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Sample records for miniature intelligent sensor

  1. Miniaturized wireless sensor network

    Lecointre , Aubin; Dragomirescu , Daniela; Dubuc , David; Grenier , Katia; Pons , Patrick; Aubert , Hervé; Müller , A.; Berthou , Pascal; Gayraud , Thierry; Plana , Robert

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses an overview of the wireless sensor networks. It is shown that MEMS/NEMS technologies and SIP concept are well suited for advanced architectures. It is also shown analog architectures have to be compatible with digital signal techniques to develop smart network of microsystem.

  2. Miniature Biometric Sensor Project

    Falker, John; Terrier, Douglas; Clayton, Ronald; Hanson, Andrea; Cooper, Tommy; Downs, Meghan; Flint, Stephanie; Reyna, Baraquiel; Simon, Cory; Wilt, Grier

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring (HRM) is a critical need during exploration missions. Unlike the four separate systems used on ISS today, the single HRM system should perform as a diagnostic tool, perform well during exercise or high level activity, and be suitable for use during EVA. Currently available HRM technologies are dependent on uninterrupted contact with the skin and are prone to data drop-out and motion artifact when worn in the spacesuit or during exercise. Here, we seek an alternative to the chest strap and electrode based sensors currently in use on ISS today. This project aims to develop a single, high performance, robust biosensor with focused efforts on improved heart rate data quality collection during high intensity activity such as exercise or EVA.

  3. Advances in miniature spectrometer and sensor development

    Malinen, Jouko; Rissanen, Anna; Saari, Heikki; Karioja, Pentti; Karppinen, Mikko; Aalto, Timo; Tukkiniemi, Kari

    2014-05-01

    Miniaturization and cost reduction of spectrometer and sensor technologies has great potential to open up new applications areas and business opportunities for analytical technology in hand held, mobile and on-line applications. Advances in microfabrication have resulted in high-performance MEMS and MOEMS devices for spectrometer applications. Many other enabling technologies are useful for miniature analytical solutions, such as silicon photonics, nanoimprint lithography (NIL), system-on-chip, system-on-package techniques for integration of electronics and photonics, 3D printing, powerful embedded computing platforms, networked solutions as well as advances in chemometrics modeling. This paper will summarize recent work on spectrometer and sensor miniaturization at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) tunable filter technology has been developed in two technical versions: Piezoactuated FPIs have been applied in miniature hyperspectral imaging needs in light weight UAV and nanosatellite applications, chemical imaging as well as medical applications. Microfabricated MOEMS FPIs have been developed as cost-effective sensor platforms for visible, NIR and IR applications. Further examples of sensor miniaturization will be discussed, including system-on-package sensor head for mid-IR gas analyzer, roll-to-roll printed Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) technology as well as UV imprinted waveguide sensor for formaldehyde detection.

  4. Technologies for highly miniaturized autonomous sensor networks

    Baert, K.; Gyselinckx, B.; Torfs, T.; Leonov, V.; Yazicioglu, F.; Brebels, S.; Donnay, S.; Vanfleteren, J.; Beyne, E.; Hoof, C. van

    2006-01-01

    Recent results of the autonomous sensor research program HUMAN++ will be summarized in this paper. The research program aims to achieve highly miniaturized and (nearly) autonomous sensor systems that assist our health and comfort. Although the application examples are dedicated to human

  5. Miniaturized optical sensors based on lens arrays

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, M.L.; Larsen, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    A suite of optical sensors based on the use of lenticular arrays for probing mechanical deflections will be displayed. The optical systems are well suited for miniaturization, and utilize speckles as the information-carriers. This implementation allows for acquiring directional information...

  6. Smart and Intelligent Sensors

    Lansaw, John; Schmalzel, John; Figueroa, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) provides rocket engine propulsion testing for NASA's space programs. Since the development of the Space Shuttle, every Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) has undergone acceptance testing at SSC before going to Kennedy Space Center (KSC) for integration into the Space Shuttle. The SSME is a large cryogenic rocket engine that uses Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) as the fuel. As NASA moves to the new ARES V launch system, the main engines on the new vehicle, as well as the upper stage engine, are currently base lined to be cryogenic rocket engines that will also use LH2. The main rocket engines for the ARES V will be larger than the SSME, while the upper stage engine will be approximately half that size. As a result, significant quantities of hydrogen will be required during the development, testing, and operation of these rocket engines.Better approaches are needed to simplify sensor integration and help reduce life-cycle costs. 1.Smarter sensors. Sensor integration should be a matter of "plug-and-play" making sensors easier to add to a system. Sensors that implement new standards can help address this problem; for example, IEEE STD 1451.4 defines transducer electronic data sheet (TEDS) templates for commonly used sensors such as bridge elements and thermocouples. When a 1451.4 compliant smart sensor is connected to a system that can read the TEDS memory, all information needed to configure the data acquisition system can be uploaded. This reduces the amount of labor required and helps minimize configuration errors. 2.Intelligent sensors. Data received from a sensor be scaled, linearized; and converted to engineering units. Methods to reduce sensor processing overhead at the application node are needed. Smart sensors using low-cost microprocessors with integral data acquisition and communication support offer the means to add these capabilities. Once a processor is embedded, other features can be added; for example, intelligent sensors can make

  7. High power VCSELs for miniature optical sensors

    Geske, Jon; Wang, Chad; MacDougal, Michael; Stahl, Ron; Follman, David; Garrett, Henry; Meyrath, Todd; Snyder, Don; Golden, Eric; Wagener, Jeff; Foley, Jason

    2010-02-01

    Recent advances in Vertical-cavity Surface-emitting Laser (VCSEL) efficiency and packaging have opened up alternative applications for VCSELs that leverage their inherent advantages over light emitting diodes and edge-emitting lasers (EELs), such as low-divergence symmetric emission, wavelength stability, and inherent 2-D array fabrication. Improvements in reproducible highly efficient VCSELs have allowed VCSELs to be considered for high power and high brightness applications. In this talk, Aerius will discuss recent advances with Aerius' VCSELs and application of these VCSELs to miniature optical sensors such as rangefinders and illuminators.

  8. Miniature Sensor for Aerosol Mass Measurements, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project seeks to develop a miniature sensor for mass measurement of size-classified aerosols. A cascade impactor will be used to classify aerosol sample...

  9. Digital intelligent booster for DCC miniature train networks

    Ursu, M. P.; Condruz, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    Modern miniature trains are now driven by means of the DCC (Digital Command and Control) system, which allows the human operator or a personal computer to launch commands to each individual train or even to control different features of the same train. The digital command station encodes these commands and sends them to the trains by means of electrical pulses via the rails of the railway network. Due to the development of the miniature railway network, it may happen that the power requirement of the increasing number of digital locomotives, carriages and accessories exceeds the nominal output power of the digital command station. This digital intelligent booster relieves the digital command station from powering the entire railway network all by itself, and it automatically handles the multiple powered sections of the network. This electronic device is also able to detect and process short-circuits and overload conditions, without the intervention of the digital command station.

  10. Smart Optoelectronic Sensors and Intelligent Sensor Systems

    Sergey Y. YURISH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Light-to-frequency converters are widely used in various optoelectronic sensor systems. However, a further frequency-to-digital conversion is a bottleneck in such systems due to a broad frequency range of light-to-frequency converters’ outputs. This paper describes an effective OEM design approach, which can be used for smart and intelligent sensor systems design. The design is based on novel, multifunctional integrated circuit of Universal Sensors & Transducers Interface especially designed for such sensor applications. Experimental results have confirmed an efficiency of this approach and high metrological performances.

  11. Miniature sensor suitable for electronic nose applications

    Pinnaduwage, L. A.; Gehl, A. C.; Allman, S. L.

    2007-01-01

    A major research effort has been devoted over the years for the development of chemical sensors for the detection of chemical and explosive vapors. However, the deployment of such chemical sensors will require the use of multiple sensors probably tens of sensors in a sensor package to achieve sel...... microcantilevers. The sensor can detect parts-per-trillion concentrations of DMMP within 10 s exposure times. The small size of the sensor makes it ideally suited for electronic nose applications. © 2007 American Institute of Physics....

  12. Advancement of Miniature Optic Gas Sensor (MOGS) Probe Technology

    Chullen, Cinda

    2015-01-01

    Advancement of Miniature Optic Gas Sensor (MOGS) Probe Technology" project will investigate newly developed optic gas sensors delivered from a Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) Phase II effort. A ventilation test rig will be designed and fabricated to test the sensors while integrated with a Suited Manikin Test Apparatus (SMTA). Once the sensors are integrated, a series of test points will be completed to verify that the sensors can withstand Advanced Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS) environments and associated human metabolic profiles for changes in pressure and levels of Oxygen (ppO2), carbon dioxide (ppCO2), and humidity (ppH2O).

  13. Collective intelligent wireless sensor networks

    Mihaylov, M.; Nowe, A.; Tuyls, K.P.; Nijholt, A.; Pantic, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we apply the COllective INtelligence (COIN) framework ofWolpert et al. toWireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) with the aim to increase the autonomous lifetime of the network in a decentralized manner. COIN describes how selfish agents can learn to optimize their own performance, so that the

  14. Circuits and Systems for Low-Power Miniaturized Wireless Sensors

    Nagaraju, Manohar

    The field of electronic sensors has witnessed a tremendous growth over the last decade particularly with the proliferation of mobile devices. New applications in Internet of Things (IoT), wearable technology, are further expected to fuel the demand for sensors from current numbers in the range of billions to trillions in the next decade. The main challenges for a trillion sensors are continued miniaturization, low-cost and large-scale manufacturing process, and low power consumption. Traditional integration and circuit design techniques in sensor systems are not suitable for applications in smart dust, IoT etc. The first part of this thesis demonstrates an example sensor system for biosignal recording and illustrates the tradeoffs in the design of low-power miniaturized sensors. The different components of the sensor system are integrated at the board level. The second part of the thesis demonstrates fully integrated sensors that enable extreme miniaturization of a sensing system with the sensor element, processing circuitry, a frequency reference for communication and the communication circuitry in a single hermetically sealed die. Design techniques to reduce the power consumption of the sensor interface circuitry at the architecture and circuit level are demonstrated. The principles are used to design sensors for two of the most common physical variables, mass and pressure. A low-power wireless mass and pressure sensor suitable for a wide variety of biological/chemical sensing applications and Tire Pressure Monitoring Systems (TPMS) respectively are demonstrated. Further, the idea of using high-Q resonators for a Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) is proposed and a low-noise, wide bandwidth FBAR-based VCO is presented.

  15. A Miniaturized Optical Sensor with Integrated Gas Cell

    Ayerden, N.P.; Ghaderi, M.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    The design, fabrication and characterization of a highly integrated optical gas sensor is presented. The gas cell takes up most of the space in a microspectrometer and is the only component that has so far not been miniaturized. Using the tapered resonator cavity of a linear variable optical filter

  16. Size Matters: Problems and Advantages Associated with Highly Miniaturized Sensors

    Dahlin, Andreas B.

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that the recent advances in nanotechnology have made it possible to realize a great variety of new sensors with signal transduction mechanisms utilizing physical phenomena at the nanoscale. Some examples are conductivity measurements in nanowires, deflection of cantilevers and spectroscopy of plasmonic nanoparticles. The fact that these techniques are based on the special properties of nanostructural entities provides for extreme sensor miniaturization since a single structu...

  17. Miniaturized multi-sensor for aquatic studies

    Birkelund, Karen; Hyldgård, Anders; Mortensen, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    that allows for direct exposure to the seawater and thereby more accurate measurements. The chip contains a piezo-resistive pressure sensor, a pn-junction photodiode sensitive to visible light, a four-terminal platinum resistor for temperature measurement and four conductivity electrodes for the determination...... of the salinity of saltwater. Pressure, light intensity, temperature and salinity are all essential parameters when mapping the migration route of fish. The pressure sensor has a sensitivity of S = 1.44 × 10−7 Pa−1 and is optimized to 20 bar pressure; the light sensor has a quantum efficiency between 52% and 74......We have developed and fabricated a multi-sensor chip for fisheries’ research and demonstrated the functionality under controlled conditions. The outer dimensions of the sensor chip are 3.0 × 7.4 × 0.8 mm3 and both sides of the chip are utilized for sensors. Hereby a more compact chip is achieved...

  18. Miniaturized multi-sensor for aquatic studies

    Birkelund, Karen; Hyldgård, Anders; Mortensen, Dennis; Thomsen, Erik V

    2011-01-01

    We have developed and fabricated a multi-sensor chip for fisheries' research and demonstrated the functionality under controlled conditions. The outer dimensions of the sensor chip are 3.0 × 7.4 × 0.8 mm 3 and both sides of the chip are utilized for sensors. Hereby a more compact chip is achieved that allows for direct exposure to the seawater and thereby more accurate measurements. The chip contains a piezo-resistive pressure sensor, a pn-junction photodiode sensitive to visible light, a four-terminal platinum resistor for temperature measurement and four conductivity electrodes for the determination of the salinity of saltwater. Pressure, light intensity, temperature and salinity are all essential parameters when mapping the migration route of fish. The pressure sensor has a sensitivity of S = 1.44 × 10 −7 Pa −1 and is optimized to 20 bar pressure; the light sensor has a quantum efficiency between 52% and 74% in the range of visible light. The temperature sensor responds linearly with temperature and has a temperature coefficient of resistance of 2.9 × 10 −3 K −1 . The conductivity sensor can measure the salinity with an accuracy of ±0.1 psu. This is all together the smallest and best functioning fully integrated MEMS-based multi-sensor made to date for this specific application. However, each single-sensor performance can be optimized by introducing a considerably more complicated process sequence. In this paper, a new simpler process for integrating the four sensors on one single chip is presented in details for the first time. Further, an optimized performance of the individual sensors is presented

  19. Miniaturized radiation detector with custom synthesized diamond crystal as sensor

    Grobbelaar, J.H.; Burns, R.C.; Nam, T.L.; Keddy, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    A miniaturized detector consisting of three custom built hybrid circuits, a counter and a miniature high voltage power supply was designed to operate with custom synthesized Type Ib diamond crystals as sensors. Thick-film technology was incorporated in the circuit design. With a crystal having a volume of approximately 10 mm 3 and containing approximately 60 ppm paramagnetic nitrogen, the detector was capable of measuring γ-ray dose-rates as low as 7.5 μ Gy h -1 . The response characteristic was linear up to 1 cGy h -1 . (orig.)

  20. Miniature piezoresistive solid state integrated pressure sensors

    Kahng, S. K.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristics of silicon pressure sensors with an ultra-small diaphragm are described. The pressure sensors utilize rectangular diaphragm as small as 0.0127 x 0.0254 cm and a p-type Wheatstone bridge consisting of diffused piezoresistive elements, 0.000254 cm by 0.00254 cm. These sensors exhibit as high as 0.5 MHz natural frequency and 1 mV/V/psi pressure sensitivity. Fabrication techniques and high frequency results from shock tube testing and low frequency comparison with microphones are presented.

  1. Miniaturized high performance sensors for space plasmas

    Young, D.T.

    1996-01-01

    Operating under ever more constrained budgets, NASA has turned to a new paradigm for instrumentation and mission development in which smaller, faster, better, cheaper is of primary consideration for future space plasma investigations. The author presents several examples showing the influence of this new paradigm on sensor development and discuss certain implications for the scientific return from resource constrained sensors. The author also discusses one way to improve space plasma sensor performance which is to search out new technologies, measurement techniques and instrument analogs from related fields including among others, laboratory plasma physics

  2. Miniature scientific-grade magnetic sensors for CubeSats

    Pronenko, Vira; Belyayev, Serhiy

    2016-07-01

    Micro- and nanosatellites have become more attractive due to their low development and launch cost. A class of nanosatellites defined by the CubeSat standard allows standardizing CubeSat preparation and launch, thus making the projects more affordable. Because of the complexity of sensors miniaturization to install them onboard CubeSat, the majority of CubeSat launches are aimed the technology demonstration or education missions. The scientific success of CubeSat mission depends on the sensors quality. In spite that the sensitivity of the magnetic sensors strongly depends on their size, the recent development in this branch allows us to propose tiny but sensitive both AC and DC magnetometers. The goal of the present report is to introduce the new design of miniature three-component sensors for measurement of vector magnetic fields - for quasi-stationary and slowly fluctuating - flux-gate magnetometer (FGM) - and for alternative ones - search-coil magnetometer (SCM). In order to create magnetometers with the really highest possible level of parameters, a set of scientific and technological problems, mostly aimed at the sensor construction improvement, was solved. The most important parameter characterizing magnetometer quality is its own magnetic noise level (NL). The analysis of the NL influencing factors is made and the ways to decrease it are discussed in the report. Construction details and technical specifications of miniature but sensitive FGM and SCM for the CubeSat mission are presented. This work is supported by EC Framework 7 funded project 607197.

  3. Intelligent Wireless Sensor Network

    Saeed, Bakhtiar I.; Mehrdadi, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been significant increase in utilisation of embedded-microcontrollers in broad range of applications extending from commercial products to industrial process system monitoring. Furthermore, improvements in speed, size and power consumption of microcontrollers with added wireless capabilities has provided new generation of applications. These include versatile and\\ud low cost solutions in wireless sensor networking applications such as wireless system monitoring and ...

  4. Miniaturized, low power FGMOSFET radiation sensor and wireless dosimeter system

    Arsalan, Muhammad

    2013-08-27

    A miniaturized floating gate (FG) MOSFET radiation sensor system is disclosed, The sensor preferably comprises a matched pair of sensor and reference FGMOSFETs wherein the sensor FGMOSFET has a larger area floating gate with an extension over a field oxide layer, for accumulation of charge and increased sensitivity. Elimination of a conventional control gate and injector gate reduces capacitance, and increases sensitivity, and allows for fabrication using standard low cost CMOS technology. A sensor system may be provided with integrated signal processing electronics, for monitoring a change in differential channel current I.sub.D, indicative of radiation dose, and an integrated negative bias generator for automatic pre-charging from a low voltage power source. Optionally, the system may be coupled to a wireless transmitter. A compact wireless sensor System on Package solution is presented, suitable for dosimetry for radiotherapy or other biomedical applications.

  5. Miniaturized, low power FGMOSFET radiation sensor and wireless dosimeter system

    Arsalan, Muhammad; Shamim, Atif; Tarr, Nicholas Garry; Roy, Langis

    2013-01-01

    A miniaturized floating gate (FG) MOSFET radiation sensor system is disclosed, The sensor preferably comprises a matched pair of sensor and reference FGMOSFETs wherein the sensor FGMOSFET has a larger area floating gate with an extension over a field oxide layer, for accumulation of charge and increased sensitivity. Elimination of a conventional control gate and injector gate reduces capacitance, and increases sensitivity, and allows for fabrication using standard low cost CMOS technology. A sensor system may be provided with integrated signal processing electronics, for monitoring a change in differential channel current I.sub.D, indicative of radiation dose, and an integrated negative bias generator for automatic pre-charging from a low voltage power source. Optionally, the system may be coupled to a wireless transmitter. A compact wireless sensor System on Package solution is presented, suitable for dosimetry for radiotherapy or other biomedical applications.

  6. Research of Intelligent Turbidity Sensor

    Licai Zhang; Yaoguang Wei; Yingyi Chen; Daoliang Li; Lihua Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Turbidity is an important index to evaluate the water quality. Turbidity can reflect the effects of insoluble substances that contain bait and seston on water. Traditional methods of turbidity detection are complicated, they have low efficiency and poor reliability. To solve the turbidity detection problem in aquaculture, an intelligent optical turbidity sensor which is based on scattering theory has been proposed in this paper. After analyzing the quality characteristics of aquaculture water...

  7. Miniaturized thermal flow sensor with planar-integrated sensor structures on semicircular surface channels

    Dijkstra, Marcel; de Boer, Meint J.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2008-01-01

    A calorimetric miniaturized flow sensor was realized with a linear sensor response measured for water flow up to flow rates in the order of 300 nl min-1. A versatile technological concept is used to realize a sensor with a thermally isolated freely suspended silicon-rich silicon-nitride microchannel

  8. Miniaturized remission sensor for carbon dioxide detection

    Martan, T; Will, M

    2010-01-01

    Recently, optical sensors for detection of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) have been explored for variety of applications in chemistry, industry, and medicine. This paper deals with the development of a planar optical remission sensor employing a dye immobilized in a polymer layer designed for gaseous CO 2 detection. The principle of CO 2 detection was based on colour changes of Tetraethylammonium Cresol red immobilized in a special composed polymer layer that was irradiated by LED diodes. Absorption properties of the dye were changed due to its chemical reaction with CO 2 and corresponding colour changes were detected by PIN diodes. These changes were analyzed by using a PC-controlled board connected by USB. The sensitivity, response time, and the detection limit of the remission sensor were characterized.

  9. Miniaturized heat flux sensor for high enthalpy plasma flow characterization

    Gardarein, Jean-Laurent; Battaglia, Jean-Luc; Lohlec, Stefan; Jullien, Pierre; Van Ootegemd, Bruno; Couzie, Jacques; Lasserre, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    An improved miniaturized heat flux sensor is presented aiming at measuring extreme heat fluxes of plasma wind tunnel flows. The sensor concept is based on an in-depth thermocouple measurement with a miniaturized design and an advanced calibration approach. Moreover, a better spatial estimation of the heat flux profile along the flow cross section is realized with this improved small sensor design. Based on the linearity assumption, the heat flux is determined using the impulse response of the sensor relating the heat flux to the temperature of the embedded thermocouple. The non-integer system identification (NISI) procedure is applied that allows a calculation of the impulse response from transient calibration measurements with a known heat flux of a laser source. The results show that the new sensor leads to radially highly resolved heat flux measurement for a flow with only a few centimetres in diameter, the so far not understood non-symmetric heat flux profiles do not occur with the new sensor design. It is shown that this former effect is not a physical effect of the flow, but a drawback of the classical sensor design. (authors)

  10. Miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver) system

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Kempen, Cornelia; Lopatin, Craig

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes recent progress conducted towards the development of a miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver TM) system based on multi-channel integrated optic sensor (InOSense TM) microchip technology. The hybrid InOSense TM microchip technology enables the integration of all of the functionalities, both passive and active, of conventional bench top FBG sensor interrogator systems, packaged in a miniaturized, low power operation, 2-cm x 5-cm package suitable for the long-term structural health monitoring in applications where size, weight, and power are critical for operation. The FBG-Transceiver system uses active optoelectronic components monolithically integrated to the InOSense TM microchip, a microprocessor controlled signal processing electronics board capable of processing the FBG sensors signals related to stress-strain and temperature as well as vibration and acoustics. The FBG-Transceiver TM system represents a new, reliable, highly robust technology that can be used to accurately monitor the status of an array of distributed fiber optic Bragg grating sensors installed in critical infrastructures. Its miniature package, low power operation, and state-of-the-art data communications architecture, all at a very affordable price makes it a very attractive solution for a large number of SHM/NDI applications in aerospace, naval and maritime industry, civil structures like bridges, buildings and dams, the oil and chemical industry, and for homeland security applications. The miniature, cost-efficient FBG-Transceiver TM system is poised to revolutionize the field of structural health monitoring and nondestructive inspection market. The sponsor of this program is NAVAIR under a DOD SBIR contract.

  11. Reconfigurable intelligent sensors for health monitoring: a case study of pulse oximeter sensor.

    Jovanov, E; Milenkovic, A; Basham, S; Clark, D; Kelley, D

    2004-01-01

    Design of low-cost, miniature, lightweight, ultra low-power, intelligent sensors capable of customization and seamless integration into a body area network for health monitoring applications presents one of the most challenging tasks for system designers. To answer this challenge we propose a reconfigurable intelligent sensor platform featuring a low-power microcontroller, a low-power programmable logic device, a communication interface, and a signal conditioning circuit. The proposed solution promises a cost-effective, flexible platform that allows easy customization, run-time reconfiguration, and energy-efficient computation and communication. The development of a common platform for multiple physical sensors and a repository of both software procedures and soft intellectual property cores for hardware acceleration will increase reuse and alleviate costs of transition to a new generation of sensors. As a case study, we present an implementation of a reconfigurable pulse oximeter sensor.

  12. Data Collection using Miniature Aerial Vehicles in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Mathur, Prateek; Nielsen, Rasmus Hjorth; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2016-01-01

    Energy constraints of sensor nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a major challenge and minimising the overall data transmitted across a network using data aggregation, distributed source coding, and compressive sensing have been proposed as mechanisms for energy saving. Similarly, use...... of mobile nodes capable of relocating within the network has been widely explored for energy saving. In this paper, we propose a novel method for using miniature aerial vehicles (MAVs) for data collection instead of actively sensing from a deployed network. The proposed mechanism is referred as Data...

  13. Measurement system for special surface mapping using miniature displacement sensors

    Zowade Martyna

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to design a special system for measurements of elements with repetitive geometry or assemblies with repeating components, set in a linear patterns. The main focus was based on developing a computer program for signal analysis from variable number of miniature displacement sensors. It was set that the response for displacement of measuring tip from each sensor was a 0-5 V voltage signal with possibility of using different type of sensors. Requirements were determined based on projected measurement method. A special design of sensor was made for testing the computer program. If the characteristics of the sensor is known, it is possible to compute the type A evaluation of uncertainty. The results are presented in XY chart on computer screen. The program allows the user to choose any number of the sensors and determine the distance between them. Also, the possibility of calibration of sensors’ set was provided. The test were conducted on a prototype handle for sensors, made on a 3D printer.

  14. CRUQS: A Miniature Fine Sun Sensor for Nanosatellites

    Heatwole, Scott; Snow, Carl; Santos, Luis

    2013-01-01

    A new miniature fine Sun sensor has been developed that uses a quadrant photodiode and housing to determine the Sun vector. Its size, mass, and power make it especially suited to small satellite applications, especially nanosatellites. Its accuracy is on the order of one arcminute, and it will enable new science in the area of nanosatellites. The motivation for this innovation was the need for high-performance Sun sensors in the nanosatellite category. The design idea comes out of the LISS (Lockheed Intermediate Sun Sensor) used by the sounding rocket program on their solar pointing ACS (Attitude Control System). This system uses photodiodes and a wall between them. The shadow cast by the Sun is used to determine the Sun angle. The new sensor takes this concept and miniaturizes it. A cruciform shaped housing and a surface-mount quadrant photodiode package allow for a two-axis fine Sun sensor to be packaged into a space approx.1.25xl x0.25 in. (approx.3.2x2.5x0.6 cm). The circuitry to read the photodiodes is a simple trans-impedance operational amplifier. This is much less complex than current small Sun sensors for nanosatellites that rely on photo-arrays and processing of images to determine the Sun center. The simplicity of the circuit allows for a low power draw as well. The sensor consists of housing with a cruciform machined in it. The cruciform walls are 0.5-mm thick and the center of the cruciform is situated over the center of the quadrant photodiode sensor. This allows for shadows to be cast on each of the four photodiodes based on the angle of the Sun. A simple operational amplifier circuit is used to read the output of the photodiodes as a voltage. The voltage output of each photodiode is summed based on rows and columns, and then the values of both rows or both columns are differenced and divided by the sum of the voltages for all four photodiodes. The value of both difference over sums for the rows and columns is compared to a table or a polynomial fit

  15. Selected examples of intelligent (micro) sensor systems: state-of-the-art and tendencies

    Hauptmann, Peter R.

    2006-03-01

    The capability of intelligent sensors to have more intelligence built into them continues to drive their application in areas including automotive, aerospace and defense, industrial, intelligent house and wear, medical and homeland security. In principle it is difficult to overestimate the importance of intelligent (micro) sensors or sensor systems within advanced societies but one characteristic feature is the global market for sensors, which is now about 20 billion annually. Therefore sensors or sensor systems play a dominant role in many fields from the macro sensor in manufacturing industry down to the miniaturized sensor for medical applications. The diversity of sensors precludes a complete description of the state-of-the-art; selected examples will illustrate the current situation. MEMS (microelectromechanical systems) devices are of special interest in the context of micro sensor systems. In past the main requirements of a sensor were in terms of metrological performance. The electrical (or optical) signal produced by the sensor needed to match the measure relatively accurately. Such basic functionality is no longer sufficient. Data processing near the sensor, the extraction of more information than just the direct sensor information by signal analysis, system aspects and multi-sensor information are the new demands. A shifting can be observed away from aiming to design perfect single-function transducers and towards the utilization of system-based sensors as system components. In the ideal case such systems contain sensors, actuators and electronics. They can be realized in monolithic, hybrid or discrete form—which kind is used depends on the application. In this article the state-of-the-art of intelligent sensors or sensor systems is reviewed using selected examples. Future trends are deduced.

  16. Miniature Intelligent Wireless Fire Detector System, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this project is to develop a wireless intelligent dual-band photodetector system for advanced fire detection/recognition, combining UV/IR III...

  17. Intelligent pressure measurement in multiple sensor arrays

    Matthews, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Pressure data acquisition has typically consisted of a group of sensors scanned by an electronic or mechanical multiplexer. The data accuracy was dependent upon the temperature stability of the sensors. This paper describes a new method of pressure measurement that combines individual temperature compensated pressure sensors, a microprocessor, and an A/D converter in one module. Each sensor has its own temperature characteristics stored in a look-up table to minimize sensor thermal errors. The result is an intelligent pressure module that can output temperature compensated engineering units over an Ethernet interface. Calibration intervals can be dramatically extended depending upon system accuracy requirements and calibration techniques used

  18. Miniature infrared hyperspectral imaging sensor for airborne applications

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Hinnrichs, Bradford; McCutchen, Earl

    2017-05-01

    Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) has developed an infrared hyperspectral camera, both MWIR and LWIR, small enough to serve as a payload on a miniature unmanned aerial vehicles. The optical system has been integrated into the cold-shield of the sensor enabling the small size and weight of the sensor. This new and innovative approach to infrared hyperspectral imaging spectrometer uses micro-optics and will be explained in this paper. The micro-optics are made up of an area array of diffractive optical elements where each element is tuned to image a different spectral region on a common focal plane array. The lenslet array is embedded in the cold-shield of the sensor and actuated with a miniature piezo-electric motor. This approach enables rapid infrared spectral imaging with multiple spectral images collected and processed simultaneously each frame of the camera. This paper will present our optical mechanical design approach which results in an infrared hyper-spectral imaging system that is small enough for a payload on a mini-UAV or commercial quadcopter. The diffractive optical elements used in the lenslet array are blazed gratings where each lenslet is tuned for a different spectral bandpass. The lenslets are configured in an area array placed a few millimeters above the focal plane and embedded in the cold-shield to reduce the background signal normally associated with the optics. We have developed various systems using a different number of lenslets in the area array. Depending on the size of the focal plane and the diameter of the lenslet array will determine the spatial resolution. A 2 x 2 lenslet array will image four different spectral images of the scene each frame and when coupled with a 512 x 512 focal plane array will give spatial resolution of 256 x 256 pixel each spectral image. Another system that we developed uses a 4 x 4 lenslet array on a 1024 x 1024 pixel element focal plane array which gives 16 spectral images of 256 x 256 pixel resolution each

  19. Miniature Inertial and Augmentation Sensors for Integrated Inertial/GPS Based Navigation Applications

    2010-03-01

    Magnetometer (Ref [23]) Until miniature atomic magnetometers transition from laboratory demonstration units to a mass produced product, fluxgate ...and/or magnetoresistive designs are a better suited magnetometer technology for a miniature navigation system. Figure 8 below shows the basic fluxgate ...is required to resolve magnetic field orientation. Fig 8. Fluxgate Magnetometer Schematic The PNI Sensor Corporation (Santa Rosa, CA

  20. Sensor fusion for intelligent alarm analysis

    Nelson, C.L.; Fitzgerald, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of an intelligent alarm analysis system is to provide complete and manageable information to a central alarm station operator by applying alarm processing and fusion techniques to sensor information. This paper discusses the sensor fusion approach taken to perform intelligent alarm analysis for the Advanced Exterior Sensor (AES). The AES is an intrusion detection and assessment system designed for wide-area coverage, quick deployment, low false/nuisance alarm operation, and immediate visual assessment. It combines three sensor technologies (visible, infrared, and millimeter wave radar) collocated on a compact and portable remote sensor module. The remote sensor module rotates at a rate of 1 revolution per second to detect and track motion and provide assessment in a continuous 360 degree field-of-regard. Sensor fusion techniques are used to correlate and integrate the track data from these three sensors into a single track for operator observation. Additional inputs to the fusion process include environmental data, knowledge of sensor performance under certain weather conditions, sensor priority, and recent operator feedback. A confidence value is assigned to the track as a result of the fusion process. This helps to reduce nuisance alarms and to increase operator confidence in the system while reducing the workload of the operator

  1. Autonomous vision networking: miniature wireless sensor networks with imaging technology

    Messinger, Gioia; Goldberg, Giora

    2006-09-01

    The recent emergence of integrated PicoRadio technology, the rise of low power, low cost, System-On-Chip (SOC) CMOS imagers, coupled with the fast evolution of networking protocols and digital signal processing (DSP), created a unique opportunity to achieve the goal of deploying large-scale, low cost, intelligent, ultra-low power distributed wireless sensor networks for the visualization of the environment. Of all sensors, vision is the most desired, but its applications in distributed sensor networks have been elusive so far. Not any more. The practicality and viability of ultra-low power vision networking has been proven and its applications are countless, from security, and chemical analysis to industrial monitoring, asset tracking and visual recognition, vision networking represents a truly disruptive technology applicable to many industries. The presentation discusses some of the critical components and technologies necessary to make these networks and products affordable and ubiquitous - specifically PicoRadios, CMOS imagers, imaging DSP, networking and overall wireless sensor network (WSN) system concepts. The paradigm shift, from large, centralized and expensive sensor platforms, to small, low cost, distributed, sensor networks, is possible due to the emergence and convergence of a few innovative technologies. Avaak has developed a vision network that is aided by other sensors such as motion, acoustic and magnetic, and plans to deploy it for use in military and commercial applications. In comparison to other sensors, imagers produce large data files that require pre-processing and a certain level of compression before these are transmitted to a network server, in order to minimize the load on the network. Some of the most innovative chemical detectors currently in development are based on sensors that change color or pattern in the presence of the desired analytes. These changes are easily recorded and analyzed by a CMOS imager and an on-board DSP processor

  2. High-Frequency Flush Mounted Miniature LOX Fiber-Optic Pressure Sensor II, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations has teamed with the University of Alabama, Huntsville, to develop a miniature flush-mounted fiber-optic pressure sensor that will allow accurate,...

  3. High-Frequency Flush Mounted Miniature LOX Fiber-Optic Pressure Sensor, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Luna Innovations is teaming with the University of Alabama, Huntsville, to develop a miniature flush-mounted fiber-optic pressure sensor that will allow accurate,...

  4. Miniaturized Air Dropped Sensors for Environmental Monitoring of Heavy Metals in Water, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This NASA SBIR program would develop air-dropped wireless networked sensors using miniaturized chemical field effect transistors (ChemFET) for the detection and...

  5. A low-power and high-precision miniaturized digital sun sensor

    Boer, B.M. de; Durkut, M.

    2013-01-01

    A prototype miniaturized digital sun sensor (miniDSS) was developed by TNO. It is expected to be launched on QuadSat for in-orbit demonstration. The single-chip sun sensor comprises an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) on which an active pixel sensor (APS), read-out and processing

  6. MiniDSS: a low-power and high-precision miniaturized digital sun sensor

    Boer, B.M. de; Durkut, M.; Laan, E.; Hakkesteegt, H.; Theuwissen, A.; Xie, N.; Leijtens, J.L.; Urquijo, E.; Bruins, P.

    2012-01-01

    A high-precision and low-power miniaturized digital sun sensor has been developed at TNO. The single-chip sun sensor comprises an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) on which an active pixel sensor (APS), read-out and processing circuitry as well as communication circuitry are combined.

  7. Ultra-miniature wireless temperature sensor for thermal medicine applications.

    Khairi, Ahmad; Hung, Shih-Chang; Paramesh, Jeyanandh; Fedder, Gary; Rabin, Yoed

    2011-01-01

    This study presents a prototype design of an ultra-miniature, wireless, battery-less, and implantable temperature-sensor, with applications to thermal medicine such as cryosurgery, hyperthermia, and thermal ablation. The design aims at a sensory device smaller than 1.5 mm in diameter and 3 mm in length, to enable minimally invasive deployment through a hypodermic needle. While the new device may be used for local temperature monitoring, simultaneous data collection from an array of such sensors can be used to reconstruct the 3D temperature field in the treated area, offering a unique capability in thermal medicine. The new sensory device consists of three major subsystems: a temperature-sensing core, a wireless data-communication unit, and a wireless power reception and management unit. Power is delivered wirelessly to the implant from an external source using an inductive link. To meet size requirements while enhancing reliability and minimizing cost, the implant is fully integrated in a regular foundry CMOS technology (0.15 μm in the current study), including the implant-side inductor of the power link. A temperature-sensing core that consists of a proportional-to-absolute-temperature (PTAT) circuit has been designed and characterized. It employs a microwatt chopper stabilized op-amp and dynamic element-matched current sources to achieve high absolute accuracy. A second order sigma-delta (Σ-Δ) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is designed to convert the temperature reading to a digital code, which is transmitted by backscatter through the same antenna used for receiving power. A high-efficiency multi-stage differential CMOS rectifier has been designed to provide a DC supply to the sensing and communication subsystems. This paper focuses on the development of the all-CMOS temperature sensing core circuitry part of the device, and briefly reviews the wireless power delivery and communication subsystems.

  8. Miniaturized Planar Room Temperature Ionic Liquid Electrochemical Gas Sensor for Rapid Multiple Gas Pollutants Monitoring.

    Wan, Hao; Yin, Heyu; Lin, Lu; Zeng, Xiangqun; Mason, Andrew J

    2018-02-01

    The growing impact of airborne pollutants and explosive gases on human health and occupational safety has escalated the demand of sensors to monitor hazardous gases. This paper presents a new miniaturized planar electrochemical gas sensor for rapid measurement of multiple gaseous hazards. The gas sensor features a porous polytetrafluoroethylene substrate that enables fast gas diffusion and room temperature ionic liquid as the electrolyte. Metal sputtering was utilized for platinum electrodes fabrication to enhance adhesion between the electrodes and the substrate. Together with carefully selected electrochemical methods, the miniaturized gas sensor is capable of measuring multiple gases including oxygen, methane, ozone and sulfur dioxide that are important to human health and safety. Compared to its manually-assembled Clark-cell predecessor, this sensor provides better sensitivity, linearity and repeatability, as validated for oxygen monitoring. With solid performance, fast response and miniaturized size, this sensor is promising for deployment in wearable devices for real-time point-of-exposure gas pollutant monitoring.

  9. Sensor Technologies for Intelligent Transportation Systems.

    Guerrero-Ibáñez, Juan; Zeadally, Sherali; Contreras-Castillo, Juan

    2018-04-16

    Modern society faces serious problems with transportation systems, including but not limited to traffic congestion, safety, and pollution. Information communication technologies have gained increasing attention and importance in modern transportation systems. Automotive manufacturers are developing in-vehicle sensors and their applications in different areas including safety, traffic management, and infotainment. Government institutions are implementing roadside infrastructures such as cameras and sensors to collect data about environmental and traffic conditions. By seamlessly integrating vehicles and sensing devices, their sensing and communication capabilities can be leveraged to achieve smart and intelligent transportation systems. We discuss how sensor technology can be integrated with the transportation infrastructure to achieve a sustainable Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) and how safety, traffic control and infotainment applications can benefit from multiple sensors deployed in different elements of an ITS. Finally, we discuss some of the challenges that need to be addressed to enable a fully operational and cooperative ITS environment.

  10. Sensor Technologies for Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Guerrero-Ibáñez, Juan; Zeadally, Sherali

    2018-01-01

    Modern society faces serious problems with transportation systems, including but not limited to traffic congestion, safety, and pollution. Information communication technologies have gained increasing attention and importance in modern transportation systems. Automotive manufacturers are developing in-vehicle sensors and their applications in different areas including safety, traffic management, and infotainment. Government institutions are implementing roadside infrastructures such as cameras and sensors to collect data about environmental and traffic conditions. By seamlessly integrating vehicles and sensing devices, their sensing and communication capabilities can be leveraged to achieve smart and intelligent transportation systems. We discuss how sensor technology can be integrated with the transportation infrastructure to achieve a sustainable Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) and how safety, traffic control and infotainment applications can benefit from multiple sensors deployed in different elements of an ITS. Finally, we discuss some of the challenges that need to be addressed to enable a fully operational and cooperative ITS environment. PMID:29659524

  11. Sensor Technologies for Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Juan Guerrero-Ibáñez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern society faces serious problems with transportation systems, including but not limited to traffic congestion, safety, and pollution. Information communication technologies have gained increasing attention and importance in modern transportation systems. Automotive manufacturers are developing in-vehicle sensors and their applications in different areas including safety, traffic management, and infotainment. Government institutions are implementing roadside infrastructures such as cameras and sensors to collect data about environmental and traffic conditions. By seamlessly integrating vehicles and sensing devices, their sensing and communication capabilities can be leveraged to achieve smart and intelligent transportation systems. We discuss how sensor technology can be integrated with the transportation infrastructure to achieve a sustainable Intelligent Transportation System (ITS and how safety, traffic control and infotainment applications can benefit from multiple sensors deployed in different elements of an ITS. Finally, we discuss some of the challenges that need to be addressed to enable a fully operational and cooperative ITS environment.

  12. Assessing Miniaturized Sensor Performance using Supervised Learning, with Application to Drug and Explosive Detection

    Alstrøm, Tommy Sonne

    of sensors, as the sensors are designed to provide robust and reliable measurements. That means, the sensors are designed to have repeated measurement clusters. Sensor fusion is presented for the sensor based on chemoselective compounds. An array of color changing compounds are handled and in unity they make......This Ph.D. thesis titled “Assessing Miniaturized Sensor Performance using Supervised Learning, with Application to Drug and Explosive Detection” is a part of the strategic research project “Miniaturized sensors for explosives detection in air” funded by the Danish Agency for Science and Technology...... emanated by explosives and drugs, similar to an electronic nose. To evaluate sensor responses a data processing and evaluation pipeline is required. The work presented herein focuses on the feature extraction, feature representation and sensor accuracy. Thus the primary aim of this thesis is twofold...

  13. Smart and intelligent sensor payload project

    2009-01-01

    Engineers working on the smart and intelligent sensor payload project include (l to r): Ed Conley (NASA), Mark Mitchell (Jacobs Technology), Luke Richards (NASA), Robert Drackett (Jacobs Technology), Mark Turowski (Jacobs Technology) , Richard Franzl (seated, Jacobs Technology), Greg McVay (Jacobs Technology), Brianne Guillot (Jacobs Technology), Jon Morris (Jacobs Technology), Stephen Rawls (NASA), John Schmalzel (NASA) and Andrew Bracey (NASA).

  14. Intelligent Chemical Sensor Systems for In-space Safety Applications

    Hunter, G. W.; Xu, J. C.; Neudeck, P. G.; Makel, D. B.; Ward, B.; Liu, C. C.

    2006-01-01

    Future in-space and lunar operations will require significantly improved monitoring and Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) throughout the mission. In particular, the monitoring of chemical species is an important component of an overall monitoring system for space vehicles and operations. For example, in leak monitoring of propulsion systems during launch, inspace, and on lunar surfaces, detection of low concentrations of hydrogen and other fuels is important to avoid explosive conditions that could harm personnel and damage the vehicle. Dependable vehicle operation also depends on the timely and accurate measurement of these leaks. Thus, the development of a sensor array to determine the concentration of fuels such as hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or hydrazine as well as oxygen is necessary. Work has been on-going to develop an integrated smart leak detection system based on miniaturized sensors to detect hydrogen, hydrocarbons, or hydrazine, and oxygen. The approach is to implement Microelectromechanical Systems (MEMS) based sensors incorporated with signal conditioning electronics, power, data storage, and telemetry enabling intelligent systems. The final sensor system will be self-contained with a surface area comparable to a postage stamp. This paper discusses the development of this "Lick and Stick" leak detection system and it s application to In-Space Transportation and other Exploration applications.

  15. Integrating Sensor-Collected Intelligence

    2008-11-01

    APPENDIX H: ACRONYMS & GLOSSARY OF TERMS______________________________________________ KML Keyhole Markup Language L LADAR Laser Radar LAN Local... close to the sensor as possible. I endorse the Task Force’s findings and recommendations and encourage you to review the report. Dr. William...deeply-buried targets – require that the relevant sensors be in close proximity to the target. The task force discussed the requirements of close -in

  16. A new rechargeable intelligent vehicle detection sensor

    Lin, L; Han, X B; Ding, R; Li, G; Lu, Steven C-Y; Hong, Q

    2005-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is a valid approach to solve the increasing transportation issue in cities. Vehicle detection is one of the key technologies in ITS. The ITS collects and processes traffic data (vehicle flow, vehicular speed, vehicle density and occupancy ratios) from vehicle detection sensors buried under the road or installed along the road. Inductive loop detector as one type of the vehicle detector is applied extensively, with the characters of stability, high value to cost ratio and feasibility. On the other hand, most of the existing inductive loop vehicle detection sensors have some weak points such as friability of detective loop, huge engineering for setting and traffic interruption during installing the sensor. The design and reality of a new rechargeable intelligent vehicle detection sensor is presented in this paper against these weak points existing now. The sensor consists of the inductive loop detector, the rechargeable batteries, the MCU (microcontroller) and the transmitter. In order to reduce the installing project amount, make the loop durable and easily maintained, the volume of the detective loop is reduced as much as we can. Communication in RF (radio frequency) brings on the advantages of getting rid of the feeder cable completely and reducing the installing project amount enormously. For saving the cable installation, the sensor is supplied by the rechargeable batteries. The purpose of the intelligent management of the energy and transmitter by means of MCU is to minimize the power consumption and prolong the working period of the sensor. In a word, the new sensor is more feasible with smaller volume, wireless communication, rechargeable batteries, low power consumption, low cost, high detector precision and easy maintenance and installation

  17. A new rechargeable intelligent vehicle detection sensor

    Lin, L [Inspiring Technology Research Laboratory, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Han, X B [Inspiring Technology Research Laboratory, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Ding, R [Tianjin University of Technology and Education, Tianjin 300222 (China); Li, G [Inspiring Technology Research Laboratory, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Lu, Steven C-Y [Inspiring Technology Research Laboratory, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Hong, Q [Inspiring Technology Research Laboratory, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2005-01-01

    Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is a valid approach to solve the increasing transportation issue in cities. Vehicle detection is one of the key technologies in ITS. The ITS collects and processes traffic data (vehicle flow, vehicular speed, vehicle density and occupancy ratios) from vehicle detection sensors buried under the road or installed along the road. Inductive loop detector as one type of the vehicle detector is applied extensively, with the characters of stability, high value to cost ratio and feasibility. On the other hand, most of the existing inductive loop vehicle detection sensors have some weak points such as friability of detective loop, huge engineering for setting and traffic interruption during installing the sensor. The design and reality of a new rechargeable intelligent vehicle detection sensor is presented in this paper against these weak points existing now. The sensor consists of the inductive loop detector, the rechargeable batteries, the MCU (microcontroller) and the transmitter. In order to reduce the installing project amount, make the loop durable and easily maintained, the volume of the detective loop is reduced as much as we can. Communication in RF (radio frequency) brings on the advantages of getting rid of the feeder cable completely and reducing the installing project amount enormously. For saving the cable installation, the sensor is supplied by the rechargeable batteries. The purpose of the intelligent management of the energy and transmitter by means of MCU is to minimize the power consumption and prolong the working period of the sensor. In a word, the new sensor is more feasible with smaller volume, wireless communication, rechargeable batteries, low power consumption, low cost, high detector precision and easy maintenance and installation.

  18. Progress in miniaturization of a multichannel optical fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator

    Lopatin, Craig M.; Mahmood, Shah; Mendoza, Edgar; Moslehi, Behzad; Black, Richard; Chau, Kelvin; Oblea, Levy

    2007-07-01

    An effort to develop a miniaturized multichannel optical fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator was initiated in 2006 under the Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) program. The goal was to develop an interrogator that would be sufficiently small and light to be incorporated into a health monitoring system for use on tactical missiles. Two companies, Intelligent Fiber Optic Systems Corporation (IFOS) and Redondo Optics, were funded in Phase I, and this paper describes the prototype interrogators that were developed. The two companies took very different approaches: IFOS focused on developing a unit that would have a high channel count and high resolution, using off-the-shelf components, while Redondo Optics chose to develop a unit that would be very small and lightweight, using custom designed integrated optical chips. It is believed that both approaches will result in interrogators that will be significantly small, lighter, and possibly even more precise than what is currently commercially available. This paper will also briefly describe some of the sensing concepts that may be used to interrogate the health of the solid rocket motors used in many missile systems. The sponsor of this program was NAVAIR PMA 280.

  19. Intelligent Sensors for Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM)

    Schmalzel, John L.

    2008-01-01

    IEEE 1451 Smart Sensors contribute to a number of ISHM goals including cost reduction achieved through: a) Improved configuration management (TEDS); and b) Plug-and-play re-configuration. Intelligent Sensors are adaptation of Smart Sensors to include ISHM algorithms; this offers further benefits: a) Sensor validation. b) Confidence assessment of measurement, and c) Distributed ISHM processing. Space-qualified intelligent sensors are possible a) Size, mass, power constraints. b) Bus structure/protocol.

  20. Distributed intelligent sensor network for the rehabilitation of Parkinson's patients.

    Ying, Hong; Schlösser, Mario; Schnitzer, Andreas; Schäfer, Thorsten; Schläfke, Marianne E; Leonhardt, Steffen; Schiek, Michael

    2011-03-01

    The coordination between locomotion and respiration of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients is reduced or even absent. The degree of this disturbance is assumed to be associated with the disease severity [S. Schiermeier, D. Schäfer, T. Schäfer, W. Greulich, and M. E. Schläfke, "Breathing and locomotion in patients with Parkinson's disease," Eur. J. Physiol., vol. 443, No. 1, pp. 67-71, Jul. 2001]. To enable a long-term and online analysis of the locomotion-respiration coordination for scientific purpose, we have developed a distributed wireless communicating network. We aim to integrate biofeedback protocols with the real-time analysis of the locomotion-respiration coordination in the system to aid rehabilitation of PD patients. The network of sensor nodes is composed of intelligent network operating devices (iNODEs). The miniaturized iNODE contains a continuous data acquisition system based on microcontroller, local data storage, capability of on-sensor digital signal processing in real time, and wireless communication based on IEEE 802.15.4. Force sensing resistors and respiratory inductive plethysmography are applied for motion and respiration sensing, respectively. A number of experiments have been undertaken in clinic and laboratory to test the system. It shall facilitate identification of therapeutic effects on PD, allowing to measure the patients' health status, and to aid in the rehabilitation of PD patients.

  1. Molecular robots with sensors and intelligence.

    Hagiya, Masami; Konagaya, Akihiko; Kobayashi, Satoshi; Saito, Hirohide; Murata, Satoshi

    2014-06-17

    CONSPECTUS: What we can call a molecular robot is a set of molecular devices such as sensors, logic gates, and actuators integrated into a consistent system. The molecular robot is supposed to react autonomously to its environment by receiving molecular signals and making decisions by molecular computation. Building such a system has long been a dream of scientists; however, despite extensive efforts, systems having all three functions (sensing, computation, and actuation) have not been realized yet. This Account introduces an ongoing research project that focuses on the development of molecular robotics funded by MEXT (Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan). This 5 year project started in July 2012 and is titled "Development of Molecular Robots Equipped with Sensors and Intelligence". The major issues in the field of molecular robotics all correspond to a feedback (i.e., plan-do-see) cycle of a robotic system. More specifically, these issues are (1) developing molecular sensors capable of handling a wide array of signals, (2) developing amplification methods of signals to drive molecular computing devices, (3) accelerating molecular computing, (4) developing actuators that are controllable by molecular computers, and (5) providing bodies of molecular robots encapsulating the above molecular devices, which implement the conformational changes and locomotion of the robots. In this Account, the latest contributions to the project are reported. There are four research teams in the project that specialize on sensing, intelligence, amoeba-like actuation, and slime-like actuation, respectively. The molecular sensor team is focusing on the development of molecular sensors that can handle a variety of signals. This team is also investigating methods to amplify signals from the molecular sensors. The molecular intelligence team is developing molecular computers and is currently focusing on a new photochemical technology for accelerating DNA

  2. Utilising artificial intelligence in software defined wireless sensor network

    Matlou, OG

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Software Defined Wireless Sensor Network (SDWSN) is realised by infusing Software Defined Network (SDN) model in Wireless Sensor Network (WSN), Reason for that is to overcome the challenges of WSN. Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning...

  3. A miniature inductive temperature sensor to monitor temperature noise in the coolant of an LMFBR

    Dean, S.A.; Sandham, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    A description is given of the design and performance of miniature inductive sensors developed to monitor fast temperature fluctuations in the sodium coolant above the core of a LMFBR. These instruments, designed to be installed within existing thermocouple containment thimbles, also provide a steady-state temperature indication for reactor control purposes. (author)

  4. MiniDSS: a low-power and high-precision miniaturized digital sun sensor

    de Boer, B. M.; Durkut, M.; Laan, E.; Hakkesteegt, H.; Theuwissen, A.; Xie, N.; Leijtens, J. L.; Urquijo, E.; Bruins, P.

    2017-11-01

    A high-precision and low-power miniaturized digital sun sensor has been developed at TNO. The single-chip sun sensor comprises an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) on which an active pixel sensor (APS), read-out and processing circuitry as well as communication circuitry are combined. The design was optimized for low recurrent cost. The sensor is albedo insensitive and the prototype combines an accuracy in the order of 0.03° with a mass of just 72 g and a power consumption of only 65 mW.

  5. Construction of a Chemical Sensor/Instrumentation Package Using Fiber Optic and Miniaturization Technology

    Newton, R. L.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this research was to construct a chemical sensor/instrumentation package that was smaller in weight and volume than conventional instrumentation. This reduction in weight and volume is needed to assist in further reducing the cost of launching payloads into space. To accomplish this, fiber optic sensors, miniaturized spectrometers, and wireless modems were employed. The system was evaluated using iodine as a calibration analyte.

  6. A Miniature Magnetic-Force-Based Three-Axis AC Magnetic Sensor with Piezoelectric/Vibrational Energy-Harvesting Functions

    Chiao-Fang Hung

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we demonstrate a miniature magnetic-force-based, three-axis, AC magnetic sensor with piezoelectric/vibrational energy-harvesting functions. For magnetic sensing, the sensor employs a magnetic–mechanical–piezoelectric configuration (which uses magnetic force and torque, a compact, single, mechanical mechanism, and the piezoelectric effect to convert x-axis and y-axis in-plane and z-axis magnetic fields into piezoelectric voltage outputs. Under the x-axis magnetic field (sine-wave, 100 Hz, 0.2–3.2 gauss and the z-axis magnetic field (sine-wave, 142 Hz, 0.2–3.2 gauss, the voltage output with the sensitivity of the sensor are 1.13–26.15 mV with 8.79 mV/gauss and 1.31–8.92 mV with 2.63 mV/gauss, respectively. In addition, through this configuration, the sensor can harness ambient vibrational energy, i.e., possessing piezoelectric/vibrational energy-harvesting functions. Under x-axis vibration (sine-wave, 100 Hz, 3.5 g and z-axis vibration (sine-wave, 142 Hz, 3.8 g, the root-mean-square voltage output with power output of the sensor is 439 mV with 0.333 μW and 138 mV with 0.051 μW, respectively. These results show that the sensor, using this configuration, successfully achieves three-axis magnetic field sensing and three-axis vibration energy-harvesting. Due to these features, the three-axis AC magnetic sensor could be an important design reference in order to develop future three-axis AC magnetic sensors, which possess energy-harvesting functions, for practical industrial applications, such as intelligent vehicle/traffic monitoring, processes monitoring, security systems, and so on.

  7. A miniaturized oxygen sensor integrated on fiber surface based on evanescent-wave induced fluorescence quenching

    Xiong, Yan [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); Oil and Gas Field Applied Chemistry Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, 610500 (China); Tan, Jun; Wang, Chengjie; Zhu, Ying [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); Fang, Shenwen [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); Oil and Gas Field Applied Chemistry Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, 610500 (China); Wu, Jiayi; Wang, Qing [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); Duan, Ming, E-mail: swpua124@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Oil and Gas Reservoir Geology and Exploitation, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu 610500 (China); Oil and Gas Field Applied Chemistry Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, 610500 (China)

    2016-11-15

    In this work, a miniaturized sensor was integrated on fiber surface and developed for oxygen determination through evanescent-wave induced fluorescence quenching. The sensor was designed by using light emitting diode (LED) as light source and optical fiber as light transmission element. Tris(2,2′-bipyridyl) ruthenium ([Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+}) fluorophore was immobilized in the organically modified silicates (ORMOSILs) film and coated onto the fiber surface. When light propagated by total internal reflection (TIR) in the fiber core, evanescent wave could be produced on the fiber surface and excite [Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} fluorophore to produce fluorescence emission. Then oxygen could be determinated by its quenching effect on the fluorescence and its concentration could be evaluated according to Stern–Volumer model. Through integrating evanescent wave excitation and fluorescence quenching on fiber surface, the sensor was successfully miniaturized and exhibit improved performances of high sensitivity (1.4), excellent repeatability (1.2%) and fast analysis (12 s) for oxygen determination. The sensor provided a newly portable method for in-situ and real-time measurement of oxygen and showed potential for practical oxygen analysis in different application fields. Furthermore, the fabrication of this sensor provides a miniaturized and portable detection platform for species monitoring by simple modular design. - Highlights: • ORMOSILs sensing film immobilized with [Ru(bpy){sub 3}]{sup 2+} fluorophore was coated on fiber surface. • Evanescent wave on the fiber surface was utilized as excitation source to produce fluorescence. • Oxygen was measured based on its quenching effect on evanescent wave-induce fluorescence. • Sensor fabrication was miniaturized by integrating detection and sensing elements on the fiber. • The modular design sensor provides a detection platform for other species monitoring.

  8. Closed loop control of the induction heating process using miniature magnetic sensors

    Bentley, Anthony E.; Kelley, John Bruce; Zutavern, Fred J.

    2003-05-20

    A method and system for providing real-time, closed-loop control of the induction hardening process. A miniature magnetic sensor located near the outer surface of the workpiece measures changes in the surface magnetic field caused by changes in the magnetic properties of the workpiece as it heats up during induction heating (or cools down during quenching). A passive miniature magnetic sensor detects a distinct magnetic spike that appears when the saturation field, B.sub.sat, of the workpiece has been exceeded. This distinct magnetic spike disappears when the workpiece's surface temperature exceeds its Curie temperature, due to the sudden decrease in its magnetic permeability. Alternatively, an active magnetic sensor can measure changes in the resonance response of the monitor coil when the excitation coil is linearly swept over 0-10 MHz, due to changes in the magnetic permeability and electrical resistivity of the workpiece as its temperature increases (or decreases).

  9. Use of miniature magnetic sensors for real-time control of the induction heating process

    Bentley, Anthony E.; Kelley, John Bruce; Zutavern, Fred J.

    2002-01-01

    A method of monitoring the process of induction heating a workpiece. A miniature magnetic sensor located near the outer surface of the workpiece measures changes in the surface magnetic field caused by changes in the magnetic properties of the workpiece as it heats up during induction heating (or cools down during quenching). A passive miniature magnetic sensor detects a distinct magnetic spike that appears when the saturation field, B.sub.sat, of the workpiece has been exceeded. This distinct magnetic spike disappears when the workpiece's surface temperature exceeds its Curie temperature, due to the sudden decrease in its magnetic permeability. Alternatively, an active magnetic sensor can also be used to measure changes in the resonance response of the monitor coil when the excitation coil is linearly swept over 0-10 MHz, due to changes in the magnetic permeability and electrical resistivity of the workpiece as its temperature increases (or decreases).

  10. Intelligent sensor networks the integration of sensor networks, signal processing and machine learning

    Hu, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Although governments worldwide have invested significantly in intelligent sensor network research and applications, few books cover intelligent sensor networks from a machine learning and signal processing perspective. Filling this void, Intelligent Sensor Networks: The Integration of Sensor Networks, Signal Processing and Machine Learning focuses on the close integration of sensing, networking, and smart signal processing via machine learning. Based on the world-class research of award-winning authors, the book provides a firm grounding in the fundamentals of intelligent sensor networks, incl

  11. Applications of Miniaturized Atomic Magnetic Sensors in Military Systems

    2012-10-01

    system - sensors are obscured under traffic cones and laid out in an array depending on the protection scenario; The Operator Control Station tablet PC...T., Peters, M., Sandin, H., Savukov, I., Schultz, L., Urbatis, A., Volegov, P., and Zotev, V., 2010, Ultra-low-field MRI for the detection of

  12. Dynamic On-Chip micro Temperature and Flow Sensor for miniaturized lab-on-a-chip instruments

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to design, fabricate, and characterize a Dynamic On-Chip Flow and Temperature Sensor (DOCFlaTS) to mature and enable miniaturized...

  13. Miniature all-silica optical fiber pressure sensor with an ultrathin uniform diaphragm.

    Wang, Wenhui; Wu, Nan; Tian, Ye; Niezrecki, Christopher; Wang, Xingwei

    2010-04-26

    This paper presents an all-silica miniature optical fiber pressure/acoustic sensor based on the Fabry-Perot (FP) interferometric principle. The endface of the etched optical fiber tip and silica thin diaphragm on it form the FP structure. The uniform and thin silica diaphragm was fabricated by etching away the silicon substrate from a commercial silicon wafer that has a thermal oxide layer. The thin film was directly thermally bonded to the endface of the optical fiber thus creating the Fabry-Perot cavity. Thin films with a thickness from 1microm to 3microm have been bonded successfully. The sensor shows good linearity and hysteresis during measurement. A sensor with 0.75 microm-thick diaphragm thinned by post silica etching was demonstrated to have a sensitivity of 11 nm/kPa. The new sensor has great potential to be used as a non-intrusive pressure sensor in a variety of sensing applications.

  14. Directed assembly of nanomaterials for miniaturized sensors by dip-pen nanolithography using precursor inks

    Su, Ming

    The advent of nanomaterials with enhanced properties and the means to pattern them in a controlled fashion have paved the way to construct miniaturized sensors for improved detection. However it remains a challenge for the traditional methods to create such sensors and sensor arrays. Dip pen nanolithography (DPN) can form nanostructures on a substrate by controlling the transfer of molecule inks. However, previous DPN can not pattern solid materials on insulating surfaces, which are necessary to form functional electronic devices. In the dissertation, the concept of reactive precursor inks for DPN is developed for the generation of solid functional nanostructures of the following materials: organic molecule, sol-gel material, and conducting polymer. First, the covalent bonding is unnecessary for DPN as shown in the colored ink DPN; therefore the numbers of molecules that can be patterned is extended beyond thiol or thiolated molecules. Subsequently, a reactive precursor strategy (sol) is developed to pattern inorganic or organic/inorganic composite nanostructures on silicon based substrates. The method works by hydrolysis of metal precursors in the water meniscus and allows the preparation of solid structures with controlled geometry beyond the individual molecule level. Then the SnO 2 nanostructures patterned between the gaps of electrodes are tested as gas sensors. Proof-of-concept experiments are demonstrated on miniaturized sensors that show fast response and recovery to certain gases. Furthermore, an eight-unit sensor array is fabricated on a chip using SnO2 sols that are doped with different metals. The multiplexed device can recognize different gases by comparing the response patterns with the reference patterns of known gases generated on the same array. At last, the idea of precursor ink for DPN is extended to construct conducting polymer based devices. By using an acid promoted polymerization approach, conducting polymers are patterned on silicon dioxide

  15. Design, Fabrication and Temperature Sensitivity Testing of a Miniature Piezoelectric-Based Sensor for Current Measurements

    Steven B. Lao

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Grid capacity, reliability, and efficient distribution of power have been major challenges for traditional power grids in the past few years. Reliable and efficient distribution within these power grids will continue to depend on the development of lighter and more efficient sensing units with lower costs in order to measure current and detect failures across the grid. The objective of this paper is to present the development of a miniature piezoelectric-based sensor for AC current measurements in single conductors, which are used in power transmission lines. Additionally presented in this paper are the thermal testing results for the sensor to assess its robustness for various operating temperatures.

  16. Miniature large range multi-axis force-torque sensor for biomechanical applications

    Brookhuis, R A; Sanders, R G P; Ma, K; Lammerink, T S J; De Boer, M J; Krijnen, G J M; Wiegerink, R J

    2015-01-01

    A miniature force sensor for the measurement of forces and moments at a human fingertip is designed and realized. Thin silicon pillars inside the sensor provide in-plane guidance for shear force measurement and provide the spring constant in normal direction. A corrugated silicon ring around the force sensitive area provides the spring constant in shear direction and seals the interior of the sensor. To detect all load components, capacitive read-out is used. A novel electrode pattern results in a large shear force sensitivity. The fingertip force sensor has a wide force range of up to 60 N in normal direction, ± 30 N in shear direction and a torque range of ± 25 N mm. (paper)

  17. Bio-inspired approach for intelligent unattended ground sensors

    Hueber, Nicolas; Raymond, Pierre; Hennequin, Christophe; Pichler, Alexander; Perrot, Maxime; Voisin, Philippe; Moeglin, Jean-Pierre

    2015-05-01

    Improving the surveillance capacity over wide zones requires a set of smart battery-powered Unattended Ground Sensors capable of issuing an alarm to a decision-making center. Only high-level information has to be sent when a relevant suspicious situation occurs. In this paper we propose an innovative bio-inspired approach that mimics the human bi-modal vision mechanism and the parallel processing ability of the human brain. The designed prototype exploits two levels of analysis: a low-level panoramic motion analysis, the peripheral vision, and a high-level event-focused analysis, the foveal vision. By tracking moving objects and fusing multiple criteria (size, speed, trajectory, etc.), the peripheral vision module acts as a fast relevant event detector. The foveal vision module focuses on the detected events to extract more detailed features (texture, color, shape, etc.) in order to improve the recognition efficiency. The implemented recognition core is able to acquire human knowledge and to classify in real-time a huge amount of heterogeneous data thanks to its natively parallel hardware structure. This UGS prototype validates our system approach under laboratory tests. The peripheral analysis module demonstrates a low false alarm rate whereas the foveal vision correctly focuses on the detected events. A parallel FPGA implementation of the recognition core succeeds in fulfilling the embedded application requirements. These results are paving the way of future reconfigurable virtual field agents. By locally processing the data and sending only high-level information, their energy requirements and electromagnetic signature are optimized. Moreover, the embedded Artificial Intelligence core enables these bio-inspired systems to recognize and learn new significant events. By duplicating human expertise in potentially hazardous places, our miniature visual event detector will allow early warning and contribute to better human decision making.

  18. Design and Fabrication of a Miniaturized GMI Magnetic Sensor Based on Amorphous Wire by MEMS Technology

    Jiawen Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A miniaturized Co-based amorphous wire GMI (Giant magneto-impedance magnetic sensor was designed and fabricated in this paper. The Co-based amorphous wire was used as the sense element due to its high sensitivity to the magnetic field. A three-dimensional micro coil surrounding the Co-based amorphous wire was fabricated by MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System technology, which was used to extract the electrical signal. The three-dimensional micro pick-up coil was designed and simulated with HFSS (High Frequency Structure Simulator software to determine the key parameters. Surface micro machining MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System technology was employed to fabricate the three-dimensional coil. The size of the developed amorphous wire magnetic sensor is 5.6 × 1.5 × 1.1 mm3. Helmholtz coil was used to characterize the performance of the device. The test results of the sensor sample show that the voltage change is 130 mV/Oe and the linearity error is 4.83% in the range of 0~45,000 nT. The results indicate that the developed miniaturized magnetic sensor has high sensitivity. By testing the electrical resistance of the samples, the results also showed high uniformity of each device.

  19. A Miniaturized QEPAS Trace Gas Sensor with a 3D-Printed Acoustic Detection Module

    Xiaotao Yang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A 3D printing technique was introduced to a quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QEPAS sensor and is reported for the first time. The acoustic detection module (ADM was designed and fabricated using the 3D printing technique and the ADM volume was compressed significantly. Furthermore, a small grin lens was used for laser focusing and facilitated the beam adjustment in the 3D-printed ADM. A quartz tuning fork (QTF with a low resonance frequency of 30.72 kHz was used as the acoustic wave transducer and acetylene (C2H2 was chosen as the analyte. The reported miniaturized QEPAS trace gas sensor is useful in actual sensor applications.

  20. Design and testing of miniaturized plasma sensor for measuring hypervelocity impact plasmas

    Goel, A., E-mail: ashish09@stanford.edu; Tarantino, P. M.; Lauben, D. S.; Close, S. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    An increasingly notable component of the space environment pertains to the impact of meteoroids and orbital debris on spacecraft and the resulting mechanical and electrical damages. Traveling at speeds of tens of km/s, when these particles, collectively referred to as hypervelocity particles, impact a satellite, they vaporize, ionize, and produce a radially expanding plasma that can generate electrically harmful radio frequency emission or serve as a trigger for electrostatic discharge. In order to measure the flux, composition, energy distribution, and temperature of ions and electrons in this plasma, a miniaturized plasma sensor has been developed for carrying out in-situ measurements in space. The sensor comprises an array of electrostatic analyzer wells split into 16 different channels, catering to different species and energy ranges in the plasma. We present results from numerical simulation based optimization of sensor geometry. A novel approach of fabricating the sensor using printed circuit boards is implemented. We also describe the test setup used for calibrating the sensor and show results demonstrating the energy band pass characteristics of the sensor. In addition to the hypervelocity impact plasmas, the plasma sensor developed can also be used to carry out measurements of ionospheric plasma, diagnostics of plasma propulsion systems, and in other space physics experiments.

  1. OmniBird: a miniature PTZ NIR sensor system for UCAV day/night autonomous operations

    Yi, Steven; Li, Hui

    2007-04-01

    Through a SBIR funding from NAVAIR, we have successfully developed an innovative, miniaturized, and lightweight PTZ UCAV imager called OmniBird for UCAV taxiing. The proposed OmniBird will be able to fit in a small space. The designed zoom capability allows it to acquire focused images for targets ranging from 10 to 250 feet. The innovative panning mechanism also allows the system to have a field of view of +/- 100 degrees within the provided limited spacing (6 cubic inches). The integrated optics, camera sensor, and mechanics solution will allow the OmniBird to stay optically aligned and shock-proof under harsh environments.

  2. Intelligent lead: a novel HRI sensor for guide robots.

    Cho, Keum-Bae; Lee, Beom-Hee

    2012-01-01

    This paper addresses the introduction of a new Human Robot Interaction (HRI) sensor for guide robots. Guide robots for geriatric patients or the visually impaired should follow user's control command, keeping a certain desired distance allowing the user to work freely. Therefore, it is necessary to acquire control commands and a user's position on a real-time basis. We suggest a new sensor fusion system to achieve this objective and we will call this sensor the "intelligent lead". The objective of the intelligent lead is to acquire a stable distance from the user to the robot, speed-control volume and turn-control volume, even when the robot platform with the intelligent lead is shaken on uneven ground. In this paper we explain a precise Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) procedure for this. The intelligent lead physically consists of a Kinect sensor, the serial linkage attached with eight rotary encoders, and an IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) and their measurements are fused by the EKF. A mobile robot was designed to test the performance of the proposed sensor system. After installing the intelligent lead in the mobile robot, several tests are conducted to verify that the mobile robot with the intelligent lead is capable of achieving its goal points while maintaining the appropriate distance between the robot and the user. The results show that we can use the intelligent lead proposed in this paper as a new HRI sensor joined a joystick and a distance measure in the mobile environments such as the robot and the user are moving at the same time.

  3. A Miniaturized Force Sensor Based on Hair-Like Flexible Magnetized Cylinders Deposited Over a Giant Magnetoresistive Sensor

    Ribeiro, Pedro

    2017-06-13

    The detection of force with higher resolution than observed in humans (similar to 1 mN) is of great interest for emerging technologies, especially surgical robots, since this level of resolution could allow these devices to operate in extremely sensitive environments without harming these. In this paper, we present a force sensor fabricated with a miniaturized footprint (9 mm(2)), based on the detection of the magnetic field generated by magnetized flexible pillars over a giant magnetoresistive sensor. When these flexible pillars deflect due to external loads, the stray field emitted by these will change, thus varying the GMR sensor resistance. A sensor with an array of five pillars with 200 mu m diameter and 1 mm height was fabricated, achieving a 0 to 26 mN measurement range and capable of detecting a minimum force feature of 630 mu N. A simulation model to predict the distribution of magnetic field generated by the flexible pillars on the sensitive area of the GMR sensor in function of the applied force was developed and validated against the experimental results reported in this paper. The sensor was finally tested as a texture classification system, with the ability of differentiating between four distinct surfaces varying between 0 and 162 mu m root mean square surface roughness.

  4. A Miniaturized Force Sensor Based on Hair-Like Flexible Magnetized Cylinders Deposited Over a Giant Magnetoresistive Sensor

    Ribeiro, Pedro; Khan, Mohammed Asadullah; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Kosel, Jü rgen; Franco, Fernando; Cardoso, Susana; Bernardino, Alexandre; Santos-Victor, Jose; Jamone, Lorenzo

    2017-01-01

    The detection of force with higher resolution than observed in humans (similar to 1 mN) is of great interest for emerging technologies, especially surgical robots, since this level of resolution could allow these devices to operate in extremely sensitive environments without harming these. In this paper, we present a force sensor fabricated with a miniaturized footprint (9 mm(2)), based on the detection of the magnetic field generated by magnetized flexible pillars over a giant magnetoresistive sensor. When these flexible pillars deflect due to external loads, the stray field emitted by these will change, thus varying the GMR sensor resistance. A sensor with an array of five pillars with 200 mu m diameter and 1 mm height was fabricated, achieving a 0 to 26 mN measurement range and capable of detecting a minimum force feature of 630 mu N. A simulation model to predict the distribution of magnetic field generated by the flexible pillars on the sensitive area of the GMR sensor in function of the applied force was developed and validated against the experimental results reported in this paper. The sensor was finally tested as a texture classification system, with the ability of differentiating between four distinct surfaces varying between 0 and 162 mu m root mean square surface roughness.

  5. Combining Electrochemical Sensors with Miniaturized Sample Preparation for Rapid Detection in Clinical Samples

    Bunyakul, Natinan; Baeumner, Antje J.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical analyses benefit world-wide from rapid and reliable diagnostics tests. New tests are sought with greatest demand not only for new analytes, but also to reduce costs, complexity and lengthy analysis times of current techniques. Among the myriad of possibilities available today to develop new test systems, amperometric biosensors are prominent players—best represented by the ubiquitous amperometric-based glucose sensors. Electrochemical approaches in general require little and often enough only simple hardware components, are rugged and yet provide low limits of detection. They thus offer many of the desirable attributes for point-of-care/point-of-need tests. This review focuses on investigating the important integration of sample preparation with (primarily electrochemical) biosensors. Sample clean up requirements, miniaturized sample preparation strategies, and their potential integration with sensors will be discussed, focusing on clinical sample analyses. PMID:25558994

  6. A miniature fiber-optic temperature sensor based on a Fabry–Perot interferometer

    Rong, Qiangzhou; Sun, Hao; Qiao, Xueguang; Zhang, Jing; Hu, Manli; Feng, Zhongyao

    2012-01-01

    A miniature fiber Fabry–Perot interferometer (FFPI) for temperature measurement is proposed and demonstrated. The sensor consists of a section of single-mode fiber (SMF) tip coated with a thin film of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) at the end of the fiber tip. A well-defined interference pattern is obtained as the result of the FFPI based on Fresnel reflection. The sensing head is extremely sensitive to ambient temperature, and provides a stable temperature sensitivity with a maximum value up to 173.5 pm °C −1 above 80 °C. This proposed sensor has advantages of low cost, ultra-compactness, a small degree of hysteresis and high stability. (paper)

  7. From Smart to Intelligent Sensors: A Case Study

    Vincenzo Di Lecce

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper showcases the opportunity of embedding intelligence in smart sensor devices with particular reference to air quality monitoring applications. The work bases upon recent findings attained and published by authors in the field of information extraction from measurements signals and smart sensor research. Smart sensors are commonly conceived as hardware/software transducers able to lift the source physical signal(s to the application target level. This entails an intricate twist of physical measurements and application-level bits of information. When measures are noisy or ambiguous, information extraction is demanding and thus requires artificial intelligence to intervene in the data interpretation process. Experience gained with handcrafted prototypes allowed us to harness the complexity of bringing artificial intelligence inside physical measurements. To provide a complete picture of the encountered criticalities, the chosen semantic model, the carried out and the obtained results are reported and discussed.

  8. A 3-Axis Miniature Magnetic Sensor Based on a Planar Fluxgate Magnetometer with an Orthogonal Fluxguide

    Chih-Cheng Lu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new class of tri-axial miniature magnetometer consisting of a planar fluxgate structure with an orthogonal ferromagnetic fluxguide centrally situated over the magnetic cores is presented. The magnetic sensor possesses a cruciform ferromagnetic core placed diagonally upon the square excitation coil under which two pairs of pick-up coils for in-plane field detection are allocated. Effective principles and analysis of the magnetometer for 3-D field vectors are described and verified by numerically electromagnetic simulation for the excitation and magnetization of the ferromagnetic cores. The sensor is operated by applying the second-harmonic detection technique that can verify V-B relationship and device responsivity. Experimental characterization of the miniature fluxgate device demonstrates satisfactory spatial magnetic field detection results in terms of responsivity and noise spectrum. As a result, at an excitation frequency of 50 kHz, a maximum in-plane responsivity of 122.4 V/T appears and a maximum out-of-plane responsivity of 11.6 V/T is obtained as well. The minimum field noise spectra are found to be 0.11 nT/√Hz and 6.29 nT/√Hz, respectively, in X- and Z-axis at 1 Hz under the same excitation frequency. Compared with the previous tri-axis fluxgate devices, this planar magnetic sensor with an orthogonal fluxguide provides beneficial enhancement in both sensory functionality and manufacturing simplicity. More importantly, this novel device concept is considered highly suitable for the extension to a silicon sensor made by the current CMOS-MEMS technologies, thus emphasizing its emerging applications of field detection in portable industrial electronics.

  9. A 3-Axis Miniature Magnetic Sensor Based on a Planar Fluxgate Magnetometer with an Orthogonal Fluxguide.

    Lu, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Jeff

    2015-06-19

    A new class of tri-axial miniature magnetometer consisting of a planar fluxgate structure with an orthogonal ferromagnetic fluxguide centrally situated over the magnetic cores is presented. The magnetic sensor possesses a cruciform ferromagnetic core placed diagonally upon the square excitation coil under which two pairs of pick-up coils for in-plane field detection are allocated. Effective principles and analysis of the magnetometer for 3-D field vectors are described and verified by numerically electromagnetic simulation for the excitation and magnetization of the ferromagnetic cores. The sensor is operated by applying the second-harmonic detection technique that can verify V-B relationship and device responsivity. Experimental characterization of the miniature fluxgate device demonstrates satisfactory spatial magnetic field detection results in terms of responsivity and noise spectrum. As a result, at an excitation frequency of 50 kHz, a maximum in-plane responsivity of 122.4 V/T appears and a maximum out-of-plane responsivity of 11.6 V/T is obtained as well. The minimum field noise spectra are found to be 0.11 nT/√Hz and 6.29 nT/√Hz, respectively, in X- and Z-axis at 1 Hz under the same excitation frequency. Compared with the previous tri-axis fluxgate devices, this planar magnetic sensor with an orthogonal fluxguide provides beneficial enhancement in both sensory functionality and manufacturing simplicity. More importantly, this novel device concept is considered highly suitable for the extension to a silicon sensor made by the current CMOS-MEMS technologies, thus emphasizing its emerging applications of field detection in portable industrial electronics.

  10. AGSM Intelligent Devices/Smart Sensors Project

    Harp, Janicce Leshay

    2014-01-01

    This project provides development and qualification of Smart Sensors capable of self-diagnosis and assessment of their capability/readiness to support operations. These sensors will provide pressure and temperature measurements to use in ground systems.

  11. Intelligent gas-mixture flow sensor

    Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Dijkstra, Fred; Houkes, Z.; van Kuijk, J.C.C.; van Kuijk, Joost

    A simple way to realize a gas-mixture flow sensor is presented. The sensor is capable of measuring two parameters from a gas flow. Both the flow rate and the helium content of a helium-nitrogen gas mixture are measured. The sensor exploits two measurement principles in combination with (local)

  12. Intelligent Wireless Sensor Networks for System Health Monitoring

    Alena, Rick

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) based on the IEEE 802.15.4 Personal Area Network (PAN) standard are finding increasing use in the home automation and emerging smart energy markets. The network and application layers, based on the ZigBee 2007 Standard, provide a convenient framework for component-based software that supports customer solutions from multiple vendors. WSNs provide the inherent fault tolerance required for aerospace applications. The Discovery and Systems Health Group at NASA Ames Research Center has been developing WSN technology for use aboard aircraft and spacecraft for System Health Monitoring of structures and life support systems using funding from the NASA Engineering and Safety Center and Exploration Technology Development and Demonstration Program. This technology provides key advantages for low-power, low-cost ancillary sensing systems particularly across pressure interfaces and in areas where it is difficult to run wires. Intelligence for sensor networks could be defined as the capability of forming dynamic sensor networks, allowing high-level application software to identify and address any sensor that joined the network without the use of any centralized database defining the sensors characteristics. The IEEE 1451 Standard defines methods for the management of intelligent sensor systems and the IEEE 1451.4 section defines Transducer Electronic Datasheets (TEDS), which contain key information regarding the sensor characteristics such as name, description, serial number, calibration information and user information such as location within a vehicle. By locating the TEDS information on the wireless sensor itself and enabling access to this information base from the application software, the application can identify the sensor unambiguously and interpret and present the sensor data stream without reference to any other information. The application software is able to read the status of each sensor module, responding in real-time to changes of

  13. A miniature sensor for electrical field measurements in dusty planetary atmospheres

    Renno, N O; Rogacki, S; Kok, J F; Kirkham, H

    2008-01-01

    Dusty phenomena such as regular wind-blown dust, dust storms, and dust devils are the most important, currently active, geological processes on Mars. Electric fields larger than 100 kV/m have been measured in terrestrial dusty phenomena. Theoretical calculations predict that, close to the surface, the bulk electric fields in martian dusty phenomena reach the breakdown value of the isolating properties of thin martian air of about a few 10 kV/m. The fact that martian dusty phenomena are electrically active has important implications for dust lifting and atmospheric chemistry. Electric field sensors are usually grounded and distort the electric fields in their vicinity. Grounded sensors also produce large errors when subject to ion currents or impacts from clouds of charged particles. Moreover, they are incapable of providing information about the direction of the electric field, an important quantity. Finally, typical sensors with more than 10 cm of diameter are not capable of measuring electric fields at distances as small as a few cm from the surface. Measurements this close to the surface are necessary for studies of the effects of electric fields on dust lifting. To overcome these shortcomings, we developed the miniature electric-field sensor described in this article.

  14. Design of air blast pressure sensors based on miniature silicon membrane and piezoresistive gauges

    Riondet, J.; Coustou, A.; Aubert, H.; Pons, P.; Lavayssière, M.; Luc, J.; Lefrançois, A.

    2017-11-01

    Available commercial piezoelectric pressure sensors are not able to accurately reproduce the ultra-fast transient pressure occurring during an air blast experiment. In this communication a new pressure sensor prototype based on a miniature silicon membrane and piezoresistive gauges is reported for significantly improving the performances in terms of time response. Simulation results demonstrate the feasibility of a pressure transducer having a fundamental resonant frequency almost ten times greater than the commercial piezoelectric sensors one. The sensor uses a 5μm-thick SOI membrane and four P-type silicon gauges (doping level ≅ 1019 at/cm3) in Wheatstone bridge configuration. To obtain a good trade-off between the fundamental mechanical resonant frequency and pressure sensitivity values, the typical dimension of the rectangular membrane is fixed to 30μm x 90μm with gauge dimension of 1μm x 5μm. The achieved simulated mechanical resonant frequency of these configuration is greater than 40MHz with a sensitivity of 0.04% per bar.

  15. Unattended Ground Sensors for Expeditionary Force 21 Intelligence Collections

    2015-06-01

    little impact on modern intelligence collections. This thesis analyzes and compares the units and individual Marine skillsets that employ UGS, and the...the sensor employment planning cycle, and the socialization of this plan through the proper chain-of-command [4]. Figure 8 depicts the Sensor...the use of newly developed cellphone based technologies and emerging UGS capabilities to assist in Listening Post/ Observation Post (LP/OP

  16. Applications of artificial intelligence to space station: General purpose intelligent sensor interface

    Mckee, James W.

    1988-01-01

    This final report describes the accomplishments of the General Purpose Intelligent Sensor Interface task of the Applications of Artificial Intelligence to Space Station grant for the period from October 1, 1987 through September 30, 1988. Portions of the First Biannual Report not revised will not be included but only referenced. The goal is to develop an intelligent sensor system that will simplify the design and development of expert systems using sensors of the physical phenomena as a source of data. This research will concentrate on the integration of image processing sensors and voice processing sensors with a computer designed for expert system development. The result of this research will be the design and documentation of a system in which the user will not need to be an expert in such areas as image processing algorithms, local area networks, image processor hardware selection or interfacing, television camera selection, voice recognition hardware selection, or analog signal processing. The user will be able to access data from video or voice sensors through standard LISP statements without any need to know about the sensor hardware or software.

  17. A Low Energy Intelligent Clustering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Network

    Li, Qiao; Cui, Lingguo; Zhang, Baihai

    2010-01-01

    LEACH (low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy) is a well-known self-organizing, adaptive clustering protocol of wireless sensor networks. However it has some shortcomings when it faces such problems as the cluster construction and energy management. In this paper, LEICP (low energy intelligent...

  18. Miniaturized and Wireless Optical Neurotransmitter Sensor for Real-Time Monitoring of Dopamine in the Brain.

    Kim, Min H; Yoon, Hargsoon; Choi, Sang H; Zhao, Fei; Kim, Jongsung; Song, Kyo D; Lee, Uhn

    2016-11-10

    Real-time monitoring of extracellular neurotransmitter concentration offers great benefits for diagnosis and treatment of neurological disorders and diseases. This paper presents the study design and results of a miniaturized and wireless optical neurotransmitter sensor (MWONS) for real-time monitoring of brain dopamine concentration. MWONS is based on fluorescent sensing principles and comprises a microspectrometer unit, a microcontroller for data acquisition, and a Bluetooth wireless network for real-time monitoring. MWONS has a custom-designed application software that controls the operation parameters for excitation light sources, data acquisition, and signal processing. MWONS successfully demonstrated a measurement capability with a limit of detection down to a 100 nanomole dopamine concentration, and high selectivity to ascorbic acid (90:1) and uric acid (36:1).

  19. Evolution of miniature detectors and focal plane arrays for infrared sensors

    Watts, Louis A.

    1993-06-01

    Sensors that are sensitive in the infrared spectral region have been under continuous development since the WW2 era. A quest for the military advantage of 'seeing in the dark' has pushed thermal imaging technology toward high spatial and temporal resolution for night vision equipment, fire control, search track, and seeker 'homing' guidance sensing devices. Similarly, scientific applications have pushed spectral resolution for chemical analysis, remote sensing of earth resources, and astronomical exploration applications. As a result of these developments, focal plane arrays (FPA) are now available with sufficient sensitivity for both high spatial and narrow bandwidth spectral resolution imaging over large fields of view. Such devices combined with emerging opto-electronic developments in integrated FPA data processing techniques can yield miniature sensors capable of imaging reflected sunlight in the near IR and emitted thermal energy in the Mid-wave (MWIR) and longwave (LWIR) IR spectral regions. Robotic space sensors equipped with advanced versions of these FPA's will provide high resolution 'pictures' of their surroundings, perform remote analysis of solid, liquid, and gas matter, or selectively look for 'signatures' of specific objects. Evolutionary trends and projections of future low power micro detector FPA developments for day/night operation or use in adverse viewing conditions are presented in the following test.

  20. WISS - Wireless, Intelligent Sensor System, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Low power, robust communications protocols such as IEEE 802.15.4/Zigbee have made the concept of smart sensor networks attractive across many applications. These...

  1. Intelligent Network-Centric Sensors Development Program

    2012-07-31

    Vasconcelos , W.; Sleeman, D.; Colley, S.; Porta, T.L. An ontology-based approach to sensor-mission assignment. In Proceedings of First Annual Conference of...the International Technology Alliance, Washington, DC, USA, September 2007. 12. Preece, A.; Gomez, M.; Mel, G.D.; Vasconcelos , W.; Sleeman, D.; Colley...13. Preece, A.; Gomez, M.; Mel, G.D.; Vasconcelos , W.; Sleeman, D.; Colley, S.; Porta, T.L. An ontology-based approach to sensor-mission assignment

  2. Detection of Intelligent Intruders in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Yun Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most of the existing research works on the intrusion detection problem in a wireless sensor network (WSN assume linear or random mobility patterns in abstracting intruders’ models in traversing the WSN field. However, in real-life WSN applications, an intruder is usually an intelligent mobile robot with environment learning and detection avoidance capability (i.e., the capability to avoid surrounding sensors. Due to this, the literature results based on the linear or random mobility models may not be applied to the real-life WSN design and deployment for efficient and effective intrusion detection in practice. This motivates us to investigate the impact of intruder’s intelligence on the intrusion detection problem in a WSN for various applications. To be specific, we propose two intrusion algorithms, the pinball and flood-fill algorithms, to mimic the intelligent motion and behaviors of a mobile intruder in detecting and circumventing nearby sensors for detection avoidance while heading for its destination. The two proposed algorithms are integrated into a WSN framework for intrusion detection analysis in various circumstances. Monte Carlo simulations are conducted, and the results indicate that: (1 the performance of a WSN drastically changes as a result of the intruder’s intelligence in avoiding sensor detections and intrusion algorithms; (2 network parameters, including node density, sensing range and communication range, play a crucial part in the effectiveness of the intruder’s intrusion algorithms; and (3 it is imperative to integrate intruder’s intelligence in the WSN research for intruder detection problems under various application circumstances.

  3. Surface biofunctionalization and production of miniaturized sensor structures using aerosol printing technologies

    Grunwald, Ingo; Groth, Esther; Wirth, Ingo; Schumacher, Julian; Maiwald, Marcus; Zoellmer, Volker; Busse, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The work described in this paper demonstrates that very small protein and DNA structures can be applied to various substrates without denaturation using aerosol printing technology. This technology allows high-resolution deposition of various nanoscaled metal and biological suspensions. Before printing, metal and biological suspensions were formulated and then nebulized to form an aerosol which is aerodynamically focused on the printing module of the system in order to achieve precise structuring of the nanoscale material on a substrate. In this way, it is possible to focus the aerosol stream at a distance of about 5 mm from the printhead to the surface. This technology is useful for printing fluorescence-marked proteins and printing enzymes without affecting their biological activity. Furthermore, higher molecular weight DNA can be printed without shearing. The advantages, such as printing on complex, non-planar 3D structured surfaces, and disadvantages of the aerosol printing technology are also discussed and are compared with other printing technologies. In addition, miniaturized sensor structures with line thicknesses in the range of a few micrometers are fabricated by applying a silver sensor structure to glass. After sintering using an integrated laser or in an oven process, electrical conductivity is achieved within the sensor structure. Finally, we printed BSA in small micrometre-sized areas within the sensor structure using the same deposition system. The aerosol printing technology combined with material development offers great advantages for future-oriented applications involving biological surface functionalization on small areas. This is important for innovative biomedical micro-device development and for production solutions which bridge the disciplines of biology and electronics.

  4. Surface biofunctionalization and production of miniaturized sensor structures using aerosol printing technologies.

    Grunwald, Ingo; Groth, Esther; Wirth, Ingo; Schumacher, Julian; Maiwald, Marcus; Zoellmer, Volker; Busse, Matthias

    2010-03-01

    The work described in this paper demonstrates that very small protein and DNA structures can be applied to various substrates without denaturation using aerosol printing technology. This technology allows high-resolution deposition of various nanoscaled metal and biological suspensions. Before printing, metal and biological suspensions were formulated and then nebulized to form an aerosol which is aerodynamically focused on the printing module of the system in order to achieve precise structuring of the nanoscale material on a substrate. In this way, it is possible to focus the aerosol stream at a distance of about 5 mm from the printhead to the surface. This technology is useful for printing fluorescence-marked proteins and printing enzymes without affecting their biological activity. Furthermore, higher molecular weight DNA can be printed without shearing. The advantages, such as printing on complex, non-planar 3D structured surfaces, and disadvantages of the aerosol printing technology are also discussed and are compared with other printing technologies. In addition, miniaturized sensor structures with line thicknesses in the range of a few micrometers are fabricated by applying a silver sensor structure to glass. After sintering using an integrated laser or in an oven process, electrical conductivity is achieved within the sensor structure. Finally, we printed BSA in small micrometre-sized areas within the sensor structure using the same deposition system. The aerosol printing technology combined with material development offers great advantages for future-oriented applications involving biological surface functionalization on small areas. This is important for innovative biomedical micro-device development and for production solutions which bridge the disciplines of biology and electronics.

  5. Surface biofunctionalization and production of miniaturized sensor structures using aerosol printing technologies

    Grunwald, Ingo; Groth, Esther; Wirth, Ingo; Schumacher, Julian; Maiwald, Marcus; Zoellmer, Volker; Busse, Matthias, E-mail: ingo.wirth@ifam.frauhofer.d [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Applied Materials Research (IFAM), Wiener Strasse 12, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2010-03-15

    The work described in this paper demonstrates that very small protein and DNA structures can be applied to various substrates without denaturation using aerosol printing technology. This technology allows high-resolution deposition of various nanoscaled metal and biological suspensions. Before printing, metal and biological suspensions were formulated and then nebulized to form an aerosol which is aerodynamically focused on the printing module of the system in order to achieve precise structuring of the nanoscale material on a substrate. In this way, it is possible to focus the aerosol stream at a distance of about 5 mm from the printhead to the surface. This technology is useful for printing fluorescence-marked proteins and printing enzymes without affecting their biological activity. Furthermore, higher molecular weight DNA can be printed without shearing. The advantages, such as printing on complex, non-planar 3D structured surfaces, and disadvantages of the aerosol printing technology are also discussed and are compared with other printing technologies. In addition, miniaturized sensor structures with line thicknesses in the range of a few micrometers are fabricated by applying a silver sensor structure to glass. After sintering using an integrated laser or in an oven process, electrical conductivity is achieved within the sensor structure. Finally, we printed BSA in small micrometre-sized areas within the sensor structure using the same deposition system. The aerosol printing technology combined with material development offers great advantages for future-oriented applications involving biological surface functionalization on small areas. This is important for innovative biomedical micro-device development and for production solutions which bridge the disciplines of biology and electronics.

  6. Neurovision processor for designing intelligent sensors

    Gupta, Madan M.; Knopf, George K.

    1992-03-01

    A programmable multi-task neuro-vision processor, called the Positive-Negative (PN) neural processor, is proposed as a plausible hardware mechanism for constructing robust multi-task vision sensors. The computational operations performed by the PN neural processor are loosely based on the neural activity fields exhibited by certain nervous tissue layers situated in the brain. The neuro-vision processor can be programmed to generate diverse dynamic behavior that may be used for spatio-temporal stabilization (STS), short-term visual memory (STVM), spatio-temporal filtering (STF) and pulse frequency modulation (PFM). A multi- functional vision sensor that performs a variety of information processing operations on time- varying two-dimensional sensory images can be constructed from a parallel and hierarchical structure of numerous individually programmed PN neural processors.

  7. Intelligent Machine Parts with Surface Embedded Sensors

    Østbø, Niels Peter

    2009-01-01

    A surface embedded temperature sensor has successfully been fabricated on a customized industrial bolt. The aluminum substrate of the bolt was electrically isolated by plasma electrolytic oxidation followed by the fabrication of a type T thermocouple and finally covered by a wear resistant DLC coating. This bolt is part of our work to develop smart machine parts that are capable of reporting their current physical status under real working conditions enabling both new tools for condition base...

  8. Improved chemical identification from sensor arrays using intelligent algorithms

    Roppel, Thaddeus A.; Wilson, Denise M.

    2001-02-01

    Intelligent signal processing algorithms are shown to improve identification rates significantly in chemical sensor arrays. This paper focuses on the use of independently derived sensor status information to modify the processing of sensor array data by using a fast, easily-implemented "best-match" approach to filling in missing sensor data. Most fault conditions of interest (e.g., stuck high, stuck low, sudden jumps, excess noise, etc.) can be detected relatively simply by adjunct data processing, or by on-board circuitry. The objective then is to devise, implement, and test methods for using this information to improve the identification rates in the presence of faulted sensors. In one typical example studied, utilizing separately derived, a-priori knowledge about the health of the sensors in the array improved the chemical identification rate by an artificial neural network from below 10 percent correct to over 99 percent correct. While this study focuses experimentally on chemical sensor arrays, the results are readily extensible to other types of sensor platforms.

  9. Intelligence Control System for Landfills Based on Wireless Sensor Network

    Zhang, Qian; Huang, Chuan; Gong, Jian

    2018-06-01

    This paper put forward an intelligence system for controlling the landfill gas in landfills to make the landfill gas (LFG) exhaust controllably and actively. The system, which is assigned by the wireless sensor network, were developed and supervised by remote applications in workshop instead of manual work. An automatic valve control depending on the sensor units embedded is installed in tube, the air pressure and concentration of LFG are detected to decide the level of the valve switch. The paper also proposed a modified algorithm to solve transmission problem, so that the system can keep a high efficiency and long service life.

  10. Intelligence Control System for Landfills Based on Wireless Sensor Network

    Zhang Qian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper put forward an intelligence system for controlling the landfill gas in landfills to make the landfill gas (LFG exhaust controllably and actively. The system, which is assigned by the wireless sensor network, were developed and supervised by remote applications in workshop instead of manual work. An automatic valve control depending on the sensor units embedded is installed in tube, the air pressure and concentration of LFG are detected to decide the level of the valve switch. The paper also proposed a modified algorithm to solve transmission problem, so that the system can keep a high efficiency and long service life.

  11. A systematic profile/feature-based intelligence for spectral sensors

    Vogt, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has been creating a special-purpose software-engineering tool to support research and development of spectrum-output-type [chemical] sensors. The modular software system is called SAGE, the Sensor Algorithm Generation Environment and includes general-purpose signal conditioning algorithms (GP/SAGE) as well as intelligent classifiers, pattern recognizes, response accelerators, and sensitivity analyzers. GP/SAGE is an implementation of an approach for delivering a level of encapsulated intelligence to a wide range of sensors and instruments. It capitalizes on the genene classification and analysis needed to process most profile-type data. The GP/SAGE native data format is a generalized one-dimensional vector, signature, or spectrum. GP/SAGE modules form a computer-aided software engineering (CASE) workbench where users can experiment with various conditioning, filtering, and pattern recognition stages, then automatically generate final algorithm source code for data acquisition and analysis systems. SAGE was designed to free the [chemical] sensor developer from the signal processing allowing them to focus on understanding and improving the basic sensing mechanisms. The SAGE system's strength is its creative application of advanced neural computing techniques to response-vector and response-surface data, affording new insight and perspectives with regard to phenomena being studied for sensor development

  12. Optical monitoring of kidney oxygenation and hemodynamics using a miniaturized near-infrared sensor

    Shadgan, Babak; Macnab, Andrew; Nigro, Mark; Nguan, Christopher

    2017-02-01

    Background: Following human renal allograft transplant primary graft dysfunction can occur early in the postoperative period as a result of acute tubular necrosis, acute rejection, drug toxicity, and vascular complications. Successful treatment of graft dysfunction requires early detection and accurate diagnosis so that disease-specific medical and/or surgical intervention can be provided promptly. However, current diagnostic methods are not sensitive or specific enough, so that identifying the cause of graft dysfunction is problematic and often delayed. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is an established optical method that monitors changes in tissue hemodynamics and oxygenation in real time. We report the feasibility of directly monitoring kidney the kidney in an animal model using NIRS to detect renal ischemia and hypoxia. Methods: In an anesthetized pig, a customized continuous wave spatially resolved (SR) NIRS sensor was fixed directly to the surface of the surgically exposed kidney. Changes in the concentration of oxygenated (O2Hb) deoxygenated (HHb) and total hemoglobin (THb) were monitored before, during and after renal artery clamping and reperfusion, and the resulting fluctuations in chromophore concentration from baseline used to measure variations in renal perfusion and oxygenation. Results: On clamping the renal artery THb and O2Hb concentrations declined progressively while HHb rose. With reperfusion after releasing the artery clamp O2Hb and THb rose while HHb fell with all parameters returning to its baseline. This pattern was similar in all three trials. Conclusion: This pilot study indicates that a miniaturized NIRS sensor applied directly to the surface of a kidney in an animal model can detect the onset of renal ischemia and tissue hypoxia. With modification, our NIRS-based method may contribute to early detection of renal vascular complications and graft dysfunction following renal transplant.

  13. Intelligent fiber optic sensor for solution concentration examination

    Borecki, Michal; Kruszewski, Jerzy

    2003-09-01

    This paper presents the working principles of intelligent fiber-optic intensity sensor used for solution concentration examination. The sensor head is the ending of the large core polymer optical fiber. The head works on the reflection intensity basis. The reflected signal level depends on Fresnel reflection and reflection on suspended matter when the head is submersed in solution. The sensor head is mounted on a lift. For detection purposes the signal includes head submerging, submersion, emerging and emergence is measured. This way the viscosity turbidity and refraction coefficient has an effect on measured signal. The signal forthcoming from head is processed electrically in opto-electronic interface. Then it is feed to neural network. The novelty of presented sensor is implementation of neural network that works in generalization mode. The sensor resolution depends on opto-electronic signal conversion precision and neural network learning accuracy. Therefore, the number and quality of points used for learning process is very important. The example sensor application for examination of liquid soap concentration in water is presented in the paper.

  14. A Wireless and Batteryless Intelligent Carbon Monoxide Sensor.

    Chen, Chen-Chia; Sung, Gang-Neng; Chen, Wen-Ching; Kuo, Chih-Ting; Chue, Jin-Ju; Wu, Chieh-Ming; Huang, Chun-Ming

    2016-09-23

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning from natural gas water heaters is a common household accident in Taiwan. We propose a wireless and batteryless intelligent CO sensor for improving the safety of operating natural gas water heaters. A micro-hydropower generator supplies power to a CO sensor without battery (COSWOB) (2.5 W at a flow rate of 4.2 L/min), and the power consumption of the COSWOB is only ~13 mW. The COSWOB monitors the CO concentration in ambient conditions around natural gas water heaters and transmits it to an intelligent gateway. When the CO level reaches a dangerous level, the COSWOB alarm sounds loudly. Meanwhile, the intelligent gateway also sends a trigger to activate Wi-Fi alarms and sends notifications to the mobile device through the Internet. Our strategy can warn people indoors and outdoors, thereby reducing CO poisoning accidents. We also believe that our technique not only can be used for home security but also can be used in industrial applications (for example, to monitor leak occurrence in a pipeline).

  15. Miniaturized multiwavelength digital holography sensor for extensive in-machine tool measurement

    Seyler, Tobias; Fratz, Markus; Beckmann, Tobias; Bertz, Alexander; Carl, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    In this paper we present a miniaturized digital holographic sensor (HoloCut) for operation inside a machine tool. With state-of-the-art 3D measurement systems, short-range structures such as tool marks cannot be resolved inside a machine tool chamber. Up to now, measurements had to be conducted outside the machine tool and thus processing data are generated offline. The sensor presented here uses digital multiwavelength holography to get 3D-shape-information of the machined sample. By using three wavelengths, we get a large artificial wavelength with a large unambiguous measurement range of 0.5mm and achieve micron repeatability even in the presence of laser speckles on rough surfaces. In addition, a digital refocusing algorithm based on phase noise is implemented to extend the measurement range beyond the limits of the artificial wavelength and geometrical depth-of-focus. With complex wave field propagation, the focus plane can be shifted after the camera images have been taken and a sharp image with extended depth of focus is constructed consequently. With 20mm x 20mm field of view the sensor enables measurement of both macro- and micro-structure (such as tool marks) with an axial resolution of 1 µm, lateral resolution of 7 µm and consequently allows processing data to be generated online which in turn qualifies it as a machine tool control. To make HoloCut compact enough for operation inside a machining center, the beams are arranged in two planes: The beams are split into reference beam and object beam in the bottom plane and combined onto the camera in the top plane later on. Using a mechanical standard interface according to DIN 69893 and having a very compact size of 235mm x 140mm x 215mm (WxHxD) and a weight of 7.5 kg, HoloCut can be easily integrated into different machine tools and extends no more in height than a typical processing tool.

  16. A Novel Intelligent Transportation Control Supported by Wireless Sensor Network

    Zhe Qian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the development of wireless sensor unit, and improvement of real-time and quality of wireless communication, the intelligent transportation control system employ these technologies to realize sensing, positioning, computing, and communication for voiding collisions. This paper discusses the framework of transportation control system, and emphases TDOA positioning algorithm and the new weighted least square optimization method. The simulation result shows that, our method achieves high-accuracy of positioning, which can satisfy the need of transportation control. Finally, we outline the urgent work need to address in the future.

  17. INTELLIGENT TRAFFIC-SAFETY MIRROR BY USING WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK

    Peter Danišovič

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article is focused on the problematic of traffic safety, dealing with the problem of car intersections with blocked view crossing by a special wireless sensor network (WSN proposed for the traffic monitoring, concretely for vehicle’s detection at places, where it is necessary. Some ultra-low-power TI products were developed due to this reason: microcontroller MSP430F2232, 868MHz RF transceiver CC1101 and LDO voltage regulator TPS7033. The WSN consist of four network nodes supplied with the special safety lightings which serve the function of intelligent traffic safety mirror.

  18. Measurement of charge collection in irradiated miniature sensors for the upgrade of ATLAS Phase-II Strip tracker

    Cindro, Vladimir; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Miniature sensors with outer dimension of 10 mm x 10 mm were produced together with full size sensors for the innermost ring (R0) of the end-cap part in the upgraded ATLAS inner tracker (ITk). AC and DC coupled n-type strips with three different pitches (wide, default and narrow) were processed on high resistivity p-type FZ silicon substrates by Hamamatsu Photonics. Miniature sensors were irradiated with 70 MeV protons at CYRIC at Tohoku University (Japan) and reactor neutrons at Jožef Stefan Institute (Slovenia) to three different 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluences: 0.5, 1 and 2 x 1015 neqcm-2. The upper fluence range exceeds the highest anticipated in the inner-most part of the ATLAS ITk-Strips over the HL-LHC lifetime (~1.25 x 1015 neqcm2). Charge collection in test sensors has been evaluated systematically using 90Sr β- source and Alibava analogue readout system at reverse bias voltages up to 1000 V.

  19. Measurement of charge collection in irradiated miniature sensors for the upgrade of ATLAS Phase-II Strip tracker

    Cindro, Vladimir; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Miniature sensors with outer dimension of 10 mm x 10 mm have been produced together with full size sensors for the innermost ring (R0) of the end-cap part in the upgraded ATLAS inner tracker (ITk). AC and DC coupled n-type strips with three different pitches (wide, default and narrow) were processed on high resistivity p-type FZ silicon substrates by Hamamatsu Photonics. Miniature sensors were irradiated with 70 MeV protons at CYRIC at Tohoku University (Japan) and reactor neutrons at Jožef Stefan Institute (Slovenia) to three different 1 MeV neutron equivalent fluences: 0.5, 1 and 2 x 1015 neqcm-2. The upper fluence range exceeds the highest anticipated in the inner-most part of the ATLAS ITk-Strips over the HL-LHC lifetime (~1.5 x 1015 neqcm2). Charge collection in test sensors has been evaluated systematically using 90Sr β-source and Alibava analogue readout system at reverse bias voltages up to 1000 V.

  20. Miniature Integrated-Optic Trace-Gas Sensors for Off-World Science Missions, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — As miniaturized satellite platforms such as CubeSat increase in capability, they will eventually be deployed to other planetary bodies (e.g., JPL INSPIRE). An...

  1. Miniaturized Bio-and Chemical-Sensors for Point-of-Care Monitoring of Chronic Kidney Diseases.

    Tricoli, Antonio; Neri, Giovanni

    2018-03-22

    This review reports the latest achievements in point-of-care (POC) sensor technologies for the monitoring of ammonia, creatinine and urea in patients suffering of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs). Abnormal levels of these nitrogen biomarkers are found in the physiological fluids, such as blood, urine and sweat, of CKD patients. Delocalized at-home monitoring of CKD biomarkers via integration of miniaturized, portable, and low cost chemical- and bio-sensors in POC devices, is an emerging approach to improve patients' health monitoring and life quality. The successful monitoring of CKD biomarkers, performed on the different body fluids by means of sensors having strict requirements in term of size, cost, large-scale production capacity, response time and simple operation procedures for use in POC devices, is reported and discussed.

  2. Miniaturized Bio-and Chemical-Sensors for Point-of-Care Monitoring of Chronic Kidney Diseases

    Antonio Tricoli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This review reports the latest achievements in point-of-care (POC sensor technologies for the monitoring of ammonia, creatinine and urea in patients suffering of chronic kidney diseases (CKDs. Abnormal levels of these nitrogen biomarkers are found in the physiological fluids, such as blood, urine and sweat, of CKD patients. Delocalized at-home monitoring of CKD biomarkers via integration of miniaturized, portable, and low cost chemical- and bio-sensors in POC devices, is an emerging approach to improve patients’ health monitoring and life quality. The successful monitoring of CKD biomarkers, performed on the different body fluids by means of sensors having strict requirements in term of size, cost, large-scale production capacity, response time and simple operation procedures for use in POC devices, is reported and discussed.

  3. An Intelligent Cooperative Visual Sensor Network for Urban Mobility.

    Leone, Giuseppe Riccardo; Moroni, Davide; Pieri, Gabriele; Petracca, Matteo; Salvetti, Ovidio; Azzarà, Andrea; Marino, Francesco

    2017-11-10

    Smart cities are demanding solutions for improved traffic efficiency, in order to guarantee optimal access to mobility resources available in urban areas. Intelligent video analytics deployed directly on board embedded sensors offers great opportunities to gather highly informative data about traffic and transport, allowing reconstruction of a real-time neat picture of urban mobility patterns. In this paper, we present a visual sensor network in which each node embeds computer vision logics for analyzing in real time urban traffic. The nodes in the network share their perceptions and build a global and comprehensive interpretation of the analyzed scenes in a cooperative and adaptive fashion. This is possible thanks to an especially designed Internet of Things (IoT) compliant middleware which encompasses in-network event composition as well as full support of Machine-2-Machine (M2M) communication mechanism. The potential of the proposed cooperative visual sensor network is shown with two sample applications in urban mobility connected to the estimation of vehicular flows and parking management. Besides providing detailed results of each key component of the proposed solution, the validity of the approach is demonstrated by extensive field tests that proved the suitability of the system in providing a scalable, adaptable and extensible data collection layer for managing and understanding mobility in smart cities.

  4. An Intelligent Cooperative Visual Sensor Network for Urban Mobility

    Giuseppe Riccardo Leone

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Smart cities are demanding solutions for improved traffic efficiency, in order to guarantee optimal access to mobility resources available in urban areas. Intelligent video analytics deployed directly on board embedded sensors offers great opportunities to gather highly informative data about traffic and transport, allowing reconstruction of a real-time neat picture of urban mobility patterns. In this paper, we present a visual sensor network in which each node embeds computer vision logics for analyzing in real time urban traffic. The nodes in the network share their perceptions and build a global and comprehensive interpretation of the analyzed scenes in a cooperative and adaptive fashion. This is possible thanks to an especially designed Internet of Things (IoT compliant middleware which encompasses in-network event composition as well as full support of Machine-2-Machine (M2M communication mechanism. The potential of the proposed cooperative visual sensor network is shown with two sample applications in urban mobility connected to the estimation of vehicular flows and parking management. Besides providing detailed results of each key component of the proposed solution, the validity of the approach is demonstrated by extensive field tests that proved the suitability of the system in providing a scalable, adaptable and extensible data collection layer for managing and understanding mobility in smart cities.

  5. An Intelligent Cooperative Visual Sensor Network for Urban Mobility

    Leone, Giuseppe Riccardo; Petracca, Matteo; Salvetti, Ovidio; Azzarà, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Smart cities are demanding solutions for improved traffic efficiency, in order to guarantee optimal access to mobility resources available in urban areas. Intelligent video analytics deployed directly on board embedded sensors offers great opportunities to gather highly informative data about traffic and transport, allowing reconstruction of a real-time neat picture of urban mobility patterns. In this paper, we present a visual sensor network in which each node embeds computer vision logics for analyzing in real time urban traffic. The nodes in the network share their perceptions and build a global and comprehensive interpretation of the analyzed scenes in a cooperative and adaptive fashion. This is possible thanks to an especially designed Internet of Things (IoT) compliant middleware which encompasses in-network event composition as well as full support of Machine-2-Machine (M2M) communication mechanism. The potential of the proposed cooperative visual sensor network is shown with two sample applications in urban mobility connected to the estimation of vehicular flows and parking management. Besides providing detailed results of each key component of the proposed solution, the validity of the approach is demonstrated by extensive field tests that proved the suitability of the system in providing a scalable, adaptable and extensible data collection layer for managing and understanding mobility in smart cities. PMID:29125535

  6. Optical Communication System for Remote Monitoring and Adaptive Control of Distributed Ground Sensors Exhibiting Collective Intelligence

    Cameron, S.M.; Stantz, K.M.; Trahan, M.W.; Wagner, J.S.

    1998-11-01

    Comprehensive management of the battle-space has created new requirements in information management, communication, and interoperability as they effect surveillance and situational awareness. The objective of this proposal is to expand intelligent controls theory to produce a uniquely powerful implementation of distributed ground-based measurement incorporating both local collective behavior, and interoperative global optimization for sensor fusion and mission oversight. By using a layered hierarchal control architecture to orchestrate adaptive reconfiguration of autonomous robotic agents, we can improve overall robustness and functionality in dynamic tactical environments without information bottlenecks. In this concept, each sensor is equipped with a miniaturized optical reflectance modulator which is interactively monitored as a remote transponder using a covert laser communication protocol from a remote mothership or operative. Robot data-sharing at the ground level can be leveraged with global evaluation criteria, including terrain overlays and remote imaging data. Information sharing and distributed intelli- gence opens up a new class of remote-sensing applications in which small single-function autono- mous observers at the local level can collectively optimize and measure large scale ground-level signals. AS the need for coverage and the number of agents grows to improve spatial resolution, cooperative behavior orchestrated by a global situational awareness umbrella will be an essential ingredient to offset increasing bandwidth requirements within the net. A system of the type described in this proposal will be capable of sensitively detecting, tracking, and mapping spatial distributions of measurement signatures which are non-stationary or obscured by clutter and inter- fering obstacles by virtue of adaptive reconfiguration. This methodology could be used, for example, to field an adaptive ground-penetrating radar for detection of underground structures in

  7. Novel Modified Optical Fibers for High Temperature In-Situ Miniaturized Gas Sensors in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    Pickrell, Gary [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Scott, Brian [Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    2014-06-30

    This report covers the technical progress on the program “Novel Modified Optical Fibers for High Temperature In-Situ Miniaturized Gas Sensors in Advanced Fossil Energy Systems”, funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Materials Science & Engineering and Electrical & Computer Engineering Departments at Virginia Tech, and summarizes technical progress from July 1st, 2005 –June 30th, 2014. The objective of this program was to develop novel fiber materials for high temperature gas sensors based on evanescent wave absorption in optical fibers. This project focused on two primary areas: the study of a sapphire photonic crystal fiber (SPCF) for operation at high temperature and long wavelengths, and a porous glass based fiber optic sensor for gas detection. The sapphire component of the project focused on the development of a sapphire photonic crystal fiber, modeling of the new structures, fabrication of the optimal structure, development of a long wavelength interrogation system, testing of the optical properties, and gas and temperature testing of the final sensor. The fabrication of the 6 rod SPCF gap bundle (diameter of 70μm) with a hollow core was successfully constructed with lead-in and lead-out 50μm diameter fiber along with transmission and gas detection testing. Testing of the sapphire photonic crystal fiber sensor capabilities with the developed long wavelength optical system showed the ability to detect CO2 at or below 1000ppm at temperatures up to 1000°C. Work on the porous glass sensor focused on the development of a porous clad solid core optical fiber, a hollow core waveguide, gas detection capabilities at room and high temperature, simultaneous gas species detection, suitable joining technologies for the lead-in and lead-out fibers and the porous sensor, sensor system sensitivity improvement, signal processing improvement, relationship between pore structure and fiber

  8. Novel miniaturized sensors for potentiometric batch and flow-injection analysis (FIA) of perchlorate in fireworks and propellants.

    Almeer, Saeed H M A; Zogby, Ibrahim A; Hassan, Saad S M

    2014-11-01

    Three planar miniaturized perchlorate membrane sensors (3×5 mm(2)) are prepared using a flexible Kaptan substrate coated with nitron-perchlorate (NT-ClO4) [sensor 1], methylene blue-perchlorate (MB-ClO4) [sensor II] and indium-porphyrin (In-Por) [sensor III] as electroactive materials in PVC membranes plasticized with 2-NPPE. Sensors I, II and III display near-Nernstian response for 1.0×10(-5)-1.0×10(-2), 3.1×10(-5)-1.0×10(-2) and 3.1×10(-6)-1.0×10(-2) mol L(-1) ClO4(-) with lower detection limits of 6.1×10(-6), 6.9×10(-6) and 1.2×10(-6) mol L(-1), and anionic calibration slopes of 50.9±0.4, 48.4±0.4 and 57.7±0.3 mV decade(-1), respectively. Methods for determining perchlorate using these sensors offer many attractive advantages including simplicity, flexibility, cost effectiveness, wide linear dynamic response range (0.1-1000 ppm), low detection limit (copper, iron, sodium), color brighten (linseed oil) and regulators (aluminum flakes) which are commonly used in the formulations. The sensor is also used for perchlorate assessment in some propellant powders. The results fairly agree with data obtained by ion-chromatography. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Scheduling policies of intelligent sensors and sensor/actuators in flexible structures

    Demetriou, Michael A.; Potami, Raffaele

    2006-03-01

    In this note, we revisit the problem of actuator/sensor placement in large civil infrastructures and flexible space structures within the context of spatial robustness. The positioning of these devices becomes more important in systems employing wireless sensor and actuator networks (WSAN) for improved control performance and for rapid failure detection. The ability of the sensing and actuating devices to possess the property of spatial robustness results in reduced control energy and therefore the spatial distribution of disturbances is integrated into the location optimization measures. In our studies, the structure under consideration is a flexible plate clamped at all sides. First, we consider the case of sensor placement and the optimization scheme attempts to produce those locations that minimize the effects of the spatial distribution of disturbances on the state estimation error; thus the sensor locations produce state estimators with minimized disturbance-to-error transfer function norms. A two-stage optimization procedure is employed whereby one first considers the open loop system and the spatial distribution of disturbances is found that produces the maximal effects on the entire open loop state. Once this "worst" spatial distribution of disturbances is found, the optimization scheme subsequently finds the locations that produce state estimators with minimum transfer function norms. In the second part, we consider the collocated actuator/sensor pairs and the optimization scheme produces those locations that result in compensators with the smallest norms of the disturbance-to-state transfer functions. Going a step further, an intelligent control scheme is presented which, at each time interval, activates a subset of the actuator/sensor pairs in order provide robustness against spatiotemporally moving disturbances and minimize power consumption by keeping some sensor/actuators in sleep mode.

  10. Intelligent modular star and target tracker: a new generation of attitude sensors

    Schmidt, Uwe; Strobel, Rainer; Wunder, Dietmar; Graf, Eberhart

    2018-04-01

    This paper, "Intelligent modular star and target tracker: a new generation of attitude sensors," was presented as part of International Conference on Space Optics—ICSO 1997, held in Toulouse, France.

  11. A miniature integrated multimodal sensor for measuring pH, EC and temperature for precision agriculture.

    Futagawa, Masato; Iwasaki, Taichi; Murata, Hiroaki; Ishida, Makoto; Sawada, Kazuaki

    2012-01-01

    Making several simultaneous measurements with different kinds of sensors at the same location in a solution is difficult because of crosstalk between the sensors. In addition, because the conditions at different locations in plant beds differ, in situ measurements in agriculture need to be done in small localized areas. We have fabricated a multimodal sensor on a small Si chip in which a pH sensor was integrated with electrical conductivity (EC) and temperature sensors. An ISFET with a Si(3)N(4) membrane was used for the pH sensor. For the EC sensor, the electrical conductivity between platinum electrodes was measured, and the temperature sensor was a p-n junction diode. These are some of the most important measurements required for controlling the conditions in plant beds. The multimodal sensor can be inserted into a plant bed for in situ monitoring. To confirm the absence of crosstalk between the sensors, we made simultaneous measurements of pH, EC, and temperature of a pH buffer solution in a plant bed. When the solution was diluted with hot or cold water, the real time measurements showed changes to the EC and temperature, but no change in pH. We also demonstrated that our sensor was capable of simultaneous in situ measurements in rock wool without being affected by crosstalk.

  12. A Miniature Integrated Multimodal Sensor for Measuring pH, EC and Temperature for Precision Agriculture

    Hiroaki Murata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Making several simultaneous measurements with different kinds of sensors at the same location in a solution is difficult because of crosstalk between the sensors. In addition, because the conditions at different locations in plant beds differ, in situ measurements in agriculture need to be done in small localized areas. We have fabricated a multimodal sensor on a small Si chip in which a pH sensor was integrated with electrical conductivity (EC and temperature sensors. An ISFET with a Si3N4 membrane was used for the pH sensor. For the EC sensor, the electrical conductivity between platinum electrodes was measured, and the temperature sensor was a p-n junction diode. These are some of the most important measurements required for controlling the conditions in plant beds. The multimodal sensor can be inserted into a plant bed for in situ monitoring. To confirm the absence of crosstalk between the sensors, we made simultaneous measurements of pH, EC, and temperature of a pH buffer solution in a plant bed. When the solution was diluted with hot or cold water, the real time measurements showed changes to the EC and temperature, but no change in pH. We also demonstrated that our sensor was capable of simultaneous in situ measurements in rock wool without being affected by crosstalk.

  13. A Smart Sensor Data Transmission Technique for Logistics and Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Kyunghee Sun; Intae Ryoo

    2018-01-01

    When it comes to Internet of Things systems that include both a logistics system and an intelligent transportation system, a smart sensor is one of the key elements to collect useful information whenever and wherever necessary. This study proposes the Smart Sensor Node Group Management Medium Access Control Scheme designed to group smart sensor devices and collect data from them efficiently. The proposed scheme performs grouping of portable sensor devices connected to a system depending on th...

  14. An Intelligent Sensor for the Ultra-High-Frequency Partial Discharge Online Monitoring of Power Transformers

    Jian Li

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultra-high-frequency (UHF partial discharge (PD online monitoring is an effective way to inspect potential faults and insulation defects in power transformers. The construction of UHF PD online monitoring system is a challenge because of the high-frequency and wide-frequency band of the UHF PD signal. This paper presents a novel, intelligent sensor for UHF PD online monitoring based on a new method, namely a level scanning method. The intelligent sensor can directly acquire the statistical characteristic quantities and is characterized by low cost, few data to output and transmit, Ethernet functionality, and small size for easy installation. The prototype of an intelligent sensor was made. Actual UHF PD experiments with three typical artificial defect models of power transformers were carried out in a laboratory, and the waveform recording method and intelligent sensor proposed were simultaneously used for UHF PD measurement for comparison. The results show that the proposed intelligent sensor is qualified for the UHF PD online monitoring of power transformers. Additionally, three methods to improve the performance of intelligent sensors were proposed according to the principle of the level scanning method.

  15. A Miniaturized Carbon Dioxide Gas Sensor Based on Sensing of pH-Sensitive Hydrogel Swelling with a Pressure Sensor

    Herber, S.; Bomer, Johan G.; Olthuis, Wouter; Bergveld, Piet; van den Berg, Albert

    2005-01-01

    A measurement concept has been realized for the detection of carbon dioxide, where the CO2 induced pressure generation by an enclosed pH-sensitive hydrogel is measured with a micro pressure sensor. The application of the sensor is the quantification of the partial pressure of CO2 (Pco2) in the

  16. Artificial intelligence based event detection in wireless sensor networks

    Bahrepour, M.

    2013-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are composed of large number of small, inexpensive devices, called sensor nodes, which are equipped with sensing, processing, and communication capabilities. While traditional applications of wireless sensor networks focused on periodic monitoring, the focus of more

  17. High Accuracy, Miniature Pressure Sensor for Very High Temperatures, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — SiWave proposes to develop a compact, low-cost MEMS-based pressure sensor for very high temperatures and low pressures in hypersonic wind tunnels. Most currently...

  18. Fiber interferometer combining sub-nm displacement resolution with miniaturized sensor head

    Cheng, L.K.; Hagen, R.A.J.; Schriek, L.N.; Toet, P.M.; Togt, O.E. van der

    2017-01-01

    The presented interferometer concept enables high-accuracy target displacement measurement in difficult accessible locations and the development of small fiber optic sensor to measure other physical parameters e.g. pressure, vibration, gravity force, etc.. Furthermore, this configuration is

  19. Miniaturized robotically deployed sensor systems for in-situ characterization of hazardous waste

    Fischer, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    A series of ''MiniLab'' end effectors are currently being designed for robotic deployment in hazardous areas such as waste storage tanks at Idaho National Engineering Laboratories (INEL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These MiniLabs will be the first ever multichannel hazardous waste characterization end effectors deployed in underground high level waste storage tanks. They consist of a suite of chemical, radiological, and physical properties sensors integrated into a compact package mounted on the end of a robotic arm and/or vehicle. Most of the sensors are commercially available thus reducing the overall cost of design and maintenance. Sensor configurations can be customized depending on site/customer needs. This paper will address issues regarding the cost of field sampling verses MiniLab in-situ measurements and a brief background of the Light Duty utility Arm (LDUA) program. Topics receiving in depth attention will include package size parameters/constraints, design specifications, and investigations of currently available sensor technology. Sensors include radiological, gas, chemical, electrolytic, visual, temperature, and ranging. The effects of radiation on the life of the systems/sensors will also be discussed. Signal processing, control, display, and data acquisition methods will be described. The paper will conclude with an examination of possible applications for MiniLabs

  20. Intelligent detection of cracks in metallic surfaces using a waveguide sensor loaded with metamaterial elements.

    Ali, Abdulbaset; Hu, Bing; Ramahi, Omar

    2015-05-15

    This work presents a real life experiment of implementing an artificial intelligence model for detecting sub-millimeter cracks in metallic surfaces on a dataset obtained from a waveguide sensor loaded with metamaterial elements. Crack detection using microwave sensors is typically based on human observation of change in the sensor's signal (pattern) depicted on a high-resolution screen of the test equipment. However, as demonstrated in this work, implementing artificial intelligence to classify cracked from non-cracked surfaces has appreciable impact in terms of sensing sensitivity, cost, and automation. Furthermore, applying artificial intelligence for post-processing data collected from microwave sensors is a cornerstone for handheld test equipment that can outperform rack equipment with large screens and sophisticated plotting features. The proposed method was tested on a metallic plate with different cracks and the obtained experimental results showed good crack classification accuracy rates.

  1. Biomimetics in Intelligent Sensor and Actuator Automation Systems

    Bruckner, Dietmar; Dietrich, Dietmar; Zucker, Gerhard; Müller, Brit

    Intelligent machines are really an old mankind's dream. With increasing technological development, the requirements for intelligent devices also increased. However, up to know, artificial intelligence (AI) lacks solutions to the demands of truly intelligent machines that have no problems to integrate themselves into daily human environments. Current hardware with a processing power of billions of operations per second (but without any model of human-like intelligence) could not substantially contribute to the intelligence of machines when compared with that of the early AI times. There are great results, of course. Machines are able to find the shortest path between far apart cities on the map; algorithms let you find information described only by few key words. But no machine is able to get us a cup of coffee from the kitchen yet.

  2. A Review on Surface Stress-Based Miniaturized Piezoresistive SU-8 Polymeric Cantilever Sensors

    Mathew, Ribu; Ravi Sankar, A.

    2018-06-01

    In the last decade, microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) SU-8 polymeric cantilevers with piezoresistive readout combined with the advances in molecular recognition techniques have found versatile applications, especially in the field of chemical and biological sensing. Compared to conventional solid-state semiconductor-based piezoresistive cantilever sensors, SU-8 polymeric cantilevers have advantages in terms of better sensitivity along with reduced material and fabrication cost. In recent times, numerous researchers have investigated their potential as a sensing platform due to high performance-to-cost ratio of SU-8 polymer-based cantilever sensors. In this article, we critically review the design, fabrication, and performance aspects of surface stress-based piezoresistive SU-8 polymeric cantilever sensors. The evolution of surface stress-based piezoresistive cantilever sensors from solid-state semiconductor materials to polymers, especially SU-8 polymer, is discussed in detail. Theoretical principles of surface stress generation and their application in cantilever sensing technology are also devised. Variants of SU-8 polymeric cantilevers with different composition of materials in cantilever stacks are explained. Furthermore, the interdependence of the material selection, geometrical design parameters, and fabrication process of piezoresistive SU-8 polymeric cantilever sensors and their cumulative impact on the sensor response are also explained in detail. In addition to the design-, fabrication-, and performance-related factors, this article also describes various challenges in engineering SU-8 polymeric cantilevers as a universal sensing platform such as temperature and moisture vulnerability. This review article would serve as a guideline for researchers to understand specifics and functionality of surface stress-based piezoresistive SU-8 cantilever sensors.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. Highly processable method for the construction of miniature conducting polymer moisture sensors

    McGovern, Scott T.; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Wallace, Gordon G.

    2005-02-01

    A polymer blend incorporating polyaniline (PAn) was used as a sensing medium in the construction of a resistance based humidity sensor. Aniline monomer was polymerised to PAn emeraldine salt (ES) in the presence of poly (butyl acrylate-co-vinyl acetate) and the processable blend was developed by redissolving 1-2 w/w% of the resulting sensing polymer residue in dichloromethane (DCM). Some of this residue was washed in ammonia solution to de-dope the PAn to emeraldine base (EB) to act as a protective layer on the surface of the sensing polymer. This residue was then washed with distilled water until a neutral pH was realised with the waste water, dried and redissolved in DCM at 1-2 w/w% to create a processable blend barrier polymer solution. The final sensor design utilised 125μm polyester insulated platinum wire as conducting electrodes that were dip coated in the PAn ES blend solution and dried in a desiccator. A protective coating was then applied by dip coating in the EB blend solution. The sensors had an overall final thickness of less than 200μm and showed high sensitivity to humidity, low resistance, and good reversibility without hysteresis. The EB protective layer was shown to give more stable and predictable responses to the sensors when placed inside curing epoxies. Polymer based thin film humidity sensors have the advantage that the high processability of the material allows for simple fabrication of a range of geometries including smaller sensor designs. Such sensors may find uses in detecting water content in a number of areas including composite materials, electronic textiles, food/electronics packaging and corrosion detection.

  4. Miniaturized membrane sensors for potentiometric determination of metoprolol tartrate and hydrochlorothiazide.

    Ramadan, Nesrin K; Mohamed, Heba M; Mostafa, Azza A

    2012-06-01

    Four microsized graphite and platinum wire poly(vinyl chloride) matrix membrane electrodes responsive to some drugs affecting cardiovascular system, Metoprolol tartrate (MT) and Hydrochlorothiazide (HZ) were developed, described and characterized. These sensors were constructed by using (2-Hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin (2HP β-CD) as an ionophore which has a significant influence on increasing both membrane sensitivity and selectivity. The four sensors were fabricated in a polymeric matrix of carboxylated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-COOH) and dioctylphthalate (DOP) as a plasticizer, based on the interaction between the drugs and the dissociated COOH groups in the PVC-COOH. Fast and stable Nernstian responses of 1.0 × 10-6-1.0 × 10-2 M for MT (sensors 1 and 2) and of 1.0 × 10-7-1.0 × 10-3 M for HZ (sensors 3 and 4) over pH range 3.0-9.0 and 3.0-7.0 for the MT and HZ sensors respectively were obtained. Nernstian slopes of 56.2, 54.6, 19.0 and 20.8 mV/decade for electrodes 1-4 respectively were observed. The proposed method displayed useful analytical characteristics for the determination of MT and HZ in their pure powder forms with average recoveries of 99.11 ± 0.357, 99.21 ± 0.389, 100.08 ± 0.459 and 100.28 ± 0.438% for sensors 1-4 respectively. The lower limit of detection (LOD) were 5.5 × 10-6, 4.5 × 10-6, 4.8 × 10-8 and 5.0 × 10-8 M for sensors 1-4 respectively indicated high sensitivity. The four sensors displayed a good stability over a period of 6 weeks. The selectivity coefficients of the developed sensors indicated excellent selectivity. Results obtained by the four electrodes revealed the performance characteristics of these electrodes which evaluated according to IUPAC recommendations. The method was successively applied for the determination of MT and HZ in presence of each other, in presence of Salamide (SA), the main degradation product of HZ, in their pharmaceutical formulations and in human plasma samples. Statistical comparison between the

  5. Miniature robust five-dimensional fingertip force/torque sensor with high performance

    Liang, Qiaokang; Huang, Xiuxiang; Li, Zhongyang; Zhang, Dan; Ge, Yunjian

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an innovative design and investigation for a five-dimensional fingertip force/torque sensor with a dual annular diaphragm. This sensor can be applied to a robot hand to measure forces along the X-, Y- and Z-axes (F x , F y and F z ) and moments about the X- and Y-axes (M x and M y ) simultaneously. Particularly, the details of the sensing principle, the structural design and the overload protection mechanism are presented. Afterward, based on the design of experiments approach provided by the software ANSYS®, a finite element analysis and an optimization design are performed. These are performed with the objective of achieving both high sensitivity and stiffness of the sensor. Furthermore, static and dynamic calibrations based on the neural network method are carried out. Finally, an application of the developed sensor on a dexterous robot hand is demonstrated. The results of calibration experiments and the application show that the developed sensor possesses high performance and robustness

  6. Smart Sensors for Launch Vehicles

    Ray, Sabooj; Mathews, Sheeja; Abraham, Sheena; Pradeep, N.; Vinod, P.

    2017-12-01

    Smart Sensors bring a paradigm shift in the data acquisition mechanism adopted for launch vehicle telemetry system. The sensors integrate signal conditioners, digitizers and communication systems to give digital output from the measurement location. Multiple sensors communicate with a centralized node over a common digital data bus. An in-built microcontroller gives the sensor embedded intelligence to carry out corrective action for sensor inaccuracies. A smart pressure sensor has been realized and flight-proven to increase the reliability as well as simplicity in integration so as to obtain improved data output. Miniaturization is achieved by innovative packaging. This work discusses the construction, working and flight performance of such a sensor.

  7. Miniature chemical sensor combining molecular recognition with evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy

    Pipino, Andrew C. R.

    2004-01-01

    A new chemical detection technology has been realized that addresses DOE environmental management needs. The new technology is based on a variant of the sensitive optical absorption technique, cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). Termed evanescent-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (EW-CRDS), the technology employs a miniature solid-state optical resonator having an extremely high Q-factor as the sensing element, where the high-Q is achieved by using ultra-low-attenuation optical materials, ultra-smooth surfaces, and ultra-high reflectivity coatings, as well as low-diffraction-loss designs. At least one total-internal reflection (TIR) mirror is integral to the resonator permitting the concomitant evanescent wave to probe the ambient environment. Several prototypes have been designed, fabricated, characterized, and applied to chemical detection. Moreover, extensions of the sensing concept have been explored to enhance selectivity, sensitivity, and range of application. Operating primarily in the visible and near IR regions, the technology inherently enables remote detection by optical fiber. Producing 11 archival publications, 5 patents, 19 invited talks, 4 conference proceedings, a CRADA, and a patent-license agreement, the project has realized a new chemical detection technology providing >100 times more sensitivity than comparable technologies, while also providing practical advantages

  8. Integration of a Miniaturized Conductivity Sensor into an Animal-Borne Instrument

    2013-09-30

    inductive sensors. However, there is a trade -off between size and accuracy. Decreasing size resuls in a decreased accuracy. In addition, by...modified for easy integration into the existing SRDL. The CT package will then be intergrated into the SRDL tested in the lab. After the successful

  9. Miniaturized pH Sensors Based on Zinc Oxide Nanotubes/Nanorods

    Magnus Willander

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available ZnO nanotubes and nanorods grown on gold thin film were used to create pH sensor devices. The developed ZnO nanotube and nanorod pH sensors display good reproducibility, repeatability and long-term stability and exhibit a pH-dependent electrochemical potential difference versus an Ag/AgCl reference electrode over a large dynamic pH range. We found the ZnO nanotubes provide sensitivity as high as twice that of the ZnO nanorods, which can be ascribed to the fact that small dimensional ZnO nanotubes have a higher level of surface and subsurface oxygen vacancies and provide a larger effective surface area with higher surface-to-volume ratio as compared to ZnO nanorods, thus affording the ZnO nanotube pH sensor a higher sensitivity. Experimental results indicate ZnO nanotubes can be used in pH sensor applications with improved performance. Moreover, the ZnO nanotube arrays may find potential application as a novel material for measurements of intracellular biochemical species within single living cells.

  10. Integrated optical readout for miniaturization of cantilever-based sensor system

    Nordström, Maria; Zauner, Dan; Calleja, Montserrat

    2007-01-01

    The authors present the fabrication and characterization of an integrated optical readout scheme based on single-mode waveguides for cantilever-based sensors. The cantilever bending is read out by monitoring changes in the optical intensity of light transmitted through the cantilever that also acts...

  11. CMOS Active Pixel Sensors for Low Power, Highly Miniaturized Imaging Systems

    Fossum, Eric R.

    1996-01-01

    The complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) active pixel sensor (APS) technology has been developed over the past three years by NASA at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, and has reached a level of performance comparable to CCDs with greatly increased functionality but at a very reduced power level.

  12. Integration of a Miniaturized Conductivity Sensor into an Animal-Borne Instrument

    2015-09-30

    an Animal -Borne Instrument Lars Boehme Sea Mammal Research Unit Scottish Oceans Institute University of St Andrews St Andrews, KY16 8LB United... Kingdom phone: +44 1334-462677 fax: +44 1334-463443 email: lb284@st-andrews.ac.uk Robin Pascal Sensors Development Group National...Oceanography Centre Southampton, SO14 3ZY United Kingdom phone: +44 2380-596138 fax: +44 2380-593029 email: rwp@nerc.ac.uk Phil Lovell

  13. Powering autonomous sensors with miniaturized piezoelectric based energy harvesting devices operating at very low frequency

    Ferin, G.; Bantignies, C.; Le Khanh, H.; Flesch, E.; Nguyen-Dinh, A.

    2015-12-01

    Harvesting energy from ambient mechanical vibrations is a smart and efficient way to power autonomous sensors and support innovative developments in IoT (Internet of Things), WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) and even implantable medical devices. Beyond the environmental operating conditions, efficiency of such devices is mainly related to energy source properties like the amplitude of vibrations and its spectral contain and some of these applications exhibit a quite low frequency spectrum where harvesting surrounding mechanical energy make sense, typically 5-50Hz for implantable medical devices or 50Hz-150Hz for industrial machines. Harvesting such low frequency vibrations is a challenge since it leads to adapt the resonator geometries to the targeted frequency or to use out-off band indirect harvesting strategies. In this paper we present a piezoelectric based vibrational energy harvesting device (PEH) which could be integrated into a biocompatible package to power implantable sensor or therapeutic medical devices. The presented architecture is a serial bimorph laminated with ultra-thinned (ranging from 15μm to 100μm) outer PZT “skins” that could operate at a “very low frequency”, below 25Hz typically. The core process flow is disclosed and performances highlighted with regards to other low frequency demonstrations.

  14. Powering autonomous sensors with miniaturized piezoelectric based energy harvesting devices operating at very low frequency

    Ferin, G; Bantignies, C; Khanh, H Le; Flesch, E; Nguyen-Dinh, A

    2015-01-01

    Harvesting energy from ambient mechanical vibrations is a smart and efficient way to power autonomous sensors and support innovative developments in IoT (Internet of Things), WSN (Wireless Sensor Network) and even implantable medical devices. Beyond the environmental operating conditions, efficiency of such devices is mainly related to energy source properties like the amplitude of vibrations and its spectral contain and some of these applications exhibit a quite low frequency spectrum where harvesting surrounding mechanical energy make sense, typically 5-50Hz for implantable medical devices or 50Hz-150Hz for industrial machines. Harvesting such low frequency vibrations is a challenge since it leads to adapt the resonator geometries to the targeted frequency or to use out-off band indirect harvesting strategies. In this paper we present a piezoelectric based vibrational energy harvesting device (PEH) which could be integrated into a biocompatible package to power implantable sensor or therapeutic medical devices. The presented architecture is a serial bimorph laminated with ultra-thinned (ranging from 15μm to 100μm) outer PZT “skins” that could operate at a “very low frequency”, below 25Hz typically. The core process flow is disclosed and performances highlighted with regards to other low frequency demonstrations. (paper)

  15. PIYAS-Proceeding to Intelligent Service Oriented Memory Allocation for Flash Based Data Centric Sensor Devices in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Sanam Shahla Rizvi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Flash memory has become a more widespread storage medium for modern wireless devices because of its effective characteristics like non-volatility, small size, light weight, fast access speed, shock resistance, high reliability and low power consumption. Sensor nodes are highly resource constrained in terms of limited processing speed, runtime memory, persistent storage, communication bandwidth and finite energy. Therefore, for wireless sensor networks supporting sense, store, merge and send schemes, an efficient and reliable file system is highly required with consideration of sensor node constraints. In this paper, we propose a novel log structured external NAND flash memory based file system, called Proceeding to Intelligent service oriented memorY Allocation for flash based data centric Sensor devices in wireless sensor networks (PIYAS. This is the extended version of our previously proposed PIYA [1]. The main goals of the PIYAS scheme are to achieve instant mounting and reduced SRAM space by keeping memory mapping information to a very low size of and to provide high query response throughput by allocation of memory to the sensor data by network business rules. The scheme intelligently samples and stores the raw data and provides high in-network data availability by keeping the aggregate data for a longer period of time than any other scheme has done before. We propose effective garbage collection and wear-leveling schemes as well. The experimental results show that PIYAS is an optimized memory management scheme allowing high performance for wireless sensor networks.

  16. PIYAS-proceeding to intelligent service oriented memory allocation for flash based data centric sensor devices in wireless sensor networks.

    Rizvi, Sanam Shahla; Chung, Tae-Sun

    2010-01-01

    Flash memory has become a more widespread storage medium for modern wireless devices because of its effective characteristics like non-volatility, small size, light weight, fast access speed, shock resistance, high reliability and low power consumption. Sensor nodes are highly resource constrained in terms of limited processing speed, runtime memory, persistent storage, communication bandwidth and finite energy. Therefore, for wireless sensor networks supporting sense, store, merge and send schemes, an efficient and reliable file system is highly required with consideration of sensor node constraints. In this paper, we propose a novel log structured external NAND flash memory based file system, called Proceeding to Intelligent service oriented memorY Allocation for flash based data centric Sensor devices in wireless sensor networks (PIYAS). This is the extended version of our previously proposed PIYA [1]. The main goals of the PIYAS scheme are to achieve instant mounting and reduced SRAM space by keeping memory mapping information to a very low size of and to provide high query response throughput by allocation of memory to the sensor data by network business rules. The scheme intelligently samples and stores the raw data and provides high in-network data availability by keeping the aggregate data for a longer period of time than any other scheme has done before. We propose effective garbage collection and wear-leveling schemes as well. The experimental results show that PIYAS is an optimized memory management scheme allowing high performance for wireless sensor networks.

  17. Raspberry Pi Based Intelligent Wireless Sensor Node for Localized Torrential Rain Monitoring

    Zhaozhuo Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are proved to be effective in long-time localized torrential rain monitoring. However, the existing widely used architecture of wireless sensor networks for rain monitoring relies on network transportation and back-end calculation, which causes delay in response to heavy rain in localized areas. Our work improves the architecture by applying logistic regression and support vector machine classification to an intelligent wireless sensor node which is created by Raspberry Pi. The sensor nodes in front-end not only obtain data from sensors, but also can analyze the probabilities of upcoming heavy rain independently and give early warnings to local clients in time. When the sensor nodes send the probability to back-end server, the burdens of network transport are released. We demonstrate by simulation results that our sensor system architecture has potentiality to increase the local response to heavy rain. The monitoring capacity is also raised.

  18. Swarm intelligence algorithms for integrated optimization of piezoelectric actuator and sensor placement and feedback gains

    Dutta, Rajdeep; Ganguli, Ranjan; Mani, V

    2011-01-01

    Swarm intelligence algorithms are applied for optimal control of flexible smart structures bonded with piezoelectric actuators and sensors. The optimal locations of actuators/sensors and feedback gain are obtained by maximizing the energy dissipated by the feedback control system. We provide a mathematical proof that this system is uncontrollable if the actuators and sensors are placed at the nodal points of the mode shapes. The optimal locations of actuators/sensors and feedback gain represent a constrained non-linear optimization problem. This problem is converted to an unconstrained optimization problem by using penalty functions. Two swarm intelligence algorithms, namely, Artificial bee colony (ABC) and glowworm swarm optimization (GSO) algorithms, are considered to obtain the optimal solution. In earlier published research, a cantilever beam with one and two collocated actuator(s)/sensor(s) was considered and the numerical results were obtained by using genetic algorithm and gradient based optimization methods. We consider the same problem and present the results obtained by using the swarm intelligence algorithms ABC and GSO. An extension of this cantilever beam problem with five collocated actuators/sensors is considered and the numerical results obtained by using the ABC and GSO algorithms are presented. The effect of increasing the number of design variables (locations of actuators and sensors and gain) on the optimization process is investigated. It is shown that the ABC and GSO algorithms are robust and are good choices for the optimization of smart structures

  19. Miniature Chemical Sensor Combining Molecular Recognition with Evanescent Wave Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

    Pipino, Andrew C. R.; Meuse, Curtis W.

    2002-01-01

    To address the chemical sensing needs of DOE, a new class of chemical sensors is being developed that enables qualitative and quantitative, remote, real-time, optical diagnostics of chemical species in hazardous gas, liquid, and semi-solid phases by employing evanescent wave cavity ringdown spectroscopy (EW-CRDS). The sensitivity of EW-CRDS was demonstrated previously under Project No.60231. The objective of this project is to enhance the range of application and selectivity of the technique by combining EW-CRDS with refractive-index-sensitive nanoparticle optics, molecular recognition (MR) chemistry, and by utilizing the polarization-dependence of EW-CRDS. Research Progress and Implications

  20. An ultrahigh-accuracy Miniature Dew Point Sensor based on an Integrated Photonics Platform

    Tao, Jifang; Luo, Yu; Wang, Li; Cai, Hong; Sun, Tao; Song, Junfeng; Liu, Hui; Gu, Yuandong

    2016-07-01

    The dew point is the temperature at which vapour begins to condense out of the gaseous phase. The deterministic relationship between the dew point and humidity is the basis for the industry-standard “chilled-mirror” dew point hygrometers used for highly accurate humidity measurements, which are essential for a broad range of industrial and metrological applications. However, these instruments have several limitations, such as high cost, large size and slow response. In this report, we demonstrate a compact, integrated photonic dew point sensor (DPS) that features high accuracy, a small footprint, and fast response. The fundamental component of this DPS is a partially exposed photonic micro-ring resonator, which serves two functions simultaneously: 1) sensing the condensed water droplets via evanescent fields and 2) functioning as a highly accurate, in situ temperature sensor based on the thermo-optic effect (TOE). This device virtually eliminates most of the temperature-related errors that affect conventional “chilled-mirror” hygrometers. Moreover, this DPS outperforms conventional “chilled-mirror” hygrometers with respect to size, cost and response time, paving the way for on-chip dew point detection and extension to applications for which the conventional technology is unsuitable because of size, cost, and other constraints.

  1. PARAMETRIC ANALYSIS OF A MINIATURIZED INVERTED II SHAPED ANTENNA FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK APPLICATIONS

    M. Shanmugapriya

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A compact and simple design of a CPW-fed planar antenna for wireless sensor network antenna application with a better size reduction is presented. The proposed antenna consists of an inverted ? shaped metal patch on a printed circuit board fed by a 50-O coplanar waveguide (CPW. The parametric analysis of length and width are made. The designed antenna’s physical dimensions are 32 mm (length x 26 mm (width x 1.6 mm (height. The antenna structure has been modeled and fabricated and its performance has been evaluated using a method of moment based electromagnetic simulator, IE3D .The return loss of -22.5 dB and VSWR of 1.34 dB are noted. The radiation pattern of the antenna proves that it radiates in all direction. The antenna is fabricated and tested and the measured results go in good agreement with simulated one.

  2. An Intelligent Four-Electrode Conductivity Sensor for Aquaculture

    Zhang , Jiaran; Li , Daoliang; Wang , Cong; Ding , Qisheng

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Conductivity is regard as a key technical parameter in modern intensive fish farming management. The water conductivity sensors are sophisticated devices used in the aquaculture monitoring field to understand the effects of climate changes on fish ponds. In this paper a new four-electrode smart sensor is proposed for water conductivity measurements of aquaculture monitoring.The main advantages of these sensors include a high precision, a good stability and an intrinsic...

  3. SMART CITIES INTELLIGENCE SYSTEM (SMACiSYS) INTEGRATING SENSOR WEB WITH SPATIAL DATA INFRASTRUCTURES (SENSDI)

    D. Bhattacharya; M. Painho

    2017-01-01

    The paper endeavours to enhance the Sensor Web with crucial geospatial analysis capabilities through integration with Spatial Data Infrastructure. The objective is development of automated smart cities intelligence system (SMACiSYS) with sensor-web access (SENSDI) utilizing geomatics for sustainable societies. There has been a need to develop automated integrated system to categorize events and issue information that reaches users directly. At present, no web-enabled information system exists...

  4. Automated waste canister docking and emplacement using a sensor-based intelligent controller

    Drotning, W.D.

    1992-08-01

    A sensor-based intelligent control system is described that utilizes a multiple degree-of-freedom robotic system for the automated remote manipulation and precision docking of large payloads such as waste canisters. Computer vision and ultrasonic proximity sensing are used to control the automated precision docking of a large object with a passive target cavity. Real-time sensor processing and model-based analysis are used to control payload position to a precision of ± 0.5 millimeter

  5. Network-Capable Application Process and Wireless Intelligent Sensors for ISHM

    Figueroa, Fernando; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Wang, Ray

    2011-01-01

    Intelligent sensor technology and systems are increasingly becoming attractive means to serve as frameworks for intelligent rocket test facilities with embedded intelligent sensor elements, distributed data acquisition elements, and onboard data acquisition elements. Networked intelligent processors enable users and systems integrators to automatically configure their measurement automation systems for analog sensors. NASA and leading sensor vendors are working together to apply the IEEE 1451 standard for adding plug-and-play capabilities for wireless analog transducers through the use of a Transducer Electronic Data Sheet (TEDS) in order to simplify sensor setup, use, and maintenance, to automatically obtain calibration data, and to eliminate manual data entry and error. A TEDS contains the critical information needed by an instrument or measurement system to identify, characterize, interface, and properly use the signal from an analog sensor. A TEDS is deployed for a sensor in one of two ways. First, the TEDS can reside in embedded, nonvolatile memory (typically flash memory) within the intelligent processor. Second, a virtual TEDS can exist as a separate file, downloadable from the Internet. This concept of virtual TEDS extends the benefits of the standardized TEDS to legacy sensors and applications where the embedded memory is not available. An HTML-based user interface provides a visual tool to interface with those distributed sensors that a TEDS is associated with, to automate the sensor management process. Implementing and deploying the IEEE 1451.1-based Network-Capable Application Process (NCAP) can achieve support for intelligent process in Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) for the purpose of monitoring, detection of anomalies, diagnosis of causes of anomalies, prediction of future anomalies, mitigation to maintain operability, and integrated awareness of system health by the operator. It can also support local data collection and storage. This

  6. A Smart Sensor Data Transmission Technique for Logistics and Intelligent Transportation Systems

    Kyunghee Sun

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to Internet of Things systems that include both a logistics system and an intelligent transportation system, a smart sensor is one of the key elements to collect useful information whenever and wherever necessary. This study proposes the Smart Sensor Node Group Management Medium Access Control Scheme designed to group smart sensor devices and collect data from them efficiently. The proposed scheme performs grouping of portable sensor devices connected to a system depending on the distance from the sink node and transmits data by setting different buffer thresholds to each group. This method reduces energy consumption of sensor devices located near the sink node and enhances the IoT system’s general energy efficiency. When a sensor device is moved and, thus, becomes unable to transmit data, it is allocated to a new group so that it can continue transmitting data to the sink node.

  7. Wireless Intelligent Sensors Management Application Protocol-WISMAP

    Antonio Jesus Yuste-Delgado

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Although many recent studies have focused on the development of new applications for wireless sensor networks, less attention has been paid to knowledge-based sensor nodes. The objective of this work is the development in a real network of a new distributed system in which every sensor node can execute a set of applications, such as fuzzy ruled-base systems, measures, and actions. The sensor software is based on a multi-agent structure that is composed of three components: management, application control, and communication agents; a service interface, which provides applications the abstraction of sensor hardware and other components; and an application layer protocol. The results show the effectiveness of the communication protocol and that the proposed system is suitable for a wide range of applications. As real world applications, this work presents an example of a fuzzy rule-based system and a noise pollution monitoring application that obtains a fuzzy noise indicator.

  8. Brain computer interfaces as intelligent sensors for enhancing human-computer interaction

    Poel, M.; Nijboer, F.; Broek, E.L. van den; Fairclough, S.; Nijholt, A.

    2012-01-01

    BCIs are traditionally conceived as a way to control apparatus, an interface that allows you to act on" external devices as a form of input control. We propose an alternative use of BCIs, that of monitoring users as an additional intelligent sensor to enrich traditional means of interaction. This

  9. Brain computer interfaces as intelligent sensors for enhancing human-computer interaction

    Poel, Mannes; Nijboer, Femke; van den Broek, Egon; Fairclough, Stephen; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Bohus, Dan; Aghajan, Hamid; Nijholt, Antinus; Cassell, Justine; Epps, Julien

    2012-01-01

    BCIs are traditionally conceived as a way to control apparatus, an interface that allows you to "act on" external devices as a form of input control. We propose an alternative use of BCIs, that of monitoring users as an additional intelligent sensor to enrich traditional means of interaction. This

  10. Self-Calibration and Optimal Response in Intelligent Sensors Design Based on Artificial Neural Networks

    Gilberto Bojorquez

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of smart sensors involves the design of reconfigurable systemscapable of working with different input sensors. Reconfigurable systems ideally shouldspend the least possible amount of time in their calibration. An autocalibration algorithmfor intelligent sensors should be able to fix major problems such as offset, variation of gainand lack of linearity, as accurately as possible. This paper describes a new autocalibrationmethodology for nonlinear intelligent sensors based on artificial neural networks, ANN.The methodology involves analysis of several network topologies and training algorithms.The proposed method was compared against the piecewise and polynomial linearizationmethods. Method comparison was achieved using different number of calibration points,and several nonlinear levels of the input signal. This paper also shows that the proposedmethod turned out to have a better overall accuracy than the other two methods. Besides,experimentation results and analysis of the complete study, the paper describes theimplementation of the ANN in a microcontroller unit, MCU. In order to illustrate themethod capability to build autocalibration and reconfigurable systems, a temperaturemeasurement system was designed and tested. The proposed method is an improvement over the classic autocalibration methodologies, because it impacts on the design process of intelligent sensors, autocalibration methodologies and their associated factors, like time and cost.

  11. Development of an Intelligent Capacitive Mass Sensor Based on Co-axial Cylindrical Capacitor

    Amir ABU AL AISH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a linear, robust and intelligent capacitive mass sensor made of a co-axial cylindrical capacitor. It is designed such that the mass under measurement is directly proportional to the capacitance of the sensor. The average value of the output voltage of a capacitance to voltage converter is proportional to the capacitance of the sensor. The output of the converter is measured and displayed, as mass, with the help of microcontroller. The results are free from the effect of stray capacitances which cause errors at low values of capacitances. Developed sensor is linear, free from errors due to temperature and highly flexible in design. The proto-type of the mass sensor can weigh up to 4 kilogram only.

  12. Sensor fusion in smart camera networks for ambient Intelligence

    Maatta, T.T.

    2013-01-01

    This short report introduces the topics of PhD research that was conducted on 2008-2013 and was defended on July 2013. The PhD thesis covers sensor fusion theory, gathers it into a framework with design rules for fusion-friendly design of vision networks, and elaborates on the rules through fusion

  13. Miniaturized Environmental Monitoring Instrumentation

    C. B. Freidhoff

    1997-09-01

    The objective of the Mass Spectrograph on a Chip (MSOC) program is the development of a miniature, multi-species gas sensor fabricated using silicon micromachining technology which will be orders of magnitude smaller and lower power consumption than a conventional mass spectrometer. The sensing and discrimination of this gas sensor are based on an ionic mass spectrograph, using magnetic and/or electrostatic fields. The fields cause a spatial separation of the ions according to their respective mass-to-charge ratio. The fabrication of this device involves the combination of microelectronics with micromechanically built sensors and, ultimately, vacuum pumps. The prototype of a chemical sensor would revolutionize the method of performing environmental monitoring for both commercial and government applications. The portable unit decided upon was the miniaturized gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer detector, referred to as a GC/MS in the analytical marketplace.

  14. Optical gateway for intelligent buildings: a new open-up window to the optical fibre sensors market?

    Fernandez-Valdivielso, Carlos; Matias, Ignacio R.; Arregui, Francisco J.; Bariain, Candido; Lopez-Amo, Manuel

    2004-06-01

    This paper presents the first optical fiber sensor gateway for integrating these special measurement devices in Home Automation Systems, concretely in those buildings that use the KNX European Intelligent Buildings Standard.

  15. Intelligent sensor and controller framework for the power grid

    Akyol, Bora A.; Haack, Jereme Nathan; Craig, Jr., Philip Allen; Tews, Cody William; Kulkarni, Anand V.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Maiden, Wendy M.; Ciraci, Selim

    2018-03-20

    Disclosed below are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for monitoring and using data in an electric power grid. For example, one disclosed embodiment comprises a sensor for measuring an electrical characteristic of a power line, electrical generator, or electrical device; a network interface; a processor; and one or more computer-readable storage media storing computer-executable instructions. In this embodiment, the computer-executable instructions include instructions for implementing an authorization and authentication module for validating a software agent received at the network interface; instructions for implementing one or more agent execution environments for executing agent code that is included with the software agent and that causes data from the sensor to be collected; and instructions for implementing an agent packaging and instantiation module for storing the collected data in a data container of the software agent and for transmitting the software agent, along with the stored data, to a next destination.

  16. Intelligent Sensors for Atomization Processing of Molten Metals and Alloys

    1988-06-01

    20ff. 12. Hirleman, Dan E. Particle Sizing by Optical , Nonimaging Techniques. Liquid Particle Size Measurement Techniques, ASTM, 1984, pp. 35ff. 13...sensors are based on electric, electromagnetic or optical principles, the latter being most developed in fields obviously related to atomization. Optical ...beams to observe various interference, diffraction, and heterodyning effects, and to observe, with high signal-to-noise ratio, even weak optical

  17. Using Wireless Sensor Networks to Achieve Intelligent Monitoring for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    Jianghai Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGR can incorporate wireless sensor network (WSN technology to improve safety and economic competitiveness. WSN has great potential in monitoring the equipment and processes within nuclear power plants (NPPs. This technology not only reduces the cost of regular monitoring but also enables intelligent monitoring. In intelligent monitoring, large sets of heterogeneous data collected by the WSN can be used to optimize the operation and maintenance of the HTGR. In this paper, WSN-based intelligent monitoring schemes that are specific for applications of HTGR are proposed. Three major concerns regarding wireless technology in HTGR are addressed: wireless devices interference, cybersecurity of wireless networks, and wireless standards selected for wireless platform. To process nonlinear and non-Gaussian data obtained by WSN for fault diagnosis, novel algorithms combining Kernel Entropy Component Analysis (KECA and support vector machine (SVM are developed.

  18. Computational intelligence in wireless sensor networks recent advances and future challenges

    Falcon, Rafael; Koeppen, Mario

    2017-01-01

    This book emphasizes the increasingly important role that Computational Intelligence (CI) methods are playing in solving a myriad of entangled Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) related problems. The book serves as a guide for surveying several state-of-the-art WSN scenarios in which CI approaches have been employed. The reader finds in this book how CI has contributed to solve a wide range of challenging problems, ranging from balancing the cost and accuracy of heterogeneous sensor deployments to recovering from real-time sensor failures to detecting attacks launched by malicious sensor nodes and enacting CI-based security schemes. Network managers, industry experts, academicians and practitioners alike (mostly in computer engineering, computer science or applied mathematics) benefit from the spectrum of successful applications reported in this book. Senior undergraduate or graduate students may discover in this book some problems well suited for their own research endeavors. USP: Presents recent advances and fu...

  19. Study on robot motion control for intelligent welding processes based on the laser tracking sensor

    Zhang, Bin; Wang, Qian; Tang, Chen; Wang, Ju

    2017-06-01

    A robot motion control method is presented for intelligent welding processes of complex spatial free-form curve seams based on the laser tracking sensor. First, calculate the tip position of the welding torch according to the velocity of the torch and the seam trajectory detected by the sensor. Then, search the optimal pose of the torch under constraints using genetic algorithms. As a result, the intersection point of the weld seam and the laser plane of the sensor is within the detectable range of the sensor. Meanwhile, the angle between the axis of the welding torch and the tangent of the weld seam meets the requirements. The feasibility of the control method is proved by simulation.

  20. Fuzzy mobile-robot positioning in intelligent spaces using wireless sensor networks.

    Herrero, David; Martínez, Humberto

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the development and experimental evaluation of a method based on fuzzy logic to locate mobile robots in an Intelligent Space using wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The problem consists of locating a mobile node using only inter-node range measurements, which are estimated by radio frequency signal strength attenuation. The sensor model of these measurements is very noisy and unreliable. The proposed method makes use of fuzzy logic for modeling and dealing with such uncertain information. Besides, the proposed approach is compared with a probabilistic technique showing that the fuzzy approach is able to handle highly uncertain situations that are difficult to manage by well-known localization methods.

  1. Hybrid Swarm Intelligence Optimization Approach for Optimal Data Storage Position Identification in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Mohanasundaram, Ranganathan; Periasamy, Pappampalayam Sanmugam

    2015-01-01

    The current high profile debate with regard to data storage and its growth have become strategic task in the world of networking. It mainly depends on the sensor nodes called producers, base stations, and also the consumers (users and sensor nodes) to retrieve and use the data. The main concern dealt here is to find an optimal data storage position in wireless sensor networks. The works that have been carried out earlier did not utilize swarm intelligence based optimization approaches to find the optimal data storage positions. To achieve this goal, an efficient swam intelligence approach is used to choose suitable positions for a storage node. Thus, hybrid particle swarm optimization algorithm has been used to find the suitable positions for storage nodes while the total energy cost of data transmission is minimized. Clustering-based distributed data storage is utilized to solve clustering problem using fuzzy-C-means algorithm. This research work also considers the data rates and locations of multiple producers and consumers to find optimal data storage positions. The algorithm is implemented in a network simulator and the experimental results show that the proposed clustering and swarm intelligence based ODS strategy is more effective than the earlier approaches. PMID:25734182

  2. Recce NG: from Recce sensor to image intelligence (IMINT)

    Larroque, Serge

    2001-12-01

    Recce NG (Reconnaissance New Generation) is presented as a complete and optimized Tactical Reconnaissance System. Based on a new generation Pod integrating high resolution Dual Band sensors, the system has been designed with the operational lessons learnt from the last Peace Keeping Operations in Bosnia and Kosovo. The technical solutions retained as component modules of a full IMINT acquisition system, take benefit of the state of art in the following key technologies: Advanced Mission Planning System for long range stand-off Manned Recce, Aircraft and/or Pod tasking, operating sophisticated back-up software tools, high resolution 3D geo data and improved/combat proven MMI to reduce planning delays, Mature Dual Band sensors technology to achieve the Day and Night Recce Mission, including advanced automatic operational functions, as azimuth and roll tracking capabilities, low risk in Pod integration and in carrier avionics, controls and displays upgrades, to save time in operational turn over and maintenance, High rate Imagery Down Link, for Real Time or Near Real Time transmission, fully compatible with STANAG 7085 requirements, Advanced IMINT Exploitation Ground Segment, combat proven, NATO interoperable (STANAG 7023), integrating high value software tools for accurate location, improved radiometric image processing and open link to the C4ISR systems. The choice of an industrial Prime contractor mastering across the full system, all the prior listed key products and technologies, is mandatory to a successful delivery in terms of low Cost, Risk and Time Schedule.

  3. Design, Fabrication, and Implementation of an Array-Type MEMS Piezoresistive Intelligent Pressure Sensor System

    Jiahong Zhang

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To meet the radiosonde requirement of high sensitivity and linearity, this study designs and implements a monolithically integrated array-type piezoresistive intelligent pressure sensor system which is made up of two groups of four pressure sensors with the pressure range of 0–50 kPa and 0–100 kPa respectively. First, theoretical models and ANSYS (version 14.5, Canonsburg, PA, USA finite element method (FEM are adopted to optimize the parameters of array sensor structure. Combing with FEM stress distribution results, the size and material characteristics of the array-type sensor are determined according to the analysis of the sensitivity and the ratio of signal to noise (SNR. Based on the optimized parameters, the manufacture and packaging of array-type sensor chips are then realized by using the standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS and microelectromechanical system (MEMS process. Furthermore, an intelligent acquisition and processing system for pressure and temperature signals is achieved. The S3C2440A microprocessor (Samsung, Seoul, Korea is regarded as the core part which can be applied to collect and process data. In particular, digital signal storage, display and transmission are realized by the application of a graphical user interface (GUI written in QT/E. Besides, for the sake of compensating the temperature drift and nonlinear error, the data fusion technique is proposed based on a wavelet neural network improved by genetic algorithm (GA-WNN for average measuring signal. The GA-WNN model is implemented in hardware by using a S3C2440A microprocessor. Finally, the results of calibration and test experiments achieved with the temperature ranges from −20 to 20 °C show that: (1 the nonlinear error and the sensitivity of the array-type pressure sensor are 8330 × 10−4 and 0.052 mV/V/kPa in the range of 0–50 kPa, respectively; (2 the nonlinear error and the sensitivity are 8129 × 10−4 and 0.020 mV/V/kPa in the

  4. Hopfield neural network and optical fiber sensor as intelligent heart rate monitor

    Mutter, Kussay Nugamesh

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a design and fabrication of an intelligent fiber-optic sensor used for examining and monitoring heart rate activity. It is found in the literature that the use of fiber sensors as heart rate sensor is widely studied. However, the use of smart sensors based on Hopfield neural networks is very low. In this work, the sensor is a three fibers without cladding of about 1 cm, fed by laser light of 1550 nm of wavelength. The sensing portions are mounted with a micro sensitive diaphragm to transfer the pulse pressure on the left radial wrist. The influenced light intensity will be detected by a three photodetectors as inputs into the Hopfield neural network algorithm. The latter is a singlelayer auto-associative memory structure with a same input and output layers. The prior training weights are stored in the net memory for the standard recorded normal heart rate signals. The sensors' heads work on the reflection intensity basis. The novelty here is that the sensor uses a pulse pressure and Hopfield neural network in an integrity approach. The results showed a significant output measurements of heart rate and counting with a plausible error rate.

  5. Advanced interfacing techniques for sensors measurement circuits and systems for intelligent sensors

    Roy, Joyanta; Kumar, V; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas

    2017-01-01

    This book presents ways of interfacing sensors to the digital world, and discusses the marriage between sensor systems and the IoT: the opportunities and challenges. As sensor output is often affected by noise and interference, the book presents effective schemes for recovering the data from a signal that is buried in noise. It also explores interesting applications in the area of health care, un-obstructive monitoring and the electronic nose and tongue. It is a valuable resource for engineers and scientists in the area of sensors and interfacing wanting to update their knowledge of the latest developments in the field and learn more about sensing applications and challenges.

  6. Multi-Sensor Information Fusion for Optimizing Electric Bicycle Routes Using a Swarm Intelligence Algorithm

    Villarubia, Gabriel; De Paz, Juan F.; Bajo, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The use of electric bikes (e-bikes) has grown in popularity, especially in large cities where overcrowding and traffic congestion are common. This paper proposes an intelligent engine management system for e-bikes which uses the information collected from sensors to optimize battery energy and time. The intelligent engine management system consists of a built-in network of sensors in the e-bike, which is used for multi-sensor data fusion; the collected data is analysed and fused and on the basis of this information the system can provide the user with optimal and personalized assistance. The user is given recommendations related to battery consumption, sensors, and other parameters associated with the route travelled, such as duration, speed, or variation in altitude. To provide a user with these recommendations, artificial neural networks are used to estimate speed and consumption for each of the segments of a route. These estimates are incorporated into evolutionary algorithms in order to make the optimizations. A comparative analysis of the results obtained has been conducted for when routes were travelled with and without the optimization system. From the experiments, it is evident that the use of an engine management system results in significant energy and time savings. Moreover, user satisfaction increases as the level of assistance adapts to user behavior and the characteristics of the route. PMID:29088087

  7. Multi-Sensor Information Fusion for Optimizing Electric Bicycle Routes Using a Swarm Intelligence Algorithm

    Daniel H. De La Iglesia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of electric bikes (e-bikes has grown in popularity, especially in large cities where overcrowding and traffic congestion are common. This paper proposes an intelligent engine management system for e-bikes which uses the information collected from sensors to optimize battery energy and time. The intelligent engine management system consists of a built-in network of sensors in the e-bike, which is used for multi-sensor data fusion; the collected data is analysed and fused and on the basis of this information the system can provide the user with optimal and personalized assistance. The user is given recommendations related to battery consumption, sensors, and other parameters associated with the route travelled, such as duration, speed, or variation in altitude. To provide a user with these recommendations, artificial neural networks are used to estimate speed and consumption for each of the segments of a route. These estimates are incorporated into evolutionary algorithms in order to make the optimizations. A comparative analysis of the results obtained has been conducted for when routes were travelled with and without the optimization system. From the experiments, it is evident that the use of an engine management system results in significant energy and time savings. Moreover, user satisfaction increases as the level of assistance adapts to user behavior and the characteristics of the route.

  8. Multi-Sensor Information Fusion for Optimizing Electric Bicycle Routes Using a Swarm Intelligence Algorithm.

    De La Iglesia, Daniel H; Villarrubia, Gabriel; De Paz, Juan F; Bajo, Javier

    2017-10-31

    The use of electric bikes (e-bikes) has grown in popularity, especially in large cities where overcrowding and traffic congestion are common. This paper proposes an intelligent engine management system for e-bikes which uses the information collected from sensors to optimize battery energy and time. The intelligent engine management system consists of a built-in network of sensors in the e-bike, which is used for multi-sensor data fusion; the collected data is analysed and fused and on the basis of this information the system can provide the user with optimal and personalized assistance. The user is given recommendations related to battery consumption, sensors, and other parameters associated with the route travelled, such as duration, speed, or variation in altitude. To provide a user with these recommendations, artificial neural networks are used to estimate speed and consumption for each of the segments of a route. These estimates are incorporated into evolutionary algorithms in order to make the optimizations. A comparative analysis of the results obtained has been conducted for when routes were travelled with and without the optimization system. From the experiments, it is evident that the use of an engine management system results in significant energy and time savings. Moreover, user satisfaction increases as the level of assistance adapts to user behavior and the characteristics of the route.

  9. Intelligent Luminance Control of Lighting Systems Based on Imaging Sensor Feedback

    Haoting Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An imaging sensor-based intelligent Light Emitting Diode (LED lighting system for desk use is proposed. In contrast to the traditional intelligent lighting system, such as the photosensitive resistance sensor-based or the infrared sensor-based system, the imaging sensor can realize a finer perception of the environmental light; thus it can guide a more precise lighting control. Before this system works, first lots of typical imaging lighting data of the desk application are accumulated. Second, a series of subjective and objective Lighting Effect Evaluation Metrics (LEEMs are defined and assessed for these datasets above. Then the cluster benchmarks of these objective LEEMs can be obtained. Third, both a single LEEM-based control and a multiple LEEMs-based control are developed to realize a kind of optimal luminance tuning. When this system works, first it captures the lighting image using a wearable camera. Then it computes the objective LEEMs of the captured image and compares them with the cluster benchmarks of the objective LEEMs. Finally, the single LEEM-based or the multiple LEEMs-based control can be implemented to get a kind of optimal lighting effect. Many experiment results have shown the proposed system can tune the LED lamp automatically according to environment luminance changes.

  10. Energy scavenging using piezoelectric sensors to power in pavement intelligent vehicle detection systems

    Parhad, Ashutosh

    Intelligent transportation systems use in-pavement inductive loop sensors to collect real time traffic data. This method is very expensive in terms of installation and maintenance. Our research is focused on developing advanced algorithms capable of generating high amounts of energy that can charge a battery. This electromechanical energy conversion is an optimal way of energy scavenging that makes use of piezoelectric sensors. The power generated is sufficient to run the vehicle detection module that has several sensors embedded together. To achieve these goals, we have developed a simulation module using software's like LabVIEW and Multisim. The simulation module recreates a practical scenario that takes into consideration vehicle weight, speed, wheel width and frequency of the traffic.

  11. Vehicle Maximum Weight Limitation Based on Intelligent Weight Sensor

    Raihan, W.; Tessar, R. M.; Ernest, C. O. S.; E Byan, W. R.; Winda, A.

    2017-03-01

    Vehicle weight is an important factor to be maintained for transportation safety. A weight limitation system is proposed to make sure the vehicle weight is always below its designation prior the vehicle is being used by the driver. The proposed system is divided into two systems, namely vehicle weight confirmation system and weight warning system. In vehicle weight confirmation system, the weight sensor work for the first time after the ignition switch is turned on. When the weight is under the weight limit, the starter engine can be switched on to start the engine system, otherwise it will be locked. The seconds system, will operated after checking all the door at close position, once the door of the car is closed, the weight warning system will check once again the weight during runing engine condition. The results of these two systems, vehicle weight confirmation system and weight warning system have 100 % accuracy, respectively. These show that the proposed vehicle weight limitation system operate well.

  12. Wearable sensors in intelligent clothing for measuring human body temperature based on optical fiber Bragg grating.

    Li, Hongqiang; Yang, Haijing; Li, Enbang; Liu, Zhihui; Wei, Kejia

    2012-05-21

    Measuring body temperature is considerably important to physiological studies as well as clinical investigations. In recent years, numerous observations have been reported and various methods of measurement have been employed. The present paper introduces a novel wearable sensor in intelligent clothing for human body temperature measurement. The objective is the integration of optical fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based sensors into functional textiles to extend the capabilities of wearable solutions for body temperature monitoring. In addition, the temperature sensitivity is 150 pm/°C, which is almost 15 times higher than that of a bare FBG. This study combines large and small pipes during fabrication to implant FBG sensors into the fabric. The law of energy conservation of the human body is considered in determining heat transfer between the body and its clothing. The mathematical model of heat transmission between the body and clothed FBG sensors is studied, and the steady-state thermal analysis is presented. The simulation results show the capability of the material to correct the actual body temperature. Based on the skin temperature obtained by the weighted average method, this paper presents the five points weighted coefficients model using both sides of the chest, armpits, and the upper back for the intelligent clothing. The weighted coefficients of 0.0826 for the left chest, 0.3706 for the left armpit, 0.3706 for the right armpit, 0.0936 for the upper back, and 0.0826 for the right chest were obtained using Cramer's Rule. Using the weighting coefficient, the deviation of the experimental result was ± 0.18 °C, which favors the use for clinical armpit temperature monitoring. Moreover, in special cases when several FBG sensors are broken, the weighted coefficients of the other sensors could be changed to obtain accurate body temperature.

  13. SMART CITIES INTELLIGENCE SYSTEM (SMACiSYS INTEGRATING SENSOR WEB WITH SPATIAL DATA INFRASTRUCTURES (SENSDI

    D. Bhattacharya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper endeavours to enhance the Sensor Web with crucial geospatial analysis capabilities through integration with Spatial Data Infrastructure. The objective is development of automated smart cities intelligence system (SMACiSYS with sensor-web access (SENSDI utilizing geomatics for sustainable societies. There has been a need to develop automated integrated system to categorize events and issue information that reaches users directly. At present, no web-enabled information system exists which can disseminate messages after events evaluation in real time. Research work formalizes a notion of an integrated, independent, generalized, and automated geo-event analysing system making use of geo-spatial data under popular usage platform. Integrating Sensor Web With Spatial Data Infrastructures (SENSDI aims to extend SDIs with sensor web enablement, converging geospatial and built infrastructure, and implement test cases with sensor data and SDI. The other benefit, conversely, is the expansion of spatial data infrastructure to utilize sensor web, dynamically and in real time for smart applications that smarter cities demand nowadays. Hence, SENSDI augments existing smart cities platforms utilizing sensor web and spatial information achieved by coupling pairs of otherwise disjoint interfaces and APIs formulated by Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC keeping entire platform open access and open source. SENSDI is based on Geonode, QGIS and Java, that bind most of the functionalities of Internet, sensor web and nowadays Internet of Things superseding Internet of Sensors as well. In a nutshell, the project delivers a generalized real-time accessible and analysable platform for sensing the environment and mapping the captured information for optimal decision-making and societal benefit.

  14. Smart Cities Intelligence System (SMACiSYS) Integrating Sensor Web with Spatial Data Infrastructures (sensdi)

    Bhattacharya, D.; Painho, M.

    2017-09-01

    The paper endeavours to enhance the Sensor Web with crucial geospatial analysis capabilities through integration with Spatial Data Infrastructure. The objective is development of automated smart cities intelligence system (SMACiSYS) with sensor-web access (SENSDI) utilizing geomatics for sustainable societies. There has been a need to develop automated integrated system to categorize events and issue information that reaches users directly. At present, no web-enabled information system exists which can disseminate messages after events evaluation in real time. Research work formalizes a notion of an integrated, independent, generalized, and automated geo-event analysing system making use of geo-spatial data under popular usage platform. Integrating Sensor Web With Spatial Data Infrastructures (SENSDI) aims to extend SDIs with sensor web enablement, converging geospatial and built infrastructure, and implement test cases with sensor data and SDI. The other benefit, conversely, is the expansion of spatial data infrastructure to utilize sensor web, dynamically and in real time for smart applications that smarter cities demand nowadays. Hence, SENSDI augments existing smart cities platforms utilizing sensor web and spatial information achieved by coupling pairs of otherwise disjoint interfaces and APIs formulated by Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) keeping entire platform open access and open source. SENSDI is based on Geonode, QGIS and Java, that bind most of the functionalities of Internet, sensor web and nowadays Internet of Things superseding Internet of Sensors as well. In a nutshell, the project delivers a generalized real-time accessible and analysable platform for sensing the environment and mapping the captured information for optimal decision-making and societal benefit.

  15. Ontology-Based Architecture for Intelligent Transportation Systems Using a Traffic Sensor Network

    Susel Fernandez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Intelligent transportation systems are a set of technological solutions used to improve the performance and safety of road transportation. A crucial element for the success of these systems is the exchange of information, not only between vehicles, but also among other components in the road infrastructure through different applications. One of the most important information sources in this kind of systems is sensors. Sensors can be within vehicles or as part of the infrastructure, such as bridges, roads or traffic signs. Sensors can provide information related to weather conditions and traffic situation, which is useful to improve the driving process. To facilitate the exchange of information between the different applications that use sensor data, a common framework of knowledge is needed to allow interoperability. In this paper an ontology-driven architecture to improve the driving environment through a traffic sensor network is proposed. The system performs different tasks automatically to increase driver safety and comfort using the information provided by the sensors.

  16. Process sensors characterization based on noise analysis technique and artificial intelligence

    Mesquita, Roberto N. de; Perillo, Sergio R.P.; Santos, Roberto C. dos

    2005-01-01

    The time response of pressure and temperature sensors from the Reactor Protection System (RPS) is a requirement that must be satisfied in nuclear power plants, furthermore is an indicative of its degradation and its remaining life. The nuclear power industry and others have been eager to implement smart sensor technologies and digital instrumentation concepts to reduce manpower and effort currently spent on testing and calibration. Process parameters fluctuations during normal operation of a reactor are caused by random variations in neutron flux, heat transfer and other sources. The output sensor noise can be considered as the response of the system to an input representing the statistical nature of the underlying process which can be modeled using a time series model. Since the noise signal measurements are influenced by many factors, such as location of sensors, extraneous noise interference, and randomness in temperature and pressure fluctuation - the quantitative estimate of the time response using autoregressive noise modeling is subject to error. This technique has been used as means of sensor monitoring. In this work a set of pressure sensors installed in one experimental loop adapted from a flow calibration setup is used to test and analyze signals in a new approach using artificial intelligence techniques. A set of measurements of dynamic signals in different experimental conditions is used to distinguish and identify underlying process sources. A methodology that uses Blind Separation of Sources with a neural networks scheme is being developed to improve time response estimate reliability in noise analysis. (author)

  17. Process sensors characterization based on noise analysis technique and artificial intelligence

    Mesquita, Roberto N. de; Perillo, Sergio R.P.; Santos, Roberto C. dos [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: rnavarro@ipen.br; sperillo@ipen.br; rcsantos@ipen.br

    2005-07-01

    The time response of pressure and temperature sensors from the Reactor Protection System (RPS) is a requirement that must be satisfied in nuclear power plants, furthermore is an indicative of its degradation and its remaining life. The nuclear power industry and others have been eager to implement smart sensor technologies and digital instrumentation concepts to reduce manpower and effort currently spent on testing and calibration. Process parameters fluctuations during normal operation of a reactor are caused by random variations in neutron flux, heat transfer and other sources. The output sensor noise can be considered as the response of the system to an input representing the statistical nature of the underlying process which can be modeled using a time series model. Since the noise signal measurements are influenced by many factors, such as location of sensors, extraneous noise interference, and randomness in temperature and pressure fluctuation - the quantitative estimate of the time response using autoregressive noise modeling is subject to error. This technique has been used as means of sensor monitoring. In this work a set of pressure sensors installed in one experimental loop adapted from a flow calibration setup is used to test and analyze signals in a new approach using artificial intelligence techniques. A set of measurements of dynamic signals in different experimental conditions is used to distinguish and identify underlying process sources. A methodology that uses Blind Separation of Sources with a neural networks scheme is being developed to improve time response estimate reliability in noise analysis. (author)

  18. Intelligent Fiber Optic Sensor for Estimating the Concentration of a Mixture-Design and Working Principle

    Michal Borecki

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the construction and working principles of an intelligent fiber-optic intensity sensor used for examining the concentration of a mixture in conjunction with water. It can find applications e.g. in waste-water treatment plant for selection of a treatment process. The sensor head is the end of a large core polymer optical fiber, which constitutes one arm of an asymmetrical coupler. The head works on the reflection intensity basis. The reflected signal level depends on the Fresnel reflection from the air and from the mixture examined when the head is immersed in it. The sensor head is mounted on a lift. For detection purposes the signal can be measured on head submerging, submersion, emerging and emergence. Therefore, the measured signal depends on the surface tension, viscosity, turbidity and refraction coefficient of the solution. The signal coming from the head is processed electrically in an opto-electronic interface. Then it is fed to a neural network. The novelty of the proposed sensor lies in that it contains an asymmetrical coupler and a neural network that works in the generalization mode. The sensor resolution depends on the efficiency of the asymmetrical coupler, the precision of the opto-electronic signal conversion and the learning accuracy of the neural network. Therefore, the number and quality of the points used for the learning process is very important. By way of example, the paper describes a sensor intended for examining the concentration of liquid soap in water.

  19. Miniature Sensor Probe for O2, CO2, and H2O Monitoring in Space Suits, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced space suits require lightweight, low-power, durable sensors for monitoring critical life support materials. No current compact sensors have the tolerance...

  20. Methodology, Algorithms, and Emerging Tool for Automated Design of Intelligent Integrated Multi-Sensor Systems

    Andreas König

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of novel sensing elements, computing nodes, wireless communication and integration technology provides unprecedented possibilities for the design and application of intelligent systems. Each new application system must be designed from scratch, employing sophisticated methods ranging from conventional signal processing to computational intelligence. Currently, a significant part of this overall algorithmic chain of the computational system model still has to be assembled manually by experienced designers in a time and labor consuming process. In this research work, this challenge is picked up and a methodology and algorithms for automated design of intelligent integrated and resource-aware multi-sensor systems employing multi-objective evolutionary computation are introduced. The proposed methodology tackles the challenge of rapid-prototyping of such systems under realization constraints and, additionally, includes features of system instance specific self-correction for sustained operation of a large volume and in a dynamically changing environment. The extension of these concepts to the reconfigurable hardware platform renders so called self-x sensor systems, which stands, e.g., for self-monitoring, -calibrating, -trimming, and -repairing/-healing systems. Selected experimental results prove the applicability and effectiveness of our proposed methodology and emerging tool. By our approach, competitive results were achieved with regard to classification accuracy, flexibility, and design speed under additional design constraints.

  1. Intelligent Design of Metal Oxide Gas Sensor Arrays Using Reciprocal Kernel Support Vector Regression

    Dougherty, Andrew W.

    Metal oxides are a staple of the sensor industry. The combination of their sensitivity to a number of gases, and the electrical nature of their sensing mechanism, make the particularly attractive in solid state devices. The high temperature stability of the ceramic material also make them ideal for detecting combustion byproducts where exhaust temperatures can be high. However, problems do exist with metal oxide sensors. They are not very selective as they all tend to be sensitive to a number of reduction and oxidation reactions on the oxide's surface. This makes sensors with large numbers of sensors interesting to study as a method for introducing orthogonality to the system. Also, the sensors tend to suffer from long term drift for a number of reasons. In this thesis I will develop a system for intelligently modeling metal oxide sensors and determining their suitability for use in large arrays designed to analyze exhaust gas streams. It will introduce prior knowledge of the metal oxide sensors' response mechanisms in order to produce a response function for each sensor from sparse training data. The system will use the same technique to model and remove any long term drift from the sensor response. It will also provide an efficient means for determining the orthogonality of the sensor to determine whether they are useful in gas sensing arrays. The system is based on least squares support vector regression using the reciprocal kernel. The reciprocal kernel is introduced along with a method of optimizing the free parameters of the reciprocal kernel support vector machine. The reciprocal kernel is shown to be simpler and to perform better than an earlier kernel, the modified reciprocal kernel. Least squares support vector regression is chosen as it uses all of the training points and an emphasis was placed throughout this research for extracting the maximum information from very sparse data. The reciprocal kernel is shown to be effective in modeling the sensor

  2. Intelligent self-organization methods for wireless ad hoc sensor networks based on limited resources

    Hortos, William S.

    2006-05-01

    A wireless ad hoc sensor network (WSN) is a configuration for area surveillance that affords rapid, flexible deployment in arbitrary threat environments. There is no infrastructure support and sensor nodes communicate with each other only when they are in transmission range. To a greater degree than the terminals found in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) for communications, sensor nodes are resource-constrained, with limited computational processing, bandwidth, memory, and power, and are typically unattended once in operation. Consequently, the level of information exchange among nodes, to support any complex adaptive algorithms to establish network connectivity and optimize throughput, not only deplete those limited resources and creates high overhead in narrowband communications, but also increase network vulnerability to eavesdropping by malicious nodes. Cooperation among nodes, critical to the mission of sensor networks, can thus be disrupted by the inappropriate choice of the method for self-organization. Recent published contributions to the self-configuration of ad hoc sensor networks, e.g., self-organizing mapping and swarm intelligence techniques, have been based on the adaptive control of the cross-layer interactions found in MANET protocols to achieve one or more performance objectives: connectivity, intrusion resistance, power control, throughput, and delay. However, few studies have examined the performance of these algorithms when implemented with the limited resources of WSNs. In this paper, self-organization algorithms for the initiation, operation and maintenance of a network topology from a collection of wireless sensor nodes are proposed that improve the performance metrics significant to WSNs. The intelligent algorithm approach emphasizes low computational complexity, energy efficiency and robust adaptation to change, allowing distributed implementation with the actual limited resources of the cooperative nodes of the network. Extensions of the

  3. A New Miniaturized Inkjet Printed Solid State Electrolyte Sensor for Applications in Life Support Systems - First Results

    Hill, Christine; Stefanos Fasoulas, -; Eberhart, Martin; Berndt, Felix

    New generations of integrated closed loop systems will combine life support systems (incl. biological components) and energy systems such as fuel cell and electrolysis systems. Those systems and their test beds also contain complex safety sensor monitoring systems. Especially in fuel cells and electrolysis systems, the hydrogen and oxygen flows and exchange into other areas due to diffusion processes or leaks need to be monitored. Knowledge of predominant gas concentrations at all times is essential to avoid explosive gas mixtures. Solid state electrolyte sensors are promising for use as safety sensors. They have already been developed and produced at various institutes, but the power consumption for heating an existing solid state electrolyte sensor element still lies between 1 to 1.5 W and the operational readiness still takes about 20 to 30 s. This is partially due to the current manufacturing process for the solid state electrolyte sensor elements that is based on screen printing technology. However this technology has strong limitations in flexibility of the layout and re-designs. It is therefore suitable for mass production, but not for a flexible development and the production of specific individual sensors, e.g. for space applications. Moreover a disadvantage is the relatively high material consumption, especially in combination with the sensors need of expensive noble metal and ceramic pastes, which leads to a high sensor unit price. The Inkjet technology however opens up completely new possibilities in terms of dimensions, geometries, structures, morphologies and materials of sensors. This new approach is capable of printing finer high-resolution layers without the necessity of meshes or masks for patterning. Using the Inkjet technology a design change is possible at any time on the CAD screen. Moreover the ink is only deposited where it is needed. Custom made sensors, as they are currently demanded in space sensor applications, are thus realized simply

  4. Sensors

    Pigorsch, Enrico

    1997-01-01

    This is the 5th edition of the Metra Martech Directory "EUROPEAN CENTRES OF EXPERTISE - SENSORS." The entries represent a survey of European sensors development. The new edition contains 425 detailed profiles of companies and research institutions in 22 countries. This is reflected in the diversity of sensors development programmes described, from sensors for physical parameters to biosensors and intelligent sensor systems. We do not claim that all European organisations developing sensors are included, but this is a good cross section from an invited list of participants. If you see gaps or omissions, or would like your organisation to be included, please send details. The data base invites the formation of effective joint ventures by identifying and providing access to specific areas in which organisations offer collaboration. This issue is recognised to be of great importance and most entrants include details of collaboration offered and sought. We hope the directory on Sensors will help you to find the ri...

  5. Use of Local Intelligence to Reduce Energy Consumption of Wireless Sensor Nodes in Elderly Health Monitoring Systems

    Lampoltshammer, Thomas J.; de Freitas, Edison Pignaton; Nowotny, Thomas; Plank, Stefan; da Costa, João Paulo Carvalho Lustosa; Larsson, Tony; Heistracher, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The percentage of elderly people in European countries is increasing. Such conjuncture affects socio-economic structures and creates demands for resourceful solutions, such as Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), which is a possible methodology to foster health care for elderly people. In this context, sensor-based devices play a leading role in surveying, e.g., health conditions of elderly people, to alert care personnel in case of an incident. However, the adoption of such devices strongly depends on the comfort of wearing the devices. In most cases, the bottleneck is the battery lifetime, which impacts the effectiveness of the system. In this paper we propose an approach to reduce the energy consumption of sensors' by use of local sensors' intelligence. By increasing the intelligence of the sensor node, a substantial decrease in the necessary communication payload can be achieved. The results show a significant potential to preserve energy and decrease the actual size of the sensor device units. PMID:24618777

  6. Condition Management of Marine Lube Oil and the Role of Intelligent Sensor Systems in Diagnostics

    Knowles, M; Baglee, D

    2012-01-01

    Failures in marine diesel engines can be costly and can cause extreme inconvenience when they result in ships becoming stranded. Lubricating oil is a crucial component in maintaining engine reliability and so monitoring its condition is essential. Furthermore the lubricating oil offers early indication of various other engine faults. Current approaches to oil-based condition monitoring involve samples being sent for land based testing which involves considerable delay during which the situation could deteriorate further. Furthermore there is a substantial risk of contamination. The POSSEIDON project aimed to address this by developing a system involving real-time condition monitoring sensors observing the properties of the lubricating oil. Novel sensors were developed which address the specific issues associated with the marine environment. Furthermore, to complement the sensor system outputs, specific monitoring and diagnosis software has been developed to support the operation of onboard personnel with specific advice. On-line management of engine and lubricant condition aboard the ship may thus be achieved. In this paper we will describe the progress achieved in this area by the recently completed POSSEIDON project, outline the opportunities for ongoing development in this area and describe the roadmap for future development. The Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) paradigm will be applied to identify critical aspects of oil condition and prioritize parameters for measurement. The critical issues for development of the prototype unit into a viable commercial unit will be discussed including hardware design constraints, sensor miniaturization and display optimization. Issues such onboard connectivity, ship to shore communications will also be addressed.

  7. Design and research of intelligent mobile robot environment detection system based on multi-sensor technology

    Chen Yu; Wen Xinling

    2007-01-01

    The intelligent mobile robot environment detection system is researched based on SCM MC68HC908GP3 as core of control system. The four groups of detection systems constituted by ultrasonic sensors and infrared sensors gather information of forward, behind, left and right different directions, solve the problem of blind spot, and make up each other shortage. The distance measurement precision is improved rapidly and the detection precision is less than ±1% through using the way of the pulse shooting, the signal chooses circuit, and the temperature compensation. The system design method and the hardware circuit are introduced in detail. Simultaneity, the system adopts the single chip control technology, it makes the system possess favorable expansibility and gains the practicability in engineering field. (authors)

  8. Application of Swarm Intelligence Based Routingprotocols for Wireless Adhoc Sensor Network

    Mrutyunjaya PANDA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The enormous growth of wireless sensor network (WSN research has opined challenges about their ease in implementation and performance evaluation. Efficient swarm intelligence based routing protocols that can be used to obtain the application specific service guarantee are the key design issues in designing a WSN model. In this paper, an experimental testbed is designed with 100 sensor nodes deployed in a dense environment to address the scalability and performance issues of WSN. In this paper, we use Flooded Piggyback (FP and SC-MCBR ant colony based routing along with AODV and MCBR Tree in order to design an efficient WSN model. Finally, simulation results are presented with various performance measures to understand the efficacy of the proposed WSN design.

  9. Fuzzy Mobile-Robot Positioning in Intelligent Spaces Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    David Herrero

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the development and experimental evaluation of a method based on fuzzy logic to locate mobile robots in an Intelligent Space using Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs. The problem consists of locating a mobile node using only inter-node range measurements, which are estimated by radio frequency signal strength attenuation. The sensor model of these measurements is very noisy and unreliable. The proposed method makes use of fuzzy logic for modeling and dealing with such uncertain information. Besides, the proposed approach is compared with a probabilistic technique showing that the fuzzy approach is able to handle highly uncertain situations that are difficult to manage by well-known localization methods.

  10. Intelligent Monitoring System with High Temperature Distributed Fiberoptic Sensor for Power Plant Combustion Processes

    Kwang Y. Lee; Stuart S. Yin; Andre Boehman

    2006-09-26

    The objective of the proposed work is to develop an intelligent distributed fiber optical sensor system for real-time monitoring of high temperature in a boiler furnace in power plants. Of particular interest is the estimation of spatial and temporal distributions of high temperatures within a boiler furnace, which will be essential in assessing and controlling the mechanisms that form and remove pollutants at the source, such as NOx. The basic approach in developing the proposed sensor system is three fold: (1) development of high temperature distributed fiber optical sensor capable of measuring temperatures greater than 2000 C degree with spatial resolution of less than 1 cm; (2) development of distributed parameter system (DPS) models to map the three-dimensional (3D) temperature distribution for the furnace; and (3) development of an intelligent monitoring system for real-time monitoring of the 3D boiler temperature distribution. Under Task 1, we have set up a dedicated high power, ultrafast laser system for fabricating in-fiber gratings in harsh environment optical fibers, successfully fabricated gratings in single crystal sapphire fibers by the high power laser system, and developed highly sensitive long period gratings (lpg) by electric arc. Under Task 2, relevant mathematical modeling studies of NOx formation in practical combustors have been completed. Studies show that in boiler systems with no swirl, the distributed temperature sensor may provide information sufficient to predict trends of NOx at the boiler exit. Under Task 3, we have investigated a mathematical approach to extrapolation of the temperature distribution within a power plant boiler facility, using a combination of a modified neural network architecture and semigroup theory. Given a set of empirical data with no analytic expression, we first developed an analytic description and then extended that model along a single axis.

  11. Sensor guided control and navigation with intelligent machines. Final technical report

    Ghosh, Bijoy K.

    2001-03-26

    This item constitutes the final report on ''Visionics: An integrated approach to analysis and design of intelligent machines.'' The report discusses dynamical systems approach to problems in robust control of possibly time-varying linear systems, problems in vision and visually guided control, and, finally, applications of these control techniques to intelligent navigation with a mobile platform. Robust design of a controller for a time-varying system essentially deals with the problem of synthesizing a controller that can adapt to sudden changes in the parameters of the plant and can maintain stability. The approach presented is to design a compensator that simultaneously stabilizes each and every possible mode of the plant as the parameters undergo sudden and unexpected changes. Such changes can in fact be detected by a visual sensor and, hence, visually guided control problems are studied as a natural consequence. The problem here is to detect parameters of the plant and maintain st ability in the closed loop using a ccd camera as a sensor. The main result discussed in the report is the role of perspective systems theory that was developed in order to analyze such a detection and control problem. The robust control algorithms and the visually guided control algorithms are applied in the context of a PUMA 560 robot arm control where the goal is to visually locate a moving part on a mobile turntable. Such problems are of paramount importance in manufacturing with a certain lack of structure. Sensor guided control problems are extended to problems in robot navigation using a NOMADIC mobile platform with a ccd and a laser range finder as sensors. The localization and map building problems are studied with the objective of navigation in an unstructured terrain.

  12. Sensor Systems for Vehicle Environment Perception in a Highway Intelligent Space System

    Tang, Xiaofeng; Gao, Feng; Xu, Guoyan; Ding, Nenggen; Cai, Yao; Ma, Mingming; Liu, Jianxing

    2014-01-01

    A Highway Intelligent Space System (HISS) is proposed to study vehicle environment perception in this paper. The nature of HISS is that a space sensors system using laser, ultrasonic or radar sensors are installed in a highway environment and communication technology is used to realize the information exchange between the HISS server and vehicles, which provides vehicles with the surrounding road information. Considering the high-speed feature of vehicles on highways, when vehicles will be passing a road ahead that is prone to accidents, the vehicle driving state should be predicted to ensure drivers have road environment perception information in advance, thereby ensuring vehicle driving safety and stability. In order to verify the accuracy and feasibility of the HISS, a traditional vehicle-mounted sensor system for environment perception is used to obtain the relative driving state. Furthermore, an inter-vehicle dynamics model is built and model predictive control approach is used to predict the driving state in the following period. Finally, the simulation results shows that using the HISS for environment perception can arrive at the same results detected by a traditional vehicle-mounted sensors system. Meanwhile, we can further draw the conclusion that using HISS to realize vehicle environment perception can ensure system stability, thereby demonstrating the method's feasibility. PMID:24834907

  13. Sensor fusion: lane marking detection and autonomous intelligent cruise control system

    Baret, Marc; Baillarin, S.; Calesse, C.; Martin, Lionel

    1995-12-01

    In the past few years MATRA and RENAULT have developed an Autonomous Intelligent Cruise Control (AICC) system based on a LIDAR sensor. This sensor incorporating a charge coupled device was designed to acquire pulsed laser diode emission reflected by standard car reflectors. The absence of moving mechanical parts, the large field of view, the high measurement rate and the very good accuracy for distance range and angular position of targets make this sensor very interesting. It provides the equipped car with the distance and the relative speed of other vehicles enabling the safety distance to be controlled by acting on the throttle and the automatic gear box. Experiments in various real traffic situations have shown the limitations of this kind of system especially on bends. All AICC sensors are unable to distinguish between a bend and a change of lane. This is easily understood if we consider a road without lane markings. This fact has led MATRA to improve its AICC system by providing the lane marking information. Also in the scope of the EUREKA PROMETHEUS project, MATRA and RENAULT have developed a lane keeping system in order to warn of the drivers lack of vigilance. Thus, MATRA have spread this system to far field lane marking detection and have coupled it with the AICC system. Experiments will be carried out on roads to estimate the gain in performance and comfort due to this fusion.

  14. Intelligent Smoke Alarm System with Wireless Sensor Network Using ZigBee

    Qin Wu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The conflagration of fire is still a serious problem caused by humans, and houses are at a high risk of fire. Recently, people have used smoke alarms which only have one sensor to detect fire. Smoke is emitted in several forms in daily life. A single sensor is not a reliable way to detect fire. With the rapid advancement in Internet technology, people can monitor their houses remotely to determine the current condition of the house. This paper introduces an intelligent smoke alarm system that uses ZigBee transmission technology to build a wireless network, uses random forest to identify smoke, and uses E-charts for data visualization. By combining the real-time dynamic changes of various environmental factors, compared to the traditional smoke alarm, the accuracy and controllability of the fire warning are increased, and the visualization of the data enables users to monitor the room environment more intuitively. The proposed system consists of a smoke detection module, a wireless communication module, and intelligent identification and data visualization module. At present, the collected environmental data can be classified into four statuses, that is, normal air, water mist, kitchen cooking, and fire smoke. Reducing the frequency of miscalculations also means improving the safety of the person and property of the user.

  15. A resonant electromagnetic vibration energy harvester for intelligent wireless sensor systems

    Qiu, Jing, E-mail: jingqiu@cqu.edu.cn; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping; Liu, Xin; Chen, Hengjia; Yang, Jin [Sensors and Instruments Research Center, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2015-05-07

    Vibration energy harvesting is now receiving more interest as a means for powering intelligent wireless sensor systems. In this paper, a resonant electromagnetic vibration energy harvester (VEH) employing double cantilever to convert low-frequency vibration energy into electrical energy is presented. The VEH is made up of two cantilever beams, a coil, and magnetic circuits. The electric output performances of the proposed electromagnetic VEH have been investigated. With the enhancement of turns number N, the optimum peak power of electromagnetic VEH increases sharply and the resonance frequency deceases gradually. When the vibration acceleration is 0.5 g, we obtain the optimum output voltage and power of 9.04 V and 50.8 mW at frequency of 14.9 Hz, respectively. In a word, the prototype device was successfully developed and the experimental results exhibit a great enhancement in the output power and bandwidth compared with other traditional electromagnetic VEHs. Remarkably, the proposed resonant electromagnetic VEH have great potential for applying in intelligent wireless sensor systems.

  16. The “Wireless Sensor Networks for City-Wide Ambient Intelligence (WISE-WAI” Project

    Michele Zorzi

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives a detailed technical overview of some of the activities carried out in the context of the “Wireless Sensor networks for city-Wide Ambient Intelligence (WISEWAI” project, funded by the Cassa di Risparmio di Padova e Rovigo Foundation, Italy. The main aim of the project is to demonstrate the feasibility of large-scale wireless sensor network deployments, whereby tiny objects integrating one or more environmental sensors (humidity, temperature, light intensity, a microcontroller and a wireless transceiver are deployed over a large area, which in this case involves the buildings of the Department of Information Engineering at the University of Padova. We will describe how the network is organized to provide full-scale automated functions, and which services and applications it is configured to provide. These applications include long-term environmental monitoring, alarm event detection and propagation, single-sensor interrogation, localization and tracking of objects, assisted navigation, as well as fast data dissemination services to be used, e.g., to rapidly re-program all sensors over-the-air. The organization of such a large testbed requires notable efforts in terms of communication protocols and strategies, whose design must pursue scalability, energy efficiency (while sensors are connected through USB cables for logging and debugging purposes, most of them will be battery-operated, as well as the capability to support applications with diverse requirements. These efforts, the description of a subset of the results obtained so far, and of the final objectives to be met are the scope of the present paper.

  17. Ultra-Precision Manufacturing Technology for Miniature & Complex-Form Integrated Opto-Mechanical Structures for Sensors Payloads, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to demonstrate ultra precision manufacturing of components for NASA payloads, specifically for electro-optical and infrared sensors that are used in...

  18. Intelligence

    Sternberg, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain—especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex—and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret. PMID:22577301

  19. Intelligence.

    Sternberg, Robert J

    2012-03-01

    Intelligence is the ability to learn from experience and to adapt to, shape, and select environments. Intelligence as measured by (raw scores on) conventional standardized tests varies across the lifespan, and also across generations. Intelligence can be understood in part in terms of the biology of the brain-especially with regard to the functioning in the prefrontal cortex-and also correlates with brain size, at least within humans. Studies of the effects of genes and environment suggest that the heritability coefficient (ratio of genetic to phenotypic variation) is between .4 and .8, although heritability varies as a function of socioeconomic status and other factors. Racial differences in measured intelligence have been observed, but race is a socially constructed rather than biological variable, so such differences are difficult to interpret.

  20. HIGH: A Hexagon-based Intelligent Grouping Approach in Wireless Sensor Networks

    FAN, C.-S.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In a random deployment or uniform deployment strategy, sensor nodes are scattered randomly or uniformly in the sensing field, respectively. Hence, the coverage ratio cannot be guaranteed. The coverage ratio of uniform deployment, in general, is larger than that of the random deployment strategy. However, a random deployment or uniform deployment strategy may cause unbalanced traffic pattern in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Therefore, cluster heads (CHs around the sink have larger loads than those farther away from the sink. That is, CHs close to the sink exhaust their energy earlier. In order to overcome the above problem, we propose a Hexagon-based Intelligent Grouping approacH in WSNs (called HIGH. The coverage, energy consumption and data routing issues are well investigated and taken into consideration in the proposed HIGH scheme. The simulation results validate our theoretical analysis and show that the proposed HIGH scheme achieves a satisfactory coverage ratio, balances the energy consumption among sensor nodes, and extends network lifetime significantly.

  1. Energy-efficient hierarchical processing in the network of wireless intelligent sensors (WISE)

    Raskovic, Dejan

    Sensor network nodes have benefited from technological advances in the field of wireless communication, processing, and power sources. However, the processing power of microcontrollers is often not sufficient to perform sophisticated processing, while the power requirements of digital signal processing boards or handheld computers are usually too demanding for prolonged system use. We are matching the intrinsic hierarchical nature of many digital signal-processing applications with the natural hierarchy in distributed wireless networks, and building the hierarchical system of wireless intelligent sensors. Our goal is to build a system that will exploit the hierarchical organization to optimize the power consumption and extend battery life for the given time and memory constraints, while providing real-time processing of sensor signals. In addition, we are designing our system to be able to adapt to the current state of the environment, by dynamically changing the algorithm through procedure replacement. This dissertation presents the analysis of hierarchical environment and methods for energy profiling used to evaluate different system design strategies, and to optimize time-effective and energy-efficient processing.

  2. Matrix Completion Optimization for Localization in Wireless Sensor Networks for Intelligent IoT

    Thu L. N. Nguyen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Localization in wireless sensor networks (WSNs is one of the primary functions of the intelligent Internet of Things (IoT that offers automatically discoverable services, while the localization accuracy is a key issue to evaluate the quality of those services. In this paper, we develop a framework to solve the Euclidean distance matrix completion problem, which is an important technical problem for distance-based localization in WSNs. The sensor network localization problem is described as a low-rank dimensional Euclidean distance completion problem with known nodes. The task is to find the sensor locations through recovery of missing entries of a squared distance matrix when the dimension of the data is small compared to the number of data points. We solve a relaxation optimization problem using a modification of Newton’s method, where the cost function depends on the squared distance matrix. The solution obtained in our scheme achieves a lower complexity and can perform better if we use it as an initial guess for an interactive local search of other higher precision localization scheme. Simulation results show the effectiveness of our approach.

  3. Intelligent sensors and actuators. Autonomous solar input and wireless data transmission. Intelligente Sensoren und Aktoren. Autonome Solar-Versorgung und drahtlose Datenuebertragung

    Kuntz, W; Mores, R [Transferzentrum Furtwangen (Germany)

    1991-09-03

    Sensors are referred to as intelligent if they evaluate the results immediately internally. A micro server as a rule is responsible for it. Sensors can be implemented with extremely low power dissipation. If they are supplied with energy over optical waveguide, they can even work potentialfree. Battery-fed or solar-fed intelligent sensors with data transmission viaer infrared light or UHF record measured values with standard time. They are bus-capable and allow a mobile application without interfering cables. (orig.).

  4. Design and Simulation Test of an Open D-Dot Voltage Sensor

    Yunjie Bai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, sensor development focuses on miniaturization and non-contact measurement. According to the D-dot principle, a D-dot voltage sensor with a new structure was designed based on the differential D-dot sensor with a symmetrical structure, called an asymmetric open D-dot voltage sensor. It is easier to install. The electric field distribution of the sensor was analyzed through Ansoft Maxwell and an open D-dot voltage sensor was designed. This open D-voltage sensor is characteristic of accessible insulating strength and small electric field distortion. The steady and transient performance test under 10 kV-voltage reported satisfying performances of the designed open D-dot voltage sensor. It conforms to requirements for a smart grid measuring sensor in intelligence, miniaturization and facilitation.

  5. Progress Toward Measuring CO2 Isotopologue Fluxes in situ with the LLNL Miniature, Laser-based CO2 Sensor

    Osuna, J. L.; Bora, M.; Bond, T.

    2015-12-01

    One method to constrain photosynthesis and respiration independently at the ecosystem scale is to measure the fluxes of CO2­ isotopologues. Instrumentation is currently available to makes these measurements but they are generally costly, large, bench-top instruments. Here, we present progress toward developing a laser-based sensor that can be deployed directly to a canopy to passively measure CO2 isotopologue fluxes. In this study, we perform initial proof-of-concept and sensor characterization tests in the laboratory and in the field to demonstrate performance of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) tunable diode laser flux sensor. The results shown herein demonstrate measurement of bulk CO2 as a first step toward achieving flux measurements of CO2 isotopologues. The sensor uses a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) in the 2012 nm range. The laser is mounted in a multi-pass White Cell. In order to amplify the absorption signal of CO2 in this range we employ wave modulation spectroscopy, introducing an alternating current (AC) bias component where f is the frequency of modulation on the laser drive current in addition to the direct current (DC) emission scanning component. We observed a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.998 and r2 = 0.978 at all and low CO2 concentrations, respectively) between the 2f signal and the CO2 concentration in the cell across the range of CO2 concentrations relevant for flux measurements. We use this calibration to interpret CO2 concentration of a gas flowing through the White cell in the laboratory and deployed over a grassy field. We will discuss sensor performance in the lab and in situ as well as address steps toward achieving canopy-deployed, passive measurements of CO2 isotopologue fluxes. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675788

  6. Self-Learning Embedded System for Object Identification in Intelligent Infrastructure Sensors.

    Villaverde, Monica; Perez, David; Moreno, Felix

    2015-11-17

    The emergence of new horizons in the field of travel assistant management leads to the development of cutting-edge systems focused on improving the existing ones. Moreover, new opportunities are being also presented since systems trend to be more reliable and autonomous. In this paper, a self-learning embedded system for object identification based on adaptive-cooperative dynamic approaches is presented for intelligent sensor's infrastructures. The proposed system is able to detect and identify moving objects using a dynamic decision tree. Consequently, it combines machine learning algorithms and cooperative strategies in order to make the system more adaptive to changing environments. Therefore, the proposed system may be very useful for many applications like shadow tolls since several types of vehicles may be distinguished, parking optimization systems, improved traffic conditions systems, etc.

  7. Anti-Runaway Prevention System with Wireless Sensors for Intelligent Track Skates at Railway Stations.

    Jiang, Chaozhe; Xu, Yibo; Wen, Chao; Chen, Dilin

    2017-12-19

    Anti-runaway prevention of rolling stocks at a railway station is essential in railway safety management. The traditional track skates for anti-runaway prevention of rolling stocks have some disadvantages since they are operated and monitored completely manually. This paper describes an anti-runaway prevention system (ARPS) based on intelligent track skates equipped with sensors and real-time monitoring and management system. This system, which has been updated from the traditional track skates, comprises four parts: intelligent track skates, a signal reader, a database station, and a monitoring system. This system can monitor the real-time situation of track skates without changing their workflow for anti-runaway prevention, and thus realize the integration of anti-runaway prevention information management. This system was successfully tested and practiced at Sunjia station in Harbin Railway Bureau in 2014, and the results confirmed that the system showed 100% accuracy in reflecting the usage status of the track skates. The system could meet practical demands, as it is highly reliable and supports long-distance communication.

  8. Anti-Runaway Prevention System with Wireless Sensors for Intelligent Track Skates at Railway Stations

    Chaozhe Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Anti-runaway prevention of rolling stocks at a railway station is essential in railway safety management. The traditional track skates for anti-runaway prevention of rolling stocks have some disadvantages since they are operated and monitored completely manually. This paper describes an anti-runaway prevention system (ARPS based on intelligent track skates equipped with sensors and real-time monitoring and management system. This system, which has been updated from the traditional track skates, comprises four parts: intelligent track skates, a signal reader, a database station, and a monitoring system. This system can monitor the real-time situation of track skates without changing their workflow for anti-runaway prevention, and thus realize the integration of anti-runaway prevention information management. This system was successfully tested and practiced at Sunjia station in Harbin Railway Bureau in 2014, and the results confirmed that the system showed 100% accuracy in reflecting the usage status of the track skates. The system could meet practical demands, as it is highly reliable and supports long-distance communication.

  9. Distributed sensor architecture for intelligent control that supports quality of control and quality of service.

    Poza-Lujan, Jose-Luis; Posadas-Yagüe, Juan-Luis; Simó-Ten, José-Enrique; Simarro, Raúl; Benet, Ginés

    2015-02-25

    This paper is part of a study of intelligent architectures for distributed control and communications systems. The study focuses on optimizing control systems by evaluating the performance of middleware through quality of service (QoS) parameters and the optimization of control using Quality of Control (QoC) parameters. The main aim of this work is to study, design, develop, and evaluate a distributed control architecture based on the Data-Distribution Service for Real-Time Systems (DDS) communication standard as proposed by the Object Management Group (OMG). As a result of the study, an architecture called Frame-Sensor-Adapter to Control (FSACtrl) has been developed. FSACtrl provides a model to implement an intelligent distributed Event-Based Control (EBC) system with support to measure QoS and QoC parameters. The novelty consists of using, simultaneously, the measured QoS and QoC parameters to make decisions about the control action with a new method called Event Based Quality Integral Cycle. To validate the architecture, the first five Braitenberg vehicles have been implemented using the FSACtrl architecture. The experimental outcomes, demonstrate the convenience of using jointly QoS and QoC parameters in distributed control systems.

  10. Distributed Sensor Architecture for Intelligent Control that Supports Quality of Control and Quality of Service

    Jose-Luis Poza-Lujan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of a study of intelligent architectures for distributed control and communications systems. The study focuses on optimizing control systems by evaluating the performance of middleware through quality of service (QoS parameters and the optimization of control using Quality of Control (QoC parameters. The main aim of this work is to study, design, develop, and evaluate a distributed control architecture based on the Data-Distribution Service for Real-Time Systems (DDS communication standard as proposed by the Object Management Group (OMG. As a result of the study, an architecture called Frame-Sensor-Adapter to Control (FSACtrl has been developed. FSACtrl provides a model to implement an intelligent distributed Event-Based Control (EBC system with support to measure QoS and QoC parameters. The novelty consists of using, simultaneously, the measured QoS and QoC parameters to make decisions about the control action with a new method called Event Based Quality Integral Cycle. To validate the architecture, the first five Braitenberg vehicles have been implemented using the FSACtrl architecture. The experimental outcomes, demonstrate the convenience of using jointly QoS and QoC parameters in distributed control systems.

  11. A Fabry-Perot Interferometry Based MRI-Compatible Miniature Uniaxial Force Sensor for Percutaneous Needle Placement

    Shang, Weijian; Su, Hao; Li, Gang; Furlong, Cosme; Fischer, Gregory S.

    2013-01-01

    Robot-assisted surgical procedures, taking advantage of the high soft tissue contrast and real-time imaging of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are developing rapidly. However, it is crucial to maintain tactile force feedback in MRI-guided needle-based procedures. This paper presents a Fabry-Perot interference (FPI) based system of an MRI-compatible fiber optic sensor which has been integrated into a piezoelectrically actuated robot for prostate cancer biopsy and brachytherapy in 3T MRI scan...

  12. Use of Local Intelligence to Reduce Energy Consumption of Wireless Sensor Nodes in Elderly Health Monitoring Systems

    Thomas J. Lampoltshammer

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The percentage of elderly people in European countries is increasing. Such conjuncture affects socio-economic structures and creates demands for resourceful solutions, such as Ambient Assisted Living (AAL, which is a possible methodology to foster health care for elderly people. In this context, sensor-based devices play a leading role in surveying, e.g., health conditions of elderly people, to alert care personnel in case of an incident. However, the adoption of such devices strongly depends on the comfort of wearing the devices. In most cases, the bottleneck is the battery lifetime, which impacts the effectiveness of the system. In this paper we propose an approach to reduce the energy consumption of sensors’ by use of local sensors’ intelligence. By increasing the intelligence of the sensor node, a substantial decrease in the necessary communication payload can be achieved. The results show a significant potential to preserve energy and decrease the actual size of the sensor device units.

  13. An Intelligent and Secure Health Monitoring Scheme Using IoT Sensor Based on Cloud Computing

    Jin-Xin Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT is the network of physical objects where information and communication technology connect multiple embedded devices to the Internet for collecting and exchanging data. An important advancement is the ability to connect such devices to large resource pools such as cloud. The integration of embedded devices and cloud servers offers wide applicability of IoT to many areas of our life. With the aging population increasing every day, embedded devices with cloud server can provide the elderly with more flexible service without the need to visit hospitals. Despite the advantages of the sensor-cloud model, it still has various security threats. Therefore, the design and integration of security issues, like authentication and data confidentiality for ensuring the elderly’s privacy, need to be taken into consideration. In this paper, an intelligent and secure health monitoring scheme using IoT sensor based on cloud computing and cryptography is proposed. The proposed scheme achieves authentication and provides essential security requirements.

  14. Measuring indoor occupancy in intelligent buildings using the fusion of vision sensors

    Liu, Dixin; Guan, Xiaohong; Du, Youtian; Zhao, Qianchuan

    2013-01-01

    In intelligent buildings, practical sensing systems designed to gather indoor occupancy information play an indispensable role in improving occupant comfort and energy efficiency. In this paper, we propose a novel method for occupancy measurement based on the video surveillance now widely used in buildings. In our method, we analyze occupant detection both at the entrance and inside the room. A two-stage static detector is presented based on both appearances and shapes to find the human heads in rooms, and motion-based technology is used for occupant detection at the entrance. To model the change of occupancy and combine the detection results from multiple vision sensors located at entrances and inside rooms for more accurate occupancy estimation, we propose a dynamic Bayesian network-based method. The detection results of each vision sensor play the role of evidence nodes of this network, and thus, we can estimate the true occupancy at time t using the evidence prior to (and including) time t. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed method. (paper)

  15. A Fabry-Perot Interferometry Based MRI-Compatible Miniature Uniaxial Force Sensor for Percutaneous Needle Placement

    Shang, Weijian; Su, Hao; Li, Gang; Furlong, Cosme; Fischer, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Robot-assisted surgical procedures, taking advantage of the high soft tissue contrast and real-time imaging of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are developing rapidly. However, it is crucial to maintain tactile force feedback in MRI-guided needle-based procedures. This paper presents a Fabry-Perot interference (FPI) based system of an MRI-compatible fiber optic sensor which has been integrated into a piezoelectrically actuated robot for prostate cancer biopsy and brachytherapy in 3T MRI scanner. The opto-electronic sensing system design was minimized to fit inside an MRI-compatible robot controller enclosure. A flexure mechanism was designed that integrates the FPI sensor fiber for measuring needle insertion force, and finite element analysis was performed for optimizing the correct force-deformation relationship. The compact, low-cost FPI sensing system was integrated into the robot and calibration was conducted. The root mean square (RMS) error of the calibration among the range of 0–10 Newton was 0.318 Newton comparing to the theoretical model which has been proven sufficient for robot control and teleoperation. PMID:25126153

  16. Non-Contact Sensor for Long-Term Continuous Vital Signs Monitoring: A Review on Intelligent Phased-Array Doppler Sensor Design.

    Hall, Travis; Lie, Donald Y C; Nguyen, Tam Q; Mayeda, Jill C; Lie, Paul E; Lopez, Jerry; Banister, Ron E

    2017-11-15

    It has been the dream of many scientists and engineers to realize a non-contact remote sensing system that can perform continuous, accurate and long-term monitoring of human vital signs as we have seen in many Sci-Fi movies. Having an intelligible sensor system that can measure and record key vital signs (such as heart rates and respiration rates) remotely and continuously without touching the patients, for example, can be an invaluable tool for physicians who need to make rapid life-and-death decisions. Such a sensor system can also effectively help physicians and patients making better informed decisions when patients' long-term vital signs data is available. Therefore, there has been a lot of research activities on developing a non-contact sensor system that can monitor a patient's vital signs and quickly transmit the information to healthcare professionals. Doppler-based radio-frequency (RF) non-contact vital signs (NCVS) monitoring system are particularly attractive for long term vital signs monitoring because there are no wires, electrodes, wearable devices, nor any contact-based sensors involved so the subjects may not be even aware of the ubiquitous monitoring. In this paper, we will provide a brief review on some latest development on NCVS sensors and compare them against a few novel and intelligent phased-array Doppler-based RF NCVS biosensors we have built in our labs. Some of our NCVS sensor tests were performed within a clutter-free anechoic chamber to mitigate the environmental clutters, while most tests were conducted within the typical Herman-Miller type office cubicle setting to mimic a more practical monitoring environment. Additionally, we will show the measurement data to demonstrate the feasibility of long-term NCVS monitoring. The measured data strongly suggests that our latest phased array NCVS system should be able to perform long-term vital signs monitoring intelligently and robustly, especially for situations where the subject is sleeping

  17. A Computationally Intelligent Approach to the Detection of Wormhole Attacks in Wireless Sensor Networks

    Mohammad Nurul Afsar Shaon

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A wormhole attack is one of the most critical and challenging security threats for wireless sensor networks because of its nature and ability to perform concealed malicious activities. This paper proposes an innovative wormhole detection scheme to detect wormhole attacks using computational intelligence and an artificial neural network (ANN. Most wormhole detection schemes reported in the literature assume the sensors are uniformly distributed in a network, and, furthermore, they use statistical and topological information and special hardware for their detection. However, these schemes may perform poorly in non-uniformly distributed networks, and, moreover, they may fail to defend against “out of band” and “in band” wormhole attacks. The aim of the proposed research is to develop a detection scheme that is able to detect all kinds of wormhole attacks in both uniformly and non-uniformly distributed sensor networks. Furthermore, the proposed research does not require any special hardware and causes no significant network overhead throughout the network. Most importantly, the probable location of the malicious nodes can be identified by the proposed ANN based detection scheme. We evaluate the efficacy of the proposed detection scheme in terms of detection accuracy, false positive rate, and false negative rate. The performance of the proposed algorithm is also compared with other machine learning techniques (i.e. SVM and regularized nonlinear logistic regression (LR based detection models. The simulation results show that proposed ANN based algorithm outperforms the SVM or LR based detection schemes in terms of detection accuracy, false positive rate, and false negative rates.

  18. Intelligent Hardware-Enabled Sensor and Software Safety and Health Management for Autonomous UAS

    Rozier, Kristin Y.; Schumann, Johann; Ippolito, Corey

    2015-01-01

    Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) can only be deployed if they can effectively complete their mission and respond to failures and uncertain environmental conditions while maintaining safety with respect to other aircraft as well as humans and property on the ground. We propose to design a real-time, onboard system health management (SHM) capability to continuously monitor essential system components such as sensors, software, and hardware systems for detection and diagnosis of failures and violations of safety or performance rules during the ight of a UAS. Our approach to SHM is three-pronged, providing: (1) real-time monitoring of sensor and software signals; (2) signal analysis, preprocessing, and advanced on-the- y temporal and Bayesian probabilistic fault diagnosis; (3) an unobtrusive, lightweight, read-only, low-power hardware realization using Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) in order to avoid overburdening limited computing resources or costly re-certi cation of ight software due to instrumentation. No currently available SHM capabilities (or combinations of currently existing SHM capabilities) come anywhere close to satisfying these three criteria yet NASA will require such intelligent, hardwareenabled sensor and software safety and health management for introducing autonomous UAS into the National Airspace System (NAS). We propose a novel approach of creating modular building blocks for combining responsive runtime monitoring of temporal logic system safety requirements with model-based diagnosis and Bayesian network-based probabilistic analysis. Our proposed research program includes both developing this novel approach and demonstrating its capabilities using the NASA Swift UAS as a demonstration platform.

  19. Hybrid Swarm Intelligence Energy Efficient Clustered Routing Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Rajeev Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, wireless sensor networks (WSNs are used in many applications, namely, environment monitoring, disaster management, industrial automation, and medical electronics. Sensor nodes carry many limitations like low battery life, small memory space, and limited computing capability. To create a wireless sensor network more energy efficient, swarm intelligence technique has been applied to resolve many optimization issues in WSNs. In many existing clustering techniques an artificial bee colony (ABC algorithm is utilized to collect information from the field periodically. Nevertheless, in the event based applications, an ant colony optimization (ACO is a good solution to enhance the network lifespan. In this paper, we combine both algorithms (i.e., ABC and ACO and propose a new hybrid ABCACO algorithm to solve a Nondeterministic Polynomial (NP hard and finite problem of WSNs. ABCACO algorithm is divided into three main parts: (i selection of optimal number of subregions and further subregion parts, (ii cluster head selection using ABC algorithm, and (iii efficient data transmission using ACO algorithm. We use a hierarchical clustering technique for data transmission; the data is transmitted from member nodes to the subcluster heads and then from subcluster heads to the elected cluster heads based on some threshold value. Cluster heads use an ACO algorithm to discover the best route for data transmission to the base station (BS. The proposed approach is very useful in designing the framework for forest fire detection and monitoring. The simulation results show that the ABCACO algorithm enhances the stability period by 60% and also improves the goodput by 31% against LEACH and WSNCABC, respectively.

  20. Miniature horizontal axis wind turbine system for multipurpose application

    Xu, F.J.; Yuan, F.G.; Hu, J.Z.; Qiu, Y.P.

    2014-01-01

    A MWT (miniature wind turbine) has received great attention recently for powering WISP (Wireless Intelligent Sensor Platform). In this study, two MHAWTs (miniature horizontal axis wind turbines) with and without gear transmission were designed and fabricated. A physics-based model was proposed and the optimal load resistances of the MHAWTs were predicted. The open circuit voltages, output powers and net efficiencies were measured under various ambient winds and load resistances. The experimental results showed the optimal load resistances matched well with the predicted results; the MHAWT without gear obtained higher output power at the wind speed of 2 m/s to 6 m/s, while the geared MHAWT exhibited better performance at the wind speed higher than 6 m/s. In addition, a DCM (discontinuous conduction mode) buck-boost converter was adopted as an interface circuit to maximize the charging power from MHAWTs to rechargeable batteries, exhibiting maximum efficiencies above 85%. The charging power reached about 8 mW and 36 mW at the wind speeds of 4 m/s and 6 m/s respectively, which indicated that the MHAWTs were capable for sufficient energy harvesting for powering low-power electronics continuously. - Highlights: • Performance of the miniature wind turbines with and without gears was compared. • The physics-based model was established and proved successfully. • The interface circuit with efficiency of more than 85% was designed

  1. Ambient Intelligence and Wearable Computing: Sensors on the Body, in the Home, and Beyond

    Cook, Diane J.; Song, WenZhan

    2009-01-01

    Ambient intelligence has a history of focusing on technologies that are integrated into a person’s environment. However, ambient intelligence can be found on a person’s body as well. In this thematic issue we examine the role of wearable computing in the field of ambient intelligence. In this article we provide an overview of the field of wearable computing and discuss its relationship to the fields of smart environments and ambient intelligence. In addition, we introduce the papers presented...

  2. A basic system architecture for sensor data diffusion of environment sensors for intelligent cruise control systems; Eine Basis-Systemarchitektur zur Sensordatenfusion von Umfeldsensoren fuer Fahrerassistenzsysteme

    Darms, M.

    2007-07-01

    The design of the system architecture for sensor data diffusion at the beginning of the development process has significant influence on the cost. With a view to intelligent cruise control systems, the author investigated general assumptions concerning data association and data filtering for sensor data diffusion of environment sensors which must be considered when designing an architecture or may be considered for optimisation. The validity of the assumption is illustrated by simulations of adaptive speed control and time-to-collision calculations as well as on the basis of available literature. A basic sytem architecture is presented as a precursor of the final architecture which is based on these assumptions. Their applicability is proved by implementation in the PRORETA project. The author's work provides a validated basis for architects of a serial system architecture enabling them to design and implement their ultimate systems. (orig.)

  3. Intelligent sensor in control systems for objects with changing thermophysical properties

    Belousov, O. A.; Muromtsev, D. Yu; Belyaev, M. P.

    2018-04-01

    The control of heat devices in a wide temperature range given thermophysical properties of an object is a topical issue. Optimal control systems of electric furnaces have to meet strict requirements in terms of accuracy of production procedures and efficiency of energy consumption. The fulfillment of these requirements is possible only if the dynamics model describing adequately the processes occurring in the furnaces is used to calculate the optimal control actions. One of the types of electric furnaces is the electric chamber furnace intended for heat treatment of various materials at temperatures from thousands of degrees Celsius and above. To solve the above-mentioned problem and to determine its place in the system of energy-efficient control of dynamic modes in the electric furnace, we propose the concept of an intelligent sensor and a method of synthesizing variables on sets of functioning states. The use of synthesis algorithms for optimal control in real time ensures the required accuracy when operating under different conditions and operating modes of the electric chamber furnace.

  4. A Neural Network Based Intelligent Predictive Sensor for Cloudiness, Solar Radiation and Air Temperature

    Ferreira, Pedro M.; Gomes, João M.; Martins, Igor A. C.; Ruano, António E.

    2012-01-01

    Accurate measurements of global solar radiation and atmospheric temperature, as well as the availability of the predictions of their evolution over time, are important for different areas of applications, such as agriculture, renewable energy and energy management, or thermal comfort in buildings. For this reason, an intelligent, light-weight and portable sensor was developed, using artificial neural network models as the time-series predictor mechanisms. These have been identified with the aid of a procedure based on the multi-objective genetic algorithm. As cloudiness is the most significant factor affecting the solar radiation reaching a particular location on the Earth surface, it has great impact on the performance of predictive solar radiation models for that location. This work also represents one step towards the improvement of such models by using ground-to-sky hemispherical colour digital images as a means to estimate cloudiness by the fraction of visible sky corresponding to clouds and to clear sky. The implementation of predictive models in the prototype has been validated and the system is able to function reliably, providing measurements and four-hour forecasts of cloudiness, solar radiation and air temperature. PMID:23202230

  5. Handbook of modern sensors physics, designs, and applications

    Fraden, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive and up-to-date account of the theory (physical principles), design, and practical implementations of various sensors for scientific, industrial, and consumer applications. This latest edition focuses on the sensing technologies driven by the expanding use of sensors in mobile devices. These new miniature sensors will be described, with an emphasis on smart sensors which have embedded processing systems. The chapter on chemical sensors has also been expanded to present the latest developments. Digital systems, however complex and intelligent they may be, must receive information from the outside world that is generally analog and not electrical. Sensors are interface devices between various physical values and the electronic circuits that "understand" only a language of moving electrical charges. In other words, sensors are the eyes, ears, and noses of silicon chips. Unlike other books on sensors, the Handbook of Modern Sensors is organized according to the measured variables...

  6. Non-Contact Sensor for Long-Term Continuous Vital Signs Monitoring: A Review on Intelligent Phased-Array Doppler Sensor Design

    Hall, Travis; Nguyen, Tam Q.; Mayeda, Jill C.; Lie, Paul E.; Lopez, Jerry; Banister, Ron E.

    2017-01-01

    It has been the dream of many scientists and engineers to realize a non-contact remote sensing system that can perform continuous, accurate and long-term monitoring of human vital signs as we have seen in many Sci-Fi movies. Having an intelligible sensor system that can measure and record key vital signs (such as heart rates and respiration rates) remotely and continuously without touching the patients, for example, can be an invaluable tool for physicians who need to make rapid life-and-death decisions. Such a sensor system can also effectively help physicians and patients making better informed decisions when patients’ long-term vital signs data is available. Therefore, there has been a lot of research activities on developing a non-contact sensor system that can monitor a patient’s vital signs and quickly transmit the information to healthcare professionals. Doppler-based radio-frequency (RF) non-contact vital signs (NCVS) monitoring system are particularly attractive for long term vital signs monitoring because there are no wires, electrodes, wearable devices, nor any contact-based sensors involved so the subjects may not be even aware of the ubiquitous monitoring. In this paper, we will provide a brief review on some latest development on NCVS sensors and compare them against a few novel and intelligent phased-array Doppler-based RF NCVS biosensors we have built in our labs. Some of our NCVS sensor tests were performed within a clutter-free anechoic chamber to mitigate the environmental clutters, while most tests were conducted within the typical Herman-Miller type office cubicle setting to mimic a more practical monitoring environment. Additionally, we will show the measurement data to demonstrate the feasibility of long-term NCVS monitoring. The measured data strongly suggests that our latest phased array NCVS system should be able to perform long-term vital signs monitoring intelligently and robustly, especially for situations where the subject is

  7. Non-Contact Sensor for Long-Term Continuous Vital Signs Monitoring: A Review on Intelligent Phased-Array Doppler Sensor Design

    Travis Hall

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It has been the dream of many scientists and engineers to realize a non-contact remote sensing system that can perform continuous, accurate and long-term monitoring of human vital signs as we have seen in many Sci-Fi movies. Having an intelligible sensor system that can measure and record key vital signs (such as heart rates and respiration rates remotely and continuously without touching the patients, for example, can be an invaluable tool for physicians who need to make rapid life-and-death decisions. Such a sensor system can also effectively help physicians and patients making better informed decisions when patients’ long-term vital signs data is available. Therefore, there has been a lot of research activities on developing a non-contact sensor system that can monitor a patient’s vital signs and quickly transmit the information to healthcare professionals. Doppler-based radio-frequency (RF non-contact vital signs (NCVS monitoring system are particularly attractive for long term vital signs monitoring because there are no wires, electrodes, wearable devices, nor any contact-based sensors involved so the subjects may not be even aware of the ubiquitous monitoring. In this paper, we will provide a brief review on some latest development on NCVS sensors and compare them against a few novel and intelligent phased-array Doppler-based RF NCVS biosensors we have built in our labs. Some of our NCVS sensor tests were performed within a clutter-free anechoic chamber to mitigate the environmental clutters, while most tests were conducted within the typical Herman-Miller type office cubicle setting to mimic a more practical monitoring environment. Additionally, we will show the measurement data to demonstrate the feasibility of long-term NCVS monitoring. The measured data strongly suggests that our latest phased array NCVS system should be able to perform long-term vital signs monitoring intelligently and robustly, especially for situations where the

  8. NCU-SWIP Space Weather Instrumentation Payload - Intelligent Sensors On Efficient Real-Time Distributed LUTOS

    Yeh, Tse-Liang; Dmitriev, Alexei; Chu, Yen-Hsyang; Jiang, Shyh-Biau; Chen, Li-Wu

    The NCU-SWIP - Space Weather Instrumentation Payload is developed for simultaneous in-situ and remote measurement of space weather parameters for cross verifications. The measurements include in-situ electron density, electron temperature, magnetic field, the deceleration of satellite due to neutral wind, and remotely the linear cumulative intensities of oxygen ion air-glows at 135.6nm and 630.0nm along the flight path in forward, nader, and backward directions for tomographic reconstruction of the electron density distribution underneath. This instrument package is suitable for micro satellite constellation to establish nominal space weather profiles and, thus, to detect abnormal variations as the signs of ionospheric disturbances induced by severe atmospheric weather, or earth quake - mantle movement through their Lithosphere-Atmosphere-Ionosphere Coupling Mechanism. NCU-SWIP is constructed with intelligent sensor modules connected by common bus with their functionalities managed by an efficient distributed real-time system LUTOS. The same hierarchy can be applied to the level of satellite constellation. For example SWIP's in a constellation in coordination with the GNSS Occultation Experiment TriG planned for the Formosa-7 constellation, data can be cross correlated for verification and refinement for real-time, stable and reliable measurements. A SWIP will be contributed to the construction of a MAI Micro Satellite for verification. The SWIP consists of two separate modules: the SWIP main control module and the SWIP-PMTomo sensor module. They are respectively a 1.5kg W120xL120xH100 (in mm) box with forward facing 120mmPhi circular disk probe on a boom top edged at 470mm height and a 7.2kg W126xL590x372H (in mm) slab containing 3 legs looking downwards along the flight path, while consuming the maximum electricity of 10W and 12W. The sensors are 1) ETPEDP measuring 16bits floating potentials for electron temperature range of 1000K to 3000K and 24bits electron

  9. Intelligent mobile sensor system for drum inspection and monitoring: Phase 1

    1993-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an operational system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations at several DOE sites. Specifically, the product of this effort is a robotic device with enhanced intelligence and maneuverability capable of conducting routine inspection of stored waste drums. The device is capable of operating in narrow aisles and interpolating the free aisle space between rows of stacked drums. The system has an integrated sensor suite for leak detection, and is interfaced with a site database both for inspection planning and for data correlation, updating, and report generation. The system is capable of departing on an assigned mission, collecting required data, recording which positions of its mission had to be aborted or modified due to environmental constraints, and reporting back when the mission is complete. Successful identification of more than 90% of all drum defects has been demonstrated in a high fidelity waste storage facility mockup. Identified anomalies included rust spots, rust streaks, areas of corrosion, dents, and tilted drums. All drums were positively identified and correlated with the site database. This development effort is separated into three phases of which phase one is now complete. The first phase has demonstrated an integrated system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations. This demonstration system was quickly fielded and evaluated by leveraging technologies developed from previous NASA and DARPA contracts and internal research. The second phase will demonstrate a prototype system appropriate for operational use in an actual storage facility. The prototype provides an integrated design that considers operational requirements, hardware costs, maintenance, safety, and robustness. The final phase will demonstrate commercial viability using the prototype vehicle in a pilot waste operations and inspection project

  10. Advanced fire observation by the Intelligent Infrared Sensor prototype FOCUS on the International Space Station

    Oertel, D.; Haschberger, P.; Tank, V.; Lanzl, F.; Zhukov, B.; Jahn, H.; Briess, K.; Lorenz, E.; Roeser, H.-P.; Ginati, A.; Tobehn, C.; Schulte in den Bäumen, J.; Christmann, U.

    1999-01-01

    Current and planned operational space-borne Earth observation systems provide spatially, radiometrically or temporally crude data for the detection and monitoring of high temperature phenomena on the surface of our planet. High Temperature Events (HTE) very often cause environmental disasters. Such HTE are forest and savannah fires, fires of open coal mines, volcanic activities and others (e.g. fires of oil wells, pipelines etc.). A simultaneous co-registration of a combination of infrared (IR) and visible (VIS) channels is the key for a reliable autonomous on-board detection of High Temperature Events (HTE) on Earth surface, such as vegetation fires and volcano eruptions. This is the main feature of the FOCUS experiment. Furthermore there are ecology-oriented objectives of the FOCUS experiment mainly related to spectrometric/imaging remote inspection and parameter extraction of selected HTEs, and to the assessment of some ecological consequences of HTEs, such as aerosol and gas emission. Based on own experimental work and supported by Co-Investigators from Italy, Greece, France, Spain, Russia and Germany, DLR proposed in 1997 to use the International Space Station (ISS) in its early utilization phase as a platform and test-bed for an Intelligent Infrared Sensor prototype FOCUS of a future Environmental Disaster Recognition Satellite System. FOCUS is considered by ESA as an important mission combining a number of proven technologies and observation techniques to provide the scientific and operational user community with key data for the classification and monitoring of forest fires. FOCUS was selected as one of five European ``Groupings'' to be flown as an externally mounted payload during the early utilisation phase of the ISS. The FOCUS Phase A Study will be performed by OHB-System, DLR and Zeiss from September 1998 until May 1999.

  11. A Multi-Agent-Based Intelligent Sensor and Actuator Network Design for Smart House and Home Automation

    Fei Hu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The smart-house technology aims to increase home automation and security with reduced energy consumption. A smart house consists of various intelligent sensors and actuators operating on different platforms with conflicting objectives. This paper proposes a multi-agent system (MAS design framework to achieve smart house automation. The novelties of this work include the developments of (1 belief, desire and intention (BDI agent behavior models; (2 a regulation policy-based multi-agent collaboration mechanism; and (3 a set of metrics for MAS performance evaluation. Simulations of case studies are performed using the Java Agent Development Environment (JADE to demonstrate the advantages of the proposed method.

  12. Miniature Transportable Communications Central (MTCC): answering law enforcement needs for worldwide access to command, control, communications, and intelligence (C3I)

    Maxey, W. John

    1997-02-01

    The Mini-Transportable Communications Central (MTCC), developed by Rome Laboratories C3 Directorate, provides the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG) with a transportable, fast reaction communications terminal. The MTCC is capable of operating as a self-contained miniature command center supporting efforts such as the President's War on Drugs, or the rescue services necessary in the wake of man-made or natural disasters. The MTCC is capable of communicating with field elements including ships, small water-craft, aircraft, other elements of the USCG law enforcement agencies (LEAs), the FAA, and a wide range of U.S. and foreign armed forces. The MTCC terminal is contained in a trailer-mounted shelter suitable for towing by a 3/4 ton truck or for transport by C-130 aircraft. The MTCC provides simultaneous one-way and two-way communications in the HF, VHF, and UHF frequency bands, as well as the INMARSAT international satellite band. The MTCC also offers communications through subscriber and trunk telephone connectivity via ISDN compatible PABX. The MTCC's three channel operations personnel cellular telephone system provides self-contained cellular telephone operations in the vicinity of the deployed shelter. In the USCG application, an operator console inside the air-conditioned shelter serves as the source and destination for voice, data, and fax traffic, by means of secure fax telephone, operator headsets, and a powerful computer workstation that provides word processing, e-mail, and data communications capabilities. The communications operator may reconfigure the system for a specific mission by means of patchfields that enable the selection of radios, encrypted or clear-text operations, audio termination, and antennas.

  13. Attitude Determination Method by Fusing Single Antenna GPS and Low Cost MEMS Sensors Using Intelligent Kalman Filter Algorithm

    Lei Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For meeting the demands of cost and size for micronavigation system, a combined attitude determination approach with sensor fusion algorithm and intelligent Kalman filter (IKF on low cost Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS gyroscope, accelerometer, and magnetometer and single antenna Global Positioning System (GPS is proposed. The effective calibration method is performed to compensate the effect of errors in low cost MEMS Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU. The different control strategies fusing the MEMS multisensors are designed. The yaw angle fusing gyroscope, accelerometer, and magnetometer algorithm is estimated accurately under GPS failure and unavailable sideslip situations. For resolving robust control and characters of the uncertain noise statistics influence, the high gain scale of IKF is adjusted by fuzzy controller in the transition process and steady state to achieve faster convergence and accurate estimation. The experiments comparing different MEMS sensors and fusion algorithms are implemented to verify the validity of the proposed approach.

  14. Research Progress and Development of Sapphire Fiber Sensor

    Guochang ZHAO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sapphire fiber thermometers have become a new potential option in the field of high-temperature measurements. Recent research progress of sapphire fiber sensors is summarized; operational principles, advantages, disadvantages, and applications of sapphire fiber sensors are introduced. Research has shown that sapphire fiber sensors can be used to accurately measure very high temperatures in harsh environments and has been widely applied in fields such as aviation, metallurgy, the chemical industry, energy, and other high temperature measurement areas. Sapphire optical fiber temperature measurement technology will move toward miniaturization, intelligence following the advances in materials, micro-fabrication and communication technologies.

  15. Intelligent microchip networks: an agent-on-chip synthesis framework for the design of smart and robust sensor networks

    Bosse, Stefan

    2013-05-01

    Sensorial materials consisting of high-density, miniaturized, and embedded sensor networks require new robust and reliable data processing and communication approaches. Structural health monitoring is one major field of application for sensorial materials. Each sensor node provides some kind of sensor, electronics, data processing, and communication with a strong focus on microchip-level implementation to meet the goals of miniaturization and low-power energy environments, a prerequisite for autonomous behaviour and operation. Reliability requires robustness of the entire system in the presence of node, link, data processing, and communication failures. Interaction between nodes is required to manage and distribute information. One common interaction model is the mobile agent. An agent approach provides stronger autonomy than a traditional object or remote-procedure-call based approach. Agents can decide for themselves, which actions are performed, and they are capable of flexible behaviour, reacting on the environment and other agents, providing some degree of robustness. Traditionally multi-agent systems are abstract programming models which are implemented in software and executed on program controlled computer architectures. This approach does not well scale to micro-chip level and requires full equipped computers and communication structures, and the hardware architecture does not consider and reflect the requirements for agent processing and interaction. We propose and demonstrate a novel design paradigm for reliable distributed data processing systems and a synthesis methodology and framework for multi-agent systems implementable entirely on microchip-level with resource and power constrained digital logic supporting Agent-On-Chip architectures (AoC). The agent behaviour and mobility is fully integrated on the micro-chip using pipelined communicating processes implemented with finite-state machines and register-transfer logic. The agent behaviour

  16. Supervised-machine Learning for Intelligent Collision Avoidance Decision-making and Sensor Tasking

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Building an autonomous architecture that uses directed self-learning neuro-fuzzy networks with the aim of developing an intelligent autonomous collision avoidance...

  17. Optimal sensor placement for large structures using the nearest neighbour index and a hybrid swarm intelligence algorithm

    Lian, Jijian; He, Longjun; Ma, Bin; Peng, Wenxiang; Li, Huokun

    2013-01-01

    Research on optimal sensor placement (OSP) has become very important due to the need to obtain effective testing results with limited testing resources in health monitoring. In this study, a new methodology is proposed to select the best sensor locations for large structures. First, a novel fitness function derived from the nearest neighbour index is proposed to overcome the drawbacks of the effective independence method for OSP for large structures. This method maximizes the contribution of each sensor to modal observability and simultaneously avoids the redundancy of information between the selected degrees of freedom. A hybrid algorithm combining the improved discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO) with the clonal selection algorithm is then implemented to optimize the proposed fitness function effectively. Finally, the proposed method is applied to an arch dam for performance verification. The results show that the proposed hybrid swarm intelligence algorithm outperforms a genetic algorithm with decimal two-dimension array encoding and DPSO in the capability of global optimization. The new fitness function is advantageous in terms of sensor distribution and ensuring a well-conditioned information matrix and orthogonality of modes, indicating that this method may be used to provide guidance for OSP in various large structures. (paper)

  18. Application of Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks to Achieve Intelligent Microgrids: A Promising Approach towards a Global Smart Grid Deployment

    Alvaro Llaria

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Smart Grids (SGs constitute the evolution of the traditional electrical grid towards a new paradigm, which should increase the reliability, the security and, at the same time, reduce the costs of energy generation, distribution and consumption. Electrical microgrids (MGs can be considered the first stage of this evolution of the grid, because of the intelligent management techniques that must be applied to assure their correct operation. To accomplish this task, sensors and actuators will be necessary, along with wireless communication technologies to transmit the measured data and the command messages. Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks (WSANs are therefore a promising solution to achieve an intelligent management of MGs and, by extension, the SG. In this frame, this paper surveys several aspects concerning the application of WSANs to manage MGs and the electrical grid, as well as the communication protocols that could be applied. The main concerns regarding the SG deployment are also presented, including future scenarios where the interoperability of different generation technologies must be assured.

  19. Design and Implementation of a Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network to Support the Intelligent Control of Efficient Energy Usage.

    Blanco, Jesús; García, Andrés; Morenas, Javier de Las

    2018-06-09

    Energy saving has become a major concern for the developed society of our days. This paper presents a Wireless Sensor and Actuator Network (WSAN) designed to provide support to an automatic intelligent system, based on the Internet of Things (IoT), which enables a responsible consumption of energy. The proposed overall system performs an efficient energetic management of devices, machines and processes, optimizing their operation to achieve a reduction in their overall energy usage at any given time. For this purpose, relevant data is collected from intelligent sensors, which are in-stalled at the required locations, as well as from the energy market through the Internet. This information is analysed to provide knowledge about energy utilization, and to improve efficiency. The system takes autonomous decisions automatically, based on the available information and the specific requirements in each case. The proposed system has been implanted and tested in a food factory. Results show a great optimization of energy efficiency and a substantial improvement on energy and costs savings.

  20. An intelligent service matching method for mechanical equipment condition monitoring using the fibre Bragg grating sensor network

    Zhang, Fan; Zhou, Zude; Liu, Quan; Xu, Wenjun

    2017-02-01

    Due to the advantages of being able to function under harsh environmental conditions and serving as a distributed condition information source in a networked monitoring system, the fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensor network has attracted considerable attention for equipment online condition monitoring. To provide an overall conditional view of the mechanical equipment operation, a networked service-oriented condition monitoring framework based on FBG sensing is proposed, together with an intelligent matching method for supporting monitoring service management. In the novel framework, three classes of progressive service matching approaches, including service-chain knowledge database service matching, multi-objective constrained service matching and workflow-driven human-interactive service matching, are developed and integrated with an enhanced particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm as well as a workflow-driven mechanism. Moreover, the manufacturing domain ontology, FBG sensor network structure and monitoring object are considered to facilitate the automatic matching of condition monitoring services to overcome the limitations of traditional service processing methods. The experimental results demonstrate that FBG monitoring services can be selected intelligently, and the developed condition monitoring system can be re-built rapidly as new equipment joins the framework. The effectiveness of the service matching method is also verified by implementing a prototype system together with its performance analysis.

  1. The “Wireless Sensor Networks for City-Wide Ambient Intelligence (WISE-WAI)” Project

    Casari, Paolo; Castellani, Angelo P.; Cenedese, Angelo; Lora, Claudio; Rossi, Michele; Schenato, Luca; Zorzi, Michele

    2009-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed technical overview of some of the activities carried out in the context of the “Wireless Sensor networks for city-Wide Ambient Intelligence (WISE-WAI)” project, funded by the Cassa di Risparmio di Padova e Rovigo Foundation, Italy. The main aim of the project is to demonstrate the feasibility of large-scale wireless sensor network deployments, whereby tiny objects integrating one or more environmental sensors (humidity, temperature, light intensity), a microcontroller and a wireless transceiver are deployed over a large area, which in this case involves the buildings of the Department of Information Engineering at the University of Padova. We will describe how the network is organized to provide full-scale automated functions, and which services and applications it is configured to provide. These applications include long-term environmental monitoring, alarm event detection and propagation, single-sensor interrogation, localization and tracking of objects, assisted navigation, as well as fast data dissemination services to be used, e.g., to rapidly re-program all sensors over-the-air. The organization of such a large testbed requires notable efforts in terms of communication protocols and strategies, whose design must pursue scalability, energy efficiency (while sensors are connected through USB cables for logging and debugging purposes, most of them will be battery-operated), as well as the capability to support applications with diverse requirements. These efforts, the description of a subset of the results obtained so far, and of the final objectives to be met are the scope of the present paper. PMID:22408513

  2. Overnight non-contact continuous vital signs monitoring using an intelligent automatic beam-steering Doppler sensor at 2.4 GHz.

    Batchu, S; Narasimhachar, H; Mayeda, J C; Hall, T; Lopez, J; Nguyen, T; Banister, R E; Lie, D Y C

    2017-07-01

    Doppler-based non-contact vital signs (NCVS) sensors can monitor heart rates, respiration rates, and motions of patients without physically touching them. We have developed a novel single-board Doppler-based phased-array antenna NCVS biosensor system that can perform robust overnight continuous NCVS monitoring with intelligent automatic subject tracking and optimal beam steering algorithms. Our NCVS sensor achieved overnight continuous vital signs monitoring with an impressive heart-rate monitoring accuracy of over 94% (i.e., within ±5 Beats-Per-Minute vs. a reference sensor), analyzed from over 400,000 data points collected during each overnight monitoring period of ~ 6 hours at a distance of 1.75 meters. The data suggests our intelligent phased-array NCVS sensor can be very attractive for continuous monitoring of low-acuity patients.

  3. Intelligent mechatronics; Intelligent mechatronics

    Hashimoto, H. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

    1995-10-01

    Intelligent mechatronics (IM) was explained as follows: a study of IM essentially targets realization of a robot namely, but in the present stage the target is a creation of new values by intellectualization of machine, that is, a combination of the information infrastructure and the intelligent machine system. IM is also thought to be constituted of computers positively used and micromechatronics. The paper next introduces examples of IM study, mainly those the author is concerned with as shown below: sensor gloves, robot hands, robot eyes, tele operation, three-dimensional object recognition, mobile robot, magnetic bearing, construction of remote controlled unmanned dam, robot network, sensitivity communication using neuro baby, etc. 27 figs.

  4. New Perspectives on Intelligence Collection and Processing

    2016-06-01

    MASINT Measurement and Signature Intelligence NPS Naval Postgraduate School OSINT Open Source Intelligence pdf Probability Density Function SIGINT...MASINT): different types of sensors • Open Source Intelligence ( OSINT ): from all open sources • Signals Intelligence (SIGINT): intercepting the

  5. Intelligent Packaging Systems: Sensors and Nanosensors to Monitor Food Quality and Safety

    Guillermo Fuertes

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of nanotechnology in different areas of food packaging is an emerging field that will grow rapidly in the coming years. Advances in food safety have yielded promising results leading to the development of intelligent packaging (IP. By these containers, it is possible to monitor and provide information of the condition of food, packaging, or the environment. This article describes the role of the different concepts of intelligent packaging. It is possible that this new technology could reach enhancing food safety, improving pathogen detection time, and controlling the quality of food and packaging throughout the supply chain.

  6. An intelligent sensor array distributed system for vibration analysis and acoustic noise characterization of a linear switched reluctance actuator.

    Salvado, José; Espírito-Santo, António; Calado, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM) of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs). The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications.

  7. An Intelligent Sensor Array Distributed System for Vibration Analysis and Acoustic Noise Characterization of a Linear Switched Reluctance Actuator

    Maria Calado

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a distributed system for analysis and monitoring (DSAM of vibrations and acoustic noise, which consists of an array of intelligent modules, sensor modules, communication bus and a host PC acting as data center. The main advantages of the DSAM are its modularity, scalability, and flexibility for use of different type of sensors/transducers, with analog or digital outputs, and for signals of different nature. Its final cost is also significantly lower than other available commercial solutions. The system is reconfigurable, can operate either with synchronous or asynchronous modes, with programmable sampling frequencies, 8-bit or 12-bit resolution and a memory buffer of 15 kbyte. It allows real-time data-acquisition for signals of different nature, in applications that require a large number of sensors, thus it is suited for monitoring of vibrations in Linear Switched Reluctance Actuators (LSRAs. The acquired data allows the full characterization of the LSRA in terms of its response to vibrations of structural origins, and the vibrations and acoustic noise emitted under normal operation. The DSAM can also be used for electrical machine condition monitoring, machine fault diagnosis, structural characterization and monitoring, among other applications.

  8. Intelligent Data Transfer for Multiple Sensor Networks over a Broad Temperature Range

    Krasowski, Michael (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A sensor network may be configured to operate in extreme temperature environments. A sensor may be configured to generate a frequency carrier, and transmit the frequency carrier to a node. The node may be configured to amplitude modulate the frequency carrier, and transmit the amplitude modulated frequency carrier to a receiver.

  9. How Wireless Sensor Networks Can Benefit from Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller (BELBIC)

    Kalayci, Tahir Emre; Bahrepour, M.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are composed of small sensing and actuating devices that collaboratively monitor a phenomena, process and reason about sensor measurements, and provide adequate feedback or take actions. One of WSNs tasks is event detection, in which occurrence of events of interest

  10. Randomized Trial of Intelligent Sensor System for Early Illness Alerts in Senior Housing.

    Rantz, Marilyn; Phillips, Lorraine J; Galambos, Colleen; Lane, Kari; Alexander, Gregory L; Despins, Laurel; Koopman, Richelle J; Skubic, Marjorie; Hicks, Lanis; Miller, Steven; Craver, Andy; Harris, Bradford H; Deroche, Chelsea B

    2017-10-01

    Measure the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of using sensor data from an environmentally embedded sensor system for early illness recognition. This sensor system has demonstrated in pilot studies to detect changes in function and in chronic diseases or acute illnesses on average 10 days to 2 weeks before usual assessment methods or self-reports of illness. Prospective intervention study in 13 assisted living (AL) communities of 171 residents randomly assigned to intervention (n=86) or comparison group (n=85) receiving usual care. Intervention participants lived with the sensor system an average of one year. Continuous data collected 24 hours/7 days a week from motion sensors to measure overall activity, an under mattress bed sensor to capture respiration, pulse, and restlessness as people sleep, and a gait sensor that continuously measures gait speed, stride length and time, and automatically assess for increasing fall risk as the person walks around the apartment. Continuously running computer algorithms are applied to the sensor data and send health alerts to staff when there are changes in sensor data patterns. The randomized comparison group functionally declined more rapidly than the intervention group. Walking speed and several measures from GaitRite, velocity, step length left and right, stride length left and right, and the fall risk measure of functional ambulation profile (FAP) all had clinically significant changes. The walking speed increase (worse) and velocity decline (worse) of 0.073 m/s for comparison group exceeded 0.05 m/s, a value considered to be a minimum clinically important difference. No differences were measured in health care costs. These findings demonstrate that sensor data with health alerts and fall alerts sent to AL nursing staff can be an effective strategy to detect and intervene in early signs of illness or functional decline. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published

  11. Simulations on the prediction of cod (Gadus morhua) freshness from an intelligent packaging sensor concept

    Heising, J.K.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Dekker, M.

    2015-01-01

    A non-destructive method that monitors changes in the freshness status of packed cod fillets has potential for the development of an intelligent packaging concept. The method is based on monitoring volatile compounds that dissolve and dissociate in the sensing aqueous phase. A mathematical model was

  12. Miniaturized measurement system for ammonia in air

    Timmer, B.H.; van Delft, K.M.; Otjes, R.P.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2004-01-01

    The development of a miniaturized ammonia sensor made using microsystem technology is described. Gas is sampled in a sampler comprising two opposite channels separated by a gas permeable, water repellent polypropylene membrane. Subsequently, the acid sample solution is pumped into a selector where

  13. A framework for an on-line diagnostic expert system with intelligent sensor validation

    Kim, Young Jin

    1997-01-01

    This paper outlines a framework for performing two different but inter-related functions in diagnosis, i.e. sensor validation and reasoning under uncertainty. Sensor validation plays a vital role in the ability of the overall system to correctly determine the state of a plant monitored by imperfect sensors (Sopocy, 1990). Two subsystems, Algorithmic(ASV) and Heuristic(HSV) Sensor Validation, separate activities according to the degree of plant knowledge required and represent Sensor Validation Expert System when combined. Uncertain information in sensory values is represented through probability assignments on three discrete states, High, Normal, and Low, and additional sensor confidence measures in ASV. HSV exploits deeper knowledge about parameter interaction within the plant to cull sensor faults from the data stream. Finally the modified probability distributions and validated data are used as input to the reasoning scheme which is the run-time version of the influence diagram. The influence diagram represents the backbone of reasoning under uncertainty in Influence Diagram Knowledge Base. (author)

  14. Pervasive Monitoring—An Intelligent Sensor Pod Approach for Standardised Measurement Infrastructures

    Michael Lippautz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Geo-sensor networks have traditionally been built up in closed monolithic systems, thus limiting trans-domain usage of real-time measurements. This paper presents the technical infrastructure of a standardised embedded sensing device, which has been developed in the course of the Live Geography approach. The sensor pod implements data provision standards of the Sensor Web Enablement initiative, including an event-based alerting mechanism and location-aware Complex Event Processing functionality for detection of threshold transgression and quality assurance. The goal of this research is that the resultant highly flexible sensing architecture will bring sensor network applications one step further towards the realisation of the vision of a “digital skin for planet earth”. The developed infrastructure can potentially have far-reaching impacts on sensor-based monitoring systems through the deployment of ubiquitous and fine-grained sensor networks. This in turn allows for the straight-forward use of live sensor data in existing spatial decision support systems to enable better-informed decision-making.

  15. Automated information-analytical system for thunderstorm monitoring and early warning alarms using modern physical sensors and information technologies with elements of artificial intelligence

    Boldyreff, Anton S.; Bespalov, Dmitry A.; Adzhiev, Anatoly Kh.

    2017-05-01

    Methods of artificial intelligence are a good solution for weather phenomena forecasting. They allow to process a large amount of diverse data. Recirculation Neural Networks is implemented in the paper for the system of thunderstorm events prediction. Large amounts of experimental data from lightning sensors and electric field mills networks are received and analyzed. The average recognition accuracy of sensor signals is calculated. It is shown that Recirculation Neural Networks is a promising solution in the forecasting of thunderstorms and weather phenomena, characterized by the high efficiency of the recognition elements of the sensor signals, allows to compress images and highlight their characteristic features for subsequent recognition.

  16. The implementation of CMOS sensors within a real time digital mammography intelligent imaging system: The I-ImaS System

    Esbrand, C.; Royle, G.; Griffiths, J.; Speller, R.

    2009-07-01

    The integration of technology with healthcare has undoubtedly propelled the medical imaging sector well into the twenty first century. The concept of digital imaging introduced during the 1970s has since paved the way for established imaging techniques where digital mammography, phase contrast imaging and CT imaging are just a few examples. This paper presents a prototype intelligent digital mammography system designed and developed by a European consortium. The final system, the I-ImaS system, utilises CMOS monolithic active pixel sensor (MAPS) technology promoting on-chip data processing, enabling the acts of data processing and image acquisition to be achieved simultaneously; consequently, statistical analysis of tissue is achievable in real-time for the purpose of x-ray beam modulation via a feedback mechanism during the image acquisition procedure. The imager implements a dual array of twenty 520 pixel × 40 pixel CMOS MAPS sensing devices with a 32μm pixel size, each individually coupled to a 100μm thick thallium doped structured CsI scintillator. This paper presents the first intelligent images of real breast tissue obtained from the prototype system of real excised breast tissue where the x-ray exposure was modulated via the statistical information extracted from the breast tissue itself. Conventional images were experimentally acquired where the statistical analysis of the data was done off-line, resulting in the production of simulated real-time intelligently optimised images. The results obtained indicate real-time image optimisation using the statistical information extracted from the breast as a means of a feedback mechanisms is beneficial and foreseeable in the near future.

  17. Intelligent Mobile Sensor System for drum inspection and monitoring - Volume 2. Final report, October 1, 1993 - April 22, 1995

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) project was to develop an operational system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations at several DOE sites. Specifically, the product of this effort was a robotic device with enhanced intelligence and maneuverability capable of conducting routine inspection of stored waste drums. The system has an integrated sensor suite for problem-drum detection, and creates and maintains a site database both for inspection planning and for data correlation, updating, and report generation. The system is capable of departing on an assigned mission, collecting required data, recording which portions of its mission had to be aborted or modified due to environmental constraints, and reporting back when the mission is complete. Successful identification of more than 96% of drum defects has been demonstrated in a high fidelity waste storage facility mockup. Identified anomalies included rust spots, rust streaks, areas of corrosion, dents, and tilted drums. All drums were positively identified and correlated with the site database. This development effort was separated into three phases of which phase three is now complete. The first phase demonstrated an integrated system (maturity level IVa) for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations. The second phase demonstrated a prototype system appropriate for operational use in an actual storage facility. The prototype employed an integrated design that considered operational requirements, hardware costs, maintenance, safety, and robustness. The final phase has demonstrated the commercial viability of the vehicle in operating waste storage facilities at Fernald, Ohio and the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). This report summarizes the system upgrades performed in phase 3 and the evaluation of the IMSS Phase 3 system and vehicle

  18. Intelligent mobile sensor system for drum inspection and monitoring: Topical report, October 1, 1993--April 22, 1995

    1997-01-01

    The objective of the Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) project is to develop an operational system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations at several DOE sites. Specifically, the product of this effort is a robotic device with enhanced intelligence and maneuverability capable of conducting routine inspection of stored waste drums. The system has an integrated sensor suite for problem-drum detection, and is linked to a site database both for inspection planning and for data correlation, updating, and report generation. The system is capable of departing on an assigned mission, collecting required data, recording which portions of its mission had to be aborted or modified due to environmental constraints, and reporting back when the mission is complete. Successful identification of more than 96% of drum defects has been demonstrated in a high fidelity waste storage facility mockup. Identified anomalies included rust spots, rust streaks, areas of corrosion, dents, and tilted drums. All drums were positively identified and correlated with the site database. This development effort is separated into three phases of which phase two is now complete. The second phase demonstrated a prototype system appropriate for operational use in an actual storage facility. The prototype provides an integrated design that considers operational requirements, hardware costs, maintenance, safety, and robustness. The final phase will demonstrate commercial viability using the prototype vehicle in a pilot waste operations and inspection project. This report summarizes the design and evaluation of the new IMSS Phase 2 system and vehicle. Several parts of the IMSS Phase 1 Topical (Final) Report, which describes the requirements, design guidelines, and detailed design of the Phase 1 IMSS vehicle, are incorporated here, with modifications to reflect the changes in the design and the new elements added during the Phase 2 work

  19. Intelligent Mobile Sensor System for drum inspection and monitoring - Volume 1. Final report, October 1, 1993 - April 22, 1995

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the Intelligent Mobile Sensor System (IMSS) project is to develop an operational system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations at several DOE sites. Specifically, the product of this effort is a robotic device with enhanced intelligence and maneuverability capable of conducting routine inspection of stored waste drums. The device is capable of operating in the narrow free aisle space between rows of stacked drums. The system has an integrated sensor suite for problem-drum detection, and is linked to a site database both for inspection planning and for data correlation, updating, and report generation. The system is capable of departing on an assigned mission, collecting required data, recording which portions of its mission had to be aborted or modified due to environmental constraints, and reporting back when the mission is complete. Successful identification of more than 96% of drum defects has been demonstrated in a high fidelity waste storage facility mockup. Identified anomalies included rust spots, rust streaks, areas of corrosion, dents, and tilted drums. All drums were positively identified and correlated with the site database. This development effort is separated into three phases of which phase two is now complete. The first phase demonstrated an integrated system (maturity level IVa) for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations. The second phase demonstrated a prototype system appropriate for operational use in an actual storage facility. The prototype provides an integrated design that considers operational requirements, hardware costs, maintenance, safety, and robustness. The final phase will demonstrate commercial viability using the prototype vehicle in a pilot waste operations and inspection project. This report summarizes the design and evaluation of the new IMSS Phase 2 system and vehicle

  20. Motion Sensors and Transducers to Navigate an Intelligent Mechatronic Platform for Outdoor Applications

    Michail G. PAPOUTSIDAKIS

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The initial goal of this project is to investigate if different sensor types and their attached transducers can support everyday human needs. Nowadays, there is a constant need to automate many time consuming applications not only in industrial environments but also in smaller scale applications, therefore robotics is a field that continuously tracks research interest. The area of human assistance by machines in everyday needs, continues to grow and to keep users interest very high. "Mechatronics" differ from Robotics in terms of integrated electronics, the advantage of being easily re-programmable and more over the versatility of hosting all kind of sensor types, sensor networks, transducers and actuators. In this research project, such an integrated autonomous device will be presented, focusing around the use of sensors and their feedback signals for proximity, position, motion, distance, placement and finally navigation. The ultimate sensor type choice for the task as well as all transducers signals management will also be highlighted. An up-to-date technology microcontroller will host all the above information and moreover move the mechatronic platform via motor actuators. The control algorithm which will be designed for the application is responsible for receiving all feedback signals, processing them and safely navigate the system in order to undertake its mission. The project scenario, the necessary electronic equipment and the controller design method will be highlighted in the following paragraphs of this document. Conclusions and results of sensor usage, platform's performance and problems solutions, forms the rest of this paper body.

  1. Artificial intelligence/fuzzy logic method for analysis of combined signals from heavy metal chemical sensors

    Turek, M.; Heiden, W.; Riesen, A.; Chhabda, T.A.; Schubert, J.; Zander, W.; Krueger, P.; Keusgen, M.; Schoening, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    The cross-sensitivity of chemical sensors for several metal ions resembles in a way the overlapping sensitivity of some biological sensors, like the optical colour receptors of human retinal cone cells. While it is difficult to assign crisp classification values to measurands based on complex overlapping sensory signals, fuzzy logic offers a possibility to mathematically model such systems. Current work goes into the direction of mixed heavy metal solutions and the combination of fuzzy logic with heavy metal-sensitive, silicon-based chemical sensors for training scenarios of arbitrary sensor/probe combinations in terms of an electronic tongue. Heavy metals play an important role in environmental analysis. As trace elements as well as water impurities released from industrial processes they occur in the environment. In this work, the development of a new fuzzy logic method based on potentiometric measurements performed with three different miniaturised chalcogenide glass sensors in different heavy metal solutions will be presented. The critical validation of the developed fuzzy logic program will be demonstrated by means of measurements in unknown single- and multi-component heavy metal solutions. Limitations of this program and a comparison between calculated and expected values in terms of analyte composition and heavy metal ion concentration will be shown and discussed.

  2. Artificial intelligence/fuzzy logic method for analysis of combined signals from heavy metal chemical sensors

    Turek, M. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies (INB), Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Heiden, W.; Riesen, A. [Bonn-Rhein-Sieg University of Applied Sciences, Sankt Augustin (Germany); Chhabda, T.A. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies (INB), Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Schubert, J.; Zander, W. [Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany); Krueger, P. [Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, RWTH Aachen, Aachen (Germany); Keusgen, M. [Institute for Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Philipps-University Marburg, Marburg (Germany); Schoening, M.J. [Institute of Nano- and Biotechnologies (INB), Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Campus Juelich, Juelich (Germany); Institute of Bio- and Nanosystems (IBN), Research Centre Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany)], E-mail: m.j.schoening@fz-juelich.de

    2009-10-30

    The cross-sensitivity of chemical sensors for several metal ions resembles in a way the overlapping sensitivity of some biological sensors, like the optical colour receptors of human retinal cone cells. While it is difficult to assign crisp classification values to measurands based on complex overlapping sensory signals, fuzzy logic offers a possibility to mathematically model such systems. Current work goes into the direction of mixed heavy metal solutions and the combination of fuzzy logic with heavy metal-sensitive, silicon-based chemical sensors for training scenarios of arbitrary sensor/probe combinations in terms of an electronic tongue. Heavy metals play an important role in environmental analysis. As trace elements as well as water impurities released from industrial processes they occur in the environment. In this work, the development of a new fuzzy logic method based on potentiometric measurements performed with three different miniaturised chalcogenide glass sensors in different heavy metal solutions will be presented. The critical validation of the developed fuzzy logic program will be demonstrated by means of measurements in unknown single- and multi-component heavy metal solutions. Limitations of this program and a comparison between calculated and expected values in terms of analyte composition and heavy metal ion concentration will be shown and discussed.

  3. Miniature Optical Isolator, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for miniature optical isolators in atom interferometry applications, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a miniature optical...

  4. Lightweight, Miniature Inertial Measurement System

    Tang, Liang; Crassidis, Agamemnon

    2012-01-01

    A miniature, lighter-weight, and highly accurate inertial navigation system (INS) is coupled with GPS receivers to provide stable and highly accurate positioning, attitude, and inertial measurements while being subjected to highly dynamic maneuvers. In contrast to conventional methods that use extensive, groundbased, real-time tracking and control units that are expensive, large, and require excessive amounts of power to operate, this method focuses on the development of an estimator that makes use of a low-cost, miniature accelerometer array fused with traditional measurement systems and GPS. Through the use of a position tracking estimation algorithm, onboard accelerometers are numerically integrated and transformed using attitude information to obtain an estimate of position in the inertial frame. Position and velocity estimates are subject to drift due to accelerometer sensor bias and high vibration over time, and so require the integration with GPS information using a Kalman filter to provide highly accurate and reliable inertial tracking estimations. The method implemented here uses the local gravitational field vector. Upon determining the location of the local gravitational field vector relative to two consecutive sensors, the orientation of the device may then be estimated, and the attitude determined. Improved attitude estimates further enhance the inertial position estimates. The device can be powered either by batteries, or by the power source onboard its target platforms. A DB9 port provides the I/O to external systems, and the device is designed to be mounted in a waterproof case for all-weather conditions.

  5. Piezoceramic devices and PVDF films as sensors and actuators for intelligent structures

    Hanagud, S.; Obal, M. W.; Calise, A. G.

    The use of bonded piezoceramic sensors and piezoceramic actuators to control vibrations in structural dynamic systems is discussed. Equations for developing optimum control strategies are derived. An example of a cantilever beam is considered to illustrate the development procedure for optimal vibration control of structures by the use of piezoceramic sensors, actuators, and rate feedbacks with appropriate gains. Research areas and future directions are outlined, including dynamic coupling and constitutive equations; load and energy transfer; composite structures; optimal dynamic compensation; estimation and identification; and distributed control.

  6. The Xsense project: The application of an intelligent sensor array for high sensitivity handheld explosives detectors

    Kostesha, Natalie; Schmidt, Michael Stenbæk; Bosco, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    Multiple independent sensors are used in security and military applications in order to increase sensitivity, selectivity and data reliability. The Xsense project has been initiated at the Technical University of Denmark in collaboration with a number of partners in an effort to produce a handheld...

  7. Augmented Teams -- Assembling Smart Sensors, Intelligent Networks and Humans into Agile Task Groups

    Neef, R.M.; Rijn, M. van; Marck, J.W.; Keus, D.

    2009-01-01

    Safety and security environments are full of networked devices. Despite ample research on sensor networks and network technology, there is little practical comprehensive work on how to incorporate such technologies effectively into human-centered teams. This paper discusses the challenge of

  8. Path planning in GPS-denied environments via collective intelligence of distributed sensor networks

    Jha, Devesh K.; Chattopadhyay, Pritthi; Sarkar, Soumik; Ray, Asok

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a framework for reactive goal-directed navigation without global positioning facilities in unknown dynamic environments. A mobile sensor network is used for localising regions of interest for path planning of an autonomous mobile robot. The underlying theory is an extension of a generalised gossip algorithm that has been recently developed in a language-measure-theoretic setting. The algorithm has been used to propagate local decisions of target detection over a mobile sensor network and thus, it generates a belief map for the detected target over the network. In this setting, an autonomous mobile robot may communicate only with a few mobile sensing nodes in its own neighbourhood and localise itself relative to the communicating nodes with bounded uncertainties. The robot makes use of the knowledge based on the belief of the mobile sensors to generate a sequence of way-points, leading to a possible goal. The estimated way-points are used by a sampling-based motion planning algorithm to generate feasible trajectories for the robot. The proposed concept has been validated by numerical simulation on a mobile sensor network test-bed and a Dubin's car-like robot.

  9. Miniaturization of a Quasi-Servo Valve and Its Application to Positon Control of a Rubber Artificial Muscle with Built-in Sensor

    Moriwake Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the care and welfare pneumatic devices to support a nursing care and a self-reliance of the elderly and the disabled are actively researched and developed by many researchers. These wearable devices require many actuators and control valves for multi degrees of freedom. The total weight and volume of the wearable devices increases according to the degree of freedom. Our final goal is to develop a compact wearable actuator with built-in sensor, controller and control valve and to apply it to a wearable assisted device. In our previous study, a small-sized quasi-servo valve which consists of two on/off control valves and an embedded controller was developed. In this study, the quasi-servo valve composing of much smaller-sized (40% in mass, 42% in volume on/off valves is proposed and tested. In addition, the rubber artificial muscle with an ultrasonic sensor as a built-in displacement sensor is proposed and a position control of the muscle is carried out using the tested tiny valve and built-in sensor. As a result, it was confirmed that the position control of the muscle can be realized using the tested ultrasonic sensor.

  10. Intelligent environmental sensing

    Mukhopadhyay, Subhas

    2015-01-01

    Developing environmental sensing and monitoring technologies become essential especially for industries that may cause severe contamination. Intelligent environmental sensing uses novel sensor techniques, intelligent signal and data processing algorithms, and wireless sensor networks to enhance environmental sensing and monitoring. It finds applications in many environmental problems such as oil and gas, water quality, and agriculture. This book addresses issues related to three main approaches to intelligent environmental sensing and discusses their latest technological developments. Key contents of the book include:   Agricultural monitoring Classification, detection, and estimation Data fusion Geological monitoring Motor monitoring Multi-sensor systems Oil reservoirs monitoring Sensor motes Water quality monitoring Wireless sensor network protocol  

  11. Ultrasonic velocity measurements- a potential sensor for intelligent processing of austenitic stainless steels

    Venkadesan, S.; Palanichamy, P.; Vasudevan, M.; Baldev Raj

    1996-01-01

    Development of sensors based on Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) techniques for on-line sensing of microstructure and properties requires a thorough knowledge on the relation between the sensing mechanism/measurement of an NDE technique and the microstructure. As a first step towards developing an on-line sensor for studying the dynamic microstructural changes during processing of austenitic stainless steels, ultrasonic velocity measurements have been carried out to study the microstructural changes after processing. Velocity measurements could follow the progress of annealing starting from recovery, onset and completion of recrystallization, sense the differences in the microstructure obtained after hot deformation and estimate the grain size. This paper brings out the relation between the sensing method based on ultrasonic velocity measurements and the microstructure in austenitic stainless steel. (author)

  12. Optimized Routing of Intelligent, Mobile Sensors for Dynamic, Data-Driven Sampling

    2016-09-27

    a. REPORT b. ABSTRACT c. THIS PAGE 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39.18 Adobe Professional 7.0...in the domain, as further illustrated in [58, 53]. Traveling as fast as possible may not be the best solu- tion, however, for a nonstationary field...Application I: Wake Estimation and Formation Control 3.1 Aerodynamic Model This section illustrates the DDDAS concept using an observability-based sensor

  13. An Intelligent Sensor System for Monitoring Fatigue Damage in Welded Steel Components

    Fernandes, B.; Gaydecki, P.; Burdekin, F. Michael

    2005-04-01

    A system for monitoring fatigue damage in steel components is described. The sensor, a thin steel sheet with a pre-crack in it, is attached to the component. Its crack length increases by fatigue in service and is recorded using a microcontroller. Measurement is accomplished using conductive tracks in a circuit whose output voltage changes when the crack propagates past a track. Data stored in memory can be remotely downloaded using Bluetooth™ technology to a PC.

  14. An Intelligent Sensor System for Monitoring Fatigue Damage in Welded Steel Components

    Fernandes, B.; Gaydecki, P.; Burdekin, F. Michael

    2005-01-01

    A system for monitoring fatigue damage in steel components is described. The sensor, a thin steel sheet with a pre-crack in it, is attached to the component. Its crack length increases by fatigue in service and is recorded using a microcontroller. Measurement is accomplished using conductive tracks in a circuit whose output voltage changes when the crack propagates past a track. Data stored in memory can be remotely downloaded using Bluetooth TM technology to a PC

  15. Intelligent error correction method applied on an active pixel sensor based star tracker

    Schmidt, Uwe

    2005-10-01

    Star trackers are opto-electronic sensors used on-board of satellites for the autonomous inertial attitude determination. During the last years star trackers became more and more important in the field of the attitude and orbit control system (AOCS) sensors. High performance star trackers are based up today on charge coupled device (CCD) optical camera heads. The active pixel sensor (APS) technology, introduced in the early 90-ties, allows now the beneficial replacement of CCD detectors by APS detectors with respect to performance, reliability, power, mass and cost. The company's heritage in star tracker design started in the early 80-ties with the launch of the worldwide first fully autonomous star tracker system ASTRO1 to the Russian MIR space station. Jena-Optronik recently developed an active pixel sensor based autonomous star tracker "ASTRO APS" as successor of the CCD based star tracker product series ASTRO1, ASTRO5, ASTRO10 and ASTRO15. Key features of the APS detector technology are, a true xy-address random access, the multiple windowing read out and the on-chip signal processing including the analogue to digital conversion. These features can be used for robust star tracking at high slew rates and under worse conditions like stray light and solar flare induced single event upsets. A special algorithm have been developed to manage the typical APS detector error contributors like fixed pattern noise (FPN), dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU) and white spots. The algorithm works fully autonomous and adapts to e.g. increasing DSNU and up-coming white spots automatically without ground maintenance or re-calibration. In contrast to conventional correction methods the described algorithm does not need calibration data memory like full image sized calibration data sets. The application of the presented algorithm managing the typical APS detector error contributors is a key element for the design of star trackers for long term satellite applications like

  16. Self-Learning Embedded System for Object Identification in Intelligent Infrastructure Sensors

    Monica Villaverde

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of new horizons in the field of travel assistant management leads to the development of cutting-edge systems focused on improving the existing ones. Moreover, new opportunities are being also presented since systems trend to be more reliable and autonomous. In this paper, a self-learning embedded system for object identification based on adaptive-cooperative dynamic approaches is presented for intelligent sensor’s infrastructures. The proposed system is able to detect and identify moving objects using a dynamic decision tree. Consequently, it combines machine learning algorithms and cooperative strategies in order to make the system more adaptive to changing environments. Therefore, the proposed system may be very useful for many applications like shadow tolls since several types of vehicles may be distinguished, parking optimization systems, improved traffic conditions systems, etc.

  17. Infrared Sensor System for Mobile-Robot Positioning in Intelligent Spaces

    Luis Pallarés Puerto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to position a Mobile Robot in an Intelligent Space, and this paper presents a sensorial system for measuring differential phase-shifts in a sinusoidally modulated infrared signal transmitted from the robot. Differential distances were obtained from these phase-shifts, and the position of the robot was estimated by hyperbolic trilateration. Due to the extremely severe trade-off between SNR, angle (coverage and real-time response, a very accurate design and device selection was required to achieve good precision with wide coverage and acceptable robot speed. An I/Q demodulator was used to measure phases with one-stage synchronous demodulation to DC. A complete set of results from real measurements, both for distance and position estimations, is provided to demonstrate the validity of the system proposed, comparing it with other similar indoor positioning systems.

  18. Miniature radioactive light source

    Caffarella, T.E.; Radda, G.J.; Dooley, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    A miniature radioactive light source for illuminating digital watches is described consisting of a glass tube with improved laser sealing and strength containing tritium gas and a transducer responsive to the gas. (U.K.)

  19. An intelligent signal processing and pattern recognition technique for defect identification using an active sensor network

    Su, Zhongqing; Ye, Lin

    2004-08-01

    The practical utilization of elastic waves, e.g. Rayleigh-Lamb waves, in high-performance structural health monitoring techniques is somewhat impeded due to the complicated wave dispersion phenomena, the existence of multiple wave modes, the high susceptibility to diverse interferences, the bulky sampled data and the difficulty in signal interpretation. An intelligent signal processing and pattern recognition (ISPPR) approach using the wavelet transform and artificial neural network algorithms was developed; this was actualized in a signal processing package (SPP). The ISPPR technique comprehensively functions as signal filtration, data compression, characteristic extraction, information mapping and pattern recognition, capable of extracting essential yet concise features from acquired raw wave signals and further assisting in structural health evaluation. For validation, the SPP was applied to the prediction of crack growth in an alloy structural beam and construction of a damage parameter database for defect identification in CF/EP composite structures. It was clearly apparent that the elastic wave propagation-based damage assessment could be dramatically streamlined by introduction of the ISPPR technique.

  20. SMARBot: a modular miniature mobile robot platform

    Meng, Yan; Johnson, Kerry; Simms, Brian; Conforth, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    Miniature robots have many advantages over their larger counterparts, such as low cost, low power, and easy to build a large scale team for complex tasks. Heterogeneous multi miniature robots could provide powerful situation awareness capability due to different locomotion capabilities and sensor information. However, it would be expensive and time consuming to develop specific embedded system for different type of robots. In this paper, we propose a generic modular embedded system architecture called SMARbot (Stevens Modular Autonomous Robot), which consists of a set of hardware and software modules that can be configured to construct various types of robot systems. These modules include a high performance microprocessor, a reconfigurable hardware component, wireless communication, and diverse sensor and actuator interfaces. The design of all the modules in electrical subsystem, the selection criteria for module components, and the real-time operating system are described. Some proofs of concept experimental results are also presented.

  1. Welding station condition monitoring using bluetooth enabled sensors and intelligent data management

    Eyers, D R; Grosvenor, R I; Prickett, P W [Intelligent Process Monitoring and Management (IPMM) Group, Cardiff School of Engineering, Cardiff University, Wales (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on the first phase deployment of bluetooth enabled condition monitoring systems at a large multinational engineering company. The radio networking of sensor signals is a fast developing area and the facilities afforded by the Wisnet device were used in the monitoring of a welding station. This and any of the planned further monitoring systems had to comply to a carefully managed IT information plan at the company. For the example application, the development and testing of microcontoller-based pre-processing of data is reported. This includes further development of the Petri Net approach to provide event-based monitoring as a sensible alternative to the continuous transmission of the sensory data.

  2. Aerial Mapping of Forests Affected by Pathogens Using UAVs, Hyperspectral Sensors, and Artificial Intelligence.

    Sandino, Juan; Pegg, Geoff; Gonzalez, Felipe; Smith, Grant

    2018-03-22

    The environmental and economic impacts of exotic fungal species on natural and plantation forests have been historically catastrophic. Recorded surveillance and control actions are challenging because they are costly, time-consuming, and hazardous in remote areas. Prolonged periods of testing and observation of site-based tests have limitations in verifying the rapid proliferation of exotic pathogens and deterioration rates in hosts. Recent remote sensing approaches have offered fast, broad-scale, and affordable surveys as well as additional indicators that can complement on-ground tests. This paper proposes a framework that consolidates site-based insights and remote sensing capabilities to detect and segment deteriorations by fungal pathogens in natural and plantation forests. This approach is illustrated with an experimentation case of myrtle rust ( Austropuccinia psidii ) on paperbark tea trees ( Melaleuca quinquenervia ) in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. The method integrates unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), hyperspectral image sensors, and data processing algorithms using machine learning. Imagery is acquired using a Headwall Nano-Hyperspec ® camera, orthorectified in Headwall SpectralView ® , and processed in Python programming language using eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost), Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL), and Scikit-learn third-party libraries. In total, 11,385 samples were extracted and labelled into five classes: two classes for deterioration status and three classes for background objects. Insights reveal individual detection rates of 95% for healthy trees, 97% for deteriorated trees, and a global multiclass detection rate of 97%. The methodology is versatile to be applied to additional datasets taken with different image sensors, and the processing of large datasets with freeware tools.

  3. Fiscal 2000 achievement report on the venture business assisting type regional consortium - Minor business creation base type. Development of 1-chip multifunctional motion sensor and its application to intelligent module; 2000 nendo chiiki consortium kenkyu kaihatsu jigyo seika hokokusho. 1 chip gata takino undo sensor no kaihatsu to intelligent module eno tekiyo

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    The aim is to embody an intelligent micromodule for sensing bodily motions. For this purpose, technologies were established for high accuracy/high aspect ratio etching of crystals and for detecting angular velocity and acceleration, and a 1-chip multifunctional motion sensor was developed. The results of the efforts are briefly described below. A 1-chip multifunctional motion sensor (device size: 16 times 6 times 0.3mm) was developed, capable of simultaneously detecting uniaxial acceleration and uniaxial angular velocity, and an operating circuit was established for the detection. Using the 1-chip multifunctional motion sensor, a wrist watch type intelligent module was developed, capable of discriminating between various patterns of human behavior (walking, jogging, desk work, etc.). An intelligent module and the host computer were connected by wire or radio enabling the real-time observation of a patient's kinetic behavior, and this helped develop an application program allowing the quantification of the rate of recovery of patients undergoing rehabilitation. Using an intelligent module, an application program was developed enabling a laryngeal patient to establish communication by a physical action in case of emergency. (NEDO)

  4. Games and Entertainment in Ambient Intelligence Environments

    Nijholt, Antinus; Reidsma, Dennis; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Aghajan, H.; López-Cózar Delgado, R.; Augusto, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    In future ambient intelligence (AmI) environments we assume intelligence embedded in the environment and its objects (floors, furniture, mobile robots). These environments support their human inhabitants in their activities and interactions by perceiving them through sensors (proximity sensors,

  5. Intelligent Fault Diagnosis of Delta 3D Printers Using Attitude Sensors Based on Support Vector Machines

    Kun He

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Health condition is a vital factor affecting printing quality for a 3D printer. In this work, an attitude monitoring approach is proposed to diagnose the fault of the delta 3D printer using support vector machines (SVM. An attitude sensor was mounted on the moving platform of the printer to monitor its 3-axial attitude angle, angular velocity, vibratory acceleration and magnetic field intensity. The attitude data of the working printer were collected under different conditions involving 12 fault types and a normal condition. The collected data were analyzed for diagnosing the health condition. To this end, the combination of binary classification, one-against-one with least-square SVM, was adopted for fault diagnosis modelling by using all channels of attitude monitoring data in the experiment. For comparison, each one channel of the attitude monitoring data was employed for model training and testing. On the other hand, a back propagation neural network (BPNN was also applied to diagnose fault using the same data. The best fault diagnosis accuracy (94.44% was obtained when all channels of the attitude monitoring data were used with SVM modelling. The results indicate that the attitude monitoring with SVM is an effective method for the fault diagnosis of delta 3D printers.

  6. Intelligent sensors for evaluating reservoir and well profiles in horizontal wells : Saudi Arabia case histories

    Al-Buali, M.H.; Dashash, A.A. [Saudi Aramco, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); El Gammal, T.; Arevalo, F.; Torne, J. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    Horizontal wells are commonly used in Saudi Arabia because they have proven advantages in optimizing production and cost. However, in order to ensure proper production, these wells occasionally require downhole measurements of the flow profile; wellbore parameters such as water entry points; and productivity index for remedial action, such as water shut off or well stimulation. Evaluating the performance of a well also contributes to a better understanding of sweep, water production and cross flow, particularly in long reach wells. The most common flow regime at downhole conditions is a stratified flow regime in which lighter oil flows on top and heavier water flows on bottom. Slugging and bubbling flow regimes are typical of low oil flow rate and are considered unstable flow regimes. This paper described a new generation of production logging tools (PLTs) that have been used on some horizontal wet producers located in Saudi Arabia. The new PLTs consists of arrays of spinners and sensors to log the entire cross section to describe the horizontal flow regime and measure the downhole production and phases. In an effort to find the best logging procedure, the PLT was tested using two methods, notably coiled tubing (CT) and wireline tractor. It was concluded that PLTs are reliable and accurate. Case studies involving planning, deployment, data acquisition, and detailed analysis of PLTs were presented. 35 refs., 1 tab., 20 figs.

  7. Intelligent Fault Diagnosis of Delta 3D Printers Using Attitude Sensors Based on Support Vector Machines

    He, Kun; Yang, Zhijun; Bai, Yun; Long, Jianyu; Li, Chuan

    2018-01-01

    Health condition is a vital factor affecting printing quality for a 3D printer. In this work, an attitude monitoring approach is proposed to diagnose the fault of the delta 3D printer using support vector machines (SVM). An attitude sensor was mounted on the moving platform of the printer to monitor its 3-axial attitude angle, angular velocity, vibratory acceleration and magnetic field intensity. The attitude data of the working printer were collected under different conditions involving 12 fault types and a normal condition. The collected data were analyzed for diagnosing the health condition. To this end, the combination of binary classification, one-against-one with least-square SVM, was adopted for fault diagnosis modelling by using all channels of attitude monitoring data in the experiment. For comparison, each one channel of the attitude monitoring data was employed for model training and testing. On the other hand, a back propagation neural network (BPNN) was also applied to diagnose fault using the same data. The best fault diagnosis accuracy (94.44%) was obtained when all channels of the attitude monitoring data were used with SVM modelling. The results indicate that the attitude monitoring with SVM is an effective method for the fault diagnosis of delta 3D printers. PMID:29690641

  8. Intelligent Fault Diagnosis of Delta 3D Printers Using Attitude Sensors Based on Support Vector Machines.

    He, Kun; Yang, Zhijun; Bai, Yun; Long, Jianyu; Li, Chuan

    2018-04-23

    Health condition is a vital factor affecting printing quality for a 3D printer. In this work, an attitude monitoring approach is proposed to diagnose the fault of the delta 3D printer using support vector machines (SVM). An attitude sensor was mounted on the moving platform of the printer to monitor its 3-axial attitude angle, angular velocity, vibratory acceleration and magnetic field intensity. The attitude data of the working printer were collected under different conditions involving 12 fault types and a normal condition. The collected data were analyzed for diagnosing the health condition. To this end, the combination of binary classification, one-against-one with least-square SVM, was adopted for fault diagnosis modelling by using all channels of attitude monitoring data in the experiment. For comparison, each one channel of the attitude monitoring data was employed for model training and testing. On the other hand, a back propagation neural network (BPNN) was also applied to diagnose fault using the same data. The best fault diagnosis accuracy (94.44%) was obtained when all channels of the attitude monitoring data were used with SVM modelling. The results indicate that the attitude monitoring with SVM is an effective method for the fault diagnosis of delta 3D printers.

  9. Instrumental intelligent test of food sensory quality as mimic of human panel test combining multiple cross-perception sensors and data fusion

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • To develop a novel instrumental intelligent test methodology for food sensory analysis. • A novel data fusion was used in instrumental intelligent test methodology. • Linear and nonlinear tools were comparatively used for modeling. • The instrumental test methodology can be imitative of human test behavior. - Abstract: Instrumental test of food quality using perception sensors instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. A novel cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion imitating multiple mammal perception was proposed for the instrumental test in this work. First, three mimic sensors of electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue were used in sequence for data acquisition of rice wine samples. Then all data from the three different sensors were preprocessed and merged. Next, three cross-perception variables i.e., color, aroma and taste, were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) which were used as the input of models. MLR, back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were comparatively used for modeling, and the instrumental test was achieved for the comprehensive quality of samples. Results showed the proposed cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion presented obvious superiority to the traditional data fusion methodologies, also achieved a high correlation coefficient (>90%) with the human panel test results. This work demonstrated that the instrumental test based on the cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion can actually mimic the human test behavior, therefore is of great significance to ensure the quality of products and decrease the loss of the manufacturers

  10. Instrumental intelligent test of food sensory quality as mimic of human panel test combining multiple cross-perception sensors and data fusion

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng, E-mail: qschen@ujs.edu.cn

    2014-09-02

    Highlights: • To develop a novel instrumental intelligent test methodology for food sensory analysis. • A novel data fusion was used in instrumental intelligent test methodology. • Linear and nonlinear tools were comparatively used for modeling. • The instrumental test methodology can be imitative of human test behavior. - Abstract: Instrumental test of food quality using perception sensors instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. A novel cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion imitating multiple mammal perception was proposed for the instrumental test in this work. First, three mimic sensors of electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue were used in sequence for data acquisition of rice wine samples. Then all data from the three different sensors were preprocessed and merged. Next, three cross-perception variables i.e., color, aroma and taste, were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) which were used as the input of models. MLR, back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were comparatively used for modeling, and the instrumental test was achieved for the comprehensive quality of samples. Results showed the proposed cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion presented obvious superiority to the traditional data fusion methodologies, also achieved a high correlation coefficient (>90%) with the human panel test results. This work demonstrated that the instrumental test based on the cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion can actually mimic the human test behavior, therefore is of great significance to ensure the quality of products and decrease the loss of the manufacturers.

  11. Intelligent mobile sensor system for drum inspection and monitoring: Phase 1. Topical report, October 1, 1992--June 8, 1993

    1993-06-01

    The objective of this project was to develop an operational system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations at several DOE sites. Specifically, the product of this effort is a robotic device with enhanced intelligence and maneuverability capable of conducting routine inspection of stored waste drums. The device is capable of operating in narrow aisles and interpolating the free aisle space between rows of stacked drums. The system has an integrated sensor suite for leak detection, and is interfaced with a site database both for inspection planning and for data correlation, updating, and report generation. The system is capable of departing on an assigned mission, collecting required data, recording which positions of its mission had to be aborted or modified due to environmental constraints, and reporting back when the mission is complete. Successful identification of more than 90% of all drum defects has been demonstrated in a high fidelity waste storage facility mockup. Identified anomalies included rust spots, rust streaks, areas of corrosion, dents, and tilted drums. All drums were positively identified and correlated with the site database. This development effort is separated into three phases of which phase one is now complete. The first phase has demonstrated an integrated system for monitoring and inspection activities for waste storage facility operations. This demonstration system was quickly fielded and evaluated by leveraging technologies developed from previous NASA and DARPA contracts and internal research. The second phase will demonstrate a prototype system appropriate for operational use in an actual storage facility. The prototype provides an integrated design that considers operational requirements, hardware costs, maintenance, safety, and robustness. The final phase will demonstrate commercial viability using the prototype vehicle in a pilot waste operations and inspection project.

  12. Integrating GPS, GYRO, vehicle speed sensor, and digital map to provide accurate and real-time position in an intelligent navigation system

    Li, Qingquan; Fang, Zhixiang; Li, Hanwu; Xiao, Hui

    2005-10-01

    The global positioning system (GPS) has become the most extensively used positioning and navigation tool in the world. Applications of GPS abound in surveying, mapping, transportation, agriculture, military planning, GIS, and the geosciences. However, the positional and elevation accuracy of any given GPS location is prone to error, due to a number of factors. The applications of Global Positioning System (GPS) positioning is more and more popular, especially the intelligent navigation system which relies on GPS and Dead Reckoning technology is developing quickly for future huge market in China. In this paper a practical combined positioning model of GPS/DR/MM is put forward, which integrates GPS, Gyro, Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS) and digital navigation maps to provide accurate and real-time position for intelligent navigation system. This model is designed for automotive navigation system making use of Kalman filter to improve position and map matching veracity by means of filtering raw GPS and DR signals, and then map-matching technology is used to provide map coordinates for map displaying. In practical examples, for illustrating the validity of the model, several experiments and their results of integrated GPS/DR positioning in intelligent navigation system will be shown for the conclusion that Kalman Filter based GPS/DR integrating position approach is necessary, feasible and efficient for intelligent navigation application. Certainly, this combined positioning model, similar to other model, can not resolve all situation issues. Finally, some suggestions are given for further improving integrated GPS/DR/MM application.

  13. Miniature UAVs : An overview

    Weimar, P.W.L.; Kerkkamp, J.S.F.; Wiel, R.A.N.; Meiller, P.P.; Bos, J.G.H.

    2014-01-01

    With this book TNO provides an overview of topics related to Miniature Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (MUAVs). Both novices and experts may find this publication valuable. The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO conducts research on UAVs and MUAVs, see for example [1], on the

  14. A Miniature Recording Cardiotachometer

    Zsombor-Murray, Paul J; Vroomen, Louis J.; Hendriksen, Nils Thedin

    1981-01-01

    The design of a miniature, recording cardiotachometer is described. It is simple and can store digital data. Bench and field tests, using a hand-held display, are presented. Construction and principles of operation are discussed. Applications, with performing athlete subjects, are outlined....

  15. Miniature Centrifugal Compressor

    Sixsmith, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    Miniature turbocompressor designed for reliability and long life. Cryogenic system includes compressor, turboexpander, and heat exchanger provides 5 W of refrigeration at 70 K from 150 W input power. Design speed of machine 510,000 rpm. Compressor has gas-lubricated journal bearings and magnetic thrust bearing. When compressor runs no bearing contact and no wear.

  16. A miniature electrical capacitance tomograph

    York, T. A.; Phua, T. N.; Reichelt, L.; Pawlowski, A.; Kneer, R.

    2006-08-01

    The paper describes a miniature electrical capacitance tomography system. This is based on a custom CMOS silicon integrated circuit comprising eight channels of signal conditioning electronics to source drive signals and measure voltages. Electrodes are deposited around a hole that is fabricated, using ultrasonic drilling, through a ceramic substrate and has an average diameter of 0.75 mm. The custom chip is interfaced to a host computer via a bespoke data acquisition system based on a microcontroller, field programmable logic device and wide shift register. This provides fast capture of up to 750 frames of data prior to uploading to the host computer. Data capture rates of about 6000 frames per second have been achieved for the eight-electrode sensor. This rate could be increased but at the expense of signal to noise. Captured data are uploaded to a PC, via a RS232 interface, for off-line imaging. Initial tests are reported for the static case involving 200 µm diameter rods that are placed in the sensor and for the dynamic case using the dose from an inhaler.

  17. Sensors

    Jensen, H. [PBI-Dansensor A/S (Denmark); Toft Soerensen, O. [Risoe National Lab., Materials Research Dept. (Denmark)

    1999-10-01

    A new type of ceramic oxygen sensors based on semiconducting oxides was developed in this project. The advantage of these sensors compared to standard ZrO{sub 2} sensors is that they do not require a reference gas and that they can be produced in small sizes. The sensor design and the techniques developed for production of these sensors are judged suitable by the participating industry for a niche production of a new generation of oxygen sensors. Materials research on new oxygen ion conducting conductors both for applications in oxygen sensors and in fuel was also performed in this project and finally a new process was developed for fabrication of ceramic tubes by dip-coating. (EHS)

  18. Graphene Chemical Sensor Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop graphene based miniaturized chemical sensors that will be able to detect gaseous and volatile molecules with high sensitivity, good reproducibility and wide...

  19. Graphene Chemical Sensor

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop graphene based miniaturized chemical sensors that will be able to detect gaseous and volatile molecules with high sensitivity, good reproducibility and wide...

  20. Miniature mass analyzer

    Cuna, C; Lupsa, N; Cuna, S; Tuzson, B

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of different mass analyzers that were specifically designed as small dimension instruments able to detect with great sensitivity and accuracy the main environmental pollutants. The mass spectrometers are very suited instrument for chemical and isotopic analysis, needed in environmental surveillance. Usually, this is done by sampling the soil, air or water followed by laboratory analysis. To avoid drawbacks caused by sample alteration during the sampling process and transport, the 'in situ' analysis is preferred. Theoretically, any type of mass analyzer can be miniaturized, but some are more appropriate than others. Quadrupole mass filter and trap, magnetic sector, time-of-flight and ion cyclotron mass analyzers can be successfully shrunk, for each of them some performances being sacrificed but we must know which parameters are necessary to be kept unchanged. To satisfy the miniaturization criteria of the analyzer, it is necessary to use asymmetrical geometries, with ion beam obl...

  1. Miniaturization in Biocatalysis

    Pedro Fernandes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of biocatalysts for the production of both consumer goods and building blocks for chemical synthesis is consistently gaining relevance. A significant contribution for recent advances towards further implementation of enzymes and whole cells is related to the developments in miniature reactor technology and insights into flow behavior. Due to the high level of parallelization and reduced requirements of chemicals, intensive screening of biocatalysts and process variables has become more feasible and reproducibility of the bioconversion processes has been substantially improved. The present work aims to provide an overview of the applications of miniaturized reactors in bioconversion processes, considering multi-well plates and microfluidic devices, update information on the engineering characterization of the hardware used, and present perspective developments in this area of research.

  2. Miniaturized nuclear battery

    Adler, K.; Ducommun, G.

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a miniaturized nuclear battery, consisting of several in series connected cells, wherein each cell contains a support which acts as positive pole and which supports on one side a β-emitter, above said emitter is a radiation resisting insulation layer which is covered by an absorption layer, above which is a collector layer, and wherein the in series connected calls are disposed in an airtight case

  3. Self-folding miniature elastic electric devices

    Miyashita, Shuhei; Meeker, Laura; Rus, Daniela; Tolley, Michael T; Wood, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Printing functional materials represents a considerable impact on the access to manufacturing technology. In this paper we present a methodology and validation of print-and-self-fold miniature electric devices. Polyvinyl chloride laminated sheets based on metalized polyester film show reliable self-folding processes under a heat application, and it configures 3D electric devices. We exemplify this technique by fabricating fundamental electric devices, namely a resistor, capacitor, and inductor. Namely, we show the development of a self-folded stretchable resistor, variable resistor, capacitive strain sensor, and an actuation mechanism consisting of a folded contractible solenoid coil. Because of their pre-defined kinematic design, these devices feature elasticity, making them suitable as sensors and actuators in flexible circuits. Finally, an RLC circuit obtained from the integration of developed devices is demonstrated, in which the coil based actuator is controlled by reading a capacitive strain sensor. (paper)

  4. Miniaturizing RFID for magnamosis.

    Jiang, Hao; Chen, Shijie; Kish, Shad; Loh, Lokkee; Zhang, Junmin; Zhang, Xiaorong; Kwiat, Dillon; Harrison, Michael; Roy, Shuvo

    2014-01-01

    Anastomosis is a common surgical procedure using staples or sutures in an open or laparoscopic surgery. A more effective and much less invasive alternative is to apply the mechanical pressure on the tissue over a few days [1]. Since the pressure is produced by the attractive force between two permanent magnets, the procedure is called magnamosis[1]. To ensure the two magnets are perfectly aligned during the surgery, a miniaturized batteryless Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tag is developed to wirelessly telemeter the status of a pressure sensitive mechanical switch. Using the multi-layer circular spiral coil design, the diameter of the RFID tag is shrunk to 10, 15, 19 and 27 mm to support the magnamosis for children as well as adults. With the impedance matching network, the operating distance of these four RFID tags are longer than 10 cm in a 20 × 22 cm(2) area, even when the tag's normal direction is 45° off the antenna's normal direction. Measurement results also indicate that there is no noticeable degradation on the operating distance when the tag is immersed in saline or placed next to the rare-earth magnet. The miniaturized RFID tag presented in this paper is able to support the magnamosis and other medical applications that require the miniaturized RFID tag.

  5. The miniature accelerator

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The image that most people have of CERN is of its enormous accelerators and their capacity to accelerate particles to extremely high energies. But thanks to some cutting-edge studies on beam dynamics and radiofrequency technology, along with innovative construction techniques, teams at CERN have now created the first module of a brand-new accelerator, which will be just 2 metres long. The potential uses of this miniature accelerator will include deployment in hospitals for the production of medical isotopes and the treatment of cancer. It’s a real David-and-Goliath story.   Serge Mathot, in charge of the construction of the "mini-RFQ", pictured with the first of the four modules that will make up the miniature accelerator. The miniature accelerator consists of a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), a component found at the start of all proton accelerator chains around the world, from the smallest to the largest. The LHC is designed to produce very high-intensity beams ...

  6. Phytometric intelligence sensors

    Seelig, Hans-Dieter (Inventor); Stoner, II, Richard J. (Inventor); Hoehn, Alexander (Inventor); Adams, III, William Walter (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for determining when plants require watering, and methods of attending to the watering of plants including signaling the grower that the plants are in need of hydration are provided. The novel methods include real-time measurement of plant metabolics and phytometric physiology changes of intrinsic physical or behavioral traits within the plant such as determining physiological flux measurement of enzyme flux due to environmental changes such as the wind and drought stress, soil and plant mineral deficiencies, or the interaction with a bio-control for organic disease control including, cell movement, signal transduction, internal chemical processes and external environmental processes including when plants require watering, and methods of attending to the watering of plants including signaling the grower that the plants are in need of hydration.

  7. Intelligent Memory Module Overcomes Harsh Environments

    2008-01-01

    Solar cells, integrated circuits, and sensors are essential to manned and unmanned space flight and exploration, but such systems are highly susceptible to damage from radiation. Especially problematic, the Van Allen radiation belts encircle Earth in concentric radioactive tori at distances from about 6,300 to 38,000 km, though the inner radiation belt can dip as low as 700 km, posing a severe hazard to craft and humans leaving Earth s atmosphere. To avoid this radiation, the International Space Station and space shuttles orbit at altitudes between 275 and 460 km, below the belts range, and Apollo astronauts skirted the edge of the belts to minimize exposure, passing swiftly through thinner sections of the belts and thereby avoiding significant side effects. This radiation can, however, prove detrimental to improperly protected electronics on satellites that spend the majority of their service life in the harsh environment of the belts. Compact, high-performance electronics that can withstand extreme environmental and radiation stress are thus critical to future space missions. Increasing miniaturization of electronics addresses the need for lighter weight in launch payloads, as launch costs put weight at a premium. Likewise, improved memory technologies have reduced size, cost, mass, power demand, and system complexity, and improved high-bandwidth communication to meet the data volume needs of the next-generation high-resolution sensors. This very miniaturization, however, has exacerbated system susceptibility to radiation, as the charge of ions may meet or exceed that of circuitry, overwhelming the circuit and disrupting operation of a satellite. The Hubble Space Telescope, for example, must turn off its sensors when passing through intense radiation to maintain reliable operation. To address the need for improved data quality, additional capacity for raw and processed data, ever-increasing resolution, and radiation tolerance, NASA spurred the development of the

  8. Lunar Navigator - A Miniature, Fully Autonomous, Lunar Navigation, Surveyor, and Range Finder System, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Microcosm proposes to design and develop a fully autonomous Lunar Navigator based on our MicroMak miniature star sensor and a gravity gradiometer similar to one on a...

  9. Photoacoustic CO2-Sensor for Automotive Applications

    Huber, J.; Weber, C.; Eberhardt, A.; Wöllenstein, J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a field-tested miniaturized spectroscopic CO2 sensor which is based on the photoacoustic effect. The sensor is developed for automotive applications and considers the requirements for the usage in vehicles. The sensor measures two measurement ranges simultaneously: The monitoring of the indoor air quality and the detection of possible leakages of the coolant in CO2 air-conditioning systems. The sensor consists of a miniaturized innovative photoacoustic sensor unit with integrated e...

  10. Performance enhancement of electronic sensor through mask-less lithography

    Nag, Anindya; Zia, Asif I.; Mukhopadhyay, S. C.; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    The escalating applications of miniaturized sensors have led the microelectronics industry to stay abreast with the precise micro-fabrication technologies. The following article describes a new technique for the fabrication of miniaturized

  11. Miniaturized diffraction based interferometric distance measurement sensor

    Kim, Byungki

    In this thesis, new metrology hardware is designed, fabricated, and tested to provide improvements over current MEMS metrology. The metrology system is a micromachined scanning interferometer (muSI) having a sub-nm resolution in a compact design. The proposed microinterferometer forms a phase sensitive diffraction grating with interferomeric sensitivity, while adding the capability of better lateral resolution by focusing the laser to a smaller spot size. A detailed diffraction model of the microinterferometer was developed to simulate the device performance and to suggest the location of photo detectors for integrated optoelectronics. A particular device is fabricated on a fused silica substrate using aluminum to form the deformable diffraction grating fingers and AZ P4620 photo resist (PR) for the microlens. The details of the fabrication processes are presented. The structure also enables optoelectronics to be integrated so that the interferometer with photo detectors can fit in an area that is 1 mm x 1 mm. The scanning results using a fixed grating muSI demonstrated that it could measure vibration profile as well as static vertical (less than a half wave length) and lateral dimension of MEMS. The muSI, which is integrated with photo diodes, demonstrated its operation by scanning a cMUT. The PID control has been tested and resulted in improvement in scanned images. The integrated muSI demonstrated that the deformable grating could be used to tune the measurement keep the interferometer in quadrature for highest sensitivity.

  12. Intelligence in Artificial Intelligence

    Datta, Shoumen Palit Austin

    2016-01-01

    The elusive quest for intelligence in artificial intelligence prompts us to consider that instituting human-level intelligence in systems may be (still) in the realm of utopia. In about a quarter century, we have witnessed the winter of AI (1990) being transformed and transported to the zenith of tabloid fodder about AI (2015). The discussion at hand is about the elements that constitute the canonical idea of intelligence. The delivery of intelligence as a pay-per-use-service, popping out of ...

  13. Miniaturized radiation chirper

    Umbarger, C.J.; Wolf, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    A miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts is described. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers

  14. Trends in ambient intelligent systems the role of computational intelligence

    Khan, Mohammad; Abraham, Ajith

    2016-01-01

    This book demonstrates the success of Ambient Intelligence in providing possible solutions for the daily needs of humans. The book addresses implications of ambient intelligence in areas of domestic living, elderly care, robotics, communication, philosophy and others. The objective of this edited volume is to show that Ambient Intelligence is a boon to humanity with conceptual, philosophical, methodical and applicative understanding. The book also aims to schematically demonstrate developments in the direction of augmented sensors, embedded systems and behavioral intelligence towards Ambient Intelligent Networks or Smart Living Technology. It contains chapters in the field of Ambient Intelligent Networks, which received highly positive feedback during the review process. The book contains research work, with in-depth state of the art from augmented sensors, embedded technology and artificial intelligence along with cutting-edge research and development of technologies and applications of Ambient Intelligent N...

  15. A Multi-Resolution Mode CMOS Image Sensor with a Novel Two-Step Single-Slope ADC for Intelligent Surveillance Systems

    Daehyeok Kim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a multi-resolution mode CMOS image sensor (CIS for intelligent surveillance system (ISS applications. A low column fixed-pattern noise (CFPN comparator is proposed in 8-bit two-step single-slope analog-to-digital converter (TSSS ADC for the CIS that supports normal, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32, and 1/64 mode of pixel resolution. We show that the scaled-resolution images enable CIS to reduce total power consumption while images hold steady without events. A prototype sensor of 176 × 144 pixels has been fabricated with a 0.18 μm 1-poly 4-metal CMOS process. The area of 4-shared 4T-active pixel sensor (APS is 4.4 μm × 4.4 μm and the total chip size is 2.35 mm × 2.35 mm. The maximum power consumption is 10 mW (with full resolution with supply voltages of 3.3 V (analog and 1.8 V (digital and 14 frame/s of frame rates.

  16. A Multi-Resolution Mode CMOS Image Sensor with a Novel Two-Step Single-Slope ADC for Intelligent Surveillance Systems.

    Kim, Daehyeok; Song, Minkyu; Choe, Byeongseong; Kim, Soo Youn

    2017-06-25

    In this paper, we present a multi-resolution mode CMOS image sensor (CIS) for intelligent surveillance system (ISS) applications. A low column fixed-pattern noise (CFPN) comparator is proposed in 8-bit two-step single-slope analog-to-digital converter (TSSS ADC) for the CIS that supports normal, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16, 1/32, and 1/64 mode of pixel resolution. We show that the scaled-resolution images enable CIS to reduce total power consumption while images hold steady without events. A prototype sensor of 176 × 144 pixels has been fabricated with a 0.18 μm 1-poly 4-metal CMOS process. The area of 4-shared 4T-active pixel sensor (APS) is 4.4 μm × 4.4 μm and the total chip size is 2.35 mm × 2.35 mm. The maximum power consumption is 10 mW (with full resolution) with supply voltages of 3.3 V (analog) and 1.8 V (digital) and 14 frame/s of frame rates.

  17. A Radar-Enabled Collaborative Sensor Network Integrating COTS Technology for Surveillance and Tracking

    R. Murat Demirer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using Commercial Off-The-Shelf (COTS sensor nodes is studied in a distributed network, aiming at dynamic surveillance and tracking of ground targets. Data acquisition by low-cost ( < $50 US miniature low-power radar through a wireless mote is described. We demonstrate the detection, ranging and velocity estimation, classification and tracking capabilities of the mini-radar, and compare results to simulations and manual measurements. Furthermore, we supplement the radar output with other sensor modalities, such as acoustic and vibration sensors. This method provides innovative solutions for detecting, identifying, and tracking vehicles and dismounts over a wide area in noisy conditions. This study presents a step towards distributed intelligent decision support and demonstrates effectiveness of small cheap sensors, which can complement advanced technologies in certain real-life scenarios.

  18. Advancing Sensor Technology to Monitor Wildfires

    EPA and partners are looking at ways to use miniature sensors to monitor air quality near wildfires. Data from these small sensors can complement measurements obtained from more complex regulatory-grade monitors that are stationary.

  19. Development of an asynchronous communication channel between wireless sensor nodes, smartphone devices, and web applications using RESTful Web Services for intelligent farming

    De Leon, Marlene M.; Estuar, Maria Regina E.; Lim, Hadrian Paulo; Victorino, John Noel C.; Co, Jerelyn; Saddi, Ivan Lester; Paelmo, Sharlene Mae; Dela Cruz, Bon Lemuel

    2017-09-01

    Environment and agriculture related applications have been gaining ground for the past several years and have been the context for researches in ubiquitous and pervasive computing. This study is a part of a bigger study that uses artificial intelligence in developing models to detect, monitor, and forecast the spread of Fusarium oxysporum cubense TR4 (FOC TR4) on Cavendish bananas cultivated in the Philippines. To implement an Intelligent Farming system, 1) wireless sensor nodes (WSNs) are deployed in Philippine banana plantations to collect soil parameter data that is considered to affect the health of Cavendish bananas, 2) a custom built smartphone application is used for collecting, storing, and transmitting soil data, plant images and plant status data to a cloud storage, and 3) a custom built web application is used to load and display results of physico-chemical analysis of soil, analysis of data models, and geographic locations of plants being monitored. This study discusses the issues, considerations, and solutions implemented in the development of an asynchronous communication channel to ensure that all data collected by WSNs and smartphone applications are transmitted with a high degree of accuracy and reliability. From a design standpoint: standard API documentation on usage of data type is required to avoid inconsistencies in parameter passing. From a technical standpoint, there is a need to include error-handling mechanisms especially for delays in transmission of data as well as generalize method of parsing thru multidimensional array of data. Strategies are presented in the paper.

  20. A miniature turbocompressor system

    Zwyssig, C.; Kraehenbuehl, D.; Kolar, J. W. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Power Electronic Systems Laboratory, Zuerich (Switzerland); Weser, H. [High Speed Turbomaschinen GmbH, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The trend in compressors for fuel cells, heat pumps, aerospace and automotive air pressurization, heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems, is towards ultra-compact size and high efficiency. This can be achieved by increasing the rotational speed and employing new electrical drive system technology and materials. This paper presents a miniature, electrically driven turbocompressor system running at a speed of 500,000 rpm. The design includes the thermodynamics, the electric motor, the inverter, the control and the system integration with rotor dynamics and thermal considerations. In the experimental setup, the specified pressure ratio of 1.6 is achieved at a speed of 550,000 rpm, which is slightly higher than the design speed. (author)

  1. Miniature ionization chamber

    Alexeev, V.I.; Emelyanov, I.Y.; Ivanov, V.M.; Konstantinov, L.V.; Lysikov, B.V.; Postnikov, V.V.; Rybakov, J.V.

    1976-01-01

    A miniature ionization chamber having a gas-filled housing which accommodates a guard electrode made in the form of a hollow perforated cylinder is described. The cylinder is electrically associated with the intermediate coaxial conductor of a triaxial cable used as the lead-in of the ionization chamber. The gas-filled housing of the ionization chamber also accommodates a collecting electrode shaped as a rod electrically connected to the center conductor of the cable and to tubular members. The rod is disposed internally of the guard electrode and is electrically connected, by means of jumpers passing through the holes in the guard electrode, to the tubular members. The tubular members embrace the guard electrode and are spaced a certain distance apart along its entire length. Arranged intermediate of these tubular members are spacers secured to the guard electrode and fixing the collecting electrode throughout its length with respect to the housing of the ionization chamber

  2. Miniature Heat Pipes

    1997-01-01

    Small Business Innovation Research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to Thermacore Inc. have fostered the company work on devices tagged "heat pipes" for space application. To control the extreme temperature ranges in space, heat pipes are important to spacecraft. The problem was to maintain an 8-watt central processing unit (CPU) at less than 90 C in a notebook computer using no power, with very little space available and without using forced convection. Thermacore's answer was in the design of a powder metal wick that transfers CPU heat from a tightly confined spot to an area near available air flow. The heat pipe technology permits a notebook computer to be operated in any position without loss of performance. Miniature heat pipe technology has successfully been applied, such as in Pentium Processor notebook computers. The company expects its heat pipes to accommodate desktop computers as well. Cellular phones, camcorders, and other hand-held electronics are forsible applications for heat pipes.

  3. Miniature linear cooler development

    Pruitt, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the status of a family of miniature linear coolers currently under development by Hughes Aircraft Co. for use in hand held, volume limited or power limited infrared applications. These coolers, representing the latest additions to the Hughes family of TOP trademark [twin-opposed piston] linear coolers, have been fabricated and tested in three different configurations. Each configuration is designed to utilize a common compressor assembly resulting in reduced manufacturing costs. The baseline compressor has been integrated with two different expander configurations and has been operated with two different levels of input power. These various configuration combinations offer a wide range of performance and interface characteristics which may be tailored to applications requiring limited power and size without significantly compromising cooler capacity or cooldown characteristics. Key cooler characteristics and test data are summarized for three combinations of cooler configurations which are representative of the versatility of this linear cooler design. Configurations reviewed include the shortened coldfinger [1.50 to 1.75 inches long], limited input power [less than 17 Watts] for low power availability applications; the shortened coldfinger with higher input power for lightweight, higher performance applications; and coldfingers compatible with DoD 0.4 Watt Common Module coolers for wider range retrofit capability. Typical weight of these miniature linear coolers is less than 500 grams for the compressor, expander and interconnecting transfer line. Cooling capacity at 80K at room ambient conditions ranges from 400 mW to greater than 550 mW. Steady state power requirements for maintaining a heat load of 150 mW at 80K has been shown to be less than 8 Watts. Ongoing reliability growth testing is summarized including a review of the latest test article results

  4. A Survey on FPGA-Based Sensor Systems: Towards Intelligent and Reconfigurable Low-Power Sensors for Computer Vision, Control and Signal Processing

    Gabriel J. García

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The current trend in the evolution of sensor systems seeks ways to provide more accuracy and resolution, while at the same time decreasing the size and power consumption. The use of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs provides specific reprogrammable hardware technology that can be properly exploited to obtain a reconfigurable sensor system. This adaptation capability enables the implementation of complex applications using the partial reconfigurability at a very low-power consumption. For highly demanding tasks FPGAs have been favored due to the high efficiency provided by their architectural flexibility (parallelism, on-chip memory, etc., reconfigurability and superb performance in the development of algorithms. FPGAs have improved the performance of sensor systems and have triggered a clear increase in their use in new fields of application. A new generation of smarter, reconfigurable and lower power consumption sensors is being developed in Spain based on FPGAs. In this paper, a review of these developments is presented, describing as well the FPGA technologies employed by the different research groups and providing an overview of future research within this field.

  5. A survey on FPGA-based sensor systems: towards intelligent and reconfigurable low-power sensors for computer vision, control and signal processing.

    García, Gabriel J; Jara, Carlos A; Pomares, Jorge; Alabdo, Aiman; Poggi, Lucas M; Torres, Fernando

    2014-03-31

    The current trend in the evolution of sensor systems seeks ways to provide more accuracy and resolution, while at the same time decreasing the size and power consumption. The use of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) provides specific reprogrammable hardware technology that can be properly exploited to obtain a reconfigurable sensor system. This adaptation capability enables the implementation of complex applications using the partial reconfigurability at a very low-power consumption. For highly demanding tasks FPGAs have been favored due to the high efficiency provided by their architectural flexibility (parallelism, on-chip memory, etc.), reconfigurability and superb performance in the development of algorithms. FPGAs have improved the performance of sensor systems and have triggered a clear increase in their use in new fields of application. A new generation of smarter, reconfigurable and lower power consumption sensors is being developed in Spain based on FPGAs. In this paper, a review of these developments is presented, describing as well the FPGA technologies employed by the different research groups and providing an overview of future research within this field.

  6. Wearable PPG sensor based alertness scoring system.

    Dey, Jishnu; Bhowmik, Tanmoy; Sahoo, Saswata; Tiwari, Vijay Narayan

    2017-07-01

    Quantifying mental alertness in today's world is important as it enables the person to adopt lifestyle changes for better work efficiency. Miniaturized sensors in wearable devices have facilitated detection/monitoring of mental alertness. Photoplethysmography (PPG) sensors through Heart Rate Variability (HRV) offer one such opportunity by providing information about one's daily alertness levels without requiring any manual interference from the user. In this paper, a smartwatch based alertness estimation system is proposed. Data collected from PPG sensor of smartwatch is processed and fed to machine learning based model to get a continuous alertness score. Utility functions are designed based on statistical analysis to give a quality score on different stages of alertness such as awake, long sleep and short duration power nap. An intelligent data collection approach is proposed in collaboration with the motion sensor in the smartwatch to reduce battery drainage. Overall, our proposed wearable based system provides a detailed analysis of alertness over a period in a systematic and optimized manner. We were able to achieve an accuracy of 80.1% for sleep/awake classification along with alertness score. This opens up the possibility for quantifying alertness levels using a single PPG sensor for better management of health related activities including sleep.

  7. Sensor

    Gleeson, Helen; Dierking, Ingo; Grieve, Bruce; Woodyatt, Christopher; Brimicombe, Paul

    2015-01-01

    An electrical temperature sensor (10) comprises a liquid crystalline material (12). First and second electrically conductive contacts (14), (16), having a spaced relationship there between, contact the liquid crystalline material (12). An electric property measuring device is electrically connected to the first and second contacts (14), (16) and is arranged to measure an electric property of the liquid crystalline material (12). The liquid crystalline material (12) has a transition temperatur...

  8. Intelligent Combustion. A gas boiler with a new control and safety device using the signals of a semiconductor-sensor

    Rusche, S.; Kostrzewa, G.

    1999-01-01

    The present controls of small gas boilers use an actual differential pressure of the flowing air to regulate the gas valve. It is also possible to combine the change of the gas flow rate and the air volume mechanically. In both of these methods, it is neglected that the air volume required for complete combustion is strongly affected by changing gas quality. The article discusses the use of a BaSnO3 semiconductor control sensor, which is heated by the flame and changes electrical resistance with temperature, O2 and CO content in the burning chamber. It also describes a new burner concept using the sensor

  9. SMARTER THAN YOUR AVERAGE SENSOR: AIS SENSOR THAT INTELLIGENTLY RE-TRANSMITS MEANINGFUL INFORMATION DERIVED FROM RAWAIS DATA IN NETWORK LIMITED AREAS

    R. G. V. Meyer

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available AIS is a transponder based, anti-collision system used by the majority of ocean traffic. Ships regularly transmit their identity, position and speed. The information used to populate the AIS fields come from ship based sensors, such as GPS, and user populated fields, such as the vessels name and MMSI number. These fields are susceptible to spoofing and can be changed to hide the identity or location of a vessel. This is often done to disguise the vessel as a different class to avoid inspections or to enter a protected area without raising alarms. The AIS system has found great utility in monitoring global shipping trends and traffic but this was never intended when the protocol was designed. Docked vessels still transmit messages regularly that contain no new information. These, and other redundant messages, are still transmitted and stored. In situations where a sensor is remote and has limited access to the Internet this can become costly. The Smart-AIS sensor records all incoming messages locally and makes a decision on whether the message is of special interest or not. Messages of interest are re-transmitted to an external AIS database.

  10. Central Hypothyroidism in Miniature Schnauzers

    Voorbij, Annemarie M W Y; Leegwater, Peter A J; Buijtels, Jenny J C W M; Daminet, Sylvie; Kooistra, Hans S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary hypothyroidism is a common endocrinopathy in dogs. In contrast, central hypothyroidism is rare in this species. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this article is to describe the occurrence and clinical presentation of central hypothyroidism in Miniature Schnauzers. Additionally, the

  11. Miniature Optical Isolator, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for compact optical isolators, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to continue the development of a new Miniature Optical Isolator...

  12. Miniature Raman spectrometer development

    Bonvallet, Joseph; Auz, Bryan; Rodriguez, John; Olmstead, Ty

    2018-02-01

    The development of techniques to rapidly identify samples ranging from, molecule and particle imaging to detection of high explosive materials, has surged in recent years. Due to this growing want, Raman spectroscopy gives a molecular fingerprint, with no sample preparation, and can be done remotely. These systems can be small, compact, lightweight, and with a user interface that allows for easy use and sample identification. Ocean Optics Inc. has developed several systems that would meet all these end user requirements. This talk will describe the development of different Ocean Optics Inc miniature Raman spectrometers. The spectrometer on a phone (SOAP) system was designed using commercial off the shelf (COTS) components, in a rapid product development cycle. The footprint of the system measures 40x40x14 mm (LxWxH) and was coupled directly to the cell phone detector camera optics. However, it gets roughly only 40 cm-1 resolution. The Accuman system is the largest (290x220X100 mm) of the three, but uses our QEPro spectrometer and get 7-11 cm-1 resolution. Finally, the HRS-30 measuring 165x85x40 mm is a combination of the other two systems. This system uses a modified EMBED spectrometer and gets 7-12 cm-1 resolution. Each of these units uses a peak matching algorithm that then correlates the results to the pre-loaded and customizable spectral libraries.

  13. The road to miniaturization

    Iwai, Hiroshi; Hei Wong

    2006-01-01

    Silicon microelectronics has revolutionized the way we live, but how long can the relentless down sizing of devices continue? Hei Wong and Hiroshi Iwai describe the challenges facing the semiconductor industry today. For the last four decades the miniaturization of the microchip has been the driving force behind developments in all kinds of technology, from home entertainment to space exploration. At the heart of this revolution lies the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistor, which has evolved in two ways. First, it has become smaller, with the latest devices measuring a thousandth of their original size. Second, the number of transistors that can be interconnected on a single chip has risen from a few tens to hundreds of millions. The density of microchips has followed an exponential trend that was famously identified by Gordon Moore of Intel in 1965. Moore predicted that the number of components that could be crammed into an integrated circuit would double every two years for the foreseeable future. In fact, he slightly underestimated the trend, because the average number has actually doubled every 18 months. The question keeping chip manufacturers awake in 2005 is how long this exponential growth can continue. (U.K.)

  14. The Whole new world of miniature technology

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1980-07-01

    In the past ten years, miniaturization of both electrical and mechanical parts has significantly increased. Documentation of the design and production capabilities of miniaturization in the electronics industry is well-defined. Literature on the subject of miniaturization of metal piece parts, however, is hard to find. Some of the current capabilities in the manufacture of miniature metal piece parts or miniature features in larger piece parts are discussed.

  15. Highly sensitive miniature fluidic flowmeter based on an FBG heated by Co2+-doped fiber

    Liu, Z.; Htein, L.; Cheng, L.K.; Martina, Q.; Jansen, R.; Tam, H.Y.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a miniature fluidic flow sensor based on a short fiber Bragg grating inscribed in a single mode fiber and heated by Co2+-doped multimode fibers. The proposed flow sensor was employed to measure the flow rates of oil and water, showing good sensitivity of 0.339 nm/(m/s) and

  16. A Systems Engineering Survey of Artificial Intelligence and Smart Sensor Networks in a Network-Centric Environment

    2009-09-01

    DP ) and Process Automation. Profibus DP is the more widely used variation. It is used for the operation of sensors and actuators through a central... Profibus ) is another German developed standard for field bus communications. There are two different types of Profibus : Decentralized Peripherals...available: http://www.fieldbus.org (accessed September 22, 2009). [55] Profibus -Profinet, “ Profibus homepage,” available: http://www.profibus.com

  17. Miniaturized integration of a fluorescence microscope

    Ghosh, Kunal K.; Burns, Laurie D.; Cocker, Eric D.; Nimmerjahn, Axel; Ziv, Yaniv; Gamal, Abbas El; Schnitzer, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    The light microscope is traditionally an instrument of substantial size and expense. Its miniaturized integration would enable many new applications based on mass-producible, tiny microscopes. Key prospective usages include brain imaging in behaving animals towards relating cellular dynamics to animal behavior. Here we introduce a miniature (1.9 g) integrated fluorescence microscope made from mass-producible parts, including semiconductor light source and sensor. This device enables high-speed cellular-level imaging across ∼0.5 mm2 areas in active mice. This capability allowed concurrent tracking of Ca2+ spiking in >200 Purkinje neurons across nine cerebellar microzones. During mouse locomotion, individual microzones exhibited large-scale, synchronized Ca2+ spiking. This is a mesoscopic neural dynamic missed by prior techniques for studying the brain at other length scales. Overall, the integrated microscope is a potentially transformative technology that permits distribution to many animals and enables diverse usages, such as portable diagnostics or microscope arrays for large-scale screens. PMID:21909102

  18. Intelligent distributed computing

    Thampi, Sabu

    2015-01-01

    This book contains a selection of refereed and revised papers of the Intelligent Distributed Computing Track originally presented at the third International Symposium on Intelligent Informatics (ISI-2014), September 24-27, 2014, Delhi, India.  The papers selected for this Track cover several Distributed Computing and related topics including Peer-to-Peer Networks, Cloud Computing, Mobile Clouds, Wireless Sensor Networks, and their applications.

  19. Miniaturized tools and devices for bioanalytical applications: an overview

    Chudy, M.; Grabowska, I.; Ciosek, P.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an overview of various miniaturized devices and technologies developed by our group. Innovative, fast and cheap procedures for the fabrication of laboratory microsystems based on commercially available materials are reported and compared with well-established microfabricatio...... optic detectors, potentiometric sensors platforms, microreactors and capillary electrophoresis (CE) microchips as well as integrated microsystems e. g. double detection microanalytical systems, devices for studying enzymatic reactions and a microsystem for cell culture and lysis....

  20. An automated miniature robotic vehicle inspection system

    Dobie, Gordon; Summan, Rahul; MacLeod, Charles; Pierce, Gareth; Galbraith, Walter [Centre for Ultrasonic Engineering, University of Strathclyde, 204 George Street, Glasgow, G1 1XW (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-18

    A novel, autonomous reconfigurable robotic inspection system for quantitative NDE mapping is presented. The system consists of a fleet of wireless (802.11g) miniature robotic vehicles, each approximately 175 × 125 × 85 mm with magnetic wheels that enable them to inspect industrial structures such as storage tanks, chimneys and large diameter pipe work. The robots carry one of a number of payloads including a two channel MFL sensor, a 5 MHz dry coupled UT thickness wheel probe and a machine vision camera that images the surface. The system creates an NDE map of the structure overlaying results onto a 3D model in real time. The authors provide an overview of the robot design, data fusion algorithms (positioning and NDE) and visualization software.

  1. An automated miniature robotic vehicle inspection system

    Dobie, Gordon; Summan, Rahul; MacLeod, Charles; Pierce, Gareth; Galbraith, Walter

    2014-01-01

    A novel, autonomous reconfigurable robotic inspection system for quantitative NDE mapping is presented. The system consists of a fleet of wireless (802.11g) miniature robotic vehicles, each approximately 175 × 125 × 85 mm with magnetic wheels that enable them to inspect industrial structures such as storage tanks, chimneys and large diameter pipe work. The robots carry one of a number of payloads including a two channel MFL sensor, a 5 MHz dry coupled UT thickness wheel probe and a machine vision camera that images the surface. The system creates an NDE map of the structure overlaying results onto a 3D model in real time. The authors provide an overview of the robot design, data fusion algorithms (positioning and NDE) and visualization software

  2. Novel Miniature Spectrometer For Remote Chemical Detection

    Pipino, Andrew C.R.

    2000-01-01

    New chemical sensing technologies are critically important for addressing many of EM's priority needs as discussed in detail at http://emsp.em.doe.gov/needs. Many technology needs were addressed by this research. For example, improved detection strategies are needed for non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL's), such as PCE (Cl2C=CCl2) and TCE (HClC=CCl2), which persist in the environment due their highly stable structures. By developing a miniature, ultra-sensitive, selective, and field-deployable detector for NAPL's, the approximate source location could be determined with minimal investigative expense. Contaminant plumes could also be characterized in detail. The miniature spectrometer developed under Project No.60231 could also permit accurate rate measurements in less time, either in the field or the laboratory, which are critically important in the development, testing, and ultimate utilization of models for describing contaminant transport. The technology could also be used for long-term groundwater monitoring or long-term stewardship in general. Many science needs are also addressed by the Project 60231, since the effort significantly advances the measurement science of chemical detection. Developed under Project No.60231, evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (EW-CRDS) is a novel form of CRDS, which is an the emerging optical absorption technique. Several review articles on CRDS, which has been generally applied only to gas-phase diagnostics, have been published1-3. EW-CRDS4-10 forms the basis for a new class of chemical sensors that extends CRDS to other states of matter and leads to a miniaturized version of the concept. EW-CRDS uses miniature solid-state optical resonators that incorporate one or more total internal reflection (TIR) surfaces, which create evanescent waves. The evanescent waves emanate from the TIR surfaces, sampling the surrounding medium. The utility of evanescent waves in chemical analysis forms the basis for the field of attenuated

  3. Classification of reflected signals from cavitated tooth surfaces using an artificial intelligence technique incorporating a fiber optic displacement sensor

    Rahman, Husna Abdul; Harun, Sulaiman Wadi; Arof, Hamzah; Irawati, Ninik; Musirin, Ismail; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Ahmad, Harith

    2014-05-01

    An enhanced dental cavity diameter measurement mechanism using an intensity-modulated fiber optic displacement sensor (FODS) scanning and imaging system, fuzzy logic as well as a single-layer perceptron (SLP) neural network, is presented. The SLP network was employed for the classification of the reflected signals, which were obtained from the surfaces of teeth samples and captured using FODS. Two features were used for the classification of the reflected signals with one of them being the output of a fuzzy logic. The test results showed that the combined fuzzy logic and SLP network methodology contributed to a 100% classification accuracy of the network. The high-classification accuracy significantly demonstrates the suitability of the proposed features and classification using SLP networks for classifying the reflected signals from teeth surfaces, enabling the sensor to accurately measure small diameters of tooth cavity of up to 0.6 mm. The method remains simple enough to allow its easy integration in existing dental restoration support systems.

  4. 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    Li, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2015 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’15, held in Fuzhou, China. The topics include adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, reconfigurable control, etc. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry and the government can gain valuable insights into interdisciplinary solutions in the field of intelligent automation.

  5. A Compact Magnetic Field-Based Obstacle Detection and Avoidance System for Miniature Spherical Robots

    Fang Wu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to their efficient locomotion and natural tolerance to hazardous environments, spherical robots have wide applications in security surveillance, exploration of unknown territory and emergency response. Numerous studies have been conducted on the driving mechanism, motion planning and trajectory tracking methods of spherical robots, yet very limited studies have been conducted regarding the obstacle avoidance capability of spherical robots. Most of the existing spherical robots rely on the “hit and run” technique, which has been argued to be a reasonable strategy because spherical robots have an inherent ability to recover from collisions. Without protruding components, they will not become stuck and can simply roll back after running into bstacles. However, for small scale spherical robots that contain sensitive surveillance sensors and cannot afford to utilize heavy protective shells, the absence of obstacle avoidance solutions would leave the robot at the mercy of potentially dangerous obstacles. In this paper, a compact magnetic field-based obstacle detection and avoidance system has been developed for miniature spherical robots. It utilizes a passive magnetic field so that the system is both compact and power efficient. The proposed system can detect not only the presence, but also the approaching direction of a ferromagnetic obstacle, therefore, an intelligent avoidance behavior can be generated by adapting the trajectory tracking method with the detection information. Design optimization is conducted to enhance the obstacle detection performance and detailed avoidance strategies are devised. Experimental results are also presented for validation purposes.

  6. Numerical Analysis of CNC Milling Chatter Using Embedded Miniature MEMS Microphone Array System

    Pang-Li Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasingly common use of industrial automation for mass production, there are many computer numerical control (CNC machine tools that require the collection of data from intelligent sensors in order to analyze their processing quality. In general, for high speed rotating machines, an accelerometer can be attached on the spindle to collect the data from the detected vibration of the CNC. However, due to their cost, accelerometers have not been widely adopted for use with typical CNC machine tools. This study sought to develop an embedded miniature MEMS microphone array system (Radius 5.25 cm, 8 channels to discover the vibration source of the CNC from spatial phase array processing. The proposed method utilizes voice activity detection (VAD to distinguish between the presence and absence of abnormal noise in the pre-stage, and utilizes the traditional direction of arrival method (DOA via multiple signal classification (MUSIC to isolate the spatial orientation of the noise source in post-processing. In the numerical simulation, the non-interfering noise source location is calibrated in the anechoic chamber, and is tested with real milling processing in the milling machine. As this results in a high background noise level, the vibration sound source is more accurate in the presented energy gradation graphs as compared to the traditional MUSIC method.

  7. Simulation Research Framework with Embedded Intelligent Algorithms for Analysis of Multi-Target, Multi-Sensor, High-Cluttered Environments

    Hanlon, Nicholas P.

    The National Air Space (NAS) can be easily described as a complex aviation system-of-systems that seamlessly works in harmony to provide safe transit for all aircraft within its domain. The number of aircraft within the NAS is growing and according the FAA, "[o]n any given day, more than 85,000 flights are in the skies in the United States...This translates into roughly 5,000 planes in the skies above the United States at any given moment. More than 15,000 federal air traffic controllers in airport traffic control towers, terminal radar approach control facilities and air route traffic control centers guide pilots through the system". The FAA is currently rolling out the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) to handle projected growth while leveraging satellite-based navigation for improved tracking. A key component to instantiating NextGen lies in the equipage of Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), a performance based surveillance technology that uses GPS navigation for more precise positioning than radars providing increased situational awareness to air traffic controllers. Furthermore, the FAA is integrating UAS into the NAS, further congesting the airways and information load on air traffic controllers. The expected increase in aircraft density due to NextGen implementation and UAS integration will require innovative algorithms to cope with the increase data flow and to support air traffic controllers in their decision-making. This research presents a few innovative algorithms to support increased aircraft density and UAS integration into the NAS. First, it is imperative that individual tracks are correlated prior to fusing to ensure a proper picture of the environment is correct. However, current approaches do not scale well as the number of targets and sensors are increased. This work presents a fuzzy clustering design to hierarchically break the problem down into smaller subspaces prior to correlation. This approach provides

  8. Intelligent Flood Adaptive Context-aware System: How Wireless Sensors Adapt their Configuration based on Environmental Phenomenon Events

    Jie SUN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Henceforth, new generations of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN have to be able to adapt their behavior to collect, from the study phenomenon, quality data for long periods of time. We have thus proposed a new formalization for the design and the implementation of context-aware systems relying on a WSN for the data collection. To illustrate this proposal, we also present an environmental use case: the study of flood events in a watershed. In this paper, we detail the simulation tool that we have developed in order to implement our model. We simulate several scenarios of context-aware systems to monitor a watershed. The data used for the simulation are the observation data of the French Orgeval watershed.

  9. Evaluation of a miniature electromagnetic position tracker

    Hummel, Johann; Figl, Michael; Kollmann, Christian; Bergmann, Helmar; Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    The advent of miniaturized electromagnetic digitizers opens a variety of potential clinical applications for computer aided interventions using flexible instruments; endoscopes or catheters can easily be tracked within the body. With respect to the new applications, the systematic distortions induced by various materials such as closed metallic loops, wire guides, catheters, and ultrasound scan heads were systematically evaluated in this paper for a new commercial tracking system. We employed the electromagnetic tracking system Aurora trade mark sign (Mednetix/CH, NDI/Can); data were acquired using the serial port of a PC running SuSE Linux 7.1 (SuSE, Gmbh, Nuernberg). Objects introduced into the digitizer volume included wire loops of different diameters, wire guides, optical tracking tools, an ultrasonic (US) scan head, an endoscope with radial ultrasound scan head and various other objects used in operating rooms and interventional suites. Beyond this, we determined the influence of a C-arm fluoroscopy unit. To quantify the reliability of the system, the miniaturized sensor was mounted on a nonmetallic measurement rack while the transmitter was fixed at three different distances within the digitizer range. The tracker was shown to be more sensitive to distortions caused by materials close to the emitter (average distortion error 13.6 mm±16.6 mm for wire loops positioned at a distance between 100 mm and 200 mm from the emitter). Distortions caused by materials near the sensor (distances smaller than 100 mm) are small (typical error 2.2 mm±1.9 mm). The C-arm fluoroscopy unit caused considerable distortions and limits the reliability of the tracker (distortion error 18.6 mm±24.9 mm). Distortions resulting from the US scan head are high at distances smaller than about 100 mm from the emitter. The distortions also increase when the scan head is positioned horizontally and close to the sensor (average error 4.1 mm±1.5 mm when the scan head is positioned within a

  10. Cerebellar abiotrophy in a miniature schnauzer

    Berry, Michelle L.; Blas-Machado, Uriel

    2003-01-01

    A 3.5-month-old miniature schnauzer was presented for signs of progressive cerebellar ataxia. Necropsy revealed cerebellar abiotrophy. This is the first reported case of cerebellar abiotrophy in a purebred miniature schnauzer.

  11. Cerebellar abiotrophy in a miniature schnauzer.

    Berry, Michelle L; Blas-Machado, Uriel

    2003-08-01

    A 3.5-month-old miniature schnauzer was presented for signs of progressive cerebellar ataxia. Necropsy revealed cerebellar abiotrophy. This is the first reported case of cerebellar abiotrophy in a purebred miniature schnauzer.

  12. An Intelligent Robot Programing

    Hong, Seong Yong

    2012-01-15

    This book introduces an intelligent robot programing with background of the begging, introduction of VPL, and SPL, building of environment for robot platform, starting of robot programing, design of simulation environment, robot autonomy drive control programing, simulation graphic. Such as SPL graphic programing graphical image and graphical shapes, and graphical method application, application of procedure for robot control, robot multiprogramming, robot bumper sensor programing, robot LRF sencor programing and robot color sensor programing.

  13. An Intelligent Robot Programing

    Hong, Seong Yong

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces an intelligent robot programing with background of the begging, introduction of VPL, and SPL, building of environment for robot platform, starting of robot programing, design of simulation environment, robot autonomy drive control programing, simulation graphic. Such as SPL graphic programing graphical image and graphical shapes, and graphical method application, application of procedure for robot control, robot multiprogramming, robot bumper sensor programing, robot LRF sencor programing and robot color sensor programing.

  14. Chemical sensors

    Hubbard, C.W.; Gordon, R.L.

    1987-05-01

    The revolution in analytical chemistry promised by recent developments in the field of chemical sensors has potential for significant positive impact on both research and production activities conducted by and for the Department of Energy. Analyses which were, in the past, performed only with a roomful of expensive equipment can now be performed with miniature solid-state electronic devices or small optical probes. Progress in the development of chemical sensors has been rapid, and the field is currently growing at a great rate. In accordance, Pacific Northwest Laboratory initiated a survey of recent literature so that contributors to active programs in research on analytical methods could be made aware of principles and applications of this new technology. This report presents the results of that survey. The sensors discussed here are divided into three types: micro solid-state devices, optical sensors, and piezoelectric crystal devices. The report is divided into three corresponding sections. The first section, ''Micro Solid-State Devices,'' discusses the design, operation, and application of electronic sensors that are produced in much the same way as standard solid-state electronic devices. The second section, ''Optrodes,'' covers the design and operation of chemical sensors that use fiber optics to detect chemically induced changes in optical properties. The final section, ''Piezoelectric Crystal Detectors,'' discusses two types of chemical sensors that depend on the changes in the properties of an oscillating piezoelectric crystal to detect the presence of certain materials. Advantages and disadvantages of each type of sensor are summarized in each section

  15. Design and Evaluation of a Wireless Sensor Network Based Aircraft Strength Testing System

    Wu, Jian; Yuan, Shenfang; Zhou, Genyuan; Ji, Sai; Wang, Zilong; Wang, Yang

    2009-01-01

    The verification of aerospace structures, including full-scale fatigue and static test programs, is essential for structure strength design and evaluation. However, the current overall ground strength testing systems employ a large number of wires for communication among sensors and data acquisition facilities. The centralized data processing makes test programs lack efficiency and intelligence. Wireless sensor network (WSN) technology might be expected to address the limitations of cable-based aeronautical ground testing systems. This paper presents a wireless sensor network based aircraft strength testing (AST) system design and its evaluation on a real aircraft specimen. In this paper, a miniature, high-precision, and shock-proof wireless sensor node is designed for multi-channel strain gauge signal conditioning and monitoring. A cluster-star network topology protocol and application layer interface are designed in detail. To verify the functionality of the designed wireless sensor network for strength testing capability, a multi-point WSN based AST system is developed for static testing of a real aircraft undercarriage. Based on the designed wireless sensor nodes, the wireless sensor network is deployed to gather, process, and transmit strain gauge signals and monitor results under different static test loads. This paper shows the efficiency of the wireless sensor network based AST system, compared to a conventional AST system. PMID:22408521

  16. Design and evaluation of a wireless sensor network based aircraft strength testing system.

    Wu, Jian; Yuan, Shenfang; Zhou, Genyuan; Ji, Sai; Wang, Zilong; Wang, Yang

    2009-01-01

    The verification of aerospace structures, including full-scale fatigue and static test programs, is essential for structure strength design and evaluation. However, the current overall ground strength testing systems employ a large number of wires for communication among sensors and data acquisition facilities. The centralized data processing makes test programs lack efficiency and intelligence. Wireless sensor network (WSN) technology might be expected to address the limitations of cable-based aeronautical ground testing systems. This paper presents a wireless sensor network based aircraft strength testing (AST) system design and its evaluation on a real aircraft specimen. In this paper, a miniature, high-precision, and shock-proof wireless sensor node is designed for multi-channel strain gauge signal conditioning and monitoring. A cluster-star network topology protocol and application layer interface are designed in detail. To verify the functionality of the designed wireless sensor network for strength testing capability, a multi-point WSN based AST system is developed for static testing of a real aircraft undercarriage. Based on the designed wireless sensor nodes, the wireless sensor network is deployed to gather, process, and transmit strain gauge signals and monitor results under different static test loads. This paper shows the efficiency of the wireless sensor network based AST system, compared to a conventional AST system.

  17. Visual thread quality for precision miniature mechanisms

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1981-04-01

    Threaded features have eight visual appearance factors which can affect their function in precision miniature mechanisms. The Bendix practice in deburring, finishing, and accepting these conditions on miniature threads is described as is their impact in assemblies of precision miniature electromechanical assemblies.

  18. Preface Miniaturization and Mass Spectrometry

    Unknown, [Unknown; le Gac, Severine; le Gac, S.; van den Berg, Albert; van den Berg, A.

    2009-01-01

    Miniaturization and Mass Spectrometry illustrates this trend and focuses on one particular analysis technique, mass spectrometry whose popularity has "dramatically" increased in the last two decades with the explosion of the field of biological analysis and the development of two "soft" ionization

  19. Intelligible Artificial Intelligence

    Weld, Daniel S.; Bansal, Gagan

    2018-01-01

    Since Artificial Intelligence (AI) software uses techniques like deep lookahead search and stochastic optimization of huge neural networks to fit mammoth datasets, it often results in complex behavior that is difficult for people to understand. Yet organizations are deploying AI algorithms in many mission-critical settings. In order to trust their behavior, we must make it intelligible --- either by using inherently interpretable models or by developing methods for explaining otherwise overwh...

  20. Infrared hyperspectral imaging miniaturized for UAV applications

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Hinnrichs, Bradford; McCutchen, Earl

    2017-02-01

    Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) has developed an infrared hyperspectral camera, both MWIR and LWIR, small enough to serve as a payload on a miniature unmanned aerial vehicles. The optical system has been integrated into the cold-shield of the sensor enabling the small size and weight of the sensor. This new and innovative approach to infrared hyperspectral imaging spectrometer uses micro-optics and will be explained in this paper. The micro-optics are made up of an area array of diffractive optical elements where each element is tuned to image a different spectral region on a common focal plane array. The lenslet array is embedded in the cold-shield of the sensor and actuated with a miniature piezo-electric motor. This approach enables rapid infrared spectral imaging with multiple spectral images collected and processed simultaneously each frame of the camera. This paper will present our optical mechanical design approach which results in an infrared hyper-spectral imaging system that is small enough for a payload on a mini-UAV or commercial quadcopter. Also, an example of how this technology can easily be used to quantify a hydrocarbon gas leak's volume and mass flowrates. The diffractive optical elements used in the lenslet array are blazed gratings where each lenslet is tuned for a different spectral bandpass. The lenslets are configured in an area array placed a few millimeters above the focal plane and embedded in the cold-shield to reduce the background signal normally associated with the optics. We have developed various systems using a different number of lenslets in the area array. Depending on the size of the focal plane and the diameter of the lenslet array will determine the spatial resolution. A 2 x 2 lenslet array will image four different spectral images of the scene each frame and when coupled with a 512 x 512 focal plane array will give spatial resolution of 256 x 256 pixel each spectral image. Another system that we developed uses a 4 x 4

  1. Open Standards for Sensor Information Processing

    Pouchard, Line Catherine [ORNL; Poole, Stephen W [ORNL; Lothian, Josh [ORNL

    2009-07-01

    This document explores sensor standards, sensor data models, and computer sensor software in order to determine the specifications and data representation best suited for analyzing and monitoring computer system health using embedded sensor data. We review IEEE 1451, OGC Sensor Model Language and Transducer Model Language (TML), lm-sensors and Intelligent Platform Management Inititative (IPMI).

  2. Flight experience with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems

    Hamory, Philip J.; Murray, James E.

    1992-01-01

    Engineers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (NASA-Dryden) have conducted two flight research programs with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems built around commercial data loggers. One program quantified the performance of a radio-controlled model airplane. The other program was a laminar boundary-layer transition experiment on a manned sailplane. The purpose of this paper is to report NASA-Dryden personnel's flight experience with the miniaturized instrumentation systems used on these two programs. The paper will describe the data loggers, the sensors, and the hardware and software developed to complete the systems. The paper also describes how the systems were used and covers the challenges encountered to make them work. Examples of raw data and derived results will be shown as well. Finally, future plans for these systems will be discussed.

  3. Miniature x-ray source

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  4. Bend testing for miniature disks

    Huang, F.H.; Hamilton, M.L.; Wire, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    A bend test was developed to obtain ductility measurements on a large number of alloy variants being irradiated in the form of miniature disks. Experimental results were shown to be in agreement with a theoretical analysis of the bend configuration. Disk specimens fabricated from the unstrained grip ends of previously tested tensile specimens were used for calibration purposes; bend ductilities and tensile ductilities were in good agreement. The criterion for estimating ductility was judged acceptable for screening purposes

  5. MIT miniaturized disk bend test

    Harling, O.K.; Lee, M.; Sohn, D.S.; Kohse, G.; Lau, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    A miniaturized disk bend test (MDBT) using transmission electron microscopy specimens for the determination of various mechanical properties is being developed at MIT. Recent progress in obtaining strengths and ductilities of highly irradiated metal alloys is reviewed. Other mechanical properties can also be obtained using the MDBT approach. Progress in fatigue testing and in determination of the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature is reviewed briefly. 11 figures

  6. Artificial intelligence

    Hunt, Earl B

    1975-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of artificial intelligence. This book presents the basic mathematical and computational approaches to problems in the artificial intelligence field.Organized into four parts encompassing 16 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the various fields of artificial intelligence. This text then attempts to connect artificial intelligence problems to some of the notions of computability and abstract computing devices. Other chapters consider the general notion of computability, with focus on the interaction bet

  7. Low Cost, Vacuum Packaging of GN&C Sensors, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Micro-electro-mechanical System (MEMS)-based gyroscopes, accelerometers and rate sensors are essential to miniaturizing the guidance, navigation and control...

  8. Nanostructured Fiber Optic Cantilever Arrays and Hybrid MEMS Sensors for Chemical and Biological Detection, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advancements in nano-/micro-scale sensor fabrication and molecular recognition surfaces offer promising opportunities to develop miniaturized hybrid fiber optic and...

  9. Miniature scientific-grade induction magnetometer for cubesats

    Pronenko, Vira

    2017-04-01

    One of the main areas of space research is the study and forecasting of space weather. The society is more and more depending nowadays on satellite technology and communications, so it is vital to understand the physical process in the solar-terrestrial system which may disturb them. Besides the solar radiation and Space Weather effects, the Earth's ionosphere is also modified by the ever increasing industrial activity. There have been also multiple reports relating VLF and ELF wave activity to atmospheric storms and geological processes, such as earthquakes and volcanic activity. For advancing in these fields, the AC magnetic field permanent monitoring is crucial. Using the cubesat technology would allow increasing the number of measuring points dramatically. It is necessary to mention that the cubesats use for scientific research requires the miniaturization of scientific sensors what is a serious problem because the reduction of their dimensions leads, as a rule, to the parameters degradation, especially of sensitivity threshold. Today, there is no basic model of a sensitive miniature induction magnetometer. Even the smallest one of the known - for the Bepi-Colombo mission to Mercury - is too big for cubesats. The goal of the present report is to introduce the new design of miniature three-component sensor for measurement of alternative vector magnetic fields - induction magnetometer (IM). The study directions were concentrated on the ways and possibilities to create the miniature magnetometer with best combination of parameters. For this a set of scientific and technological problems, mostly aimed at the sensor construction improvement, was solved. The most important parameter characterizing magnetometer quality is its own magnetic noise level (NL). The analysis of the NL influencing factors is made and the ways to decrease it are discussed in the report. Finally, the LEMI-151 IM was developed for the SEAM cubesat mission with optimal performances within the

  10. Design, Experiments and Simulation of Voltage Transformers on the Basis of a Differential Input D-dot Sensor

    Jingang Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Currently available traditional electromagnetic voltage sensors fail to meet the measurement requirements of the smart grid, because of low accuracy in the static and dynamic ranges and the occurrence of ferromagnetic resonance attributed to overvoltage and output short circuit. This work develops a new non-contact high-bandwidth voltage measurement system for power equipment. This system aims at the miniaturization and non-contact measurement of the smart grid. After traditional D-dot voltage probe analysis, an improved method is proposed. For the sensor to work in a self-integrating pattern, the differential input pattern is adopted for circuit design, and grounding is removed. To prove the structure design, circuit component parameters, and insulation characteristics, Ansoft Maxwell software is used for the simulation. Moreover, the new probe was tested on a 10 kV high-voltage test platform for steady-state error and transient behavior. Experimental results ascertain that the root mean square values of measured voltage are precise and that the phase error is small. The D-dot voltage sensor not only meets the requirement of high accuracy but also exhibits satisfactory transient response. This sensor can meet the intelligence, miniaturization, and convenience requirements of the smart grid.

  11. Design, experiments and simulation of voltage transformers on the basis of a differential input D-dot sensor.

    Wang, Jingang; Gao, Can; Yang, Jie

    2014-07-17

    Currently available traditional electromagnetic voltage sensors fail to meet the measurement requirements of the smart grid, because of low accuracy in the static and dynamic ranges and the occurrence of ferromagnetic resonance attributed to overvoltage and output short circuit. This work develops a new non-contact high-bandwidth voltage measurement system for power equipment. This system aims at the miniaturization and non-contact measurement of the smart grid. After traditional D-dot voltage probe analysis, an improved method is proposed. For the sensor to work in a self-integrating pattern, the differential input pattern is adopted for circuit design, and grounding is removed. To prove the structure design, circuit component parameters, and insulation characteristics, Ansoft Maxwell software is used for the simulation. Moreover, the new probe was tested on a 10 kV high-voltage test platform for steady-state error and transient behavior. Experimental results ascertain that the root mean square values of measured voltage are precise and that the phase error is small. The D-dot voltage sensor not only meets the requirement of high accuracy but also exhibits satisfactory transient response. This sensor can meet the intelligence, miniaturization, and convenience requirements of the smart grid.

  12. Artificial Intelligence and Moral intelligence

    Laura Pana

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the thesis that the implementation of a moral code in the behaviour of artificial intelligent systems needs a specific form of human and artificial intelligence, not just an abstract intelligence. We present intelligence as a system with an internal structure and the structural levels of the moral system, as well as certain characteristics of artificial intelligent agents which can/must be treated as 1- individual entities (with a complex, specialized, autonomous or selfdetermined,...

  13. A miniature rigid/flex salinity measurement device fabricated using printed circuit processing techniques

    Broadbent, H A; Ketterl, T P; Reid, C S

    2010-01-01

    The design, fabrication and initial performance of a single substrate, miniature, low-cost conductivity, temperature, depth (CTD) sensor board with interconnects are presented. In combination these sensors measure ocean salinity. The miniature CTD device board was designed and fabricated as the main component of a 50 mm × 25 mm × 25 mm animal-attached biologger. The board was fabricated using printed circuit processes and consists of two distinct regions on a continuous single liquid crystal polymer substrate: an 18 mm × 28 mm rigid multi-metal sensor section and a 72 mm long flexible interconnect section. The 95% confidence intervals for the conductivity, temperature and pressure sensors were demonstrated to be ±0.083 mS cm −1 , 0.01 °C, and ±0.135 dbar, respectively.

  14. Characteristic evaluation of acoustic emission sensors

    Jung, Hyun Kyu; Joo, Y. S.; Lee, N. H

    2000-12-01

    This report introduces the various kinds of Acoustic Emission(AE) sensors as well as the basic principle of AE sensors in order to select AE sensor suitably. The described sensors include : high sensitivity sensor, broadband sensor, underwater sensor, miniature sensor, directional sensor, integral pre-amplifier sensor. Sensor has two critical aspects of reliability and repeatability. For the high reliability, sensor has to be calibrated in accordance with ASTM standard E 1106 which explains to measure the characteristics of AE sensor accurately. For investigating the degradation of AE sensor under the severe environment for example the high radiation condition, It is important to perform the repeatability test which is described in detail in according to the ASTM standard E 976. Two kinds of AE sensor applications are also summarized.

  15. Dr.Johnson's Dictionary in Miniature

    Imazato, Chiaki

    1988-01-01

    More than hundred 'Johnson's' dictionaries have so far been published not only in English but in other countries, and there are numerous books and articles on Johnson's Dictionary. But few have referred to Johnson's Dictionary in Miniature; nor were there any books or articles on it. Fortunately, however, I've got one copy of Johnson's Dictionary in Miniature, which was published in 1806. Johnson's Dictionary (1755) has 41,677 entries, whereas Johnson's Dictionary in Miniature 23,439 entr...

  16. Miniature Ground Mapping LADAR, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — System & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) proposes a miniature solid state surface imaging LADAR, for imaging the landing areas providing precision...

  17. Design and analysis of miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer

    Zhi, Menghui; Tang, Liang; Qiao, Donghai

    2017-02-01

    The detection technology of weak magnetic field is widely used in Earth resource survey and geomagnetic navigation. Useful magnetic field information can be obtained by processing and analyzing the measurement data from magnetic sensors. A miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer is proposed in this paper. This miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer with ring-core structure has a dynamic range of the Earth’s field ±65,000 nT, resolution of several nT. It has three independent parts placed in three perpendicular planes for measuring three orthogonal magnetic field components, respectively. A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is used to generate stimulation signal, analog-to-digital (A/D) convertor control signal, and feedback digital-to-analog (D/A) control signal. Design and analysis details are given to improve the dynamic range, sensitivity, resolution, and linearity. Our prototype was measured and compared with a commercial standard Magson fluxgate magnetometer as a reference. The results show that our miniature fluxgate magnetometer can follow the Magson’s change trend well. When used as a magnetic compass, our prototype only has ± 0.3∘ deviation compared with standard magnetic compass.

  18. Autonomous stair-climbing with miniature jumping robots.

    Stoeter, Sascha A; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos

    2005-04-01

    The problem of vision-guided control of miniature mobile robots is investigated. Untethered mobile robots with small physical dimensions of around 10 cm or less do not permit powerful onboard computers because of size and power constraints. These challenges have, in the past, reduced the functionality of such devices to that of a complex remote control vehicle with fancy sensors. With the help of a computationally more powerful entity such as a larger companion robot, the control loop can be closed. Using the miniature robot's video transmission or that of an observer to localize it in the world, control commands can be computed and relayed to the inept robot. The result is a system that exhibits autonomous capabilities. The framework presented here solves the problem of climbing stairs with the miniature Scout robot. The robot's unique locomotion mode, the jump, is employed to hop one step at a time. Methods for externally tracking the Scout are developed. A large number of real-world experiments are conducted and the results discussed.

  19. Miniaturization and globalization of clinical laboratory activities.

    Melo, Murilo R; Clark, Samantha; Barrio, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    Clinical laboratories provide an invaluable service to millions of people around the world in the form of quality diagnostic care. Within the clinical laboratory industry the impetus for change has come from technological development (miniaturization, nanotechnology, and their collective effect on point-of-care testing; POCT) and the increasingly global nature of laboratory services. Potential technological gains in POCT include: the development of bio-sensors, microarrays, genetics and proteomics testing, and enhanced web connectivity. In globalization, prospective opportunities lie in: medical tourism, the migration of healthcare workers, cross-border delivery of testing, and the establishment of accredited laboratories in previously unexplored markets. Accompanying these impressive opportunities are equally imposing challenges. Difficulty transitioning from research to clinical use, poor infrastructure in developing countries, cultural differences and national barriers to global trade are only a few examples. Dealing with the issues presented by globalization and the impact of developing technology on POCT, and on the clinical laboratory services industry in general, will be a daunting task. Despite such concerns, with appropriate countermeasures it will be possible to address the challenges posed. Future laboratory success will be largely dependent on one's ability to adapt in this perpetually shifting landscape.

  20. 基于激光传感器的智能车路径识别系统设计%The Design of Intelligent Vehicle Path Identification System Based on Laser Sensor

    罗强; 徐文城; 刘尧

    2012-01-01

    The self - tracking intelligent vehicle path identification system is achieved in this paper. The system is based on laser sensors. The hardware and algorithm of the system is designed in this paper. The capability of Previem and Immunity of the Intelligent Vehicle is improved. Experiment shows that this system is much more stable and accurate, can make the Intelligent Vehicle run steadily by 2. 7m/s . By using the system, we have a better result in the race.%实现了一种自主式循迹智能车路径识别系统,设计了基于激光传感器的路径识别系统的硬件和控制算法,提高了光电式智能车的前瞻和抗干扰能力.实践表明,具有较高的稳定性和准确性,可使智能车以2.7 m/s的平均速度稳定运行,已在竞赛中取得了良好的成绩.

  1. Artificial Intelligence and Sensor Fusion

    Capraro, Gerard T; Berdan, Gerald B; Liuzzi, Raymond A; Wicks, Michael C

    2003-01-01

    ...) tools and techniques. This paper investigates leveraging the AI tools being developed by the Semantic Web, DARPA's DAML program and, specifically the building of ontologies and resource description framework (RDF...

  2. Intelligent Extruder

    AlperEker; Mark Giammattia; Paul Houpt; Aditya Kumar; Oscar Montero; Minesh Shah; Norberto Silvi; Timothy Cribbs

    2003-04-24

    ''Intelligent Extruder'' described in this report is a software system and associated support services for monitoring and control of compounding extruders to improve material quality, reduce waste and energy use, with minimal addition of new sensors or changes to the factory floor system components. Emphasis is on process improvements to the mixing, melting and de-volatilization of base resins, fillers, pigments, fire retardants and other additives in the :finishing'' stage of high value added engineering polymer materials. While GE Plastics materials were used for experimental studies throughout the program, the concepts and principles are broadly applicable to other manufacturers materials. The project involved a joint collaboration among GE Global Research, GE Industrial Systems and Coperion Werner & Pleiderer, USA, a major manufacturer of compounding equipment. Scope of the program included development of a algorithms for monitoring process material viscosity without rheological sensors or generating waste streams, a novel detection scheme for rapid detection of process upsets and an adaptive feedback control system to compensate for process upsets where at line adjustments are feasible. Software algorithms were implemented and tested on a laboratory scale extruder (50 lb/hr) at GE Global Research and data from a production scale system (2000 lb/hr) at GE Plastics was used to validate the monitoring and detection software. Although not evaluated experimentally, a new concept for extruder process monitoring through estimation of high frequency drive torque without strain gauges is developed and demonstrated in simulation. A plan to commercialize the software system is outlined, but commercialization has not been completed.

  3. Hodoscope module with miniature photomultipliers

    Bel'zer, L.I.; Gribushin, A.M.; Zhil'tsov, L.Ya.; Matveeva, E.N.; Philipenko, T.D.; Sinev, N.B.

    1987-01-01

    The experimental Scintillation Magnetic Spectrometer (SMS) installation, whose main element is an extended hodoscope system, is being built for the accelerator of the High Energy Laboratory of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. The authors describe the scintillation hodoscope of the SMS installation and present the applicable amplitude and time characteristics of several types of miniature photomultipliers (FEU-58, FEU-60, FEU-114-1, FEU-147-1, and R-1635 (Hamamatsu, Japan)), which were obtained with a 106 Ru radioactive source and standard plastic scintillators of two types, based on oxazoles in polystyrene and in polymethylmethacrylate

  4. A miniaturized plastic dilution refrigerator

    Bindilatti, V.; Oliveira, N.F.Jr.; Martin, R.V.; Frossati, G.

    1996-01-01

    We have built and tested a miniaturized dilution refrigerator, completely contained (still, heat exchanger and mixing chamber) inside a plastic (PVC) tube of 10 mm diameter and 170 mm length. With a 25 cm 2 CuNi heat exchanger, it reached temperatures below 50 mK, for circulation rates below 70 μmol/s. The cooling power at 100 mK and 63 μmol/s was 45 μW. The experimental space could accommodate samples up to 6 mm in diameter. (author)

  5. Efficient Security Mechanisms for mHealth Applications Using Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Prasan Kumar Sahoo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent technological advances in wireless communications and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices, which can be integrated into a Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN for health monitoring. Physiological signals of humans such as heartbeats, temperature and pulse can be monitored from a distant location using tiny biomedical wireless sensors. Hence, it is highly essential to combine the ubiquitous computing with mobile health technology using wireless sensors and smart phones to monitor the well-being of chronic patients such as cardiac, Parkinson and epilepsy patients. Since physiological data of a patient are highly sensitive, maintaining its confidentiality is highly essential. Hence, security is a vital research issue in mobile health (mHealth applications, especially if a patient has an embarrassing disease. In this paper a three tier security architecture for the mHealth application is proposed, in which light weight data confidentiality and authentication protocols are proposed to maintain the privacy of a patient. Moreover, considering the energy and hardware constraints of the wireless body sensors, low complexity data confidential and authentication schemes are designed. Performance evaluation of the proposed architecture shows that they can satisfy the energy and hardware limitations of the sensors and still can maintain the secure fabrics of the wireless body sensor networks. Besides, the proposed schemes can outperform in terms of energy consumption, memory usage and computation time over standard key establishment security scheme.

  6. Efficient Security Mechanisms for mHealth Applications Using Wireless Body Sensor Networks

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological advances in wireless communications and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices, which can be integrated into a Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) for health monitoring. Physiological signals of humans such as heartbeats, temperature and pulse can be monitored from a distant location using tiny biomedical wireless sensors. Hence, it is highly essential to combine the ubiquitous computing with mobile health technology using wireless sensors and smart phones to monitor the well-being of chronic patients such as cardiac, Parkinson and epilepsy patients. Since physiological data of a patient are highly sensitive, maintaining its confidentiality is highly essential. Hence, security is a vital research issue in mobile health (mHealth) applications, especially if a patient has an embarrassing disease. In this paper a three tier security architecture for the mHealth application is proposed, in which light weight data confidentiality and authentication protocols are proposed to maintain the privacy of a patient. Moreover, considering the energy and hardware constraints of the wireless body sensors, low complexity data confidential and authentication schemes are designed. Performance evaluation of the proposed architecture shows that they can satisfy the energy and hardware limitations of the sensors and still can maintain the secure fabrics of the wireless body sensor networks. Besides, the proposed schemes can outperform in terms of energy consumption, memory usage and computation time over standard key establishment security scheme. PMID:23112734

  7. Efficient security mechanisms for mHealth applications using wireless body sensor networks.

    Sahoo, Prasan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Recent technological advances in wireless communications and physiological sensing allow miniature, lightweight, ultra-low power, intelligent monitoring devices, which can be integrated into a Wireless Body Sensor Network (WBSN) for health monitoring. Physiological signals of humans such as heartbeats, temperature and pulse can be monitored from a distant location using tiny biomedical wireless sensors. Hence, it is highly essential to combine the ubiquitous computing with mobile health technology using wireless sensors and smart phones to monitor the well-being of chronic patients such as cardiac, Parkinson and epilepsy patients. Since physiological data of a patient are highly sensitive, maintaining its confidentiality is highly essential. Hence, security is a vital research issue in mobile health (mHealth) applications, especially if a patient has an embarrassing disease. In this paper a three tier security architecture for the mHealth application is proposed, in which light weight data confidentiality and authentication protocols are proposed to maintain the privacy of a patient. Moreover, considering the energy and hardware constraints of the wireless body sensors, low complexity data confidential and authentication schemes are designed. Performance evaluation of the proposed architecture shows that they can satisfy the energy and hardware limitations of the sensors and still can maintain the secure fabrics of the wireless body sensor networks. Besides, the proposed schemes can outperform in terms of energy consumption, memory usage and computation time over standard key establishment security scheme.

  8. Intelligent instrumentation principles and applications

    Bhuyan, Manabendra

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of microprocessors and digital-processing technologies as catalyst, classical sensors capable of simple signal conditioning operations have evolved rapidly to take on higher and more specialized functions including validation, compensation, and classification. This new category of sensor expands the scope of incorporating intelligence into instrumentation systems, yet with such rapid changes, there has developed no universal standard for design, definition, or requirement with which to unify intelligent instrumentation. Explaining the underlying design methodologies of intelligent instrumentation, Intelligent Instrumentation: Principles and Applications provides a comprehensive and authoritative resource on the scientific foundations from which to coordinate and advance the field. Employing a textbook-like language, this book translates methodologies to more than 80 numerical examples, and provides applications in 14 case studies for a complete and working understanding of the material. Beginn...

  9. Optimal and Miniaturized Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonant Systems

    Hu, Hao

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) technologies for communication and recharging devices have recently attracted significant research attention. Conventional WPT systems based either on far-field or near-field coupling cannot provide simultaneously high efficiency and long transfer range. The Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) method was introduced recently, and it offers the possibility of transferring power with high efficiency over longer distances. Previous SCMR research has only focused on how to improve its efficiency and range through different methods. However, the study of optimal and miniaturized designs has been limited. In addition, no multiband and broadband SCMR WPT systems have been developed and traditional SCMR systems exhibit narrowband efficiency thereby imposing strict limitations on simultaneous wireless transmission of information and power, which is important for battery-less sensors. Therefore, new SCMR systems that are optimally designed and miniaturized in size will significantly enhance various technologies in many applications. The optimal and miniaturized SCMR systems are studied here. First, analytical models of the Conformal SCMR (CSCMR) system and thorough analysis and design methodology have been presented. This analysis specifically leads to the identification of the optimal design parameters, and predicts the performance of the designed CSCMR system. Second, optimal multiband and broadband CSCMR systems are designed. Two-band, three-band, and four-band CSCMR systems are designed and validated using simulations and measurements. Novel broadband CSCMR systems are also analyzed, designed, simulated and measured. The proposed broadband CSCMR system achieved more than 7 times larger bandwidth compared to the traditional SCMR system at the same frequency. Miniaturization methods of SCMR systems are also explored. Specifically, methods that use printable CSCMR with large capacitors, novel topologies including meandered, SRRs, and

  10. Artificial Intelligence.

    Information Technology Quarterly, 1985

    1985-01-01

    This issue of "Information Technology Quarterly" is devoted to the theme of "Artificial Intelligence." It contains two major articles: (1) Artificial Intelligence and Law" (D. Peter O'Neill and George D. Wood); (2) "Artificial Intelligence: A Long and Winding Road" (John J. Simon, Jr.). In addition, it contains two sidebars: (1) "Calculating and…

  11. Competitive Intelligence.

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  12. Advances in Miniaturized Instruments for Genomics

    Cihun-Siyong Alex Gong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a lot of demonstrations of the miniaturized instruments were reported for genomic applications. They provided the advantages of miniaturization, automation, sensitivity, and specificity for the development of point-of-care diagnostics. The aim of this paper is to report on recent developments on miniaturized instruments for genomic applications. Based on the mature development of microfabrication, microfluidic systems have been demonstrated for various genomic detections. Since one of the objectives of miniaturized instruments is for the development of point-of-care device, impedimetric detection is found to be a promising technique for this purpose. An in-depth discussion of the impedimetric circuits and systems will be included to provide total consideration of the miniaturized instruments and their potential application towards real-time portable imaging in the “-omics” era. The current excellent demonstrations suggest a solid foundation for the development of practical and widespread point-of-care genomic diagnostic devices.

  13. Intelligence Ethics:

    Rønn, Kira Vrist

    2016-01-01

    Questions concerning what constitutes a morally justified conduct of intelligence activities have received increased attention in recent decades. However, intelligence ethics is not yet homogeneous or embedded as a solid research field. The aim of this article is to sketch the state of the art...... of intelligence ethics and point out subjects for further scrutiny in future research. The review clusters the literature on intelligence ethics into two groups: respectively, contributions on external topics (i.e., the accountability of and the public trust in intelligence agencies) and internal topics (i.......e., the search for an ideal ethical framework for intelligence actions). The article concludes that there are many holes to fill for future studies on intelligence ethics both in external and internal discussions. Thus, the article is an invitation – especially, to moral philosophers and political theorists...

  14. Oxygen sensor using proton-conductor thick-film operative at room temperature. Puroton dodentai atsumaku wo mochiita joon sadogata sanso sensor

    Miura, Norio; Yoshida, Nobuaki; Matayoshi, Naoko; Shimizu, Yoichi; Yamazoe, Noboru; Kuwata, Shigeki [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka, (Japan) Niihama National College of Tech., Ehime, (Japan)

    1989-10-01

    An amperometric solid-state oxygen sensor using a proton-conductor thick-film was examined as a miniaturized and intelligent oxygen sensor operative at room temperature. The good-conditioned proton-conductor film of about 10{mu}m in thickness without holes was formed on a porous alumina substrate by spin-coating the paste containing antimonic acid and a polyvinyl alcohol binder. Using this material, the thick-film oxygen sensor was made. A limiting current, controlled by oxygen permeation through the gas-diffusion layer, was observed when an external voltage was over 1.4V. The limiting current increased linearly with an increase in oxygen partial pressure up to 1.0 atm at an external voltage of 1.6V. The 90% response time for increasing oxygen partial pressure was about 40 seconds at 30 centigrade. Moreover, it was found that the sensor could also respond to dissolved oxygen in water at room temperature. With a sensor using a hydrophobic gas-diffusion layer containing a polystyrene binder, the limiting current was linear to the dissolved oxygen concentration up to 20ppm. 15 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Intelligent Integrated System Health Management

    Figueroa, Fernando

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Integrated System Health Management (ISHM) is the management of data, information, and knowledge (DIaK) with the purposeful objective of determining the health of a system (Management: storage, distribution, sharing, maintenance, processing, reasoning, and presentation). Presentation discusses: (1) ISHM Capability Development. (1a) ISHM Knowledge Model. (1b) Standards for ISHM Implementation. (1c) ISHM Domain Models (ISHM-DM's). (1d) Intelligent Sensors and Components. (2) ISHM in Systems Design, Engineering, and Integration. (3) Intelligent Control for ISHM-Enabled Systems

  16. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation.   Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  17. 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference

    Deng, Zhidong

    2013-01-01

    Proceedings of the 2013 Chinese Intelligent Automation Conference presents selected research papers from the CIAC’13, held in Yangzhou, China. The topics include e.g. adaptive control, fuzzy control, neural network based control, knowledge based control, hybrid intelligent control, learning control, evolutionary mechanism based control, multi-sensor integration, failure diagnosis, and reconfigurable control. Engineers and researchers from academia, industry, and government can gain an inside view of new solutions combining ideas from multiple disciplines in the field of intelligent automation. Zengqi Sun and Zhidong Deng are professors at the Department of Computer Science, Tsinghua University, China.

  18. Development of a miniaturized watch-type dosimeter using a silicon printed-circuit board

    Ishikura, Takeshi; Sakamaki, Tsuyoshi; Matsumoto, Iwao; Aoyama, Kei; Nakamura, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    The electrical personal dosimeter using a silicon semiconductor sensor has the advantage of real time response and alarm function, which can prevent unexpected over-exposure. We tried to develop a miniaturized watch-type dosimeter by incorporating the silicon semiconductor sensor on a silicon printed-circuit board. Thin film resistors, capacitors and wiring patterns are formed on a downsized printed-circuit board. Electronic parts including transistors are mounted by soldering on the silicon printed-circuit board. The dosimeter is further miniaturized by downsizing the amplifier circuit, the semiconductor radiation sensor, the power supply circuit, setting parts and alarm part. The performance of the developed dosimeter was evaluated with respect to the gamma-ray spectra, angular dependence and linearity to dose equivalent rate, and it was confirmed that this dosimeter has the performance equivalent to a commercially available electrical personal dosimeter. (author)

  19. Clementine sensor suite

    Ledebuhr, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    LLNL designed and built the suite of six miniaturized light-weight space-qualified sensors utilized in the Clementine mission. A major goal of the Clementine program was to demonstrate technologies originally developed for Ballistic Missile Defense Organization Programs. These sensors were modified to gather data from the moon. This overview presents each of these sensors and some preliminary on-orbit performance estimates. The basic subsystems of these sensors include optical baffles to reject off-axis stray light, light-weight ruggedized optical systems, filter wheel assemblies, radiation tolerant focal plane arrays, radiation hardened control and readout electronics and low mass and power mechanical cryogenic coolers for the infrared sensors. Descriptions of each sensor type are given along with design specifications, photographs and on-orbit data collected.

  20. Intelligence Naturelle et Intelligence Artificielle

    Dubois, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Cet article présente une approche systémique du concept d’intelligence naturelle en ayant pour objectif de créer une intelligence artificielle. Ainsi, l’intelligence naturelle, humaine et animale non-humaine, est une fonction composée de facultés permettant de connaître et de comprendre. De plus, l'intelligence naturelle reste indissociable de la structure, à savoir les organes du cerveau et du corps. La tentation est grande de doter les systèmes informatiques d’une intelligence artificielle ...

  1. Vision Guided Intelligent Robot Design And Experiments

    Slutzky, G. D.; Hall, E. L.

    1988-02-01

    The concept of an intelligent robot is an important topic combining sensors, manipulators, and artificial intelligence to design a useful machine. Vision systems, tactile sensors, proximity switches and other sensors provide the elements necessary for simple game playing as well as industrial applications. These sensors permit adaption to a changing environment. The AI techniques permit advanced forms of decision making, adaptive responses, and learning while the manipulator provides the ability to perform various tasks. Computer languages such as LISP and OPS5, have been utilized to achieve expert systems approaches in solving real world problems. The purpose of this paper is to describe several examples of visually guided intelligent robots including both stationary and mobile robots. Demonstrations will be presented of a system for constructing and solving a popular peg game, a robot lawn mower, and a box stacking robot. The experience gained from these and other systems provide insight into what may be realistically expected from the next generation of intelligent machines.

  2. Miniature mechanical transfer optical coupler

    Abel, Philip [Overland Park, KS; Watterson, Carl [Kansas City, MO

    2011-02-15

    A miniature mechanical transfer (MT) optical coupler ("MMTOC") for optically connecting a first plurality of optical fibers with at least one other plurality of optical fibers. The MMTOC may comprise a beam splitting element, a plurality of collimating lenses, and a plurality of alignment elements. The MMTOC may optically couple a first plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a first MT connector with a second plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a second MT connector and a third plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a third MT connector. The beam splitting element may allow a portion of each beam of light from the first plurality of fibers to pass through to the second plurality of fibers and simultaneously reflect another portion of each beam of light from the first plurality of fibers to the third plurality of fibers.

  3. Microsupercapacitors as miniaturized energy-storage components for on-chip electronics

    Kyeremateng, Nana Amponsah; Brousse, Thierry; Pech, David

    2017-01-01

    The push towards miniaturized electronics calls for the development of miniaturized energy-storage components that can enable sustained, autonomous operation of electronic devices for applications such as wearable gadgets and wireless sensor networks. Microsupercapacitors have been targeted as a viable route for this purpose, because, though storing less energy than microbatteries, they can be charged and discharged much more rapidly and have an almost unlimited lifetime. In this Review, we discuss the progress and the prospects of integrated miniaturized supercapacitors. In particular, we discuss their power performances and emphasize the need of a three-dimensional design to boost their energy-storage capacity. This is obtainable, for example, through self-supported nanostructured electrodes. We also critically evaluate the performance metrics currently used in the literature to characterize microsupercapacitors and offer general guidelines to benchmark performances towards prospective applications.

  4. Smart Home Wireless Sensor Nodes

    Lynggaard, Per

    . This paper introduces an approach that considerably lowers the wireless sensor node power consumption and the amount of transmitted sensor events. It uses smart objects that include artificial intelligence to efficiently process the sensor event on location and thereby saves the costly wireless...

  5. Integrated Miniature Arrays of Optical Biomolecule Detectors

    Iltchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute; Lin, Ying; Le, Thanh

    2009-01-01

    Integrated miniature planar arrays of optical sensors for detecting specific biochemicals in extremely small quantities have been proposed. An array of this type would have an area of about 1 cm2. Each element of the array would include an optical microresonator that would have a high value of the resonance quality factor (Q . 107). The surface of each microresonator would be derivatized to make it bind molecules of a species of interest, and such binding would introduce a measurable change in the optical properties of the microresonator. Because each microresonator could be derivatized for detection of a specific biochemical different from those of the other microresonators, it would be possible to detect multiple specific biochemicals by simultaneous or sequential interrogation of all the elements in the array. Moreover, the derivatization would make it unnecessary to prepare samples by chemical tagging. Such interrogation would be effected by means of a grid of row and column polymer-based optical waveguides that would be integral parts of a chip on which the array would be fabricated. The row and column polymer-based optical waveguides would intersect at the elements of the array (see figure). At each intersection, the row and column waveguides would be optically coupled to one of the microresonators. The polymer-based waveguides would be connected via optical fibers to external light sources and photodetectors. One set of waveguides and fibers (e.g., the row waveguides and fibers) would couple light from the sources to the resonators; the other set of waveguides and fibers (e.g., the column waveguides and fibers) would couple light from the microresonators to the photodetectors. Each microresonator could be addressed individually by row and column for measurement of its optical transmission. Optionally, the chip could be fabricated so that each microresonator would lie inside a microwell, into which a microscopic liquid sample could be dispensed.

  6. Bioinspired Sensor Systems

    Manel del Valle

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This editorial summarizes and classifies the contributions presented by different authors to the special issue of the journal Sensors dedicated to Bioinspired Sensor Systems. From the coupling of sensor arrays or networks, plus computer processing abilities, new applications to mimic or to complement human senses are arising in the context of ambient intelligence. Principles used, and illustrative study cases have been presented permitting readers to grasp the current status of the field.

  7. 基于红外光电传感器的智能寻迹小车设计%Design of intelligent-searching-track race car based on infrared photoelectric sensor

    胡媛媛; 邓世建; 王书婧

    2011-01-01

    寻迹小车可以看作是缩小化的智能汽车,对智能汽车的研究有一定的借鉴意义.采用飞思卡尔公司的MC9S12DG128B作为核心控制芯片,设计了通过红外光电传惠器检测路径信息的智能寻迹小车.该系统由处理器模块、路径识别模块、电机驱动模块、舵机驱动模块、车速检测模块、液晶显示模块与电源模块等组成.实际应用表明,该小车可以在专门设计的跑道上快速平稳地实现寻迹功能.%The tracing car can be regarded as the contractible intelligent vehicle. Its research has a certain significance for the intelligent car. By using Freescale company's devices MC9S12DG128B as the core control chip, this paper designed the intelligent tracing car to detection route information through the infrared photoelectric sensor. The system includes processor module, path recognition module, motor driver module, servo driver module, speed detection module, LCD module,power supply module and so on. The practical application shows that the car can rapidly and smoothly realize the tracing function in the runway of the special design.

  8. Miniature, Single Channel, Memory-Based, High-G Acceleration Recorder (Millipen)

    Rohwer, Tedd A.

    1999-01-01

    The Instrumentation and Telemetry Departments at Sandia National Laboratories have been instrumenting earth penetrators for over thirty years. Recorded acceleration data is used to quantify penetrator performance. Penetrator testing has become more difficult as desired impact velocities have increased. This results in the need for small-scale test vehicles and miniature instrumentation. A miniature recorder will allow penetrator diameters to significantly decrease, opening the window of testable parameters. Full-scale test vehicles will also benefit from miniature recorders by using a less intrusive system to instrument internal arming, fusing, and firing components. This single channel concept is the latest design in an ongoing effort to miniaturize the size and reduce the power requirement of acceleration instrumentation. A micro-controller/memory based system provides the data acquisition, signal conditioning, power regulation, and data storage. This architecture allows the recorder, including both sensor and electronics, to occupy a volume of less than 1.5 cubic inches, draw less than 200mW of power, and record 15kHz data up to 40,000 gs. This paper will describe the development and operation of this miniature acceleration recorder

  9. A Sensor Management Tool for Use with NASA World Wind, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The number of sensors that are deployed continues to increase for scientific, commercial and intelligence related applications. Quantities of sensor data are...

  10. 2nd International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications

    Matson, Eric; Myung, Hyun; Xu, Peter; Karray, Fakhri

    2014-01-01

    We are facing a new technological challenge on how to store and retrieve knowledge and manipulate intelligence for autonomous services by intelligent systems which should be capable of carrying out real world tasks autonomously. To address this issue, robot researchers have been developing intelligence technology (InT) for “robots that think” which is in the focus of this book. The book covers all aspects of intelligence from perception at sensor level and reasoning at cognitive level to behavior planning at execution level for each low level segment of the machine. It also presents the technologies for cognitive reasoning, social interaction with humans, behavior generation, ability to cooperate with other robots, ambience awareness, and an artificial genome that can be passed on to other robots. These technologies are to materialize cognitive intelligence, social intelligence, behavioral intelligence, collective intelligence, ambient intelligence and genetic intelligence. The book aims at serving resear...

  11. Inheritance of congenital cataracts and microphthalmia in the Miniature Schnauzer.

    Gelatt, K N; Samuelson, D A; Bauer, J E; Das, N D; Wolf, E D; Barrie, K P; Andresen, T L

    1983-06-01

    Congenital cataracts and microphthalmia in the Miniature Schnauzer were inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Eighteen matings of affected X affected Miniature Schnauzers resulted in 87 offspring with congenital cataracts and microphthalmia (49 males/38 females). Two matings of congenital cataractous and microphthalmic Miniature Schnauzers (2 females) X a normal Miniature Schnauzer (1 male) yielded 11 clinically normal Miniature Schnauzers (7 males/4 females). Eighteen matings of congenital cataractous and microphthalmic Miniature Schnauzers (6 males) X carrier Miniature Schnauzers (9 females) produced 81 offspring; 39 exhibited congenital cataracts and microphthalmia (20 males/19 females) and 42 had clinically normal eyes (17 males/25 females).

  12. Instrumental intelligent test of food sensory quality as mimic of human panel test combining multiple cross-perception sensors and data fusion.

    Ouyang, Qin; Zhao, Jiewen; Chen, Quansheng

    2014-09-02

    Instrumental test of food quality using perception sensors instead of human panel test is attracting massive attention recently. A novel cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion imitating multiple mammal perception was proposed for the instrumental test in this work. First, three mimic sensors of electronic eye, electronic nose and electronic tongue were used in sequence for data acquisition of rice wine samples. Then all data from the three different sensors were preprocessed and merged. Next, three cross-perception variables i.e., color, aroma and taste, were constructed using principal components analysis (PCA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) which were used as the input of models. MLR, back-propagation artificial neural network (BPANN) and support vector machine (SVM) were comparatively used for modeling, and the instrumental test was achieved for the comprehensive quality of samples. Results showed the proposed cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion presented obvious superiority to the traditional data fusion methodologies, also achieved a high correlation coefficient (>90%) with the human panel test results. This work demonstrated that the instrumental test based on the cross-perception multi-sensors data fusion can actually mimic the human test behavior, therefore is of great significance to ensure the quality of products and decrease the loss of the manufacturers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Miniature Active Space Radiation Dosimeter, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro will extend our Phase I R&D to develop a family of miniature, active space radiation dosimeters/particle counters, with a focus on biological/manned...

  14. High Performance Miniature Bandpass Filters, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is submitted for developing low impedance, miniature bandpass RF frequency filter via MEMS technique, in applications of SMAP, Aquarius follow-on,...

  15. Using Miniature Landforms in Teaching Geomorphology.

    Petersen, James F.

    1986-01-01

    This paper explores the uses of true landform miniatures and small-scale analogues and suggests ways to teach geomorphological concepts using small-scale relief features as illustrative examples. (JDH)

  16. Miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated board

    Lin, Ching-Fang (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    This invention documents the efforts on the research and development of a miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated navigation system. A miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated navigation system is presented; Laser Dynamic Range Imager (LDRI) based alignment algorithm for space applications is discussed. Two navigation cameras are also included to measure the range and range rate which can be integrated into the GPS/MEMS IMU system to enhance the navigation solution.

  17. Goniometry and Limb Girth in Miniature Dachshunds

    Thomovsky, Stephanie A.; Chen, Annie V.; Kiszonas, Alecia M.; Lutskas, Lori A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report the mean and median pelvic limb joint angles and girth measurements in miniature Dachshunds presenting with varying degrees of pelvic limb weakness secondary to thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion. Methods. 15 miniature Dachshunds who presented to WSU-VTH for thoracolumbar disc extrusion. Dachshunds varied in neurologic status from ambulatory paraparetic to paraplegic at the time of measurements. Results. There were no significant differences in joint angles or girt...

  18. Artificial Intelligence.

    Wash, Darrel Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Making a machine seem intelligent is not easy. As a consequence, demand has been rising for computer professionals skilled in artificial intelligence and is likely to continue to go up. These workers develop expert systems and solve the mysteries of machine vision, natural language processing, and neural networks. (Editor)

  19. Intelligent Design

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    2005-01-01

    Forestillingen om at naturen er designet af en guddommelig 'intelligens' er et smukt filosofisk princip. Teorier om Intelligent Design som en naturvidenskabeligt baseret teori er derimod helt forfærdelig.......Forestillingen om at naturen er designet af en guddommelig 'intelligens' er et smukt filosofisk princip. Teorier om Intelligent Design som en naturvidenskabeligt baseret teori er derimod helt forfærdelig....

  20. Drilling miniature holes, Part III

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1978-07-01

    Miniature components for precision electromechanical mechanisms such as switches, timers, and actuators typically require a number of small holes. Because of the precision required, the workpiece materials, and the geometry of the parts, most of these holes must be produced by conventional drilling techniques. The use of such techniques is tedious and often requires considerable trial and error to prevent drill breakage, minimize hole mislocation and variations in hole diameter. This study of eight commercial drill designs revealed that printed circuit board drills produced better locational and size repeatability than did other drills when centerdrilling was not used. Boring holes 1 mm in dia, or less, as a general rule did not improve hole location in brass or stainless steel. Hole locations of patterns of 0.66-mm holes can be maintained within 25.4-..mu..m diametral positional tolerance if setup misalignments can be eliminated. Size tolerances of +- 3.8 ..mu..m can be maintained under some conditions when drilling flat plates. While these levels of precision are possible with existing off-the-shelf drills, they may not be practical in many cases.

  1. A Laser Interferometric Miniature Seismometer

    2008-09-01

    zero bias, convert the photodiode currents to voltages with transimpedance amplifiers based on operational amplifiers (op amps) and produce a...light is collected at the photodiodes and transimpedance amplifiers convert the photocurrent to a voltage, and the seismic signal is the difference... transimpedance amplifiers . CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Achieving LNM resolution in a seismic sensor is a very strong challenge. While we have built

  2. Micromachined High-Temperature Sensors for Planet Exploration, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In phase I of the SBIR program, LEEOAT Company will develop, simulate, fabricate and test high-temperature piezoelectric miniature sensors (up to 800oC), for...

  3. 3D inkjet printed disposable environmental monitoring wireless sensor node

    Farooqui, Muhammad Fahad; Shamim, Atif

    2017-01-01

    We propose a disposable, miniaturized, moveable, fully integrated 3D inkjet-printed wireless sensor node for large area environmental monitoring applications. As a proof of concept, we show the wireless sensing of temperature, humidity and H2S

  4. Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Sensor for Plant Production Environments, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The aim of this proposal is to develop a low power consuming solid polymer electrolyte based, miniaturized electrochemical CO2 sensor that can continuously,...

  5. Electrochemical Carbon Dioxide Sensor for Plant Production Environments, Phase II

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The aim of this proposal is to develop a low power consuming solid polymer electrolyte based, miniaturized electrochemical CO2 sensor that can continuously,...

  6. Miniaturized isothermal nucleic acid amplification, a review.

    Asiello, Peter J; Baeumner, Antje J

    2011-04-21

    Micro-Total Analysis Systems (µTAS) for use in on-site rapid detection of DNA or RNA are increasingly being developed. Here, amplification of the target sequence is key to increasing sensitivity, enabling single-cell and few-copy nucleic acid detection. The several advantages to miniaturizing amplification reactions and coupling them with sample preparation and detection on the same chip are well known and include fewer manual steps, preventing contamination, and significantly reducing the volume of expensive reagents. To-date, the majority of miniaturized systems for nucleic acid analysis have used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification and those systems are covered in previous reviews. This review provides a thorough overview of miniaturized analysis systems using alternatives to PCR, specifically isothermal amplification reactions. With no need for thermal cycling, isothermal microsystems can be designed to be simple and low-energy consuming and therefore may outperform PCR in portable, battery-operated detection systems in the future. The main isothermal methods as miniaturized systems reviewed here include nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), helicase-dependent amplification (HDA), rolling circle amplification (RCA), and strand displacement amplification (SDA). Also, important design criteria for the miniaturized devices are discussed. Finally, the potential of miniaturization of some new isothermal methods such as the exponential amplification reaction (EXPAR), isothermal and chimeric primer-initiated amplification of nucleic acids (ICANs), signal-mediated amplification of RNA technology (SMART) and others is presented.

  7. System for intelligent teleoperation research

    Orlando, N.E.

    1983-01-01

    The Automation Technology Branch of NASA Langley Research Center is developing a research capability in the field of artificial intelligence, particularly as applicable in teleoperator/robotics development for remote space operations. As a testbed for experimentation in these areas, a system concept has been developed and is being implemented. This system, termed DAISIE (Distributed Artificially Intelligent System for Interacting with the Environment), interfaces the key processes of perception, reasoning, and manipulation by linking hardware sensors and manipulators to a modular artificial intelligence (AI) software system in a hierarchical control structure. Verification experiments have been performed: one experiment used a blocksworld database and planner embedded in the DAISIE system to intelligently manipulate a simple physical environment; the other experiment implemented a joint-space collision avoidance algorithm. Continued system development is planned

  8. Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) plan for Canada : en route to intelligent mobility

    1999-11-01

    Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) include the application of advanced information processing, communications, sensor and control technologies and management strategies in an integrated manner to improve the functioning of the transportation sy...

  9. Artificial intelligence and information-control systems of robots - 87

    Plander, I.

    1987-01-01

    Independent research areas of artificial intelligence represent the following problems: automatic problem solving and new knowledge discovering, automatic program synthesis, natural language, picture and scene recognition and understanding, intelligent control systems of robots equipped with sensoric subsystems, dialogue of two knowledge systems, as well as studying and modelling higher artificial intelligence attributes, such as emotionality and personality. The 4th Conference draws on the problems treated at the preceding Conferences, and presents the most recent knowledge on the following topics: theoretical problems of artificial intelligence, knowledge-based systems, expert systems, perception and pattern recognition, robotics, intelligent computer-aided design, special-purpose computer systems for artificial intelligence and robotics

  10. Biosensing with Paper-Based Miniaturized Printed Electrodes-A Modern Trend.

    Silveira, Célia M; Monteiro, Tiago; Almeida, Maria Gabriela

    2016-09-28

    From the bench-mark work on microfluidics from the Whitesides's group in 2007, paper technology has experienced significant growth, particularly regarding applications in biomedical research and clinical diagnostics. Besides the structural properties supporting microfluidics, other advantageous features of paper materials, including their versatility, disposability and low cost, show off the great potential for the development of advanced and eco-friendly analytical tools. Consequently, paper was quickly employed in the field of electrochemical sensors, being an ideal material for producing custom, tailored and miniaturized devices. Stencil-, inkjet-, or screen-printing are the preferential techniques for electrode manufacturing. Not surprisingly, we witnessed a rapid increase in the number of publications on paper based screen-printed sensors at the turn of the past decade. Among the sensing strategies, various biosensors, coupling electrochemical detectors with biomolecules, have been proposed. This work provides a critical review and a discussion on the future progress of paper technology in the context of miniaturized printed electrochemical biosensors.

  11. Potentials and limitations of miniaturized calorimeters for bioprocess monitoring.

    Maskow, Thomas; Schubert, Torsten; Wolf, Antje; Buchholz, Friederike; Regestein, Lars; Buechs, Jochen; Mertens, Florian; Harms, Hauke; Lerchner, Johannes

    2011-10-01

    In theory, heat production rates are very well suited for analysing and controlling bioprocesses on different scales from a few nanolitres up to many cubic metres. Any bioconversion is accompanied by a production (exothermic) or consumption (endothermic) of heat. The heat is tightly connected with the stoichiometry of the bioprocess via the law of Hess, and its rate is connected to the kinetics of the process. Heat signals provide real-time information of bioprocesses. The combination of heat measurements with respirometry is theoretically suited for the quantification of the coupling between catabolic and anabolic reactions. Heat measurements have also practical advantages. Unlike most other biochemical sensors, thermal transducers can be mounted in a protected way that prevents fouling, thereby minimizing response drifts. Finally, calorimetry works in optically opaque solutions and does not require labelling or reactants. It is surprising to see that despite all these advantages, calorimetry has rarely been applied to monitor and control bioprocesses with intact cells in the laboratory, industrial bioreactors or ecosystems. This review article analyses the reasons for this omission, discusses the additional information calorimetry can provide in comparison with respirometry and presents miniaturization as a potential way to overcome some inherent weaknesses of conventional calorimetry. It will be discussed for which sample types and scientific question miniaturized calorimeter can be advantageously applied. A few examples from different fields of microbiological and biotechnological research will illustrate the potentials and limitations of chip calorimetry. Finally, the future of chip calorimetry is addressed in an outlook.

  12. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

  13. High-Sensitivity Low-Noise Miniature Fluxgate Magnetometers Using a Flip Chip Conceptual Design

    Lu, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Jeff; Chiu, Po-Kai; Chiu, Shih-Liang; Jeng, Jen-Tzong

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel class of miniature fluxgate magnetometers fabricated on a print circuit board (PCB) substrate and electrically connected to each other similar to the current “flip chip” concept in semiconductor package. This sensor is soldered together by reversely flipping a 5 cm × 3 cm PCB substrate to the other identical one which includes dual magnetic cores, planar pick-up coils, and 3-D excitation coils constructed by planar Cu interconnections patterned on PCB substrates. P...

  14. Magnetic nanocomposite sensor

    Alfadhel, Ahmed

    2016-05-06

    A magnetic nanocomposite device is described herein for a wide range of sensing applications. The device utilizes the permanent magnetic behavior of the nanowires to allow operation without the application of an additional magnetic field to magnetize the nanowires, which simplifies miniaturization and integration into microsystems. In5 addition, the nanocomposite benefits from the high elasticity and easy patterning of the polymer-based material, leading to a corrosion-resistant, flexible material that can be used to realize extreme sensitivity. In combination with magnetic sensor elements patterned underneath the nanocomposite, the nanocomposite device realizes highly sensitive and power efficient flexible artificial cilia sensors for flow measurement or tactile sensing.

  15. Intelligent playgrounds

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines play, gaming and learning in regard to intelligent playware developed for outdoor use. The key questions are how does these novel artefacts influence the concept of play, gaming and learning. Up until now play and game have been understood as different activities. This paper...... examines if the sharp differentiation between the two can be uphold in regard to intelligent playware for outdoor use. Play and game activities will be analysed and viewed in conjunction with learning contexts. This paper will stipulate that intelligent playware facilitates rapid shifts in contexts...

  16. Artificial intelligence

    Ennals, J R

    1987-01-01

    Artificial Intelligence: State of the Art Report is a two-part report consisting of the invited papers and the analysis. The editor first gives an introduction to the invited papers before presenting each paper and the analysis, and then concludes with the list of references related to the study. The invited papers explore the various aspects of artificial intelligence. The analysis part assesses the major advances in artificial intelligence and provides a balanced analysis of the state of the art in this field. The Bibliography compiles the most important published material on the subject of

  17. Artificial Intelligence

    Warwick, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    if AI is outside your field, or you know something of the subject and would like to know more then Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a brilliant primer.' - Nick Smith, Engineering and Technology Magazine November 2011 Artificial Intelligence: The Basics is a concise and cutting-edge introduction to the fast moving world of AI. The author Kevin Warwick, a pioneer in the field, examines issues of what it means to be man or machine and looks at advances in robotics which have blurred the boundaries. Topics covered include: how intelligence can be defined whether machines can 'think' sensory

  18. Primary response of high-aspect-ratio thermoresistive sensors

    Majlesein, H. R.; Mitchell, D. L.; Bhattacharya, Pradeep K.; Singh, A.; Anderson, James A.

    1997-07-01

    There is a growing need for sensors in monitoring performance in modern quality products such as in electronics to monitor heat build up, substrate delaminations, and thermal runaway. In processing instruments, intelligent sensors are needed to measure deposited layer thickness and resistivities for process control, and in environmental electrical enclosures, they are used for climate monitoring and control. A yaw sensor for skid prevention utilizes very fine moveable components, and an automobile engine controller blends a microprocessor and sensor on the same chip. An Active-Pixel Image Sensor is integrated with a digital readout circuit to perform most of the functions in a video camera. Magnetostrictive transducers sense and damp vibrations. Improved acoustic sensors will be used in flow detection of air and other fluids, even at subsonic speeds. Optoelectronic sensor systems are being developed for installation on rocket engines to monitor exhaust gases for signs of wear in the engines. With new freon-free coolants being available the problems of A/C system corrosion have gone up in automobiles and need to be monitored more frequently. Defense cutbacks compel the storage of hardware in safe-custody for an indeterminate period of time, and this makes monitoring more essential. Just-in-time customized manufacturing in modern industries also needs dramatic adjustment in productivity of various selected items, leaving some manufacturing equipment idle for a long time, and therefore, it will be prone to more corrosion, and corrosion sensors are needed. In the medical device industry, development of implantable medical devices using both potentiometric and amperometric determination of parameters has, until now, been used with insufficient micro miniaturization, and thus, requires surgical implantation. In many applications, high-aspect- ratio devices, made possible by the use of synchrotron radiation lithography, allow more useful devices to be produced. High

  19. A Miniaturized Nickel Oxide Thermistor via Aerosol Jet Technology.

    Wang, Chia; Hong, Guan-Yi; Li, Kuan-Ming; Young, Hong-Tsu

    2017-11-12

    In this study, a miniaturized thermistor sensor was produced using the Aerosol Jet printing process for temperature sensing applications. A nickel oxide nanoparticle ink with a large temperature coefficient of resistance was fabricated. The thermistor was printed with a circular NiO thin film in between the two parallel silver conductive tracks on a cutting tool insert. The printed thermistor, which has an adjustable dimension with a submillimeter scale, operates over a range of 30-250 °C sensitively (B value of ~4310 K) without hysteretic effects. Moreover, the thermistor may be printed on a 3D surface through the Aerosol Jet printing process, which has increased capability for wide temperature-sensing applications.

  20. In vivo demonstration of surgical task assistance using miniature robots.

    Hawks, Jeff A; Kunowski, Jacob; Platt, Stephen R

    2012-10-01

    Laparoscopy is beneficial to patients as measured by less painful recovery and an earlier return to functional health compared to conventional open surgery. However, laparoscopy requires the manipulation of long, slender tools from outside the patient's body. As a result, laparoscopy generally benefits only patients undergoing relatively simple procedures. An innovative approach to laparoscopy uses miniature in vivo robots that fit entirely inside the abdominal cavity. Our previous work demonstrated that a mobile, wireless robot platform can be successfully operated inside the abdominal cavity with different payloads (biopsy, camera, and physiological sensors). We hope that these robots are a step toward reducing the invasiveness of laparoscopy. The current study presents design details and results of laboratory and in vivo demonstrations of several new payload designs (clamping, cautery, and liquid delivery). Laboratory and in vivo cooperation demonstrations between multiple robots are also presented.

  1. A Miniature Data Repository on a Raspberry Pi

    Argyrios Samourkasidis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This work demonstrates a low-cost, miniature data repository proof-of-concept. Such a system needs to be resilient to power and network failures, and expose adequate processing power for persistent, long-term storage. Additional services are required for interoperable data sharing and visualization. We designed and implemented a software tool called Airchive to run on a Raspberry Pi, in order to assemble a data repository for archiving and openly sharing timeseries data. Airchive employs a relational database for storing data and implements two standards for sharing data (namely the Sensor Observation Service by the Open Geospatial Consortium and the Protocol for Metadata Harvesting by the Open Archives Initiative. The system is demonstrated in a realistic indoor air pollution data acquisition scenario in a four-month experiment evaluating its autonomy and robustness under power and network disruptions. A stress test was also conducted to evaluate its performance against concurrent client requests.

  2. Test and Evaluation of a Prototyped Sensor-Camera Network for Persistent Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance in Support of Tactical Coalition Networking Environments

    2006-06-01

    networks is home automation . Wireless sensor networks can be employed in a home environment similar to the ways they are deployed in environmental...and industrial settings. Home automation provides increased control of home appliances and security. Climate control and security systems are the...most common types of home automation applications. However, as technology 12 has increased, new applications are emerging. For example

  3. Rugged miniaturized mass sensors for use in plutonium conversion processes

    Schweikert, E.A.; James, W.D.

    1999-05-01

    Ionization is produced either through Plasma Desorption, in the case of a solid, using fission fragments from a Cf-252 source; or in the case of a gas, via an electron avalanche from the impact on a microsphere detector of α particles from a radioactive source. The gaseous compound analysis yielded multiple peaks on parent ion and molecular fragments. In the solid compound analysis, the results indicated that solid-state mass spectrometry will provide important information about the degradation of materials by measured changes in molecular weight

  4. Rugged miniaturized mass sensors for use in plutonium conversion processes

    Schweikert, E.A.; James, W.D. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Center for Chemical Characterization and Analysis

    1999-05-01

    Ionization is produced either through Plasma Desorption, in the case of a solid, using fission fragments from a Cf-252 source; or in the case of a gas, via an electron avalanche from the impact on a microsphere detector of {alpha} particles from a radioactive source. The gaseous compound analysis yielded multiple peaks on parent ion and molecular fragments. In the solid compound analysis, the results indicated that solid-state mass spectrometry will provide important information about the degradation of materials by measured changes in molecular weight.

  5. Printed Self-Powered Miniature Air Sampling Sensors

    Joseph Birmingham

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The recent geo-political climate has increased the necessity for autonomous, chip-sized, lightweight, air sampling systems which can quickly detect and characterize chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear, and high explosive (CBRNE hazardous materials and relay the results. To address these issues, we have developed a self-powered 3-D chip architecture that processes air to produce concentrated size- sorted particle (and vapor samples that could be integrated with on-chip nanoelectronic detectors for the discovery of weapons of mass destruction (WMD. The unique air movement approach is composed of a nanoscale energy harvester that provides electricity to a printed ion-drag pump to push air through coated-microstructured arrays. The self-powered microstructured array air sampler was designed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD modeling to collect particles from 1-10 microns at greater than 99.9999 % efficiency with less than 100 Pascal [Pa] pressure drop at a specified air flow rate. Surprisingly, even at minimum air flow rates below specifications, these CFD predictions were matched by experimental results gathered in a Government aerosol chamber. The microstructured array engineered filter equaled the collection capability of a membrane or a high efficiency particle air (HEPA filter at a fraction of the filter pressure drop.

  6. Miniature nanoparticle sensors for exposure measurement and TEM sampling

    Fierz, Martin; Meier, Dominik; Steigmeier, Peter; Burtscher, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles in workplaces may pose a threat to the health of the workers involved. With the general boom in nanotechnology, an increasing number of workers is potentially exposed, and therefore a comprehensive risk management with respect to nanoparticles appears necessary. One (of many) components of such a risk management is the measurement of personal exposure. Traditional nanoparticle detectors are often cumbersome to use, large, heavy and expensive. We have developed small, reliable and easy to use devices that can be used for routine personal exposure measurement in workplaces. (paper)

  7. Miniaturized multi channel infrared optical gas sensor system

    Wöllenstein, Jürgen; Eberhardt, Andre; Rademacher, Sven; Schmitt, Katrin

    2011-06-01

    Infrared spectroscopy uses the characteristic absorption of the molecules in the mid infrared and allows the determination of the gases and their concentration. Especially by the absorption at longer wavelengths between 8 μm and 12 μm, the so called "fingerprint" region, the molecules can be measured with highest selectivity. We present an infrared optical filter photometer for the analytical determination of trace gases in the air. The challenge in developing the filter photometer was the construction of a multi-channel system using a novel filter wheel concept - which acts as a chopper too- in order to measure simultaneously four gases: carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane and ammonia. The system consists of a broadband infrared emitter, a long path cell with 1.7m optical path length, a filter wheel and analogue and digital signal processing. Multi channel filter photometers normally need one filter and one detector per target gas. There are small detection units with one, two or more detectors with integrated filters available on the market. One filter is normally used as reference at a wavelength without any cross-sensitivities to possible interfering gases (e.g. at 3.95 μm is an "atmospheric window" - a small spectral band without absorbing gases in the atmosphere). The advantage of a filter-wheel set-up is that a single IR-detector can be used, which reduces the signal drift enormously. Pyroelectric and thermopile detectors are often integrated in these kinds of spectrometers. For both detector types a modulation of the light is required and can be done - without an additional chopper - with the filter wheel.

  8. Miniature Network Data Acquisition System for Airborne Sensors, Phase I

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Over-the-horizon communications and information networks are beginning to produce sustainable capabilities for Earth science operations using advanced unpiloted...

  9. A miniaturized optical gas sensor for natural gas analysis

    Ayerden, N.P.

    2016-01-01

    The depletion of domestic reserves and the growing use of sustainable resources forces a transition from the locally produced natural gas with a well-known composition toward the ‘new’ gas with a more flexible composition in the Netherlands. For safe combustion and proper billing, the natural gas

  10. 4th International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications

    Karray, Fakhri; Jo, Jun; Sincak, Peter; Myung, Hyun

    2017-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of robot intelligence from perception at sensor level and reasoning at cognitive level to behavior planning at execution level for each low level segment of the machine. It also presents the technologies for cognitive reasoning, social interaction with humans, behavior generation, ability to cooperate with other robots, ambience awareness, and an artificial genome that can be passed on to other robots. These technologies are to materialize cognitive intelligence, social intelligence, behavioral intelligence, collective intelligence, ambient intelligence and genetic intelligence. The book aims at serving researchers and practitioners with a timely dissemination of the recent progress on robot intelligence technology and its applications, based on a collection of papers presented at the 4th International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications (RiTA), held in Bucheon, Korea, December 14 - 16, 2015. For better readability, this edition has the total of 49 article...

  11. 3rd International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications

    Yang, Weimin; Jo, Jun; Sincak, Peter; Myung, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of robot intelligence from perception at sensor level and reasoning at cognitive level to behavior planning at execution level for each low level segment of the machine. It also presents the technologies for cognitive reasoning, social interaction with humans, behavior generation, ability to cooperate with other robots, ambience awareness, and an artificial genome that can be passed on to other robots. These technologies are to materialize cognitive intelligence, social intelligence, behavioral intelligence, collective intelligence, ambient intelligence and genetic intelligence. The book aims at serving researchers and practitioners with a timely dissemination of the recent progress on robot intelligence technology and its applications, based on a collection of papers presented at the 3rd International Conference on Robot Intelligence Technology and Applications (RiTA), held in Beijing, China, November 6 - 8, 2014. For better readability, this edition has the total 74 papers group...

  12. Intelligent Advertising

    Díaz Pinedo, Edilfredo Eliot

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent Advertisement diseña e implementa un sistema de publicidad para dispositivos móviles en un centro comercial, donde los clientes reciben publicidad de forma pasiva en sus dispositivos mientras están dentro.

  13. Smart sensors and systems

    Kyung, Chong-Min; Yasuura, Hiroto; Liu, Yongpan

    2015-01-01

     This book describes for readers technology used for effective sensing of our physical world and intelligent processing techniques for sensed information, which are essential to the success of Internet of Things (IoTs).  The authors provide a multidisciplinary view of sensor technology from MEMS, biological, chemical, and electrical domains and showcase smart sensor systems in real applications including smart home, transportation, medical, environmental, agricultural, etc.  Unlike earlier books on sensors, this book will provide a “global” view on smart sensors covering abstraction levels from device, circuit, systems, and algorithms.  .

  14. Liquid storage of miniature boar semen.

    Shimatsu, Yoshiki; Uchida, Masaki; Niki, Rikio; Imai, Hiroshi

    2002-04-01

    The effects of liquid storage at 15 degrees C on the fertilizing ability of miniature pig semen were investigated. Characterization of ejaculated semen from 3 miniature boars was carried out. Semen volume and pH were similar among these boars. In one of the boars, sperm motility was slightly low, and sperm concentration and total number of sperm were significantly lower than in the others (P semen was substituted with various extenders (Kiev, Androhep, BTS and Modena) by centrifugation and semen was stored for 7 days at 15 degrees C. Sperm motility was estimated daily at 37 degrees C. For complete substitution of seminal plasma, Modena was significantly more efficient than the other extenders (P Semen from each of the 3 miniature boars that had been stored for 5 to 7 days at 15 degrees C in Modena was used for artificial insemination of 15 miniature sows. The farrowing rates were 100, 100 and 60%, and litter sizes were 6.4 +/- 1.5, 5.8 +/- 0.8 and 5.0 +/- 1.0 for each boar semen, respectively. The boar that sired the smallest farrowing rate was the same one that showed lower seminal quality with respect to sperm motility, sperm concentration and total number of sperm. These results suggest that miniature boar semen can be stored for at least 5 days at 15 degrees C by the substitution of seminal plasma with Modena extender.

  15. BUSINESS INTELLIGENCE

    Bogdan Mohor Dumitrita

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present business intelligence systems. These systems can be extremely complex and important in modern market competition. Its effectiveness also reflects in price, so we have to exlore their financial potential before investment. The systems have 20 years long history and during that time many of such tools have been developed, but they are rarely still in use. Business intelligence system consists of three main areas: Data Warehouse, ETL tools and tools f...

  16. Intelligent indexing

    Farkas, J.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space ι 2 to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs

  17. Intelligent indexing

    Farkas, J

    1993-12-31

    In this paper we discuss the relevance of artificial intelligence to the automatic indexing of natural language text. We describe the use of domain-specific semantically-based thesauruses and address the problem of creating adequate knowledge bases for intelligent indexing systems. We also discuss the relevance of the Hilbert space {iota}{sup 2} to the compact representation of documents and to the definition of the similarity of natural language texts. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Intelligent Traffic Quantification System

    Mohanty, Anita; Bhanja, Urmila; Mahapatra, Sudipta

    2017-08-01

    Currently, city traffic monitoring and controlling is a big issue in almost all cities worldwide. Vehicular ad-hoc Network (VANET) technique is an efficient tool to minimize this problem. Usually, different types of on board sensors are installed in vehicles to generate messages characterized by different vehicle parameters. In this work, an intelligent system based on fuzzy clustering technique is developed to reduce the number of individual messages by extracting important features from the messages of a vehicle. Therefore, the proposed fuzzy clustering technique reduces the traffic load of the network. The technique also reduces congestion and quantifies congestion.

  19. Uncooled tunneling infrared sensor

    Kenny, Thomas W. (Inventor); Kaiser, William J. (Inventor); Podosek, Judith A. (Inventor); Vote, Erika C. (Inventor); Muller, Richard E. (Inventor); Maker, Paul D. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An uncooled infrared tunneling sensor in which the only moving part is a diaphragm which is deflected into contact with a micromachined silicon tip electrode prepared by a novel lithographic process. Similarly prepared deflection electrodes employ electrostatic force to control the deflection of a silicon nitride, flat diaphragm membrane. The diaphragm exhibits a high resonant frequency which reduces the sensor's sensitivity to vibration. A high bandwidth feedback circuit controls the tunneling current by adjusting the deflection voltage to maintain a constant deflection of the membrane. The resulting infrared sensor can be miniaturized to pixel dimensions smaller than 100 .mu.m. An alternative embodiment is implemented using a corrugated membrane to permit large deflection without complicated clamping and high deflection voltages. The alternative embodiment also employs a pinhole aperture in a membrane to accommodate environmental temperature variation and a sealed chamber to eliminate environmental contamination of the tunneling electrodes and undesireable accoustic coupling to the sensor.

  20. Goniometry and Limb Girth in Miniature Dachshunds.

    Thomovsky, Stephanie A; Chen, Annie V; Kiszonas, Alecia M; Lutskas, Lori A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report the mean and median pelvic limb joint angles and girth measurements in miniature Dachshunds presenting with varying degrees of pelvic limb weakness secondary to thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion. Methods. 15 miniature Dachshunds who presented to WSU-VTH for thoracolumbar disc extrusion. Dachshunds varied in neurologic status from ambulatory paraparetic to paraplegic at the time of measurements. Results. There were no significant differences in joint angles or girth among the three groups (ambulatory paraparetic, nonambulatory paraparetic, or paraplegic) (P > 0.05). When group was disregarded and values for extension, flexion, and girth combined, no differences existed. Conclusions. Goniometry and limb girth measurements can successfully be made in the miniature Dachshund; however, the shape of the Dachshund leg makes obtaining these values challenging. There were no differences in joint angle or girth measurements between dogs with varying neurologic dysfunction at the time of measurement.

  1. Goniometry and Limb Girth in Miniature Dachshunds

    Stephanie A. Thomovsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report the mean and median pelvic limb joint angles and girth measurements in miniature Dachshunds presenting with varying degrees of pelvic limb weakness secondary to thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion. Methods. 15 miniature Dachshunds who presented to WSU-VTH for thoracolumbar disc extrusion. Dachshunds varied in neurologic status from ambulatory paraparetic to paraplegic at the time of measurements. Results. There were no significant differences in joint angles or girth among the three groups (ambulatory paraparetic, nonambulatory paraparetic, or paraplegic (P>0.05. When group was disregarded and values for extension, flexion, and girth combined, no differences existed. Conclusions. Goniometry and limb girth measurements can successfully be made in the miniature Dachshund; however, the shape of the Dachshund leg makes obtaining these values challenging. There were no differences in joint angle or girth measurements between dogs with varying neurologic dysfunction at the time of measurement.

  2. Presynaptic miniature GABAergic currents in developing interneurons.

    Trigo, Federico F; Bouhours, Brice; Rostaing, Philippe; Papageorgiou, George; Corrie, John E T; Triller, Antoine; Ogden, David; Marty, Alain

    2010-04-29

    Miniature synaptic currents have long been known to represent random transmitter release under resting conditions, but much remains to be learned about their nature and function in central synapses. In this work, we describe a new class of miniature currents ("preminis") that arise by the autocrine activation of axonal receptors following random vesicular release. Preminis are prominent in gabaergic synapses made by cerebellar interneurons during the development of the molecular layer. Unlike ordinary miniature postsynaptic currents in the same cells, premini frequencies are strongly enhanced by subthreshold depolarization, suggesting that the membrane depolarization they produce belongs to a feedback loop regulating neurotransmitter release. Thus, preminis could guide the formation of the interneuron network by enhancing neurotransmitter release at recently formed synaptic contacts. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. FY 2006 Miniature Spherical Retroreflectors Final Report

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Krishnaswami, Kannan

    2006-12-28

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniature spherical retroreflectors using the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass to reduce both performance limiting spherical aberrations. The optimized optical performance will provide efficient signal retroreflection that enables a broad range of remote detection scenarios for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications. Miniature spherical retroreflectors can be developed to aid in the detection of signatures of nuclear proliferation or other chemical vapor or radiation signatures. Miniature spherical retroreflectors are not only well suited to traditional LIDAR methods for chemical plume detection and identification, but could enable remote detection of difficult semi-volatile chemical materials or low level radiation sources.

  4. Continuous flow nitration in miniaturized devices

    Amol A. Kulkarni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the state of the art in the field of continuous flow nitration with miniaturized devices. Although nitration has been one of the oldest and most important unit reactions, the advent of miniaturized devices has paved the way for new opportunities to reconsider the conventional approach for exothermic and selectivity sensitive nitration reactions. Four different approaches to flow nitration with microreactors are presented herein and discussed in view of their advantages, limitations and applicability of the information towards scale-up. Selected recent patents that disclose scale-up methodologies for continuous flow nitration are also briefly reviewed.

  5. Antenna Miniaturization with MEMS Tunable Capacitors

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Morris, Art; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2014-01-01

    In today’s mobile device market, there is a strong need for efficient antenna miniaturization. Tunable antennas are a very promising way to reduce antenna volume while enlarging its operating bandwidth. MEMS tunable capacitors are state-ofthe- art in terms of insertion loss and their characterist......In today’s mobile device market, there is a strong need for efficient antenna miniaturization. Tunable antennas are a very promising way to reduce antenna volume while enlarging its operating bandwidth. MEMS tunable capacitors are state-ofthe- art in terms of insertion loss...

  6. Intelligent Vehicle Health Management

    Paris, Deidre E.; Trevino, Luis; Watson, Michael D.

    2005-01-01

    As a part of the overall goal of developing Integrated Vehicle Health Management systems for aerospace vehicles, the NASA Faculty Fellowship Program (NFFP) at Marshall Space Flight Center has performed a pilot study on IVHM principals which integrates researched IVHM technologies in support of Integrated Intelligent Vehicle Management (IIVM). IVHM is the process of assessing, preserving, and restoring system functionality across flight and ground systems (NASA NGLT 2004). The framework presented in this paper integrates advanced computational techniques with sensor and communication technologies for spacecraft that can generate responses through detection, diagnosis, reasoning, and adapt to system faults in support of INM. These real-time responses allow the IIVM to modify the affected vehicle subsystem(s) prior to a catastrophic event. Furthermore, the objective of this pilot program is to develop and integrate technologies which can provide a continuous, intelligent, and adaptive health state of a vehicle and use this information to improve safety and reduce costs of operations. Recent investments in avionics, health management, and controls have been directed towards IIVM. As this concept has matured, it has become clear the INM requires the same sensors and processing capabilities as the real-time avionics functions to support diagnosis of subsystem problems. New sensors have been proposed, in addition, to augment the avionics sensors to support better system monitoring and diagnostics. As the designs have been considered, a synergy has been realized where the real-time avionics can utilize sensors proposed for diagnostics and prognostics to make better real-time decisions in response to detected failures. IIVM provides for a single system allowing modularity of functions and hardware across the vehicle. The framework that supports IIVM consists of 11 major on-board functions necessary to fully manage a space vehicle maintaining crew safety and mission

  7. Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University multispectral sensor and data fusion laboratory: a model for distributed research and education

    McMullen, Sonya A. H.; Henderson, Troy; Ison, David

    2017-05-01

    The miniaturization of unmanned systems and spacecraft, as well as computing and sensor technologies, has opened new opportunities in the areas of remote sensing and multi-sensor data fusion for a variety of applications. Remote sensing and data fusion historically have been the purview of large government organizations, such as the Department of Defense (DoD), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) due to the high cost and complexity of developing, fielding, and operating such systems. However, miniaturized computers with high capacity processing capabilities, small and affordable sensors, and emerging, commercially available platforms such as UAS and CubeSats to carry such sensors, have allowed for a vast range of novel applications. In order to leverage these developments, Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University (ERAU) has developed an advanced sensor and data fusion laboratory to research component capabilities and their employment on a wide-range of autonomous, robotic, and transportation systems. This lab is unique in several ways, for example, it provides a traditional campus laboratory for students and faculty to model and test sensors in a range of scenarios, process multi-sensor data sets (both simulated and experimental), and analyze results. Moreover, such allows for "virtual" modeling, testing, and teaching capability reaching beyond the physical confines of the facility for use among ERAU Worldwide students and faculty located around the globe. Although other institutions such as Georgia Institute of Technology, Lockheed Martin, University of Dayton, and University of Central Florida have optical sensor laboratories, the ERAU virtual concept is the first such lab to expand to multispectral sensors and data fusion, while focusing on the data collection and data products and not on the manufacturing aspect. Further, the initiative is a unique effort among Embry-Riddle faculty to develop multi

  8. An Intraoral Miniature X-ray Tube Based on Carbon Nanotubes for Dental Radiography

    Hyun Jin Kim

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A miniature X-ray tube based on a carbon-nanotube electron emitter has been employed for the application to a dental radiography. The miniature X-ray tube has an outer diameter of 7 mm and a length of 47 mm. The miniature X-ray tube is operated in a negative high-voltage mode in which the X-ray target is electrically grounded. In addition, X-rays are generated only to the teeth directions using a collimator while X-rays generated to other directions are shielded. Hence, the X-ray tube can be safely inserted into a human mouth. Using the intra-oral X-ray tube, a dental radiography is demonstrated where the positions of an X-ray source and a sensor are reversed compared with a conventional dental radiography system. X-ray images of five neighboring teeth are obtained and, furthermore, both left and right molar images are achieved by a single X-ray shot of the miniature X-ray tube.

  9. An intraoral miniature x-ray tube based on carbon nanotubes for dental radiography

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Hyun Nam; Raza, Hamid Saeed; Park, Han Beom; Cho, Sung Oh

    2016-01-01

    A miniature X-ray tube based on a carbon-nanotube electron emitter has been employed for the application to a dental radiography. The miniature X-ray tube has an outer diameter of 7 mm and a length of 47 mm. The miniature X-ray tube is operated in a negative high-voltage mode in which the X-ray target is electrically grounded. In addition, X-rays are generated only to the teeth directions using a collimator while X-rays generated to other directions are shielded. Hence, the X-ray tube can be safely inserted into a human mouth. Using the intra-oral X-ray tube, a dental radiography is demonstrated where the positions of an X-ray source and a sensor are reversed compared with a conventional dental radiography system. X-ray images of five neighboring teeth are obtained and, furthermore, both left and right molar images are achieved by a single X-ray shot of the miniature X-ray tube

  10. An intraoral miniature x-ray tube based on carbon nanotubes for dental radiography

    Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Hyun Nam; Raza, Hamid Saeed; Park, Han Beom; Cho, Sung Oh [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A miniature X-ray tube based on a carbon-nanotube electron emitter has been employed for the application to a dental radiography. The miniature X-ray tube has an outer diameter of 7 mm and a length of 47 mm. The miniature X-ray tube is operated in a negative high-voltage mode in which the X-ray target is electrically grounded. In addition, X-rays are generated only to the teeth directions using a collimator while X-rays generated to other directions are shielded. Hence, the X-ray tube can be safely inserted into a human mouth. Using the intra-oral X-ray tube, a dental radiography is demonstrated where the positions of an X-ray source and a sensor are reversed compared with a conventional dental radiography system. X-ray images of five neighboring teeth are obtained and, furthermore, both left and right molar images are achieved by a single X-ray shot of the miniature X-ray tube.

  11. Detection of Salmonella enteritidis Using a Miniature Optical Surface Plasmon Resonance Biosensor

    Son, J R; Kim, G; Kothapalli, A; Morgan, M T; Ess, D

    2007-01-01

    The frequent outbreaks of foodborne illness demand rapid detection of foodborne pathogens. Unfortunately, conventional methods for pathogen detection and identification are labor-intensive and take days to complete. Biosensors have shown great potential for the rapid detection of foodborne pathogens. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors have been widely adapted as an analysis tool for the study of various biological binding reactions. SPR biosensors could detect antibody-antigen bindings on the sensor surface by measuring either a resonance angle or refractive index value. In this study, the feasibility of a miniature SPR sensor (Spreeta, TI, USA) for detection of Salmonella enteritidis has been evaluated. Anti-Salmonella antibodies were immobilized on the gold sensor surface by using neutravidin. Salmonella could be detected by the Spreeta biosensor at concentrations down to 10 5 cfu/ml

  12. Sensitivity of Miniaturized Photo-elastic Transducer for Small Force Sensing

    Naceur-Eddine KHELIFA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The sensitivity of a force sensor based on photo-elastic effect in a monolithic Nd- YAG laser depends strongly on the geometrical shape and dimensions of the laser medium. The theoretical predictions of sensitivity are in good agreement with first results obtained with a plano- concave cylindrical crystal of (4´4 mm and some values reported by other groups. However, for small size of the laser sensor, the developed model predicts sensitivity, about 30 % higher than the values given by available experiments. In this paper, we present experimental results obtained with a force sensor using a miniaturized monolithic cylindrical Nd-YAG laser of dimensions (2´3 mm with suitable optical coatings on its plane end faces. The new result of measurement concerning the sensitivity has allowed us to refine the theoretical model to treat photo-elastic force sensors with small dimensions.

  13. High-Sensitivity Low-Noise Miniature Fluxgate Magnetometers Using a Flip Chip Conceptual Design

    Chih-Cheng Lu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel class of miniature fluxgate magnetometers fabricated on a print circuit board (PCB substrate and electrically connected to each other similar to the current “flip chip” concept in semiconductor package. This sensor is soldered together by reversely flipping a 5 cm × 3 cm PCB substrate to the other identical one which includes dual magnetic cores, planar pick-up coils, and 3-D excitation coils constructed by planar Cu interconnections patterned on PCB substrates. Principles and analysis of the fluxgate sensor are introduced first, and followed by FEA electromagnetic modeling and simulation for the proposed sensor. Comprehensive characteristic experiments of the miniature fluxgate device exhibit favorable results in terms of sensitivity (or “responsivity” for magnetometers and field noise spectrum. The sensor is driven and characterized by employing the improved second-harmonic detection technique that enables linear V-B correlation and responsivity verification. In addition, the double magnitude of responsivity measured under very low frequency (1 Hz magnetic fields is experimentally demonstrated. As a result, the maximum responsivity of 593 V/T occurs at 50 kHz of excitation frequency with the second harmonic wave of excitation; however, the minimum magnetic field noise is found to be 0.05 nT/Hz1/2 at 1 Hz under the same excitation. In comparison with other miniature planar fluxgates published to date, the fluxgate magnetic sensor with flip chip configuration offers advances in both device functionality and fabrication simplicity. More importantly, the novel design can be further extended to a silicon-based micro-fluxgate chip manufactured by emerging CMOS-MEMS technologies, thus enriching its potential range of applications in modern engineering and the consumer electronics market.

  14. High-Sensitivity Low-Noise Miniature Fluxgate Magnetometers Using a Flip Chip Conceptual Design

    Lu, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Jeff; Chiu, Po-Kai; Chiu, Shih-Liang; Jeng, Jen-Tzong

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel class of miniature fluxgate magnetometers fabricated on a print circuit board (PCB) substrate and electrically connected to each other similar to the current “flip chip” concept in semiconductor package. This sensor is soldered together by reversely flipping a 5 cm × 3 cm PCB substrate to the other identical one which includes dual magnetic cores, planar pick-up coils, and 3-D excitation coils constructed by planar Cu interconnections patterned on PCB substrates. Principles and analysis of the fluxgate sensor are introduced first, and followed by FEA electromagnetic modeling and simulation for the proposed sensor. Comprehensive characteristic experiments of the miniature fluxgate device exhibit favorable results in terms of sensitivity (or “responsivity” for magnetometers) and field noise spectrum. The sensor is driven and characterized by employing the improved second-harmonic detection technique that enables linear V-B correlation and responsivity verification. In addition, the double magnitude of responsivity measured under very low frequency (1 Hz) magnetic fields is experimentally demonstrated. As a result, the maximum responsivity of 593 V/T occurs at 50 kHz of excitation frequency with the second harmonic wave of excitation; however, the minimum magnetic field noise is found to be 0.05 nT/Hz1/2 at 1 Hz under the same excitation. In comparison with other miniature planar fluxgates published to date, the fluxgate magnetic sensor with flip chip configuration offers advances in both device functionality and fabrication simplicity. More importantly, the novel design can be further extended to a silicon-based micro-fluxgate chip manufactured by emerging CMOS-MEMS technologies, thus enriching its potential range of applications in modern engineering and the consumer electronics market. PMID:25196107

  15. High-sensitivity low-noise miniature fluxgate magnetometers using a flip chip conceptual design.

    Lu, Chih-Cheng; Huang, Jeff; Chiu, Po-Kai; Chiu, Shih-Liang; Jeng, Jen-Tzong

    2014-07-30

    This paper presents a novel class of miniature fluxgate magnetometers fabricated on a print circuit board (PCB) substrate and electrically connected to each other similar to the current "flip chip" concept in semiconductor package. This sensor is soldered together by reversely flipping a 5 cm × 3 cm PCB substrate to the other identical one which includes dual magnetic cores, planar pick-up coils, and 3-D excitation coils constructed by planar Cu interconnections patterned on PCB substrates. Principles and analysis of the fluxgate sensor are introduced first, and followed by FEA electromagnetic modeling and simulation for the proposed sensor. Comprehensive characteristic experiments of the miniature fluxgate device exhibit favorable results in terms of sensitivity (or "responsivity" for magnetometers) and field noise spectrum. The sensor is driven and characterized by employing the improved second-harmonic detection technique that enables linear V-B correlation and responsivity verification. In addition, the double magnitude of responsivity measured under very low frequency (1 Hz) magnetic fields is experimentally demonstrated. As a result, the maximum responsivity of 593 V/T occurs at 50 kHz of excitation frequency with the second harmonic wave of excitation; however, the minimum magnetic field noise is found to be 0.05 nT/Hz(1/2) at 1 Hz under the same excitation. In comparison with other miniature planar fluxgates published to date, the fluxgate magnetic sensor with flip chip configuration offers advances in both device functionality and fabrication simplicity. More importantly, the novel design can be further extended to a silicon-based micro-fluxgate chip manufactured by emerging CMOS-MEMS technologies, thus enriching its potential range of applications in modern engineering and the consumer electronics market.

  16. Electrochemical Sensors for Clinic Analysis

    Guang Li

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Demanded by modern medical diagnosis, advances in microfabrication technology have led to the development of fast, sensitive and selective electrochemical sensors for clinic analysis. This review addresses the principles behind electrochemical sensor design and fabrication, and introduces recent progress in the application of electrochemical sensors to analysis of clinical chemicals such as blood gases, electrolytes, metabolites, DNA and antibodies, including basic and applied research. Miniaturized commercial electrochemical biosensors will form the basis of inexpensive and easy to use devices for acquiring chemical information to bring sophisticated analytical capabilities to the non-specialist and general public alike in the future.

  17. Miniaturized digital fluxgate magnetometer for small spacecraft applications

    Forslund, Åke; Ivchenko, Nickolay; Olsson, Göran; Edberg, Terry; Belyayev, Serhiy; Marusenkov, Andriy

    2008-01-01

    A novel design of an Earth field digital fluxgate magnetometer is presented, the small magnetometer in low-mass experiment (SMILE). The combination of a number of new techniques results in significant miniaturization of both sensor and electronics. The design uses a sensor with volume compensation, combining three dual rod cores in a Macor® cube with the side dimension of 20 mm. Use of volume compensation provides high geometrical stability of the axes and improved performance compared to component compensated sensors. The sensor is operated at an excitation frequency of 8 kHz. Most of the instrument functionality is combined in a digital signal processing core, implemented in a field programmable gate array (FPGA). The pick-up signal is digitized after amplification and filtering, and values of compensation currents for each of the axes are determined by a digital correlation algorithm, equivalent to a matched filter, and are fed to a hybrid pulse-width modulation/delta-sigma digital-to-analogue converter driving the currents through the compensation coils. Using digital design makes the instrument very flexible, reduces power consumption and opens possibilities for the customization of the operation modes. The current implementation of the design is based on commercial off-the-shelf components. A calibration of the SMILE instrument was carried out at the Nurmijärvi Geophysical Observatory, showing high linearity (within 6 nT on the whole ±50 µT scale), good orthogonality (22 arcmin) and very good temperature stability of the axes

  18. Nanophotonic Image Sensors.

    Chen, Qin; Hu, Xin; Wen, Long; Yu, Yan; Cumming, David R S

    2016-09-01

    The increasing miniaturization and resolution of image sensors bring challenges to conventional optical elements such as spectral filters and polarizers, the properties of which are determined mainly by the materials used, including dye polymers. Recent developments in spectral filtering and optical manipulating techniques based on nanophotonics have opened up the possibility of an alternative method to control light spectrally and spatially. By integrating these technologies into image sensors, it will become possible to achieve high compactness, improved process compatibility, robust stability and tunable functionality. In this Review, recent representative achievements on nanophotonic image sensors are presented and analyzed including image sensors with nanophotonic color filters and polarizers, metamaterial-based THz image sensors, filter-free nanowire image sensors and nanostructured-based multispectral image sensors. This novel combination of cutting edge photonics research and well-developed commercial products may not only lead to an important application of nanophotonics but also offer great potential for next generation image sensors beyond Moore's Law expectations. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Plans for miniature machining at LASL

    Rhorer, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    A special shop for making miniature or very small parts is being established within the LASL Shop Department, and one of the machine tools for this shop is a high precision lathe. The report describes a method based on scale modeling analysis which was used to define the specific requirements for this lathe

  20. Miniature shock tube for laser driven shocks.

    Busquet, Michel; Barroso, Patrice; Melse, Thierry; Bauduin, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    We describe in this paper the design of a miniature shock tube (smaller than 1 cm(3)) that can be placed in a vacuum vessel and allows transverse optical probing and longitudinal backside extreme ultraviolet emission spectroscopy in the 100-500 A range. Typical application is the study of laser launched radiative shocks, in the framework of what is called "laboratory astrophysics."