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Sample records for mini-brayton heat source

  1. Preliminary Failure Modes, Effects and Criticality Analysis (FMECA) of the conceptual Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Flight System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, L.G.

    1976-01-01

    A failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) was made of the Brayton Isotope Power System Flight System (BIPS-FS) as presently conceived. The components analyzed include: Mini-BRU; Heat Source Assembly (HSA); Mini-Brayton Recuperator (MBR); Space Radiator; Ducts and Bellows, Insulation System; Controls; and Isotope Heat Source (IHS)

  2. Program plan for the Brayton Isotope Power System. Phase I. Design, fabrication and test of the Brayton Isotope Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Phase I of an overall program for the development of a 500 to 2000 W(e) (EOM), 7-y life, power system for space vehicles is discussed. The system uses a closed Brayton dynamic system to convert energy from an isotope heat source at a net efficiency greater than 25 percent. This first phase, a 35-month effort, is for the conceptual design of a 1300 W(e), 450 lb flight system and the design, fabrication, and test of a ground demonstration system. The flight system will use, for the baseline design, two of the multihundred-watt (MHW) heat sources being developed. The Ground Demonstration System will simulate, as closely as possible, the Brayton Isotope Power Flight System and will utilize components and technology being developed for the Mini-Brayton rotating unit, recuperator and heat source assembly, respectively. The Ground Demonstration System includes a performance test and a 1000-h endurance test

  3. Preliminary design study of an alternate heat source assembly for a Brayton isotope power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpf, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    Results are presented for a study of the preliminary design of an alternate heat source assembly (HSA) intended for use in the Brayton isotope power system (BIPS). The BIPS converts thermal energy emitted by a radioactive heat source into electrical energy by means of a closed Brayton cycle. A heat source heat exchanger configuration was selected and optimized. The design consists of a 10 turn helically wound Hastelloy X tube. Thermal analyses were performed for various operating conditions to ensure that post impact containment shell (PICS) temperatures remain within specified limits. These limits are essentially satisfied for all modes of operation except for the emergency cooling system for which the PICS temperatures are too high. Neon was found to be the best choice for a fill gas for auxiliary cooling system operation. Low cycle fatigue life, natural frequency, and dynamic loading requirements can be met with minor modifications to the existing HSA.

  4. Heat exchanger design for hot air ericsson-brayton piston engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ďurčanský P.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the solutions without negative consequences for the increasing energy consumption in the world may be use of alternative energy sources in micro-cogeneration. Currently it is looking for different solutions and there are many possible ways. Cogeneration is known for long time and is widely used. But the installations are often large and the installed output is more suitable for cities or industry companies. When we will speak about decentralization, the small machines have to be used. The article deals with the principle of hot-air engines, their use in combined heat and electricity production from biomass and with heat exchangers as primary energy transforming element. In the article is hot air engine presented as a heat engine that allows the conversion of heat into mechanical energy while heat supply can be external. In the contribution are compared cycles of hot-air engine. Then are compared suitable heat exchangers for use with hot air Ericsson-Brayton engine. In the final part is proposal of heat exchanger for use in closed Ericsson-Brayton cycle.

  5. Heat exchanger design for hot air ericsson-brayton piston engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ďurčanský, P.; Lenhard, R.; Jandačka, J.

    2014-03-01

    One of the solutions without negative consequences for the increasing energy consumption in the world may be use of alternative energy sources in micro-cogeneration. Currently it is looking for different solutions and there are many possible ways. Cogeneration is known for long time and is widely used. But the installations are often large and the installed output is more suitable for cities or industry companies. When we will speak about decentralization, the small machines have to be used. The article deals with the principle of hot-air engines, their use in combined heat and electricity production from biomass and with heat exchangers as primary energy transforming element. In the article is hot air engine presented as a heat engine that allows the conversion of heat into mechanical energy while heat supply can be external. In the contribution are compared cycles of hot-air engine. Then are compared suitable heat exchangers for use with hot air Ericsson-Brayton engine. In the final part is proposal of heat exchanger for use in closed Ericsson-Brayton cycle.

  6. The maximum power condition of the brayton cycle with heat exchange processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Pyung Suk; Cha, Jin Girl; Ro, Sung Tack

    1985-01-01

    The ideal brayton cycle has been analyzed with the heat exchange processes between the working fluid and the heat source and the sink while their heat capacity rates are constant. The power of the cycle can be expressed in terms of a temperature of the cycle and the heat capacity rate of the working fluid. There exists an optimum power condition where the heat capacity rate of the working fluid has a value between those of the heat source and the heat sink, and the cycle efficiency is determined by the inlet temperatures of the heat source and the sink. (Author)

  7. Design and fabrication of the Mini-Brayton Recuperator (MBR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killackey, J. J.; Graves, R.; Mosinskis, G.

    1978-01-01

    Development of a recuperator for a 2.0 kW closed Brayton space power system is described. The plate-fin heat exchanger is fabricated entirely from Hastelloy X and is designed for 10 years continuous operation at 1000 K (1300 F) with a Xenon-helium working fluid. Special design provisions assure uniform flow distribution, crucial for meeting 0.975 temperature effectiveness. Low-cycle fatigue, resulting from repeated startup and shutdown cycles, was identified as the most critical structural design problem. It is predicted that the unit has a minimum fatigue life of 220 cycles. This is in excess of the BIPS requirement of 100 cycles. Heat transfer performance and thermal cycle testing with air, using a prototype unit, verified that all design objectives can be met.

  8. Optimization of Brayton cycles for low-to-moderate grade thermal energy sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovira, Antonio; Muñoz-Antón, Javier; Montes, María José; Martínez-Val, José María

    2013-01-01

    Future electricity generation will involve low or moderate temperature technologies. In such a scenario, optimisation of thermodynamic cycles will be a key task. This work presents a systematic analysis to find the operating regime where Brayton cycles reach the highest efficiency, using real substances and given heat source and sink temperatures. Several configurations using fluids close to its critical point at the compressor inlet are considered. Irreversibility sources are carefully analysed, as well as the type of working fluid. The analysis is performed by means of a theoretical approach to obtain some trends, which are afterwards validated with real gases. Results show that the efficiency and the specific work improve if the compressor inlet is close to the critical point. Furthermore, these cycles are less sensitive to pressure drops and politropic efficiencies than those working with ideal gases. The above features are more evident when the ratio of heat source and heat sink temperatures is low. The selection of the gas becomes a fundamental issue in this quest. Critical temperature should be close to ambient temperature, low critical pressure is advisable and the R/c p factor measured at the ideal gas condition should be low to further enhance the efficiency. - Highlights: • Performance analysis of Brayton cycles with the compressor inlet close to the critical point. • Cycles are not very sensitive to pressure drops and isentropic efficiencies of the compressor. • Gas selection becomes important, regarding the critical pressure and temperature as well as the kind of fluid. • R/c p factor measured at the ideal gas condition should be as low as possible

  9. Thulium heat sources for space power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alderman, C.J.

    1992-05-01

    Reliable power supplies for use in transportation and remote systems will be an important part of space exploration terrestrial activities. A potential power source is available in the rare earth metal, thulium. Fuel sources can be produced by activating Tm-169 targets in the space station reactor. The resulting Tm-170 heat sources can be used in thermoelectric generators to power instrumentation and telecommunications located at remote sites such as weather stations. As the heat source in a dynamic Sterling or Brayton cycle system, the heat source can provide a lightweight power source for rovers or other terrestrial transportation systems

  10. A Comparison of Coolant Options for Brayton Power Conversion Heat Rejection Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siamidis, John; Mason, Lee

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes potential heat rejection design concepts for Brayton power conversion systems. Brayton conversion systems are currently under study by NASA for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) and surface power applications. The Brayton Heat Rejection Subsystem (HRS) must dissipate waste heat generated by the power conversion system due to inefficiencies in the thermal-to-electric conversion process. Sodium potassium (NaK) and H2O are two coolant working fluids that have been investigated in the design of a pumped loop and heat pipe space HRS. In general NaK systems are high temperature (300 to 1000 K) low pressure systems, and H2O systems are low temperature (300 to 600 K) high pressure systems. NaK is an alkali metal with health and safety hazards that require special handling procedures. On the other hand, H2O is a common fluid, with no health hazards and no special handling procedures. This paper compares NaK and H2O for the HRS pumped loop coolant working fluid. A detailed excel analytical model, HRS O pt, was developed to evaluate the various HRS design parameters. It is capable of analyzing NaK or H2O coolant, parallel or series flow configurations, and numerous combinations of other key parameters (heat pipe spacing, diameter and radial flux, radiator facesheet thickness, fluid duct system pressure drop, system rejected power, etc.) of the HRS. This paper compares NaK against water for the HRS coolant working fluid with respect to the relative mass, performance, design and implementation issues between the two fluids

  11. Advanced heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds. Phase 1, Conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from stationary industrial and commercial sources represent a substantial portion of the total US VOC emissions. The ``Toxic-Release Inventory`` of The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates this to be at about 3 billion pounds per year (1987 estimates). The majority of these VOC emissions are from coating processes, cleaning processes, polymer production, fuel production and distribution, foam blowing,refrigerant production, and wood products production. The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) interest in the recovery of VOC stems from the energy embodied in the recovered solvents and the energy required to dispose of them in an environmentally acceptable manner. This Phase I report documents 3M`s work in close working relationship with its subcontractor Nuclear Consulting Services (Nucon) for the preliminary conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of VOC. Nucon designed Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene from coating operations at 3M Weatherford, OK, was used as a base line for the work under cooperative agreement between 3M and ODE. See appendix A and reference (4) by Kovach of Nucon. This cooperative agreement report evaluates and compares an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for solvent recovery with other competing technologies for solvent recovery and reuse. This advanced Brayton cycle heat pump is simple (very few components), highly reliable (off the shelf components), energy efficient and economically priced.

  12. Assessment of dynamic energy conversion systems for radioisotope heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, G.R.; Mangeng, C.A.

    1985-06-01

    The use of dynamic conversion systems to convert the heat generated in a 7500 W(t) 90 Sr radioisotopic heat source to electricity is examined. The systems studies were Stirling; Brayton Cycle; three organic Rankines (ORCs) (Barber-Nichols/ORMAT, Sundstrand, and TRW); and an organic Rankine plus thermoelectrics. The systems were ranked for a North Warning System mission using a Los Alamos Multiattribute Decision Theory code. Three different heat source designs were used: case I with a beginning of life (BOL) source temperature of 640 C, case II with a BOL source temperature of 745 0 C, and case III with a BOL source temperature of 945 0 C. The Stirling engine system was the top-ranked system of cases I and II, closely followed by the ORC systems in case I and ORC plus thermoelectrics in case II. The Brayton cycle system was top-ranked for case III, with the Stirling engine system a close second. The use of 238 Pu in heat source sizes of 7500 W(t) was examined and found to be questionable because of cost and material availability and because of additional requirements for analysis of safeguards and critical mass

  13. An assessment of dynamic energy conversion systems for terrestrial radioisotope heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thayer, G.R.

    1985-01-01

    The use of dynamic conversion systems to convert to electricity the heat generated in a 7500 W(t) 90 Sr radioisotopic heat source is examined. Brayton Cycle, three Organic Rankine systems (Barber-Nichols/ORMAT, Sundstrand, and TRW concepts), Organic Rankine plus thermoelectrics, and Stirling Engine systems were studied. The systems were ranked for a North Warning System mission using a Los Alamos Multi-Attribute Decision Theory code. Three different heat source designs were used: Case I with a beginning of life (BOL) source temperature of 640 0 C, Case II with a BOL source temperature of 745 0 C, and Case III with a BOL source temperature of 945 0 C. The Stirling Engine system was the top-ranked system for Cases I and II, closely followed by the ORC systems in Case I and ORC and thermoelectrics in Case II. The Brayton-Cycle system was top-ranked for Case III, with the Stirling Engine system a close second

  14. Comparative energy analysis on a new regenerative Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • New regenerative Brayton cycle has been introduced. • New cycle has higher thermal efficiency and lower exhausted heat per output power. • Regenerator may remain useful in the new cycle even at high pressure ratio. • New regenerative Brayton cycle is suggested for low pressure ratio operations. - Abstract: Gas turbines are frequently used for power generation. Brayton cycle is the basis for gas turbine operation and developing the alternative cycles. Regenerative Brayton cycle is a developed cycle for basic Brayton cycle with higher thermal efficiency at low to moderate pressure ratios. A new regenerative Brayton cycle has been introduced in the present study. Energy analysis has been conducted on ideal cycles to compare them from the first law of thermodynamics viewpoint. Comparative analyses showed that the new regenerative Brayton cycle has higher thermal efficiency than the original one at the same pressure ratio, and also lower heat absorption and exhausted heat per unite output power. Computed results show that new cycle improves thermal efficiency from 12% to 26% relative to the original regenerative Brayton cycle in the range of studied pressure ratios. Contrary to the original regenerative Brayton cycle, regenerator remains useful in the new regenerative Brayton cycle even at higher pressure ratio.

  15. Mini-Split Heat Pumps Multifamily Retrofit Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, Jordan [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Podorson, David [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States); Varshney, Kapil [ARIES Collaborative, New York, NY (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Mini-split heat pumps can provide space heating and cooling in many climates and are relatively affordable. These and other features make them potentially suitable for retrofitting into multifamily buildings in cold climates to replace electric resistance heating or other outmoded heating systems. This report investigates the suitability of mini-split heat pumps for multifamily retrofits. Various technical and regulatory barriers are discussed and modeling was performed to compare long-term costs of substituting mini-splits for a variety of other heating and cooling options. A number of utility programs have retrofit mini-splits in both single family and multifamily residences. Two such multifamily programs are discussed in detail.

  16. Design and analysis of helium Brayton power cycles for HiPER reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez, Consuelo, E-mail: csanchez@ind.uned.es [Dpto. Ingeniería Energética UNED, Madrid (Spain); Juárez, Rafael; Sanz, Javier [Dpto. Ingeniería Energética UNED, Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Fusión Nuclear/UPM, Madrid (Spain); Perlado, Manuel [Instituto de Fusión Nuclear/UPM, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► A helium Brayton cycle has been designed integrating the two energy sources of HiPER. ► The Brayton cycle has intercooling stages and a recovery process. ► The low temperature of HiPER heat sources results in low cycle efficiency (35.2%). ► Two inter-cooling stages and a reheating process increases efficiency to over 37%. ► Helium Brayton cycles are to be considered as candidates for HiPER power cycles. -- Abstract: Helium Brayton cycles have been studied as power cycles for both fission and fusion reactors obtaining high thermal efficiency. This paper studies several technological schemes of helium Brayton cycles applied for the HiPER reactor proposal. Since HiPER integrates technologies available at short term, its working conditions results in a very low maximum temperature of the energy sources, something that limits the thermal performance of the cycle. The aim of this work is to analyze the potential of the helium Brayton cycles as power cycles for HiPER. Several helium Brayton cycle configurations have been investigated with the purpose of raising the cycle thermal efficiency under the working conditions of HiPER. The effects of inter-cooling and reheating have specifically been studied. Sensitivity analyses of the key cycle parameters and component performances on the maximum thermal efficiency have also been carried out. The addition of several inter-cooling stages in a helium Brayton cycle has allowed obtaining a maximum thermal efficiency of over 36%, and the inclusion of a reheating process may also yield an added increase of nearly 1 percentage point to reach 37%. These results confirm that helium Brayton cycles are to be considered among the power cycle candidates for HiPER.

  17. Design and analysis of helium Brayton power cycles for HiPER reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sánchez, Consuelo; Juárez, Rafael; Sanz, Javier; Perlado, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A helium Brayton cycle has been designed integrating the two energy sources of HiPER. ► The Brayton cycle has intercooling stages and a recovery process. ► The low temperature of HiPER heat sources results in low cycle efficiency (35.2%). ► Two inter-cooling stages and a reheating process increases efficiency to over 37%. ► Helium Brayton cycles are to be considered as candidates for HiPER power cycles. -- Abstract: Helium Brayton cycles have been studied as power cycles for both fission and fusion reactors obtaining high thermal efficiency. This paper studies several technological schemes of helium Brayton cycles applied for the HiPER reactor proposal. Since HiPER integrates technologies available at short term, its working conditions results in a very low maximum temperature of the energy sources, something that limits the thermal performance of the cycle. The aim of this work is to analyze the potential of the helium Brayton cycles as power cycles for HiPER. Several helium Brayton cycle configurations have been investigated with the purpose of raising the cycle thermal efficiency under the working conditions of HiPER. The effects of inter-cooling and reheating have specifically been studied. Sensitivity analyses of the key cycle parameters and component performances on the maximum thermal efficiency have also been carried out. The addition of several inter-cooling stages in a helium Brayton cycle has allowed obtaining a maximum thermal efficiency of over 36%, and the inclusion of a reheating process may also yield an added increase of nearly 1 percentage point to reach 37%. These results confirm that helium Brayton cycles are to be considered among the power cycle candidates for HiPER

  18. A comparison of radioisotope Brayton and Stirling system for lunar surface mobile power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harty, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    A study was performed by the Rocketdyne Division of Rockwell 2.5-kWe modular dynamic isotope power system (DIPS) using a Stirling power conversion system. The results of this study were compared with similar results performed under the DIPS program using a Brayton power conversion system. The study indicated that the Stirling power module has 20% lower mass and 40% lower radiator area than the Brayton module. However, the study also revealed that because the Stirling power module requires a complex heat pipe arrangment to transport heat from the isotope to the Stirling heater head and a pumped NaK heat rejection loop, the Stirling module is much more difficult to integrate with the isotope heat source and heat rejection system

  19. Air source heat pump water heater: Dynamic modeling, optimal energy management and mini-tubes condensers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Oussama; Fardoun, Farouk; Younes, Rafic; Louahlia-Gualous, Hasna

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic simulation model to predict the performance of an ASHPWH (air source heat pump water heater). The developed model is used to assess its performance in the Lebanese context. It is shown that for the four Lebanese climatic zones, the expected monthly values of the average COP (coefficient of performance) varies from 2.9 to 5, leading to high efficiencies compared with conventional electric water heaters. The energy savings and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions reduction are investigated for each zone. Furthermore, it is recommended to use the ASHPWH during the period of highest daily ambient temperatures (noon or afternoon), assuming that the electricity tariff and hot water loads are constant. In addition, an optimal management model for the ASHPWH is developed and applied for a typical winter day of Beirut. Moreover, the developed dynamic model of ASHPWH is used to compare the performance of three similar systems that differ only with the condenser geometry, where results show that using mini-condenser geometries increase the COP (coefficient of performance) and consequently, more energy is saved as well as more GHG emissions are reduced. In addition, the condenser “surface compactness” is increased giving rise to an efficient compact heat exchanger. - Highlights: • Numerical modeling and experimental validation for ASHPWH (air source heat pump water heater). • Optimization of the ASHPWH-condenser length. • Comparison of the ASHPWH with conventional electric water heater according to energy efficiency and green gas house emissions. • Development of an energetic-economic optimal management model for ASHPWH. • Energetic and environmental assessment of ASHPWH with mini-tubes condensers

  20. The feasibility study on supercritical methane Recuperated Brayton Cycle for waste heat recovery

    KAUST Repository

    Dyuisenakhmetov, Aibolat

    2017-05-01

    Recuperated Brayton Cycle (RBC) has attracted the attention of research scientists not only as a possible replacement for the steam cycle at nuclear power plants but also as an efficient bottoming cycle for waste heat recovery and for concentrated solar power. RBC’s compactness and the ease at which it can be integrated into existent power plants for waste heat recovery require few modifications. Methane, carbon dioxide and trifluoromethane are analyzed as possible working fluids. This work shows that it is possible to achieve higher efficiencies using methane under some operating conditions. However, as it turns out, the performance of Recuperated Brayton Cycle should be evaluated based on net output work. When the performance is assessed on the net output work criteria carbon dioxide still proves to be superior to other gases. This work also suggests that piston engines as compressors and expanders may be used instead of rotating turbines since reciprocating pistons have higher isentropic efficiencies.

  1. Heat transfer and pressure drop characteristics of mini-fin structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Peixue; Xu Ruina

    2007-01-01

    Forced convection heat transfer of air and water in bronze and pure copper mini-fin structures and mini-channel structures was investigated experimentally. The mini-fin dimensions were 0.7 mm x 0.2 mm and 0.8 mm x 0.4 mm. The tests included both staggered diamond-shaped and in-line square mini-fin arrangements. The tests investigated the effects of structures, mini-fin dimensions and arrangement, test section materials, and fluid properties on the convection heat transfer and heat transfer enhancement. For the tested conditions, the convection heat transfer coefficient was increased 9-21 fold for water and 12-38 fold for air in the mini-fin structures compared with an empty plate channel. The friction factor and flow resistance in the mini-channel structures and the in-line square mini-fin arrangement were much less than in the staggered diamond-shaped mini-fin arrangement. For the small channel width, W c = 0.2 mm, the convection heat transfer with the in-line square array structure was more intense than with the staggered diamond-shaped structure, the mini-channel structure or the porous media. For the larger channel width, W c = 0.4 mm, the convection heat transfer in the staggered diamond-shaped array structure was more intense than in the others systems while the in-line square structure had the best overall thermal-hydraulic performance

  2. Parametric Investigation and Thermoeconomic Optimization of a Combined Cycle for Recovering the Waste Heat from Nuclear Closed Brayton Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihuang Luo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A combined cycle that combines AWM cycle with a nuclear closed Brayton cycle is proposed to recover the waste heat rejected from the precooler of a nuclear closed Brayton cycle in this paper. The detailed thermodynamic and economic analyses are carried out for the combined cycle. The effects of several important parameters, such as the absorber pressure, the turbine inlet pressure, the turbine inlet temperature, the ammonia mass fraction, and the ambient temperature, are investigated. The combined cycle performance is also optimized based on a multiobjective function. Compared with the closed Brayton cycle, the optimized power output and overall efficiency of the combined cycle are higher by 2.41% and 2.43%, respectively. The optimized LEC of the combined cycle is 0.73% lower than that of the closed Brayton cycle.

  3. Experimental Results From a 2kW Brayton Power Conversion Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervol, David; Mason, Lee; Birchenough, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents experimental test results from operation of a 2 kWe Brayton power conversion unit. The Brayton converter was developed for a solar dynamic power system flight experiment planned for the Mir Space Station in 1997. The flight experiment was cancelled, but the converter was tested at Glenn Research Center as part of the Solar Dynamic Ground Test Demonstration system which included a solar concentrator, heat receiver, and space radiator. In preparation for the current testing, the heat receiver was removed and replaced with an electrical resistance heater, simulating the thermal input of a steady-state nuclear source. The converter was operated over a full range of thermal input power levels and rotor speeds to generate an overall performance map. The converter unit will serve as the centerpiece of a Nuclear Electric Propulsion Testbed at Glenn. Future potential uses for the Testbed include high voltage electrical controller development, integrated electric thruster testing and advanced radiator demonstration testing to help guide high power Brayton technology development for Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  4. Brayton Cycle Numerical Modeling using the RELAP5-3D code, version 4.3.4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhini, Eduardo P.; Lobo, Paulo D.C.; Guimarães, Lamartine N.F.; Filho, Francisco A.B.; Ribeiro, Guilherme B., E-mail: edu_longhini@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Estudos Avançados (IEAv), São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisão de Energia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    This work contributes to enable and develop technologies to mount fast micro reactors, to generate heat and electric energy, for the purpose to warm and to supply electrically spacecraft equipment and, also, the production of nuclear space propulsion effect. So, for this purpose, the Brayton Cycle demonstrates to be an optimum approach for space nuclear power. The Brayton thermal cycle gas has as characteristic to be a closed cycle, with two adiabatic processes and two isobaric processes. The components performing the cycle's processes are compressor, turbine, heat source, cold source and recuperator. Therefore, the working fluid's mass flow runs the thermal cycle that converts thermal energy into electrical energy, able to use in spaces and land devices. The objective is numerically to model the Brayton thermal cycle gas on nominal operation with one turbomachine composed for a radial-inflow compressor and turbine of a 40.8 kWe Brayton Rotating Unit (BRU). The Brayton cycle numerical modeling is being performed with the program RELAP5-3D, version 4.3.4. The nominal operation uses as working fluid a mixture 40 g/mole He-Xe with a flow rate of 1.85 kg/s, shaft rotational speed of 45 krpm, compressor and turbine inlet temperature of 400 K and 1149 K, respectively, and compressor exit pressure 0.931 MPa. Then, the aim is to get physical corresponding data to operate each cycle component and the general cycle on this nominal operation. (author)

  5. Brayton Cycle Numerical Modeling using the RELAP5-3D code, version 4.3.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhini, Eduardo P.; Lobo, Paulo D.C.; Guimarães, Lamartine N.F.; Filho, Francisco A.B.; Ribeiro, Guilherme B.

    2017-01-01

    This work contributes to enable and develop technologies to mount fast micro reactors, to generate heat and electric energy, for the purpose to warm and to supply electrically spacecraft equipment and, also, the production of nuclear space propulsion effect. So, for this purpose, the Brayton Cycle demonstrates to be an optimum approach for space nuclear power. The Brayton thermal cycle gas has as characteristic to be a closed cycle, with two adiabatic processes and two isobaric processes. The components performing the cycle's processes are compressor, turbine, heat source, cold source and recuperator. Therefore, the working fluid's mass flow runs the thermal cycle that converts thermal energy into electrical energy, able to use in spaces and land devices. The objective is numerically to model the Brayton thermal cycle gas on nominal operation with one turbomachine composed for a radial-inflow compressor and turbine of a 40.8 kWe Brayton Rotating Unit (BRU). The Brayton cycle numerical modeling is being performed with the program RELAP5-3D, version 4.3.4. The nominal operation uses as working fluid a mixture 40 g/mole He-Xe with a flow rate of 1.85 kg/s, shaft rotational speed of 45 krpm, compressor and turbine inlet temperature of 400 K and 1149 K, respectively, and compressor exit pressure 0.931 MPa. Then, the aim is to get physical corresponding data to operate each cycle component and the general cycle on this nominal operation. (author)

  6. Characterization of a mini-channel heat exchanger for a heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteconi, A; Giuliani, G; Tartuferi, M; Polonara, F

    2014-01-01

    In this paper a mini-channel aluminum heat exchanger used in a reversible heat pump is presented. Mini-channel finned heat exchangers are getting more and more interest for refrigeration systems, especially when compactness and low refrigerant charge are desired. Purpose of this paper was to characterize the mini-channel heat exchanger used as evaporator in terms of heat transfer performance and to study the refrigerant distribution in the manifold. The heat exchanger characterization was performed experimentally by means of a test rig built up for this purpose. It is composed of an air-to-air heat pump, air channels for the external and internal air circulation arranged in a closed loop, measurement sensors and an acquisition system. The overall heat transfer capacity was assessed. Moreover, in order to characterize the flow field of the refrigerant in the manifold of the heat exchanger, a numerical investigation of the fluid flow by means of CFD was performed. It was meant to evaluate the goodness of the present design and to identify possible solutions for the future improvement of the manifold design.

  7. Impact of closed Brayton cycle test results on gas cooled reactor operation and safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, St.A.; Pickard, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the measurements and model predictions for a series of tests supported by the U.S. Department of Energy that were performed using the recently constructed Sandia Brayton Loop (SBL-30). From the test results we have developed steady-state power operating curves, controls methodologies, and transient data for normal and off-normal behavior, such as loss of load events, and for decay heat removal conditions after shutdown. These tests and models show that because the turbomachinery operates off of the temperature difference (between the heat source and the heat sink), that the turbomachinery can continue to operate (off of sensible heat) for long periods of time without auxiliary power. For our test hardware, operations up to one hour have been observed. This effect can provide significant operations and safety benefits for nuclear reactors that are coupled to a Brayton cycles because the operating turbomachinery continues to provide cooling to the reactor. These capabilities mean that the decay-heat removal can be accommodated by properly managing the electrical power produced by the generator/alternator. In some conditions, it may even be possible to produce sufficient power to continue operating auxiliary systems including the waste heat circulatory system. In addition, the Brayton plant impacts the consequences of off-normal and accident events including loss of load and loss of on-site power. We have observed that for a loss of load or a loss of on-site power event, with a reactor scram, the transient consists initially of a turbomachinery speed increase to a new stable operating point. Because the turbomachinery is still spinning, the reactor is still being cooled provided the ultimate heat sink remains available. These highly desirable operational characteristics were observed in the Sandia Brayton loop. This type of behavior is also predicted by our models. Ultimately, these results provide the designers the opportunity to design gas

  8. Closed Brayton Cycle Power Conversion Unit for Fission Surface Power Phase I Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    A Closed Brayton cycle power conversion system has been developed to support the NASA fission surface power program. The goal is to provide electricity from a small nuclear reactor heat source for surface power production for lunar and Mars environments. The selected media for a heat source is NaK 78 with water as a cooling source. The closed Brayton cycle power was selected to be 12 kWe output from the generator terminals. A heat source NaK temperature of 850 K plus or minus 25 K was selected. The cold source water was selected at 375 K plus or minus 25 K. A vacuum radiation environment of 200 K is specified for environmental operation. The major components of the system are the power converter, the power controller, and the top level data acquisition and control unit. The power converter with associated sensors resides in the vacuum radiation environment. The power controller and data acquisition system reside in an ambient laboratory environment. Signals and power are supplied across the pressure boundary electrically with hermetic connectors installed on the vacuum vessel. System level analyses were performed on working fluids, cycle design parameters, heater and cooling temperatures, and heat exchanger options that best meet the needs of the power converter specification. The goal is to provide a cost effective system that has high thermal-to-electric efficiency in a compact, lightweight package.

  9. Nuclear reactor closed Brayton cycle power conversion system optimization trends for extra-terrestrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashe, T.L.; Baggenstoss, W.G.; Bons, R.

    1990-01-01

    Extra-terrestrial exploration and development missions of the next century will require reliable, low-mass power generation modules of 100 kW e and more. These modules will be required to support both fixed-base and manned rover/explorer power needs. Low insolation levels at and beyond Mars and long periods of darkness on the moon make solar conversion less desirable for surface missions. For these missions, a closed Brayton cycle energy conversion system coupled with a reactor heat source is a very attractive approach. The authors conducted parametric studies to assess optimized system design trends for nuclear-Brayton systems as a function of operating environment and user requirements. The inherent design flexibility of the closed Brayton cycle energy conversion system permits ready adaptation of the system to future design constraints. This paper describes a dramatic contrast between system designs requiring man-rated shielding. The paper also considers the ramification of using indigenous materials to provide reactor shielding for a fixed-base power source

  10. Heat exchanger optimization of a closed Brayton cycle for nuclear space propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Guilherme B.; Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Braz Filho, Francisco A., E-mail: gbribeiro@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: braz@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAV), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Divisao de Energia Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    Nuclear power systems turned to space electric propulsion differs strongly from usual ground-based power systems regarding the importance of overall size and weight. For propulsion power systems, weight and efficiency are essential drivers that should be managed during conception phase. Considering that, this paper aims the development of a thermal model of a closed Brayton cycle that applies the thermal conductance of heat exchangers in order to predict the energy conversion performance. The centrifugal-flow turbine and compressor characterization were achieved using algebraic equations from literature data. The binary mixture of He-Xe with molecular weight of 40 g/mole is applied and the impact of heat exchanger optimization in thermodynamic irreversibilities is evaluated in this paper. (author)

  11. Heat exchanger optimization of a closed Brayton cycle for nuclear space propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Guilherme B.; Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Braz Filho, Francisco A.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power systems turned to space electric propulsion differs strongly from usual ground-based power systems regarding the importance of overall size and weight. For propulsion power systems, weight and efficiency are essential drivers that should be managed during conception phase. Considering that, this paper aims the development of a thermal model of a closed Brayton cycle that applies the thermal conductance of heat exchangers in order to predict the energy conversion performance. The centrifugal-flow turbine and compressor characterization were achieved using algebraic equations from literature data. The binary mixture of He-Xe with molecular weight of 40 g/mole is applied and the impact of heat exchanger optimization in thermodynamic irreversibilities is evaluated in this paper. (author)

  12. Comparison of Direct and Indirect Gas Reactor Brayton Systems for Nuclear Electric Space Propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M Postlehwait; P DiLorenzo; S Belanger; J Ashcroft

    2005-01-01

    Gas reactor systems are being considered as candidates for use in generating power for the Prometheus-1 spacecraft, along with other NASA missions as part of the Prometheus program. Gas reactors offer a benign coolant, which increases core and structural materials options. However, the gas coolant has inferior thermal transport properties, relative to other coolant candidates such as liquid metals. This leads to concerns for providing effective heat transfer and for minimizing pressure drop within the reactor core. In direct gas Brayton systems, i.e. those with one or more Brayton turbines in the reactor cooling loop, the ability to provide effective core cooling and low pressure drop is further constrained by the need for a low pressure, high molecular weight gas, typically a mixture of helium and xenon. Use of separate primary and secondary gas loops, one for the reactor and one or more for the Brayton system(s) separated by heat exchanger(s), allows for independent optimization of the pressure and gas composition of each loop. The reactor loop can use higher pressure pure helium, which provides improved heat transfer and heat transport properties, while the Brayton loop can utilize lower pressure He-Xe. However, this approach requires a separate primary gas circulator and also requires gas to gas heat exchangers. This paper focuses on the trade-offs between the direct gas reactor Brayton system and the indirect gas Brayton system. It discusses heat exchanger arrangement and materials options and projects heat exchanger mass based on heat transfer area and structural design needs. Analysis indicates that these heat exchangers add considerable mass, but result in reactor cooling and system resiliency improvements

  13. Concept Design for a High Temperature Helium Brayton Cycle with Interstage Heating and Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Steven A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vernon, Milton E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pickard, Paul S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The primary metric for the viability of these next generation nuclear power plants will be the cost of generated electricity. One important component in achieving these objectives is the development of power conversion technologies that maximize the electrical power output of these advanced reactors for a given thermal power. More efficient power conversion systems can directly reduce the cost of nuclear generated electricity and therefore advanced power conversion cycle research is an important area of investigation for the Generation IV Program. Brayton cycles using inert or other gas working fluids, have the potential to take advantage of the higher outlet temperature range of Generation IV systems and allow substantial increases in nuclear power conversion efficiency, and potentially reductions in power conversion system capital costs compared to the steam Rankine cycle used in current light water reactors. For the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR), Helium Brayton cycles which can operate in the 900 to 950 C range have been the focus of power conversion research. Previous Generation IV studies examined several options for He Brayton cycles that could increase efficiency with acceptable capital cost implications. At these high outlet temperatures, Interstage Heating and Cooling (IHC) was shown to provide significant efficiency improvement (a few to 12%) but required increased system complexity and therefore had potential for increased costs. These scoping studies identified the potential for increased efficiency, but a more detailed analysis of the turbomachinery and heat exchanger sizes and costs was needed to determine whether this approach could be cost effective. The purpose of this study is to examine the turbomachinery and heat exchanger implications of interstage heating and cooling configurations. In general, this analysis illustrates that these engineering considerations introduce new constraints to the design of IHC systems that may require

  14. Rankine-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2009-12-29

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  15. Rankline-Brayton engine powered solar thermal aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Charles L [Livermore, CA

    2012-03-13

    A solar thermal powered aircraft powered by heat energy from the sun. A Rankine-Brayton hybrid cycle heat engine is carried by the aircraft body for producing power for a propulsion mechanism, such as a propeller or other mechanism for enabling sustained free flight. The Rankine-Brayton engine has a thermal battery, preferably containing a lithium-hydride and lithium mixture, operably connected to it so that heat is supplied from the thermal battery to a working fluid. A solar concentrator, such as reflective parabolic trough, is movably connected to an optically transparent section of the aircraft body for receiving and concentrating solar energy from within the aircraft. Concentrated solar energy is collected by a heat collection and transport conduit, and heat transported to the thermal battery. A solar tracker includes a heliostat for determining optimal alignment with the sun, and a drive motor actuating the solar concentrator into optimal alignment with the sun based on a determination by the heliostat.

  16. Thermal performance analysis of Brayton cycle with waste heat recovery boiler for diesel engines of offshore oil production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xianglong; Gong, Guangcai; Wu, Yi; Li, Hangxin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison of Brayton cycle with WHRB adopted in diesel engines with and without fans by thermal performance. • Waste heat recovery technology for FPSO. • The thermoeconomic analysis for the heat recovery for FPSO. - Abstract: This paper presents the theoretical analysis and on-site testing on the thermal performance of the waste heat recovery system for offshore oil production facilities, including the components of diesel engines, thermal boilers and waste heat boilers. We use the ideal air standard Brayton cycle to analyse the thermal performance. In comparison with the traditional design, the fans at the engine outlet of the waste heat recovery boiler is removed due to the limited space of the offshore platform. The cases with fan and without fan are compared in terms of thermal dynamics performance, energy efficiency and thermo-economic index of the system. The results show that the application of the WHRB increases the energy efficiency of the whole system, but increases the flow resistance in the duct. It is proved that as the waste heat recovery boiler takes the place of the thermal boiler, the energy efficiency of whole system without fan is slightly reduced but heat recovery efficiency is improved. This research provides an important guidance to improve the waste heat recovery for offshore oil production facilities.

  17. Closed Brayton cycle power conversion systems for nuclear reactors :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wright, Steven A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lipinski, Ronald J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Vernon, Milton E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sanchez, Travis [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2006-04-01

    This report describes the results of a Sandia National Laboratories internally funded research program to study the coupling of nuclear reactors to gas dynamic Brayton power conversion systems. The research focused on developing integrated dynamic system models, fabricating a 10-30 kWe closed loop Brayton cycle, and validating these models by operating the Brayton test-loop. The work tasks were performed in three major areas. First, the system equations and dynamic models for reactors and Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) systems were developed and implemented in SIMULINKTM. Within this effort, both steady state and dynamic system models for all the components (turbines, compressors, reactors, ducting, alternators, heat exchangers, and space based radiators) were developed and assembled into complete systems for gas cooled reactors, liquid metal reactors, and electrically heated simulators. Various control modules that use proportional-integral-differential (PID) feedback loops for the reactor and the power-conversion shaft speed were also developed and implemented. The simulation code is called RPCSIM (Reactor Power and Control Simulator). In the second task an open cycle commercially available Capstone C30 micro-turbine power generator was modified to provide a small inexpensive closed Brayton cycle test loop called the Sandia Brayton test-Loop (SBL-30). The Capstone gas-turbine unit housing was modified to permit the attachment of an electrical heater and a water cooled chiller to form a closed loop. The Capstone turbine, compressor, and alternator were used without modification. The Capstone systems nominal operating point is 1150 K turbine inlet temperature at 96,000 rpm. The annular recuperator and portions of the Capstone control system (inverter) and starter system also were reused. The rotational speed of the turbo-machinery is controlled by adjusting the alternator load by using the electrical grid as the load bank. The SBL-30 test loop was operated at

  18. Investigation of Heat Transfer in Mini Channels using Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgild, Morten Ryge; Poulsen, Jonas Lundsted; Rath, Emil Zacho

    2012-01-01

    In this paper an experimental investigation of the heat transfer in mini channels with a hydraulic diameter of 889 m is conducted. The method used is planar laser induceduorescence (PLIF), which uses the principle of laser excitation of rhodamine B in water. The goal of this study is to validate...... the applicability of PLIF to determine the convective heat transfer coecient in mini channels against conventional correlations of the convective heat transfer coecient. The applicability of the conventional theory in micro and mini channels has been discussed by several researchers, but to the authors knowledge...

  19. Thermodynamic Optimization of Supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhim, Dong-Ryul; Park, Sung-Ho; Kim, Su-Hyun; Yeom, Choong-Sub [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle has been studied for nuclear applications, mainly for one of the alternative power conversion systems of the sodium cooled fast reactor, since 1960's. Although the supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle has not been expected to show higher efficiency at lower turbine inlet temperature over the conventional steam Rankine cycle, the higher density of supercritical CO{sub 2} like a liquid in the supercritical region could reduce turbo-machinery sizes, and the potential problem of sodium-water reaction with the sodium cooled fast reactor might be solved with the use of CO{sub 2} instead of water. The supercritical CO{sub 2} recompression Brayton cycle was proposed for the better thermodynamic efficiency than for the simple supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle. Thus this paper presents the efficiencies of the supercritical CO{sub 2} recompression Brayton cycle along with several decision variables for the thermodynamic optimization of the supercritical CO{sub 2} recompression Brayton cycle. The analytic results in this study show that the system efficiency reaches its maximum value at a compressor outlet pressure of 200 bars and a recycle fraction of 30 %, and the lower minimum temperature approach at the two heat exchangers shows higher system efficiency as expected.

  20. Power and efficiency optimization for combined Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wanli; Chen Lingen; Sun Fengrui

    2009-01-01

    A thermodynamic model for open combined Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles is established considering the pressure drops of the working fluid along the flow processes and the size constraints of the real power plant using finite time thermodynamics in this paper. There are 11 flow resistances encountered by the gas stream for the combined Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles. Four of these, the friction through the blades and vanes of the compressors and the turbines, are related to the isentropic efficiencies. The remaining flow resistances are always present because of the changes in flow cross-section at the compressor inlet of the top cycle, combustion inlet and outlet, turbine outlet of the top cycle, turbine outlet of the bottom cycle, heat exchanger inlet, and compressor inlet of the bottom cycle. These resistances control the air flow rate and the net power output. The relative pressure drops associated with the flow through various cross-sectional areas are derived as functions of the compressor inlet relative pressure drop of the top cycle. The analytical formulae about the relations between power output, thermal conversion efficiency, and the compressor pressure ratio of the top cycle are derived with the 11 pressure drop losses in the intake, compression, combustion, expansion, and flow process in the piping, the heat transfer loss to the ambient, the irreversible compression and expansion losses in the compressors and the turbines, and the irreversible combustion loss in the combustion chamber. The performance of the model cycle is optimized by adjusting the compressor inlet pressure of the bottom cycle, the air mass flow rate and the distribution of pressure losses along the flow path. It is shown that the power output has a maximum with respect to the compressor inlet pressure of the bottom cycle, the air mass flow rate or any of the overall pressure drops, and the maximized power output has an additional maximum with respect to the compressor pressure

  1. Development and validation of models for simulation of supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycles and application to self-propelling heat removal systems in boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venker, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to develop a model that is able to describe the transient behavior of supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO 2 ) Brayton cycles, to be applied to self-propelling residual heat removal systems in boiling water reactors. The developed model has been implemented into the thermohydraulic system code ATHLET. By means of this improved ATHLET version, novel residual heat removal systems, which are based on closed sCO 2 Brayton cycles, can be assessed as a retrofit measure for present light water reactors. Transient simulations are hereby of great importance. The heat removal system has to be modeled explicitly to account for the interaction between the system and the behavior of the plant during different accident conditions. As a first step, transport and thermodynamic fluid properties of supercritical carbon dioxide have been implemented in ATHLET to allow for the simulation of the new working fluid. Additionally, a heat transfer correlation has been selected to represent the specific heat transfer of supercritical carbon dioxide. For the calculation of pressure losses due to wall friction, an approach for turbulent single phase flow has been adopted that is already implemented in ATHLET. In a second step, a component model for radial compressors has been implemented in the system code. Furthermore, the available model for axial turbines has been adapted to simulate the transient behavior of radial turbines. All extensions have been validated against experimental data. In order to simulate the interaction between the self-propelling heat removal system and a generic boiling water reactor, the components of the sCO 2 Brayton cycle have been dimensioned with first principles. An available input deck of a generic BWR has then been extended by the residual heat removal system. The modeled application has shown that the extended version of ATHLET is suitable to simulate sCO 2 Brayton cycles and to evaluate the introduced heat removal system

  2. Performance analysis of a large-scale helium Brayton cryo-refrigerator with static gas bearing turboexpander

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yu; Li, Qiang; Wu, Jihao; Li, Qing; Lu, Wenhai; Xiong, Lianyou; Liu, Liqiang; Xu, Xiangdong; Sun, Lijia; Sun, Yu; Xie, Xiujuan; Wang, Bingming; Qiu, Yinan; Zhang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A 2 kW at 20.0 K helium Brayton cryo-refrigerator is built in China. • A series of tests have been systematically conducted to investigate the performance of the cryo-refrigerator. • Maximum heat conductance proportion (90.7%) appears in the heat exchangers of cold box rather than those of heat reservoirs. • A model of helium Brayton cryo-refrigerator/cycle is presented according to finite-time thermodynamics. - Abstract: Large-scale helium cryo-refrigerator is widely used in superconducting systems, nuclear fusion engineering, and scientific researches, etc., however, its energy efficiency is quite low. First, a 2 kW at 20.0 K helium Brayton cryo-refrigerator is built, and a series of tests have been systematically conducted to investigate the performance of the cryo-refrigerator. It is found that maximum heat conductance proportion (90.7%) appears in the heat exchangers of cold box rather than those of heat reservoirs, which is the main characteristic of the helium Brayton cryo-refrigerator/cycle different from the air Brayton refrigerator/cycle. Other three characteristics also lie in the configuration of refrigerant helium bypass, internal purifier and non-linearity of specific heat of helium. Second, a model of helium Brayton cryo-refrigerator/cycle is presented according to finite-time thermodynamics. The assumption named internal purification temperature depth (PTD) is introduced, and the heat capacity rate of whole cycle is divided into three different regions in accordance with the PTD: room temperature region, upper internal purification temperature region and lower one. Analytical expressions of cooling capacity and COP are obtained, and we found that the expressions are piecewise functions. Further, comparison between the model and the experimental results for cooling capacity of the helium cryo-refrigerator shows that error is less than 7.6%. The PTD not only helps to achieve the analytical formulae and indicates the working

  3. Brayton cycle for internal combustion engine exhaust gas waste heat recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Galindo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available An average passenger car engine effectively uses about one-third of the fuel combustion energy, while the two-thirds are wasted through exhaust gases and engine cooling. It is of great interest to automotive industry to recover some of this wasted energy, thus increasing the engine efficiency and lowering fuel consumption and contamination. Waste heat recovery for internal combustion engine exhaust gases using Brayton cycle machine was investigated. The principle problems of application of such a system in a passenger car were considered: compressor and expander machine selection, machine size for packaging under the hood, efficiency of the cycle, and improvement of engine efficiency. Important parameters of machines design have been determined and analyzed. An average 2-L turbocharged gasoline engine’s New European Driving Cycle points were taken as inlet points for waste heat recovery system. It is theoretically estimated that the recuperated power of 1515 W can be achieved along with 5.7% improvement in engine efficiency, at the point where engine power is 26550 W.

  4. Effects of hysteresis and Brayton cycle constraints on magnetocaloric refrigerant performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, T. D.; Buffington, T.; Shamberger, P. J.

    2018-05-01

    Despite promising proofs of concept, system-level implementation of magnetic refrigeration has been critically limited by history-dependent refrigerant losses that interact with governing thermodynamic cycles to adversely impact refrigeration performance. Future development demands a more detailed understanding of how hysteresis limits performance, and of how different types of cycles can mitigate these limitations, but without the extreme cost of experimental realization. Here, the utility of Brayton cycles for magnetic refrigeration is investigated via direct simulation, using a combined thermodynamic-hysteresis modeling framework to compute the path-dependent magnetization and entropy of a model alloy for a variety of feasible Brayton cycles between 0-1.5 T and 0-5 T. By simultaneously varying the model alloy's hysteresis properties and applying extensions of the thermodynamic laws to non-equilibrium systems, heat transfers and efficiencies are quantified throughout the space of hystereses and Brayton cycles and then compared with a previous investigation using Ericsson cycles. It is found that (1) hysteresis losses remain a critical obstacle to magnetic refrigeration implementation, with efficiencies >80% in the model system requiring hysteresis refrigerant transformation temperatures at the relevant fields; (3) for a given hysteresis and field constraint, Brayton and Ericsson-type cycles generate similar efficiencies; for a given temperature span, Ericsson cycles lift more heat per cycle, with the difference decreasing with the refrigerant heat capacity outside the phase transformation region.

  5. Numerical Comparison of NASA's Dual Brayton Power Generation System Performance Using CO2 or N2 as the Working Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ownens, Albert K.; Lavelle, Thomas M.; Hervol, David S.

    2010-01-01

    A Dual Brayton Power Conversion System (DBPCS) has been tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center using Nitrogen (N2) as the working fluid. This system uses two closed Brayton cycle systems that share a common heat source and working fluid but are otherwise independent. This system has been modeled using the Numerical Propulsion System Simulation (NPSS) environment. This paper presents the results of a numerical study that investigated system performance changes resulting when the working fluid is changed from gaseous (N2) to gaseous carbon dioxide (CO2).

  6. Promising designs of compact heat exchangers for modular HTRs using the Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pra, Franck; Tochon, Patrice; Mauget, Christian; Fokkens, Jan; Willemsen, Sander

    2008-01-01

    The presented study was carried out within the Work Package 2 'Recuperator' of the High Temperature Reactor-E European program. High Temperature gas cooled Reactor concepts with a direct cycle have become potentially interesting for the future. Theoretically, these concepts provide higher efficiency than a classical steam cycle. Within the Brayton cycle the helium/helium recuperator, required to achieve the high efficiency, has to work under very harsh conditions (temperature, pressure, and pressure difference between circuits). Within the project the most promising technologies for the compact recuperator were investigated. First, the requirements for the recuperator to operate under the direct Brayton cycle have been defined. Based on these requirements the various potential technologies available on the market have been investigated. Two particular technologies (HEATRIC Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger, NORDON plate fin concept) have been selected as most promising. For the former, a precise description has been given and a mock-up has been fabricated and tested in the Claire loop at CEA. In the Claire loop the Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger mock-up has been subjected to thermal shocks, which are considered to be representative for a recuperator. Prior to the experimental testing coupled Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) and Finite Element analyses have been performed to give insight into the thermal and mechanical behaviour of the mock-ups during the thermal shock. Based on these results the experimental measuring program has been optimized. Upon completion of the tests the experimental and numerical results have been compared. Based on the results from the investigation performed recommendations are given for the full-size recuperator using the selected technologies

  7. Are Ducted Mini-Splits Worth It?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jonathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Maguire, Jeffrey B [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Metzger, Cheryn E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Zhang, Jason [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2018-02-01

    Ducted mini-split heat pumps are gaining popularity in some regions of the country due to their energy-efficient specifications and their ability to be hidden from sight. Although product and install costs are typically higher than the ductless mini-split heat pumps, this technology is well worth the premium for some homeowners who do not like to see an indoor unit in their living area. Due to the interest in this technology by local utilities and homeowners, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has funded the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop capabilities within the Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) tool to model ducted mini-split heat pumps. After the fundamental capabilities were added, energy-use results could be compared to other technologies that were already in BEopt, such as zonal electric resistance heat, central air source heat pumps, and ductless mini-split heat pumps. Each of these technologies was then compared using five prototype configurations in three different BPA heating zones to determine how the ducted mini-split technology would perform under different scenarios. The result of this project was a set of EnergyPlus models representing the various prototype configurations in each climate zone. Overall, the ducted mini-split heat pumps saved about 33-60% compared to zonal electric resistance heat (with window AC systems modeled in the summer). The results also showed that the ducted mini-split systems used about 4% more energy than the ductless mini-split systems, which saved about 37-64% compared to electric zonal heat (depending on the prototype and climate).

  8. A study of the flow boiling heat transfer in an annular heat exchanger with a mini gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musiał Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the research on flow boiling heat transfer in an annular mini gap was discussed. A one- dimensional mathematical approach was proposed to describe stationary heat transfer in the gap. The mini gap 1 mm wide was created between a metal pipe with enhanced exterior surface and an external tempered glass pipe positioned along the same axis. The experimental test stand consists of several systems: the test loop in which distilled water circulates, the data and image acquisition system and the supply and control system. Known temperature distributions of the metal pipe with enhanced surface and of the working fluid helped to determine, from the Robin boundary condition, the local heat transfer coefficients at the fluid - heated surface contact. In the proposed mathematical model it is assumed that the cylindrical wall is a planar multilayer wall. The numerical results are presented on a chart as function of the heat transfer coefficient along the length of the mini gap.

  9. SP-100/Brayton power system concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, D.F.

    1989-01-01

    Use of closed Brayton cycle (CBC) power conversion technology has been investigated for use with SP-100 reactors for space power systems. The CBC power conversion technology is being developed by Rockwell International under the Dynamic Isotype Power System (DIPS) and Space Station Freedom solar dynamic power system programs to provide highly efficient power conversion with radioisotype and solar collector heat sources. Characteristics including mass, radiator area, thermal power, and operating temperatures for systems utilizing SP-100 reactor and CBC power conversion technology were determined for systems in the 10-to 100-kWe power range. Possible SP-100 reactor/CBC power system configurations are presented. Advantages of CBC power conversion technology with regard to reactor thermal power, operating temperature, and development status are discussed

  10. Experimental Study of Single Phase Flow in a Closed-Loop Cooling System with Integrated Mini-Channel Heat Sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The flow and heat transfer characteristics of a closed-loop cooling system with a mini-channel heat sink for thermal management of electronics is studied experimentally. The heat sink is designed with corrugated fins to improve its heat dissipation capability. The experiments are performed using variable coolant volumetric flow rates and input heating powers. The experimental results show a high and reliable thermal performance using the heat sink with corrugated fins. The heat transfer capability is improved up to 30 W/cm2 when the base temperature is kept at a stable and acceptable level. Besides the heat transfer capability enhancement, the capability of the system to transfer heat for a long distance is also studied and a fast thermal response time to reach steady state is observed once the input heating power or the volume flow rate are varied. Under different input heat source powers and volumetric flow rates, our results suggest potential applications of the designed mini-channel heat sink in cooling microelectronics.

  11. Analytical Investigation of the Heat-Transfer Limits of a Novel Solar Loop-Heat Pipe Employing a Mini-Channel Evaporator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierno M. O. Diallo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical investigation of heat-transfer limits of a novel solar loop-heat pipe developed for space heating and domestic hot water use. In the loop-heat pipe, the condensate liquid returns to the evaporator via small specially designed holes, using a mini-channel evaporator. The study considered the commonly known heat-transfer limits of loop-heat pipes, namely, the viscous, sonic, entrainment, boiling and heat-transfer limits due to the two-phase pressure drop in the loop. The analysis considered the main factors that affect the limits in the mini-channel evaporator: the operating temperature, mini-channel aspect ratio, evaporator length, evaporator inclination angle, evaporator-to-condenser height difference and the dimension of the holes. It was found that the entrainment is the main governing limit of the system operation. With the specified loop design and operational conditions, the solar loop-heat pipe can achieve a heat-transport capacity of 725 W. The analytical model presented in this study can be used to optimise the heat-transfer capacity of the novel solar loop-heat pipe.

  12. Exergoeconomic performance optimization of an endoreversible intercooled regenerative Brayton combined heat and power plant coupled to variable-temperature heat reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Bo; Chen, Lingen; Sun, Fengrui [College of Naval Architecture and Power, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)

    2012-07-01

    An endoreversible intercooled regenerative Brayton combined heat and power (CHP) plant model coupled to variable-temperature heat reservoirs is established. The exergoeconomic performance of the CHP plant is investigated using finite time thermodynamics. The analytical formulae about dimensionless profit rate and exergy efficiency of the CHP plant with the heat resistance losses in the hot-, cold- and consumer-side heat exchangers, the intercooler and the regenerator are deduced. By taking the maximum profit rate as the objective, the heat conductance allocation among the five heat exchangers and the choice of intercooling pressure ratio are optimized by numerical examples, the characteristic of the optimal dimensionless profit rate versus corresponding exergy efficiency is investigated. When the optimization is performed further with respect to the total pressure ratio, a double-maximum profit rate is obtained. The effects of the design parameters on the double-maximum dimensionless profit rate and corresponding exergy efficiency, optimal total pressure ratio and optimal intercooling pressure ratio are analyzed in detail, and it is found that there exist an optimal consumer-side temperature and an optimal thermal capacitance rate matching between the working fluid and the heat reservoir, respectively, corresponding to a thrice-maximum dimensionless profit rate.

  13. Dry Air Cooler Modeling for Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moisseytsev, A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Sienicki, J. J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lv, Q. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-07-28

    Modeling for commercially available and cost effective dry air coolers such as those manufactured by Harsco Industries has been implemented in the Argonne National Laboratory Plant Dynamics Code for system level dynamic analysis of supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) Brayton cycles. The modeling can now be utilized to optimize and simulate sCO2 Brayton cycles with dry air cooling whereby heat is rejected directly to the atmospheric heat sink without the need for cooling towers that require makeup water for evaporative losses. It has sometimes been stated that a benefit of the sCO2 Brayton cycle is that it enables dry air cooling implying that the Rankine steam cycle does not. A preliminary and simple examination of a Rankine superheated steam cycle and an air-cooled condenser indicates that dry air cooling can be utilized with both cycles provided that the cycle conditions are selected appropriately

  14. Development and validation of models for simulation of supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycles and application to self-propelling heat removal systems in boiling water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venker, Jeanne

    2015-03-31

    The objective of the current work was to develop a model that is able to describe the transient behavior of supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO{sub 2}) Brayton cycles, to be applied to self-propelling residual heat removal systems in boiling water reactors. The developed model has been implemented into the thermohydraulic system code ATHLET. By means of this improved ATHLET version, novel residual heat removal systems, which are based on closed sCO{sub 2} Brayton cycles, can be assessed as a retrofit measure for present light water reactors. Transient simulations are hereby of great importance. The heat removal system has to be modeled explicitly to account for the interaction between the system and the behavior of the plant during different accident conditions. As a first step, transport and thermodynamic fluid properties of supercritical carbon dioxide have been implemented in ATHLET to allow for the simulation of the new working fluid. Additionally, a heat transfer correlation has been selected to represent the specific heat transfer of supercritical carbon dioxide. For the calculation of pressure losses due to wall friction, an approach for turbulent single phase flow has been adopted that is already implemented in ATHLET. In a second step, a component model for radial compressors has been implemented in the system code. Furthermore, the available model for axial turbines has been adapted to simulate the transient behavior of radial turbines. All extensions have been validated against experimental data. In order to simulate the interaction between the self-propelling heat removal system and a generic boiling water reactor, the components of the sCO{sub 2} Brayton cycle have been dimensioned with first principles. An available input deck of a generic BWR has then been extended by the residual heat removal system. The modeled application has shown that the extended version of ATHLET is suitable to simulate sCO{sub 2} Brayton cycles and to evaluate the introduced

  15. Supercritical CO2 Brayton Cycle Energy Conversion System Coupled with SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jae Eun; Kim, S. O.; Seong, S. H.; Eoh, J. H.; Lee, T. H.; Choi, S. K.; Han, J. W.; Bae, S. W.

    2008-12-01

    This report contains the description of the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle coupled to KALIMER-600 as an alternative energy conversion system. For a system development, a computer code was developed to calculate heat balance of normal operation condition. Based on the computer code, the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle energy conversion system was constructed for the KALIMER-600. Computer codes were developed to analysis for the S-CO 2 turbomachinery. Based on the design codes, the design parameters were prepared to configure the KALIMER-600 S-CO 2 turbomachinery models. A one-dimensional analysis computer code was developed to evaluate the performance of the previous PCHE heat exchangers and a design data for the typical type PCHE was produced. In parallel with the PCHE-type heat exchanger design, an airfoil shape fin PCHE heat exchanger was newly designed. The new design concept was evaluated by three-dimensional CFD analyses. Possible control schemes for power control in the KALIMER-600 S-CO 2 Brayton cycle were investigated by using the MARS code. The MMS-LMR code was also developed to analyze the transient phenomena in a SFR with a supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycle to develop the control logic. Simple power reduction and recovery event was selected and analyzed for the transient calculation. For the evaluation of Na-CO 2 boundary failure event, a computer was developed to simulate the complex thermodynamic behaviors coupled with the chemical reaction between liquid sodium and CO 2 gas. The long term behavior of a Na-CO 2 boundary failure event and its consequences which lead to a system pressure transient were evaluated

  16. Supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton power conversion cycle for battery optimized reactor integral system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T. W.; Kim, N. H.; Suh, K. Y.

    2007-01-01

    Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO 2 ) promises a high power conversion efficiency of the recompression Brayton cycle due to its excellent compressibility reducing the compression work at the bottom of the cycle and to a higher density than helium or steam decreasing the component size. The SCO 2 Brayton cycle efficiency as high as 45% furnishes small sized nuclear reactors with economical benefits on the plant construction and maintenance. A 23 MWth lead-cooled Battery Optimized Reactor Integral System (BORIS) is being developed as an ultra-long-life, versatile-purpose, fast-spectrum reactor. BORIS is coupled to the SCO 2 Brayton cycle needing less room relative to the Rankine steam cycle because of its smaller components. The SCO 2 Brayton cycle of BORIS consists of a 16 MW turbine, a 32 MW high temperature recuperator, a 14 MW low temperature recuperator, an 11 MW precooler and 2 and 2.8 MW compressors. Entering six heat exchangers between primary and secondary system at 19.9 MPa and 663 K, the SCO 2 leaves the heat exchangers at 19.9 MPa and 823 K. The promising secondary system efficiency of 45% was calculated by a theoretical method in which the main parameters include pressure, temperature, heater power, the turbine's, recuperators' and compressors' efficiencies, and the flow split ratio of SCO 2 going out from the low temperature recuperator. Development of Modular Optimized Brayton Integral System (MOBIS) is being devised as the SCO 2 Brayton cycle energy conversion cycle for BORIS. MOBIS consists of Loop Operating Brayton Optimization Study (LOBOS) for experimental Brayton cycle loop and Gas Advanced Turbine Operation Study (GATOS) for the SCO 2 turbine. Liquid-metal Energy Exchanger Integral System (LEXIS) serves to couple BORIS and MOBIS. LEXIS comprises Physical Aspect Thermal Operation System (PATOS) for SCO 2 thermal hydraulic characteristics, Shell-and-tube Overall Layout Optimization Study (SOLOS) for shell-and-tube heat exchanger, Printed

  17. High exergetic modified Brayton cycle with thermoelectric energy conversion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yazawa, Kazuaki; Fisher, Timothy S.; Groll, Eckhard A.; Shakouri, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Modified Brayton cycle with thermoelectric generators. • 1 kW power output scale hybrid gas turbine for residential applications. • Low profile TEGs are embedded in combustor/recuperator/heat-exchangers. • Analytical primary energy efficiency achieves more than 40%. - Abstract: A novel concept using thermoelectric direct power generators (TEGs) integrated into a 1 kW scale miniature Brayton cycle is investigated based on an analytical study. The work considers a residential scale application aiming to achieve 40% primary energy efficiency in contrast to the state-of-the-art miniature gas turbine alone, which can only achieve <16%. A topping cycle TEG for a hot gas temperature at 1600–1700 °C is embedded in the combustor scale of a kitchen stove. This TEG converts a fraction of the heat into electricity, while all the remaining thermal energy proceeds to the Brayton cycle. Turbine-inlet gas temperature regulates to 800–1100 °C by optimizing the air mixture. A second TEG is built in the recuperator; hence, the associated temperature is similar to that of a vehicle exhaust. A third TEG is used for waste heat recovery from flue gas, and then the downstream heat flow is used by a combined-heat-power system. By taking advantage of low-profile modules, the TEG embedded heat exchanges can be compact and low-cost at 0.2–0.3 $/W. The figure-of-merit of the thermoelectric materials considers ZT 1.0–1.8. Assuming that all advanced components are utilized, the primary energy efficiency predicts 42% with power output 720 W from the alternator and 325 W from the TEGs out of 0.456 g/s of a pipeline natural gas input.

  18. Brayton Power Conversion Unit Tested: Provides a Path to Future High-Power Electric Propulsion Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lee S.

    2003-01-01

    Closed-Brayton-cycle conversion technology has been identified as an excellent candidate for nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) power conversion systems. Advantages include high efficiency, long life, and high power density for power levels from about 10 kWe to 1 MWe, and beyond. An additional benefit for Brayton is the potential for the alternator to deliver very high voltage as required by the electric thrusters, minimizing the mass and power losses associated with the power management and distribution (PMAD). To accelerate Brayton technology development for NEP, the NASA Glenn Research Center is developing a low-power NEP power systems testbed that utilizes an existing 2- kWe Brayton power conversion unit (PCU) from previous solar dynamic technology efforts. The PCU includes a turboalternator, a recuperator, and a gas cooler connected by gas ducts. The rotating assembly is supported by gas foil bearings and consists of a turbine, a compressor, a thrust rotor, and an alternator on a single shaft. The alternator produces alternating-current power that is rectified to 120-V direct-current power by the PMAD unit. The NEP power systems testbed will be utilized to conduct future investigations of operational control methods, high-voltage PMAD, electric thruster interactions, and advanced heat rejection techniques. The PCU was tested in Glenn s Vacuum Facility 6. The Brayton PCU was modified from its original solar dynamic configuration by the removal of the heat receiver and retrofitting of the electrical resistance gas heater to simulate the thermal input of a steady-state nuclear source. Then, the Brayton PCU was installed in the 3-m test port of Vacuum Facility 6, as shown. A series of tests were performed between June and August of 2002 that resulted in a total PCU operational time of about 24 hr. An initial test sequence on June 17 determined that the reconfigured unit was fully operational. Ensuing tests provided the operational data needed to characterize PCU

  19. Performance analysis for an irreversible variable temperature heat reservoir closed intercooled regenerated Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Wenhua; Chen Lingen; Sun Fengrui; Wu Chih

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, the theory of finite time thermodynamics is used in the performance analysis of an irreversible closed intercooled regenerated Brayton cycle coupled to variable temperature heat reservoirs. The analytical formulae for dimensionless power and efficiency, as functions of the total pressure ratio, the intercooling pressure ratio, the component (regenerator, intercooler, hot and cold side heat exchangers) effectivenesses, the compressor and turbine efficiencies and the thermal capacity rates of the working fluid and the heat reservoirs, the pressure recovery coefficients, the heat reservoir inlet temperature ratio, and the cooling fluid in the intercooler and the cold side heat reservoir inlet temperature ratio, are derived. The intercooling pressure ratio is optimized for optimal power and optimal efficiency, respectively. The effects of component (regenerator, intercooler and hot and cold side heat exchangers) effectivenesses, the compressor and turbine efficiencies, the pressure recovery coefficients, the heat reservoir inlet temperature ratio and the cooling fluid in the intercooler and the cold side heat reservoir inlet temperature ratio on optimal power and its corresponding intercooling pressure ratio, as well as optimal efficiency and its corresponding intercooling pressure ratio are analyzed by detailed numerical examples. When the heat transfers between the working fluid and the heat reservoirs are executed ideally, the pressure drop losses are small enough to be neglected and the thermal capacity rates of the heat reservoirs are infinite, the results of this paper replicate those obtained in recent literature

  20. Buffer thermal energy storage for a solar Brayton engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpf, H. J.; Barr, K. P.

    1981-01-01

    A study has been completed on the application of latent-heat buffer thermal energy storage to a point-focusing solar receiver equipped with an air Brayton engine. To aid in the study, a computer program was written for complete transient/stead-state Brayton cycle performance. The results indicated that thermal storage can afford a significant decrease in the number of engine shutdowns as compared to operating without thermal storage. However, the number of shutdowns does not continuously decrease as the storage material weight increases. In fact, there appears to be an optimum weight for minimizing the number of shutdowns.

  1. Adaptability of Brayton cycle conversion systems to fast, epithermal and thermal spectrum space nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Z.P.

    1988-01-01

    The two French Government Agencies C.N.E.S. (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and C.E.A. (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) are carrying out joint preliminary studies on space nuclear power systems for future ARIANE 5 launch vehicle applications. The Brayton cycle is the reference conversion system, whether the heat source is a liquid metal-cooled (NaK, Na or Li) reactor or a gas-cooled direct cycle concept. The search for an adequate utilization of this energy conversion means has prompted additional evaluations featuring the definition of satisfactory cycle conditions for these various kinds of reactor concepts. In addition to firstly studied fast and epithermal spectrum ones, thermal spectrum reactors can offer an opportunity of bringing out some distinctive features of the Brayton cycle, in particular for the temperature conditioning of the efficient metal hydrides (ZrH, Li/sub 7/H) moderators. One of the purposes of the paper is to confirm the potential of long lifetime ZrH moderated reactors associated with a gas cycle and to assess the thermodynamical consequences for both Nak(Na)-cooled or gas-cooled nuclear heat sources. This investigation is complemented by the definition of appropriate reactor arrangements which could be presented on a further occasion

  2. Preliminary design of S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle for APR-1400 with power generation and desalination process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Seong Jun; Lee, Won Woong; Jeong, Yong Hoon; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Ho Joon [KUSTAR, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates)

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted to explore the capabilities of the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle for a cogeneration system for APR-1400 application. Three concepts of the S-CO{sub 2} simple recuperated co-generation cycle were designed. A supercritical CO{sub 2} (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle is recently receiving significant attention as a promising power conversion system in wide range of energy applications due to its high efficiency and compact footprint. The main reason why the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle has these advantages is that the compressor operates near the critical point of CO{sub 2} (30.98 .deg. C, 7.38MPa) to reduce the compression work significantly compared to the other Brayton cycles. In this study, the concept of replacing the entire steam cycle of APR-1400 with the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle is evaluated. The power generation purpose S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycles are redesigned to generate power and provide heat to the desalination system at the same time. The performance of these newly suggested cycles are evaluated in this paper. The target was to deliver 147MW heat to the desalination process. The thermal efficiencies of the three concepts are not significantly different, but the 3{sup rd} concept is relatively simpler than other cycles because only an additional heat exchanger is required. Although the 2{sup nd} concept is relatively complicated in comparison to other concepts, the temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the DHX are higher than that of the others. As shown in the results, the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycles are not easy to outperform the steam cycle with very simple layout and general design points under APR-1400 operating condition. However, this study shows that the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycles can be designed as a co-generation cycle while producing the target desalination heat with a simple configuration. In addition, it was also found that the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle can achieve higher cycle thermal efficiency than the steam power cycle under

  3. Cascaded recompression closed brayton cycle system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasch, James J.

    2018-01-02

    The present disclosure is directed to a cascaded recompression closed Brayton cycle (CRCBC) system and method of operation thereof, where the CRCBC system includes a compressor for compressing the system fluid, a separator for generating fluid feed streams for each of the system's turbines, and separate segments of a heater that heat the fluid feed streams to different feed temperatures for the system's turbines. Fluid exiting each turbine is used to preheat the fluid to the turbine. In an embodiment, the amount of heat extracted is determined by operational costs.

  4. Cascaded recompression closed brayton cycle system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasch, James J.

    2018-01-02

    The present disclosure is directed to a cascaded recompression closed Brayton cycle (CRCBC) system and method of operation thereof, where the CRCBC system includes a compressor for compressing the system fluid, a separator for generating fluid feed streams for each of the system's turbines, and separate segments of a heater that heat the fluid feed streams to different feed temperatures for the system's turbines. Fluid exiting each turbine is used to preheat the fluid to the turbine. In an embodiment, the amount of heat extracted is determined by operational costs.

  5. Modeling and sizing of the heat exchangers of a new supercritical CO2 Brayton power cycle for energy conversion for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, I.P.; Cantizano, A.; Linares, J.I.; Moratilla, B.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •We propose a procedure to model the heat exchangers of a S-CO2 Brayton power cycle. •Discretization in sub-heat exchangers is performed due to complex behavior of CO 2 . •Different correlations have been tested, verifying them with CFD when necessary. •Obtained sizes are agree with usual values of printed circuit heat exchangers. -- Abstract: TECNO F US is a research program financed by the Spanish Government to develop technologies related to a dual-coolant (He/Pb–Li) breeding blanket design concept including the auxiliary systems for a future power reactor (DEMO). One of the main issues of this program is the optimization of heat recovery from the reactor and its conversion into electrical power. This paper is focused on the methodology employed for the design and sizing of all the heat exchangers of the supercritical CO 2 Brayton power cycle (S-CO2) proposed by the authors. Due to the large pressure difference between the fluids, and also to their compactness, Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHE) are suggested in literature for these type of cycles. Because of the complex behavior of CO 2 , their design is performed by a numerical discretization into sub-heat exchangers, thus a higher precision is reached when the thermal properties of the fluids vary along the heat exchanger. Different empirical correlations for the pressure drop and the Nusselt number have been coupled and assessed. The design of the precooler (PC) and the low temperature recuperator (LTR) is also verified by simulations using CFD because of the near-critical behavior of CO 2 . The size of all of the heat exchangers of the cycle have been assessed

  6. New exergy analysis of a regenerative closed Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naserian, Mohammad Mahdi; Farahat, Said; Sarhaddi, Faramarz

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The maximum power is studied relating to time and size constraints variations. • The influence of time and size constraints on exergy destruction are investigated. • The definitions of heat exergy, and second law efficiency are modified. - Abstract: In this study, the optimal performance of a regenerative closed Brayton cycle is sought through power maximization. Optimization is performed on the output power as the objective function using genetic algorithm. In order to take into account the time and the size constraints in current problem, the dimensionless mass-flow parameter is used. The influence of the unavoidable exergy destruction due to finite-time constraint is taken into account by developing the definition of heat exergy. Finally, the improved definitions are proposed for heat exergy, and the second law efficiency. Moreover, the new definitions will be compared with the conventional ones. For example, at a specified dimensionless mass-flow parameter, exergy overestimation in conventional definition, causes about 31% lower estimation of the second law efficiency. These results could be expected to be utilized in future solar thermal Brayton cycle assessment and optimization.

  7. Thermodynamic design of 10 kW Brayton cryocooler for HTS cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, C. W.; Yang, H. S.; Sohn, Song Ho; Lim, Ji Hyun; Oh, S. R.; Hwang, Si Dole

    2012-06-01

    Thermodynamic design of Brayton cryocooler is presented as part of an ongoing governmental project in Korea, aiming at 1 km HTS power cable in the transmission grid. The refrigeration requirement is 10 kW for continuously sub-cooling liquid nitrogen from 72 K to 65 K. An ideal Brayton cycle for this application is first investigated to examine the fundamental features. Then a practical cycle for a Brayton cryocooler is designed, taking into account the performance of compressor, expander, and heat exchangers. Commercial software (Aspen HYSYS) is used for simulating the refrigeration cycle with real fluid properties of refrigerant. Helium is selected as a refrigerant, as it is superior to neon in thermodynamic efficiency. The operating pressure and flow rate of refrigerant are decided with a constraint to avoid the freezing of liquid nitrogen

  8. Combined Brayton-JT cycles with refrigerants for natural gas liquefaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Jae Hoon; Lee, Sanggyu; Choe, Kun Hyung

    2012-06-01

    Thermodynamic cycles for natural gas liquefaction with single-component refrigerants are investigated under a governmental project in Korea, aiming at new processes to meet the requirements on high efficiency, large capacity, and simple equipment. Based upon the optimization theory recently published by the present authors, it is proposed to replace the methane-JT cycle in conventional cascade process with a nitrogen-Brayton cycle. A variety of systems to combine nitrogen-Brayton, ethane-JT and propane-JT cycles are simulated with Aspen HYSYS and quantitatively compared in terms of thermodynamic efficiency, flow rate of refrigerants, and estimated size of heat exchangers. A specific Brayton-JT cycle is suggested with detailed thermodynamic data for further process development. The suggested cycle is expected to be more efficient and simpler than the existing cascade process, while still taking advantage of easy and robust operation with single-component refrigerants.

  9. Nuclear Bi-Brayton system for aircraft propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, B.L.

    1979-01-01

    Recent studies have shown the desirability of new system concept for nuclear aircraft propulsion utilizing the Bi-Brayton system concept, permits coupling of a gas cooled reactor to the power transmission and conversion system in a manner such as to fulfill the safety criteria while eliminating the need for a high temperature intermediate heat exchanger or shaft penetrations of the containment vessel. This system has been shown to minimize the component development required and to allow reduction in total propulsion system weight. This paper presents a description of the system concept and the results of the definition and evaluation studies to date. Parametric and reference system definition studies have been performed. The closed-cycle Bi-Brayton system and component configurations and weight estimates have been derived. Parametric evaluation and cycle variation studies have been performed and interpreted. 7 refs

  10. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Energy Conversion System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jae Eun; Kim, S. O.; Seong, S. H.; Eoh, J. H.; Lee, T. H.; Choi, S. K.; Han, J. W.; Bae, S. W

    2007-12-15

    This report contains the description of the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle coupled to KALIMER-600 as an alternative energy conversion system. For system development, a computer code was developed to calculate heat balance of 100% power operation condition. Based on the computer code, the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle energy conversion system was constructed for the KALIMER-600. Using the developed turbomachinery models, the off-design characteristics and the sensitivities of the S-CO{sub 2} turbomachinery were investigated. For the development of PCHE models, a one-dimensional analysis computer code was developed to evaluate the performance of the PCHE. Possible control schemes for power control in the KALIMER-600 S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle were investigated by using the MARS code. Simple power reduction and recovery event was selected and analyzed for the transient calculation. For the evaluation of Na/CO{sub 2} boundary failure event, a computer was developed to simulate the complex thermodynamic behaviors coupled with the chemical reaction between liquid sodium and CO{sub 2} gas. The long term behavior of a Na/CO{sub 2} boundary failure event and its consequences which lead to a system pressure transient were evaluated.

  11. Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Energy Conversion System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Jae Eun; Kim, S. O.; Seong, S. H.; Eoh, J. H.; Lee, T. H.; Choi, S. K.; Han, J. W.; Bae, S. W.

    2007-12-01

    This report contains the description of the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle coupled to KALIMER-600 as an alternative energy conversion system. For system development, a computer code was developed to calculate heat balance of 100% power operation condition. Based on the computer code, the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle energy conversion system was constructed for the KALIMER-600. Using the developed turbomachinery models, the off-design characteristics and the sensitivities of the S-CO 2 turbomachinery were investigated. For the development of PCHE models, a one-dimensional analysis computer code was developed to evaluate the performance of the PCHE. Possible control schemes for power control in the KALIMER-600 S-CO 2 Brayton cycle were investigated by using the MARS code. Simple power reduction and recovery event was selected and analyzed for the transient calculation. For the evaluation of Na/CO 2 boundary failure event, a computer was developed to simulate the complex thermodynamic behaviors coupled with the chemical reaction between liquid sodium and CO 2 gas. The long term behavior of a Na/CO 2 boundary failure event and its consequences which lead to a system pressure transient were evaluated

  12. Exergy analysis for combined regenerative Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Zelong Zhang, Lingen Chen, Fengrui Sun

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the study of exergy analysis of combined regenerative Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles. The analytical formulae of exergy loss and exergy efficiency are derived. The largest exergy loss location is determined. By taking the maximum exergy efficiency as the objective, the choice of bottom cycle pressure ratio is optimized by detailed numerical examples, and the corresponding optimal exergy efficiency is obtained. The influences of various parameters on the exergy efficien...

  13. On the reversed Brayton cycle with high speed machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, J.

    1996-12-31

    This work was carried out in the laboratory of Fluid Dynamics, at Lappeenranta University of Technology during the years 1991-1996. The research was a part of larger high speed technology development research. First, there was the idea of making high speed machinery applications with the Brayton cycle. There was a clear need to deepen the knowledge of the cycle itself and to make a new approach in the field of the research. Also, the removal of water from the humid air seemed very interesting. The goal of this work was to study methods of designing high speed machinery for the reversed Brayton cycle, from theoretical principles to practical applications. The reversed Brayton cycle can be employed as an air dryer, a heat pump or a refrigerating machine. In this research the use of humid air as a working fluid has an environmental advantage, as well. A new calculation method for the Brayton cycle is developed. In this method especially the expansion process in the turbine is important because of the condensation of the water vapour in the humid air. This physical phenomena can have significant effects on the level of performance of the application. Also, the influence of calculating the process with actual, achievable process equipment efficiencies is essential for the development of future machinery. The above theoretical calculations are confirmed with two different laboratory prototypes. (53 refs.)

  14. On the reversed Brayton cycle with high speed machinery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, J

    1997-12-31

    This work was carried out in the laboratory of Fluid Dynamics, at Lappeenranta University of Technology during the years 1991-1996. The research was a part of larger high speed technology development research. First, there was the idea of making high speed machinery applications with the Brayton cycle. There was a clear need to deepen the knowledge of the cycle itself and to make a new approach in the field of the research. Also, the removal of water from the humid air seemed very interesting. The goal of this work was to study methods of designing high speed machinery for the reversed Brayton cycle, from theoretical principles to practical applications. The reversed Brayton cycle can be employed as an air dryer, a heat pump or a refrigerating machine. In this research the use of humid air as a working fluid has an environmental advantage, as well. A new calculation method for the Brayton cycle is developed. In this method especially the expansion process in the turbine is important because of the condensation of the water vapour in the humid air. This physical phenomena can have significant effects on the level of performance of the application. Also, the influence of calculating the process with actual, achievable process equipment efficiencies is essential for the development of future machinery. The above theoretical calculations are confirmed with two different laboratory prototypes. (53 refs.)

  15. Task Order 20: Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle Energy Conversion Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, Paul [AREVA Federal Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Lindsay, Edward [AREVA Federal Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); McDowell, Michael [AREVA Federal Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States); Huang, Megan [AREVA Federal Services, LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2015-04-23

    AREVA Inc. developed this study for the US Department of Energy (DOE) office of Nuclear Energy (NE) in accordance with Task Order 20 Statement of Work (SOW) covering research and development activities for the Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (sCO2) Brayton Cycle energy conversion. The study addresses the conversion of sCO2 heat energy to electrical output by use of a Brayton Cycle system and focuses on the potential of a net efficiency increase via cycle recuperation and recompression stages. The study also addresses issues and study needed to advance development and implementation of a 10 MWe sCO2 demonstration project.

  16. Enhancing power cycle efficiency for a supercritical Brayton cycle power system using tunable supercritical gas mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steven A.; Pickard, Paul S.; Vernon, Milton E.; Radel, Ross F.

    2017-08-29

    Various technologies pertaining to tuning composition of a fluid mixture in a supercritical Brayton cycle power generation system are described herein. Compounds, such as Alkanes, are selectively added or removed from an operating fluid of the supercritical Brayton cycle power generation system to cause the critical temperature of the fluid to move up or down, depending upon environmental conditions. As efficiency of the supercritical Brayton cycle power generation system is substantially optimized when heat is rejected near the critical temperature of the fluid, dynamically modifying the critical temperature of the fluid based upon sensed environmental conditions improves efficiency of such a system.

  17. Modeling and sizing of the heat exchangers of a new supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton power cycle for energy conversion for fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, I.P.; Cantizano, A.; Linares, J.I., E-mail: linares@upcomillas.es; Moratilla, B.Y.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •We propose a procedure to model the heat exchangers of a S-CO2 Brayton power cycle. •Discretization in sub-heat exchangers is performed due to complex behavior of CO{sub 2}. •Different correlations have been tested, verifying them with CFD when necessary. •Obtained sizes are agree with usual values of printed circuit heat exchangers. -- Abstract: TECNO{sub F}US is a research program financed by the Spanish Government to develop technologies related to a dual-coolant (He/Pb–Li) breeding blanket design concept including the auxiliary systems for a future power reactor (DEMO). One of the main issues of this program is the optimization of heat recovery from the reactor and its conversion into electrical power. This paper is focused on the methodology employed for the design and sizing of all the heat exchangers of the supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton power cycle (S-CO2) proposed by the authors. Due to the large pressure difference between the fluids, and also to their compactness, Printed Circuit Heat Exchangers (PCHE) are suggested in literature for these type of cycles. Because of the complex behavior of CO{sub 2}, their design is performed by a numerical discretization into sub-heat exchangers, thus a higher precision is reached when the thermal properties of the fluids vary along the heat exchanger. Different empirical correlations for the pressure drop and the Nusselt number have been coupled and assessed. The design of the precooler (PC) and the low temperature recuperator (LTR) is also verified by simulations using CFD because of the near-critical behavior of CO{sub 2}. The size of all of the heat exchangers of the cycle have been assessed.

  18. Brayton Isotope Power System. Phase I. (Ground demonstration system) Configuration Control Document (CCD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The configuration control document (CCD) defines the BIPS-GDS configuration. The GDS configuration is similar to a conceptual flight system design, referred to as the BIPS-FS, which is discussed in App. I. The BIPS is being developed by ERDA as a 500 to 2000 W(e), 7-y life, space power system utilizing a closed Brayton cycle gas turbine engine to convert thermal energy (from an isotope heat source) to electrical energy at a net efficiency exceeding 25 percent. The CCD relates to Phase I of an ERDA Program to qualify a dynamic system for launch in the early 1980's. Phase I is a 35-month effort to provide an FS conceptual design and GDS design, fabrication, and test. The baseline is a 7-year life, 450-pound, 4800 W(t), 1300 W(e) system which will use two multihundred watt (MHW) isotope heat sources being developed

  19. Power conversion systems based on Brayton cycles for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, J.I.; Herranz, L.E.; Moratilla, B.Y.; Serrano, I.P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates Brayton power cycles for fusion reactors. Two working fluids have been explored: helium in classical configurations and CO 2 in recompression layouts (Feher cycle). Typical recuperator arrangements in both cycles have been strongly constrained by low temperature of some of the energy thermal sources from the reactor. This limitation has been overcome in two ways: with a combined architecture and with dual cycles. Combined architecture couples the Brayton cycle with a Rankine one capable of taking advantage of the thermal energy content of the working fluid after exiting the turbine stage (iso-butane and steam fitted best the conditions of the He and CO 2 cycles, respectively). Dual cycles set a specific Rankine cycle to exploit the lowest quality thermal energy source, allowing usual recuperator arrangements in the Brayton cycle. The results of the analyses indicate that dual cycles could reach thermal efficiencies around 42.8% when using helium, whereas thermal performance might be even better (46.7%), if a combined CO 2 -H 2 O cycle was set.

  20. A four-year investigation of Brayton cycle systems for future french space power applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilliette, Z.P.; Proust, E.; Carre, F.

    1988-01-01

    Within the framework of a joint program initiated in 1983 by the two French Government Agencies C.N.E.S. (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and C.E.A. (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique), in order to study space nuclear power systems for future ARIANE 5 applications, extensive investigations have dealt with the Brayton cycle which has been selected as the energy conversion system. Several aspects can be mentioned in this field: the matching of the power system to the available radiator dimensions up to 200 kWe, the direct or indirect waste heat transfer to the radiator, the use of a recuperator, the recent work on moderate (25 kWe) power levels, the simulation studies related to various operating conditions and the general system optimization. A limited experimental program is starting on some crucial technology areas including a first contract to the industry concerning the turbogenerator. Particular attention is being paid to the significance of the adoption of a Brayton cycle for space applications involving a nuclear heat source which can be either a liquid metal-cooled or a gas-cooled reactor. As far as a gas-cooled reactor, direct cycle system is concerned, the relevance to the reactor technology and the concept for moderator thermal conditioning, is particularly addressed

  1. Exergy analysis for combined regenerative Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zelong; Chen, Lingen; Sun, Fengrui [College of Naval Architecture and Power, Naval University of Engineering, Wuhan 430033 (China)

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the study of exergy analysis of combined regenerative Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles. The analytical formulae of exergy loss and exergy efficiency are derived. The largest exergy loss location is determined. By taking the maximum exergy efficiency as the objective, the choice of bottom cycle pressure ratio is optimized by detailed numerical examples, and the corresponding optimal exergy efficiency is obtained. The influences of various parameters on the exergy efficiency and other performances are analyzed by numerical calculations.

  2. Study of reactor Brayton power systems for nuclear electric spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using Brayton power systems for nuclear electric spacecraft was investigated. The primary performance parameters of systems mass and radiator area were determined for systems from 100 to 1000 kW sub e. Mathematical models of all system components were used to determine masses and volumes. Two completely independent systems provide propulsion power so that no single-point failure can jeopardize a mission. The waste heat radiators utilize armored heat pipes to limit meteorite puncture. The armor thickness was statistically determined to achieve the required probability of survival. A 400 kW sub e reference system received primary attention as required by the contract. The components of this system were defined and a conceptual layout was developed with encouraging results. An arrangement with redundant Brayton power systems having a 1500 K (2240 F) turbine inlet temperature was shown to be compatible with the dimensions of the space shuttle orbiter payload bay.

  3. Brayton-Cycle Power-Conversion Unit Tested With Ion Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervol, David S.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear electric propulsion has been identified as an enabling technology for future NASA space science missions, such as the Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO) now under study. An important element of the nuclear electric propulsion spacecraft is the power conversion system, which converts the reactor heat to electrical power for use by the ion propulsion system and other spacecraft loads. The electrical integration of the power converter and ion thruster represents a key technical challenge in making nuclear electric propulsion technology possible. This technical hurdle was addressed extensively on December 1, 2003, when a closed- Brayton-cycle power-conversion unit was tested with a gridded ion thruster at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The test demonstrated end-to-end power throughput and marked the first-ever coupling of a Brayton turbo alternator and a gridded ion thruster, both of which are candidates for use on JIMO-type missions. The testing was conducted at Glenn's Vacuum Facility 6, where the Brayton unit was installed in the 3-m-diameter vacuum test port and the ion thruster was installed in the 7.6-m-diameter main chamber.

  4. Brayton rotating units for space reactor power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallo, Bruno M.; El-Genk, Mohamed S. [Institute for Space and Nuclear Power Studies and Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept., The Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)

    2009-09-15

    Designs and analyses models of centrifugal-flow compressor and radial-inflow turbine of 40.8kW{sub e} Brayton Rotating Units (BRUs) are developed for 15 and 40 g/mole He-Xe working fluids. Also presented are the performance results of a space power system with segmented, gas cooled fission reactor heat source and three Closed Brayton Cycle loops, each with a separate BRU. The calculated performance parameters of the BRUs and the reactor power system are for shaft rotational speed of 30-55 krpm, reactor thermal power of 120-471kW{sub th}, and turbine inlet temperature of 900-1149 K. With 40 g/mole He-Xe, a power system peak thermal efficiency of 26% is achieved at rotation speed of 45 krpm, compressor and turbine inlet temperatures of 400 and 1149 K and 0.93 MPa at exit of the compressor. The corresponding system electric power is 122.4kW{sub e}, working fluid flow rate is 1.85 kg/s and the pressure ratio and polytropic efficiency are 1.5% and 86.3% for the compressor and 1.42% and 94.1% for the turbine. For the same nominal electrical power of 122.4kW{sub e}, decreasing the molecular weight of the working fluid (15 g/mole) decreases its flow rate to 1.03 kg/s and increases the system pressure to 1.2 MPa. (author)

  5. Nuclear combined cycle gas turbines for variable electricity and heat using firebrick heat storage and low-carbon fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, Charles; Peterson, Per F.; McDaniel, Patrick; Bindra, Hitesh

    2017-01-01

    The world is transitioning to a low-carbon energy system. Variable electricity and industrial energy demands have been met with storable fossil fuels. The low-carbon energy sources (nuclear, wind and solar) are characterized by high-capital-costs and low-operating costs. High utilization is required to produce economic energy. Wind and solar are non-dispatchable; but, nuclear is the dispatchable energy source. Advanced combined cycle gas turbines with firebrick heat storage coupled to high-temperature reactors may enable economic variable electricity and heat production with constant full-power reactor output. Such systems efficiently couple to fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactors (FHRs) with solid fuel and clean salt coolants, molten salt reactors (MSRs) with fuel dissolved in the salt coolant and salt-cooled fusion machines. Open Brayton combined cycles allow the use of natural gas, hydrogen, other fuels and firebrick heat storage for peak electricity production with incremental heat-to-electricity efficiencies from 66 to 70+% efficient. There are closed Brayton cycle options that use firebrick heat storage but these have not been investigated in any detail. Many of these cycles couple to high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). (author)

  6. Thermodynamic Analysis of an Irreversible Maisotsenko Reciprocating Brayton Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuli Zhu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available An irreversible Maisotsenko reciprocating Brayton cycle (MRBC model is established using the finite time thermodynamic (FTT theory and taking the heat transfer loss (HTL, piston friction loss (PFL, and internal irreversible losses (IILs into consideration in this paper. A calculation flowchart of the power output (P and efficiency (η of the cycle is provided, and the effects of the mass flow rate (MFR of the injection of water to the cycle and some other design parameters on the performance of cycle are analyzed by detailed numerical examples. Furthermore, the superiority of irreversible MRBC is verified as the cycle and is compared with the traditional irreversible reciprocating Brayton cycle (RBC. The results can provide certain theoretical guiding significance for the optimal design of practical Maisotsenko reciprocating gas turbine plants.

  7. Development and testing of mini heat pump for low-energy houses. Final report; Udvikling og test af minivarmepumpe til lavenergihuse. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Per Henrik; Madsen, Claus; Frederiksen, Klaus; Andreasen, Marcin Blazniak (Teknologisk Institut, Koele- og Varmepumpeteknik, Taastrup (Denmark))

    2010-11-15

    New residential houses are better insulated, and this reduces the need for heat during the winter period. In addition to this many new houses have floor heating systems. This combination is favourable for small heat pumps which can produce heat to central water systems with low water temperatures in the area 25 to 35 C. 4 prototypes of mini heat pumps of the brine/water type was build and tested in the refrigeration laboratory at the Danish Technological Institute (DTI). The prototypes are using a variable speed compressor (Danfoss SLV12) which originally is developed for plug-in supermarket cabinets. The heating capacity of the prototypes can vary between 1.0 and 2.1 kW. The refrigerant charge is 150 grams of R290 (propane). Two prototypes are charged with 375 grams of R134a. Tests were conducted following EN14511 at 0/+35 C and COP was measured to between 3.2 and 3.6 depending of the compressor speed and the type of plate heat exchangers used. This is quite good for such small machines. One of the prototypes was installed in the Energy Flex House which is a new highly insulated test house build at the DTI. The house was equipped with two heat pumps: 1. An exhaust air heat pump taking energy from exhaust air and producing hot tap water and heating the intake air; 2. A mini heat pump for floor heating taking energy from ground source outside the house. A family with four persons lives in the house. During the cold winter 2009/2010 the mini heat pump showed good performance and the COP varies between 2.0 and 4.0. The lower value was caused by a fault in the floor heating hoses, which made it necessary to increase the temperature of the central heating water, which decreased the efficiency of the heat pump during the coldest winter period. The floor heating system has been repaired, and a new prototype heat pump with a slightly bigger compressor has been installed for the heating season 2010/2011. A heat pump manufacturer is now producing this combination of exhaust

  8. Preliminary design of a Brayton cycle as a standalone Decay Heat Removal system for the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epiney, A.; Mikityuk, K.; Chawla, R.; Alpy, N.; Haubensack, D.; Malo, J.Y.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a preliminary design study of a Brayton cycle which would be a dedicated, standalone Decay Heat Removal (DHR) loop of the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR). In comparison to the DHR reference strategy developed during the GFR pre-conceptual design phase (which was completed by the CEA at the end of 2007), the salient feature of this alternative device would be to combine the energetic autonomy of the natural convection process - which is foreseen for operation at high and medium pressures - to the efficiency of the forced convection process which is foreseen for operation down to very low pressures. An analytical model, the so-called 'Brayton scoping' model, is described in the paper. This is based on simplified thermodynamical and aerodynamical equations and was developed to highlight design choices. First simulations of the proposed device's performance during loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) transients have been performed using the CATHARE code, and these are also reported. Analysis of the simulation results are consistent with the first insights obtained from usage of the 'Brayton scoping' model, e.g. the turbomachine accelerates during the depressurization process to tend towards a steady rotational speed value which is inversely proportional to the pressure. For small break LOCA events, the device operates successfully as regards its safety function and delivers to the core a relatively unperturbed cooling mass flowrate as a function of pressure change. However, further studies are required for medium to large break sizes, since certain stability concerns have been met in such cases. For example, an unexpected turbomachine stoppage was induced during the transients, resulting in loss of the necessary core cooling mass flow. (author)

  9. Isotope Brayton ground demonstration testing and flight qualification. Volume 1. Technical program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-12-09

    A program is proposed for the ground demonstration, development, and flight qualification of a radioisotope nuclear heated dynamic power system for use on space missions beginning in the 1980's. This type of electrical power system is based upon and combines two aerospace technologies currently under intense development; namely, the MHW isotope heat source and the closed Brayton cycle gas turbine. This power system represents the next generation of reliable, efficient economic electrical power equipment for space, and will be capable of providing 0.5 to 2.0 kW of electric power to a wide variety of spacecraft for earth orbital and interplanetary missions. The immediate design will be based upon the requirements for the Air Force SURVSATCOM mission. The proposal is presented in three volumes plus an Executive Summary. This volume describes the tasks in the technical program.

  10. Buffer thermal energy storage for an air Brayton solar engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumpf, H. J.; Barr, K. P.

    1981-01-01

    The application of latent-heat buffer thermal energy storage to a point-focusing solar receiver equipped with an air Brayton engine was studied. To demonstrate the effect of buffer thermal energy storage on engine operation, a computer program was written which models the recuperator, receiver, and thermal storage device as finite-element thermal masses. Actual operating or predicted performance data are used for all components, including the rotating equipment. Based on insolation input and a specified control scheme, the program predicts the Brayton engine operation, including flows, temperatures, and pressures for the various components, along with the engine output power. An economic parametric study indicates that the economic viability of buffer thermal energy storage is largely a function of the achievable engine life.

  11. Performance evaluation and parametric choice criteria of a Brayton pumped thermal electricity storage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Juncheng; Cai, Ling; Chen, Jincan; Zhou, Yinghui

    2016-01-01

    A more realistic thermodynamic model of the pumped thermal electricity storage (PTES) system consisting of a Brayton cycle and a reverse Brayton cycle is proposed, where the internal and external irreversible losses are took into account and several important controlling parameters, e.g., the pressure ratio and heat flows of the two isobaric processes in the Brayton cycle, are introduced. Analytic expressions for the round trip efficiency and power output of the PTES system are derived. The general performance characteristics of the PTES system are revealed. The optimal relationship between the round trip efficiency and the power output is obtained. The influences of some important controlling parameters on the performance characteristics of the PTES system are discussed and the optimally operating regions of these parameters are determined. - Highlights: • A cycle model of the Brayton pumped thermal electricity storage system is proposed. • Internal and external irreversible losses are considered. • Maximum power output and efficiency of the system are calculated. • Optimum performance characteristics of the system are revealed. • Rational ranges of key controlling parameters are determined.

  12. Multi-objective thermodynamic optimization of combined Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles using genetic algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Besarati, S.M.; Atashkari, K.; Jamali, A.; Hajiloo, A.; Nariman-zadeh, N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a simultaneous optimization study of two outputs performance of a previously proposed combined Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles. It has been carried out by varying the upper cycle pressure ratio, the expansion pressure of the bottom cycle and using variable, above atmospheric, bottom cycle inlet pressure. Multi-objective genetic algorithms are used for Pareto approach optimization of the cycle outputs. The two important conflicting thermodynamic objectives that have been considered in this work are net specific work (w s ) and thermal efficiency (η th ). It is shown that some interesting features among optimal objective functions and decision variables involved in the Baryton and inverse Brayton cycles can be discovered consequently.

  13. Supercritical CO2 Brayton power cycles for DEMO fusion reactor based on Helium Cooled Lithium Lead blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, José Ignacio; Herranz, Luis Enrique; Fernández, Iván; Cantizano, Alexis; Moratilla, Beatriz Yolanda

    2015-01-01

    Fusion energy is one of the most promising solutions to the world energy supply. This paper presents an exploratory analysis of the suitability of supercritical CO 2 Brayton power cycles (S-CO 2 ) for low-temperature divertor fusion reactors cooled by helium (as defined by EFDA). Integration of three thermal sources (i.e., blanket, divertor and vacuum vessel) has been studied through proposing and analyzing a number of alternative layouts, achieving an improvement on power production higher than 5% over the baseline case, which entails to a gross efficiency (before self-consumptions) higher than 42%. In spite of this achievement, the assessment of power consumption for the circulating heat transfer fluids results in a penalty of 20% in the electricity production. Once the most suitable layout has been selected an optimization process has been conducted to adjust the key parameters to balance performance and size, achieving an electrical efficiency (electricity without taking into account auxiliary consumptions due to operation of the fusion reactor) higher than 33% and a reduction in overall size of heat exchangers of 1/3. Some relevant conclusions can be drawn from the present work: the potential of S-CO 2 cycles as suitable converters of thermal energy to power in fusion reactors; the significance of a suitable integration of thermal sources to maximize power output; the high penalty of pumping power; and the convenience of identifying the key components of the layout as a way to optimize the whole cycle performance. - Highlights: • Supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycles have been proposed for BoP of HCLL fusion reactor. • Low temperature sources have been successfully integrated with high temperature ones. • Optimization of thermal sources integration improves 5% the electricity production. • Assessment of pumping power with sources and sink loops results on 20% of gross power. • Matching of key parameters has conducted to 1/3 of reduction in heat

  14. A novel syngas-fired hybrid heating source for solar-thermal applications: Energy and exergy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pramanik, Santanu; Ravikrishna, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomass-derived syngas as a hybrid energy source for solar thermal power plants. • A novel combustor concept using rich-catalytic and MILD combustion technologies. • Hybrid energy source for a solar-driven supercritical CO 2 -based Brayton cycle. • Comprehensive energetic and exergetic analysis of the combined system. - Abstract: A hybrid heating source using biomass-derived syngas is proposed to enable continuous operation of standalone solar thermal power generation plants. A novel, two-stage, low temperature combustion system is proposed that has the potential to provide stable combustion of syngas with near-zero NO x emissions. The hybrid heating system consists of a downdraft gasifier, a two-stage combustion system, and other auxiliaries. When integrated with a solar cycle, the entire system can be referred to as the integrated gasification solar combined cycle (IGSCC). The supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycle (SCO 2 ) is selected for the solar cycle due to its high efficiency. The thermodynamic performance evaluation of the individual unit and the combined system has been conducted from both energy and exergy considerations. The effect of parameters such as gasification temperature, biomass moisture content, equivalence ratio, and pressure ratio is studied. The efficiency of the IGSCC exhibited a non-monotonic behavior. A maximum thermal efficiency of 36.5% was achieved at an overall equivalence ratio of 0.22 and pressure ratio of 2.75 when the gasifier was operating at T g = 1073 K with biomass containing 20% moisture. The efficiency increased to 40.8% when dry biomass was gasified at a temperature of 973 K. The exergy analysis revealed that the maximum exergy destruction occurred in the gasification system, followed by the combustion system, SCO 2 cycle, and regenerator. The exergy analysis also showed that 8.72% of the total exergy is lost in the exhaust; however, this can be utilized for drying of the biomass.

  15. A simple and versatile mini-arc plasma source for nanocrystal synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Junhong; Lu Ganhua; Zhu Liying; Flagan, Richard C.

    2007-01-01

    Nanocrystals in the lower-nanometer-size range are attracting growing interest due to their unique properties. A simple and versatile atmospheric direct current mini-arc plasma source has been developed to produce nanoparticles as small as a few nanometers. The nanoparticles are formed by direct vaporization of solid precursors followed by a rapid quenching. Both semiconductor tin oxide and metallic silver nanoparticles have been produced at rates of 1-10 mg/h using the mini-arc source. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that most nanoparticles as produced are nonagglomerated and crystalline. Size distributions of nanoparticles measured with an online scanning electrical mobility spectrometer are broader than the self-preserving distribution, suggesting that the nanoparticle growth is coagulation-dominated, and that the particles experience a range of residence times. The electrical charges carried by as-produced aerosol nanoparticles facilitate the manipulation of nanoparticles. The new mini-arc plasma source hence shows promise to accelerate the exploration of nanostructured materials

  16. Advanced heat pump for the recovery of volatile organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-03-01

    Emissions of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) from stationary industrial and commercial sources represent a substantial portion of the total US VOC emissions. The Toxic-Release Inventory'' of The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates this to be at about 3 billion pounds per year (1987 estimates). The majority of these VOC emissions are from coating processes, cleaning processes, polymer production, fuel production and distribution, foam blowing,refrigerant production, and wood products production. The US Department of Energy's (DOE) interest in the recovery of VOC stems from the energy embodied in the recovered solvents and the energy required to dispose of them in an environmentally acceptable manner. This Phase I report documents 3M's work in close working relationship with its subcontractor Nuclear Consulting Services (Nucon) for the preliminary conceptual design of an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of VOC. Nucon designed Brayton cycle heat pump for the recovery of methyl ethyl ketone and toluene from coating operations at 3M Weatherford, OK, was used as a base line for the work under cooperative agreement between 3M and ODE. See appendix A and reference (4) by Kovach of Nucon. This cooperative agreement report evaluates and compares an advanced Brayton cycle heat pump for solvent recovery with other competing technologies for solvent recovery and reuse. This advanced Brayton cycle heat pump is simple (very few components), highly reliable (off the shelf components), energy efficient and economically priced.

  17. Characteristics of MINI ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Yuichi; Yokota, Watalu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    A very compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source (MINI ECR) was manufactured to extend available energy ranges of ion beams by applying multiply charged ions to electrostatic accelerators. The magnetic field to confine a plasma is formed only by small permanent magnets and the microwave power up to 15 W is generated by a compact transistor amplifier in order to install the ion source at a narrow high-voltage terminal where the electrical power feed is restricted. The magnet assembly is 12 cm in length and 11 cm in diameter, and forms a mirror field with the maximum strength of 0.55 T. The total power consumption of the source is below 160 W. The performance of the source was tested in a bench stand. The results of Ar, Xe, O, and N ion generation are reported in this paper. (author)

  18. Supercritical CO2 Brayton power cycles for DEMO (demonstration power plant) fusion reactor based on dual coolant lithium lead blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linares, José Ignacio; Cantizano, Alexis; Moratilla, Beatriz Yolanda; Martín-Palacios, Víctor; Batet, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory analysis of the suitability of supercritical CO 2 Brayton power cycles as alternative energy conversion systems for a future fusion reactor based on a DCLL (dual coolant lithium-lead) blanket, as prescribed by EUROfusion. The main issue dealt is the optimization of the integration of the different thermal sources with the power cycle in order to achieve the highest electricity production. The analysis includes the assessment of the pumping consumption in the heating and cooling loops, taking into account additional considerations as control issues and integration of thermal energy storage systems. An exergy analysis has been performed in order to understand the behavior of each layout. Up to ten scenarios have been analyzed assessing different locations for thermal sources heat exchangers. Neglecting the worst four scenarios, it is observed less than 2% of variation among the other six ones. One of the best six scenarios clearly stands out over the others due to the location of the thermal sources in a unique island, being this scenario compatible with the control criteria. In this proposal 34.6% of electric efficiency (before the self-consumptions of the reactor but including pumping consumptions and generator efficiency) is achieved. - Highlights: • Supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycles have been proposed for BoP of DCLL fusion reactor. • Integration of different available thermal sources has been analyzed considering ten scenarios. • Neglecting the four worst scenarios the electricity production varies less than 2%. • Control and energy storage integration issues have been considered in the analysis. • Discarding the vacuum vessel and joining the other sources in an island is proposed.

  19. Potential advantages of coupling supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle to water cooled small and medium size reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ho Joon; Ahn, Yoonhan; Lee, Jeong Ik; Addad, Yacine

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► S-CO 2 cycle as candidate for SMS. ► MATLAB code used for S-CO 2 cycle analysis. ► Pressure ratio and split ratio comparison analyzed. - Abstract: The supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO 2 ) Brayton cycle is being considered as a favorable candidate for the next generation nuclear reactors power conversion systems. Major benefits of the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle compared to other Brayton cycles are: (1) high thermal efficiency in relatively low turbine inlet temperature, (2) compactness of the turbomachineries and heat exchangers and (3) simpler cycle layout at an equivalent or superior thermal efficiency. However, these benefits can be still utilized even in the water-cooled reactor technologies under special circumstances. A small and medium size water-cooled nuclear reactor (SMR) has been gaining interest due to its wide range of application such as electricity generation, seawater desalination, district heating and propulsion. Another key advantage of a SMR is that it can be transported from one place to another mostly by maritime transport due to its small size, and sometimes even through a railway system. Therefore, the combination of a S-CO 2 Brayton cycle with a SMR can reinforce any advantages coming from its small size if the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle has much smaller size components, and simpler cycle layout compared to the currently considered steam Rankine cycle. In this paper, SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor), a 330 MW th integral reactor developed by KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Institute) for multipurpose utilization, is considered as a potential candidate for applying the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle and advantages and disadvantages of the proposed system will be discussed in detail. In consideration of SMART condition, the turbine inlet pressure and size of heat exchangers are analyzed by using in-house code developed by KAIST–Khalifa University joint research team. According to the cycle evaluation, the maximum cycle efficiency

  20. Cost estimating Brayton and Stirling engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortgang, H. R.

    1980-01-01

    Brayton and Stirling engines were analyzed for cost and selling price for production quantities ranging from 1000 to 400,000 units per year. Parts and components were subjected to indepth scrutiny to determine optimum manufacturing processes coupled with make or buy decisions on materials and small parts. Tooling and capital equipment costs were estimated for each detail and/or assembly. For low annual production volumes, the Brayton engine appears to have a lower cost and selling price than the Stirling Engine. As annual production quantities increase, the Stirling becomes a lower cost engine than the Brayton. Both engines could benefit cost wise if changes were made in materials, design and manufacturing process as annual production quantities increase.

  1. Back work ratio of Brayton cycle; La relacion de trabajo de retroceso de un ciclo Brayton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaver de la Fuente, M. [Universidad Maritima del Caribe (Venezuela)]. E-mail: mmf_umc@hotmail.com

    2010-07-15

    This paper analyzes the existing relation between temperatures, back work ratio and net work of Brayton cycle, a cycle that describes gas turbine engines performance. The application of computational software helps to show the influence of back work ratio or coupling ratio, compressor and turbine inlet temperatures in an ideal thermodynamical cycle. The results lead to deduce that the maximum value reached in back work ratio will depend on the ranges of maximum and minimal temperatures of Brayton cycle. [Spanish] En este articulo se estudia la relacion que existe entre las temperaturas, la relacion de trabajo de retroceso y el trabajo neto en el ciclo Brayton, que es el ciclo ideal que describe el comportamiento de los motores de turbina de gas. La aplicacion de programas computarizados ayuda a mostrar la influencia de la relacion de trabajo de retroceso o relacion de acoplamiento, la temperatura de entrada al compresor y la temperatura de entrada a la turbina en este ciclo termodinamico ideal. Los resultados obtenidos permiten deducir que el valor maximo que alcanza la relacion de trabajo de retroceso dependera de los limites de temperatura maxima y minima impuestos en el ciclo Brayton.

  2. On the definition of dominant force regimes for flow boiling heat transfer by using single mini-tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Soumei; Sawada, Kenichiro; Kubota, Chisato; Kawanami, Osamu; Asano, Hitoshi; Inoue, Koichi; Ohta, Haruhiko

    Recent increase in the size of space platforms requires the management of larger amount of waste heat under high heat flux conditions and the transportation of it along a long distance to the radiator. Flow boiling applied to the thermal management system in space attracts much attention as promising means to realize high-performance heat transfer and transport because of large latent heat of vaporization. In microgravity two-phase flow phenomena are quite different from those under 1-g condition because buoyancy effects are significantly reduced and surface tension becomes dominant. By the similar reason, flow boiling characteristics in mini channels are not the same as those in channels of normal sizes. In the present stage, however, the boundary between the regimes of body force dominated and of surface tension dominated is not clear. The design of space thermal devices, operated under the conditions where no effect of gravity is expected, will improve the reliability of their ground tests, provided that the boundaries of dominant force regimes are clarified quantitatively in advance. In flow boiling in mini channels or in parallel channels, back flow could be occurred because of rapid growth of bubbles in a confined space, resulting flow rate fluctuation. Flow boiling heat transfer characteristics in mini channels can be changed considerably by the existence of inlet flow rate fluctuation. It is important to pay attention to experimental accuracy and to use a single circular mini-tube to compare heat transfer characteristics with those of normal size tubes. In the present paper, effects of tube orientations, i.e. vertical upward flow, vertical downward flow and horizontal flow, on flow boiling heat transfer characteristics is investigated for FC72 flowing in single mini-tubes with inner diameters of 0.13 and 0.51 mm to establish a reliable dominant force regime map. If the regime map is described by using dimensionless groups of Bond, Weber and Froude numbers

  3. Development of the System Dynamics Code using Homogeneous Equilibrium Model for S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle Transient Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Seong Jun; Lee, Won Woong; Oh, Bongseong; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The features of the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle come from a small compressing work by designing the compressor inlet close the critical point of CO{sub 2}. This means the system condition can be operating under two-phase or sub-critical phase during transient situations such as changes of cooling system performance, load variations, etc. Since there is no operating MW scale S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle system in the world yet, using an analytical code is the only way to predict the system behavior and develop operating strategies of the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycles. Therefore, the development of a credible system code is an important part for the practical S-CO{sub 2} system research. The current status of the developed system analysis code for S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle transient analyses in KAIST and verification results are presented in this paper. To avoid errors related with convergences of the code during the phase changing flow calculation in GAMMA+ code, the authors have developed a system analysis code using Homogeneous Equilibrium Model (HEM) for the S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle transient analysis. The backbone of the in-house code is the GAMMA+1.0 code, but treating the quality of fluid by tracking system enthalpy gradient every time step. Thus, the code adopts pressure and enthalpy as the independent scalar variables to track the system enthalpy for updating the quality of the system every time step. The heat conduction solving method, heat transfer correlation and frictional losses on the pipe are referred from the GAMMA+ code.

  4. Preliminary closed Brayton cycle study for a space reactor application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Lamartine Nogueira Frutuoso; Carvalho, Ricardo Pinto de; Camillo, Giannino Ponchio

    2007-01-01

    The Nuclear Energy Division (ENU) of the Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv) has started a preliminary design study for a Closed Brayton Cycle Loop (CBCL) aimed at a space reactor application. The main objectives of the study are to establish a starting concept for the CBCL components specifications, and to develop a demonstrative simulator of CBCL in nominal operation conditions. The ENU/IEAv preliminary design study is developing the CBCL around the NOELLE 60290 turbo machine. The actual nuclear reactor study is being conducted independently. Because of that, a conventional heat source is being used for the CBCL, in this preliminary design phase. This paper describes the steady state simulator of the CBCL operating with NOELLE 60290 turbo machine. In principle, several gases are being considered as working fluid, as for instance: air, helium, nitrogen, CO2 and gas mixtures such as helium and xenon. At this moment the simulator is running with Helium as the working fluid. Simplified models of heat and mass transfer are being developed to simulate thermal components. Future efforts will focus on keeping track of the modifications being implemented at the NOELLE 60290 turbo machine in order to build the CBCL. (author)

  5. Preliminary closed Brayton cycle study for a space reactor application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Lamartine Nogueira Frutuoso; Carvalho, Ricardo Pinto de [Institute for Advanced Studies, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br; Camillo, Giannino Ponchio [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: gianninocamillo@gmail.com

    2007-07-01

    The Nuclear Energy Division (ENU) of the Institute for Advanced Studies (IEAv) has started a preliminary design study for a Closed Brayton Cycle Loop (CBCL) aimed at a space reactor application. The main objectives of the study are to establish a starting concept for the CBCL components specifications, and to develop a demonstrative simulator of CBCL in nominal operation conditions. The ENU/IEAv preliminary design study is developing the CBCL around the NOELLE 60290 turbo machine. The actual nuclear reactor study is being conducted independently. Because of that, a conventional heat source is being used for the CBCL, in this preliminary design phase. This paper describes the steady state simulator of the CBCL operating with NOELLE 60290 turbo machine. In principle, several gases are being considered as working fluid, as for instance: air, helium, nitrogen, CO2 and gas mixtures such as helium and xenon. At this moment the simulator is running with Helium as the working fluid. Simplified models of heat and mass transfer are being developed to simulate thermal components. Future efforts will focus on keeping track of the modifications being implemented at the NOELLE 60290 turbo machine in order to build the CBCL. (author)

  6. Integrated solar thermal Brayton cycles with either one or two regenerative heat exchangers for maximum power output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, E.; Bello-Ochende, T.; Meyer, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to optimise the open-air solar-thermal Brayton cycle by considering the implementation of the second law of thermodynamics and how it relates to the design of the heat exchanging components within it. These components included one or more regenerators (in the form of cross-flow heat exchangers) and the receiver of a parabolic dish concentrator where the system heat was absorbed. The generation of entropy was considered as it was associated with the destruction of exergy or available work. The dimensions of some components were used to optimise the cycles under investigation. EGM (Entropy Generation Minimisation) was employed to optimise the system parameters by considering their influence on the total generation of entropy (destruction of exergy). Various assumptions and constraints were considered and discussed. The total entropy generation rate and irreversibilities were determined by considering the individual components and ducts of the system, as well as their respective inlet and outlet conditions. The major system parameters were evaluated as functions of the mass flow rate to allow for a proper discussion of the system performance. The performances of both systems were investigated, and characteristics were listed for both. Finally, a comparison is made to shed light on the differences in performance. - Highlights: • Implementation of the second law of thermodynamics. • Design of heat exchanging and collecting equipment. • Utilisation of Entropy Generation Minimization. • Presentation of a multi-objective optimization. • Raise efficiency with more regeneration

  7. Preliminary Design of S-CO2 Brayton Cycle for KAIST Micro Modular Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Gu; Kim, Min Gil; Bae, Seong Jun; Lee, Jeong Ik

    2013-01-01

    This paper suggests a complete modular reactor with an innovative concept of reactor cooling by using a supercritical carbon dioxide directly. Authors propose the supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycle (S-CO 2 cycle) as a power conversion system to achieve small volume of power conversion unit (PCU) and to contain the core and PCU in one vessel for the full modularization. This study suggests a conceptual design of small modular reactor including PCU which is named as KAIST Micro Modular Reactor (MMR). As a part of ongoing research of conceptual design of KAIST MMR, preliminary design of power generation cycle was performed in this study. Since the targets of MMR are full modularization of a reactor system with S-CO 2 coolant, authors selected a simple recuperated S-CO 2 Brayton cycle as a power conversion system for KAIST MMR. The size of components of the S-CO 2 cycle is much smaller than existing helium Brayton cycle and steam Rankine cycle, and whole power conversion system can be contained with core and safety system in one containment vessel. From the investigation of the power conversion cycle, recompressing recuperated cycle showed higher efficiency than the simple recuperated cycle. However the volume of heat exchanger for recompressing cycle is too large so more space will be occupied by heat exchanger in the recompressing cycle than the simple recuperated cycle. Thus, authors consider that the simple recuperated cycle is more suitable for MMR. More research for the KAIST MMR will be followed in the future and detailed information of reactor core and safety system will be developed down the road. More refined cycle layout and design of turbomachinery and heat exchanger will be performed in the future study

  8. Performance analysis of different working gases for concentrated solar gas engines: Stirling & Brayton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharaf Eldean, Mohamed A.; Rafi, Khwaja M.; Soliman, A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Different working gases are used to power on Concentrated Solar Gas Engines. • Gases are used to increase the system efficiency. • Specific heat capacity is considered a vital role for the comparison. • Brayton engine resulted higher design limits. • CO 2 is favorable as a working gas more than C 2 H 2 . - Abstract: This article presents a performance study of using different working fluids (gases) to power on Concentrated Solar Gas Engine (CSGE-Stirling and/or Brayton). Different working gases such as Monatomic (five types), Diatomic (three types) and Polyatomic (four types) are used in this investigation. The survey purported to increase the solar gas engine efficiency hence; decreasing the price of the output power. The effect of using different working gases is noticed on the engine volume, dish area, total plant area, efficiency, compression and pressure ratios thence; the Total Plant Cost (TPC, $). The results reveal that the top cycle temperature effect is reflected on the cycle by increasing the total plant efficiency (2–10%) for Brayton operational case and 5–25% for Stirling operational case. Moreover; Brayton engine resulted higher design limits against the Stirling related to total plant area, m 2 and TPC, $ while generating 1–100 MW e as an economic case study plant. C 2 H 2 achieved remarkable results however, CO 2 is considered for both cycles operation putting in consideration the gas flammability and safety issues.

  9. Brayton-Cycle Baseload Power Tower CSP System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Bruce [Wilson Solarpower Corporation, Boston, MA (United States)

    2013-12-31

    The primary objectives of Phase 2 of this Project were:1. Engineer, fabricate, and conduct preliminary testing on a low-pressure, air-heating solar receiver capable of powering a microturbine system to produce 300kWe while the sun is shining while simultaneously storing enough energy thermally to power the system for up to 13 hours thereafter. 2. Cycle-test a high-temperature super alloy, Haynes HR214, to determine its efficacy for the system’s high-temperature heat exchanger. 3. Engineer the thermal energy storage system. This Phase 2 followed Wilson’s Phase 1, which primarily was an engineering feasibility study to determine a practical and innovative approach to a full Brayton-cycle system configuration that could meet DOE’s targets. Below is a summary table of the DOE targets with Wilson’s Phase 1 Project results. The results showed that a Brayton system with an innovative (low pressure) solar receiver with ~13 hours of dry (i.e., not phase change materials or molten salts but rather firebrick, stone, or ceramics) has the potential to meet or exceed DOE targets. Such systems would consist of pre-engineered, standardized, factory-produced modules to minimize on-site costs while driving down costs through mass production. System sizes most carefully analyzed were in the range of 300 kWe to 2 MWe. Such systems would also use off-the-shelf towers, blowers, piping, microturbine packages, and heliostats. Per DOE’s instructions, LCOEs are based on the elevation and DNI levels of Daggett, CA, for a 100 MWe power plant following 2 GWe of factory production of the various system components.

  10. Critical heat flux for flow boiling of water in mini-channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Weizhong; Mishima, Kaichiro; Hibiki, Takashi

    2007-01-01

    Critical heat flux (CHF) is a limiting factor when flow boiling is applied to dissipate high heat flux in mini-channels. In view of practical importance of critical heat flux correlations in engineering design and prediction, this study presents an evaluation of existing CHF correlations for flow boiling of water with available databases taken from small-diameter tubes, and then develops a new, simple CHF correlation for flow boiling in mini-channel. Three correlations by Bowring, Katto and Shah are evaluated with available CHF data in the literature for saturated flow boiling, and three correlations by Inasaka-Nariai, Celata et al. and Hall-Mudawar evaluated with the CHF data for subcooled flow boiling. The Hall-Mudawar correlation and the Shah correlation appear to be the most reliable tools for CHF prediction in the subcooled and saturated flow boiling regions, respectively. In order to avoid the defect of predictive discontinuities often encountered when applying previous correlations, a simple, nondimensional, inlet conditions dependent CHF correlation for saturated flow boiling has been formulated. Its functional form is determined by application of the artificial neural network and parametric trend analyses to the collected database. Superiority of this new correlation has been verified by the collected database. It has a mean deviation of 16.8% for this collected databank, smallest among all tested correlations. Compared to many inordinately complex correlations, this new correlation consists only of one single equation. (author)

  11. Computer simulation of transitional process to the final stable Brayton cycle in magnetic refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numasawa, T.; Hashimoto, T.

    1981-01-01

    The final working cycle in the magnetic refrigeration largely depends on the heat transfer coefficient β in the system, the parameter γ of the heat inflow from the outer system to this cycle and the period tau of the cycle. Therefore, so as to make clear this dependence, the time variation of the Brayton cycle with β, γ and tau has been investigated. In the present paper the transitional process of this cycle and the dependence of the final cooling temperature of the heat load on β, γ and tau have all been shown. (orig.)

  12. Thermodynamic Modeling for Open Combined Regenerative Brayton and Inverse Brayton Cycles with Regeneration before the Inverse Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingen Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A thermodynamic model of an open combined regenerative Brayton and inverse Brayton cycles with regeneration before the inverse cycle is established in this paper by using thermodynamic optimization theory. The flow processes of the working fluid with the pressure drops and the size constraint of the real power plant are modeled. There are 13 flow resistances encountered by the working fluid stream for the cycle model. Four of these, the friction through the blades and vanes of the compressors and the turbines, are related to the isentropic efficiencies. The remaining nine flow resistances are always present because of the changes in flow cross-section at the compressor inlet of the top cycle, regenerator inlet and outlet, combustion chamber inlet and outlet, turbine outlet of the top cycle, turbine outlet of the bottom cycle, heat exchanger inlet, and compressor inlet of the bottom cycle. These resistances associated with the flow through various cross-sectional areas are derived as functions of the compressor inlet relative pressure drop of the top cycle, and control the air flow rate, the net power output and the thermal efficiency. The analytical formulae about the power output, efficiency and other coefficients are derived with 13 pressure drop losses. It is found that the combined cycle with regenerator can reach higher thermal efficiency but smaller power output than those of the base combined cycle at small compressor inlet relative pressure drop of the top cycle.

  13. Energy-Water Nexus Relevant to Baseload Electricity Source Including Mini/Micro Hydropower Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, M.; Tanabe, S.; Yamada, M.

    2014-12-01

    Water, food and energy is three sacred treasures that are necessary for human beings. However, recent factors such as population growth and rapid increase in energy consumption have generated conflicting cases between water and energy. For example, there exist conflicts caused by enhanced energy use, such as between hydropower generation and riverine ecosystems and service water, between shale gas and ground water, between geothermal and hot spring water. This study aims to provide quantitative guidelines necessary for capacity building among various stakeholders to minimize water-energy conflicts in enhancing energy use. Among various kinds of renewable energy sources, we target baseload sources, especially focusing on renewable energy of which installation is required socially not only to reduce CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions but to stimulate local economy. Such renewable energy sources include micro/mini hydropower and geothermal. Three municipalities in Japan, Beppu City, Obama City and Otsuchi Town are selected as primary sites of this study. Based on the calculated potential supply and demand of micro/mini hydropower generation in Beppu City, for example, we estimate the electricity of tens through hundreds of households is covered by installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants along each river. However, the result is based on the existing infrastructures such as roads and electric lines. This means that more potentials are expected if the local society chooses options that enhance the infrastructures to increase micro/mini hydropower generation plants. In addition, further capacity building in the local society is necessary. In Japan, for example, regulations by the river law and irrigation right restrict new entry by actors to the river. Possible influences to riverine ecosystems in installing new micro/mini hydropower generation plants should also be well taken into account. Deregulation of the existing laws relevant to rivers and

  14. Numerical investigation of thermal performance of a water-cooled mini-channel heat sink for different chip arrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tikadar, Amitav, E-mail: amitav453@gmail.com; Hossain, Md. Mahamudul; Morshed, A. K. M. M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka, 1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    Heat transfer from electronic chip is always challenging and very crucial for electronic industry. Electronic chips are assembled in various manners according to the design conditions and limitationsand thus the influence of chip assembly on the overall thermal performance needs to be understand for the efficient design of electronic cooling system. Due to shrinkage of the dimension of channel and continuous increment of thermal load, conventional heat extraction techniques sometimes become inadequate. Due to high surface area to volume ratio, mini-channel have the natural advantage to enhance convective heat transfer and thus to play a vital role in the advanced heat transfer devices with limited surface area and high heat flux. In this paper, a water cooled mini-channel heat sink was considered for electronic chip cooling and five different chip arrangements were designed and studied, namely: the diagonal arrangement, parallel arrangement, stacked arrangement, longitudinal arrangement and sandwiched arrangement. Temperature distribution on the chip surfaces was presented and the thermal performance of the heat sink in terms of overall thermal resistance was also compared. It is found that the sandwiched arrangement of chip provides better thermal performance compared to conventional in line chip arrangement.

  15. Coupling a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle to a Helium-Cooled Reactor.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, Bobby [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Pasch, James Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Kruizenga, Alan Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Walker, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This report outlines the thermodynamics of a supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) recompression closed Brayton cycle (RCBC) coupled to a Helium-cooled nuclear reactor. The baseline reactor design for the study is the AREVA High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). Using the AREVA HTGR nominal operating parameters, an initial thermodynamic study was performed using Sandia's deterministic RCBC analysis program. Utilizing the output of the RCBC thermodynamic analysis, preliminary values of reactor power and of Helium flow rate through the reactor were calculated in Sandia's HelCO2 code. Some research regarding materials requirements was then conducted to determine aspects of corrosion related to both Helium and to sCO2 , as well as some mechanical considerations for pressures and temperatures that will be seen by the piping and other components. This analysis resulted in a list of materials-related research items that need to be conducted in the future. A short assessment of dry heat rejection advantages of sCO2> Brayton cycles was also included. This assessment lists some items that should be investigated in the future to better understand how sCO2 Brayton cycles and nuclear can maximally contribute to optimizing the water efficiency of carbon free power generation

  16. Thermodynamic analysis and optimization of a Closed Regenerative Brayton Cycle for nuclear space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Guilherme B.; Braz Filho, Francisco A.; Guimarães, Lamartine N.F.

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear power systems turned to space electric propulsion differ strongly from usual ground-based power systems regarding the importance of overall size and mass. For propulsion power systems, size and mass are essential drivers that should be minimized during conception processes. Considering this aspect, this paper aims the development of a design-based model of a Closed Regenerative Brayton Cycle that applies the thermal conductance of the main components in order to predict the energy conversion performance, allowing its use as a preliminary tool for heat exchanger and radiator panel sizing. The centrifugal-flow turbine and compressor characterizations were achieved using algebraic equations from literature data. A binary mixture of Helium–Xenon with molecular weight of 40 g/mole is applied and the impact of the components sizing in the energy efficiency is evaluated in this paper, including the radiator panel area. Moreover, an optimization analysis based on the final mass of heat the exchangers is performed. - Highlights: • A design-based model of a Closed Brayton Cycle is proposed for nuclear space needs. • Turbomachinery efficiency presented a strong influence on the system efficiency. • Radiator area presented the highest potential to increase the system efficiency. • There is maximum system efficiency for each total mass of heat exchangers. • Size or efficiency optimization was performed by changing heat exchanger proportion.

  17. Regenerator optimization of a Closed Brayton Cycle via entropy generation minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araújo, Élvis Falcão de; Ribeiro, Guilherme Borges; Guimarães, Lamartine N. F.

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims the numerical study of the heat transfer and fluid flow of a Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) regenerator that is part of TERRA microreactor. This regenerator consists in a cross flow heat exchanger, where heat transfer occurs between internal fluid flow in radial tubes and external fluid flow passing perpendicularly to the tubes, which are disposed in a symmetrical cylindrical set where the number of tubes in the axial and radial directions can vary. In the simulations, mass flow inlet is varied for a fixed geometry. The fluid flow solution is provided by a commercial CFD solver and the entropy generation number calculation is later computed for optimization purposes. As a result, the entropy minimization method provides the regenerator configuration that enables the highest energy conversion efficiency. (author)

  18. Regenerator optimization of a Closed Brayton Cycle via entropy generation minimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araújo, Élvis Falcão de; Ribeiro, Guilherme Borges; Guimarães, Lamartine N. F., E-mail: falcao@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: gbribeiro@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br [Instituto de Estudos Avançacados (IEAv), São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Div. de Energia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    This paper aims the numerical study of the heat transfer and fluid flow of a Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) regenerator that is part of TERRA microreactor. This regenerator consists in a cross flow heat exchanger, where heat transfer occurs between internal fluid flow in radial tubes and external fluid flow passing perpendicularly to the tubes, which are disposed in a symmetrical cylindrical set where the number of tubes in the axial and radial directions can vary. In the simulations, mass flow inlet is varied for a fixed geometry. The fluid flow solution is provided by a commercial CFD solver and the entropy generation number calculation is later computed for optimization purposes. As a result, the entropy minimization method provides the regenerator configuration that enables the highest energy conversion efficiency. (author)

  19. Dynamic simulation of 10 kW Brayton cryocooler for HTS cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Chan Woo; Yang, Hyung Suk; Hwang, Si Dole

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic simulation of a Brayton cryocooler is presented as a partial effort of a Korean governmental project to develop 1˜3 km HTS cable systems at transmission level in Jeju Island. Thermodynamic design of a 10 kW Brayton cryocooler was completed, and a prototype construction is underway with a basis of steady-state operation. This study is the next step to investigate the transient behavior of cryocooler for two purposes. The first is to simulate and design the cool-down process after scheduled or unscheduled stoppage. The second is to predict the transient behavior following the variation of external conditions such as cryogenic load or outdoor temperature. The detailed specifications of key components, including plate-fin heat exchangers and cryogenic turbo-expanders are incorporated into a commercial software (Aspen HYSYS) to estimate the temporal change of temperature and flow rate over the cryocooler. An initial cool-down scenario and some examples on daily variation of cryocooler are presented and discussed, aiming at stable control schemes of a long cable system.

  20. Dynamic simulation of 10 kW Brayton cryocooler for HTS cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Chan Woo; Yang, Hyung Suk; Hwang, Si Dole

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic simulation of a Brayton cryocooler is presented as a partial effort of a Korean governmental project to develop 1∼3 km HTS cable systems at transmission level in Jeju Island. Thermodynamic design of a 10 kW Brayton cryocooler was completed, and a prototype construction is underway with a basis of steady-state operation. This study is the next step to investigate the transient behavior of cryocooler for two purposes. The first is to simulate and design the cool-down process after scheduled or unscheduled stoppage. The second is to predict the transient behavior following the variation of external conditions such as cryogenic load or outdoor temperature. The detailed specifications of key components, including plate-fin heat exchangers and cryogenic turbo-expanders are incorporated into a commercial software (Aspen HYSYS) to estimate the temporal change of temperature and flow rate over the cryocooler. An initial cool-down scenario and some examples on daily variation of cryocooler are presented and discussed, aiming at stable control schemes of a long cable system

  1. Dynamic simulation of 10 kW Brayton cryocooler for HTS cable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Park, Chan Woo [Hong Ik University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Seoul, 121-791 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Hyung Suk; Hwang, Si Dole [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejeon, 305-760 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-29

    Dynamic simulation of a Brayton cryocooler is presented as a partial effort of a Korean governmental project to develop 1∼3 km HTS cable systems at transmission level in Jeju Island. Thermodynamic design of a 10 kW Brayton cryocooler was completed, and a prototype construction is underway with a basis of steady-state operation. This study is the next step to investigate the transient behavior of cryocooler for two purposes. The first is to simulate and design the cool-down process after scheduled or unscheduled stoppage. The second is to predict the transient behavior following the variation of external conditions such as cryogenic load or outdoor temperature. The detailed specifications of key components, including plate-fin heat exchangers and cryogenic turbo-expanders are incorporated into a commercial software (Aspen HYSYS) to estimate the temporal change of temperature and flow rate over the cryocooler. An initial cool-down scenario and some examples on daily variation of cryocooler are presented and discussed, aiming at stable control schemes of a long cable system.

  2. Design of heat exchanger for Ericsson-Brayton piston engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durcansky, Peter; Papucik, Stefan; Jandacka, Jozef; Holubcik, Michal; Nosek, Radovan

    2014-01-01

    Combined power generation or cogeneration is a highly effective technology that produces heat and electricity in one device more efficiently than separate production. Overall effectiveness is growing by use of combined technologies of energy extraction, taking heat from flue gases and coolants of machines. Another problem is the dependence of such devices on fossil fuels as fuel. For the combustion turbine is mostly used as fuel natural gas, kerosene and as fuel for heating power plants is mostly used coal. It is therefore necessary to seek for compensation today, which confirms the assumption in the future. At first glance, the obvious efforts are to restrict the use of largely oil and change the type of energy used in transport. Another significant change is the increase in renewable energy--energy that is produced from renewable sources. Among machines gaining energy by unconventional way belong mainly the steam engine, Stirling engine, and Ericsson engine. In these machines, the energy is obtained by external combustion and engine performs work in a medium that receives and transmits energy from combustion or flue gases indirectly. The paper deals with the principle of hot-air engines, and their use in combined heat and electricity production from biomass and with heat exchangers as primary energy transforming element.

  3. Design of Heat Exchanger for Ericsson-Brayton Piston Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Durcansky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Combined power generation or cogeneration is a highly effective technology that produces heat and electricity in one device more efficiently than separate production. Overall effectiveness is growing by use of combined technologies of energy extraction, taking heat from flue gases and coolants of machines. Another problem is the dependence of such devices on fossil fuels as fuel. For the combustion turbine is mostly used as fuel natural gas, kerosene and as fuel for heating power plants is mostly used coal. It is therefore necessary to seek for compensation today, which confirms the assumption in the future. At first glance, the obvious efforts are to restrict the use of largely oil and change the type of energy used in transport. Another significant change is the increase in renewable energy—energy that is produced from renewable sources. Among machines gaining energy by unconventional way belong mainly the steam engine, Stirling engine, and Ericsson engine. In these machines, the energy is obtained by external combustion and engine performs work in a medium that receives and transmits energy from combustion or flue gases indirectly. The paper deals with the principle of hot-air engines, and their use in combined heat and electricity production from biomass and with heat exchangers as primary energy transforming element.

  4. Parametric Investigation of Brayton Cycle for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Oh

    2004-01-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) is investigating a Brayton cycle efficiency improvement on a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as part of Generation-IV nuclear engineering research initiative. In this project, we are investigating helium Brayton cycles for the secondary side of an indirect energy conversion system. Ultimately we will investigate the improvement of the Brayton cycle using other fluids, such as supercritical carbon dioxide. Prior to the cycle improvement study, we established a number of baseline cases for the helium indirect Brayton cycle. These cases look at both single-shaft and multiple-shaft turbomachinery. The baseline cases are based on a 250 MW thermal pebble bed HTGR. The results from this study are applicable to other reactor concepts such as a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTR), fast gas-cooled reactor (FGR), supercritical water reactor (SWR), and others. In this study, we are using the HYSYS computer code for optimization of the helium Brayton cycle. Besides the HYSYS process optimization, we performed parametric study to see the effect of important parameters on the cycle efficiency. For these parametric calculations, we use a cycle efficiency model that was developed based on the Visual Basic computer language. As a part of this study we are currently investigated single-shaft vs. multiple shaft arrangement for cycle efficiency and comparison, which will be published in the next paper. The ultimate goal of this study is to use supercritical carbon dioxide for the HTGR power conversion loop in order to improve the cycle efficiency to values great than that of the helium Brayton cycle. This paper includes preliminary calculations of the steady state overall Brayton cycle efficiency based on the pebble bed reactor reference design (helium used as the working fluid) and compares those results with an initial calculation of a CO2 Brayton cycle

  5. Performance analysis of Brayton cycle system for space power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhi; Yang Xiaoyong; Zhao Gang; Wang Jie; Zhang Zuoyi

    2017-01-01

    The closed Brayton cycle system now is the potential choice as the power conversion system for High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactors because of its high energy conversion efficiency and compact configuration. The helium is the best working fluid for the system for its chemical stability and small neutron absorption cross section. However, the Helium has small mole mass and big specific volume, which would lead to larger pipes and heat exchanger. What's more, the big compressor enthalpy rise of helium would also lead to an unacceptably large number of compressor's stage. For space use, it's more important to satisfy the limit of the system's volume and mass, instead of the requirement of the system's thermal capacity. So Noble-Gas binary mixture of helium and xenon is presented as the working fluid for space Brayton cycle. This paper makes a mathematical model for space Brayton cycle system by Fortran language, then analyzes the binary mixture of helium and xenon's properties and effects on power conversion units of the space power reactor, which would be helpful to understand and design the space power reactor. The results show that xenon would lead to a worse system's thermodynamic property, the cycle's efficiency and specific power decrease as xenon's mole fraction increasing. On the other hand, proper amount of xenon would decrease the enthalpy changes in turbomachines, which would be good for turbomachines' design. Another optimization method – the specific power optimization is also proposed to make a comparison. (author)

  6. The efficiency of an open-cavity tubular solar receiver for a small-scale solar thermal Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, W.G.; Bello-Ochende, T.; Meyer, J.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Results show efficiencies of a low-cost stainless steel tubular cavity receiver. • Optimum ratio of 0.0035 is found for receiver aperture area to concentrator area. • Smaller receiver tube and higher mass flow rate increase receiver efficiency. • Larger tube and smaller mass flow rate increase second law efficiency. • Large-tube receiver performs better in the small-scale solar thermal Brayton cycle. - Abstract: The first law and second law efficiencies are determined for a stainless steel closed-tube open rectangular cavity solar receiver. It is to be used in a small-scale solar thermal Brayton cycle using a micro-turbine with low compressor pressure ratios. There are many different variables at play to model the air temperature increase of the air running through such a receiver. These variables include concentrator shape, concentrator diameter, concentrator rim angle, concentrator reflectivity, concentrator optical error, solar tracking error, receiver aperture area, receiver material, effect of wind, receiver tube diameter, inlet temperature and mass flow rate through the receiver. All these variables are considered in this paper. The Brayton cycle requires very high receiver surface temperatures in order to be successful. These high temperatures, however, have many disadvantages in terms of heat loss from the receiver, especially radiation heat loss. With the help of ray-tracing software, SolTrace, and receiver modelling techniques, an optimum receiver-to-concentrator-area ratio of A′ ≈ 0.0035 was found for a concentrator with 45° rim angle, 10 mrad optical error and 1° tracking error. A method to determine the temperature profile and net heat transfer rate along the length of the receiver tube is presented. Receiver efficiencies are shown in terms of mass flow rate, receiver tube diameter, pressure drop, maximum receiver surface temperature and inlet temperature of the working fluid. For a 4.8 m diameter parabolic dish, the

  7. An evaluation of thermodynamic solar plants with cylindrical parabolic collectors and air turbine engines with open Joule–Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Vittorio; Marinelli, Valerio

    2012-01-01

    A performance analysis of innovative solar plants operating with cylindrical parabolic collectors and atmospheric air as heat transfer fluid in an open Joule–Brayton cycle, with and without intercooling and regeneration, is presented. The analysis was made for two operating modes of the plants: with variable air flow rate and constant inlet temperature to the turbine and with constant flow rate and variable inlet temperature to the turbine. The obtained results show a good performance of this type of solar plant, in spite of its simplicity; it seems able to compete well with other more complex plants operating with different heat transfer fluids. -- Highlights: ► Innovative CPS solar plants, operating with air in open Joule–Brayton cycle, are proposed. ► They are attractive for their simplicity and present interesting values of global efficiency. ► They seem able to compete well with other more complex solar plants.

  8. Optimum heat power cycles for specified boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, O.M.; Klein, S.A.; Mitchell, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper optimization of the power output of Carnot and closed Brayton cycles is considered for both finite and infinite thermal capacitance rates of the external fluid streams. The method of Lagrange multipliers is used to solve for working fluid temperatures that yield maximum power. Analytical expressions for the maximum power and the cycle efficiency at maximum power are obtained. A comparison of the maximum power from the two cycles for the same boundary conditions, i.e., the same heat source/sink inlet temperatures, thermal capacitance rates, and heat exchanger conductances, shows that the Brayton cycle can produce more power than the Carnot cycle. This comparison illustrates that cycles exist that can produce more power than the Carnot cycle. The optimum heat power cycle, which will provide the upper limit of power obtained from any thermodynamic cycle for specified boundary conditions and heat exchanger conductances is considered. The optimum heat power cycle is identified by optimizing the sum of the power output from a sequence of Carnot cycles. The shape of the optimum heat power cycle, the power output, and corresponding efficiency are presented. The efficiency at maximum power of all cycles investigated in this study is found to be equal to (or well approximated by) η = 1 - sq. root T L.in /φT H.in where φ is a factor relating the entropy changes during heat rejection and heat addition

  9. Mini-beam collimator applications at the Advanced Photon Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Shenglan, E-mail: sxu@anl.gov [GM/CA CAT, Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Keefe, Lisa J.; Mulichak, Anne [IMCA CAT, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Yan Lifen; Alp, Ercan E.; Zhao Jiyong [X-ray Sciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Fischetti, Robert F. [GM/CA CAT, Biosciences Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    In 2007, the General Medicine and Cancer Institutes Collaborative Access Team (GM/CA CAT, Sector 23, Advanced Photon Source) began providing mini-beam collimators to its users. These collimators contained individual, 5- or 10-{mu}m pinholes and were rapidly exchangeable, thereby allowing users to tailor the beam size to their experimental needs. The use of these collimators provided a reduction in background noise, and thus improved the signal-to-noise ratio . Recent improvements in the collimator design include construction of the device from a monolithic piece of molybdenum with multiple pinholes mounted inside . This allows users to select from various size options from within the beamline control software without the realignment that was previously necessary. In addition, a new, 20-{mu}m pinhole has been added to create a 'quad-collimator', resulting in greater flexibility for the users. The mini-beam collimator is now available at multiple crystallographic beamlines and also is a part of the first Moessbauer Microscopic system at sector 3-ID.

  10. Mini-beam collimator applications at the Advanced Photon Source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shenglan; Keefe, Lisa J.; Mulichak, Anne; Yan Lifen; Alp, Ercan E.; Zhao Jiyong; Fischetti, Robert F.

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, the General Medicine and Cancer Institutes Collaborative Access Team (GM/CA CAT, Sector 23, Advanced Photon Source) began providing mini-beam collimators to its users. These collimators contained individual, 5- or 10-μm pinholes and were rapidly exchangeable, thereby allowing users to tailor the beam size to their experimental needs. The use of these collimators provided a reduction in background noise, and thus improved the signal-to-noise ratio . Recent improvements in the collimator design include construction of the device from a monolithic piece of molybdenum with multiple pinholes mounted inside . This allows users to select from various size options from within the beamline control software without the realignment that was previously necessary. In addition, a new, 20-μm pinhole has been added to create a 'quad-collimator', resulting in greater flexibility for the users. The mini-beam collimator is now available at multiple crystallographic beamlines and also is a part of the first Moessbauer Microscopic system at sector 3-ID.

  11. Malone-brayton cycle engine/heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmour, Thomas A.

    1994-07-01

    A machine, such as a heat pump, and having an all liquid heat exchange fluid, operates over a more nearly ideal thermodynamic cycle by adjustment of the proportionality of the volumetric capacities of a compressor and an expander to approximate the proportionality of the densities of the liquid heat exchange fluid at the chosen working pressures. Preferred forms of a unit including both the compressor and the expander on a common shaft employs difference in axial lengths of rotary pumps of the gear or vane type to achieve the adjustment of volumetric capacity. Adjustment of the heat pump system for differing heat sink conditions preferably employs variable compression ratio pumps.

  12. Thermal management of a multiple mini-channel heat sink by the integration of a thermal responsive shape memory material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Maio, E.; Mastrullo, R.; Mauro, A.W.; Toto, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a novel application of a thermo-responsive shape memory polymer (SMP) is proposed to smart-control the forced flow of water in a multi mini-channel heat sink. In particular, it is reported that millimeter-sized cylinders made of SMP could be used to smartly obstruct the fluid flow by adapting the flow cross section to the heat load to be removed. By integrating the sensing, the control and the actuation functions within a unique, millimeter-sized device, these micro-valves, unlike the traditional actuators normally used for flow control, could be easily embedded into small heat sinks, with significant space and energy saving, useful, in particular, in systems where several miniaturized components have to be cooled concurrently, such as the modern mainframes or the concentrated photovoltaic solar cells. Two possible configurations for the SMP were considered in this study: an “open” configuration, without any obstruction of the water flow free and an “obstructed” configuration, with the millimeter-sized cylinder partially occupying the mini-channel. A numerical, steady state analysis was carried out with water in single-phase forced convection, to determine the effect of these two states on the internal fluid flow characteristics under different conditions of heat flux and pressure drop and to evaluate the overall thermal behavior of the smart-controlled multiple mini-channel heat sink in terms of ability to control the temperature of the system and to reduce the energy consumption. -- Highlights: • A novel application of a SMP material is investigated for the thermal management of a heat sink. • Numerical simulations to find the matching of the heat sink and material system after regulation were carried out. • The investigated system is able to control the heat sink temperature. • Further analysis for system stability are required

  13. CFD aided approach to design printed circuit heat exchangers for supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Gu; Lee, Youho; Ahn, Yoonhan; Lee, Jeong Ik

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • CFD analyses were performed to find performance of PCHE for supercritical CO 2 power cycle. • CFD results were obtained beyond the limits of existing correlations. • Designs of different PCHEs with different correlations were compared. • A new CFD-aided correlation covering a wider Reynolds number range was proposed. - Abstract: While most conventional PCHE designs for working fluid of supercritical CO 2 require an extension of valid Reynolds number limits of experimentally obtained correlations, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code ANSYS CFX was used to explore validity of existing correlations beyond their tested Reynolds number ranges. For heat transfer coefficient correlations, an appropriate piece-wising with Ishizuka’s and Hesselgreaves’s correlation is found to enable an extension of Reynolds numbers. For friction factors, no single existing correlation is found to capture different temperature and angular dependencies for a wide Reynolds number range. Based on the comparison of CFD results with the experimentally obtained correlations, a new CFD-aided correlation covering an extended range of Reynolds number 2000–58,000 for Nusselt number and friction factor is proposed to facilitate PCHE designs for the supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycle application.

  14. Thermodynamic design of hydrogen liquefaction systems with helium or neon Brayton refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ho-Myung; Ryu, Ki Nam; Baik, Jong Hoon

    2018-04-01

    A thermodynamic study is carried out for the design of hydrogen liquefaction systems with helium (He) or neon (Ne) Brayton refrigerator. This effort is motivated by our immediate goal to develop a small-capacity (100 L/h) liquefier for domestic use in Korea. Eight different cycles are proposed and their thermodynamic performance is investigated in comparison with the existing liquefaction systems. The proposed cycles include the standard and modified versions of He Brayton refrigerators whose lowest temperature is below 20 K. The Brayton refrigerator is in direct thermal contact with the hydrogen flow at atmospheric pressure from ambient-temperature gas to cryogenic liquid. The Linde-Hampson system pre-cooled by a Ne Brayton refrigerator is also considered. Full cycle analysis is performed with the real properties of fluids to estimate the figure of merit (FOM) under an optimized operation condition. It is concluded that He Brayton refrigerators are feasible for this small-scale liquefaction, because a reasonably high efficiency can be achieved with simple and safe (low-pressure) operation. The complete cycles with He Brayton refrigerator are presented for the development of a prototype, including the ortho-to-para conversion.

  15. Mini-D{sub 2} a source for ultracold neutrons at FRM-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altarev, I.; Hartmann, F.J.; Paul, S.; Schott, W.; Trinks, U.; Gobrecht, K.; Gutsmiedl, E. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Scheuer, A. [TUEV Rheinland, Koeln (Germany)

    2001-03-01

    The new Munich high-flux reactor FRM-II offers the possibility to install a unique source for ultracold neutrons (UCN), the Mini-D{sub 2} UCN source, with a small volume of solid deuterium at a temperature of 5 K as converter, exposed to the cold neutron flux. This new source, being dedicated for storage experiments, is designed to be much superior to any existing UCN facility. In the pulsed operation mode the Mini-D{sub 2} source is expected to provide UCN densities up to 10{sup 4} n/cm{sup 3}. This density is orders of magnitude larger than that from the best existing source at Institut Laue Langevin (ILL) in Grenoble ({approx}50 n/cm{sup 3} at the exit of the neutron turbine). The large gain factor will enable new precision measurements of elementary properties of the free neutron, especially the electric dipole moment, the lifetime, and the angular correlation coefficients of the decay. These quantities are of fundamental interest in particle physics. Operated in the continuous mode, the UCN source will provide an UCN flux density of up to 5{center_dot}10{sup 5} n/cm{sup 2}s at the exit, to be compared with {approx}3{center_dot}10{sup 4} n/cm{sup 2}s at ILL. This improved UCN-flux offers new possibilities for traditional studies with UCN. (author)

  16. Initial estimates of the economical attractiveness of a nuclear closed Brayton combined cycle operating with firebrick resistance-heated energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Chavagnat

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Firebrick Resistance-Heated Energy Storage (FIRES concept developed by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology aims to enhance profitability of the nuclear power industry in the next decades. Studies carried out at Massachusetts Institute of Technology already provide estimates of the potential revenue from FIRES system when it is applied to industrial heat supply, the likely first application. Here, we investigate the possibility of operating a power plant (PP with a fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor and a closed Brayton cycle. This variant offers features such as enhanced nuclear safety as well as flexibility in design of the PP but also radically changes the way of operating the PP. This exploratory study provides estimates of the revenue generated by FIRES in addition to the nominal revenue of the stand-alone fluoride-salt-cooled high-temperature reactor, which are useful for defining an initial design. The electricity price data is based on the day-ahead markets of Germany/Austria and the United States (Iowa. The proposed method derives from the equation of revenue introduced in this study and involves simple computations using MatLab to compute the estimates. Results show variable economic potential depending on the host grid but stress a high profitability in both regions. Keywords: Firebrick Resistance-Heated Energy Storage, Nuclear Power Plant, Revenue Estimate, Storage System

  17. Optimization of airfoil-type PCHE for the recuperator of small scale brayton cycle by cost-based objective function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jin Gyu; Kim, Tae Ho; Park, Hyun Sun; Cha, Jae Eun; Kim, Moo Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Suggest the Nusselt number and Fanning friction factor correlation for airfoil-type PCHE. • Show that cost-based optimization is available to airfoil-type PCHE. • Suggest the recuperator design for SCIEL test loop at KAERI by cost-based objective function with correlations from numerical analysis. - Abstract: Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO_2) Brayton cycle gives high efficiency of power cycle with small size. Printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHE) are proper selection for the Brayton cycle because their operability at high temperature and high pressure with small size. Airfoil fin PCHE was suggested by Kim et al. (2008b), it can provide high heat transfer-like zigzag channel PCHE with low pressure drop-like straight channel PCHE. Optimization of the airfoil fin PCHE was not performed like the zigzag channel PCHE. For optimization of the airfoil fin PCHE, the operating condition of the recuperator of SCO_2 Integral Experiment Loop (SCIEL) Brayton cycle test loop at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) was used. We performed CFD analysis for various airfoil fin configurations using ANSYS CFX 15.0, and made correlations for predicting the Nusselt number and the Fanning friction factor. The recuperator was designed by the simple energy balance code with our correlations. Using the cost-based objective function with production cost and operation cost from size and pressure drop of the recuperator, we evaluated airfoil fin configuration by using total cost and suggested the optimization configuration of the airfoil fin PCHE.

  18. Optimization of airfoil-type PCHE for the recuperator of small scale brayton cycle by cost-based objective function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jin Gyu [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tae Ho [Department of Mechanical Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hyun Sun, E-mail: hejsunny@postech.ac.kr [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Jae Eun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Moo Hwan [Division of Advanced Nuclear Engineering, POSTECH, Pohang 790-784 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon 305-338 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    Highlights: • Suggest the Nusselt number and Fanning friction factor correlation for airfoil-type PCHE. • Show that cost-based optimization is available to airfoil-type PCHE. • Suggest the recuperator design for SCIEL test loop at KAERI by cost-based objective function with correlations from numerical analysis. - Abstract: Supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle gives high efficiency of power cycle with small size. Printed circuit heat exchangers (PCHE) are proper selection for the Brayton cycle because their operability at high temperature and high pressure with small size. Airfoil fin PCHE was suggested by Kim et al. (2008b), it can provide high heat transfer-like zigzag channel PCHE with low pressure drop-like straight channel PCHE. Optimization of the airfoil fin PCHE was not performed like the zigzag channel PCHE. For optimization of the airfoil fin PCHE, the operating condition of the recuperator of SCO{sub 2} Integral Experiment Loop (SCIEL) Brayton cycle test loop at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) was used. We performed CFD analysis for various airfoil fin configurations using ANSYS CFX 15.0, and made correlations for predicting the Nusselt number and the Fanning friction factor. The recuperator was designed by the simple energy balance code with our correlations. Using the cost-based objective function with production cost and operation cost from size and pressure drop of the recuperator, we evaluated airfoil fin configuration by using total cost and suggested the optimization configuration of the airfoil fin PCHE.

  19. Performance estimates for the Space Station power system Brayton Cycle compressor and turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The methods which have been used by the NASA Lewis Research Center for predicting Brayton Cycle compressor and turbine performance for different gases and flow rates are described. These methods were developed by NASA Lewis during the early days of Brayton cycle component development and they can now be applied to the task of predicting the performance of the Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) Space Station Freedom power system. Computer programs are given for performing these calculations and data from previous NASA Lewis Brayton Compressor and Turbine tests is used to make accurate estimates of the compressor and turbine performance for the CBC power system. Results of these calculations are also given. In general, calculations confirm that the CBC Brayton Cycle contractor has made realistic compressor and turbine performance estimates.

  20. Research and Technology Activities Supporting Closed-Brayton-Cycle Power Conversion System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    The elements of Brayton technology development emphasize power conversion system risk mitigation. Risk mitigation is achieved by demonstrating system integration feasibility, subsystem/component life capability (particularly in the context of material creep) and overall spacecraft mass reduction. Closed-Brayton-cycle (CBC) power conversion technology is viewed as relatively mature. At the 2-kWe power level, a CBC conversion system Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of six (6) was achieved during the Solar Dynamic Ground Test Demonstration (SD-GTD) in 1998. A TRL 5 was demonstrated for 10 kWe-class CBC components during the development of the Brayton Rotating Unit (BRU) from 1968 to 1976. Components currently in terrestrial (open cycle) Brayton machines represent TRL 4 for similar uses in 100 kWe-class CBC space systems. Because of the baseline component and subsystem technology maturity, much of the Brayton technology task is focused on issues related to systems integration. A brief description of ongoing technology activities is given.

  1. High Temperature Fusion Reactor Cooling Using Brayton Cycle Based Partial Energy Conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.

    2003-01-01

    For some future space power systems using high temperature nuclear heat sources most of the output energy will be used in other than electrical form, and only a fraction of the total thermal energy generated will need to be converted to electrical work. The paper describes the conceptual design of such a partial energy conversion system, consisting of a high temperature fusion reactor operating in series with a high temperature radiator and in parallel with dual closed cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power systems, also referred to as closed Brayton cycle (CBC) systems, which are supplied with a fraction of the reactor thermal energy for conversion to electric power. Most of the fusion reactor's output is in the form of charged plasma which is expanded through a magnetic nozzle of the interplanetary propulsion system. Reactor heat energy is ducted to the high temperature series radiator utilizing the electric power generated to drive a helium gas circulation fan. In addition to discussing the thermodynamic aspects of the system design the authors include a brief overview of the gas turbine and fan rotor-dynamics and proposed bearing support technology along with performance characteristics of the three phase AC electric power generator and fan drive motor.

  2. Design and analysis of Helium Brayton cycle for energy conversion system of RGTT200K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatius Djoko Irianto

    2016-01-01

    The helium Brayton cycle for the design of cogeneration energy conversion system for RGTT200K have been analyzed to obtain the higher thermal efficiency and energy utilization factor. The aim of this research is to analyze the potential of the helium Brayton cycle to be implemented in the design of cogeneration energy conversion system of RGTT200K. Three configuration models of cogeneration energy conversion systems have been investigated. In the first configuration model, an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) is installed in series with the gas turbine, while in the second configuration model, IHX and gas turbines are installed in parallel. The third configuration model is similar to the first configuration, but with two compressors. Performance analysis of Brayton cycle used for cogeneration energy conversion system of RGTT200K has been done by simulating and calculating using CHEMCAD code. The simulation result shows that the three configuration models of cogeneration energy conversion system give the temperature of thermal energy in the secondary side of IHX more than 800 °C at the reactor coolant mass flow rate of 145 kg/s. Nevertheless, the performance parameters, which include thermal efficiency and energy utilization factor (EUF), are different for each configuration model. By comparing the performance parameter in the three configurations of helium Brayton cycle for cogeneration energy conversion systems RGTT200K, it is found that the energy conversion system with a first configuration has the highest thermal efficiency and energy utilization factor (EUF). Thermal efficiency and energy utilization factor for the first configuration of the reactor coolant mass flow rate of 145 kg/s are 35.82 % and 80.63 %. (author)

  3. A special mini-extrapolation chamber for calibration of 90Sr+90Y sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Mercia L; Caldas, Linda V E

    2005-01-01

    90 Sr+ 90 Y applicators are commonly utilized in brachytherapy, including ophthalmic procedures. The recommended instruments for the calibration of these applicators are extrapolation chambers, which are ionization chambers that allow the variation of their sensitive volume. Using the extrapolation method, the absorbed dose rate at the applicator surface can be determined. The aim of the present work was to develop a mini-extrapolation chamber for the calibration of 90 Sr+ 90 Y beta ray applicators. The developed mini-chamber has a 3.0 cm outer diameter and is 11.3 cm in length. An aluminized polyester foil is used as the entrance window while the collecting electrode is made of graphited polymethylmethacrylate. This mini-chamber was tested in 90 Sr+ 90 Y radiation beams from a beta particle check source and with a plane ophthalmic applicator, showing adequate results

  4. Dual source heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Amir L.; Pietsch, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler and path for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; at least two refrigerant heat exchangers, one for effecting heat exchange with the fluid and a second for effecting heat exchange between refrigerant and a heat exchange fluid and the ambient air; a compressor for efficiently compressing the refrigerant; at least one throttling valve for throttling liquid refrigerant; a refrigerant circuit; refrigerant; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant; and valves or switches for selecting the heat exchangers and direction of flow of the refrigerant therethrough for selecting a particular mode of operation. The heat exchange fluid provides energy for defrosting the second heat exchanger when operating in the air source mode and also provides a alternate source of heat.

  5. The effects of intercooling and regeneration on the thermo-ecological performance analysis of an irreversible-closed Brayton heat engine with variable-temperature thermal reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogut, Oguz Salim; Ust, Yasin; Sahin, Bahri

    2006-01-01

    A thermo-ecological performance analysis of an irreversible intercooled and regenerated closed Brayton heat engine exchanging heat with variable-temperature thermal reservoirs is presented. The effects of intercooling and regeneration are given special emphasis and investigated in detail. A comparative performance analysis considering the objective functions of an ecological coefficient of performance, an ecological function proposed by Angulo-Brown and power output is also carried out. The results indicate that the optimal total isentropic temperature ratio and intercooling isentropic temperature ratio at the maximum ecological coefficient of performance conditions (ECOP max ) are always less than those of at the maximum ecological function ( E-dot max ) and the maximum power output conditions ( W-dot max ) leading to a design that requires less investment cost. It is also concluded that a design at ECOP max conditions has the advantage of higher thermal efficiency and a lesser entropy generation rate, but at the cost of a slight power loss

  6. Calculation principles of humid air in a reversed Brayton cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, J [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Energy Technology

    1998-12-31

    The article presents a calculation method for reversed Brayton cycle that uses humid air as working medium. The reversed Brayton cycle can be employed as an air dryer, a heat pump or a refrigerating machine. In this research the use of humid air as a working fluid has an environmental advantage, as well. In this method especially the expansion process in the turbine is important because of the condensation of the water vapour in the humid air. This physical phenomena can have significant effects on the level of performance of the application. The expansion process differs physically from the compression process, when the water vapour in the humid air begins to condensate. In the thermodynamic equilibrium of the flow, the water vapour pressure in humid air cannot exceed the pressure of saturated water vapour in corresponding temperature. Expansion calculation during operation around the saturation zone is based on a quasistatic expansion, in which the system after the turbine is in thermodynamical equilibrium. The state parameters are at every moment defined by the equation of state, and there is no supercooling in the vapour. Following simplifications are used in the calculations: The system is assumed to be adiabatic. This means that there is no heat transfer to the surroundings. This is a common practice, when the temperature differences are moderate as here; The power of the cooling is omitted. The cooling construction is very dependent on the machine and the distribution of the losses; The flow is assumed to be one-dimensional, steady-state and homogenous. The water vapour condensing in the turbine can cause errors, but the errors are mainly included in the efficiency calculation. (author) 11 refs.

  7. Calculation principles of humid air in a reversed Brayton cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, J. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland). Dept. of Energy Technology

    1997-12-31

    The article presents a calculation method for reversed Brayton cycle that uses humid air as working medium. The reversed Brayton cycle can be employed as an air dryer, a heat pump or a refrigerating machine. In this research the use of humid air as a working fluid has an environmental advantage, as well. In this method especially the expansion process in the turbine is important because of the condensation of the water vapour in the humid air. This physical phenomena can have significant effects on the level of performance of the application. The expansion process differs physically from the compression process, when the water vapour in the humid air begins to condensate. In the thermodynamic equilibrium of the flow, the water vapour pressure in humid air cannot exceed the pressure of saturated water vapour in corresponding temperature. Expansion calculation during operation around the saturation zone is based on a quasistatic expansion, in which the system after the turbine is in thermodynamical equilibrium. The state parameters are at every moment defined by the equation of state, and there is no supercooling in the vapour. Following simplifications are used in the calculations: The system is assumed to be adiabatic. This means that there is no heat transfer to the surroundings. This is a common practice, when the temperature differences are moderate as here; The power of the cooling is omitted. The cooling construction is very dependent on the machine and the distribution of the losses; The flow is assumed to be one-dimensional, steady-state and homogenous. The water vapour condensing in the turbine can cause errors, but the errors are mainly included in the efficiency calculation. (author) 11 refs.

  8. Use of the available energy in the re-gasification process of liquefied natural gas by coupling combined heat and power cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sgarbi, P.V.; Schmeda Lopez, D.R.; Indrusiak, M.L.S.; Schneider, P. Smith [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering], Emails: guetuso@gmail.com, diego.schmeda@ufrgs.br, sperbindrusiak@via-rs.net, pss@mecanica.ufrgs.br

    2009-07-01

    This work evaluates the possibilities of taking advantage of the heat transferred in the re-gasification process of liquid natural gas (LNG). It is proposed the coupling of a Brayton-Rankine combined heat and power plant (CHP) to a LNG re-gasification plant in order to use the heat involved in this process as cold source for the CHP plant. For comparison, the same CHP is simulated exchanging heat with a reference environment. An analysis is performed assuming that the amount of natural gas fed to the Brayton sub-cycle combustion chamber is equal for both cases. The CHP coupled to the re-gasification plant present a net power generation of 22.7 MW and the efficiency is 45.5%. It represents a gain of 2.98 MW in the power generation and 15% in the cycle efficiency, when compared to the reference cycle. The exergetic efficiency with this proposal is 49.3%, which is 9% higher than the reference cycle. (author)

  9. Long-Term Monitoring of Mini-Split Ductless Heat Pumps in the Northeast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, K.; Loomis, H.

    2015-06-01

    Transformations, Inc. has extensive experience building their high performance housing at a variety of Massachusetts locations, in both a production and custom home setting. The majority of their construction uses mini-split heat pumps (MSHPs) for space conditioning. This research covered the long-term performance of MSHPs in Zone 5A; it is the culmination of up to 3 years' worth of monitoring in a set of eight houses. This research examined electricity use of MSHPs, distributions of interior temperatures and humidity when using simplified (two-point) heating systems in high-performance housing, and the impact of open-door/closed-door status on temperature distributions. The use of simplified space conditioning distribution (through use of MSHPs) provides significant first cost savings, which are used to offset the increased investment in the building enclosure.

  10. Mapping of potential heat sources for heat pumps for district heating in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Rasmus; Persson, Urban

    2016-01-01

    The ambitious policy in Denmark on having a 100% renewable energy supply in 2050 requires radical changes to the energy systems to avoid an extensive and unsustainable use of biomass resources. Currently, wind power is being expanded and the increasing supply of electricity is slowly pushing the CHP (combined heat and power) plants out of operation, reducing the energy efficiency of the DH (district heating) supply. Here, large heat pumps for district heating is a frequently mentioned solution as a flexible demand for electricity and an energy efficient heat producer. The idea is to make heat pump use a low temperature waste or ambient heat source, but it has so far been very unclear which heat sources are actually available for this purpose. In this study eight categories of heat sources are analysed for the case of Denmark and included in a detailed spatial analysis where the identified heat sources are put in relation to the district heating areas and the corresponding demands. The analysis shows that potential heat sources are present near almost all district heating areas and that sea water most likely will have to play a substantial role as a heat source in future energy systems in Denmark. - Highlights: • The availability of heat sources for heat pumps in Denmark are mapped and quantified. • A novel methodology for assessment of low temperature industrial excess heat is presented. • There are heat sources available for 99% of district heating networks in Denmark. • The concentration of heat sources is generally bigger around bigger cities than smaller. • Ambient temperature heat sources will be more needed in district heating of big cities.

  11. 3-Dimensional numerical study of cooling performance of a heat sink with air-water flow through mini-channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Sambit; Majumder, Abhik; Bhaumik, Swapan

    2016-07-01

    The present microelectronics market demands devices with high power dissipation capabilities having enhanced cooling per unit area. The drive for miniaturizing the devices to even micro level dimensions is shooting up the applied heat flux on such devices, resulting in complexity in heat transfer and cooling management. In this paper, a method of CPU processor cooling is introduced where active and passive cooling techniques are incorporated simultaneously. A heat sink consisting of fins is designed, where water flows internally through the mini-channel fins and air flows externally. Three dimensional numerical simulations are performed for large set of Reynolds number in laminar region using finite volume method for both developing flows. The dimensions of mini-channel fins are varied for several aspect ratios such as 1, 1.33, 2 and 4. Constant temperature (T) boundary condition is applied at heat sink base. Channel fluid temperature, pressure drop are analyzed to obtain best cooling option in the present study. It has been observed that as the aspect ratio of the channel decreases Nusselt number decreases while pressure drop increases. However, Nusselt number increases with increase in Reynolds number.

  12. Efficient on-chip hotspot removal combined solution of thermoelectric cooler and mini-channel heat sink

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao, Xiaohong; Peng, Bei; Xie, Gongnan; Chen, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A combined solution of thermoelectric cooler (TEC) and mini-channel heat sink to remove the hotspot of the chip has been proposed. • The TEC's mathematical model is established to assess its work performance. • A comparative study on the proposed efficient On-Chip Hotspot Removal Combined Solution. - Abstract: Hotspot will significantly degrade the reliability and performance of the electronic equipment. The efficient removal of hotspot can make the temperature distribution uniform, and ensure the reliable operation of the electronic equipment. This study proposes a combined solution of thermoelectric cooler (TEC) and mini-channel heat sink to remove the hotspot of the chip in the electronic equipment. Firstly, The TEC's mathematical model is established to assess its work performance under different boundary conditions. Then, the hotspot removal capability of the TEC is discussed for different cooling conditions, which has shown that the combined equipment has better hotspot removal capability compared with others. Finally, A TEC is employed to investigate the hotspot removal capacity of the combined solution, and the results have indicated that it can effectively remove hotspot in the diameter of 0.5 mm, the power density of 600W/cm 2 when its working current is 3A and heat transfer thermal resistance is 0 K/W.

  13. Potential application of Rankine and He-Brayton cycles to sodium fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Pichel, G.D.; Linares, J.I.; Herranz, L.E.; Moratilla, B.Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → This paper has been focused on thermal efficiency of several Rankine and Brayton cycles for SFR. → A sub-critical Rankine configuration could reach a thermal efficiency higher than 43%. → It could be increased to almost 45% using super-critical configurations. → Brayton cycles thermal performance can be enhanced by adding a super-critical organic fluid Rankine cycle. → The moderate coolant temperature at the reactor makes Brayton configurations have poorer. - Abstract: Traditionally all the demos and/or prototypes of the sodium fast reactor (SFR) technology with power output, have used a steam sub-critical Rankine cycle. Sustainability requirement of Gen. IV reactors recommends exploring alternate power cycle configurations capable of reaching high thermal efficiency. By adopting the anticipated working parameters of next SFRs, this paper investigates the potential of some Rankine and He-Brayton layouts to reach thermal efficiencies as high as feasible, so that they could become alternates for SFR reactor balance of plant. The assessment has encompassed from sub-critical to super-critical Rankine cycles and combined cycles based on He-Brayton gas cycles of different complexity coupled to Organic Rankine Cycles. The sub-critical Rankine configuration reached at thermal efficiency higher than 43%, which has been shown to be a superior performance than any of the He-Brayton configurations analyzed. By adopting a super-critical Rankine arrangement, thermal efficiency would increase less than 1.5%. In short, according to the present study a sub-critical layout seems to be the most promising configuration for all those upcoming prototypes to be operated in the short term (10-15 years). The potential of super-critical CO 2 -Brayton cycles should be explored for future SFRs to be deployed in a longer run.

  14. Multi-objective thermodynamic optimization of an irreversible regenerative Brayton cycle using evolutionary algorithm and decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Kumar; S.C. Kaushik; Raj Kumar; Ranjana Hans

    2016-01-01

    Brayton heat engine model is developed in MATLAB simulink environment and thermodynamic optimization based on finite time thermodynamic analysis along with multiple criteria is implemented. The proposed work investigates optimal values of various decision variables that simultaneously optimize power output, thermal efficiency and ecological function using evolutionary algorithm based on NSGA-II. Pareto optimal frontier between triple and dual objectives is obtained and best optimal value is s...

  15. Integration between direct steam generation in linear solar collectors and supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton power cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Coco Enríquez, Luis; Muñoz Antón, Javier; Martínez-Val Peñalosa, José María

    2015-01-01

    Direct Steam Generation in Parabolic Troughs or Linear Fresnel solar collectors is a technology under development since beginning of nineties (1990's) for replacing thermal oils and molten salts as heat transfer fluids in concentrated solar power plants, avoiding environmental impacts. In parallel to the direct steam generation technology development, supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton power cycles are maturing as an alternative to traditional Rankine cycles for increasing net plant efficie...

  16. Optimization of the performance characteristics in an irreversible magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Hao; Liu Sanqiu

    2008-01-01

    An irreversible cycle model of magnetic Brayton refrigerators is established, in which the thermal resistance and irreversibility in the two adiabatic processes are taken into account. Expressions for several important performance parameters, such as the coefficient of performance, cooling rate and power input are derived. Moreover, the optimal performance parameters are obtained at the maximum coefficient of performance. The optimization region (or criteria) for an irreversible magnetic Brayton refrigerator is obtained. The results obtained here have general significance and will be helpful to understand deeply the performance of a magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycle

  17. Counter flow induced draft cooling tower option for supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pidaparti, Sandeep R., E-mail: sandeep.pidaparti@gmail.com [Georgia Institute of Technology, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Moisseytsev, Anton; Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Ranjan, Devesh, E-mail: devesh.ranjan@me.gatech.edu [Georgia Institute of Technology, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A code was developed to investigate the various aspects of using cooling tower for S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycles. • Cooling tower option to reject heat is quantitatively compared to the direct water cooling and dry air cooling options. • Optimum water conditions resulting in minimal plant capital cost per unit power consumption are calculated. - Abstract: A simplified qualitative analysis was performed to investigate the possibility of using counter flow induced draft cooling tower option to reject heat from the supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for advanced fast reactor (AFR)-100 and advanced burner reactor (ABR)-1000 plants. A code was developed to estimate the tower dimensions, power and water consumption, and to perform economic analysis. The code developed was verified against a vendor provided quotation and is used to understand the effect of ambient air and water conditions on the design of cooling tower. The calculations indicated that there exists optimum water conditions for given ambient air conditions which will result in minimum power consumption, thereby increasing the cycle efficiency. A cost-based optimization technique is used to estimate the optimum water conditions which will improve the overall plant economics. A comparison of different cooling options for the S-CO{sub 2} cycle indicated that the cooling tower option is a much more practical and economical option compared to the dry air cooling or direct water cooling options.

  18. Regenerative heat sources for heating networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huenges, Ernst; Sperber, Evelyn; Eggers, Jan-Bleicke; Noll, Florian; Kallert, Anna Maria; Reuss, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The ambitious goal, the German Federal Government has set itself, to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases by 80% to 95% by the year 2050. As there are currently more than half of German energy consumption for the production of heat is required, big contributions to climate protection can be expected from this area if more renewable heat sources are used. Renewable heat sources such as bioenergy, solar thermal and geothermal energy in particular can be provided as compared to fossil fuels with significantly lower specific CO 2 emissions. Objectives in the heating market and scenarios for the transformation of the heat sector have been elaborated in the BMU Lead Study 2011. The main pillar of this scenario is the reduction of final energy consumption for heat by the energy-efficient renovation of existing buildings and further increasing demands on the energetic quality of new buildings. To cover the remaining energy demand, a focus is on the expansion of heating networks based on renewable energies. [de

  19. Study of various Brayton cycle designs for small modular sodium-cooled fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Yoonhan; Lee, Jeong Ik

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Application of closed Brayton cycle for small and medium sized SFRs is reviewed. • S-CO 2 , helium and nitrogen cycle designs for small modular SFR applications are analyzed and compared in terms of cycle efficiency, component performance and physical size. • Several new layouts for each Brayton cycle are suggested to simplify the turbomachinery designs. • S-CO 2 cycle design shows the best efficiency and compact size compared to other Brayton cycles. - Abstract: Many previous sodium cooled fast reactors (SFRs) adopted steam Rankine cycle as the power conversion system. However, the concern of sodium water reaction has been one of the major design issues of a SFR system. As an alternative to the steam Rankine cycle, several closed Brayton cycles including supercritical CO 2 cycle, helium cycle and nitrogen cycle have been suggested recently. In this paper, these alternative gas Brayton cycles will be compared to each other in terms of cycle performance and physical size for small modular SFR application. Several new layouts are suggested for each fluid while considering the turbomachinery design and the total system volume

  20. Member for conducting excess heat away from heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke-Yarborough, E.H.

    1975-01-01

    Should a radioisotope-powered engine (e.g., a Stirling cycle engine for generating electricity) stop working for any reason, the radioisotope heat source will continue to generate heat. This will result in a rise in temperature which may cause overheating of and possible damage to the engine as well as to the heat source itself. The invention provides a support/location member for conducting excess heat from the heat source and which, in normal operation of the engine, will impede the conduction of heat away from the heat source and so reduce thermal losses. The member is of elongated form and comprises a stack of heat-conductive slugs disposed in a tube and in interspaced relationship along the axis of the tube. The tube supports the slugs in axial alignment. Means are provided for attaching an end one of the slugs to the heat source and means operable on overheating of said end one of the slugs are also provided whereby the slugs are able to move into heat-conducting contact with each other so as to conduct the excess heat away from said heat source. The slugs may be brazed to the tube whereby progressive overheating of the slugs along the stack results in an overheated slug being freed from attachment to the tube so as to allow the overheated slug to move along the stack and engage the next slug in line in heat-conducting contact. (U.S.)

  1. Comparison between reverse Brayton and Kapitza based LNG boil-off gas reliquefaction system using exergy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochunni, Sarun Kumar; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2017-02-01

    LNG boil-off gas (BOG) reliquefaction systems in LNG carrier ships uses refrigeration devices which are based on reverse Brayton, Claude, Kapitza (modified Claude) or Cascade cycles. Some of these refrigeration devices use nitrogen as the refrigerants and hence nitrogen storage vessels or nitrogen generators needs to be installed in LNG carrier ships which consume space and add weight to the carrier. In the present work, a new configuration based on Kapitza liquefaction cycle which uses BOG itself as working fluid is proposed and has been compared with Reverse Brayton Cycle (RBC) on sizes of heat exchangers and compressor operating parameters. Exergy analysis is done after simulating at steady state with Aspen Hysys 8.6® and the comparison between RBC and Kapitza may help designers to choose reliquefaction system with appropriate process parameters and sizes of equipment. With comparable exergetic efficiency as that of an RBC, a Kaptiza system needs only BOG compressor without any need of nitrogen gas.

  2. Radioisotopic heat source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, G.J.; Selle, J.E.; Teaney, P.E.

    1975-09-30

    Disclosed is a radioisotopic heat source and method for a long life electrical generator. The source includes plutonium dioxide shards and yttrium or hafnium in a container of tantalum-tungsten-hafnium alloy, all being in a nickel alloy outer container, and subjected to heat treatment of from about 1570$sup 0$F to about 1720$sup 0$F for about one h. (auth)

  3. Optimal usage of low temperature heat sources to supply district heating by heat pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pieper, Henrik; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical study on the optimal usage of different low temperature heat sources to supply district heating by heat pumps. The study is based on data for the Copenhagen region. The heat sources were prioritized based on the coefficient of performance calculated for each hour...... and the covered demand of each heat source as well as required peak unit capacity. The results showed that heat pumps using different heat sources yield better performance than a heat pump based on a single one. The performance was influenced by the composition of the different heat sources. It was found that 78......% groundwater, 22% seawater and 0% air resulted in highest COP of 3.33 for the given heat demand. Furthermore, the implementation of rule based short term storage made peak units redundant. The variation in base load capacity showed that heat pumps utilizing the analyzed heat sources could perform very...

  4. Potential performance improvement using a reacting gas (nitrogin tetroxide) as the working fluid in a closed Brayton cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stochl, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    The results of an analysis to estimate the performance that could be obtained by using a chemically reacting gas (nitrogen tetroxide) as the working fluid in a closed Brayton cycle are presented. Compared with data for helium as the working fluid, these results indicate efficiency improvements from 4 to 90 percent, depending on turbine inlet temperature, pressures, and gas residence time in heat transfer equipment.

  5. Exergetic efficiency optimization for an irreversible heat pump ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    side ... For irreversible cycle, the internal irreversibility, i.e., non-isentropic losses in the ... constant thermal capacitance rate (the product of mass flow rate and specific heat), .... reversed Brayton cycle is dependent on the external heat transfer ...

  6. Heat transfer coefficient for flow boiling in an annular mini gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hożejowska Sylwia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to present the concept of mathematical models of heat transfer in flow boiling in an annular mini gap between the metal pipe with enhanced exterior surface and the external glass pipe. The one- and two-dimensional mathematical models were proposed to describe stationary heat transfer in the gap. A set of experimental data governed both the form of energy equations in cylindrical coordinates and the boundary conditions. The models were formulated to minimize the number of experimentally determined constants. Known temperature distributions in the enhanced surface and in the fluid helped to determine, from the Robin condition, the local heat transfer coefficients at the enhanced surface – fluid contact. The Trefftz method was used to find two-dimensional temperature distributions for the thermal conductive filler layer, enhanced surface and flowing fluid. The method of temperature calculation depended on whether the area of single-phase convection ended with boiling incipience in the gap or the two-phase flow region prevailed, with either fully developed bubbly flow or bubbly-slug flow. In the two–phase flow, the fluid temperature was calculated by Trefftz method. Trefftz functions for the Laplace equation and for the energy equation were used in the calculations.

  7. Potential impacts of Brayton and Stirling cycle engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heft, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Two engine technologies (Brayton cycle and Stirling cycle) are examined for their potential economic impact and fuel utilization. An economic analysis of the expected response of buyers to the attributes of the alternative engines was performed. Hedonic coefficients for vehicle fuel efficiency, performance and size were estimated for domestic cars based upon historical data. The marketplace value of the fuel efficiency enhancement provided by Brayton or Stirling engines was estimated. Under the assumptions of 10 years for plant conversions and 1990 and 1995 as the introduction data for turbine and Stirling engines respectively, the comparative fuel savings and present value of the future savings in fuel costs were estimated.

  8. Heat engine development for solar thermal power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, H. Q.; Jaffe, L. D.

    The parabolic dish solar collector systems for converting sunlight to electrical power through a heat engine will, require a small heat engine of high performance long lifetime to be competitive with conventional power systems. The most promising engine candidates are Stirling, high temperature Brayton, and combined cycle. Engines available in the current market today do not meet these requirements. The development of Stirling and high temperature Brayton for automotive applications was studied which utilizes much of the technology developed in this automotive program for solar power engines. The technical status of the engine candidates is reviewed and the components that may additional development to meet solar thermal system requirements are identified.

  9. Enhanced arrangement for recuperators in supercritical CO2 Brayton power cycle for energy conversion in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, I.P.; Linares, J.I.; Cantizano, A.; Moratilla, B.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •We propose an enhanced power conversion system layout for a Model C fusion reactor. •Proposed layout is based on a modified recompression supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycle. •New arrangement in recuperators regards to classical cycle is used. •High efficiency is achieved, comparable with the best obtained in complex solutions. -- Abstract: A domestic research program called TECNO F US was launched in Spain in 2009 to support technological developments related to a dual coolant breeding blanket concept for fusion reactors. This concept of blanket uses Helium (300 °C/400 °C) to cool part of it and a liquid metal (480 °C/700 °C) to cool the rest; it also includes high temperature (700 °C/800 °C) and medium temperature (566 °C/700 °C) Helium cooling circuits for divertor. This paper proposes a new layout of the classical recompression supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycle which replaces one of the recuperators (the one with the highest temperature) by another which by-passes the low temperature blanket source. This arrangement allows reaching high turbine inlet temperatures (around 600 °C) with medium pressures (around 225 bar) and achieving high cycle efficiencies (close to 46.5%). So, the proposed cycle reveals as a promising design because it integrates all the available thermal sources in a compact layout achieving high efficiencies with the usual parameters prescribed in classical recompression supercritical CO 2 Brayton cycles

  10. Identified corrosion and erosion mechanisms in SCO2 Brayton Cycles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Darryn D.; Kruizenga, Alan Michael

    2014-06-01

    Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (S-CO2) is an efficient and flexible working fluid for power production. Research to interface S-CO2 systems with nuclear, thermal solar, and fossil energy sources is currently underway. To proceed, we must address concerns regarding compatibility of materials, at high temperature, and compatibility between significantly different heat transfer fluids. Dry, pure S-CO2 is thought to be relatively inert [1], while the addition of ppm levels of water and oxygen result in formation of a protective chromia layer and iron oxide [2]. Thin oxides are favorable as diffusion barriers, and for their minimal impact on heat transfer. While S-CO2 is typically understood to be the secondary fluid, many varieties of primary fluids exist for nuclear applications. Molten salts, for use in the Molten Salt Reactor concept, are given as an example to contrast the materials requirements of primary and secondary fluids. Thin chromia layers are soluble in molten salt systems (nitrate, chloride, and fluoride based salts) [3-8], making materials selection for heat exchangers a precarious balancing act between high temperature oxidation (S-CO2) and metal dissolution (salt side of heat exchanger). Because concerns have been raised regarding component lifetimes, S-CO2 work has begun to characterize starting materials and to establish a baseline by analysis of 1) as-received stainless steel piping, and 2) piping exposed to S-CO2 under typical operating conditions with Sandia National Laboratories Brayton systems. A second issue discovered by SNL involves substantial erosion in the turbine blade and inlet nozzle. It is believed that this is caused by small particulates that originate from different materials around the loop that are entrained by the S-CO2 to the nozzle, where they impact the inlet nozzle vanes, causing erosion. We believe that, in some way, this is linked to the purity of the S-CO2, the corrosion contaminants, and the metal particulates that

  11. Assessing the potential of hybrid fossil–solar thermal plants for energy policy making: Brayton cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardos, Eva; López, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Javier; Abánades, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a first study in-depth of solar–fossil hybridization from a general perspective. It develops a set of useful parameters for analyzing and comparing hybrid plants, it studies the case of hybridizing Brayton cycles with current solar technologies and shows a tentative extrapolation of the results to integrated combined cycle systems (ISCSS). In particular, three points have been analyzed: the technical requirements for solar technologies to be hybridized with Brayton cycles, the temperatures and pressures at which hybridization would produce maximum power per unit of fossil fuel, and their mapping to current solar technologies and Brayton cycles. Major conclusions are that a hybrid plant works in optimum conditions which are not equal to those of the solar or power blocks considered independently, and that hybridizing at the Brayton cycle of a combined cycle could be energetically advantageous. -- Highlights: •We model a generic solar–fossil hybrid Brayton cycle. •We calculate the operating conditions for maximum ratio power/fuel consumption. •Best hybrid plant conditions are not the same as solar or power blocks separately. •We study potential for hybridization with current solar technologies. •Hybridization at the Brayton in a combined cycle may achieve high power/fuel ratio

  12. Exergetic efficiency optimization for an irreversible heat pump ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper deals with the performance analysis and optimization for irreversible heat pumps working on reversed Brayton cycle with constant-temperature heat reservoirs by taking exergetic efficiency as the optimization objective combining exergy concept with finite-time thermodynamics (FTT). Exergetic efficiency is ...

  13. Utilization of low-temperature heat sources for heat and power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haglind, Fredrik; Elmegaard, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Low-temperature heat sources are available in many applications, ranging from waste heat from marine diesel engines, industries and refrigeration plants to biomass, geothermal and solar heat sources. There is a great potential for enhancing the utilization of these heat sources by novel...

  14. Enhanced arrangement for recuperators in supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton power cycle for energy conversion in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, I.P.; Linares, J.I., E-mail: linares@dim.icai.upcomillas.es; Cantizano, A.; Moratilla, B.Y.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: •We propose an enhanced power conversion system layout for a Model C fusion reactor. •Proposed layout is based on a modified recompression supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle. •New arrangement in recuperators regards to classical cycle is used. •High efficiency is achieved, comparable with the best obtained in complex solutions. -- Abstract: A domestic research program called TECNO{sub F}US was launched in Spain in 2009 to support technological developments related to a dual coolant breeding blanket concept for fusion reactors. This concept of blanket uses Helium (300 °C/400 °C) to cool part of it and a liquid metal (480 °C/700 °C) to cool the rest; it also includes high temperature (700 °C/800 °C) and medium temperature (566 °C/700 °C) Helium cooling circuits for divertor. This paper proposes a new layout of the classical recompression supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle which replaces one of the recuperators (the one with the highest temperature) by another which by-passes the low temperature blanket source. This arrangement allows reaching high turbine inlet temperatures (around 600 °C) with medium pressures (around 225 bar) and achieving high cycle efficiencies (close to 46.5%). So, the proposed cycle reveals as a promising design because it integrates all the available thermal sources in a compact layout achieving high efficiencies with the usual parameters prescribed in classical recompression supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycles.

  15. Extension of the supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for application to the Very High Temperature Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moisseytsev, A.; Sienicki, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    An investigation has been carried out of the feasibility of applying the supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO 2 ) Brayton cycle to the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). Direct application of the standard S-CO 2 recompression cycle to the VHTR was found to be challenging because of the mismatch in the inherent temperature drops across the He and CO 2 sides of the reactor heat exchanger resulting in a relatively low cycle efficiency of 45 % compared to 48 % for a direct helium cycle. Two approaches consisting of either a cascaded cycle arrangement with three separate cascaded S-CO 2 cycles or, alternately, operation of a single S-CO 2 cycle with the minimum pressure below the critical pressure and the minimum temperature above the critical temperature have been identified and shown to successfully enable the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle to be adapted to the VHTR such that the benefits of the higher S-CO 2 cycle efficiency can be realized. For both approaches, S-CO 2 cycle efficiencies in excess of 49 % are calculated. (authors)

  16. High efficiency heat transport and power conversion system for cascade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maya, I.; Bourque, R.F.; Creedon, R.L.; Schultz, K.R.

    1985-02-01

    The Cascade ICF reactor features a flowing blanket of solid BeO and LiAlO 2 granules with very high temperature capability (up to approx. 2300 K). The authors present here the design of a high temperature granule transport and heat exchange system, and two options for high efficiency power conversion. The centrifugal-throw transport system uses the peripheral speed imparted to the granules by the rotating chamber to effect granule transport and requires no additional equipment. The heat exchanger design is a vacuum heat transfer concept utilizing gravity-induced flow of the granules over ceramic heat exchange surfaces. A reference Brayton power cycle is presented which achieves 55% net efficiency with 1300 K peak helium temperature. A modified Field steam cycle (a hybrid Rankine/Brayton cycle) is presented as an alternate which achieves 56% net efficiency

  17. Validation of the CATHARE2 code against experimental data from Brayton-cycle plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentivoglio, Fabrice; Tauveron, Nicolas; Geffraye, Genevieve; Gentner, Herve

    2008-01-01

    In recent years the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) has commissioned a wide range of feasibility studies of future-advanced nuclear reactors, in particular gas-cooled reactors (GCR). The thermohydraulic behaviour of these systems is a key issue for, among other things, the design of the core, the assessment of thermal stresses, and the design of decay heat removal systems. These studies therefore require efficient and reliable simulation tools capable of modelling the whole reactor, including the core, the core vessel, piping, heat exchangers and turbo-machinery. CATHARE2 is a thermal-hydraulic 1D reference safety code developed and extensively validated for the French pressurized water reactors. It has been recently adapted to deal also with gas-cooled reactor applications. In order to validate CATHARE2 for these new applications, CEA has initiated an ambitious long-term experimental program. The foreseen experimental facilities range from small-scale loops for physical correlations, to component technology and system demonstration loops. In the short-term perspective, CATHARE2 is being validated against existing experimental data. And in particular from the German power plants Oberhausen I and II. These facilities have both been operated by the German utility Energie Versorgung Oberhausen (E.V.O.) and their power conversion systems resemble to the high-temperature reactor concepts: Oberhausen I is a 13.75-MWe Brayton-cycle air turbine plant, and Oberhausen II is a 50-MWe Brayton-cycle helium turbine plant. The paper presents these two plants, the adopted CATHARE2 modelling and a comparison between experimental data and code results for both steady state and transient cases

  18. Heat sources for heat pumps in the energetic and economic comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bockelmann, Franziska; Fisch, M. Norbert; Schlosser, Mathias; Peter, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Because of the growing application of heat pumps also the number of potentially usable low-temperature heat sources and corresponding heat exchangers for heat-pump systems present in the market increases. Thereby products like energy fences, high-power piles, ore ice reservoir come into applications without any knowledge ab out their power or the cost-profit ratio. The optimized lay-out of the coupling to the building are however essential conditions in order to reach an energy-efficient and durable operation of the facilities. The research project ''future heat pump'' sponsored by the BMWi is dedicated to the energetic and economic evaluation of heat sources for heat pumps. In this connection a pre-check-tool for the preliminary selection of low-temperature heat sources and connected, suitable heat-exchange systems is developed and their actual status of development presented. The holistic, comparing consideration of the different heat sources and heat-exchanger systems is related among others to the power numbers of the heat pumps, the entry and withdrawal services of the heat-exchangers, and the general performance of the systems. Additionally an estimation of economic and ecologic aspects (investment and operation costs, CO_2 emissions) is made. Aim is the determination of the plausibility of applications and essential boundary conditions of single source systems. For the qualitative comparison in a project-accompanying monitoring different facilities and source systems are measurement-technically comprehended.

  19. Thermoeconomic Analysis and Optimization of a New Combined Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Recompression Brayton/Kalina Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammad S. Mahmoudi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A new combined supercritical CO2 recompression Brayton/Kalina cycle (SCRB/KC is proposed. In the proposed system, waste heat from a supercritical CO2 recompression Brayton cycle (SCRBC is recovered by a Kalina cycle (KC to generate additional electrical power. The performances of the two cycles are simulated and compared using mass, energy and exergy balances of the overall systems and their components. Using the SPECO (Specific Exergy Costing approach and employing selected cost balance equations for the components of each system, the total product unit costs of the cycles are obtained. Parametric studies are performed to investigate the effects on the SCRB/KC and SCRBC thermodynamic and thermoeconomic performances of key decision parameters. In addition, considering the exergy efficiency and total product unit cost as criteria, optimization is performed for the SCRBC and SCRB/KC using Engineering Equation Solver software. The results indicate that the maximum exergy efficiency of the SCRB/KC is higher than that of the SCRBC by up to 10%, and that the minimum total product unit cost of the SCRB/KC is lower than that of the SCRBC by up to 4.9%.

  20. Heat transfer and pressure drop of supercritical carbon dioxide flowing in several printed circuit heat exchanger channel patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, M.; Kruizenga, A.; Anderson, M.; Corradini, M.

    2012-01-01

    Closed-loop Brayton cycles using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO 2 ) show potential for use in high-temperature power generation applications including High Temperature Gas Reactors (HTGR) and Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors (SFR). Compared to Rankine cycles SCO 2 Brayton cycles offer similar or improved efficiency and the potential for decreased capital costs due to a reduction in equipment size and complexity. Compact printed-circuit heat exchangers (PCHE) are being considered as part of several SCO 2 Brayton designs to further reduce equipment size with increased energy density. Several designs plan to use a gas cooler operating near the pseudo-critical point of carbon dioxide to benefit from large variations in thermophysical properties, but further work is needed to validate correlations for heat transfer and pressure-drop characteristics of SCO 2 flows in candidate PCHE channel designs for a variety of operating conditions. This paper presents work on experimental measurements of the heat transfer and pressure drop behavior of miniature channels using carbon dioxide at supercritical pressure. Results from several plate geometries tested in horizontal cooling-mode flow are presented, including a straight semi-circular channel, zigzag channel with a bend angle of 80 degrees, and a channel with a staggered array of extruded airfoil pillars modeled after a NACA 0020 airfoil with an 8.1 mm chord length facing into the flow. Heat transfer coefficients and bulk temperatures are calculated from measured local wall temperatures and local heat fluxes. The experimental results are compared to several methods for estimating the friction factor and Nusselt number of cooling-mode flows at supercritical pressures in millimeter-scale channels. (authors)

  1. Computational analysis of supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle power conversion system for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halimi, Burhanuddin; Suh, Kune Y.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Computational analysis of S-CO 2 Brayton cycle power conversion system. ► Validation of numerical model with literature data. ► Recompression S-CO 2 Brayton cycle thermal efficiency of 42.44%. ► Reheating concept to enhance the cycle thermal efficiency. ► Higher efficiency achieved by the proposed concept. - Abstract: The Optimized Supercritical Cycle Analysis (OSCA) code is being developed to analyze the design of a supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO 2 ) driven Brayton cycle for a fusion reactor as part of the Modular Optimal Balance Integral System (MOBIS). This system is based on a recompression Brayton cycle. S-CO 2 is adopted as the working fluid for MOBIS because of its easy availability, high density and low chemical reactivity. The reheating concept is introduced to enhance the cycle thermal efficiency. The helium-cooled lithium lead model AB of DEMO fusion reactor is used as reference in this paper.

  2. Development of a Performance Analysis Code for the Off-design conditions of a S-CO2 Brayton Cycle Energy Conversion System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Yong-Hwan; Cha, Jae-Eun; Lee, Tae-Ho; Eoh, Jae-Hyuk; Kim, Seong-O

    2008-01-01

    For the development of a supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) Brayton cycle energy conversion system coupled to KALIMER-600, a thermal balance has been established on 100% power operating conditions including all the reactor system models such as a primary heat transport system (PHTS), an intermediate heat transport system (IHTS), and an energy conversion system. The S-CO2 Brayton cycle energy conversion system consists of a sodium-CO2 heat exchanger (Hx), turbine, high temperature recuperate (HTR), low temperature recuperate (LTR), precooler, compressor no.1, and compressor no.2. Two compressors were employed to avoid a sharp change of the physical properties near their critical point with a corresponding pressure. The component locations and their operating conditions are illustrated. Energy balance of the power conversion system in KALIMER-600 was designed with the full power condition of each component. Therefore, to predict the off-design conditions and to evaluate each component, an off-design performance analysis code should be accomplished. An off-design performance analysis could be classified into overall system control logic and local system control logic. The former means that mass flow rate and power are controlled by valves, and the latter implies that a bypass or inventory control is an admitted system balance. The ultimate goal of this study is development of the overall system control logic

  3. Fluid dynamic design and analysis of a highly loaded Centrifugal rotor for mini orc power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vitale, S.; Pini, M.; Ghidoni, A.; Colonna di Paliano, P.

    2015-01-01

    Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) power systems are a well-established technology for the conversion of thermal energy sources in the small-to-medium power range. In the last few years, efforts have been devoted to the development of mini ORC (mORC) power systems (5- 30 kWe) for waste heat recovery from

  4. A 4 K tactical cryocooler using reverse-Brayton machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagarola, M.; Cragin, K.; McCormick, J.; Hill, R.

    2017-12-01

    Superconducting electronics and spectral-spatial holography have the potential to revolutionize digital communications, but must operate at cryogenic temperatures, near 4 K. Liquid helium is undesirable for military missions due to logistics and scarcity, and commercial low temperature cryocoolers are unable to meet size, weight, power, and environmental requirements for many missions. To address this need, Creare is developing a reverse turbo-Brayton cryocooler that provides refrigeration at 4.2 K and rejects heat at 77 K to an upper-stage cryocooler or through boil-off of liquid nitrogen. The cooling system is predicted to reduce size, weight, and input power by at least an order of magnitude as compared to the current state-of-the-art 4.2 K cryocooler. For systems utilizing nitrogen boil-off, the boil-off rate is reasonable. This paper reviews the design of the cryocooler, the key components, and component test results.

  5. Cost and price estimate of Brayton and Stirling engines in selected production volumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortgang, H. R.; Mayers, H. F.

    1980-01-01

    The methods used to determine the production costs and required selling price of Brayton and Stirling engines modified for use in solar power conversion units are presented. Each engine part, component and assembly was examined and evaluated to determine the costs of its material and the method of manufacture based on specific annual production volumes. Cost estimates are presented for both the Stirling and Brayton engines in annual production volumes of 1,000, 25,000, 100,000 and 400,000. At annual production volumes above 50,000 units, the costs of both engines are similar, although the Stirling engine costs are somewhat lower. It is concluded that modifications to both the Brayton and Stirling engine designs could reduce the estimated costs.

  6. Effects of Symmetrically Arranged Heat Sources on the Heat Release Performance of Extruded-Type Heat Sinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, Min Ye [Chonbuk National Univ., Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    In this study we investigated the effects of symmetrically arranged heat sources on the heat release performances of extruded-type heat sinks through experiments and thermal fluid simulations. Also, based on the results we suggested a high-efficiency and cost-effective heat sink for a solar inverter cooling system. In this parametric study, the temperatures between heaters on the base plate and the heat release rates were investigated with respect to the arrangements of heat sources and amounts of heat input. Based on the results we believe that the use of both sides of the heat sink is the preferred method for releasing the heat from the heat source to the ambient environment rather than the use of a single side of the heat sink. Also from the results, it is believed that the symmetric arrangement of the heat sources is recommended to achieve a higher rate of heat transfer. From the results of the thermal fluid simulation, it was possible to confirm the qualitative agreement with the experimental results. Finally, quantitative comparison with respect to mass flow rates, heat inputs, and arrangements of the heat source was also performed.

  7. Nuclear heat source design for an advanced HTGR process heat plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; O'Hanlon, T.W.

    1983-01-01

    A high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) coupled with a chemical process facility could produce synthetic fuels (i.e., oil, gasoline, aviation fuel, methanol, hydrogen, etc.) in the long term using low-grade carbon sources (e.g., coal, oil shale, etc.). The ultimate high-temperature capability of an advanced HTGR variant is being studied for nuclear process heat. This paper discusses a process heat plant with a 2240-MW(t) nuclear heat source, a reactor outlet temperature of 950 0 C, and a direct reforming process. The nuclear heat source outputs principally hydrogen-rich synthesis gas that can be used as a feedstock for synthetic fuel production. This paper emphasizes the design of the nuclear heat source and discusses the major components and a deployment strategy to realize an advanced HTGR process heat plant concept

  8. Corrosion of Structural Materials for Advanced Supercritical Carbon- Dioxide Brayton Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridharan, Kumar [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2017-05-13

    The supercritical carbon-dioxide (referred to as SC-CO2 hereon) Brayton cycle is being considered for power conversion systems for a number of nuclear reactor concepts, including the sodium fast reactor (SFR), fluoride saltcooled high temperature reactor (FHR), and high temperature gas reactor (HTGR), and several types of small modular reactors (SMR). The SC-CO2 direct cycle gas fast reactor has also been recently proposed. The SC-CO2 Brayton cycle (discussed in Chapter 1) provides higher efficiencies compared to the Rankine steam cycle due to less compression work stemming from higher SC-CO2 densities, and allows for smaller components size, fewer components, and simpler cycle layout. For example, in the case of a SFR using a SC-CO2 Brayton cycle instead of a steam cycle would also eliminate the possibility of sodium-water interactions. The SC-CO2 cycle has a higher efficiency than the helium Brayton cycle, with the additional advantage of being able to operate at lower temperatures and higher pressures. In general, the SC-CO2 Brayton cycle is well-suited for any type of nuclear reactor (including SMR) with core outlet temperature above ~ 500°C in either direct or indirect versions. In all the above applications, materials corrosion in high temperature SC-CO2 is an important consideration, given their expected lifetimes of 20 years or longer. Our discussions with National Laboratories and private industry early on in this project indicated materials corrosion to be one of the significant gaps in the implementation of SC-CO2 Brayton cycle. Corrosion can lead to a loss of effective load-bearing wall thickness of a component and can potentially lead to the generation of oxide particulate debris which can lead to three-body wear in turbomachinery components. Another environmental degradation effect that is rather unique to CO2 environment is the possibility

  9. Thulium-170 heat source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Carl E.; Van Konynenburg, Richard; VanSant, James H.

    1992-01-01

    An isotopic heat source is formed using stacks of thin individual layers of a refractory isotopic fuel, preferably thulium oxide, alternating with layers of a low atomic weight diluent, preferably graphite. The graphite serves several functions: to act as a moderator during neutron irradiation, to minimize bremsstrahlung radiation, and to facilitate heat transfer. The fuel stacks are inserted into a heat block, which is encased in a sealed, insulated and shielded structural container. Heat pipes are inserted in the heat block and contain a working fluid. The heat pipe working fluid transfers heat from the heat block to a heat exchanger for power conversion. Single phase gas pressure controls the flow of the working fluid for maximum heat exchange and to provide passive cooling.

  10. New nuclear heat sources for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerouge, B.

    1975-01-01

    The means by which urban oil heating may be taken over by new energy sources, especially nuclear, are discussed. Several possibilities exist: pressurized water reactors for high powers, and low-temperature swimming-pool-type process-heat reactors for lower powers. Both these cases are discussed [fr

  11. Preliminary Study of Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE) for various power conversion systems for SMART

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jinsu; Baik, Seungjoon; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The steam-Rankine cycle was the most widely used power conversion system for a nuclear power plant. The size of the heat exchanger is important for the modulation. Such a challenge was conducted by Kang et al. They change the steam generator type for the SMART from helical type heat exchanger to Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE). Recently, there has been a growing interest in the supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle as the most promising power conversion system. The reason is high efficiency with simple layout and compact power plant due to small turbomachinery and compact heat exchanger technology. That is why the SCO{sub 2} Brayton cycle can enhance the existing advantages of Small Modular Reactor (SMR) like SMART, such as reduction in size, capital cost, and construction period. Thermal hydraulic and geometric parameters of a PCHE for the S-CO{sub 2} power cycle coupled to SMART. The results show that the water - CO{sub 2} printed circuit heat exchanger size is smaller than printed circuit steam generator for the superheated steam Rankine cycle. This results show the potential benefit of using the S-CO-2 Brayton power cycle to a water-cooled small modular reactor.

  12. Motor starting a Brayton cycle power conversion system using a static inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curreri, J. S.; Edkin, R. A.; Kruchowy, R.

    1973-01-01

    The power conversion module of a 2- to 15-kWe Brayton engine was motor started using a three-phase, 400-hertz static inverter as the power source. Motor-static tests were conducted for initial gas loop pressures of 10, 14, and 17 N/sq cm (15, 20, and 25 psia) over a range of initial turbine inlet temperatures from 366 to 550 K (200 to 530 F). The data are presented to show the effects of temperature and pressure on the motor-start characteristics of the rotating unit. Electrical characteristics during motoring are also discussed.

  13. Heat pump using dual heat sources of air and water. Performance with heat sources arranged in parallel; Mizu kuki ryonetsugen heat pump no kenkyu. Netsugen heiretsu unten ni okeru seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S; Miura, N; Sato, S [Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Uchikawa, Y; Hamada, K [Kubota Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    A heat pump system using water and air as heat sources was built and evaluated for its performance. In this system, evaporators may be operated singly or as connected in parallel or series, and, for each case, the quantity of heat acquired may be measured and system performance may be quantitatively evaluated. The findings follow. When the two heat sources are equal in temperature in the single-evaporator operation, the evaporation temperature is about 7{degree}C higher on the water side than on the air side, and the performance coefficient is about 0.7 higher. When the air heat source temperature is 25{degree}C in the parallel operation, like quantities of heat are obtained from both heat sources, and collection of heat from the water increases with a decrease in the air heat source temperature but, with an increase, collection from the air increases. When the air heat source temperature decreases, the evaporation temperature decreases in the single-evaporator working on the air and in the parallel operation but it levels off in the single-evaporator working on the water alone. When the water heat source temperature decreases, evaporation temperature drop is sharper in the single-evaporator working on the water than in the parallel operation, which suggests the transfer from the parallel operation to the single-evaporator working on the air. In the single-evaporator operation on the water heat source, the evaporation temperature linearly decreases with an increase in superheating. 1 ref., 10 figs.

  14. Effect of geometrical shape of the working substance Gadolinium on the performance of a regenerative magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diguet, Gildas; Lin, Guoxing; Chen, Jincan

    2013-01-01

    Based on Mean Field Theory (MFT), the entropy of magnetic material Gadolinium (Gd), which is a function of the local magnetic field and temperature, is calculated and analyzed. This local magnetic field is the sum of the applied field H 0 plus the exchange field H W =λM and the demagnetizing field H d =−NM, where the demagnetizing factor N depends on the shape of magnetic materials. Hereby, the impacts of the demagnetizing factor N on the magnetic entropy, magnetic entropy change and main thermodynamics performance of a regenerative magnetic Brayton refrigeration cycle using Gd as the working substance are investigated and evaluated in detail. The results obtained underline the importance of the shape of the working substance used in magnetic refrigerators for room-temperature application; elongated materials provide better thermodynamics performance such as higher COP and net heat absorption. It is pointed out that for low external fields, the magnetic refrigerator ceased to be functional if flat materials were used. - Highlights: ► Gd entropy is calculated as a function of temperature and internal magnetic field. ► Magnetic Brayton cycle properties generally depend on the demagnetizing factor. ► Redundant heat transfer is highly sensitive to the demagnetizing factor. ► The net cooling quantity is highly sensitive to the demagnetizing factor. ► Coefficient of performance is dependant to the magnetic material shape.

  15. MiniCNT - A Tabletop Stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, Chris; Pedersen, Thomas; Berkery, John

    2006-10-01

    MiniCNT is a scaled down version of the Columbia Non-Neutral Torus, a stellarator built to study confinement of non-neutral plasmas on magnetic surfaces. MiniCNT is a glass vacuum chamber capable of holding pressures six orders of magnitude below atmospheric pressure. Unlike CNT, in which plasmas are invisible, MiniCNT allows some collisions with neutrals, causing it to glow. Using two twelve-volt car batteries to power four magnetic coils, MiniCNT generates a 0.02 Tesla magnetic field. While CNT, being larger, is obviously more accurate, there are multiple benefits in MiniCNT. First, it is more flexible and can be adjusted to fit many scenarios easily. The car batteries can be switched for other power sources, the coils can be realigned, and the chamber can be pumped to various pressures of various gases. Also, it is visually accessible; while CNT has glass viewing ports and its plasma is dark, MiniCNT is made of glass and its plasma glows, allowing visualization of the magnetic surfaces.

  16. Optimization of advanced high-temperature Brayton cycles with multiple reheat stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haihua Zhao; Per F Peterson

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: This paper presents an overview and a few point designs for multiple-reheat Brayton cycle power conversion systems using high temperature molten salts (or liquid metals). All designs are derived from the General Atomics GT-MHR power conversion unit (PCU). The GT-MHR PCU is currently the only closed helium cycle system that has undergone detailed engineering design analysis, and that has turbomachinery which is sufficiently large to extrapolate to a >1000 MW(e) multiple reheat gas cycle power conversion system. Analysis shows that, with relatively small engineering modifications, multiple GT-MHR PCU's can be connected together to create a power conversion system in the >1000 MW(e) class. The resulting power conversion system is quite compact, and results in what is likely the minimum gas duct volume possible for a multiple-reheat system. To realize this, compact offset fin plate type liquid-to-gas heat exchangers (power densities from 10 to 120 MW/m 3 ) are needed. Both metal and non-metal heat exchangers are being investigated for high-temperature, gas-cooled reactors for temperatures to 1000 deg. C. Recent high temperature heat exchanger studies for nuclear hydrogen production has suggested that carbon-coated composite materials such as liquid silicon infiltrated chopped fiber carbon-carbon preformed material potentially could be used to fabricate plate fin heat exchangers with reasonable price. Different fluids such as helium, nitrogen and helium mixture, and supercritical CO 2 are compared for these multiple reheat Brayton cycles. Nitrogen and helium mixture cycle need about 40% more total PCU volume than helium cycle while keeping the same net cycle efficiency. Supercritical CO 2 needs very high pressure to optimize. Due to relatively detailed design for components such as heat exchangers, turbomachinery, and duct system, relatively accurate total pressure loss can be obtained, which results in more credible net efficiency

  17. Improvements in or relating to devices for conducting excess heat away from heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooke-Yarborough, E.H.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to radioisotope powered heat engines. Should such an engine stop working for any reason the radioisotope heat source will continue to generate heat, and this may cause overheating and possible damage to the engine as well as the heat source. A device is described for conducting excess heat from the heat source to a heat sink but which in normal operation of the engine will impede heat conduction and so reduce thermal losses. The device may be used to support and/or locate the heat source. Constructional and operational details are given. (U.K.)

  18. Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) facility specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    General requirements for the Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS)/Ground Demonstration System (GDS) assembly and test facility are defined. The facility will include provisions for a complete test laboratory for GDS checkout, performance, and endurance testing, and a contamination-controlled area for assembly, fabrication, storage, and storage preparation of GDS components. Specifications, schedules, and drawings are included

  19. Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) facility specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-05-31

    General requirements for the Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS)/Ground Demonstration System (GDS) assembly and test facility are defined. The facility will include provisions for a complete test laboratory for GDS checkout, performance, and endurance testing, and a contamination-controlled area for assembly, fabrication, storage, and storage preparation of GDS components. Specifications, schedules, and drawings are included.

  20. Nuclear heat sources for cryogenic refrigerator applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raab, B.; Schock, A.; King, W.G.; Kline, T.; Russo, F.A.

    1975-01-01

    Spacecraft cryogenic refrigerators require thermal inputs on the order of 1000 W. First, the characteristics of solar-electric and radioisotope heat source systems for supplying this thermal input are compared. Then the design of a 238 Pu heat source for this application is described, and equipment for shipping and handling the heat source is discussed. (LCL)

  1. Test Results from a Direct Drive Gas Reactor Simulator Coupled to a Brayton Power Conversion Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervol, David S.; Briggs, Maxwell H.; Owen, Albert K.; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon M.; Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Component level testing of power conversion units proposed for use in fission surface power systems has typically been done using relatively simple electric heaters for thermal input. These heaters do not adequately represent the geometry or response of proposed reactors. As testing of fission surface power systems transitions from the component level to the system level it becomes necessary to more accurately replicate these reactors using reactor simulators. The Direct Drive Gas-Brayton Power Conversion Unit test activity at the NASA Glenn Research Center integrates a reactor simulator with an existing Brayton test rig. The response of the reactor simulator to a change in Brayton shaft speed is shown as well as the response of the Brayton to an insertion of reactivity, corresponding to a drum reconfiguration. The lessons learned from these tests can be used to improve the design of future reactor simulators which can be used in system level fission surface power tests.

  2. Vaporization inside a mini microfin tube: experimental results and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diani, A.; Rossetto, L.

    2015-11-01

    This paper proposes a comparison among the common R134a and the extremely low GWP refrigerant R1234yf during vaporization inside a mini microfin tube. This microfin tube has an internal diameter of 2.4 mm, it has 40 fins, with a fin height of 0.12 mm. Due to the high heat transfer coefficients shown by this tube, this technology can lead to a refrigerant charge reduction. Tests were run in the Heat Transfer in Micro Geometries Lab of the Dipartimento di Ingegneria Industriale of the Università di Padova. Mass velocities range between 375 and 940 kg m-2 s-1, heat fluxes from 10 to 50 kW m-2, vapour qualities from 0.10 to 0.99, at a saturation temperature of 30°C. The comparison among the two fluids is proposed at the same operating conditions, in order to highlight the heat transfer and pressure drop differences among the two refrigerants. In addition, two correlations are proposed to estimate the heat transfer coefficient and frictional pressure drop during refrigerant flow boiling inside mini microfin tubes. These correlations well predict the experimental values, and thus they can be used as a useful tool to design evaporators based on these mini microfin tubes.

  3. Design of serially connected district heating heat pumps utilising a geothermal heat source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2017-01-01

    The design of two heat pumps (HP), connected in series, was investigated for operation in the district heating (DH) network of the Greater Copenhagen area, Denmark. The installation was dimensioned to supply 7.2 MW of heat at a temperature of 85 °C. The heat pumps utilise a geothermal heat source...

  4. Thermodynamics Properties of Binary Gas Mixtures for Brayton Space Nuclear Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Ersheng; Shi Lei; Zhang Zuoyi

    2014-01-01

    Space nuclear power system with closed Brayton cycle has the potential advantages of high cycle efficiency. It can be achieved to limit the specific mass of the system with a competitive design scheme, so as to strengthen the advantage of the nuclear energy applying in space propulsion and electric generating compared to solar or chemical propellant. Whereby, the thermodynamic properties of working fluids have a significant influence on the performance of the plant. Therefore, two binary mixtures helium-nitrogen and helium-carbon dioxide are introduced to analysis the variation in the transport and heat transfer capacity of working fluids. Based on the parameters of pure gases, the heat transfer coefficient, pressure losses and aerodynamic loading are calculated as a function of mole fraction at the temperature of 400 K and 1200 K, as well as the typical operating pressure of 2 MPa. Results indicated that the mixture of helium-carbon dioxide with a mole fraction of 0.4 is a more attractive choice for the high heat transfer coefficient, low aerodynamic loading and acceptable pressure losses in contrast to helium-nitrogen and other mixing ratios of helium-carbon dioxide. Its heat transfer coefficient is almost 20% more than that of pure helium and the normalized aerodynamic loading is less than 34% at 1200 K. However; the pressure losses are a little higher with ~3.5 times those of pure helium. (author)

  5. Fluidized-Bed Heat Transfer Modeling for the Development of Particle/Supercritical-CO2 Heat Exchanger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhiwen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Martinek, Janna G [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-06-03

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) technology is moving toward high-temperature and high-performance design. One technology approach is to explore high-temperature heat-transfer fluids and storage, integrated with a high-efficiency power cycle such as the supercritical carbon dioxide (s-CO2) Brayton power cycle. The s-CO2 Brayton power system has great potential to enable the future CSP system to achieve high solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency and to reduce the cost of power generation. Solid particles have been proposed as a possible high-temperature heat-transfer medium that is inexpensive and stable at high temperatures above 1,000 degrees C. The particle/heat exchanger provides a connection between the particles and s-CO2 fluid in the emerging s-CO2 power cycles in order to meet CSP power-cycle performance targets of 50% thermal-to-electric efficiency, and dry cooling at an ambient temperature of 40 degrees C. The development goals for a particle/s-CO2 heat exchanger are to heat s-CO2 to =720 degrees C and to use direct thermal storage with low-cost, stable solid particles. This paper presents heat-transfer modeling to inform the particle/s-CO2 heat-exchanger design and assess design tradeoffs. The heat-transfer process was modeled based on a particle/s-CO2 counterflow configuration. Empirical heat-transfer correlations for the fluidized bed and s-CO2 were used in calculating the heat-transfer area and optimizing the tube layout. A 2-D computational fluid-dynamics simulation was applied for particle distribution and fluidization characterization. The operating conditions were studied from the heat-transfer analysis, and cost was estimated from the sizing of the heat exchanger. The paper shows the path in achieving the cost and performance objectives for a heat-exchanger design.

  6. Brayton cycle space power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietsch, A.; Trimble, S.W.; Harper, A.D.

    1985-01-01

    The latest accomplishments in the design and development of the Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) for space applications are described, together with a reexamination of the design/cost tradeoffs with respect to current economic parameters and technology status. The results of tests performed on a ground test version of the flight configuration, the workhorse loop, were used to confirm the performance projections made for the flight system. The results of cost-model analysis indicate that the use of the highest attainable power conversion system efficiency will yield the most cost-effective systems. 13 references

  7. Characterization and modeling of the heat source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glickstein, S.S.; Friedman, E.

    1993-10-01

    A description of the input energy source is basic to any numerical modeling formulation designed to predict the outcome of the welding process. The source is fundamental and unique to each joining process. The resultant output of any numerical model will be affected by the initial description of both the magnitude and distribution of the input energy of the heat source. Thus, calculated weld shape, residual stresses, weld distortion, cooling rates, metallurgical structure, material changes due to excessive temperatures and potential weld defects are all influenced by the initial characterization of the heat source. Understandings of both the physics and the mathematical formulation of these sources are essential for describing the input energy distribution. This section provides a brief review of the physical phenomena that influence the input energy distributions and discusses several different models of heat sources that have been used in simulating arc welding, high energy density welding and resistance welding processes. Both simplified and detailed models of the heat source are discussed.

  8. Performance analysis on solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲世林; 马飞; 仇安兵

    2009-01-01

    A solar-water compound source heat pump for radiant floor heating (SWHP-RFH) experimental system was introduced and analyzed. The SWHP-RFH system mainly consists of 11.44 m2 vacuum tube solar collector,1 000 L water tank assisted 3 kW electrical heater,a water source heat pump,the radiant floor heating system with cross-linked polyethylene (PE-X) of diameter 20 mm,temperature controller and solar testing system. The SWHP-RFH system was tested from December to February during the heating season in Beijing,China under different operation situations. The test parameters include the outdoor air temperature,solar radiation intensity,indoor air temperature,radiation floor average surface temperature,average surface temperature of the building envelope,the inlet and outlet temperatures of solar collector,the temperature of water tank,the heat medium temperatures of heat pump condenser side and evaporator side,and the power consumption includes the water source heat pump system,the solar source heat pump system,the auxiliary heater and the radiant floor heating systems etc. The experimental results were used to calculate the collector efficiency,heat pump dynamic coefficient of performance (COP),total energy consumption and seasonal heating performance during the heating season. The results indicate that the performance of the compound source heat pump system is better than that of the air source heat pump system. Furthermore,some methods are suggested to improve the thermal performance of each component and the whole SWHP-RFH system.

  9. Advanced radioisotope heat source for Stirling Engines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobry, T.J.; Walberg, G.

    2001-01-01

    The heat exchanger on a Stirling Engine requires a thermal energy transfer from a heat source to the engine through a very limited area on the heater head circumference. Designing an effective means to assure maximum transfer efficiency is challenging. A single General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS), which has been qualified for space operations, would satisfy thermal requirements for a single Stirling Engine that would produce 55 electrical watts. However, it is not efficient to transfer its thermal energy to the engine heat exchanger from its rectangular geometry. This paper describes a conceptual design of a heat source to improve energy transfer for Stirling Engines that may be deployed to power instrumentation on space missions

  10. An improved model to evaluate thermodynamic solar plants with cylindrical parabolic collectors and air turbine engines in open Joule–Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferraro, Vittorio; Imineo, Francesco; Marinelli, Valerio

    2013-01-01

    An improved model to analyze the performance of solar plants operating with cylindrical parabolic collectors and atmospheric air as heat transfer fluid in an open Joule–Brayton cycle is presented. In the new model, the effect of the incident angle modifier is included, to take into account the variation of the optical efficiency with the incidence angle of the irradiance, and the effect of the reheating of the fluid also has been studied. The analysis was made for two operating modes of the plants: with variable air flow rate and constant inlet temperature to the turbine and with constant flow rate and variable inlet temperature to the turbine, with and without reheating of the fluid in the solar field. When reheating is used, the efficiency of the plant is increased. The obtained results show a good performance of this type of solar plant, in spite of its simplicity; it is able to compete well with other more complex plants operating with different heat transfer fluids. - Highlights: ► An improved model to calculate an innovative CPS solar plant is presented. ► The plant works with air in an open Joule–Brayton cycle. ► The reheating of the air increases the thermodynamic efficiency. ► The plant is very simple and competes well with other more complex solar plants

  11. A new mini-extrapolation chamber for beta source uniformity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.L.; Caldas, L.V.E.

    2006-01-01

    According to recent international recommendations, beta particle sources should be specified in terms of absorbed dose rates to water at the reference point. However, because of the clinical use of these sources, additional information should be supplied in the calibration reports. This additional information include the source uniformity. A new small volume extrapolation chamber was designed and constructed at the Calibration Laboratory at Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, IPEN, Brazil, for the calibration of 90 Sr+ 90 Y ophthalmic plaques. This chamber can be used as a primary standard for the calibration of this type of source. Recent additional studies showed the feasibility of the utilization of this chamber to perform source uniformity measurements. Because of the small effective electrode area, it is possible to perform independent measurements by varying the chamber position by small steps. The aim of the present work was to study the uniformity of a 90 Sr+ 90 Y plane ophthalmic plaque utilizing the mini extrapolation chamber developed at IPEN. The uniformity measurements were performed by varying the chamber position by steps of 2 mm in the source central axis (x-and y-directions) and by varying the chamber position off-axis by 3 mm steps. The results obtained showed that this small volume chamber can be used for this purpose with a great advantage: it is a direct method, being unnecessary a previously calibration of the measurement device in relation to a reference instrument, and it provides real -time results, reducing the time necessary for the study and the determination of the uncertainties related to the measurements. (authors)

  12. Fuel fired heat sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortlinghaus, U

    1977-09-08

    Fuel fired heat sources with a valve-controlled ignition and main burner, whose flame is monitored and whose control valve is closed or opened by a controller according to the control deviation between actual and reference heat source temperature, previously suffered the disadvantage of high consumption of ignition gas. According to the invention this disadvantage is avoided by closing the ignition valve from the controller via a delay unit and having the delay time of the delay unit controlled either by the temperature measured by the sensor or increasing it with increasing deviation of the actual value of pre-temperature from the reference value of the pre-temperature.

  13. Fundamental study of key issues related to advanced sCO2 Brayton cycle: Prototypic HX development and cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjan, Devesh [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2018-01-08

    Diffusion bonded heat exchangers are the leading candidates for the sCO2 Brayton cycles in next generation nuclear power plants. Commercially available diffusion bonded heat exchangers utilize set of continuous semi-circular zigzag micro channels to increase the heat transfer area and enhance heat transfer through increased turbulence production. Such heat exchangers can lead to excessive pressure drop as well as flow maldistribution in the case of poorly designed flow distribution headers. The goal of the current project is to fabricate and test potential discontinuous fin patterns for diffusion bonded heat exchangers; which can achieve desired thermal performance at lower pressure drops. Prototypic discontinuous offset rectangular and Airfoil fin surface geometries were chemically etched on to 316 stainless steel plate and sealed against an un-etched flat pate using O-ring seal emulating diffusion bonded heat exchangers. Thermal-hydraulic performance of these prototypic discontinuous fin geometries was experimentally evaluated and compared to the existing data for the continuous zigzag channels. The data generated from this project will serve as the database for future testing and validation of numerical models.

  14. Diffusion of heat from a finite, rectangular, plane heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreri, J.C.; Caballero, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    Non-dimensional results for the temperature field originating in a rectangular, finite, plane heat source with infinitesimal thickness are introduced. The source decays in time, zero decay being a particular case. Results are useful for obtaining an aproximation of the maximum temperature of a system holding an internal heat source. The range selected for the parameters is specially useful in the case of a nuclear waste repository. The application to the case of mass diffussion arises from analogy. (Author) [es

  15. Mini-Split Heat Pump Evaluation and Zero Energy Ready Home Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anastasia [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    IBACOS worked with builder Imagine Homes to evaluate the performance of an occupied new construction test house following construction of the house in the hot, humid climate of San Antonio, Texas. The project measures the effectiveness of a space conditioning strategy using a multihead mini-split heat pump (MSHP) system in a reduced-load home to achieve acceptable comfort levels (temperature and humidity) and energy performance. IBACOS collected long-term data and analyzed the energy consumption and comfort conditions of the occupied house after one year of operation. Although measured results indicate that the test system provides comfort both inside and outside the ASHRAE Standard 55-2010 range, the occupants of the house claimed both adequate comfort and appreciation of the ease of use and flexibility of the installed MSHP system. IBACOS also assisted the builder to evaluate design and specification changes necessary to comply with Zero Energy Ready Home, but the builder chose to not move forward with it because of concerns about the 'solar ready' requirements of the program.

  16. Concept definition study of small Brayton cycle engines for dispersed solar electric power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Six, L. D.; Ashe, T. L.; Dobler, F. X.; Elkins, R. T.

    1980-01-01

    Three first-generation Brayton cycle engine types were studied for solar application: a near-term open cycle (configuration A), a near-term closed cycle (configuration B), and a longer-term open cycle (configuration C). A parametric performance analysis was carried out to select engine designs for the three configurations. The interface requirements for the Brayton cycle engine/generator and solar receivers were determined. A technology assessment was then carried out to define production costs, durability, and growth potential for the selected engine types.

  17. Digital computer study of nuclear reactor thermal transients during startup of 60-kWe Brayton power conversion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, K. S.; Tew, R. C.

    1974-01-01

    A digital computer study was made of reactor thermal transients during startup of the Brayton power conversion loop of a 60-kWe reactor Brayton power system. A startup procedure requiring the least Brayton system complication was tried first; this procedure caused violations of design limits on key reactor variables. Several modifications of this procedure were then found which caused no design limit violations. These modifications involved: (1) using a slower rate of increase in gas flow; (2) increasing the initial reactor power level to make the reactor respond faster; and (3) appropriate reactor control drum manipulation during the startup transient.

  18. Sensitivity study on nitrogen Brayton cycle coupled with a small ultra-long cycle fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Seok Bin; Seo, Han; Bang, In Cheol

    2014-01-01

    The main characteristics of UCFR are constant neutron flux and power density. They move their positions every moment at constant speed along with axial position of fuel rod for 60 years. Simultaneously with the development of the reactors, a new power conversion system has been considered. To solve existing issues of vigorous sodium-water reaction in SFR with steam power cycle, many researchers suggested a closed Brayton cycle as an alternative technique for SFR power conversion system. Many inactive gases are selected as a working fluid in Brayton power cycle, mainly supercritical CO 2 (S-CO 2 ). However, S-CO 2 still has potential for reaction with sodium. CO 2 -sodium reaction produces solid product, which has possibility to have an auto ignition reaction around 600 .deg. C. Thus, instead of S-CO 2 , CEA in France has developed nitrogen power cycle for ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration). In addition to inactive characteristic of nitrogen with sodium, its thermal and physical similarity with air enables to easily adopt to existing air Brayton cycle technology. In this study, for an optimized power conversion system for UCFR, a nitrogen Brayton cycle was analyzed in thermodynamic aspect. Based on subchannel analysis data of UCFR-100, a parametric study for thermal performance of nitrogen Brayton cycle was achieved. The system maximum pressure significantly affects to the overall efficiency of cycle, while other parameters show little effects. Little differences of the overall efficiencies for all cases between three stages (BOC, MOC, EOC) indicate that the power cycle of UCFR-100 maintains its performance during the operation

  19. General purpose heat source task group. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The results of thermal analyses and impact tests on a modified design of a 238 Pu-fueled general purpose heat source (GPHS) for spacecraft power supplies are presented. This work was performed to establish the safety of a heat source with pyrolytic graphite insulator shells located either inside or outside the graphite impact shell. This safety is dependent on the degree of aerodynamic heating of the heat source during reentry and on the ability of the heat source capsule to withstand impact after reentry. Analysis of wind tunnel and impact test data result in a recommended GPHS design which should meet all temperature and safety requirements. Further wind tunnel tests, drop tests, and impact tests are recommended to verify the safety of this design

  20. Improvement of supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle using binary gas mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Woo Seok

    2011-02-01

    A Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) is one of the strongest candidates for the next generation nuclear reactor. However, the conventional design of a SFR concept with an indirect Rankine cycle is inevitably subjected to a sodium-water reaction. To prevent hazardous situation caused by sodium-water reaction, the SFR with Brayton cycle using Supercritical Carbon dioxide (S-CO 2 cycle) as a working fluid can be an alternative approach. The S-CO 2 Brayton cycle is more sensitive to the critical point of working fluids than other Brayton cycles. This is because compressor work significantly decreases at slightly above the critical point due to high density near the boundary between the supercritical state and the subcritical state. For this reason, the minimum temperature and pressure of cycle are just above the CO 2 critical point. The critical point acts as a limitation of the lowest operating condition of the cycle. In general, lowering the rejection temperature of a thermodynamic cycle increases the efficiency and thus, changing the critical point of CO 2 can result in an improvement of the total cycle efficiency with the same cycle layout. Modifying the critical point of the working fluid can be done by adding other gases to CO 2 . The direction and range of the CO 2 critical point variation depends on the mixed component and its amount. In particular, chemical reactivity of the gas mixture itself and the gas mixture with sodium at high temperatures are of interest. To modify the critical point of the working fluid, several gases were chosen as candidates by which chemical stability with sodium within the interested range of cycle operating condition was assured: CO 2 was mixed with N 2 , O 2 , He, Ar and Xe. To evaluate the effect of shifting the critical point and changes in the properties of the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle, a supercritical Brayton cycle analysis code connected with the REFPROP program from the NIST was developed. The developed code is for evaluating

  1. Carbon-Carbon Composites as Recuperator Materials for Direct Gas Brayton Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RA Wolf

    2006-01-01

    Of the numerous energy conversion options available for a space nuclear power plant (SNPP), one that shows promise in attaining reliable operation and high efficiency is the direct gas Brayton (GB) system. In order to increase efficiency, the GB system incorporates a recuperator that accounts for nearly half the weight of the energy conversion system (ECS). Therefore, development of a recuperator that is lighter and provides better performance than current heat exchangers could prove to be advantageous. The feasibility of a carbon-carbon (C/C) composite recuperator core has been assessed and a mass savings of 60% and volume penalty of 20% were projected. The excellent thermal properties, high-temperature capabilities, and low density of carbon-carbon materials make them attractive in the GB system, but development issues such as material compatibility with other structural materials in the system, such as refractory metals and superalloys, permeability, corrosion, joining, and fabrication must be addressed

  2. Carbon-Carbon Composites as Recuperator Material for Direct Gas Brayton Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RA Wolf

    2006-07-19

    Of the numerous energy conversion options available for a space nuclear power plant (SNPP), one that shows promise in attaining reliable operation and high efficiency is the direct gas Brayton (GB) system. In order to increase efficiency, the GB system incorporates a recuperator that accounts for nearly half the weight of the energy conversion system (ECS). Therefore, development of a recuperator that is lighter and provides better performance than current heat exchangers could prove to be advantageous. The feasibility of a carbon-carbon (C/C) composite recuperator core has been assessed and a mass savings of 60% and volume penalty of 20% were projected. The excellent thermal properties, high-temperature capabilities, and low density of carbon-carbon materials make them attractive in the GB system, but development issues such as material compatibility with other structural materials in the system, such as refractory metals and superalloys, permeability, corrosion, joining, and fabrication must be addressed.

  3. Thermodynamic Analysis of ORC and Its Application for Waste Heat Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Javanshir

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The analysis and optimization of an organic Rankine cycle (ORC used as a bottoming cycle in the Brayton/ORC and steam Rankine/ORC combined cycle configurations is the main focus of this study. The results show that CO2 and air are the best working fluids for the topping (Brayton cycle. Depending on the exhaust temperature of the topping cycle, Iso-butane, R11 and ethanol are the preferred working fluids for the bottoming (ORC cycle, resulting in the highest efficiency of the combined cycle. Results of the techno-economic study show that combined Brayton/ORC cycle has significantly lower total capital investment and levelized cost of electricity (LCOE compared to the regenerative Brayton cycle. An analysis of a combined steam Rankine/ORC cycle was performed to determine the increase in power output that would be achieved by adding a bottoming ORC to the utility-scale steam Rankine cycle, and determine the effect of ambient conditions (heat sink temperature on power increase. For the selected power plant location, the large difference between the winter and summer temperatures has a considerable effect on the ORC power output, which varies by more than 60% from winter to summer.

  4. Protected isotope heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, R.K.; Shure, L.I.; Katzen, E.D.

    1975-01-01

    A radioactive isotope capsule is disposed in a container (heat shield) which will have a single stable trim attitude when reentering the earth's atmosphere and while falling to earth. The center of gravity of the heat source is located forward of the midpoint between the front face and the rear face of the container. The capsule is insulated from the front face of the container but not from the rear surface of the container. (auth)

  5. Experimental study of adsorption chiller driven by variable heat source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.C.; Wang, Y.J.; Zhang, J.P.; Tian, X.L. [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Wu, J.Y. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2008-05-15

    A silica gel-water adsorption chiller has been developed in recent years and has been applied in an air conditioning system driven by solar energy. The heat source used to drive the adsorption chiller is variable at any moment because the solar radiation intensity or the waste heat from engines varies frequently. An adsorption cooling system may be badly impacted by a variable heat source with temperature variations in a large range. In this work, a silica gel-water adsorption chiller driven by a variable heat source is experimentally studied. The influences of the variable heat source on the performance of the chiller are analyzed, especially for a continuous temperature increase process and a continuous temperature decrease process of the heat source. As an example, the dynamic characteristics of the heat source are also analyzed when solar energy is taken as the heat source of the adsorption chiller. According to the experimental results for the adsorption chiller and the characteristics of the heat source from solar energy, control strategies of the adsorption chiller driven by solar energy are proposed. (author)

  6. Experimental study of adsorption chiller driven by variable heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.C.; Wang, Y.J.; Zhang, J.P.; Tian, X.L.; Wu, J.Y.

    2008-01-01

    A silica gel-water adsorption chiller has been developed in recent years and has been applied in an air conditioning system driven by solar energy. The heat source used to drive the adsorption chiller is variable at any moment because the solar radiation intensity or the waste heat from engines varies frequently. An adsorption cooling system may be badly impacted by a variable heat source with temperature variations in a large range. In this work, a silica gel-water adsorption chiller driven by a variable heat source is experimentally studied. The influences of the variable heat source on the performance of the chiller are analyzed, especially for a continuous temperature increase process and a continuous temperature decrease process of the heat source. As an example, the dynamic characteristics of the heat source are also analyzed when solar energy is taken as the heat source of the adsorption chiller. According to the experimental results for the adsorption chiller and the characteristics of the heat source from solar energy, control strategies of the adsorption chiller driven by solar energy are proposed

  7. Mapping of low temperature heat sources in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bühler, Fabian; Holm, Fridolin Müller; Huang, Baijia

    2015-01-01

    heat. The total accessible waste heat potential is found to be approximately 266 PJ per year with 58 % of it below 100 °C. In the natural heat category, temperatures below 20 °C originate from ambient air, sea water and shallow geothermal energy, and temperatures up to 100 °C are found for solar...... and deep geothermal energy. The theoretical solar thermal potential alone would be above 500 PJ per year. For the development of advanced thermodynamic cycles for the integration of heat sources in the Danish energy system, several areas of interest are determined. In the maritime transport sector a high......Low temperature heat sources are available in many applications, ranging from waste heat from industrial processes and buildings to geothermal and solar heat sources. Technical advancements, such as heat pumps with novel cycle design and multi-component working fluids, make the utilisation of many...

  8. Conceptual design study of closed Brayton cycle gas turbines for fusion power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, S.C.

    1976-01-01

    A conceptual design study is presented of closed Brayton cycle gas turbine power conversion systems suitable for integration with advanced-concept Tokamak fusion reactors (such as UWMAK-III) for efficient power generation without requiring cooling water supply for waste heat rejection. A baseline cycle configuration was selected and parametric performance analyses were made. Based on the results of the parametric analysis and trade-off and interface considerations, the reference design conditions for the baseline cycle were selected. Conceptual designs were made of the major helium gas turbine power system components including a 585-MWe single-shaft turbomachine, (three needed), regenerator, precooler, intercooler, and the piping system connecting them. Structural configuration and significant physical dimensions for major components are illustrated, and a brief discussion on major advantages, power control and crucial technologies for the helium gas turbine power system are presented

  9. Experimental investigation and feasibility analysis on a capillary radiant heating system based on solar and air source heat pump dual heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, M.; Gu, Z.L.; Kang, W.B.; Liu, X.; Zhang, L.Y.; Jin, L.W.; Zhang, Q.L.

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: (a) Vertical temperature gradient in Case 3, (b) PMV and PPD of the test room in Case 3, (c) operating time of SPCTS and ASHP systems in Case 3 and (d) the proportion of SPCTS operating time. - Highlights: • A capillary heating system based on solar and air source heat pump was developed. • Influence of supply water temperature on solar energy saving rate was investigated. • Heating performance and thermal comfort of capillary heating system were analyzed. • Low temperature heating with capillary is suitable for solar heating system. - Abstract: Due to sustainable development, solar energy has drawn much attention and been widely applied in buildings. However, the application of solar energy is limited because of its instability, intermittency and low energy density in winter. In order to use low density and instable solar energy source for heating and improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy, a solar phase change thermal storage (SPCTS) heating system using a radiant-capillary-terminal (RCT) to effectively match the low temperature hot water, a phase change thermal storage (PCTS) to store and continuously utilize the solar energy, and an air source heat pump (ASHP) as an alternate energy, was proposed and set up in this research. Series of experiments were conducted to obtain the relation between the solar radiation utilization rate and the heating supply temperatures, and to evaluate the performance of the RCT module and the indoor thermal environment of the system for its practical application in a residential building in the north-western City of Xi’an, China. The results show that energy saving of the solar heating system can be significantly improved by reducing the supplied water temperature, and the supplied water temperature of the RCT would be no more than 35 °C. The capillary radiation heating can adopt a lower water temperature and create a good thermal comfort environment as well. These results may lead to the

  10. Multi-objective thermodynamic optimization of an irreversible regenerative Brayton cycle using evolutionary algorithm and decision making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Brayton heat engine model is developed in MATLAB simulink environment and thermodynamic optimization based on finite time thermodynamic analysis along with multiple criteria is implemented. The proposed work investigates optimal values of various decision variables that simultaneously optimize power output, thermal efficiency and ecological function using evolutionary algorithm based on NSGA-II. Pareto optimal frontier between triple and dual objectives is obtained and best optimal value is selected using Fuzzy, TOPSIS, LINMAP and Shannon’s entropy decision making methods. Triple objective evolutionary approach applied to the proposed model gives power output, thermal efficiency, ecological function as (53.89 kW, 0.1611, −142 kW which are 29.78%, 25.86% and 21.13% lower in comparison with reversible system. Furthermore, the present study reflects the effect of various heat capacitance rates and component efficiencies on triple objectives in graphical custom. Finally, with the aim of error investigation, average and maximum errors of obtained results are computed.

  11. Nuclear heat source component design considerations for HTGR process heat reactor plant concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; Kapich, D.; King, J.H.; Venkatesh, M.C.

    1982-05-01

    The coupling of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and a chemical process facility has the potential for long-term synthetic fuel production (i.e., oil, gasoline, aviation fuel, hydrogen, etc) using coal as the carbon source. Studies are in progress to exploit the high-temperature capability of an advanced HTGR variant for nuclear process heat. The process heat plant discussed in this paper has a 1170-MW(t) reactor as the heat source and the concept is based on indirect reforming, i.e., the high-temperature nuclear thermal energy is transported [via an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX)] to the externally located process plant by a secondary helium transport loop. Emphasis is placed on design considerations for the major nuclear heat source (NHS) components, and discussions are presented for the reactor core, prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), rotating machinery, and heat exchangers

  12. Start-up Characteristics of Swallow-tailed Axial-grooved Heat Pipe under the conditions of Multiple Heat Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Renping

    2017-12-01

    A mathematical model was developed for predicting start-up characteristics of Swallow-tailed Axial-grooved Heat Pipe under the conditions of Multiple Heat Sources. The effects of heat capacitance of heat source, liquid-vapour interfacial evaporation-condensation heat transfer, shear stress at the interface was considered in current model. The interfacial evaporating mass flow rate is based on the kinetic analysis. Time variations of evaporating mass rate, wall temperature and liquid velocity are studied from the start-up to steady state. The calculated results show that wall temperature demonstrates step transition at the junction between the heat source and non-existent heat source on the evaporator. The liquid velocity changes drastically at the evaporator section, however, it has slight variation at the evaporator section without heat source. When the effect of heat source is ignored, the numerical temperature demonstrates a quicker response. With the consideration of capacitance of the heat source, the data obtained from the proposed model agree well with the experimental results.

  13. Mini-Split Heat Pump Evaluation and Zero Energy Ready Home Support

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herk, Anastasia [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    This project was created from a partnership between the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building America research team IBACOS, Inc. and Imagine Homes, a production homebuilder of high-performance homes in San Antonio, Texas—a hot-humid climate. The primary purpose was to evaluate the performance of a multihead mini-split heat pump (MSHP) space-conditioning system, which consists of ducted and ductless indoor units, in maintaining uniform comfort in an occupied test house. The research team evaluated the MSHP space-conditioning strategy for its effectiveness in achieving uniform temperature and relative humidity (RH) levels throughout the test house and for overall constructability and cost. This evaluation was based on data that were collected from short-term tests and monitoring during 1 year of occupancy, as well as from builder and occupant feedback. Design considerations for integrating an MSHP system into the builder’s full range of production home designs were also explored, with a focus on minimizing the cost and complexity of the system design while meeting the thermal loads of the house and providing occupant comfort according to ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55-2010 (ASHRAE 2010a).

  14. High Efficiency Heat Exchanger for High Temperature and High Pressure Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienicki, James J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Lv, Qiuping [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division; Moisseytsev, Anton [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States). Nuclear Engineering Division

    2017-09-29

    CompRex, LLC (CompRex) specializes in the design and manufacture of compact heat exchangers and heat exchange reactors for high temperature and high pressure applications. CompRex’s proprietary compact technology not only increases heat exchange efficiency by at least 25 % but also reduces footprint by at least a factor of ten compared to traditional shell-and-tube solutions of the same capacity and by 15 to 20 % compared to other currently available Printed Circuit Heat Exchanger (PCHE) solutions. As a result, CompRex’s solution is especially suitable for Brayton cycle supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) systems given its high efficiency and significantly lower capital and operating expenses. CompRex has already successfully demonstrated its technology and ability to deliver with a pilot-scale compact heat exchanger that was under contract by the Naval Nuclear Laboratory for sCO2 power cycle development. The performance tested unit met or exceeded the thermal and hydraulic specifications with measured heat transfer between 95 to 98 % of maximum heat transfer and temperature and pressure drop values all consistent with the modeled values. CompRex’s vision is to commercialize its compact technology and become the leading provider for compact heat exchangers and heat exchange reactors for various applications including Brayton cycle sCO2 systems. One of the limitations of the sCO2 Brayton power cycle is the design and manufacturing of efficient heat exchangers at extreme operating conditions. Current diffusion-bonded heat exchangers have limitations on the channel size through which the fluid travels, resulting in excessive solid material per heat exchanger volume. CompRex’s design allows for more open area and shorter fluid proximity for increased heat transfer efficiency while sustaining the structural integrity needed for the application. CompRex is developing a novel improvement to its current heat exchanger design where fluids are directed to alternating

  15. Thermodynamic performance analysis of sequential Carnot cycles using heat sources with finite heat capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hansaem; Kim, Min Soo

    2014-01-01

    The maximum efficiency of a heat engine is able to be estimated by using a Carnot cycle. Even though, in terms of efficiency, the Carnot cycle performs the role of reference very well, its application is limited to the case of infinite heat reservoirs, which is not that realistic. Moreover, considering that one of the recent key issues is to produce maximum work from low temperature and finite heat sources, which are called renewable energy sources, more advanced theoretical cycles, which can present a new standard, and the research about them are necessary. Therefore, in this paper, a sequential Carnot cycle, where multiple Carnot cycles are connected in parallel, is studied. The cycle adopts a finite heat source, which has a certain initial temperature and heat capacity, and an infinite heat sink, which is assumed to be ambient air. Heat transfer processes in the cycle occur with the temperature difference between a heat reservoir and a cycle. In order to resolve the heat transfer rate in those processes, the product of an overall heat transfer coefficient and a heat transfer area is introduced. Using these conditions, the performance of a sequential Carnot cycle is analytically calculated. Furthermore, as the efforts for enhancing the work of the cycle, the optimization research is also conducted with numerical calculation. - Highlights: • Modified sequential Carnot cycles are proposed for evaluating low grade heat sources. • Performance of sequential Carnot cycles is calculated analytically. • Optimization study for the cycle is conducted with numerical solver. • Maximum work from a heat source under a certain condition is obtained by equations

  16. Nuclear heat source component design considerations for HTGR process heat reactor plant concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; Kapich, D.; King, J.H.; Venkatesh, M.C.

    1982-01-01

    Using alternate energy sources abundant in the U.S.A. to help curb foreign oil imports is vitally important from both national security and economic standpoints. Perhaps the most forwardlooking opportunity to realize national energy goals involves the integrated use of two energy sources that have an established technology base in the U.S.A., namely nuclear energy and coal. The coupling of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) and a chemical process facility has the potential for long-term synthetic fuel production (i.e., oil, gasoline, aviation fuel, hydrogen, etc.) using coal as the carbon source. Studies are in progress to exploit the high-temperature capability of an advanced HTGR variant for nuclear process heat. The process heat plant discussed in this paper has a 1170-MW(t) reactor as the heat source and the concept is based on indirect reforming, i.e., the high-temperature nuclear thermal energy is transported (via an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX)) to the externally located process plant by a secondary helium transport loop. Emphasis is placed on design considerations for the major nuclear heat source (NHS) components, and discussions are presented for the reactor core, prestressed concrete reactor vessel (PCRV), rotating machinery, and heat exchangers

  17. Hybrid ground-source heat pump system with active air source regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaerts, K.; Coomans, M.; Salenbien, R.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid ground source heat pump system with two separate borefields is modelled. • The maximum underground storage temperature depends on the size of the drycooler. • Drycooler selection curves are given as function of underground storage temperature. • The size of the cold storage is reduced with 47% in the cost optimal configuration. • The cooling seasonal performance factor decreases with reduced storage capacity. - Abstract: Ground-source heat pump systems (GSHP) offer great advantages over traditional heating and cooling installations. However, their applications are limited due to the high initial costs of borehole drilling. One way to avoid these costs is by reducing the size of the borefield, e.g. by combining the system with other renewable energy sources or by using active regeneration to increase the system efficiency. In this paper a hybrid ground-source heat pump system (HGSHP) is analyzed. The borefield is split into a warm part and a cold part, which allows for seasonal thermal-energy storage. Additionally, supplementary drycoolers capture heat during summer and cold during winter. The relationship between the underground storage size and temperature and the drycooler capacity is described, using an office building in Flanders (Belgium) as reference case. Results show that with a HGSHP system a significant borefield size reduction can be achieved without compromising system performance; i.e. for the reference case a reduction of 47% was achieved in the cost-optimal configuration. It is also shown that the cooling seasonal performance factor decreases significantly with underground storage capacity. In addition, the HGSHP can be used to maintain or restore thermal balance in the geothermal source when heating and cooling loads do not match

  18. Heat-source specification 500 watt(e) RTG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-02-01

    This specification establishes the requirements for a 90 SrF 2 heat source and its fuel capsule for application in a 500 W(e) thermoelectric generator. The specification covers: fuel composition and quantity; the Hastelloy S fuel capsule material and fabrication; and the quality assurance requirements for the assembled heat source

  19. FY-05 Second Quarter Report On Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving PBR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Oh

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research is to improve a helium Brayton cycle and to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) that can also be applied to the Fast Gas-Cooled Reactor (FGR) and the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR). The proposed supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle will be used to improve the PBR, FGR, and VHTR net plant efficiency. Another objective of this research is to test materials to be used in the power conversion side at supercritical carbon dioxide conditions. Generally, the optimized Brayton cycle and balance of plant (BOP) to be developed from this study can be applied to Generation-IV reactor concepts. Particularly, we are interested in VHTR because it has a good chance of being built in the near future

  20. Mini-Membrane Evaporator for Contingency Spacesuit Cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinen, Janice V.; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Petty, Brian; Craft, Jesse; Lynch, William; Wilkes, Robert; Vogel, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The next-generation Advanced Extravehicular Mobility Unit (AEMU) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) is integrating a number of new technologies to improve reliability and functionality. One of these improvements is the development of the Auxiliary Cooling Loop (ACL) for contingency crewmember cooling. The ACL is a completely redundant, independent cooling system that consists of a small evaporative cooler--the Mini Membrane Evaporator (Mini-ME), independent pump, independent feedwater assembly and independent Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG). The Mini-ME utilizes the same hollow fiber technology featured in the full-sized AEMU PLSS cooling device, the Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator (SWME), but Mini-ME occupies only approximately 25% of the volume of SWME, thereby providing only the necessary crewmember cooling in a contingency situation. The ACL provides a number of benefits when compared with the current EMU PLSS contingency cooling technology, which relies upon a Secondary Oxygen Vessel; contingency crewmember cooling can be provided for a longer period of time, more contingency situations can be accounted for, no reliance on a Secondary Oxygen Vessel (SOV) for contingency cooling--thereby allowing a reduction in SOV size and pressure, and the ACL can be recharged-allowing the AEMU PLSS to be reused, even after a contingency event. The first iteration of Mini-ME was developed and tested in-house. Mini-ME is currently packaged in AEMU PLSS 2.0, where it is being tested in environments and situations that are representative of potential future Extravehicular Activities (EVA's). The second iteration of Mini-ME, known as Mini-ME2, is currently being developed to offer more heat rejection capability. The development of this contingency evaporative cooling system will contribute to a more robust and comprehensive AEMU PLSS.

  1. 21 CFR 872.6475 - Heat source for bleaching teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Heat source for bleaching teeth. 872.6475 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6475 Heat source for bleaching teeth. (a) Identification. A heat source for bleaching teeth is an AC-powered device that consists of a...

  2. Small particle bed reactors: Sensitivity to Brayton cycle parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiner, John R.; Short, Barry J.

    Relatively simple particle bed reactor (PBR) algorithms were developed for optimizing low power closed Brayton cycle (CBC) systems. These algorithms allow the system designer to understand the relationship among key system parameters as well as the sensitivity of the PBR size and mass (a major system component) to variations in these parameters. Thus, system optimization can be achieved.

  3. Transformation of toxic potential of Jatropha curcas (Ratanjyot into protein source: A mini-review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Shukla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The production of animal largely depends on supplying of quality feed and proteinaceous supplement to the animals. Jatropha plant can grow in the barren lands, and are used as a source of biodiesel. Besides, the plant may act as a rich proteinaceous source. However, the antinutritional factors present in the seed and seed oil of the plant may hamper the availability and beneficial use of the plant. Curcin and phorbol esters are the major toxic compounds present in the plant; these toxic compounds cause to produce liver and kidney diseases. Detoxification of these toxic compounds by physical and chemical means converting to less toxic seed cake may serve the purpose of using this plant in future as a replacement of costly protein supplement for animals. Therefore, in modern world, it is recommended to utilize the protein source by neutralizing the antinutritional factors. This mini-review describes the updates on how J. curcas can be utilized as a supplementary source of protein for animals by decreasing its toxicity.

  4. Application of Abaqus to analysis of the temperature field in elements heated by moving heat sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Piekarska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Numerical analysis of thermal phenomena occurring during laser beam heating is presented in this paper. Numerical models of surface andvolumetric heat sources were presented and the influence of different laser beam heat source power distribution on temperature field wasanalyzed. Temperature field was obtained by a numerical solution the transient heat transfer equation with activity of inner heat sources using finite element method. Temperature distribution analysis in welded joint was performed in the ABAQUS/Standard solver. The DFLUXsubroutine was used for implementation of the movable welding heat source model. Temperature-depended thermophysical properties for steelwere assumed in computer simulations. Temperature distribution in laser beam surface heated and butt welded plates was numericallyestimated.

  5. Design of a cavity heat pipe receiver experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Michael G.; Brege, Mark H.; Greenlee, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A cavity heat pipe experiment has been designed to test the critical issues involved with incorporating thermal energy storage canisters into a heat pipe. The experiment is a replication of the operation of a heat receiver for a Brayton solar dynamic power cycle. The heat receiver is composed of a cylindrical receptor surface and an annular heat pipe with thermal energy storage canisters and gaseous working fluid heat exchanger tubes surrounding it. Hardware for the cavity heat pipe experiment will consist of a sector of the heat pipe, complete with gas tube and thermal energy storage canisters. Thermal cycling tests will be performed on the heat pipe sector to simulate the normal energy charge/discharge cycle of the receiver in a spacecraft application.

  6. Systems Analyses of Advanced Brayton Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Rao; D.J. Francuz; J.D. Maclay; J. Brouwer; A. Verma; M. Li; G.S. Samuelsen

    2008-09-30

    The main objective is to identify and assess advanced improvements to the Brayton Cycle (such as but not limited to firing temperature, pressure ratio, combustion techniques, intercooling, fuel or combustion air augmentation, enhanced blade cooling schemes) that will lead to significant performance improvements in coal based power systems. This assessment is conducted in the context of conceptual design studies (systems studies) that advance state-of-art Brayton cycles and result in coal based efficiencies equivalent to 65% + on natural gas basis (LHV), or approximately an 8% reduction in heat rate of an IGCC plant utilizing the H class steam cooled gas turbine. H class gas turbines are commercially offered by General Electric and Mitsubishi for natural gas based combined cycle applications with 60% efficiency (LHV) and it is expected that such machine will be offered for syngas applications within the next 10 years. The studies are being sufficiently detailed so that third parties will be able to validate portions or all of the studies. The designs and system studies are based on plants for near zero emissions (including CO{sub 2}). Also included in this program is the performance evaluation of other advanced technologies such as advanced compression concepts and the fuel cell based combined cycle. The objective of the fuel cell based combined cycle task is to identify the desired performance characteristics and design basis for a gas turbine that will be integrated with an SOFC in Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) applications. The goal is the conceptualization of near zero emission (including CO{sub 2} capture) integrated gasification power plants producing electricity as the principle product. The capability of such plants to coproduce H{sub 2} is qualitatively addressed. Since a total systems solution is critical to establishing a plant configuration worthy of a comprehensive market interest, a baseline IGCC plant scheme is developed and used to study

  7. Exergy analysis for stationary flow systems with several heat exchange temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampinen, M J; Heikkinen, M A [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Dept. of Energy Engineering

    1995-07-01

    A thermodynamic theory of exergy analysis for a stationary flow system having several heat inputs and outputs at different temperature levels is presented. As a new result a relevant reference temperature of the surroundings is derived for each case. Also a general formula which combines exergy analysis with a modified Carnot efficiency is derived. The results are illustrated by numerical examples for mechanical multi-circuit heat pump cycles, for a Brayton process and for an absorption heat pump. (Author)

  8. Thermoelectric mini cooler coupled with micro thermosiphon for CPU cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Di; Zhao, Fu-Yun; Yang, Hong-Xing; Tang, Guang-Fa

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a thermoelectric mini cooler coupling with a micro thermosiphon cooling system has been proposed for the purpose of CPU cooling. A mathematical model of heat transfer, depending on one-dimensional treatment of thermal and electric power, is firstly established for the thermoelectric module. Analytical results demonstrate the relationship between the maximal COP (Coefficient of Performance) and Q c with the figure of merit. Full-scale experiments have been conducted to investigate the effect of thermoelectric operating voltage, power input of heat source, and thermoelectric module number on the performance of the cooling system. Experimental results indicated that the cooling production increases with promotion of thermoelectric operating voltage. Surface temperature of CPU heat source linearly increases with increasing of power input, and its maximum value reached 70 °C as the prototype CPU power input was equivalent to 84 W. Insulation between air and heat source surface can prevent the condensate water due to low surface temperature. In addition, thermal performance of this cooling system could be enhanced when the total dimension of thermoelectric module matched well with the dimension of CPU. This research could benefit the design of thermal dissipation of electronic chips and CPU units. - Highlights: • A cooling system coupled with thermoelectric module and loop thermosiphon is developed. • Thermoelectric module coupled with loop thermosiphon can achieve high heat-transfer efficiency. • A mathematical model of thermoelectric cooling is built. • An analysis of modeling results for design and experimental data are presented. • Influence of power input and operating voltage on the cooling system are researched

  9. Simulation of embedded heat exchangers of solar aided ground source heat pump system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 郑茂余; 邵俊鹏; 李忠建

    2008-01-01

    Aimed at unbalance of soil temperature field of ground source heat pump system, solar aided energy storage system was established. In solar assisted ground-source heat pump (SAGSHP) system with soil storage, solar energy collected in three seasons was stored in the soil by vertical U type soil exchangers. The heat abstracted by the ground-source heat pump and collected by the solar collector was employed to heating. Some of the soil heat exchangers were used to store solar energy in the soil so as to be used in next winter after this heating period; and the others were used to extract cooling energy directly in the soil by circulation pump for air conditioning in summer. After that solar energy began to be stored in the soil and ended before heating period. Three dimensional dynamic numerical simulations were built for soil and soil heat exchanger through finite element method. Simulation was done in different strata month by month. Variation and restoration of soil temperature were studied. Economy and reliability of long term SAGSHP system were revealed. It can be seen that soil temperature is about 3 ℃ higher than the original one after one year’s running. It is beneficial for the system to operate for long period.

  10. Air-source heat pump carbon footprints: HFC impacts and comparison to other heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, Eric P.

    2011-01-01

    European governments see that heat pumps could reduce carbon emissions in space- and hot-water heating. EU's Renewable Energy Directive designates heat pumps as renewable - eligible for various subsidies - if their carbon footprints are below an implied, average threshold. This threshold omits carbon generated by manufacture and emission of a heat-pump's fluorocarbon refrigerant. It also omits the footprint of the heat pump's hardware. To see if these omissions are significant, this study calculated carbon footprints of representative, residential heat pumps in the UK. Three findings emerged. First, in relation to power generation, which accounts for most of a heat-pump's greenhouse-gas emissions, fluorocarbons add another 20% to the footprint. Second, at UK efficiencies a heat-pump footprint (in kg CO 2 e emitted per kWh delivered) is comparable or higher than footprints of gaseous fuels used in heating. It is lower than the footprint of heating oil and far lower than the footprints of solid fuels. Third, production and disposal of a heat pump's hardware is relatively insignificant, accounting for only 2-3% of the overall heat-pump footprint. Sensitivities to the results were assessed: key factors are footprint of electricity generation, F-gas composition and leak rates and type of wall construction. - Research highlights: → Refrigerant emissions add 20% to a UK air-source heat pump's carbon footprint. → This contribution is so far ignored by regulations. → UK heat pump footprints are comparable to those of gaseous fuels.

  11. Thermodynamic modelling of a recompression CO_2 power cycle for low temperature waste heat recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banik, Shubham; Ray, Satyaki; De, Sudipta

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermodynamic model for recompression T-CO_2 is developed. • Energetic and exergetic analysis compared with S-CO_2 and Reg. Brayton cycle. • Maximum efficiency of 13.6% is obtained for T-CO_2 cycle. • Optimum recompression ratio of 0.48 is obtained for minimum irreversibility. • Reg. Brayton has better efficiency, T-CO_2 offers minimum irreversibility. - Abstract: Due to the rising prices of conventional fossil fuels, increasing the overall thermal efficiency of a power plant is essential. One way of doing this is waste heat recovery. This recovery is most difficult for low temperature waste heat, below 240 °C, which also covers majority of the waste heat source. Carbon dioxide, with its low critical temperature and pressure, offers an advantage over ozone-depleting refrigerants used in Organic Rankine Cycles (ORCs) and hence is most suitable for the purpose. This paper introduces parametric optimization of a transcritical carbon dioxide (T-CO_2) power cycle which recompresses part of the total mass flow of working fluid before entering the precooler, thereby showing potential for higher cycle efficiency. Thermodynamic model for a recompression T-CO_2 power cycle has been developed with waste heat source of 2000 kW and at a temperature of 200 °C. Results obtained from this model are analysed to estimate effects on energetic and exergetic performances of the power cycle with varying pressure and mass recompression ratio. Higher pressure ratio always improves thermodynamic performance of the cycle – both energetic and exergetic. Higher recompression ratio also increases exergetic efficiency of the cycle. However, it increases energy efficiency, only if precooler inlet temperature remains constant. Maximum thermal efficiency of the T-CO_2 cycle with a recompression ratio of 0.26 has been found to be 13.6%. To minimize total irreversibility of the cycle, an optimum ratio of 0.48 was found to be suitable.

  12. Ground Source Geothermal District Heating and Cooling System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, James William [Ball State Univ., Muncie, IN (United States)

    2016-10-21

    Ball State University converted its campus from a coal-fired steam boiler district heating system to a ground source heat pump geothermal district system that produces simultaneously hot water for heating and chilled water for cooling. This system will include the installation of 3,600 four hundred feet deep vertical closed loop boreholes making it the largest ground source geothermal district system in the country. The boreholes will act as heat exchangers and transfer heat by virtue of the earth’s ability to maintain an average temperature of 55 degree Fahrenheit. With growing international concern for global warming and the need to reduce worldwide carbon dioxide loading of the atmosphere geothermal is poised to provide the means to help reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The shift from burning coal to utilizing ground source geothermal will increase electrical consumption but an overall decrease in energy use and reduction in carbon dioxide output will be achieved. This achievement is a result of coupling the ground source geothermal boreholes with large heat pump chiller technology. The system provides the thermodynamic means to move large amounts of energy with limited energy input. Ball State University: http://cms.bsu.edu/About/Geothermal.aspx

  13. Performance variations of river water source heat pump system according to heat exchanger capacity variations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seong Ryong; Baik, Young Jin; Lee, Young Soo; Kim, Hee Hwan

    2003-01-01

    The utilization of unused energy is important because it can afford to offer a chance to increase energy efficiency of a heat pump system. One of the promising unused energy sources is river water. It can be used as a heat source in both heating and cooling effectively with its superior features as a secondary working fluids. In this study, the performance of a 5HP heat pump system using river water as a heat source is investigated by both experiment and simulation. According to system simulation results, performance improvement of condenser seems more effective than that of evaporator for better COPH. The serial connection is also preferred among several methods to improve plate type heat exchanger performance. The experimental results show that the hot water of 50∼60 .deg. C can be acquired from water heat source of 5∼9 .deg. C with COPH of 2.7∼3.5

  14. Power generation from low-temperature heat source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakew, Amlaku Abie

    2012-07-01

    The potential of low-temperature heat sources for power production has been discussed for decades. The diversity and availability of low-temperature heat sources makes it interesting for power production. The thermodynamic power cycle is one of the promising technologies to produce electricity from low-temperature heat sources. There are different working fluids to be used in a thermodynamic power cycle. Working fluid selection is essential for the performance of the power cycle. Over the last years, different working fluid screening criteria have been used. In broad speaking the screening criteria can be grouped as thermodynamic performance, component size requirement, economic performance, safety and environmental impact. Screening of working fluids at different heat source temperatures (80-200 Celsius degrees) using thermodynamic performance (power output and exergy efficiency) and component size (heat exchanger and turbine) is investigated. It is found that the 'best' working fluid depends on the criteria used and heat source temperature level. Transcritical power cycles using carbon dioxide as a working fluid is studied to produce power at 100 Celsius degrees. Carbon dioxide is an environmentally friendly refrigerant. The global warming potential of carbon dioxide is 1. Furthermore, because of its low critical temperature (31 Celsius degrees), carbon dioxide can operate in a transcritical power cycle for lower heat source temperatures. A transcritical configuration avoids the problem of pinching which otherwise would happened in subcritical power cycle. In the process, better temperature matching is achieved and more heat is extracted. Thermodynamic analysis of transcritical cycle is performed; it is found that there is an optimal operating pressure for highest net power output. The pump work is a sizable fraction of the work produced by the turbine. The effect of efficiency deterioration of the pump and the turbine is compared. When the

  15. A novel design method for ground source heat pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Xing-Jie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel design method for ground source heat pump. The ground source heat pump operation is controllable by using several parameters, such as the total meters of buried pipe, the space between wells, the thermal properties of soil, thermal resistance of the well, the initial temperature of soil, and annual dynamic load. By studying the effect of well number and well space, we conclude that with the increase of the well number, the inlet and outlet water temperatures decrease in summer and increase in winter, which enhance the efficiency of ground source heat pump. The well space slightly affects the water temperatures, but it affects the soil temperature to some extent. Also the ground source heat pump operations matching with cooling tower are investigated to achieve the thermal balance. This method greatly facilitates ground source heat pump design.

  16. The economics of supplying the supplementary heat in a closed loop water source heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.P.; Bartkus, V.E.; Singh, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes the details of a research and demonstration project that will be completed in August 1992 at a healthcare facility in northeastern Pennsylvania. The purpose of the project is to compare the economics of several methods of supplying the supplementary heating in a facility served by a closed loop water source heat pump system. The systems being tested include a storage hot water tank with electric resistance heaters and three air source heat pumps that have the ability to supply the same heat during on-peak hours as well as off-peak hours. The paper compares the projected operating costs of the following: (1) Gas boiler supplying the supplementary heat. (2) Stored hot water supplying the supplementary heat which is generated and stored during off-peak hours using resistance heat on PP ampersand L's offpeak rate. (3) Stored hot water supplying the supplementary heat generated during off-peak hours using the air source heat pumps on PP ampersand L's off-peak rate. (4) Hot water generated by the air source heat pumps supplying the supplementary loop heating on PP ampersand L's general service and time-of-day electric rates. It is generally known in the HVAC industry that a closed loop water source heat pump system can provide one of the most efficient means of space conditioning to a building with high internal gains by transferring the excess heat available in one part of the building to another part of the building where it may be needed for heating. The following flow diagram depicts the relationship of the air source heat pumps with the storage tanks and the building closed water loop

  17. Potential improvements of supercritical recompression CO2 Brayton cycle by mixing other gases for power conversion system of a SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Woo Seok; Lee, Jeong Ik; Jeong, Yong Hoon

    2011-01-01

    sodium within the interested range of cycle operating condition were chosen as candidates for the mixture; CO 2 was mixed with N 2 , O 2 , He, and Ar. To evaluate the effect of shifting the critical point and changes in the properties of the S-CO 2 Brayton cycle, a supercritical Brayton cycle analysis code with a properties program, which has the most accurate mixture models, was developed. The CO 2 -He binary mixture shows the highest cycle efficiency increase. Unlike the CO 2 -He binary mixture, the cycle efficiencies of CO 2 -Ar, CO 2 -N 2 , and CO 2 -O 2 binary mixtures decreased compared to the pure S-CO 2 cycle. It was found that the increment of critical pressure led to a decrease in cycle operating pressure ratio which resulted in a negative effect on total cycle efficiency. In addition, the effects from changed minimum operating condition and property variations of multi-component working fluid changed the recuperated heat in the cycle which was closely related to the cycle performances.

  18. Geothermal source heat pump performance for a greenhouse heating system: an experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Sotirios Anifantis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouses play a significant function in the modern agriculture economy even if require great amount of energy for heating systems. An interesting solution to alleviate the energy costs and environmental problems may be represented by the use of geothermal energy. The aim of this paper, based on measured experimental data, such as the inside greenhouse temperature and the heat pump performance (input and output temperatures of the working fluid, electric consumption, was the evaluation of the suitability of low enthalpy geothermal heat sources for agricultural needs such as greenhouses heating. The study was carried out at the experimental farm of the University of Bari, where a greenhouse was arranged with a heating system connected to a ground-source heat pump (GSHP, which had to cover the thermal energy request. The experimental results of this survey highlight the capability of the geothermal heat source to ensue thermal conditions suitable for cultivation in greenhouses even if the compressor inside the heat pump have operated continuously in a fluctuating state without ever reaching the steady condition. Probably, to increase the performance of the heat pump and then its coefficient of performance within GSHP systems for heating greenhouses, it is important to analyse and maximise the power conductivity of the greenhouse heating system, before to design an expensive borehole ground exchanger. Nevertheless, according to the experimental data obtained, the GSHP systems are effective, efficient and environmental friendly and may be useful to supply the heating energy demand of greenhouses.

  19. Designing a mini subcritical nuclear reactor; Diseno de un mini reactor nuclear subcritico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escobedo G, C. R.; Vega C, H. R.; Davila H, V. M., E-mail: rafelaescobedo@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Jardin Juarez 147, Col. Centro, 98000 Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    In this work the design of a mini subcritical nuclear reactor formed by means of light water moderator, uranium as fuel, and isotopic neutron source of {sup 239}PuBe was carried out. The design was done by Monte Carlo methods with the code MCNP5 in which uranium was modeled in an array of concentric holes cylinders of 8.5, 14.5, 20.5, 26.5, 32.5 cm of internal radius and 3 cm of thickness, 36 cm of height. Different models were made from a single fuel cylinder (natural uranium) to five. The neutron source of {sup 239}PuBe was situated in the center of the mini reactor; in each arrangement was used water as moderator. Cross sections libraries Endf/Vi were used and the number of stories was large enough to ensure less uncertainty than 3%. For each case the effective multiplication factor k{sub e}-f{sub f}, the amplification factor and the power was calculated. Outside the mini reactor the ambient dose equivalent H (10) was calculated for different cases. The value of k{sub eff}, the amplification factor and power are directly related to the number of cylinders of uranium as fuel. Although the average energy of the neutrons {sup 239}PuBe is between 4.5 and 5 MeV in the case of the mini reactor for a cylinder, in the neutron spectrum the presence of thermal neutrons does not exist, so that produced fissions are generated with fast neutrons, and in designs of two and three rings the neutron spectra shows the presence of thermal neutrons, however the fissions are being generated with fast neutrons. Finally in the four and five cases the amount of moderator is enough to thermalized the neutrons and thereby produce the fission. The maximum value for k{sub eff} was 0.82; this value is very close to the assembly of Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas generating a k{sub eff} of 0.86. According to the safety and radiation protection standards for the design of mini reactor of one, two and three cylinders they comply with the established safety, while designs of four and five

  20. Transient thermal stress distribution in a circular pipe heated externally with a periodically moving heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özışık, Gülşah; Genç, M. Serdar; Yapıcı, Hüseyin

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the effects of periodically moving heat source on a circular steel pipe heated partly from its outer surface under stagnant ambient conditions. While the pipe is heated with this heat source applied on a certain section having a thickness of heat flux, the water flows through it to transfer heat. It is assumed that the flow is a fully-developed laminar flow. The heat source moves along from one end of the outer to the other end with a constant speed and then returns to the first end with the same speed. It is assumed that the heat transfer rate has a constant value, and that the thermo-physical properties of the steel do not change with temperature (elastic analysis). The numerical calculations have been performed individually for a wide range of thermal conductivity of steel and for different thicknesses of heat flux. The moving heat source produces the non-uniform temperature gradient and the non-uniform effective thermal stress, and when it arrives at the ends of the pipe, the temperature and effective thermal stress ratio profiles rise more excessively. The tangential component is more dominant in the effective thermal stress than the radial component. Highlights: ► Moving heat source produces non-uniform temperature gradients and thermal stresses. ► When moving heat source arrives at ends of pipe, temperature gradients rise excessively. ► With increasing of heat flux thickness and thermal conductivity, the temperature gradients reduce. ► Temperature gradients in thermal boundary layers slightly increase. ► Tangential component is more dominant in thermal stress than radial component.

  1. Sources for high frequency heating. Performance and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Gardeur, R.

    1976-01-01

    The various problems encountered in high frequency heating of plasmas can be decomposed into three spheres of action: theoretical development, antenna designing, and utilization of power sources. By classifying heating into three spectral domains, present and future needs are enumerated. Several specific antenna designs are treated. High frequency power sources are reviewed. The actual development of the gyratron is discussed in view of future needs in very high frequency heating of plasmas [fr

  2. Garrett solar Brayton engine/generator status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, B.

    1982-07-01

    The solar advanced gas turbine (SAGT-1) is being developed by the Garrett Turbine Engine Company, for use in a Brayton cycle power conversion module. The engine is derived from the advanced gas turbine (AGT101) now being developd by Garrett and Ford Motor Company for automotive use. The SAGT Program is presently funded for the design, fabrication and test of one engine at Garrett's Phoenix facility. The engine when mated with a solar receiver is called a power conversion module (PCU). The PCU is scheduled to be tested on JPL's test bed concentrator under a follow on phase of the program. Approximately 20 kw of electrical power will be generated.

  3. Exergoeconomic multi objective optimization and sensitivity analysis of a regenerative Brayton cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naserian, Mohammad Mahdi; Farahat, Said; Sarhaddi, Faramarz

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Finite time exergoeconomic multi objective optimization of a Brayton cycle. • Comparing the exergoeconomic and the ecological function optimization results. • Inserting the cost of fluid streams concept into finite-time thermodynamics. • Exergoeconomic sensitivity analysis of a regenerative Brayton cycle. • Suggesting the cycle performance curve drawing and utilization. - Abstract: In this study, the optimal performance of a regenerative Brayton cycle is sought through power maximization and then exergoeconomic optimization using finite-time thermodynamic concept and finite-size components. Optimizations are performed using genetic algorithm. In order to take into account the finite-time and finite-size concepts in current problem, a dimensionless mass-flow parameter is used deploying time variations. The decision variables for the optimum state (of multi objective exergoeconomic optimization) are compared to the maximum power state. One can see that the multi objective exergoeconomic optimization results in a better performance than that obtained with the maximum power state. The results demonstrate that system performance at optimum point of multi objective optimization yields 71% of the maximum power, but only with exergy destruction as 24% of the amount that is produced at the maximum power state and 67% lower total cost rate than that of the maximum power state. In order to assess the impact of the variation of the decision variables on the objective functions, sensitivity analysis is conducted. Finally, the cycle performance curve drawing according to exergoeconomic multi objective optimization results and its utilization, are suggested.

  4. Efficiency of the heat pump cooperating with various heat sources in monovalent and bivalent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurpaska, S.; Latala, H. [Krakow Univ. of Agriculture, Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Agricultural Engineering and Computer Science

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study that tested the efficiency of compressor heat pumps cooperating with various types of lower heat sources such as horizontal ground heat exchangers, vertical exchangers and sources operating in the bivalent system. The system for receiving energy consisted of a traditional heating system and liquid-air exchangers. The study identified a strong relationship between the heating efficiency of the analysed systems and temperature inside the structure. The study showed that the bivalent system was fully capable of meeting a heat requirement of about 1 MJ -2.

  5. Cycle Design of Reverse Brayton Cryocooler for HTS Cable Cooling Using Exergy Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sudeep Kumar; Ghosh, Parthasarathi

    2017-02-01

    The reliability and price of cryogenic refrigeration play an important role in the successful commercialization of High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables. For cooling HTS cable, sub-cooled liquid nitrogen (LN2) circulation system is used. One of the options to maintain LN2 in its sub-cooled state is by providing refrigeration with the help of Reverse Brayton Cryo-cooler (RBC). The refrigeration requirement is 10 kW for continuously sub-cooling LN2 from 72 K to 65 K for cooling 1 km length of HTS cable [1]. In this paper, a parametric evaluation of RBC for sub-cooling LN2 has been performed using helium as a process fluid. Exergy approach has been adopted for this analysis. A commercial process simulator, Aspen HYSYS® V8.6 has been used for this purpose. The critical components have been identified and their exergy destruction and exergy efficiency have been obtained for a given heat load condition.

  6. A standalone decay heat removal device for the Gas-cooled Fast Reactor for intermediate to atmospheric pressure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Epiney, A., E-mail: aaron@epiney.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland); Alpy, N., E-mail: nicolas.alpy@cea.fr [CEA, DEN, Service d' Etudes des Systemes Innovants, F-13108 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Mikityuk, K., E-mail: konstantin.mikityuk@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Chawla, R., E-mail: rakesh.chawla@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute PSI, Villigen (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-01-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An analytical model predicting Brayton cycle off-design steady states, is developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model is used to design an autonomous decay heat removal system for the GFR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Predictions of the analytical model are verified using CATHARE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CATHARE code is used to simulate a set of GFR safety depressurization transients using this device. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Convenient turbo-machine designs exist for the targeted autonomous decay heat removal for a wide pressure range. - Abstract: This paper reports a design study for a Brayton cycle machine, which would constitute a dedicated, standalone decay heat removal (DHR) device for the Generation IV Gas-cooled Fast Reactor (GFR). In comparison to the DHR reference strategy developed by the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique during the GFR pre-conceptual design phase (which was completed at the end of 2007), the salient feature of this alternative device would be to combine the energetic autonomy of the natural convection process - which is foreseen for operation at high and medium pressures - with the efficiency of the forced convection process which is foreseen for operation down to very low pressures. An analytical model, the so-called 'Brayton scoping model', is described first. This is based on simplified thermodynamic and aerodynamic equations, and was developed to highlight design choices. Two different machine designs are analyzed: a Brayton loop turbo-machine working with helium, and a second one working with nitrogen, since nitrogen is the heavy gas foreseen to be injected into the primary system to enhance the natural convection under loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) conditions. Simulations of the steady-state and transient behavior of the proposed device have then been carried out using the CATHARE code. These serve to confirm the insights obtained from usage of the

  7. Water Boiler Change-Over in Mini-TPP Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. A. Bayrashevsky

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers water boiler modernization by its change-over in mini-TPP mode with an expansion tank and a heating turbine of small capacity.  A software complex permitting to evaluate competitive ability of such water boiler modernization in comparison with a cogeneration plant.

  8. Heat pump using dual heat sources of air and water. Performance in cooling mode; Mizu kuki ryonetsugen heat pump no kenkyu. Reibo unten ni okeru seino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, S; Miura, N [Kanagawa Institute of Technology, Kanagawa (Japan); Uchikawa, Y [Kubota Corp., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    When a heat pump is used for cooling purpose, it is possible to utilize different kinds of waste water as high-heat sources. However, these heat sources would have their temperatures vary with seasons and time in a day. Therefore, a discussion was given on performance of a heat pump when water and air heat sources are used for condensers during cooling operation independently, in series and in parallel, respectively. The air condenser shows an equivalent COP as compared with the water condenser when air temperature is lower by about 8 degC than water temperature. At the same heat source temperature, the COP for the water condenser indicated a value higher by about 0.6 than the case of the air condenser. A method to use condensers in parallel experiences little contribution from the air heat source, and performance of the heat pump decreases below the case of using the water heat source independently when the air heat source temperature becomes higher than that of the water heat source. In the case of series use in which a water condenser is installed in front and an air condenser in rear, its effect is exhibited when temperature in the air heat source is lower than that in the water heat source. Better performance was shown than in operating the water heat source independently. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  9. An analysis of solar assisted ground source heat pumps in cold climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmi, Giuseppe; Zarrella, Angelo; De Carli, Michele; Galgaro, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The work focuses on solar assisted ground source heat pump in cold climates. • Multi-year simulations of SAGSHP, are carried out in six cold locations. • GSHP and SAGSHP are compared. • The effect of total borehole length on the heat pump energy efficiency is studied. • A dedicated control strategy is used to manage both solar and ground loops. - Abstract: Exploiting renewable energy sources for air-conditioning has been extensively investigated over recent years, and many countries have been working to promote the use of renewable energy to decrease energy consumption and CO_2 emissions. Electrical heat pumps currently represent the most promising technology to reduce fossil fuel usage. While ground source heat pumps, which use free heat sources, have been taking significant steps forward and despite the fact that their energy performance is better than that of air source heat pumps, their development has been limited by their high initial investment cost. An alternative solution is one that uses solar thermal collectors coupled with a ground source heat pump in a so-called solar assisted ground source heat pump. A ground source heat pump system, used to heat environments located in a cold climate, was investigated in this study. The solar assisted ground source heat pump extracted heat from the ground by means of borehole heat exchangers and it injected excess solar thermal energy into the ground. Building load profiles are usually heating dominated in cold climates, but when common ground source heat pump systems are used only for heating, their performance decreases due to an unbalanced ground load. Solar thermal collectors can help to ensure that systems installed in cold zones perform more efficiently. Computer simulations using a Transient System Simulation (TRNSYS) tool were carried out in six cold locations in order to investigate solar assisted ground source heat pumps. The effect of the borehole length on the energy efficiency of

  10. Development of a 77K Reverse-Brayton Cryocooler with Multiple Coldheads, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — RTI will design and optimize an 80 W, 77K cryocooler based on the reverse turbo Brayton cycle (RTBC) with four identical coldheads for distributed cooling. Based on...

  11. Hot Hydrogen Heat Source Development

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this project is to develop a  hot hydrogen heat source that would produce  a high temperature hydrogen flow which would be comparable to that produced...

  12. Discussion on application of water source heat pump technology to uranium mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Application of water source heat pump units in recovering waste heat from uranium mines is discussed, and several forms of waste heat recovery are introduced. The problems in the application of water source heat pump technology are analyzed. Analysis results show that the water source heat pump technology has broad application prospects in uranium mines, and it is a way to exchange existing structure of heat and cold sources in uranium mines. (authors)

  13. NERI Quarterly Progress Report -- April 1 - June 30, 2005 -- Development of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Brayton Cycle: Improving PBR Efficiency and Testing Material Compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang Oh

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this research is to improve a helium Brayton cycle and to develop a supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle for the Pebble Bed Reactor (PBR) that can also be applied to the Fast Gas-Cooled Reactor (FGR) and the Very-High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (VHTR). The proposed supercritical carbon dioxide Brayton cycle will be used to improve the PBR, FGR, and VHTR net plant efficiency. Another objective of this research is to test materials to be used in the power conversion side at supercritical carbon dioxide conditions. Generally, the optimized Brayton cycle and balance of plant (BOP) to be developed from this study can be applied to Generation-IV reactor concepts. Particularly, we are interested in VHTR because it has a good chance of being built in the near future

  14. Brayton dynamic isotope power systems update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, K.A.; Pietsch, A.; Casagrande, R.D.

    1986-01-01

    Brayton dynamic power systems are uniquely suited for space applications. They are compact and highly efficient, offer inherent reliability due to only one moving part, and utilize a single phase and inert working fluid. Additional features include gas bearings, constant speed, and operation at essentially constant temperature. The design, utilizing an inert gas working fluid and gas bearing, is unaffected by zero gravity and can be easily started and restarted in space at low temperatures. This paper describes the salient features of the BIPS as a Dynamic Isotope Power System (DIPS), summarizes the development work to date, establishes the maturity of the design, provides an update on materials technology, and reviews systems integration considerations

  15. Energy source completion for geothermal district heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popovski, Kiril

    2000-01-01

    Geothermal district heating systems differs from the others mainly in the part of energy source completion and its connection to the heat distribution systems rather known problem. Even rather known problematic in the countries where geothermal energy is in wide application, new appearances of mistakes are always present due to the fact that necessary literature is difficult to be found. Essentials of the geothermal well completion and connection of geothermal source to the district heating distribution system are summarized in the paper and several examples of geothermal projects in flow are presented. (Author)

  16. Development of the Sixty Watt Heat-Source hardware components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, D.C.; Wyder, W.C.

    1995-01-01

    The Sixty Watt Heat Source is a nonvented heat source designed to provide 60 thermal watts of power. The unit incorporates a plutonium-238 fuel pellet encapsulated in a hot isostatically pressed General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) iridium clad vent set. A molybdenum liner sleeve and support components isolate the fueled iridium clad from the T-111 strength member. This strength member serves as the pressure vessel and fulfills the impact and hydrostatic strength requirements. The shell is manufactured from Hastelloy S which prevents the internal components from being oxidized. Conventional drawing operations were used to simplify processing and utilize existing equipment. The deep drawing reqirements for the molybdenum, T-111, and Hastelloy S were developed from past heat source hardware fabrication experiences. This resulted in multiple step drawing processes with intermediate heat treatments between forming steps. The molybdenum processing included warm forming operations. This paper describes the fabrication of these components and the multiple draw tooling developed to produce hardware to the desired specifications. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  17. Coherence between institutions and technologies - The case of mini hydropower in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Crettenand, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    Switzerland, with the forecasted electricity gap between domestic production and demand, aims to significantly increase renewable energy sources including hydropower. Mini hydropower (below 1MW) currently has considerable unused technical potential. As a renewable energy source (RES) it can contribute to climate change mitigation. CO2-taxes or emission trading systems (ETS) for planned thermal power plants could help facilitate mini hydropower (MHP). The technology is mature, but requires ade...

  18. Heat transfer analysis of underground U-type heat exchanger of ground source heat pump system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Guihong; Zhang, Liyin

    2016-01-01

    Ground source heat pumps is a building energy conservation technique. The underground buried pipe heat exchanging system of a ground source heat pump (GSHP) is the basis for the normal operation of an entire heat pump system. Computational-fluid-dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation software, ANSYS-FLUENT17.0 have been performed the calculations under the working conditions of a continuous and intermittent operation over 7 days on a GSHP with a single-well, single-U and double-U heat exchanger and the impact of single-U and double-U buried heat pipes on the surrounding rock-soil temperature field and the impact of intermittent operation and continuous operation on the outlet water temperature. The influence on the rock-soil temperature is approximately 13 % higher for the double-U heat exchanger than that of the single-U heat exchanger. The extracted energy of the intermittent operation is 36.44 kw·h higher than that of the continuous mode, although the running time is lower than that of continuous mode, over the course of 7 days. The thermal interference loss and quantity of heat exchanged for unit well depths at steady-state condition of 2.5 De, 3 De, 4 De, 4.5 De, 5 De, 5.5 De and 6 De of sidetube spacing are detailed in this work. The simulation results of seven working conditions are compared. It is recommended that the side-tube spacing of double-U underground pipes shall be greater than or equal to five times of outer diameter (borehole diameter: 180 mm).

  19. A feasible system integrating combined heating and power system with ground-source heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, HongQiang; Kang, ShuShuo; Yu, Zhun; Cai, Bo; Zhang, GuoQiang

    2014-01-01

    A system integrating CHP (combined heating and power) subsystem based on natural gas and GSHP (ground-source heat pump subsystem) in series is proposed. By help of simulation software-Aspen Plus, the energy performance of a typical CHP and GSHP-S (S refers to ‘in series’) system was analyzed. The results show that the system can make a better use of waste heat in flue gas from CHP (combined heating and power subsystem). The total system energy efficiency is 123% and the COP (coefficient of performance) of GSHP (ground-source heat pump) subsystem is 5.3. A referenced CHP and GSHP-P (P refers to ‘in parallel’) system is used for comparison; its total system energy efficiency and COP of GSHP subsystem are 118.6% and 3.5 respectively. Compared with CHP and GSHP-P system with different operating parameters, the CHP and GSHP-S system can increase total system energy efficiency by 0.8–34.7%, with related output ratio of heat to power (R) from 1.9 to 18.3. Furthermore, the COP of GSHP subsystem can be increased between the range 3.6 and 6, which is much higher than that in conventional CHP and GSHP-P system. This study will be helpful for other efficient GSHP systems integrating if there is waste heat or other heat resources with low temperature. - Highlights: • CHP system based on natural gas and ground source heat pump. • The new system can make a better utilization of waste heat in flue gas by a special way. • The proposed system can realize energy saving potential from 0.8 to 34.7%. • The coefficient of performance of ground source heat pump subsystem is significantly improved from 3.5 to 3.6–6. • Warm water temperature and percentage of flue gas used to reheat are key parameters

  20. Heat transfer within a concrete slab with a finite microwave heating source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagos, L.E.; Li, W.; Ebadian, M.A.; Grubb, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    In the present paper, the concrete decontamination and decommissioning process with a finite microwave heating source is investigated theoretically. For the microwave induced heating pattern, a multilayer concrete slab, which includes steel reinforcement mesh, is assumed to be exposed to a finite plane microwave source at normal incidence. Two-dimensional heat transport within the concrete is also considered to evaluate the variations of temperature with heating time at different frequencies with and without the presence of the reinforcement bars. Four commonly used industrial microwave frequencies of 0.896, 2.45, 10.6 and 18.0 GHz have been selected. The results revealed that as the microwave frequency increases to, or higher than 10.6 GHz, the maximum temperature shifts toward the front surface of the concrete. It was found that the presence of a steel reinforcement mesh causes part of the microwave energy to be blocked and reflected. Furthermore, it was observed that the temperature distribution is nearly uniform within the dimensions of the microwave applicator for a high microwave power intensity and a short heating time. (author)

  1. Research on the Development of the Supercritical CO{sub 2} Dual Brayton Cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Young-Jin; Na, Sun Ik; Cho, Junhyun; Shin, Hyung-Ki; Lee, Gilbong [Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER), Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Because of the growing interest in supercritical carbon dioxide power cycle technology owing to its potential enhancement in compactness and efficiency, supercritical carbon dioxide cycles have been studied in the fields of nuclear power, concentrated solar power (CSP), and fossil fuel power generation. This study introduces the current status of the research project on the supercritical carbon dioxide power cycle by Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER). During the first phase of the project, the un-recuperated supercritical Brayton cycle test loop was built and tested. In phase two, researchers are designing and building a supercritical carbon dioxide dual Brayton cycle, which utilizes two turbines and two recuperators. Under the simulation condition considered in this study, it was confirmed that the design parameter has an optimal value for maximizing the net power in the supercritical carbon dioxide dual cycle.

  2. Design of serially connected ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pumps for district heating with the utilisation of a geothermal heat source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Kjær; Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix

    2016-01-01

    District heating (DH) can reduce the primary energy consumption in urban areas with significant heat demands. The design of a serially connected ammonia-water hybrid absorption-compression heat pump system was investigated for operation in the Greater Copenhagen DH network in Denmark, in order...... to supply 7.2 MW heat at 85 °C utilizing a geothermal heat source at 73 °C. Both the heat source and heat sink experience a large temperature change over the heat transfer process, of which a significant part may be achieved by direct heat exchange. First a generic study with a simple representation...

  3. Balance-of-plant options for the Heat-Pipe Power System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berte, M.; Capell, B.

    1997-09-01

    The Heat-Pipe Power System (HPS) is a near-term, low-cost space fission power system with the potential for utilizing various option for balance-of-plant options. The following options have been studied: a low-power thermoelectric design (14-kWe output), a small Brayton cycle system (60--75 kWe), and a large Brayton cycle system (250 kWe). These systems were analyzed on a preliminary basis, including mass, volume, and structure calculations. These analyses have shown that the HPS system can provide power outputs from 10--250 kWe with specific powers of ∼ 14 W/kg for a 14-kWe model to ∼ 100 W/kg for a 250-kWe model. The system designs considered in this study utilize a common component base to permit easy expansion and development

  4. Enhanced heat sink with geometry induced wall-jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Md. Mahamudul, E-mail: sohel0991@gmail.com; Tikadar, Amitav; Bari, Fazlul; Morshed, A. K. M. M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000. Bangladesh (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    Mini-channels embedded in solid matrix have already proven to be a very efficient way of electronic cooling. Traditional mini-channel heat sinks consist of single layer of parallel channels. Although mini-channel heat sink can achieve very high heat flux, its pumping requirement for circulating liquid through the channel increase very sharply as the flow velocity increases. The pumping requirements of the heat sink can be reduced by increasing its performance. In this paper a novel approach to increase the thermal performance of the mini-channel heat sink is proposed through geometry induced wall jet which is a passive technique. Geometric irregularities along the channel length causes abrupt pressure change between the channels which causes cross flow through the interconnections thus one channel faces suction and other channel jet action. This suction and jet action disrupts boundary layer causing enhanced heat transfer performance. A CFD model has been developed using commercially available software package FLUENT to evaluate the technique. A parametric study of the velocities and the effect of the position of the wall-jets have been performed. Significant reduction in thermal resistance has been observed for wall-jets, it is also observed that this reduction in thermal resistance is dependent on the position and shape of the wall jet.

  5. Analisis Sumber dan Penggunaan Modal Kerja pada Mini Market Pelangi Jambi

    OpenAIRE

    Sopini, Pupu; Trifani, Chairani Yuli

    2017-01-01

    The working capital having nature of flexible, big or small working capital can be added or reduced in accordance with need company. Control working capital that will exactly ensure of continuity the operations firm efficien and economical. The objective of analyze sources and use working capital to how working capital used. Research objectives: 1) to know the sources and the use of capital work At Mini Market Pelangi Period 2012-2016. 2) to analyze the use of capital work At Mini Market Pel...

  6. Soil temperature distribution around a U-tube heat exchanger in a multi-function ground source heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shuhong; Yang Weihua; Zhang Xiaosong

    2009-01-01

    The imbalance of heat extracted from the earth by the underground heat exchangers in winter and ejected into it in summer is expected to affect the long term performance of conventional ground source heat pump (GSHP) in territories with a cold winter and a warm summer such as the middle and downstream areas of the Yangtze River in China. This paper presents a new multi-function ground source heat pump (MFGSHP) system which supplies hot water as well as space cooling/heating to mitigate the soil imbalance of the extracted and ejected heat by a ground source heat pump system. The heat transfer characteristic is studied and the soil temperature around the underground heat exchangers are simulated under a typical climatic condition of the Yangtze River. A three-dimensional model was constructed with the commercial computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT based on the inner heat source theory. Temperature distribution and variation trend of a tube cluster of the underground heat exchanger are simulated for the long term performance. The results show that the soil temperature around the underground tube keeps increasing due to the surplus heat ejected into the earth in summer, which deteriorates the system performance and may lead to the eventual system deterioration. The simulation shows that MFGSHP can effectively alleviate the temperature rise by balancing the heat ejected to/extracted from underground by the conventional ground source heat pump system. The new system also improves the energy efficiency.

  7. Heat transfer from the moving heat source of arbitrary shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fomin, Sergei A.

    2000-01-01

    The present research is related to contact melting by a moving heat source of arbitrary shape. Heat conduction in the melting material is governed by 3D differential equation, where the thermal conductivity of the surrounding material is assumed to be strongly temperature dependent. By using the Green's formula, the boundary-value problem is converted to the boundary integral equation. This non-linear equation is solved numerically by interactions utilizing the boundary element method. Different shapes of heat sources are investigated. Since the obtained integral equation is the Fredholm type equation of the first kind and belongs to the family of so-called ill-posed problems, therefore, supplementary computations, that verify the stability of numerical algorithm, are provided. For the special cases associated with thermodrilling technology, some analytical estimations and solutions are obtained. Particularly, if the melting velocity is high (Pe>10), asymptotic solutions are found. In this case the integral equation is significantly reduced, that simplifies the computations. Numerical results are in good agreement with the closed-form solutions available for the elliptical shape of a solid-liquid interface. (author)

  8. Experimental study of heat transfer in a heat exchanger with rectangular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammami, Mahmoud; Ben Said, Akrem; Ben Maad, Rejeb; Rebay, Mourad

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study related to characterisation of a mini channel heat exchanger. Such heat exchanger may be used in water cooling of electronic components. The results obtained show the efficiency of this exchanger even with very low water flow rates. Indeed, in spite of the importance of the extracted heat fluxes which can reach about 50Kw/m 2 , the temperature of the cooled Aluminium bloc remained always lower than the tolerated threshold of 80 degree in electronic cooling. Moreover, several thermal characteristics such as equivalent thermal resistance of the exchanger, the average internal convective heat transfer coefficient and the increase in the temperature of the cooling water have been measured. The results presented have been obtained with in q uinconce r ectangular mini-channel heat exchanger, with a hydraulic diameter D h = 2mm. NOMENCLATURE h D Hydraulic diameter (mm). int

  9. Experimental study on local heat transfer characteristics of porous media with internal heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zan Yuanfeng; Wang Taotao; Xiao Zejun; Wang Fei; Huang Yanping

    2008-01-01

    Model of porous media with internal heat source is established. The model uses water as flowing media, and the stainless steel test section is packed with steel spheres in manner of regular triangle, respectively. The armoured resistance wire is inserted inside the steel sphere. On the basis of the experimental model, many parameters of the local heat transfer characteristics including current velocity and wall temperature of steel sphere are measured. The experimental results show that the coefficient of heat transfer scarcely changes with pressure. The coefficient of heat transfer increases with the surface heat flux of steel sphere. When raising the inlet temperature of the cooling water, the coefficient of heat transfer presents the descending trend. In addition, the influence of entrance effect on heat transfer is discovered in the experiment, which is much less than the liquid flow in the light tube. After experiment data are analyzed and processed, the relation model of heat transfer on local heat transfer characteristic of porous media with internal heat source was described with a power-law-equation. The deviations between calculation and experimental values are within ±10%. (authors)

  10. Feasibility analysis of geothermal district heating for Lakeview, Oregon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-23

    An analysis of the geothermal resource at Lakeview, Oregon, indicates that a substantial resource exists in the area capable of supporting extensive residential, commercial and industrial heat loads. Good resource productivity is expected with water temperatures of 200{degrees}F at depths of 600 to 3000 feet in the immediate vicinity of the town. Preliminary district heating system designs were developed for a Base Case serving 1170 homes, 119 commercial and municipal buildings, and a new alcohol fuel production facility; a second design was prepared for a downtown Mini-district case with 50 commercial users and the alcohol plant. Capital and operating costs were determined for both cases. Initial development of the Lakeview system has involved conducting user surveys, well tests, determinations of institutional requirements, system designs, and project feasibility analyses. A preferred approach for development will be to establish the downtown Mini-district and, as experience and acceptance are obtained, to expand the system to other areas of town. Projected energy costs for the Mini-district are $10.30 per million Btu while those for the larger Base Case design are $8.20 per million Btu. These costs are competitive with costs for existing sources of energy in the Lakeview area.

  11. Flat Miniature Heat Pipes for Electronics Cooling: State of the Art, Experimental and Theoretical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Zaghdoudi; S. Maalej; J. Mansouri; M.B.H. Sassi

    2011-01-01

    An experimental study is realized in order to verify the Mini Heat Pipe (MHP) concept for cooling high power dissipation electronic components and determines the potential advantages of constructing mini channels as an integrated part of a flat heat pipe. A Flat Mini Heat Pipe (FMHP) prototype including a capillary structure composed of parallel rectangular microchannels is manufactured and a filling apparatus is developed in order to charge the FMHP. The heat transfer im...

  12. Post-evaluation of a ground source heat pump system for residential space heating in Shanghai China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Y.; Tan, H. W.; Wang, L. Z.

    2017-11-01

    Residents of Southern China are increasingly concerned about the space heating in winter. The chief aim of the present work is to find a cost-effective way for residential space heating in Shanghai, one of the biggest city in south China. Economic and energy efficiency of three residential space heating ways, including ground source heat pump (GSHP), air source heat pump (ASHP) and wall-hung gas boiler (WHGB), are assessed based on Long-term measured data. The results show that the heat consumption of the building is 120 kWh/m2/y during the heating season, and the seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) of the GSHP, ASHP and WHGB systems are 3.27, 2.30, 0.88 respectively. Compared to ASHP and WHGB, energy savings of GSHP during the heating season are 6.2 kgce/(m2.y) and 2.2 kgce/(m2.y), and the payback period of GSHP are 13.3 and 7.6 years respectively. The sensitivity analysis of various factors that affect the payback period is carried out, and the results suggest that SEER is the most critical factor affecting the feasibility of ground source heat pump application, followed by building load factor and energy price factor. These findings of the research have led the author to the conclusion that ground source heat pump for residential space heating in Shanghai is a good alternative, which can achieve significant energy saving benefits, and a good system design and operation management are key factors that can shorten the payback period.

  13. A Study on Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis of Reactor Vessel including Irradiated Structural Heat Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Kunwoo; Cho, Hyuksu; Im, Inyoung; Kim, Eunkee [KEPCO EnC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Though Material reliability programs (MRPs) have a purpose to provide the evaluation or management methodologies for the operating RVI, the similar evaluation methodologies can be applied to the APR1400 fleet in the design stage for the evaluation of neutron irradiation effects. The purposes of this study are: to predict the thermal behavior whether or not irradiated structure heat source; to evaluate effective thermal conductivity (ETC) in relation to isotropic and anisotropic conductivity of porous media for APR1400 Reactor Vessel. The CFD simulations are performed so as to evaluate thermal behavior whether or not irradiated structure heat source and effective thermal conductivity for APR1400 Reactor Vessel. In respective of using irradiated structure heat source, the maximum temperature of fluid and core shroud for isotropic ETC are 325.8 .deg. C, 341.5 .deg. C. The total amount of irradiated structure heat source is about 5.41 MWth and not effect to fluid temperature.

  14. Optimum load distribution between heat sources based on the Cournot model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penkovskii, A. V.; Stennikov, V. A.; Khamisov, O. V.

    2015-08-01

    One of the widespread models of the heat supply of consumers, which is represented in the "Single buyer" format, is considered. The methodological base proposed for its description and investigation presents the use of principles of the theory of games, basic propositions of microeconomics, and models and methods of the theory of hydraulic circuits. The original mathematical model of the heat supply system operating under conditions of the "Single buyer" organizational structure provides the derivation of a solution satisfying the market Nash equilibrium. The distinctive feature of the developed mathematical model is that, along with problems solved traditionally within the bounds of bilateral relations of heat energy sources-heat consumer, it considers a network component with its inherent physicotechnical properties of the heat network and business factors connected with costs of the production and transportation of heat energy. This approach gives the possibility to determine optimum levels of load of heat energy sources. These levels provide the given heat energy demand of consumers subject to the maximum profit earning of heat energy sources and the fulfillment of conditions for formation of minimum heat network costs for a specified time. The practical realization of the search of market equilibrium is considered by the example of a heat supply system with two heat energy sources operating on integrated heat networks. The mathematical approach to the solution search is represented in the graphical form and illustrates computations based on the stepwise iteration procedure for optimization of levels of loading of heat energy sources (groping procedure by Cournot) with the corresponding computation of the heat energy price for consumers.

  15. Heat sources for heat pumps in the energetic and economic comparison; Waermequellen fuer Waermepumpen im energetischen und wirtschaftlichen Vergleich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bockelmann, Franziska; Fisch, M. Norbert; Schlosser, Mathias; Peter, Markus [Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Gebaeude- und Solartechnik

    2016-07-01

    Because of the growing application of heat pumps also the number of potentially usable low-temperature heat sources and corresponding heat exchangers for heat-pump systems present in the market increases. Thereby products like energy fences, high-power piles, ore ice reservoir come into applications without any knowledge ab out their power or the cost-profit ratio. The optimized lay-out of the coupling to the building are however essential conditions in order to reach an energy-efficient and durable operation of the facilities. The research project ''future heat pump'' sponsored by the BMWi is dedicated to the energetic and economic evaluation of heat sources for heat pumps. In this connection a pre-check-tool for the preliminary selection of low-temperature heat sources and connected, suitable heat-exchange systems is developed and their actual status of development presented. The holistic, comparing consideration of the different heat sources and heat-exchanger systems is related among others to the power numbers of the heat pumps, the entry and withdrawal services of the heat-exchangers, and the general performance of the systems. Additionally an estimation of economic and ecologic aspects (investment and operation costs, CO{sub 2} emissions) is made. Aim is the determination of the plausibility of applications and essential boundary conditions of single source systems. For the qualitative comparison in a project-accompanying monitoring different facilities and source systems are measurement-technically comprehended.

  16. Biological effects of intracorporeal radioisotope heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillis, M.F.; Decker, J.R.; Karagianes, M.T.

    1976-01-01

    A surface heat flux of 0.04 watts/cm 2 from a retroperitoneal implant with healthy surface ingrowth of tissue prior to generation of heat is intolerable, producing gross tissue necrosis. Percutaneous cooling of hot implants during the post-operative healing period is a feasible technique, but our current plutonium heat source implant design has been proven of inadequate size and a new design is described. Rough calculations based on tissue conductivity and conductance values suggest that even with this larger device, added heat to proximate tissues may produce long-term changes even though the heat burden may be tolerable over relatively short periods

  17. General Purpose Heat Source Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, Bill

    2008-01-01

    The General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) simulator project is designed to replicate through the use of electrical heaters, the form, fit, and function of actual GPHS modules which generate heat through the radioactive decay of Pu238. The use of electrically heated modules rather than modules containing Pu238 facilitates the testing of spacecraft subsystems and systems without sacrificing the quantity and quality of the test data gathered. Previous GPHS activities are centered around developing robust heater designs with sizes and weights that closely matched those of actual Pu238 fueled GPHS blocks. These efforts were successful, although their maximum temperature capabilities were limited to around 850 C. New designs are being pursued which also replicate the sizes and weights of actual Pu238 fueled GPHS blocks but will allow operation up to 1100 C.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Gaseous Reaction Products from Na-CO{sub 2} Reaction in Na/CO{sub 2} Heat Exchanger leakage scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Go, A-Reum; Jung, Hwa-Young; Kim, Min Seok; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Jaehong; Wi, Myung-Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The SFRs have operated with the steam Rankine cycle as a power conversion system. However, the potential sodium-water reaction (SWR) whose chemical reactivity is vigorous and instantaneous has been one of the major issues concerning the safety and integrity of the SFRs. In order to avoid SWR, supercritical CO{sub 2}(S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycles have been investigated recently. Compared to conventional steam Rankine cycles, S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle features higher thermal efficiency and potential compactness of its required equipment. In spite of the superiority of S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle, there is a potential reactive process between sodium and CO{sub 2} if the pressure boundary fails in the sodium-CO{sub 2} heat exchanger. The leakage scenario which could lead to mechanical and thermal problems should be evaluated. Previous studies have reported the following major reaction formulas. Each reaction occurs competitively. In this paper, the experimental setup to observe the pressure variation and CO concentration in Na-CO{sub 2} heat exchanger during the CO{sub 2} leak is explained. Before the experiment is carried out, water-CO{sub 2} mock-up test will be performed. In order to evaluate the leakage scenario in Na-CO{sub 2} heat exchanger more accurately, this study will be important for guaranteeing the system of SFR coupled with S-CO{sub 2} cycle.

  19. Variable electricity and steam from salt, helium and sodium cooled base-load reactors with gas turbines and heat storage - 15115

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsberg, C.; McDaniel, P.; Zohuri, B.

    2015-01-01

    Advances in utility natural-gas-fired air-Brayton combed cycle technology is creating the option of coupling salt-, helium-, and sodium-cooled nuclear reactors to Nuclear air-Brayton Combined Cycle (NACC) power systems. NACC may enable a zero-carbon electricity grid and improve nuclear power economics by enabling variable electricity output with base-load nuclear reactor operations. Variable electricity output enables selling more electricity at times of high prices that increases plant revenue. Peak power is achieved using stored heat or auxiliary fuel (natural gas, bio-fuels, hydrogen). A typical NACC cycle includes air compression, heating compressed air using nuclear heat and a heat exchanger, sending air through a turbine to produce electricity, reheating compressed air, sending air through a second turbine, and exhausting to a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG). In the HRSG, warm air produces steam that is used to produce added electricity. For peak power production, auxiliary heat (natural gas, stored heat) is added before the air enters the second turbine to raise air temperatures and power output. Like all combined cycle plants, water cooling requirements are dramatically reduced relative to other power cycles because much of the heat rejection is in the form of hot air. (authors)

  20. Self-Heating Effects In Polysilicon Source Gated Transistors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporea, R. A.; Burridge, T.; Silva, S. R. P.

    2015-01-01

    Source-gated transistors (SGTs) are thin-film devices which rely on a potential barrier at the source to achieve high gain, tolerance to fabrication variability, and low series voltage drop, relevant to a multitude of energy-efficient, large-area, cost effective applications. The current through the reverse-biased source barrier has a potentially high positive temperature coefficient, which may lead to undesirable thermal runaway effects and even device failure through self-heating. Using numerical simulations we show that, even in highly thermally-confined scenarios and at high current levels, self-heating is insufficient to compromise device integrity. Performance is minimally affected through a modest increase in output conductance, which may limit the maximum attainable gain. Measurements on polysilicon devices confirm the simulated results, with even smaller penalties in performance, largely due to improved heat dissipation through metal contacts. We conclude that SGTs can be reliably used for high gain, power efficient analog and digital circuits without significant performance impact due to self-heating. This further demonstrates the robustness of SGTs. PMID:26351099

  1. Thermodynamic analysis and preliminary design of closed Brayton cycle using nitrogen as working fluid and coupled to small modular Sodium-cooled fast reactor (SM-SFR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olumayegun, Olumide; Wang, Meihong; Kelsall, Greg

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Nitrogen closed Brayton cycle for small modular sodium-cooled fast reactor studied. • Thermodynamic modelling and analysis of closed Brayton cycle performed. • Two-shaft configuration proposed and performance compared to single shaft. • Preliminary design of heat exchangers and turbomachinery carried out. - Abstract: Sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) is considered the most promising of the Generation IV reactors for their near-term demonstration of power generation. Small modular SFRs (SM-SFRs) have less investment risk, can be deployed more quickly, are easier to operate and are more flexible in comparison to large nuclear reactor. Currently, SFRs use the proven Rankine steam cycle as the power conversion system. However, a key challenge is to prevent dangerous sodium-water reaction that could happen in SFR coupled to steam cycle. Nitrogen gas is inert and does not react with sodium. Hence, intercooled closed Brayton cycle (CBC) using nitrogen as working fluid and with a single shaft configuration has been one common power conversion system option for possible near-term demonstration of SFR. In this work, a new two shaft nitrogen CBC with parallel turbines was proposed to further simplify the design of the turbomachinery and reduce turbomachinery size without compromising the cycle efficiency. Furthermore, thermodynamic performance analysis and preliminary design of components were carried out in comparison with a reference single shaft nitrogen cycle. Mathematical models in Matlab were developed for steady state thermodynamic analysis of the cycles and for preliminary design of the heat exchangers, turbines and compressors. Studies were performed to investigate the impact of the recuperator minimum terminal temperature difference (TTD) on the overall cycle efficiency and recuperator size. The effect of turbomachinery efficiencies on the overall cycle efficiency was examined. The results showed that the cycle efficiency of the proposed

  2. EFFECT OF THE TYPE OF HEAT SOURCES ON CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sławomir Rabczak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A lot of attention is nowadays devoted to the problem of generally defined ecology. It is absolutely essential in case of systems and sources generating heat due to their direct influence on the environment through emitting post-process products to the atmosphere which are, most frequently a result of combustion. Therefore, constant searchers are made to optimize the operation of heat sources and to acquire energy from sources for which the general balance of carbon dioxide emission is zero or close to zero. This work compares the emissions of equivalent CO2 from selected systems with the following heat sources: coal, gas furnace, heat pump, and refers results of the analysis to aspects connected with regulations concerning environmental protection. The systems generating thermal energy in the gas furnaces, coal, biomass, as well as the compression heat pumps with the lower heat source as ambient air or ground were taken under consideration, as well as centralized systems for the production of heat based on the combustion of coal, gas, oil, and biomass. the Emission of carbon dioxide for the installation of cogeneration and absorption heat pump were also calculated. Similarly obtained amount of extra emission necessary for the proper operation maintenance of heating devices via the supplied electricity from external source, the mostly fuel-fired power plants for fuels as previously mentioned. The results of the calculations were presented in tables and graphs.

  3. Hybrid district heating system with heat supply from nuclear source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havelka, Z.; Petrovsky, I.

    1987-01-01

    Several designs are described of heat supply from large remote power sources (e.g., WWER-1000 nuclear power plants with a 1000 MW turbine) to localities where mainly steam distribution networks have been built but only some or none networks for hot water distribution. The benefits of the designs stem from the fact that they do not require the conversion of the local steam distribution system to a hot water system. They are based on heat supply from the nuclear power plant to the consumer area in hot water of a temperature of 150 degC to 200 degC. Part of the hot water heat will be used for the production of low-pressure steam which will be compressed using heat pumps (steam compressors) to achieve the desired steam distribution network specifications. Water of lower temperature can be used in the hot water network. The hot water feeder forms an automatic pressure safety barrier in heat supply of heating or technological steam from a nuclear installation. (Z.M.). 5 figs., 9 refs

  4. A thermoacoustic engine capable of utilizing multi-temperature heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qiu Limin; Wang Bo; Sun Daming; Liu Yu; Steiner, Ted

    2009-01-01

    Low-grade energy is widespread. However, it cannot be utilized with high thermal efficiency directly. Following the principle of thermal energy cascade utilization, a thermoacoustic engine (TE) with a new regenerator that can be driven by multiple heat sources at different temperature levels is proposed. Taking a regenerator that utilizes heat sources at two temperatures as an example, theoretical research has been conducted on a traveling-wave TE with the new regenerator to predict its performance. Experimental verification is also done to demonstrate the benefits of the new regenerator. Results indicate that a TE with the new regenerator utilizing additional heat at a lower temperature experiences an increase in pressure ratio, acoustic power, efficiency, and exergy efficiency with proper heat input at an appropriate temperature at the mid-heater. A regenerator that uses multi-temperature heat sources can provide a means of recovering lower grade heat.

  5. Neutrinos from the NuMI beamline in the MiniBooNE detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, Alexis A.

    2006-01-01

    With the startup of the NuMI beamline early in 2005, the MiniBooNE detector has the unique opportunity to be the first user of an off-axis neutrino beam (110 mrad off-axis). MiniBooNE is assembling a rich sample of neutrino interactions from this source

  6. Experimental Research of a Water-Source Heat Pump Water Heater System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongchao Zhao

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The heat pump water heater (HPWH, as a portion of the eco-friendly technologies using renewable energy, has been applied for years in developed countries. Air-source heat pump water heaters and solar-assisted heat pump water heaters have been widely applied and have become more and more popular because of their comparatively higher energy efficiency and environmental protection. Besides use of the above resources, the heat pump water heater system can also adequately utilize an available water source. In order to study the thermal performance of the water-source heat pump water heater (WSHPWH system, an experimental prototype using the cyclic heating mode was established. The heating performance of the water-source heat pump water heater system, which was affected by the difference between evaporator water fluxes, was investigated. The water temperature unfavorably exceeded 55 °C when the experimental prototype was used for heating; otherwise, the compressor discharge pressure was close to the maximum discharge temperature, which resulted in system instability. The evaporator water flux allowed this system to function satisfactorily. It is necessary to reduce the exergy loss of the condenser to improve the energy utilization of the system.

  7. The BaBar Mini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, David N.

    2003-01-01

    BaBar has recently deployed a new event data format referred to as the Mini. The mini uses efficient packing and aggressive noise suppression to represent the average reconstructed BaBar event in under 7 KBytes. The Mini packs detector information into simple transient data objects, which are then aggregated into roughly 10 composite persistent objects per event. The Mini currently uses Objectivity persistence, and it is being ported to use Root persistence. The Mini contains enough information to support detailed detector studies, while remaining small and fast enough to be used directly in physics analysis. Mini output is customizable, allowing users to both truncate unnecessary content or add content, depending on their needs. The Mini has now replaced three older formats as the primary output of BaBar event reconstruction. A reduced form of the Mini will soon replace the physics analysis format as well, giving BaBar a single, flexible event data format covering all its needs

  8. The BaBar mini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, David N.; BaBar Collaboration

    2003-01-01

    BaBar has recently deployed a new event data format referred to as the Mini. The mini uses efficient packing and aggressive noise suppression to represent the average reconstructed BaBar event in under 7 KBytes. The Mini packs detector information into simple transient data objects, which are then aggregated into roughly 10 composite persistent objects per event. The Mini currently uses Objectivity persistence, and it is being ported to use Root persistence. The Mini contains enough information to support detailed detector studies, while remaining small and fast enough to be used directly in physics analysis. Mini output is customizable, allowing users to both truncate unnecessary content or add content, depending on their needs. The Mini has now replaced three older formats as the primary output of BaBar event reconstruction. A reduced form of the Mini will soon replace the physics analysis format as well, giving BaBar a single, flexible event data format covering all its needs

  9. Hoosac tunnel geothermal heat source. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-10

    The Hoosac Rail Tunnel has been analyzed as a central element in a district heating system for the City of North Adams. The tunnel has been viewed as a collector of the earth's geothermal heat and a seasonal heat storage facility with heat piped to the tunnel in summer from existing facilities at a distance. Heated fluid would be transported in winter from the tunnel to users who would boost the temperature with individual heat pumps. It was concluded the tunnel is a poor source of geothermal heat. The maximum extractable energy is only 2200 million BTU (20000 gallons of oil) at 58/sup 0/F. The tunnel is a poor heat storage facility. The rock conductivity is so high that 75% of the heat injected would escape into the mountain before it could be recaptured for use. A low temperature system, with individual heat pumps for temperature boost could be economically attractive if a low cost fuel (byproduct, solid waste, cogeneration) or a cost effective seasonal heat storage were available.

  10. A virtual photon source model of an Elekta linear accelerator with integrated mini MLC for Monte Carlo based IMRT dose calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, M; Dohm, O; Alber, M

    2007-08-07

    A dedicated, efficient Monte Carlo (MC) accelerator head model for intensity modulated stereotactic radiosurgery treatment planning is needed to afford a highly accurate simulation of tiny IMRT fields. A virtual source model (VSM) of a mini multi-leaf collimator (MLC) (the Elekta Beam Modulator (EBM)) is presented, allowing efficient generation of particles even for small fields. The VSM of the EBM is based on a previously published virtual photon energy fluence model (VEF) (Fippel et al 2003 Med. Phys. 30 301) commissioned with large field measurements in air and in water. The original commissioning procedure of the VEF, based on large field measurements only, leads to inaccuracies for small fields. In order to improve the VSM, it was necessary to change the VEF model by developing (1) a method to determine the primary photon source diameter, relevant for output factor calculations, (2) a model of the influence of the flattening filter on the secondary photon spectrum and (3) a more realistic primary photon spectrum. The VSM model is used to generate the source phase space data above the mini-MLC. Later the particles are transmitted through the mini-MLC by a passive filter function which significantly speeds up the time of generation of the phase space data after the mini-MLC, used for calculation of the dose distribution in the patient. The improved VSM model was commissioned for 6 and 15 MV beams. The results of MC simulation are in very good agreement with measurements. Less than 2% of local difference between the MC simulation and the diamond detector measurement of the output factors in water was achieved. The X, Y and Z profiles measured in water with an ion chamber (V = 0.125 cm(3)) and a diamond detector were used to validate the models. An overall agreement of 2%/2 mm for high dose regions and 3%/2 mm in low dose regions between measurement and MC simulation for field sizes from 0.8 x 0.8 cm(2) to 16 x 21 cm(2) was achieved. An IMRT plan film verification

  11. Conjugated heat transfer of natural convection in pool with internal heat sources and convection in the tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Longjian; Liu Hongtao; Cui Wenzhi

    2007-01-01

    The conjugated heat transfer of natural convection in pool with internal heat source and the forced convection in the tube was analyzed, and the corresponding three-dimensional physical and mathematical model was proposed. A control volume based finite element method was employed to solve numerically the problem. The computations were performed for different internal heat source intensity of the pool and the different flow velocity in the tube. The computed heat transfer coefficients on the inner and outer wall showed well consistency of those calculated with the empirical correlations. Compared with the measured total heat transfer coefficients between the fluids in and out of the tube, the computed ones showed also the well consistency, which implied that the numerical model proposed in this paper was reliable. The research results revealed that the total heat transfer coefficients between the fluids were strongly affected by the internal heat source intensity of the pool liquid and the flow velocity in the tube. (authors)

  12. Heat-electricity convertion systems for a Brazilian space micro nuclear reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Marcelino, Natalia B.; Placco, Guilherme M.; Nascimento, Jamil A.; Borges, Eduardo M., E-mail: guimarae@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: lamartine.guimaraes@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: jamil@ieav.cta.br, E-mail: jalnsgf@outlook.com, E-mail: borges.em@hotmail.com, E-mail: ecorborges@hotmail.com, E-mail: ivayolini@gmail.com, E-mail: guilherme_placco@ig.com.br [Instituto de Estudos Avancados (IEAv/DCTA), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Barrios Junior, Ary Garcia, E-mail: arygarcia89@yahoo.com [Faculdade de Tecnologia Sao Francisco (FATESF), Jacarei, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This contribution will discuss the evolution work in the development of thermal cycles to allow the development of heat-electricity conversion for the Brazilian space micro nuclear Reactor. Namely, innovative core and nuclear fuel elements, Brayton cycle, Stirling engine, heat pipes, passive multi-fluid turbine, among others. This work is basically to set up the experimental labs that will allow the specification and design of the space equipment. Also, some discussion of the cost so far, and possible other applications will be presented. (author)

  13. Heat-electricity convertion systems for a Brazilian space micro nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guimaraes, Lamartine N.F.; Marcelino, Natalia B.; Placco, Guilherme M.; Nascimento, Jamil A.; Borges, Eduardo M.; Barrios Junior, Ary Garcia

    2013-01-01

    This contribution will discuss the evolution work in the development of thermal cycles to allow the development of heat-electricity conversion for the Brazilian space micro nuclear Reactor. Namely, innovative core and nuclear fuel elements, Brayton cycle, Stirling engine, heat pipes, passive multi-fluid turbine, among others. This work is basically to set up the experimental labs that will allow the specification and design of the space equipment. Also, some discussion of the cost so far, and possible other applications will be presented. (author)

  14. Designing a mini subcritical nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobedo G, C. R.; Vega C, H. R.; Davila H, V. M.

    2015-10-01

    In this work the design of a mini subcritical nuclear reactor formed by means of light water moderator, uranium as fuel, and isotopic neutron source of 239 PuBe was carried out. The design was done by Monte Carlo methods with the code MCNP5 in which uranium was modeled in an array of concentric holes cylinders of 8.5, 14.5, 20.5, 26.5, 32.5 cm of internal radius and 3 cm of thickness, 36 cm of height. Different models were made from a single fuel cylinder (natural uranium) to five. The neutron source of 239 PuBe was situated in the center of the mini reactor; in each arrangement was used water as moderator. Cross sections libraries Endf/Vi were used and the number of stories was large enough to ensure less uncertainty than 3%. For each case the effective multiplication factor k e -f f , the amplification factor and the power was calculated. Outside the mini reactor the ambient dose equivalent H (10) was calculated for different cases. The value of k eff , the amplification factor and power are directly related to the number of cylinders of uranium as fuel. Although the average energy of the neutrons 239 PuBe is between 4.5 and 5 MeV in the case of the mini reactor for a cylinder, in the neutron spectrum the presence of thermal neutrons does not exist, so that produced fissions are generated with fast neutrons, and in designs of two and three rings the neutron spectra shows the presence of thermal neutrons, however the fissions are being generated with fast neutrons. Finally in the four and five cases the amount of moderator is enough to thermalized the neutrons and thereby produce the fission. The maximum value for k eff was 0.82; this value is very close to the assembly of Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas generating a k eff of 0.86. According to the safety and radiation protection standards for the design of mini reactor of one, two and three cylinders they comply with the established safety, while designs of four and five cylinders not met. (Author)

  15. Experimental Study of the Performance of Air Source Heat Pump Systems Assisted by Low-Temperature Solar-Heated Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinshun Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the low temperatures, the heating efficiency of air source heat pump systems during the winter is very low. To address this problem, a low-temperature solar hot water system was added to a basic air source heat pump system. Several parameters were tested and analyzed. The heat collection efficiency of the solar collector was analyzed under low-temperature conditions. The factors that affect the performance of the heat pumps, such as the fluid temperature, pressure, and energy savings, were analyzed for cases where the solar energy auxiliary heat pump and the air source heat pump are used independently. The optimal heating temperature and the changes in the fluid temperature were determined. The influence of the compression ratio and the coefficient of performance (COP were investigated theoretically. The results revealed the parameters that are important to the performance of the system. Several measures for improving the COP of the heat pump units are provided for other applications and future research.

  16. Solar-Radiation Heating as a Possible Heat Source for Dehydration of Hydrous Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T.; Golabek, G.; Ohtsuka, K.; Matsuoka, M.

    2017-07-01

    We have calculated time-dependent temperature profiles of near surface layers of primitive Near Sun Asteroid (3200) Phaethon and found that solar radiation heating is a possible heat source for dehydration of carbonaceous chondrites.

  17. Operating conditions of an open and direct solar thermal Brayton cycle with optimised cavity receiver and recuperator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, W.G.; Bello-Ochende, T.; Meyer, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    The small-scale open and direct solar thermal Brayton cycle with recuperator has several advantages, including low cost, low operation and maintenance costs and it is highly recommended. The main disadvantages of this cycle are the pressure losses in the recuperator and receiver, turbomachine efficiencies and recuperator effectiveness, which limit the net power output of such a system. The irreversibilities of the solar thermal Brayton cycle are mainly due to heat transfer across a finite temperature difference and fluid friction. In this paper, thermodynamic optimisation is applied to concentrate on these disadvantages in order to optimise the receiver and recuperator and to maximise the net power output of the system at various steady-state conditions, limited to various constraints. The effects of wind, receiver inclination, rim angle, atmospheric temperature and pressure, recuperator height, solar irradiance and concentration ratio on the optimum geometries and performance were investigated. The dynamic trajectory optimisation method was applied. Operating points of a standard micro-turbine operating at its highest compressor efficiency and a parabolic dish concentrator diameter of 16 m were considered. The optimum geometries, minimum irreversibility rates and maximum receiver surface temperatures of the optimised systems are shown. For an environment with specific conditions and constraints, there exists an optimum receiver and recuperator geometry so that the system produces maximum net power output. -- Highlights: → Optimum geometries exist such that the system produces maximum net power output. → Optimum operating conditions are shown. → Minimum irreversibility rates and minimum entropy generation rates are shown. → Net power output was described in terms of total entropy generation rate. → Effects such as wind, recuperator height and irradiance were investigated.

  18. Energy and exergy analysis of a closed Brayton cycle-based combined cycle for solar power tower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, V.; Hasanzadeh, M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel combined cycle is proposed for solar power tower plants. • The effects of solar subsystem and power cycle parameters are examined. • The proposed combined cycle yields exergy efficiencies of higher than 70%. • For the overall power plant exergy efficiencies of higher than 30% is achievable. - Abstract: Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) technology offers an interesting potential for future power generation and research on CSP systems of all types, particularly those with central receiver system (CRS) has been attracting a lot of attention recently. Today, these power plants cannot compete with the conventional power generation systems in terms of Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) and if a competitive LCOE is to be reached, employing an efficient thermodynamic power cycle is deemed essential. In the present work, a novel combined cycle is proposed for power generation from solar power towers. The proposed system consists of a closed Brayton cycle, which uses helium as the working fluid, and two organic Rankine cycles which are employed to recover the waste heat of the Brayton cycle. The system is thermodynamically assessed from both the first and second law viewpoints. A parametric study is conducted to examine the effects of key operating parameters (including solar subsystem and power cycle parameters) on the overall power plant performance. The results indicate that exergy efficiencies of higher than 30% are achieved for the overall power plant. Also, according to the results, the power cycle proposed in this work has a better performance than the other investigated Rankine and supercritical CO_2 systems operating under similar conditions, for these types of solar power plants.

  19. Thermal Analysis of a Cracked Half-plane under Moving Point Heat Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Kuanfang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The heat conduction in half-plane with an insulated crack subjected to moving point heat source is investigated. The analytical solution and the numerical means are combined to analyze the transient temperature distribution of a cracked half-plane under moving point heat source. The transient temperature distribution of the half plane structure under moving point heat source is obtained by the moving coordinate method firstly, then the heat conduction equation with thermal boundary of an insulated crack face is changed to singular integral equation by applying Fourier transforms and solved by the numerical method. The numerical examples of the temperature distribution on the cracked half-plane structure under moving point heat source are presented and discussed in detail.

  20. Virtual laboratory of electrical mini-grids with distributed generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menezes Ramos, Vanessa; Barros Galhardo, Marcos André; Oliveira Barbosa, Claudomiro Fábio de; Tavares Pinho, João

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a computing tool called Virtual Laboratory de Minirredes (Virtual Laboratory of Mini-grids). Using the virtual environment of the developed tool, it is possible to make remote connection/disconnection of switches and loads (resistive, inductive, capacitive and non-linear) at strategic points of the electric mini-grid with hybrid distributed generation systems (solar photovoltaic-diesel). The mini-grid has a length of about 1 km and is installed in the test area of the Grupo de Estudios e Desenvolvimento de Alternativas Exergética (GEDAE) of the Universidade Federal do Pará, located in the city of Belém, Pará, Brazil. The developed tool has communication functions with electric parameters transducers and programmable logic controllers (PLCs). This communication enables the opening and closing of contactors, resulting in different settings for the mini-grid. In addition to that, based on the proposed configuration by the user, the real-time operation status of mini-grid is presented in a graphic interface (for example, monitored electric parameters, distributed generators connected, status of disconnected switches, etc.) and the acquired data is stored. The use of the computing tool also focuses on the construction of a database, in order to obtain knowledge about the mini-grid performance under various conditions that can be set, depending on the operational strategy adopted, based on the choice of the layout, loads and power sources used in the mini-grid. (full text)

  1. Modeling and optimization of a shell and louvered fin mini-tubes heat exchanger in an ORC powered by an internal combustion engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mastrullo, Rita; Mauro, Alfonso William; Revellin, Rémi; Viscito, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • New ORC HEX design. • Dedicated model. • On-road uses. • Simulations for real ICEs’ conditions. - Abstract: Waste heat recovery from exhaust gases of internal combustion engines (ICEs) is an interesting option to increase energy conversion efficiency, especially on on-road applications. Organic Rankine cycles (ORCs) fit well the temperature levels available. Current research interests are devoted to the definition of new design solutions to improve each part of the energy conversion process. Concerning the heat recovery, new concepts for heat exchangers are required to reduce their weight, the refrigerant charge and the related environmental concerns. At the same time, a high performance of the whole system must be kept. In this paper, a new design is introduced related to a shell and louvered fin mini-tubes heat exchanger. Modeling and simulation results are presented to define an optimal design in the whole map of working conditions for a heavy duty diesel engine and a light duty gasoline engine, in order to maximize the overall system efficiency (ORC+ICE). The length and weight of the heat exchanger are consistent with the use in automotive and truck applications, while an increase of the overall system efficiency up to 9% can be achieved

  2. Source effects on impurity and heat transport in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, R.B.

    1980-12-01

    A recently developed generalization of neoclassical theory is extended here to study heat flux contributions to impurity transport, as well as the heat fluxes themselves. The theory accounts for the first four source moments, with external drags, which has been studied previously with either fewer moments or restricted to a collisional plasma. Conditions are established for which a momentum source may be used to modify the particle and heat transport. In the course of this work, the particle and heat transport is evaluated for a two species plasma with arbitrary plasma geometry, beta, and collisionality

  3. Infant otitis media and the use of secondary heating sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettigrew, Melinda M; Gent, Janneane F; Triche, Elizabeth W; Belanger, Kathleen D; Bracken, Michael B; Leaderer, Brian P

    2004-01-01

    This prospective study investigated the association of exposure to indoor secondary heating sources with otitis media and recurrent otitis media risk in infants. We enrolled mothers living in nonsmoking households and delivering babies between 1993 and 1996 in 12 Connecticut and Virginia hospitals. Biweekly telephone interviews during the first year of life assessed diagnoses from doctors' office visits and use of secondary home heating sources, air conditioner use, and day care. Otitis media episodes separated by more than 21 days were considered to be unique episodes. Recurrent otitis media was defined as 4 or more episodes of otitis media. Repeated-measures logistic regression modeling evaluated the association of kerosene heater, fireplace, or wood stove use with otitis media episodes while controlling for potential confounders. Logistic regression evaluated the relation of these secondary heating sources with recurrent otitis media. None of the secondary heating sources were associated with otitis media or with recurrent otitis media. Otitis media was associated with day care, the winter heating season, birth in the fall, white race, additional children in the home, and a maternal history of allergies in multivariate models. Recurrent otitis media was associated with day care, birth in the fall, white race, and a maternal history of allergies or asthma. We found no evidence that the intermittent use of secondary home heating sources increases the risk of otitis media or recurrent otitis media. This study confirms earlier findings regarding the importance of day care with respect to otitis media risk.

  4. Towards a Future of District Heating Systems with Low-Temperature Operation together with Non-Fossil Fuel Heat Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan; Dinçer, Ibrahim; Svendsen, Svend

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigation of non-fossil fuel heat sources to be supplied to low-energy district heating systems operating in low temperature such as 55 C and 25 C in terms of, respectively, supply and return. Vast variety of heat sources classed in categories such as fossil fuel...

  5. Building America Case Study: Occupant Comfort from a Mini-Split Heat Pump, San Antonio, Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-03

    IBACOS worked with builder Imagine Homes to evaluate the performance of an occupied new construction test house following construction of the house in the hot, humid climate of San Antonio, Texas. The project measures the effectiveness of a space conditioning strategy using a multihead mini-split heat pump (MSHP) system in a reduced-load home to achieve acceptable comfort levels (temperature and humidity) and energy performance. IBACOS collected long-term data and analyzed the energy consumption and comfort conditions of the occupied house after one year of operation. Although measured results indicate that the test system provides comfort both inside and outside the ASHRAE Standard 55-2010 range, the occupants of the house claimed both adequate comfort and appreciation of the ease of use and flexibility of the installed MSHP system. IBACOS also assisted the builder to evaluate design and specification changes necessary to comply with Zero Energy Ready Home, but the builder chose to not move forward with it because of concerns about the 'solar ready' requirements of the program.

  6. The ASTRI Mini-Array Science Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercellone, Stefano; Catalano, O.; Maccarone, M.; Stamerra, A.; Di Pierro, F.; Vallania, P.; Canestrari, R.; Bonnoli, G.; Pareschi, G.; Tosti, G.; Caraveo, P.; ASTRI Collaboration

    2013-04-01

    ASTRI is a flagship project of the Italian Ministry of Education, University and Research. Within this framework, INAF is currently developing an end-to-end prototype of the CTA small-size telescope in a dual-mirror configuration (SST-2M) to be tested under field conditions, and scheduled to start data acquisition in 2014. A remarkable improvement in terms of performance could come from the operation, in 2016, of a SST-2M mini-array, composed by a few SST-2M telescopes and to be placed at final CTA Southern Site. The SST mini-array will be able to study in great detail relatively bright sources (a few x10E-12 erg/cm2/s at 10 TeV) with an angular resolution of a few arcmin and an energy resolution of about 10 - 15%. Moreover, thanks to the array approach, it will be possible to verify the wide FoV performance to detect very high energy showers with the core located at a distance up to 500 m, to compare the mini-array performance with the Monte Carlo expectations by means of deep observations of few selected targets, and to perform the first CTA science, with its first solid detections during the first year of operation. Prominent sources such as extreme blazars (1ES 0229+200), nearby well-known BL Lac objects (MKN 501) and radio-galaxies, galactic pulsar wind nebulae (Crab Nebula, Vela-X), supernovae remnants (Vela-junior, RX J1713.7-3946) and microquasars (LS 5039), as well as the Galactic Center can be observed in a previously unexplored energy range, in order to investigate the electron acceleration and cooling, relativistic and non relativistic shocks, the search for cosmic-ray (CR) Pevatrons, the study of the CR propagation, and the impact of the extragalactic background light on the spectra of the sources.

  7. Research status and evaluation system of heat source evaluation method for central heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yutong; Qi, Junfeng; Cao, Yi

    2018-02-01

    The central heating boiler room is a regional heat source heating center. It is also a kind of the urban environment pollution, it is an important section of building energy efficiency. This article through to the evaluation method of central heating boiler room and overviews of the researches during domestic and overseas, summarized the main influence factors affecting energy consumption of industrial boiler under the condition of stable operation. According to the principle of establishing evaluation index system. We can find that is great significance in energy saving and environmental protection for the content of the evaluation index system of the centralized heating system.

  8. Application of exergetic sustainability index to a nano-scale irreversible Brayton cycle operating with ideal Bose and Fermi gasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Açıkkalp, Emin, E-mail: eacikkalp@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Bilecik S.E. University, Bilecik (Turkey); Caner, Necmettin [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • An irreversible Brayton cycle operating quantum gasses is considered. • Exergetic sustainability index is derived for nano-scale cycles. • Nano-scale effects are considered. • Calculation are conducted for irreversible cycles. • Numerical results are presented and discussed. - Abstract: In this study, a nano-scale irreversible Brayton cycle operating with quantum gasses including Bose and Fermi gasses is researched. Developments in the nano-technology cause searching the nano-scale machines including thermal systems to be unavoidable. Thermodynamic analysis of a nano-scale irreversible Brayton cycle operating with Bose and Fermi gasses was performed (especially using exergetic sustainability index). In addition, thermodynamic analysis involving classical evaluation parameters such as work output, exergy output, entropy generation, energy and exergy efficiencies were conducted. Results are submitted numerically and finally some useful recommendations were conducted. Some important results are: entropy generation and exergetic sustainability index are affected mostly for Bose gas and power output and exergy output are affected mostly for the Fermi gas by x. At the high temperature conditions, work output and entropy generation have high values comparing with other degeneracy conditions.

  9. Analysis of carbon monoxide production in multihundred-watt heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, D.E.; Mulford, R.N.R.

    1976-05-01

    The production of carbon monoxide observed within Multihundred Watt heat sources placed under storage conditions was analyzed. Results of compositional and isotopic analyses of gas taps performed on eight heat sources are summarized and interpreted. Several proposed CO generation mechanisms are examined theoretically and assessed by applying thermodynamic principles. Outgassing of the heat source graphite followed by oxygen isotopic exchange through the vent assemblies appears to explain the CO production at storage temperatures. Reduction of the plutonia fuel sphere by the CO is examined as a function of temperature and stoichiometry. Experiments that could be performed to investigate possible CO generation mechanisms are discussed

  10. Loop containment (joint integrity) assessment Brayton Isotope Power System flight system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) contains a large number of joints. Since the failure of a joint would result in loss of the working fluid and consequential failure of the BIPS, the integrity of the joints is of paramount importance. The reliability of the ERDA BIPS loop containment (joint integrity) is evaluated. The conceptual flight system as presently configured is depicted. A brief description of the flight system is given

  11. Heat Source Models in Simulation of Heat Flow in Friction Stir Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blich; Hattel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to investigate the effect of including the tool probe and the material flow in the numerical modelling of heat flow in Friction Stir Welding (FSW). The contact condition at the interface between the tool and workpiece controls the heat transfer mechanisms....... The convective heat transfer due to the material flow affects the temperature fields. Models presented previously in literature allow the heat to flow through the probe volume, and the majority of them neglect the influence of the contact condition as the sliding condition is assumed. In the present work......, a number of cases are established. Each case represents a combination of a contact condition, i.e. sliding and sticking, and a stage of refinement regarding the heat source distribution. In the most detailed models the heat flow is forced around the probe volume by prescribing a velocity field in shear...

  12. Heat source models in simulation of heat flow in friction stir welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Henrik Nikolaj Blich; Hattel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to investigate the effect of including the tool probe and the material flow in the numerical modelling of heat flow in friction stir welding (FSW). The contact condition at the interface between the tool and workpiece controls the heat transfer mechanisms....... The convective heat transfer due to the material flow affects the temperature fields. Models presented previously in the literature allow the heat to flow through the probe volume, and the majority neglects the influence of the contact condition as the sliding condition is assumed. In this work, a number...... of cases is established. Each case represents a combination of a contact condition, i.e. sliding and sticking, and a stage of refinement regarding the heat source distribution. In the most detailed models, the heat flow is forced around the probe volume by prescribing a velocity field in shear layers...

  13. Development of an Air-Source Heat Pump Integrated with a Water Heating / Dehumidification Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, C Keith [ORNL; Uselton, Robert B. [Lennox Industries, Inc; Shen, Bo [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A residential-sized dual air-source integrated heat pump (AS-IHP) concept is under development in partnership between ORNL and a manufacturer. The concept design consists of a two-stage air-source heat pump (ASHP) coupled on the air distribution side with a separate novel water heating/dehumidification (WH/DH) module. The motivation for this unusual equipment combination is the forecast trend for home sensible loads to be reduced more than latent loads. Integration of water heating with a space dehumidification cycle addresses humidity control while performing double-duty. This approach can be applied to retrofit/upgrade applications as well as new construction. A WH/DH module capable of ~1.47 L/h water removal and ~2 kW water heating capacity was assembled by the manufacturer. A heat pump system model was used to guide the controls design; lab testing was conducted and used to calibrate the models. Performance maps were generated and used in a TRNSYS sub-hourly simulation to predict annual performance in a well-insulated house. Annual HVAC/WH energy savings of ~35% are predicted in cold and hot-humid U.S. climates compared to a minimum efficiency baseline.

  14. Systemic levels of metallic ions released from orthodontic mini-implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Liliane Siqueira; Serra, Glaucio Guimarães; Albuquerque Palermo, Elisabete Fernandes; Andrade, Leonardo Rodrigues; Müller, Carlos Alberto; Meyers, Marc André; Elias, Carlos Nelson

    2009-04-01

    Orthodontic mini-implants are a potential source of metallic ions to the human body because of the corrosion of titanium (Ti) alloy in body fluids. The purpose of this study was to gauge the concentration of Ti, aluminum (Al), and vanadium (V), as a function of time, in the kidneys, livers, and lungs of rabbits that had Ti-6Al-4V alloy orthodontic mini-implants placed in their tibia. Twenty-three New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: control, 1 week, 4 weeks, and 12 weeks. Four orthodontic mini-implants were placed in the left proximal tibia of 18 rabbits. Five control rabbits had no orthodontic mini-implants. After 1, 4, and 12 weeks, the rabbits were killed, and the selected tissues were extracted and prepared for analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Low amounts of Ti, Al, and V were detectable in the 1-week, 4-weeks, and 12-weeks groups, confirming that release of these metals from the mini-implants occurs, with diffusion and accumulation in remote organs. Despite the tendency of ion release when using the Ti alloy as orthodontic mini-implants, the amounts of metals detected were significantly below the average intake of these elements through food and drink and did not reach toxic concentrations.

  15. Heat source reconstruction from noisy temperature fields using an optimised derivative Gaussian filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpueyo, D.; Balandraud, X.; Grédiac, M.

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a post-processing technique based on a derivative Gaussian filter to reconstruct heat source fields from temperature fields measured by infrared thermography. Heat sources can be deduced from temperature variations thanks to the heat diffusion equation. Filtering and differentiating are key-issues which are closely related here because the temperature fields which are processed are unavoidably noisy. We focus here only on the diffusion term because it is the most difficult term to estimate in the procedure, the reason being that it involves spatial second derivatives (a Laplacian for isotropic materials). This quantity can be reasonably estimated using a convolution of the temperature variation fields with second derivatives of a Gaussian function. The study is first based on synthetic temperature variation fields corrupted by added noise. The filter is optimised in order to reconstruct at best the heat source fields. The influence of both the dimension and the level of a localised heat source is discussed. Obtained results are also compared with another type of processing based on an averaging filter. The second part of this study presents an application to experimental temperature fields measured with an infrared camera on a thin plate in aluminium alloy. Heat sources are generated with an electric heating patch glued on the specimen surface. Heat source fields reconstructed from measured temperature fields are compared with the imposed heat sources. Obtained results illustrate the relevancy of the derivative Gaussian filter to reliably extract heat sources from noisy temperature fields for the experimental thermomechanics of materials.

  16. Review of Strategies and Technologies for Demand-Side Management on Isolated Mini-Grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harper, Meg [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    This review provides an overview of strategies and currently available technologies used for demandside management (DSM) on mini-grids throughout the world. For the purposes of this review, mini-grids are defined as village-scale electricity distribution systems powered by small local generation sources and not connected to a main grid.1 Mini-grids range in size from less than 1 kW to several hundred kW of installed generation capacity and may utilize different generation technologies, such as micro-hydro, biomass gasification, solar, wind, diesel generators, or a hybrid combination of any of these. This review will primarily refer to AC mini-grids, though much of the discussion could apply to DC grids as well. Many mini-grids include energy storage, though some rely solely on real-time generation.

  17. The effect of location of a convective heat source on displacement ventilation: CFD study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, H.J.; Holland, D. [Dunham Associates, Inc., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Advanced Technologies Group

    2001-08-01

    Two-dimensional computational simulations are performed to examine the effect of vertical location of a convective heat source on thermal displacement ventilation systems. In this study, a heat source is modeled with seven different heights from the floor (0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2.0 m) in a displacement ventilation environment. The flow and temperature fields in thermal displacement ventilation systems vary depending on the location of the heat source. As the heat source rises, the convective heat gain from the heat source to an occupied zone becomes less significant. This effect changes the temperature field and results in the reduction of the cooling load in the occupied zone. The stratification level is also affected by the heat source location at a given flow rate. (author)

  18. Performance Optimization of a Solar-Driven Multi-Step Irreversible Brayton Cycle Based on a Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadi Mohammad Hosein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An applicable approach for a multi-step regenerative irreversible Brayton cycle on the basis of thermodynamics and optimization of thermal efficiency and normalized output power is presented in this work. In the present study, thermodynamic analysis and a NSGA II algorithm are coupled to determine the optimum values of thermal efficiency and normalized power output for a Brayton cycle system. Moreover, three well-known decision-making methods are employed to indicate definite answers from the outputs gained from the aforementioned approach. Finally, with the aim of error analysis, the values of the average and maximum error of the results are also calculated.

  19. Tourette Syndrome: A Mini-Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Novotny

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this mini-review is to provide the latest information on epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of Tourette syndrome (TS. The authors conducted a literature search of available sources describing the issue of tic disorders with special focus on TS and made a comparison and evaluation of relevant findings. The results of this mini-review indicate that TS is a complex disorder, which has a significant impact on the quality of life of both the patients and his/her family. Therefore, early and proper diagnosis and treatment are necessary in order to reduce or even eliminate both symptoms and social burden of the patient. This requires a multidisciplinary management approach in order to meet the patients’ special needs. Future research should focus on neuroimaging, new neurotransmitter targets, in functional neurosurgery, as well as the effect of non-pharmacological psychotherapies for these people.

  20. Design and qualification testing of a strontium-90 fluoride heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fullam, H.T.

    1981-12-01

    The Strontium Heat Source Development Program began at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in 1972 and is scheduled to be completed by the end of FY-1981. The program is currently funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) By-Product Utilization Program. The primary objective of the program has been to develop the data and technology required to permit the licensing of power systems for terrestrial applications that utilize 90 SrF 2 -fueled radioisotope heat sources. A secondary objective of the program has been to design and qualification-test a general purpose 90 SrF 2 -fueled heat source. The effort expended in the design and testing of the heat source is described. Detailed information is included on: heat source design, licensing requirements, and qualification test requirements; the qualification test procedures; and the fabrication and testing of capsules of various materials. The results obtained in the qualification tests show that the outer capsule design proposed for the 90 SrF 2 heat source is capable of meeting current licensing requirements when Hastelloy S is used as the outer capsule material. The data also indicate that an outer capsule of Hastelloy C-4 would probably also meet licensing requirements, although Hastelloy S is the preferred material. Therefore, based on the results of this study, the general purpose 90 SrF 2 heat source will consist of a standard WESF Hastelloy C-276 inner capsule filled with 90 SrF 2 and a Hastelloy S outer capsule having a 2.375-in. inner diameter and 0.500-in. wall thickness. The end closures for this study, the general purpose 90 SrF 2 heat a Hastelloy S outer capsule having a 2.375-in. inner diameter and 0.500-in. wall thickness. The end closures for the outer capsule will utilize an interlocking joint design requiring a 0.1-in. penetration closure weld

  1. Air source integrated heat pump simulation model for EnergyPlus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo; New, Joshua; Baxter, Van

    2017-12-01

    An Air Source Integrated Heat Pump (AS-IHP) is an air source, multi-functional spacing conditioning unit with water heating function (WH), which can lead to great energy savings by recovering the condensing waste heat for domestic water heating. This paper summarizes development of the EnergyPlus AS-IHP model, introducing the physics, sub-models, working modes, and control logic. Based on the model, building energy simulations were conducted to demonstrate greater than 50% annual energy savings, in comparison to a baseline heat pump with electric water heater, over 10 US cities, using the EnergyPlus quick-service restaurant template building. We assessed water heating energy saving potentials using AS-IHP versus both gas and electric baseline systems, and pointed out climate zones where AS-IHPs are promising. In addition, a grid integration strategy was investigated to reveal further energy saving and electricity cost reduction potentials, via increasing the water heating set point temperature during off-peak hours and using larger water tanks.

  2. Design and application for a high-temperature nuclear heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quade, R.N.

    1980-01-01

    Recent actions by OPEC have sharply increased interest in the United States in synfuels, with coal being the logical choice for the carbon source. Two coal liquefaction processes, direct and indirect, have been examined. Each can produce about 50% more output when coupled to an HTGR for process heat. The nuclear reactor designed for process heat has a power output of 842MW(t), a core outlet temperature of 950 0 C (1742 0 F), and an intermediate helium loop to separate the heat source from the process heat exchangers. Steam-methane reforming is the reference process. As part of the development of a nuclear process heat system, a computer code, Process Heat Reactor Evaluation and Design, is being developed. This code models both the reactor plant and a steam reforming plant. When complete, the program will have the capability to calculate an overall mass and heat balance, size the plant components, and estimate the plant cost for a wide variety of independent variables. (author)

  3. Optimal temperature of operation of the cold side of a closed Brayton Cycle for space nuclear propulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Luís F.R.; Ribeiro, Guilherme B., E-mail: luisromano_91@hotmail.com, E-mail: gbribeiro@ieav.cta.br [Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica (ITA), São José dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Pós-Graduação Ciências e Tecnologias Espaciais

    2017-07-01

    Generating energy in space is a tough challenge, especially because it has to be used efficiently. The optimization of the system operation has to be though up since the design phase and all the minutiae between conception, production and operation should be carefully evaluated in order to deliver a functioning device that will meet all the mission's goals. This work seeks on further describing the operation of a Closed Brayton Cycle coupled toa nuclear microreactor used to generate energy to power spacecraft's systems, focusing specially on the cold side to evaluate the temperature of operation of the cold heat pipes in order to aid the selection of proper models to numerically describe the heat pipes and radiator s thermal operation. The cycle is designed to operate with a noble gas mixture of Helium-Xenon with a molecular weight of 40g/mole, selected for its transport properties and low turbomachinery charge and it is to exchange hear directly with the cold heat pipe' evaporator through convection at the cold heat exchanger. Properties such as size and mass are relevant to be analyzed due space applications requiring a careful development of the equipment in order to fit inside the launcher as well as lowering launch costs. Merit figures comparing both second law energetic efficiency and net energy availability with the device's radiator size are used in order to represent an energetic production density for the apparatus, which is ought to be launched from earth's surface. (author)

  4. Optimal temperature of operation of the cold side of a closed Brayton Cycle for space nuclear propulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romano, Luís F.R.; Ribeiro, Guilherme B.

    2017-01-01

    Generating energy in space is a tough challenge, especially because it has to be used efficiently. The optimization of the system operation has to be though up since the design phase and all the minutiae between conception, production and operation should be carefully evaluated in order to deliver a functioning device that will meet all the mission's goals. This work seeks on further describing the operation of a Closed Brayton Cycle coupled toa nuclear microreactor used to generate energy to power spacecraft's systems, focusing specially on the cold side to evaluate the temperature of operation of the cold heat pipes in order to aid the selection of proper models to numerically describe the heat pipes and radiator s thermal operation. The cycle is designed to operate with a noble gas mixture of Helium-Xenon with a molecular weight of 40g/mole, selected for its transport properties and low turbomachinery charge and it is to exchange hear directly with the cold heat pipe' evaporator through convection at the cold heat exchanger. Properties such as size and mass are relevant to be analyzed due space applications requiring a careful development of the equipment in order to fit inside the launcher as well as lowering launch costs. Merit figures comparing both second law energetic efficiency and net energy availability with the device's radiator size are used in order to represent an energetic production density for the apparatus, which is ought to be launched from earth's surface. (author)

  5. Thermal State-of-Charge in Solar Heat Receivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Carsie, A., III; Glakpe, Emmanuel K.; Cannon, Joseph N.; Kerslake, Thomas W.

    1998-01-01

    A theoretical framework is developed to determine the so-called thermal state-of-charge (SOC) in solar heat receivers employing encapsulated phase change materials (PCMS) that undergo cyclic melting and freezing. The present problem is relevant to space solar dynamic power systems that would typically operate in low-Earth-orbit (LEO). The solar heat receiver is integrated into a closed-cycle Brayton engine that produces electric power during sunlight and eclipse periods of the orbit cycle. The concepts of available power and virtual source temperature, both on a finite-time basis, are used as the basis for determining the SOC. Analytic expressions for the available power crossing the aperture plane of the receiver, available power stored in the receiver, and available power delivered to the working fluid are derived, all of which are related to the SOC through measurable parameters. Lower and upper bounds on the SOC are proposed in order to delineate absolute limiting cases for a range of input parameters (orbital, geometric, etc.). SOC characterization is also performed in the subcooled, two-phase, and superheat regimes. Finally, a previously-developed physical and numerical model of the solar heat receiver component of NASA Lewis Research Center's Ground Test Demonstration (GTD) system is used in order to predict the SOC as a function of measurable parameters.

  6. Transition to chaos in a square enclosure containing internal heat sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baytas, A.C. [Institute For Nuclear Energy, Istanbul (Turkey)

    1995-09-01

    A numerical investigation is performed to study the transition from steady to chaotic flow of a fluid confined in a two-dimensional square cavity. The cavity has rigid walls of constant temperature containing uniformly distributed internal heat source. Effects of the Rayleigh number of flow and heat transfer rates are studied. In addition to, same problem is solved for sinusoidally changing internal heat source to show its effect on the flow model and heat transfer of the enclosures. Details of oscillatory solutions and flow bifurcations are presented.

  7. Heat buffers improve capacity and exploitation degree of geothermal energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooster, A.van t; Wit, J. de; Janssen, E.G.O.N.; Ruigrok, J.

    2008-01-01

    This research focuses on the role of heat buffers to support optimal use of combinations of traditional and renewable heat sources like geothermal heat for greenhouse heating. The objective was to determine the contribution of heat buffers to effective new combinations of resources that satisfy

  8. Brayton Point coal conversion project (NEPCO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, W.F. Jr.

    1982-05-01

    The New England Power Company (NEPCO) recently converted Brayton Point Power Station Units 1, 2, and 3 from oil to coal. The coal conversion project is the largest coal conversion project in the nation to date. Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation (SWEC) was hired as the engineer/constructor for the project. Units 1 and 2 are 250-MW Combustion Engineering boilers, and Unit 3 is a 650-MW Babcock and Wilcox boiler. All three units were originally designed to burn pulverized coal but were converted to oil during the years of low oil prices. Studies performed by NEPCO and SWEC indicated that the areas discussed in the following paragraphs required upgrading before the units could efficiently burn coal and meet Federal and State environmental requirements. All units have been converted and are operating. This paper discusses design modifications required to burn coal, startup, and initial operating problems, and solutions.

  9. System safety program plan for the Isotope Brayton Ground Demonstration System (phase I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The safety engineering effort to be undertaken in achieving an acceptable level of safety in the Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) development program is discussed. The safety organizational relationships, the methods to be used, the tasks to be completed, and the documentation to be published are described. The plan will be updated periodically as the need arises

  10. SELECTION OF HEAT SUPPLY SOURCE FOR MOBILE BUILDING STRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    T. I. Dolgikh; S. V. Morozov; Yu. P. Orlov; A. B. Reis; A. Yu Yakovlev

    2014-01-01

    The paper proposes a vortex heat generator with energy transformation of the highest  state  of matter motion  into  the  lowest  one  as  a  heat  supply  source  for a mobile object. Energy transformation coefficient indices close or equal to 1 have been obtained as a result of experiments on efficiency of the vortex heat generator. Such results can be explained with the help of the 2nd Bohr quantum postulate. Standard series of certified VTG heat generators has been proposed for heat suppl...

  11. A new dynamism for the cogeneration of 2000 - from the medium to the mini-cogeneration; Une nouvelle dynamique pour la cogeneration en l'an 2000 - de la moyenne vers le mini-cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    In the framework of the Eco-Industries 2000 meeting, the ATEE organized a colloquium on the medium and mini-cogeneration market. This book presents the fourteen papers proposed at this colloquium bringing information on the cogeneration technology for the medium and mini-systems. The state of the art concerning the turbines and examples of dual systems (heating and warm water) are provided. Some economical aspects are also presented with the international and national market, the contracts management with EDF and the investments. (A.L.B.)

  12. System design specification Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) Flight System (FS), and Ground Demonstration System (GDS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The system design specification for ground demonstration, development, and flight qualification of a Brayton Isotope Power System (BIPS) is presented. The requirements for both a BIPS conceptual Flight System (FS) and a Ground Demonstration System (GDS) are defined

  13. Performance analysis and experimental study of heat-source tower solution regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Caihua; Wen, Xiantai; Liu, Chengxing; Zhang, Xiaosong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Theoretical analysis is performed on the characteristics of heat-source tower. • Experimental study is performed on various rules of the solution regeneration rate. • The characteristics of solution regeneration vary widely with different demands. • Results are useful for optimizing the process of solution regeneration. - Abstract: By analyzing similarities and difference between the solution regeneration of a heat-source tower and desiccant solution regeneration, this paper points out that solution regeneration of a heat-source tower has the characteristics of small demands and that a regeneration rate is susceptible to outdoor ambient environments. A theoretical analysis is performed on the characteristics of a heat-source tower solution in different outdoor environments and different regeneration modes, and an experimental study is performed on variation rules of the solution regeneration rate of a cross-flow heat-source tower under different inlet parameters and operating parameters. The experimental results show that: in the operating regeneration mode, as the air volume was increased from 123 m 3 h −1 to 550 m 3 h −1 , the system heat transfer amount increased from 0.42 kW to 0.78 kW, and the regeneration rate increased from 0.03 g s −1 to 0.19 g s −1 . Increasing the solution flow may increase the system heat transfer amount; however, the regeneration rate decreased to a certain extent. In the regeneration mode when the system is idle, as the air volume was increased from 136 m 3 h −1 to 541 m 3 h −1 , the regeneration rate increased from 0.03 g s −1 to 0.1 g s −1 . The regeneration rate almost remained unchanged around 0.07 g s −1 as the solution flow is increased. In the regeneration mode with auxiliary heat when the system is idle, increasing the air volume and increasing the solution flow required more auxiliary heat, thereby improving the solution regeneration rate. As the auxiliary heat was increased from 0.33 k

  14. A mini-microscope for in situ monitoring of cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Bok; Koo, Kyo-in; Bae, Hojae; Dokmeci, Mehmet R; Hamilton, Geraldine A; Bahinski, Anthony; Kim, Sun Min; Ingber, Donald E; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2012-10-21

    A mini-microscope was developed for in situ monitoring of cells by modifying off-the-shelf components of a commercial webcam. The mini-microscope consists of a CMOS imaging module, a small plastic lens and a white LED illumination source. The CMOS imaging module was connected to a laptop computer through a USB port for image acquisition and analysis. Due to its compact size, 8 × 10 × 9 cm, the present microscope is portable and can easily fit inside a conventional incubator, and enables real-time monitoring of cellular behaviour. Moreover, the mini-microscope can be used for imaging cells in conventional cell culture flasks, such as Petri dishes and multi-well plates. To demonstrate the operation of the mini-microscope, we monitored the cellular migration of mouse 3T3 fibroblasts in a scratch assay in medium containing three different concentrations of fetal bovine serum (5, 10, and 20%) and demonstrated differential responses depending on serum levels. In addition, we seeded embryonic stem cells inside poly(ethylene glycol) microwells and monitored the formation of stem cell aggregates in real time using the mini-microscope. Furthermore, we also combined a lab-on-a-chip microfluidic device for microdroplet generation and analysis with the mini-microscope and observed the formation of droplets under different flow conditions. Given its cost effectiveness, robust imaging and portability, the presented platform may be useful for a range of applications for real-time cellular imaging using lab-on-a-chip devices at low cost.

  15. Coiled Tube Gas Heaters For Nuclear Gas-Brayton Power Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Per F.

    2018-03-31

    This project developed an alternative design for heat exchangers for application to heating supercritical carbon dioxide (S-CO2) or air for power conversion. We have identified an annular coiled tube bundle configuration–where hot sodium enters tubes from multiple vertical inlet manifold pipes, flows in a spiral pattern radially inward and downward, and then exits into an equal number of vertical outlet manifold pipes–as a potentially attractive option. The S-CO2 gas or air flows radially outward through the tube bundle. Coiled tube gas heaters (CTGHs) are expected to have excellent thermal shock, long-term thermal creep, in-service inspection, and reparability characteristics, compared to alternative options. CTGHs have significant commonality with modern nuclear steam generators. Extensive experience exists with the design, manufacture, operation, in-service inspection and maintenance of nuclear steam generators. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission also has extensive experience with regulatory guidance documented in NUREG 0800. CTGHs leverage this experience and manufacturing capability. The most important difference between steam generators and gas-Brayton cycles such as the S-CO2 cycle is that the heat exchangers must operate with counter flow with high effectiveness to minimize the pinch-point temperature difference between the hot liquid coolant and the heated gas. S-CO2-cycle gas heaters also operate at sufficiently elevated temperatures that time dependent creep is important and allowable stresses are relatively low. Designing heat exchangers to operate in this regime requires configurations that minimize stresses and stress concentrations. The cylindrical tubes and cylindrical manifold pipes used in CTGHs are particularly effective geometries. The first major goal of this research project was to develop and experimentally validate a detailed, 3-D multi-phase (gas-solid-liquid) heat transport model for

  16. Optimizing an advanced hybrid of solar-assisted supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle: A vital transition for low-carbon power generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milani, Dia; Luu, Minh Tri; McNaughton, Robbie; Abbas, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The layout of 14 demonstrative supercritical CO 2 closed Brayton cycles are analysed. • The key parameters of the “combined” cycle are sensitized and optimized. • The effect of thermal efficiency vs HX area on techno-economic nexus is highlighted. • The design of a matching solar heliostat field in direct configuration is revealed. • The water demand for hybrid vs water-only cooling scenarios are assessed. - Abstract: Current worldwide infrastructure of electrical power generation would mostly continue to rely on fossil-fuel but require a modest transition for the ultimate goal of decarbonizing power generation industry. By relying on those already established and carefully managed centrepiece power plants (PPs), we aim at filling the deficits of the current electrical networks with smaller, cleaner, and also more efficient PPs. In this context, we present a unique model for a small-scale decentralized solar-assisted supercritical CO 2 closed Brayton cycle (sCO 2 -CBC). Our model is based on the optimized values of three key performance indicators (KPIs); thermal efficiency, concentrated solar power (CSP) compatibility, and water demand for cooling. For a case-study of 10 MW e CSP-assisted sCO 2 -CBC power plant, our dynamic model shows a 52.7% thermal efficiency and 25.9% solar penetration and up to 80% of water saving in heat-rejection units. These KPIs show significant promise of the solar-assisted supercritical CO 2 power cycle for an imperative transformation in the power industry towards future sustainable electricity generation.

  17. Linking potential heat source and sink to urban heat island: Heterogeneous effects of landscape pattern on land surface temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Cao, Qiwen; Lang, Kun; Wu, Jiansheng

    2017-05-15

    Rapid urbanization has significantly contributed to the development of urban heat island (UHI). Regulating landscape composition and configuration would help mitigate the UHI in megacities. Taking Shenzhen, China, as a case study area, we defined heat source and heat sink and identified strong and weak sources as well as strong and weak sinks according to the natural and socioeconomic factors influencing land surface temperature (LST). Thus, the potential thermal contributions of heat source and heat sink patches were differentiated. Then, the heterogeneous effects of landscape pattern on LST were examined by using semiparametric geographically weighted regression (SGWR) models. The results showed that landscape composition has more significant effects on thermal environment than configuration. For a strong source, the percentage of patches has a positive impact on LST. Additionally, when mosaicked with some heat sink, even a small improvement in the degree of dispersion of a strong source helps to alleviate UHI. For a weak source, the percentage and density of patches have positive impacts on LST. For a strong sink, the percentage, density, and degree of aggregation of patches have negative impacts on LST. The effects of edge density and patch shape complexity vary spatially with the fragmentation of a strong sink. Similarly, the impacts of a weak sink are mainly exerted via the characteristics of percent, density, and shape complexity of patches. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A new energy analysis tool for ground source heat pump systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michopoulos, A.; Kyriakis, N. [Process Equipment Design Laboratory, Mechanical Engineering Department, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, POB 487, 541 24 Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2009-09-15

    A new tool, suitable for energy analysis of vertical ground source heat pump systems, is presented. The tool is based on analytical equations describing the heat exchanged with the ground, developed in Matlab {sup registered} environment. The time step of the simulation can be freely chosen by the user (e.g. 1, 2 h etc.) and the calculation time required is very short. The heating and cooling loads of the building, at the afore mentioned time step, are needed as input, along with the thermophysical properties of the soil and of the ground heat exchanger, the operation characteristic curves of the system's heat pumps and the basic ground source heat exchanger dimensions. The results include the electricity consumption of the system and the heat absorbed from or rejected to the ground. The efficiency of the tool is verified through comparison with actual electricity consumption data collected from an existing large scale ground coupled heat pump installation over a three-year period. (author)

  19. Air source absorption heat pump in district heating: Applicability analysis and improvement options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wei; Shi, Wenxing; Li, Xianting; Wang, Baolong

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Applicability of air source absorption heat pump (ASAHP) district heating is studied. • Return temperature and energy saving rate (ESR) in various conditions are optimized. • ASAHP is more suitable for shorter distance or lower temperature district heating. • Two options can reduce the primary return temperature and improve the applicability. • The maximum ESR is improved from 13.6% to 20.4–25.6% by compression-assisted ASAHP. - Abstract: The low-temperature district heating system based on the air source absorption heat pump (ASAHP) was assessed to have great energy saving potential. However, this system may require smaller temperature drop leading to higher pump consumption for long-distance distribution. Therefore, the applicability of ASAHP-based district heating system is analyzed for different primary return temperatures, pipeline distances, pipeline resistances, supplied water temperatures, application regions, and working fluids. The energy saving rate (ESR) under different conditions are calculated, considering both the ASAHP efficiency and the distribution consumption. Results show that ASAHP system is more suitable for short-distance district heating, while for longer-distance heating, lower supplied hot water temperature is preferred. In addition, the advantages of NH 3 /H 2 O are inferior to those of NH 3 /LiNO 3 , and the advantages for warmer regions and lower pipeline resistance are more obvious. The primary return temperatures are optimized to obtain maximum ESRs, after which the suitable distances under different acceptable ESRs are summarized. To improve the applicability of ASAHP, the integration of cascaded heat exchanger (CHX) and compression-assisted ASAHP (CASAHP) are proposed, which can reduce the primary return temperature. The integration of CHX can effectively improve the applicability of ASAHP under higher supplied water temperatures. As for the utilization of CASAHP, higher compression ratio (CR) is better in

  20. Energy and exergy analysis of a double effect absorption refrigeration system based on different heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaynakli, Omer; Saka, Kenan; Kaynakli, Faruk

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy and exergy analysis was performed on double effect series flow absorption refrigeration system. • The refrigeration system runs on various heat sources such as hot water, hot air and steam. • A comparative analysis was carried out on these heat sources in terms of exergy destruction and mass flow rate of heat source. • The effect of heat sources on the exergy destruction of high pressure generator was investigated. - Abstract: Absorption refrigeration systems are environmental friendly since they can utilize industrial waste heat and/or solar energy. In terms of heat source of the systems, researchers prefer one type heat source usually such as hot water or steam. Some studies can be free from environment. In this study, energy and exergy analysis is performed on a double effect series flow absorption refrigeration system with water/lithium bromide as working fluid pair. The refrigeration system runs on various heat sources such as hot water, hot air and steam via High Pressure Generator (HPG) because of hot water/steam and hot air are the most common available heat source for absorption applications but the first law of thermodynamics may not be sufficient analyze the absorption refrigeration system and to show the difference of utilize for different type heat source. On the other hand operation temperatures of the overall system and its components have a major effect on their performance and functionality. In this regard, a parametric study conducted here to investigate this effect on heat capacity and exergy destruction of the HPG, coefficient of performance (COP) of the system, and mass flow rate of heat sources. Also, a comparative analysis is carried out on several heat sources (e.g. hot water, hot air and steam) in terms of exergy destruction and mass flow rate of heat source. From the analyses it is observed that exergy destruction of the HPG increases at higher temperature of the heat sources, condenser and absorber, and lower

  1. Ground-source heat pump systems in Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stene, Joern

    2007-01-01

    The Norwegian ground source heat pump (GSHP) market is reviewed. Boreholes in bedrock are of growing interest for residential systems and of growing interest for larger systems with thermal recharging or thermal energy storage. Ground water is limited to areas where the water has acceptable purity. Challenges and important boundary conditions include 1) high quality GSHP system requires engineering expertise, 2) new building codes and EU directive 'energy performance of buildings.'(2006), and 3) hydronic floor heating systems in 50 percent of new residences (author) (ml)

  2. Internal heat gain from different light sources in the building lighting systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suszanowicz Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available EU directives and the Construction Law have for some time required investors to report the energy consumption of buildings, and this has indeed caused low energy consumption buildings to proliferate. Of particular interest, internal heat gains from installed lighting affect the final energy consumption for heating of both public and residential buildings. This article presents the results of analyses of the electricity consumption and the luminous flux and the heat flux emitted by different types of light sources used in buildings. Incandescent light, halogen, compact fluorescent bulbs, and LED bulbs from various manufacturers were individually placed in a closed and isolated chamber, and the parameters for their functioning under identical conditions were recorded. The heat flux emitted by 1 W nominal power of each light source was determined. Based on the study results, the empirical coefficients of heat emission and energy efficiency ratios for different types of lighting sources (dependent lamp power and the light output were designated. In the heat balance of the building, the designated rates allow for precise determination of the internal heat gains coming from lighting systems using various light sources and also enable optimization of lighting systems of buildings that are used in different ways.

  3. Internal heat gain from different light sources in the building lighting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suszanowicz, Dariusz

    2017-10-01

    EU directives and the Construction Law have for some time required investors to report the energy consumption of buildings, and this has indeed caused low energy consumption buildings to proliferate. Of particular interest, internal heat gains from installed lighting affect the final energy consumption for heating of both public and residential buildings. This article presents the results of analyses of the electricity consumption and the luminous flux and the heat flux emitted by different types of light sources used in buildings. Incandescent light, halogen, compact fluorescent bulbs, and LED bulbs from various manufacturers were individually placed in a closed and isolated chamber, and the parameters for their functioning under identical conditions were recorded. The heat flux emitted by 1 W nominal power of each light source was determined. Based on the study results, the empirical coefficients of heat emission and energy efficiency ratios for different types of lighting sources (dependent lamp power and the light output) were designated. In the heat balance of the building, the designated rates allow for precise determination of the internal heat gains coming from lighting systems using various light sources and also enable optimization of lighting systems of buildings that are used in different ways.

  4. Psychometric properties of a sign language version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øhre, Beate; Saltnes, Hege; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Falkum, Erik

    2014-05-22

    There is a need for psychiatric assessment instruments that enable reliable diagnoses in persons with hearing loss who have sign language as their primary language. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of the Norwegian Sign Language (NSL) version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). The MINI was translated into NSL. Forty-one signing patients consecutively referred to two specialised psychiatric units were assessed with a diagnostic interview by clinical experts and with the MINI. Inter-rater reliability was assessed with Cohen's kappa and "observed agreement". There was 65% agreement between MINI diagnoses and clinical expert diagnoses. Kappa values indicated fair to moderate agreement, and observed agreement was above 76% for all diagnoses. The MINI diagnosed more co-morbid conditions than did the clinical expert interview (mean diagnoses: 1.9 versus 1.2). Kappa values indicated moderate to substantial agreement, and "observed agreement" was above 88%. The NSL version performs similarly to other MINI versions and demonstrates adequate reliability and validity as a diagnostic instrument for assessing mental disorders in persons who have sign language as their primary and preferred language.

  5. Psychometric properties of a sign language version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need for psychiatric assessment instruments that enable reliable diagnoses in persons with hearing loss who have sign language as their primary language. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of the Norwegian Sign Language (NSL) version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Methods The MINI was translated into NSL. Forty-one signing patients consecutively referred to two specialised psychiatric units were assessed with a diagnostic interview by clinical experts and with the MINI. Inter-rater reliability was assessed with Cohen’s kappa and “observed agreement”. Results There was 65% agreement between MINI diagnoses and clinical expert diagnoses. Kappa values indicated fair to moderate agreement, and observed agreement was above 76% for all diagnoses. The MINI diagnosed more co-morbid conditions than did the clinical expert interview (mean diagnoses: 1.9 versus 1.2). Kappa values indicated moderate to substantial agreement, and “observed agreement” was above 88%. Conclusion The NSL version performs similarly to other MINI versions and demonstrates adequate reliability and validity as a diagnostic instrument for assessing mental disorders in persons who have sign language as their primary and preferred language. PMID:24886297

  6. Mini-Sosie - a new concept in high-resolution seismic surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiles, C J

    1977-12-01

    Mini-Sosie is a new approach to high-resolution reflection seismics using a nondynamite source. The basic principles is to use an ordinary earth tamper to produce a long duration pseudo-random input pulse train. Returning signals from suitable geophone arrays are decoded in real time by crosscorrelation with the reference signal recorded from a source-sensor attached to the tamper plate. Relatively weak signals are stacked until sufficient amplitude is obtained; most noise is phased out during the decoding process while in-phase seismic events are added, resulting in good signal-to-noise ratios. The resulting output is the standard field seismogram. The source is relatively quiet and surface damage is insignificant thereby avoiding environmental restrictions. Mini-Sosie is especially useful for shallow investigation to one second (two-way time) and has a wide range of applications from shallow oil and gas exploration, coal, and hard mineral exploration to hydrology and engineering studies.

  7. Application of sorption heat pumps for increasing of new power sources efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiliev, L.; Filatova, O.; Tsitovich, A.

    2010-07-01

    In the 21st century the way to increase the efficiency of new sources of energy is directly related with extended exploration of renewable energy. This modern tendency ensures the fuel economy needs to be realized with nature protection. The increasing of new power sources efficiency (cogeneration, trigeneration systems, fuel cells, photovoltaic systems) can be performed by application of solid sorption heat pumps, regrigerators, heat and cold accumulators, heat transformers, natural gas and hydrogen storage systems and efficient heat exchangers.

  8. SELECTION OF HEAT SUPPLY SOURCE FOR MOBILE BUILDING STRUCTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Dolgikh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a vortex heat generator with energy transformation of the highest  state  of matter motion  into  the  lowest  one  as  a  heat  supply  source  for a mobile object. Energy transformation coefficient indices close or equal to 1 have been obtained as a result of experiments on efficiency of the vortex heat generator. Such results can be explained with the help of the 2nd Bohr quantum postulate. Standard series of certified VTG heat generators has been proposed for heat supply of the mobile object (field hospital.

  9. A study of Ground Source Heat Pump based on a heat infiltrates coupling model established with FEFLOW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Hu, C.; Chen, G.; Zhang, Q.

    2017-12-01

    Geothermal heat is a viable source of energy and its environmental impact in terms of CO2 emissions is significantly lower than conventional fossil fuels. it is vital that engineers acquire a proper understanding about the Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP). In this study, the model of the borehole exchanger under conduction manners and heat infiltrates coupling manners was established with FEFLOW. The energy efficiency, heat transfer endurance and heat transfer in the unit depth were introduced to quantify the energy efficient and the endurance period. The performance of a the Borehole Exchanger (BHE) in soil with and without groundwater seepage was analyzed of heat transfer process between the soil and the working fluid. Basing on the model, the varied regularity of energy efficiency performance an heat transfer endurance with the conditions including the different configuration of the BHE, the soil properties, thermal load characteristic were discussed. Focus on the heat transfer process in multi-layer soil which one layer exist groundwater flow. And an investigation about thermal dispersivity was also analyzed its influence on heat transfer performance. The final result proves that the model of heat infiltrates coupling model established in this context is reasonable, which can be applied to engineering design.

  10. The universal power and efficiency characteristics for irreversible reciprocating heat engine cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Qin Xiao Yong; Sun Feng Rui; Wu Chih

    2003-01-01

    The performance of irreversible reciprocating heat engine cycles with heat transfer loss and friction-like term loss is analysed using finite-time thermodynamics. The universal relations between the power output and the compression ratio, between the thermal efficiency and the compression ratio, and the optimal relation between power output and the efficiency of the cycles are derived. Moreover, analysis and optimization of the model were carried out in order to investigate the effect of cycle processes on the performance of the cycle using numerical examples. The results obtained herein include the performance characteristics of irreversible reciprocating Diesel, Otto, Atkinson and Brayton cycles.

  11. Power performance of the general-purpose heat source radioisotope thermoelectric generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, G.L.; Lombardo, J.J.; Rock, B.J.

    1986-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GRHS-RTG) has been developed under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE) to provide electrical power for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Galileo mission to Jupiter and the joint NASA/European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses mission to study the polar regions of the sun. A total of five nuclear-heated generators and one electrically heated generator have been built and tested, proving out the design concept and meeting the specification requirements. The GPHS-RTG design is built upon the successful-technology used in the RTGs flown on the two NASA Voyager spacecraft and two US Air Force communications satellites. THe GPHS-RTG converts about 4400 W(t) from the nuclear heat source into at least 285 W(e) at beginning of mission (BOM). The GPHS-RTG consists of two major components: the General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) and the Converter. A conceptual drawing of the GPHs-RTG is presented and its design and performance are described

  12. Applications of New Chemical Heat Sources Phase 1

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, William

    2001-01-01

    Report developed under Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract. This project has examined the application of new chemical heat sources, with emphasis on portable heaters for military field rations...

  13. Thermal modeling of multi-shape heating sources on n-layer electronic board

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monier-Vinard Eric

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work completes the toolbox of analytical solutions that deal with resolving steady-state temperatures of a multi-layered structure heated by one or many heat sources. The problematic of heating sources having non-rectangular shapes is addressed to enlarge the capability of analytical approaches. Moreover, various heating sources could be located on the external surfaces of the sandwiched layers as well as embedded at interface of its constitutive layers. To demonstrate its relevance, the updated analytical solution has been compared with numerical simulations on the case of a multi-layered electronic board submitted to a set of heating source configurations. The comparison shows a high agreement between analytical and numerical calculations to predict the centroid and average temperatures. The promoted analytical approach establishes a kit of practical expressions, easy to implement, which would be cumulated, using superposition principle, to help electronic designers to early detect component or board temperatures beyond manufacturer limit. The ability to eliminate bad concept candidates with a minimum of set-up, relevant assumptions and low computation time can be easily achieved.

  14. Environmental assessment for the relocation and storage of isotopic heat sources, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    As part of a bilateral agreement between the Federal Minister for Research and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the DOE, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed processes for the treatment and immobilization of high-level radioactive waste. One element of this bilateral agreement was the production of sealed isotopic heat sources. During the mid-1980s, 30 sealed isotopic heat sources were manufactured. The sources contain a total of approximately 8.3 million curies consisting predominantly of cesium-137 and strontium-90 with trace amounts of transuranic contamination. Currently, the sources are stored in A-Cell of the 324 Building. Intense radiation fields from the sources are causing the cell windows and equipment to deteriorate. Originally, it was not intended to store the isotopic heat sources for this length of time in A-cell. The 34 isotopic heat sources are classified as remote handled transuranic wastes. Thirty-one of the isotopic heat sources are sealed, and seals on the three remaining isotopic heat sources have not been verified. However, a decision has been made to place the remaining three isotopic heat sources in the CASTOR cask(s). The Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) has concurred that isotopic heat sources with verified seals or those placed into CASTOR cask(s) can be considered sealed (no potential to emit radioactive air emissions) and are exempt from WAC Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions.

  15. Environmental assessment for the relocation and storage of isotopic heat sources, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    As part of a bilateral agreement between the Federal Minister for Research and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the DOE, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) developed processes for the treatment and immobilization of high-level radioactive waste. One element of this bilateral agreement was the production of sealed isotopic heat sources. During the mid-1980s, 30 sealed isotopic heat sources were manufactured. The sources contain a total of approximately 8.3 million curies consisting predominantly of cesium-137 and strontium-90 with trace amounts of transuranic contamination. Currently, the sources are stored in A-Cell of the 324 Building. Intense radiation fields from the sources are causing the cell windows and equipment to deteriorate. Originally, it was not intended to store the isotopic heat sources for this length of time in A-cell. The 34 isotopic heat sources are classified as remote handled transuranic wastes. Thirty-one of the isotopic heat sources are sealed, and seals on the three remaining isotopic heat sources have not been verified. However, a decision has been made to place the remaining three isotopic heat sources in the CASTOR cask(s). The Washington State Department of Health (WDOH) has concurred that isotopic heat sources with verified seals or those placed into CASTOR cask(s) can be considered sealed (no potential to emit radioactive air emissions) and are exempt from WAC Chapter 246-247, Radiation Protection-Air Emissions

  16. Mini-channel heat exchangers for industrial distillation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Bor, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this thesis the technical and economic performance of compression-resorption heat pumps has been investigated. The main objective of this thesis was to improve the performance and reduce the investment costs of compression-resorption heat pumps applied in process industry. A model that is able to

  17. Return of the mini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashmore, C.

    2001-01-01

    Partly as a result of the contentious nature of some large hydroelectric schemes, and continuing deregulation on a global scale, the mini hydro systems are enjoying unprecedented growth. This article discusses the reasons for the increase in demand for mini hydro systems, and describes Alstom Power Hydro's new, integrated 'water-to-wire' renewable energy solution which is a modular system which integrates the hydro-turbine, generator and controls to provide a single optimised product called the Mini-Aqua. The Mini-Aqua can be supplied inside a turnkey package including all civil works. The company is also looking to the future with development of its Powerformer technology for smaller-scale, grid-connected applications

  18. Consistência interna da versão em português do Mini-Inventário de Fobia Social (Mini-SPIN Internal consistency of the Portuguese version of the Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo J. Fonseca D'El Rey

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXTO: A fobia social é um grave transtorno de ansiedade que traz incapacitação e sofrimento. OBJETIVOS: Investigar a consistência interna da versão em português do Mini-Inventário de Fobia Social (Mini-SPIN. MÉTODOS: Foi realizado um estudo da consistência interna do Mini-SPIN em uma amostra de 206 estudantes universitários da cidade de São Paulo, SP. RESULTADOS: A consistência interna do instrumento, analisada pelo coeficiente alfa de Cronbach, foi de 0,81. CONCLUSÕES: Esses achados permitiram concluir que a versão em português do Mini-SPIN exibiu resultados de boa consistência interna, semelhantes aos da versão original em inglês.BACKGROUND: Social phobia is a severe anxiety disorder that brings disability and distress. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the internal consistency of the Portuguese version of the Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN. METHODS: We conducted a study of internal consistency of the Mini-SPIN in a sample of 206 college students of the city of São Paulo, SP. RESULTS: The internal consistency of the instrument, analyzed by Cronbach's alpha coefficient, was 0.81. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that the Portuguese version of the Mini-SPIN has a good internal consistency, similar to those obtained with the original English version.

  19. Graphic software ''MiniG'' for the Mini-6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zen, J.

    1984-06-01

    MiniG is a set of subprograms, written and aimed at being used in Fortran for graphic applications in nuclear physics (histograms or point clouds). It includes three representation modes of axis scales (linear, semi-log and squared root), five types of vectors and numerous graphic symbols for spectra representation with or without notation (circle, cross, arrow, triangle, spiral, etc.). It offers also the possibilities of the software ''Plot-10'' of Tektronix, and accept all the types of graphic terminals of SATD connected to Mini-6 [fr

  20. Research on a Household Dual Heat Source Heat Pump Water Heater with Preheater Based on ASPEN PLUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Gou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a dual heat source heat pump bathroom unit with preheater which is feasible for a single family. The system effectively integrates the air source heat pump (ASHP and wastewater source heat pump (WSHP technologies, and incorporates a preheater to recover shower wastewater heat and thus improve the total coefficient of performance (COP of the system, and it has no electric auxiliary heating device, which is favorable to improve the security of the system operation. The process simulation software ASPEN PLUS, widely used in the design and optimization of thermodynamic systems, was used to simulate various cases of system use and to analyze the impact of the preheater on the system. The average COP value of a system with preheater is 6.588 and without preheater it is 4.677. Based on the optimization and analysis, under the standard conditions of air at 25 °C, relative humidity of 70%, wastewater at 35 °C, wastewater flow rate of 0.07 kg/s, tap water at 15 °C, and condenser outlet water temperature at 50 °C, the theoretical COP of the system can reach 9.784 at an evaporating temperature of 14.96 °C, condensing temperature of 48.74 °C, and preheated water temperature of 27.19 °C.

  1. Analysis of the Potential of Low-Temperature Heat Pump Energy Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Neuberger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with an analysis of temperatures of ground masses in the proximities of linear and slinky-type HGHE (horizontal ground heat exchanger. It evaluates and compares the potentials of HGHEs and ambient air. The reason and aim of the verification was to gain knowledge of the temperature course of the monitored low-temperature heat pump energy sources during heating periods and periods of stagnation and to analyse the knowledge in terms of the potential to use those sources for heat pumps. The study was conducted in the years 2012–2015 during three heating periods and three periods of HGHEs stagnation. The results revealed that linear HGHE had the highest temperature potential of the observed low-temperature heat pump energy sources. The average daily temperatures of the ground mass surrounding the linear HGHE were the highest ranging from 7.08 °C to 9.20 °C during the heating periods, and having the lowest temperature variation range of 12.62–15.14 K, the relative frequency of the average daily temperatures of the ground mass being the highest at 22.64% in the temperature range containing the mode of all monitored temperatures in a recorded interval of [4.10, 6.00] °C. Ambient air had lower temperature potential than the monitored HGHEs.

  2. Desalination using low grade heat sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    A new, low temperature, energy-efficient and sustainable desalination system has been developed in this research. This system operates under near-vacuum conditions created by exploiting natural means of gravity and barometric pressure head. The system can be driven by low grade heat sources such as solar energy or waste heat streams. Both theoretical and experimental studies were conducted under this research to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed process. Theoretical studies included thermodynamic analysis and process modeling to evaluate the performance of the process using the following alternate energy sources for driving the process: solar thermal energy, solar photovoltaic/thermal energy, geothermal energy, and process waste heat emissions. Experimental studies included prototype scale demonstration of the process using grid power as well as solar photovoltaic/thermal sources. Finally, the feasibility of the process in reclaiming potable-quality water from the effluent of the city wastewater treatment plant was studied. The following results have been obtained from theoretical analysis and modeling: (1) The proposed process can produce up to 8 L/d of freshwater for 1 m2 area of solar collector and evaporation chamber respectively with a specific energy requirement of 3122 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (2) Photovoltaic/thermal (PV/T) energy can produce up to 200 L/d of freshwater with a 25 m2 PV/T module which meets the electricity needs of 21 kWh/d of a typical household as well. This configuration requires a specific energy of 3122 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (3) 100 kg/hr of geothermal water at 60°C as heat source can produce up to 60 L/d of freshwater with a specific energy requirement of 3078 kJ for 1 kg of freshwater production. (4) Waste heat released from an air conditioning system rated at 3.25 kW cooling, can produce up to 125 L/d of freshwater. This configuration requires an additional energy of 208 kJ/kg of

  3. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittereder, Nick [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2013-11-01

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season.

  4. Heat input properties of hollow cathode arc as a welding heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Hiroshi; Shobako, Shinichiro; Ohta, Masashi; Ohji, Takayoshi

    2005-01-01

    In order to clarify whether a hollow cathode arc (HCA) can be used as a welding heat source in space, investigations into the fundamental characteristics of HCA were experimentally performed under low pressure conditions. The HCA method enables an arc discharge to ignite and maintain under low pressure conditions; in contrast, low pressure conditions make it extremely difficult for the conventional gas tungsten arc method to form an arc discharge. In an earlier paper, it was shown that the melting process by HCA is very sensitive to process parameters such as the gas flow rate and arc length, and a deep penetration forms when the arc length is long and the gas flow rate is low. In this paper, the distribution of the arc current on the anode surface and the plasma properties of the HCA under low pressure conditions have been made clear and the total heat energy to the anode has been discussed in order to understand the heat input properties of the HCA. The result shows that the HCA in the case of a low gas flow rate is a high and concentrated energy source, and the high energy input to the anode contributes to the deep penetration

  5. Experimental investigation on lithium-ion battery thermal management based on flow boiling in mini-channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Zhoujian; Jia, Li; Li, Xuejiao; Ding, Yong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A new type of BTM system based on flow boiling in mini-channel are presented. • Uniform temperature and volume distribution of battery module are obtained. • The temperatures of battery cell are maintained around 40 °C. • There exists an appropriate Re number range for boiling heat transfer in mini-channel. - Abstract: In order to guarantee the safety and prolong the lifetime of lithium-ion power battery within electric vehicles, thermal management system is essential. A new type of thermal management system based on flow boiling in mini-channel utilizing dielectric hydrofluoroether liquid which boiling point is 34 °C is proposed. The cooling experiments for battery module are carried out at different discharge rates and flow Re number. The cooling effect and the influence of battery cooling on the electrochemical characteristics are concerned. The experimental results show that the thermal management can efficiently reduce maximum temperature of battery module and surface maximum temperature difference. A relatively uniform temperature and voltage distributions are provided within the battery module at higher discharge rate benefit from the advantage of boiling heat transfer with uniform temperature distribution on cold plate. It is shown that the voltage decreases with the increase of Re number of fluid due to the reducing of temperature. There exist slight fluctuations of voltage distribution because of the non-uniformity of temperature distribution within the battery module at higher discharge rates. For different discharge rate, there also exists an appropriate Re number range during which the mode of heat transfer is mainly in boiling heat transfer mode and the cooling result can be greatly improved.

  6. Numerical analysis of the heat source characteristics of a two-electrode TIG arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogino, Y; Hirata, Y; Nomura, K

    2011-01-01

    Various kinds of multi-electrode welding processes are used to ensure high productivity in industrial fields such as shipbuilding, automotive manufacturing and pipe fabrication. However, it is difficult to obtain the optimum welding conditions for a specific product, because there are many operating parameters, and because welding phenomena are very complicated. In the present research, the heat source characteristics of a two-electrode TIG arc were numerically investigated using a 3D arc plasma model with a focus on the distance between the two electrodes. The arc plasma shape changed significantly, depending on the electrode spacing. The heat source characteristics, such as the heat input density and the arc pressure distribution, changed significantly when the electrode separation was varied. The maximum arc pressure of the two-electrode TIG arc was much lower than that of a single-electrode TIG. However, the total heat input of the two-electrode TIG arc was nearly constant and was independent of the electrode spacing. These heat source characteristics of the two-electrode TIG arc are useful for controlling the heat input distribution at a low arc pressure. Therefore, these results indicate the possibility of a heat source based on a two-electrode TIG arc that is capable of high heat input at low pressures.

  7. Magnet-Sleeve-Sealed Mini Trochoidal-Gear Pump Prototype with Polymer Composite Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Javier Gamez-Montero

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The trochoidal-gear technology has been growing in groundbreaking fields. Forthcoming applications are demanding to this technology a step forward in the conceiving stage of positive displacement machines. The compendium of the qualities and the inherent characteristics of trochoidal-gear technology, especially towards the gerotor pump, together with scale/size factor and magnetic-driven transmission has led to the idea of a magnet-sleeve-sealed variable flow mini trochoidal-gear pump. From its original concept, to the last phase of the design development, the proof of concept, this new product will intend to overcome problems such as noise, vibration, maintenance, materials, and dimensions. The paper aims to show the technological path followed from the concept, design, and model, to the manufacture of the first prototype, where the theoretical and numerical approaches are not always directly reflected in the prototype performance results. Early in the design process, from a standard-commercial sintered metal mini trochoidal-gear unit, fundamental characteristics and dimensional limitations have been evaluated becoming the strategic parameters that led to its configuration. The main technical challenge to confront is being sealed with non-exterior driveshaft, ensuring that the whole interior is filled and wetted with working fluid and helping the hydrodynamic film formation, the pumping effect, and the heat dissipation. Subsequently, the mini pump architecture, embodiment, methodology, materials, and manufacture are presented. The trend of applications of polymer composite materials and their benefits wanted to be examined with this new mini pump prototype, and a pure polyoxymethylene mini trochoidal-gear set has been designed and manufactured. Finally, both the sintered and the polymer trochoidal-gear units have been experimentally tested in an in-house full-instrumented mini test bench. Although the main goal of the presented work is the

  8. Optimization of a regenerative Brayton cycle by maximization of a newly defined second law efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haseli, Y.

    2013-01-01

    The idea is to find out whether 2nd law efficiency optimization may be a suitable trade-off between maximum work output and maximum 1st law efficiency designs for a regenerative gas turbine engine operating on the basis of an open Brayton cycle. The primary emphasis is placed on analyzing the ideal

  9. [Validation of the portuguese version of the Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'El Rey, Gustavo José Fonseca; Matos, Cláudia Wilmor

    2009-01-01

    Social phobia (also known as social anxiety disorder) is a severe mental disorder that brings distress and disability. The aim of this study was validate to the Portuguese language the Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN) in a populational sample. We performed a discriminative validity study of the Mini-SPIN in a sample of 644 subjects (Mini-SPIN positive group: n = 218 and control/negative group: n = 426) of a study of anxiety disorders' prevalence in the city of Santo André-SP. The Portuguese version of the Mini-SPIN (with score of 6 points, suggested in the original English version) demonstrated a sensitivity of 95.0%, specificity of 80.3%, positive predictive value of 52.8%, negative predictive value of 98.6% and incorrect classification rate of 16.9%. With score of 7 points, was observed an increase in the specificity and positive predictive value (88.6% and 62.7%), while the sensitivity and negative predictive value (84.8% and 96.2%) remained high. The Portuguese version of the Mini-SPIN showed satisfactory psychometric qualities in terms of discriminative validity. In this study, the cut-off of 7, was considered to be the most suitable to screening of the generalized social phobia.

  10. Experimental Investigations from the Operation of a 2 Kw Brayton Power Conversion Unit and a Xenon Ion Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Lee; Birchenough, Arthur; Pinero, Luis

    2004-01-01

    A 2 kW Brayton Power Conversion Unit (PCU) and a xenon ion thruster were integrated with a Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) system as part of a Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) Testbed at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Brayton converters and ion thrusters are potential candidates for use on future high power NEP missions such as the proposed Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO). The use of existing lower power test hardware provided a cost-effective means to investigate the critical electrical interface between the power conversion system and ion propulsion system. The testing successfully demonstrated compatible electrical operations between the converter and the thruster, including end-to-end electric power throughput, high efficiency AC to DC conversion, and thruster recycle fault protection. The details of this demonstration are reported herein.

  11. Ground source geothermal heat. Ground source heat pumps and underground thermal energy storage systems. Proceedings; Oberflaechennahe Geothermie. Erdgekoppelte Waermepumpen und unterirdische thermische Energiespeicher. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    At the ninth international user forum on shallow geothermal heat on 28th and 29th April, 2009, at BadStaffelstein (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Information system on shallow geothermal heat for Bavaria (Marcellus Schulze); (2) Calculation of the spreading of temperature anomalies in groundwater as an instrument of planning of heat pump systems (Wolfgang Rauch); (3) Comparison of models for simulation of deep geothermal probes (Markus Proell); (4) Impact of the geometry of boreholes and probes on heat transport (Manfred Reuss); (5) Thermal respond tests and temperature depth profiles - Experience from research and practice (Markus Kuebert); (6) A model of simulation for the investigation of the impact of different heat transfer fluids on the efficiency of ground source heat pump devices (Roland Koenigsdorff); (7) The research project EWSplus - Investigations for quality assurance of geothermal probes (Mathieu Riegger); (8) Quality management of plants for the utilization of shallow geothermal heat with geothermal probes - the example of Baden-Wuerttemberg (Bruno Lorinser, Ingrid Stober); (9) Not every heat pump contributes to climate protection (Falk Auer); (10) Field measurements of heat pumps in residential buildings with modern standard and in older buildings (Marek Miara); (11) System technology for a great annual performance factor (Werner Schenk); (12) Modification of older geothermal heat probe devices for use with modern heat pumps (Klaus Friedrich Staerk); (13) Energy-efficient modernisation of a pensioners' condominium from the 1970s with solar-geothermal-air (Michael Guigas); (14) Evaluation and optimization of operation of seasonal storage systems in the foundations of office buildings (Herdis Kipry); (15) Evaluation of an innovative heating and cooling concept with rain water vessels, thermo-active building components and phase change materials in a residential building (Doreen Kalz); (16) Contracts for ground

  12. Heating effects in a liquid metal ion source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mair, G.L.R.; Aitken, K.L.

    1984-01-01

    A reassessment is made of the heating occurring at the anode of a liquid metal ion source, in the light of new microscopic observations. The apex region of the cones is in the form of a cusp, or jet, even at very low currents. The calculation for ohmic heating is conclusive for low currents; no heating occurs at the anode; for high currents (approx. 50-100 μA), substantial heating is conceivable, if a long, very thin, cylindrical jet exists at the apex of the anode. The answer to the problem of external heating, in the form of electrons bombarding the anode, is not quite conclusive; this is because of the impossibility of correctly assessing the electron flux entering the anode. However, it would appear to be a definite conclusion that for reasons of self-consistency field-ionisation of thermally released atoms cannot be a significant ion emission mechanism. (author)

  13. PV-hybrid and mini-grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the 5th European PV-hybrid and mini-grid conference 29th and 30th April, 2010 in Tarragona (Spain) the following lectures were held: (1) Overview of IEA PVPS Task 11 PV-hybrid systems within mini grids; (2) Photovoltaic revolution for deployment in developing countries; (3) Legal and financial conditions for the sustainable operation of mini-grids; (4) EU instruments to promote renewable energies in developing countries; (5) PV hybridization of diesel electricity generators: Conditions of profitability and examples in differential power and storage size ranges; (6) Education suit of designing PV hybrid systems; (7) Sustainable renewable energy projects for intelligent rural electrification in Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam; (8) Techno-economic feasibility of energy supply of remote villages in Palestine by PV systems, diesel generators and electric grid (Case studies: Emnazeil and Atouf villages); (9) Technical, economical and sustainability considerations of a solar PV mini grid as a tool for rural electrification in Uganda; (10) Can we rate inverters for rural electrification on the basis of energy efficiency?; (11) Test procedures for MPPT charge controllers characterization; (12) Energy storage for mini-grid stabilization; (13) Redox flow batteries - Already an alternative storage solution for hybrid PV mini-grids?; (14) Control methods for PV hybrid mini-grids; (15) Partial AC-coupling in mini-grids; (15) Normative issues of small wind turbines in PV hybrid systems; (16) Communication solutions for PV hybrid systems; (17) Towards flexible control and communication of mini-grids; (18) PV/methanol fuel cell hybrid system for powering a highway security variable message board; (19) Polygeneration smartgrids: A solution for the supply of electricity, potable water and hydrogen as fuel for transportation in remote Areas; (20) Implementation of the Bronsbergen micro grid using FACDS; (21) A revisited approach for the design of PV wind hybrid systems; (22

  14. Effect of the Presence of Semi-circular Cylinders on Heat Transfer From Heat Sources Placed in Two Dimensional Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed W. Mustava

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of a semi-circular cylinders in a two dimensional channel on heat transfer by forced convection from two heat sources with a constant temperature has been studied numerically. Each channel contains two heat sources; one on the upper surface of the channel and the other on the lower surface of the channel. There is semi-circular cylinder under the source in upper surface and there is semi-circular cylinder above the source in lower surface. The location of the second heat source with its semi-cylinder has been changed and keeps the first source with its semi- cylinder at the same location. The flow and temperature field are studied numerically with different values of Reynolds numbers and for different spacing between the centers of the semi-cylinders. The laminar flow field is analyzed numerically by solving the steady forms of the two-dimensional incompressible Navier- Stokes and energy equations.  The Cartesian velocity components and pressure on a collocated (non-staggered grid are used as dependent variables in the momentum equations, which discretized by finite volume method, body fitted coordinates are used to represent the complex channel geometry accurately, and grid generation technique based on elliptic partial differential equations is employed. SIMPLE algorithm is used to adjust the velocity field to satisfy the conservation of mass.  The range of Reynolds number is (Re= 100 – 800 and the range of the spacing between the semi-cylinders is(1-4 and the Prandtl number is 0.7.The results showed that increasing the spacing between the semi-cylinders increases the average of Nusselt number of the first heat source for all Reynolds numbers. As well as the results show that the best case among the cases studied to enhance the heat transfer is when the second heat source and its semi-cylinder located on at the distance (S=1.5 from the first half of the cylinder and the Reynolds number is greater than (Re ≥ 400 because of the

  15. P A Mini

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Bulletin of Materials Science. P A Mini. Articles written in Bulletin of Materials Science. Volume 36 Issue 4 August 2013 pp 547-551. Composite supercapacitor electrodes made of activated carbon/PEDOT:PSS and activated carbon/doped PEDOT · T S Sonia P A Mini R Nandhini Kalluri Sujith Balakrishnan ...

  16. A mini-microscope for in situ monitoring of cells†‡

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Bok; Koo, Kyo-in; Bae, Hojae; Dokmeci, Mehmet R.; Hamilton, Geraldine A.; Bahinski, Anthony; Kim, Sun Min; Ingber, Donald E.

    2013-01-01

    A mini-microscope was developed for in situ monitoring of cells by modifying off-the-shelf components of a commercial webcam. The mini-microscope consists of a CMOS imaging module, a small plastic lens and a white LED illumination source. The CMOS imaging module was connected to a laptop computer through a USB port for image acquisition and analysis. Due to its compact size, 8 × 10 × 9 cm, the present microscope is portable and can easily fit inside a conventional incubator, and enables real-time monitoring of cellular behaviour. Moreover, the mini-microscope can be used for imaging cells in conventional cell culture flasks, such as Petri dishes and multi-well plates. To demonstrate the operation of the mini-microscope, we monitored the cellular migration of mouse 3T3 fibroblasts in a scratch assay in medium containing three different concentrations of fetal bovine serum (5, 10, and 20%) and demonstrated differential responses depending on serum levels. In addition, we seeded embryonic stem cells inside poly(ethylene glycol) microwells and monitored the formation of stem cell aggregates in real time using the mini-microscope. Furthermore, we also combined a lab-on-a-chip microfluidic device for microdroplet generation and analysis with the mini-microscope and observed the formation of droplets under different flow conditions. Given its cost effectiveness, robust imaging and portability, the presented platform may be useful for a range of applications for real-time cellular imaging using lab-on-a-chip devices at low cost. PMID:22911426

  17. Heat source component development program. Report for July--December 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, E.L. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    This is the seventh of a series of reports describing the results of several analytical and experimental programs being conducted at Battelle-Columbus Laboratories to develop components for advanced radioisotope heat source applications. The heat sources will for the most part be used in advanced static and dynamic power conversion systems. Battelle's support of LASL during the current reporting period has been to determine the operational and reentry response of selected heat source trial designs, and their thermal response to a space shuttle solid propellant fire environment. Thermal, ablation, and thermal stress analyses were conducted using two-dimensional modeling techniques previously employed for the analysis of the earlier trial design versions, and modified in part to improve the modeling accuracy. Further modifications were made to improve the modeling accuracy as described herein. Thermal, ablation, and thermal stress analyses were then conducted for the trial design selected by LASL/DOE for more detailed studies using three-dimensional modeling techniques

  18. Mission environments for the Isotope Brayton Flight System (preliminary)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The mission environments for the Isotope Brayton Flight Systems (IBFS) are summarized. These are based on (1) those environments established for the MHW-RTG system in the LES 8/9 and Mariner J/S and (2) engineering projections of those likely to exit for the IBFS. The pre-launch environments address transportation, storage, handling and assembly (to spacecraft) and checkout, field transportation, and launch site operations. Launch environments address the Titan IIIC and Shuttle launch vehicles. Operational mission environments address normal space temperature and meteoroide environments. Special environments that may be applicable to DOD missions are not included. Accident environments address explosion and fire for the Titan IIIC and the Shuttle, reentry, earth impact and post impact

  19. Validação da versão em português do Mini-Inventário de Fobia Social (Mini-SPIN) Validation of the portuguese version of the Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN)

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo José Fonseca D'El Rey; Cláudia Wilmor Matos

    2009-01-01

    A fobia social (também conhecida como transtorno de ansiedade social) é um grave transtorno mental que traz sofrimento e incapacitação. O objetivo deste estudo foi validar para a língua portuguesa o Mini-Inventário de Fobia Social (Mini-SPIN) em uma amostra da população. Foi realizado um estudo da validade discriminativa do Mini-SPIN em uma amostra de 644 pessoas (grupo positivo para o Mini-SPIN: n = 218 e grupo controle/negativo: n = 426) de um estudo de prevalência de transtornos de ansieda...

  20. Experimental research on novel adsorption chiller driven by low grade heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.C.; Shi, Z.X.; Yang, Q.R.; Tian, X.L.; Zhang, J.C.; Wu, J.Y.

    2007-01-01

    A novel silica gel-water adsorption chiller is developed. This chiller consists of three vacuum chambers: two adsorption/desorption (or evaporation/condensation) vacuum chambers and one heat pipe working vacuum chamber. In this chiller, only one vacuum valve is installed between the two adsorption/desorption vacuum chambers to improve its performance when it is driven by a low temperature heat source. The operational reliability of the chiller is highly improved because of fewer moving parts. In this work, the performance of the chiller is experimentally tested under a low grade heat source, such as 55-67 o C. The test results show that the performance of this chiller is satisfying when it is driven by a low grade heat source, such as 65 o C, and the cooling capacity (or refrigeration capacity) will reach about 5 kW when the hot water temperature is 65 o C, the cooling water temperature is 30.5 o C and the chilled water inlet temperature is 15.1 o C. The test results confirm that this kind of adsorption chiller can be effectively driven by a low grade heat source

  1. Heat source component development program, October 1977--February 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-03-01

    The General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is being developed by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) for the Department of Energy (DOE) Division of Nuclear Research and Application (DNRA). The first mission scheduled for the GPHS is the NASA Out-of-Ecliptic Flight in January, 1983. During the current reporting period (October--December, 1977, January--February, 1978), activities in this task were conducted as follows: (1) documentation of results of the reentry thermal, ablation, and thermal stress analyses of the conceptual designs; (2) identification and completion of modifications to the thermal and ablation models used to determine the performance response of the heat source modules during reentry; (3) initiation of modifications to the thermal stress model used to determine the performance response of heat source modules during reentry; (4) completion and documentation of the surface chemistry experiments; (5) initiation and completion of activities in support of LASL to define test plans for the trial design phase of the GPHS development program; (6) participation in the GPHS design review meeting held at DOE/Germantown, Maryland, December 19--20, 1977; and (7) initiation of the thermal analysis of Trial Design 1.1

  2. Thermal non-equilibrium heat transfer in a porous cavity in the presence of bio-chemical heat source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazari Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with thermal non-equilibrium natural convection in a square cavity filled with a porous medium in the presence of a biomass which is transported in the cavity. The biomass can consume a secondary moving substrate. The physics of the presented problem is related to the analysis of heat and mass transfer in a composting process that controlled by internal heat generation. The intensity of the bio-heat source generated in the cavity is equal to the rate of consumption of the substrate by the biomass. It is assumed that the porous medium is homogeneous and isotropic. A two-field model that represents the fluid and solid phase temperature fields separately is used for energy equation. A simplified Monod model is introduced along with the governing equations to describe the consumption of the substrate by the biomass. In other word, the transient biochemical heat source which is dependent on a solute concentration is considered in the energy equations. Investigation of the biomass activity and bio-chemical heat generation in the case of thermal non-equilibrium assumption has not been considered in the literature and they are open research topics. The effects of thermal non-equilibrium model on heat transfer, flow pattern and biomass transfer are investigated. The effective parameters which have a direct impact on the generated bio-chemical heat source are also presented. The influences of the non-dimensional parameters such as fluid-to-solid conductivity ratio on the temperature distribution are presented.

  3. Optimum performance of the small scale open and direct solar thermal Brayton cycle at various environmental conditions and constraints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Roux, W.G.; Bello-Ochende, T.; Meyer, J.P. [Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Pretoria, (South Africa)

    2011-07-01

    The energy of the sun can be transformed into mechanical power through the use of concentrated solar power systems. The use of the Brayton cycle with recuperator has significant advantages but also raises issues such as pressure loss and low net power output which are mainly due to irreversibilities of heat transfer and fluid friction. The aim of this study is to optimize the system to generate maximum net power output. Thermodynamic and dynamic trajectory optimizations were performed on a dish concentrator and an off-the-shelf micro-turbine and the effects of wind, solar irradiance and other environmental conditions and constraints on the power output were analyzed. Results showed that the maximum power output is increased when wind decreases and irradiance increases; solar irradiance was found to have a more significant impact than wind. This study highlighted the factors which impact the power generation of concentrated solar power systems so that designers can take them into account.

  4. Mini-Cog and Mini-Mental State Examination: agreement in a cross-sectional study with an elderly sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Diogo; Severo, Milton; Fraga, Sílvia; Barros, Henrique

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to compare the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) with the Mini-Cog, measuring agreement in participants' classification, using a general population sample. Cross-sectional evaluation of 609 community dwellers aged ≥60 years was performed by trained interviewers. Cohen's kappa and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to assess overall agreement, and Cronbach alphas computed to assess reliability. Two-parameter Item Response Theory models (difficulty and discrimination parameters) were used to assess discrimination. Considering MMSE cut-point for scores Mini-Cog's cut-point score Mini-Cog Mini-Cog Mini-Cog's alpha was 0.2776. Co-calibration according to inherent ability is graphically presented. Agreement between scales seems fragile in our sample. The discriminative and reliability analysis suggests a better performance for subsets of the MMSE compared with the Mini-Cog. Usefulness of calibrated scores is discussed. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Study on Fins' Effect of Boiling Flow in Millimeter Channel Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Satoshi

    2005-11-01

    Recently, a lot of researches about compact heat exchangers with mini-channels have been carried out with the hope of obtaining a high-efficiency heat transfer, due to the higher ratio of surface area than existing heat exchangers. However, there are many uncertain phenomena in fields such as boiling flow in mini-channels. Thus, in order to understand the boiling flow in mini-channels to design high-efficiency heat exchangers, this work focused on the visualization measurement of boiling flow in a millimeter channel. A transparent acrylic channel (heat exchanger form), high-speed camera (2000 fps at 1024 x 1024 pixels), and halogen lamp (backup light) were used as the visualization system. The channel's depth is 2 mm, width is 30 mm, and length is 400 mm. In preparation for commercial use, two types of channels were experimented on: a fins type and a normal slit type (without fins). The fins are circular cylindrical obstacles (diameter is 5 mm) to promote heat transfer, set in a triangular array (distance between each center point is 10 mm). Especially in this work, boiling flow and heat transfer promotion in the millimeter channel heat exchanger with fins was evaluated using a high-speed camera.

  6. Recovery Act: Tennessee Energy Efficient Schools Initiative Ground Source Heat Pump Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Townsend, Terry [Townsend Engineering, Inc., Davenport, IA (United States); Slusher, Scott [Townsend Engineering, Inc., Davenport, IA (United States)

    2017-04-24

    The Tennessee Energy Efficient Schools Initiative (EESI) Hybrid-Water Source Heat Pump (HY-GSHP) Program sought to provide installation costs and operation costs for different Hybrid water source heat pump systems’ configurations so that other State of Tennessee School Districts will have a resource for comparison purposes if considering a geothermal system.

  7. Heating with ice. Efficient heating source for heat pumps. Primary source storage. Alternative to soil sensors and soil collectors; Heizen mit Eis. Effiziente Waermequelle fuer Waermepumpen. Primaerquellenspeicher, Alternative zu Erdsonden und Erdkollektoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tippelt, Egbert [Viessmann, Allendorf (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    For several years heat pumps have taken up a fixed place in the mix of annually installed thermal generators. Thus, in the year 2010 every tenth newly installed heater was a heat pump. A new concept for the development and utilization of natural heat now makes this technology even more attractive. From this perspective, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on a SolarEis storage. This SolarEis storage consists of a cylindrical concrete tank with two heat exchangers consiting of plastic pipes. The SolarEis storage uses outdoor air, solar radiation and soil as heat sources for brine / water heat pumps simultaneously.

  8. Performance analysis of air source heat pump system for office building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Dong Won; KIm, Yong Chan [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Young Soo [School of Mechanical System Engineering, Kookmin University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    In this study, the performance of an air source heat pump system installed in a commercial building is analyzed using the developed heat pump performance model and building load simulation data of several regions in Korea. The performance test of an air source heat pump system with a variable speed compressor is tested to develop model that considers changes in the performance characteristics of the heat pump system under various operating conditions. The heat pump system is installed in an environmental chamber, and the experimental equipment is set up according to the manufacturer' specifications as well as the AHRI 1230 test specifications. The performance test conditions of the heat pump system are selected using a central composite design method, in which 29 points for each cooling and heating mode are selected. The developed performance model based on experimental data predicts experimental values with an error of ±5 %. Building cooling and heating loads in three regions in Korea are analyzed using TRNSYS software, which includes standard building and weather data from Seoul, Daejeon and Busan in Korea. The effects of outdoor air temperature and part load ratio on the performance and regional monthly average power consumption of the heat pump system are analyzed.

  9. Energy consumption modeling of air source electric heat pump water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourke, Grant; Bansal, Pradeep

    2010-01-01

    Electric heat pump air source water heaters may provide an opportunity for significant improvements in residential water heater energy efficiency in countries with temperate climates. As the performance of these appliances can vary widely, it is important for consumers to be able to accurately assess product performance in their application to maximise energy savings and ensure uptake of this technology. For a given ambient temperature and humidity, the performance of an air source heat pump water heater is strongly correlated to the water temperature in or surrounding the condenser. It is therefore important that energy consumption models for these products duplicate the real-world water temperatures applied to the heat pump condenser. This paper examines a recently published joint Australian and New Zealand Standard, AS/NZS 4234: 2008; Heated water systems - Calculation of energy consumption. Using this standard a series TRNSYS models were run for several split type air source electric heat pump water heaters. An equivalent set of models was then run utilizing an alternative water use pattern. Unfavorable errors of up to 12% were shown to occur in modeling of heat pump water heater performance using the current standard compared to the alternative regime. The difference in performance of a model using varying water use regimes can be greater than the performance difference between models of product.

  10. The ion source development for neutral injection heating at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirakata, H.; Itoh, T.; Kondoh, U.; Matsuda, S.; Ohara, Y.; Ohga, T.; Shibata, T.; Sugawara, T.; Tanaka, S.

    1976-01-01

    The neutral beam research and development effort at JAERI has been mainly concentrated on design, construction and testing of ion sources needed for present and planned heating experiments. Fundamental characteristics of the ion sources developed are described

  11. Energy well. Ground-source heat in one-family houses; Energiakaivo. Maalaemmoen hyoedyntaeminen pientaloissa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juvonen, J.; Lapinlampi, T.

    2013-08-15

    This guide deals with the legislation, planning, building, usage and maintenance of ground-source heat systems. The guide gives recommendations and instructions on national level on the permit practices and how to carry out the whole ground-source heat system project. The main focus of the guide is on energy wells for one-family houses. The principle is that an action permit is needed to build a ground-source heat system. On ground water areas a permit according to the water act may also be required. To avoid any problems, the placement of the system needs to be planned precisely. This guide gives a comprehension to the orderer on the issues that need to be considered before ordering, during construction, when the system is running and when giving up the use of the ground-source heat system. (orig.)

  12. MiniDraw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    MiniDraw is a teaching-oriented 2D graphics direct manipulation framework in Java, inspired by JHotDraw. It is used in the book "Flexible, Reliable Software - using Patterns and Agile Development", by Henrik Bærbak Christensen, published by CRC Press 2010.......MiniDraw is a teaching-oriented 2D graphics direct manipulation framework in Java, inspired by JHotDraw. It is used in the book "Flexible, Reliable Software - using Patterns and Agile Development", by Henrik Bærbak Christensen, published by CRC Press 2010....

  13. The numerical simulation of heat transfer during a hybrid laser-MIG welding using equivalent heat source approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendaoud, Issam; Matteï, Simone; Cicala, Eugen; Tomashchuk, Iryna; Andrzejewski, Henri; Sallamand, Pierre; Mathieu, Alexandre; Bouchaud, Fréderic

    2014-03-01

    The present study is dedicated to the numerical simulation of an industrial case of hybrid laser-MIG welding of high thickness duplex steel UR2507Cu with Y-shaped chamfer geometry. It consists in simulation of heat transfer phenomena using heat equivalent source approach and implementing in finite element software COMSOL Multiphysics. A numerical exploratory designs method is used to identify the heat sources parameters in order to obtain a minimal required difference between the numerical results and the experiment which are the shape of the welded zone and the temperature evolution in different locations. The obtained results were found in good correspondence with experiment, both for melted zone shape and thermal history.

  14. Mini-grid Policy Tool-kit. Policy and business frameworks for successful mini-grid roll-outs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, Michael; Hayek, Niklas; Peterschmidt, Nico; Rohrer, Michael; Kondev, Bozhil; Adib, Rana; Cader, Catherina; Carter, Andrew; George, Peter; Gichungi, Henry; Hankins, Mark; Kappiah, Mahama; Mangwengwende, Simbarashe E.

    2014-01-01

    The Mini-grid Policy Tool-kit is for policy makers to navigate the mini-grid policy design process. It contains information on mini-grid operator models, the economics of mini-grids, and necessary policy and regulation that must be considered for successful implementation. The publication specifically focuses on Africa. Progress on extending the electricity grid in many countries has remained slow because of high costs of gird-extension and limited utility/state budgets for electrification. Mini-grids provide an affordable and cost-effective option to extend needed electricity services. Putting in place the right policy for min-grid deployment requires considerable effort but can yield significant improvement in electricity access rates as examples from Kenya, Senegal and Tanzania illustrate. The tool-kit is available in English, French and Portuguese

  15. Quality assurance program plan for FRG sealed isotopic heat sources project (C-229)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanke, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    This QAPP implements the Quality Assurance Program Plan for the FRG Sealed Isotopic Heat Sources Project (C-229). The heat source will be relocated from the 324 Building and placed in interim storage at the Central Waste Complex (CWC)

  16. Effects of the generator and evaporator temperature differences on a double absorption heat transformer—Different control strategies on utilizing heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hanzhi; Li, Huashan; Bu, Xianbiao; Wang, Lingbao

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of the GETD on the DAHT system performance are analyzed. • Three different configurations are compared in detail. • Suggestions on the heat source control strategies are given. - Abstract: The combination of the absorption heat transformer with renewable energy systems, like solar thermal systems, is raising more and more concern. In those combined systems the strategies on utilizing heat sources can affect system thermodynamic performance significantly. Therefore, this study presents a detailed analysis on the effect of the heat source temperature and different heat source flow patterns on the performance of a double absorption heat transformer (DAHT). A detailed comparative study is carried out to clarify the impact of the generator and evaporator temperature differences (GETD) on the coefficient of performance (COP), exergy efficient (ECOP), exergy destruction rates in the individual components and heat transfer areas needed for each component. The results show that the generator, condenser and absorber-evaporator are responsible for most of the exergy destruction rate in the DAHT system; the parallel-flow configuration (the generator temperature is equal to the evaporator temperature) performs better under the high gross temperature lift conditions; in the case of the counter-flow configuration (the generator temperature is relatively higher), better performance can be obtained in both the COP and ECOP under the proper heat source temperature (85 and 95 °C); the fair-flow configuration (higher temperature in the evaporator) is not recommended in this paper due to no advantages found in either thermodynamic performance or system size.

  17. Natural convection heat transfer in a rectangular pool with volumetric heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Dong; Lee, Kang Hee; Suh, Kune Y.

    2003-01-01

    Natural convection plays an important role in determining the thermal load from debris accumulated in the reactor vessel lower head during a severe accident. The heat transfer within the molten core material can be characterized by buoyancy-induced flows resulting from internal heating due to decay of fission products. The thermo-fluid dynamic characteristics of the molten pool depend strongly on the thermal boundary conditions. The spatial and temporal variation of heat flux on the pool wall boundaries and the pool superheat are mainly characterized by the natural convection flow inside the molten pool. In general, natural convection involving internal heat generation is delineated in terms of the modified Rayleigh number, Ra', which quantifies the internal heat source and hence the strength of buoyancy. The test section is of rectangular cavity whose length, width, and height are 500 mm, 80 mm, and 250 mm, respectively. A total of twenty-four T-type thermocouples were installed in the test loop to measure temperature distribution. Four T-type thermocouples were utilized to measure temperatures on the boundary. A direct heating method was adopted in this test to simulate the uniform heat generation. The experiments covered a range of Rayleigh number, Ra, between 4.87x10 7 and 2.32x10 14 and Prandtl number, Pr, between 0.7 and 3.98. Tests were conducted with water and air as simulant. The upper and lower boundary conditions were maintained at a uniform temperature of 10degC. (author)

  18. Moving heat source in a confined channel: Heat transfer and boiling in endovenous laser ablation of varicose veins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Amit; Oliveira, Jorge L. G.; van der Geld, Cees W. M.; Malskat, Wendy S. J.; van den Bos, Renate; Nijsten, Tamar; van Gemert, Martin J. C.

    2017-01-01

    Motion of a moving laser light heat source in a confined volume has important applications such as in endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) of varicose veins. This light heats up the fluid and the wall volume by absorption and heat conduction. The present study compares the flow and temperature fields in

  19. Ground-source heat pump case studies and utility programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lienau, P.J.; Boyd, T.L.; Rogers, R.L.

    1995-04-01

    Ground-source heat pump systems are one of the promising new energy technologies that has shown rapid increase in usage over the past ten years in the United States. These systems offer substantial benefits to consumers and utilities in energy (kWh) and demand (kW) savings. The purpose of this study was to determine what existing monitored data was available mainly from electric utilities on heat pump performance, energy savings and demand reduction for residential, school and commercial building applications. In order to verify the performance, information was collected for 253 case studies from mainly utilities throughout the United States. The case studies were compiled into a database. The database was organized into general information, system information, ground system information, system performance, and additional information. Information was developed on the status of demand-side management of ground-source heat pump programs for about 60 electric utility and rural electric cooperatives on marketing, incentive programs, barriers to market penetration, number units installed in service area, and benefits.

  20. Current status of ground-source heat pumps in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Wei; Zhou Jin; Xu Wei; Zhang Guoqiang

    2010-01-01

    As a renewable energy technology, the ground-source heat pump (GSHP) technologies have increasingly attracted world-wide attention due to their advantages of energy efficiency and environmental friendliness. This paper presents Chinese research and application on GSHP followed by descriptions of patents. The policies related to GSHP are also introduced and analyzed. With the support of Chinese government, several new heat transfer models and two new GSHP systems (named pumping and recharging well (PRW) and integrated soil cold storage and ground-source heat pump (ISCS and GSHP) system) have been developed by Chinese researchers. The applications of GSHP systems have been growing rapidly since the beginning of the 21st century with financial incentives and supportive government policies. However, there are still several challenges for the application of GSHP systems in large scale. This paper raises relevant suggestions for overcoming the existing and potential obstacles. In addition, the developing and applying prospects of GSHP systems in China are also discussed.

  1. Review of mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX in a psychiatry clerkship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meresh E

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Edwin Meresh,1 David Daniels,2 Aparna Sharma,1 Murali Rao,1 Kaushal Mehta,3 David Schilling1 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Neurosciences, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Medstar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC, USA; 3School of Public Health, Stritch School of Medicine, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, IL USA Background: Direct observation of medical students with actual patients is important for the assessment of clinical skills including interviewing and counseling skills. This article describes medical students’ experience of mini-clinical evaluation exercise (mini-CEX during their clerkship in consultation psychiatry. Materials and methods: In our center during inpatient consultation psychiatry clerkship, all rotating students are expected to complete one mini-CEX assessment as part of their clinical training. We conducted retrospective analysis of mini-CEX ratings completed from 2013 to 2016. All evaluations took place at inpatient medical setting in patients admitted with medical conditions and psychiatric comorbidities. Results: A total of 113 evaluations were reviewed. The time examiner observed the interaction of a student with the patient was 14.24 minutes (mean, and the time spent in providing feedback to the student was 9.71 minutes. Complexity of problem was rated as low in 0.88% (n=1, moderate in 50.44% (n=57, and high in 48.67% (n=55. Highest ratings were for professionalism, similar to previous reports. Total score calculated by examiner showed no difference by the complexity of the patient; however, we observed a trend in higher counseling score for the high complexity group. Conclusion: Mini-CEX assessment during busy clerkship is feasible with good outcomes. Direct observation of medical trainees with actual patients is important for the assessment of performance-based clinical skills. Hospital psychiatry rotation

  2. Ground Source Heat Pump Sub-Slab Heat Exchange Loop Performance in a Cold Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittereder, N.; Poerschke, A.

    2013-11-01

    This report presents a cold-climate project that examines an alternative approach to ground source heat pump (GSHP) ground loop design. The innovative ground loop design is an attempt to reduce the installed cost of the ground loop heat exchange portion of the system by containing the entire ground loop within the excavated location beneath the basement slab. Prior to the installation and operation of the sub-slab heat exchanger, energy modeling using TRNSYS software and concurrent design efforts were performed to determine the size and orientation of the system. One key parameter in the design is the installation of the GSHP in a low-load home, which considerably reduces the needed capacity of the ground loop heat exchanger. This report analyzes data from two cooling seasons and one heating season. Upon completion of the monitoring phase, measurements revealed that the initial TRNSYS simulated horizontal sub-slab ground loop heat exchanger fluid temperatures and heat transfer rates differed from the measured values. To determine the cause of this discrepancy, an updated model was developed utilizing a new TRNSYS subroutine for simulating sub-slab heat exchangers. Measurements of fluid temperature, soil temperature, and heat transfer were used to validate the updated model.

  3. Thermal hydraulic analysis of the encapsulated nuclear heat source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Wade, D.C. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    2001-07-01

    An analysis has been carried out of the steady state thermal hydraulic performance of the Encapsulated Nuclear Heat Source (ENHS) 125 MWt, heavy liquid metal coolant (HLMC) reactor concept at nominal operating power and shutdown decay heat levels. The analysis includes the development and application of correlation-type analytical solutions based upon first principles modeling of the ENHS concept that encompass both pure as well as gas injection augmented natural circulation conditions, and primary-to-intermediate coolant heat transfer. The results indicate that natural circulation of the primary coolant is effective in removing heat from the core and transferring it to the intermediate coolant without the attainment of excessive coolant temperatures. (authors)

  4. Experimental Investigation from the Operation of a 2 kW Brayton Power Conversion Unit and a Xenon Ion Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervol, David; Mason, Lee; Birchenough, Art; Pinero, Luis

    2004-01-01

    A 2kW Brayton Power Conversion Unit (PCU) and a xenon ion thruster were integrated with a Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) system as part of a Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) Testbed at NASA's Glenn Research Center. Brayton Converters and ion thrusters are potential candidates for use on future high power NEP mission such as the proposed Jupiter Icy Moons Orbiter (JIMO). The use of a existing lower power test hardware provided a cost effective means to investigate the critical electrical interface between the power conversion system and the propulsion system. The testing successfully demonstrated compatible electrical operations between the converter and the thruster, including end-to-end electric power throughput, high efficiency AC to DC conversion, and thruster recycle fault protection. The details of this demonstration are reported herein.

  5. Nuclear source of district heating in the north-east region of Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, V.V.

    1998-01-01

    The operation of the Bilibin Nuclear Co-generation Plant (BNCP) as a local district heating source is reviewed in this paper. Specific features of the BNCP power unit are given with special emphases on the components of the technological scheme, which are involved in the heat production and supply to the consumers. The scheme of steam extraction from the turbine, the flow diagram of steam in the turbine, as well as the three circuit heat removal system are described. The numerical characteristics of the nuclear heat supply system in various operating modes are presented. The real information characterizing current radiological conditions in the vicinity of the heat generation and distribution equipment is also presented in the paper. The BNCP technical and economical characteristics are compared with those of conventional energy sources. Both advantages and some problems revealed during the twenty-year experience of the BNCP nuclear heat utilization are generally assessed. Safety and reliability characteristics of the reactor and the heat supply system are also described. (author)

  6. Passivity-Based Control by Series/Parallel Damping of Single-Phase PWM Voltage Source Converter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    del Puerto Flores, Dunstano; Scherpen, Jacqueline; Liserre, Marco; de Vries, Martijn M. J.; Kransse, Marco J.; Monopoli, Vito Giuseppe

    This paper describes a detailed design procedure for passivity-based controllers developed using the Brayton-Moser (BM) framework. Several passivity-based feedback designs are presented for the voltage-source converter, specifically for the H-bridge converter, since nowadays it is one of the

  7. Psychometric properties of a sign language version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI)

    OpenAIRE

    Øhre, Beate; Saltnes, Hege; von Tetzchner, Stephen; Falkum, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a need for psychiatric assessment instruments that enable reliable diagnoses in persons with hearing loss who have sign language as their primary language. The objective of this study was to assess the validity of the Norwegian Sign Language (NSL) version of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Methods The MINI was translated into NSL. Forty-one signing patients consecutively referred to two specialised psychiatric units were assessed with a diagnos...

  8. iPad mini for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Baig, Edward C

    2014-01-01

    Find out why the iPad mini has never been bigger This new edition of iPad mini For Dummies covers all the latest tips and tricks for getting an even bigger bang out of your iPad mini. Presented in full-color and written in the straightforward but fun language that has defined the For Dummies brand for more than twenty years, this friendly guide walks you through the multitouch interface, going online, getting connected, packing your iPad mini with apps, games, e-books, photos, music, and movies, synchronizing your data, texting with iMessage, working with Siri, importing pictures and launching

  9. Validação da versão em português do Mini-Inventário de Fobia Social (Mini-SPIN Validation of the portuguese version of the Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo José Fonseca D'El Rey

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A fobia social (também conhecida como transtorno de ansiedade social é um grave transtorno mental que traz sofrimento e incapacitação. O objetivo deste estudo foi validar para a língua portuguesa o Mini-Inventário de Fobia Social (Mini-SPIN em uma amostra da população. Foi realizado um estudo da validade discriminativa do Mini-SPIN em uma amostra de 644 pessoas (grupo positivo para o Mini-SPIN: n = 218 e grupo controle/negativo: n = 426 de um estudo de prevalência de transtornos de ansiedade na cidade de Santo André (SP. A versão em português do Mini-SPIN (com escore de 6 pontos, sugerido na versão original em inglês demonstrou uma sensibilidade de 95,0%, especificidade de 80,3%, valor preditivo positivo de 52,8%, valor preditivo negativo de 98,6% e taxa de classificação incorreta de 16,9%. Com escores de 7 pontos, foi observado um aumento na especificidade e no valor preditivo positivo (88,6% e 62,7%, sendo que a sensibilidade e o valor preditivo negativo (84,8% e 96,2% mantiveram-se altos. A versão em português do Mini-SPIN apresentou qualidades psicométricas satisfatórias em termos de validade discriminativa. Neste estudo, o ponto de corte igual a 7 mostrou-se mais adequado para a identificação da fobia social generalizada.Social phobia (also known as social anxiety disorder is a severe mental disorder that brings distress and disability. The aim of this study was validate to the Portuguese language the Mini-Social Phobia Inventory (Mini-SPIN in a populational sample. We performed a discriminative validity study of the Mini-SPIN in a sample of 644 subjects (Mini-SPIN positive group: n = 218 and control/negative group: n = 426 of a study of anxiety disorders' prevalence in the city of Santo André-SP. The Portuguese version of the Mini-SPIN (with score of 6 points, suggested in the original English version demonstrated a sensitivity of 95.0%, specificity of 80.3%, positive predictive value of 52.8%, negative predictive

  10. Prediction for flow boiling heat transfer in small diameter tube using deep learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enoki, Koji; Sei, Yuichi; Okawa, Tomio; Saito, Kiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    The applications of Artificial Intelligence ie AI show diversity in any fields. On the other hand, research of the predicting heat transfer regardless of single-phase or two-phase flow is still untouched. Therefore, we have confirmed usefulness using AI's deep learning function on horizontal flow boiling heat transfer in flowing mini-channel that is actively researched. The effect of the surface tension in the mini-channel is large compared with conventional large tubes, and then the heat transfer mechanism is very complicated. For this reason, the numerical correlations of many existing researchers the prediction result is not good. However, the mechanistic correlation based on the visualization experiment, which the authors' research group published several years ago has very high precision. Therefore, in this research paper, we confirmed the effectiveness of using deep learning for predicting of the boiling heat transfer in mini-channel while comparing our correlation. (author)

  11. Advanced Rankine and Brayton cycle power systems: Materials needs and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisaffe, S. J.; Guentert, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual advanced potassium Rankine and closed Brayton power conversion cycles offer the potential for improved efficiency over steam systems through higher operating temperatures. However, for utility service of at least 100,000 hours, materials technology advances will be needed for such high temperature systems. Improved alloys and surface protection must be developed and demonstrated to resist coal combustion gases as well as potassium corrosion or helium surface degradation at high temperatures. Extensions in fabrication technology are necessary to produce large components of high temperature alloys. Long time property data must be obtained under environments of interest to assure high component reliability.

  12. Advanced Rankine and Brayton cycle power systems - Materials needs and opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisaffe, S. J.; Guentert, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    Conceptual advanced potassium Rankine and closed Brayton power conversion cycles offer the potential for improved efficiency over steam systems through higher operating temperatures. However, for utility service of at least 100,000 hours, materials technology advances will be needed for such high temperature systems. Improved alloys and surface protection must be developed and demonstrated to resist coal combustion gases as well as potassium corrosion or helium surface degradation at high temperatures. Extensions in fabrication technology are necessary to produce large components of high temperature alloys. Long-time property data must be obtained under environments of interest to assure high component reliability.

  13. Natural convection in wavy enclosures with volumetric heat sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oztop, H.F.; Varol, Y.; Abu-Nada, E.; Chamkha, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of volumetric heat sources on natural convection heat transfer and flow structures in a wavy-walled enclosure are studied numerically. The governing differential equations are solved by an accurate finite-volume method. The vertical walls of enclosure are assumed to be heated differentially whereas the two wavy walls (top and bottom) are kept adiabatic. The effective governing parameters for this problem are the internal and external Rayleigh numbers and the amplitude of wavy walls. It is found that both the function of wavy wall and the ratio of internal Rayleigh number (Ra I ) to external Rayleigh number (Ra E ) affect the heat transfer and fluid flow significantly. The heat transfer is predicted to be a decreasing function of waviness of the top and bottom walls in case of (IRa/ERa)>1 and (IRa/ERa)<1. (authors)

  14. Thermodynamic analysis on an instantaneous water heating system of shower wastewater source heat pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguo Wu

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available Water reuse and desalination systems are energy intensive processes, and their increasing use is leading energy consumption within water systems to be an increasingly important issue. Shower wastewater contains large amounts of heat, so there is an opportunity to recover energy from shower water to offset energy consumption elsewhere in water systems. This paper found ways to increase the output of hot water and lower the energy consumption by establishing a thermodynamic model of an instantaneous wastewater source heat pump. The system proved to be very effective, the heating COP (coefficient of performance can reach 3.3 even in the winter. Under the conditions of limited heat transfer area, reducing the suction pressure of a compressor is a more feasible way to increase the hot water output to meet the needs of users rather than increasing the discharge pressure. Besides, increasing the heat transfer area of the evaporator is a more effective option. When the heat transfer area of evaporator varies from 0.5 to 1.0 square meters, a notable change is that the heating COP increases from 3.283 to 3.936. The heating COP in a system with a recuperator can reach 5.672, almost double that compared to the original systems.

  15. Radioisotopes for heat-source applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoisington, J.E.

    1982-01-01

    Potential DOD requirements for noninterruptable power sources could total 1 MW thermal by FY 1990. Of the three isotopes considered, ( 90 Sr, 147 Pm, 238 Pu) 90 Sr is the only one available in sufficient amounts to meet this requirement. To meet the DOD FY 1990 requirements, it would be necessary to undertake 90 Sr recovery operations from spent fuel reprocessing at SRP, Hanford, and the Barnwell Nuclear Fuels Plant (BNFP). 90 Sr recovery from the existing alkaline high level waste (HLW) at Hanford and SRP is not attractive because the isotopic purity of the 90 Sr is below that required for DOD applications. Without reprocessing LWR spent fuel, SRP and Hanford could not supply the demand of 1 MW thermal until FY 1996. Between FY 1983 and FY 1996, SRP and Hanford could supply approximately 0.70 MW of 90 Sr and 0.15 MW of 147 Pm. SRP could supply an additional 0.15 MW from the production and recovery of 238 Pu. Strontium-90 is the most economical of the three heat source radionuclides considered. The 90 Sr unit recovery cost from SRP fresh acid waste would be $180/watt. The BNFP 90 Sr recovery cost would be $130/watt to $235/watt depending on the age and burnup of the LWR spent fuel. Hanford 90 Sr recovery costs form Purex fresh acid waste are unavailable, but they are expected to be comparable to the SRP costs. 147 Pm and 238 Pu are considerably more expensive heat source materials. 147 Pm recovery costs at SRP are estimated to be $450/watt. As with 90 Sr, the Hanford 147 Pm recovery costs are expected to be comparabl to the SRP costs. Production of high assay (93.5%) 238 Pu at SRP from excess 231 Np would cost about $1160/watt, while recovery of low assay (27%) 238 Pu from the waste stream is estimated at $1850/watt

  16. A new method to estimate heat source parameters in gas metal arc welding simulation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Xiaolei; Xu, Jie; Liu, Zhaoheng; Huang, Shaojie; Fan, Yu; Sun, Zhi

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •A new method for accurate simulation of heat source parameters was presented. •The partial least-squares regression analysis was recommended in the method. •The welding experiment results verified accuracy of the proposed method. -- Abstract: Heat source parameters were usually recommended by experience in welding simulation process, which induced error in simulation results (e.g. temperature distribution and residual stress). In this paper, a new method was developed to accurately estimate heat source parameters in welding simulation. In order to reduce the simulation complexity, a sensitivity analysis of heat source parameters was carried out. The relationships between heat source parameters and welding pool characteristics (fusion width (W), penetration depth (D) and peak temperature (T p )) were obtained with both the multiple regression analysis (MRA) and the partial least-squares regression analysis (PLSRA). Different regression models were employed in each regression method. Comparisons of both methods were performed. A welding experiment was carried out to verify the method. The results showed that both the MRA and the PLSRA were feasible and accurate for prediction of heat source parameters in welding simulation. However, the PLSRA was recommended for its advantages of requiring less simulation data

  17. Study of reverse Brayton cryocooler with Helium-Neon mixture for HTS cable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhillon, A. K.; Ghosh, P.

    2017-12-01

    As observed in the earlier studies, helium is more efficient than neon as a refrigerant in a reverse Brayton cryocooler (RBC) from the thermodynamic point of view. However, the lower molecular weight of helium leads to higher refrigerant inventory as compared to neon. Thus, helium is suitable to realize the high thermodynamic efficiency of RBC whereas neon is appropriate for the compactness of the RBC. A binary mixture of helium and neon can be used to achieve high thermodynamic efficiency in the compact reverse Brayton cycle (RBC) based cryocooler. In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze the thermodynamic performance of the RBC with a binary mixture of helium and neon as the working fluid to provide 1 kW cooling load for high temperature superconductor (HTS) power cables working with a temperature range of 50 K to 70 K. The basic RBC is simulated using Aspen HYSYS V8.6®, a commercial process simulator. Sizing of each component based on the optimized process parameters for each refrigerant is performed based on a computer code developed using Engineering Equation Solver (EES-V9.1). The recommendation is provided for the optimum mixture composition of the refrigerant based on the trade-off factors like thermodynamic efficiency such as the exergy efficiency and equipment considerations. The outcome of this study may be useful for recommending a suitable refrigerant for the RBC operating at a temperature level of 50 K to 70 K.

  18. Experimental investigation on water quality standard of Yangtze River water source heat pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zenghu; Tong, Mingwei; Kun, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Due to the surface water in the upper reaches of Yangtze River in China containing large amounts of silt and algae, high content of microorganisms and suspended solids, the water in Yangtze River cannot be used for cooling a heat pump directly. In this paper, the possibility of using Yangtze River, which goes through Chongqing, a city in southwest China, as a heat source-sink was investigated. Water temperature and quality of the Yangtze River in the Chongqing area were analyzed and the performance of water source heat pump units in different sediment concentrations, turbidity and algae material conditions were tested experimentally, and the water quality standards, in particular surface water conditions, in the Yangtze River region that adapt to energy-efficient heat pumps were also proposed. The experimental results show that the coefficient of performance heat pump falls by 3.73% to the greatest extent, and the fouling resistance of cooling water in the heat exchanger increases up to 25.6% in different water conditions. When the sediment concentration and the turbidity in the river water are no more than 100 g/m3 and 50 NTU respectively, the performance of the heat pump is better, which can be used as a suitable river water quality standard for river water source heat pumps.

  19. Spurious RF signals emitted by mini-UAVs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleijpen, R.; Voogt, V.; Zwamborn, P.; Oever, J. van den

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents experimental work on the detection of spurious RF emissions of mini Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (mini-UAV). Many recent events have shown that mini-UAVs can be considered as a potential threat for civil security. For this reason the detection of mini-UAVs has become of interest to

  20. Large-eddy simulation of convective boundary layer generated by highly heated source with open source code, OpenFOAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yasuo; Suto, Hitoshi; Eguchi, Yuzuru; Sano, Tadashi; Shirai, Koji; Ishihara, Shuji

    2011-01-01

    Spatial- and temporal-characteristics of turbulence structures in the close vicinity of a heat source, which is a horizontal upward-facing round plate heated at high temperature, are examined by using well resolved large-eddy simulations. The verification is carried out through the comparison with experiments: the predicted statistics, including the PDF distribution of temperature fluctuations, agree well with measurements, indicating that the present simulations have a capability to appropriately reproduce turbulence structures near the heat source. The reproduced three-dimensional thermal- and fluid-fields in the close vicinity of the heat source reveals developing processes of coherence structures along the surface: the stationary- and streaky-flow patterns appear near the edge, and such patterns randomly shift to cell-like patterns with incursion into the center region, resulting in thermal-plume meandering. Both the patterns have very thin structures, but the depth of streaky structure is considerably small compared with that of cell-like patterns; this discrepancy causes the layered structures. The structure is the source of peculiar turbulence characteristics, the prediction of which is quite difficult with RANS-type turbulence models. The understanding such structures obtained in present study must be helpful to improve the turbulence model used in nuclear engineering. (author)

  1. Experimental Research of a Water-Source Heat Pump Water Heater System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongchao Zhao; Yanrui Zhang; Haojun Mi; Yimeng Zhou; Yong Zhang

    2018-01-01

    The heat pump water heater (HPWH), as a portion of the eco-friendly technologies using renewable energy, has been applied for years in developed countries. Air-source heat pump water heaters and solar-assisted heat pump water heaters have been widely applied and have become more and more popular because of their comparatively higher energy efficiency and environmental protection. Besides use of the above resources, the heat pump water heater system can also adequately utilize an available wat...

  2. Experimental performance analysis of a direct-expansion ground source heat pump in Xiangtan, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The DX GSHP (direct-expansion ground source heat pump), which uses a buried copper piping network through which refrigerant is circulated, is one type of GSHP (ground source heat pump). This study investigates the performance characteristics of a vertical U-bend direct-expansion ground source (geothermal) heat pump system (DX GSHPS) for both heating and cooling. Compared with the conventional GCHP (ground coupled heat pump) system, the DX GSHP system is more efficient, with lower thermal resistance in the GHE (ground heat exchanger) and a lower (higher) condensing (evaporating) temperature in the cooling (heating) mode. In addition, the system performance of the whole DX GSHP system is also higher than that of the conventional GCHP system. A DX GSHP system in Xiangtan, China with a U-bend ground heat exchanger 42 m deep with a nominal outside diameter of 12.7 mm buried in a water well was tested and analysed. The results showed that the performance of this system is very high. The maximum (average) COPs of the system were found to be 6.08 (4.73) and 6.32 (5.03) in the heating and cooling modes, respectively. - Highlights: • The reasons for the higher performance of the DX GSHP (direct-expansion ground source heat pump) are analysed theoretically compared with the conventional GCHP (ground coupled heat pump). • The experimental performance of a DX GSHP system is investigated, which makes a valuable contribution to the literature. • The study is helpful in demonstrating the energy efficiency of the DX GSHP system

  3. Development of a Mini-Freeze Dryer for Material-Sparing Laboratory Processing with Representative Product Temperature History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Wasfy M; Sahni, Ekneet; Kessler, William; Pikal, Michael

    2018-02-01

    The goal of the work described in this publication was to evaluate a new, small, material-sparing freeze dryer, denoted as the "mini-freeze dryer or mini-FD", capable of reproducing the product temperature history of larger freeze dryers, thereby facilitating scale-up. The mini-FD wall temperatures can be controlled to mimic loading procedures and dryer process characteristics of larger dryers. The mini-FD is equipped with a tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) water vapor mass flow monitor and with other advanced process analytical technology (PAT) sensors. Drying experiments were performed to demonstrate scalability to larger freeze dryers, including the determination of vial heat transfer coefficients, K v . Product temperature histories during K v runs were evaluated and compared with those obtained with a commercial laboratory-scale freeze dryer (LyoStar II) for sucrose and mannitol product formulations. When the mini-FD wall temperature was set at the LyoStar II band temperature (- 20°C) to mimic lab dryer edge vials, edge vial drying in the mini-FD possessed an average K v within 5% of those obtained during drying in the LyoStar II. When the wall temperature of the mini-FD was set equal to the central vial product temperature, edge vials behaved as center vials, possessing a K v value within 5% of those measured in the LyoStar II. During both K v runs and complete product freeze drying runs, the temperature-time profiles for the average edge vials and central vial in the mini-FD agreed well with the average edge and average central vials of the LyoStar II.

  4. Melting of a phase change material in a horizontal annulus with discrete heat sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirzaei Hooshyar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials have found many industrial applications such as cooling of electronic devices and thermal energy storage. This paper investigates numerically the melting process of a phase change material in a two-dimensional horizontal annulus with different arrangements of two discrete heat sources. The sources are positioned on the inner cylinder of the annulus and assumed as constant-temperature boundary conditions. The remaining portion of the inner cylinder wall as well as the outer cylinder wall is considered to be insulated. The emphasis is mainly on the effects of the arrangement of the heat source pair on the fluid flow and heat transfer features. The governing equations are solved on a non-uniform O type mesh using a pressure-based finite volume method with an enthalpy porosity technique to trace the solid and liquid interface. The results are obtained at Ra=104 and presented in terms of streamlines, isotherms, melting phase front, liquid fraction and dimensionless heat flux. It is observed that, depending on the arrangement of heat sources, the liquid fraction increases both linearly and non-linearly with time but will slow down at the end of the melting process. It can also be concluded that proper arrangement of discrete heat sources has the great potential in improving the energy storage system. For instance, the arrangement C3 where the heat sources are located on the bottom part of the inner cylinder wall can expedite the melting process as compared to the other arrangements.

  5. Heat pumps using vertical boreholls as heat source; Varmepumper med lodrette boringer som varmeoptager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, Svend V. [Teknologisk Institut, Aarhus (Denmark); Thoegersen, L.; Soerensen, Inga [VIA University College, Risskov (Denmark)] [and others

    2013-01-15

    This report presents instructions on what to consider when you have to establish vertical wells as energy sources for ground source heating systems. The report provides an introduction into what to be aware of when it comes to sizing vertical ground hoses as heat absorbers for heat pumps. The initial geological assessments, you have to make are described and there are references to the available tools and websites that exist today. A calculation model is developed for the design of vertical ground hoses. This calculation model is intended as a tool for installers and consultants as well as well drillers. The calculation model contains two computational models, one can be used for initial calculations and dimensioning of vertical ground hoses, and the detailed model can be used for costing by well driller. The simple calculation is based on proven design approach from the German standard VDI 4640, and the detailed calculation is based on a known empirical calculation, which assumes that you know the geology in more detail. In the project measurements were carried out on four installations, and the calculations show that there is good agreement between the measurements and the calculation model. (LN)

  6. Isotopic power materials development. Quarterly progress report for period ending March 31, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffhauser, A.C.

    1976-06-01

    The second in a series of quarterly reports for Technology and Space Applications materials programs conducted by the Metals and Ceramics Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory for the Nuclear Research and Applications Division of ERDA is presented. These quarterly reports replace the monthly and annual reports previously issued on this work. The areas of research covered include high-temperature alloys for space isotopic heat sources, physical and mechanical metallurgy of heat source containment materials, isotope Brayton system materials support, and space nuclear flight systems hardware

  7. Flow Conditions in a Mechanically Ventilated Room with a Convective Heat Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    The ventilation of a test room (LxWxH = 5.4x3.6x2.4 m) with a wall mounted heat source is investigated for two different air terminal devices.......The ventilation of a test room (LxWxH = 5.4x3.6x2.4 m) with a wall mounted heat source is investigated for two different air terminal devices....

  8. Modeling the small-scale dish-mounted solar thermal Brayton cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Willem G.; Meyer, Josua P.

    2016-05-01

    The small-scale dish-mounted solar thermal Brayton cycle (STBC) makes use of a sun-tracking dish reflector, solar receiver, recuperator and micro-turbine to generate power in the range of 1-20 kW. The modeling of such a system, using a turbocharger as micro-turbine, is required so that optimisation and further development of an experimental setup can be done. As a validation, an analytical model of the small-scale STBC in Matlab, where the net power output is determined from an exergy analysis, is compared with Flownex, an integrated systems CFD code. A 4.8 m diameter parabolic dish with open-cavity tubular receiver and plate-type counterflow recuperator is considered, based on previous work. A dish optical error of 10 mrad, a tracking error of 1° and a receiver aperture area of 0.25 m × 0.25 m are considered. Since the recuperator operates at a very high average temperature, the recuperator is modeled using an updated ɛ-NTU method which takes heat loss to the environment into consideration. Compressor and turbine maps from standard off-the-shelf Garrett turbochargers are used. The results show that for the calculation of the steady-state temperatures and pressures, there is good comparison between the Matlab and Flownex results (within 8%) except for the recuperator outlet temperature, which is due to the use of different ɛ-NTU methods. With the use of Matlab and Flownex, it is shown that the small-scale open STBC with an existing off-the-shelf turbocharger could generate a positive net power output with solar-to-mechanical efficiency of up to 12%, with much room for improvement.

  9. About the possible options for models of convective heat transfer in closed volumes with local heating source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksimov Vyacheslav I.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of mathematical modeling of convective heat transfer in air area surrounded on all sides enclosing structures, in the presence of heat source at the lower boundary of the media are presented. Solved the system of differential equations of unsteady Navier-Stokes equations with the appropriate initial and boundary conditions. The process of convective heat transfer is calculated using the models of turbulence Prandtl and Prandtl-Reichard. Takes into account the processes of heat exchange region considered with the environment. Is carried out the analysis of the dimensionless heat transfer coefficient at interfaces “air – enclosures”. The distributions average along the gas temperature range are obtained.

  10. Failure analysis of radioisotopic heat source capsules tested under multi-axial conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, R.E.; Stacy, E.; Burgan, C.E.

    In order to qualify small radioisotopic heat sources for a 25-yr design life, multi-axial mechanical tests were performed on the structural components of the heat source. The results of these tests indicated that failure predominantly occurred in the middle of the weld ramp-down zone. Examination of the failure zone by standard metallographic techniques failed to indicate the true cause of failure. A modified technique utilizing chemical etching, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive x-ray analysis was employed and dramatically indicated the true cause of failure, impurity concentration in the ramp-down zone. As a result of the initial investigation, weld parameters for the heat sources were altered. Example welds made with a pulse arc technique did not have this impurity buildup in the ramp-down zone

  11. IMPACT OF GEOTHERMAL GRADIENT ON GROUND SOURCE HEAT PUMP SYSTEM MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Kurevija

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available ndisturbed ground temperature is one of the most crucial thermogeological parameters needed for shallow geothermal resources assessment. Energy considered to be geothermal is energy stored in the ground at depths where solar radiation has no effect. At depth where undisturbed ground temperature occurs there is no influence of seasonal variations in air temperature from surface. Exact temperature value, and depth where it occurs, is functionally dependent on surface climate parameters and thermogeologic properties of ground. After abovementioned depth, increase of ground temperature is solely dependent on geothermal gradient. Accurately determined value of undisturbed ground temperature is beneficial for proper sizing of borehole heat exchangers. On practical example of building which is being heated and cooled with shallow geothermal resource, influences of undisturbed ground temperature and geothermal gradient, on size of borehole heat exchanger are going to be presented. Sizing of borehole heat exchanger was calculated with commercial software Ground Loop Designer (GLD, which uses modified line source and cylinder source solutions of heat conduction in solids.

  12. Mini-grid for sustainable integrated coastal development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bala, B.K.; Islam, M.M.

    2005-01-01

    Power grid cannot reach everywhere. Yet there are alternatives. Renewable energy can offer an ideal source of electricity for the communities far from a grid- on an island, or other isolated situations. Design and economics of a solar-diesel hybrid mini-grid system for 132 families in an isolated island-Sandwip are presented. The electrical load is considered based on the local needs and the electrical load demand is 20 kWh. The sizing of the hybrid system consists of 31 solar modules, 10 number of 24 V batteries, 2 Inverters having a total capacity of 24 kW, 24 V DC/220 V AC. A diesel generator set of 10 kW capacity is selected for back up during shortfall. The life cycle cost (LCC) is estimated and LCC is found to be Tk.15.51 / kWh compared to electricity price of Tk.4.00/kWh. Finally, the sustainability of solar-diesel hybrid mini-grid for an isolated island -Sandwip is discussed. (author)

  13. Advanced control for ground source heat pump systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hughes, Patrick [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gehl, Anthony C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Liu, Xiaobing [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Ground source heat pumps (GSHP), also known as geothermal heat pumps (GHP), are proven advanced HVAC systems that utilize clean and renewable geothermal energy, as well as the massive thermal storage capacity of the ground, to provide space conditioning and water heating for both residential and commercial buildings. GSHPs have higher energy efficiencies than conventional HVAC systems. It is estimated, if GSHPs achieve a 10% market share in the US, in each year, 0.6 Quad Btu primary energy consumption can be saved and 36 million tons carbon emissions can be avoided (Liu et al. 2017). However, the current market share of GSHPs is less than 1%. The foremost barrier preventing wider adoption of GSHPs is their high installation costs. To enable wider adoption of GSHPs, the costeffectiveness of GSHP applications must be improved.

  14. Quasiballistic heat removal from small sources studied from first principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, Bjorn; Mingo, Natalio

    2018-01-01

    Heat sources whose characteristic dimension R is comparable to phonon mean free paths display thermal resistances that exceed conventional diffusive predictions. This has direct implications to (opto)electronics thermal management and phonon spectroscopy. Theoretical analyses have so far limited themselves to particular experimental configurations. Here, we build upon the multidimensional Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) to derive universal expressions for the apparent conductivity suppression S (R ) =κeff(R ) /κbulk experienced by radially symmetric 2D and 3D sources. In striking analogy to cross-plane heat conduction in thin films, a distinct quasiballistic regime emerges between ballistic (κeff˜R ) and diffusive (κeff≃κbulk ) asymptotes that displays a logarithmic dependence κeff˜ln(R ) in single crystals and fractional power dependence κeff˜R2 -α in alloys (with α the Lévy superdiffusion exponent). Analytical solutions and Monte Carlo simulations for spherical and circular heat sources in Si, GaAs, Si0.99Ge0.01 , and Si0.82Ge0.18 , all carried out from first principles, confirm the predicted generic tendencies. Contrary to the thin film case, common approximations like kinetic theory estimates κeff≃∑Sωgreyκω and modified Fourier temperature curves perform relatively poorly. Up to threefold deviations from the BTE solutions for sub-100 nm sources underline the need for rigorous treatment of multidimensional nondiffusive transport.

  15. Absorptivity Measurements and Heat Source Modeling to Simulate Laser Cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, Florian; Eisenbarth, Daniel; Wegener, Konrad

    The laser cladding process gains importance, as it does not only allow the application of surface coatings, but also additive manufacturing of three-dimensional parts. In both cases, process simulation can contribute to process optimization. Heat source modeling is one of the main issues for an accurate model and simulation of the laser cladding process. While the laser beam intensity distribution is readily known, the other two main effects on the process' heat input are non-trivial. Namely the measurement of the absorptivity of the applied materials as well as the powder attenuation. Therefore, calorimetry measurements were carried out. The measurement method and the measurement results for laser cladding of Stellite 6 on structural steel S 235 and for the processing of Inconel 625 are presented both using a CO2 laser as well as a high power diode laser (HPDL). Additionally, a heat source model is deduced.

  16. Psychometric Evaluation of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents (MINI-KID).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Laura; Georgiades, Kathy; Wang, Li; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; MacMillan, Harriet L; Ferro, Mark A; Lipman, Ellen L; Szatmari, Peter; Bennett, Kathryn; Kata, Anna; Janus, Magdalena; Boyle, Michael H

    2017-12-04

    The goals of the study were to examine test-retest reliability, informant agreement and convergent and discriminant validity of nine DSM-IV-TR psychiatric disorders classified by parent and youth versions of the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for Children and Adolescents (MINI-KID). Using samples drawn from the general population and child mental health outpatient clinics, 283 youth aged 9 to 18 years and their parents separately completed the MINI-KID with trained lay interviewers on two occasions 7 to 14 days apart. Test-retest reliability estimates based on kappa (κ) went from 0.33 to 0.79 across disorders, samples and informants. Parent-youth agreement on disorders was low (average κ = 0.20). Confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence supporting convergent and discriminant validity. The MINI-KID disorder classifications yielded estimates of test-retest reliability and validity comparable to other standardized diagnostic interviews in both general population and clinic samples. These findings, in addition to the brevity and low administration cost, make the MINI-KID a good candidate for use in epidemiological research and clinical practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Gas Sensors Based on Tin Oxide Nanoparticles Synthesized from a Mini-Arc Plasma Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganhua Lu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Miniaturized gas sensors or electronic noses to rapidly detect and differentiate trace amount of chemical agents are extremely attractive. In this paper, we report on the fabrication and characterization of a functional tin oxide nanoparticle gas sensor. Tin oxide nanoparticles are first synthesized using a convenient and low-cost mini-arc plasma source. The nanoparticle size distribution is measured online using a scanning electrical mobility spectrometer (SEMS. The product nanoparticles are analyzed ex-situ by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM for morphology and defects, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX spectroscopy for elemental composition, electron diffraction for crystal structure, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS for surface composition. Nonagglomerated rutile tin oxide (SnO2 nanoparticles as small as a few nm have been produced. Larger particles bear a core-shell structure with a metallic core and an oxide shell. The nanoparticles are then assembled onto an e-beam lithographically patterned interdigitated electrode using electrostatic force to fabricate the gas sensor. The nanoparticle sensor exhibits a fast response and a good sensitivity when exposed to 100 ppm ethanol vapor in air.

  18. Performance Optimization of Alternative Lower Global Warming Potential Refrigerants in Mini-Split Room Air Conditioners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    Oak Ridge National laboratory (ORNL) recently conducted extensive laboratory, drop-in investigations for lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerants to replace R-22 and R-410A. ORNL studied propane, DR-3, ARM-20B, N-20B and R-444B as lower GWP refrigerant replacement for R-22 in a mini-split room air conditioner (RAC) originally designed for R-22; and, R-32, DR-55, ARM-71A, and L41-2, in a mini-split RAC designed for R-410A. We obtained laboratory testing results with very good energy balance and nominal measurement uncertainty. Drop-in studies are not enough to judge the overall performance of the alternative refrigerants since their thermodynamic and transport properties might favor different heat exchanger configurations, e.g. cross-flow, counter flow, etc. This study compares optimized performances of individual refrigerants using a physics-based system model tools. The DOE/ORNL Heat Pump Design Model (HPDM) was used to model the mini-split RACs by inputting detailed heat exchangers geometries, compressor displacement and efficiencies as well as other relevant system components. The RAC models were calibrated against the lab data for each individual refrigerant. The calibrated models were then used to conduct a design optimization for the cooling performance by varying the compressor displacement to match the required capacity, and changing the number of circuits, refrigerant flow direction, tube diameters, air flow rates in the condenser and evaporator at 100% and 50% cooling capacities. This paper compares the optimized performance results for all alternative refrigerants and highlights best candidates for R-22 and R-410A replacement.

  19. Radioactive heat source and method of making same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsner, N.B.

    1977-01-01

    A radioactive source of heat which is resistant to cremation conditions is made by encapsulating a radioisotope within a containment vessel and forming a refractory metal silicide diffusion coating exterior thereof. A secondary molybdenum vessel may be provided with a molybdenum silicide coating and then heated in air to oxidize its outer layer. A layer is applied exterior of the diffusion-coating which provides a continuous ceramic oxide layer upon subjection to cremation. This outer layer may be discrete silica carried in a hardenable binder of an organic polymer, and a minor amount of antimony is preferably also included

  20. Effects of aqueous humor hydrodynamics on human eye heat transfer under external heat sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiang, Kor L; Ooi, Ean H

    2016-08-01

    The majority of the eye models developed in the late 90s and early 00s considers only heat conduction inside the eye. This assumption is not entirely correct, since the anterior and posterior chambers are filled aqueous humor (AH) that is constantly in motion due to thermally-induced buoyancy. In this paper, a three-dimensional model of the human eye is developed to investigate the effects AH hydrodynamics have on the human eye temperature under exposure to external heat sources. If the effects of AH flow are negligible, then future models can be developed without taking them into account, thus simplifying the modeling process. Two types of external thermal loads are considered; volumetric and surface irradiation. Results showed that heat convection due to AH flow contributes to nearly 95% of the total heat flow inside the anterior chamber. Moreover, the circulation inside the anterior chamber can cause an upward shift of the location of hotspot. This can have significant consequences to our understanding of heat-induced cataractogenesis. Copyright © 2016 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermal performance and pressure drop of spiral-tube ground heat exchangers for ground-source heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalaluddin; Miyara, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Thermal performance and pressure drop of the spiral-tube GHE were evaluated in this present work. A numerical simulation tool was used to carry out this research. The heat exchange rates per meter borehole depth of the spiral-tube GHE with various pitches and their pressure drops were compared with that of the U-tube GHE. Furthermore, a comparative analysis between a spiral pipe and straight pipe was performed. In comparison with the straight pipe, using the spiral pipe in the borehole increased the heat exchange rate to the ground per meter borehole depth. However, the pressure drop of water flow also increased due to increasing the length of pipe per meter borehole depth and its spiral geometry. The accuracy of the numerical model was verified for its pressure drop with some pressure drop correlations. The heat exchange rate and pressure drop of the GHEs are presented. As an example, the heat exchange rate per meter borehole depth of spiral pipe with 0.05 m pitch in the turbulent flow increased of 1.5 times. Its pressure drop also increased of 6 times. However, from the view point of energy efficiency, using the spiral pipe in the ground-source heat pump system gives a better performance than using the straight pipe. The heat exchange rate and pressure drop are important parameter in design of the ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system. - Highlights: • Thermal performance and pressure drop of spiral-tube GHE are presented. • Effects of spiral pitch on thermal performance and pressure drop are analyzed. • Using a spiral pipe increases heat exchange rate per meter borehole depth of GHE. • Pressure drop per meter borehole depth also increases in the spiral pipe.

  2. Milliwatt-generator heat source. Progress report, January-June 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mershad, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following: heat source shipments, reimbursable orders, hardware shipments, raw material qualification/procurement, DOE audit and milliwatt generator process review, surveillance capsule evaluations, pressure burst testing, and hardware fabrication and quality

  3. Mini-batch optimized full waveform inversion with geological constrained gradient filtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hui; Jia, Junxiong; Wu, Bangyu; Gao, Jinghuai

    2018-05-01

    High computation cost and generating solutions without geological sense have hindered the wide application of Full Waveform Inversion (FWI). Source encoding technique is a way to dramatically reduce the cost of FWI but subject to fix-spread acquisition setup requirement and slow convergence for the suppression of cross-talk. Traditionally, gradient regularization or preconditioning is applied to mitigate the ill-posedness. An isotropic smoothing filter applied on gradients generally gives non-geological inversion results, and could also introduce artifacts. In this work, we propose to address both the efficiency and ill-posedness of FWI by a geological constrained mini-batch gradient optimization method. The mini-batch gradient descent optimization is adopted to reduce the computation time by choosing a subset of entire shots for each iteration. By jointly applying the structure-oriented smoothing to the mini-batch gradient, the inversion converges faster and gives results with more geological meaning. Stylized Marmousi model is used to show the performance of the proposed method on realistic synthetic model.

  4. Heat sources for bright-rimmed molecular clouds: CO observations of NGC 7822

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmegreen, B.G.; Dickinson, D.F.; Lada, C.J.

    1978-01-01

    Observations of the 2.6 mm carbon monoxide line in the bright rim NGC 7822 reveal that the peak excitation and column density of the molecule lie in a ridge ahead of the ionization front. Several possibilities for the excitation of this ridge are discussed. Cosmic rays are shown to provide an excellent heat source for Bok globules, but they can account for only approx.20% of the required heating in NGC 7822. Direct shock or compressional heating of the gas could be adequate only if the pressure inside the cloud is much larger than the thermal pressure. If, in fact, this internal pressure is determined by the source of line broadening (e.g., magnetic fields or turbulence), then shock or compressional heating could be important, and pressure equilibrium may exist between the neutral cloud and the bright rim. Heating by warm grains or by the photoelectric effect is also considered, but such mechanisms are probably not important if the only source of radiation is external to the cloud. This is primarily a result of the low cloud density (approx.10 3 cm -3 ) inferred from our observations. The extent to which unknown embedded stars may provide the required gaseous heating cannot be estimated from our observations of NGC 7822.An interesting and new heat source is suggested which may have important applications to bright-rimmed clouds or to any other predominantly neutral clouds that may have undergone some recent compression. We suggest that the heat input to neutral gas due to the relaxation of internal magnetic fields will be greatly enhanced during cloud compression (with or without a shock). We show that the power input to the gas will increase more with increasing density than will the cooling rate. As a result, cloud compression can lead to an increase in the gas temperature for a period lasting several million years, which is the decay time of the compressed field. The observed ridge in NGC 7822 may be due to stimulated release of internal magnetic energy

  5. [Bone remodeling and modeling/mini-modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Tomoka; Amizuka, Norio

    Modeling, adapting structures to loading by changing bone size and shapes, often takes place in bone of the fetal and developmental stages, while bone remodeling-replacement of old bone into new bone-is predominant in the adult stage. Modeling can be divided into macro-modeling(macroscopic modeling)and mini-modeling(microscopic modeling). In the cellular process of mini-modeling, unlike bone remodeling, bone lining cells, i.e., resting flattened osteoblasts covering bone surfaces will become active form of osteoblasts, and then, deposit new bone onto the old bone without mediating osteoclastic bone resorption. Among the drugs for osteoporotic treatment, eldecalcitol(a vitamin D3 analog)and teriparatide(human PTH[1-34])could show mini-modeling based bone formation. Histologically, mature, active form of osteoblasts are localized on the new bone induced by mini-modeling, however, only a few cell layer of preosteoblasts are formed over the newly-formed bone, and accordingly, few osteoclasts are present in the region of mini-modeling. In this review, histological characteristics of bone remodeling and modeling including mini-modeling will be introduced.

  6. Thermal analysis of heat and power plant with high temperature reactor and intermediate steam cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fic Adam

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermal analysis of a heat and power plant with a high temperature gas cooled nuclear reactor is presented. The main aim of the considered system is to supply a technological process with the heat at suitably high temperature level. The considered unit is also used to produce electricity. The high temperature helium cooled nuclear reactor is the primary heat source in the system, which consists of: the reactor cooling cycle, the steam cycle and the gas heat pump cycle. Helium used as a carrier in the first cycle (classic Brayton cycle, which includes the reactor, delivers heat in a steam generator to produce superheated steam with required parameters of the intermediate cycle. The intermediate cycle is provided to transport energy from the reactor installation to the process installation requiring a high temperature heat. The distance between reactor and the process installation is assumed short and negligable, or alternatively equal to 1 km in the analysis. The system is also equipped with a high temperature argon heat pump to obtain the temperature level of a heat carrier required by a high temperature process. Thus, the steam of the intermediate cycle supplies a lower heat exchanger of the heat pump, a process heat exchanger at the medium temperature level and a classical steam turbine system (Rankine cycle. The main purpose of the research was to evaluate the effectiveness of the system considered and to assess whether such a three cycle cogeneration system is reasonable. Multivariant calculations have been carried out employing the developed mathematical model. The results have been presented in a form of the energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of the system as a function of the temperature drop in the high temperature process heat exchanger and the reactor pressure.

  7. The MiniBooNE Detector

    OpenAIRE

    MiniBooNE Collaboration

    2008-01-01

    The MiniBooNE neutrino detector was designed and built to look for muon-neutrino to electron-neutrino oscillations in the mixing parameter space region where the LSND experiment reported a signal. The MiniBooNE experiment used a beam energy and baseline that were an order of magnitude larger than those of LSND so that the backgrounds and systematic errors would be completely different. This paper provides a detailed description of the design, function, and performance of the MiniBooNE detector.

  8. North Village Ground Source Heat Pump Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redderson, Jeff

    2015-08-03

    This project demonstrated the feasibility of converting from a traditional direct exchange system to a ground source heat pump system on a large scale, multiple building apartment complex on a university campus. A total of ten apartment buildings were converted using vertical well fields and a ground source loop that connected the 24 apartments in each building into a common system. The system has yielded significant operational savings in both energy and maintenance and transformed the living environments of these residential buildings for our students.

  9. Free convection flow of some fractional nanofluids over a moving vertical plate with uniform heat flux and heat source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Waqas Ali; Vieru, Dumitru; Fetecau, Constantin

    2017-08-01

    Free convection flow of some water based fractional nanofluids over a moving infinite vertical plate with uniform heat flux and heat source is analytically and graphically studied. Exact solutions for dimensionless temperature and velocity fields, Nusselt numbers, and skin friction coefficients are established in integral form in terms of modified Bessel functions of the first kind. These solutions satisfy all imposed initial and boundary conditions and reduce to the similar solutions for ordinary nanofluids when the fractional parameters tend to one. Furthermore, they reduce to the known solutions from the literature when the plate is fixed and the heat source is absent. The influence of fractional parameters on heat transfer and fluid motion is graphically underlined and discussed. The enhancement of heat transfer in such flows is higher for fractional nanofluids in comparison with ordinary nanofluids. Moreover, the use of fractional models allows us to choose the fractional parameters in order to get a very good agreement between experimental and theoretical results.

  10. Elastic unloading of a disk after plastic deformation by a circular heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamer, U.; Mack, W.

    1987-01-01

    Subject of the investigation is the transient stress distribution in an elastic-plastic disk acted upon by a circular heat source. The disk serves as a mechanical model of the rotating anode of an X-ray-tube. The calculation is based on Tresca's yield criterion and the flow rule associatd to it. During heating, a plastic region spreads around the source, which is absorbed by an unloaded zone after the removal of the source. (orig.) [de

  11. A DNA mini-barcode for land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Damon P

    2014-05-01

    Small portions of the barcode region - mini-barcodes - may be used in place of full-length barcodes to overcome DNA degradation for samples with poor DNA preservation. 591,491,286 rbcL mini-barcode primer combinations were electronically evaluated for PCR universality, and two novel highly universal sets of priming sites were identified. Novel and published rbcL mini-barcode primers were evaluated for PCR amplification [determined with a validated electronic simulation (n = 2765) and empirically (n = 188)], Sanger sequence quality [determined empirically (n = 188)], and taxonomic discrimination [determined empirically (n = 30,472)]. PCR amplification for all mini-barcodes, as estimated by validated electronic simulation, was successful for 90.2-99.8% of species. Overall Sanger sequence quality for mini-barcodes was very low - the best mini-barcode tested produced sequences of adequate quality (B20 ≥ 0.5) for 74.5% of samples. The majority of mini-barcodes provide correct identifications of families in excess of 70.1% of the time. Discriminatory power noticeably decreased at lower taxonomic levels. At the species level, the discriminatory power of the best mini-barcode was less than 38.2%. For samples believed to contain DNA from only one species, an investigator should attempt to sequence, in decreasing order of utility and probability of success, mini-barcodes F (rbcL1/rbcLB), D (F52/R193) and K (F517/R604). For samples believed to contain DNA from more than one species, an investigator should amplify and sequence mini-barcode D (F52/R193). © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Design and modelling of a novel compact power cycle for low temperature heat sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wronski, Jorrit; Skovrup, Morten Juel; Elmegaard, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Power cycles for the efficient use of low temperature heat sources experience increasing attention. This paper describes an alternative cycle design that offers potential advantages in terms of heat source exploitation. A concept for a reciprocating expander is presented that performs both, work ...

  13. Elaboration of mini plates with U-Mo for irradiation in a high flux reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasqualini, Enrique E.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: International new efforts for the reconversion of HEU in research, testing and radioisotopes production reactors, have greatly incremented U-Mo fuels qualification activities. These qualifications require the resolution of undesired interaction at high fluxes between UMo particles and the aluminum matrix in the case of dispersed fuels and the development of U-Mo monolithic fuels. These efforts are being manifested in the planning and execution of additional series of irradiation tests of mini plates and full size plates. Recently, CNEA has elaborated mini plates with different proposals for the irradiation at the ATR reactor (250 MWTH, maximum thermal neutron flux 10 15 n.cm -2 .seg -1 ) at Idaho National Laboratory, USA. Uranium 7% (w/w) molybdenum (U-7Mo) particles were coated with silicon. Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of silane and high temperature diffusion of silicon were used. Hydrided, milled and dehydrated (HMD) particles heat treated at 1000 C degrees during four hours and centrifugal atomized powder were coated and the results compared. Mini plates were elaborated with both kinds of particles. Mini plates were also elaborated with U-7Mo and silicon particles dispersed in the aluminium matrix. Monolithic mini plates were also developed by co lamination of U-7Mo with a Zircaloy-4 cladding. The different steps of this process are detailed and the method is shown to be versatile, can be easily scaled up and is performed with small modifications of usual equipment in fuel plants. The irradiation experiment is called RERTR-7A, includes a total of 32 mini plates and it is planed to finalize by mid 2006. (author) [es

  14. Federal Technology Alert: Ground-Source Heat Pumps Applied to Federal Facilities-Second Edition; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadley, Donald L

    2001-01-01

    This Federal Technology Alert, which was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Federal Energy Management Programs, provides the detailed information and procedures that a Federal energy manager needs to evaluate most ground-source heat pump applications. This report updates an earlier report on ground-source heat pumps that was published in September 1995. In the current report, general benefits of this technology to the Federal sector are described, as are ground-source heat pump operation, system types, design variations, energy savings, and other benefits. In addition, information on current manufacturers, technology users, and references for further reading are provided

  15. HTR-Based Power Plants’ Performance Analysis Applied on Conventional Combined Cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carbia Carril

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In high temperature reactors including gas cooled fast reactors and gas turbine modular helium reactors (GT-MHR specifically designed to operate as power plant heat sources, efficiency enhancement at effective cost under safe conditions can be achieved. Mentioned improvements concern the implementation of two cycle structures: (a, a stand alone Brayton operating with helium and a stand alone Rankine cycle (RC with regeneration, operating with carbon dioxide at ultrasupercritical pressure as working fluid (WF, where condensation is carried out at quasicritical conditions, and (b, a combined cycle (CC, in which the topping closed Brayton cycle (CBC operates with helium as WF, while the bottoming RC is operated with one of the following WFs: carbon dioxide, xenon, ethane, ammonia, or water. In both cases, an intermediate heat exchanger (IHE is proposed to provide thermal energy to the closed Brayton or to the Rankine cycles. The results of the case study show that the thermal efficiency, through the use of a CC, is slightly improved (from 45.79% for BC and from 50.17% for RC to 53.63 for the proposed CC with He-H2O operating under safety standards.

  16. Simulation of a combined heating, cooling and domestic hot water system based on ground source absorption heat pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Wei; You, Tian; Wang, Baolong; Shi, Wenxing; Li, Xianting

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A combined heating/cooling/DHW system based on GSAHP is proposed in cold regions. • The soil imbalance is effectively reduced and soil temperature can be kept stable. • 20% and 15% of condensation/absorption heat is recovered by GSAHP to produce DHW. • The combined system can improve the primary energy efficiency by 23.6% and 44.4%. - Abstract: The amount of energy used for heating and domestic hot water (DHW) is very high and will keep increasing. The conventional ground source electrical heat pump used in heating-dominated buildings has the problems of thermal imbalance, decrease of soil temperature, and deterioration of heating performance. Ground source absorption heat pump (GSAHP) is advantageous in both imbalance reduction and primary energy efficiency (PEE) improvement; however, the imbalance is still unacceptable in the warmer parts of cold regions. A combined heating/cooling/DHW (HCD) system based on GSAHP is proposed to overcome this problem. The GSAHPs using generator absorber heat exchange (GAX) and single-effect (SE) cycles are simulated to obtain the performance under various working conditions. Different HCD systems in Beijing and Shenyang are simulated comparatively in TRNSYS, based on which the thermal imbalance, soil temperature, heat recovery, and energy efficiency are analyzed. Results show that GSAHP–GAX–HCD is suitable for Beijing and GSAHP–SE–HCD is suitable for Shenyang. The imbalance ratio can be reduced to −14.8% in Beijing and to 6.0% in Shenyang with an annual soil temperature variation of only 0.5 °C and 0.1 °C. Furthermore, about 20% and 15% of the total condensation/absorption heat is recovered to produce DHW, and the PEE can reach 1.516 in Beijing and 1.163 in Shenyang. The combined HCD systems can achieve a PEE improvement of 23.6% and 44.4% compared with the normal heating/cooling systems

  17. Fast temperature optimization of multi-source hyperthermia applicators with reduced-order modeling of 'virtual sources'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, K-S; Stakhursky, Vadim; Craciunescu, Oana I; Stauffer, Paul; Dewhirst, Mark; Das, Shiva K

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this work is to build the foundation for facilitating real-time magnetic resonance image guided patient treatment for heating systems with a large number of physical sources (e.g. antennas). Achieving this goal requires knowledge of how the temperature distribution will be affected by changing each source individually, which requires time expenditure on the order of the square of the number of sources. To reduce computation time, we propose a model reduction approach that combines a smaller number of predefined source configurations (fewer than the number of actual sources) that are most likely to heat tumor. The source configurations consist of magnitude and phase source excitation values for each actual source and may be computed from a CT scan based plan or a simplified generic model of the corresponding patient anatomy. Each pre-calculated source configuration is considered a 'virtual source'. We assume that the actual best source settings can be represented effectively as weighted combinations of the virtual sources. In the context of optimization, each source configuration is treated equivalently to one physical source. This model reduction approach is tested on a patient upper-leg tumor model (with and without temperature-dependent perfusion), heated using a 140 MHz ten-antenna cylindrical mini-annular phased array. Numerical simulations demonstrate that using only a few pre-defined source configurations can achieve temperature distributions that are comparable to those from full optimizations using all physical sources. The method yields close to optimal temperature distributions when using source configurations determined from a simplified model of the tumor, even when tumor position is erroneously assumed to be ∼2.0 cm away from the actual position as often happens in practical clinical application of pre-treatment planning. The method also appears to be robust under conditions of changing, nonlinear, temperature-dependent perfusion. The

  18. Comparative thermodynamic performance of some Rankine/Brayton cycle configurations for a low-temperature energy application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansing, F. L.

    1977-01-01

    Various configurations combining solar-Rankine and fuel-Brayton cycles were analyzed in order to find the arrangement which has the highest thermal efficiency and the smallest fuel share. A numerical example is given to evaluate both the thermodynamic performance and the economic feasibility of each configuration. The solar-assisted regenerative Rankine cycle was found to be leading the candidates from both points of energy utilization and fuel conservation.

  19. Heat source component development program. Quarterly report for April--June 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foster, E.L. Jr. (comp.)

    1977-07-01

    This is the third in a series of quarterly reports describing the results of several experimental programs being conducted at Battelle-Columbus to develop components for advanced radioisotope heat source applications. The heat sources will for the most part be used in advanced static and dynamic power conversion systems. The specific component development efforts which are described include: improved selective and nonselective vents for helium release from the fuel containment; an improved reentry member and an improved impact member, singly and combined. The unitized reentry-impact member (RIM) is under development to be used as a bifunctional ablator. The development of a unitized reentry-impact member (RIM) has been stopped and the efforts are being redirected to the evaluation of materials that could be used in the near term for the module housing of the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS). This redirection will be particularly felt in the selection of (improved) materials for reentry analysis and in the experimental evaluation of materials in impact tests. Finally thermochemical supporting studies are reported.

  20. Preheating of fluid in a supercritical Brayton cycle power generation system at cold startup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Steven A.; Fuller, Robert L.

    2016-07-12

    Various technologies pertaining to causing fluid in a supercritical Brayton cycle power generation system to flow in a desired direction at cold startup of the system are described herein. A sensor is positioned at an inlet of a turbine, wherein the sensor is configured to output sensed temperatures of fluid at the inlet of the turbine. If the sensed temperature surpasses a predefined threshold, at least one operating parameter of the power generation system is altered.

  1. On the addition of heat to solar pond from external sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganguly, S.; Jain, Ravi; Date, Abhijit; Akbarzadeh, Aliakbar

    2017-01-01

    This brief note addresses the method of adding heat to a solar pond from an external source which is used to enhance the performance of a solar pond. Heat energy collected by Evacuated Tube Solar Collectors (ETSC) is transferred by circulating fluid from the Lower Convective Zone (LCZ) of a solar

  2. Technical specifications for the provision of heat and steam sources for INPP and Visaginas. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    In October 1999, the National Energy Strategy was approved by the Lithuanian Parliament. The National Energy Strategy included the decision to close Unit-1 of INPP before 2005. Later is has been decided to close Unit 2 before the end of 2009 as well. The closure and decommissioning will have heavy impact on the heat supply for the city of Visaginas. Unit 1 and Unit 2 of INPP supplies hot water and steam to INPP for process purposes and for space heating of residential and commercial buildings. When Unit 1 is permanently shut down, reliable heat and steam sources independent of the power plants own heat and steam generation facilities are required for safety reasons in the event of shutdown of the remaining unit for maintenance or in an emergency. These steam and heat sources must be operational before single unit operation is envisaged. Provision of a reliable independent heat and steam source is therefore urgent. After both reactors are shut down permanently, a steam source will be needed at the plant for radioactive waste storage and disposal. INPP and DEA has performed a feasibility study for the provision of a reliable heat source for Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant and Visaginas, and the modernisation of Visaginas district heating system. The objective of this project is to prepare technical specifications for the provision of new heat and steam sources for INPP and Visaginas, and for rehabilitation of the heat transmission pipeline between INPP, the back-up boiler station and Visaginas City. The results of the study are presented in detail in the reports and technical specifications: 1. Transient analysis for Visaginas DH system, 2. Non-destructive testing of boiler stations, pump stations and transmission lines, 3. Conceptual design, 4. Technical specifications, Package 1 to 6. The study has suggested: 1. Construction of new steam boiler station, 2. Construction of new heat only boiler station, 3. Renovation of existing back-up heat only boiler station, 4

  3. Design evolution and verification of the general-purpose heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, A.

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a radioisotope heat source for use in space power systems. It employs a modular design, to make it adaptable to a wide range of energy conversion systems and power levels. Each 250 W module is completely autonomous, with its own passive safety provisions to prevent fuel release under all abort modes, including atmospheric reentry and earth impact. Prior development tests had demonstrated good impact survival as long as the iridium fuel capsules retained their ductility. This requires high impact temperatures, typically above 900 0 C and reasonably fine grain size, which in turn requires avoidance of excessive operating temperatures and reentry temperatures. These three requirements - on operating, reentry, and impact temperatures - are in mutual conflict, since thermal design changes to improve any one of these temperatures tend to worsen one or both of the others. This conflict creates a difficult design problem, which for a time threatened the success of the program. The present paper describes how this problem was overcome by successive design revisions, supplemented by thermal analyses and confirmatory vibration and impact tests; and how this may be achieved while raising the specific power of the GPHS to 83 W/lb, a 50% improvement over previously flown radioisotope heat sources

  4. The MiniBooNE detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.A.; Anderson, C.E.; Bartoszek, L.M.; Bazarko, A.O.; Brice, S.J.; Brown, B.C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J.M.; Cox, D.C.; Curioni, A.; Djurcic, Z.; Finley, D.A.; Fleming, B.T.; Ford, R.; Garcia, F.G.; Garvey, G.T.; Green, C.; Green, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The MiniBooNE neutrino detector was designed and built to look for ν μ →ν e oscillations in the (sin 2 2θ,Δm 2 ) parameter space region where the LSND experiment reported a signal. The MiniBooNE experiment used a beam energy and baseline that were an order of magnitude larger than those of LSND so that the backgrounds and systematic errors would be completely different. This paper provides a detailed description of the design, function, and performance of the MiniBooNE detector.

  5. Full-size solar dynamic heat receiver thermal-vacuum tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedgwick, L. M.; Kaufmann, K. J.; Mclallin, K. L.; Kerslake, T. W.

    1991-01-01

    The testing of a full-size, 102 kW, solar dynamic heat receiver utilizing high-temperature thermal energy storage is described. The purpose of the test program was to quantify receiver thermodynamic performance, operating temperatures, and thermal response to changes in environmental and power module interface boundary conditions. The heat receiver was tested in a vacuum chamber with liquid nitrogen cold shrouds and an aperture cold plate to partly simulate a low-Earth-orbit environment. The cavity of the receiver was heated by an infrared quartz lamp heater with 30 independently controllable zones to allow axially and circumferentially varied flux distributions. A closed-Brayton cycle engine simulator conditioned a helium-xenon gas mixture to specific interface conditions to simulate the various operational modes of the solar dynamic power module on the Space Station Freedom. Inlet gas temperature, pressure, and flow rate were independently varied. A total of 58 simulated orbital cycles, each 94 minutes in duration, was completed during the test period.

  6. Ground Source Heat Supply in Moscow Oblast: Temperature Potential and Sustainable Depth of Heat Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, G. P.; Gornov, V. F.; Dmitriev, A. N.; Kolesova, M. V.; Yurchenko, V. A.

    2018-01-01

    The p