satisfaction degree and quality of life of patients after TS for primary upper limb hyperhidrosis. One-year follow-up after 406 consecutive TS for primary upper limb hyperhidrosis. Bilateral TS was completed in all patients. Complications arose in 23 cases (5.6%), with pneumothorax being the most frequent. The success rate after discharge, 6 and 12 months was respectively, 100%, 98.1% and 96.5% for palmo-axillary hyperhidrosis; 100%, 99.3% and 97.8% for isolated palmar hyperhidrosis and 100%, 85.7% and 71.4% for isolated axillary hyperhidrosis. No persistence of hyperhidrosis was observed. Global recurrence was 3.7% (28.5% axillary hyperhidrosis group). Compensatory sweating (CS) appeared in 55% and was not related to the extension of the TS. Being female was a predisposing factor of CS (p<0.004). Excessive dryness appeared at 9% and was associated with extensive TS (P<0.001). Plantar hyperhidrosis improved at 33.6%, worsened at 10% and remained stable during the follow-up. Satisfaction degree decreased with the passage of time and was associated with recurrence. Quality of life was excellent at discharge, 6 and 12 month in 100%, 100% and 97%, respectively. Pneumothorax is the most frequent complication of TS. CS is the main and undesirable side effect, appears with the passage of time, and is not related to the extension of TS. Being female is the only predictor factor of suffering CS. Plantar hyperhidrosis improves initially, although tends to reappear. Excessive dryness appears in extensive TS and does not improve over time. Postoperative satisfaction degree is high but decreases over time owing to the appearance of recurrence. Effectiveness and the absence of CS determine an excellent quality of life. Six percent of the patients regret the surgery

  8. A distributed algorithm for demand-side management: Selling back to the grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latifi, Milad; Khalili, Azam; Rastegarnia, Amir; Zandi, Sajad; Bazzi, Wael M

    2017-11-01

    Demand side energy consumption scheduling is a well-known issue in the smart grid research area. However, there is lack of a comprehensive method to manage the demand side and consumer behavior in order to obtain an optimum solution. The method needs to address several aspects, including the scale-free requirement and distributed nature of the problem, consideration of renewable resources, allowing consumers to sell electricity back to the main grid, and adaptivity to a local change in the solution point. In addition, the model should allow compensation to consumers and ensurance of certain satisfaction levels. To tackle these issues, this paper proposes a novel autonomous demand side management technique which minimizes consumer utility costs and maximizes consumer comfort levels in a fully distributed manner. The technique uses a new logarithmic cost function and allows consumers to sell excess electricity (e.g. from renewable resources) back to the grid in order to reduce their electric utility bill. To develop the proposed scheme, we first formulate the problem as a constrained convex minimization problem. Then, it is converted to an unconstrained version using the segmentation-based penalty method. At each consumer location, we deploy an adaptive diffusion approach to obtain the solution in a distributed fashion. The use of adaptive diffusion makes it possible for consumers to find the optimum energy consumption schedule with a small number of information exchanges. Moreover, the proposed method is able to track drifts resulting from changes in the price parameters and consumer preferences. Simulations and numerical results show that our framework can reduce the total load demand peaks, lower the consumer utility bill, and improve the consumer comfort level.

  9. Effect of Rotational Speed on the Stability of Two Rotating Side-by-side Circular Cylinders at Low Reynolds Number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, Huashu; Zhang, Shuo; Yang, Hui; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kinoue, Yoichi

    2018-04-01

    Flow around two rotating side-by-side circular cylinders of equal diameter D is numerically studied at the Reynolds number 40≤ Re ≤200 and various rotation rate θ i . The incoming flow is assumed to be two-dimensional laminar flow. The governing equations are the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and solved by the finite volume method (FVM). The ratio of the center-to-center spacing to the cylinder diameter is T/D=2. The objective of the present work is to investigate the effect of rotational speed and Reynolds number on the stability of the flow. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data and a good agreement is achieved. The stability of the flow is analyzed by using the energy gradient theory, which produces the energy gradient function K to identify the region where the flow is the most prone to be destabilized and the degree of the destabilization. Numerical results reveal that K is the most significant at the separated shear layers of the cylinder pair. With Re increases, the length of the wake is shorter and the vortex shedding generally exhibits a symmetrical distribution for θ i < θ crit . It is also shown that the unsteady vortex shedding can be suppressed by rotating the cylinders in the counter-rotating mode.

  10. Mouse repeated electroconvulsive seizure (ECS) does not reverse social stress effects but does induce behavioral and hippocampal changes relevant to electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) side-effects in the treatment of depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Buel, Erin M; Sigrist, Hannes; Seifritz, Erich; Fikse, Lianne; Bosker, Fokko J; Schoevers, Robert A; Klein, Hans C; Pryce, Christopher R; Eisel, Ulrich Lm

    2017-01-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is an effective treatment for depression, but can have negative side effects including amnesia. The mechanisms of action underlying both the antidepressant and side effects of ECT are not well understood. An equivalent manipulation that is conducted in experimental

  11. Prevalence, side effects and awareness about energy drinks among the female university students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahamathulla, Mohamudha Parveen

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the consumption, prevalence, side effects and awareness of energy drinks among female university students in Saudi Arabia. A quantitative research design was implied with sample size of 358 female students, recruited from Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University. The data, gathered through self-administered questionnaire, was analyzed through SPSS version 20.0 with p value energy drink consumers. The reasons for increased consumption of energy drinks mainly include giving company to friends (59.4%), better performance in exams (41.2%), and better concentration in studies (39.4%). The most common side effect was headache (32.3%), and the least was identified as allergy (2%). Only 39.4% and 29.9% of students acquired awareness regarding the harmful effects of energy drink consumption during pregnancy and breast feeding respectively. A significant proportion of female students at Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz have reported to consume energy drinks regularly with several adverse effects. The government of Saudi Arabia should take serious initiatives towards organizing effective awareness programs specifically in universities and colleges to control the consumption of energy drinks and educate on the adverse effects.

  12. Measles Vaccine : A Study On Seroconversion And Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abida

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: 1. What is the extent of immune response of Edmonston Zagreb Strain in children? 2. What are the side effects of this vaccine? Objectives: 1. To follow up children after Edmonston Zagreb strain vaccination for evaluation of seroconverstion. Study: Cross sectional Setting: Well Baby Clinic of pediatrics OPD at J.N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aigarh (U.P participants: Children between 9-15 months. Sample Size: 100 consecutive children coming for routine immunization. Study variable: Malnourished and poor socio-economic status Outcome variable: Extent of seroconversion with no statistical significant difference between malnourished and socio-economically poor children. 26% showed minor self-limiting post vaccination reactions in all age groups. Recommendations: Edmonston Zagreb measles vaccine is recommended since it has very good immunogenic activity and post vaccination reactions.

  13. An investigation on the side-effect and complications of the thyroid artery embolization for hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yi; Zeng Xianqiang; Yang Jijin; Tian Jianming

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To study the side-effect and complications of interventional therapy of hyperthyroidism and the prevention and treatment. Methods: Super selective catheterization followed by embolization with PVA microspheres and Gelfoam particles were performed within the abnormal thyroid superior and inferior arteries of in patients with hyperthyroidism. Results: All the patients felt discomfort in their neck, 53 patients felt painful in their neck and had difficulty in swallowing. Other 11 patients had difficulty in pronunciation or hoarse pronunciation, 17 patients had toothache, 18 patients have purpuric skin rash, one patient had brain infarct, and one patient has life-threatening thyrotoxicosis. No hypothyroidism and hypoparathyroidism are observed. Conclusion: There are some side-effect and complications in the thyroid artery embolization for hyperthyroidism. Careful manipulation during the procedure and close post-intervention care can prevent and manage some serious complications

  14. The effect of Daikenchuto on postoperative intestinal motility in patients with right-side colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takeshi; Matsumoto, Satoshi; Matsuda, Michihiro Koizumi Akihisa; Shinji, Seiichi; Yokoyama, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Goro; Iwai, Takuma; Takeda, Kouki; Ohta, Keiichiro; Uchida, Eiji

    2017-07-01

    Daikenchuto (DKT) has a stimulant effect on intestinal motility and reportedly has a positive effect on postoperative intestinal motility in patients with sigmoid colon cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of DKT in patients with right-side colon cancer. This retrospective study included 88 patients with right-side colon cancer. We orally administered 7.5 g of DKT in the DKT group and did not administer any DKT to patients in the no-DKT group. All patients ingested radiopaque markers 2 h before surgery, which were used to assess intestinal motility. The postoperative intestinal motility was radiologically assessed by counting the numbers of residual markers in the large and small intestines. The DKT and no-DKT groups showed no marked differences in the total number of residual markers or number of residual markers in the small intestine. However, in the elderly subgroup, the total number of residual markers in the DKT group was significantly less than in the no-DKT group. Although DKT had some small effect on the postoperative intestinal motility for most patients, it may have positive effects in elderly patients.

  15. A study of side-effects of Pandemrix® influenza (H1N1) vaccine on board a Norwegian naval vessel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munch, Johan Storm; Johnsen, Bjørn Helge; Birkeland, Ingelin; Finne, Morten; Utkilen, Torun; Bøe, Tommy; Mjølhus, Gry; Sommerfelt-Pettersen, Jan

    2010-01-01

    The frigate His Norwegian Majesty's ship (HNoMS) Fridtjof Nansen was participating in operations in the Gulf of Aden in support of the EU mission tasked with protecting vessels from the threat of piracy. The crew was therefore prioritized and given the first batch of Influenza A (H1N1) vaccine (Pandemrix(®)). To investigate the type, frequency, and intensity of side effects after whole-crew vaccination with Pandemrix vaccine in healthy subjects in a controlled environment. A hundred and thirty-three members of the crew were vaccinated, and then they participated in the study. The side effects of the vaccination were evaluated through a survey. Seventy-five per cent of the vaccinated sailors reported adverse reactions to the vaccine, with 9% not being able to perform their daily duties for one day. Muscle pain, headaches, malaise, and fatigue were the most frequent symptoms reported. The vaccination program using Pandemrix H1N1 vaccine resulted in a high rate of side effects, which were generally mild and resolved within a few days. No serious lasting side effects of the vaccination were reported or registered. The adverse effects of the vaccination did not affect the operational capacity of the vessel.

  16. Y-12 Plant waste minimization strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kane, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The 1984 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) mandate that waste minimization be a major element of hazardous waste management. In response to this mandate and the increasing costs for waste treatment, storage, and disposal, the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant developed a waste minimization program to encompass all types of wastes. Thus, waste minimization has become an integral part of the overall waste management program. Unlike traditional approaches, waste minimization focuses on controlling waste at the beginning of production instead of the end. This approach includes: (1) substituting nonhazardous process materials for hazardous ones, (2) recycling or reusing waste effluents, (3) segregating nonhazardous waste from hazardous and radioactive waste, and (4) modifying processes to generate less waste or less toxic waste. An effective waste minimization program must provide the appropriate incentives for generators to reduce their waste and provide the necessary support mechanisms to identify opportunities for waste minimization. This presentation focuses on the Y-12 Plant's strategy to implement a comprehensive waste minimization program. This approach consists of four major program elements: (1) promotional campaign, (2) process evaluation for waste minimization opportunities, (3) waste generation tracking system, and (4) information exchange network. The presentation also examines some of the accomplishments of the program and issues which need to be resolved

  17. Validity and usefulness of a single-item measure of patient-reported bother from side effects of cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Timothy P; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Mroczek, Daniel; O'Connor, Mary; Cella, David

    2018-03-01

    The improving efficacy of cancer treatment has resulted in an increasing array of treatment-related symptoms and associated burdens imposed on individuals undergoing aggressive treatment of their disease. Often, clinical trials compare therapies that have different types, and severities, of adverse effects. Whether rated by clinicians or patients themselves, it can be difficult to know which side effect profile is more disruptive or bothersome to patients. A simple summary index of bother can help to adjudicate the variability in adverse effects across treatments being compared with each other. Across 4 studies, a total of 5765 patients enrolled in cooperative group studies and industry-sponsored clinical trials were the subjects of the current study. Patients were diagnosed with a range of primary cancer sites, including bladder, brain, breast, colon/rectum, head/neck, hepatobiliary, kidney, lung, ovary, pancreas, and prostate as well as leukemia and lymphoma. All patients were administered the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General version (FACT-G). The single item "I am bothered by side effects of treatment" (GP5), rated on a 5-point Likert scale, is part of the FACT-G. To determine its validity as a useful summary measure from the patient perspective, it was correlated with individual and aggregated clinician-rated adverse events and patient reports of their general ability to enjoy life. Analyses of pharmaceutical trials demonstrated that mean GP5 scores ("I am bothered by side effects of treatment") significantly differed by maximum adverse event grade (PEffect sizes ranged from 0.13 to 0.46. Analyses of cooperative group trials demonstrated a significant correlation between GP5 and item GF3 ("I am able to enjoy life") in the predicted direction. The single FACT-G item "I am bothered by side effects of treatment" is significantly associated with clinician-reported adverse events and with patients' ability to enjoy their lives. It has promise as an

  18. Can melatonin prevent or improve metabolic side effects during antipsychotic treatments?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porfirio MC

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Maria-Cristina Porfirio,1 Juliana Paula Gomes de Almeida,2 Maddalena Stornelli,1 Silvia Giovinazzo,1 Diane Purper-Ouakil,3 Gabriele Masi4 1Unit of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, “Tor Vergata” University of Rome, Italy; 2Unit of Child Neurology, Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericordia Hospital São Paulo, Brazil; 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Saint Eloi Hospital, Montpellier, France; 4IRCCS Stella Maris, Scientific Institute of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, Calambrone, Pisa, Italy Abstract: In the last two decades, second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs were more frequently used than typical antipsychotics for treating both psychotic and nonpsychotic psychiatric disorders in both children and adolescents, because of their lower risk of adverse neurological effects, that is, extrapyramidal symptoms. Recent studies have pointed out their effect on weight gain and increased visceral adiposity as they induce metabolic syndrome. Patients receiving SGAs often need to be treated with other substances to counteract metabolic side effects. In this paper, we point out the possible protective effect of add-on melatonin treatment in preventing, mitigating, or even reversing SGAs metabolic effects, improving quality of life and providing safer long-term treatments in pediatric patients. Melatonin is an endogenous indolamine secreted during darkness by the pineal gland; it plays a key role in regulating the circadian rhythm, generated by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN of the hypothalamus, and has many other biological functions, including chronobiotic, antioxidant and neuroprotective properties, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging effects, and diminishing oxidative injury and fat distribution. It has been hypothesized that SGAs cause adverse metabolic effects that may be restored by nightly administration of melatonin because of its influence on autonomic and hormonal outputs. Interestingly, atypical anti-psychotics (AAPs can cause

  19. The Aharonov-Bohm effect in a side-gated graphene ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huefner, Magdalena; Molitor, Francoise; Jacobsen, Arnhild; Pioda, Alessandro; Stampfer, Christoph; Ensslin, Klaus; Ihn, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the magnetoresistance of a side-gated ring structure etched out of single-layer graphene. We observe Aharonov-Bohm oscillations with about 5% visibility. We are able to change the relative phases of the wave functions in the interfering paths and induce phase jumps of π in the Aharonov-Bohm oscillations by changing the voltage applied to the side gate or the back gate. The observed data can be interpreted within existing models for 'dirty metals'.

  20. Cost-effectiveness of opportunistic screening and minimal contact psychotherapy to prevent depression in primary care patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. van den Berg (Merlijn); F. Smit (Filip); T. Vos (Theo); P.H.M. Van Baal (Pieter)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Depression causes a large burden of disease worldwide. Effective prevention has the potential to reduce that burden considerably. This study aimed to investigate the cost-effectiveness of minimal contact psychotherapy, based on Lewinsohn's 'Coping with depression' course,

  1. Thyroid side effects prophylaxis in front of nuclear power plant accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopiantz, Mikaël; Elhanbali, Ouifak; Demore, Béatrice; Cuny, Thomas; Demarquet, Léa; Ndiaye, Cumba; Barbe, Françoise; Brunaud, Laurent; Weryha, Georges; Klein, Marc

    2016-02-01

    The better knowledge of the mechanisms of nuclear incidents and lessons learned from accidents in the recent past to improve the effectiveness of measures taken following a nuclear accident exposure to fallout of radioactive iodine isotopes. Thus, immediate, passive measures, such as containment, and stopping consumption of contaminated products are paramount. The earliest possible administration of stable iodine as potassium iodide (KI) reduces significantly (up to 90% if taken at the same time of the accident) thyroid radioactive contamination. These tablets should be given in priority to children and pregnant women. The side effects are minor. KI is not recommended for persons aged over 60 years, or for adults suffering from cardiovascular disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Simultaneous minimization of leaf travel distance and tongue-and-groove effect for segmental intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Jianrong; Que, William

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a method to simultaneously minimize the leaf travel distance and the tongue-and-groove effect for IMRT leaf sequences to be delivered in segmental mode. The basic idea is to add a large enough number of openings through cutting or splitting existing openings for those leaf pairs with openings fewer than the number of segments so that all leaf pairs have the same number of openings. The cutting positions are optimally determined with a simulated annealing technique called adaptive simulated annealing. The optimization goal is set to minimize the weighted summation of the leaf travel distance and tongue-and-groove effect. Its performance was evaluated with 19 beams from three clinical cases; one brain, one head-and-neck and one prostate case. The results show that it can reduce the leaf travel distance and (or) tongue-and-groove effect; the reduction of the leaf travel distance reaches its maximum of about 50% when minimized alone; the reduction of the tongue-and-groove reaches its maximum of about 70% when minimized alone. The maximum reduction in the leaf travel distance translates to a 1 to 2 min reduction in treatment delivery time per fraction, depending on leaf speed. If the method is implemented clinically, it could result in significant savings in treatment delivery time, and also result in significant reduction in the wear-and-tear of MLC mechanics

  3. Flow and wall shear stress in end-to-side and side-to-side anastomosis of venous coronary artery bypass grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulikakos Dimos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG surgery represents the standard treatment of advanced coronary artery disease. Two major types of anastomosis exist to connect the graft to the coronary artery, i.e., by using an end-to-side or a side-to-side anastomosis. There is still controversy because of the differences in the patency rates of the two types of anastomosis. The purpose of this paper is to non-invasively quantify hemodynamic parameters, such as mass flow and wall shear stress (WSS, in end-to-side and side-to-side anastomoses of patients with CABG using computational fluid dynamics (CFD. Methods One patient with saphenous CABG and end-to-side anastomosis and one patient with saphenous CABG and side-to-side anastomosis underwent 16-detector row computed tomography (CT. Geometric models of coronary arteries and bypasses were reconstructed for CFD analysis. Blood flow was considered pulsatile, laminar, incompressible and Newtonian. Peri-anastomotic mass flow and WSS were quantified and flow patterns visualized. Results CFD analysis based on in-vivo CT coronary angiography data was feasible in both patients. For both types of CABG, flow patterns were characterized by a retrograde flow into the native coronary artery. WSS variations were found in both anastomoses types, with highest WSS values at the heel and lowest WSS values at the floor of the end-to-side anastomosis. In contrast, the highest WSS values of the side-to-side anastomosis configuration were found in stenotic vessel segments and not in the close vicinity of the anastomosis. Flow stagnation zones were found in end-to-side but not in side-to-side anastomosis, the latter also demonstrating a smoother stream division throughout the cardiac cycle. Conclusion CFD analysis of venous CABG based on in-vivo CT datasets in patients was feasible producing qualitative and quantitative information on mass flow and WSS. Differences were found between the two types of anastomosis

  4. Effect of water side deposits on the energy performance of coal fired thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatt, M. Siddhartha

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of water side deposits in the 210 MW coal fired thermal power plant components (viz., boiler, turbine, feed water heaters, condensers and lube oil coolers) on the energy efficiency of these components and that of the overall system at 100% maximum continuous rating (MCR). The origin, composition and rate of build up of deposits on the water side are presented. A linear growth rate of deposits is assumed for simplicity. The effects of the reduction in heat transfer, increased pressure drop and increased pumping power/reduced power output in the components are quantified in the form of curve fits as functions of the deposit thickness (μm). The reduction in heat transfer in the boiler components is in the range of 0.2-2.0% under normal scaling. The increased pumping power is of the order of 0.6-7.6% in the boiler components, 29% in the BFP circuit, 26% in the LPH circuit, 21% in the HPH circuit and 18% in the lube oil cooler circuits. The effects on the overall coal fired plant is quantified through functional relations between the efficiencies and the notional deposit thickness. The sensitivity indices to the notional deposit thickness are: boiler efficiency: -0.0021% points/μm, turbine circuit efficiency: -0.0037% points/μm, auxiliary power efficiency: -0.00129% points/μm, gross overall efficiency: -0.0039% points/μm and net overall efficiency: -0.0040% points/μm. The overall effect of scale build up is either increased power input of ∼68 kW/μm (at a constant power output) or decreased power output ∼25 kW/μm (at a constant power input). Successful contaminant control techniques are highlighted. Capacity reduction effects due to water side deposits are negligible

  5. Stability and variability of acoustically specified coordination patterns while walking side-by-side on a treadmill: Does the seagull effect hold?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ulzen, N.R.; Lamoth, C.J.C.; Daffertshofer, A.; Semin, G.R.; Beek, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    To examine whether the Haken-Kelso-Bunz model for rhythmic interlimb coordination applies to walking side-by-side on a treadmill, we invited six pairs of participants to coordinate their stepping movements at seven prescribed relative phases (between 0° and 180°) to scan the attractor layout

  6. Assessing Side Effects of Pharmacotherapy Treatment of Bipolar Disorder: A 20-Year Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Smith, Kimberly R.; Terlonge, Cindy; Thorson, Ryan T.; Dixon, Dennis R.

    2006-01-01

    A substantial literature on the effective treatment of bipolar disorder has begun to appear, particularly in the last 20 years.The majority of treatments studied have employed medications, particularly mood stabilizers, a typical antipsychotics and antidepressants. Most treatments produce side effects and medications are no exception. A review of…

  7. A randomized side-by-side study comparing alexandrite laser at different pulse durations for port wine stains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlsen, Berit C; Wenande, Emily; Erlendsson, Andres M

    2017-01-01

    hypertrophic (n = 7) PWS were included. Four side-by-side test areas were marked within each lesion. Three test areas were randomized to Alex laser at pulse durations of 3, 5, or 10 ms (8 mm spot, DCD 60/40), while the fourth was untreated. The lowest effective fluence to create purpura within the entire test...... spot was titrated and applied to intervention areas. Standardized clinical photographs were taken prior to, immediately after laser exposure and at 6-8 weeks follow up. Clinical PWS clearance and laser-related side effects were assessed using clinical photos. RESULTS: Alex laser at 3, 5, and 10 ms......BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Pulsed dye laser (PDL) represents the gold-standard treatment for port wine stains (PWS). However, approximately 20% of patients are poor responders and yield unsatisfactory end-results. The Alexandrite (Alex) laser may be a therapeutic alternative for selected PWS...

  8. Assembly technology of 4-side buttable MPPC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, K.; Sato, K.; Yamada, R., E-mail: ryuta-ya@ssd.hpk.co.jp; Hosokawa, N.; Nagano, T.; Hayatsu, K.; Shimohara, T.; Ohkuwa, Y.; Oguri, A.

    2013-12-21

    The multi-pixel photon counter (MPPC) is a solid-state photon counting device consisting of a Geiger-mode APD and a quenching resistor. Through-silicon via technology (TSV) allows for the production of a discrete array version of the MPPC, creating a detector with the advantages of a larger active area and less dead space in its overall packaging when compared to other package types commonly used to produce MPPCs. Eliminating the need for a wire-bonding pad allows individual MPPCs to be tiled with minimum dead-space between individual detectors to form a four-sided buttable array. Selecting MPPCs that behave and perform very similarly to each other, especially when an operating voltage is applied, minimizes variation in performance between each channel and enhances channel uniformity. The output of discrete arrays of MPPCs can be easily readout with ASICs (application specific integrated circuits) due to their excellent channel uniformity characteristics, with minimum adjustment required by the ASIC. -- Author-Highlights: • TSV-MPPC and assembly technology are developed. • TSV-MPPC array is tiled in 4-sided buttable and has large and dense active area. • The output pulse of MPPC may have sharp rising edge by virtue of TSV. • The uniformity of the array can be maximized by neat inspection technology.

  9. Influence of the side-by-side arrangement on the performance of a small Savonius wind turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang Choon-Man

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scaled-down Savonius turbine rotors arrayed side-by-side are introduced to analyze the effects of design parameters on the performance between turbine rotors. Unsteady flow simulation and experimental measurement have been performed to compare turbine performance and validate the numerical simulation of the turbine rotor. Commercial code, SC/Tetra, which uses an unstructured grid system, has been used to solve the three-dimensional unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations. Single turbine rotors and two turbine rotors arrayed side-by-side were numerically analyzed. The distance between rotor tips is 0.5 times the rotor diameter. Throughout the numerical simulation, the power coefficient obtained by the time-averaged result of unsteady flow simulation was found to be in good agreement with the experimental result. A discussion on the design parameters using both a single and arrayed turbine rotors is presented based on the results of the unsteady flow simulation, including the flow field, power coefficient, velocity and vorticity contours.

  10. Evaluating the Role of Omega 3 on the Side Effects of Isotretinoin in Patients with the Acnea Vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Mirnezami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Acne vulgaris is chronic inflamatory disease of the pilosebaceous unit.Patients experience psychological burdens like depression ,anxiety, and low self- esteem. Isotretinoin is used in the treatment of severe and recalcitrant acne; however, this treatment is associated with a number of partialy common adverse effects that it sometimes may stop the process of treatment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of oral omega 3 on side-effects of isotretinoin . Materials and Methods: One hundred eighteen patients with severe acne vulgaris were randomly divided into two groups. Control group received isotretinoin (0.5 mg∕kg alone and case group received isotretinoin (0.5 mg∕kg combined with omega 3 (2 capsuls daily. The duration of treatment was 16 weeks.Mucocutaneous side-effects were assessed in patients(4, 8, 12, 16th wk. Results: Lip dryness (4, 8, 12th wk and dryness of nose, skin, eye in the 4 th week in the patients with acne vulgaris treated with isotretinoin and omega3 was lesser than in the patients treated with isotretinoin alone, that this difference was statistically significant (p<0.001. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, Omega 3 decreased the mucocutaneous side effects in the patients with acne vulgaris who received isotretinoin.

  11. Novel Anticonvulsant Analogs of Dextromethorphan: Improved Efficacy, Potency, Duration and Side-Effect Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-02-01

    dextromethorphan (014, [+J-3-aethyl-l7-methylmorphinan) may be, in part, due to its ____________________metabolism to the PCP-like compound... Dextromethorphan : Improved Efficacy, Potency, Duration and Side-Effect Profile1 FRANK C. TORTELLA, LYDIA ROBLES, JEFFREY M. WITKIN and AMY HAUCK NEWMAN... dextromethorphan ; NMDA, N-methyl-D-aspartate; PCP, phencyclidine hydrochloride; DX, dextrorphan; AHN649, [(+)-3- amino-1 7-methylmorphinan]; AHN1 -036

  12. Effects of surgical side and site on mood and behavior outcome in children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth N Andresen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Children with epilepsy have a high rate of mood and behavior problems yet few studies consider the emotional and behavioral impact of surgery. No study to date has been sufficiently powered to investigate effects of both side (left/right and site (temporal/frontal of surgery. One hundred patients (aged 6-16 and their families completed measures of depression, anxiety and behavioral function as part of neuropsychological evaluations before and after surgery for pharmacoresistant epilepsy. Among children who had left-sided surgeries (frontal=16; temporal=38, there were significant interactions between time (pre to postoperative neuropsychological assessment and resection site (frontal/temporal on Anhedonia, Social Anxiety, and Withdrawn/Depressed scales. Patients with frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE endorsed greater presurgical anhedonia and social anxiety than patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, with scores normalizing following surgery. While scores on the Withdrawn/Depressed scale were similar between groups before surgery, the FLE group showed greater symptom improvement after surgery. In children who underwent right-sided surgeries (FLE=20; TLE=26 main effects of time (patients in both groups improved and resection site (caregivers of FLE patients endorsed greater symptoms than those with TLE were observed primarily on behavior scales. Individual data revealed that a greater proportion of children with left FLE demonstrated clinically significant improvements in Anhedonia, Social Anxiety, and Aggressive Behavior than children with TLE. This is the first study to demonstrate differential effects of both side and site of surgery in children with epilepsy at group and individual levels. Results suggest that children with FLE have greater emotional and behavioral dysfunction before surgery, but show marked improvement after surgery. Overall, most children had good emotional and behavioral outcomes, with most scores remaining stable or improving.

  13. 3-D conformal radiotherapy of localized prostate cancer: A subgroup analysis of rectoscopic findings prior to radiotherapy and acute/late rectal side effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldner, Gregor; Zimmermann, Frank; Feldmann, Horst; Glocker, Stefan; Wachter-Gerstner, Natascha; Geinitz, Hans; Becker, Gerd; Poetzi, Regina; Wambersie, Andre; Bamberg, Michael; Molls, Michael; Wachter, Stefan; Poetter, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: To identify endoscopic pathological findings prior to radiotherapy and a possible correlation with acute or chronic rectal side effects after three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) for prostate cancer. Patients and methods: Between 03/99 and 07/02, a total of 298 patients, who consented in a voluntary rectoscopy prior to radiotherapy were included into the analysis. Patients were treated with a total dose of either 70 or 74 Gy. Pathological rectoscopic findings like hemorrhoids, polyps or diverticula were documented. Acute and late rectal side effects were scored using the EORTC/RTOG score. Results: The most frequent pathological endosopic findings were hemorrhoids (35%), polyps (24%) and diverticula (13%). Rectal toxicity was mostly low to moderate. Grade 0/1 cumulative acute and late rectal side effects were 82 and 84%, grade 2 were 18 and 17%, respectively. We could not identify any correlation between preexisting pathological findings and rectal side effects by statistical analysis. Conclusions: There is no evidence that prostate cancer patients presenting with endoscopic verified pathological findings in the rectal mucosa at diagnosis are at an increased risk to develop rectal side effects when treated with 3D-CRT of the prostatic region

  14. [Minimally invasive approach for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liang; Sun, Taicun; Huang, Yonghui

    2010-01-01

    To summarize the recent minimally invasive approach for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy (CSR). The recent literature at home and abroad concerning minimally invasive approach for CSR was reviewed and summarized. There were two techniques of minimally invasive approach for CSR at present: percutaneous puncture techniques and endoscopic techniques. The degenerate intervertebral disc was resected or nucleolysis by percutaneous puncture technique if CSR was caused by mild or moderate intervertebral disc herniations. The cervical microendoscopic discectomy and foraminotomy was an effective minimally invasive approach which could provide a clear view. The endoscopy techniques were suitable to treat CSR caused by foraminal osteophytes, lateral disc herniations, local ligamentum flavum thickening and spondylotic foraminal stenosis. The minimally invasive procedure has the advantages of simple handling, minimally invasive and low incidence of complications. But the scope of indications is relatively narrow at present.

  15. Interleaving subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation to avoid side effects while achieving satisfactory motor benefits in Parkinson disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shizhen; Zhou, Peizhi; Jiang, Shu; Wang, Wei; Li, Peng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus is an effective treatment for advanced Parkinson disease (PD). However, achieving ideal outcomes by conventional programming can be difficult in some patients, resulting in suboptimal control of PD symptoms and stimulation-induced adverse effects. Interleaving stimulation (ILS) is a newer programming technique that can individually optimize the stimulation area, thereby improving control of PD symptoms while alleviating stimulation-induced side effects after conventional programming fails to achieve the desired results. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed PD patients who received DBS programming during the previous 4 years in our hospital. We collected clinical and demographic data from 12 patients who received ILS because of incomplete alleviation of PD symptoms or stimulation-induced adverse effects after conventional programming had proven ineffective or intolerable. Appropriate lead location was confirmed with postoperative reconstruction images. The rationale and clinical efficacy of ILS was analyzed. Results: We divided our patients into 4 groups based on the following symptoms: stimulation-induced dysarthria and choreoathetoid dyskinesias, gait disturbance, and incomplete control of parkinsonism. After treatment with ILS, patients showed satisfactory improvement in PD symptoms and alleviation of stimulation-induced side effects, with a mean improvement in Unified PD Rating Scale motor scores of 26.9%. Conclusions: ILS is a newer choice and effective programming strategy to maximize symptom control in PD while decreasing stimulation-induced adverse effects when conventional programming fails to achieve satisfactory outcome. However, we should keep in mind that most DBS patients are routinely treated with conventional stimulation and that not all patients benefit from ILS. ILS is not recommended as the first choice of programming, and it is recommended only when patients have

  16. Multidimensional Normalization to Minimize Plate Effects of Suspension Bead Array Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mun-Gwan; Lee, Woojoo; Nilsson, Peter; Pawitan, Yudi; Schwenk, Jochen M

    2016-10-07

    Enhanced by the growing number of biobanks, biomarker studies can now be performed with reasonable statistical power by using large sets of samples. Antibody-based proteomics by means of suspension bead arrays offers one attractive approach to analyze serum, plasma, or CSF samples for such studies in microtiter plates. To expand measurements beyond single batches, with either 96 or 384 samples per plate, suitable normalization methods are required to minimize the variation between plates. Here we propose two normalization approaches utilizing MA coordinates. The multidimensional MA (multi-MA) and MA-loess both consider all samples of a microtiter plate per suspension bead array assay and thus do not require any external reference samples. We demonstrate the performance of the two MA normalization methods with data obtained from the analysis of 384 samples including both serum and plasma. Samples were randomized across 96-well sample plates, processed, and analyzed in assay plates, respectively. Using principal component analysis (PCA), we could show that plate-wise clusters found in the first two components were eliminated by multi-MA normalization as compared with other normalization methods. Furthermore, we studied the correlation profiles between random pairs of antibodies and found that both MA normalization methods substantially reduced the inflated correlation introduced by plate effects. Normalization approaches using multi-MA and MA-loess minimized batch effects arising from the analysis of several assay plates with antibody suspension bead arrays. In a simulated biomarker study, multi-MA restored associations lost due to plate effects. Our normalization approaches, which are available as R package MDimNormn, could also be useful in studies using other types of high-throughput assay data.

  17. Stem cells as anticancer drug carrier to reduce the chemotherapy side effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hamideh; Al-Arag, Siham; Middendorp, Elodie; Gergley, Csilla; Cuisinier, Frederic

    2017-02-01

    Chemotherapy used for cancer treatment, due to the lack of specificity of drugs, is associated to various damaging side effects that have severe impact on patients' quality of life. Over the past 30 years, increasing efforts have been placed on optimizing chemotherapy dosing with the main goal of increasing antitumor efficacy while reducing drug-associated toxicity. A novel research shows that stem cells may act as a reservoir for the anticancer agent, which will subsequently release some of the drug's metabolites, or even the drug in its original form, in vicinity of the cancer cells. These cells may play a dual role in controlling drug toxicity depending on their capacity to uptake and release the chemotherapeutic drug. In our study, we show that Dental Pulp Stem Cells DPSCs are able to rapidly uptake Paclitaxel PTX, and to release it in the culture medium in a time-dependent manner. This resulting conditioned culture medium is to be transferred to breast cancer cells, the MCF-7. By applying Confocal Raman Microscopy, the anticancer drug uptake by the MCF-7 was measured. Surprisingly, the cancer cells -without any direct contact with PTX- showed a drug uptake. This proves that the stem cells carried and delivered the anticancer drug without its modification. It could be a revolution in chemotherapy to avoid the drug's side effects and increase its efficacy.

  18. Patient perspectives on breast cancer treatment side effects and the prospective surveillance model for physical rehabilitation for women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, Jill M; Harris, Susan R; Levangie, Pamela K; Pearl, Marcia; Guglielmino, Janine; Kraus, Valerie; Rowden, Diana

    2012-04-15

    Women's experience of breast cancer is complex, affecting all aspects of life during and after treatment. Patients' perspectives about common impairments and functional limitations secondary to breast cancer treatment, including upper extremity motion restriction, lymphedema, fatigue, weight gain, pain, and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, are addressed. Women often report being uninformed regarding these side effects and surprised that they do not always disappear after treatment, but remain part of their lives. Breast cancer patients express strong, unmet needs for education, information, and intervention for these side effects. Evidence suggests that rehabilitation and exercise are effective in preventing and managing many physical side effects of breast cancer treatment. Nevertheless, few women are referred to rehabilitation during or after treatment, and fewer receive baseline assessments of impairment and function to facilitate early detection of impairment and functional limitations. The prospective surveillance model of rehabilitation will serve the needs of women with breast cancer by providing education and information about treatment side effects, reducing the incidence and burden of side effects through early identification and treatment, and enhancing access to timely rehabilitation. Integration of exercise as a component of the model benefits patients at every phase of survivorship, by addressing individual concerns about exercise during and after treatment and highlighting the important contribution of exercise to overall health and survival. The prospective surveillance model of rehabilitation can meet the evident and often expressed needs of survivors for information, guidance, and intervention--thus addressing, and potentially improving, overall quality of life for individuals diagnosed with and treated for breast cancer. Copyright © 2012 American Cancer Society.

  19. Effects of Progressive Body Weight Support Treadmill Forward and Backward Walking Training on Stroke Patients' Affected Side Lower Extremity's Walking Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyunghoon; Lee, Sukmin; Lee, Kyoungbo

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of progressive body weight supported treadmill forward and backward walking training (PBWSTFBWT), progressive body weight supported treadmill forward walking training (PBWSTFWT), progressive body weight supported treadmill backward walking training (PBWSTBWT), on stroke patients' affected side lower extremity's walking ability. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 36 chronic stroke patients were divided into three groups with 12 subjects in each group. Each of the groups performed one of the progressive body weight supported treadmill training methods for 30 minute, six times per week for three weeks, and then received general physical therapy without any other intervention until the follow-up tests. For the assessment of the affected side lower extremity's walking ability, step length of the affected side, stance phase of the affected side, swing phase of the affected side, single support of the affected side, and step time of the affected side were measured using optogait and the symmetry index. [Results] In the within group comparisons, all the three groups showed significant differences between before and after the intervention and in the comparison of the three groups, the PBWSTFBWT group showed more significant differences in