WorldWideScience

Sample records for miniature cars suspended

  1. Cautious NMPC with Gaussian Process Dynamics for Miniature Race Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Hewing, Lukas; Liniger, Alexander; Zeilinger, Melanie N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an adaptive high performance control method for autonomous miniature race cars. Racing dynamics are notoriously hard to model from first principles, which is addressed by means of a cautious nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) approach that learns to improve its dynamics model from data and safely increases racing performance. The approach makes use of a Gaussian Process (GP) and takes residual model uncertainty into account through a chance constrained formulation. ...

  2. Development of a micromirror-scanned multimodal CARS miniaturized microscope for the in vivo study of spinal cord disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugkar, Sangeeta; Smith, Brett; Naji, Majid; Brideau, Craig; Stys, Peter; Anis, Hanan

    2011-03-01

    We discuss the design and implementation of a novel multimodal coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) miniaturized microscope for imaging of injured and recovering spinal cords in a single living animal. We demonstrate for the first time, the use of a biaxial microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirror for scanning and diffraction limited multiple lens miniaturized objective for exciting a CARS signal. The miniaturized microscope design includes light delivery using a large mode area photonic crystal fiber (PCF), and multimode fiber for collection of the nonlinear optical signal. The basic design concept, major engineering challenges, solutions, and preliminary results are presented. We demonstrate CARS and two photon excitation fluorescence microscopy in a benchtop setup with the miniaturized optics and MEMS scanning. The light source is based on a single femtosecond laser (pump beam) and a supercontinuum generated in a nonlinear PCF (Stokes beam). This is coupled using free space optics onto the surface of a resonantly driven two dimensional scanning MEMS mirror that scans the excitation light in a Lissajous pattern. The novel design of the miniaturized microscope is expected to provide significant new information on the pathogenesis of demyelinating diseases such as Multiple Sclerosis and Spinal Cord Injury.

  3. Cars, Cars, Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    Cars are the focus of this feature article, which explores such topics as the history of cars in the United States, the national highway system, safety and pollution concerns, mobility and freedom for women, classic car shows, and the road trip in American literature and film. Also included are links to the websites of Automobile in American Life…

  4. Suspended ceilings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talamo, C.

    1991-05-01

    The retrofitting of existing conventional ceiling systems to suspended ceiling type systems represents an interesting energy savings solution since this method, in addition to providing additional protection against space heat loss and thermal bridges, also creates the possibility of housing, in the void, additional mechanical and electrical lines which may be necessary due to other savings interventions. This paper reviews the various suspended ceiling systems (e.g., those making use of mineral fibre, gypsum panels, wood, vermiculite, etc.) currently marketed in Europe, and reports, for each, some key technical, economic and architectural advantages which include thermal efficiency, noise abatement, as well as, resistance to fire and humidity. Information is also given on the relative installation and maintenance requirements.

  5. Car Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preventable Diseases Healthy Children > Health Issues > Conditions > Head Neck & Nervous System > Car Sickness Health Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Car Sickness Page Content ...

  6. Improvement on thermal performance of a disk-shaped miniature heat pipe with nanofluid.

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Chien, Hsin-Tang; Chen, Ping-Hei

    2011-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effect of suspended nanoparticles in base fluids, namely nanofluids, on the thermal resistance of a disk-shaped miniature heat pipe [DMHP]. In this study, two types of nanoparticles, gold and carbon

  7. Miniature Optical Isolator, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for miniature optical isolators in atom interferometry applications, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to develop a miniature optical...

  8. Miniature radioactive light source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caffarella, T.E.; Radda, G.J.; Dooley, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    A miniature radioactive light source for illuminating digital watches is described consisting of a glass tube with improved laser sealing and strength containing tritium gas and a transducer responsive to the gas. (U.K.)

  9. Segment Fixed Priority Scheduling for Self Suspending Real Time Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-11

    a compute- intensive system such as a self - driving car that we have recently developed [28]. Such systems run computation-demanding algorithms...Applications. In RTSS, 2012. [12] J. Kim et al. Parallel Scheduling for Cyber-Physical Systems: Analysis and Case Study on a Self - Driving Car . In ICCPS...leveraging GPU can be modeled using a multi-segment self -suspending real-time task model. For example, a planning algorithm for autonomous driving can

  10. Suspended dust in Norwegian cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    According to calculations, at least 80 000 people in Oslo and 8 000 in Trondheim were annoyed by too much suspended dust in 2000. The dust concentration is greatest in the spring, presumably because dust is swirling up from melting snow and ice on the streets. Car traffic is the main source of the dust, except for some of the most highly exposed regions where wood-firing from old stoves contributes up to 70 percent of the dust. National targets for air quality include suspended dust, nitrogen dioxide, sulphur dioxide and benzene. Calculations show that nitrogen dioxide emissions exceeding the limit affected 4 000 people in Oslo and 1 000 people in Trondheim. The sulphur dioxide emissions in the major cities did non exceed the national quality limit; they did exceed the limit in some of the smaller industrial centres. In Trondheim, measurements show that the national limit for benzene was exceeded. Most of the emission of nitrogen dioxide comes from the road traffic. Local air pollution at times causes considerable health- and well-being problems in the larger cities and industrial centres, where a great part of the population may be at risk of early death, infection of the respiratory passage, heart- and lung diseases and cancer

  11. Car sick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, M G

    1988-01-01

    The automobile is currently seen as the most desirable mode of transportation. However, this view needs to be changed since the proliferation of the automobile worldwide is leading to the poisoning of the environment and people. In the US the number of passenger cars grew 51% between 1971-86 and in the noncommunist industrialized community that figure is 71%. The gasoline and diesel fuel used to power the overwhelming majority of cars creates a variety of problems. The pollution is estimated to have a hidden cost of US $.80/gallon. Others estimate that the pollution causes 30,000 premature deaths annually just in the US. 75% of the carbon monoxide (CO), 48% of nitrogen oxides (NO2), 13% of particulates (P), and 3% of sulfur (S) emissions come from cars in the countries of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), which includes the US, Canada, Western Europe, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand. 17% of all worldwide carbon dioxide (CO2) emission comes from the production and use of fossil fuels for cars. The single biggest problem associated with cars is the photochemical smog they create in urban areas. In 1986 75 million Americans lived in areas that failed to meet national air quality standards for CO, P, and ozone (03). The only area of major improvement has been the removal of lead from gasoline. It was known to cause problems from the beginning of its use in the 1920s, but remained for 50 years because of auto and oil company pressure. Ground 03 is estimated by the US government to cost US $4 billion in annual losses, just for corn, wheat, soybeans, and peanuts. Acid rain is the other major problem associated with cars, and its damage is estimated at US $5 billion annually. Both these problems are shortterm, their effects occur immediately; the longterm disadvantage is the build up of CO2 and its contribution to the greenhouse effect. While the US is at the forefront of regulation and many other countries are modeling their emission

  12. Clean cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piffaretti, M.

    2008-07-01

    This well-illustrated presentation made at the Swiss 2008 research conference on traffic by the Protoscar company takes a look at research, design, engineering and communication topics in the area of 'clean cars'. The present situation with electrically driven and hybrid-drive cars is reviewed and the chances and problems of the present-day vehicles are examined. New developments and a number of vehicles that should be on the market in the period from 2012 to 2015 are presented. Also, 'clean' specialist vehicles such as trucks and buses are reviewed. Battery systems and associated problems and new developments are looked at. The promotion scheme in Mendrisio, Switzerland is reviewed. Bottom-up and top-down approaches are discussed and future market developments are looked at, as are promotional activities in various countries.

  13. Miniature UAVs : An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weimar, P.W.L.; Kerkkamp, J.S.F.; Wiel, R.A.N.; Meiller, P.P.; Bos, J.G.H.

    2014-01-01

    With this book TNO provides an overview of topics related to Miniature Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (MUAVs). Both novices and experts may find this publication valuable. The Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research TNO conducts research on UAVs and MUAVs, see for example [1], on the

  14. A Miniature Recording Cardiotachometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zsombor-Murray, Paul J; Vroomen, Louis J.; Hendriksen, Nils Thedin

    1981-01-01

    The design of a miniature, recording cardiotachometer is described. It is simple and can store digital data. Bench and field tests, using a hand-held display, are presented. Construction and principles of operation are discussed. Applications, with performing athlete subjects, are outlined....

  15. Miniature Centrifugal Compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sixsmith, Herbert

    1989-01-01

    Miniature turbocompressor designed for reliability and long life. Cryogenic system includes compressor, turboexpander, and heat exchanger provides 5 W of refrigeration at 70 K from 150 W input power. Design speed of machine 510,000 rpm. Compressor has gas-lubricated journal bearings and magnetic thrust bearing. When compressor runs no bearing contact and no wear.

  16. Influence of Wheel Eccentricity on Vertical Vibration of Suspended Monorail Vehicle: Experiment and Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Kaikai Lv; Kaiyun Wang; Zhihui Chen; Chengbiao Cai; Lirong Guo

    2017-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of wheel eccentricity on vertical vibration of suspended monorail vehicle based on experiment and simulation. Two sets of tests are conducted in the first Chinese suspended monorail, and the tested acceleration is analyzed and exhibited. A multibody dynamic model of the suspended monorail vehicle is established to simulate the vertical vibration of car body excited by wheel eccentricity. The results show that there are three factors which may cause an abn...

  17. CAR STICKERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Access and Control Service

    2004-01-01

    Following to the operational circular No2 title III. Conditions of access, paragraph 21 . Except in the case of exemptions authorized by the Director-General, all drivers must facilitate the identification of their vehicle. For CERN car stickers to be valid in 2004, they must have the numbers 04 printed on them. As of Monday, March 15th, the security agents on duty at the various access points will have no alternative but to refuse entry to vehicles which do not have a valid sticker. Anyone in this situation is requested to follow the regularization procedure either by logging on to the web site, or by going in person to the registration service in bldg. 55, first floor, between 07h30 et 16h30, Monday through Friday. Access and Control Service - FM Group, TS Department

  18. Miniature mass analyzer

    CERN Document Server

    Cuna, C; Lupsa, N; Cuna, S; Tuzson, B

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the concept of different mass analyzers that were specifically designed as small dimension instruments able to detect with great sensitivity and accuracy the main environmental pollutants. The mass spectrometers are very suited instrument for chemical and isotopic analysis, needed in environmental surveillance. Usually, this is done by sampling the soil, air or water followed by laboratory analysis. To avoid drawbacks caused by sample alteration during the sampling process and transport, the 'in situ' analysis is preferred. Theoretically, any type of mass analyzer can be miniaturized, but some are more appropriate than others. Quadrupole mass filter and trap, magnetic sector, time-of-flight and ion cyclotron mass analyzers can be successfully shrunk, for each of them some performances being sacrificed but we must know which parameters are necessary to be kept unchanged. To satisfy the miniaturization criteria of the analyzer, it is necessary to use asymmetrical geometries, with ion beam obl...

  19. Miniaturization in Biocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernandes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of biocatalysts for the production of both consumer goods and building blocks for chemical synthesis is consistently gaining relevance. A significant contribution for recent advances towards further implementation of enzymes and whole cells is related to the developments in miniature reactor technology and insights into flow behavior. Due to the high level of parallelization and reduced requirements of chemicals, intensive screening of biocatalysts and process variables has become more feasible and reproducibility of the bioconversion processes has been substantially improved. The present work aims to provide an overview of the applications of miniaturized reactors in bioconversion processes, considering multi-well plates and microfluidic devices, update information on the engineering characterization of the hardware used, and present perspective developments in this area of research.

  20. Miniaturized Environmental Monitoring Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. B. Freidhoff

    1997-09-01

    The objective of the Mass Spectrograph on a Chip (MSOC) program is the development of a miniature, multi-species gas sensor fabricated using silicon micromachining technology which will be orders of magnitude smaller and lower power consumption than a conventional mass spectrometer. The sensing and discrimination of this gas sensor are based on an ionic mass spectrograph, using magnetic and/or electrostatic fields. The fields cause a spatial separation of the ions according to their respective mass-to-charge ratio. The fabrication of this device involves the combination of microelectronics with micromechanically built sensors and, ultimately, vacuum pumps. The prototype of a chemical sensor would revolutionize the method of performing environmental monitoring for both commercial and government applications. The portable unit decided upon was the miniaturized gas chromatograph with a mass spectrometer detector, referred to as a GC/MS in the analytical marketplace.

  1. Miniaturized nuclear battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, K.; Ducommun, G.

    1976-01-01

    The invention relates to a miniaturized nuclear battery, consisting of several in series connected cells, wherein each cell contains a support which acts as positive pole and which supports on one side a β-emitter, above said emitter is a radiation resisting insulation layer which is covered by an absorption layer, above which is a collector layer, and wherein the in series connected calls are disposed in an airtight case

  2. Miniaturizing RFID for magnamosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Chen, Shijie; Kish, Shad; Loh, Lokkee; Zhang, Junmin; Zhang, Xiaorong; Kwiat, Dillon; Harrison, Michael; Roy, Shuvo

    2014-01-01

    Anastomosis is a common surgical procedure using staples or sutures in an open or laparoscopic surgery. A more effective and much less invasive alternative is to apply the mechanical pressure on the tissue over a few days [1]. Since the pressure is produced by the attractive force between two permanent magnets, the procedure is called magnamosis[1]. To ensure the two magnets are perfectly aligned during the surgery, a miniaturized batteryless Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) tag is developed to wirelessly telemeter the status of a pressure sensitive mechanical switch. Using the multi-layer circular spiral coil design, the diameter of the RFID tag is shrunk to 10, 15, 19 and 27 mm to support the magnamosis for children as well as adults. With the impedance matching network, the operating distance of these four RFID tags are longer than 10 cm in a 20 × 22 cm(2) area, even when the tag's normal direction is 45° off the antenna's normal direction. Measurement results also indicate that there is no noticeable degradation on the operating distance when the tag is immersed in saline or placed next to the rare-earth magnet. The miniaturized RFID tag presented in this paper is able to support the magnamosis and other medical applications that require the miniaturized RFID tag.

  3. The miniature accelerator

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    The image that most people have of CERN is of its enormous accelerators and their capacity to accelerate particles to extremely high energies. But thanks to some cutting-edge studies on beam dynamics and radiofrequency technology, along with innovative construction techniques, teams at CERN have now created the first module of a brand-new accelerator, which will be just 2 metres long. The potential uses of this miniature accelerator will include deployment in hospitals for the production of medical isotopes and the treatment of cancer. It’s a real David-and-Goliath story.   Serge Mathot, in charge of the construction of the "mini-RFQ", pictured with the first of the four modules that will make up the miniature accelerator. The miniature accelerator consists of a radiofrequency quadrupole (RFQ), a component found at the start of all proton accelerator chains around the world, from the smallest to the largest. The LHC is designed to produce very high-intensity beams ...

  4. Car Seat Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Car Seat Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Car Seat Safety ... certified child passenger safety technician.) Guidelines for Choosing Car Seats Choose a seat with a label that ...

  5. Jet Car Track Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located in Lakehurst, New Jersey, the Jet Car Track Site supports jet cars with J57 engines and has a maximum jet car thrust of 42,000 pounds with a maximum speed of...

  6. Car Club

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile Club

    2012-01-01

    The Car Club wishes all its members Good road and Happy New Year 2012. It is time to think about renewing your subscription for this year, at a cost of 50 CHF, unchanged since several years. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to going to more details, as we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. Therefore don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. We remind you that everyone who works on the CERN site can be members of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and the personnel of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the installations, alternatively you can visit our web site: http://club-acc.web.cern.ch/club-acc/ The use of the club’s installations is strictly reserved for members. Pour t...

  7. Miniaturized thermal flow sensor with planar-integrated sensor structures on semicircular surface channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Marcel; de Boer, Meint J.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2008-01-01

    A calorimetric miniaturized flow sensor was realized with a linear sensor response measured for water flow up to flow rates in the order of 300 nl min-1. A versatile technological concept is used to realize a sensor with a thermally isolated freely suspended silicon-rich silicon-nitride microchannel

  8. Miniaturized radiation chirper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umbarger, C.J.; Wolf, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    A miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts is described. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers

  9. Suspended graphene variable capacitor

    OpenAIRE

    AbdelGhany, M.; Mahvash, F.; Mukhopadhyay, M.; Favron, A.; Martel, R.; Siaj, M.; Szkopek, T.

    2016-01-01

    The tuning of electrical circuit resonance with a variable capacitor, or varactor, finds wide application with the most important being wireless telecommunication. We demonstrate an electromechanical graphene varactor, a variable capacitor wherein the capacitance is tuned by voltage controlled deflection of a dense array of suspended graphene membranes. The low flexural rigidity of graphene monolayers is exploited to achieve low actuation voltage in an ultra-thin structure. Large arrays compr...

  10. A miniature turbocompressor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwyssig, C.; Kraehenbuehl, D.; Kolar, J. W. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Power Electronic Systems Laboratory, Zuerich (Switzerland); Weser, H. [High Speed Turbomaschinen GmbH, Wolfsburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The trend in compressors for fuel cells, heat pumps, aerospace and automotive air pressurization, heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems, is towards ultra-compact size and high efficiency. This can be achieved by increasing the rotational speed and employing new electrical drive system technology and materials. This paper presents a miniature, electrically driven turbocompressor system running at a speed of 500,000 rpm. The design includes the thermodynamics, the electric motor, the inverter, the control and the system integration with rotor dynamics and thermal considerations. In the experimental setup, the specified pressure ratio of 1.6 is achieved at a speed of 550,000 rpm, which is slightly higher than the design speed. (author)

  11. Miniature ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeev, V.I.; Emelyanov, I.Y.; Ivanov, V.M.; Konstantinov, L.V.; Lysikov, B.V.; Postnikov, V.V.; Rybakov, J.V.

    1976-01-01

    A miniature ionization chamber having a gas-filled housing which accommodates a guard electrode made in the form of a hollow perforated cylinder is described. The cylinder is electrically associated with the intermediate coaxial conductor of a triaxial cable used as the lead-in of the ionization chamber. The gas-filled housing of the ionization chamber also accommodates a collecting electrode shaped as a rod electrically connected to the center conductor of the cable and to tubular members. The rod is disposed internally of the guard electrode and is electrically connected, by means of jumpers passing through the holes in the guard electrode, to the tubular members. The tubular members embrace the guard electrode and are spaced a certain distance apart along its entire length. Arranged intermediate of these tubular members are spacers secured to the guard electrode and fixing the collecting electrode throughout its length with respect to the housing of the ionization chamber

  12. Miniature Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Small Business Innovation Research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to Thermacore Inc. have fostered the company work on devices tagged "heat pipes" for space application. To control the extreme temperature ranges in space, heat pipes are important to spacecraft. The problem was to maintain an 8-watt central processing unit (CPU) at less than 90 C in a notebook computer using no power, with very little space available and without using forced convection. Thermacore's answer was in the design of a powder metal wick that transfers CPU heat from a tightly confined spot to an area near available air flow. The heat pipe technology permits a notebook computer to be operated in any position without loss of performance. Miniature heat pipe technology has successfully been applied, such as in Pentium Processor notebook computers. The company expects its heat pipes to accommodate desktop computers as well. Cellular phones, camcorders, and other hand-held electronics are forsible applications for heat pipes.

  13. Miniature linear cooler development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pruitt, G.R.

    1993-01-01

    An overview is presented of the status of a family of miniature linear coolers currently under development by Hughes Aircraft Co. for use in hand held, volume limited or power limited infrared applications. These coolers, representing the latest additions to the Hughes family of TOP trademark [twin-opposed piston] linear coolers, have been fabricated and tested in three different configurations. Each configuration is designed to utilize a common compressor assembly resulting in reduced manufacturing costs. The baseline compressor has been integrated with two different expander configurations and has been operated with two different levels of input power. These various configuration combinations offer a wide range of performance and interface characteristics which may be tailored to applications requiring limited power and size without significantly compromising cooler capacity or cooldown characteristics. Key cooler characteristics and test data are summarized for three combinations of cooler configurations which are representative of the versatility of this linear cooler design. Configurations reviewed include the shortened coldfinger [1.50 to 1.75 inches long], limited input power [less than 17 Watts] for low power availability applications; the shortened coldfinger with higher input power for lightweight, higher performance applications; and coldfingers compatible with DoD 0.4 Watt Common Module coolers for wider range retrofit capability. Typical weight of these miniature linear coolers is less than 500 grams for the compressor, expander and interconnecting transfer line. Cooling capacity at 80K at room ambient conditions ranges from 400 mW to greater than 550 mW. Steady state power requirements for maintaining a heat load of 150 mW at 80K has been shown to be less than 8 Watts. Ongoing reliability growth testing is summarized including a review of the latest test article results

  14. The Socialist Car

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars K.

    2013-01-01

    Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011.......Review of L.H. Siegelbaum (ed.) The Socialist Car. Automobility in the Eastern Block. Cornell University Press, 2011....

  15. Cars, Cycles, and Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idleman, Hillis K. Ed.

    The purpose of this consumer education module is to provide information and skills, and the ability to raise questions and find answers, while seeking the best automobile or motorcycle buy available for the money. The module may be used for a full or part semester course. The five sections (cars and the consumer, renting and leasing cars, cars and…

  16. Central Hypothyroidism in Miniature Schnauzers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorbij, Annemarie M W Y; Leegwater, Peter A J; Buijtels, Jenny J C W M; Daminet, Sylvie; Kooistra, Hans S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary hypothyroidism is a common endocrinopathy in dogs. In contrast, central hypothyroidism is rare in this species. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this article is to describe the occurrence and clinical presentation of central hypothyroidism in Miniature Schnauzers. Additionally, the

  17. Miniature Optical Isolator, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for compact optical isolators, Physical Optics Corporation (POC) proposes to continue the development of a new Miniature Optical Isolator...

  18. Miniature Raman spectrometer development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvallet, Joseph; Auz, Bryan; Rodriguez, John; Olmstead, Ty

    2018-02-01

    The development of techniques to rapidly identify samples ranging from, molecule and particle imaging to detection of high explosive materials, has surged in recent years. Due to this growing want, Raman spectroscopy gives a molecular fingerprint, with no sample preparation, and can be done remotely. These systems can be small, compact, lightweight, and with a user interface that allows for easy use and sample identification. Ocean Optics Inc. has developed several systems that would meet all these end user requirements. This talk will describe the development of different Ocean Optics Inc miniature Raman spectrometers. The spectrometer on a phone (SOAP) system was designed using commercial off the shelf (COTS) components, in a rapid product development cycle. The footprint of the system measures 40x40x14 mm (LxWxH) and was coupled directly to the cell phone detector camera optics. However, it gets roughly only 40 cm-1 resolution. The Accuman system is the largest (290x220X100 mm) of the three, but uses our QEPro spectrometer and get 7-11 cm-1 resolution. Finally, the HRS-30 measuring 165x85x40 mm is a combination of the other two systems. This system uses a modified EMBED spectrometer and gets 7-12 cm-1 resolution. Each of these units uses a peak matching algorithm that then correlates the results to the pre-loaded and customizable spectral libraries.

  19. The road to miniaturization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwai, Hiroshi; Hei Wong

    2006-01-01

    Silicon microelectronics has revolutionized the way we live, but how long can the relentless down sizing of devices continue? Hei Wong and Hiroshi Iwai describe the challenges facing the semiconductor industry today. For the last four decades the miniaturization of the microchip has been the driving force behind developments in all kinds of technology, from home entertainment to space exploration. At the heart of this revolution lies the metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistor, which has evolved in two ways. First, it has become smaller, with the latest devices measuring a thousandth of their original size. Second, the number of transistors that can be interconnected on a single chip has risen from a few tens to hundreds of millions. The density of microchips has followed an exponential trend that was famously identified by Gordon Moore of Intel in 1965. Moore predicted that the number of components that could be crammed into an integrated circuit would double every two years for the foreseeable future. In fact, he slightly underestimated the trend, because the average number has actually doubled every 18 months. The question keeping chip manufacturers awake in 2005 is how long this exponential growth can continue. (U.K.)

  20. The Whole new world of miniature technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1980-07-01

    In the past ten years, miniaturization of both electrical and mechanical parts has significantly increased. Documentation of the design and production capabilities of miniaturization in the electronics industry is well-defined. Literature on the subject of miniaturization of metal piece parts, however, is hard to find. Some of the current capabilities in the manufacture of miniature metal piece parts or miniature features in larger piece parts are discussed.

  1. Tank car leaks gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    On January 27, 1994, a Canadian National (CN) tank car loaded with gasoline began to leak from a crack in the tank shell on the end of the car near the stub sill. The tank car had been damaged from impact switching. A part of the tank car was sent for laboratory analysis which concluded that: (1) the fracture originated in two locations in welds, (2) the cracks propagated in a symmetrical manner and progressed into the tank plate, (3) the fracture surface revealed inadequate weld fusion. A stress analysis of the tank car was conducted to determine the coupling force necessary to cause the crack. It was noted that over the last decade several problems have occurred pertaining to stub sill areas of tank cars that have resulted in hazardous material spills. An advisory was sent to Transport Canada outlining many examples where tank cars containing serious defects had passed CN inspections that were specifically designed to identify such defects. 4 figs

  2. CAR2 - Czech Database of Car Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Sovka

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new Czech language two-channel (stereo speech database recorded in car environment. The created database was designed for experiments with speech enhancement for communication purposes and for the study and the design of a robust speech recognition systems. Tools for automated phoneme labelling based on Baum-Welch re-estimation were realised. The noise analysis of the car background environment was done.

  3. CAR2 - Czech Database of Car Speech

    OpenAIRE

    Pollak, P.; Vopicka, J.; Hanzl, V.; Sovka, Pavel

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents new Czech language two-channel (stereo) speech database recorded in car environment. The created database was designed for experiments with speech enhancement for communication purposes and for the study and the design of a robust speech recognition systems. Tools for automated phoneme labelling based on Baum-Welch re-estimation were realised. The noise analysis of the car background environment was done.

  4. Magnetically suspended railway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, C

    1977-07-28

    The invention concerns the emergency support of a magnetically suspended railway. On failure of the magnetic suspension/tracking system, the vehicles touch down on the rail configuration by means of emergency gliding elements like sliding shoes, skids, or the like. In doing this, the touch-down shock of the emergency gliding elements has to be limited to a force maximum as small as possible. According to the invention a spring-attenuator combination is used for this purpose, the spring characteristic being linear while the attenuator has a square-law characteristic for the compressing and a linear characteristic for the yielding motion. The force maximum thus achieved is exactly half the size of the physically smallest possible force maximum for an emergency gliding element springed without damping.

  5. Electric Car Special

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoethout, T.; Belin, H.; Verwijs, H.; Nicola, S.; De Saint Jacob, Y.; Gatermann, R.

    2009-09-15

    In six articles, two columns and two interviews a part of this issue is dedicated to electric car developments: about winners and losers in the electric car race; a unique business model to rolling out the electric car by the electric battery company Better Place and the automobile industry Renault Nissan; interview with entrepreneur Shai Agassi of the Indian company Better Place; the development of electric cars in Germany; interview with Jean-Jacques Chanaron, an economist specialising in innovation management and a firm believer in electric cars; start of mass production of electric vehicles at the Japanese Nissan automobile industry; the constraints in Sweden in developing fuel-efficient automobiles; plans for 1 million electric or hybrid cars by 2025 in the Netherlands.

  6. Breaking car use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Møller, Berit Thorup

    2008-01-01

    Based on calls for innovative ways of reducing car traffic and research indicating that car driving is often the result of habitual decision-making and choice processes, this paper reports on a field experiment designed to test a tool aimed to entice drivers to skip the habitual choice of the car...... and consider using-or at least trying-public transport instead. About 1,000 car drivers participated in the experiment either as experimental subjects, receiving a free one-month travelcard, or as control subjects. As predicted, the intervention had a significant impact on drivers' use of public transport...... and it also neutralized the impact of car driving habits on mode choice. However, in the longer run (i.e., four months after the experiment) experimental subjects did not use public transport more than control subjects. Hence, it seems that although many car drivers choose travel mode habitually, their final...

  7. Optimization of performance and energy efficiency for series hybrid commuter-car; Series hybrid hoshiki no commuter car ni okeru doryoku seino to energy koritsu ni kansuru kosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashida, M; Narusawa, K [Traffic Safety and Nuisance Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal a proper power system for a miniature vehicle called as `Commuter-car` for short trips in urban areas. Two types of simulated series hybrid commuter-cars were set on bench test systems. In order to have sufficient performance and energy saving, combination of electric motor and reduction gear. regenerative break efficiency and generator power supplying were considered by transient driving experiments. Further, estimation of primary energy consumption of the commuter-car was tried. 7 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Car stickers for 2011

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2010-01-01

    The 2011 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive their 2011 car stickers by internal mail as of 15 December.   Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents for the vehicles concerned must be presented. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/ISG/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  9. Car stickers for 2012

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2011-01-01

    The 2012 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue car stickers will receive by internal mail their 2012 car stickers as of 5 December. Holders of red car stickers are kindly requested to come to the Registration Service (Building 55,1st floor) to renew their 2011 stickers. This service is open from Monday to Friday from 7.30 am to 5.30 pm non-stop. Documents related to the vehicles concerned are mandatory. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/IS/SIS General Infrastructure Services Department

  10. Cerebellar abiotrophy in a miniature schnauzer

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, Michelle L.; Blas-Machado, Uriel

    2003-01-01

    A 3.5-month-old miniature schnauzer was presented for signs of progressive cerebellar ataxia. Necropsy revealed cerebellar abiotrophy. This is the first reported case of cerebellar abiotrophy in a purebred miniature schnauzer.

  11. Cerebellar abiotrophy in a miniature schnauzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Michelle L; Blas-Machado, Uriel

    2003-08-01

    A 3.5-month-old miniature schnauzer was presented for signs of progressive cerebellar ataxia. Necropsy revealed cerebellar abiotrophy. This is the first reported case of cerebellar abiotrophy in a purebred miniature schnauzer.

  12. UV exposure in cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehrle, Matthias; Soballa, Martin; Korn, Manfred

    2003-08-01

    There is increasing knowledge about the hazards of solar and ultraviolet (UV) radiation to humans. Although people spend a significant time in cars, data on UV exposure during traveling are lacking. The aim of this study was to obtain basic information on personal UV exposure in cars. UV transmission of car glass samples, windscreen, side and back windows and sunroof, was determined. UV exposure of passengers was evaluated in seven German middle-class cars, fitted with three different types of car windows. UV doses were measured with open or closed windows/sunroof of Mercedes-Benz E 220 T, E 320, and S 500, and in an open convertible car (Mercedes-Benz CLK). Bacillus subtilis spore film dosimeters (Viospor) were attached to the front, vertex, cheeks, upper arms, forearms and thighs of 'adult' and 'child' dummies. UV wavelengths longer than >335 nm were transmitted through car windows, and UV irradiation >380 nm was transmitted through compound glass windscreens. There was some variation in the spectral transmission of side windows according to the type of glass. On the arms, UV exposure was 3-4% of ambient radiation when the car windows were shut, and 25-31% of ambient radiation when the windows were open. In the open convertible car, the relative personal doses reached 62% of ambient radiation. The car glass types examined offer substantial protection against short-wave UV radiation. Professional drivers should keep car windows closed on sunny days to reduce occupational UV exposure. In individuals with polymorphic light eruption, produced by long-wave UVA, additional protection by plastic films, clothes or sunscreens appears necessary.

  13. Monitoring of total suspended air particulate in the ambient air of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Monitoring of total suspended air particulate in the ambient air of welding, car painting and. V. C. IKAMAISE, I. B. OBIOH, I. E. OFOZIE, F. A. AKEREDOLU. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/gjpas.v7i4.16316.

  14. The Electric Cars Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2011-01-01

    Over 100 years ago, the great inventor Thomas Edison warned that gasoline cars would pollute the environment and lead to gasoline shortages. He preferred the use of clean electric vehicles. He also put his money where his mouth was and developed an entirely new alkaline storage battery system for his beloved cars, the nickel-iron storage battery.…

  15. Collaborative Car Pooling System

    OpenAIRE

    João Ferreira; Paulo Trigo; Porfírio Filipe

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture for a collaborative Car Pooling System based on a credits mechanism to motivate the cooperation among users. Users can spend the accumulated credits on parking facilities. For this, we propose a business model to support the collaboration between a car pooling system and parking facilities. The Portuguese Lisbon-s Metropolitan area is used as application scenario.

  16. Visual thread quality for precision miniature mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1981-04-01

    Threaded features have eight visual appearance factors which can affect their function in precision miniature mechanisms. The Bendix practice in deburring, finishing, and accepting these conditions on miniature threads is described as is their impact in assemblies of precision miniature electromechanical assemblies.

  17. Preface Miniaturization and Mass Spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Unknown, [Unknown; le Gac, Severine; le Gac, S.; van den Berg, Albert; van den Berg, A.

    2009-01-01

    Miniaturization and Mass Spectrometry illustrates this trend and focuses on one particular analysis technique, mass spectrometry whose popularity has "dramatically" increased in the last two decades with the explosion of the field of biological analysis and the development of two "soft" ionization

  18. City Car = The City Car / Andres Sevtshuk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sevtshuk, Andres, 1981-

    2008-01-01

    Massachusettsi Tehnoloogiainstituudi (MIT) meedialaboratooriumi juures tegutseva Targa Linna Grupi (Smart City Group) ja General Motorsi koostööna sündinud kaheistmelisest linnasõbralikust elektriautost City Car. Nimetatud töögrupi liikmed (juht William J. Mitchell, töögruppi kuulus A. Sevtshuk Eestist)

  19. Influence of Wheel Eccentricity on Vertical Vibration of Suspended Monorail Vehicle: Experiment and Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaikai Lv

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of wheel eccentricity on vertical vibration of suspended monorail vehicle based on experiment and simulation. Two sets of tests are conducted in the first Chinese suspended monorail, and the tested acceleration is analyzed and exhibited. A multibody dynamic model of the suspended monorail vehicle is established to simulate the vertical vibration of car body excited by wheel eccentricity. The results show that there are three factors which may cause an abnormal vibration considering the track and the vehicle system. The influence of wheel eccentricity on the car body vibration was firstly analyzed. Simulated acceleration of car body has a great accordance with test. The wheel eccentricity could excite the resonance of car body at the speed of 21 km/h, and the vertical acceleration would increase considerably. Decreasing the secondary stiffness can effectively reduce the vertical vibration caused by wheel eccentricity, especially at the resonant speed. In the secondary test, the peak of car body acceleration at speed of 20 km/h is not appearing when only renewing the wheels, and the acceleration is decreasing obviously at the domain frequency. It is further determined that the abnormal vibration is mainly caused by the wheel eccentricity.

  20. Car Covers | Outdoor Covers Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Covers, Outdoor

    2018-01-01

    Protect your car from the elements with Ultimate Touch Car Cover. The multi-layer non-woven fabric is soft on the finish and offers 4 seasons all weather protection.https://outdoorcovers.ca/car-covers/

  1. Miniature x-ray source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebes, James E.; Bell, Perry M.; Robinson, Ronald B.

    2000-01-01

    A miniature x-ray source utilizing a hot filament cathode. The source has a millimeter scale size and is capable of producing broad spectrum x-ray emission over a wide range of x-ray energies. The miniature source consists of a compact vacuum tube assembly containing the hot filament cathode, an anode, a high voltage feedthru for delivering high voltage to the cathode, a getter for maintaining high vacuum, a connector for initial vacuum pump down and crimp-off, and a high voltage connection for attaching a compact high voltage cable to the high voltage feedthru. At least a portion of the vacuum tube wall is fabricated from highly x-ray transparent materials, such as sapphire, diamond, or boron nitride.

  2. Distortionary company car taxation: deadweight losses through increased car ownership

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ommeren, J.N.; Gutierrez Puigarnau, E.

    2013-01-01

    We analyse the effects of distortionary company car taxation through increased household car consumption for the Netherlands. We use several identification strategies and demonstrate that for about 20 % of households company car possession increases car ownership. The annual welfare loss of

  3. CAR: no longer forgotten?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby Lanzer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The international community is waking up to the strategic importance of the Central African Republic (CAR in the crisis over Darfur. Will current interest endure long enough to help the people of CARCAR beyond the immediate future?

  4. The Electric Car Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehl, Brian E.

    1997-01-01

    Describes the Electric Car Challenge during which students applied methods of construction to build lightweight, strong vehicles that were powered by electricity. The activity required problem solving, sheet metal work, electricity, design, and construction skills. (JOW)

  5. Car-use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Berit Thorup; Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    It is often claimed that many drivers use their private car rather habitually. The claim gains credibility from the fact that travelling to many everyday destinations fulfils all the prerequisites for habit formation: it is recurring, performed under stable circumstances and produces rewarding...... consequences. Since the decision is made quite automatically and only one choice alternative is considered (the habitually chosen one), behaviour guided by habit is difficult to change. The implications of car use habits for converting drivers to commuters using public transportation is analysed based...... to do so, car use habit, and the interaction between the two, confirms the theory-derived hypothesis that car use habits act as an obstacle to the transformation of intentions to commute by public transportation into action....

  6. Bend testing for miniature disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.H.; Hamilton, M.L.; Wire, G.L.

    1982-01-01

    A bend test was developed to obtain ductility measurements on a large number of alloy variants being irradiated in the form of miniature disks. Experimental results were shown to be in agreement with a theoretical analysis of the bend configuration. Disk specimens fabricated from the unstrained grip ends of previously tested tensile specimens were used for calibration purposes; bend ductilities and tensile ductilities were in good agreement. The criterion for estimating ductility was judged acceptable for screening purposes

  7. MIT miniaturized disk bend test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harling, O.K.; Lee, M.; Sohn, D.S.; Kohse, G.; Lau, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    A miniaturized disk bend test (MDBT) using transmission electron microscopy specimens for the determination of various mechanical properties is being developed at MIT. Recent progress in obtaining strengths and ductilities of highly irradiated metal alloys is reviewed. Other mechanical properties can also be obtained using the MDBT approach. Progress in fatigue testing and in determination of the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature is reviewed briefly. 11 figures

  8. Suspended solids in liquid effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGrath, J.J.

    1988-06-01

    An international literature review and telephone mail survey was conducted with respect to technical and regulatory aspects of suspended solids in radioactive liquid wastes from nuclear power stations. Results of the survey are summarized and show that suspended solids are an important component of some waste streams. The data available, while limited, show these solids to be associated largely with corrosion products. The solids are highly variable in quantity, size and composition. Filtration is commonly applied for their removal from liquid effluents and is effective. Complex interactions with receiving waters can result in physical/chemical changes of released radionuclides and these phenomena have been seen as reason for not applying regulatory controls based on suspended solids content. 340 refs

  9. NREL Model Car Competitions | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    work together building cars with guidance from a parent, teacher, or coach to compete in race and Solar and Lithium Ion model car races in Colorado. Building solar- and battery-powered cars requires listPDF for Junior Solar Sprint and Lithium-Ion Battery model cars. Junior Solar Sprint Solar Made Pitsco

  10. Suspending Zeolite Particles In Tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is in the process of removing waste (sludge and salt cake) from million gallon waste tanks. The current practice for removing waste from the tanks is adding water, agitating the tanks with long shaft vertical centrifugal pumps, and pumping the sludge/salt solution from the tank to downstream treatment processes. This practice has left sludge heels (tilde 30,000 gallons) in the bottom of the tanks. SRS is evaluating shrouded axial impeller mixers for removing the sludge heels in the waste tanks. The authors conducted a test program to determine mixer requirements for suspending sludge heels using the shrouded axial impeller mixers. The tests were performed with zeolite in scaled tanks which have diameters of 1.5, 6.0, and 18.75 feet. The mixer speeds required to suspend zeolite particles were measured at each scale. The data were analyzed with various scaling methods to compare their ability to describe the suspension of insoluble solids with the mixers and to apply the data to a full-scale waste tank. The impact of changes in particle properties and operating parameters was also evaluated. The conclusions of the work are: Scaling of the suspension of fast settling zeolite particles was best described by the constant power per unit volume method. Increasing the zeolite particle concentration increased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. Decreasing the zeolite particle size from 0.7 mm 0.3 mm decreased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. Increasing the number of mixers in the tank decreased the required mixer power needed to suspend the particles. A velocity of 1.6 ft/sec two inches above the tank bottom is needed to suspend zeolite particles

  11. Dr.Johnson's Dictionary in Miniature

    OpenAIRE

    Imazato, Chiaki

    1988-01-01

    More than hundred 'Johnson's' dictionaries have so far been published not only in English but in other countries, and there are numerous books and articles on Johnson's Dictionary. But few have referred to Johnson's Dictionary in Miniature; nor were there any books or articles on it. Fortunately, however, I've got one copy of Johnson's Dictionary in Miniature, which was published in 1806. Johnson's Dictionary (1755) has 41,677 entries, whereas Johnson's Dictionary in Miniature 23,439 entr...

  12. Aerodynamics of Race Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Race car performance depends on elements such as the engine, tires, suspension, road, aerodynamics, and of course the driver. In recent years, however, vehicle aerodynamics gained increased attention, mainly due to the utilization of the negative lift (downforce) principle, yielding several important performance improvements. This review briefly explains the significance of the aerodynamic downforce and how it improves race car performance. After this short introduction various methods to generate downforce such as inverted wings, diffusers, and vortex generators are discussed. Due to the complex geometry of these vehicles, the aerodynamic interaction between the various body components is significant, resulting in vortex flows and lifting surface shapes unlike traditional airplane wings. Typical design tools such as wind tunnel testing, computational fluid dynamics, and track testing, and their relevance to race car development, are discussed as well. In spite of the tremendous progress of these design tools (due to better instrumentation, communication, and computational power), the fluid dynamic phenomenon is still highly nonlinear, and predicting the effect of a particular modification is not always trouble free. Several examples covering a wide range of vehicle shapes (e.g., from stock cars to open-wheel race cars) are presented to demonstrate this nonlinear nature of the flow field.

  13. Miniature Ground Mapping LADAR, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — System & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) proposes a miniature solid state surface imaging LADAR, for imaging the landing areas providing precision...

  14. Connected Car: Quantified Self becomes Quantified Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Swan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The automotive industry could be facing a situation of profound change and opportunity in the coming decades. There are a number of influencing factors such as increasing urban and aging populations, self-driving cars, 3D parts printing, energy innovation, and new models of transportation service delivery (Zipcar, Uber. The connected car means that vehicles are now part of the connected world, continuously Internet-connected, generating and transmitting data, which on the one hand can be helpfully integrated into applications, like real-time traffic alerts broadcast to smartwatches, but also raises security and privacy concerns. This paper explores the automotive connected world, and describes five killer QS (Quantified Self-auto sensor applications that link quantified-self sensors (sensors that measure the personal biometrics of individuals like heart rate and automotive sensors (sensors that measure driver and passenger biometrics or quantitative automotive performance metrics like speed and braking activity. The applications are fatigue detection, real-time assistance for parking and accidents, anger management and stress reduction, keyless authentication and digital identity verification, and DIY diagnostics. These kinds of applications help to demonstrate the benefit of connected world data streams in the automotive industry and beyond where, more fundamentally for human progress, the automation of both physical and now cognitive tasks is underway.

  15. Hodoscope module with miniature photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bel'zer, L.I.; Gribushin, A.M.; Zhil'tsov, L.Ya.; Matveeva, E.N.; Philipenko, T.D.; Sinev, N.B.

    1987-01-01

    The experimental Scintillation Magnetic Spectrometer (SMS) installation, whose main element is an extended hodoscope system, is being built for the accelerator of the High Energy Laboratory of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. The authors describe the scintillation hodoscope of the SMS installation and present the applicable amplitude and time characteristics of several types of miniature photomultipliers (FEU-58, FEU-60, FEU-114-1, FEU-147-1, and R-1635 (Hamamatsu, Japan)), which were obtained with a 106 Ru radioactive source and standard plastic scintillators of two types, based on oxazoles in polystyrene and in polymethylmethacrylate

  16. A miniaturized plastic dilution refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindilatti, V.; Oliveira, N.F.Jr.; Martin, R.V.; Frossati, G.

    1996-01-01

    We have built and tested a miniaturized dilution refrigerator, completely contained (still, heat exchanger and mixing chamber) inside a plastic (PVC) tube of 10 mm diameter and 170 mm length. With a 25 cm 2 CuNi heat exchanger, it reached temperatures below 50 mK, for circulation rates below 70 μmol/s. The cooling power at 100 mK and 63 μmol/s was 45 μW. The experimental space could accommodate samples up to 6 mm in diameter. (author)

  17. Car stickers for 2009

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    All members of the personnel holding a valid contract (except owners of cars with green or CD plates) can come to the Registration Service (Building 55, 1st floor) to obtain their 2009 car sticker, Mondays to Fridays from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. non-stop. Please ensure you bring with you the documents relating to the vehicles(s) concerned. If you only wish to register one vehicle, you can obtain the 2009 sticker using the request form on the Web (via internet Explorer only). NB: This notice only applies to members of the personnel who obtained one or several blue car stickers for 2008. Reception and Access Control Service – TS/FM

  18. Car use within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  19. Advanced Infant Car Seat Would Increase Highway Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Richard; Elrod, Susan

    2004-01-01

    An advanced infant car seat has been proposed to increase highway safety by reducing the incidence of crying, fussy behavior, and other child-related distractions that divert an adult driver s attention from driving. In addition to a conventional infant car seat with safety restraints, the proposed advanced infant car seat would include a number of components and subsystems that would function together as a comprehensive infant-care system that would keep its occupant safe, comfortable, and entertained, and would enable the driver to monitor the baby without having to either stop the car or turn around to face the infant during driving. The system would include a vibrator with bulb switch to operate; the switch would double as a squeeze toy that would make its own specific sound. A music subsystem would include loudspeakers built into the seat plus digital and analog circuitry that would utilize plug-in memory modules to synthesize music or a variety of other sounds. The music subsystem would include a built-in sound generator that could synthesize white noise or a human heartbeat to calm the baby to sleep. A second bulb switch could be used to control the music subsystem and would double as a squeeze toy that would make a distinct sound. An anti-noise sound-suppression system would isolate the baby from potentially disturbing ambient external noises. This subsystem would include small microphones, placed near the baby s ears, to detect ambient noise. The outputs of the microphone would be amplified and fed to the loudspeakers at appropriate amplitude and in a phase opposite that of the detected ambient noise, such that the net ambient sound arriving at the baby s ears would be almost completely cancelled. A video-camera subsystem would enable the driver to monitor the baby visually while continuing to face forward. One or more portable miniature video cameras could be embedded in the side of the infant car seat (see figure) or in a flip-down handle. The outputs of

  20. Lightweight, Miniature Inertial Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liang; Crassidis, Agamemnon

    2012-01-01

    A miniature, lighter-weight, and highly accurate inertial navigation system (INS) is coupled with GPS receivers to provide stable and highly accurate positioning, attitude, and inertial measurements while being subjected to highly dynamic maneuvers. In contrast to conventional methods that use extensive, groundbased, real-time tracking and control units that are expensive, large, and require excessive amounts of power to operate, this method focuses on the development of an estimator that makes use of a low-cost, miniature accelerometer array fused with traditional measurement systems and GPS. Through the use of a position tracking estimation algorithm, onboard accelerometers are numerically integrated and transformed using attitude information to obtain an estimate of position in the inertial frame. Position and velocity estimates are subject to drift due to accelerometer sensor bias and high vibration over time, and so require the integration with GPS information using a Kalman filter to provide highly accurate and reliable inertial tracking estimations. The method implemented here uses the local gravitational field vector. Upon determining the location of the local gravitational field vector relative to two consecutive sensors, the orientation of the device may then be estimated, and the attitude determined. Improved attitude estimates further enhance the inertial position estimates. The device can be powered either by batteries, or by the power source onboard its target platforms. A DB9 port provides the I/O to external systems, and the device is designed to be mounted in a waterproof case for all-weather conditions.

  1. А mathematical model study of suspended monorail

    OpenAIRE

    Viktor GUTAREVYCH

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical model of suspended monorail track with allowance for elastic strain which occurs during movement of the monorail carriage was developed. Standard forms for single span and double span of suspended monorail sections were established.

  2. А mathematical model study of suspended monorail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor GUTAREVYCH

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model of suspended monorail track with allowance for elastic strain which occurs during movement of the monorail carriage was developed. Standard forms for single span and double span of suspended monorail sections were established.

  3. KINETICS OF SUSPENDED EMULSION POLYMERIZATION OF METHYL METHACRYLATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-zhong Bao; Cheng-xi Wang; Zhi-ming Huang; Zhi-xue Weng

    2004-01-01

    The kinetics of suspended emulsion polymerization of methyl methacrylate (MMA), in which water acted as the dispersed phase and the mixture of MMA and cyclohexane as the continuous phase, was investigated. It showed that the initial polymerization rate (Rp0) and steady-state polymerization rate (Rp) were proportional to the mass ratio between water and oil phase, and increased as the polymerization temperature, the potassium persulphate concentration ([I]) and the Tween20 emulsifier concentration ([S]) increased. The relationships between the polymerization rate and [I] and [S] were obtained as follows: Rp0 ∝ [I]0.73[S]0.32 and Rp ∝ [I]0.71[S]0.23. The above exponents were close to those obtained from normal MMA emulsion polymerization. It also showed that the average molecular weight of the resulting poly(methyl methacrylate) decreased as the polymerization temperature, [I] and [S] increased. Thus, MMA suspended emulsion polymerization could be considered as a combination of many miniature emulsion polymerizations proceeding in water drops and obeyed the classical kinetics of MMA emulsion polymerization.

  4. The market for gasoline cars and diesel cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verboven, F.

    1999-01-01

    In Europe the tax tariff is much lower for diesel fuel than for gasoline. This benefit is used by manufacturers to increase the price of diesel-fueled cars, which limits the possibility to control the use of diesel cars by means of a fiscal policy (tax incidence). Attention is paid to the impact of fiscal advantages for diesel cars on the purchasing behavior of the consumer and the pricing policy (price discrimination) of the car manufacturers. 1 ref

  5. Gas Tank for Cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Lorenz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work the development of a highly efficient pressure vessel for liquid petroleum gas (LPG in integral design is described. The pressure vessel can be customized in an optimal available installation space and thus means that the suitable for everyday use of existing modified cars or trucks can be increased.

  6. Modeling the Mousetrap Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumper, William D.

    2012-01-01

    Many high school and introductory college physics courses make use of mousetrap car projects and competitions as a way of providing an engaging hands-on learning experience incorporating Newton's laws, conversion of potential to kinetic energy, dissipative forces, and rotational mechanics. Presented here is a simple analytical and finite element…

  7. Race Car Rally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, Joan L.

    1994-01-01

    Describes an activity where teams of parents and children work together to solve problems involving matchbox-sized race cars. The teams collect, record, and analyze data; measure distances in metric; and explore concepts related to mass, friction, and force. (PR)

  8. Lego Car Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Christine

    2017-01-01

    Familiar toys can be used to scaffold young children's learning about basic physics as well as guide scientific inquiry. Teachers looking for resources to engage young children and develop science inquiry skills need look no further than the toy box. In this two-part activity, children first construct a Lego® car and use it to explore the effects…

  9. Motor car driving; Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergensohn, T. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). ISS-Fahrzeugtechnik; Timpe, K.P. (eds.) [Technische Univ. Berlin (DE). Zentrum Mensch-Maschine-Systeme (ZMMS)

    2001-07-01

    This is the first comprehensive book on motor car driving, i.e. all aspects of motor car technology that cannot be looked at separately from the needs, characteristics and limitations of the human driver. This includes ergonomics as well as the design of the driver interface in consideration of the findings of cognitive science, problems of driving simulation in the context of simulation of technical systems, problems relating to optimal car automation up to traffic psychology. The book is in honour of Prof. Dr. Willumeit who died in summer 2000. Prof. Willumeit was one of the few scientists in Germany who had been an expert on all aspects of motor car driving for many years. [German] Erstmalig wird das Thema der Fahrzeugfuehrung geschlossen dargestellt. Die Thematik der 'Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung' umfasst in diesem Zusammenhang alle Aspekte der Kraftfahrzeugtechnik, die nicht isoliert von den Erfordernissen, Eigenschaften und Grenzen des menschlichen Fahrers betrachtet werden koennen. Dies beinhaltet u.a. Probleme der Ergonomie, aber auch Fragen nach einer kognitionswissenschaftlich unterstuetzten Schnittstellengestaltung, Fragen der Simulation des Fahrverhalten im Kontext der Simulation technischer Systeme oder Fragen einer optimalen Fahrzeugautomatisierung bis hin zu verkehrspsychologischen Aspekten. Das Buch ist als Gedenkband fuer Prof. Dr. Willumeit konzipiert, der im Sommer 2000 verstarb. Prof. Willumeit war einer der wenigen Wissenschaftler in Deutschland, der ueber viele Jahre diese Thematik der Kraftfahrzeugfuehrung in ihrer vollen Breite verfolgte. (orig.)

  10. Suspended Solids Profiler Shop Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-01

    The Suspended Solids Profiler (SSP) Instrument is planned to be installed in the AZ-101 tank to measure suspended solids concentrations during mixer pump testing. The SSP sensor uses a reflectance measurement principle to determine the suspended solids concentrations. The purpose of this test is to provide a documented means of verifying that the functional components of the SSP operate properly

  11. Advances in Miniaturized Instruments for Genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihun-Siyong Alex Gong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, a lot of demonstrations of the miniaturized instruments were reported for genomic applications. They provided the advantages of miniaturization, automation, sensitivity, and specificity for the development of point-of-care diagnostics. The aim of this paper is to report on recent developments on miniaturized instruments for genomic applications. Based on the mature development of microfabrication, microfluidic systems have been demonstrated for various genomic detections. Since one of the objectives of miniaturized instruments is for the development of point-of-care device, impedimetric detection is found to be a promising technique for this purpose. An in-depth discussion of the impedimetric circuits and systems will be included to provide total consideration of the miniaturized instruments and their potential application towards real-time portable imaging in the “-omics” era. The current excellent demonstrations suggest a solid foundation for the development of practical and widespread point-of-care genomic diagnostic devices.

  12. Misuse of car safety seats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, M J; Stroup, K B; Gerhart, S

    1988-01-01

    Correct use of car seats for small children is essential to prevent serious injuries and death from automotive accidents. Failure to use a car seat properly can contribute to serious injury or death of a child. A case study in which misuse of a car seat occurred is reported. The infant died of hemorrhage and shock secondary to liver laceration which resulted from excessive pressure over the abdomen sustained on impact. Surveys of car seat use for small children prior to and following a child restraint law are also reported. Observers noted types of car seats and specific forms of misuse. Survey results suggest that parents are more likely to misuse car seats for infants than toddlers. Medical professionals can reinforce the importance of proper car seat use by incorporating specific car seat use questions into the patient interview and by providing educational materials.

  13. Design of an intelligent car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yongyi

    2017-03-01

    The design of simple intelligent car, using AT89S52 single chip microcomputer as the car detection and control core; The metal sensor TL - Q5MC induction to iron, to detect the way to send feedback to the signal of single chip microcomputer, make SCM according to the scheduled work mode to control the car in the area according to the predetermined speed, and the operation mode of the microcontroller choose different also can control the car driving along s-shaped iron; Use A44E hall element to detect the car speeds; Adopts 1602 LCD display time of car driving, driving the car to stop, take turns to show the car driving time, distance, average speed and the speed of time. This design has simple structure and is easy to implement, but are highly intelligent, humane, to a certain extent reflects the intelligence.

  14. Miniature mechanical transfer optical coupler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Philip [Overland Park, KS; Watterson, Carl [Kansas City, MO

    2011-02-15

    A miniature mechanical transfer (MT) optical coupler ("MMTOC") for optically connecting a first plurality of optical fibers with at least one other plurality of optical fibers. The MMTOC may comprise a beam splitting element, a plurality of collimating lenses, and a plurality of alignment elements. The MMTOC may optically couple a first plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a first MT connector with a second plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a second MT connector and a third plurality of fibers disposed in a plurality of ferrules of a third MT connector. The beam splitting element may allow a portion of each beam of light from the first plurality of fibers to pass through to the second plurality of fibers and simultaneously reflect another portion of each beam of light from the first plurality of fibers to the third plurality of fibers.

  15. Our Car as Power Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijk, A.J.M.; Verhoef, L.

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cell cars can provide more efficient and cleaner transportation. However, we use our cars for transportation only 5% of the time. When parked, the fuel cell in the car can produce electricity from hydrogen, which is cleaner and more efficient than the current electricity system, generating

  16. DOES ELECTRIC CAR PRODUCE EMISSIONS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír RIEVAJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the comparison of the amount of emissions produced by vehicles with a combustion engine and electric cars. The comparison, which is based on the LCA factor results, indicates that an electric car produces more emissions than a vehicle with combustion engine. The implementation of electric cars will lead to an increase in the production of greenhouse gases.

  17. Distribution and transportation of suspended sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubel, J.R.

    1975-01-01

    A number of studies of the distribution and character of suspended matter in the waters of the Atlantic shelf have documented the variations in the concentration of total suspended matter in both time and space. Very little is known, however, about the ultimate sources of inorganic suspended matter, and even less is known about the routes and rates of suspended sediment transport in shelf waters. Suspended particulate matter constitutes a potential vehicle for the transfer of energy-associated contaminants, radionuclides and oil, back to the coast and therefore to man. The concentrations of total suspended matter in shelf waters are typically so low, however, that the mechanism is ineffective. Studies of suspended particulate matter have a high scientific priority, but in this investigator's opinion the state of knowledge is adequate for preparation of the environmental impact statements that would be required for siting of offshore nuclear power plants and for oil drilling on the Atlantic Continental Shelf

  18. CERN car stickers 2005

    CERN Multimedia

    Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department

    2004-01-01

    Please note that the car stickers for 2005 are now available. If you have not received the new one by internal mail, you should go along in person to the Registration Service (bldg. 55 - 1st floor), open non-stop from 7:30 to 16:30, taking with you your 2004 sticker and the log-book of your vehicle. Thank you for your collaboration. Reception and Access Control Service - TS Department.

  19. CuseCar--community car-sharing program : car sharing lessons learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    CuseCar of Syracuse launched services in December 2008 with 3 Toyota Prius Hybrids. CuseCar initially, due to : concerns about availability, limited membership to Origination Sponsor Locations, which in turn developed few : members. In 2009 CuseCar o...

  20. Inheritance of congenital cataracts and microphthalmia in the Miniature Schnauzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelatt, K N; Samuelson, D A; Bauer, J E; Das, N D; Wolf, E D; Barrie, K P; Andresen, T L

    1983-06-01

    Congenital cataracts and microphthalmia in the Miniature Schnauzer were inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. Eighteen matings of affected X affected Miniature Schnauzers resulted in 87 offspring with congenital cataracts and microphthalmia (49 males/38 females). Two matings of congenital cataractous and microphthalmic Miniature Schnauzers (2 females) X a normal Miniature Schnauzer (1 male) yielded 11 clinically normal Miniature Schnauzers (7 males/4 females). Eighteen matings of congenital cataractous and microphthalmic Miniature Schnauzers (6 males) X carrier Miniature Schnauzers (9 females) produced 81 offspring; 39 exhibited congenital cataracts and microphthalmia (20 males/19 females) and 42 had clinically normal eyes (17 males/25 females).

  1. Highly Sensitive Measurement of Liquid Density in Air Using Suspended Microcapillary Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Malvar

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the use of commercially available glass microcapillaries as micromechanical resonators for real-time monitoring of the mass density of a liquid that flows through the capillary. The vibration of a suspended region of the microcapillary is optically detected by measuring the forward scattering of a laser beam. The resonance frequency of the liquid filled microcapillary is measured for liquid binary mixtures of ethanol in water, glycerol in water and Triton in ethanol. The method achieves a detection limit in an air environment of 50 µg/mL that is only five times higher than that obtained with state-of-the-art suspended microchannel resonators encapsulated in vacuum. The method opens the door to novel advances for miniaturized total analysis systems based on microcapillaries with the add-on of mechanical transduction for sensing the rheological properties of the analyzed fluids without the need for vacuum encapsulation of the resonators.

  2. Miniature Active Space Radiation Dosimeter, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Space Micro will extend our Phase I R&D to develop a family of miniature, active space radiation dosimeters/particle counters, with a focus on biological/manned...

  3. High Performance Miniature Bandpass Filters, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal is submitted for developing low impedance, miniature bandpass RF frequency filter via MEMS technique, in applications of SMAP, Aquarius follow-on,...

  4. Using Miniature Landforms in Teaching Geomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, James F.

    1986-01-01

    This paper explores the uses of true landform miniatures and small-scale analogues and suggests ways to teach geomorphological concepts using small-scale relief features as illustrative examples. (JDH)

  5. Miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Fang (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    This invention documents the efforts on the research and development of a miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated navigation system. A miniaturized GPS/MEMS IMU integrated navigation system is presented; Laser Dynamic Range Imager (LDRI) based alignment algorithm for space applications is discussed. Two navigation cameras are also included to measure the range and range rate which can be integrated into the GPS/MEMS IMU system to enhance the navigation solution.

  6. Goniometry and Limb Girth in Miniature Dachshunds

    OpenAIRE

    Thomovsky, Stephanie A.; Chen, Annie V.; Kiszonas, Alecia M.; Lutskas, Lori A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report the mean and median pelvic limb joint angles and girth measurements in miniature Dachshunds presenting with varying degrees of pelvic limb weakness secondary to thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion. Methods. 15 miniature Dachshunds who presented to WSU-VTH for thoracolumbar disc extrusion. Dachshunds varied in neurologic status from ambulatory paraparetic to paraplegic at the time of measurements. Results. There were no significant differences in joint angles or girt...

  7. A miniature electrical capacitance tomograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, T. A.; Phua, T. N.; Reichelt, L.; Pawlowski, A.; Kneer, R.

    2006-08-01

    The paper describes a miniature electrical capacitance tomography system. This is based on a custom CMOS silicon integrated circuit comprising eight channels of signal conditioning electronics to source drive signals and measure voltages. Electrodes are deposited around a hole that is fabricated, using ultrasonic drilling, through a ceramic substrate and has an average diameter of 0.75 mm. The custom chip is interfaced to a host computer via a bespoke data acquisition system based on a microcontroller, field programmable logic device and wide shift register. This provides fast capture of up to 750 frames of data prior to uploading to the host computer. Data capture rates of about 6000 frames per second have been achieved for the eight-electrode sensor. This rate could be increased but at the expense of signal to noise. Captured data are uploaded to a PC, via a RS232 interface, for off-line imaging. Initial tests are reported for the static case involving 200 µm diameter rods that are placed in the sensor and for the dynamic case using the dose from an inhaler.

  8. Drilling miniature holes, Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1978-07-01

    Miniature components for precision electromechanical mechanisms such as switches, timers, and actuators typically require a number of small holes. Because of the precision required, the workpiece materials, and the geometry of the parts, most of these holes must be produced by conventional drilling techniques. The use of such techniques is tedious and often requires considerable trial and error to prevent drill breakage, minimize hole mislocation and variations in hole diameter. This study of eight commercial drill designs revealed that printed circuit board drills produced better locational and size repeatability than did other drills when centerdrilling was not used. Boring holes 1 mm in dia, or less, as a general rule did not improve hole location in brass or stainless steel. Hole locations of patterns of 0.66-mm holes can be maintained within 25.4-..mu..m diametral positional tolerance if setup misalignments can be eliminated. Size tolerances of +- 3.8 ..mu..m can be maintained under some conditions when drilling flat plates. While these levels of precision are possible with existing off-the-shelf drills, they may not be practical in many cases.

  9. Miniaturized isothermal nucleic acid amplification, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiello, Peter J; Baeumner, Antje J

    2011-04-21

    Micro-Total Analysis Systems (µTAS) for use in on-site rapid detection of DNA or RNA are increasingly being developed. Here, amplification of the target sequence is key to increasing sensitivity, enabling single-cell and few-copy nucleic acid detection. The several advantages to miniaturizing amplification reactions and coupling them with sample preparation and detection on the same chip are well known and include fewer manual steps, preventing contamination, and significantly reducing the volume of expensive reagents. To-date, the majority of miniaturized systems for nucleic acid analysis have used the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for amplification and those systems are covered in previous reviews. This review provides a thorough overview of miniaturized analysis systems using alternatives to PCR, specifically isothermal amplification reactions. With no need for thermal cycling, isothermal microsystems can be designed to be simple and low-energy consuming and therefore may outperform PCR in portable, battery-operated detection systems in the future. The main isothermal methods as miniaturized systems reviewed here include nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), helicase-dependent amplification (HDA), rolling circle amplification (RCA), and strand displacement amplification (SDA). Also, important design criteria for the miniaturized devices are discussed. Finally, the potential of miniaturization of some new isothermal methods such as the exponential amplification reaction (EXPAR), isothermal and chimeric primer-initiated amplification of nucleic acids (ICANs), signal-mediated amplification of RNA technology (SMART) and others is presented.

  10. Car stickers for 2010

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    The 2010 car stickers are now available. Holders of blue stickers will receive their 2010 stickers through the internal mail from 1st December onwards. Holders of red stickers are required to go to the Registration Service (Building 55, first floor), which is open non-stop from 7.30 a.m. to 4.00 p.m. Mondays to Fridays, in order to obtain their new stickers. They will be asked to present documents relating to the vehicles concerned. Owners of vehicles registered on green and CD plates should disregard this message. Reception and Access Control Service – GS/SEM/LS

  11. Car monitoring information systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica KALAŠOVÁ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this contribution is to characterize alternatives of information systems used for managing, processing and evaluation of information related to company vehicles. Especially we focus on logging, transferring and processing of on-road vehicle movement information in inland and international transportation. This segment of company information system has to monitor the car movement – actively or passively – according to demand of the company and after the processing it has to evaluate and give the complex monitoring of a situation of all the company vehicles to the controller.

  12. Flying car design and testing

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, S.; Smrcek, L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is primarily concerned with the inverted design process and manufacture of a flying car prototype which can overcome the problem of traffic management in the world today. A possible solution to the problem of overcrowded roads would be to design a flying or hovering car. Given technological advances in aircraft construction, navigation and operation, flying cars or personal aircraft are now a feasible proposition. The viability of such a concept was investigated in terms of produci...

  13. Electric Cars and Oil Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Azar, Jose

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the joint dynamics of oil prices and interest in electric cars, measured as the volume of Google searches for related phrases. Not surprisingly, I find that oil price shocks predict increases in Google searches for electric cars. Much more surprisingly, I also find that an increase in Google searches predicts declines in oil prices. The high level of public interest in electric cars between April and August of 2008 can explain approximately half of the decline in oil prices...

  14. Product declaration for cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruetter, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    This reports for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the possible ways of declaring product information on cars. The basic elements of such a declaration are discussed and a recommendation for an energy label for cars is presented. The report discusses the fundamental questions posed such as how long a label should be valid, if comparisons should be made and if it is to be based on CO 2 -emissions or on fuel consumption. Also, the criteria to be used for comparisons - such as vehicle weight, size or power - are looked at and methods of classification are examined along with data fundamentals. Further, the expectations placed on the product declarations with respect to their energetic and economic impact are discussed. The design of the label and the legislature on which it is based are discussed and initial reactions of the automobile industry are noted. The report is rounded off by a discussion of the effects of the declaration in relation to other instruments that have been proposed

  15. Viscous bursting of suspended films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debrégeas, G.; Martin, P.; Brochard-Wyart, F.

    1995-11-01

    Soap films break up by an inertial process. We present here the first observations on freely suspended films of long-chain polymers, where viscous effects are dominant and no surfactant is present. A hole is nucleated at time 0 and grows up to a radius R(t) at time t. A surprising feature is that the liquid from the hole is not collected into a rim (as it is in soap films): The liquid spreads out without any significant change of the film thickness. The radius R(t) grows exponentially with time, R~exp(t/τ) [while in soap films R(t) is linear]. The rise time τ~ηe/2γ where η is viscosity, e is thickness (in the micron range), and γ is surface tension. A simple model is developed to explain this growth law.

  16. Proton - Malaysia's national car project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fleming, Daniel; Søborg, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    The rise and development of the Malaysian national car project. How this project has become an esential part of the industrial development in Malaysia and how it has underpinned a growing middle class consumption culture with house and car as it pivotal goods.......The rise and development of the Malaysian national car project. How this project has become an esential part of the industrial development in Malaysia and how it has underpinned a growing middle class consumption culture with house and car as it pivotal goods....

  17. Miniature EVA Software Defined Radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozhidaev, Aleksey

    2012-01-01

    As NASA embarks upon developing the Next-Generation Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) Radio for deep space exploration, the demands on EVA battery life will substantially increase. The number of modes and frequency bands required will continue to grow in order to enable efficient and complex multi-mode operations including communications, navigation, and tracking applications. Whether conducting astronaut excursions, communicating to soldiers, or first responders responding to emergency hazards, NASA has developed an innovative, affordable, miniaturized, power-efficient software defined radio that offers unprecedented power-efficient flexibility. This lightweight, programmable, S-band, multi-service, frequency- agile EVA software defined radio (SDR) supports data, telemetry, voice, and both standard and high-definition video. Features include a modular design, an easily scalable architecture, and the EVA SDR allows for both stationary and mobile battery powered handheld operations. Currently, the radio is equipped with an S-band RF section. However, its scalable architecture can accommodate multiple RF sections simultaneously to cover multiple frequency bands. The EVA SDR also supports multiple network protocols. It currently implements a Hybrid Mesh Network based on the 802.11s open standard protocol. The radio targets RF channel data rates up to 20 Mbps and can be equipped with a real-time operating system (RTOS) that can be switched off for power-aware applications. The EVA SDR's modular design permits implementation of the same hardware at all Network Nodes concept. This approach assures the portability of the same software into any radio in the system. It also brings several benefits to the entire system including reducing system maintenance, system complexity, and development cost.

  18. Background free CARS imaging by phase sensitive heterodyne CARS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurna, M.; Korterik, Jeroen P.; Otto, Cornelis; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Offerhaus, Herman L.

    2008-01-01

    In this article we show that heterodyne CARS, based on a controlled and stable phase-preserving chain, can be used to measure amplitude and phase information of molecular vibration modes. The technique is validated by a comparison of the imaginary part of the heterodyne CARS spectrum to the

  19. Intermodal resonance of vibrating suspended cables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rienstra, S.W.

    2010-01-01

    The weakly nonlinear free vibrations of a single suspended cable, or a coupled system of suspended cables, may be classified as gravity modes (no tension variations to leading order) and elasto-gravity modes (tension and vertical displacement equally important). It was found earlier [12] that the

  20. Advances in miniature spectrometer and sensor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinen, Jouko; Rissanen, Anna; Saari, Heikki; Karioja, Pentti; Karppinen, Mikko; Aalto, Timo; Tukkiniemi, Kari

    2014-05-01

    Miniaturization and cost reduction of spectrometer and sensor technologies has great potential to open up new applications areas and business opportunities for analytical technology in hand held, mobile and on-line applications. Advances in microfabrication have resulted in high-performance MEMS and MOEMS devices for spectrometer applications. Many other enabling technologies are useful for miniature analytical solutions, such as silicon photonics, nanoimprint lithography (NIL), system-on-chip, system-on-package techniques for integration of electronics and photonics, 3D printing, powerful embedded computing platforms, networked solutions as well as advances in chemometrics modeling. This paper will summarize recent work on spectrometer and sensor miniaturization at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI) tunable filter technology has been developed in two technical versions: Piezoactuated FPIs have been applied in miniature hyperspectral imaging needs in light weight UAV and nanosatellite applications, chemical imaging as well as medical applications. Microfabricated MOEMS FPIs have been developed as cost-effective sensor platforms for visible, NIR and IR applications. Further examples of sensor miniaturization will be discussed, including system-on-package sensor head for mid-IR gas analyzer, roll-to-roll printed Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) technology as well as UV imprinted waveguide sensor for formaldehyde detection.

  1. Liquid storage of miniature boar semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimatsu, Yoshiki; Uchida, Masaki; Niki, Rikio; Imai, Hiroshi

    2002-04-01

    The effects of liquid storage at 15 degrees C on the fertilizing ability of miniature pig semen were investigated. Characterization of ejaculated semen from 3 miniature boars was carried out. Semen volume and pH were similar among these boars. In one of the boars, sperm motility was slightly low, and sperm concentration and total number of sperm were significantly lower than in the others (P semen was substituted with various extenders (Kiev, Androhep, BTS and Modena) by centrifugation and semen was stored for 7 days at 15 degrees C. Sperm motility was estimated daily at 37 degrees C. For complete substitution of seminal plasma, Modena was significantly more efficient than the other extenders (P Semen from each of the 3 miniature boars that had been stored for 5 to 7 days at 15 degrees C in Modena was used for artificial insemination of 15 miniature sows. The farrowing rates were 100, 100 and 60%, and litter sizes were 6.4 +/- 1.5, 5.8 +/- 0.8 and 5.0 +/- 1.0 for each boar semen, respectively. The boar that sired the smallest farrowing rate was the same one that showed lower seminal quality with respect to sperm motility, sperm concentration and total number of sperm. These results suggest that miniature boar semen can be stored for at least 5 days at 15 degrees C by the substitution of seminal plasma with Modena extender.

  2. Initial heating in cold cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, H.A.M.; Teunissen, L.P.J.; Hoogh, I.M. de

    2012-01-01

    During the initial minutes after entering a cold car, people feel uncomfortably cold. Six different warming systems were investigated in a small car in order to find out how to improve the feeling of comfort using 16 volunteers. The methods were: no additional warming next to a standard heating

  3. Energy Use of Passenger Cars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of the Danish sale and stock of passenger cars, focusing particularly on aspects influencing energy use. The project has tracked the development of vehicle weight, power and fuel economy for both the sale of new cars (from 1980 to 1997)and the stock. In addition, the energy use...

  4. Shopping for a safer car

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    This brochure provides some helpful tips on what to look for when shopping for a safer car. Automakers are increasingly advertising the safety features of their cars. The problem is sorting out their claims and zeroing in on the safety features that ...

  5. FUEL PRICES AND CAR SALES

    OpenAIRE

    Vlad Cârstea

    2008-01-01

    Automotive industry is a very important economic sector that is highly responsive to changes in the world economy. The fuel price is the biggest enemy of car manufacturers. This is a compared analysis between Europe and Romania regarding new car registrations.

  6. Panorama 2014 - Car-sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinot, Simon

    2013-10-01

    Car-sharing is a new mode of transportation that consists of multiple users sharing the same vehicle. This type of service is expanding with the arrival of larger players, such as traditional car rental companies, automotive manufacturers, and large firms specializing in transportation. This new mode of transportation offers real potential and is currently finding its users, in France and worldwide. (author)

  7. Goniometry and Limb Girth in Miniature Dachshunds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomovsky, Stephanie A; Chen, Annie V; Kiszonas, Alecia M; Lutskas, Lori A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To report the mean and median pelvic limb joint angles and girth measurements in miniature Dachshunds presenting with varying degrees of pelvic limb weakness secondary to thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion. Methods. 15 miniature Dachshunds who presented to WSU-VTH for thoracolumbar disc extrusion. Dachshunds varied in neurologic status from ambulatory paraparetic to paraplegic at the time of measurements. Results. There were no significant differences in joint angles or girth among the three groups (ambulatory paraparetic, nonambulatory paraparetic, or paraplegic) (P > 0.05). When group was disregarded and values for extension, flexion, and girth combined, no differences existed. Conclusions. Goniometry and limb girth measurements can successfully be made in the miniature Dachshund; however, the shape of the Dachshund leg makes obtaining these values challenging. There were no differences in joint angle or girth measurements between dogs with varying neurologic dysfunction at the time of measurement.

  8. Goniometry and Limb Girth in Miniature Dachshunds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie A. Thomovsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report the mean and median pelvic limb joint angles and girth measurements in miniature Dachshunds presenting with varying degrees of pelvic limb weakness secondary to thoracolumbar intervertebral disc extrusion. Methods. 15 miniature Dachshunds who presented to WSU-VTH for thoracolumbar disc extrusion. Dachshunds varied in neurologic status from ambulatory paraparetic to paraplegic at the time of measurements. Results. There were no significant differences in joint angles or girth among the three groups (ambulatory paraparetic, nonambulatory paraparetic, or paraplegic (P>0.05. When group was disregarded and values for extension, flexion, and girth combined, no differences existed. Conclusions. Goniometry and limb girth measurements can successfully be made in the miniature Dachshund; however, the shape of the Dachshund leg makes obtaining these values challenging. There were no differences in joint angle or girth measurements between dogs with varying neurologic dysfunction at the time of measurement.

  9. Presynaptic miniature GABAergic currents in developing interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trigo, Federico F; Bouhours, Brice; Rostaing, Philippe; Papageorgiou, George; Corrie, John E T; Triller, Antoine; Ogden, David; Marty, Alain

    2010-04-29

    Miniature synaptic currents have long been known to represent random transmitter release under resting conditions, but much remains to be learned about their nature and function in central synapses. In this work, we describe a new class of miniature currents ("preminis") that arise by the autocrine activation of axonal receptors following random vesicular release. Preminis are prominent in gabaergic synapses made by cerebellar interneurons during the development of the molecular layer. Unlike ordinary miniature postsynaptic currents in the same cells, premini frequencies are strongly enhanced by subthreshold depolarization, suggesting that the membrane depolarization they produce belongs to a feedback loop regulating neurotransmitter release. Thus, preminis could guide the formation of the interneuron network by enhancing neurotransmitter release at recently formed synaptic contacts. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. FY 2006 Miniature Spherical Retroreflectors Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, Norman C.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Krishnaswami, Kannan

    2006-12-28

    Research done by the Infrared Photonics team at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is focused on developing miniature spherical retroreflectors using the unique optical and material properties of chalcogenide glass to reduce both performance limiting spherical aberrations. The optimized optical performance will provide efficient signal retroreflection that enables a broad range of remote detection scenarios for mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and long-wave infrared (LWIR) sensing applications. Miniature spherical retroreflectors can be developed to aid in the detection of signatures of nuclear proliferation or other chemical vapor or radiation signatures. Miniature spherical retroreflectors are not only well suited to traditional LIDAR methods for chemical plume detection and identification, but could enable remote detection of difficult semi-volatile chemical materials or low level radiation sources.

  11. 49 CFR 172.330 - Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. 172.330..., TRAINING REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Marking § 172.330 Tank cars and multi-unit tank car tanks. (a... material— (1) In a tank car unless the following conditions are met: (i) The tank car must be marked on...

  12. 49 CFR 1247.1 - Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated... TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND REPORTS REPORT OF CARS LOADED AND CARS TERMINATED § 1247.1 Annual Report of Cars Loaded and Cars Terminated. Beginning with the...

  13. AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size Email Print Share AAP Updates Recommendations on Car Seats Page Content Article Body Children should ride ... of approved car safety seats. Healthy Children Radio: Car Seat Safety Dennis Durbin, MD, FAAP, lead author ...

  14. Continuous flow nitration in miniaturized devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amol A. Kulkarni

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights the state of the art in the field of continuous flow nitration with miniaturized devices. Although nitration has been one of the oldest and most important unit reactions, the advent of miniaturized devices has paved the way for new opportunities to reconsider the conventional approach for exothermic and selectivity sensitive nitration reactions. Four different approaches to flow nitration with microreactors are presented herein and discussed in view of their advantages, limitations and applicability of the information towards scale-up. Selected recent patents that disclose scale-up methodologies for continuous flow nitration are also briefly reviewed.

  15. Antenna Miniaturization with MEMS Tunable Capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barrio, Samantha Caporal Del; Morris, Art; Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2014-01-01

    In today’s mobile device market, there is a strong need for efficient antenna miniaturization. Tunable antennas are a very promising way to reduce antenna volume while enlarging its operating bandwidth. MEMS tunable capacitors are state-ofthe- art in terms of insertion loss and their characterist......In today’s mobile device market, there is a strong need for efficient antenna miniaturization. Tunable antennas are a very promising way to reduce antenna volume while enlarging its operating bandwidth. MEMS tunable capacitors are state-ofthe- art in terms of insertion loss...

  16. A New Measure for Transported Suspended Sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Non-uniform suspended sediment plays an important role in many geographical and biological processes. Despite extensive study, understanding to it seems to stagnate when times to consider non-uniformity and non-equilibrium scenarios comes. Due to unsatisfactory reproducibility, large-scaled flume seems to be incompetent to conduct more fundamental research in this area. To push the realm a step further, experiment to find how suspended sediment exchanges is conducted in a new validated equipment, in which turbulence is motivated by oscillating grids. Analysis shows that 1) suspended sediment exchange is constrained by ωS invariance, 2) ωS of the suspended sediment that certain flow regime could support is unique regardless of the sediment gradation and 3) the more turbulent the flow, the higher ωS of the suspension the flow could achieve. A new measure for suspended sediment ωS, the work required to sustain sediment in suspension transport mode if multiplied by gravitational acceleration, is thus proposed to better describe the dynamics of transported suspended sediment. Except for the further understanding towards suspended sediment transportation mechanics, with this energy measure, a strategy to distribute total transport capacity to different fractions could be derived and rational calculation of non-uniform sediment transport capacity under non-equilibrium conditions be possible.

  17. Nanobody Based Dual Specific CARs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stijn De Munter

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent clinical trials have shown that adoptive chimeric antigen receptor (CAR T cell therapy is a very potent and possibly curative option in the treatment of B cell leukemias and lymphomas. However, targeting a single antigen may not be sufficient, and relapse due to the emergence of antigen negative leukemic cells may occur. A potential strategy to counter the outgrowth of antigen escape variants is to broaden the specificity of the CAR by incorporation of multiple antigen recognition domains in tandem. As a proof of concept, we here describe a bispecific CAR in which the single chain variable fragment (scFv is replaced by a tandem of two single-antibody domains or nanobodies (nanoCAR. High membrane nanoCAR expression levels are observed in retrovirally transduced T cells. NanoCARs specific for CD20 and HER2 induce T cell activation, cytokine production and tumor lysis upon incubation with transgenic Jurkat cells expressing either antigen or both antigens simultaneously. The use of nanobody technology allows for the production of compact CARs with dual specificity and predefined affinity.

  18. Nanobody Based Dual Specific CARs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Munter, Stijn; Ingels, Joline; Goetgeluk, Glenn; Bonte, Sarah; Pille, Melissa; Weening, Karin; Kerre, Tessa; Abken, Hinrich; Vandekerckhove, Bart

    2018-01-30

    Recent clinical trials have shown that adoptive chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy is a very potent and possibly curative option in the treatment of B cell leukemias and lymphomas. However, targeting a single antigen may not be sufficient, and relapse due to the emergence of antigen negative leukemic cells may occur. A potential strategy to counter the outgrowth of antigen escape variants is to broaden the specificity of the CAR by incorporation of multiple antigen recognition domains in tandem. As a proof of concept, we here describe a bispecific CAR in which the single chain variable fragment (scFv) is replaced by a tandem of two single-antibody domains or nanobodies (nanoCAR). High membrane nanoCAR expression levels are observed in retrovirally transduced T cells. NanoCARs specific for CD20 and HER2 induce T cell activation, cytokine production and tumor lysis upon incubation with transgenic Jurkat cells expressing either antigen or both antigens simultaneously. The use of nanobody technology allows for the production of compact CARs with dual specificity and predefined affinity.

  19. CERN CAR CLUB

    CERN Multimedia

    Automobile club

    2009-01-01

    You are cordially invited to the next General Assembly of the CERN Car Club Tuesday 12 January 2010 at 5:45pm Bldg. 593 / room 11 As the end of 2009 is approaching, it is time to think about renewing your subscription. Therefore next time you are on the CERN-Meyrin site or at the Post Office counter don’t forget to fill in the payment slip to continue to be a part of our large family. The fee remains unchanged: 50 CHF. For those of you who are regular users of our equipment and who know of all the advantages that the club is in a position to offer, it seems pointless to give details, we are sure that many of you have made use of them and are satisfied. We remind you everyone working on CERN site is entitled to become a member of our club, this includes industrial support personnel and staff of companies which have a contract with CERN. If you are not yet a member, come and visit us! We will be happy to welcome you and show you the facilities, or you can visit our web site. The use of the club&...

  20. CERN CAR STICKERS

    CERN Multimedia

    Service Accueil et Controle d'Accès; ST Division

    1999-01-01

    In accordance with Operational Circular n¡ 2, paragraph 21, CERN car stickers are to be renewed. The new stickers are now available and will be valid for a year.Youare therefore requested:either to obtain them from the distribution points for new stickers (see below); or to send us the application form below, duly completed, via the internal mail; or to complete the application form directly via the Web at the address: http://cern.ch/registration-stickers. Each vehicle has to carry a sticker and needs a separate application form.Vehicles bearing CERN diplomatic plates (CD07, 431K and CD series) do not need a sticker for access to the CERN areas.Thank you.List of distribution points:Registration Service (bldg 55 1st floor), open from 07h30 to 16h30. Building 33 (entrance hall), open from 08h00 to 18h00. Building 120 (ground floor), outside working hours.Name Surname CERN identification number Vehicle registration plates Country issuing the plates Vehicle ma...

  1. Plans for miniature machining at LASL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhorer, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    A special shop for making miniature or very small parts is being established within the LASL Shop Department, and one of the machine tools for this shop is a high precision lathe. The report describes a method based on scale modeling analysis which was used to define the specific requirements for this lathe

  2. Miniature shock tube for laser driven shocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquet, Michel; Barroso, Patrice; Melse, Thierry; Bauduin, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    We describe in this paper the design of a miniature shock tube (smaller than 1 cm(3)) that can be placed in a vacuum vessel and allows transverse optical probing and longitudinal backside extreme ultraviolet emission spectroscopy in the 100-500 A range. Typical application is the study of laser launched radiative shocks, in the framework of what is called "laboratory astrophysics."

  3. Naturalism and Mannerism in Indian Miniatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Jane

    2001-01-01

    In this essay, the author furthers the argument that critical commentary on the Rajput and Muslim miniatures of India has focused on a rather odd use of labels and categories, perhaps to an even greater extent than has been the case with much of the rest of the criticism of the art of South Asia. She first examines the use of the term…

  4. Technologies for highly miniaturized autonomous sensor networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baert, K.; Gyselinckx, B.; Torfs, T.; Leonov, V.; Yazicioglu, F.; Brebels, S.; Donnay, S.; Vanfleteren, J.; Beyne, E.; Hoof, C. van

    2006-01-01

    Recent results of the autonomous sensor research program HUMAN++ will be summarized in this paper. The research program aims to achieve highly miniaturized and (nearly) autonomous sensor systems that assist our health and comfort. Although the application examples are dedicated to human

  5. Miniaturized optical sensors based on lens arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, M.L.; Larsen, H.E.

    2005-01-01

    A suite of optical sensors based on the use of lenticular arrays for probing mechanical deflections will be displayed. The optical systems are well suited for miniaturization, and utilize speckles as the information-carriers. This implementation allows for acquiring directional information...

  6. Miniaturized measurement system for ammonia in air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, B.H.; van Delft, K.M.; Otjes, R.P.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2004-01-01

    The development of a miniaturized ammonia sensor made using microsystem technology is described. Gas is sampled in a sampler comprising two opposite channels separated by a gas permeable, water repellent polypropylene membrane. Subsequently, the acid sample solution is pumped into a selector where

  7. Miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keville, Robert F.; Dietrich, Daniel D.

    1998-03-24

    A miniature piezo electric vacuum inlet valve having a fast pulse rate and is battery operated with variable flow capability. The low power (piezo electric valves which require preloading of the crystal drive mechanism and 120 Vac, thus the valve of the present invention is smaller by a factor of three.

  8. Engineering CAR-T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Liu, Jun; Zhong, Jiang F; Zhang, Xi

    2017-01-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor redirected T cells (CAR-T cells) have achieved inspiring outcomes in patients with B cell malignancies, and are now being investigated in other hematologic malignancies and solid tumors. CAR-T cells are generated by the T cells from patients' or donors' blood. After the T cells are expanded and genetically modified, they are reinfused into the patients. However, many challenges still need to be resolved in order for this technology to gain widespread adoption. In this review, we first discuss the structure and evolution of chimeric antigen receptors. We then report on the tools used for production of CAR-T cells. Finally, we address the challenges posed by CAR-T cells.

  9. Dwelling on Everyday Car Journeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tølbøll, Lene; Jensen, Hanne Louise

    different traffic conditions as well as the emotional states related to the drivers’ thoughts about work and family issues, the materiality of the car and the recreational activities inside the car. Analyses are based on a web-based questionnaire, sent to 373 participating drivers in the Big Data research...... project Intelligent Transportation System Platform North Denmark (Lahrmann 2012). In that project data on e.g. position and speed was collected via an On Board Unit from more than 400 cars in 2012-2014 (Tøfting et. al. 2014). The full dataset includes a driven distance of approximately 14 million km...... experiences related to commuting. The findings will be discussed using theoretical inspiration from Sheller (2004), Bull (2003) and Thrift (2004) and we will suggest that the various emotional experiences of the commuters are of great importance for their ability to use of the car as a dwelling place....

  10. CHINA ACCOUNTING REVIEW(CAR)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China Accounting Review(CAR)is a new accounting journal in Chinese,spon- sored by Peking University,Tsinghua University,Beijing National Accounting Insti- tute and ten more universities,and published by the Peking University Press.

  11. Miniature Scroll Pumps Fabricated by LIGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Dean; Shcheglov, Kirill; White, Victor; Bae, Sam

    2009-01-01

    Miniature scroll pumps have been proposed as roughing pumps (low - vacuum pumps) for miniature scientific instruments (e.g., portable mass spectrometers and gas analyzers) that depend on vacuum. The larger scroll pumps used as roughing pumps in some older vacuum systems are fabricated by conventional machining. Typically, such an older scroll pump includes (1) an electric motor with an eccentric shaft to generate orbital motion of a scroll and (2) conventional bearings to restrict the orbital motion to a circle. The proposed miniature scroll pumps would differ from the prior, larger ones in both design and fabrication. A miniature scroll pump would include two scrolls: one mounted on a stationary baseplate and one on a flexure stage (see figure). An electromagnetic actuator in the form of two pairs of voice coils in a push-pull configuration would make the flexure stage move in the desired circular orbit. The capacitance between the scrolls would be monitored to provide position (gap) feedback to a control system that would adjust the drive signals applied to the voice coils to maintain the circular orbit as needed for precise sealing of the scrolls. To minimize power consumption and maximize precision of control, the flexure stage would be driven at the frequency of its mechanical resonance. The miniaturization of these pumps would entail both operational and manufacturing tolerances of pump components. In addition, the vibrations of conventional motors and ball bearings exceed these tight tolerances by an order of magnitude. Therefore, the proposed pumps would be fabricated by the microfabrication method known by the German acronym LIGA ( lithographie, galvanoformung, abformung, which means lithography, electroforming, molding) because LIGA has been shown to be capable of providing the required tolerances at large aspect ratios.

  12. Strange Animals and Creatures in Islamic Miniatures: Focusing on Miniatures of the Conference of the Birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Rohani

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Strange animals and creatures have always existed in every mythological culture. In Iran's pre-Islamic and post-Islamic miniatures and reliefs, there are many strange animals and creatures such as dragons and phoenix which were associated with the Iranian culture and civilization. Because of presence of these strange creatures, particularly human life, these creatures are first used in mythological life and then symbolically to express human ideas. However, these animals were present in both mythology and epics and, later in the Islamic era, in the mystical stories, educational stories and admonishing anecdotes like Sanai, Attar, and Rumi. This study tends to investigate genealogy of strange animals and creatures in ancient Iranian reliefs and their continued presence in miniatures of Islamic era as well as presence of these creatures in miniatures which are based on Attar’s Conference of the Birds. In fact, this study reviews elements and symbolic concepts of animals, allowing a deeper understanding of function of elements and symbolism in works of Iranian miniaturists. Contemplation of miniatures, icons and the relationship between literature and miniatures will lead to many results in recognition of mystical intellectual foundations. Therefore, this study tends to investigate mysterious and unknown aspects of Iranian miniatures and find their relationship with culture and stories.

  13. Adaptation Model for Corporate Car Sharing in the Car Rental Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Matthes, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this thesis was on developing an adaption model for implementing a corporate car sharing service within the existing infrastructure of a car rental company. The investigated case companies were a leading Finnish car rental franchisee and an international car sharing subsidiary, largely owned by the car rental franchisor, which offers corporate car sharing solutions in major European countries. Adapting this new service in Finland will help the car rental franchisee to assert its ...

  14. Passenger car fuel consumption survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-03-01

    This survey originated from a proposal to monitor the fuel consumption and fuel economy of personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. Its purpose is to establish a data base which would contain information on total distance travelled, total amount of fuel consumed, average distance obtained per unit of fuel, total expenditures on fuel, and seasonal fluctuations in fuel consumption and in distance travelled. Among the needs served by this data base are the monitoring of passenger car fuel economy standards and the estimation of pasenger car fuel requirements in conditions involving fuel shortages. Survey methodology is by telephone interview to trace selected vehicles to the registered owners, at which time a fuel purchase diary is then mailed to the principal driver of the car. The results are tabulated on a quarterly basis and to be released as they become available in bulletins similar to this. Data are presented for each province and the total for Canada is given. During the fourth quarter of 1982, it is estimated that there were 7.3 million personal use passenger cars operated in Canada. These cars were driven 28 billion kilometers and consumed 4.3 billion litres of fuel. Their average litres/100 kilometres and the average fuel consumption was 590 litres. 8 tabs.

  15. Engineering an Affordable Self-Driving Car

    KAUST Repository

    Budisteanu, Alexandru Ionut

    2018-01-01

    for affordable self-driving cars and he designed a low-cost self-driving car. The car's roof has cameras and low-resolution 3D LiDAR equipment to detect traffic lanes, other cars, curbs and obstacles, such as people crossing by. To process this dizzying amount

  16. 49 CFR 174.615 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.615 Section 174.615... Requirements for Division 6.1 (Poisonous) Materials § 174.615 Cleaning cars. (a) [Reserved] (b) After Division 6.1 (poisonous) materials are unloaded from a rail car, that car must be thoroughly cleaned unless...

  17. 49 CFR 231.6 - Flat cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flat cars. 231.6 Section 231.6 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.6 Flat cars. (Cars with sides 12 inches or less above the floor may be equipped the same as flat cars.) (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for...

  18. Art Cars: Transformations of the Mundane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stienecker, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The automobile itself is often understood as an extension of oneself, where individuals may manipulate the interior and exterior of cars and trucks, decorating them through detailing, stickers, custom colors, and so on. Others go further and change their cars into unique works of art called art cars. Such cars break away from the banality of mass…

  19. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than 50...

  20. 49 CFR 1037.2 - Cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cars. 1037.2 Section 1037.2 Transportation Other... GENERAL RULES AND REGULATIONS BULK GRAIN AND GRAIN PRODUCTS-LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS § 1037.2 Cars. A car is... railroad-leased cars. [57 FR 54334, Nov. 18, 1992] ...

  1. The Textile Elements in Ottoman Miniatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevser Gürcan Y A R D I M C I

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the value given to the art and the artist, high quality works of art in many fields were produced in the Ottoman Era. The art of weaving also lived its brightest period in terms of color, design, and weaving techniques in the Ottoman Empire in XVI. Ce ntury. The weaving products shaped the lifestyles of the people in those times and received great interest in the Palace as well. Silk woven fabrics had become such a great power in those times that it became the greatest symbol showing the power of the Ot toman Empire to the foreigners, and the determiner of the social standing within the society. The Ottoman Sultans used their clothing, which they made to become flamboyant with embroideries, to distinguish themselves from the public, and make them accept t heir power. Among the presents that were presented to the Sultans, clothes, kaftans, and similar fabrics as well as other precious presents, were frequent. The miniature manuscripts that were produced in the Palace are in the quality of unique documents t hat transfer yesterday’s knowledge to the modern age. It is easy to decode the dimensions of the clothing habits, decoration elements and hierarchy concepts of the Ottoman Era, as well as the weaving activities by using the miniature manuscripts. On the ot her hand, these elements constitute a rich alphabet in transferring the emotional structure of the society in those times, the traditions and habits to our world today. The greatest share in this effort belongs to the artists who depicted the miniatures by staying loyal to the texts in the manuscripts as well as to their active participation in the events of those times and their narrating the events as the very first observers. In addition, the muralists depicting the manuscripts and their undertaking the job of drawing the designs on the original fabric helped them to reflect the richness in the design of those times to the miniatures. In this study, the weavings and the accessories

  2. Optical Fiber-Tip Sensors Based on In-Situ µ-Printed Polymer Suspended-Microbeams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mian; Ouyang, Xia; Wu, Jushuai; Zhang, A Ping; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Wai, P K A

    2018-06-05

    Miniature optical fiber-tip sensors based on directly µ-printed polymer suspended-microbeams are presented. With an in-house optical 3D μ-printing technology, SU-8 suspended-microbeams are fabricated in situ to form Fabry⁻Pérot (FP) micro-interferometers on the end face of standard single-mode optical fiber. Optical reflection spectra of the fabricated FP micro-interferometers are measured and fast Fourier transform is applied to analyze the cavity of micro-interferometers. The applications of the optical fiber-tip sensors for refractive index (RI) sensing and pressure sensing, which showed 917.3 nm/RIU to RI change and 4.29 nm/MPa to pressure change, respectively, are demonstrated in the experiments. The sensors and their optical µ-printing method unveil a new strategy to integrate complicated microcomponents on optical fibers toward 'lab-on-fiber' devices and applications.

  3. SMARBot: a modular miniature mobile robot platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yan; Johnson, Kerry; Simms, Brian; Conforth, Matthew

    2008-04-01

    Miniature robots have many advantages over their larger counterparts, such as low cost, low power, and easy to build a large scale team for complex tasks. Heterogeneous multi miniature robots could provide powerful situation awareness capability due to different locomotion capabilities and sensor information. However, it would be expensive and time consuming to develop specific embedded system for different type of robots. In this paper, we propose a generic modular embedded system architecture called SMARbot (Stevens Modular Autonomous Robot), which consists of a set of hardware and software modules that can be configured to construct various types of robot systems. These modules include a high performance microprocessor, a reconfigurable hardware component, wireless communication, and diverse sensor and actuator interfaces. The design of all the modules in electrical subsystem, the selection criteria for module components, and the real-time operating system are described. Some proofs of concept experimental results are also presented.

  4. A Miniature Coupled Bistable Vibration Energy Harvester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, D; Arthur, D C; Beeby, S P

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the design and test of a miniature coupled bistable vibration energy harvester. Operation of a bistable structure largely depends on vibration amplitude rather than frequency, which makes it very promising for wideband vibration energy harvesting applications. A coupled bistable structure consists of a pair of mobile magnets that create two potential wells and thus the bistable phenomenon. It requires lower excitation to trigger bistable operation compared to conventional bistable structures. Based on previous research, this work focused on miniaturisation of the coupled bistable structure for energy harvesting application. The proposed bistable energy harvester is a combination of a Duffing's nonlinear structure and a linear assisting resonator. Experimental results show that the output spectrum of the miniature coupled bistable vibration energy harvester was the superposition of several spectra. It had a higher maximum output power and a much greater bandwidth compared to simply the Duffing's structure without the assisting resonator

  5. Transport of suspended matter through rock formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlig, B.G.

    1980-01-01

    It may be hypothesized that significant quantities of some waste nuclides could be adsorbed on the surfaces of particles suspended in the flowing groundwater and thereby migrate farther or faster than they would in dissolved form. This thesis deals with one aspect of this proposed migration mechanism, the transport of suspended matter through rock formations. A theoretical examination of the forces effecting suspended particles in flowing groundwater indicates that only two interaction energies are likely to be significant compared to the particles' thermal energies. The responsible interactions are van der Waals attraction between the particles and the rock, and electrolytic double-layer repulsion between the atmospheres of ions near the surfaces of the particles and the rock. This theoretical understanding was tested in column flow adsorption experiments using fine kaolin particles as the suspended matter and crushed basalt as the rock medium. The effects of several parameters on kaolin mobility were explored, including the influences of the following: solution ion concentration, solution cation valence, degree of solution oxygen saturation, solution flow velocity, and degree of rock surface ageing. The experimental results indicate that the migration of suspended matter over kilometer distances in the lithosphere is very unlikely unless the average pore size of the conducting mediumis fairly large (> 1mm), or the flow occurs in large fractures

  6. Car sharing à la carte

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    Do you want to make your commute to CERN easier, while saving money at the same time? Would you prefer not to spend a quarter of an hour crawling round the CERN car parks looking for a space? If so, read on: this article might well be of great interest to you.   We would like to draw your attention to a well established, albeit sadly under-used, method of transport: car sharing. To promote car-sharing, the GS Department has stepped in to call on the services of the Swiss firm Green Monkeys which specialises in this user-friendly and intelligent transport scheme. The company’s slogan is:  “Car-sharing as you want, when you want and as much as you want”. The principle is very straightforward. To use this car-sharing facility, you simply complete your free online registration with Green Monkeys, providing the following details: your journey, departure time, arrival time and days of the week, and indicating whether you are a passenger or driver or both. &a...

  7. Seatbelts in CAR therapy: How Safe Are CARS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Minagawa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available T-cells genetically redirected with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR to recognize tumor antigens and kill tumor cells have been infused in several phase 1 clinical trials with success. Due to safety concerns related to on-target/off-tumor effects or cytokine release syndrome, however, strategies to prevent or abate serious adverse events are required. Pharmacologic therapies; suicide genes; or novel strategies to limit the cytotoxic effect only to malignant cells are under active investigations. In this review, we summarize results and toxicities of investigations employing CAR redirected T-cells, with a focus on published strategies to grant safety of this promising cellular application.

  8. The MIT miniaturized disk bend test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harling, O.K.; Lee, M.; Sohn, D.S.; Kohse, G.; Lau, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    A miniaturized disk bend test (MDBT) using transmission electron microscopy specimens for the determination of various mechanical properties is being developed at MIT. Recent progress in obtaining strengths and ductilities of highly irradiated metal alloys is reviewed. Possibilities exist for applying the MDBT approach to the determination of other mechanical properties. Progress in fatigue testing and in determination of the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature is reviewed briefly

  9. Two miniature electronic dosemeters Yperwatch - Gamcard

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clavel, B.; Jaillon, J.

    1993-01-01

    Yperwatch and Gamcard were miniature electronic gamma personal dose and dose rate monitors. The Yperwatch is mounted in a wristwatch and the Gamcard in a case of the size of a standard credit card. The technology provides users with all the performance of a standard professional electronic dosemeter (integrated dose, dose rate, audible alarms, time in use). Yperwatch and Gamcard are based on well-proven electronic dosimetry technology, but with a greater ease of use. (author)

  10. Some characteristics of a miniature neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekimoto, H.; Oishi, K.; Hojo, K.; Hojo, T.

    1984-01-01

    Some characteristics of an NE213 miniature spherical spectrometer for in-assembly fast-neutron spectrometry were measured. As the bubbling time changed, the pulse-height did not change appreciably, but the n-γ discrimination characteristics changed considerably. As the count rate changed, the pulse-height did not change appreciably, and the change of the n-γ discrimination characteristics was acceptable. The neutron response function was measured to be almost isotropic except for the backward direction. (orig.)

  11. A smart car for the surface shape measurement of large antenna based on laser tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yonggang; Hu, Jing; Jin, Yi; Zhai, Chao

    2012-09-01

    The geometric accuracy of the surface shape of large antenna is an important indicator of antenna’s quality. Currently, high-precision measurement of large antenna surface shape can be performed in two ways: photogrammetry and laser tracker. Photogrammetry is a rapid method, but its accuracy is not enough good. Laser tracker can achieve high precision, but it is very inconvenient to move the reflector (target mirror) on the surface of the antenna by hand during the measurement. So, a smart car is designed to carry the reflector in this paper. The car, controlled by wireless, has a small weight and a strong ability for climbing, and there is a holding bracket gripping the reflector and controlling reflector rise up and drop down on the car. During the measurement of laser tracker, the laser beam between laser tracker and the reflector must not be interrupted, so two high-precision three-dimensional miniature electronic compasses, which can real-time monitor the relative angle between the holding bracket and the laser tracker’s head, are both equipped on the car and the head of laser tracker to achieve automatic alignment between reflector and laser beam. With the aid of the smart car, the measurement of laser tracker has the advantages of high precision and rapidity.

  12. Glomerular Lesions in Proteinuric Miniature Schnauzer Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrow, E; Lees, G E; Brown, C A; Cianciolo, R E

    2017-05-01

    Miniature Schnauzer dogs are predisposed to idiopathic hypertriglyerceridemia, which increases risk for diseases such as pancreatitis and gallbladder mucocele. Recently, elevated triglyceride concentrations have been associated with proteinuria in this breed, although it is difficult to determine which abnormality is primary. Retrospective review of renal tissue from 27 proteinuric Miniature Schnauzers revealed that 20 dogs had ultrastructural evidence of osmophilic globules consistent with lipid in glomerular tufts. Seven of these dogs had lipid thromboemboli in glomerular capillary loops that distorted their shape and compressed circulating erythrocytes. Triglyceride concentrations were reported in 6 of these 7 dogs, and all were hypertriglyceridemic. In addition, glomerular lipidosis (defined as accumulation of foam cells within peripheral capillary loops) was identified in a single dog. The remaining 12 dogs had smaller amounts of lipid that could only be identified ultrastructurally. Neither signalment data nor clinicopathologic parameters (serum albumin, serum creatinine, urine protein-to-creatinine ratio, and blood pressure) differed among the various types of lipid lesions. During the time course of this study, all dogs diagnosed with glomerular lipid thromboemboli were Miniature Schnauzers, underscoring the importance of recognizing these clear spaces within capillary loops as lipid.

  13. Improvement on thermal performance of a disk-shaped miniature heat pipe with nanofluid.

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Tsung-Han

    2011-11-14

    The present study aims to investigate the effect of suspended nanoparticles in base fluids, namely nanofluids, on the thermal resistance of a disk-shaped miniature heat pipe [DMHP]. In this study, two types of nanoparticles, gold and carbon, in aqueous solution are used respectively. An experimental system was set up to measure the thermal resistance of the DMHP with both nanofluids and deionized [DI] water as the working medium. The measured results show that the thermal resistance of DMHP varies with the charge volume and the type of working medium. At the same charge volume, a significant reduction in thermal resistance of DMHP can be found if nanofluid is used instead of DI water.

  14. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate—for each car owned by the household—own and cross-price effects...... of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, we estimate fuel price elasticities of –0.81 and -0.65 for the primary and secondary cars...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  15. Positive and negative spillover effects from electric car purchase to car use

    OpenAIRE

    Kløckner, Christian; Nayum, Alim; Mehmetoglu, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the results of two online surveys conducted on buyers of conventional combustion engine cars compared to those of electric vehicles in Norway. The results show that electric cars are generally purchased as additional cars, do not contribute to a decrease in annual mileage if the old car is not substituted, and that electric car buyers use the car more often for their everyday mobility. Psychological determinants derived from the theory of planned behavior and the norm-activ...

  16. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    The purpose of this paper is to study to what extent two-car households substitute the use of their less fuel efficient car by the use of their more fuel efficient car after an increase in fuel prices. Based on a simple theoretical framework we use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car...... households to estimate, for each car owned by the household, own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometer. The empirical results point at important substitution effects, so that models that estimate responses to fuel prices on the implicit or explicit assumption of one car per...

  17. Miniature PT Cryocooler Activated by Resonant Piezoelectric Compressor and Passive Warm Expander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobol, S.; Grossman, G.

    2017-12-01

    A novel type of PZT-based compressor operating at mechanical resonance, suitable for pneumatically-driven Stirling-type cryocoolers, was presented at CEC-ICMC 2015. The detailed concept, analytical model and the test results on the preliminary prototype were reported earlier and presented at ICC17. Despite some mismatch between the impedances and insufficient structural stiffness, this compressor demonstrated the feasibility to drive our miniature Pulse Tube cryocooler MTSa, operating at 103 Hz and requiring an average PV power of 11 W, filling pressure of 40 Bar and a pressure ratio of 1.3. At ICC19 the prototype of a miniature passive warm expander (WE) was presented. The WE mechanism included a phase shifting piston suspended on a silicone diaphragm, a mass element, and a viscous damping system. Several technical drawbacks prevented perfect matching between the WE and MTSa; however, the presented prototype proved the ability to create any flow-to-pressure phase appropriate for a PT cryocooler. This paper concentrates on integration of the MTSa cryocooler with the recently modified PZT compressor operating at corrected mechanical resonance and the modified WE, which was also updated recently to match the MTSa requirements.

  18. A novel clinical multimodal multiphoton tomograph for AF, SHG, CARS imaging, and FLIM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinigel, Martin; Breunig, Hans Georg; König, Karsten

    2014-02-01

    We report on a flexible nonlinear medical tomograph with multiple miniaturized detectors for simultaneous acquisition of two-photon autofluorescence (AF), second harmonic generation (SHG) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) images. The simultaneous visualization of the distribution of endogenous fluorophores NAD(P)H, melanin and elastin, SHG-active collagen and as well as non-fluorescent lipids within human skin in vivo is possible. Furthermore, fluorescence lifetime images (FLIM) can be generated using time-correlated single photon counting.

  19. The Speeding Car Design Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    All too often, one reads about high-speed police chases in pursuit of stolen cars that result in death and injury to people and innocent bystanders. Isn't there another way to accomplish the apprehension of the thieves that does not put people at such great risk? This article presents a classroom challenge to use technology to remotely shutdown…

  20. Automated Car Park Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabros, J. P.; Tabañag, D.; Espra, A.; Gerasta, O. J.

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to develop a prototype for an Automated Car Park Management System that will increase the quality of service of parking lots through the integration of a smart system that assists motorist in finding vacant parking lot. The research was based on implementing an operating system and a monitoring system for parking system without the use of manpower. This will include Parking Guidance and Information System concept which will efficiently assist motorists and ensures the safety of the vehicles and the valuables inside the vehicle. For monitoring, Optical Character Recognition was employed to monitor and put into list all the cars entering the parking area. All parking events in this system are visible via MATLAB GUI which contain time-in, time-out, time consumed information and also the lot number where the car parks. To put into reality, this system has a payment method, and it comes via a coin slot operation to control the exit gate. The Automated Car Park Management System was successfully built by utilizing microcontrollers specifically one PIC18f4550 and two PIC16F84s and one PIC16F628A.

  1. Restoring a Classic Electric Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    One hundred years ago, automobiles were powered by steam, electricity, or internal combustion. Female drivers favored electric cars because, unlike early internal-combustion vehicles, they did not require a crank for starting. Nonetheless, internal-combustion vehicles came to dominate the industry and it's only in recent years that the electrics…

  2. Nuclear reactor with a suspended vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemercier, Guy.

    1977-01-01

    This invention relates to a nuclear reactor with a suspended vessel and applies in particular when this is a fast reactor, the core or active part of the reactor being inside the vessel and immersed under a suitable volume of flowing liquid metal to cool it by extracting the calories released by the nuclear fission in the fuel assemblies forming this core [fr

  3. Bed-levelling experiments with suspended load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talmon, A.M.; De Graaff, J.

    1991-01-01

    Bed-levelling experiments are conducted in a straight laboratory channel. The experiments involve a significant fraction of suspended sediment transport. The purpose of the experiments is to provide data for modelling of the direction of sediment transport on a transverse sloping alluvial river bed,

  4. The Shape of Breasts Suspended in Liquid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Kleijn, S.C.; Rensen, W.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    Philips has designed an optical mammography machine. In this machine the breast is suspended into a cup in which the measurements take place. A special fluid is inserted into the cup to prevent the light from going around the breast instead of going through it but this fluid also weakens the signal.

  5. (suspended solids and metals) removal efficiencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. Presented in this paper are the results of correlational analyses and logistic regression between metal substances (Cd, Cu,. Pb, Zn), as well as suspended solids removal, and physical pond parameters of 19 stormwater retention pond case studies obtained from the International Stormwater BMP database.

  6. Small Scaffolds, Big Potential: Developing Miniature Proteins as Therapeutic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holub, Justin M

    2017-09-01

    Preclinical Research Miniature proteins are a class of oligopeptide characterized by their short sequence lengths and ability to adopt well-folded, three-dimensional structures. Because of their biomimetic nature and synthetic tractability, miniature proteins have been used to study a range of biochemical processes including fast protein folding, signal transduction, catalysis and molecular transport. Recently, miniature proteins have been gaining traction as potential therapeutic agents because their small size and ability to fold into defined tertiary structures facilitates their development as protein-based drugs. This research overview discusses emerging developments involving the use of miniature proteins as scaffolds to design novel therapeutics for the treatment and study of human disease. Specifically, this review will explore strategies to: (i) stabilize miniature protein tertiary structure; (ii) optimize biomolecular recognition by grafting functional epitopes onto miniature protein scaffolds; and (iii) enhance cytosolic delivery of miniature proteins through the use of cationic motifs that facilitate endosomal escape. These objectives are discussed not only to address challenges in developing effective miniature protein-based drugs, but also to highlight the tremendous potential miniature proteins hold for combating and understanding human disease. Drug Dev Res 78 : 268-282, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Transit Car Performance Comparison, State-of-the-Art Car vs. PATCO Transit Car, NYCTA R-46, MBTA Silverbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-02-01

    The first phase of this contract authorized the design, development, and demonstration of two State-Of-The-Art Cars (SOAC). This document reports on the gathering of comparative test data on existing in-service transit cars. The three transit cars se...

  8. In-situ phase analysis by a versatile miniaturized Moessbauer spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klingelhoefer, G.; Held, P.; Bernhardt, B.; Foh, J.; Teucher, R.; Kankeleit, E.

    1998-01-01

    The element iron plays a major role in modern industries and technologies as for instance car-industry, mineral processing and steel production and power plants. For quality control, process monitoring and device inspection (e.g., pipes in power plants) a fast, non-destructive and sensitive analytical method is desirable. 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy is able to determine the different iron phases (e.g., oxides, sulfides, nitrates, carbonates and carbides) and therefore would be the ideal tool to perform this job. We have developed a miniaturized backscattering Moessbauer spectrometer for space applications which will be modified and used for industrial applications under certain circumstances. The instrument is designed in a modular way which would allow to adapt it to different applications. The instrument has approximately the size of a soft drink can, a weight of about 0.5 kg, and a power consumption of about 3 watts

  9. Fabrication of miniaturized electrostatic deflectors using LIGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, K.H.; Khan-Malek, C.; Muray, L.P.

    1997-01-01

    Miniaturized electron beam columns (open-quotes microcolumnsclose quotes) have been demonstrated to be suitable candidates for scanning electron microscopy (SEM), e-beam lithography and other high resolution, low voltage applications. In the present technology, microcolumns consist of open-quotes selectively scaledclose quotes micro-sized lenses and apertures, fabricated from silicon membranes with e-beam lithography, reactive ion beam etching and other semiconductor thin-film techniques. These miniaturized electron-optical elements provide significant advantages over conventional optics in performance and ease of fabrication. Since lens aberrations scale roughly with size, it is possible to fabricate simple microcolumns with extremely high brightness sources and electrostatic objective lenses, with resolution and beam current comparable to conventional e-beam columns. Moreover since microcolumns typically operate at low voltages (1 KeV), the proximity effects encountered in e-beam lithography become negligible. For high throughput applications, batch fabrication methods may be used to build large parallel arrays of microcolumns. To date, the best reported performance with a 1 keV cold field emission cathode, is 30 nm resolution at a working distance of 2mm in a 3.5mm column. Fabrication of the microcolumn deflector and stigmator, however, have remained beyond the capabilities of conventional machining operations and semiconductor processing technology. This work examines the LIGA process as a superior alternative to fabrication of the deflectors, especially in terms of degree of miniaturization, dimensional control, placement accuracy, run-out, facet smoothness and choice of suitable materials. LIGA is a combination of deep X-ray lithography, electroplating, and injection molding processes which allow the fabrication of microstructures

  10. High power VCSELs for miniature optical sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Jon; Wang, Chad; MacDougal, Michael; Stahl, Ron; Follman, David; Garrett, Henry; Meyrath, Todd; Snyder, Don; Golden, Eric; Wagener, Jeff; Foley, Jason

    2010-02-01

    Recent advances in Vertical-cavity Surface-emitting Laser (VCSEL) efficiency and packaging have opened up alternative applications for VCSELs that leverage their inherent advantages over light emitting diodes and edge-emitting lasers (EELs), such as low-divergence symmetric emission, wavelength stability, and inherent 2-D array fabrication. Improvements in reproducible highly efficient VCSELs have allowed VCSELs to be considered for high power and high brightness applications. In this talk, Aerius will discuss recent advances with Aerius' VCSELs and application of these VCSELs to miniature optical sensors such as rangefinders and illuminators.

  11. Newly introduced sample preparation techniques: towards miniaturization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rosaria

    2014-01-01

    Sampling and sample preparation are of crucial importance in an analytical procedure, representing quite often a source of errors. The technique chosen for the isolation of analytes greatly affects the success of a chemical determination. On the other hand, growing concerns about environmental and human safety, along with the introduction of international regulations for quality control, have moved the interest of scientists towards specific needs. Newly introduced sample preparation techniques are challenged to meet new criteria: (i) miniaturization, (ii) higher sensitivity and selectivity, and (iii) automation. In this survey, the most recent techniques introduced in the field of sample preparation will be described and discussed, along with many examples of applications.

  12. A miniature concentrating photovoltaic and thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kribus, Abraham; Kaftori, Daniel; Mittelman, Gur; Hirshfeld, Amir; Flitsanov, Yuri; Dayan, Abraham

    2006-01-01

    A novel miniature concentrating PV (MCPV) system is presented and analyzed. The system is producing both electrical and thermal energy, which is supplied to a nearby consumer. In contrast to PV/thermal (PV/T) flat collectors, the heat from an MCPV collector is not limited to low-temperature applications. The work reported here refers to the evaluation and preliminary design of the MCPV approach. The heat transport system, the electric and thermal performance, the manufacturing cost, and the resulting cost of energy in case of domestic water heating have been analyzed. The results show that the new approach has promising prospects

  13. Miniature Ground Penetrating Radar, CRUX GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soon Sam; Carnes, Steven R.; Haldemann, Albert F.; Ulmer, Christopher T.; Ng, Eddie; Arcone, Steven A.

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA instrument development programs (PIDDP 2000-2002, MIPD 2003-2005, ESR and T, 2005) we have been developing miniature ground penetrating radars (GPR) for use in mapping subsurface stratigraphy from planetary rovers for Mars and lunar applications. The Mars GPR is for deeper penetration (up to 50 m depth) into the Martian subsurface at moderate resolution (0.5 m) for a geological characterization. As a part of the CRUX (Construction and Resource Utilization Explorer) instrument suite, the CRUX GPR is optimized for a lunar prospecting application. It will have shallower penetration (5 m depth) with higher resolution (10 cm) for construction operations including ISRU (in-situ resource utilization).

  14. Consumer Behavior towards Safer Car Purchasing Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim; Mohd Hafzi Md Isa; Yahaya Ahmad; Intan Osman; Lawrence Arokiasamy

    2016-01-01

    In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP). Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers' car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers' purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were dis...

  15. Ground effect aerodynamics of racing cars

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xin; Toet, Willem; Zerihan, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    We review the progress made during the last thirty years on ground effect aerodynamics associated with race cars, in particular open wheel race cars. Ground effect aerodynamics of race cars is concerned with generating downforce, principally via low pressure on the surfaces nearest to the ground. The “ground effected” parts of an open wheeled car's aerodynamics are the most aerodynamically efficient and contribute less drag than that associated with, for example, an upper rear wing. Whilst dr...

  16. CAR SECURITY ENHANCEMENT IN PARKING AREAS

    OpenAIRE

    NANYONGA BERINDA; AYESIGA LINDSEY PATRA; BYEKWASO FAISAL; NATULINDA LADAN

    2017-01-01

    Over time, car thefts have been reported within Kampala parking areas. This has been majorly due to inefficient security measures of the available parking systems which focus mainly on the car and not the driver, making parking management a challenge. The focus of this survey was to explore the requirements of a new system called Car to Driver Matching Security System to enhance security of cars in Kampala, in particular, from the experience of 15 people. The data collected was then analyzed ...

  17. Active deceleration support in car following

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, M.; Pauwelussen, J.J.A.; Paassen, M.M. van; Mulder, M.; Abbink, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    A haptic gas pedal feedback system is developed that provides car-following information via haptic cues from the gas pedal. During normal car-following situations, the haptic feedback (HF) cues were sufficient to reduce control activity and improve car-following performance. However, in more

  18. 49 CFR 174.57 - Cleaning cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning cars. 174.57 Section 174.57... and Loading Requirements § 174.57 Cleaning cars. All hazardous material which has leaked from a package in any rail car or on other railroad property must be carefully removed. ...

  19. Trial products of solar cars; Solar car no shisaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, A; Hatakeyama, S; Sugiura, S; Shinoda, S; Daigo, Y; Fujihara, Y; Yano, K; Kasuga, M [Yamanashi University, Yamanashi (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-25

    A solar car was trially manufactured installing solar panels on a motor-wheelchair for the old (senior car). It is a car for one person with maximum speed of 6km/h, motor of 360w, two of storage battery of 12Vtimes29AH, and two of solar cell of 20Vtimes3A. The output of solar cell is about 100W, which may not be enough to drive a 360W motor. However, if action time per day is about 2 hours, the required power 700WH, and the sunshine duration 7 hours per day, solar cells of 100W can generate 700WH. This is stored in battery, and when it is short, it is supplemented by nighttime power. Product prices are 200,000-250,000 yen. A solar go-cart was trially manufactured remodeling the gasoline-run go-cart. It is a solar go-cart for one person with maximum speed of 30km/h, a motor of 600W, four of storage battery of 12Vtimes29AH, and four of solar cell of 20Vtimes3A. The output of solar battery at 200W is a third of the motor power, with battery charged three times the travel time. More than 1000 persons trially rode the go-cart. 2 figs.

  20. The sources, impact and management of car park runoff pollution: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revitt, D Michael; Lundy, Lian; Coulon, Frédéric; Fairley, Martin

    2014-12-15

    Traffic emissions contribute significantly to the build-up of diffuse pollution loads on urban surfaces with their subsequent mobilisation and direct discharge posing problems for receiving water quality. This review focuses on the impact and mitigation of solids, metals, nutrients and organic pollutants in the runoff deriving from car parks. Variabilities in the discharged pollutant levels and in the potentials for pollutant mitigation complicate an impact assessment of car park runoff. The different available stormwater best management practices and proprietary devices are reported to be capable of reductions of between 20% and almost 100% for both suspended solids and a range of metals. This review contributes to prioritising the treatment options which can achieve the appropriate pollutant reductions whilst conforming to the site requirements of a typical car park. By applying different treatment scenarios to the runoff from a hypothetical car park, it is shown that optimal performance, in terms of ecological benefits for the receiving water, can be achieved using a treatment train incorporating permeable paving and bioretention systems. The review identifies existing research gaps and emphasises the pertinent management practices as well as design issues which are relevant to the mitigation of car park pollution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The suspended sentence in French Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law has provided different criminal sanctions as measures of social control. These coercive measures are imposed on the criminal offender by the competent court and aimed at limitting the offender's rights and freedoms or depriving the offender of certain rights and freedoms. These sanctions are applied to the natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and injure or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values, criminal legislations in all countries predict a number of criminal sanctions. These are: 1 imprisonment, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juveniles, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Apart and instead of punishment, warning measures have a significant role in the jurisprudence. Since they emerged in the early 20th century in the system of criminal sanctions, there has been an increase in their application to criminal offenders, especially when it comes to first-time offenders who committed a negligent or accidental criminal act. Warnings are applied in case of crimes that do not have serious consequences, and whose perpetrators are not hardened and incorrigible criminals. All contemporary criminal legislations (including the French legilation provide a warning measure of suspended sentence. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person does not commit another criminal offense and fulfills other obligations. This sanction applies if the following two conditions are fulfilled: a forma! -which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b material -which is the court assessment that the application of this sanction is justified and necessary in a particular case. In many modern criminal legislations, there are two different types of suspended (conditional sentence: 1 ordinary (classical suspended

  2. An improved car-following model accounting for the preceding car's taillight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Tang, Tie-Qiao; Yu, Shao-Wei

    2018-02-01

    During the deceleration process, the preceding car's taillight may have influences on its following car's driving behavior. In this paper, we propose an extended car-following model with consideration of the preceding car's taillight. Two typical situations are used to simulate each car's movement and study the effects of the preceding car's taillight on the driving behavior. Meanwhile, sensitivity analysis of the model parameter is in detail discussed. The numerical results show that the proposed model can improve the stability of traffic flow and the traffic safety can be enhanced without a decrease of efficiency especially when cars pass through a signalized intersection.

  3. Ballistic tongue projection in a miniaturized salamander.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deban, Stephen M; Bloom, Segall V

    2018-05-20

    Miniaturization of body size is often accompanied by peculiarities in morphology that can have functional consequences. We examined the feeding behavior and morphology of the miniaturized plethodontid salamander Thorius, one of the smallest vertebrates, to determine if its performance and biomechanics differ from those of its larger relatives. High-speed imaging and dynamics analysis of feeding at a range of temperatures show that tongue projection in Thorius macdougalli is ballistic and achieves accelerations of up to 600 G with low thermal sensitivity, indicating that tongue projection is powered by an elastic-recoil mechanism. Preceding ballistic projection is an unusual preparatory phase of tongue protrusion, which, like tongue retraction, shows lower performance and higher thermal sensitivity that are indicative of movement being powered directly by muscle shortening. The variability of tongue-projection kinematics and dynamics is comparable to larger ballistic-tongued plethodontids and reveals that Thorius is capable of modulating its tongue movements in response to prey distance. Morphological examination revealed that T. macdougalli possesses a reduced number of myofibers in the tongue muscles, a large projector muscle mass relative to tongue mass, and an unusual folding of the tongue skeleton, compared with larger relatives. Nonetheless, T. macdougalli retains the elaborated collagen aponeuroses in the projector muscle that store elastic energy and a tongue skeleton that is free of direct myofiber insertion, two features that appear to be essential for ballistic tongue projection in salamanders. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Miniaturized integration of a fluorescence microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Kunal K.; Burns, Laurie D.; Cocker, Eric D.; Nimmerjahn, Axel; Ziv, Yaniv; Gamal, Abbas El; Schnitzer, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    The light microscope is traditionally an instrument of substantial size and expense. Its miniaturized integration would enable many new applications based on mass-producible, tiny microscopes. Key prospective usages include brain imaging in behaving animals towards relating cellular dynamics to animal behavior. Here we introduce a miniature (1.9 g) integrated fluorescence microscope made from mass-producible parts, including semiconductor light source and sensor. This device enables high-speed cellular-level imaging across ∼0.5 mm2 areas in active mice. This capability allowed concurrent tracking of Ca2+ spiking in >200 Purkinje neurons across nine cerebellar microzones. During mouse locomotion, individual microzones exhibited large-scale, synchronized Ca2+ spiking. This is a mesoscopic neural dynamic missed by prior techniques for studying the brain at other length scales. Overall, the integrated microscope is a potentially transformative technology that permits distribution to many animals and enables diverse usages, such as portable diagnostics or microscope arrays for large-scale screens. PMID:21909102

  5. Novel Miniature Spectrometer For Remote Chemical Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pipino, Andrew C.R.

    2000-01-01

    New chemical sensing technologies are critically important for addressing many of EM's priority needs as discussed in detail at http://emsp.em.doe.gov/needs. Many technology needs were addressed by this research. For example, improved detection strategies are needed for non-aqueous phase liquids (NAPL's), such as PCE (Cl2C=CCl2) and TCE (HClC=CCl2), which persist in the environment due their highly stable structures. By developing a miniature, ultra-sensitive, selective, and field-deployable detector for NAPL's, the approximate source location could be determined with minimal investigative expense. Contaminant plumes could also be characterized in detail. The miniature spectrometer developed under Project No.60231 could also permit accurate rate measurements in less time, either in the field or the laboratory, which are critically important in the development, testing, and ultimate utilization of models for describing contaminant transport. The technology could also be used for long-term groundwater monitoring or long-term stewardship in general. Many science needs are also addressed by the Project 60231, since the effort significantly advances the measurement science of chemical detection. Developed under Project No.60231, evanescent wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy (EW-CRDS) is a novel form of CRDS, which is an the emerging optical absorption technique. Several review articles on CRDS, which has been generally applied only to gas-phase diagnostics, have been published1-3. EW-CRDS4-10 forms the basis for a new class of chemical sensors that extends CRDS to other states of matter and leads to a miniaturized version of the concept. EW-CRDS uses miniature solid-state optical resonators that incorporate one or more total internal reflection (TIR) surfaces, which create evanescent waves. The evanescent waves emanate from the TIR surfaces, sampling the surrounding medium. The utility of evanescent waves in chemical analysis forms the basis for the field of attenuated

  6. 40 CFR 230.21 - Suspended particulates/turbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Impacts on Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.21 Suspended particulates/turbidity. (a) Suspended particulates in the aquatic ecosystem consist of fine-grained mineral particles..., and man's activities including dredging and filling. Particulates may remain suspended in the water...

  7. SMART SECURITY SYSTEM FOR CARS

    OpenAIRE

    Akshay V. Balki*, Ankit A. Ramteke, Akshay Dhankar, Prof. Nilesh S. Panchbudhe

    2017-01-01

    This propose work is an attempt to model design an smart advance vehicle security system that uses biometric scanner and RFID card reader to give ignition pulse using two main module and to prevent theft. The system contains biometric scanner, RFID card reader, alcohol sensor, vibration sensor, GSM module, microcontroller (8051), relay switch, high voltage mesh..The safety of car is exceptionally essential. It provides pulse to ignition system by synchronizing driver’s data from license and t...

  8. Car insurance information management system

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Yu

    2015-01-01

    A customer information system is a typical information management system. It involves three aspects, the backstage database establishment, the application development and the system maintenance. A car insurance information management system is based on browser/server structure. Microsoft SQL Server establishes the backstage database. Active Server Pages, from Microsoft as well is used as the interface layer. The objective of this thesis was to apply ASP to the dynamic storage of a web page...

  9. Solar Powered Heat Control System for Cars

    OpenAIRE

    Abin John; Jithin Thomas

    2014-01-01

    It takes times for an air-conditioner to effectively start cooling the passenger compartment in the car. So the passenger of the car will feel the heat in the car extremely before the air-conditioner fully cooling the interior of the car. Excessive heat can also damage an automobile's interior as well as personal property kept in the passenger compartment. So, a system to reduce this excessive heat by pumping out hot air and allowing cooler ambient air to enter the car by mean...

  10. CAR-T cells are serial killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Alexander J; Jenkins, Misty R; Ritchie, David S; Prince, H Miles; Trapani, Joseph A; Kershaw, Michael H; Darcy, Phillip K; Neeson, Paul J

    2015-12-01

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells have enjoyed unprecedented clinical success against haematological malignancies in recent years. However, several aspects of CAR T cell biology remain unknown. We recently compared CAR and T cell receptor (TCR)-based killing in the same effector cell and showed that CAR T cells can not only efficiently kill single tumor targets, they can also kill multiple tumor targets in a sequential manner. Single and serial killing events were not sustained long term due to CAR down-regulation after 20 hours.

  11. Swing damped movement of suspended objects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.F.; Petterson, B.J.; Werner, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Transportation of large objects such as nuclear waste shipping casks using overhead cranes can induce pendular motion of the object. Residual oscillation from transportation typically must be damped or allowed to decay before the next process can take place. By properly programming the acceleration of the transporting device (e.g., crane) an oscillation damped transport and swing free stop are obtainable. This report reviews the theory associated with formulating such oscillation damped trajectories for a simply suspended object (e.g., simple pendulum). In addition, the use of force servo damping to eliminate initial oscillation of simply suspended objects is discussed. This is often needed to provide a well defined initial state for the system prior to executing an oscillation damped move. Also included are descriptions of experiments using a CIMCORP XR6100 gantry robot and results from these experiments. Finally, sources of error resulting in small residual oscillations are identified and possible solutions presented

  12. Molybdenum-rhenium superconducting suspended nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Mohsin; Christopher Hudson, David; Russo, Saverio [Centre for Graphene Science, College of Engineering, Mathematics and Physical Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-09

    Suspended superconducting nanostructures of MoRe 50%/50% by weight are fabricated employing commonly used fabrication steps in micro- and nano-meter scale devices followed by wet-etching with Hydro-fluoric acid of a SiO{sub 2} sacrificial layer. Suspended superconducting channels as narrow as 50 nm and length 3 μm have a critical temperature of ≈6.5 K, which can increase by 0.5 K upon annealing at 400 °C. A detailed study of the dependence of the superconducting critical current and critical temperature upon annealing and in devices with different channel widths reveals that desorption of contaminants is responsible for the improved superconducting properties. These findings pave the way for the development of superconducting electromechanical devices using standard fabrication techniques.

  13. Electrodialytic remediation of suspended mine tailings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik K.; Rojo, Adrian; Pino, Denisse

    2008-01-01

    This work shows the laboratory results of nine electrodialytic remediation experiments on copper mine tailings. A newly designed remediation cell, where the solids were kept in suspension by airflow, was tested. The results show that electric current could remove copper from suspended tailings...... efficiency from 1% to 80% compared to experiments with no stirring but with the same operational conditions. This showed the crucial importance of having the solids in suspension and not settled during the remediation....

  14. Consumer Behavior towards Safer Car Purchasing Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In Malaysia, the car safety level has been elevated through regulations and a consumer-based approach, i.e. the New Car Assessment Program in Southeast Asian Countries (ASEAN NCAP. Nevertheless, the availability of information on consumers’ car purchasing decisions towards safety is still limited in Malaysia. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating consumers’ purchasing decisions of their present cars and investigating their awareness of ASEAN NCAP. Self-administered questionnaires were distributed among consumers visiting different car showrooms and dealer shops. The findings suggest that safety was considered as one of the top three factors by the respondents when purchasing their present cars. Awareness of ASEAN NCAP has increased as compared to a previous study. This information is essential for policy makers, manufacturers and other stakeholders to assist in setting priorities with regard to the promotion of car safety in the country.

  15. Substitution between cars within the household

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we study the demand for car kilometres in two-car households, focusing on the substitution between cars of different fuel efficiency in response to fuel price changes. We use a large sample of detailed Danish data on two-car households to estimate – for each car owned by the household...... – own and cross-price effects of increases in fuel costs per kilometre. The empirical results show that failure to capture substitution between cars within the household can result in substantial misspecification biases. Ignoring substitution, the basic model yielded fuel price elasticities of 0.......98 and 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect...

  16. Sedimentation of suspended solids in ultrasound field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikulina Vera

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical and chemical effects of aquatic environment that occur in an ultrasonic field change the sedimentation rate of coagulated suspension. This might only happen in case of cavitation of ultrasonic filed that causes a change of potentials of the medium. Research of the influence of ultrasonic vibrations on coagulation of suspended solids within water purification allows expanding their scope of implementation. The objective of the research is to estimate the effect of ultrasound on the sedimentation of the suspended solids, to determine of the efficiency of the process in relation to the dose of the coagulant, and to calculate the numerical values of the constants in the theoretical equation. The experiment condition was held in the water with the clay substances before the introduction of the coagulant. The method of magnetostriction ultrasonic generator was applied to receive ultrasonic vibration. Estimate of concentration of clay particles in water was performed using photometry. As a result of the research, the obtained data allow determining the increase in efficiency of suspended particles sedimentation related to the dose of coagulant, depending on time of ultrasonic treatment. The experiments confirmed the connection between the effect of sedimentation in the coagulation process, the coagulant dose and the time of scoring. Studies have shown that the increase in the duration of ultrasonic treatment causes a decrease of administered doses of coagulant.

  17. Preferences for Alternative Fuel Vehicles of Company Car Drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koetse, M.J.; Hoen, A.

    2014-01-01

    Costs of car ownership for company cars drivers and private car owners are very different. Car use, car choice decisions and preferences for car characteristics may therefore differ substantially between these two markets. In this paper, we present results of a study on the preferences of company

  18. 49 CFR 215.121 - Defective car body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective car body. 215.121 Section 215.121..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Car Bodies § 215.121 Defective car body. A railroad may not place or continue in service a car, if: (a) Any portion of...

  19. Maintenance energy requirements in miniature colony dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serisier, S; Weber, M; Feugier, A; Fardet, M-O; Garnier, F; Biourge, V; German, A J

    2013-05-01

    There are numerous reports of maintenance energy requirements (MER) in dogs, but little information is available about energy requirements of miniature dog breeds. In this prospective, observational, cohort study, we aimed to determine MER in dogs from a number of miniature breeds and to determine which factors were associated with it. Forty-two dogs participated in the study. MER was calculated by determining daily energy intake (EI) during a period of 196 days (28-359 days) when body weight did not change significantly (e.g. ±2% in 12 weeks). Estimated median MER was 473 kJ/kg(0.75) /day (285-766 kJ/kg(0.75) /day), that is, median 113 kcal/kg(0.75) /day (68-183 kcal/kg(0.75) /day). In the obese dogs that lost weight, median MER after weight loss was completed was 360 kJ/kg(0.75) /day (285-515 kJ/kg(0.75) /day), that is, 86 kcal/kg(0.75) /day, (68-123 kcal/kg(0.75) /day). Simple linear regression analysis suggested that three breeds (e.g. Chihuahua, p = 0.002; Yorkshire terrier, p = 0.039; dachshund, p = 0.035) had an effect on MER. In addition to breed, simple linear regression revealed that neuter status (p = 0.079) and having previously been overweight (p = 0.002) were also of significance. However, with multiple linear regression analysis, only previous overweight status (MER less in dogs previously overweight p = 0.008) and breed (MER greater in Yorkshire terriers [p = 0.029] and less in Chihuahuas [p = 0.089]) remained in the final model. This study is the first to estimate MER in dogs of miniature breeds. Although further information from pet dogs is now needed, the current work will be useful for setting energy and nutrient requirement in such dogs for the future. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. The suspended sentence in German criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovašević Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available From the ancient times until today, criminal law in all countries has provided different criminal sanctions as social control measures. These are court-imposed coercive measures that take away or limit certain rights and freedoms of criminal offenders. Sanctions are applied to natural or legal persons who violate the norms of the legal order and cause damage or endanger other legal goods that enjoy legal protection. In order to effectively protect social values jeopardized by the commission of crime, state legislations prescribe several kinds of criminal sanctions: 1 penalties, 2 precautions, 3 safety measures, 4 penalties for juvenile offenders, and 5 sanctions for legal persons. Penalties are the basic, the oldest and the most important type of criminal sanctions. They are prescribed for the largest number of criminal offences. Imposed instead of or alongside with penalties, warning measures have particularly important role in jurisprudence. Since they were introduced in the system of criminal sanctions in the early 20th century, there has been a notable increase in the application of these measures, particularly in cases involving negligent and accidental offences, and minor offences that do not cause serious consequences, whose perpetrators are not persons with criminal characteristics. Warning measures (suspended sentence are envisaged in all contemporary criminal legislations, including the German legislation. Suspended sentence is a conditional stay of execution of the sentence of imprisonment for a specified time, provided that the convicted person fulfills the imposed obligations and does not commit another criminal offense. Two conditions must be fulfilled for the application of these sanctions: a the formal requirement, which is attached to the sentence of imprisonment; and b the substantive requirement, which implies the court assessment that the application of these sanctions is justified and necessary in a particular case. Many

  1. Miniature reciprocating heat pumps and engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiesen, Jack H. (Inventor); Willen, Gary S. (Inventor); Mohling, Robert A. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention discloses a miniature thermodynamic device that can be constructed using standard micro-fabrication techniques. The device can be used to provide cooling, generate power, compress gases, pump fluids and reduce pressure below ambient (operate as a vacuum pump). Embodiments of the invention relating to the production of a cooling effect and the generation of electrical power, change the thermodynamic state of the system by extracting energy from a pressurized fluid. Energy extraction is attained using an expansion process, which is as nearly isentropic as possible for the appropriately chosen fluid. An isentropic expansion occurs when a compressed gas does work to expand, and in the disclosed embodiments, the gas does work by overcoming either an electrostatic or a magnetic force.

  2. Uniform LED illuminator for miniature displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Vladimir; Pelka, David G.; Parkyn, William A.

    1998-10-01

    The Total Internally Reflecting (TIR) lens is a faceted structure composed of prismatic elements that collect a source's light over a much larger angular range than a conventional Fresnel lens. It has been successfully applied to the efficient collimation of light from incandescent and fluorescent lamps, and from light-emitting diodes (LEDs). A novel LED-powered collimating backlight is presented here, for uniformly illuminating 0.25'-diagonal miniature liquid- crystal displays, which are a burgeoning market for pagers, cellular phones, digital cameras, camcorders, and virtual- reality displays. The backlight lens consists of a central dual-asphere refracting section and an outer TIR section, properly curved with a curved exit face.

  3. Miniature photovoltaic energy system for lighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awais, M.

    1999-01-01

    In this project a miniature photovoltaic energy system has been designed and developed, that may be used in remote areas and villages for lighting purposes. System sizing is the important part of the project because it affects the cost of the system. Therefore, first of all system sizing has been done. For conversion of dc voltage of the battery into ac voltage, an inverter has been designed. To charge the battery when the sun is not shining, a standby system has been developed using a bicycle and dynamo. To indicate the battery's state of charge and discharge, a battery monitoring circuit has also been developed. Similarly, to protect the battery from over discharging, a battery protection circuit has been designed. In order to measure how much energy is going from standby system to the battery, an efficient dc electronic energy meter has been designed and developed. The working of the overall system has been tested and found to give good performance. (author)

  4. Miniature neutron-alpha activation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, Edgar; Goldsten, John; Holloway, James Paul; He, Zhong

    2002-01-01

    We are developing a miniature neutron-alpha activation spectrometer for in-situ analysis of chem-bio samples, including rocks, fines, ices, and drill cores, suitable for a lander or Rover platform for Mars or outer-planet missions. In the neutron-activation mode, penetrating analysis will be performed of the whole sample using a γ spectrometer and in the α-activation mode, the sample surface will be analyzed using Rutherford-backscatter and x-ray spectrometers. Novel in our approach is the development of a switchable radioactive neutron source and a small high-resolution γ detector. The detectors and electronics will benefit from remote unattended operation capabilities resulting from our NEAR XGRS heritage and recent development of a Ge γ detector for MESSENGER. Much of the technology used in this instrument can be adapted to portable or unattended terrestrial applications for detection of explosives, chemical toxins, nuclear weapons, and contraband

  5. An automated miniature robotic vehicle inspection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobie, Gordon; Summan, Rahul; MacLeod, Charles; Pierce, Gareth; Galbraith, Walter [Centre for Ultrasonic Engineering, University of Strathclyde, 204 George Street, Glasgow, G1 1XW (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-18

    A novel, autonomous reconfigurable robotic inspection system for quantitative NDE mapping is presented. The system consists of a fleet of wireless (802.11g) miniature robotic vehicles, each approximately 175 × 125 × 85 mm with magnetic wheels that enable them to inspect industrial structures such as storage tanks, chimneys and large diameter pipe work. The robots carry one of a number of payloads including a two channel MFL sensor, a 5 MHz dry coupled UT thickness wheel probe and a machine vision camera that images the surface. The system creates an NDE map of the structure overlaying results onto a 3D model in real time. The authors provide an overview of the robot design, data fusion algorithms (positioning and NDE) and visualization software.

  6. An automated miniature robotic vehicle inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobie, Gordon; Summan, Rahul; MacLeod, Charles; Pierce, Gareth; Galbraith, Walter

    2014-01-01

    A novel, autonomous reconfigurable robotic inspection system for quantitative NDE mapping is presented. The system consists of a fleet of wireless (802.11g) miniature robotic vehicles, each approximately 175 × 125 × 85 mm with magnetic wheels that enable them to inspect industrial structures such as storage tanks, chimneys and large diameter pipe work. The robots carry one of a number of payloads including a two channel MFL sensor, a 5 MHz dry coupled UT thickness wheel probe and a machine vision camera that images the surface. The system creates an NDE map of the structure overlaying results onto a 3D model in real time. The authors provide an overview of the robot design, data fusion algorithms (positioning and NDE) and visualization software

  7. Miniaturization of specimens for mechanical testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harling, O.K.; Kohse, G.

    1987-01-01

    The development of mechanical property tests based on bending of a 3 mm diameter by (typically) 0.25 mm thick disk is described. Slow strain rate testing of such a disk is used to obtain tensile properties. Finite element computer modelling is used to extract yield stress values with accuracies of at least +- 10% of uniaxial tensile test values for a variety of materials. Analytical estimates of ductility from disk bend test values are possible for low-ductility materials. Work directed toward finite element calculations for ductility and ultimate tensile strength is also discussed. Preliminary data indicating the feasibility of high strain rate testing for estimation of ductile-to-brittle transition temperatures, and an example of the successful application of miniature bend testing in obtaining relative fatigue information are also presented. (author)

  8. Miniature multichannel analyzer for process monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halbig, J.K.; Klosterbuer, S.F.; Russo, P.A.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.; Stephens, M.M.; Wiig, L.G.; Ianakiev, K.D.

    1993-01-01

    A new, 4,000-channel analyzer has been developed for gamma-ray spectroscopy applications. A design philosophy of hardware and software building blocks has been combined with design goals of simplicity, compactness, portability, and reliability. The result is a miniature, modular multichannel analyzer (MMMCA), which offers solution to a variety of nondestructive assay (NDA) needs in many areas of general application, independent of computer platform or operating system. Detector-signal analog electronics, the bias supply, and batteries are included in the virtually pocket-size, low-power MMMCA unit. The MMMCA features digital setup and control, automated data reduction, and automated quality assurance. Areas of current NDA applications include on-line continuous (process) monitoring, process material holdup measurements, and field inspections

  9. Miniature solid-state gas compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawless, W.N.; Cross, L.E.; Steyert, W.A.

    1985-05-07

    A miniature apparatus for compressing gases is disclosed in which an elastomer disposed between two opposing electrostrictive or piezoelectric ceramic blocks, or between a single electrostrictive or piezoelectric ceramic block and a rigid surface, is caused to extrude into or recede from a channel defined adjacent to the elastomer in response to application or removal of an electric field from the blocks. Individual cells of blocks and elastomer are connected to effect a gas compression by peristaltic activation of the individual cells. The apparatus is self-valving in that the first and last cells operate as inlet and outlet valves, respectively. Preferred electrostrictive and piezoelectric ceramic materials are disclosed, and an alternative, non-peristaltic embodiment of the apparatus is described. 9 figs.

  10. Self-folding miniature elastic electric devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Shuhei; Meeker, Laura; Rus, Daniela; Tolley, Michael T; Wood, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Printing functional materials represents a considerable impact on the access to manufacturing technology. In this paper we present a methodology and validation of print-and-self-fold miniature electric devices. Polyvinyl chloride laminated sheets based on metalized polyester film show reliable self-folding processes under a heat application, and it configures 3D electric devices. We exemplify this technique by fabricating fundamental electric devices, namely a resistor, capacitor, and inductor. Namely, we show the development of a self-folded stretchable resistor, variable resistor, capacitive strain sensor, and an actuation mechanism consisting of a folded contractible solenoid coil. Because of their pre-defined kinematic design, these devices feature elasticity, making them suitable as sensors and actuators in flexible circuits. Finally, an RLC circuit obtained from the integration of developed devices is demonstrated, in which the coil based actuator is controlled by reading a capacitive strain sensor. (paper)

  11. Miniaturized radioisotope solid state power sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurial, J.-P.; Snyder, G. J.; Patel, J.; Herman, J. A.; Caillat, T.; Nesmith, B.; Kolawa, E. A.

    2000-01-01

    Electrical power requirements for the next generation of deep space missions cover a wide range from the kilowatt to the milliwatt. Several of these missions call for the development of compact, low weight, long life, rugged power sources capable of delivering a few milliwatts up to a couple of watts while operating in harsh environments. Advanced solid state thermoelectric microdevices combined with radioisotope heat sources and energy storage devices such as capacitors are ideally suited for these applications. By making use of macroscopic film technology, microgenrators operating across relatively small temperature differences can be conceptualized for a variety of high heat flux or low heat flux heat source configurations. Moreover, by shrinking the size of the thermoelements and increasing their number to several thousands in a single structure, these devices can generate high voltages even at low power outputs that are more compatible with electronic components. Because the miniaturization of state-of-the-art thermoelectric module technology based on Bi2Te3 alloys is limited due to mechanical and manufacturing constraints, we are developing novel microdevices using integrated-circuit type fabrication processes, electrochemical deposition techniques and high thermal conductivity substrate materials. One power source concept is based on several thermoelectric microgenerator modules that are tightly integrated with a 1.1W Radioisotope Heater Unit. Such a system could deliver up to 50mW of electrical power in a small lightweight package of approximately 50 to 60g and 30cm3. An even higher degree of miniaturization and high specific power values (mW/mm3) can be obtained when considering the potential use of radioisotope materials for an alpha-voltaic or a hybrid thermoelectric/alpha-voltaic power source. Some of the technical challenges associated with these concepts are discussed in this paper. .

  12. Reestablishment of radiographic kidney size in Miniature Schnauzer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Jungmin; Yun, Sookyung; Lee, Jeosoon; Chang, Dongwoo; Choi, Mincheol; Yoon, Junghee

    2017-01-10

    Kidney size may be altered in renal diseases, and the detection of kidney size alteration has diagnostic and prognostic values. We hypothesized that radiographic kidney size, the kidney length to the second lumbar vertebra (L2) length ratio, in normal Miniature Schnauzer dogs may be overestimated due to their shorter vertebral length. This study was conducted to evaluate radiographic and ultrasonographic kidney size and L2 length in clinically normal Miniature Schnauzers and other dog breeds to evaluate the effect of vertebral length on radiographic kidney size and to reestablish radiographic kidney size in normal Miniature Schnauzers. Abdominal radiographs and ultrasonograms from 49 Miniature Schnauzers and 54 other breeds without clinical evidence of renal disease and lumbar vertebral abnormality were retrospectively evaluated. Radiographic kidney size, in the Miniature Schnauzer (3.31 ± 0.26) was significantly larger than that in other breeds (2.94 ± 0.27). Relative L2 length, the L2 length to width ratio, in the Miniature Schnauzer (1.11 ± 0.06) was significantly shorter than that in other breeds (1.21 ± 0.09). However, ultrasonographic kidney sizes, kidney length to aorta diameter ratios, were within or very close to normal range both in the Miniature Schnauzer (6.75 ± 0.67) and other breeds (7.16 ± 1.01). Thus, Miniature Schnauzer dogs have breed-specific short vertebrae and consequently a larger radiographic kidney size, which was greater than standard reference in normal adult dogs. Care should be taken when evaluating radiographic kidney size in Miniature Schnauzers to prevent falsely diagnosed renomegaly.

  13. Prediction of future car forms based on historical trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijendra Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cars are one of the most important products that affects our daily life. Manufacturers of cars are inclined to know factors that affect the sales of cars and how to influence them. Car is a very competitive product whose technology is already matured. Thus, purchase decisions of a car depend on factors such as, aesthetics, ergonomics, features available and price. Exterior form and colour of a car are the most important factors that influence likeness of the car. We did a case study on car aesthetics (form, colour, shape, and user focus with more than 500 car advertisements over the past 70 years, appearing in various car magazines. Results show that form of cars has changed from sharp to smooth over the years, and white colour cars are becoming more popular. Additionally, car size is becoming smaller and increasingly focused towards family. Thus, manufacturers are recommended to develop compact, efficient and hybrid cars.

  14. DYNAMIC SUFFICIENCY OF THE MAGNETICALLY SUSPENDED TRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Polyakov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The basic criterion of the magnetically suspended train's consumer estimation is a quality of its mechanical motion. This motion is realized in unpredictable conditions and, for purposefulness preservation, should adapt to them. Such adaptation is possible only within the limits of system’s dynamic sufficiency. Sufficiency is understood as presence at system of resources, which allow one to realize its demanded motions without violating actual restrictions. Therefore presence of such resources is a necessary condition of preservation of required purposefulness of train's dynamics, and verification of the mentioned sufficiency is the major component of this dynamic research. Methodology. Methods of the set theory are used in work. Desirable and actual approachability spaces of the train are found. The train is considered dynamically sufficient in zones of the specified spaces overlapping. Findings. Within the limits of the accepted treatment of train's dynamic sufficiency, verification of its presence, as well as a stock (or deficiency of preservations can be executed by the search and the subsequent estimation of such overlapping zones. Operatively (directly during motion it can be realized on the train's ODC with use, for example, of computer mathematics system Mathematica. It possesses extensive opportunities of highly efficient and, at the same time, demanding an expense concerning small resources information manipulation. The efficiency of using of created technique is illustrated on an example of vehicle's acceleration research. Calculation is executed with use of the constructed computer model of interaction of an independent traction electromagnetic subsystem of an artifact with its mechanical subsystem. Originality. The technique of verification of the high-speed magnetically suspended train's dynamic sufficiency is developed. The technique is highly efficient, it provides sufficient presentation and demands an expense of the

  15. Driving CAR T-cells forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Hollie J.; Rafiq, Sarwish; Brentjens, Renier J.

    2017-01-01

    The engineered expression of chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) on the surface of T cells enables the redirection of T-cell specificity. Early clinical trials using CAR T cells for the treatment of patients with cancer showed modest results, but the impressive outcomes of several trials of CD19-targeted CAR T cells in the treatment of patients with B-cell malignancies have generated an increased enthusiasm for this approach. Important lessons have been derived from clinical trials of CD19-specific CAR T cells, and ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in haematological and solid malignancies. In this Review, we discuss these trials and present strategies that can increase the antitumour efficacy and safety of CAR T-cell therapy. Given the fast-moving nature of this field, we only discuss studies with direct translational application currently or soon-to-be tested in the clinical setting. PMID:27000958

  16. Research of braking peculiarities of used cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mitunevičius

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly describes some analysis of a car braking process - the peculiarities of car wheel-to-road adhesion, the influence of distribution of braking forces on car stability between front and rear axles. The requirements of EU Directive 71/320/EEC to braking force coefficients of car front and rear axles are exposed. Structural designs of braking systems are analyzed with respect to their meeting the EU standards. Experimental measurements of braking force coefficients for some models of cars which are used in Lithuania, are presented with the analysis how these coefficients meet the EU standards. The analysis of test results, suggestions for the ratio of braking forces of car front and rear axles are presented.

  17. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. F. Vynakov

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical and safe in operation. With every year the maximum range of an electric car is increasing and its battery charging time is decreasing.Solving the problem of environmental safety, the governments of most countries are trying to encourage people to switch to electric cars by creating subsidy programs, lending and abolition of taxation. Therefore, the advent of an electric vehicle in all major cities of the world is inevitable.

  18. Benefits of magnesium wheels for consumer cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frishfelds, Vilnis; Timuhins, Andrejs; Bethers, Uldis

    2018-05-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of magnesium wheels are considered based on a mechanical model of a car. Magnesium wheels are usually applied to racing cars as they provide slightly better strength/weight ratio than aluminum alloys. Do they provide notable benefits also for the everyday user when the car speeds do not exceed allowed speed limit? Distinct properties of magnesium rims are discussed. Apart from lighter weight of magnesium alloys, they are also good in dissipating the energy of vibrations. The role of energy dissipation in the rim of a wheel is estimated by a quarter car model. Improvements to safety by using the magnesium wheels are considered. Braking distance and responsiveness of the car is studied both with and without using an Anti Blocking System (ABS). Influence of rim weight on various handling parameters of the car is quantitatively tested.

  19. Femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery and implantable miniature telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randal Pham

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions and importance: To our knowledge and confirmed by the manufacturer of the implantable miniature telescope this is the first case ever reported of a patient who has undergone femtosecond laser cataract surgery with corneal astigmatism correction and implantation of the implantable miniature telescope. This is also the first case report of the preoperative use of microperimetry and visual electrophysiology to evaluate a patient's postoperative potential visual acuity. The success of the procedure illustrated the importance of meticulous preoperative planning, the combined use of state-of-the-art technologies and the seamless teamwork in order to achieve the best clinical outcome for patients who undergo implantation of the implantable miniature telescope.

  20. Geodetic monitoring of suspended particles in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamnik, Rok; Maksimova, Daria; Kovačič, Boštjan

    2017-10-01

    There is a trend in modern approach to the management of space of collecting the spatial data, in order to obtain useful information. In this paper a research of suspended particles in the river Drava and Mura will be introduced. The goal is to connect different fields of water management in countries where the rivers Drava and Mura flows in purpose of water management sustainability. The methods such as GNSS for mapping cross sections of the river, the use of ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) measurement system and water sampling to monitor sediment in the water will be presented.

  1. Should Diesel cars in Europe be discouraged?

    OpenAIRE

    Mayeres, Inge; Proost, Stef

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the rationale for the different tax treatment of gasoline and diesel cars currently observed in Europe. First, we analyse possible justifications for a different tax treatment: pure tax revenue considerations, externality cons0iderations and constraints on the tax instruments used for cars and trucks. Next, an applied general equilibrium model is used to assess the welfare effects of revenue neutral changes in the vehicle and fuel taxes on diesel and gasoline cars. The mod...

  2. PLC Based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System

    OpenAIRE

    Swanand S .Vaze; Rohan S. Mithari

    2014-01-01

    This project work presents the study and design of PLC based Automatic Multistoried Car Parking System. Multistoried car parking is an arrangement which is used to park a large number of vehicles in least possible place. For making this arrangement in a real plan very high technological instruments are required. In this project a prototype of such a model is made. This prototype model is made for accommodating twelve cars at a time. Availability of the space for parking is detecte...

  3. Alcohol Fuel in Passenger Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Polcar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article studies the effects of combustion of high-percentage mixture of bioethanol and gasoline on the output parameters of a passenger car engine. The car engine has not been structurally modified for the combustion of fuels with higher ethanol content. The mixture used consisted of E85 summer blend and Natural 95 gasoline in a ratio of 50:50. The parameters monitored during the experiment included the air-fuel ratio in exhaust gasses, the power output and torque of the engine and also the specific energy consumption and efficiency of the engine. As is apparent from the results, E85+N95 (50:50 mixture combustion results in lean-burn (λ > 1 due to the presence of oxygen in bioethanol. The lean-burn led to a slight decrease in torque and power output of the engine. However, due to the positive physicochemical properties of bioethanol, the decrease has not been as significant as would normally be expected from the measured air-fuel ratio. These findings are further confirmed by the calculated energy required to produce 1 kWh of energy, and by the higher efficiency of the engine during the combustion of a 50% bioethanol mixture.

  4. Air quality inside passenger cars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Faber

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle interior is a specific environment of relatively small volume, with variety of materials placed inside, including hard and soft plastics, adhesives, paints, lubricants and many others. As a result, particularly in case of newly produced vehicles, large amounts and numbers of volatile species, especially volatile organic compounds (VOCs, may be emitted and have influence vehicle interior air quality (VIAQ. Despite the fact that many of these compounds may not be harmful for human health, some of them may be toxic, and this is the reason for increasing concern of vehicle manufacturers and users recently. The level of contamination varies from one vehicle to another and may be influenced by atmospheric conditions, external pollution, user habits, quality of materials used and others. The main aim of this paper was to present current knowledge status on VIAQ, with indication of main air pollutants and their concentrations. Vehicle interior air quality is discussed on the basis of studies on new and used cars in different conditions and locations. Main sources of VOCs presence inside car cabin are discussed in this paper with additional information regarding materials emissions. Differences in sampling and analytical methodologies were not debated, however, since the results differs largely in the scope of both number and amount of VOCs, a need of testing methods harmonization is indicated. Presented data may be helpful for legislative requirements introduction.

  5. MODERN ELECTRIC CARS OF TESLA MOTORS COMPANY

    OpenAIRE

    O. F. Vynakov; E. V. Savolova; A. I. Skrynnyk

    2016-01-01

    This overview article shows the advantages of a modern electric car as compared with internal combustion cars by the example of the electric vehicles of Tesla Motors Company. It (в смысле- статья) describes the history of this firm, provides technical and tactical characteristics of three modifications of electric vehicles produced by Tesla Motors. Modern electric cars are not less powerful than cars with combustion engines both in speed and acceleration amount. They are reliable, economical ...

  6. Stock-car racing makes intuitive physicists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwynne, Peter

    2008-03-01

    Formula One races involve cars festooned with gadgets and complex electronic devices, in which millions of dollars are spent refining a vehicle's aerodynamics and reducing its weight. But in events run by America's National Association of Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR), cars hurtle round an oval track at speeds of about 300 km h-1 without the help of the complex sensors that are employed in Formula One cars. To avoid crashing, drivers must make their own adjustments to track conditions, engine problems and the traffic around them.

  7. Evaluation of a miniature electromagnetic position tracker

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hummel, Johann; Figl, Michael; Kollmann, Christian; Bergmann, Helmar; Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    The advent of miniaturized electromagnetic digitizers opens a variety of potential clinical applications for computer aided interventions using flexible instruments; endoscopes or catheters can easily be tracked within the body. With respect to the new applications, the systematic distortions induced by various materials such as closed metallic loops, wire guides, catheters, and ultrasound scan heads were systematically evaluated in this paper for a new commercial tracking system. We employed the electromagnetic tracking system Aurora trade mark sign (Mednetix/CH, NDI/Can); data were acquired using the serial port of a PC running SuSE Linux 7.1 (SuSE, Gmbh, Nuernberg). Objects introduced into the digitizer volume included wire loops of different diameters, wire guides, optical tracking tools, an ultrasonic (US) scan head, an endoscope with radial ultrasound scan head and various other objects used in operating rooms and interventional suites. Beyond this, we determined the influence of a C-arm fluoroscopy unit. To quantify the reliability of the system, the miniaturized sensor was mounted on a nonmetallic measurement rack while the transmitter was fixed at three different distances within the digitizer range. The tracker was shown to be more sensitive to distortions caused by materials close to the emitter (average distortion error 13.6 mm±16.6 mm for wire loops positioned at a distance between 100 mm and 200 mm from the emitter). Distortions caused by materials near the sensor (distances smaller than 100 mm) are small (typical error 2.2 mm±1.9 mm). The C-arm fluoroscopy unit caused considerable distortions and limits the reliability of the tracker (distortion error 18.6 mm±24.9 mm). Distortions resulting from the US scan head are high at distances smaller than about 100 mm from the emitter. The distortions also increase when the scan head is positioned horizontally and close to the sensor (average error 4.1 mm±1.5 mm when the scan head is positioned within a

  8. Performance of ceramic ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis membranes in treating car wash wastewater for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzem, Shamima; Wills, Jamie; Fan, Linhua; Roddick, Felicity; Jegatheesan, Veeriah

    2018-03-01

    Reusing treated effluents in industries is a great option to conserve freshwater resources. For example, car wash centres all over Australia are estimated to use 17.5 billion litres of water and discharge it as wastewater and spend $75 million a year for both purchasing fresh water and for treating and/or discharging the wastewater. Therefore, it is important to develop simple but reliable systems that can help to treat and reuse car wash wastewater. Significant savings could also be associated with the implementation of such systems. This study evaluates the performance of granular and membrane filtration systems with coagulation/flocculation and sedimentation in treating car wash wastewater for the purpose of reuse. Overall, 99.9% of turbidity, 100% of suspended solids and 96% of COD were removed from the car wash wastewater after treating by coagulation, flocculation, sedimentation, sand filtration, ceramic ultrafiltration and reverse osmosis and the treated water meets the standards required for class A recycled water in Australia and standards imposed in Belgium and China. The treated water can be reused. However, optimisation is required to reduce the sludge produced by this system.

  9. Infrared hyperspectral imaging miniaturized for UAV applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Hinnrichs, Bradford; McCutchen, Earl

    2017-02-01

    Pacific Advanced Technology (PAT) has developed an infrared hyperspectral camera, both MWIR and LWIR, small enough to serve as a payload on a miniature unmanned aerial vehicles. The optical system has been integrated into the cold-shield of the sensor enabling the small size and weight of the sensor. This new and innovative approach to infrared hyperspectral imaging spectrometer uses micro-optics and will be explained in this paper. The micro-optics are made up of an area array of diffractive optical elements where each element is tuned to image a different spectral region on a common focal plane array. The lenslet array is embedded in the cold-shield of the sensor and actuated with a miniature piezo-electric motor. This approach enables rapid infrared spectral imaging with multiple spectral images collected and processed simultaneously each frame of the camera. This paper will present our optical mechanical design approach which results in an infrared hyper-spectral imaging system that is small enough for a payload on a mini-UAV or commercial quadcopter. Also, an example of how this technology can easily be used to quantify a hydrocarbon gas leak's volume and mass flowrates. The diffractive optical elements used in the lenslet array are blazed gratings where each lenslet is tuned for a different spectral bandpass. The lenslets are configured in an area array placed a few millimeters above the focal plane and embedded in the cold-shield to reduce the background signal normally associated with the optics. We have developed various systems using a different number of lenslets in the area array. Depending on the size of the focal plane and the diameter of the lenslet array will determine the spatial resolution. A 2 x 2 lenslet array will image four different spectral images of the scene each frame and when coupled with a 512 x 512 focal plane array will give spatial resolution of 256 x 256 pixel each spectral image. Another system that we developed uses a 4 x 4

  10. Acoustic measuring techniques for suspended sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruber, P.; Felix, D.; Storti, G.; Lattuada, M.; Fleckenstein, P.; Deschwanden, F.

    2016-11-01

    Acoustic signals can be used in various ways for suspended sediment monitoring. One possibility which lends itself particularly well in the context of hydropower plants (HPPs), is to use installations for acoustic discharge measurement (ADM). Such installations already exist at waterways of many HPPs. Similar to certain turbidimeters, the attenuation of the forward scattered signal travelling through the water-sediment mixture is correlated with suspended sediment concentration (SSC). This correlation can be based on reference SSCs, e.g. from gravimetric analyses of bottle samples. Without the need of additional sensors and practically maintenance-free, this method is used successfully in the HPP Fieschertal to warn the HPP operator of high SSC to prevent excessive turbine abrasion. Acoustic methods and systems that allow for estimating both SSC and particle size distribution (PSD) are under development. The simultaneous determination of SSC and PSD is not possible using a single frequency. Therefore, multi-frequency approaches are investigated for generally scattered signals. When backscattered signals are used, a stronger frequency dependency can be exploited. However, the reliable simultaneous determination of particle size (and distribution) and concentration is still a major challenge due to a low signal-to-noise ratio and an ill- posed problem of estimating concentration and size from recorded signals. The optimal setup configuration (angles, frequencies) for such a system is not unique and further investigations are recommended.

  11. Adventitious shoot regeneration from leaf explants of miniature paprika

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-05-10

    May 10, 2010 ... products, Capsicum spp. shows high levels of cross pollination ... Composition of a nutrient solution used for the culture of miniature paprika in the greenhouse. ... Yellow' were obtained from Seminis Korea Inc. Seeds were.

  12. Miniature Sensor for Aerosol Mass Measurements, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project seeks to develop a miniature sensor for mass measurement of size-classified aerosols. A cascade impactor will be used to classify aerosol sample...

  13. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance-computer-based electronic backend that...

  14. Miniaturized Airborne Imaging Central Server System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation is a miniaturized airborne imaging central server system (MAICSS). MAICSS is designed as a high-performance computer-based electronic backend that...

  15. Miniature Reaction Wheel for Small Satellite Control, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall goal of this project is to design, develop, demonstrate, and deliver a miniature, high torque, low-vibration reaction wheel for use on small satellites....

  16. Car allocation between household heads in car deficient households : A decision model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anggraini, Renni; Arentze, Theo A.; Timmermans, Harry J P

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers car allocation choice behaviour in car-deficient households explicitly in the context of an activity-scheduling process, focusing on work activities. A decision tree induction method is applied to derive a decision tree for the car allocation decision in automobile deficient

  17. Airtight miniaturized chromatography: a safer method for radiopharmaceutical quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coupal, J.J.; Shih, W.J.; Ryo, U.Y.

    1988-01-01

    Miniaturized chromatography is widely used for quality control of radiopharmaceuticals. Recently, published chromatography procedures have illustrated or described chromatography chambers open to the air in use, suggesting that volatile toxic mobile phases are harmless to people in the vicinity. The authors describe the results of their search for an inexpensive closed chromatography chamber that can be used to derive safely the benefits from conventional miniaturized chromatography

  18. Miniature tensile test specimens for fusion reactor irradiation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klueh, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Three miniature sheet-type tensile specimens and a miniature rod-type specimen are being used to determine irradiated tensile properties for alloy development for fusion reactors. The tensile properties of type 316 stainless steel were determined with these different specimens, and the results were compared. Reasonably good agreement was observed. However, there were differences that led to recommendations on which specimens are preferred. 4 references, 9 figures, 6 tables

  19. Hypodipsic hypernatraemia in a miniature schnauzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Heerden, J; Geel, J; Moore, D J

    1992-03-01

    Normovolaemic hypernatraemia as a result of a suspected congenital primary hypodipsia was diagnosed in a young male Miniature Schnauzer. Despite an elevated serum sodium concentration, the dog did not appear dehydrated on physical examination and the urine osmolality: plasma osmolality ratio was greater than 4; antidiuretic hormone deficiency was therefore not suspected. Basal serum cortisol and thyroxine concentrations were normal. Plasma aldosterone concentration and plasma renin activity (37 pmol l-1 and 1.55 ng dl-1 h-1 respectively) were within normal range. A defective central thirst regulation mechanism was suspected as the dog was totally disinterested in drinking water despite the chronically elevated serum sodium concentration. Excessive ingestion of water mixed with food, and milk resulted in hyponatraemia and associated cerebral oedema. On stabilisation of the dog's condition, a calculated fluid intake based on daily maintenance fluid requirements was prescribed to prevent recurrence of hypernatraemia and hyponatraemia, and associated signs of central nervous system disease. The dog was in apparent good health with controlled fluid intake when examined 230 d later.

  20. Miniature Neutron-Alpha Activation Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, E.; Goldsten, J.

    2001-01-01

    We are developing a miniature neutron-alpha activation spectrometer for in situ analysis of samples including rocks, fines, ices, and drill cores, suitable for a lander or Rover platform, that would meet the severe mass, power, and environmental constraints of missions to the outer planets. In the neutron-activation mode, a gamma-ray spectrometer will first perform a penetrating scan of soil, ice, and loose material underfoot (depths to 10 cm or more) to identify appropriate samples. Chosen samples will be analyzed in bulk in neutron-activation mode, and then the sample surfaces will be analyzed in alpha-activation mode using Rutherford backscatter and x-ray spectrometers. The instrument will provide sample composition over a wide range of elements, including rock-forming elements (such as Na, Mg, Si, Fe, and Ca), rare earths (Sm and Eu for example), radioactive elements (K, Th, and U), and light elements present in water, ices, and biological materials (mainly H, C, O, and N). The instrument is expected to have a mass of about l kg and to require less than 1 W power. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Miniaturization limitations of rotary internal combustion engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Wei; Zuo, Zhengxing; Liu, Jinxiang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Developed a phenomenological model for rotary internal combustion engines. • Presented scaling laws for the performance of micro rotary engines. • Adiabatic walls can improve the cycle efficiency but result in higher charge leakage. • A lower compression ratio can increase the efficiency due to lower mass losses. • Presented possible minimum engine size of rotary internal combustion engines. - Abstract: With the rapid development of micro electro-mechanical devices, the demands for micro power generation systems have significantly increased in recent years. Traditional chemical batteries have energy densities much lower than hydrocarbon fuels, which makes internal-combustion-engine an attractive technological alternative to batteries. Micro rotary internal combustion engine has drawn great attractions due to its planar design, which is well-suited for fabrication in MEMS. In this paper, a phenomenological model considering heat transfer and mass leakage has been developed to investigate effects of engine speed, compression ratio, blow-by and heat transfer on the performance of micro rotary engine, which provide the guidelines for preliminary design of rotary engine. The lower possible miniaturization limits of rotary combustion engines are proposed.

  2. Miniaturized Air-Driven Planar Magnetic Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design, analysis, fabrication and testing of two miniaturized air-driven planar magnetic generators. In order to reduce the magnetic resistance torque, Generator 1 establishes a static magnetic field by consisting a multilayer planar coil as the stator and two multi-pole permanent-magnet (PM rotors on both sides of the coil. To further decrease the starting torque and save more space, Generator 2 adopts the multilayer planar coil as the rotor and the multi-pole PMs as the stator, eliminating the casing without compromising the magnetic structure or output performance. The prototypes were tested gathering energy from wind which can work at a low wind speed of 1~2 m/s. Prototype of Generator 1 is with a volume of 2.61 cm3 and its normalized voltage reaches 485 mV/krpm. Prototype of Generator 2 has a volume of 0.92 cm3 and a normalized voltage as high as 538 mV/krpm. Additionally, output voltage can be estimated at better than 96% accuracy by the theoretical model developed in this paper. The two micro generators are capable of producing substantial electricity with little volume to serve as compact power conversion devices.

  3. Solvent extraction studies in miniature centrifugal contactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siczek, A.A.; Meisenhelder, J.H.; Bernstein, G.J.; Steindler, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    A miniature short-residence-time centrifugal solvent extraction contactor and an eight-stage laboratory minibank of centrifugal contactors were used for testing the possibility of utilizing kinetic effects for improving the separation of uranium from ruthenium and zirconium in the Purex process. Results of these tests showed that a small improvement found in ruthenium and zirconium decontamination in single-stage solvent extraction tests was lost in the multistage extraction tests- in fact, the extent of saturation of the solvent by uranium, rather than the stage residence time, controlled the extent of ruthenium and zirconium extraction. In applying the centrifugal contactor to the Purex process, the primary advantages would be less radiolytic damage to the solvent, high troughput, reduced solvent inventory, and rapid attainment of steady-state operating conditions. The multistage mini contactor was also tested to determine the suitability of short-residence-time contactors for use with the Civex and Thorex processes and was found to be compatible with the requirements of these processes. (orig.) [de

  4. A locust-inspired miniature jumping robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsev, Valentin; Gvirsman, Omer; Ben Hanan, Uri; Weiss, Avi; Ayali, Amir; Kosa, Gabor

    2015-11-25

    Unmanned ground vehicles are mostly wheeled, tracked, or legged. These locomotion mechanisms have a limited ability to traverse rough terrain and obstacles that are higher than the robot's center of mass. In order to improve the mobility of small robots it is necessary to expand the variety of their motion gaits. Jumping is one of nature's solutions to the challenge of mobility in difficult terrain. The desert locust is the model for the presented bio-inspired design of a jumping mechanism for a small mobile robot. The basic mechanism is similar to that of the semilunar process in the hind legs of the locust, and is based on the cocking of a torsional spring by wrapping a tendon-like wire around the shaft of a miniature motor. In this study we present the jumping mechanism design, and the manufacturing and performance analysis of two demonstrator prototypes. The most advanced jumping robot demonstrator is power autonomous, weighs 23 gr, and is capable of jumping to a height of 3.35 m, covering a distance of 1.37 m.

  5. Miniaturization and globalization of clinical laboratory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Murilo R; Clark, Samantha; Barrio, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    Clinical laboratories provide an invaluable service to millions of people around the world in the form of quality diagnostic care. Within the clinical laboratory industry the impetus for change has come from technological development (miniaturization, nanotechnology, and their collective effect on point-of-care testing; POCT) and the increasingly global nature of laboratory services. Potential technological gains in POCT include: the development of bio-sensors, microarrays, genetics and proteomics testing, and enhanced web connectivity. In globalization, prospective opportunities lie in: medical tourism, the migration of healthcare workers, cross-border delivery of testing, and the establishment of accredited laboratories in previously unexplored markets. Accompanying these impressive opportunities are equally imposing challenges. Difficulty transitioning from research to clinical use, poor infrastructure in developing countries, cultural differences and national barriers to global trade are only a few examples. Dealing with the issues presented by globalization and the impact of developing technology on POCT, and on the clinical laboratory services industry in general, will be a daunting task. Despite such concerns, with appropriate countermeasures it will be possible to address the challenges posed. Future laboratory success will be largely dependent on one's ability to adapt in this perpetually shifting landscape.

  6. An ultra miniature pinch-focus discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto, L.; Pavez, C.; Moreno, J.; Pavez, C.; Barbaglia, M.; Clausse, A.

    2004-01-01

    As a way to investigate the minimum energy to produce a pinch plasma focus discharge, an ultra miniature device has been designed and constructed (nano focus NF: 5 nF, 5-10 kV, 5-10 kA, 60-250 mJ, 16 ns time to peak current). Sub-millimetric anode radius covered by a coaxial insulator were used for experiments in hydrogen. Evidence of pinch was observed in electrical signals in discharges operating at 60 mJ. A single-frame image converter camera (4 ns exposure) was used to obtain plasma images in the visible range. The dynamics observed from the photographs is consistent with: a) formation of a plasma sheath close to the insulator surface, b) fast axial motion of the plasma sheath, c) radial compression over the anode, and d) finally the plasma is detached from the anode in the axial direction. The total time since stage a) to d) was observed to be about 30 ns. X ray and neutron emission is being studied. Neutron yield of the order of 10 3 neutrons per shot is expected for discharges operating in deuterium at 10 kA. (authors)

  7. 49 CFR 238.311 - Single car test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Single car test. 238.311 Section 238.311... Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.311 Single car test. (a) Except for self-propelled passenger cars, single car tests of all passenger cars and all unpowered vehicles used in passenger trains shall...

  8. 49 CFR 180.507 - Qualification of tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Qualification of tank cars. 180.507 Section 180... QUALIFICATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Tank Cars § 180.507 Qualification of tank cars. (a) Each tank car marked as meeting a “DOT” specification or any other tank car used...

  9. CERN car stickers for 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    The stickers on your vehicles will cease to be valid at the end of 2013. We kindly request that you inform us as soon as possible if you no longer own a vehicle that is in our records. In particular, please inform the CERN Registration Service (Building 55, first floor) if you receive a sticker for a vehicle that you no longer own.   Stickers for 2014 are valid immediately and can be displayed as soon as you receive them. The Guards Service will continue to allow cars displaying a 2013 sticker into the CERN site until no later than 31 January 2014. After that date, the Guards Service will be obliged to deny access to any vehicles not displaying a valid sticker. Please see Operational Circular No. 2 for more details. We wish you a pleasant day and happy holidays, GS/DI security and access control service

  10. Reactions of Met-Cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castleman, A.W. Jr.; Guo, B.C.

    1993-01-01

    A new class of metal-carbon complexes, termed metallo-carbohedrenes (Met-Cars), have been discovered to form in a plasma reactor in which early transition metals are vaporized into a stream carrying small hydrocarbon molecules. The initial discovery involved the species Ti 8 c 12 + , while subsequent studies revealed the stability of the anion and, most importantly, the neutral species. Subsequent investigations show that similar molecules, predicted to have a pentagonal dodecahedral structure, can also be formed with vanadium, hafnium, and zirconium. In the case of the latter, more recent investigations have displaced an interesting growth pattern. In particular, pentagonal dodecahedrons with dangling carbon atoms can undergo further growth, adding at least a second and third cage. The latest results on the properties and reactivities of these new cage-like molecular clusters will be discussed

  11. Vibration in car repair work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, J E; Eklund, L; Kihlberg, S; Ostergren, C E

    1987-03-01

    The main objective of the study was to find efficient hand tools which caused only minor vibration loading. Vibration measurements were carried out under standardised working conditions. The time during which car body repairers in seven companies were exposed to vibration was determined. Chisel hammers, impact wrenches, sanders and saws were the types of tools which generated the highest vibration accelerations. The average daily exposure at the different garages ranged from 22 to 70 min. The risk of vibration injury is currently rated as high. The difference between the highest and lowest levels of vibration was considerable in most tool categories. Therefore the choice of tool has a major impact on the magnitude of vibration exposure. The importance of choosing the right tools and working methods is discussed and a counselling service on vibration is proposed.

  12. 49 CFR 174.110 - Car magazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Car magazine. 174.110 Section 174.110...) Materials § 174.110 Car magazine. When specially authorized by the carrier, Division 1.1 or 1.2 (explosive... packages of Class 1 (explosive) materials are placed in a “magazine” box made of sound lumber not less than...

  13. Gates Auto Door Car With Lights Modulated

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Carolina; Luyung Dinani, Skom, MMSi

    2002-01-01

    In scientific writing wi ll be explained about automatic gates with modulated headlights, where to find the car lights were adjusted by the relative frequency darker because of this background that the author alleviate human task in performing daily activities by using an automatic gate with the car lights modulated.

  14. The Hungarian car insurance cartel saga

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cseres, K.J.; Szilágyi, P.; Rodger, B.

    2013-01-01

    his chapter discusses the landmark Hungarian case relating to the car insurance and repair markets, which involved both vertical and horizontal agreements. The case concerned the horizontal relationship between Hungary’s two largest insurance companies and their vertical relationships with car

  15. Rear-facing car seat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A rear-facing car seat position is recommended for a child who is very young. Extreme injury can occur in an accident because ... child. In a frontal crash a rear-facing car seat is best, because it cradles the head, ...

  16. Modeling human learning involved in car driving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, car driving is considered at the level of human tracking and maneuvering in the context of other traffic. A model analysis revealed the most salient features determining driving performance and safety. Learning car driving is modelled based on a system theoretical approach and based

  17. Car Stopping Distance on a Tabletop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugland, Ole Anton

    2013-01-01

    Stopping distances in car braking can be an intriguing topic in physics teaching. It illustrates some basic principles of physics, and sheds valuable light on students' attitude towards aggressive driving. Due to safety considerations, it can be difficult to make experiments with actual car braking. (Contains 2 figures.)

  18. Modelling of fire spread in car parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noordijk, L.M.; Lemaire, A.D.

    2005-01-01

    Currently, design codes assume that in a car park fire at most 3-4 vehicles are on fire at the same time. Recent incidents in car parks have drawn international attention to such assumptions and have raised questions as to the fire spreading mechanism and the resulting fire load on the structure.

  19. Automated Coal-Mine Shuttle Car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, E. R., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Cable-guided car increases efficiency in underground coal mines. Unmanned vehicle contains storage batteries in side panels for driving traction motors located in wheels. Batteries recharged during inactive periods or slid out as unit and replaced by fresh battery bank. Onboard generator charges batteries as car operates.

  20. A Radio-Controlled Car Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Watching a radio-controlled car zip along a sidewalk or street has become a common sight. Within this toy are the basic ingredients of a mobile robot, used by industry for a variety of important and potentially dangerous tasks. In this challenge, students consider modifying an of-the-shelf, radio-controlled car, adapting it for a robotic task.

  1. Engineering an Affordable Self-Driving Car

    KAUST Repository

    Budisteanu, Alexandru Ionut

    2018-01-17

    "More than a million people die in car accidents each year, and most of those accidents are the result of human errorヤ Alexandru Budisteanu is 23 years old and owns a group of startups including Autonomix, an Artificial Intelligence software for affordable self-driving cars and he designed a low-cost self-driving car. The car\\'s roof has cameras and low-resolution 3D LiDAR equipment to detect traffic lanes, other cars, curbs and obstacles, such as people crossing by. To process this dizzying amount of data, Alexandru employed Artificial Intelligence algorithms to extract information from the visual data and plot a safe route for the car. Then, he built a manufacturing facility in his garage from Romania to assembly affordable VisionBot Pick and Place robots that are used to produce electronics. During this lecture, Alexandru will talk about this autonomous self-driving car prototype, for which he received the grand prize of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair, and was nominated by TIME magazine as one of the worldメs most influential teens of 2013.

  2. The Green City Car. A holistic approach for NVH abatement of city cars

    OpenAIRE

    Bein, Thilo; Mayer, Dirk; Elliott, Steve; Ferrali, Leonardo; Casella, Mauro; Saemann, Ernst-Ulrich; Kropp, Wolfgang; Nielsen, Finn Kryger; Meschke, Jens; Pisano, Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    Pursuing the different passive and active concepts in a holistic approach, the FP7 project Green City Car demonstrates the feasibility of applying active systems to NVH-related problems light city cars from a system point-of view. During the project, a city car equipped with a small engine has been considered equipped with the latest technology in terms of safety aspects related to pedestrian’s impact and car-to-car compatibility, which are of major importance in an urban environment. The noi...

  3. The kinematic advantage of electric cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyn, Jan-Peter

    2015-11-01

    Acceleration of a common car with with a turbocharged diesel engine is compared to the same type with an electric motor in terms of kinematics. Starting from a state of rest, the electric car reaches a distant spot earlier than the diesel car, even though the latter has a better specification for engine power and average acceleration from 0 to 100 km h-1. A three phase model of acceleration as a function of time fits the data of the electric car accurately. The first phase is a quadratic growth of acceleration in time. It is shown that the tenfold higher coefficient for the first phase accounts for most of the kinematic advantage of the electric car.

  4. Flex cars and the alcohol price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Alex Luiz; Da Silveira, Jaylson Jair; De Almeida Prado, Fernando Pigeard

    2009-01-01

    We build a model that incorporates the effect of the innovative 'flex' car, an automobile that is able to run with either gasoline or alcohol, on the dynamics of fuel prices in Brazil. Our model shows that differences regarding fuel prices will now depend on the proportions of alcohol, gasoline and flex cars in the total stock. Conversely, the demand for each type of car will also depend on the expected future prices of alcohol and gasoline (in addition to the car prices). The model reflects our findings that energy prices are tied in the long run and that causality runs stronger from gasoline to alcohol. The estimated error correction parameter is stable, implying that the speed of adjustment towards equilibrium remains unchanged. The latter result is probably due to a still small fraction of flex cars in the total stock (approx. 5%), despite the fact that its sales nearly reached 100% in 2006. (author)

  5. Modelling and optimization of car-to-car compatibility - Modellierung und optimierung von pkw-pkw-kompatibilität

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooi, H.G.; Nastic, T.; Huibers, J.H.A.M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper simple and more detailed MADYMO multibody models were used to simulate the car structure for improving the car-to-car compatibility of the whole car fleet. As a first step, survey studies were performed to develop a method for the optimization of car design with respect to frontal and

  6. Organics and Suspended Solids Removal from Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhri Y. Hmood

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR method is used for treating samples of waste water taken from hospitals in Mosul. Many run periods are used (6-24 hours for             6 months. It is found that the organics and suspended solids removal increase with increasing the period of run, it is in the range ( 96-82 % and ( 100-95 % respectively, while the pH values are nearly neutral (7.05 to 7.5.     BOD5 and SS concentrations of the effluent are within the limits of Iraqi standards,  40:30 mg/l respectively. Hence, SBR method could be used for treating hospitals, small factories and some  residential sectors waste waters.  

  7. Batch fabrication of nanotubes suspended between microelectrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Stöckli, T.; Knapp, H. F.

    2007-01-01

    be done with a simple lift-off process with standard photolithographic resist. An applied electric field is sustained between the microelectrodes during CVD to guide the nanotube growth. Comparison with simulations shows that the location and the orientation of the grown carbon nanotubes (CNT) correspond...... to the regions of maximum electric field, enabling accurate positioning of a nanotube by controlling the shape of the microelectrodes. The CNT bridges are deflected tens of nm when a DC voltage is applied between the nanotube and a gate microelectrode indicating that the clamping through the catalyst particles...... is not only mechanically stable but also electrical conducting. This method could be used to fabricate nanoelectromechanical systems based on suspended double clamped CNTs depending only on photolithography and standard Cleanroom processes....

  8. Clinical trials of CAR-T cells in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingshan Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Novel immunotherapeutic agents targeting tumor-site microenvironment are revolutionizing cancer therapy. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR-engineered T cells are widely studied for cancer immunotherapy. CD19-specific CAR-T cells, tisagenlecleucel, have been recently approved for clinical application. Ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in hematological and solid malignancies. In addition to trials of single-target CAR-T cells, simultaneous and sequential CAR-T cells are being studied for clinical applications. Multi-target CAR-engineered T cells are also entering clinical trials. T cell receptor-engineered CAR-T and universal CAR-T cells represent new frontiers in CAR-T cell development. In this study, we analyzed the characteristics of CAR constructs and registered clinical trials of CAR-T cells in China and provided a quick glimpse of the landscape of CAR-T studies in China.

  9. Clinical trials of CAR-T cells in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingshan; Song, Yongping; Liu, Delong

    2017-10-23

    Novel immunotherapeutic agents targeting tumor-site microenvironment are revolutionizing cancer therapy. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells are widely studied for cancer immunotherapy. CD19-specific CAR-T cells, tisagenlecleucel, have been recently approved for clinical application. Ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in hematological and solid malignancies. In addition to trials of single-target CAR-T cells, simultaneous and sequential CAR-T cells are being studied for clinical applications. Multi-target CAR-engineered T cells are also entering clinical trials. T cell receptor-engineered CAR-T and universal CAR-T cells represent new frontiers in CAR-T cell development. In this study, we analyzed the characteristics of CAR constructs and registered clinical trials of CAR-T cells in China and provided a quick glimpse of the landscape of CAR-T studies in China.

  10. Integrated Miniature Arrays of Optical Biomolecule Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iltchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute; Lin, Ying; Le, Thanh

    2009-01-01

    Integrated miniature planar arrays of optical sensors for detecting specific biochemicals in extremely small quantities have been proposed. An array of this type would have an area of about 1 cm2. Each element of the array would include an optical microresonator that would have a high value of the resonance quality factor (Q . 107). The surface of each microresonator would be derivatized to make it bind molecules of a species of interest, and such binding would introduce a measurable change in the optical properties of the microresonator. Because each microresonator could be derivatized for detection of a specific biochemical different from those of the other microresonators, it would be possible to detect multiple specific biochemicals by simultaneous or sequential interrogation of all the elements in the array. Moreover, the derivatization would make it unnecessary to prepare samples by chemical tagging. Such interrogation would be effected by means of a grid of row and column polymer-based optical waveguides that would be integral parts of a chip on which the array would be fabricated. The row and column polymer-based optical waveguides would intersect at the elements of the array (see figure). At each intersection, the row and column waveguides would be optically coupled to one of the microresonators. The polymer-based waveguides would be connected via optical fibers to external light sources and photodetectors. One set of waveguides and fibers (e.g., the row waveguides and fibers) would couple light from the sources to the resonators; the other set of waveguides and fibers (e.g., the column waveguides and fibers) would couple light from the microresonators to the photodetectors. Each microresonator could be addressed individually by row and column for measurement of its optical transmission. Optionally, the chip could be fabricated so that each microresonator would lie inside a microwell, into which a microscopic liquid sample could be dispensed.

  11. Miniature Laboratory for Detecting Sparse Biomolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying; Yu, Nan

    2005-01-01

    A miniature laboratory system has been proposed for use in the field to detect sparsely distributed biomolecules. By emphasizing concentration and sorting of specimens prior to detection, the underlying system concept would make it possible to attain high detection sensitivities without the need to develop ever more sensitive biosensors. The original purpose of the proposal is to aid the search for signs of life on a remote planet by enabling the detection of specimens as sparse as a few molecules or microbes in a large amount of soil, dust, rocks, water/ice, or other raw sample material. Some version of the system could prove useful on Earth for remote sensing of biological contamination, including agents of biological warfare. Processing in this system would begin with dissolution of the raw sample material in a sample-separation vessel. The solution in the vessel would contain floating microscopic magnetic beads coated with substances that could engage in chemical reactions with various target functional groups that are parts of target molecules. The chemical reactions would cause the targeted molecules to be captured on the surfaces of the beads. By use of a controlled magnetic field, the beads would be concentrated in a specified location in the vessel. Once the beads were thus concentrated, the rest of the solution would be discarded. This procedure would obviate the filtration steps and thereby also eliminate the filter-clogging difficulties of typical prior sample-concentration schemes. For ferrous dust/soil samples, the dissolution would be done first in a separate vessel before the solution is transferred to the microbead-containing vessel.

  12. A miniature magnetic waveguide for cold atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.G.

    2000-09-01

    This thesis presents the first demonstration of a guide for cold atoms based on a miniature structure of four current-carrying wires. The four wires are embedded within a hollow silica fibre. Atoms are guided along the centre of a fifth hole on the axis of the fibre by the Stern-Gerlach force. A vapour cell Magneto Optical Trap (MOT), formed 1 cm above the mouth of the waveguide is the source of cold 85 Rb atoms. After cooling the atoms to 25 μK in optical molasses they fall under the influence of gravity through a magnetic funnel into the waveguide. After propagating for 2 cm, the atoms are reflected by the field of a small pinch coil wound around the base of the guide. The atoms then travel back up the fibre and out into the funnel, where they can be imaged either in fluorescence or by recapturing in the MOT. A video sequence of atoms falling into the guide and re-emerging after reflection from the pinch coil graphically illustrates the operation of the guide. The coupling efficiency and transverse temperature of the atoms is measured experimentally and in a Monte-Carlo simulation. We find an optimum coupling efficiency of 12% and we measure the spatial extent of the cloud within the fibre to be of order 100 μm. We find good agreement between experimental data and results from the numerical simulation. We have also been able to observe different thresholds for the reflection of different positive m F levels. In another experiment we are able to trap the atoms in an elongated Ioffe trap for up to two seconds, increasing the distance over which the atoms are guided. We are able to guide the atoms over distances of 40 cm with a loss rate indistinguishable from the free space loss rate. (author)

  13. First results from car-to-car and car-to-infrastructure radio channel measurements at 5.2GHZ

    OpenAIRE

    Paier, Alexander; Kåredal, Johan; Czink, Nicolai; Hofstetter, Helmut; Dumard, Charlotte; Zemen, Thomas; Tufvesson, Fredrik; Mecklenbräuker, Christoph; Molisch, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Car-to-car and car-to-infrastructure (henceforth called C2X) communications are constantly gaining importance for road-safety and other applications. In order to design efficient C2X systems, an understanding of realistic C2X propagation channels is required, but currently, only few measurements have been published. This paper presents a description of an extensive measurement campaign recently conducted in an urban scenario, a rural scenario, and on a highway. We focused on 4 ÿ 4 multiple-in...

  14. Energy values of suspended detritus in Andaman Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Krishnakumari, L.; Royan, J.P.; Sumitra-Vijayaraghavan

    Energy content of suspended detritus was determined in Andaman Sea waters during April-May 1988. The caloric content of suspended detritus ranged from 987 to 7040 cal. per gram dry wt with an average value of 5530 cal. per gram dry wt. The results...

  15. Dynamic model of movement of mine suspended monorail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor GUTAREVYCH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In the article we have developed the dynamic model of interaction of rolling stock during the movement, on the suspended monorail, taking into account the side-sway. We have received the motion equations, carried out their analysis and determined the own oscillation frequencies of rolling stock of suspended monorail.

  16. Characterization and morphology of solids suspended in rain water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iturbe G, J.L.; Lopez M, B.E.; Torre O, J. De la

    2000-01-01

    This work presents the results obtained from the analysis of rain water in Mexico. The study treats over the characterization and morphology of the solids suspended in form of particles in the atmosphere. The solids suspended were obtained of the pluvial precipitations after these have been centrifuged. Subsequently of the separation, the particulate matter was analysed by Sem and X-ray dispersive energy

  17. A micropower miniature piezoelectric actuator for implantable middle ear hearing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhigang; Mills, Robert; Luo, Hongyan; Zheng, Xiaolin; Hou, Wensheng; Wang, Lijun; Brown, Stuart I; Cuschieri, Alfred

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a small actuator using a miniature piezoelectric stack and a flextensional mechanical amplification structure for an implantable middle ear hearing device (IMEHD). A finite-element method was used in the actuator design. Actuator vibration displacement was measured using a laser vibrometer. Preliminary evaluation of the actuator for an IMEHD was conducted using a temporal bone model. Initial results from one temporal bone study indicated that the actuator was small enough to be implanted within the middle ear cavity, and sufficient stapes displacement can be generated for patients with mild to moderate hearing losses, especially at higher frequency range, by the actuator suspended onto the stapes. There was an insignificant mass-loading effect on normal sound transmission (actuator was attached to the stapes and switched off. Improved vibration performance is predicted by more firm attachment. The actuator power consumption and its generated equivalent sound pressure level are also discussed. In conclusion, the actuator has advantages of small size, lightweight, and micropower consumption for potential use as IMHEDs.

  18. Emergency information systems for cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukkarasu, M.; Vani Manasa, N.; Kumar, K. Rajesh; Sundar, S.

    2017-11-01

    The main objective of this work is to create a Health Care monitoring and Guidance system for persons who are travelling in outdoor environments like cars. GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and GPS (Global Positioning System) technologies are separately and combined today in many applications in our day to day life. The GSM module will send a message along with the GPS location to the end user through text, and a call is initiated to the user for further instructions. The Global Positioning System (GPS) will give the location of the interested vehicle. This system helps the doctor or anyone to monitor the accident who is outdoor and has less help. This will help the hospital to monitor the accident as well as guide the injured through difficult situations. Using a buzzer, the persons nearby will come to know that the person is in danger or in poor health conditions. This project provides a good two-way communication with the injured and the hospital to assist them to give first aid before an ambulance arrives. So, this paper devices a novel technique to assist the people who just met with accident through GPS and GSM.

  19. Charging electric cars from solar energy

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Xusheng; Tanyi, Elvis; Zou, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Before vehicles were heavily relied on coal, fossil fuels and wind for power.  Now, they are rapidly being replaced by electric vehicles and or plug-in hybrid electric cars. But these electric cars are still faced with the problem of energy availability because they rely on energy from biomass, hydro power and wind turbines for power generation. The abundance of solar radiation and its use as solar energy as a power source in driving these rapidly increasing electric cars is not only an impor...

  20. PC-based car license plate reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chung-Mu; Shu, Shyh-Yeong; Chen, Wen-Yu; Chen, Yie-Wern; Wen, Kuang-Pu

    1992-11-01

    A car license plate reader (CLPR) using fuzzy inference and neural network algorithm has been developed in Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI) and installed in highway toll stations to identify stolen cars. It takes an average of 0.7 seconds to recognize a car license plate by using a PC with 80486-50 CPU. The recognition rate of the system is about 97%. The techniques of CLPR include vehicle sensing, image grab control, optic pre- processing, lighting, and optic character recognition (OCR). The CLPR can be used in vehicle flow statistics, the checking of stolen vehicles, automatic charging systems in parking lots or garage management, and so on.

  1. Will Brazil's cars go on the wagon?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homewood, B.

    1993-01-01

    The use of ethanol as an alternative fuel for cars in Brazil, may shortly be reduced. Falling world oil prices have meant that ethanol, derived from sugar cane, following a fourteen year research program, has ceased to be a financially viable replacement for petrol. Although about a third of Brazil's cars are at present powered by ethanol, only substantial government subsidies could reinstate this fuel despite its reduced pollutant status. Government officials now predict that ethanol will become merely a petrol additive and production of ethanol cars will have stopped by the year 2000. (UK)

  2. Electric cars as mobile power storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herzog, B.

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the use of electric cars as a means of optimising the use of renewable energy sources. Charging the cars' batteries during periods when cheap electricity prices prevail and then using excess capacity to supply the mains with electricity during periods of peak demand is discussed. The possible use of wind for power generation is discussed and a system proposed by a leading supplier of electrical apparatus and systems is examined. Two examples of electric cars and associated power chains are looked at and tests in everyday practice are described

  3. THEORETICAL BASIS OF MOTOR CAR QUALITY EVALUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bazhinova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Comprehensive assessment of the quality of cars, which is based on the integral parameters of comfort, reliability, safety, environmental and technical solutions are considered and defined. The amount of parameters that define the quality level of the car use throughout the country is defined. Mathematical formulas and quality indicators of the integral index are developed. The integral quality index of vehicles allows comparing the vehicles of different classes based on external operating conditions. The numerical values of the integral index determines the quality of the car.

  4. Density and temperature measurement using CARS spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirth, A.; Vollrath, K.

    1979-01-01

    Coherent Anti Stokes Raman Scattering (CARS) a technique derived from nonlinear optics offers two major advantages compared with the spontaneous Raman method: improved scattering efficiency and spatial coherence of the scattered signal. The theory of the coherent mixing in resonant media serves as a quantitative background of the CARS technique. A review of several applications on plasma physics and gasdynamics is given, which permits to consider the CARS spectroscopy as a potential method for nonintrusive measurement of local concentration and temperature in gas flows and reactive media. (Auth.)

  5. Gradual Changes of Gut Microbiota in Weaned Miniature Piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghua Yan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Colonization of gut microbiota in mammals during the early life is vital to host health. The miniature piglet has recently been considered as an optimal infant model. However, less is known about the development of gut microbiota in miniature piglets. Here, this study was conducted to explore how the gut microbiota develops in weaned Congjiang miniature piglets. In contrast to the relatively stabilized gut fungal community, gut bacterial community showed a marked drop in alpha diversity, accompanied by significant alterations in taxonomic compositions. The relative abundances of 24 bacterial genera significantly declined, whereas the relative abundances of 7 bacterial genera (Fibrobacter, Collinsella, Roseburia, Prevotella, Dorea, Howardella, and Blautia significantly increased with the age of weaned piglets. Fungal taxonomic analysis showed that the relative abundances of 2 genera (Kazachstania and Aureobasidium significantly decreased, whereas the relative abundances of 4 genera (Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Simplicillium, and Candida significantly increased as the piglets aged. Kazachstania telluris was the signature species predominated in gut fungal communities of weaned miniature piglets. The functional maturation of the gut bacterial community was characterized by the significantly increased digestive system, glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, and vitamin B biosynthesis as the piglets aged. These findings suggest that marked gut microbial changes in Congjiang miniature piglets may contribute to understand the potential gut microbiota development of weaned infants.

  6. Pricing of miniature vehicles made from telephone card waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puspitasari, N. B.; Pujotomo, D.; Muhardiansyah, H.

    2017-12-01

    The number of electronic devices in Indonesia in the last 10 years has been increasing quite drastically which contributes to more electronic waste. E-waste or electronic waste have different characteristics from other kinds of waste. Components of electronic waste often poisonous, consisting dangerous chemicals. The telephone card wasted is also an electronic waste. One alternative to handle and manage telephone card waste is to recycle it into collectible miniature vehicles. But the price of these miniatures is quite high, causing low interest in buying them. A research on the price of miniature vehicles in relation to consumers’ Ability to Pay (ATP) and Willingness to Pay (WTP) needs to be done. Segmentation analysis data, target, product positioning and product marketing mix are needed before commencing the research. Data collection is done through a survey by spreading questionnaire to 100 miniature vehicle collectors in Semarang, questioning their ability and willingness to pay recycled miniature vehicles. Calculations showed average ATP of Rp.112.520, 24 and average WTP of Rp.76.870. The last result showed the estimate pricing according to ATP and WTP which is Rp.66.000 with 58% of the respondents claiming to be willing and able to pay that price.

  7. CAR models: next-generation CAR modifications for enhanced T-cell function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Abate-Daga

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available T cells genetically targeted with a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR to B-cell malignancies have demonstrated tremendous clinical outcomes. With the proof in principle for CAR T cells as a therapy for B-cell malignancies being established, current and future research is being focused on adapting CAR technology to other cancers, as well as enhancing its efficacy and/or safety. The modular nature of the CAR, extracellular antigen-binding domain fused to a transmembrane domain and intracellular T-cell signaling domains, allows for optimization by replacement of the various components. These modifications are creating a whole new class of therapeutic CARs. In this review, we discuss the recent major advances in CAR design and how these modifications will impact its clinical application.

  8. Computer Security: your car, my control

    CERN Multimedia

    Stefan Lueders, Computer Security Team

    2015-01-01

    We have discussed the Internet of Things (IoT) and its security implications already in past issues of the CERN Bulletin, for example in “Today’s paranoia, tomorrow’s reality” (see here). Unfortunately, tomorrow has come. At this years's Black Hat conference researchers presented their findings on how easily your car can be hacked and controlled remotely. Sigh.   While these researchers have just shown that they can wirelessly hijack a Jeep Cherokee, others have performed similar studies with SmartCars, Fords, a Tesla, a Corvette, BMWs, Chryslers and Mercedes! With the increasing computerisation of cars, the engine management system, air conditioning, anti-lock braking system, electronic stability programme, etc. are linked to the infotainment, navigation and communication systems, opening the door for these vehicles to be hacked remotely. The now prevalent Bluetooth connection with smartphones is one entry vector to attack your car remotely...

  9. Design of two wheel self balancing car

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chun-hong; Ren, Bin

    2018-02-01

    This paper proposes a design scheme of the two-wheel self-balancing dolly, the integration of the gyroscope and accelerometer MPU6050 constitutes the car position detection device.System selects 32-bit MCU stmicroelectronics company as the control core, completed the processing of sensor signals, the realization of the filtering algorithm, motion control and human-computer interaction. Produced and debugging in the whole system is completed, the car can realize the independent balance under the condition of no intervention. The introduction of a suitable amount of interference, the car can adjust quickly to recover and steady state. Through remote control car bluetooth module complete forward, backward, turn left and other basic action..

  10. Papers on vehicle size : cars and trucks

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    The four papers in this volume describe analyses of car size : trends and truck occupant injuries and fatalities. All four were : written between June 1985 and December 1987. The topics : addressed include where heavy truck accidents occur, injury an...

  11. CARs in the Lead Against Multiple Myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormhøj, Maria; Bedoya, Felipe; Frigault, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    The recent clinical success of CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy in chronic and acute leukemia has led to increased interest in broadening this technology to other hematological malignancies and solid tumors. Now, advances are being made using CAR T cell technology...... to target myeloma antigens such as B cell maturation antigen (BCMA), CD138, and kappa-light chain as well as CD19 on putative myeloma stem cells. To date, only a limited number of multiple myeloma patients have received CAR T cell therapy but preliminary results have been encouraging. In this review, we...... summarize the recently reported results of clinical trials conducted utilizing CAR T cell therapy in multiple myeloma (MM)....

  12. CARS diagnostics of high pressure discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlenbusch, J.

    2001-01-01

    After a short description of the principles of the CARS, RECARS and POLCARS techniques and a discussion of setups for CARS experiments some experimental results are summarized. The results concern mainly plasma under atmospheric pressure, in particular the determination of temperature in a CO 2 laser-induced pyrolysis flame burning in a silane-acetylene gas mixture, the measurements of N 2 vibrational and rotational temperatures as well as the electron density by CARS and of an NO minority by POLCARS in an atmospheric microwave discharge, and finally RECARS experiments on indium iodide, Which is present in metal halide discharge lamps. Guided by these examples some problems and difficulties arising when performing CARS measurements are discussed

  13. Design consideration of solar powered cars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koten, Hasan; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Zafer Gul, M. [Marmara University Mechanical Engineering Department (Turkey)], E-mail: hasan.koten@marmara.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    With the coming shortage of fossil fuels and the rising concerns over the environment, it is important to develop new technologies that reduce both energy consumption and pollution at the same time. Using solar energy is a good solution which could meet the world's energy needs. The aim of this study is to present the design process in the production of a solar powered car. Designing a solar powered car is a difficult task as there are strict requirements in term of efficiency: the car must have low drag resistance, be light-weight, and have low rolling resistance. In addition this paper presents the use of the solar powered Stirling engine technology rather than a photovoltaic conversion system for vehicle propulsion. This study presented a design process in the construction of a solar powered car and is expected to provide a new topic of research in the transportation field.

  14. Development of fatigue life evaluation technique using miniature specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogami, Shuhei; Nishimura, Arata; Fujiwara, Masaharu; Hisaka, Tomoaki

    2012-01-01

    To develop the fatigue life evaluation technique using miniature specimen, the investigation of the effect of specimen size and specimen shape on the fatigue life and the development of the fatigue testing machine, especially the extensometer, were carried out. The effect of specimen size on the fatigue life was almost negligible for the round-bar specimens. The shorter fatigue life at relatively low strain range conditions for the hourglass specimen that the standard specimen were observed. Therefore the miniature round-bar specimen was considered to be adequate for the fatigue life evaluation using small specimen. Several types of the extensometer system using a strain gauge and a laser has been developed for realizing the fatigue test of the miniature round-bar specimen at high temperature in vacuum. (author)

  15. Miniaturized star tracker for micro spacecraft with high angular rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianhua; Li, Zhifeng; Niu, Zhenhong; Liu, Jiaqi

    2017-10-01

    There is a clear need for miniaturized, lightweight, accurate and inexpensive star tracker for spacecraft with large anglar rate. To face these new constraints, the Beijing Institute of Space Long March Vehicle has designed, built and flown a low cost miniaturized star tracker that provides autonomous ("Lost in Space") inertial attitude determination, 2 Hz 3-axis star tracking, and digital imaging with embedded compression. Detector with high sensitivity is adopted to meet the dynamic and miniature requirement. A Sun and Moon avoiding method based on the calculation of Sun and Moon's vector by astronomical theory is proposed. The produced prototype weight 0.84kg, and can be used for a spacecraft with 6°/s anglar rate. The average angle measure error is less than 43 arc second. The ground verification and application of the star tracker during the pick-up flight test showed that the capability of the product meet the requirement.

  16. Tensile and Creep Testing of Sanicro 25 Using Miniature Specimens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymáček, Petr; Jarý, Milan; Dobeš, Ferdinand; Kloc, Luboš

    2018-01-01

    Tensile and creep properties of new austenitic steel Sanicro 25 at room temperature and operating temperature 700 °C were investigated by testing on miniature specimens. The results were correlated with testing on conventional specimens. Very good agreement of results was obtained, namely in yield and ultimate strength, as well as short-term creep properties. Although the creep rupture time was found to be systematically shorter and creep ductility lower in the miniature test, the minimum creep rates were comparable. The analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed similar ductile fracture morphology for both specimen geometries. One exception was found in a small area near the miniature specimen edge that was cut by electro discharge machining, where an influence of the steel fracture behavior at elevated temperature was identified. PMID:29337867

  17. Miniature specimen technology for postirradiation fatigue crack growth testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mervyn, D.A.; Ermi, A.M.

    1979-01-01

    Current magnetic fusion reactor design concepts require that the fatigue behavior of candidate first wall materials be characterized. Fatigue crack growth may, in fact, be the design limiting factor in these cyclic reactor concepts given the inevitable presence of crack-like flaws in fabricated sheet structures. Miniature specimen technology has been developed to provide the large data base necessary to characterize irradiation effects on the fatigue crack growth behavior. An electrical potential method of measuring crack growth rates is employed on miniature center-cracked-tension specimens (1.27 cm x 2.54 cm x 0.061 cm). Results of a baseline study on 20% cold-worked 316 stainless steel, which was tested in an in-cell prototypic fatigue machine, are presented. The miniature fatigue machine is designed for low cost, on-line, real time testing of irradiated fusion candidate alloys. It will enable large scale characterization and development of candidate first wall alloys

  18. Miniature Blimps for Surveillance and Collection of Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Miniature blimps are under development as robots for use in exploring the thick, cold, nitrogen atmosphere of Saturn's moon, Titan. Similar blimps can also be used for surveillance and collection of biochemical samples in buildings, caves, subways, and other, similar structures on Earth. The widely perceived need for means to thwart attacks on buildings and to mitigate the effects of such attacks has prompted consideration of the use of robots. Relative to rover-type (wheeled) robots that have been considered for such uses, miniature blimps offer the advantage of ability to move through the air in any direction and, hence, to perform tasks that are difficult or impossible for wheeled robots, including climbing stairs and looking through windows. In addition, miniature blimps are expected to have greater range and to cost less, relative to wheeled robots.

  19. Miniaturization design and implementation of magnetic field coupled RFID antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tiling

    2013-03-01

    The development of internet of things has brought new opportunities and challenges to the application of RFID tags. Moreover, the Miniaturization application trend of tags at present has become the mainstream of development. In this paper, the double-layer design is to reduce the size of HF antenna, and the magnetic null point of magnetic reconnection region between the RLC resonant circuit and the reader provides sufficient energy to the miniaturization of antenna. The calculated and experimental results show that the miniaturization of HF antennas can meet the reading and writing requirement of the international standard ISO/IEC14443 standard. The results of this paper may make a positive contribution to the applications of RFID technology.

  20. Tensile and Creep Testing of Sanicro 25 Using Miniature Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dymáček, Petr; Jarý, Milan; Dobeš, Ferdinand; Kloc, Luboš

    2018-01-16

    Tensile and creep properties of new austenitic steel Sanicro 25 at room temperature and operating temperature 700 °C were investigated by testing on miniature specimens. The results were correlated with testing on conventional specimens. Very good agreement of results was obtained, namely in yield and ultimate strength, as well as short-term creep properties. Although the creep rupture time was found to be systematically shorter and creep ductility lower in the miniature test, the minimum creep rates were comparable. The analysis of the fracture surfaces revealed similar ductile fracture morphology for both specimen geometries. One exception was found in a small area near the miniature specimen edge that was cut by electro discharge machining, where an influence of the steel fracture behavior at elevated temperature was identified.

  1. SODA-IIoT4ConnectedCars: Spread updates between cars with limited Internet access

    OpenAIRE

    Boudguiga , Aymen; Quesnel , Flavien; Bouzerna , Nabil

    2017-01-01

    International audience; A blockchain infrastructure, combined with cryptographic signatures, can improve availability and accountability for the deployment of IoT updates.However, cars with limited or intermittent Internet access may have difficulties in downloading full updates fromthe blockchain. Therefore, we allow cars that successfully downloaded updates to share them with other cars by means of a Peer-to-Peer (P2P) mechanism.

  2. Uncertainty quantification and race car aerodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Bradford, J; Montomoli, F; D'Ammaro, A

    2014-01-01

    28.04.15 KB. Ok to add accepted version to spiral, embargo expired Car aerodynamics are subjected to a number of random variables which introduce uncertainty into the downforce performance. These can include, but are not limited to, pitch variations and ride height variations. Studying the effect of the random variations in these parameters is important to predict accurately the car performance during the race. Despite their importance the assessment of these variations is difficult and it...

  3. Driving Cars by Means of Genetic Algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez Achaerandio, Yago; Pérez, Diego; Sanjuan, Óscar; Isasi Viñuela, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Proceedings of: 10th International Conference on Parallel Problem Solving From Nature, PPSN 2008. Dortmund, Germany, September 13-17, 2008 The techniques and the technologies supporting Automatic Vehicle Guidance are an important issue. Automobile manufacturers view automatic driving as a very interesting product with motivating key features which allow improvement of the safety of the car, reducing emission or fuel consumption or optimizing driver comfort during long journeys. Car raci...

  4. GLYCAN-DIRECTED CAR-T CELLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steentoft, Catharina; Migliorini, Denis; King, Tiffany R; Mandel, Ulla; June, Carl H; Posey, Avery D

    2018-01-23

    Cancer immunotherapy is rapidly advancing in the treatment of a variety of hematopoietic cancers, including pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and diffuse large B cell lymphoma, with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells. CARs are genetically encoded artificial T cell receptors that combine the antigen specificity of an antibody with the machinery of T cell activation. However, implementation of CAR technology in the treatment of solid tumors has been progressing much slower. Solid tumors are characterized by a number of challenges that need to be overcome, including cellular heterogeneity, immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME), and, in particular, few known cancer-specific targets. Post-translational modifications that differentially occur in malignant cells generate valid cell surface, cancer-specific targets for CAR-T cells. We previously demonstrated that CAR-T cells targeting an aberrant O-glycosylation of MUC1, a common cancer marker associated with changes in cell adhesion, tumor growth, and poor prognosis, could control malignant growth in mouse models. Here, we discuss the field of glycan-directed CAR-T cells and review the different classes of antibodies specific for glycan-targeting, including the generation of high affinity O-glycopeptide antibodies. Finally, we discuss historic and recently investigated glycan targets for CAR-T cells and provide our perspective on how targeting the tumor glycoproteome and/or glycome will improve CAR-T immunotherapy. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Analysis of nonlinear elastic behavior in miniature pneumatic artificial muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Erica G.; Wereley, Norman M.

    2013-01-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are well known for their excellent actuator characteristics, including high specific work, specific power, and power density. Recent research has focused on miniaturizing this pneumatic actuator technology in order to develop PAMs for use in small-scale mechanical systems, such as those found in robotic or aerospace applications. The first step in implementing these miniature PAMs was to design and characterize the actuator. To that end, this study presents the manufacturing process, experimental characterization, and analytical modeling of PAMs with millimeter-scale diameters. A fabrication method was developed to consistently produce low-cost, high performance, miniature PAMs using commercially available materials. The quasi-static behavior of these PAMs was determined through experimentation on a single actuator with an active length of 39.16 mm (1.54 in) and a diameter of 4.13 mm (0.1625 in). Testing revealed the PAM’s full evolution of force with displacement for operating pressures ranging from 207 to 552 kPa (30-80 psi in 10 psi increments), as well as the blocked force and free contraction at each pressure. Three key nonlinear phenomena were observed: nonlinear PAM stiffness, hysteresis of the force versus displacement response for a given pressure, and a pressure deadband. To address the analysis of the nonlinear response of these miniature PAMs, a nonlinear stress versus strain model, a hysteresis model, and a pressure bias are introduced into a previously developed force balance analysis. Parameters of these nonlinear model refinements are identified from the measured force versus displacement data. This improved nonlinear force balance model is shown to capture the full actuation behavior of the miniature PAMs at each operating pressure and reconstruct miniature PAM response with much more accuracy than previously possible.

  6. Analysis of nonlinear elastic behavior in miniature pneumatic artificial muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, Erica G; Wereley, Norman M

    2013-01-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are well known for their excellent actuator characteristics, including high specific work, specific power, and power density. Recent research has focused on miniaturizing this pneumatic actuator technology in order to develop PAMs for use in small-scale mechanical systems, such as those found in robotic or aerospace applications. The first step in implementing these miniature PAMs was to design and characterize the actuator. To that end, this study presents the manufacturing process, experimental characterization, and analytical modeling of PAMs with millimeter-scale diameters. A fabrication method was developed to consistently produce low-cost, high performance, miniature PAMs using commercially available materials. The quasi-static behavior of these PAMs was determined through experimentation on a single actuator with an active length of 39.16 mm (1.54 in) and a diameter of 4.13 mm (0.1625 in). Testing revealed the PAM’s full evolution of force with displacement for operating pressures ranging from 207 to 552 kPa (30–80 psi in 10 psi increments), as well as the blocked force and free contraction at each pressure. Three key nonlinear phenomena were observed: nonlinear PAM stiffness, hysteresis of the force versus displacement response for a given pressure, and a pressure deadband. To address the analysis of the nonlinear response of these miniature PAMs, a nonlinear stress versus strain model, a hysteresis model, and a pressure bias are introduced into a previously developed force balance analysis. Parameters of these nonlinear model refinements are identified from the measured force versus displacement data. This improved nonlinear force balance model is shown to capture the full actuation behavior of the miniature PAMs at each operating pressure and reconstruct miniature PAM response with much more accuracy than previously possible. (paper)

  7. Methods of and system for swing damping movement of suspended objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.F.; Petterson, B.J.; Strip, D.R.

    1991-03-05

    A payload suspended from a gantry is swing damped in accordance with a control algorithm based on the periodic motion of the suspended mass or by servoing on the forces induced by the suspended mass. 13 figures.

  8. Situations of car-to-pedestrian contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, Yasuhiro; Hitosugi, Masahito; Takahashi, Kunio; Doi, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the severity of injuries and the number of pedestrian deaths in traffic accidents, active safety devices providing pedestrian detection are considered effective countermeasures. The features of car-to-pedestrian collisions need to be known in detail to develop such safety devices. Because information on real-world accidents is limited, this study investigated near-miss situations captured by drive recorders installed in passenger cars. We showed similarities of the contact situation between near-miss incidents and real-world fatal pedestrian accidents in Japan. We analyzed the near-miss incident data via video capturing pedestrians crossing the road in front of forward-moving cars. Using a video frame captured by a drive recorder, the time to collision (TTC) was calculated from the car velocity and the distance between the car and pedestrian at the moment that the pedestrian initially appeared. The average TTC in the cases where pedestrians were not using a pedestrian crossing was shorter than that in the cases where pedestrians were using a pedestrian crossing. The average TTC in the cases where pedestrians emerged from behind obstructions was shorter than that in the cases where drivers had unobstructed views of the pedestrians. We propose that the specifications of the safety device for pedestrian detection and automatic braking should reflect the severe approach situation for a pedestrian and car including the TTC observed for near-miss incidents.

  9. Car radiator burns: a prevention issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbitts, Angela; Alden, Nicole E; Conlin, Tara; Yurt, Roger W

    2004-01-01

    Scald burns continue to be the major cause of injury to patients admitted to the burn center. Scald burns occurring from car radiator fluid comprise a significant subgroup. Although manufacturer warning labels have been placed on car radiators, these burns continue to occur. This retrospective review looks at all patients admitted to our burn center who suffered scald burns from car radiator fluid to assess the extent of this problem. During the study period, 86 patients were identified as having suffered scald burns as a result of contact with car radiator fluid. Seventy-one percent of the burn injuries occurred in the summer months. The areas most commonly burned were the head and upper extremities. Burn prevention efforts have improved greatly over the years; however, this study demonstrates that scald burns from car radiator fluid continue to cause physical, emotional, and financial devastation. The current radiator warning labels alone are not effective. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration has proposed a new federal motor vehicle safety standard to aid in decreasing the number of scald burns from car radiators. The results of this study were submitted to the United States Department of Transportation for inclusion in a docket for federal legislation supporting these safety measures.

  10. Miniature and micro mass spectrometry for nanoscale sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, S; France, N

    2009-01-01

    In recent years the use of miniature and/or microscale versions of the more popular mass spectrometers have been realised. This has led to the development of portable analytical devices for a range of 'in the field' sensing applications in aerospace, environmental monitoring, medical diagnosis and process control. In this paper the principles underpinning the development of miniature quadrupole mass spectrometers are reviewed. Two different microfabrication methods are compared with a conventional QMS used for residual gas analysis in the range 1-100 Da.

  11. Lobar holoprosencephaly in a Miniature Schnauzer with hypodipsic hypernatremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Stacey A; Harmon, Barry G; Purinton, P Thomas; Greene, Craig E; Glerum, Leigh E

    2003-12-15

    A 9-month-old male Miniature Schnauzer was examined because of a lifelong history of behavioral abnormalities, including hypodipsia. Diagnostic evaluation revealed marked hypernatremia and a single forebrain ventricle. The behavioral abnormalities did not resolve with correction of the hypernatremia, and the dog was euthanatized. At necropsy, midline forebrain structures were absent or reduced in size, and normally paired forebrain structures were incompletely separated. Findings were diagnostic for holoprosencephaly, a potentially genetic disorder and the likely cause of the hypodipsia. Similar evaluation of affected Miniature Schnauzer dogs may reveal whether holoprosencephaly routinely underlies the thirst deficiency that may be seen in dogs of this breed.

  12. Miniaturized radiation detector with custom synthesized diamond crystal as sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grobbelaar, J.H.; Burns, R.C.; Nam, T.L.; Keddy, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    A miniaturized detector consisting of three custom built hybrid circuits, a counter and a miniature high voltage power supply was designed to operate with custom synthesized Type Ib diamond crystals as sensors. Thick-film technology was incorporated in the circuit design. With a crystal having a volume of approximately 10 mm 3 and containing approximately 60 ppm paramagnetic nitrogen, the detector was capable of measuring γ-ray dose-rates as low as 7.5 μ Gy h -1 . The response characteristic was linear up to 1 cGy h -1 . (orig.)

  13. EMC, RF, and Antenna Systems in Miniature Electronic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruaro, Andrea

    Advanced techniques for the control of electromagnetic interference (EMI) and for the optimization of the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) performance has been developed under the constraints typical of miniature electronic devices (MED). The electromagnetic coexistence of multiple systems....... The structure allows for effective suppression of radiation from the MED, while taking into consideration the integration and miniaturization aspects. To increase the sensitivity of the system, a compact LNA suitable for on-body applications has been developed. The LNA allows for an increase in the overall...

  14. Miniaturization of Multiple-Layer Folded Patch Antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jiaying; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2009-01-01

    A new folded patch antenna with multiple layers was developed in this paper, by folding the patch in a proper way, and a highly miniaturized antenna can be realized. The multiple layer patch with 4-layer and 6-layer are designed and evaluated at 2.4 GHz, 915 MHz, and 415 MHz respectively. Then a 4...... layer patch is fabricated and measured to validate the design method. The theoretical analysis, design and simulations, fabrications, as well as the measurements are presented in this paper. All the results show that the folded patch antenna is a good candidate in making a highly miniaturized compact...

  15. Miniaturization of Fresnel lenses for solar concentration: a quantitative investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duerr, Fabian; Meuret, Youri; Thienpont, Hugo

    2010-04-20

    Sizing down the dimensions of solar concentrators for photovoltaic applications offers a number of promising advantages. It provides thinner modules and smaller solar cells, which reduces thermal issues. In this work a plane Fresnel lens design is introduced that is first analyzed with geometrical optics. Because of miniaturization, pure ray tracing may no longer be valid to determine the concentration performance. Therefore, a quantitative wave optical analysis of the miniaturization's influence on the obtained concentration performance is presented. This better quantitative understanding of the impact of diffraction in microstructured Fresnel lenses might help to optimize the design of several applications in nonimaging optics.

  16. Water quality and quantity assessment of pervious pavements performance in experimental car park areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sañudo-Fontaneda, Luis A; Charlesworth, Susanne M; Castro-Fresno, Daniel; Andres-Valeri, Valerio C A; Rodriguez-Hernandez, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Pervious pavements have become one of the most used sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) techniques in car parks. This research paper presents the results of monitoring water quality from several experimental car park areas designed and constructed in Spain with bays made of interlocking concrete block pavement, porous asphalt, polymer-modified porous concrete and reinforced grass with plastic and concrete cells. Moreover, two different sub-base materials were used (limestone aggregates and basic oxygen furnace slag). This study therefore encompasses the majority of the materials used as permeable surfaces and sub-base layers all over the world. Effluent from the test bays was monitored for dissolved oxygen, pH, electric conductivity, total suspended solids, turbidity and total petroleum hydrocarbons in order to analyze the behaviour shown by each combination of surface and sub-base materials. In addition, permeability tests were undertaken in all car parks using the 'Laboratorio Caminos Santander' permeameter and the Cantabrian Portable Infiltrometer. All results are presented together with the influence of surface and sub-base materials on water quality indicators using bivariate correlation statistical analysis at a confidence level of 95%. The polymer-modified porous concrete surface course in combination with limestone aggregate sub-base presented the best performance.

  17. Miniaturized Air-to-Refrigerant Heat Exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radermacher, Reinhard [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Bacellar, Daniel [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Aute, Vikrant [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Huang, Zhiwei [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Hwang, Yunho [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Ling, Jiazhen [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Muehlbauer, Jan [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Tancabel, James [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Zhang, Mingkan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-23

    Air-to-refrigerant Heat eXchangers (HX) are an essential component of Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration (HVAC&R) systems, serving as the main heat transfer component. The major limiting factor to HX performance is the large airside thermal resistance. Recent literature aims at improving heat transfer performance by utilizing enhancement methods such as fins and small tube diameters; this has lead to almost exhaustive research on the microchannel HX (MCHX). The objective of this project is to develop a miniaturized air-to-refrigerant HX with at least 20% reduction in volume, material volume, and approach temperature compared to current state-of-the-art multiport flat tube designs and also be capable of production within five years. Moreover, the proposed HX’s are expected to have good water drainage and should succeed in both evaporator and condenser applications. The project leveraged Parallel-Parametrized Computational Fluid Dynamics (PPCFD) and Approximation-Assisted Optimization (AAO) techniques to perform multi-scale analysis and shape optimization with the intent of developing novel HX designs whose thermal-hydraulic performance exceeds that of state-of-the-art MCHX. Nine heat exchanger geometries were initially chosen for detailed analysis, selected from 35+ geometries which were identified in previous work at the University of Maryland, College Park. The newly developed optimization framework was exercised for three design optimization problems: (DP I) 1.0kW radiator, (DP II) 10kW radiator and (DP III) 10kW two-phase HX. DP I consisted of the design and optimization of 1.0kW air-to-water HX’s which exceeded the project requirements of 20% volume/material reduction and 20% better performance. Two prototypes for the 1.0kW HX were prototyped, tested and validated using newly-designed airside and refrigerant side test facilities. DP II, a scaled version DP I for 10kW air-to-water HX applications, also yielded optimized HX designs

  18. 49 CFR 231.9 - Tank cars without end sills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until car is shopped for work amounting to practically... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars without end sills. 231.9 Section 231.9..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.9 Tank cars without end sills. (a...

  19. 49 CFR 231.11 - Caboose cars without platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... inches end-ladder clearance, within 30 inches of side of car, until car is shopped for work amounting to... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Caboose cars without platforms. 231.11 Section 231... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.11 Caboose cars without...

  20. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service a...

  1. Modelling strategic responses to car and fuel taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen, P.; Kooreman, P.

    We develop a model to analyse the interactions between actors involved in car and fuel taxation: consumers, car producers, fuel producers and the government. Heterogeneous consumers choose between two versions of a car that differ in engine type (diesel or gasoline). Car manufacturers and fuel

  2. 49 CFR 173.31 - Use of tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of tank cars. 173.31 Section 173.31... SHIPMENTS AND PACKAGINGS Preparation of Hazardous Materials for Transportation § 173.31 Use of tank cars. (a) General. (1) No person may offer a hazardous material for transportation in a tank car unless the tank car...

  3. 49 CFR 218.80 - Movement of occupied camp cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of occupied camp cars. 218.80 Section 218... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.80 Movement of occupied camp cars. Occupied cars may not be humped or flat switched unless coupled to...

  4. 30 CFR 57.19079 - Blocking mine cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocking mine cars. 57.19079 Section 57.19079... Hoisting Procedures § 57.19079 Blocking mine cars. Where mine cars are hoisted by cage or skip, means for blocking cars shall be provided at all landings and also on the cage. ...

  5. 49 CFR 215.303 - Stenciling of restricted cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stenciling of restricted cars. 215.303 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Stenciling § 215.303 Stenciling of restricted cars. (a) Each restricted railroad freight car that is described in § 215.205(a) of...

  6. 19 CFR 151.26 - Molasses in tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Molasses in tank cars. 151.26 Section 151.26....26 Molasses in tank cars. When molasses is imported in tank cars, the importer shall file with the... sugars or the character of the molasses in the different cars. ...

  7. 49 CFR 223.15 - Requirements for existing passenger cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for existing passenger cars. 223.15... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SAFETY GLAZING STANDARDS-LOCOMOTIVES, PASSENGER CARS AND CABOOSES Specific Requirements § 223.15 Requirements for existing passenger cars. (a) Passenger cars built or...

  8. 30 CFR 56.19079 - Blocking mine cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blocking mine cars. 56.19079 Section 56.19079... Hoisting Procedures § 56.19079 Blocking mine cars. Where mine cars are hoisted by cage or skip, means for blocking cars shall be provided at all landings and also on the cage. ...

  9. Novel lipoprotein density profiling in healthy dogs of various breeds, healthy miniature schnauzers, and miniature schnauzers with hyperlipidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of abnormalities in lipoprotein metabolism in clinical canine medicine, the fact that most previously used methods for lipoprotein profiling are rather laborious and time-consuming has been a major obstacle to the wide clinical application and use of lipoprotein profiling in this species. The aim of the present study was to assess the feasibility of a continuous lipoprotein density profile (CLPDP) generated within a bismuth sodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaBiEDTA) density gradient to characterize and compare the lipoprotein profiles of healthy dogs of various breeds, healthy Miniature Schnauzers, and Miniature Schnauzers with primary hypertriacylglycerolemia. A total of 35 healthy dogs of various breeds with serum triacylglycerol (TAG) and cholesterol concentrations within their respective reference intervals were selected for use as a reference population. Thirty-one Miniature Schnauzers with serum TAG and cholesterol concentrations within their respective reference intervals and 31 Miniature Schnauzers with hypertriacylglyceridemia were also included in the study. Results The results suggest that CLPDP using NaBiEDTA provides unique diagnostic information in addition to measurements of serum TAG and cholesterol concentrations and that it is a useful screening method for dogs with suspected lipoprotein metabolism disorders. Using the detailed and continuous density distribution information provided by the CLPDP, important differences in lipoprotein profiles can be detected even among dogs that have serum TAG and cholesterol concentrations within the reference interval. Miniature Schnauzers with serum TAG and cholesterol concentrations within the reference interval had significantly different lipoprotein profiles than dogs of various other breeds. In addition, it was further established that specific lipoprotein fractions are associated with hypertriacylglyceridemia in Miniature Schnauzers. Conclusions The results of the

  10. Introduction to suspended-sediment sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, K. Michael; Gray, John R.; Glysson, G. Douglas

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of the amount and timing of sediment transport in streams is important to those directly or indirectly responsible for developing and managing water and land resources. Such data are often used to judge the health of watershed and the success or failure of activities designed to mitigate adverse impacts of sediment on streams and stream habitats. This training class presents an introduction to methods currently used by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to sample suspended-sediment concentrations in streams. The presentation is narrated, but you control the pace of the presentation. If the computer you are using can view 'MPEG' videos you will be able to take advantage of videos interspersed in the presentation. A test, found at the end of the presentation, can be taken to assess how well you understood the training material. The class, which is registered as class SW4416 with the National Training Center of the USGS, should take two or three hours to complete. In order to use the presentation provided via this Web page, you will need to download a large disc images (linked below) and 'burn' it to a blank CD-ROM using a CD-ROM recorder on your computer. The presentation will only run on a Windows-based personal computer (PC). The presentation was developed using Macromedia Director MX 20041 and is contained in the file 'SIR05-5077.exe' which should autolaunch. If it does not, the presentation can be started by double-clicking on the file name. A sound card and speakers are necessary to take advantage of narrations that accompany the presentation. Text of narrations is provided, if you are unable to listen to narrations. Instructions for installing and running the presentation are included in the file 'Tutorial.htm', which is on the CD. 1 Registered Trademark: Macromedia Incorporated

  11. Suspended sediment drift and dispersion at Hibernia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tedford, T.; Drozdowski, A.; Hannah, C.G.

    2003-01-01

    Surface water waves and near-bottom currents around the Hibernia oil production platform on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland were examined to determine how the different seasons affect changes in wave magnitude and directions of water currents. Wave observations revealed a strong correlation with seasons, with the larger waves occurring in fall and early winter. There was no obvious seasonality in the size or direction of currents. The benthic boundary layer transport (BBLT) model was used to predict the drift and dispersion pathways of suspended drilling muds discharged from the Hibernia platform. The 2-year study from March 1998 to May 2000 involved 5-day BBLT model simulations covering the complete period of current meter deployment. The study focused on the sensitivity of the drift and dispersion to variability in the physical environment and uncertainty in the bottom stress calculation and particle settling velocity. The BBLT model incorporates a stress dependent particle settling velocity that includes the main features of the flocculations of drill mud fines under marine conditions. The study provides a better understanding of how drill mud concentration levels can change with variations in waves, currents, and bottom stress. It was determined that drift is generally oriented along the northwest/southeast axis, with a typical magnitude of 0.8 cm/sec for the fast settling velocity and 3.1 cm/sec for the slow settling velocity. It was concluded that near-surface or mid-depth discharges of drilling mud in the summer may not reach the sea floor. 17 refs., 13 tabs., 36 figs

  12. Are weeds hitchhiking a ride on your car? A systematic review of seed dispersal on cars.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ansong

    Full Text Available When traveling in cars, we can unintentionally carry and disperse weed seed; but which species, and where are they a problem? To answer these questions, we systematically searched the scientific literature to identify all original research studies that assess seed transported by cars and listed the species with seed on/in cars. From the 13 studies that fit these criteria, we found 626 species from 75 families that have seed that can be dispersed by cars. Of these, 599 are listed as weeds in some part of the world, with 439 listed as invasive or naturalized alien species in one or more European countries, 248 are invasive/noxious weeds in North America, 370 are naturalized alien species in Australia, 167 are alien species in India, 77 are invasive species in China and 23 are declared weeds/invaders in South Africa. One hundred and one are classified as internationally important environmental weeds. Although most (487 were only recorded once, some species such as Chenopodium album, Poa pratensis and Trifolium repens were common among studies. Perennial graminoids seem to be favoured over annual graminoids while annual forbs are favoured over perennial forbs. Species characteristics including seed size and morphology and where the plants grew affected the probability that their seed was transported by cars. Seeds can be found in many different places on cars including under the chassis, front and rear bumpers, wheel wells and rims, front and back mudguards, wheel arches, tyres and on interior floor mats. With increasing numbers of cars and expanding road networks in many regions, these results highlight the importance of cars as a dispersal mechanism, and how it may favour invasions by some species over others. Strategies to reduce the risk of seed dispersal by cars include reducing seed on cars by mowing road verges and cleaning cars.

  13. Influence in the car taxation system. Henkiloeautojen vermuutosten vaikutukset

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alppivuori, K; Kallberg, H; Pekki, M

    1986-06-01

    In Finland the car prices are exeptionally high due to car taxes included in the new car prices. The gasoline price, which is at international leve, includes also taxes. The aim of this study was to calculate the effects of reducing the car taxes and correspondingly rising fuel taxes so that the state income car taxation does not change. The study was performed in two stages: an interview and a simulation study. The interview was aimed at the general public (postal poll) and at experts in car trade (personal interview). The aim was to reveal the parameters in the economic models explaining the behaviour of the public in car purchasing and car use. The simulation study was performed to calculate quantitative changes in, e.g. car park, traffic volumes and energy consumption caused by supposed changes in the taxation. One of the main results was that unchanged taxation is leading to rapidly increasing traffic volumes and total taxes for car use.

  14. Pollutants Characterization of Car Wash Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashim Nor Haslina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The huge quantity of water consumed per car during washing cars yields the untreated effluents discharged to the stormwater system. Wastewater samples from snow car wash and two full hand service car wash station were analyzed for pH and the presence of PO43-,TP, O&G, alkalinity, TSS, NO3-, NO2-, COD and surfactant in accordance Standard Method of Water and Wastewater 2012. Two full hand wash service stations and one station of snow foam service were investigated in this study. Amongst the stations, snow foam car wash station indicates the highest concentration of PO43-, TP, O&G, TSS, COD and surfactant with the average value of 10.18 ± 0.87 mg/L, 30.93 ± 0.31 mg/L , 85.00 ± 0.64 mg/L 325.0 ± 0.6 mg/L, 485.0 ± 0.3 mg/L and 54.00 ± 2.50 mg/L as MBAS, respectively. Whereas, in parameters characterization in different stages throughout the car wash process, O&G was found to be the highest in pre soak stage, PO43-, TP, TSS and COD in washing stage and NO3- and NO2- in rinse stage. All parameters were compared to Environmental Quality (Industrial Effluent Regulations, 2009. There is a strong need to study on the characterization of car wash water in order to suggest the suitable treatment need for this type of wastewater.

  15. Operation car for horizontal coke ovens. Bedienungswagen fuer waagrechte Verkokungsoefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwasnik, H J; Piduch, H G

    1981-07-30

    An operation car which is driveable on the coke side of a coke oven battery is described. The operation car is equipped with a door lifter, a door and frame cleaner, a coke guiding grid and a collection hood for emissions developed on coke pushing. The car has a portal construction and it is driveable on both sides of the path of the coke receiving car. The operation has a considerable lower weight than usual cars. (HGOE).

  16. Air pollution in Aleppo city, gases,suspended particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, I.; Sabra, Sh.; Al-Kharfan, K.

    1994-06-01

    Total suspended particulates measured by using High Volume Air Sampler. The Co and O 3 were measured during weekday and weekend. The concentration of all pollutants at city center are higher than other measured areas. (author). 10 figs., 10 tabs

  17. Improved Methods for Correlating Turbidity and Suspended Solids for Monitoring

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2000-01-01

    This technical note describes techniques normally used to measure turbidity and suspended solids in waters, how the two parameters relate to each other and to various environmental impacts, and why...

  18. Particles matter: Transformation of suspended particles in constructed wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulling, B.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis shows that constructed wetlands transform suspended particles in (treated) municipal wastewater through selective precipitation in ponds, biological filtering by plankton communities and physical and biological retention in reed beds. These processes effectively remove faecal indicator

  19. The Ages in a Self-Suspended Nanoparticle Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Agarwal, Praveen; Qi, Haibo; Archer, Lynden A.

    2010-01-01

    Telomers ionically tethered to nanometer-sized particles yield self-suspended, nanoparticle-Iaden liquids with unusual dynamical features. By subjecting these suspensions to controlled, modest shear strains, we find that their flow behaviors

  20. Elemental compositions of suspended particles released in glass manufacture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamuro, T; Mizohata, A; Kubota, T [Radiation Center of Osaka Prefecture, Sakai (Japan)

    1980-03-01

    Suspended particles released in glass manufacture were subjected to multielement analysis by means of instrumental neutron activation method and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Suspended particles emitted from glass manufacture generally consist of both particles emitted from glass fusion and those produced through fuel combustion (mainly oil combustion). Elemental compositions of suspended particles emitted from glass fusion were found to be strongly dependent on the kind and recipe of raw materials and additives. Of the various metallic elements involved in suspended particles emitted from glass fusion, the elements, As, Se, Cd, Sb, Pb and so on are regarded to produce the most serious air pollution. The amount of emission of these elements to the environment is, howerer, quite varied from manufacturer to manufacturer. The replacement of electric furnace by oil combustion in opal glass manufacture remarkably reduced the emission of metallic elements to the environment.

  1. Self-suspended permanent magnetic FePt ferrofluids

    KAUST Repository

    Dallas, Panagiotis; Kelarakis, Antonios; Sahore, Ritu; DiSalvo, Francis J.; Livi, Sebastien; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2013-01-01

    on the surface of L10 FePt nanoparticles. In contrast, all types of ferrofluids previously reported employ either volatile solvents as the suspending media or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (that lacks permanent magnetization) as the inorganic

  2. Novel Resuscitation from Lethal Hemorrhage - Suspended Animation for Delayed Resuscitation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Safar, Peter

    2002-01-01

    .... We have conceived and documented "suspended animation for delayed resuscitation" with the use of hypothermic saline flush into the aorta within the first 5 minute of no blood flow, using novel...

  3. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Abizia zygia gum on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Some excipients are currently available for the formulation of pharmaceutical suspensions. ... Method: The suspending properties of Albizia zygia gum (family ... Characterization tests were carried out on purified Albizia zygia gum.

  4. Miniature bread baking as a timesaving research approach and mathematical modeling of browning kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Lu; Putranto, Aditya; Zhou, Weibiao; Boom, Remko M.; Schutyser, Maarten A.I.; Chen, Xiao Dong

    2016-01-01

    Miniature bread baking is presented as an economical and timesaving laboratory approach to study the baking process in the present work. Results indicate that the miniature bread baking is essentially analogical to the baking process of regular-sized bread: quality-related properties of miniature

  5. 46 CFR 52.25-5 - Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21). 52.25... ENGINEERING POWER BOILERS Other Boiler Types § 52.25-5 Miniature boilers (modifies PMB-1 through PMB-21). Miniature boilers must meet the applicable provisions in this part for the boiler type involved and the...

  6. Variable recruitment in bundles of miniature pneumatic artificial muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLaHunt, Sylvie A; Pillsbury, Thomas E; Wereley, Norman M

    2016-09-13

    The natural compliance and force generation properties of pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) allow them to operate like human muscles in anthropomorphic robotic manipulators. Traditionally, manipulators use a single PAM or multiple PAMs actuated in unison in place of a human muscle. However, these standard manipulators can experience significant efficiency losses when operated outside their target performance ranges at low actuation pressures. This study considers the application of a variable recruitment control strategy to a parallel bundle of miniature PAMs as an attempt to mimic the selective recruitment of motor units in a human muscle. Bundles of miniature PAMs are experimentally characterized, their actuation behavior is modeled, and the efficiency gains and losses associated with the application of a variable recruitment control strategy are assessed. This bio-inspired control strategy allows muscle bundles to operate the fewest miniature PAMs necessary to achieve a desired performance objective, improving the muscle bundle's operating efficiency over larger ranges of force generation and displacement. The study also highlights the need for improved PAM fabrication techniques to facilitate the production of identical miniature PAMs for inclusion in muscle bundles.

  7. Diagnosis of chronic active hepatitis in a miniature schnauzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrix, Alana D

    2004-09-01

    A 12-year-old male castrated miniature schnauzer was presented with a history of abdominal distension. Serum biochemical analysis and abdominal ultrasonography indicated hepatic disease. A wedge biopsy provided a diagnosis of chronic active hepatitis. A therapeutic regime was initiated to improve the quality of life and slow the progression of this disease is described.

  8. Diagnosis of chronic active hepatitis in a miniature schnauzer

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrix, Alana D.

    2004-01-01

    A 12-year-old male castrated miniature schnauzer was presented with a history of abdominal distension. Serum biochemical analysis and abdominal ultrasonography indicated hepatic disease. A wedge biopsy provided a diagnosis of chronic active hepatitis. A therapeutic regime was initiated to improve the quality of life and slow the progression of this disease is described.

  9. Miniaturized inertial impactor for personal airborne particulate monitoring: Prototyping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Silvia; Bianchi, Elena; Dubini, Gabriele; Cortelezzi, Luca

    2017-11-01

    Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations allowed us to conceive and design a miniaturized inertial impactor able to collect fine airborne particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1). We created, by 3D printing, a prototype of the impactor. We first performed a set of experiments by applying a suction pump to the outlets and sampling the airborne particulate of our laboratory. The analysis of the slide showed a collection of a large number of particles, spanning a wide range of sizes, organized in a narrow band located below the exit of the nozzle. In order to show that our miniaturized inertial impactor can be truly used as a personal air-quality monitor, we performed a second set of experiments where the suction needed to produce the airflow through the impactor is generated by a human being inhaling through the outlets of the prototype. To guarantee a number of particles sufficient to perform a quantitative characterization, we collected particles performing ten consecutive deep inhalations. Finally, the potentiality for realistic applications of our miniaturized inertial impactor used in combination with a miniaturized single-particle detector will be discussed. CARIPLO Fundation - project MINUTE (Grant No. 2011-2118).

  10. Verification of a CT scanner using a miniature step gauge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantatore, Angela; Andreasen, J.L.; Carmignato, S.

    2011-01-01

    The work deals with performance verification of a CT scanner using a 42mm miniature replica step gauge developed for optical scanner verification. Errors quantification and optimization of CT system set-up in terms of resolution and measurement accuracy are fundamental for use of CT scanning...

  11. Miniature fuel cells relieve gas pressure in sealed batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1971-01-01

    Miniature fuel cells within sealed silver zinc batteries consume evolved hydrogen and oxygen rapidly, preventing pressure rupturing. They do not significantly increase battery weight and they operate in all battery life phases. Complete gas pressure control requires two fuel cells during all phases of operation of silver zinc batteries.

  12. Does malaria epidemiology project Cameroon as `Africa in miniature'?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cameroon, a west-central African country with a ∼20 million population, is commonly regarded as 'Africa in miniature' due to the extensive biological and cultural diversities of whole Africa being present in a single-country setting. This country is inhabited by ancestral human lineages in unique eco-climatic conditions and ...

  13. Miniature sources of irradiation for intracavitary thermo radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubin, M.; Chesnokov, D.; Simonov, A.

    2018-02-01

    This report presents the development of a miniature ionizing and thermal radiation source for oncological diseases treatment namely the inward parts of the body. This source can be placed next to the tumor inside of the body. This report is only about methods and devices for the intracavitary therapy. Irradiation by external sources wasn’t considered in our investigation.

  14. AMINA-chip : a miniaturized measurement system for ambient ammonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Björn Herman

    2004-01-01

    The development of a miniaturized and integrated measurement system for gaseous ammonia is described in this thesis. The measuring principle, ¿AMINA¿, is an indirect method for selectively measuring ammonia that makes use of pH-transitions, electrolyte conductivity detection and phaseseparating

  15. Capillary filling of miniaturized sources for electrospray mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arscott, Steve; Gaudet, Matthieu; Brinkmann, Martin; Ashcroft, Alison E; Blossey, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    Capillary slot-based emitter tips are a novel tool for use in electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry of large biomolecules. We have performed a combined theoretical and experimental study of capillary filling in micron-sized slots with the aim of developing a rational design procedure for miniaturized electrospray sources, ultimately enabling the integration of ESI into laboratory-on-a-chip devices

  16. The mass miniature chest radiography programme in Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Tuberculosis (TB) control programmes rely mainly on passive detection of symptomatic individuals. The resurgence of TB has rekindled interest in active case finding. Cape Town (South Africa) had a mass miniature radiography (MMR) screening programme from 1948 to 1994. Objective. To evaluate screening ...

  17. Miniature, mobile X-ray computed radiography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Scott A; Rose, Evan A

    2017-03-07

    A miniature, portable x-ray system may be configured to scan images stored on a phosphor. A flash circuit may be configured to project red light onto a phosphor and receive blue light from the phosphor. A digital monochrome camera may be configured to receive the blue light to capture an article near the phosphor.

  18. A Miniaturized Optical Sensor with Integrated Gas Cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayerden, N.P.; Ghaderi, M.; De Graaf, G.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    The design, fabrication and characterization of a highly integrated optical gas sensor is presented. The gas cell takes up most of the space in a microspectrometer and is the only component that has so far not been miniaturized. Using the tapered resonator cavity of a linear variable optical filter

  19. A Miniature Data Repository on a Raspberry Pi

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Samourkasidis, Argyrios; Athanasiadis, Ioannis N.

    2017-01-01

    This work demonstrates a low-cost, miniature data repository proof-of-concept. Such a system needs to be resilient to power and network failures, and expose adequate processing power for persistent, long-term storage. Additional services are required for interoperable data sharing and visualization.

  20. Gasoline-powered series hybrid cars cause lower life cycle carbon emissions than battery cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinrenken, Christoph; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2012-02-01

    Battery cars powered by grid electricity promise reduced life cycle green house gas (GHG) emissions from the automotive sector. Such scenarios usually point to the much higher emissions from conventional, internal combustion engine cars. However, today's commercially available series hybrid technology achieves the well known efficiency gains in electric drivetrains (regenerative breaking, lack of gearbox) even if the electricity is generated onboard, from conventional fuels. Here, we analyze life cycle GHG emissions for commercially available, state-of the-art plug-in battery cars (e.g. Nissan Leaf) and those of commercially available series hybrid cars (e.g., GM Volt, at same size and performance). Crucially, we find that series hybrid cars driven on (fossil) gasoline cause fewer emissions (126g CO2eq per km) than battery cars driven on current US grid electricity (142g CO2eq per km). We attribute this novel finding to the significant incremental emissions from plug-in battery cars due to losses during grid transmission and battery dis-/charging, and manufacturing larger batteries. We discuss crucial implications for strategic policy decisions towards a low carbon automotive sector as well as relative land intensity when powering cars by biofuel vs. bioelectricity.

  1. Gasoline-powered serial hybrid cars cause lower life cycle carbon emissions than battery cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinrenken, Christoph J.; Lackner, Klaus S.

    2011-04-01

    Battery cars powered by grid electricity promise reduced life cycle green house gas (GHG) emissions from the automotive sector. Such scenarios usually point to the much higher emissions from conventional, internal combustion engine cars. However, today's commercially available serial hybrid technology achieves the well known efficiency gains from regenerative breaking, lack of gearbox, and light weighting - even if the electricity is generated onboard, from conventional fuels. Here, we analyze emissions for commercially available, state-of the-art battery cars (e.g. Nissan Leaf) and those of commercially available serial hybrid cars (e.g., GM Volt, at same size and performance). Crucially, we find that serial hybrid cars driven on (fossil) gasoline cause fewer life cycle GHG emissions (126g CO2e per km) than battery cars driven on current US grid electricity (142g CO2e per km). We attribute this novel finding to the significant incremental life cycle emissions from battery cars from losses during grid transmission, battery dis-/charging, and larger batteries. We discuss crucial implications for strategic policy decisions towards a low carbon automotive sector as well as relative land intensity when powering cars by biofuel vs. bioelectricity.

  2. Forecasting U.S. Car Sales and Car Registrations in Japan: Rationality, Accuracy and Herding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Rülke, Jan; Pierdzioch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We analyze forecasts of car sales in the U.S. and forecasts of car registrations in Japan. We document a substantial heterogeneity of forecasts, and we show that, based on traditional criteria, forecasts are neither rational nor unbiased. We also report that forecasters anti-herd, that is...

  3. 49 CFR 173.314 - Compressed gases in tank cars and multi-unit tank cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or secondary Division 2.1 (flammable gas) hazard. For single unit tank cars, interior pipes of... lading exceeding 1.52 mm (0.060 inch) diameter must be equipped with excess flow valves. For single unit... inches) glass fiber placed over 5.08 cm (2 inches) of ceramic fiber. Tank cars must have excess flow...

  4. Suspended sediment apportionment in a South-Korean mountain catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkholz, Axel; Meusburger, Katrin; Park, Ji-Hyung; Alewell, Christine

    2016-04-01

    Due to the rapid agricultural expansion and intensification during the last decades in South-Korea, large areas of hill slope forests were transformed to paddies and vegetable fields. The intensive agriculture and the easily erodible soils in our catchment are a major reason for the increased erosion causing suspended sediments to infiltrate into the close drinking water reservoir. The drinking water reservoir Lake Soyang provides water supply for over ten million people in Seoul. Landscape managers need to know the exact origin of these sediments before they can create landscape amelioration schemes. We applied a compound-specific stable isotope (CSSI) approach (Alewell et al., 2015) to apportion the sources of the suspended sediments between forest and agricultural soil contribution to the suspended sediments in a different catchment and applied the same approach to identify and quantify the different sources of the suspended sediments in the river(s) contributing to Lake Soyang. We sampled eight soil sites within the catchment considering the different landuse types forest, rice paddies, maize and vegetables. Suspended sediments were sampled at three outlets of the different sub-catchments. Soils and suspended sediments are analysed for bulk carbon and nitrogen isotopes, compound-specific carbon isotopes of plant-wax derived long-chain fatty acids and long-chain n-alkanes. Fatty acid and alkane isotopes are then used in mixing calculations and the mixing model software IsoSource to find out the contribution of the different source soils to the suspended sediments. We present first data of the source soils and the suspended sediments. C. Alewell, A. Birkholz, K. Meusburger, Y. Schindler-Wildhaber, L. Mabit, 2015. Sediment source attribution from multiple land use systems with CSIA. Biogeosciences Discuss. 12: 14245-14269.

  5. Computer assisted radiology and surgery. CARS 2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2010-01-01

    The conference proceedings include contributions to the following topics: (1) CARS Clinical Day: minimally invasive spiral surgery, interventional radiology; (2) CARS - computer assisted radiology and surgery: ophthalmology, stimulation methods, new approaches to diagnosis and therapy; (3) Computer assisted radiology 24th International congress and exhibition: computer tomography and magnetic resonance, digital angiographic imaging, digital radiography, ultrasound, computer assisted radiation therapy, medical workstations, image processing and display; (4) 14th Annual conference of the International Society for computer aided surgery; ENT-CMF head and neck surgery computer-assisted neurosurgery, cardiovascular surgery, image guided liver surgery, abdominal and laparoscopic surgery, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery, image processing and visualization, surgical robotics and instrumentation, surgical modeling, simulation and education; (5) 28th International EuroPACS meeting: image distribution and integration strategies, planning and evaluation, telemedicine and standards, workflow and data flow in radiology; (6) 11th CARS/SPIE/EuroPACS joint workshop on surgical PACS and the digital operating, management and assessment of OR systems and integration; (7) 12th International workshop on computer-aided diagnosis: special session on breast CAD, special session on thoracic CAD, special session on abdominal brain, lumbar spine CAD; (8) 16th computed Maxillofacial imaging congress: computed maxillofacial imaging in dental implantology, orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics; approaches to 3D maxillofacial imaging; surgical navigation; (9) 2nd EuroNOTES/CARS workshop on NOTES: an interdisciplinary challenge; (10) 2nd EPMA/CARS workshop on personalized medicine and ICT.; (11)poster sessions.

  6. The old-new car sticker

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    You have had the same car sticker for ten years and have been driving in and out of CERN every day. Suddenly one morning the guard stops you and tells you need a new one. Hmmm ?! “There were 60 000 stickers in circulation in Geneva and we could not control wether the sticker had been distributed to the right person”, saysa Claude Ducastel, responsible for Entrance Security. “So to solve this problem, last year DSU decided to change Operational Circular N°2 and introduce new car stickers that will be changed every year.” Three types of car stickers were introduced: blue, green and red. The blue one is for staff members whose contract is for one year or more. It indicates the plate number of the car. The green one is for staff members whose contract is for less than one year. It indicates the plate number of the car and the date the contract of the employee terminates. It also has a big L for "Limited". The red one is for enterprise subcontractors whose contracts finish at the end of the year. If ...

  7. Consumer demand for cars in the USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R P

    1975-01-01

    Since the Second World War the American public has bought almost two hundred million cars, and the abrupt year to year variations in the number of new cars sold have had a substantial impact on the level of activity of the U.S. economy. This book examines the factors that determine the demand for cars and suggests an explanation for the large fluctuations in their sales. A wide variety of information, including data from market research, surveys of industry and consumer opinion, cross section studies and aggregate time series, is used to construct and estimate econometric models that will explain consumer decisions about the ownership, purchase and replacement of cars. This quantitative analysis is supplemented by information of a more qualitative nature on the significance for the car market of such factors as model changes, the oil crisis, and the prevailing social climate. One of the main conclusions of the book is that traditional neo-classical models of consumer behavior do not provide a satisfactory explanation of observed market behavior, and that account has to be taken of the role of variations in consumer confidence and expectations in determining demand. The study will be of interest to students and teachers of economics and business studies as well as to those concerned with the motor industry. (50 references) (from publisher's description)

  8. Computer assisted radiology and surgery. CARS 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2010-06-15

    The conference proceedings include contributions to the following topics: (1) CARS Clinical Day: minimally invasive spiral surgery, interventional radiology; (2) CARS - computer assisted radiology and surgery: ophthalmology, stimulation methods, new approaches to diagnosis and therapy; (3) Computer assisted radiology 24th International congress and exhibition: computer tomography and magnetic resonance, digital angiographic imaging, digital radiography, ultrasound, computer assisted radiation therapy, medical workstations, image processing and display; (4) 14th Annual conference of the International Society for computer aided surgery; ENT-CMF head and neck surgery computer-assisted neurosurgery, cardiovascular surgery, image guided liver surgery, abdominal and laparoscopic surgery, computer-assisted orthopedic surgery, image processing and visualization, surgical robotics and instrumentation, surgical modeling, simulation and education; (5) 28th International EuroPACS meeting: image distribution and integration strategies, planning and evaluation, telemedicine and standards, workflow and data flow in radiology; (6) 11th CARS/SPIE/EuroPACS joint workshop on surgical PACS and the digital operating, management and assessment of OR systems and integration; (7) 12th International workshop on computer-aided diagnosis: special session on breast CAD, special session on thoracic CAD, special session on abdominal brain, lumbar spine CAD; (8) 16th computed Maxillofacial imaging congress: computed maxillofacial imaging in dental implantology, orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics; approaches to 3D maxillofacial imaging; surgical navigation; (9) 2nd EuroNOTES/CARS workshop on NOTES: an interdisciplinary challenge; (10) 2nd EPMA/CARS workshop on personalized medicine and ICT.; (11)poster sessions.

  9. Car suspension system monitoring under road conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, A. I.; Kuznetsov, N. Y.; Lysenko, A. V.; Vlasov, V. G.

    2017-12-01

    The paper describes an advanced gyro-based measuring system comprising a CGV-4K central vertical gyro and a G-3M gyrocompass. The advanced system provides additional functions that help measure unsprung mass rotation angles about a vertical axis, rolling angles, trim angles and movements of the unsprung masses of the front (ap and al) and rear b axes when a car wheel hits a single obstruction. The paper also describes the operation of the system, which measures movements of unsprung masses about the body of a car when it hits a single obstruction. The paper presents the dependency diagrams ap = f(t) and al = f(t) for front and rear wheels respectively, as well as b = f(t) for a rear left wheel, which were determined experimentally. Test results for a car equipped with an advanced gyro-based measuring system moving around a circle can form a basis for developing a mathematical model of the process.

  10. Noise mapping inside a car cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Kim; Sjøj, Sidsel Marie Nørholm; Jacobsen, Finn

    The mapping of noise is of considerable interest in the car industry where a good noise mapping can make it much easier to identify the sources that generate the noise and eventually reduce the individual contributions to the noise. The methods used for this purpose include delay-and-sum beamform......The mapping of noise is of considerable interest in the car industry where a good noise mapping can make it much easier to identify the sources that generate the noise and eventually reduce the individual contributions to the noise. The methods used for this purpose include delay......-and-sum beamforming and spherical harmonics beamforming. These methods have a poor spatial esolution at low frequencies, and since much noise generated in cars is dominated by low frequencies the methods are not optimal. In the present paper the mapping is done by solving an inverse problem with a transfer matrix...

  11. Analysis of a model race car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Evans, Jonathan

    2008-10-01

    We analyze the motion of a gravity powered model race car on a downhill track of variable slope. Using a simple algebraic function to approximate the height of the track as a function of the distance along the track, and taking account of the rotational energy of the wheels, rolling friction, and air resistance, we obtain analytic expressions for the velocity and time of the car as functions of the distance traveled along the track. Photogates are used to measure the time at selected points along the track, and the measured values are in excellent agreement with the values predicted from theory. The design and analysis of model race cars provides a good application of principles of mechanics and suggests interesting projects for classes in introductory and intermediate mechanics.

  12. Design Process Improvement for Electric CAR Harness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatdee, Thiwarat; Chutima, Parames

    2017-06-01

    In an automobile parts design company, the customer satisfaction is one of the most important factors for product design. Therefore, the company employs all means to focus its product design process based on the various requirements of customers resulting in high number of design changes. The objective of this research is to improve the design process of the electric car harness that effects the production scheduling by using Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) as the main tools. FTA is employed for root cause analysis and FMEA is used to ranking a High Risk Priority Number (RPN) which is shows the priority of factors in the electric car harness that have high impact to the design of the electric car harness. After the implementation, the improvements are realized significantly since the number of design change is reduced from 0.26% to 0.08%.

  13. BilBooking CarAdmin

    OpenAIRE

    Ensrud, Marius; Gjerde, Ketil; Solberg, Yngve

    2005-01-01

    ETC CarAdmin er en biladministreringsløsning utviklet for å effektivisere og lette kostnadene ved den interne biladministrasjonen i kommuner og bedrifter. Det var her to hovedoppdrag vi fikk av oppdragsgiver. Det ene var å bruke Microsoft Outlook sin kalender mot Microsoft Exchange, som har mulighet for ressursreservering, til å gi brukere av CarAdmin-løsningen mulighet til å reservere biler. Oppdrag to, var å bygge opp en webside som kunne gi en kalender visning til bruker og også gi m...

  14. The 2009 Simulated Car Racing Championship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loiacono, Daniele; Lanzi, Pier Luca; Togelius, Julian

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we overview the 2009 Simulated Car Racing Championship-an event comprising three competitions held in association with the 2009 IEEE Congress on Evolutionary Computation (CEC), the 2009 ACM Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference (GECCO), and the 2009 IEEE Symposium....... The organizers provide short summaries of the other competitors. Finally, we summarize the championship results, followed by a discussion about what the organizers learned about 1) the development of high-performing car racing controllers and 2) the organization of scientific competitions....

  15. The end of the Dutch car tax?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besseling, P.J.; Lebouille, R.A.J.

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of the project 'Paying differently for mobility' an option that is considered is to switch the Dutch Tax on Motor cars and Vehicles (BPM) to a higher tariff for the future road pricing system. Due to some special characteristics of the BPM, this will be a highly complex financial operation. In this article, we explore three variants for their effect on the vehicle market and on the budget. We also explain the advantages and disadvantages for several groups of car owners. [nl

  16. On Suspended matter grain size in Baltic sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubnova, Ekaterina; Sivkov, Vadim; Zubarevich, Victor

    2016-04-01

    Suspended matter grain size data were gathered during the 25th research vessel "Akademik Mstislav Keldysh" cruise (1991, September-October). Initial quantitative data were obtained with a use of the Coulter counter and subsequently modified into volume concentrations (mm3/l) for size intervals. More than 80 samples from 15 stations were analyzed (depth range 0-355 m). The main goal of research was to illustrate the spatial variability of suspended matter concentration and dispersion in Baltic Sea. The mutual feature of suspended matter grain size distribution is the logical rise of particle number along with descending of particle's size. Vertical variability of grain size distribution was defined by Baltic Sea hydrological structure, including upper mixed layer - from the surface to the thermocline - with 35 m thick, cold intermediate layer - from the thermocline to the halocline- and bottom layer, which lied under the halocline. Upper layer showed a rise in total suspended matter concentration (up to 0.6 mm3/l), while cold intermediate level consisted of far more clear water (up to 0.1 mm3/l). Such a difference is caused by the thermocline boarding role. Meanwhile, deep bottom water experienced surges in suspended matter concentration owing to the nepheloid layer presence and "liquid bottom" effect. Coastal waters appeared to have the highest amount of particles (up to 5.0 mm3/l). Suspended matter grain size distribution in the upper mixed layer revealed a peak of concentration at 7 μ, which can be due to autumn plankton bloom. Another feature in suspended matter grain size distribution appeared at the deep layer below halocline, where both O2 and H2S were observed and red/ox barrier is. The simultaneous presence of Fe and Mn (in solutions below red/ox barrier) and O2 leads to precipitation of oxyhydrates Fe and Mn and grain size distribution graph peaking at 4.5 μ.

  17. Development of RaRaII solar car. Solar car RaRaII no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohashi, M [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1991-05-31

    A solar car was developed to be able to travel, by utilizing solar energy, as a guiding car for the marathon race in the public road. That car is 210kg in weight, 1 in number of riding persons and 4.8m in smallest rotating radius. Its traveling performance is 44km h in highest speed, 10{degree} in hill-climbing ability and 0.6m s{sup 2} in acceleration. Those principal particulars satisfied the required condition of guiding car for the marathon race. That car was equipped with a polycrystalline silicon type solar cell, 6m{sup 2} in area to generate 870Wp power. A silver oxide-zinc battery, used as a secondary battery to secure traveling in case of rain, is of a performance to travel twice the marathon race road through. To satisfy the public road traveling in safety standard, that car was equipped with head lamps, wiper, direction winkers, rear-view mirrors, etc. As material of the body, aramid fiber and carbon fiber were adopted for securing the rigidity to cover the lightening in weight. That car, as used at an opportunity of intercollegiate marathon relay race, traveled a distance of about 30km which was its entire public road portion of course. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Gasoline cars produce more carbonaceous particulate matter than modern filter-equipped diesel cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, S M; El Haddad, I; Pieber, S M; Zardini, A A; Suarez-Bertoa, R; Clairotte, M; Daellenbach, K R; Huang, R-J; Slowik, J G; Hellebust, S; Temime-Roussel, B; Marchand, N; de Gouw, J; Jimenez, J L; Hayes, P L; Robinson, A L; Baltensperger, U; Astorga, C; Prévôt, A S H

    2017-07-13

    Carbonaceous particulate matter (PM), comprising black carbon (BC), primary organic aerosol (POA) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA, from atmospheric aging of precursors), is a highly toxic vehicle exhaust component. Therefore, understanding vehicle pollution requires knowledge of both primary emissions, and how these emissions age in the atmosphere. We provide a systematic examination of carbonaceous PM emissions and parameterisation of SOA formation from modern diesel and gasoline cars at different temperatures (22, -7 °C) during controlled laboratory experiments. Carbonaceous PM emission and SOA formation is markedly higher from gasoline than diesel particle filter (DPF) and catalyst-equipped diesel cars, more so at -7 °C, contrasting with nitrogen oxides (NO X ). Higher SOA formation from gasoline cars and primary emission reductions for diesels implies gasoline cars will increasingly dominate vehicular total carbonaceous PM, though older non-DPF-equipped diesels will continue to dominate the primary fraction for some time. Supported by state-of-the-art source apportionment of ambient fossil fuel derived PM, our results show that whether gasoline or diesel cars are more polluting depends on the pollutant in question, i.e. that diesel cars are not necessarily worse polluters than gasoline cars.

  19. Perancangan dan Implementasi Kontroler PID untuk Pengaturan Autonomous Car-Following Car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Parluhutan Bonor Sinaga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Pengiriman logistik ke daerah-daerah rawan bencana merupakan hal yang sangat sulit dilakukan, tentunya diperlukan pengetahuan mengenai kondisi medan jalan. Salah satu dampak yang utama adalah sulitnya melakukan manuver dalam pengendalian performansi  truk logistik yang pada umumnya berupa truk-truk gandeng. Untuk membantu pengemudi truk dalam berkendara pada kondisi tersebut, dirancang sebuah prototype mobil mandiri (Autonomous Car yang mampu melakukan manuver-manuver pergerakan secara sendirinya, salah satu manuver tersebut ialah Following Car.  Dalam Tugas Akhir ini perancangan sistem yang akan dilakukan dengan  memodelkan  dua buah kendaraan mobil RC (remote control yang bertindak sebagai  follower dan leader car. Pengoperasian dari  following car dilakukan dengan memodifikasi dari kendaraan RC-1, sedangkan RC-2 bertindak sebagai leader car yang dikondisikan secara manual. Dengan penerapan kontroler PID pada implementasi sistem didapatkan penurunan time settling menjadi 2,7 Detik dan peningkatan error steady state sebesar 2,44%. Pada implementasi diberikan kecepatan leader secara acak, dengan implementasi kontroler PID, kondisi jarak antara autonomous car dengan leader car masih dalam range keadaan ideal pada set point.

  20. The development of CAR design for tumor CAR-T cell therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dandan; Jin, Guoliang; Chai, Dafei; Zhou, Xiaowan; Gu, Weiyu; Chong, Yanyun; Song, Jingyuan; Zheng, Junnian

    2018-03-02

    In recent years, the chimeric antigen receptor modified T cells (Chimeric antigen receptor T cells, CAR-T) immunotherapy has developed rapidly, which has been considered the most promising therapy. Efforts to enhance the efficacy of CAR-based anti-tumor therapy have been made, such as the improvement of structures of CAR-T cells, including the development of extracellular antigen recognition receptors, intracellular co-stimulatory molecules and the combination application of CARs and synthetic small molecules. In addition, effects on the function of the CAR-T cells that the space distance between the antigen binding domains and tumor targets and the length of the spacer domains have are also being investigated. Given the fast-moving nature of this field, it is necessary to make a summary of the development of CAR-T cells. In this review, we mainly focus on the present design strategies of CAR-T cells with the hope that they can provide insights to increase the anti-tumor efficacy and safety.

  1. Demand for mini cars and large cars; decay effects, and gasoline demand in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonilla, David; Schmitz, Klaus E.; Akisawa, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    This article explains why: (a) consumers underinvest in new car fuel economy by opting to buy large vehicles; (b) macro shifts in vehicle classes have occurred in the last decades; and how (c) the effects of vehicle fuel economy and shifts in vehicle type influence the growth path of gasoline demand, which is the key to designing effective energy efficiency goals for transport. From 2008, 1.9 EXJ (Exajoules) of energy were consumed in Japan by private vehicles producing 124 MtCO 2 emissions. For the period 1980 to 2008, we estimated: (1) gasoline demand for three vehicle sizes; (2) vehicle sales; (3) new car fuel economy changes (the ‘real’ technical change); and (4) vehicle stocks. Using a data sample for 1980–2008 we found that: (a) in the short term consumers buy fuel economy, that is sales of mini and small cars increase, but this is not sustained in the long term: and (b) consumers increasingly traded in their cars for larger cars. A further finding was that gasoline demand is projected to increase to 2.3 EXJ by 2035, even with a growing number of mini cars. The policy implication is clear: Japan’s policy to reduce oil dependency to 80% by 2030 is in peril as long as buyers prefer larger cars and drive ever longer distances.

  2. Plasma Structure and Behavior of Miniature Ring-Cusp Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hann-Shin

    Miniature ring-cusp ion thrusters provide a unique blend of high efficiencies and millinewton level thrust for future spacecraft. These thrusters are attractive as a primary propulsion for small satellites that require a high delta V, and as a secondary propulsion for larger spacecraft that require precision formation flying, disturbance rejection, or attitude control. To ensure desirable performance throughout the life of such missions, an advancement in the understanding of the plasma structure and behavior of miniature ring-cusp discharges is required. A research model was fabricated to provide a simplified experimental test bed for the analysis of the plasma discharge chamber of a miniature ion thruster. The plasma source allowed for spatially resolved measurements with a Langmuir probe along a meridian plane. Probe measurements yielded plasma density, electron temperature, and plasma potential data. The magnetic field strength was varied along with the discharge current to determine the plasma behavior under various conditions. The structure of the plasma properties were found to be independent of the discharge power under the proper scaling. It was concluded that weaker magnetic fields can improve the overall performance for ion thruster operation. To further analyze the experimental measurements, a framework was developed based on the magnetic field. A flux aligned coordinate system was developed to decouple the perpendicular and parallel plasma motion with respect to the magnetic field. This was done using the stream function and magnetic scalar potential. Magnetic formulae provided intuition on the field profiles dependence on magnet dimensions. The flux aligned coordinate system showed that the plasma was isopycnic along constant stream function values. This was used to develop an empirical relation suitable for estimating the spatial behavior and to determine the plasma volume and loss areas. The plasma geometry estimates were applied to a control volume

  3. Development, Problems and Countermeasures of Chinese Racing Car Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J. J.

    2018-05-01

    In recent years, motor car racing has developed rapidly in China. However, under the background of maximum vehicle production and car ownership in China, the racing car industry has a long way compared with that of the developed countries. The paper analyzes the current situation and summarizes the problems of Chinese racing car industry with supporting documentation and review of the literature. The future trend of the development of car industry in China is discussed. On the basis of the analysis and prediction, the strategies to respond to the future racing car industry in China are presented.

  4. Serum C-reactive protein concentrations in healthy Miniature Schnauzer dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Valerie M; Kidney, Beverly A; Snead, Elisabeth C R; Myers, Sherry L; Jackson, Marion L

    2011-09-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is a sensitive marker for inflammation in people and dogs. In people, an association between CRP concentration and atherosclerosis has been reported. Atherosclerosis is rare in dogs, but the Miniature Schnauzer breed may be at increased risk for developing this vascular disease. It is not known if CRP concentrations in Miniature Schnauzer dogs differ from those in other dog breeds. Our objectives were to validate an automated human CRP assay for measuring CRP in dogs and compare CRP concentrations in healthy Miniature Schnauzer dogs with those in non-Miniature Schnauzer breeds. Sera from 37 non-Miniature Schnauzer dogs with inflammatory disease were pooled and used to validate a human CRP immunoturbidimetric assay for measuring canine CRP. Blood was collected from 20 healthy Miniature Schnauzer dogs and 41 healthy dogs of other breeds. Median serum CRP concentration of healthy Miniature Schnauzer dogs was compared with that of healthy non-Miniature Schnauzer dogs. The human CRP assay measured CRP reliably with linearity between 0 and 20 mg/L. CRP concentration for healthy Miniature Schnauzer dogs (median 4.0 mg/L, minimum-maximum 0-18.2 mg/L) was significantly higher than for the healthy non-Miniature Schnauzer dogs (median 0.1 mg/L, minimum-maximum 0-10.7 mg/L); 17 of the 20 Miniature Schnauzer dogs had values that overlapped with those of the non-Miniature Schnauzer dogs. Median CRP concentration of Miniature Schnauzer dogs was slightly higher than that of other breeds of dogs. A relationship between higher CRP concentration in Miniature Schnauzer dogs and idiopathic hyperlipidemia, pancreatitis, and possible increased risk for atherosclerosis remains to be determined. ©2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  5. Increase of child car seat temperature in cars parked in the outpatient parking lot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimura, Tetsu; Suzue, Junji; Kamada, Makoto; Ozaki, Yukiko; Tananari, Yoshifumi; Maeno, Yasuki; Ito, Shinichi; Nishino, Hiroshi; Kakimoto, Noriko; Yamakawa, Rumi

    2011-12-01

    A guideline for the safe use of child car seats (CS) was published by the Japan Pediatric Society in 2008. There have been few studies of the increase of temperature of a CS in parked cars. The aim of this study was to determine the change in the temperature of the CS in cars parked in full sun. The temperature of CS was measured during summer (July and August) in 2006, 2007, and 2008. The CS used in this study (n= 50) were for children (≤ 6 years old) who were taken by car to Sugimura Children's Medical Clinic. Temperatures were only measured on sunny days. Measurements were performed from 09.00 to 17.00 hours. Thermochron (Thermochron i-Button: G type, Maxim Integrated Products, CA, USA) was used to measure the temperatures. The maximum temperatures of CS were compared in time at the clinic, taking into consideration seat colors, and car colors. Of the 50 cars, three cars were excluded due to being in the shade while the temperature was measured. A total of 47 cars were used for this study. The temperature of the CS ranged from 38.0 to 65.5°C (47.8 ± 5.8°C). Eighteen CS (38.3%) reached a temperature of 50°C or above. The maximum temperature of the 13.00-15.00-hours group was significantly higher than that of the 09.00-11.00-hours group (P= 0.035). The CS temperatures in the black car group were significantly higher than those of the white car group (P= 0.013). CS may become very hot while a car is parked in sun, especially if the car and the CS are black, so the CS should be cooled before a young child is placed in it. Guardians of small children should be aware of this risk. © 2011 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2011 Japan Pediatric Society.

  6. Temperature signal in suspended sediment export from an Alpine catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Anna; Molnar, Peter; Stutenbecker, Laura; Bakker, Maarten; Silva, Tiago A.; Schlunegger, Fritz; Lane, Stuart N.; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Girardclos, Stéphanie

    2018-01-01

    Suspended sediment export from large Alpine catchments ( > 1000 km2) over decadal timescales is sensitive to a number of factors, including long-term variations in climate, the activation-deactivation of different sediment sources (proglacial areas, hillslopes, etc.), transport through the fluvial system, and potential anthropogenic impacts on the sediment flux (e.g. through impoundments and flow regulation). Here, we report on a marked increase in suspended sediment concentrations observed near the outlet of the upper Rhône River Basin in the mid-1980s. This increase coincides with a statistically significant step-like increase in basin-wide mean air temperature. We explore the possible explanations of the suspended sediment rise in terms of changes in water discharge (transport capacity), and the activation of different potential sources of fine sediment (sediment supply) in the catchment by hydroclimatic forcing. Time series of precipitation and temperature-driven snowmelt, snow cover, and ice melt simulated with a spatially distributed degree-day model, together with erosive rainfall on snow-free surfaces, are tested to explore possible reasons for the rise in suspended sediment concentration. We show that the abrupt change in air temperature reduced snow cover and the contribution of snowmelt, and enhanced ice melt. The results of statistical tests show that the onset of increased ice melt was likely to play a dominant role in the suspended sediment concentration rise in the mid-1980s. Temperature-driven enhanced melting of glaciers, which cover about 10 % of the catchment surface, can increase suspended sediment yields through an increased contribution of sediment-rich glacial meltwater, increased sediment availability due to glacier recession, and increased runoff from sediment-rich proglacial areas. The reduced extent and duration of snow cover in the catchment are also potential contributors to the rise in suspended sediment concentration through

  7. Development of a detachable high speed miniature scanning probe microscope for large area substrates inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghian, Hamed, E-mail: hamed.sadeghianmarnani@tno.nl, E-mail: h.sadeghianmarnani@tudelft.nl [Department of Optomechatronics, Netherlands Organization for Scientific Applied Research, TNO, Stieltjesweg 1, 2628 CK Delft (Netherlands); Department of Precision and Microsystems Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Herfst, Rodolf; Winters, Jasper; Crowcombe, Will; Kramer, Geerten; Dool, Teun van den; Es, Maarten H. van [Department of Optomechatronics, Netherlands Organization for Scientific Applied Research, TNO, Stieltjesweg 1, 2628 CK Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-11-15

    We have developed a high speed, miniature scanning probe microscope (MSPM) integrated with a Positioning Unit (PU) for accurately positioning the MSPM on a large substrate. This combination enables simultaneous, parallel operation of many units on a large sample for high throughput measurements. The size of the MSPM is 19 × 45 × 70 mm{sup 3}. It contains a one-dimensional flexure stage with counter-balanced actuation for vertical scanning with a bandwidth of 50 kHz and a z-travel range of more than 2 μm. This stage is mechanically decoupled from the rest of the MSPM by suspending it on specific dynamically determined points. The motion of the probe, which is mounted on top of the flexure stage is measured by a very compact optical beam deflection (OBD). Thermal noise spectrum measurements of short cantilevers show a bandwidth of 2 MHz and a noise of less than 15 fm/Hz{sup 1/2}. A fast approach and engagement of the probe to the substrate surface have been achieved by integrating a small stepper actuator and direct monitoring of the cantilever response to the approaching surface. The PU has the same width as the MSPM, 45 mm and can position the MSPM to a pre-chosen position within an area of 275×30 mm{sup 2} to within 100 nm accuracy within a few seconds. During scanning, the MSPM is detached from the PU which is essential to eliminate mechanical vibration and drift from the relatively low-resonance frequency and low-stiffness structure of the PU. Although the specific implementation of the MSPM we describe here has been developed as an atomic force microscope, the general architecture is applicable to any form of SPM. This high speed MSPM is now being used in a parallel SPM architecture for inspection and metrology of large samples such as semiconductor wafers and masks.

  8. Perceptions and attitudes of car owners on innovative automobiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pol, M.; Brunsting, S.

    2012-01-01

    To abate the detrimental effects of transport a transition is foreseen from the conventional fossil cars to energy-sustainable cars. A successful transition requires a major behavioral change of car consumers who need to make choices about new options for transport with uncertain costs and benefits compared to their current car. This paper examines consumers' perceptions about innovative cars and considerations for buying or not buying innovative cars (hybrid, electric, plug-in electric, hydrogen, flexifuel). In this study an on-line questionnaire on attitudes, interests and social norms regarding innovative cars was conducted among 339 Dutch respondents who recently bought a new car. To obtain in-depth understanding of the answers, a follow-up study was conducted consisting of two focus groups with a sample of survey participants. These focus groups respectively concentrated on respondents' perceptions of innovative cars, and on the personality traits of the 'typical' innovative car driver. The results of the survey shows that the attitude towards innovative cars are strongly influenced by affective aspects (such as comfort and pleasant) and to a (much) smaller extent by environmental considerations. The results of the focus groups confirm these findings. According to the participants the price of the car is decisive whereby environmental concerns play no role. The design and image of the car are important. In addition, it appears that the familiarity with (and thus the knowledge about) the innovative cars is still very limited (with the exception of the hybrid car). This point of view stresses the importance of the way in which innovative cars are positioned thereby affecting the image (social norms) people will have regarding these cars. [nl

  9. Model analysis of adaptive car driving behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wewerinke, P.H.

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with two modeling approaches to car driving. The first one is a system theoretic approach to describe adaptive human driving behavior. The second approach utilizes neural networks. As an illustrative example the overtaking task is considered and modeled in system theoretic terms.

  10. Aerodynamic Noise Generated by Shinkansen Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    KITAGAWA, T.; NAGAKURA, K.

    2000-03-01

    The noise value (A -weighted sound pressure level, SLOW) generated by Shinkansen trains, now running at 220-300 km/h, should be less than 75 dB(A) at the trackside. Shinkansen noise, such as rolling noise, concrete support structure noise, and aerodynamic noise are generated by various parts of Shinkansen trains. Among these aerodynamic noise is important because it is the major contribution to the noise generated by the coaches running at high speed. In order to reduce the aerodynamic noise, a number of improvements to coaches have been made. As a result, the aerodynamic noise has been reduced, but it still remains significant. In addition, some aerodynamic noise generated from the lower parts of cars remains. In order to investigate the contributions of these noises, a method of analyzing Shinkansen noise has been developed and applied to the measured data of Shinkansen noise at speeds between 120 and 315 km/h. As a result, the following conclusions have been drawn: (1) Aerodynamic noise generated from the upper parts of cars was reduced considerably by smoothing car surfaces. (2) Aerodynamic noise generated from the lower parts of cars has a major influence upon the wayside noise.

  11. Hydrogen fuel cells for cars and buses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.J.J.

    2007-01-01

    The use of hydrogen fuel cells for cars is strongly promoted by the governments of many countries and by international organizations like the European Community. The electrochem. behavior of the most promising fuel cell (polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell, PEMFC) is critically discussed, based

  12. Improvement of crash compatibility between cars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huibers, J.A.H.M.; Faerber, E.; Cesari, D.; Hobbs, A.C.; Kampen, B. van; Paez, J.; Wykes, N.J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the research work of the European Enhanced Vehicle-safety Committee (EEVC) in the field of crash compatibility between passenger cars. Since July 1997 the EC Commission is partly funding the research work of EEVC. The running period of this project will be two

  13. Microcomputers, Model Rockets, and Race Cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirus, Edward A., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The industrial education orientation program at Wisconsin School for the Deaf (WSD) presents problem-solving situations to all seventh- and eighth-grade hearing-impaired students. WSD developed user-friendly microcomputer software to guide students individually through complex computations involving model race cars and rockets while freeing…

  14. Colleges Drive Research on Electric Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basken, Paul

    2009-01-01

    As the General Motors Corporation shuts assembly plants and veers toward bankruptcy, the lonely remnants of one of its top technological achievements--the first modern mass-produced electric car--lie scattered across a few dozen American college campuses. GM produced and leased to customers more than 1,000 "EV1" automobiles beginning in 1996. In…

  15. Floating car data for traffic monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp, Kristian; Lahrmann, Harry Spaabæk

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a complete prototype system that uses Floating Car Data (FCD) for both automatic and manual detection of queues in traffic. The system is developed under EU’s Tempo program. The systems consists of small hardware units placed in mobile traffic report units (we use taxis...

  16. Gleaning and Dreaming on Car Park Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Croft

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This article explores beachcombing and gleaning as practices that combine mobility with daydreaming and which allow us to experience our environment with the perception of ‘tactile nearness’ (Benjamin. Through eco-poetics shaped by ‘inconceivable analogies and connections’ (Benjamin, the author re-imagines a neglected space used as a short-cut on the way to work—the Liverpool Adelphi car park in Liverpool—as “Car Park Beach”. Inspired by the situationists’ slogan ‘Sous les pavés, la plage’, the author argues that Car Park Beach opens up imaginative possibilities for a different form of ecological encounter with our own precarity, one ushered in by a ‘close-up’ awareness of how waste transforms our world. Car Park Beach is a site that the author associates with the drift-like, distracted movements of both people and matter, and this article therefore attempts to deploy an equivalent method of analysis. Drawing on her own practice of gleaning photos and objects on the way to work, the author places a vocabulary of flotsam and jetsam at the axis of her discussion. Allusive, often layered, connections are followed between a diverse range of sources including beachcombing guides, literary memoirs, documentary films, eco-criticism, and auto-ethnography.

  17. Anastomose carótido-basilar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Reixach-Granés

    1965-09-01

    Full Text Available O autor relata um caso de anastomose carótido-basilar por persistência da artéria trigeminal, demonstrado angiogràficamente. O paciente apresentou hemiplegia súbita e era portador de transtornos mentais de tipo deficitário. A pneumencefalografia evidenciou atrofia do parênquima cerebral do lado da anomalia.

  18. Markov chain of distances between parked cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seba, Petr

    2008-01-01

    We describe the distribution of distances between parked cars as a solution of certain Markov processes and show that its solution is obtained with the help of a distributional fixed point equation. Under certain conditions the process is solved explicitly. The resulting probability density is compared with the actual parking data measured in the city. (fast track communication)

  19. What Happens at a Car Wash?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallick, Barbara; Lee, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    A class of 3- to 5-year-old children in a child care center in the midwestern United States chose to study a car wash as a group project. This article discusses how the project evolved, describes the three phases of the project, and provides the teachers' reflections on the project. Photos taken during the project and children's sketches are…

  20. Inflation Rates, Car Devaluation, and Chemical Kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogliani, Lionello; Berberan-Santos, Mario N.

    1996-01-01

    Describes the inflation rate problem and offers an interesting analogy with chemical kinetics. Presents and solves the car devaluation problem as a normal chemical kinetic problem where the order of the rate law and the value of the rate constant are derived. (JRH)

  1. Maxillary bone epithelial cyst in an adult miniature schnauzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chung-Tien; Tasi, Wen-Chih; Hu, Chun-Kun; Lin, Nien-Ting; Huang, Pei-Yun; Yeh, Lih-Seng

    2008-09-01

    Maxillary bone epithelial cyst is rare in dogs. A 5-year-old, spayed female miniature schnauzer developed a swelling below the nasal canthus of left eye. Plain radiograph demonstrated a 1.5 cm diameter of radiolucent lesion on the maxillary bone anteroventral to the eye, and contrast dacryocystorhinography confirmed an obstructed nasolarcrimal duct. The swelling showed poor response to antibiotic treatment but responded well to oral prednisolone. Exploratory surgery revealed a cyst-like structure filled with brown serous fluid. Histopathological examination of the removed cyst revealed a double cuboidal epithelial cyst. The dog recovered rapidly after surgery, and the swelling had not recurred for a 36-month follow-up. It is the first case of periorbital bone epithelial cyst reported in an adult miniature schnauzer.

  2. Hereditary esophageal dysfunction in the Miniature Schnauzer dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, V S; Wallace, L J; Anderson, V E; Rushmer, R A

    1980-03-01

    Miniature Schnauzers maintained in a colony for 9 years were used to study the inheritance of esophageal dysfunction (canine achalasia, megaesophagus). All dogs were evaluated radiographically, using a barium swallow contrast technique which clearly distinguished normal and affected pups. At 4 to 6 months of age, all affected dogs had recovered clinically except one, and radiographic evidence of dysfunction was markedly diminished. None of the affected dogs required a special feeding regimen. Analysis of breeding pairs revealed a ratio of 9 affected/11 normal dogs when an affected male was mated with a normal female, and a 13/3 ratio was observed when two affected dogs were mated. These ratios were compatible with a simple autosomal dominant or a 60% penetrance autosomal-recessive mode of inheritance. Outbreeding to an affected Miniature Schnauzer/Poodle crossbred dog resulted in only two of 30 affected pups, indicating a polygenic mode of inheritance in outbred populations.

  3. Miniaturizing EM Sample Preparation: Opportunities, Challenges, and "Visual Proteomics".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Stefan A; Müller, Shirley A; Schmidli, Claudio; Syntychaki, Anastasia; Rima, Luca; Chami, Mohamed; Stahlberg, Henning; Goldie, Kenneth N; Braun, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    This review compares and discusses conventional versus miniaturized specimen preparation methods for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The progress brought by direct electron detector cameras, software developments and automation have transformed transmission cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and made it an invaluable high-resolution structural analysis tool. In contrast, EM specimen preparation has seen very little progress in the last decades and is now one of the main bottlenecks in cryo-EM. Here, we discuss the challenges faced by specimen preparation for single particle EM, highlight current developments, and show the opportunities resulting from the advanced miniaturized and microfluidic sample grid preparation methods described, such as visual proteomics and time-resolved cryo-EM studies. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Miniaturization of high-energy physics detectors. Vol. 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanini, A.

    1983-01-01

    Continued experimental research in high-energy physics requires the reduction in size and cost of the advanced technical equipment involved. A new technology is rapidly evolving that promises to replace today's massive high-energy physics instruments--which may be composed of several thousand tons of sensitive parts--with miniaturized equivalents. Smaller, less expensive apparatus would create more opportunities for research worldwide, and many types of experiments now considered impractical could then be carried out. Scientists and engineers from many countries have contributed to this volume to provide a broad panorama of the new miniaturization technology in high-energy physics. They describe a wide range of new instruments and their applications, discuss limitations and technological problems, and explore the connections between technology and progress in the field of high-energy physics

  5. Flight experience with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamory, Philip J.; Murray, James E.

    1992-01-01

    Engineers at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Facility (NASA-Dryden) have conducted two flight research programs with lightweight, low-power miniaturized instrumentation systems built around commercial data loggers. One program quantified the performance of a radio-controlled model airplane. The other program was a laminar boundary-layer transition experiment on a manned sailplane. The purpose of this paper is to report NASA-Dryden personnel's flight experience with the miniaturized instrumentation systems used on these two programs. The paper will describe the data loggers, the sensors, and the hardware and software developed to complete the systems. The paper also describes how the systems were used and covers the challenges encountered to make them work. Examples of raw data and derived results will be shown as well. Finally, future plans for these systems will be discussed.

  6. A miniature spark counter for public communication and education

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, C.H.; Weng, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    The fabrication of a miniature spark counter for public communication and education using naturally occurring radon as a radioactive source without involving any man-made radioactivity is described. The battery-powered miniature spark counter weighs 2.07 kg with a volume of 4.844 x 10/sup -4/ m/sup 3/. The circuitry consists of seven major components: timer, high-voltage power supply, attenuator, noninverting amplifier, low-pass filter, one-shot generator, and counter. Cellulose nitrate films irradiated with alpha particles from radon emanating from soil were etched and counted. The visible sparks during counting are rather heuristic, which can be used to demonstrate naturally occurring radioactivity in classrooms or showplaces

  7. The concept and application of miniaturization boiling in cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suhaimi Illias; Muhammad Asri Idris

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study and examine the phenomena of miniaturization-boiling, which intensely scatters with a large number of minute liquid particles from a water droplet surface to the atmosphere, when the droplet collided with a heating surface. As the material of the heating surface, the following were used: stainless steel (SUS 303 A Cr=17%,Ni=8%), sapphire (Al 3 O 2 ), brass, copper and carbon plane. The material was heated in order to study the miniaturization-boiling and droplet bounding phenomena at a very high temperature (160 degree C- 420 degree C). The phenomenon was photographed by a high-speed camera (10,000 fps) from the horizontal direction. The nuclear fusion reactor needs a very severe cooling, heat removal cooling method by special boiling is lead to this research. (Author)

  8. Challenges in miniaturized automotive long-range lidar system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fersch, Thomas; Weigel, Robert; Koelpin, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    This paper discusses the current technical limitations posed on endeavors to miniaturize lidar systems for use in automotive applications and how to possibly extend those limits. The focus is set on long-range scanning direct time of flight LiDAR systems using APD photodetectors. Miniaturization evokes severe problems in ensuring absolute laser safety while maintaining the systems' performance in terms of maximum range, signal-to-noise ratio, detection probability, pixel density, or frame rate. Based on hypothetical but realistic specifications for an exemplary system the complete lidar signal path is calculated. The maximum range of the system is used as a general performance indicator. It is determined with the minimum signal-to-noise ratio required to detect an object. Various system parameters are varied to find their impact on the system's range. The reduction of the laser's pulse width and the right choice for the transimpedance amplifier's amplification have shown to be practicable measures to double the system's range.

  9. Miniaturized chromatographic radiochemical procedure for 131I - MIBG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza, M.F. de; Pereira, N.S. de; Colturato, M.T.; Silva, C.P.G. da.

    1989-12-01

    Different solvents were used in paper chromatographic methods to obtain the best system in routine radiochemical control for 131 I-MIBG produced at IPEN-CNEN/SP. The dates were compared with those obtained with eletrophoresis method in buffer acetate, pH=4.5, 350V, during 40 minutes. The stability of the labeled compound store under 4 0 C was studied during 15 days. Miniaturized chromatographic procedures were established using Whatman 3MM (8x1cm) and n-butanol-:acetic acid: water (S:2:1) as a solvent. the Rf values were: 0.3 (I - ) and 1.0 (MIBG). The radiochemical purity was 99.3 and 99.2% (first day) obtained with eletrophoresis and miniaturized chromatographic procedures, respectively and, 84.7% after 15 days of its preparation. It is a rapid, practical and reproductive method. (author) [pt

  10. Digital intelligent booster for DCC miniature train networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursu, M. P.; Condruz, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    Modern miniature trains are now driven by means of the DCC (Digital Command and Control) system, which allows the human operator or a personal computer to launch commands to each individual train or even to control different features of the same train. The digital command station encodes these commands and sends them to the trains by means of electrical pulses via the rails of the railway network. Due to the development of the miniature railway network, it may happen that the power requirement of the increasing number of digital locomotives, carriages and accessories exceeds the nominal output power of the digital command station. This digital intelligent booster relieves the digital command station from powering the entire railway network all by itself, and it automatically handles the multiple powered sections of the network. This electronic device is also able to detect and process short-circuits and overload conditions, without the intervention of the digital command station.

  11. A Miniature Probe for Ultrasonic Penetration of a Single Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfei Xiao

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Although ultrasound cavitation must be avoided for safe diagnostic applications, the ability of ultrasound to disrupt cell membranes has taken on increasing significance as a method to facilitate drug and gene delivery. A new ultrasonic resonance driving method is introduced to penetrate rigid wall plant cells or oocytes with springy cell membranes. When a reasonable design is created, ultrasound can gather energy and increase the amplitude factor. Ultrasonic penetration enables exogenous materials to enter cells without damaging them by utilizing instant acceleration. This paper seeks to develop a miniature ultrasonic probe experiment system for cell penetration. A miniature ultrasonic probe is designed and optimized using the Precise Four Terminal Network Method and Finite Element Method (FEM and an ultrasonic generator to drive the probe is designed. The system was able to successfully puncture a single fish cell.

  12. Design of a Ku band miniature multiple beam klystron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, Ayan Kumar, E-mail: ayan.bandyopadhyay@gmail.com; Pal, Debasish; Kant, Deepender [Microwave Tubes Division, CSIR-CEERI, Pilani, Rajasthan-333031 (India); Saini, Anil; Saha, Sukalyan; Joshi, Lalit Mohan

    2016-03-09

    The design of a miniature multiple beam klystron (MBK) working in the Ku-band frequency range is presented in this article. Starting from the main design parameters, design of the electron gun, the input and output couplers and radio frequency section (RF-section) are presented. The design methodology using state of the art commercial electromagnetic design tools, analytical formulae as well as noncommercial design tools are briefly presented in this article.

  13. Miniaturized Optical Tweezers Through Fiber-End Microfabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Liberale, Carlo

    2014-07-30

    Optical tweezers represent a powerful tool for a variety of applications both in biology and in physics, and their miniaturization and full integration is of great interest so as to reduce size (towards portable systems), and to minimize the required intervention from the operator. Optical fibers represent a natural solution to achieve this goal, and here we review the realization of single-fiber optical tweezers able to create a purely optical three-dimensional trap. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

  14. Reduction of degraded events in miniaturized proportional counters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaga, R.; Kirsten, T. (Max Planck Inst. fuer Kernphysik, Heidelberg (Germany))

    1991-11-15

    A method to reduce the number of degraded events in miniaturized proportional counters is described. A shaping of the outer cathode leads to a more uniform gas gain along the counter axis. The method is useful in situations in which the total number of decay events is very low. The effects leading to degraded events are studied theoretically and experimentally. The usefulness of the method is demonstrated by using it for the proportional counter of the GALLEX solar neutrino experiment. (orig.).

  15. Optimal and Miniaturized Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonant Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hao

    Wireless power transfer (WPT) technologies for communication and recharging devices have recently attracted significant research attention. Conventional WPT systems based either on far-field or near-field coupling cannot provide simultaneously high efficiency and long transfer range. The Strongly Coupled Magnetic Resonance (SCMR) method was introduced recently, and it offers the possibility of transferring power with high efficiency over longer distances. Previous SCMR research has only focused on how to improve its efficiency and range through different methods. However, the study of optimal and miniaturized designs has been limited. In addition, no multiband and broadband SCMR WPT systems have been developed and traditional SCMR systems exhibit narrowband efficiency thereby imposing strict limitations on simultaneous wireless transmission of information and power, which is important for battery-less sensors. Therefore, new SCMR systems that are optimally designed and miniaturized in size will significantly enhance various technologies in many applications. The optimal and miniaturized SCMR systems are studied here. First, analytical models of the Conformal SCMR (CSCMR) system and thorough analysis and design methodology have been presented. This analysis specifically leads to the identification of the optimal design parameters, and predicts the performance of the designed CSCMR system. Second, optimal multiband and broadband CSCMR systems are designed. Two-band, three-band, and four-band CSCMR systems are designed and validated using simulations and measurements. Novel broadband CSCMR systems are also analyzed, designed, simulated and measured. The proposed broadband CSCMR system achieved more than 7 times larger bandwidth compared to the traditional SCMR system at the same frequency. Miniaturization methods of SCMR systems are also explored. Specifically, methods that use printable CSCMR with large capacitors, novel topologies including meandered, SRRs, and

  16. Conceptual Design and Simulation of a Miniature Plasma Focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafari, H.; Habibi, M.; Amrollahi, R.

    2012-01-01

    Design and construction of a miniature plasma focus device with 3.6 J of energy bank is reported. In design the device, some of very important parameters of designing such as plasma energy density and derive parameter was used. Regarding to the electrical and geometrical parameters of the device, a simulation is carried out by MATLAB software. Simulation results showed that the formation of the pinch have occurred at the moment of the peak discharge current.

  17. Evaluation of miniature tension specimen fabrication techniques and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.L.; Blotter, M.A.; Edwards, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    The confident application of miniature tensile specimens requires adequate control over their fabrication and is facilitated by automated test and analysis techniques. Three fabrication processes -- punching, chemical milling, and electrical discharge machining (EDM) -- were recently evaluated, leading to the replacement of the previously used punching technique with a wire EDM technique. The automated data acquisition system was upgraded, and an interactive data analysis program was developed

  18. Miniaturized Optical Tweezers Through Fiber-End Microfabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Liberale, Carlo; Cojoc, Gheorghe; Rajamanickam, Vijayakumar; Ferrara, Lorenzo; Bragheri, Francesca; Minzioni, Paolo; Perozziello, Gerardo; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cristiani, Ilaria; Di Fabrizio, Enzo M.

    2014-01-01

    Optical tweezers represent a powerful tool for a variety of applications both in biology and in physics, and their miniaturization and full integration is of great interest so as to reduce size (towards portable systems), and to minimize the required intervention from the operator. Optical fibers represent a natural solution to achieve this goal, and here we review the realization of single-fiber optical tweezers able to create a purely optical three-dimensional trap. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

  19. Evaluation of miniature tensile specimen fabrication techniques and performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, M.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Blotter, M.A.; Edwards, D.J. (Missouri Univ., Rolla, MO (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The confident application of miniature tensile specimens requires adequate control over their fabrication and is facilitated by automated test and analysis techniques. Three fabrication processes -- punching, chemical, milling, and electrical discharge machining (EDM) -- were recently evaluated, leading to the replacement of the previously used punching technique with a wire EDM technique. The automated data acquisition system was upgraded, and an interactive data analysis program was developed.

  20. Evaluation of miniature tensile specimen fabrication techniques and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, M.L.; Blotter, M.A.; Edwards, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    The confident application of miniature tensile specimens requires adequate control over their fabrication and is facilitated by automated test and analysis techniques. Three fabrication processes -- punching, chemical, milling, and electrical discharge machining (EDM) -- were recently evaluated, leading to the replacement of the previously used punching technique with a wire EDM technique. The automated data acquisition system was upgraded, and an interactive data analysis program was developed

  1. Size Matters: Problems and Advantages Associated with Highly Miniaturized Sensors

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlin, Andreas B.

    2012-01-01

    There is no doubt that the recent advances in nanotechnology have made it possible to realize a great variety of new sensors with signal transduction mechanisms utilizing physical phenomena at the nanoscale. Some examples are conductivity measurements in nanowires, deflection of cantilevers and spectroscopy of plasmonic nanoparticles. The fact that these techniques are based on the special properties of nanostructural entities provides for extreme sensor miniaturization since a single structu...

  2. Miniaturized tools and devices for bioanalytical applications: an overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chudy, M.; Grabowska, I.; Ciosek, P.

    2009-01-01

    This article presents an overview of various miniaturized devices and technologies developed by our group. Innovative, fast and cheap procedures for the fabrication of laboratory microsystems based on commercially available materials are reported and compared with well-established microfabricatio...... optic detectors, potentiometric sensors platforms, microreactors and capillary electrophoresis (CE) microchips as well as integrated microsystems e. g. double detection microanalytical systems, devices for studying enzymatic reactions and a microsystem for cell culture and lysis....

  3. Miniature magnetic fluid seal working in liquid environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitamura, Yoshinori, E-mail: ymitamura@par.odn.ne.jp [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0814 (Japan); Durst, Christopher A., E-mail: chris@procyrion.com [Procyrion, Inc., Houston, TX 77027 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    This study was carried out to develop a miniature magnetic fluid (MF) seal working in a liquid environment. The miniature MF seal is intended for use in a catheter blood pump. The requirements for the MF seal included a size of less than Ø4×4.5 mm, shaft diameter of 1 mm, sealing pressure of 200 mmHg, shaft speed of up to 40000 rpm, and life of one month. The miniature MF seal was composed of an NdFeB magnet (Ø4×Ø2×1) sandwiched between two pole pieces (Ø4×Ø1.1×0.5). A shield (Ø4×Ø1.2×1.5) was placed on the pole piece facing the liquid to minimize the influence of pump flow on the MF. The seal was installed on a Ø1 shaft. A seal was formed by injecting MF (Ms: 47.8 kA/m and η: 0.5 Pa·sec) into the gap between the pole pieces and the shaft. Total volume of the MF seal was 44 μL. A sealing pressure of 370 mmHg was obtained at motor speeds of 0-40,000 rpm. The seal remained perfect for 10 days in saline under the condition of a pump flow of 1.5 L/min (The test was terminated in accordance with plans). The seal remained intact after ethylene oxide sterilization during which the seal was exposed to high pressures. In conclusion, the newly developed MF seal will be useful for a catheter pump. - Highlights: • A miniature magnetic fluid seal working in a liquid environment was developed. • The seal can be installed on Ø1 mm shaft and can seal against 370 mmHg at 40000 rpm. • The magnetic fluid seal will be useful for a catheter blood pump.

  4. Miniaturized and general purpose fiber optic ultrasonic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biagi, E.; Fontani, S.; Masotti, L.; Pieraccini, M.

    1997-01-01

    Innovative photoacoustic sources for ultrasonic NDE, smart structure, and clinical diagnosis are proposed. The working principle is based on thermal conversion of laser pulses into a metallic film evaporated directly onto the tip of a fiber optic. Unique features of the proposed transducers are very high miniaturization and potential easy embedding in smart structure. Additional advantages, high bedding in smart structure. Additional advantages, high ultrasonic frequency, large and flat bandwidth. All these characteristics make the proposed device an ideal ultrasonic source

  5. Miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza, Edgar A.; Kempen, Cornelia; Lopatin, Craig

    2007-04-01

    This paper describes recent progress conducted towards the development of a miniature fiber Bragg grating sensor interrogator (FBG-Transceiver TM) system based on multi-channel integrated optic sensor (InOSense TM) microchip technology. The hybrid InOSense TM microchip technology enables the integration of all of the functionalities, both passive and active, of conventional bench top FBG sensor interrogator systems, packaged in a miniaturized, low power operation, 2-cm x 5-cm package suitable for the long-term structural health monitoring in applications where size, weight, and power are critical for operation. The FBG-Transceiver system uses active optoelectronic components monolithically integrated to the InOSense TM microchip, a microprocessor controlled signal processing electronics board capable of processing the FBG sensors signals related to stress-strain and temperature as well as vibration and acoustics. The FBG-Transceiver TM system represents a new, reliable, highly robust technology that can be used to accurately monitor the status of an array of distributed fiber optic Bragg grating sensors installed in critical infrastructures. Its miniature package, low power operation, and state-of-the-art data communications architecture, all at a very affordable price makes it a very attractive solution for a large number of SHM/NDI applications in aerospace, naval and maritime industry, civil structures like bridges, buildings and dams, the oil and chemical industry, and for homeland security applications. The miniature, cost-efficient FBG-Transceiver TM system is poised to revolutionize the field of structural health monitoring and nondestructive inspection market. The sponsor of this program is NAVAIR under a DOD SBIR contract.

  6. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials in miniature pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Shi

    2016-06-01

    Conclusion: The latencies and thresholds of VEMPs recorded from the neck extensor muscle and the masseter muscle appear to be comparable in normal adult Bama miniature pigs, although the amplitude recorded from the neck extensor muscle seems to be higher than that from the masseter muscle. However, because of their usually relatively superficial and easily accessible location, as well as their large volume and strong contractions, masseter muscles may be better target muscles for recording myogenic potentials.

  7. Can a road-driven car outrace a free-falling car?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño, Diego J.

    2011-11-01

    Motivated by an advertising scenario in which a luxury sports sedan races against a similar car falling under the influence of gravity, a calculation using undergraduate physics and calculus is performed to theoretically predict the outcome.

  8. Miniaturized Aptamer-Based Assays for Protein Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Bosco

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The availability of devices for cancer biomarker detection at early stages of the disease is one of the most critical issues in biomedicine. Towards this goal, to increase the assay sensitivity, device miniaturization strategies empowered by the employment of high affinity protein binders constitute a valuable approach. In this work we propose two different surface-based miniaturized platforms for biomarker detection in body fluids: the first platform is an atomic force microscopy (AFM-based nanoarray, where AFM is used to generate functional nanoscale areas and to detect biorecognition through careful topographic measurements; the second platform consists of a miniaturized electrochemical cell to detect biomarkers through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS analysis. Both devices rely on robust and highly-specific protein binders as aptamers, and were tested for thrombin detection. An active layer of DNA-aptamer conjugates was immobilized via DNA directed immobilization on complementary single-stranded DNA self-assembled monolayers confined on a nano/micro area of a gold surface. Results obtained with these devices were compared with the output of surface plasmon resonance (SPR assays used as reference. We succeeded in capturing antigens in concentrations as low as a few nM. We put forward ideas to push the sensitivity further to the pM range, assuring low biosample volume (μL range assay conditions.

  9. Focal Segmental Glomerulosclerosis in Related Miniature Schnauzer Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Wilson; Mausbach, Lisa; Littman, Meryl P; Cianciolo, Rachel E; Brown, Cathy A

    2018-03-01

    Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) recently has been recognized as a common cause of proteinuria in dogs in general, and in Miniature Schnauzer dogs in particular. This study describes the morphologic features present in the kidneys of 8 related proteinuric Miniature Schnauzer dogs. The FSGS, characterized by solidification of portions of the capillary tuft, affected 32% to 49% of examined glomeruli in these dogs. Synechiae, often accompanied by hyalinosis, were present in 13% to 54% of glomeruli and were more prevalent in older dogs. Seven of 8 dogs had arteriolar hyalinosis. Ultrastructurally, all dogs had evidence of a podocytopathy in the absence of electron-dense deposits, glomerular basement membrane splitting, or fibrils. All dogs had multifocal to extensive podocyte foot process effacement. Other podocyte changes included microvillous transformation, the presence of vacuoles or protein resorption droplets, cytoplasmic electron-dense aggregates, and occasional binucleation. Variable amounts of intraglomerular lipid were present in all dogs. All dogs were proteinuric, with measured values for the urine protein-to-creatinine ratio ranging from 1.2 to 6.5. Azotemia was mild to absent and dogs were euthanatized at 5.1 to 14 years of age, in all cases due to nonrenal diseases. The underlying cause of FSGS in these Miniature Schnauzer dogs has yet to be determined, but contributors likely include genetic podocytopathy, lipid abnormalities, and glomerular hypertension.

  10. Testing the impact of miniaturization on phylogeny: Paleozoic dissorophoid amphibians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröbisch, Nadia B; Schoch, Rainer R

    2009-06-01

    Among the diverse clade of Paleozoic dissorophoid amphibians, the small, terrestrial amphibamids and the neotenic branchiosaurids have frequently been suggested as possible antecedents of either all or some of the modern amphibian clades. Classically, amphibamids and branchiosaurids have been considered to represent distinct, but closely related clades within dissorophoids, but despite their importance for the controversial lissamphibian origins, a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of small dissorophoids has thus far not been attempted. On the basis of an integrated data set, the relationships of amphibamids and branchiosaurids were analyzed using parsimony and Bayesian approaches. Both groups represent miniaturized forms and it was tested whether similar developmental pathways, associated with miniaturization, lead to an artificial close relationship of branchiosaurids and amphibamids. Moreover, the fit of the resulting tree topologies to the distribution of fossil taxa in the stratigraphic rock record was assessed as an additional source of information. The results show that characters associated with a miniaturized morphology are not responsible for the close clustering of branchiosaurids and amphibamids. Instead, all analyses invariably demonstrate a monophyletic clade of branchiosaurids highly nested within derived amphibamids, indicating that branchiosaurids represent a group of secondarily neotenic amphibamid dissorophoids. This understanding of the phylogenetic relationships of small dissorophoid amphibians provides a new framework for the discussion of their evolutionary history and the evolution of characters shared by branchiosaurids and/or amphibamids with modern amphibian taxa.

  11. Design and analysis of miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Menghui; Tang, Liang; Qiao, Donghai

    2017-02-01

    The detection technology of weak magnetic field is widely used in Earth resource survey and geomagnetic navigation. Useful magnetic field information can be obtained by processing and analyzing the measurement data from magnetic sensors. A miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer is proposed in this paper. This miniature tri-axial fluxgate magnetometer with ring-core structure has a dynamic range of the Earth’s field ±65,000 nT, resolution of several nT. It has three independent parts placed in three perpendicular planes for measuring three orthogonal magnetic field components, respectively. A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) is used to generate stimulation signal, analog-to-digital (A/D) convertor control signal, and feedback digital-to-analog (D/A) control signal. Design and analysis details are given to improve the dynamic range, sensitivity, resolution, and linearity. Our prototype was measured and compared with a commercial standard Magson fluxgate magnetometer as a reference. The results show that our miniature fluxgate magnetometer can follow the Magson’s change trend well. When used as a magnetic compass, our prototype only has ± 0.3∘ deviation compared with standard magnetic compass.

  12. Autonomous stair-climbing with miniature jumping robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeter, Sascha A; Papanikolopoulos, Nikolaos

    2005-04-01

    The problem of vision-guided control of miniature mobile robots is investigated. Untethered mobile robots with small physical dimensions of around 10 cm or less do not permit powerful onboard computers because of size and power constraints. These challenges have, in the past, reduced the functionality of such devices to that of a complex remote control vehicle with fancy sensors. With the help of a computationally more powerful entity such as a larger companion robot, the control loop can be closed. Using the miniature robot's video transmission or that of an observer to localize it in the world, control commands can be computed and relayed to the inept robot. The result is a system that exhibits autonomous capabilities. The framework presented here solves the problem of climbing stairs with the miniature Scout robot. The robot's unique locomotion mode, the jump, is employed to hop one step at a time. Methods for externally tracking the Scout are developed. A large number of real-world experiments are conducted and the results discussed.

  13. Miniaturized Charpy test for reactor pressure vessel embrittlement characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manahan, M.P. Sr. [MPM Research and Consulting, Lemont, PA (United States)

    1999-10-01

    Modifications were made to a conventional Charpy machine to accommodate the miniaturized Charpy V-Notch (MCVN) specimens which were fabricated from an archived reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steel. Over 100 dynamic MCVN tests were performed and compared to the results from conventional Charpy V-Notch (CVN) tests to demonstrate the efficacy of the miniature specimen test. The optimized sidegrooved MCVN specimens exhibit transitional fracture behavior over essentially the same temperature range as the CVN specimens which indicates that the stress fields in the MCVN specimens reasonably simulate those of the CVN specimens and this fact has been observed in finite element calculations. This result demonstrates a significant breakthrough since it is now possible to measure the ductile-brittle transition temperature (DBTT) using miniature specimens with only small correction factors, and for some materials as in the present study, without the need for any correction factor at all. This development simplifies data interpretation and will facilitate future regulatory acceptance. The non-sidegrooved specimens yield energy-temperature data which is significantly shifted downward in temperature (non-conservative) as a result of the loss of constraint which accompanies size reduction.

  14. Miniature horizontal axis wind turbine system for multipurpose application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, F.J.; Yuan, F.G.; Hu, J.Z.; Qiu, Y.P.

    2014-01-01

    A MWT (miniature wind turbine) has received great attention recently for powering WISP (Wireless Intelligent Sensor Platform). In this study, two MHAWTs (miniature horizontal axis wind turbines) with and without gear transmission were designed and fabricated. A physics-based model was proposed and the optimal load resistances of the MHAWTs were predicted. The open circuit voltages, output powers and net efficiencies were measured under various ambient winds and load resistances. The experimental results showed the optimal load resistances matched well with the predicted results; the MHAWT without gear obtained higher output power at the wind speed of 2 m/s to 6 m/s, while the geared MHAWT exhibited better performance at the wind speed higher than 6 m/s. In addition, a DCM (discontinuous conduction mode) buck-boost converter was adopted as an interface circuit to maximize the charging power from MHAWTs to rechargeable batteries, exhibiting maximum efficiencies above 85%. The charging power reached about 8 mW and 36 mW at the wind speeds of 4 m/s and 6 m/s respectively, which indicated that the MHAWTs were capable for sufficient energy harvesting for powering low-power electronics continuously. - Highlights: • Performance of the miniature wind turbines with and without gears was compared. • The physics-based model was established and proved successfully. • The interface circuit with efficiency of more than 85% was designed

  15. Miniature scientific-grade magnetic sensors for CubeSats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronenko, Vira; Belyayev, Serhiy

    2016-07-01

    Micro- and nanosatellites have become more attractive due to their low development and launch cost. A class of nanosatellites defined by the CubeSat standard allows standardizing CubeSat preparation and launch, thus making the projects more affordable. Because of the complexity of sensors miniaturization to install them onboard CubeSat, the majority of CubeSat launches are aimed the technology demonstration or education missions. The scientific success of CubeSat mission depends on the sensors quality. In spite that the sensitivity of the magnetic sensors strongly depends on their size, the recent development in this branch allows us to propose tiny but sensitive both AC and DC magnetometers. The goal of the present report is to introduce the new design of miniature three-component sensors for measurement of vector magnetic fields - for quasi-stationary and slowly fluctuating - flux-gate magnetometer (FGM) - and for alternative ones - search-coil magnetometer (SCM). In order to create magnetometers with the really highest possible level of parameters, a set of scientific and technological problems, mostly aimed at the sensor construction improvement, was solved. The most important parameter characterizing magnetometer quality is its own magnetic noise level (NL). The analysis of the NL influencing factors is made and the ways to decrease it are discussed in the report. Construction details and technical specifications of miniature but sensitive FGM and SCM for the CubeSat mission are presented. This work is supported by EC Framework 7 funded project 607197.

  16. Suspended microstructures of epoxy based photoresists fabricated with UV photolithography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hemanth, Suhith; Anhøj, Thomas Aarøe; Caviglia, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    In this work we present an easy, fast, reliable and low cost microfabrication technique for fabricating suspended microstructures of epoxy based photoresistswith UV photolithography. Two different fabrication processes with epoxy based resins (SU-8 and mr-DWL) using UV exposures at wavelengths...... of 313 nm and 405 nm were optimized and compared in terms of structural stability, control of suspended layer thickness and resolution limits. A novel fabrication process combining the two photoresists SU-8 and mr-DWL with two UV exposures at 365 nm and 405 nm respectively provided a wider processing...... window for definition of well-defined suspended microstructures with lateral dimensions down to 5 μmwhen compared to 313 nm or 365 nm UV photolithography processes....

  17. Flywheel Energy Storage System Suspended by Hybrid Magnetic Bearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu-Ansah, Prince; Hu, Yefa; Misbawu, Adam

    This work presents a prototype flywheel energy storage system (FESS) suspended by hybrid magnetic bearing (HMB) rotating at a speed of 20000rpm with a maximum storage power capacity of 30W with a maximum tip speed of 300m/s. The design presented is an improvement of most existing FESS, as the design incorporates a unique feature in that the upper and the lower rotor and stator core are tapered which enhances larger thrust and much lower radial force to be exerted on the system. Without any adverse effect being experienced by the model. The work also focuses on the description of developing a prototype FESS suspended by HMB using solid works as a basis of developing in the nearer future a more improved FESS suspended by HMB capable of injecting the ever increasing high energy demand situation in the 21st century and beyond.

  18. Analysis of the Danube river suspended load regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukac, M.

    2004-01-01

    In this presentation author deals with the analysis of the Danube river suspended load regime at the Slovak section of Danube. It is concluded and recommended: Suspended load transport at the Slovak section of Danube decreases in the downstream directions - annual averages: Utilize relation of the Water Research Institute in Medvedov, the relation of the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute is probably slightly underestimated; Distribution of suspended load concentration in the cross-section is influenced mainly with local hydraulic and morphological conditions; Measured flow velocity in the range 0.6 - 2.65 m/sec -1 , influenced with water level slope; Silt particles the most numerous, less numerous sandy and clayey particles; Bratislava 3.54 mil. tonnes, Medvedov 2.22 mil. tonnes, and Komarno 1.96 mil. tonnes; Recommendation to measure actual volume of the Cunovo reservoir, in order to validate sediment transport balance; Recommendation to continue in a complex monitoring programme of sediment transport

  19. A longitudinal analysis of cars, transit, and employment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Access to cars and transit can influence individuals ability to reach opportunities such as jobs, health care, and other important : activities. While access to cars and public transit varies considerably across time, space, and across populations...

  20. Improved tank car design development : ongoing studies on sandwich structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-02

    The Government and industry have a common interest in : improving the safety performance of railroad tank cars carrying : hazardous materials. Research is ongoing to develop strategies : to maintain the structural integrity of railroad tank cars carr...

  1. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning ... it bluntly, leaving your child in a hot car is like leaving your child in a lit ...

  2. Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Tips » Holiday and Seasonal Children in Hot Cars Result in Fatal Consequences Emergency physicians are warning ... it bluntly, leaving your child in a hot car is like leaving your child in a lit ...

  3. Application brushless machines with combine excitation for a hybrid car and an electric car

    OpenAIRE

    GANDZHA S.A.; KIESSH I.E.

    2015-01-01

    This article shows advantages of application the brushless machines with combined excitation (excitation from permanent magnets and excitation winding) for the hybrid car and the electric car. This type of electric machine is compared with a typical brushless motor and an induction motor. The main advantage is the decrease of the dimensions of electric machine and the reduction of the price for an electronic control system. It is shown the design and the principle of operation of the electric...

  4. CarSim: Automatic 3D Scene Generation of a Car Accident Description

    OpenAIRE

    Egges, A.; Nijholt, A.; Nugues, P.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of generating a 3D simulation of a car accident from a written description can be divided into two subtasks: the linguistic analysis and the virtual scene generation. As a means of communication between these two system parts, we designed a template formalism to represent a written accident report. The CarSim system processes formal descriptions of accidents and creates corresponding 3D simulations. A planning component models the trajectories and temporal values of every vehicle ...

  5. Is this car looking at you? How anthropomorphism predicts fusiform face area activation when seeing cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Simone; Brick, Timothy R; Müller, Barbara C N; Gallinat, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Anthropomorphism encompasses the attribution of human characteristics to non-living objects. In particular the human tendency to see faces in cars has long been noticed, yet its neural correlates are unknown. We set out to investigate whether the fusiform face area (FFA) is associated with seeing human features in car fronts, or whether, the higher-level theory of mind network (ToM), namely temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) show a link to anthropomorphism. Twenty participants underwent fMRI scanning during a passive car-front viewing task. We extracted brain activity from FFA, TPJ and MPFC. After the fMRI session participants were asked to spontaneously list adjectives that characterize each car front. Five raters judged the degree to which each adjective can be applied as a characteristic of human beings. By means of linear mixed models we found that the implicit tendency to anthropomorphize individual car fronts predicts FFA, but not TPJ or MPFC activity. The results point to an important role of FFA in the phenomenon of ascribing human attributes to non-living objects. Interestingly, brain regions that have been associated with thinking about beliefs and mental states of others (TPJ, MPFC) do not seem to be related to anthropomorphism of car fronts.

  6. Parents smoking in their cars with children present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabi-Burza, Emara; Regan, Susan; Drehmer, Jeremy; Ossip, Deborah; Rigotti, Nancy; Hipple, Bethany; Dempsey, Janelle; Hall, Nicole; Friebely, Joan; Weiley, Victoria; Winickoff, Jonathan P

    2012-12-01

    To determine prevalence and factors associated with strictly enforced smoke-free car policies among smoking parents. As part of a cluster, randomized controlled trial addressing parental smoking, exit interviews were conducted with parents whose children were seen in 10 control pediatric practices. Parents who smoked were asked about smoking behaviors in their car and receipt of smoke-free car advice at the visit. Parents were considered to have a "strictly enforced smoke-free car policy" if they reported having a smoke-free car policy and nobody had smoked in their car within the past 3 months. Of 981 smoking parents, 817 (83%) had a car; of these, 795 parents answered questions about their car smoking policy. Of these 795 parents, 29% reported having a smoke-free car policy, and 24% had a strictly enforced smoke-free car policy. Of the 562 parents without a smoke-free car policy, 48% reported that smoking occurred with children present. Few parents who smoke (12%) were advised to have a smoke-free car. Multivariable logistic regression controlling for parent age, gender, education, and race showed that having a younger child and smoking ≤10 cigarettes per day were associated with having a strictly enforced smoke-free car policy. The majority of smoking parents exposed their children to tobacco smoke in cars. Coupled with the finding of low rates of pediatricians addressing smoking in cars, this study highlights the need for improved pediatric interventions, public health campaigns, and policies regarding smoke-free car laws to protect children from tobacco smoke.

  7. Clinical trials of CAR-T cells in China

    OpenAIRE

    Bingshan Liu; Yongping Song; Delong Liu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Novel immunotherapeutic agents targeting tumor-site microenvironment are revolutionizing cancer therapy. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T cells are widely studied for cancer immunotherapy. CD19-specific CAR-T cells, tisagenlecleucel, have been recently approved for clinical application. Ongoing clinical trials are testing CAR designs directed at novel targets involved in hematological and solid malignancies. In addition to trials of single-target CAR-T cells, simultaneous...

  8. Transient Heat Transfer Model for Car Body Primer Curing

    OpenAIRE

    D. Zabala; N. Sánchez; J. Pinto

    2010-01-01

    A transient heat transfer mathematical model for the prediction of temperature distribution in the car body during primer baking has been developed by considering the thermal radiation and convection in the furnace chamber and transient heat conduction governing equations in the car framework. The car cockpit is considered like a structure with six flat plates, four vertical plates representing the car doors and the rear and front panels. The other two flat plates are the...

  9. National car and customer loyalty: the Malaysian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Md Isa, Mohd Azwardi

    2017-01-01

    The ASEAN Free Trade Agreement has facilitated the entrance of foreign cars into Malaysia’s passenger car market and consequently imported cars are posing a serious threat to domestic automotive companies. This can be seen by decreasing sales figures and the deteriorating market share for the Proton and Perodua (companies partly-owned by government). Driven by this situation, this study examines customer satisfaction and loyalty for the consumers who have purchased these cars. ...

  10. Colorimetry Technique for Scalable Characterization of Suspended Graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartamil-Bueno, Santiago J; Steeneken, Peter G; Centeno, Alba; Zurutuza, Amaia; van der Zant, Herre S J; Houri, Samer

    2016-11-09

    Previous statistical studies on the mechanical properties of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) suspended graphene membranes have been performed by means of measuring individual devices or with techniques that affect the material. Here, we present a colorimetry technique as a parallel, noninvasive, and affordable way of characterizing suspended graphene devices. We exploit Newton's rings interference patterns to study the deformation of a double-layer graphene drum 13.2 μm in diameter when a pressure step is applied. By studying the time evolution of the deformation, we find that filling the drum cavity with air is 2-5 times slower than when it is purged.

  11. Optical fiber end-facet polymer suspended-mirror devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mian; Wu, Jushuai; Zhang, A. Ping; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Wai, P. K. A.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a novel optical fiber device based on a polymer suspended mirror on the end facet of an optical fiber. With an own-developed optical 3D micro-printing technology, SU-8 suspended-mirror devices (SMDs) were successfully fabricated on the top of a standard single-mode optical fiber. Optical reflection spectra of the fabricated SU- 8 SMDs were measured and compared with theoretical analysis. The proposed technology paves a way towards 3D microengineering of the small end-facet of optical fibers to develop novel fiber-optic sensors.

  12. Miniature scientific-grade induction magnetometer for cubesats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronenko, Vira

    2017-04-01

    One of the main areas of space research is the study and forecasting of space weather. The society is more and more depending nowadays on satellite technology and communications, so it is vital to understand the physical process in the solar-terrestrial system which may disturb them. Besides the solar radiation and Space Weather effects, the Earth's ionosphere is also modified by the ever increasing industrial activity. There have been also multiple reports relating VLF and ELF wave activity to atmospheric storms and geological processes, such as earthquakes and volcanic activity. For advancing in these fields, the AC magnetic field permanent monitoring is crucial. Using the cubesat technology would allow increasing the number of measuring points dramatically. It is necessary to mention that the cubesats use for scientific research requires the miniaturization of scientific sensors what is a serious problem because the reduction of their dimensions leads, as a rule, to the parameters degradation, especially of sensitivity threshold. Today, there is no basic model of a sensitive miniature induction magnetometer. Even the smallest one of the known - for the Bepi-Colombo mission to Mercury - is too big for cubesats. The goal of the present report is to introduce the new design of miniature three-component sensor for measurement of alternative vector magnetic fields - induction magnetometer (IM). The study directions were concentrated on the ways and possibilities to create the miniature magnetometer with best combination of parameters. For this a set of scientific and technological problems, mostly aimed at the sensor construction improvement, was solved. The most important parameter characterizing magnetometer quality is its own magnetic noise level (NL). The analysis of the NL influencing factors is made and the ways to decrease it are discussed in the report. Finally, the LEMI-151 IM was developed for the SEAM cubesat mission with optimal performances within the

  13. The Antifouling of ACLW-CAR Based on Ultrasonic Cleaner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guohua; Liu, Shixuan; Qin, Qingliang

    2017-10-01

    Equipped with ACLW-CAR, the buoy provided effective technical platform for on-site rapid monitoring of the chlorophyll and turbidity. Performance index and usage in the ocean buoy of ACLW-CAR was introduced. Ultrasonic cleaning method in seawater was developed for preventing ACLW-CAR from biofouling. Marine chlorophyll and turbidity data can serve for oceanographic research and marine resource exploitation.

  14. Students to Race Solar-Powered Model Cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    race model solar cars on Saturday, May 12. The cars, designed to tap into energy from the sun, are than 12 inches wide, 24 inches long and 12 inches high. The 20-meter race is a double elimination competition with awards going to the five fastest cars. Five design awards also will be given out for

  15. 30 CFR 56.14215 - Coupling or uncoupling cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coupling or uncoupling cars. 56.14215 Section... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14215 Coupling or uncoupling cars. Prior to coupling or uncoupling cars manually, trains shall be brought to a complete stop, and then moved at minimum...

  16. 49 CFR 231.18 - Cars of special construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cars of special construction. 231.18 Section 231... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD SAFETY APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.18 Cars of special construction. Cars of construction not covered specifically in the foregoing sections in this part, relative to...

  17. 49 CFR 231.22 - Operation of track motor cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation of track motor cars. 231.22 Section 231... motor cars. On and after August 1, 1963, it shall be unlawful for any railroad subject to the requirements of the Safety Appliance Acts to operate or permit to be operated on its line track motor cars to...

  18. 49 CFR 238.413 - End structures of trailer cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false End structures of trailer cars. 238.413 Section... II Passenger Equipment § 238.413 End structures of trailer cars. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, the end structure of a trailer car shall be designed to include the following...

  19. CAN PUBLIC TRANSPORT COMPETE WITH THE PRIVATE CAR?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda STEG

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transport is often perceived to be a poor alternative for car use. This paper describes who may be open to use public transport more often, and how people might be persuaded to use it. A computerised questionnaire study was conducted among 1,803 Dutch respondents in May 2001. Results revealed that especially fervent car users disliked public transport. For them, the car outperformed public transport not only because of its instrumental function, but also because the car represents cultural and psychological values, e.g. the car is a symbol of freedom and independence, a status symbol and driving is pleasurable. So, for fervent car users, car use is connected with various important values in modern society. Infrequent car users judged less positively about the car and less negatively about public transport. Consequently, they may be open to use public transport more regularly. In contrast, many efforts are needed to stimulate fervent car users to travel by public transport, because in their view, public transport cannot compete with their private car. In this case, policies should be aimed at reducing the functional, psychological and cultural values of private cars, as well as increasing the performance of public transport and other (more environmentally sound modes of transport on these aspects.

  20. Car App's Persuasive Design Principles and Behavior Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Wan, Lili; Min, Daihwan

    2016-01-01

    The emphasis of this study lies in behavior change after using car apps that assist users in using their vehicles and establishing a process for examining the interrelationship between car app's persuasive characteristics and behavior change. A categorizing method was developed and 697 car apps were investigated and classified into eight…

  1. Charging free floating shared cars in metropolitan areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Poel, Gijs; Tensen, Tim; van Goeverden, Tom; van den Hoed, Robert

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyses the effect of two new developments: electrification and ‘free floating’ car sharing and their impact on public space. Contrary to station based shared cars, free floating cars do not have dedicated parking or charging stations. They therefore park at public parking spots and

  2. 49 CFR 231.8 - Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with... APPLIANCE STANDARDS § 231.8 Tank cars without side sills and tank cars with short side sills and end platforms. (a) Hand brakes—(1) Number. Same as specified for “Box and other house cars” (see § 231.1(a)(1...

  3. Report on electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars; Redegoerelse - elbiler og plug-in hybridbiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elkjaer Toennesen, A.; Winther, K.; Noerregaard, K. (Teknologisk Institut, Taastrup (Denmark)); Larsen, Esben; Christensen, Linda; Kveiborg, O. (Danmarks Teknologiske Univ., Kgs. Lyngby (DTU) (Denmark))

    2010-04-15

    The Center for Green Transport at the Danish Transport Authority has prepared this statement in order to uncover driving technical aspects, user expectations and needs, and the environmental consequences of using electric and plug-in hybrid cars. An electric car is defined as a car driven by an electric motor that has a battery that can be charged with power from the grid. A plug-in hybrid car is defined as a car that combines gasoline or diesel engine with an electric motor with a battery which can be recharged with power from the grid. From an overall consideration related to the transport sector electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars have the major advantage that negative impacts on environment and climate from traffic can be reduced while the high mobility is maintained. Through an increased use of electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars, the many advantages attached to the car as an individual transportation form is maintained, while CO{sub 2} emissions etc. are reduced. Electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars is one of the technologies that are considered to have particularly great prospects in the medium term when it comes to promoting new technologies in transport. Another advantage of using electric vehicles is the power supply factor. An increased use of electricity in transport will reduce the need for and dependence on fossil fuels in the sector. Both electric cars and plug-in hybrid cars are expected to be used for storage of wind power, a possibility which is hardly available today. The plug-in hybrid car could meet some of the challenges facing the pure electric car, because it also can use conventional fuel. The report presents analyses based on three focus areas: a) Users' needs, expectations and economics in relation to vehicles; b) The technology - and hence the manufacturers' opportunities and challenges; c) Connection to the power grid. (ln)

  4. 49 CFR 179.201 - Individual specification requirements applicable to non-pressure tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... to non-pressure tank car tanks. 179.201 Section 179.201 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specifications for Non-Pressure Tank Car Tanks (Classes... car tanks. ...

  5. 49 CFR 179.400 - General specification applicable to cryogenic liquid tank car tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... liquid tank car tanks. 179.400 Section 179.400 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... MATERIALS REGULATIONS SPECIFICATIONS FOR TANK CARS Specification for Cryogenic Liquid Tank Car Tanks and... liquid tank car tanks. ...

  6. Evaluation of the cationic trypsinogen gene for potential mutations in miniature schnauzers with pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Micah A; Steiner, Jörg M; Moore, Lisa E; Williams, David A

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cationic trypsinogen gene in miniature schnauzers for possible mutations. Genetic mutations have been linked with hereditary pancreatitis in humans. Four miniature schnauzers were selected on the basis of a clinical history of pancreatitis. One healthy miniature schnauzer and 1 healthy mixed breed canine were enrolled as controls. DNA was extracted from these canines using a commercial kit. Primers were designed to amplify the entire canine cationic trypsinogen cDNA sequence. A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed and products were purified and sequenced. All sequences were then compared. The healthy control canine, a healthy miniature schnauzer, and the 4 miniature schnauzers with pancreatitis showed identical sequences of the cationic trypsinogen gene to the published sequence. We conclude that, in contrast to humans with hereditary pancreatitis, mutations of the cationic trypsinogen gene do not play a major role in the genesis of pancreatitis in the miniature schnauzer.

  7. Investigation of factors that stimulate car drivers to change from car to carpooling in city center oriented work trips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Waerden, P.J.H.J.; Lem, A.; Schaefer, W.F.

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to get more insight into the attributes that stimulate car drivers to use carpool as an alternative for their commuting trips in which the car is still the most used travel mode. The study was set up as a stated choice experiment. In the experiment, car drivers were asked to

  8. Car Builder: Design, Construct and Test Your Own Cars. School Version with Lesson Plans. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Highsmith, Joni Bitman

    Car Builder is a scientific CD-ROM-based simulation program that lets students design, construct, modify, test, and compare their own cars. Students can design sedans, four-wheel-drive vehicles, vans, sport cars, and hot rods. They may select for aerodynamics, power, and racing ability, or economic and fuel efficiency. It is a program that teaches…

  9. Simulation of car movement along circular path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotov, A. I.; Tikhov-Tinnikov, D. A.; Ovchinnikova, N. I.; Lysenko, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    Under operating conditions, suspension system performance changes which negatively affects vehicle stability and handling. The paper aims to simulate the impact of changes in suspension system performance on vehicle stability and handling. Methods. The paper describes monitoring of suspension system performance, testing of vehicle stability and handling, analyzes methods of suspension system performance monitoring under operating conditions. The mathematical model of a car movement along a circular path was developed. Mathematical tools describing a circular movement of a vehicle along a horizontal road were developed. Turning car movements were simulated. Calculation and experiment results were compared. Simulation proves the applicability of a mathematical model for assessment of the impact of suspension system performance on vehicle stability and handling.

  10. MicroCar 2003. Abstracts of papers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    Mechatronics for automotive applications is an important trend, combining mechanics, electronics and information technology. Micro- and nanomechatronics, particularly innovative research disciplines, will help create, in combination with advanced solutions from microsystem technologies, e.g. the electronic packaging, a range of entirely new developments in automobiles. Under the umbrella of the Automotive Suppliers Fair Z2003, it is happening for the very first time now that a momentous scientific conference, such as the MicroCar 2003, brings together representatives from car manufacturers and the electronics industry, as well as a large number of experts from technical colleges, universities and research institutes to discuss the new potentials and possibilities presented by the use of micro and nanomaterials in Leipzig. With the presentation of 50 papers, speakers will inform about their latest research results as well as current trends in micro and nanotechnologies for automotives. This issue is publishing the abstracts of this scientific event.

  11. A Bumpy Ride for Electric Cars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnaure, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    In July 2017 Nicolas Hulot, the French Minister of Ecological and Inclusive Transition, presented a climate plan featuring an end to electricity generation from coal by 2022, a reduction in the nuclear component of electricity supply by one third, a total ban on the sale of petrol or diesel cars by 2040 and an incentive scheme designed gradually to remove polluting vehicles from the roads. Other European partners are following suit and promoting the spread of electric vehicles (Norway, Germany, Netherlands etc.). Yet is this the panacea that will meet the targets for greenhouse gas reduction in the battle against climate change? Futuribles examines the question in this issue, first through this article by Pierre Bonnaure that assesses the forces driving the spread of electric cars and the impediments to that process, and then with an article by Veronique Lamblin offering a general overview of electric road vehicles. (author)

  12. Thermal modelling of a torpedo-car

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdeja-Gonzalez, L. F.; Barbes-Fernandez, M. F.; Gonzalez-Ojeda, R.; Castillo, G. A.; Colas, R.

    2005-01-01

    A two-dimensional finite element model for computing the temperature distribution in a torpedo-car holding pig iron is described in this work. The model determines the temperature gradients in steady and transient conditions whiting the different parts that constitute the systems, which are considered to be the steel casing, refractory lining, liquid iron, slag and air. Heat transfer within the main fluid phases (iron and air) is computed assuming an apparent thermal conductivity term incorporating the contribution from convention and radiation, and it is affected by the dimensions of the vessel. Thermal gradients within the constituents of the torpedo-car are used to calculate heat losses during operation. It was found that the model required the incorporate of a region within the iron-refractory interface to reproduce thermographic data recorded during operation; the heat transfer coefficient of this interface was found to be equal to 30 Wm''-2K''-1. (Author) 11 refs

  13. Assessments of lake profiling on temperature, Total Suspended ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interpolation were performed on temperature, total suspended solid (TSS) and turbidity (TUR) based on in-situ and ex-situ analyses according to the correlation matrix and linear regression at 14 different depths for the Chomor River and Mahadir Island. The result showed outlet significantly decreased over depth caused the ...

  14. Discrete Dynamics of Nanoparticle Channelling in Suspended Graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booth, Tim; Pizzocchero, Filippo; Andersen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    We have observed a previously undescribed stepwise oxidation of mono- and few layer suspended graphene by silver nanoparticles in situ at subnanometer scale in an environmental transmission electron microscope. Over the range of 600–850 K, we observe crystallographically oriented channelling...

  15. Self-Suspended Suspensions of Covalently Grafted Hairy Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Choudhury, Snehashis

    2015-03-17

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. Dispersions of small particles in liquids have been studied continuously for almost two centuries for their ability to simultaneously advance understanding of physical properties of fluids and their widespread use in applications. In both settings, the suspending (liquid) and suspended (solid) phases are normally distinct and uncoupled on long length and time scales. In this study, we report on the synthesis and physical properties of a novel family of covalently grafted nanoparticles that exist as self-suspended suspensions with high particle loadings. In such suspensions, we find that the grafted polymer chains exhibit unusual multiscale structural transitions and enhanced conformational stability on subnanometer and nanometer length scales. On mesoscopic length scales, the suspensions display exceptional homogeneity and colloidal stability. We attribute this feature to steric repulsions between grafted chains and the space-filling constraint on the tethered chains in the single-component self-suspended materials, which inhibits phase segregation. On macroscopic length scales, the suspensions exist as neat fluids that exhibit soft glassy rheology and, counterintuitively, enhanced elasticity with increasing temperature. This feature is discussed in terms of increased interpenetration of the grafted chains and jamming of the nanoparticles. (Chemical Presented).

  16. Turbidity-controlled sampling for suspended sediment load estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Lewis

    2003-01-01

    Abstract - Automated data collection is essential to effectively measure suspended sediment loads in storm events, particularly in small basins. Continuous turbidity measurements can be used, along with discharge, in an automated system that makes real-time sampling decisions to facilitate sediment load estimation. The Turbidity Threshold Sampling method distributes...

  17. Nature of suspended particulate matter and concentrations of heavy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentrations of metals in bottom sediment in the Tanzanian waters of Lake Victoria and the nature of suspended particulate matter (SPM) were analysed. The objective of the study was to compare levels of metals in sediment from different locations and to establish their sources. Metal concentrations were higher in ...

  18. Comparison of Suspended Solid Separation in Advanced Storm Overflow Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Sørensen, Morten Steen

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a laboratory investigation of the separation of suspended solids in a circular weir overflow and a vortex separator. The basic idea is to evaluate the efficiency of a vortical flow in the overflow chamber, and to compare these results with other overflow structures....

  19. Investigation of suspended sediment transport using ultrasonic techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnø, Irina; Jensen, Leif Bjørnø

    1994-01-01

    The results of the initial experimental studies involving the scattering of ultrasonic signals from canonical and non-canonical shaped suspended particles with known elastical qualities are reported. These results have formed the basis for the development of a numerical model for ultrasound...... propagation through low-concentration suspensions of sand particles...

  20. Reduction in density of suspended - sediment - laden natural waters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desa, E.; Desa, E.; Smith, D.; Peshwe, V.B.; VijayKumar, K.; Desa, J.A.E.

    to 0.4% - 4.5%) that of the density of the same water without suspended sediment. Teh values of peff in a given site differed from one tidal cycle to another (approx equal to 1.9%). These values varied slightly (less than 0.8%) from mid-tide to slack...