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Sample records for minimize personnel exposure

  1. Minimizing Exposure at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ; Environment Human Health Animal Health Safe Use Practices Food Safety Environment Air Water Soil Wildlife Home Page Pesticide Health and Safety Information Safe Use Practices Minimizing Exposure at Work Pesticides - Pennsylvania State University Cooperative Extension Personal Protective Equipment for Working

  2. Personnel exposures in industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shenoy, K.S.; Patel, P.H.

    1979-01-01

    The manifold increase in production, and ease of availability of radioisotopes in India have been responsible for a tremendous increase in use of radioisotopes in industrial radiography during past fifteen years. Among various applications of radioisotopes the industrial radiography involves a large potential risk of occupational radiation exposures. The dose records of past fifteen years in respect of all radiation workers maintained by the Personnel Monitoring Group of Division of Radiological Protection of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay, have been analysed. Analysis of excessive exposure (exceeding 400 mrem/fortnight) reveals that this figure is increasing at an alarming rate among the radiation workers of this category. In spite of various regulatory controls the dose per person per week has remained higher as compared to the same in other categories. This combined with the increase in number of radiation workers every year would soon contribute significantly to the per capita dose for radiation workers. Use of adequately shielded fool-proof remote control equipment and training of all personnel in safe handling of radiation sources seem to be the only solution to arrest the rate of increase in personnel exposures of this category. (auth.)

  3. Patient and personnel exposure during extracorporeal lithotripsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glaze, S.; LeBlanc, A.D.; Bushong, S.C.; Griffith, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has provided a nonsurgical approach to treatment of renal stones. The Dornier lithotripter uses dual image intensified x-ray systems to center the stone before treatment. Three imaging modes are offered: a fluoroscopic mode and two video spot filming modes. The average entrance exposure to the stone side of the typical patient at our facility is 2.6 X 10(-3) C kg-1 (10 R) [range: 0.5-7.7 X 10(-3) C kg-1 (2-30 R)] which is comparable and often much less than that reported for percutaneous lithotripsy. Recommendations are made for minimizing patient exposure. Scattered radiation levels in the lithotripter room are presented. We have determined that Pb protective apparel is not required during this procedure provided x-ray operation is temporarily halted should personnel be required to lean directly over the tub to attend to the patient. If the walls of the ESWL room are greater than 1.83 m (6 feet) from the tub, shielding in addition to conventional construction is not required

  4. Patient and personnel exposure during extracorporeal lithotripsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaze, S.; LeBlanc, A.D.; Bushong, S.C.; Griffith, D.P.

    1987-12-01

    Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) has provided a nonsurgical approach to treatment of renal stones. The Dornier lithotripter uses dual image intensified x-ray systems to center the stone before treatment. Three imaging modes are offered: a fluoroscopic mode and two video spot filming modes. The average entrance exposure to the stone side of the typical patient at our facility is 2.6 X 10(-3) C kg-1 (10 R) (range: 0.5-7.7 X 10(-3) C kg-1 (2-30 R)) which is comparable and often much less than that reported for percutaneous lithotripsy. Recommendations are made for minimizing patient exposure. Scattered radiation levels in the lithotripter room are presented. We have determined that Pb protective apparel is not required during this procedure provided x-ray operation is temporarily halted should personnel be required to lean directly over the tub to attend to the patient. If the walls of the ESWL room are greater than 1.83 m (6 feet) from the tub, shielding in addition to conventional construction is not required.

  5. Occupational exposure of nuclear medicine personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessler, M.

    1982-01-01

    The results are given of measurements of the radiation burden of personnel in departments of nuclear medicine in the years 1979 to 1981 using film dosemeters and ring thermoluminescence dosemeters evaluated by the national personnel dosemeter service. The relations are examined of the exposure of hands and the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals and especially their use for examinations. Certain organizational measures are indicated for reducina radiation burden in a laboratory for the preparation of radiopharmaceuticals. The results of measurements and evaluations of radiation burden of personnel of nuclear medicine departments are confronted with conclusions published in the literature. (author)

  6. Development of personnel exposure management system with personal computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamato, Ichiro; Yamamoto, Toshiki

    1992-01-01

    In nuclear power plants, large scale personnel exposure management systems have been developed and established by utilities. Though being common in the base, the implementations are specific by plants. Contractors must control their workers' exposures by their own methods and systems. To comply with the utilities' parental systems, contractors' systems tend to differ by plants, thus make it difficult for contractors to design a standard system that is common to all relevant plants. Circumstances being as such, however, we have developed a system which is applicable to various customer utilities with minimal variations, using personal computers with database management and data communication softwares, with relatively low cost. We hope that this system will develop to the standard model for all Japanese contractors' personnel exposure management systems. (author)

  7. Preschool Personnel Exposure to Occupational Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaļužnaja Darja

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Increased noise, which is also below the occupational exposure values and is “hearing safe” noise, affects the exposed person’s health as a non-specific stressor. Increased noise level also creates an environment for additional vocal apparatus load. The objective of this study was to determine preschool personnel occupational noise and its relationship with subjective health complaints. Data were obtained with survey assistance through subjective answers of respondents about health complaints and noise exposure among Rīga preschool personnel. Objective noise measurements were made to assess real noise levels in the preschool environment. Data from 155 respondents and objective measurements of 37 preschool classrooms were obtained. The results showed that the average 8-h noise exposure among Rīga preschool educational institutions was 70 dB(A, which did not exceed the Latvian work environment noise limits, but exceeded the 35–40 dB(A noise limit in the educational environment guidelines recommended by the WHO. The survey results showed that loud noise is one of the most important workplace environmental factors (~70% of respondents feel a necessity to increase voice because of noise. A constant feeling of fatigue, headache, irritable feeling, and a desire to isolate oneself from others more often occurred in respondents exposed to increased noise, compared with those who noted that they were not exposed to increased noise. In general, loud noise was associated with increased subjective health complaints in preschool education institution personnel.

  8. Asbestos exposure of building maintenance personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mlynarek, S; Corn, M; Blake, C

    1996-06-01

    The exposures of building maintenance personnel and occupants to airborne asbestos fibers, and the effects of operations and maintenance programs on those exposures, continue to be an important public health issue. The subject of this investigation was a large metropolitan county with numerous public buildings which routinely conducted air sampling for asbestos. A total of 302 personal air samples in nine task categories collected during maintenance worker activities in proximity to asbestos-containing materials were analyzed; 102 environmental air samples in four task categories were also analyzed. The arithmetic means of the 8-hr time weighted average exposures for personal sampling for each task category were all below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration permissible exposure level of 0.1 fibers (f)/cc > 5 microm. The highest mean 8-hr time weighted average exposure was 0.030 f/cc > 5 microm for ceiling tile replacement. The maximum asbestos concentration during sample collection for environmental samples was 0.027 f/cc > 5 microm. All asbestos-related maintenance work was done within the framework of an Operations and Maintenance Program (OMP) which utilized both personal protective equipment and controls against fiber release/dispersion. Results are presented in association with specific OMP procedures or controls. These results support the effectiveness of using Operations and Maintenance Programs to manage asbestos in buildings without incurring unacceptable risk to maintenance workers performing maintenance tasks.

  9. Personnel and population exposure regulation questions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nosovskij, A.V.

    2000-01-01

    ICRP Recommendations-1990, Notice 60 was used as a basis for new NRBU-97 norms in Ukraine and also for Russian NRB-96 and reviewed NRB-99. These recommendations caused negative treatment among rather authoritative organizations and individual scientists of France, USA, Russia and other countries. Till 1988, norms NRB-76/87 were operated in Ukraine. ICRP Recommendations-1976, Notice 26 was used under their development, and dosage limits included into them surely provided radiation protection for Nuclear Power Units personnel and population during long-term period. But some leaders being affected by Chernobyl syndrome and radio phobia put strong pressure upon ICRP that resulted in Notice 60 appearance where dosage limits for personnel and population were sufficiently understated without any scientific ground. According to literary sources survey, it is shown that usage of dose-effect non threshold linear dependence concept essentially exaggerates the real danger. According to the concept, principles of regulation the exposure standards are suggested, which considered to be actual as large-scale works on dismantling the reactors and ChNPP Units equipment are expected soon on the phase of their decommissioning and also the conducting of works on Unit 'Shelter' transformation into ecologically safe system

  10. Minimizing employee exposure to toxic chemical releases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plummer, R.W.; Stobbe, T.J.; Mogensen, J.E.; Jeram, L.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book describes procedures for minimizing employee exposure to toxic chemical releases and suggested personal protective equipment (PPE) to be used in the event of such chemical release. How individuals, employees, supervisors, or companies perceive the risks of chemical exposure (risk meaning both probability of exposure and effect of exposure) determines to a great extent what precautions are taken to avoid risk. In Part I, the authors develop and approach which divides the project into three phases: kinds of procedures currently being used; the types of toxic chemical release accidents and injuries that occur; and, finally, integration of this information into a set of recommended procedures which should decrease the likelihood of a toxic chemical release and, if one does occur, will minimize the exposure and its severity to employees. Part II covers the use of personal protective equipment. It addresses the questions: what personal protective equipment ensembles are used in industry in situations where the release of a toxic or dangerous chemical may occur or has occurred; and what personal protective equipment ensembles should be used in these situations

  11. Minimizing radiation exposure during percutaneous nephrolithotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T T; Preminger, G M; Lipkin, M E

    2015-12-01

    Given the recent trends in growing per capita radiation dose from medical sources, there have been increasing concerns over patient radiation exposure. Patients with kidney stones undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) are at particular risk for high radiation exposure. There exist several risk factors for increased radiation exposure during PNL which include high Body Mass Index, multiple access tracts, and increased stone burden. We herein review recent trends in radiation exposure, radiation exposure during PNL to both patients and urologists, and various approaches to reduce radiation exposure. We discuss incorporating the principles of As Low As reasonably Achievable (ALARA) into clinical practice and review imaging techniques such as ultrasound and air contrast to guide PNL access. Alternative surgical techniques and approaches to reducing radiation exposure, including retrograde intra-renal surgery, retrograde nephrostomy, endoscopic-guided PNL, and minimally invasive PNL, are also highlighted. It is important for urologists to be aware of these concepts and techniques when treating stone patients with PNL. The discussions outlined will assist urologists in providing patient counseling and high quality of care.

  12. Radiation exposure of nursing personnel to brachytherapy patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobb, P.D.; Kase, K.R.; Bjaerngard, B.E.

    1978-01-01

    The radiation exposure of nursing personnel to brachytherapy patients has been analyzed from data collected during the years 1973-1976, at four different hospitals. The average annual dose per exposed nurse ranged between 25 and 150 mrem. The radiation exposure per nurse was found to be proportional to the total potential exposure and was uncorrelated with the size of the nursing staff. (author)

  13. A Review of Mercury Exposure and Health of Dental Personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Nagpal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Considerable effort has been made to address the issue of occupational health and environmental exposure to mercury. This review reports on the current literature of mercury exposure and health impacts on dental personnel. Citations were searched using four comprehensive electronic databases for articles published between 2002 and 2015. All original articles that evaluated an association between the use of dental amalgam and occupational mercury exposure in dental personnel were included. Fifteen publications from nine different countries met the selection criteria. The design and quality of the studies showed significant variation, particularly in the choice of biomarkers as an indicator of mercury exposure. In several countries, dental personnel had higher mercury levels in biological fluids and tissues than in control groups; some work practices increased mercury exposure but the exposure levels remained below recommended guidelines. Dental personnel reported more health conditions, often involving the central nervous system, than the control groups. Clinical symptoms reported by dental professionals may be associated with low-level, long-term exposure to occupational mercury, but may also be due to the effects of aging, occupational overuse, and stress. It is important that dental personnel, researchers, and educators continue to encourage and monitor good work practices by dental professionals.

  14. A relational database for personnel radiation exposure management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, W.; Miller, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    In-house utility personnel developed a relational data base for personnel radiation exposure management computer system during a 2 1/2 year period. The (PREM) Personnel Radiation Exposure Management System was designed to meet current Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements related to radiological access control, Radiation Work Permits (RWP) management, automated personnel dosimetry reporting, ALARA planning and repetitive job history dose archiving. The system has been operational for the past 18 months which includes a full refueling outage at Clinton Power Station. The Radiation Protection Department designed PREM to establish a software platform for implementing future revisions to 10CFR20 in 1993. Workers acceptance of the system has been excellent. Regulatory officials have given the system high marks as a radiological tool because of the system's ability to track the entire job from start to finish

  15. Personnel radiation exposure in HTGR plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, S.; Engholm, B.A.

    1981-01-01

    Occupational radiation exposures in high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) plants were assessed. The expected rate of dose accumulations for a large HTGR steam cycle unit is 0.07 man-rem/MW(e)y, while the design basis is 0.17 man-rem/MW(e)y. The comparable figure for actual light water reactor experience is 1.3 man-rem/MW(e)y. The favorable HTGR occupational exposure is supported by results from the Peach Bottom Unit No. 1 HTGR and Fort St. Vrain HTGR plants and by operating experience at British gas-cooled reactor stations

  16. Personnel exposure estimates associated with nuclear fuel reprocessing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boone, F.W.; Rogers, B.W.

    1983-08-01

    The operation design of the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant (BNFP) calls for shipment of its wastes to either a low-level waste disposal site or to a Federal repository. This study analyzes the probable radiation dose accrued to the personnel involved in handling waste packages from all identified waste streams of the BNFP from generation to reception at destination and including transportation. The shielding characteristics of the transport packages were derived by assuming packaging in existing or prototyped casks. Possible combinations of waste forms and packages for which the projected dose exceeded DOT or NRC regulations for transport of radioactive materials were rejected. Legal weight truck and legal weight rail transport modes were assumed. Potential ways for reducing overall personnel exposure are considered, concentrating on the particular streams with the largest dose contributions. The personnel exposure estimates were determined using a computer program specifically designed for this purpose. This program is described in Appendix A. 9 references, 3 figures, 19 tables

  17. Computer code for calculating personnel doses due to tritium exposures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, C.L.; Parlagreco, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    This report describes a computer code written in LLL modified Fortran IV that can be used on a CDC 7600 for calculating personnel doses due to internal exposures to tritium. The code is capable of handling various exposure situations and is also capable of detecting a large variety of data input errors that would lead to errors in the dose assessment. The critical organ is the body water

  18. Personnel exposure: The last mSv (mrem)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mower, H.W.

    1996-01-01

    This paper very briefly presents the problems in determining personnel dose exposure history. Two scenarios are described: (1) a new employee, and (2) an employee who works for more than one employer. Several possible solutions are examined and determined to be unsuitable. It is recommended that the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors evaluate this problem and provide suitable recommendations

  19. Occupational Blood Exposure among Health Care Personnel and Hospital Trainees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Hajjaji Darouiche

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood and body fluid Exposure is a major occupational safety problems for health care workers. Therefore, we conducted a descriptive and retrospective study to identify the characteristics of blood exposure accidents in health care settings which lasted five years (2005-2009 at the two university hospitals of Sfax. We have 593 blood exposure accidents in health care settings 152 (25.6% health personnel and 441 (74.4% trainees' doctors, nurses and health technicians. The mechanism of blood and body fluid exposure was accidental needle-stick injury in 78.9% of health staff, and 81% of trainees, accidental cut in 14.7% of health workers and 10.2% of trainees. The increasing severity of blood exposure accidents is linked to the lack of safe behavior against this risk.

  20. Occupational radiation exposure of the personnel due to interventional radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wucherer, M.; Schmidt, T.; Loose, R.

    2000-01-01

    Applications of interventional radiology continue to be on an upward trend, some countries reporting a 100% increase within 2-4 years, so that the resulting radiation exposure of both patients and personnel is an issue of increasing importance. Whereas those applications in general are of advantage for the patients, they mean just a further health hazard for the medical personnel. It is therefore necessary to exploit all available means to reduce the occupational doses. Modern interventional radiology systems offer a range of measures for this purpose, as e.g. last-image-hold, or pulsed modes. Special attention has to be given to the exposure of hand and head. Particularly the hand is closest to the useful beam, and it should be a mandatory requirement to wear film rings. (orig./CB) [de

  1. Radiation protection of aviation personnel at exposure by cosmic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicanova, M.; Pinter, I.; Liskova, A.

    2008-01-01

    For determination of radiation dose of aviation personnel we used the software EPCARD (European Program Package for the Calculation of Aviation Route Doses) developed by National Research Center for Environmental Health - Institute of Radiation Protection (Neuherberg, Germany) and the software CARI 6, developed by the FAA's Civil Aerospace Medical Institute (USA). Both codes are accomplished by the Joint Aviation Authorities. Experimental measurement and estimation of radiation doses of aviation personnel at exposure by cosmic radiation were realised in the period of lowered solar activity. All-year effective dose of pilots, which worked off at least 11 months exceeds the value 1 mSv in 2007. The mean all-year effective dose of member of aviation personnel at exposure by cosmic radiation is 2.5 mSv and maximal all-year effective dose, which we measured in 2007 was 4 mSv. We assumed that in the period of increased solar activity the all-year effective doses may by higher

  2. Occupational overpressure exposure of breachers and military personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimori, G. H.; Reilly, L. A.; LaValle, C. R.; Olaghere Da Silva, U. B.

    2017-11-01

    Military and law enforcement personnel may be routinely and repetitively exposed to low-level blast (LLB) overpressure during training and in operations. This repeated exposure has been associated with symptoms similar to that reported for sports concussion. This study reports LLB exposure for various military and law enforcement sources in operational training environments. Peak overpressure and impulse data are presented from indoor breaching, outdoor breaching, shotgun door breaching, small arms discharge, and mortar and artillery fire missions. Data were collected using the Black Box Biometrics (B3) Blast Gauge sensors. In all cases, sensors were attached to the operators and, where possible, also statically mounted to walls or other fixed structures. Peak overpressures from below 1 psi (7 kPa) to over 12 psi (83 kPa) were recorded; all values reported are uncorrected for incidence angle to the blast exposure source. The results of these studies indicate that the current minimum safe distance calculations are often inaccurate for both indoor and outdoor breaching scenarios as true environmental exposure can consistently exceed the 4 psi (28 kPa) incident safe threshold prescribed by U.S. Army doctrine. While ballistic (shotgun) door breaching and small arms firing only expose the operator to low peak exposure levels, the sheer number of rounds fired during training may result in an excessive cumulative exposure. Mortar and artillery crew members received significantly different overpressure and impulse exposures based on their position (job) relative to the weapon. As both the artillery and mortar crews commonly fire hundreds of rounds during a single training session they are also likely to receive high cumulative exposures. These studies serve to provide the research community with estimates for typical operator exposure across a range of operational scenarios or in the discharge of various weapons systems.

  3. Data processing of personnel exposure in TLD and film systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerner, A.; Liav, N.; Eisen, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The program for the processing and storage of data on the personnel irradiation exposure in Israel is built on the data base of the Weizmann Institute of Science; it is a general program suitable for both TLD and film dosimetry. The TSO system helped bring up-to-date the data of the various collections in an interactive way. The introduction of the TLD dosemeters in the badge service required certain changes in the thinking line - this because the TLD being a personal dosemeter is returned into service after having been deciphered. This demands following up the dosemeter when the worker moves from unit to unit or after he had finished his work. The program takes into account the internal exposures,too and conforms to the new recommendation published in ICRP-26. (B.G.)

  4. Situation of radiation exposure in medical personnel, (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Minoru; Kumazaki, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Mitsuaki; Nakamura, Masamoto; Nonomura, Takuo [Tokyo Metropolitan Isotope Research Center (Japan)

    1982-09-01

    In connection with the radiation protection for medical personnel, the logarithmic normal distribution of their exposure doses has been examined, which is a prerequisite for the practice. The data were the doses measured by film badges from April, 1976, to March, 1981, for physicians, radiation technicians and nurses. The dose measurement by film badges was carried out monthly, 12 times a year; the values given were mrem/year. For the probability distribution of exposure doses, the following items were surveyed: comparison between three types of the profession and the kinds of film badges, i.e. for X-ray and ..gamma..-ray, the linearity of the logarithmic normal distribution for the types of medical institution, and comparison in the linearity between Japan and other countries. The fitting to linearity was found to be very good.

  5. Doses of emergency exposure to the USSR Navy personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaletskiy, Yuriy

    2013-01-01

    Radiological consequences of the Soviet Navy accidents are significant and the number of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) cases is comparable to the number of ARS cases to Chernobyl catastrophe witness and clean-up workers in 1986. Results of a careful clinical-epidemiological examination of the personnel overexposed in the Navy accidents not only have value of radiobiology and radiation medicine specialists but can become a basis for the evaluation of the effectiveness of social protection strategy for the Chernobyl catastrophe clean-up workers. The officially registered exposure doses to persons affected by the Navy radiation accidents in some cases differ from the actual ones due to the imperfections of radiation monitoring facilities at the time of accidents. There was a tendency of clinical overstatement of the exposure doses resulting in diagnosis of 1st degree of ARS to persons who received external doses lower than 0.75. In some cases even 0.2 Gy was overstated as ARS severity for 2nd, 3rd, and 4th degrees. Exposure doses to the affected by the Navy accidents and their ARS severity degrees were evaluated with rather good accuracy. The use of modern method and approaches to the retrospective dose assessment allows more accurate evaluation of the submarine personnel exposure doses as well as verification of every ARS case, thus creating a necessary dosimetric basis for the organization of a correct radiation epidemiological investigation for persons of this contingent. Regretfully, tragic experience of nuclear power plants operation at the Navy vessels was not subject to analysis of specialists in order to improve nuclear safety, radiation protection, and emergency response organization in order to nuclear energy use in the USSR. (N.T.)

  6. Radiation exposure of personnel in nuclear fuel facilities in fiscal 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    The owners of refining enterprises, fabrication enterprises and reprocessing enterprises and users are obligated by the law to keep the radiation exposure dose of personnel below the permissible level. In fiscal 1981 (from April, 1981, to March, 1982), the personnel exposure was far below this level. Exposure dose distribution, total exposure dose and average in the fiscal year are given for the personnel of the following enterprises and other personnel, respectively: refining enterprise - Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation; fabrication enterprises - Mitsubishi Nuclear Fuel Co., Ltd., and four others; reprocessing enterprise - Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation; users - Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and four others. (Mori, K.)

  7. Personnel radiation exposure in the Asse saltmine repository during 1967 to 2008. Health monitoring Asse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    The health monitoring Asse includes the following chapters: Introduction, background information including handling of radioactive materials and radiation protection issues, data on radiation exposure (personnel dosimetry, incorporation surveillance, local dose rate measurements, exhaust monitoring, radioactivity in the salt mine air and in the brine, contamination), concept of the data base, interrogation of the personnel, quantification of the individual radiation doses, results of the radiation exposure quantification; significance of the results and perspectives.

  8. Radiation exposure of non-monitored hospital personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, L.; Blanchette, J.; Galand, C.

    1993-02-01

    This addendum to report INFO--0437-1 reports the raw results of phase 2 of the survey of medical personnel exposed to nuclear medicine patients. It also presents floor plans of the three hospitals surveyed. (L.L.) (42 tabs., 36 figs.)

  9. Control in personnel exposure of RCD/FCD facility RLG during the period 2005 - 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murali, S.; Thanamani, S.; Sapkal, J.A.; Bairwa, Satya Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Full text: Radio Chemistry Wing, RLG, houses Radio Chemistry Division and Fuel Chemistry Division and certain common utility services. The personnel in the facility carry out radiochemical operations involving isotopes of Pu and other actinides. The HP Unit, Radio Chemistry Wing provides essential safety coverage to the personnel of the facility. The lab personnel of RCD/FCD facility at RLG carry out active operations, such operations held in suitable containment systems, under the HP supervision by RHC Unit advising safe work practices. The lab personnel are provided with monitoring programmes viz. TLD, Bio-assay and Lung counting periodically. Presently the dose limit for occupational exposure is 20 mSv per annum with 100 mSv for 5 consecutive calendar years. The present paper on TLD dose report enlists the details of the personnel exposure year wise and highlights the control in personnel exposure due to the safe procedures followed. The decreasing trend in the average personnel exposure over the period 2005 - 2008 validates the practice of adherence to safety procedures, though the amount of activity handled in the facility has increased by a few folds

  10. Control in personnel exposure at HIRUP facility during the period 2006-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ojha, Shashikala; Suman, Santosh Kumar; Murali, S.

    2012-01-01

    HIRUP facility is designed to handle MCi of 60 Co, fabrication of sealed source, is carried out in hot cell. The design safety features allow the handling of sealed sources and other gamma emitters under suitable containment systems. The NP Unit of the facility provides personnel monitoring programmes viz., TLD/DRD monitoring for the radiation workers. 60 Co and other gamma emitters pose mainly external hazard during the handling of sealed source in hot cell. TLD is processed to assess the external exposure of personnel. Air activity and gross bg contamination at the work place is periodically monitored and reported. The TLD users of HIRUP are periodically referred for internal monitoring - whole body counting and bio-assay to estimate internal exposure. There is no reported internal exposure so far. Personnel from IAD and BRIT facility are provided with personnel monitoring coverage by HP Unit; the TLD is issued with respective institution no. as - 0283, 4288. Each person gets identified by individual TLD number, renewed TLD issue on quarterly service period. Based on job requirement such as handling of high activity, additional Wrist TLDs are provided. The used TLD of IAD and BRIT are sent for processing. The dose report obtained, enlists personnel exposure details. HP Unit does the report making to the concerned agencies enlisting the operational status, total occupational exposure of the facility (person mSv), average exposure (mSv) and few other details. Details of exposure for 2006 - 2010 (non-zero exposure cases), indicate that for IAD collective exposure got reduced by 78.5 %, average exposure got reduced by 62.6 %; for BRIT collective exposure got reduced by 58.2 %, average exposure got reduced by 46.8 %, at HIRUP facility. There is a decreasing trend in personnel exposure over the period 2006-2010, is due to HP safety protocol, on job HP surveillance and related safety measures. The personnel exposure is controlled as per ALARA, decreasing trend in the

  11. Methodology of personnel exposure calculation and optimisation within the decommissioning planning code OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasko, Marek; Daniska, Vladimir; Rehak, Ivan; Necas, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Calculation of personnel exposure is a one of the main parameters being evaluated within the pre-decommissioning plans together with other decommissioning drivers such as costs, manpower, amounts of RAW and conventional waste and amount of discharged gaseous and liquid effluents. Alongside with manpower, the exposure is an indicator of the decommissioning process for need of staff, and quantifies impact of decommissioning on personnel from the radio hygienic point of view. At the same time it indicates suitability of individual work procedures use for decommissioning activities. For this reason it is important to estimate as precise as possible demands on personnel exposure even during preparatory decommissioning phase to quantify impact of decommissioning on personnel and eventually optimize the decommissioning process, if needed. The most appropriate way of staff exposure estimation during decommissioning preparatory phases is its calculation based on radiological and physical characteristics of equipment to be decommissioned and also quantitative and qualitative characterisation of typical decommissioning activities. On one hand, the methodology of exposure calculation should allow as much as possible realistic description and algorithmisation of exposure ways during decommissioning activities. On the other hand the calculation have to be systematic, well-arranged and clearly definable by appropriate mathematic relations. Calculation can be made by various approaches using more or less sophisticated software solutions from classic MS Excel sheets up to the complex calculation codes. In this paper, a methodology used for personnel exposure calculation and optimization implemented within the complex computer code OMEGA developed at DECOM, a.s. is described. (author)

  12. Occupational exposure to the personnel regarded by NRB-76/87 to B category

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gubatova, D; Balode, G; Nemiro, E [Medical Institute, Riga (USSR)

    1990-01-01

    During the decades use of radioactive sources in all branches of national economy has increased. Due to this tendency the number of exposed individuals from artificial sources including those exposed only occasionally (the so-called B category) increases. For this category the personnel dosimetry is not obligatory, and radioactive monitoring of their working and living places would do. Nevertheless, the thermoluminescent personnel monitoring data derived by us show that occupational exposure of this category is near, and occasionally even higher than B category exposure limit. So, for example, anesthesiologists annual exposure makes 4.5 mSv, that of surgeons 6.5 mSv, of anesthetic nurses 4.0 mSv (Traumatological and Orthopedic Institute personnel). Annual exposure of 'Medtekhnika' factory electromechanics ought to repair, set up and check up X-ray devices in 1987 was 5 mSv. (author).

  13. Assessment of the occupational exposure of the INOR personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa Zulueta, R.; Cardenas Herrera, J.

    1996-01-01

    The paper evaluate the levels of exposure to ionizing radiation and their influence on the health of occupationally exposed workers from the National Institute of Oncology and Radiobiology during the 1980.1988 period

  14. Study of the radio-exposure of the personnel in diagnostic and interventional radio-cardiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musnier, J.

    1998-01-01

    The renewal of radiological materials has contributed to reduce significantly the doses received by the personnel. The installations of low shutters and lead windows give an important potential of reduction of doses received by the physicians. For the medical and para medical personnel, a modification of working habits must lead to an important exposure reduction. To summarize, the medical and para medical personnel in cardiology has at one s disposal all the means allowing to reach the objective of dose constraints. The radiation protection optimization now depends on every concerned actor. (N.C.)

  15. Noise exposure and cognitive performance: A study on personnel on board Royal Norwegian Navy vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Irgens-Hansen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prior research shows that work on board vessels of the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN is associated with noise exposure levels above recommended standards. Further, noise exposure has been found to impair cognitive performance in environmental, occupational, and experimental settings, although prior research in naval and maritime settings is sparse. The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive performance after exposure to noise among personnel working on board vessels in the RNoN. Altogether 87 Navy personnel (80 men, 7 women; 31 ± 9 years from 24 RNoN vessels were included. Noise exposure was recorded by personal noise dosimeters at a minimum of 4 h prior to testing, and categorized into 4 groups for the analysis: 85.2 dB(A. The participants performed a visual attention test based on the Posner cue-target paradigm. Multivariable general linear model (GLM analyses were performed to analyze whether noise exposure was associated with response time (RT when adjusting for the covariates age, alertness, workload, noise exposure in test location, sleep the night before testing, use of hearing protection device (HPD, and percentage of errors. When adjusting for covariates, RT was significantly increased among personnel exposed to >85.2 dB(A and 77.1-85.2 dB(A compared to personnel exposed to <72.6 dB(A.

  16. Noise exposure and cognitive performance: A study on personnel on board Royal Norwegian Navy vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irgens-Hansen, Kaja; Gundersen, Hilde; Sunde, Erlend; Baste, Valborg; Harris, Anette; Bråtveit, Magne; Moen, Bente E

    2015-01-01

    Prior research shows that work on board vessels of the Royal Norwegian Navy (RNoN) is associated with noise exposure levels above recommended standards. Further, noise exposure has been found to impair cognitive performance in environmental, occupational, and experimental settings, although prior research in naval and maritime settings is sparse. The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive performance after exposure to noise among personnel working on board vessels in the RNoN. Altogether 87 Navy personnel (80 men, 7 women; 31 ± 9 years) from 24 RNoN vessels were included. Noise exposure was recorded by personal noise dosimeters at a minimum of 4 h prior to testing, and categorized into 4 groups for the analysis: 85.2 dB(A). The participants performed a visual attention test based on the Posner cue-target paradigm. Multivariable general linear model (GLM) analyses were performed to analyze whether noise exposure was associated with response time (RT) when adjusting for the covariates age, alertness, workload, noise exposure in test location, sleep the night before testing, use of hearing protection device (HPD), and percentage of errors. When adjusting for covariates, RT was significantly increased among personnel exposed to >85.2 dB(A) and 77.1-85.2 dB(A) compared to personnel exposed to <72.6 dB(A).

  17. Guilt is more strongly associated with suicidal ideation among military personnel with direct combat exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Craig J; Ray-Sannerud, Bobbie; Morrow, Chad E; Etienne, Neysa

    2013-05-15

    Suicide rates in the U.S. military have been rising rapidly in the past decade. Research suggests guilt is a significant predictor of suicidal ideation among military personnel, and may be especially pronounced among those who have been exposure to combat-related traumas. The current study explored the interactive effect of direct combat exposure and guilt on suicidal ideation in a clinical sample of military personnel. Ninety-seven active duty U.S. Air Force personnel receiving outpatient mental health treatment at two military clinics completed self-report symptom measures of guilt, depression, hopelessness, perceived burdensomeness, posttraumatic stress disorder, and suicidal ideation. Generalized multiple regression analyses indicated a significant interaction of guilt and direct combat exposure (B=.124, SE=.053, p=.020), suggesting a stronger relationship of guilt with suicidal ideation among participants who had direct combat exposure as compared to those who had not. The interactions of direct combat exposure with depression (B=.004, SE=.040, p=.926), PTSD symptoms (B=.016, SE=.018, p=.382), perceived burdensomeness (B=.159, SE=.152, p=.300) and hopelessness (B=.069, SE=.036, p=.057) were nonsignificant. Although guilt is associated with more severe suicidal ideation in general among military personnel, it is especially pronounced among those who have had direct combat exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiation exposure of non-monitored hospital personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renaud, L.; Blanchette, J.; Galand, C.

    1993-02-01

    This project investigated the radiological impact of nuclear medicine patients on non-monitored personnel in hospital environments. More than 800 workers and 135 specific areas in three Quebec hospitals were surveyed daily during a six-month period with Geiger counters, TLD badges, and TLD chips. Average dose rates of up to 2.2 μSv/h were measured in some waiting areas. The radiation level of a nursing unit is a direct function of the ambulatory radioactivity carried by nuclear medicine patients. Three percent of the workers surveyed had a work-related dose in excess of 0.3 mSv/6 months (maximum 1.4 mSv/6 months). Over 88 percent were in the range between local background and 0.3 mSv/6 months. Less than 4 percent belong to groups of workers who were exposed to a level indistinguishable from background. Thus many workers surveyed in this study receive a work-related dose similar to those of medical workers monitored by Health and Welfare Canada. The average annual dose for these workers was 104 person-millisieverts. The authors recommend: better management of radioactive patients; the provision of information and education for all hospital workers having regular contact with radioactive patients; and the facilitation of the identification of nuclear medicine patients within the hospital environment. (28 tabs., 23 figs.)

  19. ALARA and de minimis concepts in regulation of personnel exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    The ALARA process should not be limited by a de minimis level on either collective or individual dose, but should be limited or defined by an acceptable discount-rate on future costs and effects, and a monetary value for detriment, to be used in cost-effectiveness or cost-benefit calculations at dose levels well below the regulatory limits. This approach would provide the desired benefit of simplifying the decision process, it makes it more cost effective, and would avoid the inconsistencies of limits on only one of the four parameters of importance in the optimization process. These are average individual effective dose equivalent rate, number of individuals to be included in the summation, years of exposure, and costs, which include costs of analysis to reduce the exposure. This approach emphasizes that these doses to an individual may not be considered trivial by society when given to a very large population, especially if they could easily be avoided. 32 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Dosimetry of the Occupational Exposure Personnel and not exposure of the INNSZ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz J, A.

    1999-01-01

    In this work, was measured the equivalent dose of all the personnel of Nuclear medicine and personnel of the Institute which by its activities remain in the Department, by time determined, through thermoluminescent dosemeters and the results were that the personnel presents variable equivalent dose and it is proportional to the time and radionuclide type which use for their work. By this it is allowed to secure what the work watched with respect to radiological protection to fulfil with the International Standards standing for personnel in the Institute. (Author)

  1. Study of morbidity of personnel with potential exposure to vinclozolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zober, A; Hoffmann, G; Ott, M G; Will, W; Germann, C; van Ravenzwaay, B

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To examine internal exposure and targeted health outcomes of employees exposed to 3-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)-5-methyl-5-vinyl-1,3-oxazolidine-2,4-dione; chemical abstracts service (CAS) number: 50471-44-8 (vinclozolin). METHODS--A cross sectional study of 67 men exposed to vinclozolin for one to 13 years during synthesis and formulation operations and 52 controls. Biomonitoring was based on determination of urinary metabolites that contained a 3,5-dichloroaniline (3,5-DCA) moiety. Targeted health endpoints were the same as in previous subchronic and chronic animal studies--namely, reversible changes in the concentrations of hormones of the adrenocorticotrophic and gonadotrophic feedback systems, signs of liver injury, haemolytic anaemia, cataract formation (uniquely in rats), and hormonally induced hyperplasia and tumours at high doses. The clinical investigation consisted of a medical and occupational history questionnaire, physical examination, laboratory determinations (including testosterone, LH, and FSH measurements), ultrasonography of the liver and prostate, a detailed eye examination, and routine spirometry. RESULTS--The mean 3,5-DCA concentration for two thirds of the study group exceeded an equivalent of the vinclozolin acceptable daily intake (ADI) used for consumer regulatory purposes. Even the highest concentrations were, however, at least 10 times below the no observable adverse effect level (NOAEL) based on animal studies. Analysis of physical examination and laboratory data provided no evidence of hormonal responses induced by vinclozolin. Furthermore, no evidence of liver injury, prostate changes, cataract formation, or haemolytic anaemia was found. CONCLUSION--There was no evidence of any health effects induced by vinclozolin among employees with potential long term exposure. In particular, no antiandrogenic effects were found. PMID:7795738

  2. Eye lens radiation exposure in Greek interventional cardiology personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrapsanioti, Zoi; Askounis, Panagiotis; Carinou, Eleftheria; Datseris, Ioannis; Diamanti, Ramza Anastasia; Papathanasiou, Miltiadis

    2017-01-01

    The lens of the eye is one of the radiosensitive tissues of the human body; if exposed to ionizing radiation can develop radiation-induced cataract at early ages. This study was held in Greece and included 44 Interventional Cardiologists (ICs) and an unexposed to radiation control group of 22 persons. Of the note, 26 ICs and the unexposed individuals underwent special eye examinations. The detected lens opacities were classified according to LOCS III protocol. Additionally, the lens doses of the ICs were measured using eye lens dosemeters. The mean dose to the lenses of the ICs per month was 0.83 ± 0.59 mSv for the left and 0.35 ± 0.38 mSv for the right eye, while the annual doses ranged between 0.7 and 11 mSv. Regarding the lens opacities, the two groups did not differ significantly in the prevalence of either nuclear or cortical lens opacities, whereas four ICs were detected with early stage subcapsular sclerosis. Though no statistically difference was observed in the cohort, the measured doses indicate that the eye doses received from the ICs can be significant. To minimize the radiation-induced risk at the eye lenses, the use of protective equipment and appropriate training on this issue is highly recommended. (authors)

  3. Radiation exposure to patients and personnel during percutaneous renal calculus extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khandelwal, K.C.; Kooka, D.M.; Dagaonkar, S.S.; Supe, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    Radiation exposure to the patient, radiologist and other personnel was measured during 20 percutaneous renal calculus extractions. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were used. The average skin dose for patient at the level of the testis was 80 mrem, and at the level of the kidney, 17.2 rem. Radiation exposure to the personnel was measured at the levels of forehead, thyroid, chest and testis. The average dose to these regions ranged between 0.20 mrem and 2.5 mrem. The radiologist's hand received on average radiation of 88.8 mrems. The patient skin surface exposure at the nephrostomy site are comparable to skin doses from standard procedures. The exposure to the radiologist is similar to that from other interventional fluoroscopic procedures and is within acceptable limits. (author). 10 refs., 3 tabs

  4. Occupational exposure to ambient electromagnetic fields of technical operational personnel working for a mobile telephone operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauvin, S.; Gibergues, M. L.; Wuethrich, G.; Picard, D.; Desreumaux, J. P.; Bouillet, J. C.

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the exposure of operational personnel to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields when working for a mobile telephone operator, exposimeters were used to make individual records on 23 Technical Operations personnel (mobile telephone maintenance staff) and also on 22 Other Workers. The exposure densities, to which each of the 45 subjects was subjected, were quantified using 229 exposure indicators. Cluster analysis techniques were applied to the data, in an attempt to show that they would re-emerge as belonging to one of the two groups, i.e. the Technical Operational Personnel group or the Other Workers group. This exploratory investigation has shown that the cluster analysis does not reveal a sufficiently reliable emergence of the two groups, even though certain exposure indicators were significantly different for the two groups. In addition, the use of a Learning Group method does not lead to the discovery of a predictive law that could identify the Technical Operational Personnel as a sub-group within the overall group. (authors)

  5. Exposure of hospital operating room personnel to potentially harmful environmental agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sass-Kortsak, A.M.; Purdham, J.T.; Bozek, P.R.; Murphy, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies of risk to reproductive health arising from the operating room environment have been inconclusive and lack quantitative exposure information. This study was undertaken to quantify exposure of operating room (OR) personnel to anesthetic agents, x-radiation, methyl methacrylate, and ethylene oxide and to determine how exposure varies with different operating room factors. Exposures of anesthetists and nurses to these agents were determined in selected operating rooms over three consecutive days. Each subject was asked to wear an x-radiation dosimeter for 1 month. Exposure to anesthetic agents was found to be influenced by the age of the OR facility, type of surgical service, number of procedures carried out during the day, type of anesthetic circuitry, and method of anesthesia delivery. Anesthetists were found to have significantly greater exposures than OR nurses. Exposure of OR personnel to ethylene oxide, methyl methacrylate, and x-radiation were well within existing standards. Exposure of anesthetists and nurses to anesthetic agents, at times, was in excess of Ontario exposure guidelines, despite improvements in the control of anesthetic pollution

  6. The minimal melanogenesis dose/minimal erythema dose ratio declines with increasing skin pigmentation using solar simulator and narrowband ultraviolet B exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnbak, Mette H; Philipsen, Peter A; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the relation between pre-exposure skin pigmentation and the minimal melanogenesis dose (MMD)/minimal erythema dose (MED) ratio after a single narrowband ultraviolet B (nUVB) and solar simulator (Solar) exposure.......To investigate the relation between pre-exposure skin pigmentation and the minimal melanogenesis dose (MMD)/minimal erythema dose (MED) ratio after a single narrowband ultraviolet B (nUVB) and solar simulator (Solar) exposure....

  7. Urinary biomarkers of occupational jet fuel exposure among Air Force personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristen W; Proctor, Susan P; Ozonoff, A L; McClean, Michael D

    2012-01-01

    There is a potential for widespread occupational exposure to jet fuel among military and civilian personnel. Urinary metabolites of naphthalene have been suggested for use as short-term biomarkers of exposure to jet fuel (jet propulsion fuel 8 (JP8)). In this study, urinary biomarkers of JP8 were evaluated among US Air Force personnel. Personnel (n=24) were divided a priori into high, moderate, and low exposure groups. Pre- and post-shift urine samples were collected from each worker over three workdays and analyzed for metabolites of naphthalene (1- and 2-naphthol). Questionnaires and breathing-zone naphthalene samples were collected from each worker during the same workdays. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the exposure data. Post-shift levels of 1- and 2-naphthol varied significantly by a priori exposure group (levels in high group>moderate group>low group), and breathing-zone naphthalene was a significant predictor of post-shift levels of 1- and 2-naphthol, indicating that for every unit increase in breathing-zone naphthalene, there was an increase in naphthol levels. These results indicate that post-shift levels of urinary 1- and 2-naphthol reflect JP8 exposure during the work-shift and may be useful surrogates of JP8 exposure. Among the high exposed workers, significant job-related predictors of post-shift levels of 1- and 2-naphthol included entering the fuel tank, repairing leaks, direct skin contact with JP8, and not wearing gloves during the work-shift. The job-related predictors of 1- and 2-naphthol emphasize the importance of reducing inhalation and dermal exposure through the use of personal protective equipment while working in an environment with JP8.

  8. Minimalism

    CERN Document Server

    Obendorf, Hartmut

    2009-01-01

    The notion of Minimalism is proposed as a theoretical tool supporting a more differentiated understanding of reduction and thus forms a standpoint that allows definition of aspects of simplicity. This book traces the development of minimalism, defines the four types of minimalism in interaction design, and looks at how to apply it.

  9. Characterization of inhalation exposure to jet fuel among U.S. Air Force personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant-Borna, Kian; Rodrigues, Ema G; Smith, Kristen W; Proctor, Susan P; McClean, Michael D

    2012-07-01

    Jet propulsion fuel-8 (JP-8) is the primary jet fuel used by the US military, collectively consuming ~2.5 billion gallons annually. Previous reports suggest that JP-8 is potentially toxic to the immune, respiratory, and nervous systems. The objectives of this study were to evaluate inhalation exposure to JP-8 constituents among active duty United States Air Force (USAF) personnel while performing job-related tasks, identify significant predictors of inhalation exposure to JP-8, and evaluate the extent to which surrogate exposure classifications were predictive of measured JP-8 exposures. Seventy-three full-time USAF personnel from three different air force bases were monitored during four consecutive workdays where personal air samples were collected and analyzed for benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, xylenes, total hydrocarbons (THC), and naphthalene. The participants were categorized a priori into high- and low-exposure groups, based on their exposure to JP-8 during their typical workday. Additional JP-8 exposure categories included job title groups and self-reported exposure to JP-8. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate predictors of personal air concentrations. The concentrations of THC in air were significantly different between a priori exposure groups (2.6 mg m(-3) in high group versus 0.5 mg m(-3) in low, P fuel distribution/maintenance, though self-reported exposure to JP-8 was an even stronger predictor of measured exposure in models that explained 72% (THC) and 67% (naphthalene) of between-worker variability. In fact, both self-report JP-8 exposure and a priori exposure groups explained more between-worker variability than job categories. Personal exposure to JP-8 varied by job and was positively associated with the relative humidity. However, self-reported exposure to JP-8 was an even stronger predictor of measured exposure than job title categories, suggesting that self-reported JP-8 exposure is a valid surrogate metric of exposure when

  10. Development of automated equipment for reduction of personnel radiation exposure in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogushi, Akira; Fujii, Masaaki; Mizuno, Katsuhiro.

    1976-01-01

    Described are a mobile remote inspection system and an automatic analyzer for radioactive nuclides in reactor coolant now being developed as a means of reducing personnel radiation exposure in nuclear power plants. In the mobile remote inspection system ''TELEPAT'', a self-propelled vehicle equipped with a thermometer, accelerometer, microphone, ionization chamber, etc. is remote operated from the main control room to inspect the equipment in the reactor building. The automatic analyzer for radioactive nuclides in reactor coolant automates the series of operations ranging from sampling of reactor coolant to measurement of radioactivity and analyses of measured data, with a view to saving labor in radioactivity analysis work while reducing exposure of personnel to radiation. (auth.)

  11. Inhalation exposure to jet fuel (JP8) among U.S. Air Force personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kristen W; Proctor, Susan P; Ozonoff, Al; McClean, Michael D

    2010-10-01

    As jet fuel is a common occupational exposure among military and civilian populations, this study was conducted to characterize jet fuel (JP8) exposure among active duty U.S. Air Force personnel. Personnel (n = 24) were divided a priori into high, moderate, and low exposure groups. Questionnaires and personal air samples (breathing zone) were collected from each worker over 3 consecutive days (72 worker-days) and analyzed for total hydrocarbons (THC), benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, and naphthalene. Air samples were collected from inside the fuel tank and analyzed for the same analytes. Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the exposure data. Our results show that the correlation of THC (a measure of overall JP8 inhalation exposure) with all other analytes was moderate to strong in the a priori high and moderate exposure groups combined. Inhalation exposure to all analytes varied significantly by self-reported JP8 exposure (THC levels higher among workers reporting JP8 exposure), a priori exposure group (THC levels in high group > moderate group > low group), and more specific job task groupings (THC levels among workers in fuel systems hangar group > refueling maintenance group > fuel systems office group > fuel handling group > clinic group), with task groupings explaining the most between-worker variability. Among highly exposed workers, statistically significant job task-related predictors of inhalation exposure to THC indicated that increased time in the hangar, working close to the fuel tank (inside > less than 25 ft > greater than 25 ft), primary job (entrant > attendant/runner/fireguard > outside hangar), and performing various tasks near the fuel tank, such as searching for a leak, resulted in higher JP8 exposure. This study shows that while a priori exposure groups were useful in distinguishing JP8 exposure levels, job task-based categories should be considered in epidemiologic study designs to improve exposure classification. Finally

  12. Poison exposures in young Israeli military personnel: a National Poison Center Data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavon, Ophir; Bentur, Yedidia

    2017-06-01

    To characterize poison exposures in young Israeli military personnel as reported to the national poison center. Retrospective poison center chart review over a 14-year period. Cases included were Israeli soldiers aged 18-21 years, the compulsory military service age required by the Israeli law. 1770 records of poison exposures in young military personnel were identified. Most exposed individuals involved males (n = 1268, 71.6%). Main routes of exposure were ingestion (n = 854, 48.3%), inhalation (n = 328, 18.6%) and ocular (n = 211, 11.9%). Accidents or misuse (n = 712, 40.2%) were the most frequently reported circumstances, followed by suicide attempts (370, 20.9%), and bites and stings (161, 9.1%). More than half of the cases involved chemicals (n = 939, 53.1%); hydrocarbons, gases and corrosives were the main causative agents. Pharmaceuticals (mainly analgesics) were involved in 519 (29.3%) cases, venomous animals (mainly scorpions, centipedes, and snakes) in 79 (4.5%). Clinical manifestations were reported in 666 (37.6%) cases, mostly gastrointestinal, neurologic, and respiratory. The vast majority of cases (1634, 92.3%) were asymptomatic or mildly affected; no fatalities were recorded. In 831 (46.9%) cases the clinical toxicologist recommended referral to an emergency department; ambulatory observation was recommended in 563 (31.8%) cases, and hospitalization in 86 (4.9%). Our data show that poison exposures among young soldiers involve mainly males, accidents, misuse and suicides, oral route and chemicals; most exposures were asymptomatic or with mild severity. Repeated evaluations of poison center data pertaining to military personnel is advised for identifying trends in poison exposure and characteristics in this particular population.

  13. Personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    This film stresses the need for personnel monitoring in work areas where there is a hazard of exposure to radiation. It illustrates the use of personnel monitoring devices (specially the film dosimeter), the assessment of exposure to radiation and the detailed recording of the results on personnel filing cards

  14. Personnel monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1966-12-31

    This film stresses the need for personnel monitoring in work areas where there is a hazard of exposure to radiation. It illustrates the use of personnel monitoring devices (specially the film dosimeter), the assessment of exposure to radiation and the detailed recording of the results on personnel filing cards

  15. Internal exposure monitoring of personnel of a nuclear power plant with pressurized-water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krueger, F.W.; Poulheim, K.F.; Rueger, G.; Schreiter, W.D.

    1982-01-01

    In the GDR a programme for monitoring the internal radiation exposure of personnel has been established in the Bruno Leuschner Nuclear Power Plant, Greifswald, which allows one to estimate the effective dose equivalent in the way recommended by the ICRP. The measuring equipment used, and the methods of calibration and of evaluation of results are described. At present about 400 persons are monthly monitored with a thorax monitor in the nuclear power plant. If an investigation level - corresponding to an effective dose equivalent of 0.3mSv/month - is exceeded, a more exact measurement is made in the whole-body counter at the National Board for Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection of the GDR. In addition, a selected group of 50 persons is measured twice yearly in the whole-body counter. The measurements show the high effectiveness of the protective measures against radionuclide intake by workers in the nuclear power plant, resulting in a contribution of less than 1% to the collective dose of the personnel. A correlation has been found between external and internal exposure indicating that, in general, there will be a higher intake only under conditions resulting also in higher external exposures. The highest individual values of internal exposure found are below 0.5mSv/month and thus within the range of the lower detection limit of dosimeter films used for monitoring the external exposure. (author)

  16. Reduction in radiation exposure to nursing personnel with the use of remote afterloading brachytherapy devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigsby, P.W.; Perez, C.A.; Eichling, J.; Purdy, J.; Slessinger, E.

    1991-01-01

    The radiation exposure to nursing personnel from patients with brachytherapy implants on a large brachytherapy service were reviewed. Exposure to nurses, as determined by TLD monitors, indicates a 7-fold reduction in exposure after the implementation of the use of remote afterloading devices. Quarterly TLD monitor data for six quarters prior to the use of remote afterloading devices demonstrate an average projected annual dose equivalent to the nurses of 152 and 154 mrem (1.5 mSv). After the implementation of the remote afterloading devices, the quarterly TLD monitor data indicate an average dose equivalent per nurse of 23 and 19 mrem (0.2 mSv). This is an 87% reduction in exposure to nurses with the use of these devices (p less than 0.01)

  17. Exposure to the atmospheric ionizing radiation environment: a study on Italian civilian aviation flight personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Angelis, G.; Caldora, M.; Santaquilani, M.; Scipione, R.; Verdecchia, A.

    2003-01-01

    A study of the effects of high-LET, low-dose and low-dose-rate ionizing radiation and associated risk analysis is underway. This study involves analyzing the atmospheric ionizing radiation exposure (including high-energy neutrons) and associated effects for members of civilian aviation flight personnel, in an attempt to better understand low-dose long-term radiation effects on human subjects. The study population includes all Italian civilian airline flight personnel, both cockpit and cabin crew members, whose work history records and actual flights (route, aircraft type, and date for each individual flight for each person where possible) are available. The dose calculations are performed along specific flight legs, taking into account the actual flight profiles for all different routes and the variations with time of solar and geomagnetic parameters. Dose values for each flight are applied to the flight history of study participants in order to estimate the individual annual and lifetime occupational radiation dose. An update of the study of the physical atmospheric ionizing radiation exposure is given here, in terms of environmental modeling, flight routes, radiation dose evaluation along different flight paths, and exposure matrix construction. The exposure analysis is still in progress, and the first results are expected soon

  18. Determination of personnel exposures in the lower energy ranges of X-ray by photographic dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, C.W.; Kim, J.R.; Suk, K.W.

    1986-01-01

    This paper described an improved technical method required for proper evaluation of personnel exposures by means of the photographic dosimeter developed by KAERI in lower gamma or X-ray energy regions, with which response of the dosimeter varies significantly. With calibration of the dosimeter in the energy range from 30 to 300 keV, the beam spectrum was carefully selected and specified it adequately. The absorber combinations and absorber thickness used to obtain the specified X-ray spectra from a constant potential X-ray machine were determined theoretically and also experimentally. A correlation between the density and exposure for the four separate energies, such as 49 keV eff , 154 keV eff 250 keV eff and 662 keV, is experimentally determined. As a result, it can be directly evaluated the exposure from the measured response of dosimeter. (Author)

  19. Evaluation of secondary exposure doses to transportation and medical personnel in the radiation emergency medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hideki; Suzuki, Shoichi; Koga, Sukehiko; Mukoyama, Takashi; Tomatsu, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Yusuke

    2009-01-01

    Radionuclide contamination is one of the accidents that might occur while carrying out a periodical inspection of nuclear power stations during normal reactor operation. When such an accident occurs, rescue and medical personnel, involved in transporting and treating affected workers run the risk of exposure to secondary radiation. In this study, the ambient dose equivalent rate at a certain distance from the surface of the human body contaminated with typical radioactive corrosion products was calculated. Further, the relationships among the adhesion area, contamination density, and secondary exposure dose were clarified. The secondary exposure dose and permissible working hours in a radiation emergency medicine were estimated by presenting these relationships in the form of a chart and by specifying the contamination levels. (author)

  20. Critical incident exposure in South African emergency services personnel: prevalence and associated mental health issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, C L; Lombard, C J; Gwebushe, N

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To assess critical incident exposure among prehospital emergency services personnel in the developing world context of South Africa; and to assess associated mental health consequences. Methods We recruited a representative sample from emergency services in the Western Cape Province, South Africa, to participate in this cross sectional epidemiological study. Questionnaires covered critical incident exposure, general psychopathology, risky alcohol use, symptoms of post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and psychological and physical aggression between co‐workers. Open ended questions addressed additional stressors. Results Critical incident exposure and rates of general psychopathology were higher than in studies in the developed world. Exposure to critical incidents was associated with general psychopathology, symptoms of PTSD, and with aggression between co‐workers, but not with alcohol use. Ambulance, fire, and sea rescue services had lower general psychopathology scores than traffic police. The sea rescue service also scored lower than traffic police on PTSD and psychological aggression. The defence force had higher rates of exposure to physical assault, and in ambulance services, younger staff were more vulnerable to assault. Women had higher rates of general psychopathology and of exposure to psychological aggression. Other stressors identified included death notification, working conditions, and organisational problems. Conclusions Service organisations should be alert to the possibility that their personnel are experiencing work ‐related mental health and behavioural problems, and should provide appropriate support. Attention should also be given to organisational issues that may add to the stress of incidents. Workplace programmes should support vulnerable groups, and address death notification and appropriate expression of anger. PMID:16498167

  1. Personnel dose assignment practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1993-04-01

    Implementation of DOE N 5480.6 Radiological Control Manual Article 511(3) requirements, to minimize the assignment of personnel dosimeters, should be done only under a broader context ensuring that capabilities are in place to monitor and record personnel exposure both for compliance and for potential litigation. As noted in NCRP Report No. 114, personnel dosimetry programs are conducted to meet four major objectives: radiation safety program control and evaluation; regulatory compliance; epidemiological research; and litigation. A change to Article 511(3) is proposed that would require that minimizing the assignment of personnel dosimeters take place only following full evaluation of overall capabilities (e.g., access control, area dosimetry, etc.) to meet the NCRP objectives

  2. Virtual reality application for simulating and minimizing worker radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ki Doo; Hajek, Brian K.; Lee, Yon Sik; Shin, Yoo Jin

    2004-01-01

    To plan work and preclude unexpected radiation exposures in a nuclear power plant, a virtual nuclear plant is a good solution. For this, there are prerequisites such as displaying real time radiation exposure data onto an avatar and preventing speed reduction caused by multiple users on the net-based system. The work space is divided into several sections and radiation information is extracted section by section. Based on the simulation algorithm, real time processing is applied to the events and movements of the avatar. Because there are millions of parts in a nuclear power plant, it is almost impossible to model all of them. Several parts of virtual plant have been modeled using 3D internet virtual reality for the model development. Optimum one-click Active-X is applied for the system, which provides easy access to the virtual plant. Connection time on the net is 20-30 sec for initial loading and 3-4 sec for the 2nd and subsequent times

  3. All-cause mortality and radar exposure among french navy personnel: a 30 years cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabouis, V.; Arvers, P.; Debouzy, J.C.; Perrin, A.; Hours, M.

    2006-01-01

    To improve operational performance in a modern navy force, radiofrequency (RF) and microwaves emitting devices are widely used. It has been suggested that exposure to electromagnetic fields could be associated with greater health hazards and higher mortality. The all-cause mortality of 39488 militaries of the French navy forces was studied over the period 1975-2001 with a cohort epidemiological study. They served from 1975 until 1995. In a first step, the mortality of radar exposed militaries was compared to a control group formed by militaries who served during the same period in the same environment but without radar exposure. Administrative procedures for identifying militaries and their vital status were equivalent in the radar and the control groups. The age standardized mortality ratio in the radar navy personnel was 0.70 (95% CI: 0.54-0.90). In professional militaries, no difference in mortality ratio was found according to duration of estimated exposure. During a 30 years period of observation, we found no increase in all-cause mortality in the French navy personnel who were close to radar equipments

  4. Assessment of radiation exposure of personnel during clinical application of radioactive iridium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dworakowski, M; Krystman-Mazgajska, E; Wysopolski, J [Instytut Onkologii, Warsaw (Poland); Centralne Lab. Ochrony Radiologicznej, Warsaw (Poland))

    1975-01-01

    The authors describe the results of measurements of doses and the evaluation of radiation exposure of the personnel of the Department of General Oncology working with application of radioactive iridium for interstitial and superficial treatment of neoplasma. The doses were measured by the photographic method simultaneously at six sites of the body: on the forehead, left side of the chest, 4th fingers of both hands, and on the left and right sides of the trunk at the level of gonads. The authors believe that introduction of iridium in place of radium will improve the conditions of work from the standpoint of protection against radioactivity.

  5. A review of the radiation exposure of transport personnel during the radioactive waste sea disposal operations from 1977-1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mairs, J.H.

    1985-06-01

    The period of the review was chosen to give an account of the recent radiation exposures of transport personnel, which may serve as an indicator of possible future exposures associated with sea disposal operations. The annual radiation exposure of transport personnel has shown a significant reduction during the period of the review. These dose savings have been achieved despite a general increase in the quantities of wastes dumped. This is probably due to the improved shielding of packages and radiologically improved working procedures. If ocean disposal of solid or solidified radioactive waste was to be resumed the exposure of transport personnel might be expected to be comparable to the low doses received in the early 1980s. However, changes in packaging, handling procedures and frequency of movements would have major effects on radiation exposure. (author)

  6. Beta Radiation exposure of medical personnel during vascular brachytherapy with Re-188

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moka, D.; Baer, F.; Barth, I.; Rimpler, A.

    2002-01-01

    Intracoronary radiation is currently considered a promising breakthrough approach for preventing restenosis after angioplasty and stenting in patients with severe coronary artery disease. For the therapy of in-stent-restenosis vascular irradiation using balloon catheters filled with liquid radioisotopes provide excellent homogeneity due to the artery stenosis morphology. The radionuclide normally used is a Re-188 solutions (E β ,max=2,12 MeV). To achieve a sufficient dose in the stenosed artery wall (30 Gy in 0.5 mm wall depth) in a tolerable time-scale very high specific activities (>5-10 GBq/ml) of the isotope are necessary. During the preparation of the radioactive solution and the application at the patient very short distances between the source of the radiation and the skin of the doctors for cardiology / nuclear medicine are possible, especially when manipulations at the balloon catheter during the radiation are necessary. In addition, a severe risk of contamination exists. A further problem is that in hospitals often no or insufficient dosimeters for beta radiation are available. Occupational radiation exposure of the personnel was determined at the preparation of the Re-188 solution, the therapy itself and the waste management. The partial body exposure, i. e. the dose of the skin at the hands due to beta radiation, was determined with very sensitive thin-layer thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLD). During a preparation, intracoronary radiation and waste management of the Re-188-perrhenate solution using normal radiation shielding first measurements resulted din more than 500 mSv per working day at the fingertips. This extreme high radiation exposure of the personnel were mainly due to direct radiation by touching the evacuated balloon catheter (only residual radionuclides left). to reduced radiation we performed several additional radiation protection measures. The consequent use of plastic shielding of the source, the use of a semiautomatic preparation

  7. Personnel Dosimetry for Radiation Accidents. Proceedings of a Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1965-01-01

    Accidents involving the exposure of persons to high levels of radiation have been few in number and meticulous precautions are taken in an effort to maintain this good record. When, however, such an accident does occur, a timely estimate of the dose received can be of considerable help to the physician in deciding whether a particular person requires medical treatment, and in selecting the most appropriate treatment. Individual dosimetry provides the physical basis for relating the observed effects to those in other accident cases, to other human data, and to data from animal experiments, thus providing an important aid to rational treatment and to the accumulation of a meaningful body of knowledge on the subject. It is most important therefore that, where there is a possibility of receiving high-level exposure, methods of personnel dosimetry should be available that would provide the dosimetric information most useful to the physician. Provision of good personnel dosimetry for accidental high-level exposure is in many cases an essential part of emergency planning because the information provided may influence emergency and rescue operations, and can lead to improved accident preparedness. Accordingly, the International Atomic Energy Agency and the World Health Organization jointly organized the Symposium on Personnel Dosimetry for Accidental High-Level Exposure to External and Internal Radiation for the discussion of such methods and for a critical review of the procedures adopted in some of the radiation accidents that have already occurred. The meeting was attended by 179 participants from 34 countries and from five other international organizations. The papers presented and the ensuing discussions are published in these Proceedings. It is hoped that the Proceedings will be of help to those concerned with the organization and development of wide-range personnel monitoring systems, and with the interpretation of the results provided

  8. Risk assessments for exposure of deployed military personnel to insecticides and personal protective measures used for disease-vector management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Paula A; Peterson, Robert K D; Davis, Ryan S

    2007-10-01

    Infectious diseases are problematic for deployed military forces throughout the world, and, historically, more military service days have been lost to insect-vectored diseases than to combat. Because of the limitations in efficacy and availability of both vaccines and therapeutic drugs, vector management often is the best tool that military personnel have against most vector-borne pathogens. However, the use of insecticides may raise concerns about the safety of their effects on the health of the military personnel exposed to them. Therefore, our objective was to use risk assessment methodologies to evaluate health risks to deployed U.S. military personnel from vector management tactics. Our conservative tier-1, quantitative risk assessment focused on acute, subchronic, and chronic exposures and cancer risks to military personnel after insecticide application and use of personal protective measures in different scenarios. Exposures were estimated for every scenario, chemical, and pathway. Acute, subchronic, and chronic risks were assessed using a margin of exposure (MOE) approach. Our MOE was the ratio of a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) to an estimated exposure. MOEs were greater than the levels of concern (LOCs) for all surface residual and indoor space spraying exposures, except acute dermal exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin. MOEs were greater than the LOCs for all chemicals in the truck-mounted ultra-low-volume (ULV) exposure scenario. The aggregate cancer risk for permethrin exceeded 1 x 10(-6), but more realistic exposure refinements would reduce the cancer risk below that value. Overall, results indicate that health risks from exposures to insecticides and personal protective measures used by military personnel are low.

  9. Minimizing exposure in nuclear medicine through optimum use of shielding devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutherford, B.L.; King, S.H.; Erdman, M.C.; Miller, K.L.

    1991-01-01

    Exposure to radiation from nuclear medicine nuclides can be minimized through the use of various shielding devices. This paper reviews the dose reductions achieved through use of various syringe shields, lead aprons, leaded gloves, and several types of eyeglass lenses for 67 Ga, 99m Tc, 131 I and 201 Tl. The authors have found that combination of devices can best provide for minimizing doses

  10. Radiation exposure of holding personnel involved in veterinary X-ray diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rothe, W.

    1977-01-01

    An account is given of radiation protection in the context of X-ray examination of small and big animals on the premises of seven reviewed veterinary centres. Also reported are the dosimetric results obtained from holding personnel involved in X-ray diagnosis of 319 big and 4,047 small animals. Infringement of valid regulations was quite often observed, in that animals are held in position in an inadequate way and by unauthorised persons. The measured results, however, have shown that the radiation exposure of vocationally exposed persons can be kept far below the maximum permissible equivalent doses, provided that all applicable rules of radiation protection are observed by those on duty. (author)

  11. Occupational radiation exposure in Austria - results of personnel monitoring using thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duftschmid, K.E.

    1979-01-01

    The Institut fuer Strahlenschutz, Seibersdorf, can look back on more than two years of experience with the automated TLD personnel monitoring system for routine control and dose record keeping of currently about 10.000 persons per month. For more than 100.000 entries on monthly received doses have been stored so far in the Master File of the Institute's computer centre. This paper presents a survey of the statistical dose distribution in the various sectors of employment such as industry, research establishments, medical establishments and nuclear facilities, including data on the mean annual doses and the collective doses for the various sectors; information is also given on the number of cases where a dose has been in excess of the set level, and on the measured data. The data stored in the dose record keeping system allow a detailed assessment to be made of the occupational radiation exposure in Austria. (orig.) [de

  12. Radiation exposure control of nuclear power plant personnel in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehl, J.

    1980-01-01

    The analysis of exposure records of all persons engaged in radiation work at nuclear power plants of the Federal Republic of Germany has shown that annual collective doses increase rapidly with time. The annual gross electrical energy generated from nuclear power also increases rapidly with time, corresponding to about 11% of the total gross electrical energy produced in 1977/78. Therefore, it is obvious that there is an increase of both the risk and the benefit from nuclear power production. Whether in the course of time the situation develops more towards the risk or the benefit side is learned from the history of the annual ratio of the collective dose per gross electrical energy generated. This ratio shows a significant decrease since 1972. The decrease is due to the experience gained from operation of the first-generation plants, which led to several administrative measures aimed at an improved control of the collective doses of power plant personnel in the Federal Republic of Germany. The administrative measures include, among others, the introduction of the following requirements: (a) Everyone who applies for a nuclear power plant construction licence has to provide evidence that, in the design of the plant, full use is made of the experience gained from plants in operation with respect to reduction of collective doses of the power plant personnel. (b) Everyone who engages his employees on radiation work within operations for which an operation licence is required, but which is held by others, requires a special 'contractor licence'. (c) Every person engaged in radiation work on the basis of a contractor licence must carry a special exposure record book which is registered by the competent national authority. (author)

  13. Comprehensive evaluation of occupational radiation exposure to intraoperative and perioperative personnel from 18F-FDG radioguided surgical procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povoski, Stephen P.; Martin, Edward W.; Sarikaya, Ismet; Hall, Nathan C.; Knopp, Michael V.; White, William C.; Marsh, Steven G.; Hinkle, George H.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to comprehensively evaluate occupational radiation exposure to all intraoperative and perioperative personnel involved in radioguided surgical procedures utilizing 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose ( 18 F-FDG). Radiation exposure to surgeon, anesthetist, scrub technologist, circulating nurse, preoperative nurse, and postoperative nurse, using aluminum oxide dosimeters read by optically stimulated luminescence technology, was evaluated during ten actual radioguided surgical procedures involving administration of 18 F-FDG. Mean patient dosage of 18 F-FDG was 699 ± 181 MBq (range 451-984). Mean time from 18 F-FDG injection to initial exposure of personnel to the patient was shortest for the preoperative nurse (75 ± 63 min, range 0-182) followed by the circulating nurse, anesthetist, scrub technologist, surgeon, and postoperative nurse. Mean total time of exposure of the personnel to the patient was longest for the anesthetist (250 ± 128 min, range 69-492) followed by the circulating nurse, scrub technologist, surgeon, postoperative nurse, and preoperative nurse. Largest deep dose equivalent per case was received by the surgeon (164 ± 135 μSv, range 10-580) followed by the anesthetist, scrub technologist, postoperative nurse, circulating nurse, and preoperative nurse. Largest deep dose equivalent per hour of exposure was received by the preoperative nurse (83 ± 134 μSv/h, range 0-400) followed by the surgeon, anesthetist, postoperative nurse, scrub technologist, and circulating nurse. On a per case basis, occupational radiation exposure to intraoperative and perioperative personnel involved in 18 F-FDG radioguided surgical procedures is relatively small. Development of guidelines for monitoring occupational radiation exposure in 18 F-FDG cases will provide reassurance and afford a safe work environment for such personnel. (orig.)

  14. Radiation exposure to personnel involved in bone scans for horses with technetium 99m-diphosphonat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerfeld, Theresa Christine

    2016-01-01

    Key objective of this study has been the evaluation of radiation exposure of veterinarian personnel wearing dosimeters which were involved in equine scintigraphy. A survey, which was developed in parallel to this study, showed that personnel in equine horse clinics have often knowledge gaps about scintigraphy and the related radiation doses. The survey showed skepticism of the involved personnel towards the methods of bone scintigraphy as the impacts of expositions are barely known in common. The scintigraphic investigations and measurements were done at the horse clinic (department of surgery) in Giessen and were part of the routinely bone scanning of horses. A total of 33 bone scans were taken, covering either full- or half-body scintigraphies. Additional 10 bone scans covered measurements with and without the protection of a 0,5 mm lead-shield. The activity of involved personnel was monitored at four different positions: MP1 was associated with the position of the person preparing the radiopharmaceutical for injection, MP2 with the position at holding the horse during the bone scan, MP3 with the position at holding the horse's legs and to make sure that the horse was standing in the right position, MP4 with the position for the camera operator. Some more dose measurements were made from the horse body (MP5 and MP6) as well as in the control area (MP7). In order to analyze the patient's constitution, additional data like weight, size, body extent and length of the torso were additionally captured. The body data were collected to investigate exposure differences of rather big and heavy or small and thin horses. These data and the dosimeter at the horse body (MP5) enabled the correlation analysis between the horse body composition and the received dose rate of the personnel (MP2). MP1 received a mean dose of 11 μSv and a dose rate of 123 μSv/h, MP2 received 31 μSv for a whole-body and 23 μSv for a half-body bone scan. The dose rate of MP2 was 22 μSv/h. MP3 was

  15. Health physics experiences in achieving ALARA exposures to plant personnel at NAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishna, V.; Lal Chand

    2000-01-01

    Unit 1 of NAPS achieved first criticality on 12.3.1989 and Unit 2 achieved on 24.10.1991. Till the end of Feb-2000 these units have completed 1890 and 1811 full power days respectively. The performance of NAPS was expected to be better than the earlier Indian reactors in respect of safe production as well as cumulative radiation exposures. This is because of the major design improvements like: fully double containment system, elimination of 41 Ar by introducing light water in calandria vault, reduction of core based fuel failure rate, separation of high radiation equipment to no occupancy areas during normal operation, a separate purification building for the purification of both moderator and PHT systems, a better layout of equipment and plant areas, elimination of unnecessary equipment in various systems besides ensuring the reliability of equipment for safe operation, selection of materials with low corrosion and activation characteristics etc. In this paper, the operational health physics experiences at NAPS to achieve ALARA exposures to plant personnel are described briefly. (author)

  16. Computed tomography for preoperative planning in minimal-invasive total hip arthroplasty: Radiation exposure and cost analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huppertz, Alexander, E-mail: Alexander.Huppertz@charite.de [Imaging Science Institute Charite Berlin, Robert-Koch-Platz 7, D-10115 Berlin (Germany); Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Charite-University Hospitals of Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, D-10117 Berlin (Germany); Radmer, Sebastian, E-mail: s.radmer@immanuel.de [Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Rheumatology, Immanuel-Krankenhaus, Koenigstr. 63, D-14109, Berlin (Germany); Asbach, Patrick, E-mail: Patrick.Asbach@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Charite-University Hospitals of Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, D-10117 Berlin (Germany); Juran, Ralf, E-mail: ralf.juran@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Charite-University Hospitals of Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, D-10117 Berlin (Germany); Schwenke, Carsten, E-mail: carsten.schwenke@scossis.de [Biostatistician, Scossis Statistical Consulting, Zeltinger Str. 58G, D-13465 Berlin (Germany); Diederichs, Gerd, E-mail: gerd.diederichs@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Charite-University Hospitals of Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, D-10117 Berlin (Germany); Hamm, Bernd, E-mail: Bernd.Hamm@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Medical Physics, Charite-University Hospitals of Berlin, Chariteplatz 1, D-10117 Berlin (Germany); Sparmann, Martin, E-mail: m.sparmann@immanuel.de [Department of Orthopedic Surgery and Rheumatology, Immanuel-Krankenhaus, Koenigstr. 63, D-14109, Berlin (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Computed tomography (CT) was used for preoperative planning of minimal-invasive total hip arthroplasty (THA). 92 patients (50 males, 42 females, mean age 59.5 years) with a mean body-mass-index (BMI) of 26.5 kg/m{sup 2} underwent 64-slice CT to depict the pelvis, the knee and the ankle in three independent acquisitions using combined x-, y-, and z-axis tube current modulation. Arthroplasty planning was performed using 3D-Hip Plan (Symbios, Switzerland) and patient radiation dose exposure was determined. The effects of BMI, gender, and contralateral THA on the effective dose were evaluated by an analysis-of-variance. A process-cost-analysis from the hospital perspective was done. All CT examinations were of sufficient image quality for 3D-THA planning. A mean effective dose of 4.0 mSv (SD 0.9 mSv) modeled by the BMI (p < 0.0001) was calculated. The presence of a contralateral THA (9/92 patients; p = 0.15) and the difference between males and females were not significant (p = 0.08). Personnel involved were the radiologist (4 min), the surgeon (16 min), the radiographer (12 min), and administrative personnel (4 min). A CT operation time of 11 min and direct per-patient costs of 52.80 Euro were recorded. Preoperative CT for THA was associated with a slight and justifiable increase of radiation exposure in comparison to conventional radiographs and low per-patient costs.

  17. PRD3000: A novel Personnel Radiation Detector with Radiation Exposure Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fallu-Labruyere, A.; Micou, C.; Schulcz, F.; Fellinger, J.

    2015-01-01

    PRD3000 TM is a novel Personal Radiation Detector (PRD) with personnel radiation dose exposure monitoring. It is intended for First Responders, Law Enforcement, Customs Inspectors protecting critical infrastructures for detecting unexpected radioactive sources, who also need real time Hp(10) dose equivalent information. Traditional PRD devices use scintillator materials instrumented through either a photomultiplier tube or a photodiode photodetector. While the former is bulky and sensitive to magnetic fields, the latter has to compromise radiation sensitivity and energy threshold given its current noise per unit of photo-detection surface. Recently, solid state photodetectors (SiPM), based on arrays of Geiger operated diodes, have emerged as a scalable digital photodetector for photon counting. Their strong breakdown voltage temperature dependence (on the order of tens of milli-volts per K) has however limited their use for portable instruments where strong temperature gradients can be experienced, and limited power is available to temperature stabilize. The PRD3000 is based on the industry standard DMC3000 active dosimeter that complies with IEC 61526 Ed. 3 and ANSI 42.20 for direct reading personal dose equivalent meters and active personnel radiation monitors. An extension module is based on a CsI(Tl) scintillator readout by a temperature compensated SiPM. Preliminary nuclear tests combined with a measured continuous operation in excess of 240 hours from a single AAA battery cell indicate that the PRD3000 complies with the IEC 62401 Ed.2 and ANSI 42.32 without sacrificing battery life time. We present a summary of the device test results, starting with performance stability over a temperature range of - 20 deg. C to 50 deg. C, false alarm rates and dynamic response time. (authors)

  18. PRD3000: A novel Personnel Radiation Detector with Radiation Exposure Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fallu-Labruyere, A.; Micou, C.; Schulcz, F.; Fellinger, J. [Mirion Technologies - MGPI SA (France)

    2015-07-01

    PRD3000{sup TM} is a novel Personal Radiation Detector (PRD) with personnel radiation dose exposure monitoring. It is intended for First Responders, Law Enforcement, Customs Inspectors protecting critical infrastructures for detecting unexpected radioactive sources, who also need real time Hp(10) dose equivalent information. Traditional PRD devices use scintillator materials instrumented through either a photomultiplier tube or a photodiode photodetector. While the former is bulky and sensitive to magnetic fields, the latter has to compromise radiation sensitivity and energy threshold given its current noise per unit of photo-detection surface. Recently, solid state photodetectors (SiPM), based on arrays of Geiger operated diodes, have emerged as a scalable digital photodetector for photon counting. Their strong breakdown voltage temperature dependence (on the order of tens of milli-volts per K) has however limited their use for portable instruments where strong temperature gradients can be experienced, and limited power is available to temperature stabilize. The PRD3000 is based on the industry standard DMC3000 active dosimeter that complies with IEC 61526 Ed. 3 and ANSI 42.20 for direct reading personal dose equivalent meters and active personnel radiation monitors. An extension module is based on a CsI(Tl) scintillator readout by a temperature compensated SiPM. Preliminary nuclear tests combined with a measured continuous operation in excess of 240 hours from a single AAA battery cell indicate that the PRD3000 complies with the IEC 62401 Ed.2 and ANSI 42.32 without sacrificing battery life time. We present a summary of the device test results, starting with performance stability over a temperature range of - 20 deg. C to 50 deg. C, false alarm rates and dynamic response time. (authors)

  19. Evaluation of radiation exposures to personnel during maintenance operations and fuel recharging at NPP with the WWER-440 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beskrestnov, N.V.; Vasil'ev, Eh.S.; Kozlov, V.F.; Odinokov, Yu.Yu.; Romanov, V.P.; Tsypin, S.G.

    1983-01-01

    A unified data acquisition and analysis system is presented. The system is intended to assess radiation exposures to personnel and perform radiation monitoring during periodic maintenance operations sna fuel recharging at NPPs with WWER-440 reactors. The basic principles of developing this system, patterns of danita collection are considered, points of radiation motoring chosen with account of the NPP operating experience are pointed out

  20. Radiation exposure of patients and personnel in pediatric radiology. Strahlenexposition von Patienten und Personal in der Paediatrischen Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallbaum, F

    1980-01-01

    Skin, gonadal and eye lens exposure of children up to the age of 14, X-ray personnel and accompanying adults (mother and nurses) in gastroenterological and urological examinations are investigated. Particular interest is taken in combined examinations, i.e. radiography combined with radioscopy, as these are strongly dependent on the examiner.

  1. Radiation exposure of patients and personnel in pediatric radiology. Strahlenexposition von Patienten und Personal in der Paediatrischen Radiologie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallbaum, F

    1980-04-23

    Skin, gonadal and eye lens exposure of children up to the age of 14, X-ray personnel and accompanying adults (mother and nurses) in gastroenterological and urological examinations are investigated. Particular interest is taken in combined examinations, i.e. radiography combined with radioscopy, as these are strongly dependent on the examiner.

  2. "Making Do" Decisions: How Home Healthcare Personnel Manage Their Exposure to Home Hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Celia E; Polivka, Barbara J; Darragh, Amy; Lavender, Steven; Sommerich, Carolyn; Stredney, Donald

    2016-04-01

    This study describes the decision-making processes home healthcare personnel (HHP) use to manage their personal health and safety when managing hazards in client homes. A professionally diverse national sample of 68 HHP participated in individual semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions, and described their decision making and strategies for hazard management in their work environments. HHP described 353 hazard management dilemmas within 394 specifically identified hazards, which were clustered within three broader categories: electrical/fire, slip/trip/lift, and environmental exposures. HHP described multiple types of "making do" decisions for hazard management solutions in which perceived and actual resource limitations constrained response options. A majority of hazard management decisions in the broader hazards categories (72.5%, 68.5%, and 63.5%, respectively) were classifiable as less than optimal. These findings stress the need for more support of HHPs, including comprehensive training, to improve HHP decision making and hazard management strategies, especially in context of resource constraints. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. The state of radioactive waste management and personnel radiation exposure in commercial nuclear power plants in fiscal 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    Radioactive waste management: The owners of commercial nuclear power plants are obligated to control the release of gaseous and liquid radioactive wastes below the objective release levels, and to store solid wastes in containers on the site. As for the former, the released (radioactive) quantity in fiscal 1981 (from April, 1981, to March, 1982,) together with the objective levels are given for respective nuclear power stations; and as for the latter, the stored quantity and also the cumulative quantity up to the year are given. Radiation exposure: The owners of commercial nuclear power plants are obligated to control the personnel exposure below the permissible level. The personnel exposure dose in fiscal 1981 is given for respective nuclear power station. (Mori, K.)

  4. Exposure to suicide is associated with increased risk for suicidal thoughts and behaviors among National Guard military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Craig J; Cerel, Julie; Bryan, AnnaBelle O

    2017-08-01

    Research suggests that individuals who know someone who died by suicide are at increased risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and recent suicidal thoughts. Studies have not yet investigated the association of suicide exposure with suicide attempts, however, especially among high-risk subgroups of military personnel such as the National Guard. An anonymous online survey was completed by 971 military personnel assigned to the National Guard in Utah and Idaho. Weighted analyses were conducted to ensure demographic matching to the full population. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to test the association of suicide exposure with psychiatric condition, suicide ideation, and suicide attempts. 65.4% of National Guard personnel reported knowing someone who had died by suicide. On average, participants knew 3.0 (SD=2.0) suicide decedents. Total number of known suicide decedents was associated with significantly increased risk for PTSD (OR=1.18, p=.008), depression (OR=1.19, p=.003), and suicide ideation (OR=2.48, p<.001), but not suicide attempt (OR=1.34, p=.472). Perceived closeness to the suicide decedent was associated with significantly increased risk for PTSD (OR=1.54, p<.001), depression (OR=1.36, p=.031), suicide ideation (OR=1.24, p=.039), and suicide attempt (OR=1.69, p=.026). The majority of participants who experienced suicidal thoughts and attempts after the suicide exposure had a previous history of suicide ideation. Suicide exposure is common among National Guard personnel, and is associated with increased risk for PTSD, depression, and suicidal thoughts and behaviors. Risk is highest for those personnel who know multiple suicide decedents and were closer to the suicide decedent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiation exposure to nuclear medicine personnel handling positron emitters from 68Ge/68Ga generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwivedi, Durgesh Kumar; Snehlata; Kumar, Rakesh; Naswa, Niraj; Sharma, Punit; Malhotra, Arun; Bandopadhayaya, Guru Pad; Bal, Chandrashekhar; Dwivedi, Alok Kumar; Lochab, Satya Pal; Pant, Gauri Shankar

    2011-01-01

    To measure the radiation exposure to nuclear medicine personnel during synthesis and injection to the patients of 68 Ga 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N',N'',N'''-tetraacetic acid (DOTA)-1-Nal -octreotide (NOC)- (DOTA-NOC) using ring thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs). Synthesis of 68 Ga DOTA-NOC was done on a semi-automated system. Finger doses were measured during synthesis and injection of 68 Ga DOTA-NOC. The occupational workers wore TLDs at the base of ring finger of both hands. The finger doses of two radio chemists were measured during synthesis of 68 Ga DOTA-NOC while that of a physician during its injection to the patients. Duration of the study was eight months and a total of 20 samples were prepared. During synthesis, the mean dose to base of left ring finger was 3.02 ± 1.01 mSv and to base of right ring finger was 1.96 ±0.86 mSv. Mean dose to base of left ring finger was 1.26 ± 0.35 mSv while that to base of right ring finger was 1.03 ± 0.13 mSv during injection. The mean dose was observed to be higher during synthesis than injection. However, the difference was not significant (P = 0.27 and P = 0.18, respectively). Overall mean finger dose of left hand was 2.43 ±1.21 mSv, whereas for the right hand the same was 1.65±0.82 mSv. Finger doses to radio chemists during semi-automated synthesis of 68 Ga DOTA-NOC and that to the physician involved in injection of 68 Ga DOTA-NOC were found to be within permissible limits. Ring dosimeters must be worn for the safety of the nuclear medicine personnel involved in synthesis and injection of 68 Ga DOTA-NOC. (author)

  6. Planning of optimal work path for minimizing exposure dose during radiation work in radwaste storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yoon Hyuk; Park, Won Man; Kim, Kyung Soo; Whang, Joo Ho

    2005-01-01

    Since the safety of nuclear power plant has been becoming a big social issue, the exposure dose of radiation for workers has been one of the important factors concerning the safety problem. The existing calculation methods of radiation dose used in the planning of radiation work assume that dose rate dose not depend on the location within a work space, thus the variation of exposure dose by different work path is not considered. In this study, a modified numerical method was presented to estimate the exposure dose during radiation work in radwaste storage considering the effects of the distance between a worker and sources. And a new numerical algorithm was suggested to search the optimal work path minimizing the exposure dose in pre-defined work space with given radiation sources. Finally, a virtual work simulation program was developed to visualize the exposure dose of radiation during radiation works in radwaste storage and provide the capability of simulation for work planning. As a numerical example, a test radiation work was simulated under given space and two radiation sources, and the suggested optimal work path was compared with three predefined work paths. The optimal work path obtained in the study could reduce the exposure dose for the given test work. Based on the results, the developed numerical method and simulation program could be useful tools in the planning of radiation work

  7. The state of radioactive waste management and of personnel radiation exposure in nuclear power generating facilities in fiscal 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    (1) The state of radioactive waste management in nuclear power generating facilities: In the nuclear power stations, the released quantities of radioactive gaseous and liquid wastes are all below the control objective levels. For the respective nuclear power stations, the released quantities of radioactive gaseous and liquid wastes in fiscal 1983 and the objective levels are given in table. And, the quantities of solid wastes taken into storage and the cumulative amounts are given. For reference, the results each year since fiscal 1974 are shown. (2) The state of personnel radiation exposure in nuclear power generating facilities: In the nuclear power stations, the personnel radiation exposures are all below the permissible levels. The dose distribution etc. in the respective nuclear power stations are given in table. For reference, the results each year since fiscal 1974 are shown. (Mori, K.)

  8. Radiation exposure of patient and surgeon in minimally invasive kidney stone surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, A; Raif Karabacak, O; Yalçınkaya, F; Yiğitbaşı, O; Aktaş, C

    2016-05-01

    Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) and retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) are the standard treatments used in the endoscopic treatment of kidney stones depending on the location and the size of the stone. The purpose of the study was to show the radiation exposure difference between the minimally invasive techniques by synchronously measuring the amount of radiation the patients and the surgeon received in each session, which makes our study unique. This is a prospective study which included 20 patients who underwent PNL, and 45 patients who underwent RIRS in our clinic between June 2014 and October 2014. The surgeries were assessed by dividing them into three steps: step 1: the access sheath or ureter catheter placement, step 2: lithotripsy and collection of fragments, and step 3: DJ catheter or re-entry tube insertion. For the PNL and RIRS groups, mean stone sizes were 30mm (range 16-60), and 12mm (range 7-35); mean fluoroscopy times were 337s (range 200-679), and 37s (range 7-351); and total radiation exposures were 142mBq (44.7 to 221), and 4.4mBq (0.2 to 30) respectively. Fluoroscopy times and radiation exposures at each step were found to be higher in the PNL group compared to the RIRS group. When assessed in itself, the fluoroscopy time and radiation exposure were stable in RIRS, and the radiation exposure was the highest in step 1 and the lowest in step 3 in PNL. When assessed for the 19 PNL patients and the 12 RIRS patients who had stone sizes≥2cm, the fluoroscopy time in step 1, and the radiation exposure in steps 1 and 2 were found to be higher in the PNL group than the RIRS group (PPNL because it has short fluoroscopy time and the radiation exposure is low in every step. 4. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Minimization of occupational radiation exposure in KWU built nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hock, R.; Hecht, G.

    1984-01-01

    The minimization of radiation exposure required by law is performed by engineering judgement. In some areas large sums of money have been spent with little return in collective dose savings. Cost benefit analysis may help to identify such areas. On the other hand uncertainties in cost-benefit analysis are rather large and engineering judgement is necessary to fill the gaps in cost benefit analysis too. Therefore with the exception of a few clear cut cases cost benefit analysis is not a means to make decisions in health physics matters more rational and cannot replace engineering judgement

  10. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure and Lung Adenocarcinoma In Situ/Minimally Invasive Adenocarcinoma (AIS/MIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Claire H; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hung, Rayjean J; Boffetta, Paolo; Xie, Dong; Wampfler, Jason A; Cote, Michele L; Chang, Shen-Chih; Ugolini, Donatella; Neri, Monica; Le Marchand, Loic; Schwartz, Ann G; Morgenstern, Hal; Christiani, David C; Yang, Ping; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke on the incidence of lung adenocarcinoma in situ/minimally invasive adenocarcinoma (AIS/MIA). Data from seven case-control studies participating in the International Lung Cancer Consortium (ILCCO) were pooled, resulting in 625 cases of AIS/MIA and 7,403 controls, of whom 170 cases and 3,035 controls were never smokers. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted ORs (ORadj) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), controlling for age, sex, race, smoking status (ever/never), and pack-years of smoking. Study center was included in the models as a random-effects intercept term. Ever versus never exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke was positively associated with AIS/MIA incidence in all subjects (ORadj = 1.48; 95% CI, 1.14-1.93) and in never smokers (ORadj = 1.45; 95% CI, 1.00-2.12). There was, however, appreciable heterogeneity of ORadj across studies (P = 0.01), and the pooled estimates were largely influenced by one large study (40% of all cases and 30% of all controls). These findings provide weak evidence for an effect of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure on AIS/MIA incidence. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of secondhand tobacco smoke exposure using the newly recommended classification of subtypes of lung adenocarcinoma. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Birth outcomes among military personnel after exposure to documented open-air burn pits before and during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlin, Ava Marie S; DeScisciolo, Connie; Sevick, Carter J; Bukowinski, Anna T; Phillips, Christopher J; Smith, Tyler C

    2012-06-01

    To examine birth outcomes in military women and men with potential exposure to documented open-air burn pits before and during pregnancy. Electronic data from the Department of Defense Birth and Infant Health Registry and the Defense Manpower Data Center were used to examine the prevalence of birth defects and preterm birth among infants of active-duty women and men who were deployed within a 3-mile radius of a documented open-air burn pit before or during pregnancy. In general, burn pit exposure at various times in relation to pregnancy and for differing durations was not consistently associated with an increase in birth defects or preterm birth in infants of active-duty military personnel. These analyses offer reassurance to service members that burn pit exposure is not consistently associated with these select adverse infant health outcomes.

  12. The interventional radiology: means of reduction and optimization of medical personnel exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maccia, C.; Vano, E.; Gonzalez, L.; Guibelalde, E.

    1998-01-01

    The measures envisaged to make an optimization of the radiation protection are in the use of materials adapted to the situation, the use of dosemeters devoted to the doses evaluation for particularly sensitive organs , the introduction of ophthalmic examinations and finally, the information and training of every category of personnel in radiation protection. (N.C.)

  13. Smoking among troops deployed in combat areas and its association with combat exposure among navy personnel in Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Silva Varuni

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among military personnel alcohol consumption and binge-drinking have increased but cigarette smoking has declined in the recent past. Although there is a strong association between smoking and PTSD the association between combat exposure and smoking is not clear. Methods This cross sectional study was carried out among representative samples of SLN Special Forces and regular forces deployed in combat areas. Both Special Forces and regular forces were selected using simple random sampling. Only personnel who had served continuously in combat areas during the one year period prior to end of combat operations were included in the study. Females were not included in the sample. The study assessed several mental health outcomes as well as alcohol use, smoking and cannabis use. Sample was classified according to smoking habits as never smokers, past smokers (those who had smoked in the past but not within the past year and current smokers (those smoking at least one cigarette within the past 12 months. Results Sample consisted of 259 Special Forces and 412 regular navy personnel. Prevalence of current smoking was 17.9% (95% CI 14.9-20.8. Of the sample 58.4% had never smoked and 23.7% were past smokers. Prevalence of current smoking was significantly higher among Special Forces personnel compared to regular forces. (OR 1.90 (95% CI 1.20-3.02. Personnel aged ≥35 years had the lowest prevalence of smoking (14.0%. Commissioned officers had a lower prevalence (12.1% than non commissioned officers or other ranks. After adjustment for demographic variables and service type there was significant association between smoking and combat experiences of seeing dead or wounded [OR 1.79 (95%CI 1.08-2.9], handling dead bodies [OR 2.47(95%CI 1.6-3.81], coming under small arms fire [OR 2.01(95%CI 1.28-3.15] and coming under mortar, missile and artillery fire [OR 2.02(95%CI 1.29-3.17]. There was significant association between the number of

  14. Apparatus for minimizing radiation exposure and improving resolution in radiation imaging devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashe, J.B.; Williams, G.H.; Sypal, K.L.

    1978-01-01

    A collimator is disclosed for minimizing radiation exposure and improving resolution in radiation imaging devices. The collimator provides a penetrating beam of radiation from a source thereof, which beam is substantially non-diverging in at least one direction. In the preferred embodiment, the collimator comprises an elongated sandwich assembly of a plurality of layers of material exhibiting relatively high radiation attenuation characteristics, which attenuating layers are spaced apart and separated from one another by interleaved layers of material exhibiting relatively low radiation attenuation characteristics. The sandwich assembly is adapted for lengthwise disposition and orientation between a radiation source and a target or receiver such that the attenuating layers are parallel to the desired direction of the beam with the interleaved spacing layers providing direct paths for the radiation

  15. Inhalation Exposure to Jet Fuel (JP8) Among U.S. Air Force Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    are occupationally exposcd.(I) )nfonnation on the health consequences o f human exposure 10 JP8 is limited.(I·2) though there is some evidence that...JP8 may be toxic to the immune system. respirdtory trdCt, and nervous system at exposure concentrations ncar 350 mg/m·1.m The current ACG lH...Egeghy et al.(7) and to reflect a scheme that may be used in epidemiologic studies assessing exposure and hcalth outcomes . The high exposure group

  16. Evaluation of the effects of exposure to organic solvents and hazardous noise among US Air Force Reserve personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayley Hughes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hearing loss affects many workers including those in the military and may be caused by noise, medications, and chemicals. Exposures to some chemicals may lead to an increase in the incidence of hearing loss when combined with hazardous noise. This retrospective study evaluated the risk for hearing loss among Air Force Reserve personnel exposed to occupational noise with and without exposures to toluene, styrene, xylene, benzene, and JP-8 (jet fuel. Risk factors associated with hearing loss were determined using logistic and linear regression. Stratified analysis was used to evaluate potential interaction between solvent and noise exposure. The majority of the subjects were male (94.6% and 35 years or older on the date of their first study audiogram (66%. Followed for an average of 3.2 years, 9.2% of the study subjects had hearing loss in at least one ear. Increasing age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.03 per year of age and each year of follow-up time (OR = 1.23 were significantly associated with hearing loss. Low and moderate solvent exposures were not associated with hearing loss. Linear regression demonstrated that hearing loss was significantly associated with age at first study audiogram, length of follow-up time, and exposure to noise. Hearing decreased by 0.04 decibels for every decibel increase in noise level or by almost half a decibel (0.4 dB for every 10 decibel increase in noise level.

  17. The Mycotox Charter: Increasing Awareness of, and Concerted Action for, Minimizing Mycotoxin Exposure Worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logrieco, Antonio F; Miller, J David; Eskola, Mari; Krska, Rudolf; Ayalew, Amare; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Battilani, Paola; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Chulze, Sofia; De Saeger, Sarah; Li, Peiwu; Perrone, Giancarlo; Poapolathep, Amnart; Rahayu, Endang S; Shephard, Gordon S; Stepman, François; Zhang, Hao; Leslie, John F

    2018-04-04

    Mycotoxins are major food contaminants affecting global food security, especially in low and middle-income countries. The European Union (EU) funded project, MycoKey, focuses on “Integrated and innovative key actions for mycotoxin management in the food and feed chains” and the right to safe food through mycotoxin management strategies and regulation, which are fundamental to minimizing the unequal access to safe and sufficient food worldwide. As part of the MycoKey project, a Mycotoxin Charter (charter.mycokey.eu) was launched to share the need for global harmonization of mycotoxin legislation and policies and to minimize human and animal exposure worldwide, with particular attention to less developed countries that lack effective legislation. This document is in response to a demand that has built through previous European Framework Projects—MycoGlobe and MycoRed—in the previous decade to control and reduce mycotoxin contamination worldwide. All suppliers, participants and beneficiaries of the food supply chain, for example, farmers, consumers, stakeholders, researchers, members of civil society and government and so forth, are invited to sign this charter and to support this initiative.

  18. The Mycotox Charter: Increasing Awareness of, and Concerted Action for, Minimizing Mycotoxin Exposure Worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio F. Logrieco

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are major food contaminants affecting global food security, especially in low and middle-income countries. The European Union (EU funded project, MycoKey, focuses on “Integrated and innovative key actions for mycotoxin management in the food and feed chains” and the right to safe food through mycotoxin management strategies and regulation, which are fundamental to minimizing the unequal access to safe and sufficient food worldwide. As part of the MycoKey project, a Mycotoxin Charter (charter.mycokey.eu was launched to share the need for global harmonization of mycotoxin legislation and policies and to minimize human and animal exposure worldwide, with particular attention to less developed countries that lack effective legislation. This document is in response to a demand that has built through previous European Framework Projects—MycoGlobe and MycoRed—in the previous decade to control and reduce mycotoxin contamination worldwide. All suppliers, participants and beneficiaries of the food supply chain, for example, farmers, consumers, stakeholders, researchers, members of civil society and government and so forth, are invited to sign this charter and to support this initiative.

  19. Unrestricted disposal of minimal activity levels of radioactive wastes: exposure and risk calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Emerson, C.J.

    1984-08-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is currently considering revision of rule 10 CFR Part 20, which covers disposal of solid wastes containing minimal radioactivity. In support of these revised rules, we have evaluated the consequences of disposing of four waste streams at four types of disposal areas located in three different geographic regions. Consequences are expressed in terms of human exposures and associated health effects. Each geographic region has its own climate and geology. Example waste streams, waste disposal methods, and geographic regions chosen for this study are clearly specified. Monetary consequences of minimal activity waste disposal are briefly discussed. The PRESTO methodology was used to evaluate radionuclide transport and health effects. This methodology was developed to assess radiological impacts to a static local population for a 1000-year period following disposal. Pathways and processes of transit from the trench to exposed populations included the following considerations: groundwater transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. 12 references, 2 figures, 8 tables

  20. The Mycotox Charter: Increasing Awareness of, and Concerted Action for, Minimizing Mycotoxin Exposure Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logrieco, Antonio F.; Eskola, Mari; Krska, Rudolf; Ayalew, Amare; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Chulze, Sofia; Li, Peiwu; Poapolathep, Amnart; Rahayu, Endang S.; Shephard, Gordon S.; Stepman, François; Zhang, Hao

    2018-01-01

    Mycotoxins are major food contaminants affecting global food security, especially in low and middle-income countries. The European Union (EU) funded project, MycoKey, focuses on “Integrated and innovative key actions for mycotoxin management in the food and feed chains” and the right to safe food through mycotoxin management strategies and regulation, which are fundamental to minimizing the unequal access to safe and sufficient food worldwide. As part of the MycoKey project, a Mycotoxin Charter (charter.mycokey.eu) was launched to share the need for global harmonization of mycotoxin legislation and policies and to minimize human and animal exposure worldwide, with particular attention to less developed countries that lack effective legislation. This document is in response to a demand that has built through previous European Framework Projects—MycoGlobe and MycoRed—in the previous decade to control and reduce mycotoxin contamination worldwide. All suppliers, participants and beneficiaries of the food supply chain, for example, farmers, consumers, stakeholders, researchers, members of civil society and government and so forth, are invited to sign this charter and to support this initiative. PMID:29617309

  1. Effective energies and exposure determinations of two different energy X-ray beams incident on a personnel monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, E.; Cruz, M.T. da

    1984-01-01

    The effective energy of one X or gamma ray beam can be determined by means of two thermoluminescent (TL) dosemeters mounted between suitable filters. However, it has been observed that personnel monitors exposed to two different energy ionizing radiations provide different effective energies depeding on the type of TL phosphor used. This fact could be a powerful tool for identifying exposures to radiation with quite different effective energies which are very common in practice. Two types of TL dosemeters were used : pellets of cold pressed natural fluoride and NaCl developed in our own laboratory, and LiF, TLD-100 from Harshaw Chemical Co.. Experimental results obtained with these combined dosemeters after irradiation with different sets of exposures and energy values of ionizing radiations are also presented. (Author) [pt

  2. Florida Red Tide and Human Health: A Pilot Beach Conditions Reporting System to Minimize Human Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Currier, Robert; Nierenberg, Kate; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C.; Stumpf, Richard; Fleming, Lora; Kirkpatrick, Gary

    2008-01-01

    pathway for the lifeguards to minimize the amount of time away from their primary duties. Specifically, we provided a Personal Digital Assistant for each of the eight beaches. The portable unit allows the lifeguards to report from their guard tower. The data are transferred via wireless Internet to a website hosted on the Mote Marine Laboratory Sarasota Operations of the Coastal Ocean Observation Laboratories (SO COOL) server. The system has proven to be robust and well received by the public. The system has reported variability from beach to beach and has provided vital information to users to minimize their exposure to toxic marine aerosols. PMID:18501955

  3. Annual course of retraining for the occupational exposure personnel of the laboratory of internal dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfaro L, M.M.

    2002-09-01

    The general objective of this report is to instruct the personnel in the basic concepts of radiological protection and in the Manual of Procedures of Radiological Safety of the Laboratory of Internal Dosimetry. Also, to exchange experiences during the activities that are carried out in the laboratory and in the knowledge of abnormal situations. The referred Manual consists of 14 procedures and 5 instructions which are listed in annex of this document. The content of this course consists of three topics: 1. Basic principles of radiological protection to reduce the received dose equivalent. 2. Use of radiation measurer equipment. 3. Emergency procedures of the laboratory of internal dosimetry. (Author)

  4. Developmental changes in maternal education and minimal exposure effects on vocabulary in English- and Spanish-learning toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, Margaret; DeAnda, Stephanie; Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Poulin-Dubois, Diane; Zesiger, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    The current research follows up on two previous findings: that children with minimal dual-language exposure have smaller receptive vocabularies at 16months of age and that maternal education is a predictor of vocabulary when the dominant language is English but not when it is Spanish. The current study extends this research to 22-month-olds to assess the developmental effects of minimal exposure and maternal education on direct and parent-report measures of vocabulary size. The effects of minimal exposure on vocabulary size are no longer present at 22months of age, whereas maternal education effects remain but only for English speakers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Residual Neurocognitive Features of Long-Term Ecstasy Users With Minimal Exposure to Other Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, John H.; Sherwood, Andrea R.; Hudson, James I.; Gruber, Staci; Kozin, David; Pope, Harrison G.

    2010-01-01

    Aims In field studies assessing cognitive function in illicit ecstasy users, there are several frequent confounding factors that might plausibly bias the findings toward an overestimate of ecstasy-induced neurocognitive toxicity. We designed an investigation seeking to minimize these possible sources of bias. Design We compared illicit ecstasy users and non-users while 1) excluding individuals with significant lifetime exposure to other illicit drugs or alcohol; 2) requiring that all participants be members of the “rave” subculture; and 3) testing all participants with breath, urine, and hair samples at the time of evaluation to exclude possible surreptitious substance use. We compared groups with adjustment for age, gender, race/ethnicity, family-of-origin variables, and childhood history of conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. We provide significance levels without correction for multiple comparisons. Setting Field study. Participants Fifty-two illicit ecstasy users and 59 non-users, age 18-45. Measurements Battery of 15 neuropsychological tests tapping a range of cognitive functions. Findings We found little evidence of decreased cognitive performance in ecstasy users, save for poorer strategic-self-regulation, possibly reflecting increased impulsivity. However this finding might have reflected a premorbid attribute of ecstasy users, rather than a residual neurotoxic effect of the drug. Conclusions In a study designed to minimize limitations found in many prior investigations, we failed to demonstrate marked residual cognitive effects in ecstasy users. This finding contrasts with many previous findings—including our own—and emphasizes the need for continued caution in interpreting field studies of cognitive function in illicit ecstasy users. PMID:21205042

  6. Intermittent hypoxia hypobaric exposure minimized oxidative stress and antioxidants in brain cells of Sprague Dawleymice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardaya Wardaya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Hipoksia hypobaric meningkatkan produksi radikal bebas, terutama spesies oksigen reaktif (ROS. Peningkatan ROS akan menyebabkan stres oksidatif bila tidak disertai dengan peningkatan enzim antioksidan. Kondisi ini dapat dikurangi dengan hipoksia hipobarik intermiten (HHI. Tujuan penelitian ini mengidentifikasi frekuensi IHH yang dapat meminimalkan efek hipoksia hipobarik terhadap stres oksidatif dan aktivitas antioksidan spesifik pada tikus Sprague Dawley.Metode: Penelitian eksperimental pada bulan Februari-April 2010, Subjek terdiri dari satu kelompok kontrol dan empat kelompok paparan pada mencit jantan Sprague Dawley. Setiap kelompok terdiri dari 5 tikus. Kelompok kontrol tidak terpapar IHH. Kelompok terpapar (dengan selang waktu satu minggu terpapar sekali, dua kali, tiga kali, atau empat kali IHH. Semua kelompok paparan dipaparkan hipobarik setara dengan ketinggian: 35.000 ft (1 menit, 25.000 ft (5 menit, dan 18.000 ft (25 menit. Jaringan otak diperiksa untuk 8-OHdG dan SOD.Hasil:Setelah tiga paparan IHH tingkat 8-OHdG sudah kembali ke nilai kontrol (P = 0,843. Tingkat SOD meningkat secara progresif pada dua, tiga, dan empat kali paparan IHH. Bahkan setelah paparan kedua, tingkat SOD sudah sama dengan nilai kontrol, 0,231 ± 0,042 (P = 0,191.Kesimpulan: Tiga kali IHH sudah dapat meminimalkan pengaruh hipoksia hipobarik terhadap stres oksidatif dan aktivitas spesifik antioksidan pada tikus Sprague Dawley.Kata kunci: hipoksia hipobarik intermiten, stres oksidatif, antioksidanAbstractBackground: Hypoxia hypobaric increase the production of free radicals, especially reactive oxygen species (ROS. The increase in ROS would cause oxidative stress when not accompanied by an increase in antioxidant enzymes. This condition may minimize by intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH. This study aimed to identify the number of IHH which may minimize the effect of hypoxia hypobaric on oxidative stress and the specific activity of

  7. Exposure and risk calculations for disposal of wastes having minimal radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is currently considering revision of rules 10 CFR 20 and 10 CFR 61, which cover disposal of solid wastes containing minimal activity radioactivity. In support of these revised rules, we have evaluated the consequences of disposing of four waste streams at four types of disposal areas located in three different geographic regions. Consequences are expressed in terms of human exposures and associated health effects. Each geographic region has its own climate and geology. Example waste streams, waste disposal methods, and geographic regions chosen for this study are clearly specified. The PRESTO-II methodology was used to evaluate radionuclide transport and health effects. This methodology was developed to assess radiological impacts to a static local population for a 1000-year period following disposal. The modeling of pathways and processes of migration from the trench to exposed populations included the following considerations: groundwater transport, overland flow, erosion, surface water dilution, resuspension, atmospheric transport, deposition, inhalation, and ingestion of contaminated beef, milk, crops, and water. 9 references, 2 figures, 3 tables

  8. Radiation Exposure During Uterine Artery Embolization: Effective Measures to Minimize Dose to the Patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheurig-Muenkler, Christian, E-mail: christian.scheurig@charite.de [Charité Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Powerski, Maciej J., E-mail: maciej.powerski@med.ovgu.de [University of Magdeburg, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine (Germany); Mueller, Johann-Christoph, E-mail: johann-christoph.mueller@charite.de [Charité Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Kroencke, Thomas J., E-mail: Thomas.Kroencke@klinikum-augsburg.de [Klinikum Augsburg, Department of Radiology (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    PurposeEvaluation of patient radiation exposure during uterine artery embolization (UAE) and literature review to identify techniques minimizing required dose.MethodsA total of 224 of all included 286 (78 %) women underwent UAE according to a standard UAE-protocol (bilateral UAE from unilateral approach using a Rösch inferior mesenteric and a microcatheter, no aortography, no ovarian artery catheterization or embolization) and were analyzed for radiation exposure. Treatment was performed on three different generations of angiography systems: (I) new generation flat-panel detector (N = 108/151); (II) classical image amplifier and pulsed fluoroscopy (N = 79/98); (III) classical image amplifier and continuous fluoroscopy (N = 37/37). Fluoroscopy time (FT) and dose-area product (DAP) were documented. Whenever possible, the following dose-saving measures were applied: optimized source-object, source-image, and object-image distances, pulsed fluoroscopy, angiographic runs in posterior-anterior direction with 0.5 frames per second, no magnification, tight collimation, no additional aortography.ResultsIn a standard bilateral UAE, the use of the new generation flat-panel detector in group I led to a significantly lower DAP of 3,156 cGy × cm{sup 2} (544–45,980) compared with 4,000 cGy × cm{sup 2} (1,400–13,000) in group II (P = 0.033). Both doses were significantly lower than those of group III with 8,547 cGy × cm{sup 2} (3,324–35,729; P < 0.001). Other reasons for dose escalation were longer FT due to difficult anatomy or a large leiomyoma load, additional angiographic runs, supplementary ovarian artery embolization, and obesity.ConclusionsThe use of modern angiographic units with flat panel detectors and strict application of methods of radiation reduction lead to a significantly lower radiation exposure. Target DAP for UAE should be kept below 5,000 cGy × cm{sup 2}.

  9. Calibration of personnel monitors by exposure to gamma radiation with energies up to 9 MeV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leao, J.L.B.; Cunha, P.G. da; Diz, R.; Oberhofer, M.

    Occupational exposure with photons of high energy (higher than those from 60 Co) might occur from nuclear reactors and accelerators. Radiation monitors for absorbed dose determination, however, often do not have a wall thickness sufficient to establish electronical equilibrium in that energy range. Using calibration factors determined for lower energies (calibration factors for 60 Co radiation) might cause a significant underestimation of the soft tissue absorbed dose. The calibration factor of the personnel monitors of the Eberline Instrument Co.based on TL dosimeters of LiF is reported. This monitor was calibrated with 9 MeV photons produced by thermal neutrons capture in a Nitarget, at an absorbed dose rate of 125 rads/h at the C.E.N. in France. The results are compared with the corresponding calibration factors for different energies up to 60 Co radiation determined in the IRD (Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria Rio de Janeiro). (Author) [pt

  10. Assessment of occupational exposure of medical personnel to inhalatory anesthetics in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Kucharska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Despite common use of inhalatory anesthetics, such as nitrous oxide (N2O, halothane, sevoflurane, and the like, occupational exposure to these substances in operating theatres was not monitored in Poland until 2006. The situation changed when maximum admissible concentration (MAC values for anesthetics used in Poland were established in 2005 for N2O, and in 2007 for sevoflurane, desflurane and isoflurane. The aim of this work was to assess occupational exposure in operating rooms on the basis of reliable and uniform analytical procedures. Material and Methods: The method for the determination of all anesthetics used in Poland, i.e. nitrous oxide, sevoflurane, isoflurane, desflurane, and halothane, was developed and validated. The measurements were performed in 2006-2010 in 31 hospitals countrywide. The study covered 117 operating rooms; air samples were collected from the breathing zone of 146 anesthesiologists, and 154 nurses, mostly anaesthetic. The measurements were carried out during various surgical operations, mostly on adult patients but also in hospitals for children. Results: Time weighted average concentrations of the anesthetics varied considerably, and the greatest differences were noted for N2O (0.1-1438.5 mg/m3; 40% of the results exceeded the MAC value. Only 3% of halothane, and 2% of sevoflurane concentrations exceeded the respective MAC values. Conclusions: Working in operating theatres is dangerous to the health of the operating staff. The coefficient of combined exposure to anesthesiologists under study exceeded the admissible value in 130 cases, which makes over 40% of the whole study population. Most of the excessive exposure values were noted for nitrous oxide. Med Pr 2014;65(1:43–54

  11. Anesthetic exposure and health of dental personnel, 1 June 1978-30 November 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, E.N.

    1980-01-01

    An epidemiologic survey was conducted to determine possible health hazards in the dental profession, with particular attention being given to the results of exposure to anesthetic gases. The survey contacted 30,650 dentists and 30,547 chairside assistants who were subsequently grouped according to exposure to inhalation anesthetics in the dental operatory during the course of their employment experience. An increase in liver disease 1.7 above that expected was noted in male dentists heavily exposed to anesthetics, combined with a 1.2 fold increase for kidney disease and 1.9-fold increase for neurological disease. The spontaneous abortion rate in wives of male dentists was 1.5-fold higher than expected. Occupational exposure to anesthetics, either direct or indirect, was associated with significant increases in spontaneous abortion over control levels during the first and second trimester of pregnancy. Women who smoked during pregnancy showed increased risk of spontaneous abortion, with a 27% increase occurring in dental assistants and a 21% increase in wives of dentists. A 34% increased risk of babies having congenital abnormalities was noted among smoking dental assistants.

  12. Effect of Prolonged Exposure Therapy Delivered Over 2 Weeks vs 8 Weeks vs Present-Centered Therapy on PTSD Symptom Severity in Military Personnel: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foa, Edna B; McLean, Carmen P; Zang, Yinyin; Rosenfield, David; Yadin, Elna; Yarvis, Jeffrey S; Mintz, Jim; Young-McCaughan, Stacey; Borah, Elisa V; Dondanville, Katherine A; Fina, Brooke A; Hall-Clark, Brittany N; Lichner, Tracey; Litz, Brett T; Roache, John; Wright, Edward C; Peterson, Alan L

    2018-01-23

    Effective and efficient treatment is needed for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in active duty military personnel. To examine the effects of massed prolonged exposure therapy (massed therapy), spaced prolonged exposure therapy (spaced therapy), present-centered therapy (PCT), and a minimal-contact control (MCC) on PTSD severity. Randomized clinical trial conducted at Fort Hood, Texas, from January 2011 through July 2016 and enrolling 370 military personnel with PTSD who had returned from Iraq, Afghanistan, or both. Final follow-up was July 11, 2016. Prolonged exposure therapy, cognitive behavioral therapy involving exposure to trauma memories/reminders, administered as massed therapy (n = 110; 10 sessions over 2 weeks) or spaced therapy (n = 109; 10 sessions over 8 weeks); PCT, a non-trauma-focused therapy involving identifying/discussing daily stressors (n = 107; 10 sessions over 8 weeks); or MCC, telephone calls from therapists (n = 40; once weekly for 4 weeks). Outcomes were assessed before and after treatment and at 2-week, 12-week, and 6-month follow-up. Primary outcome was interviewer-assessed PTSD symptom severity, measured by the PTSD Symptom Scale-Interview (PSS-I; range, 0-51; higher scores indicate greater PTSD severity; MCID, 3.18), used to assess efficacy of massed therapy at 2 weeks posttreatment vs MCC at week 4; noninferiority of massed therapy vs spaced therapy at 2 weeks and 12 weeks posttreatment (noninferiority margin, 50% [2.3 points on PSS-I, with 1-sided α = .05]); and efficacy of spaced therapy vs PCT at posttreatment. Among 370 randomized participants, data were analyzed for 366 (mean age, 32.7 [SD, 7.3] years; 44 women [12.0%]; mean baseline PSS-I score, 25.49 [6.36]), and 216 (59.0%) completed the study. At 2 weeks posttreatment, mean PSS-I score was 17.62 (mean decrease from baseline, 7.13) for massed therapy and 21.41 (mean decrease, 3.43) for MCC (difference in decrease, 3.70 [95% CI,0.72 to 6.68]; P = .02

  13. Minimal Internal Radiation Exposure in Residents Living South of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Junichi; Kato, Shigeaki; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Mori, Jinichi; Tanimoto, Tetsuya; Abe, Koichiro; Sakai, Shuji; Hayano, Ryugo; Tokiwa, Michio; Shimmura, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Following the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, assessment of internal radiation exposure was indispensable to predict radiation-related health threats to residents of neighboring areas. Although many evaluations of internal radiation in residents living north and west of the crippled Fukushima nuclear power plant are available, there is little information on residents living in areas south of the plant, which were similarly affected by radio-contamination from the disaster. To assess the internal radio-contamination in residents living in affected areas to the south of the plant or who were evacuated into Iwaki city, a whole body counter (WBC) screening program of internal radio-contamination was performed on visitors to the Jyoban hospital in Iwaki city, which experienced less contamination than southern areas adjacent to the nuclear plant. The study included 9,206 volunteer subjects, of whom 6,446 were schoolchildren aged 4-15 years. Measurements began one year after the incident and were carried out over the course of two years. Early in the screening period only two schoolchildren showed Cs-137 levels that were over the detection limit (250 Bq/body), although their Cs-134 levels were below the detection limit (220 Bq/body). Among the 2,760 adults tested, 35 (1.3%) had detectable internal radio-contamination, but only for Cs-137 (range: 250 Bq/body to 859 Bq/body), and not Cs-134. Of these 35 subjects, nearly all (34/35) showed elevated Cs-137 levels only during the first year of the screening. With the exception of potassium 40, no other radionuclides were detected during the screening period. The maximum annual effective dose calculated from the detected Cs-137 levels was 0.029 and 0.028 mSv/year for the schoolchildren and adults, respectively, which is far below the 1 mSv/year limit set by the government of Japan. Although the data for radiation exposure during the most critical first year after the incident are unavailable due to a lack of systemic

  14. Beta Radiation Exposure of Personnel in Radiosynovectomy and at the Production of Eye Application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mielcarek, J.; Barth, I.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Beta radionuclides are increasingly used in nuclear medicine therapy. In a study of exposure at working places with supposed enhanced radiation risk the followings are monitored: 1. Production of eye applicators ( 106 Ru/ 106 Rh) for therapy of intraocular tumours. During the processes radionuclides are used in sealed and unsealed form. 2. Radiosynovectomy (RSO). This therapy is often used in treatment of inflammatory joint disease. The radionuclides 169 Er, 186 Re and 90 Y are applied in form of radioactive solutions. A complex of problems has to be solved here: Handling of high activities (several GBq per day), very small distances between source and skin, high risk of skin contamination, unsatisfactory dose measurement techniques. In our investigations high sensitive thin thermoluminescence dosimeters (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) were used to determine the skin dose of the hands especially fingertips during preparation and application of the radioactive substances at several institutions. During production of eye applicators we found hand doses essentially below the annual limit. But direct radiation at RSO caused more than 100 mSv at the fingertips per working day in some cases. Even higher doses (more than 50% of the annual limit for skin during a working day) were caused by contamination of the hands. By use of manipulators, wearing of appropriate protection gloves and by improvement of directions for work, the radiation exposure could be reduced dramatically. Consequences for individual beta dosimetry and with respect to license of use of beta radionuclides are discussed. (author)

  15. Gloves, extra gloves or special types of gloves for preventing percutaneous exposure injuries in healthcare personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischke, Christina; Verbeek, Jos H; Saarto, Annika; Lavoie, Marie-Claude; Pahwa, Manisha; Ijaz, Sharea

    2014-03-07

    Healthcare workers are at risk of acquiring viral diseases such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV through exposure to contaminated blood and body fluids at work. Most often infection occurs when a healthcare worker inadvertently punctures the skin of their hand with a sharp implement that has been used in the treatment of an infected patient, thus bringing the patient's blood into contact with their own. Such occurrences are commonly known as percutaneous exposure incidents. To determine the benefits and harms of extra gloves for preventing percutaneous exposure incidents among healthcare workers versus no intervention or alternative interventions. We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, NHSEED, Science Citation Index Expanded, CINAHL, NIOSHTIC, CISDOC, PsycINFO and LILACS until 26 June 2013. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with healthcare workers as the majority of participants, extra gloves or special types of gloves as the intervention, and exposure to blood or bodily fluids as the outcome. Two authors independently assessed study eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. We performed meta-analyses for seven different comparisons. We found 34 RCTs that included 6890 person-operations as participating units and reported on 46 intervention-control group comparisons. We grouped interventions as follows: increased layers of standard gloves, gloves manufactured with special protective materials or thicker gloves, and gloves with puncture indicator systems. Indicator gloves show a coloured spot when they are perforated. Participants were surgeons in all studies and they used at least one pair of standard gloves as the control intervention. Twenty-seven studies also included other surgical staff (e.g. nurses). All but one study used perforations in gloves as an indication of exposure. The median control group rate was 18.5 perforations per 100 person-operations. Seven studies reported blood stains on the skin and two studies reported self reported

  16. Determination of internal exposure doses of the personnel of uranium-mining company due to radon isotopes decay products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevostyanov, V.N.

    2004-01-01

    This work carries out a determination of individual doses of internal exposure of the staff of the uranium-mining company in Kazakhstan due to radon decay products. The company extracts uranium by in-situ leaching. After leaching, uranium is sorbed from a solution in facilities where the staff is located. The state of three uranium mines was analyzed. The dose determination was conducted in tune with the proposed method by using integral alpha-tracking detectors to identify the content of 222 Rn and express appliances to identify the content of radio-active aerosols in air of the working area for determination the equilibrium coefficient. The measurements were performed within one year. The work produced the results in average annual values of radon and thoron decay products activity concentration and variation, equilibrium coefficient variation, and so-called expressive-to-integral value conversion factor. The obtained personnel's individual radiation doses due to radon exposure for this period lie within the range of < 1 mSv/year. (author)

  17. Evaluation of external radiation exposure of personnel involved in veterinary nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsubara, N.; Ito, N.; Natsuhori, M.; Sano, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Hatakeyama, S.; Futatsugawa, S.; Terasaki, K.; Hirayama, H.

    2005-01-01

    Veterinary nuclear medicine has been widely applied in the US and Europe, especially for dogs, cats, and horses. The needs of the nuclear medicine in veterinary practice are also growing in Japan. This study was performed in order to make a safety guideline for veterinary nuclear medicine in Japan. Two sorts of well often medically used radionuclide, 18 F and 99m Tc were chosen for evaluating the exposed doses of the veterinarian, the animal owner, and the general public. Air absorption doses around a physical phantom containing radioactive materials ( 18 F or 99m Tc) were measured by glass dosimeters. (Asahi Techno Glass Ltd.) It was verified that the measurement values were corresponding to the calculation values using EGS4. Then, canine pectoral and abdominal mathematical phantom was designed, external radiation exposure of the veterinarian, the animal owner and the public from the phantom containing radioactive materials were calculated by using EGS4. Calculated exposure doses were compared with the dose limit or the dose constraint. (20mSv/yr for the veterinarian: ICRP, 5mSv/yr for the animal owner: IAEA, and 1mSv/yr for the general public: ICRP 2 ). The future integration exposed doses of the animal owner and the public didn't exceed the dose constraint or the dose limit at the release after 24 hours of the radiopharmaceutical administering. In this study, all the calculation conditions were set up on the safety side. Therefore, it is thought that actual exposed doses lower considerably. The safety guideline for the veterinary nuclear medicine in Japan will be established by further application of this type of research. (author)

  18. Monitoring exposure of personnel to volatile nitrosamines in the laboratory environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Issenberg, P; Swanson, S E

    1980-01-01

    A convenient sampling method was developed for collection of volatile nitrosamines from large-volume air samples. Stainless steel tubes containing 0.3 g Tenax GC were employed to collect nitrosamines from 5-30 1 air samples. Nitrosamines were eluted from the sample tubes with diethylether to minimize formation of artifacts which were observed when thermal desorption was employed. Eluates were analysed directly by GC-TEA and nitrosamine identities were confirmed using high-resolution GC-MS with selected ion-monitoring. The detection limit was approximately 0.8 micrograms/m3 (0.3 ppb) for NDMA in 2 ml of diethylether extract. The laboratory operations studied included chemical synthesis, trace analysis, animal treatment, microbial mutagenesis tests and in vitro biochemical procedures. In most cases, nitrosamines were not detected in laboratory air, but levels of 200-800 micrograms/m3 (42 to 180 ppb) of N-nitrosomethyl-tert-butylamine were measured during animal treatment, 0.8-8.6 micrograms/m3 (0.3 to 2.8 ppb) of NDMA during mutagenesis assays, 12-22 micrograms/m3 (4-7 ppb) of NDMA during in vitro metabolism studies and 11 micrograms/m3 (3.6 ppb) of NDMA in a walk-in refrigerator. Appropriate corrective measures reduced all nitrosamine levels to below the detection limit. Hamsters and rats treated with NDAA (80 mg/kg, s.c.) excreted 4.4 and 12.9%, respectively, of the nitrosamine in expired air in 24 hr. This route of excretion may be metabolically significant and should be considered in the safe design of animal treatment and holding facilities.

  19. Exposure dose estimation of nursing personnel and visitors following "1"2"5I brachytherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazato, Kazuhisa; Kikuchi, Hirosumi; Hotta, Harumi; Nishizawa, Kunihide

    2007-01-01

    An automated access management system to the controlled sickrooms for "1"2"5I brachytherapy was developed. The system consists of access control and video surveillance units. The patients implanted "1"2"5I seeds were isolated for about 20 h after surgery in the controlled sickrooms. The maximum doses and dose rates of the nurses and visitors were estimated by using the legal upper limit activity of 1,300 MBq, the measured longest staying time, and the shortest distance between the patients and individuals. Video analysis revealed activities of the nurses, patients, and visitors in the controlled sickroom, and relationships between the access frequency and staying time. The nurses' measured doses ranged from 1 to 3 μSv, and averaged 1.6 μSv. The nurses' maximum dose and dose rate were 16 μSv and 5.6 nSv·h"-"1·MBq"-"1. The visitors' maximum dose and dose rate were 6 μSv and 2.6 nSv·h"-"1·MBq"-"1. The nurses and visitors' exposure doses per patient were estimated to be negligible compared with the annual limit of the public. (author)

  20. ON THE ADVISABILITY OF REJECTION OF SUBTRACTION OF BACKGROUND DOSIMETERS INDICATION VALUES FROM THE MEASURED VALUES OF INDIVIDUAL DOSES OF OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE OF A-GROUP PERSONNEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Barkovskiy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An article contains substantiation of advisability of rejection of subtraction of background dosimeters indication values from the measured values of individual doses of occupational exposure of A-group personnel in the process of carrying out of individual dosimetry control of medical organizations stuff which was implemented in the Methodical Guideline 2.6.1.3015-12. It is shown that mentioned procedure is firstly incorrect when we deal with low doses, when the impact of natural exposure could be really considerable and secondary senseless when we deal with dose values close to the dose limit value for A-group personnel when the impact of natural exposure is much lower then the error of measurements. It is suggested to carry out the account of the impact of natural exposure into personnel average doses basing on the analysis of statistical distributions of personnel individual doses and on indications of background dosimeters. It is suggested to add the information about indications of background dosimeters into the Base of Federal Statistical Supervision № 1-DOS as it is prescribed in the Methodical Guideline 2.6.1.3015-12. This article is the respond to the article of A.I. Grigoriev published in the present issue of Journal, in which the author contests the reasonableness of this provision.

  1. Exposure to Prescription Drugs Labeled for Risk of Adverse Effects of Suicidal Behavior or Ideation among 100 Air Force Personnel Who Died by Suicide, 2006-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, Jill E.; McCarthy, Michael; Chapman, Richard; Petrilla, Allison; Knox, Kerry L.

    2012-01-01

    Prescription drugs for many indications are labeled with warnings for potential risk of suicidal ideation or behavior. Exposures to prescription drugs labeled for adverse effects of suicidal behavior or ideation among 100 Air Force personnel who died by suicide between 2006 and 2009 are described. Air Force registry data were linked to…

  2. Development and demonstration of surveillance and diagnostics of rotating machinery for reducing radiation exposure to nuclear power plant personnel: Appendices: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.W.; Bohanick, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    This program was designed to reduce radiation exposure to power plant personnel resulting from inspection, maintenance, and repair of rotating equipment. The new rotating machinery monitoring system for this program was installed at GGNS during August 1983. The following nine appendices are presented: signals monitored at GGNS; definition of characterized spectral values; instructions for alignment and balance programs; machine diagrams; FFT program; software module descriptions; sample radiation survey forms used for exposure study; radiation exposure compared to other plants; and a technical section instruction for the vibration monitoring program at GGNS

  3. Radiation exposure of the personnel during dismantling and cutting of the primary system of the Karlsruhe Multi-purpose Research Reactor (MZFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, H.; Demant, W.; Reichert, A.; Willmann, F.

    2000-10-01

    The heavy water (D 2 O) cooled and moderated pressurized water reactor MZFR with a thermal power of 200 MW will be dismantled step-by-step within the framework of sectional decommissioning licenses. The past decommissioning step (6 th sectional license) in general covered the removal of the primary systems and of all reactor support systems inside the reactor building. The measures for radiation protection during dismantling and handling of the large components of the primary system, such as the fuel element loading machine, fuel element transfer system, steam generator and pressurizer shall be pointed out. The measures taken for the reduction of the dose rate during dismantling and cutting of the components for the purpose of conditioning or unrestricted reuse at the central decontamination department (HDB) shall be described. Chemical decontamination of the primary circuit and its components, which had to be executed in order to reduce the dose rates for subsequent manual dismantling, shall be presented. The efforts undertaken for the protection of individuals in view of the difficult radiological boundary conditions (high concentrations of tritium in all systems as well as very high alpha contamination) will be explained. Moreover, dose-minimizing measures during cutting of the primary circuit and its components at HDB shall be described by the example of the cutting of a steam generator. It shall be demonstrated that cutting and dismantling of highly contaminated and activated parts with high dose rates can be executed safely in terms of both the radiation exposure of the personnel and the technical, financial and time expenditure. (orig.)

  4. Control of radiation exposure (principles and methods)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agwimah, R. I.

    1999-01-01

    Biological risks are directly related to the tissue radiation dose, so it is very important to maintain personnel doses as low as realistically possible. This goal can be achieved by minimizing internal contamination and external exposure to radioactive sources

  5. Application of a stratified random sampling technique to the estimation and minimization of respirable quartz exposure to underground miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makepeace, C.E.; Horvath, F.J.; Stocker, H.

    1981-11-01

    The aim of a stratified random sampling plan is to provide the best estimate (in the absence of full-shift personal gravimetric sampling) of personal exposure to respirable quartz among underground miners. One also gains information of the exposure distribution of all the miners at the same time. Three variables (or strata) are considered in the present scheme: locations, occupations and times of sampling. Random sampling within each stratum ensures that each location, occupation and time of sampling has equal opportunity of being selected without bias. Following implementation of the plan and analysis of collected data, one can determine the individual exposures and the mean. This information can then be used to identify those groups whose exposure contributes significantly to the collective exposure. In turn, this identification, along with other considerations, allows the mine operator to carry out a cost-benefit optimization and eventual implementation of engineering controls for these groups. This optimization and engineering control procedure, together with the random sampling plan, can then be used in an iterative manner to minimize the mean value of the distribution and collective exposures

  6. Dosimetry of the Occupational Exposure Personnel and not exposure of the INNSZ; Dosimetria del Personal Ocupacionalmente Expuesto (POE) y no expuesto del INNSZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz J, A [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto nacional de la nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Mexico D.F. C.P. 14100 (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    In this work, was measured the equivalent dose of all the personnel of Nuclear medicine and personnel of the Institute which by its activities remain in the Department, by time determined, through thermoluminescent dosemeters and the results were that the personnel presents variable equivalent dose and it is proportional to the time and radionuclide type which use for their work. By this it is allowed to secure what the work watched with respect to radiological protection to fulfil with the International Standards standing for personnel in the Institute. (Author)

  7. Minimizing Air Pollution Exposure: A Practical Policy to Protect Vulnerable Older Adults from Death and Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Nick; Levine, Morgan

    2016-02-01

    Air pollution causes an estimated 200,000 deaths per year in the United States alone. Older adults are at greater risk of mortality caused by air pollution. Here we quantify the number of older adult facilities in Los Angeles County that are exposed to high levels of traffic derived air pollution, and propose policy solutions to reduce pollution exposure to this vulnerable subgroup. Distances between 20,362 intersections and 858 elder care facilities were estimated, and roads or highways within 500 of facilities were used to estimate traffic volume exposure. Of the 858 facilities, 54 were located near at least one major roadway, defined as a traffic volume over 100,000 cars/day. These 54 facilities house approximately 6,000 older adults. Following standards established for schools, we recommend legislation mandating the placement of new elder care facilities a minimum of 500 feet from major roadways in order to reduce unnecessary mortality risk from pollution exposure.

  8. Exposure to daily trauma: The experiences and coping mechanism of Emergency Medical Personnel. A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Llizane Minnie

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: EMS personnel are exposed to critical incidents on a daily basis. Commonly used emotion-focused coping mechanisms are not effective in long-term coping. A key recommendation emanating from this finding is that integrated intervention programmes are needed to assist EMS personnel working in this sustained high-stress environment. The findings can assist health care educators in the design of co-curricular activities intended to help in the development of resilience and the psychological wellbeing of EMS personnel. Policy makers and EMS managers may find the results useful as they evaluate the effectiveness of their current debriefing and support structures.

  9. Designing, Constructing and Installing a Local Exhaust Ventilation System to Minimize Welders\\' Exposure to Welding Fumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Zare

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: Welder’s exposure to welding fumes can cause occupational diseases. The current study sought to examine exposure to welding fumes among welders who work in the repair shop of Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex and design a local exhaust ventilation system to control exposure to welding fumes. Materials & Methods: This applied analytical study was conducted in the summer of 2016 among welders working in the repair shop of Sarcheshmeh Copper Complex. The study comprised three phases; in the first one, welders’ exposure to welding fumes was assessed at the beginning of the study. After that, a local exhaust ventilation system was designed and installed in the aforementioned repair shop. In the final stage, welders’ exposure to welding fumes was assessed again after installation of the ventilation system. The procedure recommended by NIOSH (method number 7300 was used for individual sampling of welders. Results: Based on the obtained findings, before installing the ventilation system, welding technicians were exposed to 0.3 mg/m3 of copper fumes and 0.04 mg/m3 of chromium fumes. Journeyman welders were also exposed to 2.16 mg/m3 of manganese fumes, while stellar welders were exposed to 6.9 mg/m3 of iron fumes. In the light of these measurements, a local exhaust ventilation system was designed and installed. Subsequently, measurement of exposure to welding fumes showed a significant reduction. That is, welding technicians were exposed to 0.17 mg/m3 and 0.015 mg/m3 of copper and chromium fumes respectively. Additionally, journeyman welders were exposed to 0.86 mg/m3 of manganese fumes, whereas stellar welders were exposed to 4.3 mg/m3 of iron fumes. Conclusions: A comparison of standard limits of exposure to welding fumes and the results obtained from measurements in sampling stations before and after the installation of the local exhaust ventilation system reveals that this controlling measure was very effective in the

  10. Emission of parasitic X-rays from military radar transmitters and exposure of personnel: towards a retrospective assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirmer, A. [Arbeitsgruppe Aufklarung der Arbeitsplatzverhaltnisse Radar, Wehrbereichsverwaltung Nord, Bundeswehr, Munster (Germany)

    2006-07-01

    An overview of the investigation of parasitic-X-ray (Bremsstrahlung) from high-voltage electron vacuum tubes in military radar transmitters is given. From technical inspection, data evaluation and measurements maximum dose rates for work places of the personnel are calculated. With dedicated workplace surveys the maximum dose H{sup *}(10) per month for the personnel is estimated for the entire time of use of the different radar sets. (author)

  11. Emission of parasitic X-rays from military radar transmitters and exposure of personnel: towards a retrospective assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirmer, A.

    2006-01-01

    An overview of the investigation of parasitic-X-ray (Bremsstrahlung) from high-voltage electron vacuum tubes in military radar transmitters is given. From technical inspection, data evaluation and measurements maximum dose rates for work places of the personnel are calculated. With dedicated workplace surveys the maximum dose H * (10) per month for the personnel is estimated for the entire time of use of the different radar sets. (author)

  12. [Assessment of the surgeon radiation exposure during a minimally invasive TLIF: Comparison between fluoroscopy and O-arm system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grelat, M; Zairi, F; Quidet, M; Marinho, P; Allaoui, M; Assaker, R

    2015-08-01

    Transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion with a minimally invasive approach (MIS TLIF) has become a very popular technique in the treatment of degenerative diseases of the lumbar spine, as it allows a decrease in muscle iatrogenic. However, iterative radiological controls inherent to this technique are responsible for a significant increase in exposure to ionizing radiation for the surgeon. New techniques for radiological guidance (O-arm navigation-assisted) would overcome this drawback, but this remains unproven. To analyze the exposure of the surgeon to intraoperative X-ray during a MIS TLIF under fluoroscopy and under O-arm navigation-assisted. This prospective study was conducted at the University Hospital of Lille from February to May 2013. Twelve patients underwent a MIS TLIF for the treatment of low-grade spondylolisthesis; six under standard fluoroscopy (group 1) and six under O-arm system (group 2). Passive dosimeters (rings and glasses) and active dosimeters for thorax were used to measure the radiation exposure of the surgeon. For group 1, the average time of fluoroscopy was 3.718 minutes (3.13-4.56) while no radioscopy was perform on group 2. For the first group, the average exposure dose was 12 μSv (5-20 μSv) on the thorax, 1168 μSv (510-2790 μSv) on the main hand and 179 μSv (103-486 μSv) on the lens. The exposure dose was measured zero on the second group. The maximum recommended doses can be reached, mainly for the lens. In addition to the radioprotection measures, O-arm navigation systems are safe alternatives to significantly reduce surgeon exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Monitoring of the internal contamination of occupationally exposure personnel in services of nuclear medicine through the use of gamma cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teran, M.; Paolino, A.; Savio, E.; Hermida, J.C.; Dantas, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    The radionuclides incorporation can happen as a result of diverse activities; these include the work associated with the different stadiums of the nuclear fuel cycle, the use of radioactive sources in medicine, the scientific research, the agriculture and the industry. In Uruguay the main activities linked to the manipulation of open sources correspond those of Nuclear Medicine and from 2004, in the mark of the Project Arcal RLA 049 and being based on the Safety Guides of the IAEA it is implementing a program of internal monitoring in combined form the Nuclear Medicine Center of the Hospital of and the Radiochemistry class of the Faculty of Chemistry. In accordance with the publication of the ICRP 75 the emphasis of any monitoring program should be in the formal study of the doses in the workers to who are considered commendable of to receive in routine form an outstanding fraction of the dose limits or who work in areas where the exposures can be significant in the accident event. From April 2004, to the date has started a pilot plan by means of in that were established appropriate conditions of procedures and of safety in a reduced group of workers of the Nuclear Medicine area. In that period the first work limits, equipment adjustment, calibrations and registration systems were determined. The monitoring system implemented until the moment is carried out with a thyroid caption equipment. However these measurements are carried out in the university hospital embracing 40% of the involved workers of our country, with the purpose of reaching the covering of the biggest quantity of occupationally exposed personnel of private clinics. Also it was developed a new work proposal that allows to have an alternative measure method, in the event of not having the equipment habitually used. Among the conclusions of this work are that for the before exposed are considered the measure conditions but appropriate the following ones: Gamma Camera without collimator; Measurement

  14. Low-dose CT of the paranasal sinuses. Minimizing X-ray exposure with spectral shaping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, Wolfgang [Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Radiological Institute, Erlangen (Germany); Radiological Institute, Erlangen (Germany); May, Matthias; Saake, Marc; Brand, Michael; Uder, Michael; Lell, Michael [Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nuremberg, Radiological Institute, Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    Shaping the energy spectrum of the X-ray beam has been shown to be beneficial in low-dose CT. This study's aim was to investigate dose and image quality of tin filtration at 100 kV for pre-operative planning in low-dose paranasal CT imaging in a large patient cohort. In a prospective trial, 129 patients were included. 64 patients were randomly assigned to the study protocol (100 kV with additional tin filtration, 150mAs, 192 x 0.6-mm slice collimation) and 65 patients to the standard low-dose protocol (100 kV, 50mAs, 128 x 0.6-mm slice collimation). To assess the image quality, subjective parameters were evaluated using a five-point scale. This scale was applied on overall image quality and contour delineation of critical anatomical structures. All scans were of diagnostic image quality. Bony structures were of good diagnostic image quality in both groups, soft tissues were of sufficient diagnostic image quality in the study group because of a high level of noise. Radiation exposure was very low in both groups, but significantly lower in the study group (CTDI{sub vol} 1.2 mGy vs. 4.4 mGy, p < 0.001). Spectral optimization (tin filtration at 100 kV) allows for visualization of the paranasal sinus with sufficient image quality at a very low radiation exposure. (orig.)

  15. Current status of personnel exposure at nuclear power plants and other medical, industrial and educational facilities in JAPAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Fumiaki

    1991-01-01

    The state of radiation exposure of the workers engaging in radiation works in Japanese nuclear power stations, the factors of the radiation exposure of the workers engaging in radiation works, the countermeasures for reducing exposure in nuclear power stations, the state of radiation exposure of doctors, the workers engaging in radiation works, researchers and others in medical, industrial, research and educational and other facilities in Japan, the factors of their radiation exposure and the countermeasures for reducing the exposure, and the comparison of the exposure in nuclear power stations with that in medical, industrial, research and educational facilities are reported. (K.I.)

  16. Monitoring Exposure to Ebola and Health of U.S. Military Personnel Deployed in Support of Ebola Control Efforts - Liberia, October 25, 2014-February 27, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardile, Anthony P; Murray, Clinton K; Littell, Christopher T; Shah, Neel J; Fandre, Matthew N; Drinkwater, Dennis C; Markelz, Brian P; Vento, Todd J

    2015-07-03

    In response to the unprecedented Ebola virus disease (Ebola) outbreak in West Africa, the U.S. government deployed approximately 2,500 military personnel to support the government of Liberia. Their primary missions were to construct Ebola treatment units (ETUs), train health care workers to staff ETUs, and provide laboratory testing capacity for Ebola. Service members were explicitly prohibited from engaging in activities that could result in close contact with an Ebola-infected patient or coming in contact with the remains of persons who had died from unknown causes. Military units performed twice-daily monitoring of temperature and review of exposures and symptoms ("unit monitoring") on all persons throughout deployment, exit screening at the time of departure from Liberia, and post-deployment monitoring for 21 days at segregated, controlled monitoring areas on U.S. military installations. A total of 32 persons developed a fever during deployment from October 25, 2014, through February 27, 2015; none had a known Ebola exposure or developed Ebola infection. Monitoring of all deployed service members revealed no Ebola exposures or infections. Given their activity restrictions and comprehensive monitoring while deployed to Liberia, U.S. military personnel constitute a unique population with a lower risk for Ebola exposure compared with those working in the country without such measures.

  17. Problems with regard to occupational exposure of external personnel (section 15 of the German Radiation Protection Ordinance)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, W.

    2002-01-01

    The annual radiation dose to the group of external personnel working in nuclear facilities accounts for more than 39% of the total annual collective dose of all occupationally exposed persons in Germany. This is a fact causing problems for plant operators employing external personnel as well as the sending companies, with respect to compliance with the radiation protection regulations. The amended German Radiation Protection Ordinance does not really make things easier in this respect, but in fact is expected to aggravate the situation in the course of increasing globalisation in the industrial sector. (orig./CB) [de

  18. [Evaluation of radiation exposure of personnel in an orthopaedic and trauma operation theatre using the new real-time dosimetry system "dose aware"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M C; Strauss, A; Pflugmacher, R; Nähle, C P; Pennekamp, P H; Burger, C; Wirtz, D C

    2014-08-01

    There is a positive correlation between operation time and staff exposure to radiation during intraoperative use of C-arm fluoroscopy. Due to harmful effects of exposure to long-term low-dose radiation for both the patient and the operating team it should be kept to a minimum. AIM of this study was to evaluate a novel dosimeter system called Dose Aware® (DA) enabling radiation exposure feedback of the personal in an orthopaedic and trauma operation theatre in real-time. Within a prospective study over a period of four month, DA was applied by the operation team during 104 orthopaedic and trauma operations in which the C-arm fluoroscope was used in 2D-mode. During ten operation techniques, radiation exposure of the surgeon, the first assistant, the theatre nurse and the anaesthesiologist was evaluated. Seventy-three operations were analysed. The surgeon achieved the highest radiation exposure during dorsolumbar spinal osteosynthesis, kyphoplasty and screw fixation of sacral fractures. The first assistant received a higher radiation exposure compared to the surgeon during plate osteosynthesis of distal radius fractures (157 %), intramedullary nailing of pertrochanteric fractures (143 %) and dorsolumbar spinal osteosynthesis (240 %). During external fixation of ankle fractures (68 %) and screw fixation of sacral fractures (66 %) radiation exposure of the theatre nurse exceeded 50 % of the surgeon's radiation exposure. During plate osteosynthesis of distal radius fractures (157 %) and intramedullary splinting of clavicular fractures (115 %), the anaesthesiologist received a higher radiation exposure than the surgeon. The novel dosimeter system DA provides real-time radiation exposure feedback of the personnel in an orthopaedic and trauma operation theatre for the first time. Data of this study demonstrate that radiation exposure of the personnel depends on the operation type. The first assistant, the theatre nurse and the anaesthesiologist might be

  19. Minimal exposure technique in the Cambridge University 600kV high resolution electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryer, J.R.; Cleaver, J.R.A.; Smith, D.J.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation damage due to the incident electron beam imposes a fundamental limitation on the information obtainable by electron microscopy about organic materials; it is desirable therefore that exposure of the specimen to the electron beam should be restricted to the actual period during which the image is being recorded. A description is given of methods employed in the observation of the organic aromatic hydrocarbons quaterrylene, ovalene and coronene with the Cambridge University 600kV high resolution electron microscope (HREM). In particular, the condenser-objective mode of operation of this microscope lends itself to the use of an area-defining aperture below the second condenser lens conjugate with the specimen. Furthermore, operation at the higher accelerating voltage of this instrument could be anticipated to reduce the rate of damage, depending on the dominant beam-specimen interaction, whilst the increased width of the first broad band of the contrast transfer function of this microscope at the optimum defocus may overcome the reported resolution limitation of current 100kV microscopes for the observation of related materials. (author)

  20. Portal imaging practice patterns of children's oncology group institutions: Dosimetric assessment and recommendations for minimizing unnecessary exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olch, Arthur J.; Geurts, Mark; Thomadsen, Bruce; Famiglietti, Robin; Chang, Eric L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To determine and analyze the dosimetric consequences of current portal imaging practices for pediatric patients, and make specific recommendations for reducing exposure from portal imaging procedures. Methods and Materials: A survey was sent to approximately 250 Children's Oncology Group (COG) member institutions asking a series of questions about their portal imaging practices. Three case studies are presented with dosimetric analysis to illustrate the magnitude of unintended dose received by nontarget tissues using the most common techniques from the survey. Results: The vast majority of centers use double-exposure portal image techniques with a variety of open field margins. Only 17% of portal images were obtained during treatment, and for other imaging methods, few centers subtract monitor units from the treatment delivery. The number of monitor units used was nearly the same regardless of imager type, including electronic portal imaging devices. Eighty-six percent imaged all fields the first week and 17% imaged all fields every week. An additional 1,112 cm 3 of nontarget tissue received 1 Gy in one of the example cases. Eight new recommendations are made, which will lower nontarget radiation doses with minimal impact on treatment verification accuracy. Conclusion: Based on the survey, changes can be made in portal imaging practices that will lower nontarget doses. It is anticipated that treatment verification accuracy will be minimally affected. Specific recommendations made to decrease the imaging dose and help lower the rate of radiation-induced secondary cancers in children are proposed for inclusion in future COG protocols using radiation therapy

  1. The moderating impact of interacting with distressed families of decedents on trauma exposure in medical examiner personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jennifer A; Delahanty, Douglas L; Schwartz, Joseph; Murani, Kristina; Brondolo, Elizabeth

    2016-11-01

    Prior research has examined the incidence of posttraumatic stress stemming from either direct or indirect trauma exposure in employees of high-risk occupations. However, few studies have examined the contribution of both direct and indirect trauma exposure in high-risk groups. One particularly salient indirect trauma often endorsed as the most stressful by many occupational groups is interacting with distressed family members of victims of crime, illness, or accidents. The present study examined the extent to which interacting with distressed families moderated the impact of cumulative potentially traumatic event (PTE) exposure on depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 245 employees of medical examiner (ME) offices. Employees from 9 ME office sites in the United States participated in an online survey investigating the frequency of work place PTE exposures (direct and indirect) and mental health outcomes. Results revealed that cumulative PTE exposure was associated with higher PTSD symptoms (PTSS) for employees who had higher frequency of exposure to distressed family members. After controlling for cumulative and direct PTE exposure, gender, and office site, exposure to distressed families was significantly associated with depressive symptoms, but not PTSS. Findings of our research underscore the need for training employees in high-risk occupations to manage their reactions to exposure to distraught family members. Employee training may buffer risk for developing PTSD and depression. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Rationale and design of a multicenter randomized controlled trial on a 'minimal intervention' in Dutch army personnel with nonspecific low back pain [ISRCTN19334317

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staal J Bart

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Researchers from the Royal Netherlands Army are studying the potential of isolated lumbar extensor training in low back pain in their working population. Currently, a randomized controlled trial is carried out in five military health centers in The Netherlands and Germany, in which a 10-week program of not more than 2 training sessions (10–15 minutes per week is studied in soldiers with nonspecific low back pain for more than 4 weeks. The purpose of the study is to investigate the efficacy of this 'minimal intervention program', compared to usual care. Moreover, attempts are made to identify subgroups of different responders to the intervention. Methods Besides a baseline measurement, follow-up data are gathered at two short-term intervals (5 and 10 weeks after randomization and two long-term intervals (6 months and one year after the end of the intervention, respectively. At every test moment, participants fill out a compound questionnaire on a stand-alone PC, and they undergo an isometric back strength measurement on a lower back machine. Primary outcome measures in this study are: self-assessed degree of complaints and degree of handicap in daily activities due to back pain. In addition, our secondary measurements focus on: fear of movement/(re- injury, mental and social health perception, individual back extension strength, and satisfaction of the patient with the treatment perceived. Finally, we assess a number of potential prognostic factors: demographic and job characteristics, overall health, the degree of physical activity, and the attitudes and beliefs of the physiotherapist towards chronic low back pain. Discussion Although a substantial number of trials have been conducted that included lumbar extension training in low back pain patients, hardly any study has emphasized a minimal intervention approach comparable to ours. For reasons of time efficiency and patient preferences, this minimal sports medicine

  3. Review of the toxicologic and radiologic risks to military personnel from exposure to depleted uranium during and after combat

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    National Academies Press (U.S.); National Research Council (U.S.). Board on Environmental Studies and Toxicology; National Research Council (U.S.) Committee on Toxicologic and Radiologic Effects from Exposure to Depleted Uranium During and After Combat

    2008-01-01

    .... Depleted uranium is a toxic heavy metal and is weakly radioactive. Concerns have been raised about the adverse health effects from exposure to depleted uranium that is aerosolized during combat...

  4. Nitrous Oxide Exposure of Health Care Personnel in the Operating Rooms and Intensive Care Units in Hospitals in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Eftimova

    2017-10-01

    CONCLUSIONS: Study indicated significant exposure of personal working in substandard ORs in CH – Shtip. Applying proper work practices and maintain control equipment (general ventilation and scavenging systems in operation, could provide for safe work environment.

  5. Environmental exposure of primary care personnel to ribavirin aerosol when supervising treatment of infants with respiratory syncytial virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, W J; Bui, R H; Connor, J D; Kim, H W; Brandt, C D; Parrott, R H; Burch, B; Mace, J

    1987-01-01

    The potential exposure to ribavirin aerosol in the environment was assessed in nurses caring for infants and children with severe lower respiratory tract infections due to respiratory syncytial virus. Ribavirin aerosol was administered via a ventilator, oxygen tent, or oxygen hood. Participants worked directly with infants receiving ribavirin for 20.0 to 35.0 h over a 3-day period. No toxic or adverse effects of ribavirin aerosol were observed in any of the 19 nurses studied, and ribavirin was not detected in erythrocytes, plasma, or urine collected after the potential exposure period. PMID:3662474

  6. Radiation protection requirements for organizations practising mining activities which can bring about exposure of personnel, public, or the environment. Recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The publication consists of the following articles: (1) Scope of State Office for Nuclear Safety recommendations; (2) Glossary of terms; (3) Radiation protection quantities; (4) General requirements for radiation protection and responsibilities of organizations; (5) Exposure limits; (6) Organizational and technical provisions of radiation protection; (7) Monitoring, measurement, evaluation, and recording of radiation protection-related quantities, parameters, and facts; (8) Utilization of monitoring data. Provisions to keep professional and public exposure within tolerable limits; (9) Decommissioning of workplaces handling ionizing radiation sources; (10) Waste handling; and (11) Transport of material arising from mining activities. The text is supplemented with 5 tabular annexes. (P.A)

  7. Preliminary results from a survey of U.S. Forest Service wildfire managers' attitudes toward aviation personnel exposure and risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Wibbenmeyer; Michael Hand; David Calkin

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service (USFS) has, in recent years, increasingly emphasized the importance of safety to its employees, but wildfire management remains a risky endeavor. While wildfire management decisions affecting safety and exposure of firefighters to the wildland fire environment may be aided by decision support tools such the Wildfire...

  8. Air Force Health Study. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-01

    exposure. The perceived exposed cohort scored significantly higher on NLMPI scales F, hypochondriasis , depression, paranoia, psychasthenia...R variables, the Ranch Hands had marginally more abnormalities than the Comparisons for depression, somatization , and an index of the general severity...compulsive behavior, paranoid ideation, phobic anxiety, psychoticism, and somatization . Three global indices also were analyzed: the global severity index

  9. A Decade of War: Prospective Trajectories of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Among Deployed US Military Personnel and the Influence of Combat Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donoho, Carrie J; Bonanno, George A; Porter, Ben; Kearney, Lauren; Powell, Teresa M

    2017-12-15

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common psychiatric disorder among service members and veterans. The clinical course of PTSD varies between individuals, and patterns of symptom development have yet to be clearly delineated. Previous studies have been limited by convenience sampling, short follow-up periods, and the inability to account for combat-related trauma. To determine the trajectories of PTSD symptoms among deployed military personnel with and without combat exposure, we used data from a population-based representative sample of 8,178 US service members who participated in the Millennium Cohort Study from 2001 to 2011. Using latent growth mixture modeling, trajectories of PTSD symptoms were determined in the total sample, as well as in individuals with and without combat exposure, respectively. Overall, 4 trajectories of PTSD were characterized: resilient, pre-existing, new-onset, and moderate stable. Across all trajectories, combat-deployed service members diverged from non-combat-deployed service members, even after a single deployment. The former also generally had higher PTSD symptoms. Based on the models, nearly 90% of those without combat exposure remained resilient over the 10-year period, compared with 80% of those with combat exposure. Findings demonstrate that although the clinical course of PTSD symptoms shows heterogeneous patterns of development, combat exposure is uniformly associated with poor mental health. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. Development and demonstration of surveillance and diagnostics of rotating machinery for reducing radiation exposure to nuclear power plant personnel: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, J.W.; Bohanick, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    This program was designed to reduce radiation exposure to power plant personnel resulting from inspection, maintenance, and repair of rotating equipment. The new rotating machinery monitoring system for this program was installed at GGNS during August 1983. This document provides a functional description of the hardware and software that comprise the system and discusses the application of the monitoring system to achieving overall program goals. The analyses of the monitored rotating machinery during the plant startup phase and after the plant's first fuel cycle are presented in addition to the radiation dose reduction which occurred as a direct and indirect result of the RMSS. The dose reduction program at GGNS is reviewed and recommendations made to incorporate this program with the RMSS. 28 refs., 64 figs., 43 tabs

  11. Factors and strategies in the occupational monitoring of personnel in medical angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, S.H.; Kleck, J.H.; McLaughlin, J.E.

    1988-01-01

    Angiographic procedures which include extensive fluoroscopy are among those which can produce the highest radiation exposure of hospital workers. The introduction of hemiaxial projections, and vascular fluoroscopic boost imaging methods has increased diagnostic accuracy, but it has also increased the physician's exposure to scattered radiation. Medical facilities in angiography and catheterization vary in regards to type of equipment and training of personnel. The health physicist for a facility is compelled to initiate a program to measure the potential exposure from a facility as well as assist in the training of personnel to minimize the exposure. Training of the medical personnel also includes techniques of exposure monitoring which for some individuals is more practically attained by utilization of a double badge program. This is especially important in the university setting where new residents and fellows are being introduced to the facility

  12. Nuclear Test Personnel Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOIA Electronic Reading Room Privacy Impact Assessment DTRA No Fear Act Reporting Nuclear Test Personnel Review NTPR Fact Sheets NTPR Radiation Dose Assessment Documents US Atmospheric Nuclear Test History Documents US Underground Nuclear Test History Reports NTPR Radiation Exposure Reports Enewetak

  13. Minimally invasive mitral valve surgery through right mini-thoracotomy: recommendations for good exposure, stable cardiopulmonary bypass, and secure myocardial protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Toshiaki

    2015-07-01

    An apparent advantage of minimally invasive mitral surgery through right mini-thoracotomy is cosmetic appearance. Possible advantages of this procedure are a shorter ventilation time, shorter hospital stay, and less blood transfusion. With regard to hard endpoints, such as operative mortality, freedom from reoperation, or cardiac death, this method is reportedly equivalent, but not superior, to the standard median sternotomy technique. However, perfusion-related complications (e.g., stroke, vascular damage, and limb ischemia) tend to occur more frequently in minimally invasive technique than with the standard technique. In addition, valve repair through a small thoracotomy is technically demanding. Therefore, screening out patients who are not appropriate for performing minimally invasive surgery is the first step. Vascular disease and inadequate anatomy can be evaluated with contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Peripheral cannulation should be carefully performed, using transesophageal echocardiography guidance. Preoperative detailed planning of the valve repair process is desirable because every step is time-consuming in minimally invasive surgery. Three-dimensional echocardiography is a powerful tool for this purpose. For satisfactory exposure and detailed observation of the valve, a special left atrial retractor and high-definition endoscope are useful. Valve repair can be performed in minimally invasive surgery as long as cardiopulmonary bypass is stable and bloodless exposure of the valve is obtained.

  14. Personnel Preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fair, George, Ed.; Stodden, Robert, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Three articles comprise a section on personnel preparation in vocational education. Articles deal with two inservice programs in career/vocational education for the handicapped and a project to train paraprofessionals to assist special educators in vocational education. (CL)

  15. Maintaining radiation exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) for dental personnel operating portable hand-held x-ray equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGiff, Thomas J; Danforth, Robert A; Herschaft, Edward E

    2012-08-01

    Clinical experience indicates that newly available portable hand-held x-ray units provide advantages compared to traditional fixed properly installed and operated x-ray units in dental radiography. However, concern that hand-held x-ray units produce higher operator doses than fixed x-ray units has caused regulatory agencies to mandate requirements for use of hand-held units that go beyond those recommended by the manufacturer and can discourage the use of this technology. To assess the need for additional requirements, a hand-held x-ray unit and a pair of manikins were used to measure the dose to a simulated operator under two conditions: exposures made according to the manufacturer's recommendations and exposures made according to manufacturer's recommendation except for the removal of the x-ray unit's protective backscatter shield. Dose to the simulated operator was determined using an array of personal dosimeters and a pair of pressurized ion chambers. The results indicate that the dose to an operator of this equipment will be less than 0.6 mSv y⁻¹ if the device is used according to the manufacturer's recommendations. This suggests that doses to properly trained operators of well-designed, hand-held dental x-ray units will be below 1.0 mSv y⁻¹ (2% of the annual occupational dose limit) even if additional no additional operational requirements are established by regulatory agencies. This level of annual dose is similar to those reported as typical dental personnel using fixed x-ray units and appears to satisfy the ALARA principal for this class of occupational exposures.

  16. Quantification of the Exposure of the Glenohumeral Joint from the Minimally Invasive to More Invasive Subscapularis Approach to the Anterior Shoulder: a Cadaveric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    fractures to the glenoid or proximal humerus, shoulder resurfacing, total shoulder arthroplasty, and soft tissue repair around the shoulder, including...the labrum, rotator cuff, and cartilaginous surfaces of the glenohumeral joint.13,21 A surgical approach should have the parallel goals of providing...adequate exposure for safe performance of the desired procedure, allow for minimal disruption of soft tissue attachments to the region of interest, and

  17. Study of the examination times using radiation equipments and the radiation exposure control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshida, Kichiro; Orito, Takeo; Maekawa, Ryuichi; Hiraki, Tatsunosuke [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Paramedicine; Koga, Sukehiko

    1985-01-01

    The relation between the examination time and the exposure to the personnel was investigated. In order to minimize radiation injury, special exposure dose-rate distribution curves were performed at the maximum exposure condition setting the phantom, and the examination times could be limited from the exprosure dose for the place where the personnel presented. The examination times are possible to be ten times by those with the Medical X-ray Protective Aprons.

  18. Study of the examination times using radiation equipments and the radiation exposure control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshida, Kichiro; Orito, Takeo; Maekawa, Ryuichi; Hiraki, Tatsunosuke; Koga, Sukehiko.

    1985-01-01

    It was investigated for the relation between the examination times and the exposure to the personnel. At the purpose to minimize the radiation injury, the special exposure dose-rate distribution curves were performed at the maximum exposure condition setting the phantom, and the examination times could be limited from the exprosure dose for the place where the personnel presented. The examination times are possible to be ten times by those with the Medical X-ray Protective Aprons. (author)

  19. Radiological protection in X-ray diagnosis: How to minimize the patient exposure in X-ray diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, A.M.C. de.

    1986-01-01

    The principles involved in the radiation protection and the radiographic process are discussed. An adequate systematic work is presented, to achieve the main goal of the Radiation Protection that is, to irradiate the patient and the staff with lowest possible exposure. (M.A.C.) [pt

  20. Stress exposure and the risk for the onset of alcohol use disorders and nicotine dependence in deployed military personnel: the role of prior internalizing disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trautmann, Sebastian; Schönfeld, Sabine; Behrendt, Silke; Heinrich, Anke; Höfler, Michael; Siegel, Stefan; Zimmermann, Peter; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich

    2015-04-01

    This prospective study aimed to investigate whether prior internalizing disorders (PIDs) moderate the relationship between stress exposure (SE) and the onset of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) and nicotine dependence (ND) in deployed military personnel. 358 male soldiers were examined directly before and 12months after return from deployment using standardized interviews. Combat experiences, concerns about family disruptions, and difficult living and working environment were assessed as different aspects of SE. PID diagnoses (mood disorders (PMDs), anxiety disorders (PADs)) and substance use disorders were defined according to the DSM-IV-TR. PMDs were related to a stronger association between concerns about family disruptions and the risk of AUD onset (OR=7.7, 95% CI 1.8-32.8, p=0.006). The number of PID diagnoses (OR per diagnosis: 1.7, 95% CI 1.0-2.8, p=0.036) and PADs (OR: 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.3, p=0.038) were further related to a stronger association between difficult living and working environment and the risk of AUD onset. With regard to ND, PMDs were related to a weaker association between difficult living and working environment and the risk of ND onset (OR=0.4, 95% CI 0.2-0.8, p=0.013). PIDs might be related to an increased risk for the onset of AUDs but not ND following SE. This effect is probably restricted to specific constellations of PADs, PMDs, comorbid PIDs and specific aspects of SE. These critical constellations of PIDs and SE might be a promising target for future research and could contribute to the development of preventive measures to reduce the risk of AUDs following SE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Radiation exposure during ureteroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, D.H.; Cubler-Goodman, A.

    1990-01-01

    Use of fluoroscopy during ureteroscopy increases the risk of radiation exposure to the urologist and patient. Radiation entrance dosages were measured at skin level in 37 patients, and at the neck, trunk and finger of the urologist, and neck and trunk of the circulating nurse. Radiation exposure time was measured in 79 patients, and was related to the purpose of the procedure and the type of ureteroscope used, whether rigid or flexible. Exposure could be minimized by decreasing the fluoroscopy time. A portable C-arm fluoroscopy unit with electronic imaging and last image hold mode should be used to minimize exposure time. Lead aprons and thyroid shields should be used by the urologist and other personnel in the endoscopy room

  2. Minimal health impacts but detectable tissue residues after exposure of northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens) to commercial naphthenic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersikorn, B.; Young, R.; Fedorak, P.; Smits, J.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation reported on a study that examined whether naphthenic acids (NAs) are a toxic component in oil sands process-affected materials (OSPM). The study investigated the toxicity of commercial (Refined Merichem) NAs to native amphibians (northern leopard frogs) exposed to saline conditions comparable to those of reclaimed wetlands on oil sand leases. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the exposure of frogs to NAs solutions for 28 days resulted in proportional NA concentrations in extracts of frog muscle tissue. Biological assays were performed to determine if the increasing exposure to NAs caused a proportional compromise in the health of test animals. The innate immune function, thyroid hormones, and hepatic detoxification enzyme induction did not differ in response to increased tissue concentrations of NAs. The commercial NAs were absorbed and deposited in muscle tissue. It was concluded that NAs play only a small, if any, role in the toxicity of OSPM to frogs.

  3. Minimally Invasive Spinal Surgery with Intraoperative Image-Guided Navigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence T. Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present our perioperative minimally invasive spine surgery technique using intraoperative computed tomography image-guided navigation for the treatment of various lumbar spine pathologies. We present an illustrative case of a patient undergoing minimally invasive percutaneous posterior spinal fusion assisted by the O-arm system with navigation. We discuss the literature and the advantages of the technique over fluoroscopic imaging methods: lower occupational radiation exposure for operative room personnel, reduced need for postoperative imaging, and decreased revision rates. Most importantly, we demonstrate that use of intraoperative cone beam CT image-guided navigation has been reported to increase accuracy.

  4. Minimal Effects of Age and Exposure to a Noisy Environment on Hearing in Alpha9 Nicotinic Receptor Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda M. Lauer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies have suggested a role of weakened medial olivocochlear (OC efferent feedback in accelerated hearing loss and increased susceptibility to noise. The present study investigated the progression of hearing loss with age and exposure to a noisy environment in medial OC-deficient mice. Alpha9 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor knockout (α9KO and wild types were screened for hearing loss using auditory brainstem responses. α9KO mice housed in a quiet environment did not show increased hearing loss compared to wild types in young adulthood and middle age. Challenging the medial OC system by housing in a noisy environment did not increase hearing loss in α9KO mice compared to wild types. ABR wave 1 amplitudes also did not show differences between α9KO mice and wild types. These data suggest that deficient medial OC feedback does not result in early onset of hearing loss.

  5. Intravenous injection of unfunctionalized carbon-based nanomaterials confirms the minimal toxicity observed in aqueous and dietary exposures in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, David; Sutton, Paul A; Handy, Richard D; Henry, Theodore B

    2018-01-01

    Numerous ecotoxicology studies of carbon-based nanomaterials (CNMs) have been conducted in fishes; however, different approaches have been used to make CNM dispersions and dose tanks for aqueous exposures, and to prepare food containing CNMs for dietary studies. This diversity of experimental methods has led to conflicting results and difficulties in comparing studies. The objective of the present study was to evaluate intravenous injection of unfunctionalized CNMs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), as a means of delivering a known internal dose, on tissue biochemistry and histopathological lesions; then, subsequently, to compare the results with our previous work on aqueous and dietary exposures of rainbow trout to CNMs. Rainbow trout were injected in the caudal vein with corn oil dispersions of 200 μg (approximately 1 μg g -1 ) of either the fullerene C 60 , single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), or amorphous carbon black. After 96 h, injected fish were euthanized and tissue samples collected for biochemistry and histology. Histological examination of the kidney of fish injected intravenously indicated the presence of black material consistent with the injected carbon treatments. However, there were no additional lesions associated with CNM exposure compared to controls. There were also no significant changes in haematology, or ionoregulatory disturbance in blood plasma among the intravenously injected fish. Significant elevation in lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances TBARS) was detected only in kidney and spleen of fish injected with SWCNTs, but not the other carbon treatments. The elevated TBARS following injection contrasted with CNMs delivered via aqueous or dietary routes in our previous studies, suggesting that the latter exposure routes may not lead to absorption and toxicity in the internal tissues. Comparison of the effects of injected CNMs with aqueous and dietary CNMs exposures indicates that these materials are of

  6. Critical comparison of intravenous injection of TiO2 nanoparticles with waterborne and dietary exposures concludes minimal environmentally-relevant toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, David; Al-Bairuty, Genan A.; Henry, Theodore B.; Handy, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    A critical comparison of studies that have investigated tissue accumulation and toxicity of TiO 2 -NPs in fish is necessary to resolve inconsistencies. The present study used identical TiO 2 -NPs, toxicological endpoints, and fish (juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss) as previous studies that investigated waterborne and dietary toxicity of TiO 2 -NPs, and conducted a critical comparison of results after intravenous caudal-vein injection of 50 μg of TiO 2 -NPs and bulk TiO 2 . Injected TiO 2 -NPs accumulated only in kidney (94% of measured Ti) and to a lesser extent in spleen; and injected bulk TiO 2 was found only in kidney. No toxicity of TiO 2 was observed in kidney, spleen, or other tissues. Critical comparison of these data with previous studies indicates that dietary and waterborne exposures to TiO 2 -NPs do not lead to Ti accumulation in internal tissues, and previous reports of minor toxicity are inconsistent or attributable to respiratory distress resulting from gill occlusion during waterborne exposure. -- Highlights: •Critical comparison of TiO 2 -NP toxicity studies in rainbow trout. •No evidence of TiO 2 -NP absorption in internal tissues. •Conclude minimal environmentally relevant toxicity of TiO 2 -NPs in rainbow trout. -- Critical evaluation of directly comparable investigations of TiO 2 -NP toxicity by waterborne, dietary, and intravenous injection exposures conclude minimal toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout

  7. Individual protection of NPP personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshcheev, V.S.; Gol'dshtejn, D.S.; Chetverikova, Z.S.

    1983-01-01

    Specific features of NPP personnel individual protection are considered, mainly with respect to maintenance and repair works on various type reactors. The major concern is given to the selection and application reglamentations of the individual protection system (IPS), employment of sanitary locks, the organization of individual protection under the conditions of a heating microclimate. The ways are specified to the development and introduction of the most effective IPS and improvement of the entire NPP personnel individual protection system with respect to providing the necessary protection effect for maintaining high working capability of the personnel and minimizing the IPS impact on human organism functional systems. The accumulated experience in the personnel individual protection can be applied during construction and operation of NPP's in CMEA member-countries [ru

  8. Light exposure during storage preserving soluble sugar and l-ascorbic acid content of minimally processed romaine lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.var. longifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Lijuan; Hu, Jinqiang; Ai, Zhilu; Pang, Lingyun; Li, Yu; Zhu, Meiyun

    2013-01-01

    Minimally processed romaine lettuce (MPRL) leaves were stored in light condition (2500lux) or darkness at 4°C for 7d. Light exposure significantly delayed the degradation of chlorophyll and decrease of glucose, reducing sugar, and sucrose content, and thus preserved more total soluble solid (TSS) content at the end of storage in comparison with darkness. While, it did not influenced starch content that progressively decreased over time. The l-ascorbic acid (AA) accumulated in light-stored leaves, but deteriorated in dark-stored leaves during storage. The dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) increased in all leaves stored in both light and dark condition, of which light condition resulted in less DHA than darkness. In addition, the fresh weight loss and dry matter significantly increased and these increases were accelerated by light exposure. Conclusively, light exposure in applied intensity effectively alleviated MPRL quality deterioration by delaying the decreases of pigments, soluble sugar, TSS content and accumulating AA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Exposure to minimally processed pear and melon during shelf life could modify the pathogenic potential of Listeria monocytogenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colás-Medà, Pilar; Viñas, Inmaculada; Oliveira, Márcia; Anguera, Marina; Serrano, Jose C E; Abadias, Maribel

    2017-04-01

    Survival and virulence of foodborne pathogens can be influenced by environmental factors such as the intrinsic properties of food as well as the extrinsic properties that contribute to food shelf life (e.g., temperature and gas atmosphere). The direct contribution of food matrix characteristics on the survival of L. monocytogenes during fresh-cut fruit shelf life is not very well understood. In addition, the gastrointestinal tract is the primary route of listeriosis infection and penetration of the intestinal epithelial cell barrier is the first step in the infection process. Hence, the pathogenic potential of L. monocytogenes, measured as the capability for the organism to survive a simulated gastrointestinal tract and the proportion of cells able to subsequently adhere to and invade differentiated Caco-2 cells, subjected to fresh-cut pear and melon shelf life, was investigated. Samples were inoculated, stored at 10 °C for 7 days and evaluated after inoculation and again after 2 and 7 days of storage. A decrease in L. monocytogenes' capacity to survive a simulated gastrointestinal tract was observed with increasing storage time, regardless of the fruit matrix evaluated. Furthermore, L. monocytogenes placed on fresh-cut pear and melon was subjected to an attachment and invasion assay after crossing the simulated gastrointestinal tract. After inoculation, pathogen on fresh-cut pear showed 5-fold more capacity to adhere to Caco-2 cells than pathogen on fresh-cut melon. After 2 days of storage, L. monocytogenes grown on fresh-cut melon showed similar adhesive capacity (1.11%) than cells grown on pear (1.83%), but cells grown on melon had the higher invasive capacity (0.0093%). We can conclude that minimally processed melon could represent a more important hazard than pear under the studied shelf life. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Minimally invasive transcriptome profiling in salmon: Detection of biological response in rainbow trout caudal fin following exposure to environmental chemical contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Stevenson, Mitchel R. [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada); Skirrow, Rachel C. [Pacific and Yukon Laboratory for Environmental Testing, Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC V7H 1B1 (Canada); Rieberger, Kevin J. [Environmental Sustainability and Strategic Policy Division, Water Protection and Sustainability Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box 9362 Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M2 (Canada); Aggelen, Graham van [Pacific and Yukon Laboratory for Environmental Testing, Pacific Environmental Science Centre, Environment Canada, 2645 Dollarton Highway, North Vancouver, BC V7H 1B1 (Canada); Meays, Cynthia L. [Environmental Sustainability and Strategic Policy Division, Water Protection and Sustainability Branch, British Columbia Ministry of Environment, P.O. Box 9362 Stn Prov Govt, Victoria, BC V8W 9M2 (Canada); Helbing, Caren C., E-mail: chelbing@uvic.ca [Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 3055, STN CSC, Victoria, BC V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •A minimally-invasive tail fin biopsy assay was developed for use in fish. •Quantitative real time polymerase reaction provided gene expression readout. •Results were comparable to classical liver tissue responses. •The approach was used on two salmonid species and can be coupled with genomic sex determination using an additional biopsy for maximal information. -- Abstract: An increasing number of anthropogenic chemicals have demonstrated potential for disruption of biological processes critical to normal growth and development of wildlife species. Both anadromous and freshwater salmon species are at risk of exposure to environmental chemical contaminants that may affect migratory behavior, environmental fitness, and reproductive success. A sensitive metric in determination of the presence and impact of such environmental chemical contaminants is through detection of changes in the status of gene transcript levels using a targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Ideally, the wildlife assessment strategy would incorporate conservation-centered non-lethal practices. Herein, we describe the development of such an assay for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following an acute 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of either 17α-ethinyl estradiol or cadmium. The estrogenic screen included measurement of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor α and β isoforms, vitellogenin, vitelline envelope protein γ, cytochrome p450 family 19 subfamily A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the stress indicator, catalase. The metal exposure screen included evaluation of the latter two mRNA transcripts along with those encoding the metallothionein A and B isoforms. Exposure-dependent transcript abundance profiles were detected in both liver and caudal fin supporting the use of the caudal fin as a non-lethally obtained tissue source. The potential for both transcriptome profiling and genotypic sex determination from fin biopsy was extended, in

  11. Minimally invasive transcriptome profiling in salmon: Detection of biological response in rainbow trout caudal fin following exposure to environmental chemical contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Stevenson, Mitchel R.; Skirrow, Rachel C.; Rieberger, Kevin J.; Aggelen, Graham van; Meays, Cynthia L.; Helbing, Caren C.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •A minimally-invasive tail fin biopsy assay was developed for use in fish. •Quantitative real time polymerase reaction provided gene expression readout. •Results were comparable to classical liver tissue responses. •The approach was used on two salmonid species and can be coupled with genomic sex determination using an additional biopsy for maximal information. -- Abstract: An increasing number of anthropogenic chemicals have demonstrated potential for disruption of biological processes critical to normal growth and development of wildlife species. Both anadromous and freshwater salmon species are at risk of exposure to environmental chemical contaminants that may affect migratory behavior, environmental fitness, and reproductive success. A sensitive metric in determination of the presence and impact of such environmental chemical contaminants is through detection of changes in the status of gene transcript levels using a targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Ideally, the wildlife assessment strategy would incorporate conservation-centered non-lethal practices. Herein, we describe the development of such an assay for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following an acute 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of either 17α-ethinyl estradiol or cadmium. The estrogenic screen included measurement of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor α and β isoforms, vitellogenin, vitelline envelope protein γ, cytochrome p450 family 19 subfamily A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the stress indicator, catalase. The metal exposure screen included evaluation of the latter two mRNA transcripts along with those encoding the metallothionein A and B isoforms. Exposure-dependent transcript abundance profiles were detected in both liver and caudal fin supporting the use of the caudal fin as a non-lethally obtained tissue source. The potential for both transcriptome profiling and genotypic sex determination from fin biopsy was extended, in

  12. Radiation exposure of nurses in a coronary care unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankowski, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    In response to increasing awareness of radiation as a possible occupational hazard, nursing personnel staffing a hospital CCU were monitored over a 3-year period to determine occupational exposure. Portable x-ray machines, fluoroscopic units, and patients injected with radiopharmaceuticals were all potential radiation sources on such a unit. Whole-body TLD badges, exchanged monthly, indicated no cumulative exposures over 80 mR during the entire study period. The minimal exposures reported do not justify regular use of dosimeters. Adherence to standard protective measures precludes most exposure to machine-produced radiation. Close, prolonged contact with a patient after an RVG study that utilizes /sup 99m/Tc may account for some exposure. The data indicate that radiation is not a significant occupational hazard for CCU nurses at this hospital; similar minimal exposures would be expected of other nonoccupationally exposed nursing personnel in like environments

  13. Noise exposure and oxidative balance in auditory and extra-auditory structures in adult and developing animals. Pharmacological approaches aimed to minimize its effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, S J; Miceli, M; Guelman, L R

    2016-07-01

    Noise coming from urban traffic, household appliances or discotheques might be as hazardous to the health of exposed people as occupational noise, because may likewise cause hearing loss, changes in hormonal, cardiovascular and immune systems and behavioral alterations. Besides, noise can affect sleep, work performance and productivity as well as communication skills. Moreover, exposure to noise can trigger an oxidative imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activity of antioxidant enzymes in different structures, which can contribute to tissue damage. In this review we systematized the information from reports concerning noise effects on cell oxidative balance in different tissues, focusing on auditory and non-auditory structures. We paid specific attention to in vivo studies, including results obtained in adult and developing subjects. Finally, we discussed the pharmacological strategies tested by different authors aimed to minimize the damaging effects of noise on living beings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of minimal exposures to atmospheric pressure plasma on the activity of Salmonella Typhimurium: Deactivation of bacterial motility and suppression of host-cell invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Sung; Kim, Kijung; Han, Je-Hyun; Gweon, Bomi; Ko, Ung Hyun; Yoo, Suk Jae; Choe, Wonho; Shin, Jennifer H

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) has been shown effective in sterilization by reducing the number of viable microbes during surface cleaning, food processing, or human tissue treatment. For safe conduct, the majority of previous research focused on complete abolition of microbes, which may require severe treatments. Our aim is to investigate the minimal treatment conditions necessary for effective inactivation of bacteria in such a manner that the APP treated bacteria would not be able to harm the host cells. For this, we ought to identify the objective criteria to make the bacteria dysfunctional. We choose the motile properties and the host-cell invasion capability as two measures to quantify the pathogenic state of bacteria. In this paper, we investigated how the APP treatment in a minimal dosage affects the activity of Salmonella Typhimurium. At 100 W and 15 kHz for 20 s, the APP treatment effectively suppressed active "run and tumble" type motility and induced formation of abnormally long structures. With 20 s exposure, the bacterial cells failed to cause pyroptosis in the host cells with >90% survival after 12 h of co-incubation. Our results suggest novel measures to evaluate the functional pathogenic state for identifying safe APP treatment conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Personnel monitoring for beta rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piesch, E.; Johns, T.F.

    1983-01-01

    The practical considerations which have to be taken into account in the design of personnel monitors intended to measure doses resulting from exposure to beta rays are discussed. These include the measurement of doses in situations involving either fairly uniform or non-uniform irradiation and of doses to the male gonads. (UK)

  16. Effects of human performance methods of the radiation exposure of the task personnel during the inspection of steam generator heat tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkes, Bernd; Bienentreu, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Westinghouse has implemented the so called human performance philosophy for specific scopes of work. Human performance is supposed to establish and support personnel behavior aimed to a safe and reliable operation of the plant. The overall goal is the prevention of errors. Every action deviating from the expected behavior is defined as an error, independent of the consequences. The accident statistics has shown that every severe accident was preceded by hundreds of events without consequences. The implementation of these techniques is demonstrated using the process of steam generator heat tube inspection. According to the ALARA principle a lot of effort was concentrated on dose reduction for the personnel, including constructive (improved testing probes, improved manipulator, etc.) and administrative measures.

  17. Minimal surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Sauvigny, Friedrich; Jakob, Ruben; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    Minimal Surfaces is the first volume of a three volume treatise on minimal surfaces (Grundlehren Nr. 339-341). Each volume can be read and studied independently of the others. The central theme is boundary value problems for minimal surfaces. The treatise is a substantially revised and extended version of the monograph Minimal Surfaces I, II (Grundlehren Nr. 295 & 296). The first volume begins with an exposition of basic ideas of the theory of surfaces in three-dimensional Euclidean space, followed by an introduction of minimal surfaces as stationary points of area, or equivalently

  18. Minimally invasive orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, Cory M; Kaban, Leonard B; Troulis, Maria J

    2009-02-01

    Minimally invasive surgery is defined as the discipline in which operative procedures are performed in novel ways to diminish the sequelae of standard surgical dissections. The goals of minimally invasive surgery are to reduce tissue trauma and to minimize bleeding, edema, and injury, thereby improving the rate and quality of healing. In orthognathic surgery, there are two minimally invasive techniques that can be used separately or in combination: (1) endoscopic exposure and (2) distraction osteogenesis. This article describes the historical developments of the fields of orthognathic surgery and minimally invasive surgery, as well as the integration of the two disciplines. Indications, techniques, and the most current outcome data for specific minimally invasive orthognathic surgical procedures are presented.

  19. Annual course of retraining for the occupational exposure personnel of the laboratory of internal dosimetry; Curso anual de reentrenamiento para el POE del laboratorio de dosimetria interna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alfaro L, M.M. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2002-09-15

    The general objective of this report is to instruct the personnel in the basic concepts of radiological protection and in the Manual of Procedures of Radiological Safety of the Laboratory of Internal Dosimetry. Also, to exchange experiences during the activities that are carried out in the laboratory and in the knowledge of abnormal situations. The referred Manual consists of 14 procedures and 5 instructions which are listed in annex of this document. The content of this course consists of three topics: 1. Basic principles of radiological protection to reduce the received dose equivalent. 2. Use of radiation measurer equipment. 3. Emergency procedures of the laboratory of internal dosimetry. (Author)

  20. Comparison of minimally invasive surgical skills of neurosurgeons versus general surgeons: is there a difference in the first exposure to a virtual reality simulator?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, I; Bin Dayne, K; Kappus, C; Gerdes, B; Rothmund, M; Hellwig, D

    2007-04-01

    The increasing use of minimally invasive surgery, which has a longer learning curve compared to open surgery lets the necessity to develop training programs to improve endoscopic skills of trainees become ever clearer. The aim of this study was to compare the endoscopic skills of neurosurgeons versus general surgeons at first exposure to a virtual reality simulator. 72 general surgeons who visited the 122nd Conference of the German Surgeons Society (DGCH in Munich 2005) and 35 neuroendoscopic surgeons, who visited the Third World Conference of the International Study Group of Neuroendoscopy (ISGNE in Marburg 2005) participated in this study. Each participant performed the basic module "clip application" on the virtual reality simulator (LapSim). All participants were given the same pretest instructions. Time to complete the task, error score and economy of motion were recorded. The general surgeons performed the clip application faster, but with more errors than neuroendoscopic surgeons. However, the difference of both parameters was not significant. Both surgeon groups have a similar score for economy of motion. Although neuroendoscopic surgeons were exposed to a foreign procedure and unfamiliar equipment, they were able to perform virtual endoscopy with similar accuracy as general surgeons, who are adapted to these endoscopic instruments and procedures and do these daily.

  1. An Epidemiologic Investigation of Health Effects in Air Force Personnel Following Exposure to Herbicides. Volume I: 1997 Follow-up Examination Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michalek, J

    2000-01-01

    ... attributable to exposure to herbicides exist in veterans of Operation Ranch Hand Operation. Ranch Hand was the unit responsible for the aerial spraying of herbicides, including Herbicide Orange, in Vietnam from 1961 to 1971...

  2. Personnel training and certification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whittemore, W.L.

    1976-01-01

    In order to make the full benefits of neutron radiography available in the nondestructive test (NDT) field, it has been necessary to formalize its application. A group under the Penetrating Radiation Committee of the American Society for Nondestructive Testing (ASNT) was organized to prepare a recommended practice for neutron radiography. The recommended practices require the establishment of an appropriate certification program. The requirements on the employer to establish and maintain a qualification and certification program are outlined. To conduct a program of nondestructive testing using neutron radiography requires the usual three levels of qualified and certified personnel. The program is administered by a Level III person. Routine exposure, reviews, and reporting of test results are the responsibilities of Level I and Level II personnal. The amount of training and nature of the required practical examination are also specified. The recommended practices document assures users that NDT work in the field of neutron radiography is performed by qualified personnel. Although no training courses are available to provide experience in the depth required by the recommended practices document, SNT-TC-1A, short courses are provided at a number of locations to familarize user's representatives with the interpretation of neutron radiographs and capabilities and limitations of the technique

  3. Practical methods for exposure control/management at nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twiggs, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Exposure management/reduction is very important to Duke Power Company. Practical exposure control/reduction techniques applied to their reactor vessel head disassembly outage activity have consistently reduced personnel exposure for this task. The following exposure control methods have worked for use and will be the industry's direction for the 1990's. A summary of these methods includes: (a) move the responsibility of exposure management from the Radiation Protection group to the Maintenance group; (b) reduce area source term by removal of source; (c) improve working environments in radiation areas by minimizing protective clothing usage; and (d) maximize the use of electronic instruments to allow remote monitoring

  4. Cytogenic Investigations in Flight Personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, G.; Obe, G.; Bergau, L.

    1999-01-01

    During long-distance flights at high altitudes flight personnel are exposed to cosmic radiation. In order to determine whether there are biological effects of such low dose radiation exposure in aircrew, chromosomal aberrations were investigated in 59 female cabin attendants and a matched control group of 31 members of station personnel. The mean number of dicentric chromosomes amounts to 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.6) per 1,000 cells in cabin attendants and 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-1.9) per 1,000 cells in controls. In an additional control group of 56 female clerks from Berlin the mean frequency of dicentric chromosomes was 1.3 (95% CI 1.0-1.6). Neither in dicentric frequency and distribution nor in other aberrations was a significant difference between the groups of flight and station personnel found. The high frequency of multi-aberrant cells was remarkable in flight personnel as well as in station personnel. The reason for this phenomenon is unknown and needs further investigation. (author)

  5. Minimizing Surface Exposure to Climate Extremity in Coastal Megacities by Structure Remodelling using Integral Geographic Information System: Lessons from Greater Mumbai Metropolitan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A.

    2016-12-01

    Coastal metropolitans in South Asia represent the most densely populated and congested urban spaces ranking among the largest urban settlements of the planet. These megacities are characterized by inadequate infrastructure, lack of mitigation tools, and weak resilience of urban ecosystems. Additionally, climate change has increased vulnerability of poor and marginalized population living in rapidly growing coastal megacities to increased frequency, severity and intensity of extreme weather events. This has adversely affected local counter strategies and adaptation tools, transforming such events into hazards with the inability to respond and mitigate. Study aimed to develop a participatory framework for risk reduction in Greater Mumbai Metropolitan by Structure Remodeling (SR) in integral GIS. Research utilized terrain analysis tools and vulnerability mapping, and identified risk susceptible fabric and checked its scope for SR without: 1.adding to its (often) complex fragmentation, and 2.without interference with the ecosystem services accommodated by it. Surfaces available included paved ground, streetscapes commercial facades, rooftops,public spaces, open as well as dark spaces. Remodeling altered certain characteristics in the intrinsic or extrinsic cross-section profile or in both (if suitable) with infrastructure measures (grey, green, blue) that collectively involved ecosystem services and maintained natural hydrological connection. This method fairly reduced exposure of vulnerable surface and minimized risk to achieve extremity-neutral state. Harmonizing with public perception and incorporating priorities of local authorities, the method is significant as it rises above the fundamental challenges arising during management of (often) conflicting perspectives and interests of multiplicity of stakeholders involved at various levels in urban climate governance while ensuring inclusive solutions with reduced vulnerability and increased resilience. Additionally

  6. Personnel monitoring system by thermoluminescence dosimeter - a study and review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyer, V.S.; Alok, M.; Chandel, B.S.

    2018-01-01

    The principle objective of personnel monitoring system is to prevent overexposure and avoid unnecessary exposure of personnel working with various sources of radiation. The adequate system of personnel monitoring must provide for the measurement. evaluation and recording of significant doses accumulated by individuals together with a recording of conditions under which these doses are received

  7. Modern methods of personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraus, W.; Herrmann, D.; Kiesewetter, W.

    The physical properties of radiation detectors for personnel dosimetry are described and compared. The suitability of different types of dosimeters for operational and central monitoring of normal occupational exposure, for accident and catastrophe dosimetry and for background and space-flight dosimetry is discussed. The difficulties in interpreting the dosimeter reading with respect to the dose in individual body organs are discussed briefly. 430 literature citations (up to Spring 1966) are given

  8. A Decade of War: Prospective Trajectories of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Among Deployed US Military Personnel and the Influence of Combat Exposure (Publisher’s Version)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-27

    physical health (5) of service mem- bers. In addition, previous research indicates that exposure to combat may increase the likelihood of negative health ... physical , and behavioral health , studies have shown few negative effects of deployment with respect to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (10...American Journal of Epidemiology Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2017. This

  9. Neutron personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1981-01-01

    The current state-of-the-art in neutron personnel dosimetry is reviewed. Topics covered include dosimetry needs and alternatives, current dosimetry approaches, personnel monitoring devices, calibration strategies, and future developments

  10. Personnel Monitoring Department - DEMIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The activities and purposes of the Personnel Monitoring Dept. of the Institute of Radioprotection and Dosimetry of the Brazilian CNEN are presented. A summary of the personnel monitoring service is given, such as dosemeters supply, laboratorial inspections, and so on. The programs of working, publishing, courses and personnel interchange are also presented. (J.A.M.M.)

  11. School Personnel Responses to Children Exposed to Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenemore, Thomas; Lynch, John; Mann, Kimberly; Steinhaus, Patricia; Thompson, Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Authors explored the experiences of school personnel in their responses to children's exposure to violence. Thirty-one school personnel, including administrators, teachers, counselors, school social workers, and psychologists, were interviewed to obtain data on their experiences related to violence exposure in their schools and the surrounding…

  12. Radiation exposure to personnel involved in bone scans for horses with technetium 99m-diphosphonat; Strahlenexposition des Personals bei der Skelettszintigrafie mit Technetium-99m-Diphosphonat beim Pferd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sommerfeld, Theresa Christine

    2016-07-01

    Key objective of this study has been the evaluation of radiation exposure of veterinarian personnel wearing dosimeters which were involved in equine scintigraphy. A survey, which was developed in parallel to this study, showed that personnel in equine horse clinics have often knowledge gaps about scintigraphy and the related radiation doses. The survey showed skepticism of the involved personnel towards the methods of bone scintigraphy as the impacts of expositions are barely known in common. The scintigraphic investigations and measurements were done at the horse clinic (department of surgery) in Giessen and were part of the routinely bone scanning of horses. A total of 33 bone scans were taken, covering either full- or half-body scintigraphies. Additional 10 bone scans covered measurements with and without the protection of a 0,5 mm lead-shield. The activity of involved personnel was monitored at four different positions: MP1 was associated with the position of the person preparing the radiopharmaceutical for injection, MP2 with the position at holding the horse during the bone scan, MP3 with the position at holding the horse's legs and to make sure that the horse was standing in the right position, MP4 with the position for the camera operator. Some more dose measurements were made from the horse body (MP5 and MP6) as well as in the control area (MP7). In order to analyze the patient's constitution, additional data like weight, size, body extent and length of the torso were additionally captured. The body data were collected to investigate exposure differences of rather big and heavy or small and thin horses. These data and the dosimeter at the horse body (MP5) enabled the correlation analysis between the horse body composition and the received dose rate of the personnel (MP2). MP1 received a mean dose of 11 μSv and a dose rate of 123 μSv/h, MP2 received 31 μSv for a whole-body and 23 μSv for a half-body bone scan. The dose rate of MP2 was 22

  13. Personnel preferences in personnel planning and scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    van der Veen, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    Summary The personnel of an organization often has two conflicting goals. Individual employees like to have a good work-life balance, by having personal preferences taken into account, whereas there is also the common goal to work efficiently. By applying techniques and methods from Operations Research, a subfield of applied mathematics, we show that operational efficiency can be achieved while taking personnel preferences into account. In the design of optimization methods, we explicitly con...

  14. Neutron personnel dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.

    1982-01-01

    The measurement of neutron exposures to personnel is an issue that has received increased attention in the last few years. It is important to consider key aspects of the whole dosimetry system when developing dose estimates. This begins with selection of proper dosimeters and survey instruments, and extends through the calibration methods. One must match the spectral response and sensitivity of the dosimeter to the spectral characteristics of the neutron fields. Threshold detectors that are insensitive to large fractions of neutrons in the lower energy portion of reactor spectra should be avoided. Use of two or more detectors with responses that complement each other will improve measurement quality. It is important to understand the spectral response of survey instruments, so that spectra which result in significant overresponse do not lead to overestimation of dose. Calibration sources that do not match operational field spectra can contribute to highly erroneous results. In those situations, in-field calibration techniques should be employed. Although some detection developments have been made in recent years, a lot can be done with existing technology until fully satisfactory, long term solutions are obtained

  15. Taxonomic minimalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattle, A J; Oliver, I

    1994-12-01

    Biological surveys are in increasing demand while taxonomic resources continue to decline. How much formal taxonomy is required to get the job done? The answer depends on the kind of job but it is possible that taxonomic minimalism, especially (1) the use of higher taxonomic ranks, (2) the use of morphospecies rather than species (as identified by Latin binomials), and (3) the involvement of taxonomic specialists only for training and verification, may offer advantages for biodiversity assessment, environmental monitoring and ecological research. As such, formal taxonomy remains central to the process of biological inventory and survey but resources may be allocated more efficiently. For example, if formal Identification is not required, resources may be concentrated on replication and increasing sample sizes. Taxonomic minimalism may also facilitate the inclusion in these activities of important but neglected groups, especially among the invertebrates, and perhaps even microorganisms. Copyright © 1994. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Personnel preferences in personnel planning and scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    Summary The personnel of an organization often has two conflicting goals. Individual employees like to have a good work-life balance, by having personal preferences taken into account, whereas there is also the common goal to work efficiently. By applying techniques and methods from Operations

  17. Evaluation of conditions of radiation protection of medical personnel in intracavitary neutron therapy of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostromina, K.N.; Korenkov, I.P.; Bocharov, A.L.; Gladkikh, N.N.

    1991-01-01

    Combined radiation therapy was provided to cervical cancer patients. Working conditions of personnel were examined, the rate of exposure doses and flows of neutrons at working places were measured, dose exposures of the personnel were evaluated. It has been concluded that occupational conditions for the medical personnel are considered to be relatively safe

  18. Minimizing TLD-DRD differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, D.L.; McCoy, R.A.; Connell, W.D.

    1987-01-01

    When substantial differences exist in exposures recorded by TLD's and DRD's, it is often necessary to perform an exposure investigation to reconcile the difference. In working with several operating plants, the authors have observed a number of causes for these differences. This paper outlines these observations and discusses procedures that can be used to minimize them

  19. Personnel Policy and Profit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingley, Paul; Westergård-Nielsen, Niels Chr.

    2004-01-01

    personnel structure variation. It is found that personnel policy is strongly related to economic performance. At the margin, more hires are associated with lower profit, and more separations with higher profit. For the average firm, one new job, all else equal, is associated with ?2680 (2000 prices) lower...

  20. Minimally invasive transcriptome profiling in salmon: detection of biological response in rainbow trout caudal fin following exposure to environmental chemical contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldhoen, Nik; Stevenson, Mitchel R; Skirrow, Rachel C; Rieberger, Kevin J; van Aggelen, Graham; Meays, Cynthia L; Helbing, Caren C

    2013-10-15

    An increasing number of anthropogenic chemicals have demonstrated potential for disruption of biological processes critical to normal growth and development of wildlife species. Both anadromous and freshwater salmon species are at risk of exposure to environmental chemical contaminants that may affect migratory behavior, environmental fitness, and reproductive success. A sensitive metric in determination of the presence and impact of such environmental chemical contaminants is through detection of changes in the status of gene transcript levels using a targeted quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Ideally, the wildlife assessment strategy would incorporate conservation-centered non-lethal practices. Herein, we describe the development of such an assay for rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, following an acute 96 h exposure to increasing concentrations of either 17α-ethinyl estradiol or cadmium. The estrogenic screen included measurement of mRNA encoding estrogen receptor α and β isoforms, vitellogenin, vitelline envelope protein γ, cytochrome p450 family 19 subfamily A, aryl hydrocarbon receptor, and the stress indicator, catalase. The metal exposure screen included evaluation of the latter two mRNA transcripts along with those encoding the metallothionein A and B isoforms. Exposure-dependent transcript abundance profiles were detected in both liver and caudal fin supporting the use of the caudal fin as a non-lethally obtained tissue source. The potential for both transcriptome profiling and genotypic sex determination from fin biopsy was extended, in principle, to field-captured Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Training of nonlicensed personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetrick, D.E.

    1975-01-01

    The safety and efficiency with which a station operates is a function of the competence and proficiency of all personnel. This includes the nonlicensed personnel who make up the bulk of the station staff. Thus the training of these members of the station complement is an important function in overall station performance. Standards, regulations, regulatory guides, and codes provide guidance to the training requirements for such personnel. Training needs and objectives must be established, a plan prepared and then all incorporated into a training program. A well planned and operated training program will stimulate effective communications between the different groups within the station and between the station and off site support groups

  2. The effect of prolonged exposure to war-related stress among hospital personnel with different affect types: lessons from the Second Lebanon War and the Gaza "Cast Lead" operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palgi, Yuval; Ben-Ezra, Menachem; Shrira, Amit

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined peritraumatic symptoms due to war-related stress among hospital personnel with different affect types. In Study 1, we examined 80 Israeli hospital personnel during the period they were exposed to frequent missile attacks in the Second Lebanon War. In Study 2, we examined 67 and 74 Israeli hospital personnel during the time they were exposed and were not exposed, respectively, to missile attacks in the Gaza "Cast Lead" operation. In both studies, hospital personnel completed measures of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms as well as of positive- and negative-affect items (PA and NA, respectively). Exposed personnel with a positive congruent (high PA and low NA) or a deflated incongruent (low PA and low NA) affective types had a lower level of peritraumatic symptoms compared to those with a negative congruent (low PA and high NA) or an inflated incongruent (high PA and NA) affective types. Study 2 further showed that among non-exposed personnel, only personnel with a negative congruent affective type had a higher level of peritraumatic symptoms compared to personnel with other affective types. Clinical implications and required future studies are discussed.

  3. The Minimal and Short-Lived Effects of Minority Language Exposure on the Executive Functions of Frisian-Dutch Bilingual Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Evelyn; Hoekstra, Eric; Versloot, Arjen; Blom, Elma

    2017-01-01

    Various studies have shown that bilingual children need a certain degree of proficiency in both languages before their bilingual experiences enhance their executive functioning (EF). In the current study, we investigated if degree of bilingualism in Frisian-Dutch children influenced EF and if this effect was sustained over a 3-year period. To this end, longitudinal data were analyzed from 120 Frisian-Dutch bilingual children who were 5- or 6-years-old at the first time of testing. EF was measured with two attention and two working memory tasks. Degree of bilingualism was defined as language balance based on receptive vocabulary and expressive morphology scores in both languages. In a context with a minority and a majority language, such as the Frisian-Dutch context, chances for becoming proficient in both languages are best for children who speak the minority language at home. Therefore, in a subsequent analysis, we examined whether minority language exposure predicted language balance and whether there was a relationship between minority language exposure and EF, mediated by language balance. The results showed that intensity of exposure to Frisian at home, mediated by language balance, had an impact on one of the attention tasks only. It predicted performance on this task at time 1, but not at time 2 and 3. This partially confirms previous evidence that the cognitive effects of bilingualism are moderated by degree of bilingualism and furthermore reveals that substantial minority language exposure at home indirectly affects bilingual children's cognitive development, namely through mediation with degree of bilingualism. However, the findings also demonstrate that the effect of bilingualism on EF is limited and unstable.

  4. The Minimal and Short-Lived Effects of Minority Language Exposure on the Executive Functions of Frisian-Dutch Bilingual Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyn Bosma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Various studies have shown that bilingual children need a certain degree of proficiency in both languages before their bilingual experiences enhance their executive functioning (EF. In the current study, we investigated if degree of bilingualism in Frisian-Dutch children influenced EF and if this effect was sustained over a 3-year period. To this end, longitudinal data were analyzed from 120 Frisian-Dutch bilingual children who were 5- or 6-years-old at the first time of testing. EF was measured with two attention and two working memory tasks. Degree of bilingualism was defined as language balance based on receptive vocabulary and expressive morphology scores in both languages. In a context with a minority and a majority language, such as the Frisian-Dutch context, chances for becoming proficient in both languages are best for children who speak the minority language at home. Therefore, in a subsequent analysis, we examined whether minority language exposure predicted language balance and whether there was a relationship between minority language exposure and EF, mediated by language balance. The results showed that intensity of exposure to Frisian at home, mediated by language balance, had an impact on one of the attention tasks only. It predicted performance on this task at time 1, but not at time 2 and 3. This partially confirms previous evidence that the cognitive effects of bilingualism are moderated by degree of bilingualism and furthermore reveals that substantial minority language exposure at home indirectly affects bilingual children’s cognitive development, namely through mediation with degree of bilingualism. However, the findings also demonstrate that the effect of bilingualism on EF is limited and unstable.

  5. The Minimal and Short-Lived Effects of Minority Language Exposure on the Executive Functions of Frisian-Dutch Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosma, Evelyn; Hoekstra, Eric; Versloot, Arjen; Blom, Elma

    2017-01-01

    Various studies have shown that bilingual children need a certain degree of proficiency in both languages before their bilingual experiences enhance their executive functioning (EF). In the current study, we investigated if degree of bilingualism in Frisian-Dutch children influenced EF and if this effect was sustained over a 3-year period. To this end, longitudinal data were analyzed from 120 Frisian-Dutch bilingual children who were 5- or 6-years-old at the first time of testing. EF was measured with two attention and two working memory tasks. Degree of bilingualism was defined as language balance based on receptive vocabulary and expressive morphology scores in both languages. In a context with a minority and a majority language, such as the Frisian-Dutch context, chances for becoming proficient in both languages are best for children who speak the minority language at home. Therefore, in a subsequent analysis, we examined whether minority language exposure predicted language balance and whether there was a relationship between minority language exposure and EF, mediated by language balance. The results showed that intensity of exposure to Frisian at home, mediated by language balance, had an impact on one of the attention tasks only. It predicted performance on this task at time 1, but not at time 2 and 3. This partially confirms previous evidence that the cognitive effects of bilingualism are moderated by degree of bilingualism and furthermore reveals that substantial minority language exposure at home indirectly affects bilingual children’s cognitive development, namely through mediation with degree of bilingualism. However, the findings also demonstrate that the effect of bilingualism on EF is limited and unstable. PMID:28900405

  6. Brief Exposures to the Taste of Ethanol (EtOH) and Quinine Promote Subsequent Acceptance of EtOH in a Paradigm that Minimizes Postingestive Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loney, Gregory C; Meyer, Paul J

    2018-03-01

    Aversion to the orosensory properties of concentrated ethanol (EtOH) solutions is often cited as a primary barrier to initiation of drinking and may contribute to abstention. These aversive properties include gustatory processes which encompass both bitter-like taste qualities and trigeminal-mediated irritation. Chronic intermittent EtOH access (CIA) results in substantial and persistent increases in EtOH consumption, but the degree to which this facilitation involves sensory responding to EtOH and other bitter stimuli is currently undetermined. Long-Evans rats were given brief-access licking tests designed to examine the immediate, taste-guided assessment of the palatability of EtOH and quinine solutions. Rats were assessed once in a naïve state and again following previous brief-access exposure, or following 4 weeks of CIA. The relationship between the sensitivity to the aversive orosensory properties of EtOH and quinine following EtOH access and the impact of antecedent quinine exposure on the acceptance of EtOH were determined in 2 parallel studies. Both brief access to EtOH and 4-week CIA resulted in substantial rightward shifts in the concentration-response function of brief-access EtOH licking, indicating that EtOH exposure increased acceptance of the taste of EtOH. The initial sensitivity to the aversive orosensory properties of EtOH and quinine was positively correlated in naïve rats, such that rats that were initially more accepting of quinine were also more accepting of EtOH. Rats that sampled quinine immediately prior to tasting EtOH exhibited successive positive contrast in that they were more accepting of highly concentrated EtOH, relative to a water-control group. Increased EtOH acceptance following exposure is, at least in part, facilitated by a decrease in its aversive sensory properties. Both long- and short-term access increase the palatability of the taste of EtOH in brief-access licking tests. Moreover, the sensitivity to the bitterness of

  7. Civilian Personnel: Career Management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2001-01-01

    This revision; (1) Contains changes required by the establishment of a consolidated and realigned management structure for civilian personnel, manpower, and related functions in the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Army...

  8. Personnel neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, D.

    1982-04-01

    This edited transcript of a presentation on personnel neutron discusses the accuracy of present dosimetry practices, requirements, calibration, dosemeter types, quality factors, operational problems, and dosimetry for a criticality accident. 32 figs

  9. Personnel radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The book contains the 21 technical papers presented at the Technical Committee Meeting to Elaborate Procedures and Data for the Intercomparison of Personnel Dosimeters organizaed by the IAEA on 22-26 April 1985. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers. A list of areas in which additional research and development work is needed and recommendations for an IAEA-sponsored intercomparison program on personnel dosimetry is also included

  10. Predictors of workplace violence among ambulance personnel : A longitudinal study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Velden, Peter; Bosmans, Mark; van der Meulen, Erik

    Abstract Aim To examine predictors of repeated confrontations with workplace violence among ambulance personnel, the proportion of exposure to potentially traumatic events that are aggression-related and to what extent personnel was able to prevent escalations. Although previous research assessed

  11. The mRNA expression and histological integrity in rat forebrain motor and sensory regions are minimally affected by acrylamide exposure through drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowyer, John F.; Latendresse, John R.; Delongchamp, Robert R.; Warbritton, Alan R.; Thomas, Monzy; Divine, Becky; Doerge, Daniel R.

    2009-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether alterations in the gene expression or overt histological signs of neurotoxicity in selected regions of the forebrain might occur from acrylamide exposure via drinking water. Gene expression at the mRNA level was evaluated by cDNA array and/or RT-PCR analysis in the striatum, substantia nigra and parietal cortex of rat after a 2-week acrylamide exposure. The highest dose tested (maximally tolerated) of approximately 44 mg/kg/day resulted in a significant decreased body weight, sluggishness, and locomotor activity reduction. These physiological effects were not accompanied by prominent changes in gene expression in the forebrain. All the expression changes seen in the 1200 genes that were evaluated in the three brain regions were ≤ 1.5-fold, and most not significant. Very few, if any, statistically significant changes were seen in mRNA levels of the more than 50 genes directly related to the cholinergic, noradrenergic, GABAergic or glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems in the striatum, substantia nigra or parietal cortex. All the expression changes observed in genes related to dopaminergic function were less than 1.5-fold and not statistically significant and the 5HT1b receptor was the only serotonin-related gene affected. Therefore, gene expression changes were few and modest in basal ganglia and sensory cortex at a time when the behavioral manifestations of acrylamide toxicity had become prominent. No histological evidence of axonal, dendritic or neuronal cell body damage was found in the forebrain due to the acrylamide exposure. As well, microglial activation was not present. These findings are consistent with the absence of expression changes in genes related to changes in neuroinflammation or neurotoxicity. Over all, these data suggest that oral ingestion of acrylamide in drinking water or food, even at maximally tolerable levels, induced neither marked changes in gene expression nor neurotoxicity in the motor and

  12. Investigation of the radiological impact due to the dredging of sediments in the Minimes harbour of La Rochelle. Workers and population exposure to reinforced natural radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    As the city of La Rochelle is implementing a project of expansion of the Minimes yachting harbour which comprises the dredging of sediments (which may have been polluted by a rare earth production plant), this document reports the assessment of the radiological impact of this dredging activity on workers and on the population. A campaign of sediment coring has been performed in order to validate the reference coring station selection, to measure sand radiological activity and to measure the activity of the sediments to be dredged. The computed maximum efficient doses for the workers and for the population appear to be low, and very much less to the 1 mSv/year threshold

  13. Education and training for security personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chida, Toshiya

    2015-01-01

    It is said that Physical Protection (PP) has two purposes. One is to prevent from occurring risks of threat and terrorism and the other is to minimize damages which will be happened in case of unusual conditions or emergency situation. To achieve this goal, personnel who perform their duties should have professional knowledge and skills concerning security. However, since newcomers rarely satisfy their knowledge and skill for nuclear security in most cases. Therefore, we have to provide adequate education and training after they joined to our company. To this end, our company, located in Aomori Prefecture focused on security and physical protection for nuclear related facilities. In this paper, personnel training and challenges in order to bring up security personnel at our company will be introduced. (author)

  14. Personnel Safety for Future Magnetic Fusion Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee Cadwallader

    2009-07-01

    The safety of personnel at existing fusion experiments is an important concern that requires diligence. Looking to the future, fusion experiments will continue to increase in power and operating time until steady state power plants are achieved; this causes increased concern for personnel safety. This paper addresses four important aspects of personnel safety in the present and extrapolates these aspects to future power plants. The four aspects are personnel exposure to ionizing radiation, chemicals, magnetic fields, and radiofrequency (RF) energy. Ionizing radiation safety is treated well for present and near-term experiments by the use of proven techniques from other nuclear endeavors. There is documentation that suggests decreasing the annual ionizing radiation exposure limits that have remained constant for several decades. Many chemicals are used in fusion research, for parts cleaning, as use as coolants, cooling water cleanliness control, lubrication, and other needs. In present fusion experiments, a typical chemical laboratory safety program, such as those instituted in most industrialized countries, is effective in protecting personnel from chemical exposures. As fusion facilities grow in complexity, the chemical safety program must transition from a laboratory scale to an industrial scale program that addresses chemical use in larger quantity. It is also noted that allowable chemical exposure concentrations for workers have decreased over time and, in some cases, now pose more stringent exposure limits than those for ionizing radiation. Allowable chemical exposure concentrations have been the fastest changing occupational exposure values in the last thirty years. The trend of more restrictive chemical exposure regulations is expected to continue into the future. Other issues of safety importance are magnetic field exposure and RF energy exposure. Magnetic field exposure limits are consensus values adopted as best practices for worker safety; a typical

  15. Personnel Safety for Future Magnetic Fusion Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, Lee

    2009-01-01

    The safety of personnel at existing fusion experiments is an important concern that requires diligence. Looking to the future, fusion experiments will continue to increase in power and operating time until steady state power plants are achieved; this causes increased concern for personnel safety. This paper addresses four important aspects of personnel safety in the present and extrapolates these aspects to future power plants. The four aspects are personnel exposure to ionizing radiation, chemicals, magnetic fields, and radiofrequency (RF) energy. Ionizing radiation safety is treated well for present and near-term experiments by the use of proven techniques from other nuclear endeavors. There is documentation that suggests decreasing the annual ionizing radiation exposure limits that have remained constant for several decades. Many chemicals are used in fusion research, for parts cleaning, as use as coolants, cooling water cleanliness control, lubrication, and other needs. In present fusion experiments, a typical chemical laboratory safety program, such as those instituted in most industrialized countries, is effective in protecting personnel from chemical exposures. As fusion facilities grow in complexity, the chemical safety program must transition from a laboratory scale to an industrial scale program that addresses chemical use in larger quantity. It is also noted that allowable chemical exposure concentrations for workers have decreased over time and, in some cases, now pose more stringent exposure limits than those for ionizing radiation. Allowable chemical exposure concentrations have been the fastest changing occupational exposure values in the last thirty years. The trend of more restrictive chemical exposure regulations is expected to continue into the future. Other issues of safety importance are magnetic field exposure and RF energy exposure. Magnetic field exposure limits are consensus values adopted as best practices for worker safety; a typical

  16. Turkish Final Year Medical Students' Exposure to and Attitudes Concerning Drug Company Interactions: A Perspective from a Minimally Regulated Environment for Medical Students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazim Ercument Beyhun

    Full Text Available Interactions between drug companies and medical students may affect evidence-based medical practice and patient safety. The aim of this study was to assess drug company-medical student interactions in a medical faculty where limited specific national or institutional regulations apply between drug companies and medical students. The objectives of the study were to determine the exposure and attitudes of final year medical students in terms of drug company-medical student and physician interactions, to identify factors affecting those attitudes and to provide data for policymakers working on the regulation of interactions between drug companies and medical students. This anonymous questionnaire-based study of 154 medical final year medical students at the Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey, in April and May 2015 attracted a response rate of 92.2% (n/N, 154/164. Exposure to interaction with a pharmaceutical representative was reported by 90.3% (139/154 of students, and 68.8% (106/154 reported experiencing such interaction alongside a resident. In addition, 83.7% (128/153 of students reported an interaction during internship. Furthermore, 69.9% (107/153 of students agreed that interactions influence physicians' prescription preferences, while 33.1% (51/154 thought that a medical student should never accept a gift from a drug company and 24.7% (38/154 agreed with the proposition that "drug companies should not hold activities in medical faculties". Students with rational prescription training expressed greater agreement with the statement "I am skeptical concerning the information provided by drug companies during interactions" than those who had not received such training, and this finding was supported by logistic regression [O.R.(C.I, p -3.7(1.2-11.5, p = 0.022]. Acceptance of advertisement brochures was found to significantly reduce the level of agreement with the proposition that "A physician should not accept any

  17. Turkish Final Year Medical Students’ Exposure to and Attitudes Concerning Drug Company Interactions: A Perspective from a Minimally Regulated Environment for Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyhun, Nazim Ercument; Kolayli, Cevriye Ceyda; Can, Gamze; Topbas, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between drug companies and medical students may affect evidence-based medical practice and patient safety. The aim of this study was to assess drug company–medical student interactions in a medical faculty where limited specific national or institutional regulations apply between drug companies and medical students. The objectives of the study were to determine the exposure and attitudes of final year medical students in terms of drug company–medical student and physician interactions, to identify factors affecting those attitudes and to provide data for policymakers working on the regulation of interactions between drug companies and medical students. This anonymous questionnaire-based study of 154 medical final year medical students at the Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey, in April and May 2015 attracted a response rate of 92.2% (n/N, 154/164). Exposure to interaction with a pharmaceutical representative was reported by 90.3% (139/154) of students, and 68.8% (106/154) reported experiencing such interaction alongside a resident. In addition, 83.7% (128/153) of students reported an interaction during internship. Furthermore, 69.9% (107/153) of students agreed that interactions influence physicians’ prescription preferences, while 33.1% (51/154) thought that a medical student should never accept a gift from a drug company and 24.7% (38/154) agreed with the proposition that “drug companies should not hold activities in medical faculties”. Students with rational prescription training expressed greater agreement with the statement “I am skeptical concerning the information provided by drug companies during interactions” than those who had not received such training, and this finding was supported by logistic regression [O.R.(C.I), p -3.7(1.2–11.5), p = 0.022]. Acceptance of advertisement brochures was found to significantly reduce the level of agreement with the proposition that “A physician should not

  18. Turkish Final Year Medical Students' Exposure to and Attitudes Concerning Drug Company Interactions: A Perspective from a Minimally Regulated Environment for Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyhun, Nazim Ercument; Kolayli, Cevriye Ceyda; Can, Gamze; Topbas, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between drug companies and medical students may affect evidence-based medical practice and patient safety. The aim of this study was to assess drug company-medical student interactions in a medical faculty where limited specific national or institutional regulations apply between drug companies and medical students. The objectives of the study were to determine the exposure and attitudes of final year medical students in terms of drug company-medical student and physician interactions, to identify factors affecting those attitudes and to provide data for policymakers working on the regulation of interactions between drug companies and medical students. This anonymous questionnaire-based study of 154 medical final year medical students at the Karadeniz Technical University Medical Faculty, Trabzon, Turkey, in April and May 2015 attracted a response rate of 92.2% (n/N, 154/164). Exposure to interaction with a pharmaceutical representative was reported by 90.3% (139/154) of students, and 68.8% (106/154) reported experiencing such interaction alongside a resident. In addition, 83.7% (128/153) of students reported an interaction during internship. Furthermore, 69.9% (107/153) of students agreed that interactions influence physicians' prescription preferences, while 33.1% (51/154) thought that a medical student should never accept a gift from a drug company and 24.7% (38/154) agreed with the proposition that "drug companies should not hold activities in medical faculties". Students with rational prescription training expressed greater agreement with the statement "I am skeptical concerning the information provided by drug companies during interactions" than those who had not received such training, and this finding was supported by logistic regression [O.R.(C.I), p -3.7(1.2-11.5), p = 0.022]. Acceptance of advertisement brochures was found to significantly reduce the level of agreement with the proposition that "A physician should not accept any gift from a

  19. From personnel dose to personal dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.; Raffnsoe, R.C.; Tuyn, J.W.N.; Wittekind, D.

    1985-01-01

    From following the development of personnel doses at CERN over the past six years it has become evident that work in areas of induced radioactivity is the principal cause of exposure. The results of photon dose measurements free-in-air and around a phantom are presented and discussed in the light of new quantities in individual monitoring. The importance of these results, with respect to the practical situation, is discussed and the problem of phantom size is mentioned. Finally, the results of dose measurements in the phantom are presented, since such information is important in cases where it becomes necessary to transform personnel doses into personal doses. (author)

  20. Automating the personnel dosimeter monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compston, M.W.

    1982-12-01

    The personnel dosimetry monitoring program at the Portsmouth uranium enrichment facility has been improved by using thermoluminescent dosimetry to monitor for ionizing radiation exposure, and by automating most of the operations and all of the associated information handling. A thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) card, worn by personnel inside security badges, stores the energy of ionizing radiation. The dosimeters are changed-out periodically and are loaded 150 cards at a time into an automated reader-processor. The resulting data is recorded and filed into a useful form by computer programming developed for this purpose

  1. Westinghouse Hanford Company waste minimization actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhalgh, W.O.

    1988-09-01

    Companies that generate hazardous waste materials are now required by national regulations to establish a waste minimization program. Accordingly, in FY88 the Westinghouse Hanford Company formed a waste minimization team organization. The purpose of the team is to assist the company in its efforts to minimize the generation of waste, train personnel on waste minimization techniques, document successful waste minimization effects, track dollar savings realized, and to publicize and administer an employee incentive program. A number of significant actions have been successful, resulting in the savings of materials and dollars. The team itself has been successful in establishing some worthwhile minimization projects. This document briefly describes the waste minimization actions that have been successful to date. 2 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Training of maintenance personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabouhams, J.

    1986-01-01

    This lecture precises the method and means developed by EDF to ensure the training of maintenance personnel according to their initial educational background and their experience. The following points are treated: General organization of the training for maintenance personnel in PWR and GCR nuclear power stations and in Creys Malville fast breeder reactor; Basic nuclear training and pedagogical aids developed for this purpose; Specific training and training provided by contractors; complementary training taking into account the operation experience and feedback; Improvement of velocity, competence and safety during shut-down operations by adapted training. (orig.)

  3. Monitoring of the internal contamination of occupationally exposure personnel in services of nuclear medicine through the use of gamma cameras; Monitoreo de la contaminacion interna de personal ocupacionalmente expuesto en servicios de medicina nuclear mediante el uso de gamma camaras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teran, M.; Paolino, A.; Savio, E. [Catedra de Radioquimica, Facultad de Quimica, Montevideo (Uruguay); Hermida, J.C. [Centro de Medicina Nuclear, Hospital de Clinicas, Facultad de Medicina, Montevideo (Uruguay); Dantas, B.M. [Laboratorio de Medidas In vivo, Instituto da Radioprotecao e Dosimetria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2006-07-01

    The radionuclides incorporation can happen as a result of diverse activities; these include the work associated with the different stadiums of the nuclear fuel cycle, the use of radioactive sources in medicine, the scientific research, the agriculture and the industry. In Uruguay the main activities linked to the manipulation of open sources correspond those of Nuclear Medicine and from 2004, in the mark of the Project Arcal RLA 049 and being based on the Safety Guides of the IAEA it is implementing a program of internal monitoring in combined form the Nuclear Medicine Center of the Hospital of and the Radiochemistry class of the Faculty of Chemistry. In accordance with the publication of the ICRP 75 the emphasis of any monitoring program should be in the formal study of the doses in the workers to who are considered commendable of to receive in routine form an outstanding fraction of the dose limits or who work in areas where the exposures can be significant in the accident event. From April 2004, to the date has started a pilot plan by means of in that were established appropriate conditions of procedures and of safety in a reduced group of workers of the Nuclear Medicine area. In that period the first work limits, equipment adjustment, calibrations and registration systems were determined. The monitoring system implemented until the moment is carried out with a thyroid caption equipment. However these measurements are carried out in the university hospital embracing 40% of the involved workers of our country, with the purpose of reaching the covering of the biggest quantity of occupationally exposed personnel of private clinics. Also it was developed a new work proposal that allows to have an alternative measure method, in the event of not having the equipment habitually used. Among the conclusions of this work are that for the before exposed are considered the measure conditions but appropriate the following ones: Gamma Camera without collimator; Measurement

  4. Stepwise Exposure of Staphylococcus aureus to Pleuromutilins Is Associated with Stepwise Acquisition of Mutations in rplC and Minimally Affects Susceptibility to Retapamulin▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Daniel R.; Rittenhouse, Stephen F.; McCloskey, Lynn; Holmes, David J.

    2007-01-01

    To assess their effects on susceptibility to retapamulin in Staphylococcus aureus, first-, second-, and third-step mutants with elevated MICs to tiamulin and other investigational pleuromutilin compounds were isolated and characterized through exposure to high drug concentrations. All first- and second-step mutations were in rplC, encoding ribosomal protein L3. Most third-step mutants acquired a third mutation in rplC. While first- and second-step mutations did cause an elevation in tiamulin and retapamulin MICs, a significant decrease in activity was not seen until a third mutation was acquired. All third-step mutants exhibited severe growth defects, and faster-growing variants arose at a high frequency from most isolates. These faster-growing variants were found to be more susceptible to pleuromutilins. In the case of a mutant with three alterations in rplC, the fast-growing variants acquired an additional mutation in rplC. In the case of fast-growing variants of isolates with two mutations in rplC and at least one mutation at an unmapped locus, one of the two rplC mutations reverted to wild type. These data indicate that mutations in rplC that lead to pleuromutilin resistance have a direct, negative effect on fitness. While reduction in activity of retapamulin against S. aureus can be seen through mutations in rplC, it is likely that target-specific resistance to retapamulin will be slow to emerge due to the need for three mutations for a significant effect on activity and the fitness cost of each mutational step. PMID:17404009

  5. Personnel photographic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keirim-Markus, I.B.

    1981-01-01

    Technology of personnel photographic film dosimetry (PPD) based on the photographic effect of ionizing radiation is described briefly. Kinds of roentgen films used in PPD method are enumerated, compositions of a developer and fixing agents for these films are given [ru

  6. Harmonious personnel scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fijn van Draat, Laurens; Post, Gerhard F.; Veltman, Bart; Winkelhuijzen, Wessel

    2006-01-01

    The area of personnel scheduling is very broad. Here we focus on the ‘shift assignment problem’. Our aim is to discuss how ORTEC HARMONY handles this planning problem. In particular we go into the structure of the optimization engine in ORTEC HARMONY, which uses techniques from genetic algorithms,

  7. Evaluation of Personnel Dosimetry data in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillen, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the evaluated data from external exposures of 1268 radiation workers in Guatemala carried out in the period of 1997-2000. The collective dose in medicine, industry and other applications shown a tendency to increase in the period of study, radiology is the practice that shown a trend to decrease, that could be explained as a result of inspections and personnel training carried out in this practice

  8. Modernization of personnel training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haferburg, M.; Rehn, H.

    1997-01-01

    Personnel training in German nuclear power plants adheres to high standards complying with government regulations. The development of PC technology allows the introduction of new training methods, e.g. computer based training (CBT), as well as their integration into existing systems. In Germany, the operators of nuclear power plants have developed their own computer based standards with a screen design, a hardware platform and an assessment standard. 25% of the theoretical training of the shift personnel is covered by CBT. The CBT-Programmes offer multimedia features: videos, photographs, sound, graphs and switching diagrams of existing systems, practice oriented simulations and 3-D animations. Interaction is the most important attribute of an efficient self-learning-programme. A typical example of such an appropriate theme is the CBT-Lesson ''Pressure Surges in Pipes and Components of Power Plants''. (author)

  9. Do Military Personnel Patent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    following questions: In what fields are military personnel most likely to patent, and how do demographics, such as age, race, and gender , along with...technologies, which have transformed how the United States wages war. DARPA continues to develop new technologies and capabilities for the U.S. military today...build the European navies so it instead decided to utilize an innovative ship design to exploit a gap specific to the British Royal Navy. The six

  10. Health of Australian atomic test personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donovan, J.

    1984-01-01

    This paper briefly summarises the results of a survey of the health of Australian personnel who took part in the U.K. atomic weapons tests between 1952 and 1957. The study identified indications of radiation exposure among participants and examined their health in relation to the answers they gave. For example, the study compared the health of those participants who said they cleaned up radioactive areas after tests with the health of those who said they had not. There was no excess of disease or death for any disease group studied in those members of the workforce who had film badge evidence of exposure to radiation

  11. Employment of security personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    If a company or institution hires personnel of a security service company to protect its premises, this kind of employment does not mean the company carries on temporary employment business. Within the purview of section 99, sub-section 1 of the BetrVG (Works Constitution Act), the security service personnel is not 'employed' in the proper sense even if the security tasks fulfilled by them are done at other times by regular employees of the company or institution. The court decision also decided that the Works Council need not give consent to employment of foreign security personnel. The court decision was taken for settlement of court proceedings commenced by Institute of Plasma Physics in Garching. In his comments, W. Hunold accedes to the court's decision and discusses the underlying reasons of this decision and of a previous ruling in the same matter by putting emphasis on the difference between a contract for services and a contract for work, and a contract for temporary employment. The author also discusses the basic features of an employment contract. (orig./HP) [de

  12. Automatic personnel contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lattin, Kenneth R.

    1978-01-01

    United Nuclear Industries, Inc. (UNI) has developed an automatic personnel contamination monitor (APCM), which uniquely combines the design features of both portal and hand and shoe monitors. In addition, this prototype system also has a number of new features, including: micro computer control and readout, nineteen large area gas flow detectors, real-time background compensation, self-checking for system failures, and card reader identification and control. UNI's experience in operating the Hanford N Reactor, located in Richland, Washington, has shown the necessity of automatically monitoring plant personnel for contamination after they have passed through the procedurally controlled radiation zones. This final check ensures that each radiation zone worker has been properly checked before leaving company controlled boundaries. Investigation of the commercially available portal and hand and shoe monitors indicated that they did not have the sensitivity or sophistication required for UNI's application, therefore, a development program was initiated, resulting in the subject monitor. Field testing shows good sensitivity to personnel contamination with the majority of alarms showing contaminants on clothing, face and head areas. In general, the APCM has sensitivity comparable to portal survey instrumentation. The inherit stand-in, walk-on feature of the APCM not only makes it easy to use, but makes it difficult to bypass. (author)

  13. Electronic Official Personnel Folder System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The eOPF is a digital recreation of paper personnel folder that stores electronic personnel data spanning an individual's Federal career. eOPF allows employees to...

  14. SAPLE: Sandia Advanced Personnel Locator Engine.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procopio, Michael J.

    2010-04-01

    We present the Sandia Advanced Personnel Locator Engine (SAPLE) web application, a directory search application for use by Sandia National Laboratories personnel. SAPLE's purpose is to return Sandia personnel 'results' as a function of user search queries, with its mission to make it easier and faster to find people at Sandia. To accomplish this, SAPLE breaks from more traditional directory application approaches by aiming to return the correct set of results while placing minimal constraints on the user's query. Two key features form the core of SAPLE: advanced search query interpretation and inexact string matching. SAPLE's query interpretation permits the user to perform compound queries when typing into a single search field; where able, SAPLE infers the type of field that the user intends to search on based on the value of the search term. SAPLE's inexact string matching feature yields a high-quality ranking of personnel search results even when there are no exact matches to the user's query. This paper explores these two key features, describing in detail the architecture and operation of SAPLE. Finally, an extensive analysis on logged search query data taken from an 11-week sample period is presented.

  15. The minimally tuned minimal supersymmetric standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Essig, Rouven; Fortin, Jean-Francois

    2008-01-01

    The regions in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model with the minimal amount of fine-tuning of electroweak symmetry breaking are presented for general messenger scale. No a priori relations among the soft supersymmetry breaking parameters are assumed and fine-tuning is minimized with respect to all the important parameters which affect electroweak symmetry breaking. The superpartner spectra in the minimally tuned region of parameter space are quite distinctive with large stop mixing at the low scale and negative squark soft masses at the high scale. The minimal amount of tuning increases enormously for a Higgs mass beyond roughly 120 GeV

  16. Qualification of NPP operations personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jiao.

    1987-01-01

    Competence of personnel is one of the important problems for safety operation of nuclear power plant. This paper gives a description of some aspects, such as the administration of NPP, posts, competence of personnel, training, assessing the competence and personnel management

  17. Predictors of radiation exposure to providers during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzler, David L.; Abbott, Joel E.; Su, Jeannie J.; Shi, William; Slater, Richard; Miller, Daniel; Siemens, Michelle J.; Sur, Roger L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Limited studies have reported on radiation risks of increased ionizing radiation exposure to medical personnel in the urologic community. Fluoroscopy is readily used in many urologic surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to determine radiation exposure to all operating room personnel during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), commonly performed for large renal or complex stones. Materials and Methods: We prospectively collected personnel exposure data for all PNL cases at two academic institutions. This was collected using the Instadose™ dosimeter and reported both continuously and categorically as high and low dose using a 10 mrem dose threshold, the approximate amount of radiation received from one single chest X-ray. Predictors of increased radiation exposure were determined using multivariate analysis. Results: A total of 91 PNL cases in 66 patients were reviewed. Median surgery duration and fluoroscopy time were 142 (38–368) min and 263 (19–1809) sec, respectively. Median attending urologist, urology resident, anesthesia, and nurse radiation exposure per case was 4 (0–111), 4 (0–21), 0 (0–5), and 0 (0–5) mrem, respectively. On univariate analysis, stone area, partial or staghorn calculi, surgery duration, and fluoroscopy time were associated with high attending urologist and resident radiation exposure. Preexisting access that was utilized was negatively associated with resident radiation exposure. However, on multivariate analysis, only fluoroscopy duration remained significant for attending urologist radiation exposure. Conclusion: Increased stone burden, partial or staghorn calculi, surgery and fluoroscopy duration, and absence of preexisting access were associated with high provider radiation exposure. Radiation safety awareness is essential to minimize exposure and to protect the patient and all providers from potential radiation injury. PMID:28216931

  18. Personnel ionizing radiation dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    A dosimeter and method for use by personnel working in an area of mixed ionizing radiation fields for measuring and/or determining the effective energy of x- and gamma radiation; beta, x-, and gamma radiation dose equivalent to the surface of the body; beta, x-, and gamma radiation dose equivalent at a depth in the body; the presence of slow neutron, fast neutron dose equivalent; and orientation of the person wearing the dosimeter to the source of radiation is disclosed. Optionally integrated into this device and method are improved means for determining neutron energy spectrum and absorbed dose from fission gamma and neutron radiation resulting from accidental criticality

  19. Personnel policy and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dangelmaier, P.

    1986-01-01

    In the field of personnel policy and management two main points must be considered and fitted together: the aspects of the applicant and the aspects of the utility. The applicant wishes a position which suits to his abilities, education, training, experience and self-evaluation. The enterprise has beside these qualification criteria to look to some additional points: reliability - not only in the profession of the applicant but also in his daily life. In this examination licensing authorities are involved too; responsibility in a very broad sense and the ability to make correct decisions sometimes under stress situations. (orig.)

  20. Predictors of workplace violence among ambulance personnel: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    van der Velden, Peter G.; Bosmans, Mark W.G.; van der Meulen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Aim To examine predictors of repeated confrontations with workplace violence among ambulance personnel, the proportion of exposure to potentially traumatic events that are aggression-related and to what extent personnel was able to prevent escalations. Although previous research assessed the prevalences among this group, little is known about predictors, to what extent PTE’s are WPV-related and their abilities to prevent escalations. Design A longitudinal study with a 6 months’ time ...

  1. The use of film badges for personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrlich, M.

    1962-01-01

    Photographic film is fairly inexpensive and durable and as a result of irradiation its radiosensitive components undergo relatively permanent changes. With proper calibration the optical density of the development and fixed photographic film can be related to radiation exposure. Personnel monitoring with photographic film is the method of choice in many laboratories, and this manual gives guidelines for the use of photographic film in personnel dosimetry.

  2. Control systems, personnel policies and management initiatives to limit pollution incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, B.F.

    1991-01-01

    After the regulatory requirements are met, an important collateral step in the continuing Hazardous Waste/Environmental Management cycle of activities is to minimize the possibility of a pollution incident, spill, contamination, mislabeling, mishandling or exposure, since this minimizes a major contingent liability of the company. Human failure accounts for 88% of accidents, 10% occur from mechanical failure and only 2% are unpreventable force majeure. This implies that fully 98% of all accidents can be prevented or minimized. Good engineering, production, management and educational practices can be formulated to minimize the occurrence and effects of accidental pollution incidents. Hazardous Material/Environmental Management tends to focus on technical and regulatory objectives, a reactionary mode caused in part by the rapidly changing regulatory environment and the need to continually adapt to these changes. Management functions such as personnel management and situational management get shortchanged in research and in practice. What is needed is a system that incorporates change readily, adapts personnel to change easily and mobilizes all the human resources of a company in meeting environmental and regulatory goals in the same way other goals of the company are met. Feedback Loop/Control System concepts have been applied to management practice in the popular Management By Objectives School as well as other schools of management practice. An Environmental Management program is proposed which incorporates feedback loop/ control systems to facilitate operations and training objectives and requirements. By incorporating Environmental and Hazardous Waste goals with other management goals in a system involving all levels of management and workers on the same team, the proposed system will reduce the probability of accidental pollution incidents and thus the contingent liability of a spill or other incident

  3. The minimal non-minimal standard model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bij, J.J. van der

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter I discuss a class of extensions of the standard model that have a minimal number of possible parameters, but can in principle explain dark matter and inflation. It is pointed out that the so-called new minimal standard model contains a large number of parameters that can be put to zero, without affecting the renormalizability of the model. With the extra restrictions one might call it the minimal (new) non-minimal standard model (MNMSM). A few hidden discrete variables are present. It is argued that the inflaton should be higher-dimensional. Experimental consequences for the LHC and the ILC are discussed

  4. Training of personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Selected staffs (in the area of NPPs) are examined by the State Examining Committee established by Nuclear Regulatory Authority of the Slovak Republic (NRA SR's) chairman. The committee consists of representatives of NRA SR , Bohunice NPPs, Mochovce NPP, Research Institute of Nuclear Energy and experts from the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology of the Slovak Technical University. The review of selected personnel of NPP V-1, V-2 and Mochovce NPP which passed exams in 1996 is given. NRA SR paid attention to the upgrading training process of individual categories of staff for V-1, V-2 and Mochovce NPPs, simulator training and training with computerized simulation system according to the United criteria of nuclear installation personnel training that started in 1992. During the year, an inspection was performed focused on examination of technical equipment of the simulator of Mochovce NPP, professional eligibility and overall preparation of simulator training including simulator software. Throughout the year launching works continued at the simulator with the deadline of commissioning to trial use operation in the first half of 1997

  5. Quo vadis, personnel monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, K.

    1975-01-01

    With the increasing use of nuclear power and radiation sources, the selection of optimum systems for personnel monitoring is becoming a matter of worldwide concern. The present status of personnel dosimetry, sometimes characterized by unstable and inaccurate detectors and oversimplified interpretation of the results, leaves much to be desired. In particular, photographic film, although having certain advantages with regard to economics and information content, undergoes rapid changes in warm and humid climates. Careful sealing reduces, but does not prevent, these problems. The replacement of film by solid-state dosimeters, primarily thermoluminescence dosimeters, is in progress or being considered by an increasing number of institutions and requires a number of decisions concerning the choice of the optimum detector(s), badge design, and evaluation system; organizational matters, such as the desirability of automation and computerized bookkeeping; etc. The change also implies the potential use of such advanced concepts as different detectors and monitoring periods for the large number of low-risk persons and the small number of high-risk radiation workers. (auth)

  6. Personnel Selection Method Based on Personnel-Job Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Li Wang; Xilin Hou; Lili Zhang

    2013-01-01

    The existing personnel selection decisions in practice are based on the evaluation of job seeker's human capital, and it may be difficult to make personnel-job matching and make each party satisfy. Therefore, this paper puts forward a new personnel selection method by consideration of bilateral matching. Starting from the employment thoughts of ¡°satisfy¡±, the satisfaction evaluation indicator system of each party are constructed. The multi-objective optimization model is given according to ...

  7. Experience from training of personnel abroad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otcenasek, P.

    1983-01-01

    In the first period of the development of nuclear technology specialists received mainly theoretical training in brief study courses and training sessions. These courses did not place high demands on training methods. In the subsequent period long-term, well-conceived and costly systems of training were developed placing emphasis on specialized knowledge and especially on practical training. The third stage has now been launched which is characterized by the departure from classical control rooms to data collection and processing in centralized information systems, selective recording according to situation and choice, etc. This stage is passing on to the system of the minimization of the human factor error. A significant problem of the human factor in nuclear technology is the time aspect. Schools specializing in the education and training of specialists, technical personnel and workers for the nuclear programme have been established. Following such education personnel are selected for specialized training in training centres which have been equipped with costly training equipment including simulators. With regard to the importance of the human factor in nuclear installations, control computers are being introduced to an increasing extent and individuals and groups of workers and personnel are trained in operation. (E.S.)

  8. Radiological protection of service and civilian personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Since the United Kingdom's defence nuclear industry was founded in the late 1940s, Service and civilian personnel have been exposed to ionising radiation. During the last forty years, as knowledge about the effects of radiation exposure has grown, concern to ensure adequate protection against exposure has also increased,. As part of our continuing scrutiny of the Ministry of Defence (MoD), we have undertaken a short inquiry to examine MoD's current and future policy and practice on radiological protection. The principal work involving exposure of Service and civilian personnel to significant levels of radiation falls into two discrete areas: the nuclear weapons programme and the nuclear propulsion programme. The nuclear weapons programme involves research, the production of nuclear warheads and their deployment with Her Majesty's Forces. The nuclear propulsion programme involves research, production, operation, refitting and decommissioning of pressurised water reactors as a source of propulsion power in Royal Navy submarines. These two nuclear programmes are not the only sources of ionising radiation within MoD's responsibility: it also arises from research, non-destructive testing and medical applications, most notably conventional radiography. In this Report we have concentrated upon ionising radiation arising from the two defence nuclear programmes. (author)

  9. Site security personnel training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    As required by 10 CFR Part 73, this training manual provides guidance to assist licensees in the development of security personnel training and qualifications programs. The information contained in the manual typifies the level and scope of training for personnel assigned to perform security related tasks and job duties associated with the protection of nuclear fuel cycle facilities and nuclear power reactors

  10. Personnel Officers: Judging Their Qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Gisela

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the backgrounds and qualifications appropriate for a library personnel administrator, including (1) a master's degree in library science; (2) library work experience; (3) additional training in administration, personnel management, organizational development, and psychology; and (4) personal attributes such as good communication skills,…

  11. Personnel Practices for Small Colleges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Ronald A.

    Personnel administration in higher education is the focus of this "hands-on, how-to-do-it" guide that provides fundamental materials for developing and maintaining a sound personnel program. Part One (Employment) examines government regulations, employee recruitment and selection, pre-employment inquiries and screening, post-employment process,…

  12. Personnel dosimetry in fluoroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baechler, S.; Gardon, M.; Bochud, F.; Sans-Merce, M.; Verdun, F.R.; Trueb, Ph.

    2006-01-01

    Physicians who frequently perform fluoroscopic examinations are exposed to high intensity radiation fields and should use protective equipment such as lead aprons, thyroid shields and lead glasses. Standard individual dosimeters are worn under the lead apron in order to measure a dose that is representative of effective dose. However, large parts of the body are not protected by the apron (e.g. arms, head). Given a protection factor for the apron of about 100, an important irradiation of a body part not under the apron could go undetected. A study was conducted to analyse this situation by measuring dose using two dosimeters, one over-apron and one under-apron, for radiologists performing frequent fluoroscopic examinations. Measurements made over six-month period show that, indeed, the use of a single under-apron dosimeter is inadequate for personnel monitoring. Large doses to the head and arms are going undetected by this technique. A method for weighting the doses measured by under- and over-apron dosimeters to obtain a value better representative of the effective dose will be proposed. (authors)

  13. Special training of shift personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.D.

    1981-01-01

    The first step of on-the-job training is practical observation phase in an operating Nuclear Plant, where the participants are assigned to shift work. The simulator training for operating personnel, for key personnel and, to some extent, also for maintenance personnel and specialists give the practical feeling for Nuclear Power Plant behaviour during normal and abnormal conditions. During the commissioning phase of the own Nuclear Power Plant, which is the most important practical training, the participants are integrated into the commissioning staff and assisted during their process of practical learning by special instructors. The preparation for the licensing exams is vitally important for shift personnel and special courses are provided after the first non-nuclear trial operation of the plant. Personnel training also includes performance of programmes and material for retraining, training of instructors and assistance in building up special training programmes and material as well as training centers. (orig./RW)

  14. Cost and radiation exposure optimization of demineralizer operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernal, F.E.; Burn, R.R.; Cook, G.M.; Simonetti, L.; Simpson, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    A pool water demineralizer is utilized at a research reactor to minimize impurities that become radioactive; to minimize impurities that react chemically with reactor components; to maintain optical clarity of the pool water; and to minimize aluminum fuel cladding corrosion by maintaining a slightly acidic pH. Balanced against these advantages are the dollar costs of equipment, resins, recharging chemicals, and maintenance; the man-rem costs of radiation exposure during maintenance, demineralizer recharges, and resin replacement; and hazardous chemical exposure. At the Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR), maintenance of the demineralizer system is the second largest source of radiation exposure to operators. Theoretical and practical aspects of demineralizer operation are discussed. The most obvious way to reduce radiation exposure due to demineralizer system operation is to perform recharges after the reactor has been shut down for the maximum possible time. Setting a higher depletion limit and operating with the optimum system lineup reduce the frequency between recharges, saving both exposure and cost. Recharge frequency and resin lifetime seem to be relatively independent of the quality of the chemicals used and the personnel performing recharges, provided consistent procedures are followed

  15. Regularity of Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Tromba, Anthony J; Kuster, Albrecht

    2010-01-01

    "Regularity of Minimal Surfaces" begins with a survey of minimal surfaces with free boundaries. Following this, the basic results concerning the boundary behaviour of minimal surfaces and H-surfaces with fixed or free boundaries are studied. In particular, the asymptotic expansions at interior and boundary branch points are derived, leading to general Gauss-Bonnet formulas. Furthermore, gradient estimates and asymptotic expansions for minimal surfaces with only piecewise smooth boundaries are obtained. One of the main features of free boundary value problems for minimal surfaces is t

  16. Engineered nanomaterials: exposures, hazards, and risk prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MacPhail Robert C

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Nanotechnology presents the possibility of revolutionizing many aspects of our lives. People in many settings (academic, small and large industrial, and the general public in industrialized nations are either developing or using engineered nanomaterials (ENMs or ENM-containing products. However, our understanding of the occupational, health and safety aspects of ENMs is still in its formative stage. A survey of the literature indicates the available information is incomplete, many of the early findings have not been independently verified, and some may have been over-interpreted. This review describes ENMs briefly, their application, the ENM workforce, the major routes of human exposure, some examples of uptake and adverse effects, what little has been reported on occupational exposure assessment, and approaches to minimize exposure and health hazards. These latter approaches include engineering controls such as fume hoods and personal protective equipment. Results showing the effectiveness - or lack thereof - of some of these controls are also included. This review is presented in the context of the Risk Assessment/Risk Management framework, as a paradigm to systematically work through issues regarding human health hazards of ENMs. Examples are discussed of current knowledge of nanoscale materials for each component of the Risk Assessment/Risk Management framework. Given the notable lack of information, current recommendations to minimize exposure and hazards are largely based on common sense, knowledge by analogy to ultrafine material toxicity, and general health and safety recommendations. This review may serve as an overview for health and safety personnel, management, and ENM workers to establish and maintain a safe work environment. Small start-up companies and research institutions with limited personnel or expertise in nanotechnology health and safety issues may find this review particularly useful.

  17. Psychological help and psychoprophilaxis for the SRF personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurochka, V.K.; Zhur, M.M.; Ratanov, Yu.Z.; Olejnik, S.I.

    1998-01-01

    Due to the growth of mental disorders in military personnel of strategic rocket forces the combined approach is considered to solving this problem connected with occupational exposure to ionizing radiation and electromagnetic radiation as well as to missile fuel. System for the psychoprophilactic measures and psychiatric help is discussed [ru

  18. Quality assurance for external personnel monitoring in nuclear industrial facilities, CNNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yansheng; Dai Jun; Li Taosheng

    1993-01-01

    More than 6000 personnel are currently being monitored for occupational exposure in CNNC, China. Personnel monitoring is one of the important items of radiation protection. The data of individual dose are not only indispensable for radiation safety assessment but also the basis for radiation protection measures to be taken. Possibly, it could provide basic information for epidemiological studies, optimization procedure of radiation protection (risk/benefit analyses) and medical or legal purposes. Obviously, personnel monitoring and its quality assurance are very significant

  19. Personnel radiation protection. Situation of the dosimetry surveillance of external exposure in 2003; La radioprotection des travailleurs. Bilan de la surveillance dosimetrique de l'exposition externe en 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The situation of external exposure of workers for the year 2003 has been realised according to the same method than this one of the year 2002. It does not show big variations of trends, both in term of workforce watched and collective doses alike associated in the different sectors of activity. Some differences observed between the two years can explain by real evolutions of situations. For example, the 2800 workers registered in the veterinary sector are the result of a better awareness of this profession for the radiation protection during the last months. Some variations can be the results of artefacts in the data processing. The centralization at I.R.S.N. of the whole of dosimetry data should allow to make easy the data treatment and to improve the statistics of occupational exposure. (N.C.)

  20. Some problems of NPP personnel training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajshnis, P.P.; Kumkov, L.P.; Omel'chuk, V.V.

    1984-01-01

    Shortcomings of NPP personnel training are discussed. Development of full-scale training systems is necessary for qualitative training operative personnel. Primary problems that should be necessarily solved for ensuring effective training NPP personnel are considered

  1. Personnel Investigations and Clearance Tracking (OPI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Security file-related information for the U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM)'s employee and contractor personnel. The data is OPM-specific, not government-wide.

  2. Energy Requirements of Military Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tharion, William J; Lieberman, Harris R; Montain, Scott J; Young, Andrew J; Baker-Fulco, Carol J

    2005-01-01

    ...) have been measured while training under various conditions. Group mean total energy expenditures for 424 male military personnel from various units engaged in diverse missions ranged from 13.0 to 29.8 MJ per day...

  3. Personnel monitoring in geologic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanova, I.N.; Seredin, Yu.V.

    1981-01-01

    State of radiation safety for the personnel of geologic crews carrying out neutron logging of wells using Po-Be sources has been evaluated. Given are results of development of methods for the evaluation of individual radiation loads for personnel when working with Po-Be neutron sources useful for the application in practice by a geologic logging crew as well as a quantitative evaluation of profissional radiation loads during this kind of work. The following methods are recommended for personnel monitoring: 1) calculation of whole-body irradiation doses and hands from averaged values of radiation dose rate; 2) calculational tabulated determination of irradiation doses during recharging of shanks of well instruments. Personnel monitoring by means of instrumental methods is not necessary in the considered case [ru

  4. Transportation security personnel training manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-11-01

    Objective of this manual is to train security personnel to protect special nuclear materials and nuclear facilities against theft and sabotage as required by 10 CFR Part 73. This volume contains the introduction and rationale

  5. Office of Personnel Management (OPM)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The purpose of this agreement is for SSA to verify SSN information for the Office of Personnel Management. OPM will use the SSN verifications in its investigative...

  6. Correlates of minimal dating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leck, Kira

    2006-10-01

    Researchers have associated minimal dating with numerous factors. The present author tested shyness, introversion, physical attractiveness, performance evaluation, anxiety, social skill, social self-esteem, and loneliness to determine the nature of their relationships with 2 measures of self-reported minimal dating in a sample of 175 college students. For women, shyness, introversion, physical attractiveness, self-rated anxiety, social self-esteem, and loneliness correlated with 1 or both measures of minimal dating. For men, physical attractiveness, observer-rated social skill, social self-esteem, and loneliness correlated with 1 or both measures of minimal dating. The patterns of relationships were not identical for the 2 indicators of minimal dating, indicating the possibility that minimal dating is not a single construct as researchers previously believed. The present author discussed implications and suggestions for future researchers.

  7. A Global Perspective of Vaccination of Healthcare Personnel against Measles: Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiebelkorn, Amy Parker; Seward, Jane F.; Orenstein, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Measles transmission has been well documented in healthcare facilities. Healthcare personnel who are unvaccinated and who lack other evidence of measles immunity put themselves and their patients at risk for measles. We conducted a systematic literature review of measles vaccination policies and their implementation in healthcare personnel, measles seroprevalence among healthcare personnel, measles transmission and disease burden in healthcare settings, and impact/costs incurred by healthcare facilities for healthcare-associated measles transmission. Five database searches yielded 135 relevant articles; 47 additional articles were found through cross-referencing. The risk of acquiring measles is estimated to be 2 to 19 times higher for susceptible healthcare personnel than for the general population. Fifty-three articles published worldwide during 1989–2013 reported measles transmission from patients to healthcare personnel; many of the healthcare personnel were unvaccinated or had unknown vaccination status. Eighteen articles published worldwide during 1982–2013 described examples of transmission from healthcare personnel to patients or to other healthcare personnel. Half of European countries have no measles vaccine policies for healthcare personnel. There is no global policy recommendation for the vaccination of healthcare personnel against measles. Even in countries such as the United States or Finland that have national policies, the recommendations are not uniformly implemented in healthcare facilities. Measles serosusceptibility in healthcare personnel varied widely across studies (median 6.5%, range 0%-46%) but was consistently higher among younger healthcare personnel. Deficiencies in documentation of two doses of measles vaccination or other evidence of immunity among healthcare personnel presents challenges in responding to measles exposures in healthcare settings. Evaluating and containing exposures and outbreaks in healthcare settings can be

  8. Personnel external dose monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hengyuan

    1989-01-01

    The status and trend of personnel external dose monitoring system are introduced briefly. Their characteristics, functions and TLD bedges of some commercially available automatic TLD system, including UD-710A (Matsushita, Japan), Harshaw-2271, 2276 (Harshaw, USA), Harshaw-8000 (Harshaw/Filtrol), Studsvik-1313 (Sweden) and Pitman-800 (UK) were depicted in detail. Finally, personnel dose management and record keeping system were presented and two examples were given

  9. THEORETICAL BASIS FOR MANAGEMENT OF PERSONNEL RISKS

    OpenAIRE

    Haliashova, Katsiaryna

    2017-01-01

    Necessity of personnel risks management is based on research results. The authors' approaches to the determination of personnel risks and to their management have been explored. The author's definition of the concept of "personnel risks" is proposed. A classification of personnel risks is developed depending on the stage of origin and the tasks of the personnel policy, as well as the methods of management personnel risks in the organization. The article presents a methodical approach to perso...

  10. Hexavalent Chromium Minimization Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Logistics 4 Initiative - DoD Hexavalent Chromium Minimization Non- Chrome Primer IIEXAVAJ ENT CHRO:M I~UMI CHROMIUM (VII Oil CrfVli.J CANCEfl HAnRD CD...Management Office of the Secretary of Defense Hexavalent Chromium Minimization Strategy Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188...00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hexavalent Chromium Minimization Strategy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  11. Minimal Super Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antola, M.; Di Chiara, S.; Sannino, F.

    2011-01-01

    We introduce novel extensions of the Standard Model featuring a supersymmetric technicolor sector (supertechnicolor). As the first minimal conformal supertechnicolor model we consider N=4 Super Yang-Mills which breaks to N=1 via the electroweak interactions. This is a well defined, economical......, between unparticle physics and Minimal Walking Technicolor. We consider also other N =1 extensions of the Minimal Walking Technicolor model. The new models allow all the standard model matter fields to acquire a mass....

  12. Surveillance of occupational exposure to ionizing radiation in the French air force: an example with a workplace study concerning the flight personnel on the E-3F; Surveillance de l'exposition professionnelle aux rayonnements ionisants dans l'armee de l'air. Exemple d'une etude de poste concernant les personnels navigants sur E-3F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amabile, J.C.; Castagne, X.; Carbonnieres, H. de; Laroche, P. [Hopital des Armees du Val-de-Grace, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-12-15

    This workplace study was first based on measurements of the ambient dose rates on board the E-3F (2000 to 2001). These results have been complemented by a series of measurements of individual exposure using passive and active gamma and neutrons dosimeters (2004 to 2005). We show that, from level 300 and after more than 200 flying hours per year, the air-crews of the French Air Force flying on board the E-3F are likely to annually receive an effective dose higher than 1 mSv. It is therefore necessary to organize a specific radiological and medical survey in favour of the air-crews of the E-3F and other aircraft with the same flight criteria. (authors)

  13. The alkaline comet assay as a biomarker of primary DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes of nuclear medicine personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopjar, N.; Garaj-Vrhovac, V.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether occupational exposure to chronic low doses of ionizing radiation in nuclear medicine departments may lead to genotoxicity. The alkaline comet assay was selected as a bio-marker of exposure to evaluate the levels of primary DNA damage in peripheral blood leukocytes of exposed and corresponding control subjects. Statistically significant differences were found between comet tail length and tail moment values measured in leukocytes from the exposed and control groups. Within exposed group significant inter-individual differences in DNA damage were assessed, indicating different genome sensitivity. In majority of exposed subjects the levels of DNA damage were in positive correlation with the duration of occupational exposure, while the influences of age and dosimeter readings could be excluded. However, the levels of primary DNA damage detected both in control and exposed subjects were significantly influenced by smoking. The present study indicates the possibility of genotoxic risks related to occupational exposure in nuclear medicine departments. Therefore, the exposed personnel should carefully apply the radiation protection procedures to minimize, as low as possible, radiation exposure to avoid possible genotoxic effects. According to results obtained, the alkaline comet assay could be usefully applied as a sensitive additional bio-marker in the regular health screening of workers occupationally exposed to low doses of ionizing radiation. (authors)

  14. Occupational exposure to xenon-133 among hospital workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschamps, M.

    1984-11-01

    During procedures for pulmonary ventilation studies on patients in hospitals, xenon-133 may escape into ambient air. Measurements of air concentrations were required to permit an evaluation of the exposure to which hospital workers are subjected. Two complementary methods of in situ measurements of air concentrations were employed: a commercial air monitor and evacuated blood sampling tubes. Personal dosimeters (TLDs) were exposed simultaneously with the commercial air monitor, and the results were compared. This report presents the results of the measurements of air concentrations during studies on patients. Substantial leakage of xenon-133 was noted, but workers received less than the maximum permissible dose. Personal dosimeters do not permit accurate evaluation of the skin doses resulting from exposure to xenon-133; measurements of air concentrations are required for such evaluation. A number of procedures are recommended to minimize leakage and personnel exposure

  15. Personnel dose reduction in 90Y microspheres liver-directed radioembolization: from interventional radiology suite to patient ward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Martin; Wong, K K; Tso, W K; Lee, Victor; Luk, M Y; Tong, C C; Chu, Ferdinand

    2017-03-01

    .42% of dose limit for the general public. By placing a lead-lined blanket on the patient abdominal region after 90 Y radioembolization, hospital staff receive minimal radiation exposure in order to comply with the radiation protection "as low as reasonably achievable" principle. There will be no increase in radiation level in ward if the patient radioembolized using 90 Y needs to be hospitalized. Therefore, the patient radioembolized can be accommodated alternatively at a corner bed of a common ward if an isolation room with private toilet facility is not available. Advances in knowledge: To reduce exposure to personnel providing patient care to patients radioembolized using 90 Y.

  16. A Health-Risk Appraisal of Naval Special Operations Forces Personnel Executive Summary

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, K

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between exposure to extreme physical and mental activities and adverse environments to the susceptibility to injuries, disease, and death has not been examined for Special Operations Forces (SOF) personnel...

  17. Cytogenetic diagnostic of 3 populations of occupationally exposed personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero C, C.; Arceo M, C.

    2013-10-01

    In the year 2000 the first service of biological dosimetry was requested to the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), and until the year 2012 have been assisted 52 cases approximately. Most of the cases correspond to workers dedicated to the industrial radiography, followed by the occupationally exposed personnel either in the hospital area or health services and the minority corresponds to individuals linked to research institutions. The incident with more serious consequences to the individual happened to workers that ingested I-131 in the year 2003. Using the biological dosimetry to estimate exposure dose by damage in the lymphocyte chromosomes of each worker has been possible to establish the exposure dose in each one of them, or also to discard the supposed exposure. The dosimetry demonstrates to be an useful tool for situations with exposure suspicion, for example when the reading of thermoluminescent dosimeter of a occupationally exposed personnel does not correspond to the event, or when the personnel forgets to carry his dosimeter, the exposure dose can be determined. (Author)

  18. Minimizing Mutual Couping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    Disclosed herein are techniques, systems, and methods relating to minimizing mutual coupling between a first antenna and a second antenna.......Disclosed herein are techniques, systems, and methods relating to minimizing mutual coupling between a first antenna and a second antenna....

  19. Ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail; Pottmann, Helmut; Grohs, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    A Laguerre minimal surface is an immersed surface in ℝ 3 being an extremal of the functional ∫ (H 2/K-1)dA. In the present paper, we prove that the only ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces are up to isometry the surfaces ℝ (φλ) = (Aφ, Bφ, Cφ + D cos 2φ

  20. A radioisotope production cyclotron designed to minimize dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szlavik, F.F.; Moritz, L.E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a radioisotope production cyclotron which has been designed to minimize the dose to personnel during operation and maintenance. The design incorporates lessons learned from the operation of a CP42 cyclotron and has resulted in a reduction of the dose by a factor of more than 10. (author)

  1. 76 FR 81359 - National Security Personnel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... Security Personnel System AGENCY: Department of Defense; Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Final rule... concerning the National Security Personnel System (NSPS). Section 1113 of the National Defense Authorization... National Security Personnel System (NSPS) in regulations jointly prescribed by DOD and OPM (Office of...

  2. TLD personnel dosimetry and its relationship with the radiodiagnostic training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Franco E, J.G.; Gaona C, E.

    2002-01-01

    The personnel dosimetry and the training in radiological protection in radiodiagnostic in Mexico before 1997 were almost nonexistent except few services of public and private radiology, we can to say that the personnel dosimetry and the obligatory training was born in the year 1997, together with the present Mexican Official Standards in radiology. This study has the purpose to make an evaluation of the personnel dosimetry of 110 radiology services distributed in the Mexican Republic for the year 2001 and to estimate the annual and bimonthly mean doses, as well as its trust intervals and its relationships with the personnel training in radiological protection by means of a sampling that was realized in two stages (1997 and 2000) in the metropolitan area of Mexico City. The results show that the received doses by the medical and technical personnel in the participating radiology services are in the 0.03 mSv and 0.94 mSv interval and the mean is 0.25 mSv. The estimated annual personnel dose would be in the 0.18 mSv to 5.64 mSv interval, which are values very lower to the annual dose limit that is 50 mSv and its magnitude is similar to the effective annual dose by natural background radiation. In the first stage in training was found that there is not a significant difference in the response frequencies among the medical and technical personnel with a p < 0.05. The 52% of the occupational exposure personnel of radiology uses dosemeter, but only 17% of them know the dose reports. the 15.8% of personnel considers that dosemeter protects against radiation and only 16.5% knows the annual maximum permissible dose for stochastic effects. The second stage, the results shown that there is a significant difference in the response of frequencies among medical and technical personnel, the same results which are obtained for members and non members of a professional association with a p < 0.05. The 38% has personnel dosimetry, the 19% knows the principles of radiological

  3. Training of research reactor personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherruau, F.

    1980-01-01

    Research reactor personnel operate the reactor and carry out the experiments. These two types of work entail different activities, and therefore different skills and competence, the number of relevant staff being basically a function of the size, complexity and versatility of the reactor. Training problems are often reactor-specific, but the present paper considers them from three different viewpoints: the training or retraining of new staff or of personnel already employed at an existing facility, and training of personnel responsible for the start-up and operation of a new reactor, according to whether local infrastructure and experience already exist or whether they have to be built up from scratch. On-the-spot experience seems to be an essential basis for sound training, but requires teaching abilities and aids often difficult to bring together, and the availability of instructors that does not always fit in smoothly with current operational and experimental tasks. (author)

  4. Methacrylate and acrylate allergy in dental personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Alanko, Kristiina; Kuuliala, Outi; Jolanki, Riitta

    2007-11-01

    Methacrylates are important allergens in dentistry. The study aimed to analyse patch test reactivity to 36 acrylic monomers in dental personnel in relation to exposure. We reviewed the test files at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health from 1994 to 2006 for allergic reactions to acrylic monomers in dental personnel and analysed the clinical records of the sensitized patients. 32 patients had allergic reactions to acrylic monomers: 15 dental nurses, 9 dentists, and 8 dental technicians. The dentists and dental nurses were most commonly exposed to 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-HEMA), triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TREGDMA), and 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloxypropoxy) phenyl]propane (bis-GMA). 8 dentists and 12 dental nurses were allergic to 2-HEMA. The remaining dentist was positive to bis-GMA and other epoxy acrylates. The remaining 3 dental nurses reacted to diethyleneglycol diacrylate (DEGDA) or triethyleneglycol diacrylate (TREGDA), but not to monofunctional and multifunctional methacrylates. Our dental technicians were mainly exposed and sensitized to methyl methacrylate (MMA) and ethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA). 1 technician reacted only to 2-HEMA, and another to ethyl methacrylate (EMA) and ethyl acrylate (EA). 2-HEMA was the most important allergen in dentists and dental nurses, and MMA and EGDMA in dental technicians. Reactions to bis-GMA, DEGDA, TREGDA, EMA and EA were relevant in some patients.

  5. Experience of TLD personnel monitoring laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakhete, Prashant

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Renentech Laboratories is the first Private Enterprise in India to have been chosen to provide Personnel radiation monitoring services to radiation workers at different parts of the country. Since 1992 the Company has been manufacturing TLD phosphor powder of requisite quality and from 1995 commenced the production of TLD cards for radiation monitoring. After getting the necessary approval from the competent authorities in the country, the company undertook a rigorous quality assurance programme and received the accreditation in 1999 to carry out the personnel monitoring of radiation. Since then the trained staff of the Company is covering 1200 institutions in 16 states where radiation is being used. This translates to processing of 60,000 Till cards annually, the maximum limit permitted by BARC. Processing of exposure data is done strictly according well-laid guidelines. Any cases of overexposure are immediately referred to Calibration and Dose Record Section of BARC to meet the regulatory requirements. Necessary procedural guidelines are followed to handle such cases. In this lecture, learning, operation and implementation experience of a typical Private Company in a task, which, hitherto had been regarded as exclusive responsibility of state owned institution, is enumerated

  6. Personnel Management theories and applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanni Feng

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1.Introduction Many new businesses are opened in the whole world every day.Unfortunately,only a minor part of them has success and continues its activity.There is a variety of reasons which determine the hankruptcy of companies.Most of them are included in running a business,and more and more people come to realize the significance of management,especially personnel management,as personnel represents the relationship between people in the company,which is a key point for the development of enterprise.

  7. Personnel Risks in Ensuring Safety of Medical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. L. Zadvornaya

    2017-01-01

    development. System of human resources risk management in the healthcare organization is an important management tool, which promotes social responsibility of medical institutions to the society and improves the safety of medical activity. The process of personnel risk management begins at the stage of development of strategy of management of medical organization applies to all levels of management and includes mechanisms for the identification, monitoring and controlling HR risks that could adversely affect the medical activities of the organization. The security system of medical practice is closely connected with the management of the quality of medical care, quality of resource provision of medical organization, quality of organizational and technological processes of medical activities and quality of performance - results of medical activities, reflecting the degree of satisfaction of the needs and requests of patients. Significant role in minimizing personnel risk is the system of motivation and stimulation of work of medical workers, taking into account the specifics of certain categories of workers. 

  8. Minimalism. Clip and Save.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Provides background information on the art movement called "Minimalism" discussing why it started and its characteristics. Includes learning activities and information on the artist, Donald Judd. Includes a reproduction of one of his art works and discusses its content. (CMK)

  9. Ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2011-10-30

    A Laguerre minimal surface is an immersed surface in ℝ 3 being an extremal of the functional ∫ (H 2/K-1)dA. In the present paper, we prove that the only ruled Laguerre minimal surfaces are up to isometry the surfaces ℝ (φλ) = (Aφ, Bφ, Cφ + D cos 2φ) + λ(sin φ, cos φ, 0), where A,B,C,D ε ℝ are fixed. To achieve invariance under Laguerre transformations, we also derive all Laguerre minimal surfaces that are enveloped by a family of cones. The methodology is based on the isotropic model of Laguerre geometry. In this model a Laguerre minimal surface enveloped by a family of cones corresponds to a graph of a biharmonic function carrying a family of isotropic circles. We classify such functions by showing that the top view of the family of circles is a pencil. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Minimal and careful processing

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Thorkild

    2004-01-01

    In several standards, guidelines and publications, organic food processing is strongly associated with "minimal processing" and "careful processing". The term "minimal processing" is nowadays often used in the general food processing industry and described in literature. The term "careful processing" is used more specifically within organic food processing but is not yet clearly defined. The concept of carefulness seems to fit very well with the processing of organic foods, especially if it i...

  11. Ethnic Minority Personnel Careers: Hindrances and Hopes

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, Catharine

    2004-01-01

    Personnel departments often have particular responsibility for equal opportunities within their organizations. This paper explores equal opportunities within personnel departments themselves, in relation to the careers of ethnic minority personnel practitioners. Through primary research, it identifies a range of criteria which can affect personnel careers, of which ethnic origin is often one. However, although being categorized as of ethnic minority origin often hinders personnel careers, the...

  12. Basis scheme of personnel training system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rerucha, F.; Odehnal, J.

    1998-01-01

    Basic scheme of the training system for NPP personnel of CEZ-EDU personnel training system is described in detail. This includes: specific training both basic and periodic, and professional training meaning specialized and continuous training. The following schemes are shown: licence acquisition and authorisation for PWR-440 Control Room Personnel; upgrade training for job positions of Control Room personnel; maintaining and refresh training; module training for certificate acquisition of servicing shift and operating personnel

  13. Tenth ORNL Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaja, R.E.; Chou, T.L.; Sims, C.S.; Greene, R.T.

    1985-03-01

    The Tenth Personnel Dosimetry Intercomparison Study was conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory during April 9-11, 1984. Dosemeter badges from 31 participating organizations were mounted on 40cm Lucite phantoms and exposed to a range of dose equivalents which could be encountered during routine personnel monitoring in mixed radiation fields. The Health Physics Research Reactor served as the only source of radiation for eight of the ten irradiations which included a low (approx. 0.50 mSv) and high (approx. 10.00 mSv) neutron dose equivalent run for each of four shield conditions. Two irradiations were also conducted for which concrete- and Lucite-shield reactor irradiations were gamma-enhanced using a 137 Cs source. Results indicated that some participants had difficulty obtaining measurable indication of neutron and gamma exposures at dose equivalents less than about 0.50 mSv and 0.20 mSv, respectively. Albedo dosemeters provided the best overall accuracy and precision for the neutron measurements. Direct interaction TLD systems showed significant variation in accuracy with incident spectrum, and threshold neutron dosemeters (film and recoil track) underestimated reference values by more than 50%. Gamma dose equivalents estimated in the mixed fields were higher than reference values with TL gamma dosemeters generally yielding more accurate results than film. Under the conditions of this study in which participants had information concerning exposure conditions and radiation field characteristics prior to dosemeter evaluation, only slightly more than half of all reported results met regulatory standards for neutron and gamma accuracy. 19 refs., 2 figs., 29 tabs

  14. Study of personnel monitoring programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, Aline B.; Lorenzini, Fabiane; Carlos, Janaina; Bernasiuk, Maria E.B.; Rizzatti, Mara R.; Fuentefria, Jose L.B.

    1996-01-01

    Surveillance of several health institutions who use ionizing radiation sources, as well as data from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) are studied concerning the use of personnel dosimeters. The results show that several institutions do not provide them and those which provide do not know how to use them

  15. Rights & Responsibilities. Personnel Management Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Gale; And Others

    This module on rights and responsibilities is intended to introduce the hospitality manager or supervisor to sound personnel management practices that comply with the law. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in seven sections. At the beginning of each section is a statement of the objectives that will be achieved as a result…

  16. Project Management Personnel Competencies Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul POCATILU

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available An important factor for the success management of IT projects is the human resource. People involved in the project management process have to be evaluated. In order to do that, same criteria has to be specified. This paper describes some aspects regarding the personnel evaluation.

  17. Pulmonary function test in traffic police personnel in Pondicherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Pravati; John, Robert A; Dutta, T K; Pal, G K

    2010-01-01

    Traffic policemen working in the busy traffic signal areas get exposed to the vehicular emissions for years together. The fumes, chemicals and particles present in the emission are reported to be damaging to the lung functions of these individuals. Since there were no data available on the PFT parameters of traffic police personnel of Pondicherry, this study was taken up to assess the effect of traffic air pollution on their pulmonary functions. PFT parameters were recorded in age- and BMI-matched 30 traffic police personnel (study group) and 30 general police personnel (control group) of male gender. As chronic smoking is known to be a critical factor in altering lung function, PFT parameters were compared between the smokers as well as nonsmokers of both the groups. In nonsmokers, there was significant decrease in VC (P traffic police personnel compared to the general police personnel. This may be due to exposure to vehicular pollution for several hours in a day for many years causing decreased functional capacity of the lungs and chronic smoking worsens the condition.

  18. Predictors of radiation exposure to providers during percutaneous nephrolithotomy

    OpenAIRE

    David L Wenzler; Joel E Abbott; Jeannie J Su; William Shi; Richard Slater; Daniel Miller; Michelle J Siemens; Roger L Sur

    2017-01-01

    Background: Limited studies have reported on radiation risks of increased ionizing radiation exposure to medical personnel in the urologic community. Fluoroscopy is readily used in many urologic surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to determine radiation exposure to all operating room personnel during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL), commonly performed for large renal or complex stones. Materials and Methods: We prospectively collected personnel exposure data for all PNL cases at...

  19. Waste minimization assessment procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellythorne, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    Perry Nuclear Power Plant began developing a waste minimization plan early in 1991. In March of 1991 the plan was documented following a similar format to that described in the EPA Waste Minimization Opportunity Assessment Manual. Initial implementation involved obtaining management's commitment to support a waste minimization effort. The primary assessment goal was to identify all hazardous waste streams and to evaluate those streams for minimization opportunities. As implementation of the plan proceeded, non-hazardous waste streams routinely generated in large volumes were also evaluated for minimization opportunities. The next step included collection of process and facility data which would be useful in helping the facility accomplish its assessment goals. This paper describes the resources that were used and which were most valuable in identifying both the hazardous and non-hazardous waste streams that existed on site. For each material identified as a waste stream, additional information regarding the materials use, manufacturer, EPA hazardous waste number and DOT hazard class was also gathered. Once waste streams were evaluated for potential source reduction, recycling, re-use, re-sale, or burning for heat recovery, with disposal as the last viable alternative

  20. Minimal quantization and confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilieva, N.P.; Kalinowskij, Yu.L.; Nguyen Suan Han; Pervushin, V.N.

    1987-01-01

    A ''minimal'' version of the Hamiltonian quantization based on the explicit solution of the Gauss equation and on the gauge-invariance principle is considered. By the example of the one-particle Green function we show that the requirement for gauge invariance leads to relativistic covariance of the theory and to more proper definition of the Faddeev - Popov integral that does not depend on the gauge choice. The ''minimal'' quantization is applied to consider the gauge-ambiguity problem and a new topological mechanism of confinement

  1. Minimal Composite Inflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Channuie, Phongpichit; Jark Joergensen, Jakob; Sannino, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    We investigate models in which the inflaton emerges as a composite field of a four dimensional, strongly interacting and nonsupersymmetric gauge theory featuring purely fermionic matter. We show that it is possible to obtain successful inflation via non-minimal coupling to gravity, and that the u......We investigate models in which the inflaton emerges as a composite field of a four dimensional, strongly interacting and nonsupersymmetric gauge theory featuring purely fermionic matter. We show that it is possible to obtain successful inflation via non-minimal coupling to gravity...

  2. Minimalism and Speakers’ Intuitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Gariazzo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Minimalism proposes a semantics that does not account for speakers’ intuitions about the truth conditions of a range of sentences or utterances. Thus, a challenge for this view is to offer an explanation of how its assignment of semantic contents to these sentences is grounded in their use. Such an account was mainly offered by Soames, but also suggested by Cappelen and Lepore. The article criticizes this explanation by presenting four kinds of counterexamples to it, and arrives at the conclusion that minimalism has not successfully answered the above-mentioned challenge.

  3. Minimal open strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosomichi, Kazuo

    2008-01-01

    We study FZZT-branes and open string amplitudes in (p, q) minimal string theory. We focus on the simplest boundary changing operators in two-matrix models, and identify the corresponding operators in worldsheet theory through the comparison of amplitudes. Along the way, we find a novel linear relation among FZZT boundary states in minimal string theory. We also show that the boundary ground ring is realized on physical open string operators in a very simple manner, and discuss its use for perturbative computation of higher open string amplitudes.

  4. Integrated Personnel and Pay System-Army Increment 2 (IPPS-A Inc 2)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    system maintenance, and minimizing pay discrepancies . IPPS-A Inc 2 will account for status changes between Active, Reserve, and National Guard components...2016 Major Automated Information System Annual Report Integrated Personnel and Pay System-Army Increment 2 (IPPS-A Inc 2) Defense Acquisition...703-325-3747 DSN Phone: 865-2915 DSN Fax: 221-3747 Date Assigned: May 2, 2014 Program Information Program Name Integrated Personnel and Pay System

  5. Unique safety manual for experimental personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busick, D.D.; Warren, G.J.

    1979-01-01

    Within a few months of the discovery of x-rays the first radiation injuries were reported (ta71). During the past thirty years both the number and complexity of x-ray analytical units have increased markedly. The world-wide number of incidents leading to severe injury has also increased. For analytical x-ray machines the need for engineered and administrative safeguards has long been recognized. At Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) the personnel protection system has been carefully designed to maximize safety and minimize experimental interference. However, all possible experimental configurations cannot be anticipated and some interference is to be expected. There are means by which safeguards can be substituted as long as these substitutions do not degrade the existing degree of safety. any substitutions must be evaluated by the Radiation Safety Committee, the SSRL staff and Operational Health Physics. Some studies have indicated that between fifty and ninety percent of serious radiation accidents are directly related to human errors, i.e., ignoring administrative proccedures, by-passing engineered safeguards or by inadequate training. Lindell has estimated the annual probability of serious injury to be about 1:100 per macchine. No matter what the real probability of serious injury is the personnel protection system should reduce this risk to a value that approaches zero. It is hoped that this manual will bring into sharper focus some of the more serious results of unnecessary risk taking. We also hope that it will convey the very real necessity for safeguards which may at times appear to be arbitrary and unnecessary impediments to experimental purposes

  6. The personnel dosimetry record keeping system at AEE Winfrith

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gill, D.W.

    1979-09-01

    Since May 1978 the exposure of personnel to external radiation has been assessed by Thermoluminescent Dosimetry, (TLD). The dosemeter consists of a TLD card similar to that used by the National Radiological Protection Board, held in a plastic badge designed at AEE Winfrith, and used in conjunction with a D A Pitman Ltd Type 605 Automatic Reader. The report describes the dosemeter, the operation of the dosimetry service and the system for maintaining a computerised record keeping system. (author)

  7. Evaluation of a real-time personnel and material tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trujillo, A.A.; Hoover, C.E.; Garcia, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Past experience in addressing the insider threat has led to the development of general principles for mitigating the insider threat while minimizing adverse impacts on site operations. Among the general principles developed was the requirement of a real-time personnel and material tracking system. A real-time system for personnel and material tracking will aid in mitigating the insider threat by providing critical information regarding the movement and location of personnel and material. In addition, this system can provide an early detection mechanism for potential insider actions. A system integrating Radio Frequency (RF) transmitters for real-time personnel and material tracking has been developed. This system was installed and tested in an operational environment. This test was intended to demonstrate the system's ability to successfully control access to material and areas by personnel, as well as providing information regarding the status of materials in transit and storage

  8. Minimal model holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaberdiel, Matthias R; Gopakumar, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    We review the duality relating 2D W N minimal model conformal field theories, in a large-N ’t Hooft like limit, to higher spin gravitational theories on AdS 3 . This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Higher spin theories and holography’. (review)

  9. Minimal constrained supergravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cribiori, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Dall' Agata, G., E-mail: dallagat@pd.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Farakos, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “Galileo Galilei”, Università di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova, Via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova (Italy); Porrati, M. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States)

    2017-01-10

    We describe minimal supergravity models where supersymmetry is non-linearly realized via constrained superfields. We show that the resulting actions differ from the so called “de Sitter” supergravities because we consider constraints eliminating directly the auxiliary fields of the gravity multiplet.

  10. Hazardous waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.

    1990-01-01

    This book presents an overview of waste minimization. Covers applications of technology to waste reduction, techniques for implementing programs, incorporation of programs into R and D, strategies for private industry and the public sector, and case studies of programs already in effect

  11. Minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Røsok, Bård I.; de Rooij, Thijs; van Hilst, Jony; Diener, Markus K.; Allen, Peter J.; Vollmer, Charles M.; Kooby, David A.; Shrikhande, Shailesh V.; Asbun, Horacio J.; Barkun, Jeffrey; Besselink, Marc G.; Boggi, Ugo; Conlon, Kevin; Han, Ho Seong; Hansen, Paul; Kendrick, Michael L.; Kooby, David; Montagnini, Andre L.; Palanivelu, Chinnasamy; Wakabayashi, Go; Zeh, Herbert J.

    2017-01-01

    The first International conference on Minimally Invasive Pancreas Resection was arranged in conjunction with the annual meeting of the International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association (IHPBA), in Sao Paulo, Brazil on April 19th 2016. The presented evidence and outcomes resulting from the session

  12. Minimal DBM Substraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, Alexandre; Håkansson, John; G. Larsen, Kim

    In this paper we present an algorithm to compute DBM substractions with a guaranteed minimal number of splits and disjoint DBMs to avoid any redundance. The substraction is one of the few operations that result in a non-convex zone, and thus, requires splitting. It is of prime importance to reduce...

  13. Minimal constrained supergravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Cribiori

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe minimal supergravity models where supersymmetry is non-linearly realized via constrained superfields. We show that the resulting actions differ from the so called “de Sitter” supergravities because we consider constraints eliminating directly the auxiliary fields of the gravity multiplet.

  14. Minimal constrained supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cribiori, N.; Dall'Agata, G.; Farakos, F.; Porrati, M.

    2017-01-01

    We describe minimal supergravity models where supersymmetry is non-linearly realized via constrained superfields. We show that the resulting actions differ from the so called “de Sitter” supergravities because we consider constraints eliminating directly the auxiliary fields of the gravity multiplet.

  15. Current personnel dosimetry practices at DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fix, J.J.

    1981-05-01

    Only three parameters were included in the personnel occupational exposure records by all facilities. These are employee name, social security number, and whole body dose. Approximate percentages of some other parameters included in the record systems are sex (50%), birthdate (90%), occupation (26%), previous employer radiation exposure (74%), etc. Statistical analysis of the data for such parameters as sex versus dose distribution, age versus dose distribution, cumulative lifetime dose, etc. was apparently seldom done. Less than 50% of the facilities reported having formal documentation for either the dosimeter, records system, or reader. Slightly greater than 50% of facilities reported having routine procedures in place. These are considered maximum percentages because some respondents considered computer codes as formal documentation. The repository receives data from DOE facilities regarding the (a) distribution of annual whole body doses, (b) significant internal depositions, and (c) individual doses upon termination. It is expected that numerous differences exist in the dose data submitted by the different facilities. Areas of significant differences would likely include the determination of non-measurable doses, the methods used to determine previous employer radiation dose, the methods of determining cumulative radiation dose, and assessment of internal doses. Undoubtedly, the accuracy of the different dosimetry systems, especially at low doses, is very important to the credibility of data summaries (e.g., man-rem) provided by the repository

  16. National Institutes of Health: Mixed waste minimization and treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    The Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission requested the US Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) to assist the biomedical community in becoming more knowledgeable about its mixed waste streams, to help minimize the mixed waste stream generated by the biomedical community, and to identify applicable treatment technologies for these mixed waste streams. As the first step in the waste minimization process, liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLMW) streams generated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) were characterized and combined into similar process categories. This report identifies possible waste minimization and treatment approaches for the LLMW generated by the biomedical community identified in DOE/LLW-208. In development of the report, on site meetings were conducted with NIH personnel responsible for generating each category of waste identified as lacking disposal options. Based on the meetings and general waste minimization guidelines, potential waste minimization options were identified

  17. National Institutes of Health: Mixed waste minimization and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission requested the US Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) to assist the biomedical community in becoming more knowledgeable about its mixed waste streams, to help minimize the mixed waste stream generated by the biomedical community, and to identify applicable treatment technologies for these mixed waste streams. As the first step in the waste minimization process, liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLMW) streams generated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) were characterized and combined into similar process categories. This report identifies possible waste minimization and treatment approaches for the LLMW generated by the biomedical community identified in DOE/LLW-208. In development of the report, on site meetings were conducted with NIH personnel responsible for generating each category of waste identified as lacking disposal options. Based on the meetings and general waste minimization guidelines, potential waste minimization options were identified.

  18. Essential themes in Personnel economics

    OpenAIRE

    Josheski, Dushko

    2014-01-01

    In this paper are presented essential themes in the subject of personnel economics. In the first part analysis has been conducted on the impact of peer pressure on workplace behaviour. Then again models for compensation structures within firms, and their influence on the utility of work by employees. In the final section of the paper the productivity spillover effect has been analyzed, and the causes of existence of spillovers and their impact on workers’ productivity

  19. The LHC personnel safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninin, P.; Valentini, F.; Ladzinski, T.

    2011-01-01

    Large particle physics installations such as the CERN Large Hadron Collider require specific Personnel Safety Systems (PSS) to protect the personnel against the radiological and industrial hazards. In order to fulfill the French regulation in matter of nuclear installations, the principles of IEC 61508 and IEC 61513 standard are used as a methodology framework to evaluate the criticality of the installation, to design and to implement the PSS.The LHC PSS deals with the implementation of all physical barriers, access controls and interlock devices around the 27 km of underground tunnel, service zones and experimental caverns of the LHC. The system shall guarantee the absence of personnel in the LHC controlled areas during the machine operations and, on the other hand, ensure the automatic accelerator shutdown in case of any safety condition violation, such as an intrusion during beam circulation. The LHC PSS has been conceived as two separate and independent systems: the LHC Access Control System (LACS) and the LHC Access Safety System (LASS). The LACS, using off the shelf technologies, realizes all physical barriers and regulates all accesses to the underground areas by identifying users and checking their authorizations.The LASS has been designed according to the principles of the IEC 61508 and 61513 standards, starting from a risk analysis conducted on the LHC facility equipped with a standard access control system. It consists in a set of safety functions realized by a dedicated fail-safe and redundant hardware guaranteed to be of SIL3 class. The integration of various technologies combining electronics, sensors, video and operational procedures adopted to establish an efficient personnel safety system for the CERN LHC accelerator is presented in this paper. (authors)

  20. Career path for operations personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asher, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper explains how selected personnel can now obtain a Bachelor of Science degree in Physics with a Nuclear Power Operations option. The program went into effect the Fall of 1984. Another program was worked out in 1982 whereby students attending the Nuclear Operators Training Program could obtain an Associates of Science degree in Mechanical Engineering Technology at the end of two years of study. This paper presents tables and charts which describe these programs and outline the career path for operators

  1. Moral distress in nursing personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Barlem,Edison Luiz Devos; Lunardi,Valéria Lerch; Lunardi,Guilherme Lerch; Tomaschewski-Barlem,Jamila Geri; Silveira,Rosemary Silva da; Dalmolin,Graziele de Lima

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyze the frequency and intensity of moral distress experienced by nursing personnel in southern Brazil, covering elements of their professional practice. METHOD: a survey was undertaken in two hospitals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with 247 nurses. Data was collected by means of the adapted Moral Distress Scale. RESULTS: the perception of situations that lead to moral distress is enhanced in nurses and in nursing staff working in institutions with greater openness to dialogu...

  2. 77 FR 13206 - Protective Force Personnel Medical, Physical Readiness, Training, and Access Authorization Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... reduction in exposure to potential injuries associated with physical readiness qualification running tests... personnel to perform the running tasks required in the current regulation. Furthermore, this shift in... reduce the exposure of the PF population to injuries related to physical readiness testing. They would...

  3. National Finance Center Personnel/Payroll System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The NFC system is an USDA system used for processing transactions for payroll/personnel systems. Personnel processing is done through EPIC/HCUP, which is web-based....

  4. LOW-COST PERSONNEL DOSIMETER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    specification was achieved by simplifying and improving the basic Bendix dosimeter design, using plastics for component parts, minimizing direct labor, and making the instrument suitable for automated processing and assembly. (Author)

  5. Occupational radiation exposure in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    Full text: This symposium forms an essential part of the continuing tradition of subjecting nuclear energy to periodic review to assess the adequacy of radiation protection practices and experiences and to identify those areas needing further study and development. Specifically, the symposium focused on a review of statistical data on radiation exposure experience to workers in the nuclear fuel cycle through 1978. The technical sessions were concerned with occupational exposures: experienced in Member States; in research and development facilities; in nuclear power plants; in nuclear Fuel reprocessing facilities; in waste management facilities; and techniques to minimize doses. A critical review was made of internal and external exposures to the following occupational groups: uranium miners; mill workers; fuel fabricators; research personnel, reactor workers; maintenance staff; hot cell workers; reprocessing plant personnel; waste management personnel. In particular, attention was devoted to the work activities causing the highest radiation exposures and successful techniques which have been used to minimize individual and collective doses. Also there was an exchange of information on the trends of occupational exposure over the lifespan of individual nuclear power plants and other facilities in the nuclear fuel cycle. During the last session there was a detailed panel discussion on the conclusions and future needs highlighted during the symposium. While past symposia on nuclear power and its fuel cycle have presented data on occupational dose statistics, this symposium was the first to focus attention on the experience and trends of occupational exposure in recent years. The papers presented an authoritative account of the status of the levels and trends of the average annual individual dose as well as the annual collective dose for occupational workers in most of the world up to 1979. From the data presented it became evident that considerable progress has been

  6. 10 CFR 36.55 - Personnel monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personnel monitoring. 36.55 Section 36.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Operation of Irradiators § 36.55 Personnel monitoring. (a) Irradiator operators shall wear a personnel dosimeter that is...

  7. 49 CFR 193.2711 - Personnel health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personnel health. 193.2711 Section 193.2711 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Personnel Qualifications and Training § 193.2711 Personnel health. Each operator...

  8. Personnel Development Practices in Turkish Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Tuncay Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays everything develops and changes very quickly and sustainability of organizational goals will be possible only when personnel can keep up with these changes. From administrative aspect it is important to enhance personnel's potential and prompt them to achieve organizational goals. Personnel development is a process which influences and…

  9. Minimal abdominal incisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Magi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive procedures aim to resolve the disease with minimal trauma to the body, resulting in a rapid return to activities and in reductions of infection, complications, costs and pain. Minimally incised laparotomy, sometimes referred to as minilaparotomy, is an example of such minimally invasive procedures. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of laparotomy with minimal incision based on the literature and exemplifying with a case. The case in question describes reconstruction of the intestinal transit with the use of this incision. Male, young, HIV-positive patient in a late postoperative of ileotiflectomy, terminal ileostomy and closing of the ascending colon by an acute perforating abdomen, due to ileocolonic tuberculosis. The barium enema showed a proximal stump of the right colon near the ileostomy. The access to the cavity was made through the orifice resulting from the release of the stoma, with a lateral-lateral ileo-colonic anastomosis with a 25 mm circular stapler and manual closure of the ileal stump. These surgeries require their own tactics, such as rigor in the lysis of adhesions, tissue traction, and hemostasis, in addition to requiring surgeon dexterity – but without the need for investments in technology; moreover, the learning curve is reported as being lower than that for videolaparoscopy. Laparotomy with minimal incision should be considered as a valid and viable option in the treatment of surgical conditions. Resumo: Procedimentos minimamente invasivos visam resolver a doença com o mínimo de trauma ao organismo, resultando em retorno rápido às atividades, reduções nas infecções, complicações, custos e na dor. A laparotomia com incisão mínima, algumas vezes referida como minilaparotomia, é um exemplo desses procedimentos minimamente invasivos. O objetivo deste trabalho é demonstrar a viabilidade e utilidade das laparotomias com incisão mínima com base na literatura e

  10. Minimal Walking Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foadi, Roshan; Frandsen, Mads Toudal; A. Ryttov, T.

    2007-01-01

    Different theoretical and phenomenological aspects of the Minimal and Nonminimal Walking Technicolor theories have recently been studied. The goal here is to make the models ready for collider phenomenology. We do this by constructing the low energy effective theory containing scalars......, pseudoscalars, vector mesons and other fields predicted by the minimal walking theory. We construct their self-interactions and interactions with standard model fields. Using the Weinberg sum rules, opportunely modified to take into account the walking behavior of the underlying gauge theory, we find...... interesting relations for the spin-one spectrum. We derive the electroweak parameters using the newly constructed effective theory and compare the results with the underlying gauge theory. Our analysis is sufficiently general such that the resulting model can be used to represent a generic walking technicolor...

  11. Jet Fuel Exposure and Neurological Health in Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    MACA ) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) in Hank’s Balanced Salr Solution {H BSS) or HBSS alone. Mice were sacrificed alTer I, 3, G. 12. I R and 24h...isolated from lung tissue for microarmy analysis and RT-PCR. MACA .tdmini>tratiun induced a rapid increase in HALF ncutrophils, lymphocytes...produc- tion, signaling. infl:unmarory cell recruitment, adh..-.ion and activation in 3h and 12h MACA -tre:lted samples as compared to BSA or HBSS

  12. Personnel dosimetry in internal radiation exposure by excretory radionuclide measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balonov, M.I.; Bruk, G.Ya.; Korelina, N.F.; Likhtarev, I.A.; Repin, V.S.

    1986-01-01

    The collaboration with the SAAS resulted in the development of a mathematical method to calculate radiation doses in human tissues attributed to inhaled radionuclides concerning their retention dynamics in the respiratory system and their uptake into the blood as well as the metabolic pathways in the organs. 'Sanep-stations' and radiation protection service elaborated nomograms for the determination of the commitment doses in the critical organs based on the radionuclide content of a 24-hours urinalysis without intermediate calculations. Recommendations for the use of the method and the nomograms for various radionuclides (solubility classes D and N with MAAD of 1 and 10 μm) are given in the methodological document: 'Indirect dosimetry of inhaled radionuclides in workers'. A calculation method for the annual dose of internal irradiation in tritium workers is also cited

  13. Jet Fuel Exposure and Neurological Health in Military Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    industry to prevent the proliferation of sapstain fungi . Workers involved in the treatment process or handling treated timber are known to have...immediately following the work- shift. The pre- and post-shift urine samples were collected in 90 mL polyethylene specimen containers, wrapped in foil, and

  14. Personnel neutron dose assessment upgrade: Volume 1, Personnel neutron dosimetry assessment: [Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadlock, D.E.; Brackenbush, L.W.; Griffith, R.V.; Hankins, D.E.; Parkhurst, M.A.; Stroud, C.M.; Faust, L.G.; Vallario, E.J.

    1988-07-01

    This report provides guidance on the characteristics, use, and calibration criteria for personnel neutron dosimeters. The report is applicable for neutrons with energies ranging from thermal to less than 20 MeV. Background for general neutron dosimetry requirements is provided, as is relevant federal regulations and other standards. The characteristics of personnel neutron dosimeters are discussed, with particular attention paid to passive neutron dosimetry systems. Two of the systems discussed are used at DOE and DOE-contractor facilities (nuclear track emulsion and thermoluminescent-albedo) and another (the combination TLD/TED) was recently developed. Topics discussed in the field applications of these dosimeters include their theory of operation, their processing, readout, and interpretation, and their advantages and disadvantages for field use. The procedures required for occupational neutron dosimetry are discussed, including radiation monitoring and the wearing of dosimeters, their exchange periods, dose equivalent evaluations, and the documenting of neutron exposures. The coverage of dosimeter testing, maintenance, and calibration includes guidance on the selection of calibration sources, the effects of irradiation geometries, lower limits of detectability, fading, frequency of calibration, spectrometry, and quality control. 49 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs

  15. Post-deployment family violence among UK military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Jamie; Jones, Margaret; Somaini, Greta; Hull, Lisa; Wessely, Simon; Fear, Nicola T; MacManus, Deirdre

    2017-12-19

    Research into violence among military personnel has not differentiated between stranger- and family-directed violence. While military factors (combat exposure and post-deployment mental health problems) are risk factors for general violence, there has been limited research on their impact on violence within the family environment. This study aims to compare the prevalence of family-directed and stranger-directed violence among a deployed sample of UK military personnel and to explore risk factors associated with both family- and stranger-directed violence. This study utilised data from a large cohort study which collected information by questionnaire from a representative sample of randomly selected deployed UK military personnel (n = 6711). The prevalence of family violence immediately following return from deployment was 3.6% and 7.8% for stranger violence. Family violence was significantly associated with having left service, while stranger violence was associated with younger age, male gender, being single, having a history of antisocial behaviour as well as having left service. Deployment in a combat role was significantly associated with both family and stranger violence after adjustment for confounders [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.92 (1.25-2.94), p = 0.003 and aOR = 1.77 (1.31-2.40), p violence both inside and outside the family environment and should be considered in violence reduction programmes for military personnel. Further research using a validated measurement tool for family violence would improve comparability with other research.

  16. Legal incentives for minimizing waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clearwater, S.W.; Scanlon, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Waste minimization, or pollution prevention, has become an integral component of federal and state environmental regulation. Minimizing waste offers many economic and public relations benefits. In addition, waste minimization efforts can also dramatically reduce potential criminal requirements. This paper addresses the legal incentives for minimizing waste under current and proposed environmental laws and regulations

  17. Evaluation of the neutron dose received by personnel at the LLNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hankins, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    This report was prepared to document the techniques being used to evaluate the neutron exposures received by personnel at the LLNL. Two types of evaluations are discussed covering the use of the routine personnel dosimeter and of the albedo neutron dosimeter. Included in the report are field survey results which were used to determine the calibration factors being applied to the dosimeter readings. Calibration procedures are discussed and recommendations are made on calibration and evaluation procedures

  18. Review of the current deficiencies in personnel beta dosimetry, with recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherbini, S.; Porter, S.W.

    1983-06-01

    The report describes the design and use of personnel dosimeters used by the nuclear power industry to monitor occupational radiation exposure. It then shows why the monitoring method is inaccurate when personnel are exposed to beta particles. Then the report describes alternatives that would lead to improved measurements. The report also critiques the dosimetry processor testing criteria developed by the Health Physics Society Standards Committee. Survey instruments are shown often to be inaccurate when used to measure beta dose rates

  19. The ZOOM minimization package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischler, Mark S.; Sachs, D.

    2004-01-01

    A new object-oriented Minimization package is available for distribution in the same manner as CLHEP. This package, designed for use in HEP applications, has all the capabilities of Minuit, but is a re-write from scratch, adhering to modern C++ design principles. A primary goal of this package is extensibility in several directions, so that its capabilities can be kept fresh with as little maintenance effort as possible. This package is distinguished by the priority that was assigned to C++ design issues, and the focus on producing an extensible system that will resist becoming obsolete

  20. Minimizing the Pacman effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritson, D.; Chou, W.

    1997-10-01

    The Pacman bunches will experience two deleterious effects: tune shift and orbit displacement. It is known that the tune shift can be compensated by arranging crossing planes 900 relative to each other at successive interaction points (lPs). This paper gives an analytical estimate of the Pacman orbit displacement for a single as well as for two crossings. For the latter, it can be minimized by using equal phase advances from one IP to another. In the LHC, this displacement is in any event small and can be neglected

  1. Minimally Invasive Parathyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee F. Starker

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP is an operative approach for the treatment of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT. Currently, routine use of improved preoperative localization studies, cervical block anesthesia in the conscious patient, and intraoperative parathyroid hormone analyses aid in guiding surgical therapy. MIP requires less surgical dissection causing decreased trauma to tissues, can be performed safely in the ambulatory setting, and is at least as effective as standard cervical exploration. This paper reviews advances in preoperative localization, anesthetic techniques, and intraoperative management of patients undergoing MIP for the treatment of pHPT.

  2. Experience from cooperation of medical surveillance personnel and hygiene services in North Moravian Region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillova, J.

    1988-01-01

    Surveillance in health car institutions with sources of ionizing radiation is discussed. A special group of workers who sat for examinations and were trained in special courses was selected. A number of special publications are put out in the field of radiation protection. Surveillance personnel visit the individual workplaces and point out any shortcomings in the observance of radiation protection principles. Demonstration dosimetry is carried out in the vicinity of radiation sources. Attention is also devoted to radiation technology, and significant exposures of personnel are examined. Also mentioned are the problems of radiaton protection in the region and possible improvement of the work of surveillance personnel. (M.D.)

  3. Determining the lower limit of detection for personnel dosimetry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, P.L.; Carlson, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    A simple method for determining the lower limit of detection (LLD) for personnel dosimetry systems is described. The method relies on the definition of a critical level and a detection level. The critical level is the signal level above which a result has a small probability of being due to a fluctuation of the background. All results below the critical level should not be reported as an indication of a positive result. The detection level is the net signal level (i.e., dose received) above which there is a high confidence that a true reading will be detected and reported as a qualitatively positive result. The detection level may be identified as the LLD. A simple formula is derived to allow the calculation of the LLD under various conditions. This type of formula is being used by the Department of Energy Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) for personnel dosimetry. Participants in either the National Voluntary Laboratory Accreditation Program (NVLAP) for personnel dosimetry or DOELAP can use performance test results along with a measurement of background levels to estimate the LLDs for their dosimetry system. As long as they maintain their dosimetry system such that the LLDs are less than half the lower limit of the NVLAP or DOELAP test exposure ranges, dosimetry laboratories can avoid testing failures due to poor performance at very low exposures

  4. Objective Assessment of Sunburn and Minimal Erythema Doses: Comparison of Noninvasive In Vivo Measuring Techniques after UVB Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Pei-Yu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Military personnel movement is exposed to solar radiation and sunburn is a major problem which can cause lost workdays and lead to disciplinary action. This study was designed to identify correlation parameters in evaluating in vivo doses and epidermis changes following sunburn inflammation. Several noninvasive bioengineering techniques have made objective evaluations possible. The volar forearms of healthy volunteers ( , 2 areas, 20 mm in diameter, were irradiated with UVB 100 mj/ and 200 mj/ , respectively. The skin changes were recorded by several monitored techniques before and 24 hours after UV exposures. Our results showed that chromameter value provides more reliable information and can be adopted with mathematical model in predicting the minimal erythema dose (MED which showed lower than visual assessment by 10 mj/ (Pearson correlation coefficient . A more objective measure for evaluation of MED was established for photosensitive subjects' prediction and sunburn risks prevention.

  5. Shift designs for freight handling personnel at air cargo terminals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rong, Aiying; Grunow, Martin

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an integrated mixed integer linear programming (MILP) model for determining manpower requirements and related personnel shift designs for the build-up and break-down of the unit load devices (ULDs) at the air cargo terminal to minimize manpower costs. To utilize the manpower...... resources efficiently, we implement a new mechanism for demand leveling. In addition, we consider the qualification hierarchy between build-up and break-down workers. A case study based on the real-life data shows that the model is useful for manpower planning at air cargo terminals and the integrated...

  6. Improvement of NSSS design to reduce occupational radiation exposure (ORE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubourg, M.

    1985-05-01

    As a result of its R and D activities, FRAMATOME has initiated concrete measures to help to reduce personnel radiation exposure. These measures include reduction in the sources and quantity of activable products, and in the duration of personnel exposure during maintenance

  7. Overview of allied health personnel shortages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood, T W

    1991-01-01

    Upon learning that 95% of all fatal traffic accidents occur within three miles of one's home, an acquaintance moved to another residence four miles away and is still alive today. The world might be a much better place if most obstacles could be overcome this handily. Unfortunately, the problem of allied health personnel shortages appears to be more intractable. Because the situation is complicated in nature, it is most unlikely that any single remedy will suffice. Public and private interests have joined forces in many states, but it is abundantly clear that conventional market forces are unlikely to prevail. These forces usually focus on supply and demand. While shortages may cause entry-level salaries to rise, they do not stimulate academic institutions to increase their output nor will they affect the availability of research funding and/or doctoral training programs. Current market forces compel health facilities to engage in bidding wars for scarce manpower. Although individual job seekers may benefit, this practice does not increase the number of training program graduates. The federal government has a decisive role to play in assuring an adequate number of personnel to meet this nation's health care needs. Assistance is necessary in the form of providing entry- and advanced-level traineeships to accelerate the flow of part-time students pursuing doctorates, and to fund model student recruitment/retention projects. This role should encompass attracting students (particularly from minority and underserved portions of the population) to academic programs. The Disadvantaged Minority Health Improvement Act, PL 101-527 that was enacted in November 1990, contains only minimal provisions for allied health. Eligibility for student scholarship assistance is restricted to a small handful of allied health professions. Moreover, allied health is not eligible for the loan repayment program aimed at individuals who agree to serve on the faculty of health professions

  8. Ionizing radiation and legislation for personnel - Annex B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, Jose Ubiratan

    2013-01-01

    This annex B presents a chronological approach on the set of laws related to the ionizing radiation personnel. This paper aims to discuss and clarify the main concepts that constitute the current legislation, pointing the scope of each, as well as its ambiguities or inaccuracies. The consequences of those issues discussed are easily noticeable related to difficulties in legal, administrative and human resource management, when seeking their efficient application. We also discuss issues associated with the extent and frequency of the gradient of risk in 5, 10 and 20%, models for assessing potential exposure in a risk area, dose calculation and criteria for defining benefits and framework for irradiation, bonus for activity, special retirement and period of vacations for personnel occupationally exposed within Unified Legal System (Regime Juridico Unico) and the Consolidation of Labor Laws (CLT)

  9. Personnel Neutron Monitoring at AB Atomenergi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagsgaard, S; Widell, C O

    1964-02-15

    The routine personnel monitoring of fast neutrons is carried out by the counting of tracks in a nuclear emulsion. The tracks are counted in a microscope on a projection screen. This is a very tedious job and is only done on irradiated films which are counted over 6 mm{sup 2}. The irradiated films are selected according to the recorded dose on the gamma film. It is often difficult to tell how much the visible tracks have faded during a two-weeks period. Fortunately the fading does not often exceed 20 % for this period. If the dosimeter has been gamma-irradiated, it may be difficult to recognize the proton tracks. If the film is stored for some time before being developed, this gamma fog will to some extent fade away. For large neutron doses a foil activation dosimeter is used. This dosimeter consists of a cadmium-shielded phosphorus foil, a cadmium shielded gold foil and an unshielded gold foil. The phosphorus foil has to be counted shortly after exposure.

  10. Personnel Neutron Monitoring at AB Atomenergi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagsgaard, S.; Widell, C.O.

    1964-02-01

    The routine personnel monitoring of fast neutrons is carried out by the counting of tracks in a nuclear emulsion. The tracks are counted in a microscope on a projection screen. This is a very tedious job and is only done on irradiated films which are counted over 6 mm 2 . The irradiated films are selected according to the recorded dose on the gamma film. It is often difficult to tell how much the visible tracks have faded during a two-weeks period. Fortunately the fading does not often exceed 20 % for this period. If the dosimeter has been gamma-irradiated, it may be difficult to recognize the proton tracks. If the film is stored for some time before being developed, this gamma fog will to some extent fade away. For large neutron doses a foil activation dosimeter is used. This dosimeter consists of a cadmium-shielded phosphorus foil, a cadmium shielded gold foil and an unshielded gold foil. The phosphorus foil has to be counted shortly after exposure

  11. Certification of Canadian nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newbury, F.

    2014-01-01

    The Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) regulates the use of nuclear energy and materials to protect health, safety, security of Canadians and the environment, and to implement Canada's international commitments on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. As part of its mandate, the CNSC requires certification of those who work in positions with direct impact on the safety of Canadian nuclear power plants (NPPs) and research reactors. Other positions, such as exposure device operators and radiation safety officers at other nuclear facilities, also require CNSC certification. In this paper, the certification process of Canadian NPP personnel will be examined. In keeping with the CNSC's regulatory philosophy and international practice, licensees bear the primary responsibility for the safe operation of their NPPs. They are therefore held entirely responsible for training and testing their workers, in accordance with applicable regulatory requirements, to ensure they are fully qualified to perform their duties. The CNSC obtains assurance that all persons it certifies are qualified to carry out their respective duties. It achieves this by overseeing a regime of licensee training programs and certification examinations, which are based on a combination of appropriate regulatory guidance and compliance activities. Reviews of the knowledge-based certification examination methodology and of lessons learned from Fukushima have generated initiatives to further strengthen the CNSC's certification programs for NPP workers. Two of those initiatives are discussed in this paper. (author)

  12. Minimal conformal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmboldt, Alexander; Humbert, Pascal; Lindner, Manfred; Smirnov, Juri [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    The gauge hierarchy problem is one of the crucial drawbacks of the standard model of particle physics (SM) and thus has triggered model building over the last decades. Its most famous solution is the introduction of low-scale supersymmetry. However, without any significant signs of supersymmetric particles at the LHC to date, it makes sense to devise alternative mechanisms to remedy the hierarchy problem. One such mechanism is based on classically scale-invariant extensions of the SM, in which both the electroweak symmetry and the (anomalous) scale symmetry are broken radiatively via the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. Apart from giving an introduction to classically scale-invariant models, the talk presents our results on obtaining a theoretically consistent minimal extension of the SM, which reproduces the correct low-scale phenomenology.

  13. Minimal Reducts with Grasp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iris Iddaly Mendez Gurrola

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The proper detection of patient level of dementia is important to offer the suitable treatment. The diagnosis is based on certain criteria, reflected in the clinical examinations. From these examinations emerge the limitations and the degree in which each patient is in. In order to reduce the total of limitations to be evaluated, we used the rough set theory, this theory has been applied in areas of the artificial intelligence such as decision analysis, expert systems, knowledge discovery, classification with multiple attributes. In our case this theory is applied to find the minimal limitations set or reduct that generate the same classification that considering all the limitations, to fulfill this purpose we development an algorithm GRASP (Greedy Randomized Adaptive Search Procedure.

  14. Minimally extended SILH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chala, Mikael; Grojean, Christophe; Humboldt-Univ. Berlin; Lima, Leonardo de; Univ. Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo

    2017-03-01

    Higgs boson compositeness is a phenomenologically viable scenario addressing the hierarchy problem. In minimal models, the Higgs boson is the only degree of freedom of the strong sector below the strong interaction scale. We present here the simplest extension of such a framework with an additional composite spin-zero singlet. To this end, we adopt an effective field theory approach and develop a set of rules to estimate the size of the various operator coefficients, relating them to the parameters of the strong sector and its structural features. As a result, we obtain the patterns of new interactions affecting both the new singlet and the Higgs boson's physics. We identify the characteristics of the singlet field which cause its effects on Higgs physics to dominate over the ones inherited from the composite nature of the Higgs boson. Our effective field theory construction is supported by comparisons with explicit UV models.

  15. Minimally extended SILH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chala, Mikael [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Valencia Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica y IFIC; Durieux, Gauthier; Matsedonskyi, Oleksii [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Grojean, Christophe [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Humboldt-Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Lima, Leonardo de [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Univ. Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica Teorica

    2017-03-15

    Higgs boson compositeness is a phenomenologically viable scenario addressing the hierarchy problem. In minimal models, the Higgs boson is the only degree of freedom of the strong sector below the strong interaction scale. We present here the simplest extension of such a framework with an additional composite spin-zero singlet. To this end, we adopt an effective field theory approach and develop a set of rules to estimate the size of the various operator coefficients, relating them to the parameters of the strong sector and its structural features. As a result, we obtain the patterns of new interactions affecting both the new singlet and the Higgs boson's physics. We identify the characteristics of the singlet field which cause its effects on Higgs physics to dominate over the ones inherited from the composite nature of the Higgs boson. Our effective field theory construction is supported by comparisons with explicit UV models.

  16. Radiation exposures in reprocessing facilities at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, G.; Caldwell, R.D.; Hall, R.M.

    1979-06-01

    Two large reprocessing facilities have been operating at the Savannah River Plant since 1955. The plant, which is near Aiken, South Carolina, is operated for the US Department of Energy by the Du Pont Company. The reprocessing facilities have a work force of approximately 1,800. The major processes in the facilities are chemical separations of irradiated material, plutonium finishing, and waste management. This paper presents the annual radiation exposure for the reprocessing work force, particularly during the period 1965 through 1978. It also presents the collective and average individual annual exposures for various occupations including operators, mechanics, electricians, control laboratory technicians, and health physicists. Periodic and repetitive work activities that result in the highest radiation exposures are also described. The assimilation of radionuclides, particularly plutonium, by the work force is reviewed. Methods that have been developed to minimize the exposure of reprocessing personnel are described. The success of these methods is illustrated by experience - there has been no individual worker exposure of greater than 3.1 rems per year and only one plutonium assimilation greater than the maximum permissible body burden during the 24 years of operation of the facilities

  17. Radiation exposures in reprocessing facilities at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, G.; Caldwell, R.D.; Hall, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    Two large reprocessing facilities have been operating at the Savannah River Plant since 1955. The plant, which is near Aiken, South Carolina, is operated for the U.S. Department of Energy by the Du Pont Company. The reprocessing facilities have a work force of approximately 1,800. The major processes in the facilities are chemical separations of irradiated material, plutonium finishing, and waste management. This paper presents the annual radiation exposure for the reprocessing work force, particularly during the period 1965 through 1978. It also presents the collective and average individual annual exposures for various occupations including operators, mechanics, electricians, control laboratory technicians, and health physicists. Periodic and repetitive work activities that result in the highest radiation exposures are also described. The assimilation of radionuclides, particularly plutonium, by the work force is reviewed. Methods that have been developed to minimize the exposure of reprocessing personnel are described. The success of these methods is illustrated by experience - there has been no individual worker exposure of greater than 3.1 rems per year and only one plutonium assimilation greater than the maximum permissible body burden during the 24 years of operation of the facilities

  18. Burnout among Danish prison personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Dorte Raaby; Andersen, Lars Peter; Gadegaard, Charlotte Ann

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this follow-up study was to investigate associations between individual, occupational and work environment factors and burnout among both uniformed and non-uniformed personnel working in the Danish Prison and Probation Service. Methods The participants (N = 4808......) with client contact received a questionnaire in 2010 and again in 2011. In 2010, 2843 participants responded to the questionnaire (59.1%), and in 2011, 1741 responded to the questionnaire, yielding a response rate of 61.2% of the baseline population, and 36.2% of the invited population. Burnout and work...... characteristics were measured with validated scales from the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, and data was analysed by logistic regression. Results Risk factors with the highest impact on burnout were work environmental factors: quantitative demands, emotional demands, involvement in and meaning of work...

  19. The Daresbury personnel safety system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poole, D.E.; Ring, T.

    1989-01-01

    The personnel safety system designed for the SRS at Daresbury is a unified system covering the three accelerators of the source itself, the beamlines and the experimental stations. The system has also been applied to the experimental areas of the Nuclear Structure Facility, and is therefore established as a site standard. A dual guardline interlock module forms a building block for a relay based interlock system completely independent of the machine control system, although comprehensive monitoring of the system status via the control system computer is a feature. An outline of the design criteria adopted for the system is presented together with a more detailed description of the philosophy of the guardline logic and the way this is implemented in a standard modular form. The emphasis is on the design features of a modern microprocessor based variant of the original SRS system. Experience with the original system during build-up and operation of the SRS facility is described. 2 refs., 4 figs

  20. Director general presentation to personnel

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Dear Colleagues, Many important discussions are scheduled for the upcoming Council Week (13-17 June) on topics including the Medium-Term Plan, the Pension Fund and other matters of great relevance to us.   I would therefore like to share the main outcome of the week with you and I invite you to join me and the Directors in the Main Auditorium at 10 a.m. on Thursday 23 June. The meeting will last about one hour and a webcast will also be available. Best regards, Fabiola Gianotti DG presentation to personnel Thursday 23 June at 10 am Main Auditorium Retransmission in Council Chamber, IT Auditorium, Kjell Jonhsen Auditorium, Prevessin 864-1-C02 Webcast on cern.ch/webcast More information on the event page.

  1. Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria colonization of healthy US military personnel in the US and Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vento, Todd J; Cole, David W; Mende, Katrin; Calvano, Tatjana P; Rini, Elizabeth A; Tully, Charla C; Zera, Wendy C; Guymon, Charles H; Yu, Xin; Cheatle, Kristelle A; Akers, Kevin S; Beckius, Miriam L; Landrum, Michael L; Murray, Clinton K

    2013-02-05

    The US military has seen steady increases in multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) infections in casualties from Iraq and Afghanistan. This study evaluates the prevalence of MDR GNB colonization in US military personnel. GNB colonization surveillance of healthy, asymptomatic military personnel (101 in the US and 100 in Afghanistan) was performed by swabbing 7 anatomical sites. US-based personnel had received no antibiotics within 30 days of specimen collection, and Afghanistan-based personnel were receiving doxycycline for malaria chemoprophylaxis at time of specimen collection. Isolates underwent genotypic and phenotypic characterization. The only colonizing MDR GNB recovered in both populations was Escherichia coli (p=0.01), which was seen in 2% of US-based personnel (all perirectal) and 11% of Afghanistan-based personnel (10 perirectal, 1 foot+groin). Individuals with higher off-base exposures in Afghanistan did not show a difference in overall GNB colonization or MDR E. coli colonization, compared with those with limited off-base exposures. Healthy US- and Afghanistan-based military personnel have community onset-MDR E. coli colonization, with Afghanistan-based personnel showing a 5.5-fold higher prevalence. The association of doxycycline prophylaxis or other exposures with antimicrobial resistance and increased rates of MDR E. coli colonization needs further evaluation.

  2. Personnel protective equipment total-encapsulating suit decontamination study using shower systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menkhaus, D.E.

    1991-01-01

    This report documents an experimental evaluation, conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, of a shower-based decontamination station for personnel wearing a Level A, total- encapsulating, chemical-protective suit. The decontamination station is used by personnel when egressing a dry, dusty environment contaminated with transuranic radionuclides. This system has the potential to minimize the risk of spreading the contaminants to clean areas. Two types of shower systems were evaluated, a drench shower and a multi-nozzle shower. A total-encapsulating suit, worn by personnel. was contaminated with soil containing 239 Pu. Pre- shower and post-shower contamination samples were collected and visual observations were made to evaluate the ability of the shower system to remove the contaminated dust and to obtain baseline data useful in designing a shower-based personnel decontamination system. 12 figs., 7 tabs

  3. Technical guidelines for personnel dosimetry calibrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, P.L.; Fox, R.A.; Hadley, R.T.; Holbrook, K.L.; Hooker, C.D.; McDonald, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    A base of technical information has been acquire and used to evaluate the calibration, design, and performance of selected personnel systems in use at Department of Energy (DOE) facilites. A technical document was prepared to guide DOE and DOE contractors in selecting and evaluating personnel dosimetry systems and calibration. A parallel effort was initiated to intercompare the adiological calibrations standards used to calibrate DOE personnel dosimeters

  4. Department of Defense Civilian Personnel Manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1996-01-01

    .... It implements policy, establishes uniform DoD-wide procedures, provides guidelines and model programs, delegates authority, and assigns responsibilities regarding civilian personnel management within...

  5. Musculoskeletal disorders in main battle tank personnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Lars Ravnborg; Guldager, Bernadette; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders of personnel in the main battle tank (MBT) units in the Danish army with those of personnel in other types of army units, and to investigate associations between job function in the tank, military rank, and musculoskeletal problems......, and ankle. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: There were only 4 women in the MBT group; as a consequence, female personnel were excluded from the study. The participation rate was 58.0% (n = 184) in the MBT group and 56.3% (n = 333) in the reference group. The pattern of musculoskeletal disorders among personnel...

  6. Khmelnitsky NPP personnel training system improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapronov, V.G.; Issupov, V.I.

    1996-01-01

    Khmelnitsky nuclear power plant personnel training system improvement is described, including creation of Training center, development of training courses based on SAT methodology, development of training hardware

  7. Sources of personnel for multinuclear companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guppy, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    Included are comments and statistics on current employment levels, projected requirements for future stations, sources of personnel for current and projected stations, and methods of employee selection

  8. Office of Personnel Management Catch 62 Match

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — SSA provides the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) with tax returns, Social Security benefits, and military retirement information for the purpose of correctly...

  9. Educating personnel for nuclear technology in Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otcenasek, P.

    1980-01-01

    The basic preconditions are discussed of educating personnel for nuclear power and nuclear technology in Czechoslovakia. In educating specialists, the high societal significance of nuclear power and the need to obtain qualified personnel for safeguarding safety and reliability of nuclear facilities operation should primarily be borne in mind. The system of training applies not only to operating and maintenance personnel of nuclear power plants but also to fuel and power generation, transport, engineering, building industry, health care, education and other personnel. (J.B.)

  10. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeilly, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson's School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The "minimal-marking" concept (Haswell, 1983), which requires…

  11. Swarm robotics and minimalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Amanda J. C.

    2007-09-01

    Swarm Robotics (SR) is closely related to Swarm Intelligence, and both were initially inspired by studies of social insects. Their guiding principles are based on their biological inspiration and take the form of an emphasis on decentralized local control and communication. Earlier studies went a step further in emphasizing the use of simple reactive robots that only communicate indirectly through the environment. More recently SR studies have moved beyond these constraints to explore the use of non-reactive robots that communicate directly, and that can learn and represent their environment. There is no clear agreement in the literature about how far such extensions of the original principles could go. Should there be any limitations on the individual abilities of the robots used in SR studies? Should knowledge of the capabilities of social insects lead to constraints on the capabilities of individual robots in SR studies? There is a lack of explicit discussion of such questions, and researchers have adopted a variety of constraints for a variety of reasons. A simple taxonomy of swarm robotics is presented here with the aim of addressing and clarifying these questions. The taxonomy distinguishes subareas of SR based on the emphases and justifications for minimalism and individual simplicity.

  12. Minimal dilaton model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oda Kin-ya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Both the ATLAS and CMS experiments at the LHC have reported the observation of the particle of mass around 125 GeV which is consistent to the Standard Model (SM Higgs boson, but with an excess of events beyond the SM expectation in the diphoton decay channel at each of them. There still remains room for a logical possibility that we are not seeing the SM Higgs but something else. Here we introduce the minimal dilaton model in which the LHC signals are explained by an extra singlet scalar of the mass around 125 GeV that slightly mixes with the SM Higgs heavier than 600 GeV. When this scalar has a vacuum expectation value well beyond the electroweak scale, it can be identified as a linearly realized version of a dilaton field. Though the current experimental constraints from the Higgs search disfavors such a region, the singlet scalar model itself still provides a viable alternative to the SM Higgs in interpreting its search results.

  13. Minimal mirror twin Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbieri, Riccardo [Institute of Theoretical Studies, ETH Zurich,CH-8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Scuola Normale Superiore,Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Hall, Lawrence J.; Harigaya, Keisuke [Department of Physics, University of California,Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory,Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2016-11-29

    In a Mirror Twin World with a maximally symmetric Higgs sector the little hierarchy of the Standard Model can be significantly mitigated, perhaps displacing the cutoff scale above the LHC reach. We show that consistency with observations requires that the Z{sub 2} parity exchanging the Standard Model with its mirror be broken in the Yukawa couplings. A minimal such effective field theory, with this sole Z{sub 2} breaking, can generate the Z{sub 2} breaking in the Higgs sector necessary for the Twin Higgs mechanism. The theory has constrained and correlated signals in Higgs decays, direct Dark Matter Detection and Dark Radiation, all within reach of foreseen experiments, over a region of parameter space where the fine-tuning for the electroweak scale is 10-50%. For dark matter, both mirror neutrons and a variety of self-interacting mirror atoms are considered. Neutrino mass signals and the effects of a possible additional Z{sub 2} breaking from the vacuum expectation values of B−L breaking fields are also discussed.

  14. National Synchrotron Light Source angiography personnel protection interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gmuer, N.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1992-06-01

    This document has been written to describe the safety system operation at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). The angiography exposure process involves scanning a patient up and down through dual fixed-position x-ray beams; exposure is controlled by opening and closing a fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism at precise times in relation to the up and down motion of the scan chair. The fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism is the primary radiation-stopping element protecting the patient while the chair is at rest and while it is reversing directions during the scan. Its fail-safe and fast operation is essential for the safety of the patient. Operation of X17B2 as a human subject angiography station necessitates the implementation of a personnel protection interlock system that, in conjunction with the Safety Shutters: permits safe access to the patient exposure area while the synchrotron radiation beam is illuminating the upstream dual energy monochromator; allows a patient to be imaged by the monochromatized beam under the supervision of a Responsible Physician, with scan chair motion and precision shutter actuation regulated by an angiography control computer, while providing a suitable number of safeguards against accidental radiation exposure; has different modes of operation to accommodate equipment set-up, test, and calibration; and patient exposure; and ensures the quick extinction of the beam if a potentially unsafe condition is detected. The interlock system which performs these safety functions is called the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI). The APPI Document is organized such that the level of detail changes from a general overview to detailed engineering drawings of the hardware system

  15. National Synchrotron Light Source angiography personnel protection interlock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmuer, N.; Larson, R.; Thomlinson, W.

    1992-06-01

    This document has been written to describe the safety system operation at the NSLS X17B2 beamline Synchrotron Medical Research Facility (SMERF). The angiography exposure process involves scanning a patient up and down through dual fixed-position x-ray beams; exposure is controlled by opening and closing a fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism at precise times in relation to the up and down motion of the scan chair. The fast-acting Safety Shutter mechanism is the primary radiation-stopping element protecting the patient while the chair is at rest and while it is reversing directions during the scan. Its fail-safe and fast operation is essential for the safety of the patient. Operation of X17B2 as a human subject angiography station necessitates the implementation of a personnel protection interlock system that, in conjunction with the Safety Shutters: permits safe access to the patient exposure area while the synchrotron radiation beam is illuminating the upstream dual energy monochromator; allows a patient to be imaged by the monochromatized beam under the supervision of a Responsible Physician, with scan chair motion and precision shutter actuation regulated by an angiography control computer, while providing a suitable number of safeguards against accidental radiation exposure; has different modes of operation to accommodate equipment set-up, test, and calibration; and patient exposure; and ensures the quick extinction of the beam if a potentially unsafe condition is detected. The interlock system which performs these safety functions is called the Angiography Personnel Protection Interlock (APPI). The APPI Document is organized such that the level of detail changes from a general overview to detailed engineering drawings of the hardware system.

  16. Exposure management in a hot-cell decontamination and refurbishment campaign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courtney, J.C.; Ferguson, K.R.; Chesnovar, D.L.; Huebner, M.F.

    1984-01-01

    We developed a minicomputer-based system to provide rapid access to personnel dosimetry data during a campaign to decontaminate and refurbish a hot-cell at the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) Complex. This system allows project management to estimate doses for future tasks, assess the effectiveness of decontamination and personnel protection techniques, and balance exposures among members of various skill groups. As the campaign progresses, projected total exposures can be minimized by tradeoffs between estimated doses during decontamination and estimated dose savings during the refurbishment phase. The effectiveness of various dose-reduction procedures can be compared on the basis of data from a few cell entries before more extensive routine operations are scheduled. Because the radiation fields vary significantly with location in the cell, we find that measurements of whole-body, skin, and extremity doses are more valuable than dose-rate information. Penetrating and skin radiation doses to personnel can be compared to administrative guidelines. This helps us to select the most effective combination of protective clothing. For example, leaded gauntlets reduce the dose rate to the workers' hands, but their use can increase the time required for some in-cell tasks. Hence, use of gauntlets can lead to higher whole-body and skin doses. The program is written for the HFEF Complex Harris/6 minimainframe computer with a disk-monitor operating system

  17. Return to work: Police personnel and PTSD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plat, Marie-Christine J.; Westerveld, Gre J.; Hutter, Renée C.; Olff, Miranda; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.; Sluiter, Judith K.

    2013-01-01

    This study i) describes the number of police personnel with PTSD who are working and those who are on sick leave before and after an out-patient-clinic treatment program and ii) examines which factors are related to return to work. Police personnel treated for PTSD (n=121). In this retrospective

  18. 10 CFR 26.155 - Laboratory personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Laboratory personnel. 26.155 Section 26.155 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Laboratories Certified by the Department of Health and Human... ensure the continued competency of laboratory personnel by documenting their in-service training...

  19. Personnel radiation safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elkert, J.

    1979-05-01

    The principal contributions to the radiation doses of the Swedish power reactor personnel are identified. The possi bilities to reduce these doses are examined. The radiation doses are analyzed according to different personnel categories, specific maintenance operations or inspections and to different radiation activities. Suggestions are given for reducing the radiation doses. (L.E.)

  20. Maintenance Personnel Performance Simulation (MAPPS) model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, A.I.; Bartter, W.D.; Wolf, J.J.; Knee, H.E.; Haas, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    A stochastic computer model for simulating the actions and behavior of nuclear power plant maintenance personnel is described. The model considers personnel, environmental, and motivational variables to yield predictions of maintenance performance quality and time to perform. The mode has been fully developed and sensitivity tested. Additional evaluation of the model is now taking place

  1. 10 CFR 39.65 - Personnel monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personnel monitoring. 39.65 Section 39.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR WELL LOGGING Radiation Safety Requirements § 39.65 Personnel monitoring. (a) The licensee may not permit an individual to act as a logging...

  2. 10 CFR 34.47 - Personnel monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personnel monitoring. 34.47 Section 34.47 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Radiation Safety Requirements § 34.47 Personnel monitoring. (a) The licensee may not...

  3. 21 CFR 211.28 - Personnel responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... apparel, such as head, face, hand, and arm coverings, shall be worn as necessary to protect drug products... observation) to have an apparent illness or open lesions that may adversely affect the safety or quality of... medical personnel not to jeopardize the safety or quality of drug products. All personnel shall be...

  4. Health-physics personnel: a need unfulfilled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.E.

    1983-06-01

    Current trends and conditions in the health physics profession are discussed. The need for health physics personnel in academia, nuclear power plants, other nuclear industry, national laboratories, and other sectors and the shortfall in qualified personnel to fill the available positions is described. Reasons for the present situation and recommendations for alleviating it are presented

  5. Innovative activity of personnel of organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N.Belkin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with transition way of economic of the Russian Federation on an innovative way of development. The special attention is given the internal social and economic environment of the organizations which, as a rule, counteracts development of innovative activity of the personnel. Ways of increase of innovative activity of the personnel are offered.

  6. 40 CFR 79.61 - Vehicle emissions inhalation exposure guideline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-body-exposure systems, water only may be provided. When the exposure generation system is not operating... system or by exposure system operating personnel. (i) The flow-metering device used for the exposure... System for Animal Studies. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology 4: 270-277. (14) Moore, W.; et al. (1978...

  7. Requirements on qualification, competence and sufficient number of personnel for NPP operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, M.

    2004-01-01

    The safe operation of NPPs presupposes qualified personnel on site in sufficient numbers. While the acquisition and preservation of technical expertise and the qualification of the shift personnel and other staff is well regulated by regulatory guidelines in Germany, there is a lack of such regulations with the exception for shift personnel - for the minimum number of technical personnel required for safe operation of a NPP. By order of the BMU, an attempt was made with this study to work out the requirements for qualification, competence and number of personnel to be maintained at the plant, representing the minimum requirements for safe operation of a NPP. The scope of the project was restricted to requirements for technical plant personnel. The aim was to work out requirements which would be as independent as possible of the existing organisation in a particular power plant. This study therefore does not assume a given organisational structure but was rather more oriented on the work processes in a NPP which are the basis for planning and performing routine work in the plant. For the study a work process model of typical tasks in a NPP had to be developed. Then, the tasks to be performed within the so defined work processes were described (task profiles) on the basis of existing manuals for plant organisation. From these task profiles such tasks were defined or selected which shall not be delegated to external personnel for specific reasons, and which were called vital competences. To keep these vital competences at the plant, an assessment and/or calculation of the necessary number of plant technical personnel was made using the task profiles for responsible personnel, but also by the evaluation of thousands of work orders for maintenance personnel. On the basis of these data, a proposal was made for the minimal number of technical personnel which is necessary to operate a NPP unit safely. Beside of this number, general criteria were developed which should be

  8. Determinants of Burnout in Acute and Critical Care Military Nursing Personnel: A Cross-Sectional Study from Peru

    OpenAIRE

    Ayala, Elizabeth; Carnero, Andr?s M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence on the prevalence and determinants of burnout among military acute and critical care nursing personnel from developing countries is minimal, precluding the development of effective preventive measures for this high-risk occupational group. In this context, we aimed to examine the association between the dimensions of burnout and selected socio-demographic and occupational factors in military acute/critical care nursing personnel from Lima, Peru. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We c...

  9. Savannah River Plant/Savannah River Laboratory radiation exposure report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, C.D.; Hyman, S.D.; Keisler, L.L.; Reeder, D.F.; Jolly, L.; Spoerner, M.T.; Schramm, G.R.

    1989-01-01

    The protection of worker health and safety is of paramount concern at the Savannah River Site. Since the site is one of the largest nuclear sites in the nation, radiation safety is a key element in the protection program. This report is a compendium of the results in 1988 of the programs at the Savannah River Plant and the Savannah River Laboratory to protect the radiological health of employees. By any measure, the radiation protection performance at this site in 1988 was the best since the beginning of operations. This accomplishment was made possible by the commitment and support at all levels of the organizations to reduce radiation exposures to ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable). The report provides detailed information about the radiation doses received by departments and work groups within these organizations. It also includes exposure data for recent years to allow Plant and Laboratory units to track the effectiveness of their ALARA efforts. Many of the successful practices and methods that reduced radiation exposure are described. A new goal for personnel contamination cases has been established for 1989. Only through continual and innovative efforts to minimize exposures can the goals be met. The radiation protection goals for 1989 and previous years are included in the report. 27 figs., 58 tabs

  10. Postexposure management of healthcare personnel to infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Mazen S; Brooks, Annie A; Srigley, Jocelyn A

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare personnel (HCP) are at risk of exposure to various pathogens through their daily tasks and may serve as a reservoir for ongoing disease transmission in the healthcare setting. Management of HCP exposed to infectious agents can be disruptive to patient care, time-consuming, and costly. Exposure of HCP to an infectious source should be considered an urgent medical concern to ensure timely management and administration of postexposure prophylaxis, if available and indicated. Infection control and occupational health departments should be notified for management of exposed HCP, identification of all contacts of the index case, and application of immediate infection control measures for the index case and exposed HCP, if indicated. This article reviews the main principles of postexposure management of HCP to infectious diseases, in general, and to certain common infections, in particular, categorized by their route of transmission, in addition to primary prevention of these infections.

  11. 34 CFR 361.18 - Comprehensive system of personnel development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... implementation of a plan to address the current and projected needs for personnel who are qualified in accordance... accordance with paragraph (c) of this section, including personnel from minority backgrounds and personnel... retraining, recruiting, and hiring personnel; (B) The specific time period by which all State unit personnel...

  12. Intimate partner violence influence on deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Amany Refaat

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Millennium Development Goal 5 calls for increasing proportions of deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel to reduce maternal mortality. This study aims to identifying the implication of exposure to intimate partner violence on these proportions. Methodology: This study used domestic violence modules data of Demographic and Health Surveys of six countries from 2005 to 2007. Proportions of assisted deliveries were examined by sociodemographic characteristics and exposure to i...

  13. Global Analysis of Minimal Surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Dierkes, Ulrich; Tromba, Anthony J

    2010-01-01

    Many properties of minimal surfaces are of a global nature, and this is already true for the results treated in the first two volumes of the treatise. Part I of the present book can be viewed as an extension of these results. For instance, the first two chapters deal with existence, regularity and uniqueness theorems for minimal surfaces with partially free boundaries. Here one of the main features is the possibility of 'edge-crawling' along free parts of the boundary. The third chapter deals with a priori estimates for minimal surfaces in higher dimensions and for minimizers of singular integ

  14. Minimal Surfaces for Hitchin Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qiongling; Dai, Song

    2018-01-01

    . In this paper, we investigate the properties of immersed minimal surfaces inside symmetric space associated to a subloci of Hitchin component: $q_n$ and $q_{n-1}$ case. First, we show that the pullback metric of the minimal surface dominates a constant multiple of the hyperbolic metric in the same conformal...... class and has a strong rigidity property. Secondly, we show that the immersed minimal surface is never tangential to any flat inside the symmetric space. As a direct corollary, the pullback metric of the minimal surface is always strictly negatively curved. In the end, we find a fully decoupled system...

  15. Optimization of the personnel radiation protection during the treatment by antibodies labelled by yttrium 90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legrand, J.; Prangere, T.; Cougnenc, O.; Leleu, C.; Huglo, D.; Morschhauser, F.

    2007-01-01

    Beyond the acquired experience limiting the exposure time, measures of adequate radiation protection allow to reduce the doses of surface received to extremities by the personnel participating to the preparation of treatments by antibodies labelled by yttrium 90. (N.C.)

  16. Monitoring of overalls and personnel skin contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkin, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    Organization of monitoring of overalls and personnel skin contamination wastes is considered. The devices used for this purpose are enumerated. In sanitary sluices through which the personnel leaving the repair zone it is recommended to particularly thoroughly control hand skin contamination and most contaminated parts of overalls (sleeves, breeches lower parts, pockets, stomack region). In sanitary check points during personnel leaving the operator zone monitoring of overalls and skin contamination is performed. The overalls and other individual protective clothing are subjected to control in a special loundry before and after washing (decontamination) [ru

  17. Bladder cancer incidence and exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among asphalt pavers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burstyn, Igor; Kromhout, Hans; Johansen, Christoffer; Langard, Sverre; Kauppinen, Timo; Shaham, Judith; Ferro, Gilles; Boffetta, Paolo

    2007-08-01

    To investigate the association between exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) that arises during asphalt paving, and risk of bladder cancer. 7298 men included in the historical cohort were first employed between 1913 and 1999 in companies applying asphalt in Denmark, Norway, Finland and Israel. The minimal duration of employment for inclusion in the cohort was two seasons of work. Occupational histories were extracted from personnel files. A follow-up for cancer incidence was conducted through national cancer registries. The authors estimated exposures to benzo(a)pyrene as a marker for 4-6 ring PAH. Exposures were reconstructed by using information about changes in asphalt paving technology in each company over time, the modelled relation between production characteristics and exposure levels, and job histories. Relative risks and associated 95% confidence intervals were estimated using Poisson regression. 48 bladder cancers among asphalt paving workers were detected; of these, 39 cases were exposed at least 15 years before the diagnosis. Cumulative exposure to PAH was not associated with the incidence of bladder cancer. The association with average exposure became stronger when 15-year lag was considered, revealing a twofold increase in relative bladder cancer risk in the two higher exposure categories. There was an indication of exposure-response association with lagged averaged exposure. Risk estimates were adjusted for age, country, duration of employment and calendar period, did not show heterogeneity among countries and did not materially change when re-estimated after excluding non-primary cancers from follow-up. Previously conducted sensitivity analysis indicates that confounding by cigarette smoking is an unlikely explanation for the observed exposure-response trends. The authors were unable to control for all possible sources of confounding and bias. The results do not allow conclusion on the presence or absence of a causal link between

  18. Minimizing and predicting delamination of southern plywood in exterior exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Koch

    1967-01-01

    Southern pine plywood is substantially all being manufactured with phenolic glue for exterior use. Because panels must not delaminate in service, a reliable predictor of glueline durability is required. Drawing on the experience of the Douglas-fir plywood industry, southern manufacutrers have adopted as a predictor the percentage of wood failure(% WF) observed in...

  19. Guidelines for mixed waste minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owens, C.

    1992-02-01

    Currently, there is no commercial mixed waste disposal available in the United States. Storage and treatment for commercial mixed waste is limited. Host States and compacts region officials are encouraging their mixed waste generators to minimize their mixed wastes because of management limitations. This document provides a guide to mixed waste minimization

  20. Minimal changes in health status questionnaires: distinction between minimally detectable change and minimally important change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knol Dirk L

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Changes in scores on health status questionnaires are difficult to interpret. Several methods to determine minimally important changes (MICs have been proposed which can broadly be divided in distribution-based and anchor-based methods. Comparisons of these methods have led to insight into essential differences between these approaches. Some authors have tried to come to a uniform measure for the MIC, such as 0.5 standard deviation and the value of one standard error of measurement (SEM. Others have emphasized the diversity of MIC values, depending on the type of anchor, the definition of minimal importance on the anchor, and characteristics of the disease under study. A closer look makes clear that some distribution-based methods have been merely focused on minimally detectable changes. For assessing minimally important changes, anchor-based methods are preferred, as they include a definition of what is minimally important. Acknowledging the distinction between minimally detectable and minimally important changes is useful, not only to avoid confusion among MIC methods, but also to gain information on two important benchmarks on the scale of a health status measurement instrument. Appreciating the distinction, it becomes possible to judge whether the minimally detectable change of a measurement instrument is sufficiently small to detect minimally important changes.

  1. Eighth annual occupational radiation exposure report, 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, B.G.

    1976-10-01

    This is a report by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the operation of the Commission's centralized repository of personnel occupational radiation exposure information. Annual reports were received from 387 covered licensees indicating that some 78,713 individuals, having an average exposure of 0.36 rems, were monitored for exposure to radiation during 1975 and that 21,601 individuals terminated their employment or work assignment with covered licensees in 1975. The number of personnel overexposures reported in 1975 decreased from previous years. The most significant overexposures which occurred in 1975 are summarized

  2. 42 CFR 484.4 - Personnel qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION HOME HEALTH SERVICES General Provisions § 484.4 Personnel... baccalaureate degree in social work, psychology, sociology, or other field related to social work, and has had...

  3. WebPASS Explorer (HR Personnel Management)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — WebPass Explorer (WebPASS Framework): USAID is partnering with DoS in the implementation of their WebPass Post Personnel (PS) Module. WebPassPS does not replace...

  4. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) Earnings

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — Each year the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) sends SSA a file to be verified and matched against the Master Earnings File (MEF) and Employer Information File...

  5. Central Personnel Data File (CPDF) Status Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — Precursor to the Enterprise Human Resources Integration-Statistical Data Mart (EHRI-SDM). It contains data about the employee and their position, along with various...

  6. Guidelines for the calibration of personnel dosimeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberson, P.L.; Holbrook, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    This guide describes minimum acceptable performance levels for personnel dosimetry systems used at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The goal is to improve both the quality of radiological calibrations and the methods of comparing reported occupational doses between DOE facilities. Reference calibration techniques are defined. A standard for evaluation of personnel dosimetry systems and recommended design parameters for personnel dosimeters are also included. Approximate intervals for the radiation energies for which these guidelines are appropriate are 15 keV to 2 MeV for photons; above 0.3 MeV for beta particles; and 1 keV to 2 MeV for neutrons. An analysis of ANSI N13.11 was completed using performance evaluations of selected personnel dosimetry systems in use at DOE facilities. The results of this analysis are incorporated in the guidelines

  7. New ISO standard - personnel photographic film dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabec, D.

    1980-01-01

    The ISO Standard 1757 ''Personnel Photographic Film Dosemeters'', issued in June 1980, is briefly described. UVVVR's own dosemeter developed for use in the national film dosimetry service in Czechoslovakia is evaluated in relation to this ISO Standard. (author)

  8. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility's life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996

  9. Waste minimization handbook, Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boing, L.E.; Coffey, M.J.

    1995-12-01

    This technical guide presents various methods used by industry to minimize low-level radioactive waste (LLW) generated during decommissioning and decontamination (D and D) activities. Such activities generate significant amounts of LLW during their operations. Waste minimization refers to any measure, procedure, or technique that reduces the amount of waste generated during a specific operation or project. Preventive waste minimization techniques implemented when a project is initiated can significantly reduce waste. Techniques implemented during decontamination activities reduce the cost of decommissioning. The application of waste minimization techniques is not limited to D and D activities; it is also useful during any phase of a facility`s life cycle. This compendium will be supplemented with a second volume of abstracts of hundreds of papers related to minimizing low-level nuclear waste. This second volume is expected to be released in late 1996.

  10. Minimal Webs in Riemannian Manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen

    2008-01-01

    For a given combinatorial graph $G$ a {\\it geometrization} $(G, g)$ of the graph is obtained by considering each edge of the graph as a $1-$dimensional manifold with an associated metric $g$. In this paper we are concerned with {\\it minimal isometric immersions} of geometrized graphs $(G, g......)$ into Riemannian manifolds $(N^{n}, h)$. Such immersions we call {\\em{minimal webs}}. They admit a natural 'geometric' extension of the intrinsic combinatorial discrete Laplacian. The geometric Laplacian on minimal webs enjoys standard properties such as the maximum principle and the divergence theorems, which...... are of instrumental importance for the applications. We apply these properties to show that minimal webs in ambient Riemannian spaces share several analytic and geometric properties with their smooth (minimal submanifold) counterparts in such spaces. In particular we use appropriate versions of the divergence...

  11. Personality, personnel selection, and job performance

    OpenAIRE

    Linden, Dimitri; Pelt, Dirk; Dunkel, Curtis; Born, Marise

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractJob Performance: The term job performance can either refer to the objective or subjective outcomes one achieves in a specific job (e.g., the profit of a sales persons, the number of publications of a scientist, the number of successful operations of a surgeon) or to work-related activities (e.g., writing an article, conducting specific surgical acts). In the majority of research on this topic, job performance as an outcome is used. Personnel selection: Personnel selection refe...

  12. Personnel Audit Using a Forensic Mining Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Adesesan B. Adeyemo; Oluwafemi Oriola

    2010-01-01

    This paper applies forensic data mining to determine the true status of employees and thereafter provide useful evidences for proper administration of administrative rules in a Typical Nigerian Teaching Service. The conventional technique of personnel audit was studied and a new technique for personnel audit was modeled using Artificial Neural Networks and Decision Tree algorithms. Atwo-layer classifier architecture was modeled. The outcome of the experiment proved that Radial Basis Function ...

  13. Personnel monitoring of radiations with thermoluminescent dosemeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miano, S.C.

    1987-01-01

    The basics of personnel dosimetry technics, used by the Radiologic Protetion and Assessorie Service (SAPRA) are presented, consisting on use of thermoluminescent and CaSO 4 :Dy monitors in aggregated pellets by Teflon. The characteristics of this dosemeters, relating to the sensitivity, energetic dependence, spike temperature, characteristic emission curve, decay and light effect are shown. The thermoluminescent dosemeter measure system and the personnel monitoring system are also described. (C.G.C.) [pt

  14. Improving human performance in maintenance personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Anez, Francisco; Agueero Agueero, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The continuous evolution and improvement of safety-related processes has included the analysis, design and development of training plans for the qualification of maintenance nuclear power plant personnel. In this respect, the international references in this area recommend the establishment of systematic qualification programmes for personnel performing functions or carrying out safety related tasks. Maintenance personnel qualification processes have improved significantly, and training plans have been designed and developed based on Systematic Approach to Training methodology to each job position. These improvements have been clearly reflected in recent training programmes with new training material and training facilities focused not only on developing technical knowledge and skills but also on improving attitudes and safety culture. The objectives of maintenance training facilities such as laboratories, mock-ups real an virtual, hydraulic loops, field simulators and other training material to be used in the maintenance training centre are to cover training necessities for initial and continuous qualification. Evidently, all these improvements made in the qualification of plant personnel should be extended to include supplemental personnel (external or contracted) performing safety-related tasks. The supplemental personnel constitute a very spread group, covering the performance of multiple activities entailing different levels of responsibility. Some of these activities are performed permanently at the plant, while others are occasional or sporadic. In order to establish qualification requirements for these supplemental workers, it is recommended to establish a rigorous analysis of job positions and tasks. The objective will be to identify the qualification requirements to assure competence and safety. (authors)

  15. Occupational stress among police personnel in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Ragesh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occupational stress and associated physical and mental health related issues are not addressed in Indian police personnel with adequate importance. Methods: Cross-sectional survey was conducted among police personnel (both male and female in Calicut urban police district, Kerala state, India. Police personnel from all designations (ranks, except from the all India services (Indian Police Service were included in the study. Data were collected using a specifically designed datasheet covering socio-demographic profile, physical and mental health related details which was prepared by researchers. Occupational stress was measured using Operational Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-OP and Organisational Police Stress Questionnaire (PSQ-ORG. Result: The study found that both operational and organisational stress was significant among the police officers. Organisational stress was experienced in moderate level by 68% and in high level by 14%. Operational stress scores were in the moderate range in 67% and in high range in 16.5%. The younger age group (21-35 years and lower level rank police personnel had higher stress. Stress was higher among female police personnel compared to males. While 23% of them had been diagnosed with physical illnesses, a significant four per cent of them with mental illness, and 29% of them reported substance abuse. Conclusion: The results point to the high level of stress among Indian police personnel and the need for urgent interventions from the government to address the occupational stress.

  16. Assessing the Personal Financial Problems of Junior Enlisted Personnel

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buddin, Richard

    2002-01-01

    .... Surveys of military personnel show that, particularly for junior personnel, financial problems constitute a major source of stress, subordinate only to increased workload and family separation...

  17. Study of computerized spirometric parameters of traffic police personnel of Saurashtra region, Gujarat, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makwana, Amit H; Solanki, Jayesh D; Gokhale, Pradnya A; Mehta, Hemant B; Shah, Chinmay J; Gadhavi, Bhakti P

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution due to road traffic is a serious health hazard and air quality crisis in cities is mainly due to vehicular emission. Thus the persons who are continuously exposed are at an increased risk. The study was carried out to evaluate the extent of impairment in lung function in traffic police personnel compared to matched unexposed control group. A cross-sectional study was conducted to measure the spirometric parameters of 100 traffic police personnel, aged 20-55 years, working in Saurashtra region, as compared to matched control group, consisting of 100 unexposed males. Measurement of lung volumes and capacities was done with SPIROEXCEL. The statistical analysis was carried out with Graph pad instat 3. Traffic police personnel had significantly declined forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV 1), slow vital capacity (SVC) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) when compared with predictive normal values, which is probably due to exposure to vehicular exhaust. Comparison of test values between groups showed significantly reduced FVC, MVV and increased FEV1/FVC ratio and insignificantly declined FEV1 and SVC in cases as compared to controls. Traffic personnel with longer duration of exposure showed significantly reduced lung functions than those with shorter duration. Smokers showed lower test values as compared to non-smokers with significance only in unexposed group. The effect of pollution by vehicular exhausts may be responsible for these pulmonary function impairments and traffic police personnel should be offered personal protective or preventive measures.

  18. Immunological monitoring of the personnel at radiation hazardous facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiselev, S.M.; Sokolnikov, M.E.; Lyss, L.V.; Ilyina, N.I.

    2017-01-01

    The study of possible mechanisms resulting in changes in the immune system after exposure to ionizing radiation is an area that has not been thoroughly evaluated during recent years. This article presents an overview of immunological monitoring studies of personnel from the radiation-hazardous factories that took place over the past 20 years in Russia. The methodology of these studies is based on: (1) the preclinical evaluation of immune status of workers whose occupation involves potential exposure to ionizing radiation; (2) selecting at risk groups according to the nature of immune deficiency manifestation; and (3) studying the changes of immune status of employees with regard to the potential effects of radiation exposure. The principal aim of these studies is accumulation of new data on the impact of radiation exposure on the human immune system and search for the relationship between the clinical manifestations of immune disorders and laboratory parameters of immunity to improve the monitoring system of the health status of the professional workers involved in radiation-hazardous industrial environments and the population living close to these facilities. (authors)

  19. Minimal Poems Written in 1979 Minimal Poems Written in 1979

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Sirangelo Maggio

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The reading of M. van der Slice's Minimal Poems Written in 1979 (the work, actually, has no title reminded me of a book I have seen a long time ago. called Truth, which had not even a single word printed inside. In either case we have a sample of how often excentricities can prove efficient means of artistic creativity, in this new literary trend known as Minimalism. The reading of M. van der Slice's Minimal Poems Written in 1979 (the work, actually, has no title reminded me of a book I have seen a long time ago. called Truth, which had not even a single word printed inside. In either case we have a sample of how often excentricities can prove efficient means of artistic creativity, in this new literary trend known as Minimalism.

  20. [Occupational hazards, DNA damage, and oxidative stress on exposure to waste anesthetic gases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucio, Lorena M C; Braz, Mariana G; do Nascimento Junior, Paulo; Braz, José Reinaldo C; Braz, Leandro G

    The waste anesthetic gases (WAGs) present in the ambient air of operating rooms (OR), are associated with various occupational hazards. This paper intends to discuss occupational exposure to WAGs and its impact on exposed professionals, with emphasis on genetic damage and oxidative stress. Despite the emergence of safer inhaled anesthetics, occupational exposure to WAGs remains a current concern. Factors related to anesthetic techniques and anesthesia workstations, in addition to the absence of a scavenging system in the OR, contribute to anesthetic pollution. In order to minimize the health risks of exposed professionals, several countries have recommended legislation with maximum exposure limits. However, developing countries still require measurement of WAGs and regulation for occupational exposure to WAGs. WAGs are capable of inducing damage to the genetic material, such as DNA damage assessed using the comet assay and increased frequency of micronucleus in professionals with long-term exposure. Oxidative stress is also associated with WAGs exposure, as it induces lipid peroxidation, oxidative damage in DNA, and impairment of the antioxidant defense system in exposed professionals. The occupational hazards related to WAGs including genotoxicity, mutagenicity and oxidative stress, stand as a public health issue and must be acknowledged by exposed personnel and responsible authorities, especially in developing countries. Thus, it is urgent to stablish maximum safe limits of concentration of WAGs in ORs and educational practices and protocols for exposed professionals. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Helmet-induced headache among Danish military personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Zakia; Kochanek, Aneta; Astrup, Jesper Johnsen; Poulsen, Jeppe Nørgaard; Gazerani, Parisa

    2017-12-01

    External compression headache is defined as a headache caused by an external physical compression applied on the head. It affects about 4% of the general population; however, certain populations (e.g. construction workers and military personnel) with particular needs of headwear or helmet are at higher risk of developing this type of headache. External compression headache is poorly studied in relation to specific populations. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and pattern of helmet-induced external compression headache among Danish military personnel of the Northern Jutland region in Denmark. Data acquisition was based on a custom-made questionnaire delivered to volunteers who used helmets in the Danish military service and who agreed to participate in this study. The military of the Northern Jutland region of Denmark facilitated recruitment of the participants. The questionnaires were delivered on paper and the collected (anonymous) answers (total 279) were used for further analysis. About 30% of the study participants reported headache in relation to wearing a military helmet. Headache was defined as a pressing pain predominantly in the front of the head with an average intensity of 4 on a visual analogue scale of 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst pain imaginable). It was also found that helmets with different designs influenced both the occurrence of headache and its characteristics. This study is the first to demonstrate the prevalence and pattern of compression headache among military personnel in North Jutland, Denmark. The findings of this study call for further attention to helmet-induced external compression headache and strategies to minimize the burden.

  2. Nightmares in United States Military Personnel With Sleep Disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creamer, Jennifer L.; Brock, Matthew S.; Matsangas, Panagiotis; Motamedi, Vida; Mysliwiec, Vincent

    2018-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep disturbances are common in United States military personnel. Despite their exposure to combat and trauma, little is known about nightmares in this population. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence and associated clinical and polysomnographic characteristics of nightmares in United States military personnel with sleep disturbances. Methods: Retrospective review of 500 active duty United States military personnel who underwent a sleep medicine evaluation and polysomnography at our sleep center. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index-Addendum were used to characterize clinically significant nightmares. Subjective and objective sleep attributes were compared between groups. Results: At least weekly nightmares were present in 31.2%; yet, only 3.9% reported nightmares as a reason for evaluation. Trauma-related nightmares occurred in 60% of those patients with nightmares. Patients with nightmares had increased sleep onset latency (SOL) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep latency (mean SOL/REM sleep latency 16.6/145 minutes, P = .02 and P = .01 respectively) compared to those without (mean SOL/REM sleep latency 12.5/126 minutes). The comorbid disorders of depression (P ≤ .01, relative risk [RR] 3.55 [95% CI, 2.52–4.98]), anxiety (P ≤ .01, RR 2.57 [95% CI, 1.93–3.44]), posttraumatic stress disorder (P ≤ .01, RR 5.11 [95% CI, 3.43–7.62]), and insomnia (P ≤ .01, RR 1.59 [95% CI, 1.42–1.79]) were all associated with nightmares. Conclusions: Clinically significant nightmares are highly prevalent in United States military personnel with sleep disturbances. Nightmares are associated with both subjective and objective sleep disturbances and are frequently comorbid with other sleep and mental health disorders. Commentary: A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 303. Citation: Creamer JL, Brock MS, Matsangas P, Motamedi V, Mysliwiec V. Nightmares in United States military

  3. [Occupational allergy in health personnel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larese Filon, Francesca; Bagnato, Emma

    2003-01-01

    Health care workers are exposed to many agents that can cause irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. In nurses with eczema of the hands latex sensitivity can play an important role in the occurrence of urticaria, rhinitis and asthma. To determine the prevalence of irritant and allergic contact dermatitis and contact urticaria and the role of skin sensitization to common and occupational haptens and allergens in a group of health care workers with skin problems. Retrospective review of 204 health care workers assessed by prick and patch testing in an occupational health clinic. The diagnoses included 35.3% with irritant contact dermatitis, 64.7% with allergic contact dermatitis and 7.3% with contact urticaria to latex. Three workers complained of asthma and 5 complained of rhinitis related to latex sensitization. At present 12.9% of atopic subjects were sensitized to latex by skin prick against 21.9% in 1998, so sensitization showed a decline in the years considered. Contact dermatitis and sensitization to natural rubber latex is a significant problem and nurses should be tested for both types of hypersensitivity, as well as being patch tested to standard, rubber and disinfectants series. The need is stressed for preventive measures to prevent the onset of contact dermatitis and to avoid latex exposure.

  4. [Optimizing staff radiation protection in radiology by minimizing the effective dose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Boetticher, H; Lachmund, J; Hoffmann, W; Luska, G

    2006-03-01

    In the present study the optimization of radiation protection devices is achieved by minimizing the effective dose of the staff members since the stochastic radiation effects correlate to the effective dose. Radiation exposure dosimetry was performed with TLD measurements using one Alderson Phantom in the patient position and a second phantom in the typical position of the personnel. Various types of protective clothing as well as fixed shields were considered in the calculations. It was shown that the doses of the unshielded organs (thyroid, parts of the active bone marrow) contribute significantly to the effective dose of the staff. Therefore, there is no linear relationship between the shielding factors for protective garments and the effective dose. An additional thyroid protection collar reduces the effective dose by a factor of 1.7 - 3.0. X-ray protective clothing with a 0.35 mm lead equivalent and an additional thyroid protection collar provides better protection against radiation than an apron with a 0.5 mm lead equivalent but no collar. The use of thyroid protection collars is an effective preventive measure against exceeding occupational organ dose limits, and a thyroid shield also considerably reduces the effective dose. Therefore, thyroid protection collars should be a required component of anti-X protection.

  5. Application of geographic information systems to waste minimization efforts at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyttle, T.W.; Smith, D.M.; Burns, M.; Weinrach, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), facility waste streams tend to be small but highly diverse. Initial characterization of such waste streams is often difficult in part due to a lack of tools to assist the generators themselves in completing such assessments. A methodology has been developed at LANL to allow process knowledgeable field personnel to develop baseline waste generation assessments and to evaluate potential waste minimization technology. This Process Waste Assessment (PWA) system is an application constructed within the Process Modeling System and currently being integrated with the InFoCAD Geographic Information System (GIS) . The Process Modeling System (PMS) is an object-oriented, mass balance-based, discrete-event simulation framework written using the Common Lisp Object System (CLOS) . Analytical capabilities supported within the PWA system include: complete mass balance specifications, historical characterization of selected waste streams and generation of facility profiles for materials consumption, resource utilization and worker exposure. Development activities include integration with the LANL facilities management Geographic Information System (GIS) and provisions for a Best Available Technologies (BAT) database. The environments used to develop these assessment tools will be discussed in addition to a review of initial implementation results

  6. Application of geographic information systems to waste minimization efforts at the national laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyttle, T.W.; Smith, D.M.; Burns, M.; Weinrach, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), facility waste streams tend to be small but highly diverse. Initial characterization of such waste streams is often difficult in part due to a lack of tools to assist the generators themselves in completing such assessments. A methodology has been developed at LANL to allow process knowledgeable field personnel to develop baseline waste generation assessments and to evaluate potential waste minimization technology. This Process Waste Assessment (PWA) system is an application constructed within the Process Modeling System and currently being integrated with the InFoCAD Geographic Information System (GIS). The Process Modeling System (PMS) is an object-oriented, mass balance-based, discrete-event simulation framework written using the Common Lisp Object System (CLOS). Analytical capabilities supported within the PWA system include: complete mass balance specifications, historical characterization of selected waste stream and generation of facility profiles for materials consumption, resource utilization and worker exposure. Development activities include integration with the LANL facilities management Geographic Information System (GIS) and provisions for a Best Available Technologies (BAT) database. The environments used to develop these assessment tools will be discussed in addition to a review of initial implementation results

  7. Minimal Flavour Violation and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Isidori, Gino

    2012-01-01

    We review the formulation of the Minimal Flavour Violation (MFV) hypothesis in the quark sector, as well as some "variations on a theme" based on smaller flavour symmetry groups and/or less minimal breaking terms. We also review how these hypotheses can be tested in B decays and by means of other flavour-physics observables. The phenomenological consequences of MFV are discussed both in general terms, employing a general effective theory approach, and in the specific context of the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the SM.

  8. Minimizing waste in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuot, J.R.; Moos, L.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning, and facility dismantlement projects are not typically known for their waste minimization and pollution prevention efforts. Typical projects are driven by schedules and milestones with little attention given to cost or waste minimization. Conventional wisdom in these projects is that the waste already exists and cannot be reduced or minimized; however, there are significant areas where waste and cost can be reduced by careful planning and execution. Waste reduction can occur in three ways: beneficial reuse or recycling, segregation of waste types, and reducing generation of secondary waste

  9. Minimizing waste in environmental restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moos, L.; Thuot, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Environmental restoration, decontamination and decommissioning and facility dismantelment projects are not typically known for their waste minimization and pollution prevention efforts. Typical projects are driven by schedules and milestones with little attention given to cost or waste minimization. Conventional wisdom in these projects is that the waste already exists and cannot be reduced or minimized. In fact, however, there are three significant areas where waste and cost can be reduced. Waste reduction can occur in three ways: beneficial reuse or recycling; segregation of waste types; and reducing generation of secondary waste. This paper will discuss several examples of reuse, recycle, segregation, and secondary waste reduction at ANL restoration programs

  10. Radiation exposure during ESWL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCullough, D.L.; Van Swearingen, F.L.; Dyer, R.B.; Appel, B.

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses exposure to ionizing radiation by the ESWL patient and for health professionals. Although the patient is exposed acutely to the highest level of radiation, the lithotripter team is chronically exposed to ionizing radiation at varying levels. Attention to detail is important in reducing that exposure. The operator should follow the guidelines set forth in this chapter in order to minimize exposure to the patient, himself or herself, and to all co-workers. At the present time, investigation of an alternative modality for stone localization, ultrasound, is being investigated

  11. Hazardous waste minimization report for CY 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kendrick, C.M.

    1990-12-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose research and development facility. Its primary role is the support of energy technology through applied research and engineering development and scientific research in basic and physical sciences. ORNL also is a valuable resource in the solution of problems of national importance, such as nuclear and chemical waste management. In addition, useful radioactive and stable isotopes which are unavailable from the private sector are produced at ORNL. As a result of these activities, hazardous, radioactive, and mixed wastes are generated at ORNL. A formal hazardous waste minimization program for ORNL was launched in mid 1985 in response to the requirements of Section 3002 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). During 1986, a task plan was developed. The six major tasks include: planning and implementation of a laboratory-wide chemical inventory and the subsequent distribution, treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) of unneeded chemicals; establishment and implementation of a distribution system for surplus chemicals to other (internal and external) organizations; training and communication functions necessary to inform and motivate laboratory personnel; evaluation of current procurement and tracking systems for hazardous materials and recommendation and implementation of improvements; systematic review of applicable current and proposed ORNL procedures and ongoing and proposed activities for waste volume and/or toxicity reduction potential; and establishment of criteria by which to measure progress and reporting of significant achievements. 8 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  12. Sludge minimization technologies - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oedegaard, Hallvard

    2003-07-01

    The management of wastewater sludge from wastewater treatment plants represents one of the major challenges in wastewater treatment today. The cost of the sludge treatment amounts to more that the cost of the liquid in many cases. Therefore the focus on and interest in sludge minimization is steadily increasing. In the paper an overview is given for sludge minimization (sludge mass reduction) options. It is demonstrated that sludge minimization may be a result of reduced production of sludge and/or disintegration processes that may take place both in the wastewater treatment stage and in the sludge stage. Various sludge disintegration technologies for sludge minimization are discussed, including mechanical methods (focusing on stirred ball-mill, high-pressure homogenizer, ultrasonic disintegrator), chemical methods (focusing on the use of ozone), physical methods (focusing on thermal and thermal/chemical hydrolysis) and biological methods (focusing on enzymatic processes). (author)

  13. Wilson loops in minimal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukker, Nadav; Gross, David J.; Ooguri, Hirosi

    1999-01-01

    The AdS/CFT correspondence suggests that the Wilson loop of the large N gauge theory with N = 4 supersymmetry in 4 dimensions is described by a minimal surface in AdS 5 x S 5 . The authors examine various aspects of this proposal, comparing gauge theory expectations with computations of minimal surfaces. There is a distinguished class of loops, which the authors call BPS loops, whose expectation values are free from ultra-violet divergence. They formulate the loop equation for such loops. To the extent that they have checked, the minimal surface in AdS 5 x S 5 gives a solution of the equation. The authors also discuss the zig-zag symmetry of the loop operator. In the N = 4 gauge theory, they expect the zig-zag symmetry to hold when the loop does not couple the scalar fields in the supermultiplet. They will show how this is realized for the minimal surface

  14. Classical strings and minimal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbantke, H.

    1986-01-01

    Real Lorentzian forms of some complex or complexified Euclidean minimal surfaces are obtained as an application of H.A. Schwarz' solution to the initial value problem or a search for surfaces admitting a group of Poincare transformations. (Author)

  15. Minimal Gromov-Witten rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przyjalkowski, V V

    2008-01-01

    We construct an abstract theory of Gromov-Witten invariants of genus 0 for quantum minimal Fano varieties (a minimal class of varieties which is natural from the quantum cohomological viewpoint). Namely, we consider the minimal Gromov-Witten ring: a commutative algebra whose generators and relations are of the form used in the Gromov-Witten theory of Fano varieties (of unspecified dimension). The Gromov-Witten theory of any quantum minimal variety is a homomorphism from this ring to C. We prove an abstract reconstruction theorem which says that this ring is isomorphic to the free commutative ring generated by 'prime two-pointed invariants'. We also find solutions of the differential equation of type DN for a Fano variety of dimension N in terms of the generating series of one-pointed Gromov-Witten invariants

  16. Wilson loops and minimal surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drukker, Nadav; Gross, David J.; Ooguri, Hirosi

    1999-01-01

    The AdS-CFT correspondence suggests that the Wilson loop of the large N gauge theory with N=4 supersymmetry in four dimensions is described by a minimal surface in AdS 5 xS 5 . We examine various aspects of this proposal, comparing gauge theory expectations with computations of minimal surfaces. There is a distinguished class of loops, which we call BPS loops, whose expectation values are free from ultraviolet divergence. We formulate the loop equation for such loops. To the extent that we have checked, the minimal surface in AdS 5 xS 5 gives a solution of the equation. We also discuss the zigzag symmetry of the loop operator. In the N=4 gauge theory, we expect the zigzag symmetry to hold when the loop does not couple the scalar fields in the supermultiplet. We will show how this is realized for the minimal surface. (c) 1999 The American Physical Society

  17. Minimal string theory is logarithmic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimoto, Yukitaka; Yamaguchi, Shun-ichi

    2005-01-01

    We study the simplest examples of minimal string theory whose worldsheet description is the unitary (p,q) minimal model coupled to two-dimensional gravity ( Liouville field theory). In the Liouville sector, we show that four-point correlation functions of 'tachyons' exhibit logarithmic singularities, and that the theory turns out to be logarithmic. The relation with Zamolodchikov's logarithmic degenerate fields is also discussed. Our result holds for generic values of (p,q)

  18. Annual Waste Minimization Summary Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haworth, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the waste minimization efforts undertaken by National Security TechnoIogies, LLC, for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO), during calendar year 2010. The NNSA/NSO Pollution Prevention Program establishes a process to reduce the volume and toxicity of waste generated by NNSA/NSO activities and ensures that proposed methods of treatment, storage, and/or disposal of waste minimize potential threats to human health and the environment.

  19. WAYS TO INCREASE ACCURACY AND RELIABILITY OF INDIVIDUAL DOSES ASSESSMENTS IN PERSONNEL WITHIN THERMOLUMINESCENCE TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Kaydanovskiy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the main sources of measurement errors of individual doses in personnel performed within the thermoluminescence technique and gives recommendations to minimize these errors. The reasons that reduce reliability of effective dose assessments derived from measured values of personal dose equivalent are imperfections of guidance documents. Changes to the Guidelines «Organization and implementation of individual dosimetric control. Staff of health institutions» are justified.

  20. Exposure monitoring of graphene nanoplatelets manufacturing workplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Han, Jong Hun; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Boowook; Bello, Dhimiter; Kim, Jin Kwon; Lee, Gun Ho; Sohn, Eun Kyung; Lee, Kyungmin; Ahn, Kangho; Faustman, Elaine M; Yu, Il Je

    2016-01-01

    Graphenes have emerged as a highly promising, two-dimensional engineered nanomaterial that can possibly substitute carbon nanotubes. They are being explored in numerous R&D and industrial applications in laboratories across the globe, leading to possible human and environmental exposures to them. Yet, there are no published data on graphene exposures in occupational settings and no readily available methods for their detection and quantitation exist. This study investigates for the first time the potential exposure of workers and research personnel to graphenes in two research facilities and evaluates the status of the control measures. One facility manufactures graphene using graphite exfoliation and chemical vapor deposition (CVD), while the other facility grows graphene on a copper plate using CVD, which is then transferred to a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheet. Graphene exposures and process emissions were investigated for three tasks - CVD growth, exfoliation, and transfer - using a multi-metric approach, which utilizes several direct reading instruments, integrated sampling, and chemical and morphological analysis. Real-time instruments included a dust monitor, condensation particle counter (CPC), nanoparticle surface area monitor, scanning mobility particle sizer, and an aethalometer. Morphologically, graphenes and other nanostructures released from the work process were investigated using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Graphenes were quantified in airborne respirable samples as elemental carbon via thermo-optical analysis. The mass concentrations of total suspended particulate at Workplaces A and B were very low, and elemental carbon concentrations were mostly below the detection limit, indicating very low exposure to graphene or any other particles. The real-time monitoring, especially the aethalometer, showed a good response to the released black carbon, providing a signature of the graphene released during the opening of the CVD reactor

  1. 32 CFR 720.20 - Service of process upon personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Service of process upon personnel. 720.20... DELIVERY OF PERSONNEL; SERVICE OF PROCESS AND SUBPOENAS; PRODUCTION OF OFFICIAL RECORDS Service of Process and Subpoenas Upon Personnel § 720.20 Service of process upon personnel. (a) General. Commanding...

  2. Nuclear power plant personnel training and its evaluation. A guidebook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The Guidebook will prove especially useful for, and is addressed primarily to: nuclear power operating organizations establishing or upgrading their NPP personnel training systems; regulatory personnel responsible for setting requirements and/or evaluating NPP personnel training; and organizations (within or outside the operating organization) responsible for the development, implementation and evaluation of training programmes for NPP personnel. Figs, tabs

  3. Systematic approach to personnel neutron monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, R.V.; Hankins, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    NTA film and albedo detectors represent the major portion of personnel dosimeters now used for occupational neutron monitoring. However, recent attention to the spectral response of these systems has demonstrated the need for detectors that have a better match to the fields being monitored. Recent developments in direct recoil track etch dosimeters present some intriguing alternatives, and careful use of 237 Np fission fragment detectors offers the advantage of a good dose equivalent spectral match. Work continues on a number of other new detector mechanisms, but problems with sensitivity, energy response, gamma interference, etc., continue to prevent development of most mechanisms into viable personnel dosimeters. Current dosimeter limitations make a systematic approach to personnel neutron monitoring particularly important. Techniques have been developed and tested, using available portable survey instruments, that significantly improve the quality of dosimeter interpretation. Even simple spectrometry can be done with modest effort, significantly improving the health physicists ability to provide accurate neutron monitoring

  4. Principles for enhancing professionalism of nuclear personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-03-01

    The management principles in this publication were developed by a committee of senior utility officials with assistance by the staff of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) and with input from virtually all U.S. nuclear utilities. The principles are aimed at creating an environment within a nuclear power plant that promotes a healthy respect for the unique technology that nuclear electric power represents and, thus, to promote great care and conservative, thoughtful decision-making by the nuclear plant staff. The scope of the principles includes all nuclear personnel and gives guidance in the selection and development of management and supervisory personnel and other key individuals in the areas of operations, maintenance, technical support and engineering. Utility managers are encouraged to make in-depth comparisons between these principles and their day-to-day policies and practices, and to use such efforts as opportunities to communicate their organization's management philosophy to all nuclear personnel.

  5. Health physics personnel: a need unfulfilled

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathren, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    For the past decade, the demand for health physics personnel, at both the professional and technical levels, has been increasing, and indeed has become quite acute in recent years. The need for health physics personnel is demonstrated by a summary of projected requirements and potential candidates by the year 1991. Suggestions made for ensuring the availability of qualified health physics personnel includes: 1) a characterization study of health physicists should be conducted, with emphasis on industry, to determine qualifications, job satisfaction factors, and other data pertinent to entry and retention in the field; 2) the curricula currently offered by post-secondary schools should be evaluated for quality and relevance; and 3) an industry standard or protocol for qualification and training of health physics should be developed and implemented

  6. Severe accident testing of a personnel airlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.; Parks, M.B.; Julien, J.T.; Peters, S.W.

    1988-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is investigating the leakage potential of mechanical penetrations as part of a research program on containment integrity under severe accident loads for the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Barnes et al. (1984) and Shackelford et al. (1985) identified leakage from personnel airlocks as an important failure mode of containments subject to severe accident loads. However, these studies were based on relatively simple analysis methods. The complex structural interaction between the door, gasket, and bulkhead in personnel airlocks makes analytical evaluation of leakage difficult. In order to provide data to validate methods for evaluating the leakage potential, a full-size personnel airlock was subject to simulated severe accident loads consisting of pressure and temperature up to 300 psig and 800 degrees F. The test was conducted at Chicago Bridge and Iron under contract to Sandia. The authors provide a detailed report on the test program

  7. Principles for enhancing professionalism of nuclear personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The management principles in this publication were developed by a committee of senior utility officials with assistance by the staff of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) and with input from virtually all U.S. nuclear utilities. The principles are aimed at creating an environment within a nuclear power plant that promotes a healthy respect for the unique technology that nuclear electric power represents and, thus, to promote great care and conservative, thoughtful decision-making by the nuclear plant staff. The scope of the principles includes all nuclear personnel and gives guidance in the selection and development of management and supervisory personnel and other key individuals in the areas of operations, maintenance, technical support and engineering. Utility managers are encouraged to make in-depth comparisons between these principles and their day-to-day policies and practices, and to use such efforts as opportunities to communicate their organization's management philosophy to all nuclear personnel

  8. Minimal but non-minimal inflation and electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzola, Luca [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu,Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Racioppi, Antonio [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2016-10-07

    We consider the most minimal scale invariant extension of the standard model that allows for successful radiative electroweak symmetry breaking and inflation. The framework involves an extra scalar singlet, that plays the rôle of the inflaton, and is compatibile with current experimental bounds owing to the non-minimal coupling of the latter to gravity. This inflationary scenario predicts a very low tensor-to-scalar ratio r≈10{sup −3}, typical of Higgs-inflation models, but in contrast yields a scalar spectral index n{sub s}≃0.97 which departs from the Starobinsky limit. We briefly discuss the collider phenomenology of the framework.

  9. Predictors of workplace violence among ambulance personnel: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Velden, Peter G; Bosmans, Mark W G; van der Meulen, Erik

    2016-04-01

    To examine predictors of repeated confrontations with workplace violence among ambulance personnel, the proportion of exposure to potentially traumatic events that are aggression-related and to what extent personnel was able to prevent escalations. Although previous research assessed the prevalences among this group, little is known about predictors, to what extent PTE's are WPV-related and their abilities to prevent escalations. A longitudinal study with a 6 months' time interval ( N  =   103). At T1 demographics, workplace violence and potentially traumatic events in the past year, mental health, personality, handling of rules, coping and social organizational stressors were assessed. Confrontations with aggression were also examined at T2. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that only problems with superiors independently predicted repeated verbal aggression and that only the (absence of the) ability to compromise very easily predicted repeatedly being on guard and repeatedly confronted with any form of aggression. Due to very low prevalences, we could not examine predictors of repeated confrontations with physical aggression ( N  =   5) and serious threat ( N  =   7). A large majority reported that in most workplace violence cases they could prevent further escalations. About 2% reported a potentially traumatic event in the year before T1 that was WPV related and perceived as very stressful.

  10. Qualification of nuclear power plant operations personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    With the ultimate aim of reducing the possibility of human error in nuclear power plant operations, the Guidebook discusses the organizational aspects, the staffing requirements, the educational systems and qualifications, the competence requirements, the ways to establish, preserve and verify competence, the specific aspects of personnel management and training for nuclear power plant operations, and finally the particular situations and difficulties to be overcome by utilities starting their first nuclear power plant. An important aspect presented in the Guidebook is the experience in training and qualification of nuclear power plant personnel in various countries: Argentina, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, France, Federal Republic of Germany, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom and United States of America

  11. The training of the operation personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.D.

    1975-01-01

    A survey about training places and the volume of the training program for reactor personnel in the Federal Republic of Germany is given. Paragraph 7 of the atomic energy act, which imposes on the operators of nuclear energy plants the qualifired training of the personnel, is refered to. Positive experiences with the use of simulation equipment for training have led to the planning of a simulator-centre which is expected to be ready for operation in 1977. The versatile program of this centre is briefly reported. (ORU) [de

  12. Performance estimates for personnel access control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, R.G.

    1980-10-01

    Current performance estimates for personnel access control systems use estimates of Type I and Type II verification errors. A system performance equation which addresses normal operation, the insider, and outside adversary attack is developed. Examination of this equation reveals the inadequacy of classical Type I and II error evaluations which require detailed knowledge of the adversary threat scenario for each specific installation. Consequently, new performance measures which are consistent with the performance equation and independent of the threat are developed as an aid in selecting personnel access control systems

  13. PAMTRAK: A personnel and material tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anspach, D.A.; Anspach, J.P.; Crain, B. Jr.

    1996-01-01

    There is a need for an automated system for protecting and monitoring sensitive or classified parts and material. Sandia has developed a real-time personnel and material tracking system (PAMTRAK) that has been installed at selected DOE facilities. It safeguards sensitive parts and material by tracking tags worn by personnel and by monitoring sensors attached to the parts or material. It includes remote control and alarm display capabilities and a complementary program in Keyhole to display measured material attributes remotely. This paper describes the design goals, the system components, current installations, and the benefits a site can expect when using PAMTRAK

  14. Personnel protection and beam containment systems for the 3 GeV Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yotam, R.; Cerino, J.; Garoutte, R.; Hettel, R.; Horton, M.; Sebek, J.; Benson, E.; Crook, K.; Fitch, J.; Ipe, N.; Nelson, G.; Smith, H.

    1991-01-01

    The 3 GeV Injector is the electron beam source for the SPEAR Storage Ring, and its personnel safety system was designed to protect personnel from both radiation exposure and electrical hazards. The Personnel Protection System (PPS) was designed and implemented with complete redundancy and is a relay based interlock system completely independent from the machine protection system. A comprehensive monitoring of the system status, and control of the Injector PPS from the SPEAR Control Room via the control computer is a feature. The Beam Containment System (BCS) is based on beam current measurements along the Linac and on Beam Shut Off Ion Chambers (BSOIC) installed outside the Linac, at several locations around the Booster, and around the SPEAR storage ring. An outline of the design criteria is presented with more detailed description of the philosophy of the PPS logic and the BCS

  15. Recalibration of indium foil for personnel screening in criticality accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, C; Tsujimura, N; Mikami, S

    2011-03-01

    At the Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Laboratories of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), small pieces of indium foil incorporated into personal dosemeters have been used for personnel screening in criticality accidents. Irradiation tests of the badges were performed using the SILENE reactor to verify the calibration of the indium activation that had been made in the 1980s and to recalibrate them for simulated criticalities that would be the most likely to occur in the solution process line. In addition, Monte Carlo calculations of the indium activation using the badge model were also made to complement the spectral dependence. The results lead to a screening level of 15 kcpm being determined that corresponds to a total dose of 0.25 Gy, which is also applicable in posterior-anterior exposure. The recalibration based on the latest study will provide a sounder basis for the screening procedure in the event of a criticality accident.

  16. Minimal modification to tribimaximal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Xiaogang; Zee, A.

    2011-01-01

    We explore some ways of minimally modifying the neutrino mixing matrix from tribimaximal, characterized by introducing at most one mixing angle and a CP violating phase thus extending our earlier work. One minimal modification, motivated to some extent by group theoretic considerations, is a simple case with the elements V α2 of the second column in the mixing matrix equal to 1/√(3). Modifications by keeping one of the columns or one of the rows unchanged from tribimaximal mixing all belong to the class of minimal modification. Some of the cases have interesting experimentally testable consequences. In particular, the T2K and MINOS collaborations have recently reported indications of a nonzero θ 13 . For the cases we consider, the new data sharply constrain the CP violating phase angle δ, with δ close to 0 (in some cases) and π disfavored.

  17. Topological gravity with minimal matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Keke

    1991-01-01

    Topological minimal matter, obtained by twisting the minimal N = 2 supeconformal field theory, is coupled to two-dimensional topological gravity. The free field formulation of the coupled system allows explicit representations of BRST charge, physical operators and their correlation functions. The contact terms of the physical operators may be evaluated by extending the argument used in a recent solution of topological gravity without matter. The consistency of the contact terms in correlation functions implies recursion relations which coincide with the Virasoro constraints derived from the multi-matrix models. Topological gravity with minimal matter thus provides the field theoretic description for the multi-matrix models of two-dimensional quantum gravity. (orig.)

  18. Minimal Marking: A Success Story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne McNeilly

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The minimal-marking project conducted in Ryerson’s School of Journalism throughout 2012 and early 2013 resulted in significantly higher grammar scores in two first-year classes of minimally marked university students when compared to two traditionally marked classes. The “minimal-marking” concept (Haswell, 1983, which requires dramatically more student engagement, resulted in more successful learning outcomes for surface-level knowledge acquisition than the more traditional approach of “teacher-corrects-all.” Results suggest it would be effective, not just for grammar, punctuation, and word usage, the objective here, but for any material that requires rote-memory learning, such as the Associated Press or Canadian Press style rules used by news publications across North America.

  19. Intimate partner violence influence on deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaat, Amany

    2013-01-01

    Millennium Development Goal 5 calls for increasing proportions of deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel to reduce maternal mortality. This study aims to identifying the implication of exposure to intimate partner violence on these proportions. This study used domestic violence modules data of Demographic and Health Surveys of six countries from 2005 to 2007. Proportions of assisted deliveries were examined by sociodemographic characteristics and exposure to intimate partner violence in the studied countries. Influence on the proportion was examined against exposure to intimate partner violence through odds ratio and 95% of logistic regression analysis after controlling for women age, residence (urban/rural), household wealth level, economic level of country, educational level and working status of women and their husbands/partners. Data sets of 18,507 participants over 20 years of age showed that almost three-quarters (73%) of women had deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel. One-third of the women were ever exposed to intimate partner violence (37%) and 9% of them to the severe level. Exposure to intimate partner violence statistically significantly lowered this proportion to 69% (odds ratio: 0.73; 95% confidence interval: 0.67-0.78) meanwhile severe violence lowered it to 65% (odds ratio 0.64; 95% confidence interval: 0.58-0.72). When running multiple regression analysis, exposure to intimate partner violence retained its statistically significant decreasing influence on proportions and was not biased by the other stronger socioeconomic characteristics. Intimate partner violence has an independent influence on reducing assisted deliveries by skilled health personnel. Programs working for increasing proportions of assisted deliveries by skilled health personnel are recommended to integrate protection women from violence.

  20. Intimate partner violence influence on deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amany Refaat

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Millennium Development Goal 5 calls for increasing proportions of deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel to reduce maternal mortality. This study aims to identifying the implication of exposure to intimate partner violence on these proportions. Methodology: This study used domestic violence modules data of Demographic and Health Surveys of six countries from 2005 to 2007. Proportions of assisted deliveries were examined by sociodemographic characteristics and exposure to intimate partner violence in the studied countries. Influence on the proportion was examined against exposure to intimate partner violence through odds ratio and 95% of logistic regression analysis after controlling for women age, residence (urban/rural, household wealth level, economic level of country, educational level and working status of women and their husbands/partners. Results: Data sets of 18,507 participants over 20 years of age showed that almost three-quarters (73% of women had deliveries assisted by skilled health personnel. One-third of the women were ever exposed to intimate partner violence (37% and 9% of them to the severe level. Exposure to intimate partner violence statistically significantly lowered this proportion to 69% (odds ratio: 0.73; 95% confidence interval: 0.67–0.78 meanwhile severe violence lowered it to 65% (odds ratio 0.64; 95% confidence interval: 0.58–0.72. When running multiple regression analysis, exposure to intimate partner violence retained its statistically significant decreasing influence on proportions and was not biased by the other stronger socioeconomic characteristics. Conclusion and recommendations: Intimate partner violence has an independent influence on reducing assisted deliveries by skilled health personnel. Programs working for increasing proportions of assisted deliveries by skilled health personnel are recommended to integrate protection women from violence.

  1. VALIDATION OF HANFORD PERSONNEL AND EXTREMITY DOSIMETERS IN PLUTONIUM ENVIRONMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherpelz, Robert I.; Fix, John J.; Rathbone, Bruce A.

    2000-02-10

    A study was performed in the Plutonium Finishing Plant to assess the performance of Hanford personnel neutron dosimetry. The study was assessed whole body dosimetry and extremity dosimetry performance. For both parts of the study, the TEPC was used as the principle instrument for characterizing workplace neutron fields. In the whole body study, 12.7-cm-diameter TEPCs were used in ten different locations in the facility. TLD and TED personnel dosimeters were exposed on a water-filled phantom to enable a comparison of TEPC and dosimeter response. In the extremity study, 1.27-cm-diameter TEPCs were exposed inside the fingers of a gloveboxe glove. Extremity dosimeters were wrapped around the TEPCs. The glove was then exposed to six different cans of plutonium, simulating the exposure that a worker's fingers would receive in a glovebox. The comparison of TEPC-measured neutron dose equivalent to TLD-measured gamma dose equivalent provided neutron-to-gamma ratios that can be used to estimate the neutron dose equivalent received by a worker's finger based on the gamma readings of an extremity dosimeter. The study also utilized a Snoopy and detectors based on bubble technology for assessing neutron exposures, providing a comparison of the effectiveness of these instruments for workplace monitoring. The study concludes that the TLD component of the HCND performs adequately overall, with a positive bias of 30%, but exhibits excessive variability in individual results due to instabilities in the algorithm. The TED response was less variable but only 20% of the TEPC reference dose on average because of the low neutron energies involved. The neutron response of the HSD was more variable than the TLD component of the HCND and biased high by a factor of 8 overall due to its calibration to unmoderated 252Cf. The study recommends further work to correct instabilities in the HCND algorithm and to explore the potential shown by the bubble-based dosimeters.

  2. Non-minimal inflation revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozari, Kourosh; Shafizadeh, Somayeh

    2010-01-01

    We reconsider an inflationary model that inflaton field is non-minimally coupled to gravity. We study the parameter space of the model up to the second (and in some cases third) order of the slow-roll parameters. We calculate inflation parameters in both Jordan and Einstein frames, and the results are compared in these two frames and also with observations. Using the recent observational data from combined WMAP5+SDSS+SNIa datasets, we study constraints imposed on our model parameters, especially the non-minimal coupling ξ.

  3. Minimal Flavor Constraints for Technicolor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakuma, Hidenori; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self-coupling and mas......We analyze the constraints on the the vacuum polarization of the standard model gauge bosons from a minimal set of flavor observables valid for a general class of models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking. We will show that the constraints have a strong impact on the self...

  4. Harm minimization among teenage drinkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Morten Hulvej; Curtis, Tine; Christensen, Pia Haudrup

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine strategies of harm minimization employed by teenage drinkers. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Two periods of ethnographic fieldwork were conducted in a rural Danish community of approximately 2000 inhabitants. The fieldwork included 50 days of participant observation among 13....... In regulating the social context of drinking they relied on their personal experiences more than on formalized knowledge about alcohol and harm, which they had learned from prevention campaigns and educational programmes. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we found that teenagers may help each other to minimize alcohol...

  5. Legal constraints imposed on security force personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwell, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    It is argued that the penalty for most mistakes made by security is the payment of money by the utility. The security personnel has only to act reasonably and not in a negligent manner. Preventing of sabotage is more important than obtaining a conviction, so it is better to search and not get a conviction than it is not to search

  6. Emergency team personnel and technical equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muralt, R.

    1989-01-01

    The most important requirements for the emergency team can be summarized in three points. 1) The emergency team must be made up of top personnel from all fields and it should be functionally equiped. 2) The emergency teams must have complete command of their equipment. 3) The members of the team must be well motivated. 1 fig

  7. LANSCE personnel access control system (PACS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturrock, J.C.; Gallegos, F.R.; Hall, M.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Radiation Security System (RSS) at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) provides personnel protection from prompt radiation due to accelerated beam. The Personnel Access Control System (PACS) is a component of the RSS that is designed to prevent personnel access to areas where prompt radiation is a hazard. PACS was designed to replace several older personnel safety systems (PSS) with a single modem unified design. Lessons learned from the operation over the last 20 years were incorporated into a redundant sensor, single-point failure safe, fault tolerant, and tamper-resistant system that prevents access to the beam areas by controlling the access keys and beam stoppers. PACS uses a layered philosophy to the physical and electronic design. The most critical assemblies are battery backed up, relay logic circuits; less critical devices use Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs) for timing functions and communications. Outside reviewers have reviewed the operational safety of the design. The design philosophy, lessons learned, hardware design, software design, operation, and limitations of the device are described

  8. Evaluation of Agency's Public Personnel Administration

    OpenAIRE

    Neal W. Tamayo

    2017-01-01

    As a consultant for a government agency, this paper will design recommendations and improvements for the agency’s public personnel administration. In order to do this, the consultant has to become familiar with the agency, its departments and also understand the key factors. The department chosen from the government for this paper is the Social Security Administration (Kestenbaum, 2014).

  9. 50 CFR 260.104 - Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... belongings, eat food, drink beverages, chew gum, or use tobacco in any form in areas where food or food... FOOD PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection and Certification of Establishments and Fishery... Basis 1 § 260.104 Personnel. The establishment management shall be responsible for taking all...

  10. Personnel radiation dosimetry symposium: program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-10-01

    The purpose was to provide applied and research dosimetrists with sufficient information to evaluate the status and direction of their programs relative to the latest guidelines and techniques. A technical program was presented concerning experience, requirements, and advances in gamma, beta, and neutron personnel dosimetry.

  11. Job Attitudes of Military Airlift Command Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    nutbers of available youth. John haisbitt, author of Megatrends, predicts that labor short.ges are beginning to occur and will continue throughout the...available resources (e.g., personnel and material). 81. Your work group’s performance in compariscn to similar work groups is very high. ORGANIZATION CLIMA "E

  12. 42 CFR 485.705 - Personnel qualifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Physical Therapy and Speech-Language Pathology Services § 485.705 Personnel qualifications. (a) General... involved in the furnishing of outpatient physical therapy, occupational therapy, and speech-language...) of the Act and the requirements in part 484 of this chapter. (2) For a speech-language pathologist...

  13. Health matters in hiring and retaining personnel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtman, I.L.D.

    2014-01-01

    Health is the most important issue when an employer is deciding whether to hire a worker, according to a new study from the Netherlands. The research looked at the results of a ‘vignette’ study on employer preferences when hiring or retaining personnel. It also showed that when an employer is

  14. Legal constraints imposed on security force personnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cadwell, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    It is argued that the penalty for most mistakes made by security is the payment of money by the utility. The security personnel has only to act reasonably and not in a negligent manner. Preventing of sabotage is more important than obtaining a conviction, so it is better to search and not get a conviction than it is not to search. (DLC)

  15. Personnel radiation dosimetry symposium: program and abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-10-01

    The purpose was to provide applied and research dosimetrists with sufficient information to evaluate the status and direction of their programs relative to the latest guidelines and techniques. A technical program was presented concerning experience, requirements, and advances in gamma, beta, and neutron personnel dosimetry

  16. 21 CFR 606.20 - Personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR BLOOD AND BLOOD COMPONENTS Organization and Personnel § 606.20... testing, storage or distribution of blood or blood components shall be adequate in number, educational... areas where the collection, processing, compatibility testing, storage or distribution of blood or blood...

  17. Changing Role of the Personnel Manager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Edgar H.

    1975-01-01

    Arguing that the personnel manager will increasingly have to become a change agent and process consultant, the author discusses tasks involved and skills required for the new role. A shift in focus toward top management as the primary client and utilization of more flexible intervention into organizational processes are predicted. (JT)

  18. The Intensification of the Personnel Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangler, Lawrence A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses personnel profession's increased responsibilities which are due to (1) consolidation of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, (2) labor law reform, (3) privacy legislation, (4) social security legislation, (5) open retirement, (6) medical plan costs, (7) codetermination, (8) labor scarcity, (9) top management compensation, and…

  19. Strategic personnel management in an educational institution

    OpenAIRE

    KOROTKOVA M.V.; RYBKINA M.V.; NIKITINA S.O.; SCHERNYKH A.V.

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes the strategic human resource management in an educational institution. Analyzes the basic normative-legal documents regulating educational activities, including the part of management. Particular importance is given to the types of educational institutions (budgetary, state, and autonomous). The stages of strategic management of staff in educational institutions and development model of strategic management personnel are shown.

  20. Micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked lymphocytes of medical personnel occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noditi, M.; Draghia, L.; Popescu, D.; Cincu, E.

    2006-01-01

    Bio monitoring of occupational exposures relies on surveillance of exposure and its biological consequences. The measurement of micronuclei in population of exposed cells is a cytogenetic end point used for estimation purposes. To ensure that only dividing cells are scored, cells are treated with cytochalasin B, which blocks cytokinesis and results in bi nucleated cells. Only the bi nucleated cells are evaluated for the formation of micronuclei. In 2004-2005 there have been analyzed and compared two groups of medical staff occupationally exposed to X-rays by using micronucleus test. The first group consisted in 9 doctors and nurses specialized in interventional cardiology from the Institute of Cardiology - Timisoara, Romania, males and females, smokers and nonsmokers. The mean age was 41.5 years and the mean duration of employment 10.6 years. According to personal dosimeters, some of them have had an overdose exposure. The other group consisted in 19 doctors and nurses from the radiology department of several hospitals from Timisoara with the mean age of 48.3 years and the mean duration of employment of 17.8 years. According to personal dosimeters, none of them have had an overdose exposure. The recorded frequency of micronuclei was 62.6/1000 bi nucleated cells for the interventional cardiology personnel. There have been observed cells with 2, 3 and even 5 micronuclei. For the radiology department personnel the frequency of micronuclei was 15.4/1000 bi nucleated cells and the appearance of cells with more than one micronucleus was exceptional. In general, there was a tendency of accumulation of micronuclei with age but the correlation with the age of employment was rather unclear. Due to low doses exposure confounding factors could exist. For instance, a proportion of micronuclei are formed because of other mutagen factors from the environment or smoking habit. Nevertheless the exposure of interventional cardiology personnel is more consistent and further

  1. Micronuclei in cytokinesis-blocked lymphocytes of medical personnel occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noditi, M.; Draghia, L.; Popescu, D. [Institute of Public Health ' Prof. Dr. Leonida Georgescu' Timisoara (Romania); Cincu, E. [University of Agriculture Sciences of Banat, Timisoara (Romania)

    2006-07-01

    Bio monitoring of occupational exposures relies on surveillance of exposure and its biological consequences. The measurement of micronuclei in population of exposed cells is a cytogenetic end point used for estimation purposes. To ensure that only dividing cells are scored, cells are treated with cytochalasin B, which blocks cytokinesis and results in bi nucleated cells. Only the bi nucleated cells are evaluated for the formation of micronuclei. In 2004-2005 there have been analyzed and compared two groups of medical staff occupationally exposed to X-rays by using micronucleus test. The first group consisted in 9 doctors and nurses specialized in interventional cardiology from the Institute of Cardiology - Timisoara, Romania, males and females, smokers and nonsmokers. The mean age was 41.5 years and the mean duration of employment 10.6 years. According to personal dosimeters, some of them have had an overdose exposure. The other group consisted in 19 doctors and nurses from the radiology department of several hospitals from Timisoara with the mean age of 48.3 years and the mean duration of employment of 17.8 years. According to personal dosimeters, none of them have had an overdose exposure. The recorded frequency of micronuclei was 62.6/1000 bi nucleated cells for the interventional cardiology personnel. There have been observed cells with 2, 3 and even 5 micronuclei. For the radiology department personnel the frequency of micronuclei was 15.4/1000 bi nucleated cells and the appearance of cells with more than one micronucleus was exceptional. In general, there was a tendency of accumulation of micronuclei with age but the correlation with the age of employment was rather unclear. Due to low doses exposure confounding factors could exist. For instance, a proportion of micronuclei are formed because of other mutagen factors from the environment or smoking habit. Nevertheless the exposure of interventional cardiology personnel is more consistent and further

  2. Competency assessments for nuclear industry personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-04-01

    In 1996, the IAEA published Technical Reports Series No. 380, Nuclear Power Plant Personnel Training and its Evaluation: A Guidebook. This publication provides guidance for the development, implementation and evaluation of training programmes for all nuclear power plant personnel using the systematic approach to training (SAT) methodology. The SAT methodology has since been adopted and used for the development and implementation of training programmes for all types of nuclear facility and activities in the nuclear industry. The IAEA Technical Working Group on Training and Qualification of Nuclear Power Plant Personnel recommended that an additional publication be prepared to provide further guidance concerning competency assessments used for measuring the knowledge, skills and attitudes of personnel as the result of training. This publication has been prepared in response to that recommendation. A critical component of SAT (as part of the implementation phase) is the assessment of whether personnel have achieved the standards identified in the training objectives. The nuclear industry spends a significant amount of resources conducting competency assessments. Competency assessments are used for employee selection, trainee assessment, qualification, requalification and authorization (in some Member States the terminology may be 'certification' or 'licensing'), and job advancement and promotion. Ineffective testing methods and procedures, or inappropriate interpretation of test results, can have significant effects on both human performance and nuclear safety. Test development requires unique skills and, as with any skill, training and experience are needed to develop and improve them. Test item and examination development, use, interpretation of results and examination refinement, like all other aspects of SAT, should be part of an ongoing, systematic process. This publication is primarily intended for use by personnel responsible for developing and administering

  3. Minimization of heatwave morbidity and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravchenko, Julia; Abernethy, Amy P; Fawzy, Maria; Lyerly, H Kim

    2013-03-01

    Global climate change is projected to increase the frequency and duration of periods of extremely high temperatures. Both the general populace and public health authorities often underestimate the impact of high temperatures on human health. To highlight the vulnerable populations and illustrate approaches to minimization of health impacts of extreme heat, the authors reviewed the studies of heat-related morbidity and mortality for high-risk populations in the U.S. and Europe from 1958 to 2012. Heat exposure not only can cause heat exhaustion and heat stroke but also can exacerbate a wide range of medical conditions. Vulnerable populations, such as older adults; children; outdoor laborers; some racial and ethnic subgroups (particularly those with low SES); people with chronic diseases; and those who are socially or geographically isolated, have increased morbidity and mortality during extreme heat. In addition to ambient temperature, heat-related health hazards are exacerbated by air pollution, high humidity, and lack of air-conditioning. Consequently, a comprehensive approach to minimize the health effects of extreme heat is required and must address educating the public of the risks and optimizing heatwave response plans, which include improving access to environmentally controlled public havens, adaptation of social services to address the challenges required during extreme heat, and consistent monitoring of morbidity and mortality during periods of extreme temperatures. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Minimally invasive approach of panfacial fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudi Wijaya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background. Panfacial fractures involves fractures of several bones of face. They are associated with malocclusion, dish face deformity, enopthalmos, diplopia, cerebrospinal fluid leak and soft tissue injuries. Purpose. The purpose of this paper is to present a case of minimizing surgical wound and morbidity. Case. A 40 year old female presented with severe maxillofacial injuries caused by motor vehicle collisions about 5 days prior to admission. The assessment of the patient is mild head injury, panfacial fractures, lacerated wound at face,  rupture of globe of occular sinistra. An open reduction and internal fixation  (ORIF and enucleation of globe occular sinistra was performed.  Intraoral vestibular incision is made in the upper and lower vestibular region. Mucoperiosteal flap elevation of vestibular will exposure of the anterior maxilla and mandibular fractures. Intermaksilary fixation within 3 week and restore aesthetic with prosthesis fitting eyeball and denture. Discusion. The goal of  treatment of  panfacial fracture is to restore both the functions and pre-injury 3-dimensional facial contours. To achieve this goal two common  sequences of management of Panfacial fractures are proposed, “Bottom up and inside out” or “Top down and outside in”. Other sequences exist but there are variations of these two major approaches. Conclusion. A minimally invasive approach to  the fracture site is an alternative method  to manage panfacial fracture with a simple, effective and lower complication rate.

  5. Radiation exposure modeling and project schedule visualization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaquish, W.R.; Enderlin, V.R.

    1995-10-01

    This paper discusses two applications using IGRIP (Interactive Graphical Robot Instruction Program) to assist environmental remediation efforts at the Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. In the first application, IGRIP is used to calculate the estimated radiation exposure to workers conducting tasks in radiation environments. In the second, IGRIP is used as a configuration management tool to detect interferences between equipment and personnel work areas for multiple projects occurring simultaneously in one area. Both of these applications have the capability to reduce environmental remediation costs by reducing personnel radiation exposure and by providing a method to effectively manage multiple projects in a single facility

  6. Towards harmonized qualifications for radiation exposed personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briso, Hugo A.

    2008-01-01

    The accelerated process of globalization affecting mankind doesn't exclude safety matters. Indeed, some trans national corporations are increasingly offering specialized engineering services such as industrial radiography or well lodging. As well, a growing scientific exchange involves the mobility of nuclear researchers in different areas, for instance radiochemistry, nuclear medicine and radiotherapy. Such a breakdown in the technological frontiers must necessarily be reflected by the regulatory solutions. Particularly, diverse levels of theoretical-practical training for radiation exposed personnel coexist in the Latin-American Region, being an especially sensitive problem for radiation protection matters. The spectrum goes from post-graduate courses required for radiation protection officers in some countries, while in others only basic recommendations are required for the operating personnel. Another scheme consists of medium level course for the operating personnel, while radiation protection officers don't have special requirements. Many educational private institutions teach non standardized courses which only give broad concepts of radiation protection. On the other hand, usually nothing is said about the operational training, or else its certification is entrusted to the employer itself. In some countries multiple Regulatory Authorities apply dissimilar criteria to assess safety matters, including the evaluation of workers applications. The necessary regional integration makes indispensable to establish common standards for granting authorizations. Having similar or homogeneous requirements for the universe of radiation exposed personnel, i.e. source operators, radiation protection officers, qualified experts and technical support people would be easier for the Regulatory Authorities to have common methodologies of evaluation for the applicants. An IAEA supported technical cooperation project related to this paper seeks to establish standardized

  7. Isoperimetric inequalities for minimal graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacelli Bessa, G.; Montenegro, J.F.

    2007-09-01

    Based on Markvorsen and Palmer's work on mean time exit and isoperimetric inequalities we establish slightly better isoperimetric inequalities and mean time exit estimates for minimal graphs in N x R. We also prove isoperimetric inequalities for submanifolds of Hadamard spaces with tamed second fundamental form. (author)

  8. A Defense of Semantic Minimalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su

    2012-01-01

    Semantic Minimalism is a position about the semantic content of declarative sentences, i.e., the content that is determined entirely by syntax. It is defined by the following two points: "Point 1": The semantic content is a complete/truth-conditional proposition. "Point 2": The semantic content is useful to a theory of…

  9. Torsional Rigidity of Minimal Submanifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, Vicente

    2006-01-01

    We prove explicit upper bounds for the torsional rigidity of extrinsic domains of minimal submanifolds $P^m$ in ambient Riemannian manifolds $N^n$ with a pole $p$. The upper bounds are given in terms of the torsional rigidities of corresponding Schwarz symmetrizations of the domains in warped...

  10. The debate on minimal deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arbatov, A.; Karp, R.C.; Toth, T.

    1993-01-01

    Revitalization of debates on minimal nuclear deterrence at the present time is induced by the end of the Cold War and a number of unilateral and bilateral actions by the great powers to curtail nuclear arms race and reduce nuclear weapons arsenals

  11. LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This document is the February 14, 1990 version of the LLNL Waste Minimization Program Plan (WMPP). The Waste Minimization Policy field has undergone continuous changes since its formal inception in the 1984 HSWA legislation. The first LLNL WMPP, Revision A, is dated March 1985. A series of informal revision were made on approximately a semi-annual basis. This Revision 2 is the third formal issuance of the WMPP document. EPA has issued a proposed new policy statement on source reduction and recycling. This policy reflects a preventative strategy to reduce or eliminate the generation of environmentally-harmful pollutants which may be released to the air, land surface, water, or ground water. In accordance with this new policy new guidance to hazardous waste generators on the elements of a Waste Minimization Program was issued. In response to these policies, DOE has revised and issued implementation guidance for DOE Order 5400.1, Waste Minimization Plan and Waste Reduction reporting of DOE Hazardous, Radioactive, and Radioactive Mixed Wastes, final draft January 1990. This WMPP is formatted to meet the current DOE guidance outlines. The current WMPP will be revised to reflect all of these proposed changes when guidelines are established. Updates, changes and revisions to the overall LLNL WMPP will be made as appropriate to reflect ever-changing regulatory requirements. 3 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Acquiring minimally invasive surgical skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Many topics in surgical skills education have been implemented without a solid scientific basis. For that reason we have tried to find this scientific basis. We have focused on training and evaluation of minimally invasive surgical skills in a training setting and in practice in the operating room.

  13. Exposure Forecaster

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Exposure Forecaster Database (ExpoCastDB) is EPA's database for aggregating chemical exposure information and can be used to help with chemical exposure...

  14. Occupational risk and lifetime exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapp, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Any lowering of annual radiation limits for occupational exposure should be based on industry experience with lifetime doses and not on a worst case career exposure of 47 years. Two decades of experience show a lifetime accumulation of less than 1.5 rem for workers with measurable exposure. This is 5% of the normal lifetime exposure of Americans to natural and medical radiation. Any epidemiology of the US nuclear power workforce's two decade long exposure would have to focus on excess leukemia. Application of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki cancer mortality shows that too few leukemias would be expressed to permit a feasible epidemiology. Ionizing radiation appears to be a mild carcinogen as compared to physical and chemical agents presented in the occupational environment. A realistic factor in determining any change in occupational exposure limits for ionizing radiation should take into account the past performance of the licensee and potential health effects applicable to the workplace. Specifically, the lifetime exposure data for workers at nuclear power plants and naval shipyards should be considered. The nuclear industry and the US Navy have detailed data on the annual exposure of workers with a combined collective exposure approaching 1 million worker-rem. The lifetime dose for naval personnel and shipyard workers averages 1.1 rem J 1990. Shipyard workers have an annual dose of 0.28 rem per work-year and a mean exposure time of 4.4 years. The data apply to workers with measurable dose

  15. Hazardous waste minimization tracking system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Railan, R.

    1994-01-01

    Under RCRA section 3002 9(b) and 3005f(h), hazardous waste generators and owners/operators of treatment, storage, and disposal facilities (TSDFs) are required to certify that they have a program in place to reduce the volume or quantity and toxicity of hazardous waste to the degree determined to be economically practicable. In many cases, there are environmental, as well as, economic benefits, for agencies that pursue pollution prevention options. Several state governments have already enacted waste minimization legislation (e.g., Massachusetts Toxic Use Reduction Act of 1989, and Oregon Toxic Use Reduction Act and Hazardous Waste Reduction Act, July 2, 1989). About twenty six other states have established legislation that will mandate some type of waste minimization program and/or facility planning. The need to address the HAZMIN (Hazardous Waste Minimization) Program at government agencies and private industries has prompted us to identify the importance of managing The HAZMIN Program, and tracking various aspects of the program, as well as the progress made in this area. The open-quotes WASTEclose quotes is a tracking system, which can be used and modified in maintaining the information related to Hazardous Waste Minimization Program, in a manageable fashion. This program maintains, modifies, and retrieves information related to hazardous waste minimization and recycling, and provides automated report generating capabilities. It has a built-in menu, which can be printed either in part or in full. There are instructions on preparing The Annual Waste Report, and The Annual Recycling Report. The program is very user friendly. This program is available in 3.5 inch or 5 1/4 inch floppy disks. A computer with 640K memory is required

  16. Ionizing radiation and frequency of chromosomal aberrations in exposed personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spasojevic-Tisma, Vera; Pavlovic, Snezana

    2008-01-01

    in protective garments. The greatest radiation risk was found with the workers employed at the technetium radioisotope production. The production workers also had the longest accumulated work exposure with 2 years minimum, average above 10 years of laboratory work. It can thus be concluded that there is a direct relationship between the chromosomal aberrations found and the time of exposure to ionizing radiation sources. The probability of aberration occurrence is greater, but the frequency is not in a linear relationship with the accumulated work exposure time. The aberrations found indicate a necessity of medical surveillance of the personnel working in the ionizing radiation zone with the same dynamics. The results were statistically processed using the Student t-test (Statistica 5 software, StatSoft, Inc.) and the X-square test. (author)

  17. Radiation Exposures Associated with Shipments of Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MASSEY, CHARLES D.; MESSICK, C.E.; MUSTIN, T.

    1999-01-01

    Experience has shown that the analyses of marine transport of spent fuel in the Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) were conservative. It is anticipated that for most shipments. The external dose rate for the loaded transportation cask will be more in line with recent shipments. At the radiation levels associated with these shipments, we would not expect any personnel to exceed radiation exposure limits for the public. Package dose rates usually well below the regulatory limits and personnel work practices following ALARA principles are keeping human exposures to minimal levels. However, the potential for Mure shipments with external dose rates closer to the exclusive-use regulatory limit suggests that DOE should continue to provide a means to assure that individual crew members do not receive doses in excess of the public dose limits. As a minimum, the program will monitor cask dose rates and continue to implement administrative procedures that will maintain records of the dose rates associated with each shipment, the vessel used, and the crew list for the vessel. DOE will continue to include a clause in the contract for shipment of the foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel requiring that the Mitigation Action Plan be followed

  18. Skin dose assessment in routine personnel beta/gamma dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, P.

    1980-01-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (Publication 26) has recommended a tissue depth of 5 to 10 mg.cm -2 for skin dose assessments. This requirement is generally not fulfilled by routine monitoring procedures because of practical difficulties in using very thin dosemeters with low sensitivity and therefore a high minimum detectable dose. Especially for low-energy beta-ray exposures underestimations of the skin dose by a factor of more than ten may occur. Low-transparent graphite-mixed sintered LiF and Li 2 B 4 0 7 : Mn dosemeters were produced which show a skin-equivalent response to beta and gamma exposures over a wide range of energies. These have found wide-spread application for extremity dosimetry but have not yet been generally introduced in routine personnel beta/gamma monitoring. The following adaptations of existing routine monitoring systems for improved skin dose assessments have been investigated: 1) Placement of a supplementary, thin, skin-dose equivalent dosemeter in the TLD badge to give additional information on low-energy exposures. 2) Introduction of a second photomultiplier in the read-out chamber which enables a simultaneous determination of emitted TL from both sides of the dosemeter separately. This method makes use of the selfshielding of the dosemeter to give information on the low-energy dose contribution. 3) By diffusion of Li 2 B 4 0 7 into solid LiF-dosemeters it was possible to produce a surface layer with a new distinct glow-peak at about 340 deg C which is not present in the undiffused part of the LiF chip, and which can be utilized for the assessment of the skin-dose. Data on energy response and accuracy of dose measurement for beta/gamma exposures are given for the three methods and advantages and disadvantages are discussed (H.K.)

  19. Study on technology for minimizing radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Kang Suk; Kim, Kug Chan; Chun, Ki Chung.

    1997-01-01

    Apoptosis, also called programmed cell death to discriminate it from necrosis, is characterized by : chromatin condensation, apoptotic body formation, fragmentation of DNA into oligonucleosome sized pieces, swelling and progressive cell degradation. We examined morphological and biochemical changes of T-lymphocytes following gamma irradiation exposure. The results are followings. 1) Murine lymphocytes have several characteristics : The irradiated cells undergo morphological and biochemical changes characteristic of apoptosis, causing growth delay. (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 Gy) 2) The onset of DNA fragmentation in cells occurs after one more cell divisions. 3) DNA fragmentation in cells occurs in all irradiated group (0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 Gy, 24 hours following gamma radiation exposure) 4) Apoptotic bodies were detected by confocal microscope with ease when compared with electron microscope. For the developing technology for minimizing radiation damage, the following experimental works have been done. 1) Establishment of experimental system for pre-screening of radioprotectants - Screening of protective substances using TSH bioindicator - Efficacy test of some radioprotective materials 2) TSH bioindicator system can make a scientific role in screening unknown materials for their possible radioprotective effect. (author). 42 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs

  20. Study on technology for minimizing radiation risk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Ho; Kim, In Gyu; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Kang Suk; Kim, Kug Chan; Chun, Ki Chung

    1997-01-01

    Apoptosis, also called programmed cell death to discriminate it from necrosis, is characterized by : chromatin condensation, apoptotic body formation, fragmentation of DNA into oligonucleosome sized pieces, swelling and progressive cell degradation. We examined morphological and biochemical changes of T-lymphocytes following gamma irradiation exposure. The results are followings. (1) Murine lymphocytes have several characteristics : The irradiated cells undergo morphological and biochemical changes characteristic of apoptosis, causing growth delay. (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 Gy) (2) The onset of DNA fragmentation in cells occurs after one more cell divisions. (3) DNA fragmentation in cells occurs in all irradiated group (0.1, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 Gy, 24 hours following gamma radiation exposure) (4) Apoptotic bodies were detected by confocal microscope with ease when compared with electron microscope. For the developing technology for minimizing radiation damage, the following experimental works have been done. (1) Establishment of experimental system for pre-screening of radioprotectants - Screening of protective substances using TSH bioindicator - Efficacy test of some radioprotective materials (2) TSH bioindicator system can make a scientific role in screening unknown materials for their possible radioprotective effect. (author). 42 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.