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Sample records for mineralogy m3 imaging

  1. The Moon Mineralogy (M3) Imaging Spectrometer: Early Assessment of the Spectral, Radiometric, Spatial and Uniformity Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Robert O.; Pieters, C. M.; Boardman, J.; Barr, D.; Bruce, C.; Bousman, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Eastwood, M.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Glavich, T.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Hyman, S.; Hovland, L.; Koch, T.; Lee, K.; Lundeen, S.; Motts, E.; Mouroulis, P.; Paulson, S.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Robinson, D.; Rodriquez, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper's (M3) is a high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio NASA imaging spectrometer that is a guest instrument on the Indian Chandrayaan-1 Mission to the Moon. The laboratory measured spectral, radiometric, spatial, and uniformity characteristics of the M3 instrument are given. The M3 imaging spectrometer takes advantage of a suite of critical enabling capabilities to achieve its measurement requirement with a mass of 8 kg, power usage of 15 W, and volume of 25X18X12 cm. The M3 detector and spectrometer are cooled by a multi-stage passive cooler. This paper presents early M3 performance assessment results.

  2. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) imaging spectrometer for lunar science: Instrument description, calibration, on-orbit measurements, science data calibration and on-orbit validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, R.O.; Pieters, C.; Mouroulis, P.; Eastwood, M.; Boardman, J.; Glavich, T.; Isaacson, P.; Annadurai, M.; Besse, S.; Barr, D.; Buratti, B.; Cate, D.; Chatterjee, A.; Clark, R.; Cheek, L.; Combe, J.; Dhingra, D.; Essandoh, V.; Geier, S.; Goswami, J.N.; Green, R.; Haemmerle, V.; Head, J.; Hovland, L.; Hyman, S.; Klima, R.; Koch, T.; Kramer, G.; Kumar, A.S.K.; Lee, Kenneth; Lundeen, S.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; McLaughlin, S.; Mustard, J.; Nettles, J.; Petro, N.; Plourde, K.; Racho, C.; Rodriquez, J.; Runyon, C.; Sellar, G.; Smith, C.; Sobel, H.; Staid, M.; Sunshine, J.; Taylor, L.; Thaisen, K.; Tompkins, S.; Tseng, H.; Vane, G.; Varanasi, P.; White, M.; Wilson, D.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Discovery Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was selected to pursue a wide range of science objectives requiring measurement of composition at fine spatial scales over the full lunar surface. To pursue these objectives, a broad spectral range imaging spectrometer with high uniformity and high signal-to-noise ratio capable of measuring compositionally diagnostic spectral absorption features from a wide variety of known and possible lunar materials was required. For this purpose the Moon Mineralogy Mapper imaging spectrometer was designed and developed that measures the spectral range from 430 to 3000 nm with 10 nm spectral sampling through a 24 degree field of view with 0.7 milliradian spatial sampling. The instrument has a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than 400 for the specified equatorial reference radiance and greater than 100 for the polar reference radiance. The spectral cross-track uniformity is >90% and spectral instantaneous field-of-view uniformity is >90%. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper was launched on Chandrayaan-1 on the 22nd of October. On the 18th of November 2008 the Moon Mineralogy Mapper was turned on and collected a first light data set within 24 h. During this early checkout period and throughout the mission the spacecraft thermal environment and orbital parameters varied more than expected and placed operational and data quality constraints on the measurements. On the 29th of August 2009, spacecraft communication was lost. Over the course of the flight mission 1542 downlinked data sets were acquired that provide coverage of more than 95% of the lunar surface. An end-to-end science data calibration system was developed and all measurements have been passed through this system and delivered to the Planetary Data System (PDS.NASA.GOV). An extensive effort has been undertaken by the science team to validate the Moon Mineralogy Mapper science measurements in the context of the mission objectives. A focused spectral, radiometric

  3. Goldschmidt crater and the Moon's north polar region: Results from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheek, L.C.; Pieters, C.M.; Boardman, J.W.; Clark, R.N.; Combe, J.-P.; Head, J.W.; Isaacson, P.J.; McCord, T.B.; Moriarty, D.; Nettles, J.W.; Petro, N.E.; Sunshine, J.M.; Taylor, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Soils within the impact crater Goldschmidt have been identified as spectrally distinct from the local highland material. High spatial and spectral resolution data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) on the Chandrayaan-1 orbiter are used to examine the character of Goldschmidt crater in detail. Spectral parameters applied to a north polar mosaic of M3 data are used to discern large-scale compositional trends at the northern high latitudes, and spectra from three widely separated regions are compared to spectra from Goldschmidt. The results highlight the compositional diversity of the lunar nearside, in particular, where feldspathic soils with a low-Ca pyroxene component are pervasive, but exclusively feldspathic regions and small areas of basaltic composition are also observed. Additionally, we find that the relative strengths of the diagnostic OH/H2O absorption feature near 3000 nm are correlated with the mineralogy of the host material. On both global and local scales, the strongest hydrous absorptions occur on the more feldspathic surfaces. Thus, M3 data suggest that while the feldspathic soils within Goldschmidt crater are enhanced in OH/H2O compared to the relatively mafic nearside polar highlands, their hydration signatures are similar to those observed in the feldspathic highlands on the farside. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Remote compositional analysis of lunar olivine-rich lithologies with Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacson, P.J.; Pieters, C.M.; Besse, S.; Clark, R.N.; Head, J.W.; Klima, R.L.; Mustard, J.F.; Petro, N.E.; Staid, M.I.; Sunshine, J.M.; Taylor, L.A.; Thaisen, K.G.; Tompkins, S.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic approach for deconvolving remotely sensed lunar olivine-rich visible to near-infrared (VNIR) reflectance spectra with the Modified Gaussian Model (MGM) is evaluated with Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M 3) spectra. Whereas earlier studies of laboratory reflectance spectra focused only on complications due to chromite inclusions in lunar olivines, we develop a systematic approach for addressing (through continuum removal) the prominent continuum slopes common to remotely sensed reflectance spectra of planetary surfaces. We have validated our continuum removal on a suite of laboratory reflectance spectra. Suites of olivine-dominated reflectance spectra from a small crater near Mare Moscoviense, the Copernicus central peak, Aristarchus, and the crater Marius in the Marius Hills were analyzed. Spectral diversity was detected in visual evaluation of the spectra and was quantified using the MGM. The MGM-derived band positions are used to estimate the olivine's composition in a relative sense. Spectra of olivines from Moscoviense exhibit diversity in their absorption features, and this diversity suggests some variation in olivine Fe/Mg content. Olivines from Copernicus are observed to be spectrally homogeneous and thus are predicted to be more compositionally homogeneous than those at Moscoviense but are of broadly similar composition to the Moscoviense olivines. Olivines from Aristarchus and Marius exhibit clear spectral differences from those at Moscoviense and Copernicus but also exhibit features that suggest contributions from other phases. If the various precautions discussed here are weighed carefully, the methods presented here can be used to make general predictions of absolute olivine composition (Fe/Mg content). Copyright ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Compositional diversity of near-, far-side transitory zone around Naonobu, Webb and Sinus Successus craters: Inferences from Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rishikesh Bharti; D Ramakrishnan; K D Singh

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the potential of Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data for studying compositional variation in the near-, far-side transition zone of the lunar surface. For this purpose, the radiance values of the M3 data were corrected for illumination and emission related effects and converted to apparent reflectance. Dimensionality of the calibrated reflectance image cube was reduced using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) and endmembers were extracted by using Pixel Purity Index (PPI) algorithm. The selected endmembers were linearly unmixed and resolved for mineralogy using United States Geological Survey (USGS) library spectra of minerals. These mineralogically resolved endmembers were used to map the compositional variability within, and outside craters using Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm. Cross validation for certain litho types was attempted using band ratios like Optical Maturity (OMAT), Color Ratio Composite and Integrated Band Depth ratio (IBD). The identified lithologies for highland and basin areas match well with published works and strongly support depth related magmatic differentiation. Prevalence of pigeonite-basalt, pigeonite-norite and pyroxenite in crater peaks and floors are unique to the investigated area and are attributed to local, lateral compositional variability in magma composition due to pressure, temperature, and rate of cooling.

  6. Lunar Exploration Insights Recognized from Chandrayaan-1 M3 Imaging Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Carle; Green, Robert O.; Boardman, Joseph

    2016-07-01

    One of the most important lessons learned from the renaissance of lunar exploration over the last decade is that new discoveries and surprises occur with every new mission to the Moon. Although the color of the Moon had been measured using Earth-based telescopes even before Apollo, modern instruments sent to orbit the Moon provide a scope of inquiry unimaginable during the last century. Spacecraft have now been successfully sent to the Moon by six different space agencies from around the world and the number is growing. The Indian Chandrayaan- 1 spacecraft carried a suite of indigenous instruments as well as several guest instruments from other countries, including the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M-cube) supplied by NASA. Even though Chandrayaan's lifetime in orbit was shortened by technical constraints, M3 provided a taste of the power of near-infrared imaging spectroscopy used for science and exploration at the Moon. Contrary to expectations, the lunar surface was discovered to be hydrated, which is now known to result from solar wind H combining with O of rocks and soil. Surficial hydration was found to be pervasive across the Moon and the limited data hint at both local concentrations and temporal variations. The prime objective of M3 was to characterize lunar mineralogy in a spatial context. Working in tandem with related instruments on JAXA's SELENE, M3 readily recognized and mapped known minerals from mare and highland terrains (pyroxenes, olivine) at high resolution, but also detected diagnostic properties of crystalline plagioclase which, when mapped across a spatial context, enabled the unambiguous identification of a massive crustal layer of plagioclase that clearly resulted from an early magma ocean. An additional surprise came with the discovery of a new rock type on the Moon that had not been recognized in samples returned by Apollo and Luna: a Mg-rich spinel anorthosite associated with material excavated from some of the greatest lunar depths. In

  7. MINERALOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20152310 Hao Penghao(National Defense Key Discipline Lab.of Nuclear Waste and Environmental Safety,Southwest University of Science and Technology,Mianyang 621010,China);Lu Xirui Structural Evolvement and the Capability of Resistance toγ-Ray Irradiation on Zircon Originated from the North Qaidam(Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology,

  8. MINERALOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>20130742 Huang Dubin (School of Geoscience and Surveying Engineering , China University of Mining and Technology , Beijing 100083 , China); Guan Xinbang Study on the Minera-logical Features of Chloritoid in Hongmiaoling Formation of Dongshan , Tanzhesi , West Beijing , China (Acta Mineralogica Sinica , ISSN1000-4734 , CN52-1045/P

  9. MINERALOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20112225Du Guangpeng(Shanghai Jianqiao College,Shanghai 201319,China);Fan Jianliang Characteristics of Raman Spectral of Calcite Group Minerals(Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology,ISSN1001 - 6872, CN51-1143/TD,30(4),2010,p.32-35, 2illus.,2tables,6refs.)

  10. MINERALOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>20080144 Ma Guohua(Southwest University of Science and Technology,Mianyang 621002,China);Peng Tongjiang A Study of Chrysotile Asbestos Nanotube Synthesized by Hydrothermal Reaction(Journal of Mineralogy and Petrology,ISSN1001-6872,CN51-1143/TD,27(1),2007,p.40-45,2 illus.,2 photos,11 refs.)

  11. Lunar mare deposits associated with the Orientale impact basin: New insights into mineralogy, history, mode of emplacement, and relation to Orientale Basin evolution from Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data from Chandrayaan-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitten, J.; Head, J.W.; Staid, M.; Pieters, C.M.; Mustard, J.; Clark, R.; Nettles, J.; Klima, R.L.; Taylor, L.

    2011-01-01

    Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) image and spectral reflectance data are combined to analyze mare basalt units in and adjacent to the Orientale multiring impact basin. Models are assessed for the relationships between basin formation and mare basalt emplacement. Mare basalt emplacement on the western nearside limb began prior to the Orientale event as evidenced by the presence of cryptomaria. The earliest post-Orientale-event mare basalt emplacement occurred in the center of the basin (Mare Orientale) and postdated the formation of the Orientale Basin by about 60-100 Ma. Over the next several hundred million years, basalt patches were emplaced first along the base of the Outer Rook ring (Lacus Veris) and then along the base of the Cordillera ring (Lacus Autumni), with some overlap in ages. The latest basalt patches are as young as some of the youngest basalt deposits on the lunar nearside. M3 data show several previously undetected mare patches on the southwestern margins of the basin interior. Regardless, the previously documented increase in mare abundance from the southwest toward the northeast is still prominent. We attribute this to crustal and lithospheric trends moving from the farside to the nearside, with correspondingly shallower density and thermal barriers to basaltic magma ascent and eruption toward the nearside. The wide range of model ages for Orientale mare deposits (3.70-1.66 Ga) mirrors the range of nearside mare ages, indicating that the small amount of mare fill in Orientale is not due to early cessation of mare emplacement but rather to limited volumes of extrusion for each phase during the entire period of nearside mare basalt volcanism. This suggests that nearside and farside source regions may be similar but that other factors, such as thermal and crustal thickness barriers to magma ascent and eruption, may be determining the abundance of surface deposits on the limbs and farside. The sequence, timing, and elevation of mare basalt deposits

  12. Study of the continuum removal method for the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) and its application to Mare Humorum and Mare Nubium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xun-Yu; Ouyang, Zi-Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-Meng; Chen, Yuan; Tang, Xiao; Xu, Ao-Ao; Tang, Ze-Sheng; Wu, Yun-Zhao

    2016-07-01

    The absorption band center of visible and near infrared reflectance spectra is a key spectral parameter for lunar mineralogical studies, especially for the mafic minerals (olivine and pyroxene) of mare basalts, which have two obvious absorption bands at 1000 nm (Band I) and 2000nm (Band II). Removal of the continuum from spectra, which was developed by Clark and Roush and used to isolate the particular absorption feature, is necessary to estimate this parameter. The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data are widely used for lunar mineral identification. However, M3 data show a residual thermal effect, which interferes with the continuum removal, and systematic differences exist among optical data taken during different optical periods. This study investigated a suitable continuum removal method and compared the difference between two sets of M3 data taken during different optical periods, Optical Period 1B (OP1B) and Optical Period 2A (OP2A). Two programs for continuum removal are reported in this paper. Generally, a program respectively constructs two straight lines across Band I and Band II to remove the continuum, which is recommended for locating band centers, because it can find the same Band I center with different right endpoints. The optimal right endpoint for continuum removal is mainly dominated by two optical period data at approximately 2480 and 2560nm for OP1B and OP2A data, respectively. The band center values derived from OP1B data are smaller than those derived from OP2A data in Band I but larger in Band II, especially for the spectra using longer right endpoints (>2600 nm). This may be due to the spectral slopes of OP1B data being steeper than those of OP2A data in Band I but gentler in Band II. These results were applied to Mare Humorum and Mare Nubium, and the measurements were found to mainly vary from intermediate- to high-Ca pyroxene.

  13. Detection of Mg spinel lithologies on central peak of crater Theophilus using Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) data from Chandrayaan-1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Lal; P Chauhan; R D Shah; S Bhattacharya; Ajai; A S Kiran Kumar

    2012-06-01

    Spectral reflectance data derived from Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) onboard India’s Chandrayaan-1 has revealed Fe bearing Mg-spinel-rich lithology on central peaks of the crater Theophilus. These newly identified Fe bearing Mg-spinel-rich rock types are defined by their strong 2-m absorption and lack of 1-m absorptions in spectral reflectance response. Such lithology has been reported previously along the inner ring of Moscoviense Basin on the lunar far side. The Modified Gaussian Modeling (MGM) analysis of the Fe bearing Mg-spinel reflectance spectra has been done and the results of the analysis clearly bring out a strong spectral absorption at 1872 nm with no significant absortion around 1000 nm. The presence of spinel group of minerals in the Theophilus central peak and the fact that central peaks mostly represent uplifted mass of deep crustal material confirm that central peaks can be used as a window to study the deep crustal and/or upper mantle composition and may lead to a fresh perspective about the crustal composition of Moon.

  14. Joint M3 and Diviner Analysis of the Mineralogy, Glass Composition, and Country Rock Content of Pyroclastic Deposits in Oppenheimer Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kristen A.; Horgan, Briony H. N.; Greenhagen, Benjamin T.; Allen, Carlton C.; Paige, David A.; Bell, James F., III

    2013-01-01

    Here we present our analysis of the near- and mid-infrared spectral properties of pyroclastic deposits within the floor fractured Oppenheimer Crater that are hypothesized to be Vulcanian in origin. These are the first results of our global study of lunar pyroclastic deposits aimed at constraining the range of eruption processes on the Moon. In the near-infrared, we have employed a new method of spectral analysis developed in Horgan et al. (2013) of the 1 ?m iron absorption band in Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) spectra. By analyzing both the position and shape of the 1 ?m band we can detect and map the distribution of minerals, glasses, and mixtures of these phases in pyroclastic deposits. We are also using mid-infrared spectra from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment to develop 200 m/pixel Christiansen Feature (CF) maps, which correlate with silica abundance. One of the benefits of using CF maps for analysis of pyroclastic deposits is that they can be used to detect silicic country rock that may have been emplaced by Vulcanian-style eruptions, and are sensitive to iron abundance in glasses, neither of which is possible in the near-infrared. M3 analysis reveals that the primary spectral endmembers are low-calcium pyroxene and iron-bearing glass, with only minor high-calcium pyroxene, and no detectable olivine. The large deposit in the south shows higher and more extensive glass concentrations than the surrounding deposits. We interpret the M3 spectra of the pyroclastic deposits as indicating a mixture of low-calcium pyroxene country rock and juvenile glass, and no significant olivine. Analysis of Diviner CF maps of the Oppenheimer crater floor indicates an average CF value of 8.16, consistent with a mixture of primarily plagioclase and some pyroxene. The average CF values of the pyroclastic deposits range from 8.31 in the SW to 8.24 in the SE. Since CF values within the deposits are as high as 8.49, the lower average CF

  15. A New Lunar Globe as Seen by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper: Image Coverage Spectral Dimensionality and Statistical Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, J. W.; Pieters, C. M.; Green, R. O.; Clark, R. N.; Sunshine, J.; Combe, J.-P.; Isaacson, P.; Lundeen, S. R.; Malaret, E.; McCord, T.; hide

    2010-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3), a NASA Discovery Mission of Opportunity, was launched October 22, 2008 from Shriharikota in India on board the Indian ISRO Chandrayaan- 1 spacecraft for a nominal two-year mission in a 100-km polar lunar orbit. M3 is a high-fidelity imaging spectrometer with 260 spectral bands in Target Mode and 85 spectral bands in a reduced-resolution Global Mode. Target Mode pixel sizes are nominally 70 meters and Global pixels (binned 2 by 2) are 140 meters, from the planned 100-km orbit. The mission was cut short, just before halfway, in August, 2009 when the spacecraft ceased operations. Despite the abbreviated mission and numerous technical and scientific challenges during the flight, M3 was able to cover more than 95% of the Moon in Global Mode. These data, presented and analyzed here as a global whole, are revolutionizing our understanding of the Moon. Already, numerous discoveries relating to volatiles and unexpected mineralogy have been published [1], [2], [3]. The rich spectral and spatial information content of the M3 data indicates that many more discoveries and an improved understanding of the mineralogy, geology, photometry, thermal regime and volatile status of our nearest neighbor are forthcoming from these data. Sadly, only minimal high-resolution Target Mode images were acquired, as these were to be the focus of the second half of the mission. This abstract gives the reader a global overview of all the M3 data that were collected and an introduction to their rich spectral character and complexity. We employ a Principal Components statistical method to assess the underlying dimensionality of the Moon as a whole, as seen by M3, and to identify numerous areas that are low-probability targets and thus of potential interest to selenologists.

  16. Sources and physical processes responsible for OH/H2O in the lunar soil as revealed by the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3)

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, T.B.; Taylor, L.A.; Combe, J.-P.; Kramer, G.; Pieters, C.M.; Sunshine, J.M.; Clark, R.N.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of two absorption features near 3 m in the lunar reflectance spectrum, observed by the orbiting M3 spectrometer and interpreted as being due to OH and H2O, is presented, and the results are used to discuss the processes producing these molecules. This analysis focuses on the dependence of the absorptions on lunar physical properties, including composition, illumination, latitude, and temperature. Solar wind proton-induced hydroxylation is proposed as the creation process, and its products could be a source for other reported types of hydrogen-rich material and water. The irregular and damaged fine-grained lunar soil seems especially adapted for trapping solar wind protons and forming OH owing to abundant dangling oxygen bonds. The M3 data reveal that the strengths of the two absorptions are correlated and widespread, and both are correlated with lunar composition but in different ways. Feldspathic material seems richer in OH. These results seem to rule out water from the lunar interior and cometary infall as major sources. There appear to be correlations of apparent band strengths with time of day and lighting conditions. However, thermal emission from the Moon reduces the apparent strengths of the M3 absorptions, and its removal is not yet completely successful. Further, many of the lunar physical properties are themselves intercorrelated, and so separating these dependencies on the absorptions is difficult, due to the incomplete M3 data set. This process should also operate on other airless silicate surfaces, such as Mercury and Vesta, which will be visited by the Dawn spacecraft in mid-2011. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Mineralogical Mapping of Asteroid Itokawa using Calibrated Hayabusa AMICA images and NIRS Spectrometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corre, Lucille; Becker, Kris J.; Reddy, Vishnu; Li, Jian-Yang; Bhatt, Megha

    2016-10-01

    The goal of our work is to restore data from the Hayabusa spacecraft that is available in the Planetary Data System (PDS) Small Bodies Node. More specifically, our objectives are to radiometrically calibrate and photometrically correct AMICA (Asteroid Multi-Band Imaging Camera) images of Itokawa. The existing images archived in the PDS are not in reflectance and not corrected from the effect of viewing geometry. AMICA images are processed with the Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers (ISIS) system from USGS, widely used for planetary image analysis. The processing consists in the ingestion of the images in ISIS (amica2isis), updates to AMICA start time (sumspice), radiometric calibration (amicacal) including smear correction, applying SPICE ephemeris, adjusting control using Gaskell SUMFILEs (sumspice), projecting individual images (cam2map) and creating global or local mosaics. The application amicacal has also an option to remove pixels corresponding to the polarizing filters on the left side of the image frame. The amicacal application will include a correction for the Point Spread Function. The last version of the PSF published by Ishiguro et al. in 2014 includes correction for the effect of scattered light. This effect is important to correct because it can add 10% level in error and is affecting mostly the longer wavelength filters such as zs and p. The Hayabusa team decided to use the color data for six of the filters for scientific analysis after correcting for the scattered light. We will present calibrated data in I/F for all seven AMICA color filters. All newly implemented ISIS applications and map projections from this work have been or will be distributed to the community via ISIS public releases. We also processed the NIRS spectrometer data, and we will perform photometric modeling, then apply photometric corrections, and finally extract mineralogical parameters. The end results will be the creation of pyroxene chemistry and olivine

  18. Classification of Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML M2 and AML M3) using Momentum Back Propagation from Watershed Distance Transform Segmented Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, Esti; Wiharto; Palgunadi, Sarngadi; Nurcahya Pradana, TP

    2017-01-01

    This study uses image processing to analyze white blood cell with leukemia indicated that includes the identification, analysis of shapes and sizes, as well as white blood cell count indicated the symptoms of leukemia. A case study in this research was blood cells, from the type of leukemia Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML), M2 and M3 in particular. Image processing operations used for segmentation by utilizing the color conversion from RGB (Red, Green dab Blue) to obtain white blood cell candidates. Furthermore, the white blood cells candidates are separated by other cells with active contour without edge. WBC (White Blood Cell) results still have intersected or overlap condition. Watershed distance transform method can separate overlap of WBC. Furthermore, the separation of the nucleus from the cytoplasm using the HSI (Hue Saturation Intensity). The further characteristic extraction process is done by calculating the area WBC, WBC edge, roundness, the ratio of the nucleus, the mean and standard deviation of pixel intensities. The feature extraction results are used for training and testing in determining the classification of AML: M2 and M3 by using the momentum backpropagation algorithm. The classification process is done by testing the numeric data input from the feature extraction results that have been entered in the database. K-Fold validation is used to divide the amount of training data and to test the classification of AML M2 and M3. The experiment results of eight images trials, the result, was 94.285% per cell accuracy and 75% per image accuracy

  19. Process mineralogy IX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petruk, W.; Hagni, R.D.; Pignolet-Brandom, S.; Hausen, D.M. (eds.) (Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology, Ottawa, ON (Canada))

    1990-01-01

    54 papers are presented under the headings: keynote address; process mineralogy applications to mineral processing; process mineralogy applications to gold; process mineralogy applications to pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy; process mineralogy applications to environment and health; and process mineralogy applications to synthetic materials. Subject and author indexes are provided. Three papers have been abstracted separately.

  20. Introduction to Mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knittle, Elise

    A course in mineralogy is a rite of passage for most undergraduate Earth sciences majors. As fluency with minerals is so basic for deciphering a range of geologic processes, many Earth scientists can recall long hours in the lab memorizing mineral samples, their chemical formulae and crystal systems, and perhaps staring through a petrographic microscope wondering, what exactly is 2V? In this venerable field with so many classic textbooks, one might ask why another mineralogy text is warranted.Introduction to Mineralogy is organized in a traditional way, with Part I covering the topics of symmetry, crystallography, crystal chemistry and structure, and crystal growth. Part II covers physical properties of minerals and methods for studying mineral structures and chemistry (including optical mineralogy and x-ray diffraction), and Part III presents the systematic mineralogy of all of the mineral groups.

  1. Mineralogical Mapping using Field and Image Based Spectra in Parts of Delhi-Aravalli Fold Belt, Rajasthan, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmuda Khatun

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to retrieve reflectance utilizing the raw (radiance data from EO-1 Hyperion dataset and to evaluate its application potential in mineral exploration in parts of Delhi-Aravalli Fold Belt region of western India. The area is marked by basement Precambrian gneissic rocks, overlain by supra crustal cover of the Aravalli Super group, Delhi Super group, Vindhyan Super group and younger rocks. These rocks are highly metamorphosed, structurally deformed and show sporadic occurrences of important ore minerals deposits of metallic (Pb, Zn, Cu and non metallic minerals (Apatite and Marbles. This paper involves generation of hyperspectral image spectra and field spectra to identify spectral characteristics of minerals. FLAASH (expansion atmospheric correction model was applied to retrieve reflectance image from the radiance data. Preprocessing techniques involved selection of good spectral bands, correction of missing lines and pixels before application of FLAASH atmospheric model. Using image processing techniques suitable for hyperspectral image analysis (Spectral Angle Mapper, MNF, End-member matching, Hyperion data over Udaipur, Dungarpur and Chittorgarh districts was analysed and minerals were identified such as rectorite, pyrope, dolomite, montmorillonite, erionite, talc, phologopite, pyrrohite, hematite,olivine, diopside, pyrite, tephrite, lepidolite, andalusite and Fe-rich chlorite. The end member map generated by using advance techniques like SAM was validated using ground truth and spot sample collected, therein, was further analyzed using spectro radiometer in VNIR range. Keeping view on the ubiquitous hydrothermal origin of base metals, special emphasis was put to clay-mica group of minerals as they often proxy for the zone of alteration. This lead to defining the exact zone of hydrothermal alteration throwing light on proximity with igneous intrusion and type associated of metal. Application of such technology

  2. Multispectral Imaging of Mars from the Mars Science Laboratory Mastcam Instruments: Spectral Properties and Mineralogic Implications Along the Gale Crater Traverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, James F.; Wellington, Danika; Hardgrove, Craig; Godber, Austin; Rice, Melissa S.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Fraeman, Abigail

    2016-10-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover Mastcam is a pair of multispectral CCD cameras that have been imaging the surface and atmosphere in three broadband visible RGB color channels as well as nine additional narrowband color channels between 400 and 1000 nm since the rover's landing in August 2012. As of Curiosity sol 1159 (the most recent PDS data release as of this writing), approximately 140 multispectral imaging targets have been imaged using all twelve unique bandpasses. Near-simultaneous imaging of an onboard calibration target allows rapid relative reflectance calibration of these data to radiance factor and estimated Lambert albedo, for direct comparison to lab reflectance spectra of rocks, minerals, and mixtures. Surface targets among this data set include a variety of outcrop and float rocks (some containing light-toned veins), unconsolidated pebbles and clasts, and loose sand and soil. Some of these targets have been brushed, scuffed, or otherwise disturbed by the rover in order to reveal the (less dusty) interiors of these materials, and those targets and each of Curiosity's drill holes and tailings piles have been specifically targeted for multispectral imaging.Analysis of the relative reflectance spectra of these materials, sometimes in concert with additional compositional and/or mineralogic information from Curiosity's ChemCam LIBS and passive-mode spectral data and CheMin XRD data, reveals the presence of relatively broad solid state crystal field and charge transfer absorption features characteristic of a variety of common iron-bearing phases, including hematite (both nanophase and crystalline), ferric sulfate, olivine, and pyroxene. In addition, Mastcam is sensitive to a weak hydration feature in the 900-1000 nm region that can provide insight on the hydration state of some of these phases, especially sulfates. Here we summarize the Mastcam multispectral data set and the major potential phase identifications made using that data set

  3. Mineralogy in Geotechnical Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Namdar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The several investigations on soils by different researchers have been executed, but research on soil mechanical propertiesbased on mineralogy is very meager, in this regard the author intention is employee of natural minerals for evaluation of soilcohesion, it may leads to developments of a soil with appropriates characteristics in permeability, transmitting load, resistingagainst deformation and settlement. This paper deals with analysis of soil cohesion based on mineralogy. The result revealedcohesion of a plastic soil could be improve by mineral presented in an non plastic soil, and also carbonate has negative affecton soil cohesion and some other soil minerals also have same affect on cohesion that required to be more investigate.

  4. Environmental Mineralogical Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Basic properties, including surface absorption, porous filtration, ion exchange, heat effect and chemical solubility of environmental mineralogical materials, are widely applied to the pollution prevention environment improvement. The pollunian prevenition environmenr means the quality improvement of surface water, groundwater, river, lake and ground reservoir: the improvement of soil, the disposal of nuclear waste, the purification of domestic sewage, the collection of smoke and dust and the treatment of waste water. The prospective investigation and utilization of environmental mineralogical materials have been dealt with in more detail by the author of this paper with emphases on the prevention and control of soil contamination by heavy metals, on the quality im provement and treatment of surface water and groundwater,and on the collection of smoke and dust arising from burning coals.

  5. Sulfide Mineralogy and Geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilles, John

    2007-02-01

    Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry Series, Volume 61 David J. Vaughan, Editor Geochemical Society and Mineralogical Society of America; ISBN 0-939950-73-1 xiii + 714 pp.; 2006; $40. Sulfide minerals as a class represent important minor rock-forming minerals, but they are generally known as the chief sources of many economic metallic ores. In the past two decades, sulfide research has been extended to include important roles in environmental geology of sulfide weathering and resultant acid mine drainage, as well as in geomicrobiology in which bacteria make use of sulfides for metabolic energy sources. In the latter respect, sulfides played an important role in early evolution of life on Earth and in geochemical cycling of elements in the Earth's crust and hydrosphere.

  6. Silicate mineralogy at the surface of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namur, Olivier; Charlier, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    NASA's MESSENGER spacecraft has revealed geochemical diversity across Mercury's volcanic crust. Near-infrared to ultraviolet spectra and images have provided evidence for the Fe2+-poor nature of silicate minerals, magnesium sulfide minerals in hollows and a darkening component attributed to graphite, but existing spectral data is insufficient to build a mineralogical map for the planet. Here we investigate the mineralogical variability of silicates in Mercury's crust using crystallization experiments on magmas with compositions and under reducing conditions expected for Mercury. We find a common crystallization sequence consisting of olivine, plagioclase, pyroxenes and tridymite for all magmas tested. Depending on the cooling rate, we suggest that lavas on Mercury are either fully crystallized or made of a glassy matrix with phenocrysts. Combining the experimental results with geochemical mapping, we can identify several mineralogical provinces: the Northern Volcanic Plains and Smooth Plains, dominated by plagioclase, the High-Mg province, strongly dominated by forsterite, and the Intermediate Plains, comprised of forsterite, plagioclase and enstatite. This implies a temporal evolution of the mineralogy from the oldest lavas, dominated by mafic minerals, to the youngest lavas, dominated by plagioclase, consistent with progressive shallowing and decreasing degree of mantle melting over time.

  7. Automated Quantitative Rare Earth Elements Mineralogy by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindern, Sven; Meyer, F. Michael

    2016-09-01

    Increasing industrial demand of rare earth elements (REEs) stems from the central role they play for advanced technologies and the accelerating move away from carbon-based fuels. However, REE production is often hampered by the chemical, mineralogical as well as textural complexity of the ores with a need for better understanding of their salient properties. This is not only essential for in-depth genetic interpretations but also for a robust assessment of ore quality and economic viability. The design of energy and cost-efficient processing of REE ores depends heavily on information about REE element deportment that can be made available employing automated quantitative process mineralogy. Quantitative mineralogy assigns numeric values to compositional and textural properties of mineral matter. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with a suitable software package for acquisition of backscatter electron and X-ray signals, phase assignment and image analysis is one of the most efficient tools for quantitative mineralogy. The four different SEM-based automated quantitative mineralogy systems, i.e. FEI QEMSCAN and MLA, Tescan TIMA and Zeiss Mineralogic Mining, which are commercially available, are briefly characterized. Using examples of quantitative REE mineralogy, this chapter illustrates capabilities and limitations of automated SEM-based systems. Chemical variability of REE minerals and analytical uncertainty can reduce performance of phase assignment. This is shown for the REE phases parisite and synchysite. In another example from a monazite REE deposit, the quantitative mineralogical parameters surface roughness and mineral association derived from image analysis are applied for automated discrimination of apatite formed in a breakdown reaction of monazite and apatite formed by metamorphism prior to monazite breakdown. SEM-based automated mineralogy fulfils all requirements for characterization of complex unconventional REE ores that will become

  8. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Official journal of Japan Association of Mineralogical Sciences (JAMS), focusing on mineralogical and petrological sciences and their related fields. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences (JMPS) is the successor journal to both “Journal of Mineralogy, Petrology and Economic Geology” and “Mineralogical Journal”. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences (JMPS) is indexed in the ISI database (Thomson Reuters), the Science Citation Index-Expanded, Current Contents/Physical, Chemical & Earth Sciences, and ISI Alerting Services.

  9. The Luminosity Function of M3

    CERN Document Server

    Rood, R T; Paltrinieri, B; Ferraro, F R; Pecci, F F; Dorman, B; Chieffi, A; Straniero, O; Buonanno, R

    1999-01-01

    We present a high precision, large sample luminosity function (LF) for the Galactic globular cluster M3. With a combination of ground based and Hubble Space Telescope data we cover the entire radial extent of the cluster. The observed LF is well fit by canonical standard stellar models from the red giant branch (RGB) tip to below the main sequence turnoff point. Specifically, neither the RGB LF-bump nor subgiant branch LF indicate any breakdown in the standard models. On the main sequence we find evidence for a flat initial mass function and for mass segregation due to the dynamical evolution of the cluster.

  10. Impact of mineralogical heterogeneity on reactive transport modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Shabaninejad, Mehdi; Mostaghimi, Peyman

    2017-07-01

    Impact of mineralogical heterogeneity of rocks in reactive modelling is investigated by applying a pore scale model based on the Lattice Boltzmann and Finite Volume Methods. Mass transport, chemical reaction and solid structure modification are included in the model. A two-dimensional mineral map of a sandstone rock is acquired using the imaging technique of QEMSCAN SEM with Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS). The mineralogical heterogeneity is explored by conducting multi-mineral reaction simulations on images containing various minerals. The results are then compared with the prediction of single mineral dissolution modelling. Dissolution patterns and permeability variations of multi-mineral and single mineral reactions are presented. The errors of single mineral reaction modelling are also estimated. Numerical results show that mineralogical heterogeneity can cause significant errors in permeability prediction, if a uniform mineral distribution is assumed. The errors are smaller in high Péclet regimes than in low Péclet regimes in this sample.

  11. Novel imaging techniques, integrated with mineralogical, geochemical and microbiological characterizations to determine the biogeochemical controls on technetium mobility in FRC sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonathan R. Lloyd

    2009-02-03

    -200 MBq; half life 6 hours) and its mobility was monitored using a {gamma}-camera. Incorporation of low concentrations of the long-lived 99Tc gave a tracer that can be followed by scintillation counting, should the metastable form of the radionuclide decay to below detection limits before the end of the experiment (complete immobilization or loss of the Tc from the column). After the Tc was reduced and immobilized, or passed through the system, the columns were dismantled carefully in an anaerobic cabinet and the pore water geochemistry and mineralogy of the columns profiled. Microbial community analysis was determined, again using molecular and culture-dependent techniques. Experimental results were also modeled using an established coupled speciation and transport code, to develop a predictive tool for the mobility of Tc in FRC sediments. From this multidisciplinary approach, we hoped to obtain detailed information on the microorganisms that control the biogeochemical cycling of key elements at the FRC, and we would also be able to determine the key factors that control the mobility of Tc at environmentally relevant concentrations at this site.

  12. Transport Coefficients of Black M3-Branes

    CERN Document Server

    Dhuria, Mansi

    2014-01-01

    The local uplift via local SYZ mirror symmetry of (M)N (fractional)D3-branes, and wrapped N_f flavor D7-branes in the presence of a black-hole resulting in a non-Kaehler resolved warped deformed conifold (NKRWDC) in [1], was carried out in [2] and resulted in black M3-branes; the deviation from the ISD condition of G_3 proportional to the square of the resolution parameter, in the limits of [1] and MQGP limit of [2], imposed on (g_s,M,N), can be ignored [3]. The uplift, if valid globally, asymptotes to M5-branes wrapping a two-cycle (homologously an (large) integer sum of two-spheres) in AdS_5xM_6. Interestingly, in the limits of [1]/ [2], assuming the deformation > resolution, by estimating the five SU(3) structure torsion (\\tau) classes W_{1,2,3,4,5} we show that \\tau\\in W_5 in the large-r limit, implying the NKRWDC reduces to a warped Kaehler deformed conifold. Further, the local T^3 of [2] in the large-r limit and the limits of [1] and the `MQGP' limit of [2], satisfies the same conditions as the maximal ...

  13. Formando planetas habitables en estrellas M3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugaro, A.; de Elía, G. C.; Brunini, A.

    2016-08-01

    Studies of stellar evolution allow us to infer that the low-mass stars are the most abundant in the galaxy. In the present investigation, we analyze the formation of planetary systems without gas giants around M3-type stars, which have a mass of 0.29 M. In particular, we are interested in studying the terrestrial-like planet formation processes and water delivery in the Habitable Zone (HZ) of those systems. To develop this investigation, we assume massive protoplanetary disks for such stars, which have 5 of the mass of the central star. Once defined the working disk, we use a semi-analytical model, which is able to determine the distribution of planetary embryos and planetesimals at the end of the gaseous phase. Then, these distributions are used as initial conditions for running -body simulations. Due to the stochastic nature of the accretion process, we carry out ten -body simulations in order to analyze the evolution of the planetary systems after the gas dissipation. Our results suggest the efficient formation of terrestrial-like planets in the HZ with a wide range of masses and water contents. The planets formed in the HZ of the system have masses between 0.07 M and 0.15 M and final water contents between 5.4 and 29 by mass. The physical properties of the terrestrial-like planets formed in the HZ of our simulations suggest that they should be able to retain a permanent and substantial atmosphere.

  14. Automatic, exploratory mineralogical mapping of CRISM imagery using summary product signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allender, Elyse; Stepinski, Tomasz F.

    2017-01-01

    Martian spectroscopic and mineralogical analysis is usually performed using Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) browse products - false color images which show the spatial distribution of absorption features at key wavelengths. This manual, time-consuming method is ill-suited for exploratory surveys of a large number of images - for such surveys an automatic methodology is needed. In this paper we propose a method for exploratory but fully automatic mineralogical mapping of CRISM images. In our approach pixels are characterized by vectors of CRISM summary product values instead of spectral functions, and mineralogical units are discovered using a clustering principle. Moreover, the rare class discovery algorithm DEMUD is used in place of a standard clustering algorithm to identify mineralogical units - enabling the identification of only scientifically interesting, possibly rare, mineralogical deposits. The method outputs a map for each site showing the spatial distribution of mineralogical units - areas characterized by similar mineralogy. It also provides, without using a spectral library, semantic labels for each unit. We envision our method as a focus-of-attention tool to facilitate fast exploratory surveys of a large number of images. An analyst needs only to examine manually regions within an image where our pipeline indicates the existence of mineral units of interest. In this paper the method for our computational pipeline is described in detail and its performance is evaluated using a sample of 20 CRISM images - the mineralogical content of which is known from manual analysis. We find that our pipeline identifies most deposits found through manual analysis as well as some additional deposits which were not targeted by those analyses. Overall, we conclude that our fully automatic mineralogical mapper works well for exploratory purposes. Thus, it adds a new, valuable functionality to existing tools for CRISM imagery analysis.

  15. New BMW M3 sports coupe; Neues Sportcoupe M3 von BMW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, A.; Friedmann, S.; Gehrig, H.; Huebner, W.; Weidhase, U. [Bayerische Motoren Werke AG (BMW), Muenchen (Germany); Koplenig, W. [BMW, Muenchen (Germany). Fachbereich Karosserie

    2000-10-01

    Since 1972 Motorsport (which has been known as BMW M since 1994) has been manufacturing automobiles of exceptionally sporting character on the basis of suitable series-production cars. With its new M3, BMW M continues this tradition. It is a sports coupe based on the latest BMW 3 Series model line. Its sports design embodies the essentials of BMW M's performance philosophy. Both visible and invisible 'highlights' such as the new high-speed driveline rating elevate its longitudinal and lateral driving dynamics to the level of a racing car. We have also succeeded in maintaining the basic car's unlimited suitability for everyday use. The new M3 is therefore a fully-fledged sports car without the typical disadvantages of this type of vehicle. (orig.) [German] Bereits seit 1972 entstehen bei BMW Motorsport (seit 1994 BMW M) auf der Basis von Serienfahrzeugen Automobile mit aussergewoehnlichen sportlichen Eigenschaften. Mit dem neuen M3, abgeleitet von der aktuellen BMW Dreier-Reihe, setzt BMW M diese Tradition fort. Das Sportcoupe erschliesst ueber die weiterentwickelte Hochdrehzahlauslegung eine Fahrdynamik in Laengs- und Querrichtung auf dem Niveau eines Rennsportwagens. Gleichzeitig ist es gelungen, die uneingeschraenkte Alltagstauglichkeit des Basis-Fahrzeugs zu erhalten. Der neue M3 ist somit ein vollwertiger Sportwagen, vermeidet aber dessen typische Nachteile. (orig.)

  16. Morphology and Distribution of Volcanic Vents in the Orientale Basin from Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, James; Pieters, C.; Staid, M.; Mustard, J.; Taylor, L.; McCord, T.; Isaacson, P.; Klima, R.; Petro, N.; Clark, R.; Nettles, J.; Whitten, J.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most fundamental questions in the geological and thermal evolution of the Moon is the nature and history of mantle melting and its relationship to the formation and evolution of lunar multi-ringed basins. Mare volcanic deposits provide evidence for the nature, magnitude and composition of mantle melting as a function of space and time [1]. Many argue that mantle partial melts are derived from depths well below the influence of multiringed basin impact events [1], while others postulate that the formation of these basins can cause mantle perturbations that are more directly linked to the generation ascent and eruption of mare basalts [2,3]. In any case, longer-term basin evolution will considerably influence the state and orientation of stress in the lithosphere, and the location of mare volcanic vents in basins as a function of time [4]. Thus, the location, nature and ages of volcanic vents and deposits in relation to multi-ringed impact basins provides evidence for the role that these basins played in the generation of volcanism or in the influence of the basins on surface volcanic eruption and deposit concentration. Unfortunately, most lunar multi-ringed impact basins have been eroded by impacts or filled with lunar mare deposits [5-8], with estimates of the thickness of mare fill extending up to more than six km in the central part of some basins [9-11]. The interior of most basins (e.g., Crisium, Serenitatis, Imbrium, Humorum) are almost completely covered and obscured. Although much is known about the lava filling of multi-ringed basins, and particularly the most recent deposits [5-8], little is known about initial stages of mare volcanism and its relationship to the impact event. One multi-ringed basin, Orientale, offers substantial clues to the relationships of basin interiors and mare basalt volcanism.

  17. Mineralogy of Rocks and Sediments at Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, Cherie; Downs, Robert; Blake, David; Vaniman, David; Ming, Doug; Rampe, Elizabeth; Morris, Dick; Morrison, Shaunna; Treiman, Allan; Chipera, Steve; Yen, Albert; Bristow, Thomas; Craig, Patricia; Hazen, Robert; Crisp, Joy; Grotzinger, John; Des Marias, David; Farmer, Jack; Sarrazin, Philippe; Morookian, John Michael

    2017-04-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, is providing in situ mineralogical, geochemical, and sedimentological assessments of rocks and soils in Gale crater. Since landing in 2012, Curiosity has traveled over 15 km, providing analyses of mudstones and sandstones to build a stratigraphic history of the region. The CheMin X-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument is the first instrument on Mars to provide quantitative mineralogical analyses of drilled powders and scooped sediment based on X-ray crystallography. CheMin identifies and determines mineral abundances and unit-cell parameters of major crystalline phases, and identifies minor phases at abundances >1 wt%. In conjunction with elemental analyses, CheMin-derived crystal chemistry allows for the first calculations of crystalline and amorphous material compositions. These mineralogy, crystal chemistry, and amorphous chemistry datasets are playing central roles in the characterization of Gale crater paleoenvironments. CheMin has analyzed 17 rock and sediment samples. In the first phase of the mission, Curiosity explored the sedimentary units of Aeolis Palus (Bradbury group), including two mudstones from Yellowknife Bay. CheMin analyses of the Yellowknife Bay mudstones identified clay minerals among an overall basaltic mineral assemblage. These mineralogical results, along with imaging and geochemical analyses, were used to characterize an ancient lacustrine setting that is thought to have once been a habitable environment. Following the investigations of the Bradbury group, Curiosity arrived at the lower reaches of Aeolis Mons, commonly called Mt. Sharp. A strategic sample campaign was initiated, drilling bedrock at primary sandstone and show decreased abundances of feldspar and pyroxene, and an increase in the amorphous component, specifically high-silica phases. The Murray formation is the most sampled stratigraphic unit in Gale crater. Composed mainly of finely laminated mudstones and interpreted as lacustrine

  18. Variations in the Fe mineralogy of bright Martian soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchie, Scott; Mustard, John; Erard, Stephane; Geissler, Paul; Singer, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Bright regions on Mars are interpreted as 'soil' derived by chemical alteration of crustal rocks, whose main pigmentary component is ferric oxide or oxyhydroxide. The mineralogy and mineralogic variability of ferric iron are important evidence for the evolution of Martian soil: mineralogy of ferric phases is sensitive to chemical conditions in their genetic environments, and the spatial distributions of different ferric phases would record a history of both chemical environments and physical mixing. Reflectance spectroscopic studies provide several types of evidence that discriminate possible pigmentary phases, including the position of a crystal field absorption near 0.9 microns and position and strengths of absorptions in the UV-visible wavelength region. Recent telescopic spectra and laboratory measurements of Mars soil analogs suggest that spectral features of bright soil can be explained based on a single pigmentary phase, hematite (alpha-Fe2O3), occurring in both 'nanophase' and more crystalline forms. Here we report on a systematic investigation of Martian bright regions using ISM imaging spectrometer data, in which we examined spatial variations in the position and shape of the approximately 0.9 microns absorption. We found both local and regional heterogeneities that indicate differences in Fe mineralogy. These results demonstrate that bright soils do not represent a single lithology that has been homogenized by eolian mixing, and suggest that weathering of soils in different geologic settings has followed different physical and chemical pathways.

  19. MINERALOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>20110079 Ding Kuiying(Weifang Entry-Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau of the People’s Republic of China,Weifang 261041,China);Zhu Maoxu The Effect of Low Molecular Weight Organic Acids to Phosphate Adsorption by Hydroxyaluminum/Iron-Montmorillonite Complexes(Acta Mineralogica Sinica,ISSN1000-4734,CN52-1045/P,30(1),2010,p.56-62,4 illus.,3 tables,13 refs.)Key words:organic acids,montmorillonit

  20. MINERALOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090867 Chen Quanli(Gemmological Institute, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan 430074,China);Qi Lijian Thermal Property of the Apatite Pseudomorphic Turquoise(Earth Science,ISSN1000-2383, CN42-1233/P,33(3),2008,p.416-422, 6 illus.,1 table,11 refs.)

  1. MINERALOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>20090143 Cao Ke (Research Center for Tibeten Plateau Geology, School of Earth Sciences and Resources, China University of Geosciences, Beijing 100083, China); Li Xianghui Cretaceous Clay Minerals and Paleoclimate in Sichuan Basin (Acta Geologica Sinica, ISSN0001-5717, CN11-1951, 82(1), 2008, p.115-123, 3 illus., 3 tables, 30 refs., with English abstract)

  2. MINERALOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    20150124Ji Liming(Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research of Gansu Province,Lanzhou 730000,China);Ma Xiangxian Relationship between Methane Adsorption Capacity of Clay Minerals and Micropore Volume(Natural Gas Geoscience,ISSN1672-1926,CN62-1177/TE,25(2),2014,p.141-152,7illus.,4tables,21refs.)Key words:clay minerals The pore size,surface area and methane adsorption isotherm of clay-rich rocks are measured.Clay minerals mainly contain micropore of 3~100nm,and have two main in-

  3. Magnetic circular dichroism of porphyrin lanthanide M3+ complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrushchenko, Valery; Padula, Daniele; Zhivotova, Elena; Yamamoto, Shigeki; Bouř, Petr

    2014-10-01

    Lanthanide complexes exhibit interesting spectroscopic properties yielding many applications as imaging probes, natural chirality amplifiers, and therapeutic agents. However, many properties are not fully understood yet. Therefore, we applied magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) spectroscopy, which provides enhanced information about the underlying electronic structure to a series of lanthanide compounds. The metals in the M(3+) state included Y, La, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu; the spectra were collected for selected tetraphenylporphin (TPP) and octaethylporphin (OEP) complexes in chloroform. While the MCD and UV-VIS absorption spectra were dominated by the porphyrin signal, metal binding significantly modulated them. MCD spectroscopy was found to be better suited to discriminate between various species than absorption spectroscopy alone. The main features and trends in the lanthanide series observed in MCD and absorption spectra of the complexes could be interpreted at the Density Functional Theory (DFT) level, with effective core potentials on metal nuclei. The sum over state (SOS) method was used for simulation of the MCD intensities. The combination of the spectroscopy and quantum-chemical computations is important for understanding the interactions of the metals with the organic compounds.

  4. Genomic standards consortium workshop: metagenomics, metadata and metaanalysis (M3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterk, Peter; Hirschman, Lynette; Field, Dawn; Wooley, John

    2010-01-01

    The M3 workshop has, as its primary focus, the rapidly growing area of metagenomics, including the metadata standards and the meta-analysis approaches needed to organize, process and interpret metagenomics data. The PSB Workshop builds on the first M3 meeting, a Special Interest Group (SIG) meeting at ISMB 2009, organized by the Genomics Standards Consortium.

  5. Detection Capability Evaluation on Chang'e-5 Lunar Mineralogical Spectrometer (LMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Ren, Xin; Yan, Wei; Xu, Xuesen; Cai, Tingni; Liu, Dawei; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Chunlai

    2016-04-01

    The Chang'e-5 (CE-5) lunar sample return mission is scheduled to launch in 2017 to bring back lunar regolith and drill samples. The Chang'e-5 Lunar Mineralogical Spectrometer (LMS), as one of the three sets of scientific payload installed on the lander, is used to collect in-situ spectrum and analyze the mineralogical composition of the sampling site. It can also help to select the sampling site , and to compare the measured laboratory spectrum of returned sample with in-situ data. LMS employs acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) and is composed of a VIS/NIR module (0.48μm-1.45μm) and an IR module (1.4μm -3.2μm). It has spectral resolution ranging from 3 to 25 nm, with a field of view (FOV) of 4.24°×4.24°. Unlike Chang'e-3 VIS/NIR Imaging Spectrometer (VNIS), the spectral coverage of LMS is extended from 2.4μm to 3.2μm, which has capability to identify H2O/OH absorption features around 2.7μm. An aluminum plate and an Infragold plate are fixed in the dust cover, being used as calibration targets in the VIS/NIR and IR spectral range respectively when the dust cover is open. Before launch, a ground verification test of LMS needs to be conducted in order to: 1) test and verify the detection capability of LMS through evaluation on the quality of image and spectral data collected for the simulated lunar samples; and 2) evaluate the accuracy of data processing methods by the simulation of instrument working on the moon. The ground verification test will be conducted both in the lab and field. The spectra of simulated lunar regolith/mineral samples will be collected simultaneously by the LMS and two calibrated spectrometers: a FTIR spectrometer (Model 102F) and an ASD FieldSpec 4 Hi-Res spectrometer. In this study, the results of the LMS ground verification test will be reported including the evaluation on the LMS spectral and image data quality, mineral identification and inversion ability, accuracy of calibration and geometric positioning .

  6. Phobos surface spectra mineralogical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajola, M.; Lazzarin, M.; Dalle Ore, C. M.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Roush, T. L.; Pendleton, Y.; Bertini, I.; Magrin, S.; Carli, C.; La Forgia, F.; Barbieri, C.

    2014-04-01

    A mineralogical model composed of a mixture of Tagish Lake meteorite (TL) and Pyroxene Glass (PM80) was presented in [1] to explain the surface reflectance of Phobos from 0.25 to 4.0 μm. The positive results we obtained, when comparing the OSIRIS data [2] extended in wavelength to include the [3,4] spectra, forced us to perform a wider comparison between our TL-PM80 model and the CRISM and OMEGA Phobos spectra presented in [5]. Such spectra cover three different regions of interest (ROIs) situated in the Phobos sub-Mars hemisphere: the interior of the Stickney crater, its eastern rim, and its proximity terrain southeast of the Reldresal crater. We decided to vary the percentage mixture of the components of our model (80% TL, 20% PM80), between pure TL and pure PM80, by means of the radiative transfer code based on the [6] formulation of the slab approximation. Once this spectral range was derived, see Fig. 1, we attempted to compare it with the [5] spectra between 0.4 and 2.6 μm, i.e. below the thermal emitted radiation, to see if any spectral match was possible. We observed that CRISM scaled spectra above 1.10 μm fall within pure Tagish Lake composition and the [1] model. The CRISM data below 1.10 μm present more discrepancies with our models, in particular for the Stickney's rim spectrum. Nevertheless the TL and PM80 components seem to be good mineralogical candidates on Phobos. We performed the same analysis with the OMEGA data and, again, we found out that the Stickney's rim spectrum lies out of our model range, while the two remaining spectra still lie between pure TL and 80% TL - 20% PM80, but indicating that a different, more complicated mixture is expected in order to explain properly both the spectral trend and the possible absorption bands located above 2.0 μm. Within this analysis, we point out that a big fraction of TL material (modeled pure or present with a minimum percentage of 80% mixed together with 20% PM80) seems to explain Phobos spectral

  7. M3: Matrix Multiplication on MapReduce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silvestri, Francesco; Ceccarello, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    M3 is an Hadoop library for performing dense and sparse matrix multiplication in MapReduce. The library is based on multi-round algorithms exploiting the 3D decomposition of the problem.......M3 is an Hadoop library for performing dense and sparse matrix multiplication in MapReduce. The library is based on multi-round algorithms exploiting the 3D decomposition of the problem....

  8. Development of RT-components for the M-3 Strawberry Harvesting Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Tomoki; Tanaka, Motomasa; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Hayashi, Shigehiko; Saito, Sadafumi; Sugano, Shigeki

    We are now developing the strawberry harvest robot called “M-3” prototype robot system under the 4th urgent project of MAFF. In order to develop the control software of the M-3 robot more efficiently, we innovated the RT-middleware “OpenRTM-aist” software platform. In this system, we developed 9 kind of RT-Components (RTC): Robot task sequence player RTC, Proxy RTC for image processing software, DC motor controller RTC, Arm kinematics RTC, and so on. In this paper, we discuss advantages of RT-middleware developing system and problems about operating the RTC-configured robotic system by end-users.

  9. M3D project for simulation studies of plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, W.; Belova, E.V.; Fu, G.Y. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Strauss, H.R. [New York Univ., NY (United States); Sugiyama, L.E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    The M3D (Multi-level 3D) project carries out simulation studies of plasmas of various regimes using multi-levels of physics, geometry, and mesh schemes in one code package. This paper and papers by Strauss, Sugiyama, and Belova in this workshop describe the project, and present examples of current applications. The currently available physics models of the M3D project are MHD, two-fluids, gyrokinetic hot particle/MHD hybrid, and gyrokinetic particle ion/two-fluid hybrid models. The code can be run with both structured and unstructured meshes.

  10. Assembly language programming ARM Cortex-M3

    CERN Document Server

    Mahout, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    ARM designs the cores of microcontrollers which equip most "embedded systems" based on 32-bit processors. Cortex M3 is one of these designs, recently developed by ARM with microcontroller applications in mind. To conceive a particularly optimized piece of software (as is often the case in the world of embedded systems) it is often necessary to know how to program in an assembly language.This book explains the basics of programming in an assembly language, while being based on the architecture of Cortex M3 in detail and developing many examples.It is written for people who have never pr

  11. Improved hyperspectral imaging technologies Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Improved hyperspectral imaging technologies could enable lower-cost analysis for planetary science including atmospheric studies, mineralogical investigations, and...

  12. Optimizing Concurrent M3-Transactions: A Fuzzy Constraint Satisfaction Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng LI

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high connectivity and great convenience, many E-commerce application systems have a high transaction volume. Consequently, the system state changes rapidly and it is likely that customers issue transactions based on out-of-date state information. Thus, the potential of transaction abortion increases greatly. To address this problem, we proposed an M3-transaction model. An M3-transaction is a generalized transaction where users can issue their preferences in a request by specifying multiple criteria and optional data resources simultaneously within one transaction. In this paper, we introduce the transaction grouping and group evaluation techniques. We consider evaluating a group of M3-transactions arrived to the system within a short duration together. The system makes optimal decisions in allocating data to transactions to achieve better customer satisfaction and lower transaction failure rate. We apply the fuzzy constraint satisfaction approach for decision-making. We also conduct experimental studies to evaluate the performance of our approach. The results show that the M3-transaction with group evaluation is more resilient to failure and yields much better performance than the traditional transaction model.

  13. Optimizing Concurrent M3-Transactions: A Fuzzy Constraint Satisfaction Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng LI

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Due to the high connectivity and great convenience, many E-commerce application systems have a high transaction volume. Consequently, the system state changes rapidly and it is likely that customers issue transactions based on out-of-date state information. Thus, the potential of transaction abortion increases greatly. To address this problem, we proposed an M3-transaction model. An M3-transaction is a generalized transaction where users can issue their preferences in a request by specifying multiple criteria and optional data resources simultaneously within one transaction. In this paper, we introduce the transaction grouping and group evaluation techniques. We consider evaluating a group of M3-transactions arrived to the system within a short duration together. The system makes optimal decisions in allocating data to transactions to achieve better customer satisfaction and lower transaction failure rate. We apply the fuzzy constraint satisfaction approach for decision-making. We also conduct experimental studies to evaluate the performance of our approach. The results show that the M3-transaction with group evaluation is more resilient to failure and yields much better performance than the traditional transaction model.

  14. M3: An Open Model for Measuring Code Artifacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izmaylova, A.; Klint, P.; Shahi, A.; Vinju, J.J.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of the EU FP7 project ``OSSMETER'' we are developing an infra-structure for measuring source code. The goal of OSSMETER is to obtain insight in the quality of open-source projects from all possible perspectives, including product, process and community. This is a "white paper" on M3,

  15. Low-lying electronic states of M(3)O(9)(-) and M(3)O(9)(2-) (M = Mo, W).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenggang; Dixon, David A

    2007-11-01

    Multiple low-lying electronic states of M(3)O(9)(-) and M(3)O(9)(2-) (M = Mo, W) arise from the occupation of the near-degenerate low-lying virtual orbitals in the neutral clusters. We used density functional theory (DFT) and coupled cluster theory (CCSD(T)) with correlation consistent basis sets to study the structures and energetics of the electronic states of these anions. The adiabatic and vertical electron detachment energies (ADEs and VDEs) of the anionic clusters were calculated with 27 exchange-correlation functionals including one local spin density approximation functional, 13 generalized gradient approximation (GGA) functionals, and 13 hybrid GGA functionals, as well as the CCSD(T) method. For M(3)O(9)(-), CCSD(T) and nearly all of the DFT exchange-correlation functionals studied predict the (2)A(1) state arising from the Jahn-Teller distortion due to singly occupying the degenerate e' orbital to be lower in energy than the (2)A(1)' state arising from singly occupying the nondegenerate a(1)' orbital. For W(3)O(9)(-), the (2)A(1) state was predicted to have essentially the same energy as the (2)A(1)' state at the CCSD(T) level with core-valence correlation corrections included and to be higher in energy or essentially isoenergetic with most DFT methods. The calculated VDEs from the CCSD(T) method are in reasonable agreement with the experimental values for both electronic states if estimates for the corrections due to basis set incompleteness are included. For M(3)O(9)(2-), the singlet state arising from doubly occupying the nondegenerate a(1)' orbital was predicted to be the most stable state for both M = Mo and W. However, whereas M(3)O(9)(2-) was predicted to be less stable than M(3)O(9)(-), W(3)O(9)(2-) was predicted to be more stable than W(3)O(9)(-).

  16. Mass Concentration and Mineralogical Characteristics Aerosol Particles Collected at Dunhuang During ACE-Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Measurements were performed in spring 2001 and 2002 to determine the characteristics of soil dust in the Chinese desert region of Dunhuang, one of the ground sites of the Asia-Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia). The mean mass concentrations of total suspended particle matter during the spring of 2001 and 2002 were 317 μg m-3 and 307 μg m-3, respectively. Eleven dust storm events were observed with a mean aerosol concentration of 1095 μg m-3, while the non-dusty days with calm or weak wind speed had a background aerosol loading of 196 μg m-3 on average in the springtime.The main minerals detected in the aerosol samples by X-ray diffraction were illite, kaolinite, chlorite, quartz,feldspar, calcite and dolomite. Gypsum, halite and amphibole were also detected in a few samples. The mineralogical data also show that Asian dust is characterized by a kaolinite to chlorite (K/C) ratio lower than 1 whereas Saharan dust exhibits a K/C ratio larger than 2. Air mass back-trajectory analysis show that three families of pathways are associated with the aerosol particle transport to Dunhuang, but these have similar K/C ratios, which further demonstrates that the mineralogical characteristics of Asian dust are different from African dust.

  17. Gold process mineralogy: Objectives, techniques, and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Joe Y.; Cabri, Louis J.

    2004-07-01

    The extractive metallurgy of gold is largely driven by mineralogical factors such as gold particle size; association with other minerals; coatings; presence of cyanicides, oxygen consumers, and preg-robbers; presence of refractory gold minerals; and locking of submicroscopic gold in sulfide and sulfarsenide mineral structures. Gold process mineralogy addresses all issues related to gold ore processing by the detailed study of an ore or a mill product. The methodology is widely used as a predictive tool in feasibility studies and during the process development stage, and as a trouble-shooting tool for mineral processing and hydrometallurgical operations.

  18. Mineralogy and Microbial Survival During Carbon Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santillan, E. U.; Gilbert, K.; Bennett, P.

    2010-12-01

    When CO2 is sequestered in deep saline aquifers, a region of high dissolved CO2 surrounds the supercritical CO2 plume. While microbial life will doubtless be perturbed as a result of the CO2 injection, survival may be possible in the region of high dissolved CO2. Mineralogy of the aquifer may influence which microorganisms survive by providing substrates for lithotrophic microbes and determining the competitiveness of microbes in the subsurface. Iron-rich minerals like hematite, for example, provide a terminal electron acceptor for dissimilatory iron reducing bacteria (DIRB) that is essential for their respiration. Mineral dissolution may also provide toxicity for microbes providing increased concentration of toxic elements like Al in groundwater as a result of feldspar or clay dissolution. We investigated, Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model DIRB, grown in the presence of representative minerals found in deep saline aquifers including carbonate minerals, silicate minerals, and clays. Cultures were subjected to 20 to 25 atm of CO2 at 30° C for 2 to 8 hours in modified Parr reactors. Cultures were plated to determine viability after CO2 stress and imaged using environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Preliminary results show that MR-1 grown in the presence of dolomite and subjected to 20 atm of CO2 for 2 hours results in decreased viability in comparison to cells grown with hematite or no minerals present. This suggests there is selective toxicity with dolomite, possibly due to an increase in dissolved Mg. Additionally, ESEM imaging revealed a change in cell morphology from plump rods to thin, pointy cells after incubating in CO2 for 8 hours at 25 atm. This change in cell morphology may be the result of cell damage due to CO2 stress. This material is based upon work supported as part of the Center for Frontiers of Subsurface Energy Security, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic

  19. M3与M5的MICM鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    索翠平; 李寅; 赵霞

    2003-01-01

    @@ 急性早幼粒细胞自血病(M3型,acute promyelocytic leukemia,APL)和急性单核细胞白血病(M5型,acute monocytic leukemia,AMOL)同属于急性非淋巴细胞白血病.二者在临床与形态上均有相似之处,特别是细颗粒型急性早幼粒细胞白血病(M3b)在形态上更易被误诊为急性单核细胞白血病.但二者的治疗与预后却有很大的区别.在此,结合MICM分型原则对二者加以鉴别,以免造成误诊,导致不应有的后果.

  20. SITE-94. Mineralogy of the Aespoe site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Karin [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Technical Environmental Planning

    1996-12-01

    The water composition has several impacts on the repository. It will influence the behaviour of the engineered materials (e.g. corrosion). It may also determine the possible solubility and speciation of released radionuclides. It also acts as a transport medium for the released elements. The groundwater composition and the potential development of the composition due to the presence of the repository as well as due to external variations is thus an important issue in a safety analysis. The development of the groundwater composition is strongly dependent on reactions with the minerals present in water bearing fractures. Here equilibrium chemistry may be of importance, but also reaction kinetics is important to the long-term behaviour. Within the SITE-94 project, a safety analysis is performed for the conditions at the Aespoe site. The mineralogy of the area has been evaluated from drill cores at various places at the site. In this report a recommendation for selection of mineralogy to be used in geochemical modelling of the repository is given. Calcite and iron containing minerals dominate the fracture filling mineralogy at the Aespoe site. Some typical fracture filling mineralogies may be identified in the fractures: epidote, chlorite, calcite, hematite, some illite/smectite + quartz, fluorite, pyrite and goethite. In addition to these a number of minor minerals are found in the fractures. Uncertainties in the fracture filling data may be due to problems when taking out the drill cores. Drilling water may remove important clay minerals and sealed fractures may be reopened mechanically and treated as water conducting fractures. The problem of determining the variability of the mineralogy along the flow paths also remains. This problem will never be solved when the investigation is performed by drilling investigation holes

  1. Structure and dynamics of the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruse, Andrew C.; Hu, Jianxin; Pan, Albert C.; Arlow, Daniel H.; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Rosemond, Erica; Green, Hillary F.; Liu, Tong; Chae, Pil Seok; Dror, Ron O.; Shaw, David E.; Weis, William I.; Wess, Jürgen; Kobilka, Brian K. (Stanford); (NIH); (D.E. Shaw); (Hanyang); (UTSMC)

    2012-03-01

    Acetylcholine, the first neurotransmitter to be identified, exerts many of its physiological actions via activation of a family of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). Although the five mAChR subtypes (M1-M5) share a high degree of sequence homology, they show pronounced differences in G-protein coupling preference and the physiological responses they mediate. Unfortunately, despite decades of effort, no therapeutic agents endowed with clear mAChR subtype selectivity have been developed to exploit these differences. We describe here the structure of the G{sub q/11}-coupled M3 mAChR ('M3 receptor', from rat) bound to the bronchodilator drug tiotropium and identify the binding mode for this clinically important drug. This structure, together with that of the G{sub i/o}-coupled M2 receptor, offers possibilities for the design of mAChR subtype-selective ligands. Importantly, the M3 receptor structure allows a structural comparison between two members of a mammalian GPCR subfamily displaying different G-protein coupling selectivities. Furthermore, molecular dynamics simulations suggest that tiotropium binds transiently to an allosteric site en route to the binding pocket of both receptors. These simulations offer a structural view of an allosteric binding mode for an orthosteric GPCR ligand and provide additional opportunities for the design of ligands with different affinities or binding kinetics for different mAChR subtypes. Our findings not only offer insights into the structure and function of one of the most important GPCR families, but may also facilitate the design of improved therapeutics targeting these critical receptors.

  2. The boundary RSOS \\mathcal{M}(3,5) model

    CERN Document Server

    Deeb, Omar El

    2015-01-01

    We consider the critical non-unitary minimal model {\\cal M}(3,5) with integrable boundaries. We analyze the patterns of zeros of the eigenvalues of the transfer matrix and then determine the spectrum of the critical theory through the Thermodynamic Bethe Ansatz (TBA) equations. We derive these equations for all excitations by solving, the TBA functional equation satisfied by the transfer matrices of the associated A_{4} RSOS lattice model of Forrester and Baxter in Regime III, then determine their corresponding energies. The excitations are classified in terms of (m,n) systems.

  3. 3000m3/h cutter-suction dredge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ In October 2004, the Fumin 9 3000 m3/h cutter-suction dredge co-designed by the Dutch IHC and Guangzhou Wenchong Shipyard went through a dock usability test and a 25 meter clean water test. The dredge is the largest of its kind in China, and the most advanced and most efficient cutter-suction dredge in the world. The IHC was responsible for the design of the ship till its working design was taken over by Guangzhou Wenchong Shipyard, the builder of the dredge, who had started its construction on October 23, 2003.

  4. Hydraulic supports for polishing TMT M3MP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Haifei; Qi, Erhui; Cole, Glen; Hu, Haixiang; Luo, Xiao; Ford, Virginia; Zhang, Xuejun

    2016-10-01

    For polishing the ultra-thin TMT M3MP, a polishing support system with 18 hydraulic supports (HS) is introduced. This work focuses on the designing and testing of these HSs. Firstly the design concept of HS system is discussed; then mechanical implementation of the HS structure is carried out, with special consideration of fluid cycling, work pressurization and the weight component. Afterward the piping installation and the de-gas process for the working fluid are implemented. Pressurization and stiffness are well checked before system integration for the single HS unit. Finally the support system is integrated for the polishing process.

  5. Novel Visualization Approaches in Environmental Mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, C. D.; Lopano, C. L.; Hummer, D. R.; Heaney, P. J.; Post, J. E.; Kubicki, J. D.; Sofo, J. O.

    2006-05-01

    Communicating the complexities of atomic scale reactions between minerals and fluids is fraught with intrinsic challenges. For example, an increasing number of techniques are now available for the interrogation of dynamical processes at the mineral-fluid interface. However, the time-dependent behavior of atomic interactions between a solid and a liquid is often not adequately captured by two-dimensional line drawings or images. At the same time, the necessity for describing these reactions to general audiences is growing more urgent, as funding agencies are amplifying their encouragement to scientists to reach across disciplines and to justify their studies to public audiences. To overcome the shortcomings of traditional graphical representations, the Center for Environmental Kinetics Analysis is creating three-dimensional visualizations of experimental and simulated mineral reactions. These visualizations are then displayed on a stereo 3D projection system called the GeoWall. Made possible (and affordable) by recent improvements in computer and data projector technology, the GeoWall system uses a combination of computer software and hardware, polarizing filters and polarizing glasses, to present visualizations in true 3D. The three-dimensional views greatly improve comprehension of complex multidimensional data, and animations of time series foster better understanding of the underlying processes. The visualizations also offer an effective means to communicate the complexities of environmental mineralogy to colleagues, students and the public. Here we present three different kinds of datasets that demonstrate the effectiveness of the GeoWall in clarifying complex environmental reactions at the atomic scale. First, a time-resolved series of diffraction patterns obtained during the hydrothermal synthesis of metal oxide phases from precursor solutions can be viewed as a surface with interactive controls for peak scaling and color mapping. Second, the results of

  6. Newer views of the Moon: Comparing spectra from Clementine and the Moon Mineralogy Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, G.Y.; Besse, S.; Nettles, J.; Combe, J.-P.; Clark, R.N.; Pieters, C.M.; Staid, M.; Malaret, E.; Boardman, J.; Green, R.O.; Head, J.W.; McCord, T.B.

    2011-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) provided the first global hyperspectral data of the lunar surface in 85 bands from 460 to 2980 nm. The Clementine mission provided the first global multispectral maps the lunar surface in 11 spectral bands across the ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) and near-infrared (NIR). In an effort to understand how M3 improves our ability to analyze and interpret lunar data, we compare M3 spectra with those from Clementine's UV-VIS and NIR cameras. The Clementine mission provided the first global multispectral maps the lunar surface in 11 spectral bands across the UV-VIS and NIR. We have found that M3 reflectance values are lower across all wavelengths compared with albedos from both of Clementine's UV-VIS and NIR cameras. M3 spectra show the Moon to be redder, that is, have a steeper continuum slope, than indicated by Clementine. The 1 m absorption band depths may be comparable between the instruments, but Clementine data consistently exhibit shallower 2 m band depths than M 3. Absorption band minimums are difficult to compare due to the significantly different spectral resolutions. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Newer views of the Moon: Comparing spectra from Clementineand the Moon Mineralogy Mapper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiana Y. Kramer,; Sebastian Besse,; Nettles, Jeff; Jean-Philippe Combe,; Clark, Roger N.; Pieters, Carle M.; Matthew Staid,; Joseph Boardman,; Robert Green,; McCord, Thomas B.; Malaret, Erik; Head, James W.

    2011-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) provided the first global hyperspectral data of the lunar surface in 85 bands from 460 to 2980 nm. The Clementine mission provided the first global multispectral maps the lunar surface in 11 spectral bands across the ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) and near-infrared (NIR). In an effort to understand how M3 improves our ability to analyze and interpret lunar data, we compare M3 spectra with those from Clementine's UV-VIS and NIR cameras. The Clementine mission provided the first global multispectral maps the lunar surface in 11 spectral bands across the UV-VIS and NIR. We have found that M3 reflectance values are lower across all wavelengths compared with albedos from both of Clementine's UV-VIS and NIR cameras. M3 spectra show the Moon to be redder, that is, have a steeper continuum slope, than indicated by Clementine. The 1 μm absorption band depths may be comparable between the instruments, but Clementine data consistently exhibit shallower 2 μm band depths than M3. Absorption band minimums are difficult to compare due to the significantly different spectral resolutions.

  8. Lunar Field Geological Interpretations Assisted by LROC, Mini-RF and M3: Taurus-Littrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, H. H.; Petro, N. E.; Robinson, M. S.; Wells, R.; Weiss, B. P.; Mercer, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Integration of Apollo 17 field observations and photographs, sample investigations, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera images, Moon Mineralogical Mapper data, and Mini-RF images provides new insights into the geology of the valley of Taurus Littrow. Samples from the North Massif and the Sculptured Hills appear to represent a stratigraphic sequence of ejecta from the Cranium and Serenitatis basin-forming events. Published analyses of these samples provide the approximate ages for those events that appear consistent with this sequence; however, within current 2 sigma error limits, these ages overlap. Strong evidence exists that the Sculptured Hills physiographic unit consists of Imbrium ejecta made up of a layered, Mg-suite pluton. Rim boulders at Camelot Crater constitute wall rocks of the crater rather than ejecta and provide a potential opportunity for investigations of remnant magnetic field orientation at the time of the eruption of late mare basalt lavas in the valley. A second and older light mantle avalanche deposit has been identified, and the origin, potential fluidized flow mechanisms, and geology of the two avalanches from the South Massif have been clarified, including the probability of significant agitation heating during flow. The structure, potential effects, and timing of the Lee-Lincoln thrust fault, and of an ancillary fault revealed by radar, have been defined and raise doubts about the association of the light mantle avalanche with secondary impacts related to the Tycho event.

  9. 针对MCU应用的Cortex-M3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费浙平

    2005-01-01

    传统上MCU领域一直由4/8位架构占据了主导地位,部分采用16位架构,而32位才刚起步,在多数人印象中它还是一种奢侈的高端应用。但近几年这种情况已有了很大变化,越来越多的设计采用32位MCU架构,而ARMCotex—M3的面世也为32位MCU应用带来更多可能。

  10. Mineralogy and Surface Composition of Asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, Vishnu; Thomas, Cristina A; Moskovitz, Nicholas A; Burbine, Thomas H

    2015-01-01

    Methods to constrain the surface mineralogy of asteroids have seen considerable development during the last decade with advancement in laboratory spectral calibrations and validation of our interpretive methodologies by spacecraft rendezvous missions. This has enabled the accurate identification of several meteorite parent bodies in the main asteroid belt and helped constrain the mineral chemistries and abundances in ordinary chondrites and basaltic achondrites. With better quantification of spectral effects due to temperature, phase angle, and grain size, systematic discrepancies due to non-compositional factors can now be virtually eliminated for mafic silicate-bearing asteroids. Interpretation of spectrally featureless asteroids remains a challenge. This paper presents a review of all mineralogical interpretive tools currently in use and outlines procedures for their application.

  11. Mineralogical Evolution in Extreme Debris Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Kate

    2015-10-01

    Young (10-200 Myr), luminous (fractional luminosity on the order of 1.E-2) extreme debris disks provide a unique opportunity to explore exo-asteriod and exo-planetesimal collisions during the oligarchic and chaotic phases of terrestrial planet-building. We propose to obtain low-resolution grism spectra of four extreme debris disks to document and characterize the mineralogy changes in the mid-IR region where strong peaks originating from silica and forsterite dust can be easily identified. The proposed observations will supplement our on-going warm Spitzer monitoring program studying disk variability at 3.6 and 4.5 microns, provide immediate insights on the long-term mineralogical evolution in comparison with the existing Spitzer IRS spectra, and will bridge to similar studies that JWST will provide in the near future.

  12. An unpublished text of Jovellanos about mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge ORDAZ GARGALLO

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available An unpublished manuscript of Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos about the history of mineralogy, written during his captivity in Bellver Castle (Palma de Mallorca is presented and analyzed. In this writing the importance of the chemical knowledge as a source of other branches of science and its applications in different fields of agriculture, mining and industry is considered. The author made a historical synthesis reviewing the men of science that contributed in a great extent to the advance of the chemistry and mineralogy. The text clearly supports the new contributions of Lavoisier and other supporters of experimentation as a scientific method, which agrees with Jovellanos’ ideas about the development of the «useful» sciences for the progress of the countries.

  13. An unpublished text of Jovellanos about mineralogy

    OpenAIRE

    Ordaz Gargallo, Jorge; Gutiérrez Claverol, Manuel; De Lorenzo Álvarez, Elena

    2012-01-01

    An unpublished manuscript of Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos about the history of mineralogy, written during his captivity in Bellver Castle (Palma de Mallorca) is presented and analyzed. In this writing the importance of the chemical knowledge as a source of other branches of science and its applications in different fields of agriculture, mining and industry is considered. The author made a historical synthesis reviewing the men of science that contributed in a great extent to the advance of t...

  14. Talc pneumoconiosis: a pathologic and mineralogic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, A E; Pooley, F D; Griffiths, D M; Mitha, R; Craighead, J E; Ruttner, J R

    1992-12-01

    Seventeen cases of "talc pneumoconiosis" were examined pathologically and mineralogically to ascertain whether a true talc pneumoconiosis existed and also to compare these results in primary, secondary, and tertiary exposures. Mineralogic analyses were performed on wet tissue or tissue blocks by a variety of techniques, including analytical transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction. Overall, the pathologic appearance of the tissues was similar in primary, secondary, and tertiary exposures, although ferruginous bodies and foreign body giant cells were not always present in cases caused by secondary exposures. Mixed dust fibrotic lesions were found in two cases in which there were substantial quantities of quartz present. There was great variation in the minerals found within the lung tissues. Several cases showed significant quantities of mica and kaolin in addition to talc. One case consisted predominantly of mica and in fact could be regarded as "mica pneumoconiosis"; this diagnosis was correctly attributed because of the mineralogic findings. Tremolite fibers were found in only two cases. Substantial quantities of crocidolite and amosite fibers were found in one case. This study shows that "talcosis" frequently represents disease associated with a variety of minerals and that talc is a common denominator. It shows also the usefulness of lung dust mineral analysis, particularly in secondary industries, for evaluating the cause of a pathologic reaction when exposures are especially complex.

  15. OH/H2O Detection Capability Evaluation on Chang'e-5 Lunar Mineralogical Spectrometer (LMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bin; Ren, Xin; Liu, Jianjun; Li, Chunlai; Mu, Lingli; Deng, Liyan

    2016-10-01

    The Chang'e-5 (CE-5) lunar sample return mission is scheduled to launch in 2017 to bring back lunar regolith and drill samples. The Chang'e-5 Lunar Mineralogical Spectrometer (LMS), as one of the three sets of scientific payload installed on the lander, is used to collect in-situ spectrum and analyze the mineralogical composition of the samplingsite. It can also help to select the sampling site, and to compare the measured laboratory spectrum of returned sample with in-situ data. LMS employs acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) and is composed of a VIS/NIR module (0.48μm-1.45μm) and an IR module (1.4μm -3.2μm). It has spectral resolution ranging from 3 to 25 nm, with a field of view (FOV) of 4.24°×4.24°. Unlike Chang'e-3 VIS/NIR Imaging Spectrometer (VNIS), the spectral coverage of LMS is extended from 2.4μm to 3.2μm, which has capability to identify H2O/OH absorption features around 2.7μm. An aluminum plate and an Infragold plate are fixed in the dust cover, being used as calibration targets in the VIS/NIR and IR spectral range respectively when the dust cover is open. Before launch, a ground verification test of LMS needs to be conducted in order to: 1) test and verify the detection capability of LMS through evaluation on the quality of image and spectral data collected for the simulated lunar samples; and 2) evaluate the accuracy of data processing methods by the simulation of instrument working on the moon. The ground verification test will be conducted both in the lab and field. The spectra of simulated lunar regolith/mineral samples will be collected simultaneously by the LMS and two calibrated spectrometers: a FTIR spectrometer (Model 102F) and an ASD FieldSpec 4 Hi-Res spectrometer. In this study, the results of the LMS ground verification test will be reported, and OH/H2O Detection Capability will be evaluated especially.

  16. Mineralogical Composition of Urinary Stones and Their Frequency in Patients: Relationship to Gender and Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Keshavarzi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This investigation reports the mineralogy and possible pathological significance of urinary stones removed from patients in Fars province, Iran. X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM and polarizing microscope (PM techniques were used to investigate the mineralogical compositions of urinary stones. The identified mineral components include whewellite, weddellite, hydroxyapatite, uricite and cystine. These techniques revealed that the whewellite and uricite were the most common mineral phases. Platy-like/monoclinic whewellite, prismatic/monoclinic uric acid and hexagonal cystine crystals were revealed by SEM. Biominerals (calcium carbonate and quartz were also identified in PM images. Of the variables determining the type of precipitated minerals, the effects of pH on depositional conditions proved to be the most apparent parameter, as shown by occurrences and relationships among the studied minerals. Our results revealed the importance of detailed knowledge of mineralogical composition in assessing the effects of age and sex. The highest incidence of urinary stones was observed in the 40–60 age group. Calcium oxalate and uric acid stones are more frequent in men than women. Finally, the study concluded that knowledge of the mineralogical composition of urinary stones is important as it helps the scientific community to explain the chemistry and the etiology of the calculi in the urinary system.

  17. Hemopoietic tissue in newts flown aboard Foton M3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domaratskaya, Elena I.; Almeida, Eduardo; Butorina, Nina N.; Nikonova, Tatyana M.; Grigoryan, Eleonora N.; Poplinskaya, Valentina A.; Souza, Kenneth; Skidmore, Mike

    The effect of 12-day spaceflight aboard the Foton-M3 biosatellite on the hematopoietic tissue of P. waltl newts was studied. These animals used at the same time in regeneration experiments after lens and tail tip amputation. In flight and synchronous groups there were performed video recording, temperature and radiation monitoring and continuous contact (via skin) with thymidine analog BrdU. We took differential blood counts and assessed histologically the liver in the flight (F), basal (BC) and synchronous (SC)control groups of animals. In the peripheral blood, we identified neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes. Lymphocytes (L) and neutrophils (N) prevailed, accounting for about 60 and 20% of white blood cells, respectively. The spaceflight had no apparent effect on the differential blood count in the F group: neither the L and N contents nor the maturing to mature N - ratio differed from those in the control groups. No significant differences between F, SC and BC groups were observed with respect to the structure of hematopoietic areas and the liver morphology. As in Foton-M2, BrdU labeled cells revealed in blood as well as in the hemopoietic areas of the liver. However, in previous experiments performed at satellites Bion-10 and Foton-M2 the changes in peripheral blood contents were registered in operated F newts, and we supposed it could be the result of additive effects of spaceflight factors and stimulation of reparative potency and stress due to surgical operation. Possibly, the temperature conditions also may provide some influence on blood cell content of newts that belong to poikilothermic animals. Thus, in present experiment F and SC groups were reared in the same temperature regims, whereas it was nearly 3o C differences between SC and F groups exposed on Foton-M2. At the same time as it was found in experiments on Bion-11 and Foton-M2 spaceflight factors did not affect on differential blood counts of intact non

  18. Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of a Hematite-bearing Ridge on Mauna Kea, Hawaii: A Potential Mineralogical Process Analog for the Mount Sharp Hematite Ridge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, T. G.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Hamilton, J. C.; Adams, M.; Fraeman, A. A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Catalano, J. G.; Mertzman, S. A.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity landed in Gale Crater in August 2012 and is currently roving towards the layered central mound known as Mount Sharp [1]. Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) hyperspectral data indicate Mount Sharp contains an 5 km stratigraphic sequence including Fe-Mg smectites, hematite, and hydrated sulfates in the lower layers separated by an unconformity from the overlying anhydrous strata [1,2,3]. Hematite was initially detected in CRISM data to occur in the lower sulfate layers on the north side of the mound [2]. [3] further mapped a distinct hematite detection occurring as part of a 200 m wide ridge that extends 6.5 km NE-SW, approximately parallel with the base of Mount Sharp. It is likely a target for in-situ analyses by Curiosity. We document here the occurrence of a stratum of hematite-bearing breccia that is exposed on the Puu Poliahu cinder cone near the summit of Mauna Kea volcano (Hawaii) (Fig.1). The stratum is more resistant to weathering than surrounding material, giving it the appearance of a ridge. The Mauna Kea hematite ridge is thus arguably a potential terrestrial mineralogical and process analog for the Gale Crater hematite ridge. We are acquiring a variety of chemical and mineralogical data on the Mauna Kea samples, with a focus on the chemical and mineralogical information already available or planned for the Gale hematite ridge.

  19. Mineralogical Signatures in Electrically Coupled Marine Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauermeister, A.; Gorby, Y. A.; Schramm, J.

    2014-12-01

    'Electric cable bacteria' are organisms of the family Desulfobulbaceaethat exhibit a novel method of electron transport. Cells form conductive filaments that function like electric wires, transferring electrons over distances of more than 1 cm from deep sulfidic sediments to oxygen or other electron acceptors near the soil/water interface. The rate of electron transfer across redox boundaries far exceeds that of diffusion limited processes and generates pH gradients that can significantly influence geochemical reactions, leading to the formation of distinct mineralogical profiles unlikely to be created by abiotic means. Electrically coupled sediments are characterized by carbonate and iron sulfide dissolution reactions occurring at depth and formation of carbonate and metal oxide crusts at the surface, exhibiting a reverse pattern compared to conventional sediment geochemistry. Our research seeks to address the following questions: How prevalent are electric cable bacteria in diverse environments? How do biogeochemical conditions such as ion concentration influence mineral formation? Do biogenic minerals participate in charge transfer? What is the importance of electric charge transfer in the subsurface or other low energy habitats? Can mineral banding patterns caused by cable bacteria activity be preserved in the geologic record? With this research we hope to further elucidate the impact of biologically-induced electric fields on the mineralogy of sediments.

  20. Visible and Near-IR Reflectance Spectra of Mars Analogue Materials Under Arid Conditions for Interpretation of Martian Surface Mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R. V.; Graff, T. G.; Achilles, C. N.; Agresti, D. G.; Ming, D. W.; Golden, D. C.

    2011-01-01

    Visible and near-IR (VNIR) spectra from the hyper-spectral imagers MRO-CRISM and Mars Express OMEGA in martian orbit have signatures from Fe-bearing phases (e.g., olivine, pyroxene, and jarosite), H2O/OH-bearing phases (e.g., smectites and other phyllosilicates, sulfates, and high-SiO2 phases), and carbonate [e.g., 1-5]. Mineralogical assignments of martian spectral features are made on the basis of VNIR spectra acquired in the laboratory under appropriate environmental conditions on samples whose mineralogical composition is known. We report here additional results for our ongoing project [6] to acquire VNIR spectra under arid conditions.

  1. Topographical mineralogy of the Bamble sector, south Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, T.G.; Zwaan, J.C.; Touret, L.

    1998-01-01

    The Bamble sector of southern Norway is a classic high grade metamorphic gneiss region, which provided specimens to many mineralogical collections all over the world. The topographical mineralogy of this area is described and reviewed. All minerals known to occur in the area are listed according to

  2. Transport coefficients of black MQGP M3-branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhuria, Mansi [Physical Research Laboratory, Theoretical Physics Division, Ahmedabad (India); Misra, Aalok [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Roorkee, Uttaranchal (India)

    2015-01-01

    The Strominger-Yau-Zaslow (SYZ) mirror, in the 'delocalised limit' of Becker et al. (Nucl Phys B 702:207, 2004), of N D3-branes, M fractional D3-branes and N{sub f} flavour D7-branes wrapping a non-compact four-cycle in the presence of a black hole (BH) resulting in a non-Kahler resolved warped deformed conifold (NKRWDC) in Mia et al. (Nucl Phys B 839:187, 2010), was carried out in Dhuria and Misra (JHEP 1311:001, 2013) and resulted in black M3- branes. There are two parts in our paper. In the first we show that in the 'MQGP' limit discussed in Dhuria and Misra (JHEP 1311:001, 2013) a finite g{sub s} (and hence expected to be more relevant to QGP), finite g{sub s}M, N{sub f}, g{sub s}{sup 2}MN{sub f} and very large g{sub s}N, and very small (g,M{sup 2})/(N), we have the following. (i) The uplift, if valid globally (like Dasgupta et al., Nucl Phys B 755:21, 2006) for fractional D3 branes in conifolds, asymptotically goes to M5-branes wrapping a two-cycle (homologously a (large) integer sum of two-spheres) in AdS{sub 5} x M{sub 6}. (ii) Assuming the deformation parameter to be larger than the resolution parameter, by estimating the five SU(3) structure torsion (τ) classes W{sub 1,2,3,4,5} we verify that τ element of W{sub 5} in the large-r limit, implying the NKRWDC reduces to a warped Kahler deformed conifold. (iii) The local T{sup 3} of Dhuria and Misra (JHEP 1311:001, 2013) in the large-r limit satisfies the same conditions as the maximal T{sup 2}-invariant special Lagrangian three-cycle of T*S{sup 3} of Ionel and Min-OO (J Math 52(3), 2008), partly justifying use of SYZ-mirror symmetry in the ''delocalised limit'' of Becker et al. (Nucl Phys B 702:207, 2004) in Dhuria and Misra (JHEP 1311:001, 2013). In the second part of the paper, by either integrating out the angular coordinates of the non-compact four-cycle which a D7-brane wraps around, using the Ouyang embedding, in the DBI action of a D7-brane evaluated at infinite

  3. Mineralogy and composition of the oceanic mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putirka, Keith; Ryerson, F.J.; Perfit, Michael; Ridley, W. Ian

    2011-01-01

    The mineralogy of the oceanic basalt source region is examined by testing whether a peridotite mineralogy can yield observed whole-rock and olivine compositions from (1) the Hawaiian Islands, our type example of a mantle plume, and (2) the Siqueiros Transform, which provides primitive samples of normal mid-ocean ridge basalt. New olivine compositional data from phase 2 of the Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project (HSDP2) show that higher Ni-in-olivine at the Hawaiian Islands is due to higher temperatures (T) of melt generation and processing (by c. 300°C) related to the Hawaiian mantle plume. DNi is low at high T, so parental Hawaiian basalts are enriched in NiO. When Hawaiian (picritic) parental magmas are transported to shallow depths, olivine precipitation occurs at lower temperatures, where DNi is high, leading to high Ni-in-olivine. Similarly, variations in Mn and Fe/Mn ratios in olivines are explained by contrasts in the temperatures of magma processing. Using the most mafic rocks to delimit Siqueiros and Hawaiian Co and Ni contents in parental magmas and mantle source compositions also shows that both suites can be derived from natural peridotites, but are inconsistent with partial melting of natural pyroxenites. Whole-rock compositions at Hawaii and Siqueiros are also matched by partial melting experiments conducted on peridotite bulk compositions. Hawaiian whole-rocks have elevated FeO contents compared with Siqueiros, which can be explained if Hawaiian parental magmas are generated from peridotite at 4-5 GPa, in contrast to pressures of slightly greater than 1 GPa for melt generation at Siqueiros; these pressures are consistent with olivine thermometry, as described in an earlier paper. SiO2-enriched Koolau compositions are reproduced if high-Fe Hawaiian parental magmas re-equilibrate at 1-1·5 GPa. Peridotite partial melts from experimental studies also reproduce the CaO and Al2O3 contents of Hawaiian (and Siqueiros) whole-rocks. Hawaiian magmas have TiO2

  4. Connexins and M3 Muscarinic Receptors Contribute to Heterogeneous Ca2+ Signaling in Mouse Aortic Endothelium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Xavier Boittin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Smooth muscle tone is controlled by Ca2+ signaling in the endothelial layer. Mouse endothelial cells are interconnected by gap junctions made of Connexin40 (Cx40 and Cx37, which allow the exchange of signaling molecules to coordinate their activity. Here, we investigated the role of Cx40 in the endothelial Ca2+ signaling of the mouse aorta. Methods: Ca2+ imaging was performed on intact aortic endothelium from both wild type (Cx40+/+ and Connexin40-deficient (Cx40 -/- mice. Results: Acetylcholine (ACh induced early fast and high amplitude Ca2+ transients in a fraction of endothelial cells expressing the M3 muscarinic receptors. Inhibition of intercellular communication using carbenoxolone or octanol fully blocked the propagation of ACh-induced Ca2+ transients toward adjacent cells in WT and Cx40-/- mice. As compared to WT, Cx40-/- mice displayed a reduced propagation of ACh-induced Ca2+ waves, indicating that Cx40 contributes to the spreading of Ca2+ signals. The propagation of those Ca2+ responses was not blocked by suramin, a blocker of purinergic ATP receptors, indicating that there is no paracrine effect of ATP release on the Ca2+ waves. Conclusions: Altogether our data show that Cx40 and Cx37 contribute to the propagation and amplification of the Ca2+ signaling triggered by ACh in endothelial cells expressing the M3 muscarinic receptors.

  5. Thermal Emission Spectra of Silica-coated Basalt and Considerations for Martian Surface Mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, M. D.; Sharp, T. G.; Michalski, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    Among the most important discoveries made during the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) mission was that the rocky materials of Mars are broadly divisible into two distinct rock types. The geological significance of this finding is dependent on the mineralogy of these rock types as well as their geographic and stratigraphic positions. Much work has yet to be done to understand these relationships and the small-scale variability of these units. For now, it is worth considering various scenarios that could have resulted in Mars global-scale mineralogical dichotomy. Such work will make clearer what must be looked for in Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) and Thermal Imaging Spectrometer (THEMIS) data, what to test with other data sets, and what geological processes can be considered or ruled out as we advance with interpreting Martian geologic history. Here, we suggest that exogenic coatings of secondary silica on basaltic rocks may provide a plausible explanation for the newly discovered distribution of rock types.

  6. Surface chemistry and mineralogy. [of planet Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banin, A.; Clark, B. C.; Waenke, H.

    1992-01-01

    The accumulated knowledge on the chemistry and mineralogy of Martian surface materials is reviewed. Pertinent information obtained by direct analyses of the soil on Mars by the Viking Landers, by remote sensing of Mars from flyby and orbiting spacecraft, by telescopic observations from earth, and through detailed analyses of the SNC meteorites presumed to be Martian rocks are summarized and analyzed. A compositional model for Mars soil, giving selected average elemental concentrations of major and trace elements, is suggested. It is proposed that the fine surface materials on Mars are a multicomponent mixture of weathered and nonweathered minerals. Smectite clays, silicate mineraloids similar to palagonite, and scapolite are suggested as possible major candidate components among the weathered minerals.

  7. Stable NRM and mineralogy in Allende - Chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewski, P. J.; Saralker, C.

    The main objective of the present investigation is related to a description of the magnetic and mineralogic contrasts between chondrules which have a natural remanent magnetization (NRM) vector that is ultrastable during alternating field (AF) demagnetization, and those which have unstable NRM vectors when subjected to the same treatment. The results presented in the present investigation together with new magnetic results from Allende listed in a summary provided by Wasilewski (1981) are used as a basis to argue that the stable NRM in Allende was acquired during a sulfidation event. Attention is given to magnetic phases in Allende, experimental results obtained in magnetic studies conducted with 20 chondrules, and a magnetization model for Allende.

  8. Clay mineralogy in agrochernozems of western Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papish, I. Ya.; Chizhikova, N. P.; Poznyak, S. P.; Varlamov, E. B.

    2016-10-01

    The mineralogy of clay fractions separated from deep low-humus deep-gleyic loamy typical agrochernozems on loess-like loams of the Upper Bug and Dniester uplands in the Central Russian loess province of Ukraine consists of complex disordered interstratifications with the segregation of mica- and smectite-type layers (hereafter, smectite phase), tri- and dioctahedral hydromicas, kaolinite, and chlorite. The distribution of the clay fraction is uniform. The proportions of the layered silicates vary significantly within the profile: a decrease in the content of the smectite phase and a relative increase in the content of hydromicas up the soil profile are recorded. In the upper horizons, the contents of kaolinite and chlorite increase, and some amounts of fine quartz, potassium feldspars, and plagioclases are observed. This tendency is observed in agrochernozems developed on the both Upper Bug and Dniester uplands. The differences include the larger amounts of quartz, potassium feldspars, and plagioclases in the clay material of the Upper Bug Upland, while the contents of the smectite phase in the soil profiles of the areas considered are similar. An analogous mineral association is noted in podzolized agrochernozems on loess-like deposits in the Cis-Carpathian region of the Southern Russian loess province developed on the Prut-Dniester and Syan-Dniester uplands. The distribution of particle-size fractions and the mineralogy of the clay fraction indicate the lithogenic heterogeneity of the soil-forming substrate. When the drifts change, the mineral association of the soils developed within the loess-like deposits gives place to minerals dominated by individual smectite with some mica-smectite inter stratifications, hydromicas, and chlorite.

  9. Effects of Modulating M3 Muscarinic Receptor Activity on Azoxymethane-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we reported that azoxymethane (AOM)-induced liver injury is robustly exacerbated in M3 muscarinic receptor (M3R)-deficient mice. We used the same mouse model to test the hypothesis that selective pharmacological modulation of M3R activity regulates the liver injury response. Initial experiments confirmed that giving a selective M3R antagonist, darifenacin, to AOM-treated mice mimicked M3R gene ablation. Compared to vehicle controls, mice treated with the M3R antagonist had reduced...

  10. Meteorite falls in Bulgaria: Reappraisal of mineralogy, chemistry, and classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekov, Vesselin; Rochette, Pierre; Gattacceca, JéRôMe

    2017-08-01

    We present a summary of the mineralogy, mineral chemistry, and magnetic characteristics of all the five Bulgarian meteorite falls. We report the first mineralogical descriptions, chemical analyses, and magnetic measurements of the Konevo (1931) and Silistra (1917) meteorites. We classify Konevo as LL5, and Silistra as an ungrouped achondrite with HED affinities. Pavel (1966; previously classified as an H5) is reclassified as H3-anomalous. We also provide precise mineralogy and mineral chemistry of the Virba meteorite (1873, L6), and more details on the mineral chemistry of Gumoschnik (1904, H5).

  11. Exception Processing of Cortex-M3%Cortex-M3的异常处理机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方安平; 蔡俊宇

    2009-01-01

    详细阐述Cortex-M3异常的分类、优先级、进入和退出,以及在Cortex-M3异常处理机制中使用的新技术--迟到(late-arriving)和尾链(tail-chaining);最后,比较Cortex-M3和ARM7异常控制机制的区别,并量化分析迟到和尾链技术在异常处理中的优越性.

  12. Geochemistry and mineralogy of mafic Icelandic hyaloclastites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudak, M. R.; Feineman, M. D.; Eyer, C.; Bindeman, I. N.; Sigmarsson, O.

    2016-12-01

    Hyaloclastite in the crust may be a cryptic contaminant contributing to some volatile-rich Icelandic basalts and in some places reach 2.5 km1. Hyaloclastites are highly fragmented composites of lithics, glass, and crystals in a palagonite matrix that form as a result of magma-ice or magma-water interactions. These rocks have high water content and porosity and a high initial glass content, which makes them susceptible to rapid alteration by ambient or hydrothermal waters and potentially fast digestion by magmas. Due to low density and ductility, they have the potential to stall ascending mantle-derived magmas to form sills, and in the process may contribute exotic volatile or fluid-mobile components. We have characterized the geochemistry and mineralogy of 18 hyaloclastite samples from the Reykjanes Peninsula (RP), Vestmannajyar, and the southern coast of Iceland. Major and trace elements were obtained using ICP-AES and ICP-MS, respectively, and mineralogy was determined by XRD. Loss on ignition is highly variable (0.44 - 15.7 wt.%) and positively correlated with alkali loss reflected in the Chemical Index of Alteration [34.8 - 51.3; CIA = Al2O3/(Al2O3+CaO+Na2O+K2O)]. Primitive mantle normalized multi-element plots for RP hyaloclastites are broadly similar to those for unaltered RP Holocene basalts. Two samples have trace element profiles resembling those of picrites in the region. The samples from the south coast and Vestmannaeyjar have OIB-like enrichments similar to local Holocene basalts. Five well-sorted hyaloclastite samples have broad humps in their XRD patterns from 20-50° 2q. These samples contain only primary magmatic mineral phases (plagioclase, olivine, and pyroxene), if any, while other hyaloclastites contain both primary phases and secondary alteration phases including halite, calcite, clays, chlorite, and zeolites. Preliminary O and H isotope investigation demonstrates large ranges in both parameters. Future work will include oxygen isotope analyses

  13. Discovery of a wide planetary-mass companion to the young M3 star GU PSC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naud, Marie-Eve; Artigau, Étienne; Malo, Lison; Albert, Loïc; Doyon, René; Lafrenière, David; Gagné, Jonathan; Boucher, Anne [Département de physique and Observatoire du Mont-Mégantic, Université de Montréal, Montréal H3C 3J7 (Canada); Saumon, Didier [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Morley, Caroline V. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Allard, France; Homeier, Derek [Centre de Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon, UMR 5574 CNRS, Université de Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 Allée d' Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Beichman, Charles A.; Gelino, Christopher R., E-mail: naud@astro.umontreal.ca [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-05-20

    We present the discovery of a comoving planetary-mass companion ∼42'' (∼2000 AU) from a young M3 star, GU Psc, a likely member of the young AB Doradus Moving Group (ABDMG). The companion was first identified via its distinctively red i – z color (>3.5) through a survey made with Gemini-S/GMOS. Follow-up Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/WIRCam near-infrared (NIR) imaging, Gemini-N/GNIRS NIR spectroscopy and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry indicate a spectral type of T3.5 ± 1 and reveal signs of low gravity which we attribute to youth. Keck/Adaptive Optics NIR observations did not resolve the companion as a binary. A comparison with atmosphere models indicates T {sub eff} = 1000-1100 K and log g = 4.5-5.0. Based on evolution models, this temperature corresponds to a mass of 9-13 M {sub Jup} for the age of ABDMG (70-130 Myr). The relatively well-constrained age of this companion and its very large angular separation to its host star will allow its thorough characterization and will make it a valuable comparison for planetary-mass companions that will be uncovered by forthcoming planet-finder instruments such as Gemini Planet Imager and SPHERE 9.

  14. Integrating two spectral imaging systems in an automated mineralogy application

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harris, D

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A system for the automated analysis and sorting of mineral samples has been developed to assist in the concentration of heavy mineral samples in the diamond exploration process. These samples consist of irregularly shaped mineral grains ranging from...

  15. Geochemical and Mineralogical Proxies for characterizing Tsunami and Paleotsunami Deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwhagen, L.; Jankaew, K.; Kylander, M. E.; Skelton, A.; Wohlfarth, B.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we show how geochemistry and mineralogy can be used to correlate between previously dated tsunami and paleotsunami deposits in western Thailand. We do this based on cores from three parallel swales along a transect from the shoreline inland. Stratigraphy, together with geochemical and mineralogical analyses was used to correlate between tsunami and paleotsunami layers at these sites. Using element biplots (Ti-Zr, Ti-Y and Zr-Y) and mineralogical constraints, source signatures of each of the tsunami and paleotsunami layers were used to correlate between sand layers representing the 2004 tsunami and sand layers representing at least three paleotsunamis. Based on our correlations between these swales, we predict different inundation distances and directions for these paleotsunamis. Our study shows that a combination of geochemical and mineralogical analysis provides a powerful tool for correlation between tsunami and paleotsunami layers.

  16. Magnetic mineralogy of the Mercurian lithosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, B. E.; Feinberg, J. M.; Johnson, C. L.

    2016-11-01

    Mercury and Earth are the only inner solar system planets with active, internally generated dynamo magnetic fields. The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) mission recently detected magnetic fields on Mercury that are consistent with lithospheric magnetization. We investigate the physical and chemical environment of Mercury's lithosphere, past and present, to establish the conditions under which magnetization may have been acquired and modified. Three factors are particularly crucial to the determination of crustal composition and iron mineralogy: redox conditions in the planet's crust and mantle, the iron content of the lithosphere, and, for any remanent magnetization, the temperature profile of the lithosphere and its evolution over time. We explore potential mechanisms for remanence acquisition and alteration on Mercury, whose surface environment is both hot and highly reducing. The long-term thermal history of Mercury's crust plays an important role in the longevity of any remanent crustal magnetization, which may be subject to remagnetization through thermal, viscous, and shock mechanisms. This thermal and compositional framework is used both to constrain plausible candidate minerals that could carry magnetic remanence on Mercury and to evaluate their capacity to acquire and retain sufficient magnetization to be detectable from satellite orbit. We propose that iron metal and its alloys are likely to be the dominant contributors to induced and remanent magnetization in Mercury's lithosphere, with additional contributions from iron silicides, sulfides, and carbides.

  17. Olivine-dominated Asteroids: Mineralogy and Origin

    CERN Document Server

    Sanchez, Juan A; Kelley, Michael S; Cloutis, Edward A; Bottke, William F; Nesvorný, David; Lucas, Michael P; Hardersen, Paul S; Gaffey, Michael J; Abell, Paul A; Corre, Lucille Le

    2013-01-01

    Olivine-dominated asteroids are a rare type of objects formed either in nebular processes or through magmatic differentiation. The analysis of meteorite samples suggest that at least 100 parent bodies in the main belt experienced partial or complete melting and differentiation before being disrupted. However, only a few olivine-dominated asteroids, representative of the mantle of disrupted differentiated bodies, are known to exist. Due to the paucity of these objects in the main belt their origin and evolution have been a matter of great debate over the years. In this work we present a detailed mineralogical analysis of twelve olivine-dominated asteroids. Within our sample we distinguish two classes, one that we call pure-olivine asteroids and another referred to as olivine-rich asteroids. For the pure-olivine asteroids the olivine chemistry was found to range from ~ Fo49 to Fo70, consistent with the values measured for brachinites and R chondrites. In the case of the olivine-rich asteroids we determined thei...

  18. The mineralogy of ordinary chondrites and implications for asteroid spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Bennett, Marvin E., III; Jarosewich, Eugene

    1991-01-01

    Published data from bulk chemical analyses of 94 ordinary chondrites are compiled in a table of normative mineralogy and discussed in detail. Significant variations in olivine, pyroxene, and metal abundance ratios are found within each chondrite class and attributed to redox processes superimposed on initial differences in metal/silicate ratios. The use of the diagrams constructed here to predict the mineralogic characteristics of asteroids on the basis of spectrophotometric observations is suggested.

  19. Revised mineralogic summary of Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bish, D.L.; Chipera, S.J.

    1989-03-01

    We have evaluated three-dimensional mineral distribution at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, using quantitative x-ray powder diffraction analysis. All data were obtained on core cuttings, or sidewall samples obtained from drill holes at and around Yucca Mountain. Previously published data are included with corrections, together with new data for several drill holes. The new data presented in this report used the internal standard method of quantitative analysis, which yields results of high precision for the phases commonly found in Yucca Mountain tuffs including opal-CT and glass. Mineralogical trends with depth previously noted are clearly shown by these new data. Glass occurrence is restricted almost without exception to above the present-day static water level (SWL), although glass has been identified below the SWL in partially zeolitized tuffs. Silica phases undergo well-defined transitions with depth, with tridymite and cristobalite occurring only above the SWL, opal-CT occurring with clinoptilolite-mordenite tuffs, and quartz most abundant below the SWL. Smectite occurs in small amounts in most samples but is enriched in two distinct zones. These zones are at the top of the vitric nonwelded base of the Tiva Canyon Member and at the top of the basal vitrophyre of the Topopah Spring Member. Our data support the presence of several zones of mordenite and clinoptilolite-heulandite as shown previously. New data on several deep clinoptililite-heulandite samples coexisting with analcime show that they are heulandite. Phillipsite has not been found in any Yucca Mountain samples, but erionite and chabazite have been found once in fractures. 21 refs., 17 figs.

  20. Different Characteristics of the Bright Branches of the Globular Clusters M3 and M13

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, D H; Jeon, Y B; Sim, K J; Cho, Dong-Hwan; Lee, Sang-Gak; Jeon, Young-Beom; Sim, Kyung Jin

    2005-01-01

    We carried out wide-field BVI CCD photometric observations of the GCs M3 and M13 using the BOAO 1.8 m telescope equipped with a 2K CCD. We present CMDs of M3 and M13. We have found AGB bumps at V = 14.85 for M3 at V = 14.25 for M13. It is found that AGB stars in M3 are more concentrated near the bump, while those in M13 are scattered along the AGB sequence. We identified the RGB bump of M3 at V = 15.50 and that of M13 at V = 14.80. We have estimated the ratios R and R2 for M3 and M13 and found that of R for M3 is larger than that for M13 while R2's for M3 and M13 are similar when only normal HB stars are used in R and R2 for M13. However, we found that R's for M3 and M13 are similar while R2 for M3 is larger than that for M13 when all the HB stars are included in R and R2 for M13. We have compared the observed RGB LFs of M3 and M13 with the theoretical RGB LF of Bergbusch & VandenBerg at the same radial distances from the cluster centers as used in R and R2 for M3 and M13. We found "extra stars" belonging...

  1. Second Parameter Effects in and between M3 and Palomar 3

    CERN Document Server

    Catelan, M; Ferraro, F R

    2001-01-01

    We study the globular clusters M3 and Palomar 3 as a "second parameter (2ndP) pair," showing that: i) M3 has a surprisingly strong *internal* 2ndP; ii) The dispersion in mass on the Pal 3 horizontal branch (HB) is intrinsically very small, leading to the most apparent differences in HB morphology between M3 and Pal 3; iii) Ignoring the difference in HB mass dispersion between M3 and Pal 3, their relative HB types can be accounted for by a fairly small difference in age, of order 0.5-1 Gyr.

  2. The Swift/UVOT Stars Survey. II. RR Lyrae Stars in M 3 and M 15

    CERN Document Server

    Siegel, Michael H; Balzer, Benjamin G; Hagen, Lea M Z

    2015-01-01

    We present the first results of an near-ultraviolet (NUV) survey of RR Lyrae stars from the Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) aboard the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission. It is well-established that RR Lyrae have large amplitudes in the far- and near-ultraviolet. We have used UVOT's unique wide-field NUV imaging capability to perform the first systematic NUV survey of variable stars in the Galactic globular clusters M 3 and M 15. We identify 280 variable stars, comprising 275 RR Lyrae, two anomalous Cepheids, one classical Cepheid, one SX Phoenicis star and one possible long-period or irregular variable. Only two of these are new discoveries. We compare our results to previous investigations and find excellent agreement in the periods with significantly larger amplitudes in the NUV. We map out, for the first time, an NUV Bailey diagram from globular clusters, showing the usual loci for fundamental mode RRab and first overtone RRc pulsators. We show the unique sensitivity of NUV photometry to both the temperat...

  3. THE SWIFT UVOT STARS SURVEY. II. RR LYRAE STARS IN M3 AND M15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegel, Michael H.; Porterfield, Blair L.; Balzer, Benjamin G.; Hagen, Lea M. Z., E-mail: siegel@astro.psu.edu, E-mail: blp14@psu.edu, E-mail: bgb5080@psu.edu, E-mail: lea.zernow.hagen@gmail.com [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Astronomy, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2015-10-15

    We present the first results of a near-ultraviolet (NUV) survey of RR Lyrae stars from the Ultraviolet Optical Telescope (UVOT) on board the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Mission. It is well-established that RR Lyrae stars have large amplitudes in the far- and near-ultraviolet. We have used UVOT’s unique wide-field NUV imaging capability to perform the first systematic NUV survey of variable stars in the Galactic globular clusters M3 and M15. We identify 280 variable stars, comprised of 275 RR Lyrae, 2 anomalous Cepheids, 1 classical Cepheid, 1 SX Phoenicis star, and 1 possible long-period or irregular variable. Only two of these are new discoveries. We compare our results to previous investigations and find excellent agreement in the periods with significantly larger amplitudes in the NUV. We map out, for the first time, an NUV Bailey diagram from globular clusters, showing the usual loci for fundamental mode RRab and first overtone RRc pulsators. We show the unique sensitivity of NUV photometry to both the temperatures and the surface gravities of RR Lyrae stars. Finally, we show evidence of an NUV period–metallicity–luminosity relationship. Future investigations will further examine the dependence of NUV pulsation parameters on metallicity and Oosterhoff classification.

  4. [Rna content of gerbil hepatocytes after the flight aboard space platform Foton-M3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiashkin, D A; Bykov, E G; Il'in, E A; Pashkov, A N

    2010-01-01

    The paper compares and contrasts the results of measuring the hepatocyte cytoplasm area and RNA content in 35 gerbils in three series of experiments, i.e. the vivarium control, modeled space flight (synchronous control) and exposure to the factors of 12-d Foton-M3 orbital flight. Central, intermediate and peripheral zones of hepatic lobes were subjected to histological and histochemical analyses to measure the hepatocyte cytoplasm area; the RNA content was determined from the level of cytoplasm basophilia after azure staining. Cytometric and cytophotometric investigations were performed using image analyzer Video-7-Test-Morpho. In the vivarium animals, hepatocytes with the largest cytoplasm localized predominantly in the intermediate and central zones of the lobes. Judging from the results of microdensitometry, the RNA content was particularly high in binucleate hepatocytes of the intermediate zone. In the synchronous control, hepatocytes tended to grow in size, in the peripheral zone specifically, whereas RNA content was largely equal no matter hepatocyte topography. After space flight, cytoplasm enlargement transcended this process in the vivarium animals. The cytoplasm RNA content along the entire liver parenchyma made a significant decrease equally as compared with the vivarium and synchronous control animals.

  5. Discovery of a wide planetary-mass companion to the young M3 star GU Psc

    CERN Document Server

    Naud, Marie-Eve; Malo, Lison; Albert, Loïc; Doyon, René; Lafrenière, David; Gagné, Jonathan; Saumon, Didier; Morley, Caroline V; Allard, France; Homeier, Derek; Beichman, Charles A; Gelino, Christopher R; Boucher, Anne

    2014-01-01

    We present the discovery of a co-moving planetary-mass companion ~42" (~2000 AU) from a young M3 star, GU Psc, likely member of the young AB Doradus Moving Group (ABDMG). The companion was first identified via its distinctively red i - z color (> 3.5) through a survey made with Gemini-S/GMOS. Follow-up Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope/WIRCam near-infrared (NIR) imaging, Gemini-N/GNIRS NIR spectroscopy and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry indicate a spectral type of T3.5+-1 and reveal signs of low gravity which we attribute to youth. Keck/Adaptive Optics NIR observations did not resolve the companion as a binary. A comparison with atmosphere models indicates Teff = 1000-1100 K and logg = 4.5-5.0. Based on evolution models, this temperature corresponds to a mass of 9-13 MJup for the age of ABDMG (70-130 Myr). The relatively well-constrained age of this companion and its very large angular separation to its host star will allow its thorough characterization and will make it a valuable comparison for ...

  6. Design Essentials of 80 m3 Diluted Acetaldehyde Storage Tank%浅谈80 m3稀乙醛储槽设计要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白春山; 刘文元

    2009-01-01

    Combination 80 m3 thin acetaldehyde tank design, the paper focused on low-pressure tank-top cans bearing ring, tank walls, tank top and anchor set design and the method of calculating and comparing the general design of storage tanks were introduced.%结合80 m3稀乙醛储槽的设计,着重介绍低压储罐罐顶承压环、罐壁、罐顶以及锚栓设置的设计及其计算方法,并与一般储罐设计进行比较.

  7. Chemical and mineralogical characterization of the bentonite buffer for the acceptance control procedure in a KBS-3 repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnland, Ola (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    The present report concerns the chemical and mineralogical characterization of potential buffer materials. A short mineralogical description of bentonite and montmorillonite is given. The report defines, and exemplifies analyses and tests planned for the acceptance control of the bulk material concerning chemical composition, mineralogical composition, original exchangeable cations, cation exchange capacity (CEC), grain density, specific surface area, granule size, water content. In addition, analyses of the clay fraction, i.e. material with a grain size smaller than 2 mum, are described with respect to chemical composition including layer charge, layer charge distribution and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Results from the report by /Karnland et al. 2006/ concerning the two reference bentonites MX-80 and IBECO RWC are used to illustrate the accuracy and precision of the analyses. For each type of analyses the purpose, technique and, in relevant cases, also limits are discussed briefly. An empirical model for determining swelling pressure is presented and used for the quantification of the expected sealing properties given the limits concerning buffer density and montmorillonite content. For the reference bentonites MX-80, the stipulated montmorillonite content interval from 0.75 to 0.9 gives a pressure interval from 8 to 11 MPa at the nominal saturated density 2,000 kg/m3. The stipulated saturated density interval from 1,950 to 2,050 kg/m3 gives a pressure range from 6 to 15 MPa at the measured montmorillonite content of 83% by weight. The combined effects of the stipulated montmorillonite content interval and saturated density interval lead to a pressure range from 5 to 17 MPa. If the increasing effect of accessory minerals, which is proposed by the model, is not taken into account then the combined pressure range is 3 to 14 MPa

  8. Chemical and mineralogical characterization of the bentonite buffer for the acceptance control procedure in a KBS-3 repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karnland, Ola (Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2010-09-15

    The present report concerns the chemical and mineralogical characterization of potential buffer materials. A short mineralogical description of bentonite and montmorillonite is given. The report defines, and exemplifies analyses and tests planned for the acceptance control of the bulk material concerning chemical composition, mineralogical composition, original exchangeable cations, cation exchange capacity (CEC), grain density, specific surface area, granule size, water content. In addition, analyses of the clay fraction, i.e. material with a grain size smaller than 2 mum, are described with respect to chemical composition including layer charge, layer charge distribution and cation exchange capacity (CEC). Results from the report by /Karnland et al. 2006/ concerning the two reference bentonites MX-80 and IBECO RWC are used to illustrate the accuracy and precision of the analyses. For each type of analyses the purpose, technique and, in relevant cases, also limits are discussed briefly. An empirical model for determining swelling pressure is presented and used for the quantification of the expected sealing properties given the limits concerning buffer density and montmorillonite content. For the reference bentonites MX-80, the stipulated montmorillonite content interval from 0.75 to 0.9 gives a pressure interval from 8 to 11 MPa at the nominal saturated density 2,000 kg/m3. The stipulated saturated density interval from 1,950 to 2,050 kg/m3 gives a pressure range from 6 to 15 MPa at the measured montmorillonite content of 83% by weight. The combined effects of the stipulated montmorillonite content interval and saturated density interval lead to a pressure range from 5 to 17 MPa. If the increasing effect of accessory minerals, which is proposed by the model, is not taken into account then the combined pressure range is 3 to 14 MPa

  9. The Impact of Mineralogy on the Geochemical Alteration of Shales During Hydraulic Fracturing Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, K.; Harrison, A. L.; Jew, A. D.; Dustin, M. K.; Kiss, A. M.; Kohli, A. H.; Thomas, D.; Joe-Wong, C. M.; Brown, G. E.; Bargar, J.

    2016-12-01

    The extraction of oil and gas resources from low permeability shale reservoirs using hydraulic fracturing techniques has increased significantly in recent years. During hydraulic fracturing, large volumes of fluid are injected into subsurface shale formations, which drives substantial fluid-rock interaction that can release contaminants and alter rock permeability. Here, a combined experimental, imaging, and modeling approach was employed to systematically evaluate the impact of shale mineralogy on its physical and chemical alteration when exposed to fracturing fluids of different composition. Batch reactor experiments contained different shales with unique mineralogical compositions that were exposed to simulated hydraulic fracturing fluid. Experiments revealed that the balance between fluid acidity and acid neutralizing capacity of the rock was the strongest control on the evolution of fluid and rock chemistry. Carbonate mineral-rich shales rapidly recovered solution pH to circum-neutral conditions, whereas fluids in contact with carbonate mineral-poor shales remained acidic. The dissolution of shale minerals released metal contaminants, yet the precipitation of Fe(III)-bearing secondary phases helped to attenuate their release via co-precipitation or sorption. Post-reaction imaging illustrated that selective dissolution of carbonate minerals generated secondary porosity, the connectivity of which was dictated by initial carbonate distribution. Conversely, the precipitation of secondary Al- and Fe-bearing phases may occlude porosity, potentially inhibiting transport of water, contaminants, and hydrocarbons. The maturation of secondary Fe-bearing phases from amorphous to crystalline over time suggests that porosity will continue to evolve even after oxidation reactions have effectively ceased. These experiments reveal that the relative abundance and distribution of carbonate minerals is the master variable dictating both porosity alteration and contaminant release

  10. Effects of Modulating M3 Muscarinic Receptor Activity on Azoxymethane-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Sandeep; Jadeja, Ravirajsinh; Twadell, William; Cheng, Kunrong; Rachakonda, Vikrant; Saxena, Neeraj; Raufman, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we reported that azoxymethane (AOM)-induced liver injury is robustly exacerbated in M3 muscarinic receptor (M3R)-deficient mice. We used the same mouse model to test the hypothesis that selective pharmacological modulation of M3R activity regulates the liver injury response. Initial experiments confirmed that giving a selective M3R antagonist, darifenacin, to AOM-treated mice mimicked M3R gene ablation. Compared to vehicle controls, mice treated with the M3R antagonist had reduced survival and increased liver nodularity and fibrosis. We next assessed AOM-induced liver injury in mice treated with a selective M3R agonist, pilocarpine. After pilocarpine treatment, stimulation of post-M3R signaling in the liver was evidenced by ERK and AKT activation. In contrast to the damaging effects of the M3R antagonist, administering pilocarpine to AOM-treated mice significantly attenuated hepatic stellate cell activation, collagen deposition, bile ductule proliferation, and liver fibrosis and nodularity. As anticipated from these findings, livers from pilocarpine-treated mice exhibited reduced expression of key players in fibrosis (α1 collagen, α-smooth muscle actin, TGF-β1, PGDF, TGF-β1R, PGDFR) and decreased mRNA levels for molecules that regulate extracellular matrix formation (TIMP-1, TIMP-2, MMP-2, MMP-13). Cleaved caspase-3, nitrotyrosine and BrdU immunostaining provided evidence that pilocarpine treatment reduced hepatocyte apoptosis and oxidative stress, while increasing hepatocyte proliferation. Collectively, these findings identify several downstream mechanisms whereby M3R activation ameliorates toxic liver injury. These novel observations provide a proof-of-principle that selectively stimulating M3R activation to prevent or diminish liver injury is a therapeutic strategy worthy of further investigation. PMID:23707755

  11. Diagenetic Mineralogy at Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, David; Blake, David; Bristow, Thomas F.; Chipera, Steve; Gellert, Ralf; Ming, Douglas; Morris, Richard; Rampe, E. B.; Rapin, William

    2015-01-01

    Three years into exploration of sediments in Gale crater on Mars, the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity has provided data on several modes and episodes of diagenetic mineral formation. Curiosity determines mineralogy principally by X-ray diffraction (XRD), but with supporting data from thermal-release profiles of volatiles, bulk chemistry, passive spectroscopy, and laser-induced breakdown spectra of targeted spots. Mudstones at Yellowknife Bay, within the landing ellipse, contain approximately 20% phyllosilicate that we interpret as authigenic smectite formed by basalt weathering in relatively dilute water, with associated formation of authigenic magnetite as in experiments by Tosca and Hurowitz [Goldschmidt 2014]. Varied interlayer spacing of the smectite, collapsed at approximately 10 A or expanded at approximately 13.2 A, is evidence of localized diagenesis that may include partial intercalation of metal-hydroxyl groups in the approximately 13.2 A material. Subsequent sampling of stratigraphically higher Windjana sandstone revealed sediment with multiple sources, possible concentration of detrital magnetite, and minimal abundance of diagenetic minerals. Most recent sampling has been of lower strata at Mount Sharp, where diagenesis is widespread and varied. Here XRD shows that hematite first becomes abundant and products of diagenesis include jarosite and cristobalite. In addition, bulk chemistry identifies Mg-sulfate concretions that may be amorphous or crystalline. Throughout Curiosity's traverse, later diagenetic fractures (and rarer nodules) of mm to dm scale are common and surprisingly constant and simple in Ca-sulfate composition. Other sulfates (Mg,Fe) appear to be absent in this later diagenetic cycle, and circumneutral solutions are indicated. Equally surprising is the rarity of gypsum and common occurrence of bassanite and anhydrite. Bassanite, rare on Earth, plays a major role at this location on Mars. Dehydration of gypsum to bassanite in the

  12. Constraints on olivine-rich rock types on the Moon as observed by Diviner and M3: Implications for the formation of the lunar crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, J. A.; Glotch, T. D.; Lucey, P. G.; Song, E.; Thomas, I. R.; Bowles, N. E.; Greenhagen, B. T.

    2016-07-01

    We place upper limits on lunar olivine abundance using midinfrared (5-25 µm) data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Diviner Lunar Radiometer Experiment (Diviner) along with effective emissivity spectra of mineral mixtures in a simulated lunar environment. Olivine-bearing, pyroxene-poor lithologies have been identified on the lunar surface with visible-near-infrared (VNIR) observations. Since the Kaguya Spectral Profiler (SP) VNIR survey of olivine-rich regions is the most complete to date, we focus this work on exposures identified by that study. We first confirmed the locations with VNIR data from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) instrument. We then developed a Diviner olivine index from our laboratory data which, along with M3 and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera wide-angle camera data, was used to select the geographic area over which Diviner emissivity data were extracted. We calculate upper limits on olivine abundance for these areas using laboratory emissivity spectra of anorthite-forsterite mixtures acquired under lunar-like conditions. We find that these exposures have widely varying olivine content. In addition, after applying an albedo-based space weathering correction to the Diviner data, we find that none of the areas are unambiguously consistent with concentrations of forsterite exceeding 90 wt %, in contrast to the higher abundance estimates derived from VNIR data.

  13. Scale-up of industrial biodiesel production to 40 m3using a liquid lipase formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason; Nordblad, Mathias; Martel, Hannah H.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the scale-up from an 80 L fed-batch scale to 40 m3 along with the design of a 4 m3continuous process for enzymatic biodiesel production catalysed by NS-40116 (a liquid formulation of a modified Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase). Based on the analysis of actual pilot pla...

  14. Residual stress in a M3:2 PM high speed steel; effect of mechanical loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, Christian; Odén, Magnus; Carstensen, Jesper V.;

    2001-01-01

    X-ray lattice strains were investigated in an AISI M3:2 PM high-speed steel in the as heat treated condition and after exposure to alternating mechanical load. The volume changes during heat treatment were monitored with dilatometry. Hardened and tempered AISI M3:2 steel consists of tempered lath...

  15. Compositional diversity and geologic insights of the Aristarchus crater from Moon Mineralogy Mapper data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, J.F.; Pieters, C.M.; Isaacson, P.J.; Head, J.W.; Besse, S.; Clark, R.N.; Klima, R.L.; Petro, N.E.; Staid, M.I.; Sunshine, J.M.; Runyon, C.J.; Tompkins, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) acquired high spatial and spectral resolution data of the Aristarchus Plateau with 140 m/pixel in 85 spectral bands from 0.43 to 3.0 m. The data were collected as radiance and converted to reflectance using the observational constraints and a solar spectrum scaled to the Moon-Sun distance. Summary spectral parameters for the area of mafic silicate 1 and 2 m bands were calculated from the M3 data and used to map the distribution of key units that were then analyzed in detail with the spectral data. This analysis focuses on five key compositional units in the region. (1) The central peaks are shown to be strongly enriched in feldspar and are likely from the upper plagioclase-rich crust of the Moon. (2) The impact melt is compositionally diverse with clear signatures of feldspathic crust, olivine, and glass. (3) The crater walls and ejecta show a high degree of spatial heterogeneity and evidence for massive breccia blocks. (4) Olivine, strongly concentrated on the rim, wall, and exterior of the southeastern quadrant of the crater, is commonly associated the impact melt. (5) There are at least two types of glass deposits observed: pyroclastic glass and impact glass. Copyright 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Fall, mineralogy and chemistry of Nathdwara H6 chondrite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Agarwal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We report here for the first time the composition and mineralogical studies on a new meteorite, which fell in Dhayala ki Chappar (24°58′N, 73°48′27″E 5 km NW of Nathdwara in south Rajasthan, India, on Dec. 25th, 2012. Mineralogical and compositional studies were carried out on a representative piece of the Nathdwara meteorite sample. The mineralogical composition of the meteorite has been found to be olivine (42−45 vol.%, feldspar (10−15 vol.%, orthopyroxene (23−25 vol.%, troilite (6−8 vol.%, and titanium bearing minerals (6−8 vol.%. Our investigations show that the Nathdwara meteorite belongs to H6 group of ordinary chondrites.

  17. Fall, mineralogy and chemistry of Nathdwara H6 chondrite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V. Agarwal; G. Parthasarathy; M.S. Sisodia; N. Bhandari

    2014-01-01

    We report here for the first time the composition and mineralogical studies on a new meteorite, which fell in Dhayala ki Chappar (24º58'N, 73º48'27'' E) 5 km NW of Nathdwara in south Rajasthan, India, on Dec. 25th, 2012. Mineralogical and compositional studies were carried out on a representative piece of the Nathdwara meteorite sample. The mineralogical composition of the meteorite has been found to be olivine (42-45 vol.%), feldspar (10-15 vol.%), orthopyroxene (23-25 vol.%), troilite (6-8 vol.%), and titanium bearing minerals (6-8 vol.%). Our investigations show that the Nathdwara meteorite belongs to H6 group of ordinary chondrites.

  18. Mineralogy of the Culebra Dolomite Member of the Rustler Formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewards, T.; Williams, M.L.; Keil, K. (New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

    1991-03-01

    This report characterizes the mineralogy of the Culebra Member of the Rustler Formation based on studies of samples from cores of eight boreholes surrounding the WIPP repository. This investigation has three main goals: to obtain accurate modal compositions of all the samples selected; to investigate both the lateral and vertical variation of the mineralogy of the Culebra unit; and, to characterize water-bearing fracture surfaces in particular detail. The Culebra Dolomite member of the Rustler Formation is mineralogically and texturally heterogeneous, both vertically and horizontally. Although the predominant mineral is dolomite, important constituents of the formation are clay, quartz, gypsum, and calcite. Trace minerals include halite, phyllosilicates of metamorphic origin, feldspar, and pyrite. 24 refs., 90 figs., 27 tabs.

  19. Determinative Mineralogy: An Essential Component of Planetary Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bish, D. T.; Vaniman, D. T.; Blake, D. F.; Green, J. R.; Johnston, C. T.; Kelly-Serrato, B. A.; Ming, D. W.; Papike, J. J.; Yen, A. S.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2002-08-01

    Mineralogy is a fundamental characteristic of extraterrestrial bodies because different mineral assemblages can be used to characterize present and past conditions of the atmosphere, the surface, the crust, and the deep interior of a planet. Many tools are used in space exploration, and the exploration of extraterrestrial mineralogy is no exception. The tools that are needed include remote observations, in-situ analysis with landed instruments, and analysis of returned samples in laboratories on Earth. In a balanced exploration program, all three sources of data are necessary. Likewise, no one method will provide the information needed to understand the makeup and history of extraterrestrial bodies. This paper is intended as a starting point for the development of truly integrated mineralogic instrumentation efforts that will combine the diverse capabilities of many analytical methods.

  20. Notas de mineralogía parte I

    OpenAIRE

    Henao Vásquez, Martha

    1987-01-01

    Resumen: El presente trabajo, llamado "Notas de mineralogía, parte I", es un resumen y recopilación de temas de varios textos, notas y de la misma experiencia docente. Existen dos razones que motivan la elaboración de estas notas, y son: en primer lugar, un requisito parcial para la promoción a la categoría de Profesor Asistente de la Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional, y en segundo, por ser la mineralogía una asignatura esencial en programas tales como geología, ingeniería de geol...

  1. MINERALOGICAL FEATURES OF ULTRAMAFIC HYPOXENOLITHS IN ALKALI-RICH PORPHYRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xianfan; YANG Zhengxi; LIU Jiaduo; ZHANG Chengjiang; WU Dechao; LI Youguo

    2003-01-01

    Ultramafic hypoxenoliths found in the alkali-rich porphyry in the Liuhe Village, Heqing, Yunnan,China, are of great significance in understanding the origin and evolution of the porphyry. This paper discusses the mineralogical features of the hypoxenoliths. It shows that the xenoliths are characterized by the upper mantle rocks modified to certain extent by the enriched mantle fluid metasomatism in the mantle environment, with the enriched mantle property of Iow-degree partial melting. This constitutes the important mineralogical evidence for the petrogenesis and mineralization of alkali-rich porphyry.

  2. Mineralogy of crater Haulani on dwarf planet Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, Federico; Zambon, Francesca; Raponi, Andrea; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Ammannito, Eleonora; Capria, Maia Teresa; Giacomo Carrozzo, Filippo; Ciarniello, Mauro; Combe, Jean-Philippe; Formisano, Michelangelo; Hoffmann, Martin; Krohn, Katrin; Longobardo, Andrea; McFadden, Lucy Ann; Y McSween, Harry; Nathues, Andreas; Palomba, Ernesto; Pieters, Carle; Stephan, Katrin; Russell, Christopher T.; Raymond, Carol; Dawn/VIR Team

    2016-10-01

    On dwarf planet Ceres, several high-albedo units are visible at the local scale. Haulani crater, located in the equatorial quadrangle having the same name, is one of the notable bright units highlighted by the Dawn spacecraft since its first approach to Ceres in early 2015. Due to the images obtained by the Dawn Framing Camera, it was possible to reveal that Haulani's bright material displays a very small or even negative ("blue") spectral slope in the range from the visible to the near infrared light, which is a peculiar occurrence compared to the average surface of Ceres.Hyperspectral images returned by the Visible and InfraRed mapping spectrometer (VIR) onboard Dawn enabled a detailed mineralogical analysis of the Haulani crater area. Already at the spatial resolution of the Survey phase (~1.1 km/px), and even more so during HAMO (~0.38 km/px) and LAMO (~0.10 km/px) mission phases, Haulani crater shows considerable spectral variability. The spectral features centered at 2.7 and 3.06 µm, respectively indicative of the presence of hydrous minerals and ammoniated phyllosilicates, show a decrease of band depth in the floor and in the bright ejecta corresponding to the blue spectral slope. Spectral signatures at 3.4 and ~4 µm, indicative of carbonates, also show a moderate variability. Finally, Haulani shows the highest thermal contrast over the entire surface of Ceres, which may be linked to the albedo and texture of the material excavated by the impact, combined with its compactness in specific areas such as pitted terrain.The application of a spectral unmixing model on VIR data acquired in Survey and HAMO suggests that the observed spectral variations might be due to substantial differences in grain size, rather than to significant variations in composition. However, a comprehensive analysis shall include LAMO data acquired at higher pixel resolution.AcknowledgementsThis work is supported by the Italian Space Agency (ASI). VIR was funded and coordinated by the

  3. On M3-transition rates in selected odd-mass nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombard, R.J. E-mail: lombard@ipno.in2p3.fr; Vdovin, A.I.; Shirikova, N.Yu.; Sushkov, A.V

    2003-06-02

    The reduced probabilities of M3 transitions are studied in five deformed and three spherical or near-spherical odd-mass nuclei. In deformed nuclei, the states linked by M3 transitions are predominantly of single-quasiparticle nature and the calculations are performed taking into account the single-quasiparticle as well as core-polarization terms in the M3-operator. Whereas in {sup 159}Ho, {sup 175}Yb, and {sup 179}Hf the ratio between theoretical and experimental B(M3) values range from 0.5 to 1.4, the situation is much worse in neutron deficient nuclides {sup 179}W and {sup 183}Pt where the theory used can not explain a very sharp drop of the B(M3) values. In the soft nuclei {sup 121}Cs and {sup 207}Po the states connected by M3 transitions are treated as 'quasiparticle x phonon' states. In {sup 113}Sn, the small 'quasiparticle x phonon' components are not sufficient to compensate vanishing contribution of the dominant quasiparticle component, which shares {delta}l forbidden transitions. Thus, on the whole theoretical description of B(M3) with the present simple models seems to be unsatisfactory. It constitutes a challenging problem both at the level of the nuclear structure and the transition operator.

  4. Mineralogy: a modern approach to teaching a traditional discipline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, G. W.

    2011-12-01

    Mineralogy has traditionally been a primary component in undergraduate geoscience curriculum. In recent years, there has been a trend in which mineralogy and petrology have been combined into Earth Materials courses. This is unfortunate as these disciplines each have much to offer students, and content once considered essential is eliminated out of necessity. Mineralogy is still fundamental to students' understanding of the Earth and Earth processes. Using a modern approach to time-honored concepts, I teach a quarter-long Introductory Mineralogy class offered through the Scripps Institution of Oceanography at the University of California, San Diego. Student evaluations of this course unequivocally indicate a high degree of learning and interest in the material, confirming that mineralogy continues to be a valuable class into the 21st century. While much of the content remains similar to what has been taught over the last century, my strategy involves a well-balanced approach to old and new. The first third of the course is background including the relevance of mineralogy, crystal chemistry, and crystallography; the second third of the course is systematic mineralogy using the Dana system; the last third of the course is devoted to understanding optical mineralogy, using modern analytical equipment such as XRD and SEM, and learning to use the petrographic microscope. Throughout the quarter, a strong emphasis is placed on the importance of hand-sample identification. Field work, traditionally not emphasized in mineralogy courses, has been re-introduced to the curriculum. I use modern technology to facilitate and support student learning. A lecture-based approach is employed with carefully crafted and organized PowerPoint presentations. PowerPoint lectures can be effective and highly engaging. The key is to ensure that the lectures are not overly reliant on text, instead relying on diagrams, charts, photos, and embedded media such as 3-D animations (ex. to teach

  5. Applied Mineralogy: A Critical Review and 5-Year Plan for Its Strategic Use within Teck

    OpenAIRE

    Nichola Ann McKay

    2015-01-01

    A strategic business case analysis and five-year plan are presented here for the Teck Applied Mineralogy group in Trail, British Columbia. Applied mineralogy is a key technical competency for Teck Resources that adds value in the fields of process mineralogy supporting optimization at the mining operations, and in ore characterization supporting evaluation of greenfield and brownfield properties. This 2016-2020 business plan for the applied mineralogy group is cognisant of the current mining ...

  6. COOLING METHOD OF SILUMINA CASTINGS AK15M3 AT VERTICAL CENTRIFUGAL CASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Stecenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The way of cooling of castings from silumin AK15M3 is developed at the vertical centrifugal casting, enabling to receive bimetallic blanks with high-disperse eutectic and hypereutectic microstructures and minimal allowance for machining.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of the Novel Leech Symbiont Mucinivorans hirudinis M3T

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Michael C.; Bomar, Lindsey; Graf, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Mucinivorans hirudinis M3T was isolated from the digestive tract of the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, and is the type species of a new genus within the Rikenellaceae. Here, we report the complete annotated genome sequence of this bacterium.

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of the Novel Leech Symbiont Mucinivorans hirudinis M3T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael C; Bomar, Lindsey; Graf, Joerg

    2015-02-05

    Mucinivorans hirudinis M3(T) was isolated from the digestive tract of the medicinal leech, Hirudo verbana, and is the type species of a new genus within the Rikenellaceae. Here, we report the complete annotated genome sequence of this bacterium.

  9. CONTRAST IN CLAY MINERALOGY AND THEIR EFFECT ON ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a

    Petroleum Operations Department, Ministry of Mines and Energy, P.O. Box 486, Kotebe ... mineralogy impact on porosity permeability and other reservoir ..... iron is present as ferric oxides and enters into the crystal lattice of the clay or makes ...

  10. Mineralogy and geochemistry of density-separated Greek lignite fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iordanidis, A.; Doesburg, van J.D.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, lignite samples were collected from the Ptolemais region, northern Greece, homogenized, crushed to less than I nun, and separated in three density fractions using heavy media. The mineralogical investigation of the density fractions showed a predominance of pyrite in the light fractio

  11. Mineralogy and geochemistry of bauxite and bentonite deposits from Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dos Muchangos, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    Results of mineralogical and geochemical studies of bauxites, kaolinitic clays and bentoniteS from Mozambique are presented in this thesis. The bauxite and kaolinitic clay deposits in Penhalonga area (in the central western part of Mozambique) are associated with Precambrian magmatic rocks and the b

  12. Mineralogical Results from the Mars Science Laboratory Rover Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, David Frederick.

    2017-01-01

    NASA's CheMin instrument, the first X-ray Diffractometer flown in space, has been operating on Mars for nearly five years. CheMin was first to establish the quantitative mineralogy of the Mars global soil (1). The instrument was next used to determine the mineralogy of a 3.7 billion year old lacustrine mudstone, a result that, together with findings from other instruments on the MSL Curiosity rover, documented the first habitable environment found on another planet (2). The mineralogy of this mudstone from an ancient playa lake was also used to derive the maximum concentration of CO2 in the early Mars atmosphere, a surprisingly low value that calls into question the current theory that CO2 greenhouse warming was responsible for the warm and wet environment of early Mars. CheMin later identified the mineral tridymite, indicative of silica-rich volcanism, in mudstones of the Murray formation on Mt. Sharp. This discovery challenges the paradigm of Mars as a basaltic planet and ushers in a new chapter of comparative terrestrial planetology (3). CheMin is now being used to systematically sample the sedimentary layers that comprise the lower strata of Mt. Sharp, a 5,000 meter sequence of sedimentary rock laid down in what was once a crater lake, characterizing isochemical sediments that through their changing mineralogy, document the oxidation and drying out of the Mars in early Hesperian time.

  13. Mineralogy and geochemistry of bauxite and bentonite deposits from Mozambique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dos Muchangos, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    Results of mineralogical and geochemical studies of bauxites, kaolinitic clays and bentoniteS from Mozambique are presented in this thesis. The bauxite and kaolinitic clay deposits in Penhalonga area (in the central western part of Mozambique) are associated with Precambrian magmatic rocks and the b

  14. Mineralogical and geochemical study of mud volcanoes in north ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    Key word: Mud volcano, clay mineralogy, geochemistry, mud breccias, North Moroccan Atlantic margin. INTRODUCTION .... The geochemical analysis of the metals shows a high Ti ..... smectite evolved into an illite, or because the initial source is not .... Pinheiro LM, Kopf A, Boetius A (2006): Microbial methane turnover at.

  15. Clay mineralogy of the mud banks of Cochin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, R.R.; Murty, P.S.N.

    The mineralogy of the sediments constituting the mud banks formed off Cochin, Kerala, India was studied. The clay mineral composition was used as a means of understanding the nature and source of origin of the muds. Fine fraction of the mud samples...

  16. Environmental factors of urinary stones mineralogy, Khouzestan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarasvandi, Alireza; Carranza, E. J. M.; Heidari, Majid; Mousapour, Esmaeil

    2014-09-01

    Urinary stone diseases in the Khouzestan province (southwest Iran) are growing in number and it required extensive studies on various factors of the urinary stones formation in this province. In this research, in addition to distribution of urinary stones in different areas of province, the role of bioenvironmental (race), climate (temperature) and geology (water hardness) factors in urinary stones diversity has been studied. Mineralogical studied using X-ray diffraction showed that uricite and whewellite are the most frequency mineral phases. Struvite, Cystine, hydroxyapatite, weddellite, and Niahite can be observed as urinary stones, too. These data show that the urinary stone in the Khouzestan province can divide into 7 groups: calcium oxalate, phosphate, calcium oxalate/ phosphate, Urate, Urate/calcium, Urate/calcium oxalate/phosphate, Cystine/calcium oxalate. Also the results which attained from temperature effect investigation on the mineralogy of urinary stones, confirms that from Mediterranean sub-humid climates (northeastern area) to warm and dry climates (south and southwest area), calcium oxalate stones and urate stones concentration decreases and increases respectively. Comparison of data related to the drinking water hardness and mineralogy of urinary stones in different areas of Khouzestan province show that the combination of drinking water (especially water hardness) affects mineralogy of urinary stones in some areas (such az Ramhormoz and Hendijan). Finally, the data suggest that frequency of calcium oxalate in women is more than that of men. Moreover, there is direct relationship between the age (>45 years) and the increase in frequency of Urate minerals.

  17. Models as an Aid to Courses in Crystallography and Mineralogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, K. T.

    1983-01-01

    Three models used in teaching crystallography/mineralogy at the University of Technology (Papua, New Guinea) are described. These include stereographic projection model, optical indicatrix models for Istropic/Anisotropic minerals, and model showing effect of anisotropic minerals under crossed polars. Photographs of the models are also included.…

  18. Mineralogy and geochemistry of density-separated Greek lignite fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iordanidis, A.; Doesburg, van J.D.J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, lignite samples were collected from the Ptolemais region, northern Greece, homogenized, crushed to less than I nun, and separated in three density fractions using heavy media. The mineralogical investigation of the density fractions showed a predominance of pyrite in the light fractio

  19. Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Images for the website main pages and all configurations. The upload and access points for the other images are: Website Template RSW images BSCW Images HIRENASD...

  20. Posttranslational modifications of human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor: zooming in its functional implications

    OpenAIRE

    Romero Fernández, Wilber

    2011-01-01

    The human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R) regulates many important physiological roles in the central and peripheral nervous systems, and it is involved in the pathophysiology of several neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases, representing attractive potential pharmacological target for intervention. However, the lack of structural information on this receptor hampered the development of new potent antagonist with increased selectivity and lower side effects. Such structural inf...

  1. M3B: A coarse grain model for the simulation of oligosaccharides and their water mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddard, William A.; Cagin, Tahir; Molinero, Valeria

    2003-03-01

    Water and sugar dynamics in concentrated carbohydrate solutions is of utmost importance in food and pharmaceutical technology. Water diffusion in concentrated sugar mixtures can be slowed down many orders of magnitude with respect to bulk water [1], making extremely expensive the simulation of these systems with atomistic detail for the required time-scales. We present a coarse grain model (M3B) for malto-oligosaccharides and their water mixtures. M3B speeds up molecular dynamics simulations about 500-1000 times with respect to the atomistic model while retaining enough detail to be mapped back to the atomistic structures with low uncertainty in the positions. The former characteristic allows the study of water and carbohydrate dynamics in supercooled and polydisperse mixtures with characteristic time scales above the nanosecond. The latter makes M3B well suited for combined atomistic-mesoscale simulations. We present the parameterization of M3B force field for water and a family of technologically relevant glucose oligosaccharides, the alpha-(1->4) glucans. The coarse grain force field is completely parameterized from atomistic simulations to reproduce the density, cohesive energy and structural parameters of amorphous sugars. We will show that M3B is capable to describe the helical character of the higher oligosaccharides, and that the water structure in low moisture mixtures shows the same features obtained with the atomistic and M3B models. [1] R Parker, SG Ring: Carbohydr. Res. 273 (1995) 147-55.

  2. New M+, M3+-arsenates – the framework structures of AgM3+(HAsO42 (M3+ = Al, Ga and M+GaAs2O7 (M+ = Na, Ag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Schwendtner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structures of hydrothermally synthesized silver(I aluminium bis[hydrogen arsenate(V], AgAl(HAsO42, silver(I gallium bis[hydrogen arsenate(V], AgGa(HAsO42, silver gallium diarsenate(V, AgGaAs2O7, and sodium gallium diarsenate(V, NaGaAs2O7, were determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data collected at room temperature. The first two compounds are representatives of the MCV-3 structure type known for KSc(HAsO42, which is characterized by a three-dimensional anionic framework of corner-sharing alternating M3+O6 octahedra (M = Al, Ga and singly protonated AsO4 tetrahedra. Intersecting channels parallel to [101] and [110] host the Ag+ cations, which are positionally disordered in the Ga compound, but not in the Al compound. The hydrogen bonds are relatively strong, with O...O donor–acceptor distances of 2.6262 (17 and 2.6240 (19 Å for the Al and Ga compounds, respectively. The two diarsenate compounds are representatives of the NaAlAs2O7 structure type, characterized by an anionic framework topology built of M3+O6 octahedra (M = Al, Ga sharing corners with diarsenate groups, and M+ cations (M = Ag hosted in the voids of the framework. Both structures are characterized by a staggered conformation of the As2O7 groups.

  3. THEMIS analysis of Olympus Mons' mineralogical makeup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, N. D.

    2016-12-01

    Olympus Mons is the largest shield volcano in our known solar system. In previous studies, the composition of the basaltic lava flows on Olympus Mons was shown to be similar to the composition of those lava flows of Earth's shield volcanoes. It has been suggested that basalt located near volcanoes contained bacteria living below the surface of the Earth. In this pilot study, the effect of Olympus Mons' aspect (i.e. north- vs. south-facing slope) on its mineral composition was examined. Imagery from Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS), onboard the 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft, were used because Olympus Mons' size and surface roughness hinder rover exploration. After removing transmission errors and performing an atmospheric correction, the THEMIS images were ready to be analyzed via a mineral spectral library. Using Arizona State University's Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) derived mineral spectral library, the images were classified in ENVI. These classifications were verified using ASU's GIS tool, Java Mission-planning and Analysis for Remote Sensing (JMARS) and TES. Results show a significant amount of silicates located throughout the sampled areas of Olympus Mons. The results also show differences in the mineral composition and in the geological features on Olympus Mons' surface. The minerals vanadinite and halloysite were shown to be prevalent on the sampled southern portions of Olympus Mons, but were sparse on the sampled northern portions. Previous studies suggested that the mineral ilmenite, which this study found in high concentrations on the sampled northern portions of Olympus Mons, might serve as a food source for iron-oxidizing and iron-scavenging bacteria. Future research should focus on better understanding these concentrations on Olympus Mons to see if these minerals play a role in the potential bacterial presence on Olympus Mons.

  4. 3 800 m3耙吸挖泥船的HVAC设计%HVAC design for a 3 800 m3 trailing suction dredger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴菁; 赵骊; 陈维茂

    2007-01-01

    挖泥船的需求量与日俱增,逐渐形成系列船型.通过介绍3 800 m3耙吸挖泥船的HVAC设计系统,与以往挖泥船型比较,以及用户的评价,指出该船的空调系统设计思想和方法上的优点,为后续船提供了有益的参考.

  5. Muscarinic M3 receptors on structural cells regulate cigarette smoke-induced neutrophilic airway inflammation in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kistemaker, Loes E.M.; van Os, Ronald P.; Dethmers-Ausema, Albertina; Bos, I. Sophie T.; Hylkema, Machteld N.; van den Berge, Maarten; Hiemstra, Pieter S; Wess, Jürgen; Meurs, Herman; Kerstjens, Huib A.M.; Gosens, Reinoud

    2015-01-01

    Anticholinergics, blocking the muscarinic M-3 receptor, are effective bronchodilators for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Recent evidence from M-3 receptor-deficient mice (M3R-/-) indicates that M-3 receptors also regulate neutrophilic inflammation in response to cigarette smoke

  6. Design of USB smart card reader based on Cortex-M3%基于Cortex-M3的智能卡USB读卡器设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬霞; 张雪庆

    2010-01-01

    为了提高智能卡系统的通信速度和中断响应速度,设计了基于Cortex-M3和USB接口的智能卡读卡器系统.设计中采用具有ARM Cortex-M3内核的STM32F103R6T6等芯片进行相关的硬件设计,分别使用Keil和Visual C++6.0进行读卡器固件子系统程序和PC端子系统驱动程序开发,在此基础上,专门设计了测试程序用于测试系统的正确性和有效性.实验结果表明,该智能卡读卡器系统可实现计算机与智能卡的准确,高效通信.

  7. Renovation of stirring system in 300m3 L-lysine fermentor%300m3赖氨酸发酵罐搅拌系统改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王远海

    2012-01-01

    以加强传质混合为目的提出300m3赖氨酸发酵罐搅拌系统改造方案,采用计算流体力学(CFD)数值模拟方法分析了搅拌系统轴功率、流型、传质混合能力,成功指导了搅拌系统改造,在电流增大的情况下,平均单罐产量提高2.44t,平均糖酸转化率提高约1个百分点.%To strengthen mass transfer and mixing for purpose, the reform scheme of stirring system in 300m3 L-lysine fermentor was proposed, CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) numerical simulation was used in analysing shaft power, flow pattern, mass transfer mixing ability of the stirring system, when current increased, the fermentation yield and L-lysine acid conversion rate of sugar was 2.44t and about 1% higher than the fermentor which not renovated.

  8. M3-receptor activation counteracts opioid-mediated apneusis, but the apneusis per se is not necessarily related to an impaired M3 mechanism in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Yuka; Haji, Akira

    2011-11-07

    Morphine slows the respiratory cycle due to a predominant prolongation of inspiration (apneusis) by postponing the spontaneous termination of inspiration (inspiratory off-switching). The present study investigates whether the morphine-induced apneusis results from impairment of cholinergic mechanisms in the central respiratory network. The efferent discharge was recorded from the phrenic nerve in artificially ventilated and anesthetized rats with vagotomy. All drugs were injected intravenously. The phrenic nerve displayed an augmenting discharge during inspiration and arrest of discharge during expiration in normal condition. Administration of morphine (0.3-10.0mg/kg) dose-dependently provoked apneusis characterized by a long-lasting, plateau inspiratory discharge of the phrenic nerve. It shortened the expiratory duration. Subsequent administration of physostigmine (0.1mg/kg) restored the morphine-induced apneusis to eupnea with a partial recovery of the augmenting inspiratory discharge. This modification of physostigmine was blocked by a non-specific muscarinic antagonist scopolamine (3.0mg/kg), leading to re-prolongation of inspiration. A similar antagonism was affected by an antagonist of M3 cholinergic receptors, 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP, 1.0 and 10.0mg/kg) but not by an antagonist of M1 cholinergic receptors, pirenzepine (1.0 and 10.0mg/kg). These results demonstrate that the activation of endogenous M3 cholinergic mechanisms counteracts the morphine-induced apneusis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The application of pentaprism scanning technology on the manufacturing of M3MP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Erhui; Hu, Haixiang; Hu, Haifei; Cole, Glen; Luo, Xiao; Ford, Virginia; Zhang, Xuejun

    2016-10-01

    The PSS (pentaprism scanning system) has advantages of simple structure, needless of reference flat, be able of on-site testing, etc, it plays an important role in large flat reflective mirror's manufacturing, especially the high accuracy testing of low order aberrations. The PSS system measures directly the slope information of the tested flat surface. Aimed at the unique requirement of M3MP, which is the prototype mirror of the tertiary mirror in TMT (Thirty Meter Telescope) project, this paper analyzed the slope distribution of low order aberrations, power and astigmatism, which is very important in the manufacturing process of M3MP. Then the sample route lines of PSS are reorganized and new data process algorism is implemented. All this work is done to improve PSS's measure sensitivity of power and astigmatism, for guiding the manufacturing process of M3MP.

  10. Muscarinic M3 receptor subtype gene expression in the human heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellgren, I; Mustafa, A; Riazi, M; Suliman, I; Sylvén, C; Adem, A

    2000-01-20

    The heart is an important target organ for cholinergic function. In this study, muscarinic receptor subtype(s) in the human heart were determined using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Our results demonstrated muscarinic receptor M2 and M3 subtype RNA in left/right atria/ventricles of donor hearts. Receptor autoradiography analysis using selective muscarinic ligands indicated an absence of M1 receptor subtype in the human heart. The level of muscarinic receptor binding in atria was two to three times greater than in ventricles. Our results suggest that muscarinic receptors in the human heart are of the M2 and M3 subtypes. This is the first report of M3 receptors in the human myocardium.

  11. Mobile Geochemistry Instrument Package Facility (MGIPF) for In Situ Mineralogical and Chemical Analysis of Planetary Surface Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingelhöfer, G.; Romstedt, J.; Henkel, H.; Michaelis, H.; Brückner, J.; D'Uston, C.

    A first order requirement for any spacecraft mission to land on a solid planetary or moon surface is instrumentation for in-situ mineralogical and chemical analysis 2 Such analysis provide data needed for primary classification and characterization of surface materials present We will discuss a mobile instrument package we have developed for in-situ investigations under harsh environmental conditions like on Mercury or Mars This Geochemistry Instrument Package Facility is a compact box also called payload cab containing three small advanced geochemistry mineralogy instruments the chemical spectrometer APXS the mineralogical M o ssbauer spectrometer MIMOS II 3 and a textural imager close-up camera The payload cab is equipped with two actuating arms with two degrees of freedom permitting precision placement of all instruments at a chosen sample This payload cab is the central part of the small rover Nanokhod which has the size of a shoebox 1 The Nanokhod rover is a tethered system with a typical operational range of sim 100 m Of course the payload cab itself can be attached by means of its arms to any deployment device of any other rover or deployment device 1 Andre Schiele Jens Romstedt Chris Lee Sabine Klinkner Rudi Rieder Ralf Gellert G o star Klingelh o fer Bodo Bernhardt Harald Michaelis The new NANOKHOD Engineeering model for extreme cold environments 8th International symposium on Artificial Intelligence Robotics and Automation in Space 5 - 9 September 2005

  12. M3 User's Manual. Version 3.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laaksoharju, Marcus (Geopoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden)); Skaarman, Erik (Abscondo Utveckling, Bromma (Sweden)); Gomez, Javier B. (Univ. of Zaragoza (Spain). Geochemical modelling Group); Gurban, Ioana (3D Terra (Canada))

    2006-07-15

    This report describes the Multivariate Mixing and Mass balance calculations (M3). This new method and computer code is developed to trace the mixing and reaction processes in the groundwater. The aim of the M3 concept is to decode the often hidden and complex information gathered in the groundwater analytical data. The manual presents shortly the theory and practice behind the M3 method. The M3 computer code is also presented and emphasis is put on the reference manual. This includes detailed reference to the M3 program's abilities and limitations, installation procedures and all functions and operations that the program can perform. It also describes sample cases of how the program is used to analyse a test data set. This guide is part of the Help Files distributed together with M3. Two accompanying reports cover other aspects: - Concepts, Methods, and Mathematical Formulation, gives a complete description of the mathematical framework of M3 and introduces concepts and methods useful for the end user. - M3 version 3.0: Verification and Validation, gathers a collection of validation and verification exercises, designed to test each part of M3 code and to build confidence in its methodology. The M3 method has been tested and modified over several years. The development work has been supported by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). The main test site for the model was the underground Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL). The examples used in this manual are from a Aespoe international groundwater modelling co-operation project where one of the tools used was M3. The M3 concept has been applied on the data from SKB's site investigation programme and in data from Canada, Japan, Jordan, Gabon and Finland. The groundwater composition is a result of mixing processes and water-rock interaction. Standard groundwater models based on thermodynamic laws may not be applicable in a normal temperature groundwater system where equilibrium with many

  13. A Discussion of the High Energy Density Primary Battery Employed in the FOTON M3 Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetti, A.; Reece, D.; Spurrett, R.; Schautz, M.; Green, K.

    2008-09-01

    In 2005, ABSL Space Products (ABSL) was contracted by QinetiQ to deliver the lithium sulfuryl chloride primary battery system for the FOTON M3 ESA (European Space Agency) mission. FOTON M3 was led by the ESA Directorate of Human Spaceflight & Exploration and carried a number of materials science, fluid physics and biology experiments as well as technology demonstration payloads. A number of the experiments required a very high energy density primary battery power source. This battery was manufactured by ABSL, and the mission was successfully completed in September 2007 following a twelve days orbiting in Low Earth Orbit (LEO).

  14. On the relationship between luminescence excitation spectra and feldspar mineralogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poolton, N.R.J.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Johnsen, O.

    1996-01-01

    Feldspar minerals can be used as naturally occurring radiation dosemeters, with dose assessment commonly using luminescence techniques. Since many feldspars contain radioactive K-40, knowledge of the mineralogy of the luminescent samples being measured is of high importance. Most feldspars contain...... more than trace amounts of highly luminescent Fe3+ impurities, and this article examines the relationship between features of the luminescence excitation spectrum of this ion with sample mineralogy. It is demonstrated that there is a near linear correspondence between the plagioclase feldspar...... groups. The results are compared with properties of the excitation spectra dose-dependent optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) in order to compare the chemical environment of the OSL donor defect, and the isolated Fe3+ centres....

  15. Polishing surgical metal pieces, granulomatosis and mineralogical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catinon, Mickaël; Chemarin, C; Roux, E; Cavalin, C; Rosental, P-A; Thivolet-Bejui, F; Vincent, M

    2016-08-01

    This report describes the case of a 44-year-old man with pulmonary nodules whose histological analysis initially suggested tuberculosis. The Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) culture was negative and a questionnaire revealed a professional activity of brushing and polishing surgical instruments without any protection for 7 years.  A mineralogical analysis by optical and electron microscopy was performed on both a healthy lung tissue biopsy and a lung nodule in a paraffin block. Electron microscopy analysis revealed the presence of metal particles (iron oxide, titanium oxide, aluminum oxide and steel) in both samples. This study suggests that mineralogical analysis combined with a questionnaire on dust exposure could help redirect the diagnosis of a dust-related disease.

  16. 1500 m3立式圆筒形煤仓有限元计算%Finite Element Calculation of 1 500 m3 Vertical Cylindrical Bunker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪志福; 陶保林; 孙文红

    2015-01-01

    Large cylindrical bunker is widely used in oil fired steam injection station project.An analysis of stress strength for the design of a 1 500 m3 vertical cylindrical bunker is given.A large general finite element software ANSYS is used to establish a actual size of the finite element nu-merical model,which connected with a coal bunker tank top,tank walls,bearing,cone bottom, consistent with steel support columns,using powerful border simulation and all kinds of applied load function,in a state filled with water + wind + snow + load cases,to calculate and check the various structural parts of coal bunker.The calculated results show that it has sufficient safe-ty margin and reliability.%大型圆筒式煤仓在油田燃煤注汽站工程中应用广泛,对某1500 m3立式圆筒形煤仓进行了应力强度分析。运用有限元软件 ANSYS 建立了与煤仓罐顶、罐壁、支座连接、锥底、支撑钢架以及立柱实际尺寸相一致的有限元数值计算模型,利用软件的边界模拟和各种荷载施加功能,针对煤仓各结构部分,在充水状态+风载荷+雪载荷+地震载荷工况下进行了应力计算和校核,结果表明,此煤仓具有足够的安全裕度及可靠性。

  17. Mineralogy and cooling history of magnesian lunar granulite 67415

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Masamichi

    1993-01-01

    Apollo granulite 67415 was investigated by mineralogical techniques to gain better understanding of cooling histories of lunar granulities. Cooling rates were estimated from chemical zoning of olivines in magnesian granulitic clasts by computer simulation of diffusion processes. The cooling rate of 10 deg C/yr obtained is compatible with a model of the granulite formation, in which the impact deposit was cooled from high temperature or annealed, at the depth of about 25 m beneath the surface.

  18. Fracture mineralogy of the Forsmark site. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, Bjoern (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Goeteborg (Sweden)); Tullborg, Eva-Lena (Terralogica AB, Graabo (Sweden)); Smellie, John (Conterra AB, Luleaa (Sweden)); MacKenzie, Angus B. (SUERC, Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, East Kilbride (United Kingdom)); Suksi, Juhani (Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland))

    2008-08-15

    Detailed investigations of the fracture mineralogy and altered wall rock have been carried out as part of the site characterisation programme between 2003 and 2007 at Forsmark. The results have been published in a number of P-reports and in contributions to scientific journals. This report summarises and evaluates the data obtained during the detailed fracture mineralogical studies. The report includes descriptions of the identified fracture minerals and their chemical composition. A sequence of fracture mineralisations has been distinguished and provides information of the low to moderate temperature (brittle) geological and hydrogeological evolution at the site. Special focus has been paid to the chemical and stable isotopic composition of calcite to obtain palaeohydrogeological information. Chemical analyses of bulk fracture filling material have been carried out to identify possible sinks for certain elements and also to reveal the presence of minor phases rich in certain elements which have not been possible to detect by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Statistical analysis of the mineralogy in fractures outside deformation zones (i.e. within fracture domains FFM01, FFM02, FFM03 and FFM06) have been carried out concerning variation of fracture mineral distribution at depth and in different fracture domains. Uranium contents and uranium-series isotopes have been analysed on fracture coating material from hydraulically conductive fractures. Such analyses are also available from the groundwaters and the results are combined in order to reveal recent (< 1 Ma) removal/deposition of uranium in the fracture system. The redox conditions in the fracture system have been evaluated based on mineralogical and chemical indicators as well as Moessbauer analyses

  19. Mineralogical and geological study of quaternary deposits and weathering profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Gi Young; Lee, Bong Ho [Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-01-15

    Movement history of a quaternary reverse fault cutting marine terrace deposit and tertiary bentonite in the Yangnammyon, Gyoungju city was studied by the mineralogical and microtextural analysis of the fault clays and weathered terrace deposits. Two types of fault clays were identified as greenish gray before the deposition of the marine terrace deposits and reddish brown after deposition. Greenish gray fault clay is composed mostly of smectite probably powdered from bentonite showing at least two events of movement from microtextures. After the bentonite was covered by quaternary marine gravel deposits, the reverse fault was reactivated cutting marine gravel deposits to form open spaces along the fault plane which allowed the hydrological infiltration of soil particles and deposition of clays in deep subsurface. The reddish brown 'fault' clays enclosed the fragments of dark brown ultrafine varved clay, proving two events of faulting, and slicken sides bisecting reddish brown clays suggest another faulting event in the final stage. Mineralogical and microtextural analysis of the fault clay show total five events of faulting, which had not been recognized even by thorough conventional paleoseismological investigation using trench, highlighting the importance of microtextural and mineralogical analysis in paleoseismology.

  20. Martian Surface Mineralogy from Rovers with Spirit, Opportunity, and Curiosity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in 2004, NASA has landed three well-instrumented rovers on the equatorial martian surface. The Spirit rover landed in Gusev crater in early January, 2004, and the Opportunity rover landed on the opposite side of Mars at Meridian Planum 21 days later. The Curiosity rover landed in Gale crater to the west of Gusev crater in August, 2012. Both Opportunity and Curiosity are currently operational. The twin rovers Spirit and Opportunity carried Mossbauer spectrometers to determine the oxidation state of iron and its mineralogical composition. The Curiosity rover has an X-ray diffraction instrument for identification and quantification of crystalline materials including clay minerals. Instrument suites on all three rovers are capable of distinguishing primary rock-forming minerals like olivine, pyroxene and magnetite and products of aqueous alteration in including amorphous iron oxides, hematite, goethite, sulfates, and clay minerals. The oxidation state of iron ranges from that typical for unweathered rocks and soils to nearly completely oxidized (weathered) rocks and soils as products of aqueous and acid-sulfate alteration. The in situ rover mineralogy also serves as ground-truth for orbital observations, and orbital mineralogical inferences are used for evaluating and planning rover exploration.

  1. HST UV Observations of the Cores of M3 and M13

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Pecci, F F; Cacciari, C; Dorman, B; Rood, R T; Ferraro, Francesco R.; Paltrinieri, Barbara; Pecci, Flavio Fusi; Cacciari, Carla; Dorman, Ben; Rood, Robert T.

    1997-01-01

    We present preliminary results from HST/WFPC2 observations of the central regions of the of the Galactic globular clusters M13 and M3. The clusters are almost identical in most respects including chemical composition, but there are dramatic differences in both the horizontal branch (HB) and blue straggler (BSS) populations. The M13 HB has a long blue tail extending 4.5 mag in V, reaching well below the level of the main sequence turn-off. M3 has no such feature. M3 and M13 are thus an extreme case of the ``second parameter problem'' in HB morphology. Also present in the M13 HB are two gaps similar to those seen in the clusters NGC 6752 and NGC 2808. M3 has a specific frequency of BSS three times larger than that of M13. Our results imply that neither age nor cluster density, two popular second parameter candidates, are likely to be responsible for the observed differences.

  2. Experimental Conditions: SE37_S16_M3_D1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available opes SE37_S16 Blank (80% methanol) SE37_S16_M3 0mg [MassBase ID] MDLC1_43486 SE37_MS1 Metabolites extraction... with 80% methanol and analysis by LC-Orbitrap-MS SE37_DS1 Peak extraction for unlabeled data ...

  3. On the Family of Thue Equation |x3 + mx2y- (m + 3) xy2 + y3 |= k

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Jingbo; CHEN Jianhua; ZHANG Silan

    2006-01-01

    The family of cubic Thue equation which depend on two parameters | x3 + mx2 y- (m+3) xy2 + y3|=k is studied. Using rational approximation, we give a smaller upper bound of the solution of the equation, that is quite better than the present result. Moreover, we study two inequalities |x3 +mx2y- (m+3)xy2 +y3|=k≤2m+3 and |m3 +mm2y- (m+3)my2 + y3 | = k≤(2m+ 3)2 separately. Our result of upper bound make it easy to solve those inequalities by simple method of continuous fraction expansion.

  4. Magnetic properties, microstructure and mineralogical phases of technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) in urban soils: Their source identification and environmental implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shenggao; Yu, Xiuling; Chen, Yuyin

    2016-02-01

    Magnetic measurement is an effective method to determine spatial distribution and the degree of heavy metal pollution and to identify various anthropogenic sources of heavy metals. The objectives of this investigation are to characterize the magnetic properties, microstructure and mineralogical phases of technogenic magnetic particles (TMPs) in urban soils and to discuss their potential environmental implications. The TMPs are separated from the urban topsoils of Luoyang city, China. The magnetic properties, morphology, and mineral phase of TMPs are studied using mineral magnetic measurement, scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS), X-ray diffraction, and synchrotron-radiation-based microprobe. The content of TMPs in urban topsoils ranges from 0.05 to 1.95% (on average 0.32%). The magnetic susceptibility of TMPs ranges from 4559×10(-8) to 23,661×10(-8) m(3) kg(-1) (on average 13,637×10(-8) m(3) kg(-1)). Thermomagnetic and bulk X-ray diffraction analyses indicate that main magnetic minerals of TMPs are magnetite (Fe3O4) and hematite (α-Fe2O3). The morphology of TMPs observed by SEM includes three shape types: spherule, irregular-shaped, and aggregate particles. The size of spherical TMPs ranges from 30 to about 200 μm, with the largest percentage of 30-50 μm. Synchrotron-radiation-based microprobe (μ-XRF and μ-XRD) indicates that TMPs are enriched with heavy metals Pb, Cd, Zn, Cu, and Cr, which are incorporated into lattice or adsorbed on the surface of magnetite/hematite. The content of TMPs significantly relates with the Tomlinson Pollution Load Index (PLI) (R(2)=0.467), suggesting that it can be used as proxy indicator of degree of heavy metal contamination in urban soils. The magnetic properties, microstructure and mineralogical phases of TMPs can serve as the identification of pollution sources in urban soils.

  5. Divergent evolution of the M3A family of metallopeptidases in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kmiec, Beata; Teixeira, Pedro F; Murcha, Monika W; Glaser, Elzbieta

    2016-07-01

    Plants, as stationary organisms, have developed mechanisms allowing them efficient resource reallocation and a response to changing environmental conditions. One of these mechanisms is proteome remodeling via a broad peptidase network present in various cellular compartments including mitochondria and chloroplasts. The genome of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana encodes as many as 616 putative peptidase-coding genes organized in 55 peptidase families. In this study, we describe the M3A family of peptidases, which comprises four members: mitochondrial and chloroplastic oligopeptidase (OOP), cytosolic oligopeptidase (CyOP), mitochondrial octapeptidyl aminopeptidase 1 (Oct1) and plant-specific protein of M3 family (PSPM3) of unknown function. We have analyzed the evolutionary conservation of M3A peptidases across plant species and the functional specialization of the three distinct subfamilies. We found that the subfamily-containing OOP and CyOP-like peptidases, responsible for oligopeptide degradation in the endosymbiotic organelles (OOP) or in the cytosol (CyOP), are highly conserved in all kingdoms of life. The Oct1-like peptidase subfamily involved in pre-protein maturation in mitochondria is conserved in all eukaryotes, whereas the PSPM3-like protein subfamily is strictly conserved in higher plants only and is of unknown function. Specific characteristics within PSPM3 sequences, i.e. occurrence of a N-terminal transmembrane domain and amino acid changes in distal substrate-binding motif, distinguish PSPM3 proteins from other members of M3A family. We performed peptidase activity measurements to analyze the role of substrate-binding residues in the different Arabidopsis M3A paralogs. © 2016 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  6. Iron Solubility Depending on the Mineralogical Composition of Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journet, E.; Desboeufs, K.; Chevaillier, S.; Caquineau, S.

    2008-12-01

    Dust deposition in open ocean is recognised as an important supply of iron for phytoplankton community. Various previous studies have shown an extremely variable solubility (0,01-80%) and numerous factors influencing this solubility, as suspended particules concentration, chemical and photochemical atmospheric process, aerosol sources (Maholwald et al., 2005). Despite these numerous studies, any factor of influence seems to be dominant enough to enable a comprehensive parameterization of iron solubility. Recently, dissolution experiment have been conducted on pure mineral that composed dust, like illite, feldpars, smectite and iron (hydr-)oxide. This study has shown that iron solubility is extremely dependent on the mineral that is considered. Iron coming from aluminosilicates is much more soluble that iron derived from iron (hyd-)oxides (Journet et al., 2008). According to these results, dissolution experiments have been led on dust particles collected in different source areas, in West Africa, and after transport, in tropical Atlantic Ocean. These experiments show that iron solubility is very low, always under 0,6%, in agreement with others observations in these regions (e.g. Baker et al., 2006). Furthermore, from bulk mineralogical analysis of the dust samples, iron solubility in source areas seems exclusively dependent on the mineralogical composition of dust particle. The greater iron solubilities (0,3%) corresponds to dust originated from central Sahara (Algeria, Lybia, Tunisia) where smectite are abundant in comparison to the others studied area (Sahel and Western Sahara) where iron mainly comes from iron (hydr-)oxide and illite. In this case, iron solubility does not exceed 0,13%. From comparison between these results and the lab data issued from Journet et al. (2008), a parameterization to estimate iron solubility from mineralogical composition of dust has been established and validated. Far from the source, iron solubility is usually greater than dust

  7. An unpublished text of Jovellanos about mineralogy Notas inéditas de Jovellanos sobre mineralogía

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge ORDAZ GARGALLO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An unpublished manuscript of Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos about the history of mineralogy, written during his captivity in Bellver Castle (Palma de Mallorca is presented and analyzed. In this writing the importance of the chemical knowledge as a source of other branches of science and its applications in different fields of agriculture, mining and industry is considered. The author made a historical synthesis reviewing the men of science that contributed in a great extent to the advance of the chemistry and mineralogy. The text clearly supports the new contributions of Lavoisier and other supporters of experimentation as a scientific method, which agrees with Jovellanos’ ideas about the development of the «useful» sciences for the progress of the countries.Se presenta y analiza un manuscrito inédito de Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos sobre la historia de la mineralogía, que redactó durante su cautiverio en el Castillo de Bellver (Palma de Mallorca. En el escrito considera de gran importancia los conocimientos químicos como fuente de otras ramas del saber científico y sus aplicaciones en distintos ámbitos de la agricultura, minería e industria. El autor hace una síntesis histórica repasando los hombres de ciencia que en mayor medida contribuyeron al avance de la química y la mineralogía. El texto apoya claramente las nuevas aportaciones de Lavoisier y otros químicos partidarios de la experimentación como método científico, y es acorde con las ideas de Jovellanos acerca del cultivo de las ciencias «útiles» para el progreso de los pueblos.

  8. An unpublished text of Jovellanos about mineralogy Notas inéditas de Jovellanos sobre mineralogía

    OpenAIRE

    Ordaz Gargallo, Jorge; Gutiérrez Claverol, Manuel; De Lorenzo Álvarez, Elena

    2012-01-01

    An unpublished manuscript of Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos about the history of mineralogy, written during his captivity in Bellver Castle (Palma de Mallorca) is presented and analyzed. In this writing the importance of the chemical knowledge as a source of other branches of science and its applications in different fields of agriculture, mining and industry is considered. The author made a historical synthesis reviewing the men of science that contributed in a great extent to the advance of t...

  9. Residual stress in a M3:2 PM high speed steel; effect of mechanical loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, Christian; Odén, Magnus; Carstensen, Jesper V.

    2001-01-01

    X-ray lattice strains were investigated in an AISI M3:2 PM high-speed steel in the as heat treated condition and after exposure to alternating mechanical load. The volume changes during heat treatment were monitored with dilatometry. Hardened and tempered AISI M3:2 steel consists of tempered lath...... martensite and the carbides M6C,V8C7 and M23C6. In the as heat treated condition the stress state is triaxial. The primary carbides M6C and V8C7 experience a compressive state of stress. Exposure to an alternating mechanical load, changes the states of stress of V8C7 and tempered martensite, but does...... not appear to change the state of stress in M6C....

  10. The Abundance of Lithium in an AGB Star in the Globular Cluster M3 (NGC 5272)

    CERN Document Server

    Givens, R A

    2016-01-01

    A survey of red giants in the globular cluster M3 with the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5-m telescope indicated a prominent Li I 6707 $\\AA$ feature in the red giant vZ 1050. Follow-up spectroscopy with the ARC 3.5-m telescope confirmed this observation and yielded a derived abundance of A(Li)$_{NLTE}$ = 1.6 $\\pm$ 0.05. In addition, the high oxygen and low sodium abundances measured from the same spectrum suggest that vZ 1050 is a first generation cluster star. The location vZ 1050 above the horizontal branch and blueward of the red giant branch in the cluster's color-magnitude diagram places vZ 1050 on M3's asymptotic giant branch. The likely source for the enhanced lithium abundance is the Cameron-Fowler mechanism operating in vZ 1050 itself.

  11. The Abundance of Lithium in an ABG Star in the Globular Cluster M3 (NGC 5272)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Givens, R. A.; Pilachowski, C. A.

    2016-12-01

    A survey of red giants in the globular cluster M3 with the Hydra multi-object spectrograph on the WIYN 3.5 m telescope indicated a prominent Li i 6707 Å feature in the red giant vZ 1050. Followup spectroscopy with the ARC 3.5 m telescope confirmed this observation and yielded a derived abundance of A(Li)NLTE = 1.6 ± 0.05. In addition, the high oxygen and low sodium abundances measured from the same spectrum suggest that vZ 1050 is a first generation cluster star. The location of vZ 1050 above the horizontal branch and blueward of the red giant branch in the cluster’s color-magnitude diagram places vZ 1050 on M3's asymptotic giant branch. The likely source for the enhanced lithium abundance is the Cameron-Fowler mechanism operating in vZ 1050 itself.

  12. M3A system (2000–2005 – operation and maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Petihakis

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available During the Pilot Phase of the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFSPP (1998–2001 a prototype observing system (Mediterranean Moored Multi-sensor Array – M3A was designed, developed and operated in the Cretan Sea for continuous oceanographic measurements in real time. The main problems encountered were associated with biofouling, underwater and aerial communication and with the design of the surface buoy. In the second phase of the MFS project named Mediterranean Forecasting System Towards Environmental Predictions (MFSTEP (2001–2005, the aim was to solve those problems and to consolidate the M3A. During the approximately five years of operation there were 13 scheduled and 15 emergency visits with a total duration of 65 days. The acquired experience through the maintenance program proved that the continuous observation of a so important system with a relative low cost is feasible.

  13. M3MS-16OR0401086 – Report on NEAMS Workbench Support for MOOSE Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefebvre, Robert A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Langley, Brandon R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division; Thompson, Adam B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Reactor and Nuclear Systems Division

    2016-09-23

    This report summarizes the status of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) Workbench from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and the integration of the MOOSE framework. This report marks the completion of NEAMS milestone M3MS-16OR0401086. This report documents the developed infrastructure to support the MOOSE framework applications, the applications’ results, visualization status, the collaboration that facilitated this progress, and future considerations.

  14. Relativistic electrons high doses at International Space Station and Foton M2/M3 satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dachev, T. P.; Tomov, B.; Matviichuk, Yu.; Dimitrov, Pl.; Bankov, N.

    2009-12-01

    The paper presents observation of relativistic electrons. Data are collected by the Radiation Risk Radiometer-Dosimeters (R3D) B2/B3 modifications during the flights of Foton M2/M3 satellites in 2005 and 2007 as well as by the R3DE instrument at the European Technology Exposure Facility (EuTEF) on the Columbus External Payload Adaptor at the International Space Station (ISS) in the period February 20 - April 28, 2008. On the Foton M2/M3 satellites relativistic electrons are observed more frequently than on the ISS because of higher (62.8°) inclination of the orbit. At both Foton satellites the usual duration of the observations are a few minutes long. On the ISS the duration usually is about 1 min or less. The places of observations of high doses due to relativistic electrons are distributed mainly at latitudes above 50° geographic latitude in both hemispheres on Foton M2/M3 satellites. A very high maximum is found in the southern hemisphere at longitudinal range 0°-60°E. At the ISS the maximums are observed between 45° and 52° geographic latitude in both hemispheres mainly at longitudes equatorward from the magnetic poles. The measured absolute maximums of dose rates generated by relativistic electrons are found to be as follows: 304 μGy h -1 behind 1.75 g cm -2 shielding at Foton M2, 2314 μGy h -1 behind 0.71 g cm -2 shielding at Foton M3 and 19,195 μGy h -1 (Flux is 8363 cm -2 s -1) behind les than 0.4 g cm -2 shielding at ISS.

  15. New species of Triplocania Roesler with forewing M3 forked (Psocodea: 'Psocoptera': Ptiloneuridae), from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Silva Neto, Alberto Moreira; Rafael, José Albertino; Aldrete, Alfonso N García

    2014-07-16

    Four new Brazilian species of Triplocania with forewing M3 forked are described and illustrated based on male specimens, namely: Triplocania lamasi n.sp. (Mato Grosso: Brazil), Triplocania mariateresae n.sp. (Rio de Janeiro: Brazil), Triplocania newi n.sp. (Tocantins: Brazil) and Triplocania plaumanni n.sp. (Santa Catarina: Brasil). They differ from all the other species in the genus, in which the males are known, by the hypandrium and phallosome structures.

  16. A novel antiarrhythmic target-M3-R/IKM3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-fengYANG

    2004-01-01

    The total efficient rate of antiarrhythmic agents is only 30%to 60%, and the compounding problem is the lack of an effective therapy for some serious arrhythmias. Muscarinic receptors have been cloned and subdivided into the five subtypes M1, M2, M3,M4 and M5. And M2 receptors have long been believed to be the only functional subtype of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (mAChR) in the heart, although recent studies have provided

  17. A picrotoxin-specific conformational change in the glycine receptor M2-M3 loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawthorne, Rebecca; Lynch, Joseph W

    2005-10-28

    The external loop linking the M2 and M3 transmembrane domains is crucial for coupling agonist binding to channel gating in the glycine receptor chloride channel (GlyR). A substituted cysteine accessibility scan previously showed that glycine activation increased the surface accessibility of 6 contiguous residues (Arg271-Lys276) toward the N-terminal end of the homomeric alpha1 GlyR M2-M3 loop. In the present study we used a similar approach to determine whether the allosteric antagonist, picrotoxin, could impose conformational changes to this domain that cannot be induced by varying agonist concentrations alone. Picrotoxin slowed the reaction rate of a sulfhydryl-containing compound (MTSET) with A272C, S273C, and L274C. Before interpreting this as a picrotoxin-specific conformational change, it was necessary to eliminate the possibility of steric competition between picrotoxin and MTSET. Accordingly, we showed that picrotoxin and the structurally unrelated blocker, bilobalide, were both trapped in the R271C GlyR in the closed state and that a point mutation to the pore-lining Thr6' residue abolished inhibition by both compounds. We also demonstrated that the picrotoxin dissociation rate was linearly related to the channel open probability. These observations constitute a strong case for picrotoxin binding in the pore. We thus conclude that the picrotoxin-specific effects on the M2-M3 loop are mediated allosterically. This suggests that the M2-M3 loop responds differently to the occupation of different binding sites.

  18. Development, Implementation and Evaluation of an M3 Community Health Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staci Young, MS

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This paper describes the development, implementation and evaluation of an M3 community health curriculum that responds to recent changes within the health care finance and delivery system. Methods: The new curriculum was developed based on AAMC recommendations, LCME requirements, a national review of undergraduate community health curricula, and an internal review of the integration of community health concepts in M3 clerkships. Results: The M3 curriculum teaches: 1 the importance of being a community responsive physician; 2 SES factors that influence health; 3 cultural competency; and 4 the role of physicians as health educators. Student evaluations for the first twelve months of implementation indicate that students are most satisfied with presentations and less satisfied with required readings and a patient interview project. Discussion: Most students agree that at the completion of the course they understand what it means to be a community-responsive physician, and they have developed skills to help them become more community responsive. Evaluation tools need to be developed to assess if students’ behavior has changed due to course participation.

  19. Performance of 500 m3 TankCell® at Kevitsa Cu-Ni-PGM concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattsson Toni

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Outotec TankCell e500 flotation cell, with 500 m3 of efficient flotation volume, has been in operation since October 2014 at Kevitsa Cu-Ni-PGM concentrator as the first Cu rougher flotation cell. The 500 m3 flotation cell has proven to provide metallurgical superiority at very low specific power. On average the cell has recovered 71% of copper contained in the flotation feed. The cell has produced the concentrate with the Cu grade equal to 17% Cu. The typical specific power for the cell is around 0.4 kW/m3 (blower power not included. After the start-up of the cell the operating parameters have varied. The mixing speed have varied from 4.9 to 7.0 m/s and the superficial gas velocity from 0.3 to 1.5 cm/s. At various operating parameters the mixing, gas dispersion and metallurgical performance of the cell have been evaluated. In this paper a review of the hydrodynamic and metallurgical performance of the cell is presented. The paper focuses on the interactions of mixing intensity, bubble size and metallurgical performance in industrial application.

  20. Mice Lacking M1 and M3 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptors Have Impaired Odor Discrimination and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Wilson; Singh, Sanmeet; Keshav, Taj; Dewan, Ramita; Eberly, Christian; Maurer, Robert; Nunez-Parra, Alexia; Araneda, Ricardo C.

    2017-01-01

    The cholinergic system has extensive projections to the olfactory bulb (OB) where it produces a state-dependent regulation of sensory gating. Previous work has shown a prominent role of muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (mAChRs) in regulating the excitability of OB neurons, in particular the M1 receptor. Here, we examined the contribution of M1 and M3 mAChR subtypes to olfactory processing using mice with a genetic deletion of these receptors, the M1−/− and the M1/M3−/− knockout (KO) mice. Genetic ablation of the M1 and M3 mAChRs resulted in a significant deficit in odor discrimination of closely related molecules, including stereoisomers. However, the discrimination of dissimilar molecules, social odors (e.g., urine) and novel object recognition was not affected. In addition the KO mice showed impaired learning in an associative odor-learning task, learning to discriminate odors at a slower rate, indicating that both short and long-term memory is disrupted by mAChR dysfunction. Interestingly, the KO mice exhibited decreased olfactory neurogenesis at younger ages, a deficit that was not maintained in older animals. In older animals, the olfactory deficit could be restored by increasing the number of new born neurons integrated into the OB after exposing them to an olfactory enriched environment, suggesting that muscarinic modulation and adult neurogenesis could be two different mechanism used by the olfactory system to improve olfactory processing. PMID:28210219

  1. Infrared detection of the mineralogical aspects that influence the processing of calcined kaolin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groenheide, Stefan; Guatame-Garcia, Adriana; Buxton, Mike; van der Werff, Harald

    2017-04-01

    Calcined kaolin is an industrial minerals product used in the production of paper, paint, rubber and other specialty applications. It is produced from kaolinite through a series of refinement steps and final calcination at temperatures of above 900°C, with the aim of generating a whiter and more abrasive material. The raw kaolin ore is a mixture of clay minerals, quartz and feldspars, where kaolinite is the main constituent. The optimal kaolin ores to feed the processing plant should ideally have high kaolinite abundance, be free in Fe-bearing mineralogy (to avoid influence in the colour of the product), and the kaolinite itself should be of high crystallinity (to ensure the correct abrasiveness after calcination). This work presents a case study from the kaolin deposits in the St. Austell Granite (South-West England), which are known for their high quality and world-class size. In this area, the kaolin is of primary-hydrothermal origin, with mineral associations that are related to the genetic history. The eventual depletion of the high-quality reserves is bringing now the attention to the lower grade zones, where the amount of impurities increases. As a consequence, it is critical to developing strategies that ensure the supply of high-quality ore to the processing plant. For this, it is necessary to acquire a thorough knowledge of the ore, including relative abundance of the minerals and their textural relationships. Hyperspectral images in the visible-near infrared (VNIR) and short-wave infrared (SWIR) ranges were collected from drill cores and run-off-mine (ROM) samples, obtained from one of the kaolin pits in the St. Austell area, where the kaolin quality is known to be lower than in the rest of the deposit. A series of mineral maps were generated to assess the distribution, texture and abundance of the Fe-bearing mineralogy and the other kaolin-associated minerals, as well as the variations in the crystallinity of kaolinite. The mineral maps enabled the

  2. The detection and classification of blast cell in Leukaemia Acute Promyelocytic Leukaemia (AML M3) blood using simulated annealing and neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    W. Ismail; Hassan, R.; PAYNE, A.; Swift, S

    2011-01-01

    This paper was delivered at AIME 2011: 13th Conference on Artifical Intelligence in Medicine. This paper presents a method for the detection and classification of blast cells in M3 with others sub-types using simulated annealing and neural networks. In this paper, we increased our test result from 10 images to 20 images. We performed Hill Climbing, Simulated Annealing and Genetic Algorithms for detecting the blast cells. As a result, simulated annealing is the “best” heuristic search for d...

  3. Mineralogical Analysis of the Oppia Quadrangle of Asteroid (4) Vesta: Evidence for Occurrence of Moderate-Reflectance Hydrated Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosi, F.; Frigeri, A.; Combe, J.-Ph.; Zambon, F.; De Sanctis, M. C.; Ammannito, E.; Longobardo, A.; Hoffmann, M.; Nathues, A.; Garry, W. B.; Blewett, D. T.; Pieters, C. M.; Palomba, E.; Stephan, K.; McFadden, L. A.; McSween, H. Y.; Russell, C. T.; Raymond, C. A.

    2015-01-01

    Quadrangle Av-10 'Oppia' is one of five quadrangles that cover the equatorial region of asteroid (4) Vesta. This quadrangle is notable for the broad, spectrally distinct ejecta that extend south of the Oppia crater. These ejecta exhibit the steepest ('reddest') visible spectral slope observed across the asteroid and have distinct color properties as seen in multispectral composite images. Compared to previous works that focused on the composition and nature of unusual ('orange') ejecta found on Vesta, here we take into account a broader area that includes several features of interest, with an emphasis on mineralogy as inferred from data obtained by Dawn's Visible InfraRed mapping spectrometer (VIR). Our analysis shows that the older northern and northeastern part of Av-10 is dominated by howardite-like material, while the younger southwestern part, including Oppia and its ejecta blanket, has a markedly eucritic mineralogy. The association of the mineralogical information with the geologic and topographic contexts allows for the establishment of relationships between the age of the main formations observed in this quadrangle and their composition. A major point of interest in the Oppia quadrangle is the spectral signature of hydrous material seen at the local scale. This material can be mapped by using high-resolution VIR data, combined with multispectral image products from the Dawn Framing Camera (FC) so as to enable a clear correlation with specific geologic features. Hydrated mineral phases studied previously on Vesta generally correlate with low-albedo material delivered by carbonaceous asteroids. However, our analysis shows that the strongest OH signature in Av-10 is found in a unit west of Oppia, previously mapped as 'light mantle material' and showing moderate reflectance and a red visible slope. With the available data we cannot yet assess the presence of water in this material. However, we offer a possible explanation for its origin.

  4. Mineralogy of dust deposited during the Harmattan season in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Changling; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik; Awadzi, Theodore W.

    2007-01-01

    In Ghana, a dust-laden Harmattan wind blows from the Sahara in the period November to March. Some of the dust is trapped in the vegetation, in lakes and other inland waters, and a little on the bare land, whereas the rest of the dust is blown further away to the Ivory Coast or out into the Atlantic....... This conclusion is supported by the clay mineralogy of the samples. However, the pH of the dust is significantly higher than that of the local soils, indicating that a substantial amount of the dust comes from the Sahara....

  5. Iron mineralogy across the oxycline of a lignite mine lake

    OpenAIRE

    Miot, Jennyfer; Lu, Shipeng; Morin, Guillaume; Adra, Areej,; Benzerara, Karim; Küsel, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Iron-rich pelagic aggregates of microbial origin named “iron snow” are formed in the water column of some acidic lignite mine lakes. We investigated the evolution of Fe mineralogy across the oxycline of the Lusatian lake 77, Germany at two sampling sites differing by their pH and mixing profiles. The central basin (CB) of this lake shows a dimictic water regime with a non-permanent anoxic deep layer and a homogeneous acidic pH all over the water column (pH 3). In contr...

  6. Mineralogy and geochemistry of atmospheric particulates in western Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmady-Birgani, Hesam; Mirnejad, Hassan; Feiznia, Sadat; McQueen, Ken G.

    2015-10-01

    This study investigates the mineralogy and physico-chemical properties of atmospheric particulates collected at Abadan (southwestern Iran) near the Persian Gulf coast and Urmia (northwestern Iran) during ambient and dust events over 6 months (winter 2011; spring 2012). Particle sizes collected were: TSP (total suspended particulates); PM10 (particulates Al, Mg, Na, Cl, P, S, Ca, K, Fe, Ti, and Si, mostly reflecting calcite, quartz, aluminosilicates, clays, gypsum and halite. Additionally, As, Pb, Zn, Mn, Sc, Nd, W, Ce, La, Ba and Ni were detected in TSP, PM10 and PM2.5 samples collected during dust events.

  7. Notas de mineralogía: parte II

    OpenAIRE

    Henao Vásquez, Martha

    2001-01-01

    El presente trabajo se ha realizado con el propósito de contribuir a la formación mineralógica de los estudiantes que cursan la asignatura N.5140 Mineralogía, de los programas curriculares de ingeniería de minas y metalurgia. Se sintetizan en él los rasgos característicos y descripciones particulares de las especies minerales de mayor importancia y significado, tanto económico como petrográfico, que ayudan sustancialmente en su caracterización e identificación. El modelo descriptivo que...

  8. Vasco da Gama 33000m3耙吸挖泥船

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘厚恕; 顾洁

    2001-01-01

    The 33000m3 Vasco da Gama was delivered to the owner in 2000, which is the largest trailing suction hopper dredger up to now. The vessel is designed for the following main functions: loading spoil with two side suction pipes at a depth of 45-60m; transporting the spoil at a speed of 16.Skn; dumping spoil through six pairs of bottom doors; self-discharging of spoil via floating pipeline; self-discharging of spoil through bow-jet nozzle; deep dredging at 131m with 5500kW submerged dredge pump. This paper fully described its arrangement, key dredging equipments and major design features,

  9. Deposition of CdTe films under microgravity: Foton M3 mission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benz, K.W.; Croell, A. [Freiburger Materialforschungszentrum FMF, Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet Freiburg (Germany); Zappettini, A.; Calestani, D. [CNR Parma, Instituto Materiali Speciali per Elettronica e Magnetismo IMEM, Fontani Parma (Italy); Dieguez, E. [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Fisica de Materiales; Carotenuto, L.; Bassano, E. [Telespazio Napoli, Via Gianturco 31, 80146 Napoli (Italy); Fiederle, M.

    2009-10-15

    Experiments of deposition of CdTe films have been carried out under microgravity in the Russian Foton M3 mission. The influence of gravity has been studied with these experiments and compared to the results of simulations. The measured deposition rate could be confirmed by the theoretical results for lower temperatures. For higher temperatures the measured thickness of the deposited films was larger compared to the theoretical data. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Postpartum Diagnosis of AML-M3: A Rare Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjula Biradar

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A 27 year old female gravid 2, para 1, presented at 39 weeks of gestation with pain in abdomen going in for labour, and delivered healthy baby. The patient later had post-partum haemorrhage with Prothrombin Time (PT 10min, platelet count 70,000 cells/cumm. Peripheral smear showed shift to left with myeloblasts, promyelocytes. The diagnosis of Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML was given and advised for bone marrow examination. The diagnosis AML-M3 was confirmed by marrow study. Unfortunately, patient went in for Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC and died 2 days after the diagnosis.

  11. Forsmark Site: M3 modelling and 2D visualisation of the hydrochemical parameters in Forsmark groundwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurban, Ioana (3D Terra (Canada))

    2008-08-15

    This work represents the stage 2.3 of the hydrochemical evaluation and modelling of the Forsmark data. This comprises M3 modelling and 2D visualisation of the data along the boreholes. The following conclusions can be drawn: - M3 modelling helped to summarise and understand the data, by using as variables the major elements and the isotopes delta18O and deltaD. - Previous alternative models and the experience from Forsmark 1.2, 2.1 and 2.2, helped to clarify different previously unsolved issues such as: the use of variables, tests with different endmembers, the use of only groundwater data in order to build a bedrock hydrochemical model. - The visualisation of the mixing proportions along the boreholes helps to understand the distribution of the data in the domain and to check and compare the results of different models; and therefore to chose the model which best describes the measured data. - The different M3 modelling tests resulted in the following conclusions: a) When calculating mixing proportions only samples from the boreholes will be used, b) the altered meteoric end-member which best describes the more shallow groundwater compositions is defined by a representative upper bedrock sample; the Littorina end-member employed the existing modelled compositions; the Deep saline and glacial end-members compositions were tested by means of a feasibility study and employed in the modelling. - Three models were presented. All the models are good and can be used, but the best is to use the one that fits the conceptual model best and the hydrogeochemical understanding. - The use of Littorina, Glacial, Deep Saline and Altered Meteoric end-members makes possible the comparison of different sites such as Laxemar and Forsmark. - All the data used in the M3 modelling and the results of the modelling and visualisation along the boreholes are presented in SKB database SIMON. - The extended data do not affect the results of the modelling of the Forsmark 2.3 dataset (the

  12. Coupling among Microbial Communities, Biogeochemistry, and Mineralogy across Biogeochemical Facies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegen, James C.; Konopka, Allan; McKinely, Jim; Murray, Christopher J.; Lin, Xueju; Miller, Micah D.; Kennedy, David W.; Miller, Erin A.; Resch, Charles T.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2016-07-29

    Physical properties of sediments are commonly used to define subsurface lithofacies and these same physical properties influence subsurface microbial communities. This suggests an (unexploited) opportunity to use the spatial distribution of facies to predict spatial variation in biogeochemically relevant microbial attributes. Here, we characterize three biogeochemical facies—oxidized, reduced, and transition—within one lithofacies and elucidate relationships among facies features and microbial community biomass, diversity, and community composition. Consistent with previous observations of biogeochemical hotspots at environmental transition zones, we find elevated biomass within a biogeochemical facies that occurred at the transition between oxidized and reduced biogeochemical facies. Microbial diversity—the number of microbial taxa—was lower within the reduced facies and was well-explained by a combination of pH and mineralogy. Null modeling revealed that microbial community composition was influenced by ecological selection imposed by redox state and mineralogy, possibly due to effects on nutrient availability or transport. As an illustrative case, we predict microbial biomass concentration across a three-dimensional spatial domain by coupling the spatial distribution of subsurface biogeochemical facies with biomass-facies relationships revealed here. We expect that merging such an approach with hydro-biogeochemical models will provide important constraints on simulated dynamics, thereby reducing uncertainty in model predictions.

  13. Preliminary description of small block mineralogical features, data report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glassley, W., LLNL

    1998-02-03

    The large block heater test, to be conducted at Fran Ridge (Lin et al., 1994), is designed to provide a database with which to test codes that simulate hydrological, geochemical, and geomechanical processes that may occur within the repository block. The geochemical processes that may occur include rock-water interaction within the matrix of fracture bounded blocks, and with the minerals that line fractures (see, for example, Buscheck and Nitao, 1992,1993ab, 1994; Glassley, 1993). As a first step in evaluating these interactions, characterization of the fractures, and of the matrix that is adjacent to those fractures, must be completed Characterization of the fractures and matrix before the large block test is started will allow a `baseline` set of data to be collected that will describe the properties of the large block prior to the test. After the test is completed, the block will be dismembered and characterization of the matrix and fractures will be repeated. Changes in matrix and fracture mineralogies will allow documentation of the mineralogical consequences of rock-water interaction resulting from heating of tuff under the conditions of the test.

  14. Mineralogical, chemical and toxicological characterization of urban air particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čupr, Pavel; Flegrová, Zuzana; Franců, Juraj; Landlová, Linda; Klánová, Jana

    2013-04-01

    Systematic characterization of morphological, mineralogical, chemical and toxicological properties of various size fractions of the atmospheric particulate matter was a main focus of this study together with an assessment of the human health risks they pose. Even though near-ground atmospheric aerosols have been a subject of intensive research in recent years, data integrating chemical composition of particles and health risks are still scarce and the particle size aspect has not been properly addressed yet. Filling this gap, however, is necessary for reliable risk assessment. A high volume ambient air sampler equipped with a multi-stage cascade impactor was used for size specific particle collection, and all 6 fractions were a subject of detailed characterization of chemical (PAHs) and mineralogical composition of the particles, their mass size distribution and genotoxic potential of organic extracts. Finally, the risk level for inhalation exposure associated to the carcinogenic character of the studied PAHs has been assessed. The finest fraction (<0.45 μm) exhibited the highest mass, highest active surface, highest amount of associated PAHs and also highest direct and indirect genotoxic potentials in our model air sample. Risk assessment of inhalation scenario indicates the significant cancer risk values in PM 1.5 size fraction. This presented new approach proved to be a useful tool for human health risk assessment in the areas with significant levels of air dust concentration.

  15. Mineralogy and stable isotope geochemistry of hydrothermally altered oceanic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stakes, D.S.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Mineralogical and isotopic variations observed in altered glassy and crystalline rocks from the East Pacific Rise and the Mid-Atlantic Ridge provide information about the temperatures of alteration and seawater/rock ratios for various hydrothermal regimes within the oceanic crust. A systematic increase in alteration temperature is evident for the glassy rocks in the sequence: (1) nontronite and celadonite vesicle fillings (35??C), (2) saponite-rich pillow breccias (130-170??C), (3) calcite-rich greenstone breccias and epidote-rich greenstone (200-350??C). These results include the highest temperatures thus far reported for saponite formation. The "seawater-dominated" hydrothermal alteration process that formed the saponite-rich pillow breccias is characterized by high water/rock ratios (>50:1), low to moderate temperatures, a seawater origin of most of the carbon in vein calcites (??13 C ??? 0) and the predominance of Fe-rich saponite and calcite as secondary phases. Greenstones (chlorite-quartz-epidote) and greenstone breccias (chlorite-quartz-albite-calcite) are altered in a "rock-dominated" system with lower water/rock ratios (50:1 to isotopic composition to alter the overlying glassy rocks to the observed mineralogies as well as being the source of metal-rich deposits associated with the oceanic spreading centers. ?? 1982.

  16. Temperature buffer test. Hydro-mechanical and chemical/ mineralogical characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias; Olsson, Siv; Dueck, Ann; Nilsson, Ulf; Karnland, Ola [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Kiviranta, Leena; Kumpulainen, Sirpa [BandTech Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Linden, Johan [Aabo Akademi, Aabo (Finland)

    2012-01-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modeling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aspo HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two steel heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by rings of compacted Wyoming bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report presents the hydro-mechanical and chemical/mineralogical characterization program which was launched subsequent to the dismantling operation. The main goal has been to investigate if any significant differences could be observed between material from the field experiment and the reference material. The field samples were mainly taken from Ring 4 (located at the mid-section around the lower heater), in which the temperature in the innermost part reached 155 deg C. The following hydro-mechanical properties have been determined for the material (test technique within brackets): hydraulic conductivity (swelling pressure device), swelling pressure (swelling pressure device), unconfined compression strength (mechanical press), shear strength (triaxial cell) and retention properties (jar method). The following chemical/mineralogical properties (methods within brackets) were determined: anion analysis of water leachates (IC), chemical composition (ICP/AES+MS, EGA), cation exchange capacity (CEC, Cu-trien method) and exchangeable cations (exchange with NH4, ICPAES), mineralogical composition (XRD and FTIR), element distribution and microstructure (SEM and

  17. The Mediterranean Moored Multi-sensor Array (M3A: system development and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nittis

    Full Text Available Operational forecasting of ocean circulation and marine ecosystem fluctuations requires multi-parametric real-time measurements of physical and biochemical properties. The architecture of a system that is able to provide such measurements from the upper-thermocline layers of the Mediterranean Sea is described here. The system was developed for the needs of the Mediterranean Forecasting System and incorporates state-of-the-art sensors for optical and chemical measurements in the upper 100 m and physical measurements down to 500 m. Independent moorings that communicate via hydro-acoustic modems are hosting the sensors. The satellite data transfer and the large autonomy allow for the operation of the system in any open-ocean site. The system has been in pre-operational use in the Cretan Sea since January 2000. The results of this pilot phase indicate that multi-parametric real-time observations with the M3A system are feasible, if a consistent maintenance and re-calibration program is followed. The main limitations of the present configuration of M3A are related: (a to bio-fouling that primarily affects the turbidity and secondarily affects the other optical sensors, and (b to the limited throughput of the currently used satellite communication system.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure (instruments and techniques. Oceanography: general (ocean prediction Oceanography: physical (upper ocean process

  18. HST Observations of Blue Straggler Stars in the Core of the Globular Cluster M3

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, F R; Pecci, F F; Cacciari, C; Dorman, B; Rood, R T; Buonanno, R; Corsi, C E; Burgarella, D; Laget, M

    1997-01-01

    The core of the Galactic Globular Cluster M3 (NGC 5272) has been observed with the WFPC2 through the filters F255W, F336W, F555W, and F814W. Using these observations along with a thorough reanalysis of earlier catalogs, we have produced a catalog of blue straggler stars (BSS) spanning the cluster. Earlier studies and the fainter part of our sample suffer severe selection biases. Our analysis is based on a more reliable bright global sample of 122 BSS. We confirm earlier suggestions that the radial BSS distribution in M3 is bimodal. It is strongly peaked in the center, has a clear dip 100--200" from the center, and rises again at larger radii. The observed distribution agrees with the dynamical model of Sigurdsson et al. (1994) which takes into account both star collisions and merging of primordial binaries for the origin of BSS. The observed luminosity functions of BSS in the inner and outer parts of the cluster are different. Interpreting these using the models of Bailyn & Pinsonneault (1995), we suggest...

  19. Scale-up of industrial biodiesel production to 40 m3using a liquid lipase formulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason; Nordblad, Mathias; Martel, Hannah H.

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the scale-up from an 80 L fed-batch scale to 40 m3 along with the design of a 4 m3continuous process for enzymatic biodiesel production catalysed by NS-40116 (a liquid formulation of a modified Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase). Based on the analysis of actual pilot plant...... the fed-batch and CSTR cases. Given similar operating conditions, the CSTR operation on average, has a reaction time which is 1.3 times greater than the fed-batch operation. We also showed how the process metrics can be used to quickly estimate the selling price of the enzyme. Assuming a biodiesel selling...... price of 0.6 USD/kg and a one-time use of the enzyme (0.1% (w/woil) enzyme dosage); the enzyme can then be sold for 30 USD/kg which ensures that that the enzyme cost is not more than 5% of the biodiesel revenue. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved...

  20. M3A system (2000–2005 – operation and maintenance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Petihakis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available During the pilot phase of the Mediterranean Forecasting System (MFSPP (2000 2003, a prototype observing system (Mediterranean Moored Multi-sensor Array – M3A was designed, developed and operated in the Cretan Sea for continuous oceanographic measurements in real time. The main problems encountered were associated with biofouling, underwater and aerial communication and with the design of the surface buoy. In the second phase of the MFS project named Mediterranean Forecasting System Towards Environmental Predictions (MFSTEP (2003–2005, the aim was to solve those problems and to consolidate the M3A. For the minimisation of biofouling a pilot field study was performed and the techniques of bromine solution and copper shielding were evaluated. Additionally, the oligotrophy of the Aegean Sea dictated the need to ignore factory calibrations and to perform site-specific laboratory calibrations of the sensors. This procedure was proved necessary and produced calibration coefficients that gave results comparable to the measurements obtained with the laboratory analysis method. During the approximately five years of operation, there were 13 scheduled and 15 emergency visits, with a total duration of 65 days. The acquired experience through the maintenance program proved that the continuous observation of such a very important system with a relative low cost is feasible.

  1. Machining risk of beryllium disease and sensitization with median exposures below 2 micrograms/m3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreiss, K; Mroz, M M; Newman, L S; Martyny, J; Zhen, B

    1996-07-01

    We examined the prevalence of beryllium sensitization in relation to work process and beryllium exposure measurements in a beryllia ceramics plant that had operated since 1980. We interviewed 136 employees (97.8% of the workforce), ascertained beryllium sensitization with the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation blood test, and reviewed historical industrial hygiene measurements. Of eight beryllium-sensitized employees (5.9%), six (4.4% of participating employees) had granulomatous disease on transbronchial lung biopsy. Machinists had a sensitization rate of 14.3% compared to a rate of 1.2% among other employees. Machining had significantly higher general area and breathing zone measurements than did other processes in the time period in which most beryllium-sensitized cases had started machining work. Daily weighted average (DWA) estimates of exposure for matching processes also exceeded estimates for other work processes in that time period, with a median DWA of 0.9 microgram/m3. Machining process DWAs accounted for the majority of DWAs exceeding the 2.0 micrograms/m3 OSHA standard, with 8.1% of machining DWAs above the standard. We conclude that lowering machining process-related exposures may be important to lowering risk of beryllium disease.

  2. The Connection between the Properties of Elements and Compounds; Mineralogical-Crystallochemical Classification of Elements

    OpenAIRE

    Godovikov, Alexander A.; Hariya, Yu

    1987-01-01

    The described mineralogical-crystallochemical classification bears some similar features with geochemical classification of elements. This similarity emphasizes a greater importance in conforming the vast practical data on petrology. The present classification also bears some resemblance to the technical classification of elements by Berg (1929). The similarity seems logical since the mineralogical. crystallochemical classification of elements unites them on the basis of crystallochemical sim...

  3. The colon-selective spasmolytic otilonium bromide inhibits muscarinic M3 receptor-coupled calcium signals in isolated human colonic crypts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Susanne; Hernon, James; Sharp, Paul; Johns, Neil; Addison, Sarah; Watson, Mark; Tighe, Richard; Greer, Shaun; Mackay, Jean; Rhodes, Michael; Lewis, Michael; Stebbings, William; Speakman, Chris; Evangelista, Stefano; Johnson, Ian; Williams, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Otilonium bromide (OB) is a smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Otilonium bromide has been shown to interfere with the mobilization of calcium in intestinal smooth muscle, but the effects on other intestinal tissues have not been investigated. We identified the muscarinic receptor subtype coupled to calcium signals in colonic crypt derived from the human colonic epithelium and evaluated the inhibitory effects of OB. Calcium signals were monitored by fluorescence imaging of isolated human colonic crypts and Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the cloned human muscarinic M3 receptor subtype (CHO-M3). Colonic crypt receptor expression was investigated by pharmacological and immunohistochemical techniques. The secretagogue acetylcholine (ACh) stimulated calcium mobilization from intracellular calcium stores at the base of human colonic crypts with an EC50 of 14 μM. The muscarinic receptor antagonists 4-DAMP, AF-DX 384, pirenzepine and methroctamine inhibited the ACh-induced calcium signal with the following respective IC50 (pKb) values: 0.78 nM (9.1), 69 nM (7.2), 128 nM (7.1), and 2510 nM (5.8). Immunohistochemical analyses of muscarinic receptor expression demonstrated the presence of M3 receptor subtype expression at the crypt-base. Otilonium bromide inhibited the generation of ACh-induced calcium signals in a dose dependent manner (IC50=880 nM). In CHO-M3 cells, OB inhibited calcium signals induced by ACh, but not ATP. In addition, OB did not inhibit histamine-induced colonic crypt calcium signals. The present studies have demonstrated that OB inhibited M3 receptor-coupled calcium signals in human colonic crypts and CHO-M3 cells, but not those induced by stimulation of other endogenous receptor types. We propose that the M3 receptor-coupled calcium signalling pathway is directly targeted by OB at the level of the colonic epithelium, suggestive of an anti-secretory action in IBS patients suffering with diarrhoea. PMID

  4. The colon-selective spasmolytic otilonium bromide inhibits muscarinic M(3) receptor-coupled calcium signals in isolated human colonic crypts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, Susanne; Hernon, James; Sharp, Paul; Johns, Neil; Addison, Sarah; Watson, Mark; Tighe, Richard; Greer, Shaun; Mackay, Jean; Rhodes, Michael; Lewis, Michael; Stebbings, William; Speakman, Chris; Evangelista, Stefano; Johnson, Ian; Williams, Mark

    2002-12-01

    1. Otilonium bromide (OB) is a smooth muscle relaxant used in the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome. Otilonium bromide has been shown to interfere with the mobilization of calcium in intestinal smooth muscle, but the effects on other intestinal tissues have not been investigated. We identified the muscarinic receptor subtype coupled to calcium signals in colonic crypt derived from the human colonic epithelium and evaluated the inhibitory effects of OB. 2. Calcium signals were monitored by fluorescence imaging of isolated human colonic crypts and Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing the cloned human muscarinic M(3) receptor subtype (CHO-M(3)). Colonic crypt receptor expression was investigated by pharmacological and immunohistochemical techniques. 3. The secretagogue acetylcholine (ACh) stimulated calcium mobilization from intracellular calcium stores at the base of human colonic crypts with an EC(50) of 14 micro M. The muscarinic receptor antagonists 4-DAMP, AF-DX 384, pirenzepine and methroctamine inhibited the ACh-induced calcium signal with the following respective IC(50) (pK(b)) values: 0.78 nM (9.1), 69 nM (7.2), 128 nM (7.1), and 2510 nM (5.8). 4. Immunohistochemical analyses of muscarinic receptor expression demonstrated the presence of M(3) receptor subtype expression at the crypt-base. 5. Otilonium bromide inhibited the generation of ACh-induced calcium signals in a dose dependent manner (IC(50)=880 nM). 6. In CHO-M(3) cells, OB inhibited calcium signals induced by ACh, but not ATP. In addition, OB did not inhibit histamine-induced colonic crypt calcium signals. 7. The present studies have demonstrated that OB inhibited M(3) receptor-coupled calcium signals in human colonic crypts and CHO-M(3) cells, but not those induced by stimulation of other endogenous receptor types. We propose that the M(3) receptor-coupled calcium signalling pathway is directly targeted by OB at the level of the colonic epithelium, suggestive of an anti-secretory action

  5. Comparative mineralogical characteristics of red soils from South Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Yaneva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to compare mineralogical composition of red soils, formed on marbles in South Bulgaria. We used mineralogical analysis of heavy and light mineral fraction in immersion under polarizing microscope and X-ray diffraction analysis of bulk sample and clay fraction. Three test polygons, located in South Bulgaria were examined: Petrovo, Nova Lovcha and Dobrostan, which are characterized with different latitude, altitude, and exposition. Three or more sites from each polygon were sampled and analyzed. The red soils are formed on white and gray calcite and calcite-dolomite marbles, impure silicate-rich marbles and only in one site – on marble breccias. We determined the following mineral phases in red soils: calcite, dolomite, quarts, and feldspars, mica, illite-type mica, illite, smectite, vermiculite-smectite, and kaolinite. Heavy minerals are represented by amphibole, titanite and epidote, and minor amounts of zircon, garnet, tourmaline, rutile, pyroxene, andalusite, kyanite, sillimanite and apatite. Opaque minerals are predominantly goethite and hematite. Plant tissue is abundant in light fraction from the uppermost soil horizons. Analyses of heavy mineral fraction show presence of metamorphic and igneous minerals which indicate participation of weathering products from other rock types in the nearby area. The types of heavy minerals in soils depend more on composition of parent rocks and geomorphic position than on climate type. Soils from Nova Lovcha show similar composition, but the quantity of goethite and hematite significantly increase in soil from plain. Typical high-metamorphic minerals as andalusite, kyanite and sillimanite present only in Nova Lovcha, while garnet dominates in Petrovo and opaque minerals - in Dobrostan. Red soils, formed on slopes, where erosion prevails over accumulation, contain more illite, smectite and vermiculite-smectite, and very few or no kaolinite, whereas the kaolinite is dominant in soils

  6. The WA105-3x1x1 m3 dual phase LAr-TPC demonstrator

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Sebastien

    2016-11-15

    The dual phase Liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC) is the state-of-art technology for neutrino detection thanks to its superb 3D tracking and calorimetry performance. Its main feature is the charge amplification in gas argon which provides excellent signal-to-noise ratio. Electrons produced in the liquid argon are extracted in the gas phase. Here, a readout plane based on Large Electron Multiplier detectors provides amplification of the charges before its collection onto an anode with strip readout. The charge amplification enables constructing fully homoge- nous giant LAr-TPCs with tuneable gain, excellent charge imaging performance and increased sensitivity to low energy events. Following a staged approach the WA105 collaboration is con- structing a dual phase LAr-TPC with an active volume of 3x1x1m3 that will soon be tested with cosmic rays. Its construction and operation aims to test scalable solutions for the crucial aspects of this technology: ultra high argon purity in non-evacuable tank, la...

  7. VARIABILITY STUDIES IN M3 GENERATION IN BLACKGRAM (VIGNA MUNGO (L.HEPPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M P MESHRAM

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, pure line seeds of black gram variety viz. T-9, TPU-4 and one promising genotype AKU-18 was treated with gamma irradiation (15kR, 25kR and 35kR with the objective to assess the variability in M3 generation.. Highest GCV and PCV and high estimates of heritability were recorded for the characters sprouting percentage, number of pods plant-1 and grain yield plant-1 (g. High heritability accompanied with high genetic advance was recorded for number of pods plant-1 governed by additive gene effects and therefore selection based on phenotypic performance will be useful to improve character in future.

  8. Trimble M3 1” and South Nts-362R Total Station Angle Measurement Accuracy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleniacz Grzegorz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study was to obtain information about the actual precision of angle measurements with two instruments (Trimble M3 1 "and South NTS-362R, realizable in given measurement conditions. This object is achieved by using a simplified method of testing instruments contained in the PN-ISO 17123-3 standard [1]. This is a continuation of research described in [2], carried out on the same test base, but this time in a different, less favorable field conditions. The use of the same instrument has created an opportunity to compare and analyze the measurement results. The scope of work includes the measurement and results preparation along with statistical processing of the obtained results for both instruments.

  9. Half lives of spherical proton emitters using density dependent M3Y interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Chowdhury, P R; Basu, D N

    2005-01-01

    The proton radioactivity lifetimes of spherical proton emitters from the ground and the isomeric states are calculated using the microscopic nucleon-nucleus interaction potentials. The daughter nuclei density distributions are folded with a realistic density dependent M3Y effective interaction supplemented by a zero-range pseudo-potential. The density dependence parameters of the interaction are extracted from the nuclear matter calculations. The saturation energy per nucleon used for nuclear matter calculations is determined from the co-efficient of the volume term of Bethe-Weizsacker mass formula which is evaluated by fitting the recent experimental and estimated atomic mass excesses from Audi-Wapstra-Thibault atomic mass table by minimizing the mean square deviation. The quantum mechanical tunneling probability is calculated within the WKB approximation. Spherical charge distributions are used for calculating the Coulomb interaction potentials. These calculations provide good estimates for the observed pro...

  10. Electrodialytic remediation of CCA-treated waste wood in a 2 m3 pilot plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Iben Vernegren; Pedersen, Anne Juul; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.;

    2006-01-01

    Waste wood that has been treated with chromated-copper-arsenate (CCA) poses a potential environmental problem due to the content of copper, chromium and arsenic. A pilot plant for electrodialytic remediation of up to 2 m3 wood has been designed and tested and the results are presented here. Several...... fractions. The best remediation efficiency was obtained in an experiment with an electrode distance of 60 cm, and 100 kg wood chips. In this experiment 87% copper, 81% chromium and > 95% arsenic were removed. One other experiment was also analysed for arsenic. In this experiment the distance between...... the working electrodes was 1.5 m and here 95% As was removed. The results showed that arsenic may be the easiest removable of the copper, chromium and arsenic investigated here. This is very encouraging since arsenic is the CCA components of most environmental concern....

  11. Variable Star Status of Two Stars: V204 and I-I-39 in M3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The star I-I-42 (=vZ1390), a cluster member in M3, located near the red edge of the instability strip of the horizontal branch, was discovered by Roberts and Sandage as a low amplitude variable, it was designated as V204 in the "second catalogue of variable stars in globular clusters", but its coordinates given in all versions of this catalogue are wrong since 1955. We argue that V204 is indeed a low amplitude HB variable star, located near to the red edge of the instability strip, with a period of 0.74785d and an amplitude of about 0.04 mag in V. We also find that the red cluster member star I-I-39 is a low amplitude variable with a period of 1.16d and amplitude of about 0.03 mag in V which might be pulsating at the second overtone.

  12. Modeling of lithium granule injection in NSTX using M3D-C1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fil, A.; Kolemen, E.; Ferraro, N.; Jardin, S.; Parks, P. B.; Lunsford, R.; Maingi, R.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we present simulations of pedestal control by lithium granule injection (LGI) in NSTX. A model for small granule ablation has been implemented in the M3D-C1 code (Jardin et al 2012 Comput. Sci. Discovery 5 014002), allowing the simulation of realistic lithium granule injections. 2D and 3D simulations of Li injections in NSTX H-mode plasmas are performed and the effect of granule size, injection angle and velocity on the pedestal gradient increase is studied. The amplitude of the local pressure perturbation caused by the granules is found to be highly dependent on the solid granule size. Adjusting the granule injection velocity allows one to inject more particles at the pedestal top. 3D simulations show the destabilization of high order MHD modes whose amplitude is directly linked to the localized pressure perturbation, which is found to depend on the toroidal localization of the granule density source.

  13. CH5M3D: an HTML5 program for creating 3D molecular structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Clarke W

    2013-11-18

    While a number of programs and web-based applications are available for the interactive display of 3-dimensional molecular structures, few of these provide the ability to edit these structures. For this reason, we have developed a library written in JavaScript to allow for the simple creation of web-based applications that should run on any browser capable of rendering HTML5 web pages. While our primary interest in developing this application was for educational use, it may also prove useful to researchers who want a light-weight application for viewing and editing small molecular structures. Molecular compounds are drawn on the HTML5 Canvas element, with the JavaScript code making use of standard techniques to allow display of three-dimensional structures on a two-dimensional canvas. Information about the structure (bond lengths, bond angles, and dihedral angles) can be obtained using a mouse or other pointing device. Both atoms and bonds can be added or deleted, and rotation about bonds is allowed. Routines are provided to read structures either from the web server or from the user's computer, and creation of galleries of structures can be accomplished with only a few lines of code. Documentation and examples are provided to demonstrate how users can access all of the molecular information for creation of web pages with more advanced features. A light-weight (≈ 75 kb) JavaScript library has been made available that allows for the simple creation of web pages containing interactive 3-dimensional molecular structures. Although this library is designed to create web pages, a web server is not required. Installation on a web server is straightforward and does not require any server-side modules or special permissions. The ch5m3d.js library has been released under the GNU GPL version 3 open-source license and is available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/ch5m3d/.

  14. Mineralogical data on bat guano deposits from three Romanian caves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Giurgiu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogical studies performed on crusts, nodules and earthy masses from the Romanian caves Gaura cu Muscă, Gaura Haiducească and Peștera Zidită have revealed the presence of three different phosphate associations. The minerals have been identified by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Five phosphates have been identified in the samples, with hydroxylapatite the only common mineral in all the three caves. Brushite, taranakite, leucophosphite and variscite are the other phosphates identified. Associated minerals include gypsum, calcite, quartz and illite-group minerals. Aside from differences in the lithology, the occurrences of the different phosphate minerals indicate variable pH and humidity conditions near or within the guano accumulations.

  15. Chemical and mineralogical characterizations of a copper converter slag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A copper converter slag was examined chemically and mineralogically to determine its existing phases, in particular those containing Co and Cu. The slag consists predominantly of fayalite and magnetite, together with some glass,chalcocite, and metallic copper. Copper is entrapped in the slag mostly as chalcocite and metallic copper, as well as trace copper oxide. There was no indication of any independent Co mineral in the slag, but Co was found to be enriched in fayalite and megnetite as solid solution, although Co was detected in all the phases of the slag by SEM-EDX (scanning electron microscopy equipped with model EDAX-9100 energy dispersive spectrometer) and WDS (model WDX-2A X-ray wave-length dispersive spectrometer).

  16. Roles of Mineralogical Phases in Aqueous Carbonation of Steelmaking Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huining Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Mineralogical phases of steelmaking slags have significant influences on the carbonation of the slags. In this paper, the effects of temperature and reaction time on the conversion of calcium-related phases and the carbonation degree of a slag sample were studied. The experimental conditions were a liquid-to-solid ratio of 20 mL/g, a carbon dioxide flow rate of 1 L/min and a slag particle size of 38–75 μm. The results show that the optimum carbonation temperature and reaction time are 60 °C and 90 min, respectively, and calcite phase content is about 26.78% while the conversion rates of Ca3Al2O6, CaSiO3, Ca2SiO4 and free CaO are about 40%, 42.46%, 51% and 100%, respectively, and the carbon dioxide sequestration efficiency is about 170 g/kg slag.

  17. Mineralogy and geochemistry of soils from glass houses and solariums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulgariu, Dumitru; Filipov, Feodor; Rusu, Constantin; Bulgariu, Laura

    2010-05-01

    The experimental studies have been performed on soil samples from Copou-Iaşi, Bacău and Bârlad (România) glass houses. We have specially follow the aspects concerning to the distribution of occurrence forms, composition and structure of mineral and organic components, and the genetic correlations between these in conditions of soils from glass houses, respectively. The results regarding the distribution tendencies on profile and the correlations between mineral and organic components of studied soils have been correlated with the results of microscopic, spectral (IR and Raman) and X-ray diffraction studies, and with the results of thermodynamic modelling of mineral equilibriums and dynamics of pedogenesis processes, in conditions of soils from glass houses. The utilization of intensive cultivation technologies of vegetables in glass houses determined the degradation of morphological, physical and chemical characteristics of soils, by fast evolution of salted processes (salinization and / or sodization), compaction, carbonatation, eluviation-illuviation, frangipane formation, stagnogleization, gleization, etc. Under these conditions, at depth of 30-40 cm is formed a compact and impenetrable horizon with frangipane characteristics, expresses more or less. The aspects about the formation of frangipane horizon in soils from glasshouses are not yet sufficiently know. Whatever of the formation processes, the frangipane horizons determined a sever segregation in pedo-geochemical evolution of soils from glasshouses, with very important consequences on the agrochemical quality of these soils. The soils from glass houses are characterized by a very large variability of mineralogy and chemistry, which are traduced by intense modifications of superior horizons, in many cases there are conditions for the apparition of new pedogenetic horizons through new-pedogenesis processes. Under these conditions the definition of some general characteristics of soils from glasshouses is

  18. M3RSM: Many-to-Many Multi-Resolution Scan Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Hayward St, Ann Arbor MI ebolson@umich.edu Fig. 1. Multi-resolution image pyramid . A high resolution cost function (bottom) is successively reduced in...dimension forming an image pyramid . By constructing the pyramid carefully, alignment scores computed using low-resolution levels can be used to prune the...used a two-level multi-resolution scheme in which the two levels differed in resolution by a factor of 10 [12]. In this work, we generalize this to a

  19. Mineralogical effects on the detectability of the postperovskite boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grocholski, Brent; Catalli, Krystle; Shim, Sang-Heon; Prakapenka, Vitali

    2016-03-01

    The discovery of a phase transition in Mg-silicate perovskite (Pv) to postperovskite (pPv) at lowermost mantle pressure-temperature (P - T) conditions may provide an explanation for the discontinuous increase in shear wave velocity found in some regions at a depth range of 200 to 400 km above the core-mantle boundary, hereafter the D'' discontinuity. However, recent studies on binary and ternary systems showed that reasonable contents of Fe2+ and Al for pyrolite increase the thickness (width of the mixed phase region) of the Pv - pPv boundary (400-600 km) to much larger than the D'' discontinuity (≤ 70 km). These results challenge the assignment of the D'' discontinuity to the Pv - pPv boundary in pyrolite (homogenized mantle composition). Furthermore, the mineralogy and composition of rocks that can host a detectable Pv → pPv boundary are still unknown. Here we report in situ measurements of the depths and thicknesses of the Pv → pPv transition in multiphase systems (San Carlos olivine, pyrolitic, and midocean ridge basaltic compositions) at the P - T conditions of the lowermost mantle, searching for candidate rocks with a sharp Pv - pPv discontinuity. Whereas the pyrolitic mantle may not have a seismologically detectable Pv → pPv transition due to the effect of Al, harzburgitic compositions have detectable transitions due to low Al content. In contrast, Al-rich basaltic compositions may have a detectable Pv - pPv boundary due to their distinct mineralogy. Therefore, the observation of the D'' discontinuity may be related to the Pv → pPv transition in the differentiated oceanic lithosphere materials transported to the lowermost mantle by subducting slabs.

  20. Mineralogical effects on the detectability of the postperovskite boundary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grocholski, Brent; Catalli, Krystle; Shim, Sang-Heon; Prakapenka, Vitali (UC); (MIT)

    2017-05-02

    The discovery of a phase transition in Mg-silicate perovskite (Pv) to postperovskite (pPv) at lowermost mantle pressure-temperature (P - T) conditions may provide an explanation for the discontinuous increase in shear wave velocity found in some regions at a depth range of 200 to 400 km above the core-mantle boundary, hereafter the D{double_prime} discontinuity. However, recent studies on binary and ternary systems showed that reasonable contents of Fe{sup 2+} and Al for pyrolite increase the thickness (width of the mixed phase region) of the Pv - pPv boundary (400-600 km) to much larger than the D{double_prime} discontinuity ({le} 70 km). These results challenge the assignment of the D{double_prime} discontinuity to the Pv - pPv boundary in pyrolite (homogenized mantle composition). Furthermore, the mineralogy and composition of rocks that can host a detectable Pv {yields} pPv boundary are still unknown. Here we report in situ measurements of the depths and thicknesses of the Pv {yields} pPv transition in multiphase systems (San Carlos olivine, pyrolitic, and midocean ridge basaltic compositions) at the P - T conditions of the lowermost mantle, searching for candidate rocks with a sharp Pv - pPv discontinuity. Whereas the pyrolitic mantle may not have a seismologically detectable Pv {yields} pPv transition due to the effect of Al, harzburgitic compositions have detectable transitions due to low Al content. In contrast, Al-rich basaltic compositions may have a detectable Pv - pPv boundary due to their distinct mineralogy. Therefore, the observation of the D{prime} discontinuity may be related to the Pv {yields} pPv transition in the differentiated oceanic lithosphere materials transported to the lowermost mantle by subducting slabs.

  1. Mineralogy of Selected Paddy Soils in Southeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.L.WANG; P.M.HUANG

    1997-01-01

    Limited information is available concerning the mineralogy of paddy soils in the southeastern China, Using chemical methods in conjunction with X-ray diffractometry,we studied the mineral composition of three paddy soils:Jinghua (paddy soil on Quaternary red clay),Fuyang (Hapl-percogenic loamy paddy soil),and Shaoxing(gleyic clayey paddy soil).All the soils contained quartz,mica,vermiculite,chlorite and kaolinite ,and the distribution of these minerals varied with soil prticle size fractions.The clay fraction of the Fuyang and Shaoxing soils aso contained smectite.Although X-ray data did not show the presence of smectite in the Jinghua soil,this mineral was identified by the chemical method.suggesting a transitional property of the mineral in the soil.Hydroxy-Al interlayered minerals were also present in the clay fraction.The amount of smectite in the soils was 31.6(Shaoxing),16.5(Fuyang),and 21.4(Jinghua)g kg-1;for vermiculite it was 33.3(Shaoxing),16.5(Fuyang),and 8.5(Jinghua) g kg-1,Smectite was only Found in the clay fraction,In contrast,amounts of vermiculite in soil particle size fractions were 3.0-11.4(sand), 2.1-6.0(coarse silt),4.6-18.9(medium silt),0.9-40.0(fine silt),and 17.0-108(clay)g kg-1,The amount of noncrystalline aluminosilicates in the soils in g kg-1 decreased in the order:Shaoxing(2.4)>Jinghua (1.9)>Fuyang(1.7).This study has provided useful mineralogical information that is fundamental in future development of management strategies of soils.

  2. M3 Macrophages Stop Division of Tumor Cells In Vitro and Extend Survival of Mice with Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Sergey; Lyamina, Svetlana; Manukhina, Eugenia; Malyshev, Yuri; Raetskaya, Anastasiya; Malyshev, Igor

    2017-01-26

    BACKGROUND M1 macrophages target tumor cells. However, many tumors produce anti-inflammatory cytokines, which reprogram the anti-tumor M1 macrophages into the pro-tumor M2 macrophages. We have hypothesized that the problem of pro-tumor macrophage reprogramming could be solved by using a special M3 switch phenotype. The M3 macrophages, in contrast to the M1 macrophages, should respond to anti-inflammatory cytokines by increasing production of pro-inflammatory cytokines to retain its anti-tumor properties. Objectives of the study were to form an M3 switch phenotype in vitro and to evaluate the effect of M3 macrophages on growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in vitro and in vivo. MATERIAL AND METHODS Tumor growth was initiated by an intraperitoneal injection of EAC cells into C57BL/6J mice. RESULTS 1) The M3 switch phenotype can be programed by activation of M1-reprogramming pathways with simultaneous inhibition of the M2 phenotype transcription factors, STAT3, STAT6, and/or SMAD3. 2) M3 macrophages exerted an anti-tumor effect both in vitro and in vivo, which was superior to anti-tumor effects of cisplatin or M1 macrophages. 3) The anti-tumor effect of M3 macrophages was due to their anti-proliferative effect. CONCLUSIONS Development of new biotechnologies for restriction of tumor growth using in vitro reprogrammed M3 macrophages is very promising.

  3. M3 Macrophages Stop Division of Tumor Cells In Vitro and Extend Survival of Mice with Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalish, Sergey; Lyamina, Svetlana; Manukhina, Eugenia; Malyshev, Yuri; Raetskaya, Anastasiya; Malyshev, Igor

    2017-01-01

    Background M1 macrophages target tumor cells. However, many tumors produce anti-inflammatory cytokines, which reprogram the anti-tumor M1 macrophages into the pro-tumor M2 macrophages. We have hypothesized that the problem of pro-tumor macrophage reprogramming could be solved by using a special M3 switch phenotype. The M3 macrophages, in contrast to the M1 macrophages, should respond to anti-inflammatory cytokines by increasing production of pro-inflammatory cytokines to retain its anti-tumor properties. Objectives of the study were to form an M3 switch phenotype in vitro and to evaluate the effect of M3 macrophages on growth of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in vitro and in vivo. Material/Methods Tumor growth was initiated by an intraperitoneal injection of EAC cells into C57BL/6J mice. Results 1) The M3 switch phenotype can be programed by activation of M1-reprogramming pathways with simultaneous inhibition of the M2 phenotype transcription factors, STAT3, STAT6, and/or SMAD3. 2) M3 macrophages exerted an anti-tumor effect both in vitro and in vivo, which was superior to anti-tumor effects of cisplatin or M1 macrophages. 3) The anti-tumor effect of M3 macrophages was due to their anti-proliferative effect. Conclusions Development of new biotechnologies for restriction of tumor growth using in vitro reprogrammed M3 macrophages is very promising. PMID:28123171

  4. Chemokine Binding Protein M3 of Murine Gammaherpesvirus 68 Modulates the Host Response to Infection in a Natural Host

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, David J.; Kipar, Anja; Leeming, Gail H.; Bennett, Elaine; Howarth, Deborah; Cummerson, Joanne A.; Papoula-Pereira, Rita; Flanagan, Brian F.; Sample, Jeffery T.; Stewart, James P.

    2011-01-01

    Murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) infection of Mus musculus-derived strains of mice is an attractive model of γ-herpesvirus infection. Surprisingly, however, ablation of expression of MHV-68 M3, a secreted protein with broad chemokine-binding properties in vitro, has no discernable effect during experimental infection via the respiratory tract. Here we demonstrate that M3 indeed contributes significantly to MHV-68 infection, but only in the context of a natural host, the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus). Specifically, M3 was essential for two features unique to the wood mouse: virus-dependent inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT) in the lung and highly organized secondary follicles in the spleen, both predominant sites of latency in these organs. Consequently, lack of M3 resulted in substantially reduced latency in the spleen and lung. In the absence of M3, splenic germinal centers appeared as previously described for MHV-68-infected laboratory strains of mice, further evidence that M3 is not fully functional in the established model host. Finally, analyses of M3's influence on chemokine and cytokine levels within the lungs of infected wood mice were consistent with the known chemokine-binding profile of M3, and revealed additional influences that provide further insight into its role in MHV-68 biology. PMID:21445235

  5. Chemokine binding protein M3 of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 modulates the host response to infection in a natural host.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Hughes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Murine γ-herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68 infection of Mus musculus-derived strains of mice is an attractive model of γ-herpesvirus infection. Surprisingly, however, ablation of expression of MHV-68 M3, a secreted protein with broad chemokine-binding properties in vitro, has no discernable effect during experimental infection via the respiratory tract. Here we demonstrate that M3 indeed contributes significantly to MHV-68 infection, but only in the context of a natural host, the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus. Specifically, M3 was essential for two features unique to the wood mouse: virus-dependent inducible bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (iBALT in the lung and highly organized secondary follicles in the spleen, both predominant sites of latency in these organs. Consequently, lack of M3 resulted in substantially reduced latency in the spleen and lung. In the absence of M3, splenic germinal centers appeared as previously described for MHV-68-infected laboratory strains of mice, further evidence that M3 is not fully functional in the established model host. Finally, analyses of M3's influence on chemokine and cytokine levels within the lungs of infected wood mice were consistent with the known chemokine-binding profile of M3, and revealed additional influences that provide further insight into its role in MHV-68 biology.

  6. Soluble M3 proteins of murine gammaherpesviruses 68 and 72 expressed in Escherichia coli: analysis of chemokine-binding properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matúšková, R; Pančík, P; Štibrániová, I; Belvončíková, P; Režuchová, I; Kúdelová, M

    2015-12-01

    M3 protein of murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) was identified as a viral chemokine-binding protein 3 (vCKBP-3) capable to bind a broad spectrum of chemokines and their receptors. During both acute and latent infection MHV-68 M3 protein provides a selective advantage for the virus by inhibiting the antiviral and inflammatory response. A unique mutation Asp307Gly was identified in the M3 protein of murine gammaherpesvirus 72 (MHV-72), localized near chemokine-binding domain. Study on chemokine-binding properties of MHV-72 M3 protein purified from medium of infected cells implied reduced binding to some chemokines when compared to MHV-68 M3 protein. It was suggested that the mutation in the M3 protein might be involved in the attenuation of immune response to infection with MHV-72. Recently, Escherichia coli cells were used to prepare native recombinant M3 proteins of murine gammaherpesviruses 68 and 72 (Pančík et al., 2013). In this study, we assessed the chemokine-binding properties of three M3 proteins prepared in E. coli Rosetta-gami 2 (DE3) cells, the full length M3 protein of both MHV-68 and MHV-72 and MHV-68 M3 protein truncated in the signal sequence (the first 24 aa). They all displayed binding activity to human chemokines CCL5 (RANTES), CXCL8 (IL-8), and CCL3 (MIP-1α). The truncated MHV-68 M3 protein had more than twenty times reduced binding activity to CCL5, but only about five and three times reduced binding to CXCL8 and CCL3 when compared to its full length counterpart. Binding of the full length MHV-72 M3 protein to all chemokines was reduced when compared to MHV-68 M3 protein. Its binding to CCL5 and CCL3 was reduced over ten and seven times. However, its binding to CXCL8 was only slightly reduced (64.8 vs 91.8%). These data implied the significance of the signal sequence and also of a single mutation (at aa 307) for efficient M3 protein binding to some chemokines.

  7. Fault rock mineralogy and fluid flow in the Coso Geothermal Field, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davatzes, N. C.; Hickman, S. H.

    2005-12-01

    The minerals that comprise fault rock, their grain shapes, and packing geometry are important controls on fault zone properties such as permeability, frictional strength, and slip behavior. In this study we examine the role of mineralogy and deformation microstructures on fluid flow in a fault-hosted, fracture-dominated geothermal system contained in granitic rocks in the Coso Geothermal Field, CA. Initial examination of the mineralogy and microstructure of fault rock obtained from core and surface outcrops reveals three fault rock types. (1) Fault rock consisting of kaolinite and amorphous silica that contains large connected pores, dilatant brittle fractures, and dissolution textures. (2) Fault rock consisting of foliated layers of chlorite and illite-smectite separated by slip surfaces. (3) Fault rock consisting of poorly sorted angular grains, characterized by large variations in grain packing (pore size), and crack-seal textures. These different fault rocks are respectively associated with a high permeability upper boiling zone for the geothermal system, a conductively heated "caprock" at moderate to shallow depth associated with low permeability, and a deeper convectively heated region associated with enhanced permeability. Outcrop and hand-sample scale mapping, XRD analysis, and SEM secondary electron images of fault gouge and slip surfaces at different stages of development (estimated shear strain) are used to investigate the processes responsible for the development and physical properties of these distinct fault rocks. In each type of fault rock, mineral dissolution and re-precipitation in conjunction with the amount and geometry of porosity changes induced by dilation or compaction are the key controls on fault rock development. In addition, at the contacts between slip surfaces, abrasion and resulting comminution appear to influence grain size, sorting, and packing. Macroscopically, we expect the frictional strength of these characteristic fault rocks

  8. [Imaging].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevrot, A; Drapé, J L; Godefroy, D; Dupont, A M; Pessis, E; Sarazin, L; Minoui, A

    1997-01-01

    The panoply of imaging techniques useful in podology is essentially limited to X-rays. Standard "standing" and "lying" X-rays furnish most of the required information. Arthrography is sometimes performed, in particular for trauma or tumour of the ankle. CT scan and MRI make a decisive contribution in difficult cases, notably in fractures and in small fractures without displacement. The two latter techniques are useful in tendon, ligament and muscular disorders, where echography is also informative. Rigorous analysis of radiographies and a good knowledge of foot disorders make these imaging techniques efficacious.

  9. The BIOPAN experiment MARSTOX II of the FOTON M-3 mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettberg, P.; Moeller, R.; Rabbow, E.; Panitz, C.; Horneck, G.; Meyer, C.; Lammer, H.; Douki, T.; Cadet, J.

    2008-09-01

    The experiment MARSTOX II on FOTON M-3 mission (September 14 - 26, 2007) was a further step in the study of the Responses of Organisms to the Martian Environment (ROME) which already started with first ground-based experiments in Mars simulation chambers and with the space experiment MARSTOX I, flown in 2005 in the ESA facility BIOPAN (Fig. 1) on FOTON M-2. The survivability of bacterial spores of B. subtilis, a well-characterized model system for highly resistant microorganisms, was investigated under the extreme environmental conditions as they exist on the surface of Mars. By use of exterrestrial UV radiation and cut-off filters the photoprotection and potential UV-phototoxicity of different minerals of the Martian soil were investigated.In MARSTOX II two further aspects were addressed (i) the influence of different concentrations of dust in the Martian atmosphere, which change the solar irradiance on the surface significantly compared to vacuum exposure under the same conditions (experiment parts 'DUST MARS' and 'DUST SPACE'), and (ii) the survivability of spores under martian atmosphere and pressure exposed to a mars-like spectral irradiance compared to vacuum exposure under the same conditions (experiment parts 'MIXED MARS' and 'MIXED SPACE') (Fig. 2 and 3). After exposure to space during the FOTON M-3 mission the sample analysis was performed at CEA in Grenoble, F, and at DLR in Cologne, D, together with parallel samples from the corresponding ground control experiment performed in the space simulation facilities at DLR. As biological endpoints in these investigations survival and UV-induced DNAphotoproducts were analysed.From the results of MARSTOX II the following conclusions can be drawn: (i) Spores mixed with martian soil analogue are protected only to a low degree against UV radiation. The protective effect of several defined layers of spores mixed with Martian soil analogue were quantified. (ii) The two investigated martian soil analogues, MRS07 (47

  10. CH5M3D: an HTML5 program for creating 3D molecular structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background While a number of programs and web-based applications are available for the interactive display of 3-dimensional molecular structures, few of these provide the ability to edit these structures. For this reason, we have developed a library written in JavaScript to allow for the simple creation of web-based applications that should run on any browser capable of rendering HTML5 web pages. While our primary interest in developing this application was for educational use, it may also prove useful to researchers who want a light-weight application for viewing and editing small molecular structures. Results Molecular compounds are drawn on the HTML5 Canvas element, with the JavaScript code making use of standard techniques to allow display of three-dimensional structures on a two-dimensional canvas. Information about the structure (bond lengths, bond angles, and dihedral angles) can be obtained using a mouse or other pointing device. Both atoms and bonds can be added or deleted, and rotation about bonds is allowed. Routines are provided to read structures either from the web server or from the user’s computer, and creation of galleries of structures can be accomplished with only a few lines of code. Documentation and examples are provided to demonstrate how users can access all of the molecular information for creation of web pages with more advanced features. Conclusions A light-weight (≈ 75 kb) JavaScript library has been made available that allows for the simple creation of web pages containing interactive 3-dimensional molecular structures. Although this library is designed to create web pages, a web server is not required. Installation on a web server is straightforward and does not require any server-side modules or special permissions. The ch5m3d.js library has been released under the GNU GPL version 3 open-source license and is available from http://sourceforge.net/projects/ch5m3d/. PMID:24246004

  11. Real-time monitoring of genetically modified Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during the Foton M3 space mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambreva, M.; Rea, G.; Antonacci, A.; Serafini, A.; Damasso, M.; Pastorelli, S.; Margonelli, A.; Johanningmeier, U.; Bertalan, I.; Pezzotti, G.; Giardi, M. T.

    2008-09-01

    Long-term space exploration, colonization or habitation requires biological life support systems capable to cope with the deleterious space environment. The use of oxygenic photosynthetic microrganisms is an intriguing possibility mainly for food, O2 and nutraceutical compounds production. The critical points of utilizing plants- or algae-based life support systems are the microgravity and the ionizing radiation, which can influence the performance of these organisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of space environment on the photosynthetic activity of various microrganisms and to select space stresstolerant strains. Photosystem II D1 protein sitedirected and random mutants of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [1] were used as a model system to test and select the amino acid substitutions capable to account for space stress tolerance. We focussed our studies also on the accumulation of the Photosystem II photoprotective carotenoids (the xantophylls violaxanthin, anteraxanthin and zeaxanthin), powerful antioxidants that epidemiological studies demonstrated to be human vision protectors. For this purpose some mutants modified at the level of enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of xanthophylls were included in the study [2]. To identify the consequences of the space environment on the photosynthetic apparatus the changes in the Photosystem II efficiency were monitored in real time during the ESA-Russian Foton- M3 mission in September 2007. For the space flight a high-tech, multicell fluorescence detector, Photo-II, was designed and built by the Centre for Advanced Research in Space Optics in collaboration with Kayser-Italy, Biosensor and DAS. Photo-II is an automatic device developed to measure the chlorophyll fluorescence and to provide a living conditions for several different algae strains (Fig.1). Twelve different C. reinhardti strains were analytically selected and two replications for each strain were brought to space

  12. Detection and context of hydrated mineralogy in the Tyrrhena Terra region, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Haan, J.; Zegers, T. E.; van Ruitenbeek, F. J. A.; van der Werff, H. M. A.; Rossi, A.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction The discovery of phyllosilicates on Mars [1] has had major implications on the perceived geologic and climatologic evolution of Mars [2]. Not only do phyllosilicates represent a `wet' period on Mars, they might also represent a potentially favorable environment for life. The phyllosilicates have so far exclusively been found in or close to ancient Noachian highland terrain. Those phyllosilicate deposits studied (e.g. [3]) show a clear association between hydrated mineralogy and heavily eroded and crater-saturated outcrops. Phyllosilicates on Earth are associated with a wide variety of geological processes (volcanism, metamorphism, hydrothermal alteration, sedimentation). The occurrence of phyllosilicates on Mars may be equally diverse in nature. To be able to place constraints on the early Martian environment, the processes by which these phyllosilicates formed need to be reconstructed. To derive this information from individual phyllosilicate deposits, it is necessary to interpret their composition in relation to their geological context and relative time relationships. We conducted such an integrated hyperspectral and geological study of the Tyrrhena Terra region. Data products ad methods HRSC data products (both image at 12 m/pixel and stereo-derived DTMs) are used for examining geologic cross-cutting relationships, geomorphologic landforms and visual determination of unit boundaries. Odyssey THEMIS nighttime TIR images are analyzed for spatial variations in thermal inertia. Where available, HRSC is supplemented by higher-resolution visible observations of CTX or MOC. Hyperspectral analysis is conducted using data from the OMEGA hyperspectral instrument. In order to batch-process large amounts of OMEGA data, an IDL/ENVI tool was developed on top of the existing SOFT04, distributed by PSA. The applied atmospheric correction assumes that atmospheric contributions are multiplicative, and follow a power-law distribution with altitude [4]. The ratio of

  13. Molecular Modeling of the M3 Acetylcholine Muscarinic Receptor and Its Binding Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Archundia, Marlet; Cordomi, Arnau; Garriga, Pere; Perez, Juan J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study reports the results of a combined computational and site mutagenesis study designed to provide new insights into the orthosteric binding site of the human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. For this purpose a three-dimensional structure of the receptor at atomic resolution was built by homology modeling, using the crystallographic structure of bovine rhodopsin as a template. Then, the antagonist N-methylscopolamine was docked in the model and subsequently embedded in a lipid bilayer for its refinement using molecular dynamics simulations. Two different lipid bilayer compositions were studied: one component palmitoyl-oleyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC) and two-component palmitoyl-oleyl phosphatidylcholine/palmitoyl-oleyl phosphatidylserine (POPC-POPS). Analysis of the results suggested that residues F222 and T235 may contribute to the ligand-receptor recognition. Accordingly, alanine mutants at positions 222 and 235 were constructed, expressed, and their binding properties determined. The results confirmed the role of these residues in modulating the binding affinity of the ligand. PMID:22500107

  14. [Gerbil experiment in the flight of spacecraft "Foton-M3"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'in, E A; Smirnov, I A; Soldatov, P E; Orlov, O I

    2009-01-01

    The 12-d mission of Russian spacecraft Foton-M3 in September of 2007 was used as an opportunity to fly an experiment with 12 male gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) at the age of 4-4.5 mos. and mean body weight of 51.6 grams. Considering the behavior pattern of these animals, selection and preparation of the experimental groups continued in the course of 2.5-3 months. The flight animals were contained in module Kontur-L outfitted with a self-sustained system of life support. In orbit, the animals received a palletized hydrogenous feed. The physiological and hygienic parameters of the gerbil environment during the flight complied with the official standards. Analysis of the video recorded behavior of animals in microgravity showed that virtually throughout the flight they moved chaotically along the cage never attempting to stabilize position catching at the wire netting of the cage. The animals were decapitated in 21-24 hours after landing. The investigations showed that structural and functional changes in gerbil organs and tissues were generally of the same type as in rats following fights of comparable duration. However, some differences between the animals were attributed to the specifics of water turnover in gerbils.

  15. [Handling and maintenance of gerbils during the spacecraft Foton-M3 mission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldatov, P E; Smirnov, I A; Il'in, E A; Gur'eva, T S; Mednikova, E I; Smolenskaia, T S; Lysenko, L A; Kaminskaia, E V

    2009-01-01

    Pressurized low-sized module Kontur with an independent life support system (LSS) was developed by the Institute of Biomedical Problems cooperatively with the Special Design Bureau of Experimental Equipment to house gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) aboard robotic technology-purpose spacecraft. Design of the module precludes pollution of the environment The fully equipped module weighs 69 kg; average daily power consumption is 62 watts. The environmental parameters for 12 animals flown on Foton-M3 in the period of September 14-26, 2007 were controlled within the following ranges: pO2 - 143-156 mm Hg, (mean 150 mm Hg), pCO2 - 0.76 mm Hg maximum (mean 0.64 mm Hg), temperature - 23-28 degrees C (mean 26.7 degrees C), relative humidity - 29% and 57% at the beginning and end of the flight, respectively (mean 39%). The animals consumed the palletized food prepared of natural products with a moisture content of approx. 20%. The day-night periods were 12 hrs. long. The daytime video recording of the animals went on continuously in the throughout the flight. The experiment showed that the module meets the requirements of experiments with mammals aboard returnable robotic spacecraft and piloted space stations. At the moment, the model is being redesigned for a 30-day BION-M1 mission.

  16. [Glycogen content in gerbil's liver following the spacecraft Foton-M3 mission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiakshin, D A; Bykov, E G; Il'in, E A; Pashkov, A N

    2009-01-01

    Glycogen cytochemistry and distribution in hepatocytes of the classic liver lobules were studied in three groups of gerbils Meriones unguiculatus: vivarium, synchronous control and flown in the 12-d Foton-M3 mission. The control animals were shown to have the central glycogen distribution with a large pool of polysaccharides found in hepatocytes of the pericentral and intermediate lobules and a small pool in the periportal area. Glycogen in hepatocyte plasm was within the physiological norm in the alpha- and beta-granules, typically localized on the cell periphery. Exposure to the spaceflight conditions decreased significantly glycogen concentrations in each functional region of the hepatic lobules and reduced the gradient of polysaccharide distribution from the portal triads toward the central vein. In parallel, high glycogen heterogeneity formed in adjacent hepatocytes and loci. The presence of glycosomes evidenced disturbance of carbohydrates metabolism. In addition, intracellular topography of glycogen granules in cytoplasm was altered. Trends of glycogen in gerbils of the synchronous control were similar to the space flown animals but much less pronounced.

  17. [Jejunum intersticium in mongolian gerbils after the flight on spacecraft Foton-M3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiashkin, D A; Bykov, É G; Il'in, E A; Pashkov, A N

    2012-01-01

    Methods of light optical microscopy were used to explore histoarchitectonics, topography and tinctorial properties of the extracellular phase of fibers of jejunum wall intersticium in Mongolian gerbils following 12-day orbital flight aboard Foton-M3, ground-based simulation of the spaceflight factors in the KONTUR-L facility, and in the group of biological control Postflight destructive changes were found in reticulin fibers (type-III collagen) of villi stroma, intercrypt intersticium and submucosa. Local acidophilia and fiber homogenization formed in type I collagen present in the intestinal subserous layer, muscular layers endomysium and submucose against the background of progressing edema and arterial, venous plethora and lymphostasis. Elastic component of the intersticium was disarranged in the structures of internal elastic membrane of submucous vessels, fragmented and partly reduced. Simulation of the orbital factors, except for microgravity, in the KONTUR-L facility called forth similar, although less often and diffuse, changes in intersticium fibers. The results of examination of intestinal intersticium fibers in the vivarium control gerbils discovered expressed species characters that should be taken into account by investigators, especially when comparing with data obtained from other animal species.

  18. Molecular Modeling of the M3 Acetylcholine Muscarinic Receptor and Its Binding Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlet Martinez-Archundia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study reports the results of a combined computational and site mutagenesis study designed to provide new insights into the orthosteric binding site of the human M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. For this purpose a three-dimensional structure of the receptor at atomic resolution was built by homology modeling, using the crystallographic structure of bovine rhodopsin as a template. Then, the antagonist N-methylscopolamine was docked in the model and subsequently embedded in a lipid bilayer for its refinement using molecular dynamics simulations. Two different lipid bilayer compositions were studied: one component palmitoyl-oleyl phosphatidylcholine (POPC and two-component palmitoyl-oleyl phosphatidylcholine/palmitoyl-oleyl phosphatidylserine (POPC-POPS. Analysis of the results suggested that residues F222 and T235 may contribute to the ligand-receptor recognition. Accordingly, alanine mutants at positions 222 and 235 were constructed, expressed, and their binding properties determined. The results confirmed the role of these residues in modulating the binding affinity of the ligand.

  19. [2 fatal cases of acute myeloid leukemia (M3, M4) during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, M; Asmundo, A

    1995-04-01

    Two cases of unexpected post-partum death of women with acute leukemia are described. In the first case (1st pregnancy) the diagnosis (acute promyelocytic leukemia: M3) was performed one week before delivery and death occurred 3 days later, because of hemorrhagic and renal DIC complication. Since one month before hospitalization, laboratory exams indicated a serious hematological pathology and no further exams were carried out by the physicians, elements of professional fault were recognized in them, considering that because of the diagnostic omission it was impossible to make an early diagnosis and thus perform to specific therapy, adopted only in the terminal phase. This specific therapy is able to determine remission from most cases of acute promyelocytic leukemia. In the second case (2nd pregnancy) the diagnosis (acute myelomonocytic leukemia: M4) was performed only postmortem because, during the whole pregnancy, no signs of disease were evident. After a few hours from the spontaneous delivery, death occurred as a result of an intractable + hemorrhagic syndrome caused by primary hyperfibrinolysis and repeated episodes of cardiac arrest, without possibility of recognizing it. The medical procedures for this case, both throughout pregnancy and terminal phases, appeared free of censure.

  20. Experimental Study of Ultralight (<300 kg/m3 Foamed Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianjun Tan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A type of ultralight (<300 kg/m3 foamed concrete (FC, which can be used as a new energy-conservation and environmental-protection building material and is particularly suitable for the thermal-insulation engineering of building external walls, was produced. The influences of different mixing amounts of fly ash, fly ash activator, WC (WC ratio, and foaming agent (FA on the compressive strength of FC were reported. The experimental study indicated that (1 the addition of fly ash reduced the strength of the FC and that the appropriate mixing amount of fly ash in this ultralight FC system should not exceed 45%; (2 with the increasing of fly ash activator, the strength of the FC sample is notably enhanced and the appropriate mixing amount of fly ash activator is 2.5%; (3 the optimized proportion of WC ratio is 0.45, and the FC that was produced according to this proportion has relatively high compressive strength; (4 by increasing the mixing amount of FA, the compressive strength of the FC notably decreases, and the optimal mixing amount of FA in this experiment is 3.5%.

  1. Magnetic and dynamical photospheric disturbances observed during an M3.2 solar flare

    CERN Document Server

    Kuckein, C; Sainz, R Manso

    2015-01-01

    This letter reports on a set of full-Stokes spectropolarimetric observations in the near infrared He I 10830 A spectral region covering the pre-, flare, and post-flare phases of an M3.2 class solar flare. The flare originated on 2013 May 17 and belonged to active region NOAA 11748. We detected strong He I 10830 A emission in the flare. The red component of the He I triplet peaks at an intensity ratio to the continuum of about 1.86. During the flare, He I Stokes V is substantially larger and appears reversed compared to the usually larger Si I Stokes V profile. The photospheric Si I inversions of the four Stokes profiles reveal the following: (1) the magnetic field strength in the photosphere decreases or is even absent during the flare phase, as compared to the pre-flare phase. However, this decrease is not permanent. After the flare the magnetic field recovers its pre-flare configuration in a short time (i.e., in 30 minutes after the flare). (2) In the photosphere, the line-of-sight velocities show a regular...

  2. GRAVITAS : General Relativistic Astrophysics VIa Timing And Spectroscopy: An ESA M3 mission proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Nandra, Kirpal; Fabian, Andy; Strueder, Lothar; Willingale, Richard; Watson, Mike; Jonker, Peter; Kunieda, Hideyo; Miniutti, Giovanni; Motch, Christian; Predehl, Peter

    2011-01-01

    GRAVITAS is an X-ray observatory, designed and optimised to address the ESA Cosmic Vision theme of "Matter under extreme conditions". It was submitted as a response to the call for M3 mission proposals. The concept centres around an X-ray telescope of unprecedented effective area, which will focus radiation emitted from close to the event horizon of black holes or the surface of neutron stars. To reveal the nature and behaviour of matter in the most extreme astrophysical environments, GRAVITAS targets a key feature in the X-ray spectra of compact objects: the iron Kalpha line at ~6.5 keV. The energy, profile, and variability of this emission line, and the properties of the surrounding continuum emission, shaped by General Relativity (GR) effects, provide a unique probe of gravity in its strong field limit. Among its prime targets are hundreds of supermassive black holes in bright Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN), which form the perfect laboratory to help understand the physical processes behind black hole growth....

  3. Overtone and multi-mode RR Lyrae stars in the globular cluster M3

    CERN Document Server

    Jurcsik, J; Hajdu, G; Sódor, Á; Nuspl, J; Kolenberg, K; Fűrész, G; Moór, A; Kun, E; Pál, A; Bakos, J; Kelemen, J; Kovács, T; Kriskovics, L; Sárneczky, K; Szalai, T; Szing, A; Vida, K

    2015-01-01

    The overtone and multi-mode RR Lyrae stars in the globular cluster M3 are studied using a 200-d long, $B,V$ and $I_{\\mathrm C}$ time-series photometry obtained in 2012. 70\\% of the 52 overtone variables observed show some kind of multi-periodicity (additional frequency at ${f_{0.61}}={f_{\\mathrm {1O}}}/0.61$ frequency ratio, Blazhko effect, double/multi-mode pulsation, period doubling). A signal at 0.587 frequency ratio to the fundamental-mode frequency is detected in the double-mode star, V13, which may be identified as the second radial overtone mode. If this mode-identification is correct, than V13 is the first RR Lyrae star showing triple-mode pulsation of the first three radial modes. Either the Blazhko effect or the ${f_{0.61}}$ frequency (or both of these phenomena) appear in 7 double-mode stars. The $P_{\\mathrm{1O}}/P_{\\mathrm{F}}$ period ratio of RRd stars showing the Blazhko effect are anomalous. A displacement of the main frequency component at the fundamental-mode with the value of modulation freq...

  4. IFR safety tests M2 and M3 in TREAT: data and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, W R; Lo, R K; Bauer, T H; Froehle, P H; Helenberg, H W; Morman, J A; Stanford, G S; Wright, A E

    1985-06-01

    TREAT tests M2 and M3 were performed to obtain information on the characteristics of metal-alloy reactor fuel under slow transient overpower accident conditions, in particular, the margin to cladding breach and the axial self-extrusion of fuel within intact cladding. The tests used U-5Fs fuel pins irradiated to burnup levels of 0.3 at. %, 4.5 at. % and 7.9 at. %. Each pin was located in a separte flowtube and cooled by flowing sodium. In one test, a pin of each burnup was heated to incipient cladding breach. In the other, pins of the medium and high burnup levels wer heated to slightly beyond breach. Pre- and post-failure fuel motions were monitored by the fast-neutron hodoscope. The time and axial location of cladding breach were determined from the test-loop instrumentation. Computations of fuel extrusion and cladding failure are desribed. The models used in the computations include effects of retained fission gas expansion, vaporization of the sodium-bond annulus in low burnup fuel, and cladding-wall thinning by eutectic formation.

  5. Temperature buffer test. Hydro-mechanical and chemical/ mineralogical characterizations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aakesson, Mattias; Olsson, Siv; Dueck, Ann; Nilsson, Ulf; Karnland, Ola [Clay Technology AB, Lund (Sweden); Kiviranta, Leena; Kumpulainen, Sirpa [BandTech Oy, Helsinki (Finland); Linden, Johan [Aabo Akademi, Aabo (Finland)

    2012-01-15

    The Temperature Buffer Test (TBT) is a joint project between SKB/ANDRA and supported by ENRESA (modeling) and DBE (instrumentation), which aims at improving the understanding and to model the thermo-hydro-mechanical behavior of buffers made of swelling clay submitted to high temperatures (over 100 deg C) during the water saturation process. The test has been carried out in a KBS-3 deposition hole at Aspo HRL. It was installed during the spring of 2003. Two steel heaters (3 m long, 0.6 m diameter) and two buffer arrangements have been investigated: the lower heater was surrounded by rings of compacted Wyoming bentonite only, whereas the upper heater was surrounded by a composite barrier, with a sand shield between the heater and the bentonite. The test was dismantled and sampled during the winter of 2009/2010. This report presents the hydro-mechanical and chemical/mineralogical characterization program which was launched subsequent to the dismantling operation. The main goal has been to investigate if any significant differences could be observed between material from the field experiment and the reference material. The field samples were mainly taken from Ring 4 (located at the mid-section around the lower heater), in which the temperature in the innermost part reached 155 deg C. The following hydro-mechanical properties have been determined for the material (test technique within brackets): hydraulic conductivity (swelling pressure device), swelling pressure (swelling pressure device), unconfined compression strength (mechanical press), shear strength (triaxial cell) and retention properties (jar method). The following chemical/mineralogical properties (methods within brackets) were determined: anion analysis of water leachates (IC), chemical composition (ICP/AES+MS, EGA), cation exchange capacity (CEC, Cu-trien method) and exchangeable cations (exchange with NH4, ICPAES), mineralogical composition (XRD and FTIR), element distribution and microstructure (SEM and

  6. Comparison of human and porcine gastric clasp and sling fiber contraction by M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegesna, Anil K; Braverman, Alan S; Miller, Larry S; Tallarida, Ronald J; Tiwana, Mansoor I; Khayyam, Umar; Ruggieri, Michael R

    2010-04-01

    To compare the gastroesophageal junction of the human with the pig, M(2) and M(3) receptor densities and the potencies of M(2) and M(3) muscarinic receptor subtype selective antagonists were determined in gastric clasp and sling smooth muscle fibers. Total muscarinic and M(2) receptors are higher in pig than human clasp and sling fibers. M(3) receptors are higher in human compared with pig sling fibers but lower in human compared with pig clasp fibers. Clasp fibers have fewer M(3) receptors than sling fibers in both humans and pigs. Similar to human clasp fibers, pig clasp fibers contract significantly less than pig sling fibers. Analysis of the methoctramine Schild plot suggests that M(2) receptors are involved in mediating contraction in pig clasp and sling fibers. Darifenacin potency suggests that M(3) receptors mediate contraction in pig sling fibers and that M(2) and M(3) receptors mediate contraction in pig clasp fibers. Taken together, the data suggest that both M(2) and M(3) muscarinic receptors mediate the contraction in both pig clasp and sling fibers similar to human clasp and sling fibers.

  7. Mineralogy, size, morphology and porosity of aggregates and their relationship with soil susceptibility to water erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, M. do A, E-mail: mucfig@hotmail.com; Augustin, C.H.R.R. [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Geografia (Brazil)], E-mail: mucfig@hotmail.com; Fabris, J.D. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Departamento de Quimica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas (Brazil)], E-mail: fabris@dedalus.lcc.ufmg.br

    1999-11-15

    Soil erosion has been considered as the main process related to losses of soil mass and decrease of productivity in cultivated lands as well as on e of the most important processes in landscape evolution. Attention has been paid to many pedological variables affecting intensity of erosion, but little to the influence of iron compounds on the type, size, shape and porosity of soil aggregates. In the present study, three lithopedodomains which were assumed to be closely related to the dominant lithology of the soil parent material, varying in the degree of water erosion intensity, were selected for further analysis which focused mainly on the influence of iron oxide mineralogy on the soil aggregation. Powder X-ray diffractometry, 80 K Moessbauer data and SEM images are used to correlate all these variables with observed erosion activity in the field. The present data indicate that the more the soil is rich in iron (hematite and/or goethite) or aluminium (gibbsite) (hydr)oxide, the smaller are its aggregates and is porous. Soils derived from metabasic rocks are much more susceptible to collapse under wetting than those from other lithologies. They have the highest iron and clay content. Schist-derived soil is richer in muscovite, has bigger aggregates and porous and are less prone to collapse, while the granite-derived soil presents relatively intermediate resistance, when humid.

  8. Stratigraphy, mineralogy, and origin of layered deposits inside Terby crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansan, V.; Loizeau, D.; Mangold, N.; Le Mouélic, S.; Carter, J.; Poulet, F.; Dromart, G.; Lucas, A.; Bibring, J.-P.; Gendrin, A.; Gondet, B.; Langevin, Y.; Masson, Ph.; Murchie, S.; Mustard, J. F.; Neukum, G.

    2011-01-01

    The 174 km diameter Terby impact crater (28.0°S-74.1°E) located on the northern rim of the Hellas basin displays anomalous inner morphology, including a flat floor and light-toned layered deposits. An analysis of these deposits was performed using multiple datasets from Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Odyssey, Mars Express and Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter missions, with visible images for interpretation, near-infrared data for mineralogical mapping, and topography for geometry. The geometry of layered deposits was consistent with that of sediments that settled mainly in a sub-aqueous environment, during the Noachian period as determined by crater counts. To the north, the thickest sediments displayed sequences for fan deltas, as identified by 100 m to 1 km long clinoforms, as defined by horizontal beds passing to foreset beds dipping by 6-10° toward the center of the Terby crater. The identification of distinct sub-aqueous fan sequences, separated by unconformities and local wedges, showed the accumulation of sediments from prograding/onlapping depositional sequences, due to lake level and sediment supply variations. The mineralogy of several layers with hydrated minerals, including Fe/Mg phyllosilicates, supports this type of sedimentary environment. The volume of fan sediments was estimated as >5000 km 3 (a large amount considering classical martian fan deltas such as Eberswalde (6 km 3)) and requires sustained liquid water activity. Such a large sedimentary deposition in Terby crater is characteristic of the Noachian/Phyllosian period during which the environment favored the formation of phyllosilicates. The latter were detected by spectral data in the layered deposits of Terby crater in three distinct layer sequences. During the Hesperian period, the sediments experienced strong erosion, possibly enhanced by more acidic conditions, forming the current morphology with three mesas and closed depressions. Small fluvial valleys and alluvial fans formed subsequently

  9. Ancient mortars from Cape Verde: mineralogical and physical characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Fernando; Costa, Cristiana; Velosa, Ana; Quintela, Ana; Terroso, Denise; Marques, Vera

    2014-05-01

    Times and locations of different building constructions means different knowledge, habits, different construction methods and materials. The study and safeguarding of the architectural heritage takes nowadays a progressive importance as a vehicle for transmission of cultures and history of nations. The coatings are of great importance in the durability of a building due to the protective role of the masonry. The compatibility between the materials with which they are executed (masonry, mortar and grout settlement) promotes the proper functioning of the wall and a consequent increase in durability. Therefore, it becomes important to study and characterize the mortar coating of buildings to know its characteristics and to use compatible materials in the rehabilitation and maintenance of buildings. This study aims to characterize the chemical, physical, mechanical and mineralogical mortar samples collected in buildings in three islands of Cape Verde, for the conservation, rehabilitation and preservation of them. The collected samples belong to buildings constructed in the end of XIX century and in the beginning of XX century. In order to characterize the mortar samples some tests was made, such as X-Ray Diffraction, X- Ray Fluorescence, acid attack and mechanical strength. The samples were divided into three groups depending on origin; so we have a first group collected on the island of Santiago, the second on the island of Saint Vincent and the third on the island of Santo Antao. The samples are all carbonated, but Santiago samples have a lower carbonates content. In terms of insoluble residue (from the acid attack) it was concluded that the samples have similar value ranging from 9 to 26%. The compressive strength of the mortars have a range between 1.36 and 4.55 MPa, which is related to the presence of more binder in samples with higher resistance. The chemical and mineralogical analyzes showed that these consist of lime mortars (binder), natural pozzolan and

  10. Mineralogical Controls on Carbon Cycling in a Floodplain Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, B.; Dwivedi, D.; Steefel, C. I.; Spycher, N.; Fox, P. M.; Nico, P. S.

    2016-12-01

    With the overarching goal of understanding mineral-organic-microbe interactions on carbon and nutrient cycles, we are developing a reactive transport model that includes carbon (C) pools and transformations, a realistic treatment of protected C pools, multiple decomposition pathways, and radiocarbon (14C) dynamics. The objective of the modeling is to understand the impact of mineralogy on carbon turnover and residence times in a floodplain site in Rifle, CO. Previous studies have identified naturally reduced zones (NRZs) in the saturated zone of the Rifle site to be C hotspots and regions characterized by diffusion-limited transport and high rates of microbially-mediated biogeochemical reactions. Detailed characterization of the soil organic matter in both the NRZ and non-NRZ sediments at the Rifle site including radiocarbon dating, and extraction and chemical characterization of mineral-bound pool of organic matter, is used to inform the modeling. In this study, we describe the development of a coupled unsaturated-saturated flow and biogeochemical reactive transport model of the Rifle site along a two-dimensional cross-section (parallel to groundwater flow). The biogeochemical reaction network includes representations of bacterial and fungal activity, archetypal polymer and monomer carbon substrate groups, kinetic and equilibrium mineral precipitation and dissolution reactions, and aqueous and surface complexation. We use this model to explore fungal and bacterial community emergence at the site and compare organo-mineral interactions across NRZ and non-NRZ regions. Observed 14C profiles suggest that sediment-associated carbon in NRZ locations is much older than both the depositional age of the floodplain sediments and dissolved organic carbon in the groundwater. Model simulations were able to capture the observed soil organic matter (SOM) and ∆14C profiles across the Rifle site. Modeling results show higher lignin content in the NRZ sediments and greater Fe

  11. MAGNETIC AND DYNAMICAL PHOTOSPHERIC DISTURBANCES OBSERVED DURING AN M3.2 SOLAR FLARE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuckein, C. [Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP), An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482, Potsdam (Germany); Collados, M.; Sainz, R. Manso, E-mail: ckuckein@aip.de [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC), Vía Láctea s/n, E-38205, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)

    2015-02-01

    This Letter reports on a set of full-Stokes spectropolarimetric observations in the near-infrared He i 10830 Å spectral region covering the pre-flare, flare, and post-flare phases of an M3.2 class solar flare. The flare originated on 2013 May 17 and belonged to active region NOAA 11748. We detected strong He i 10830 Å emission in the flare. The red component of the He i triplet peaks at an intensity ratio to the continuum of about 1.86. During the flare, He i Stokes V is substantially larger and appears reversed compared to the usually larger Si i Stokes V profile. The photospheric Si i inversions of the four Stokes profiles reveal the following: (1) the magnetic field strength in the photosphere decreases or is even absent during the flare phase, as compared to the pre-flare phase. However, this decrease is not permanent. After the flare, the magnetic field recovers its pre-flare configuration in a short time (i.e., 30 minutes after the flare). (2) In the photosphere, the line of sight velocities show a regular granular up- and downflow pattern before the flare erupts. During the flare, upflows (blueshifts) dominate the area where the flare is produced. Evaporation rates of ∼10{sup −3} and ∼10{sup −4} g cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} have been derived in the deep and high photosphere, respectively, capable of increasing the chromospheric density by a factor of two in about 400 s.

  12. Signal transduction by M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUO, LIQIANG; LIU, YUQIANG; DING, ZHIBO; SUN, WENDONG; YUAN, MINGZHEN

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the potential mechanisms used during signal transduction by M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (CHRM3) in prostate cancer. The microarray datasets of GSE3325, including 5 clinically localized primary prostate cancers and 4 benign prostate tissues, were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) in primary prostate cancer tissues compared with benign controls were screened using the Limma package. Gene Ontology and pathway enrichment analyses were performed using the Database for Annotation Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Next, a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed. Additionally, microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with DEGs were predicted and miRNA-target DEG analysis was performed using a Web-based Gene Set Analysis Toolkit. Finally, the PPI network and the miRNA-target DEG network were integrated using Cytoscape. In total, 224 DEGs were screened in the prostate cancer tissues, including 113 upregulated and 111 downregulated genes. CHRM3 and epidermal growth factor (EGF) were enriched in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. EGF and v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (Myc) were enriched in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. EGF with the highest degree of connectivity was the hub node in the PPI network, and miR-34b could interact with Myc directly in the miRNA-target DEG network. EGF and Myc may exhibit significant roles in the progression of prostate cancer via regulation of the actin cytoskeleton and the MAPK signaling pathway. CHRM3 may activate these two pathways in prostate cancer progression. Thus, these two key factors and pathways may be crucial mechanisms during signal transduction by CHRM3 in prostate cancer. PMID:26870222

  13. Simulation of VANAM M3 test using MELCOR 1.8.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sung Won; Kim, Hee Dong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-07-01

    A standard problem is defined as a comparison between experimental and analytical results in the field of reactor safety research. The detailed comparison of the data permits conclusions for the reliability and precision of computer simulations of postulated accidents and contributions to the development and improvement of reactor safety computer codes. Following a suggestion of the Federal Republic of Germany, the OECD-CSNI agreed to offer the experiment VANAM M3 at the Battelle Model Containment (BMC), an experiment on thermohydraulics and aerosol behavior in a containment, as International Standard Problem No. 37 (ISP 37). The general objectives of the ISP 37 are to analyse the thermohydraulics of a containment atmosphere and the distribution and settlement of aerosol after a high pressure path with depressurization by pressurizer relief valve discharge. Steam condensation at the aerosol particles(condensation in volume) is enhanced by the hygroscopic properties of the aerosol materials, even in case of limited steam supply. The originally small, low-density NaOH particles are converted to solution droplets by steam condensation, the increasing droplet mass significantly enhancing aerosol depletion by gravity settlement. As a result, higher depletion rate have been obtained for the NaOH aerosol than for the SnO{sub 2} aerosol in M2. The MELCOR code, version 1.8.3, has been used for the simulation of this experiment, and the results are compared with the results of other calculations at GRS. The objectives of this report are to contribute to the efficient use of MELCOR code and understanding of the aerosol behavior. 12 tabs., 19 figs., 11 refs. (Author).

  14. Agronomic Characterization of Wheat Mutants (Triticum aestivum of M3 Generation Planted in Sukabumi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laela Sari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the selection criteria to obtain a superior mutant derived from the wheat plants of such varieties as Dewata, Selayar and Alibey, adaptive in medium land. The analysis of agronomic growth characters showed a significantly effect on a growth percentage of the initial growth (8 mutants, flowering time (1 mutant, panicle stem length (15 mutants, number of panicles (7 mutants, the number of grains per panicle (8 mutants, grain weight observed (8 mutants, grain weight per genotype (6 mutants, leaf area (2 mutants and leaf greenness (5 mutants. The effects on the characters of ripe time, harvest, panicle length and plant height were not significant. The mutants of Dewata, Selayar and Alibey could be selected based on the characters of panicle stem length, number of grains per panicle and grain weight per observation because these characters generated more mutants than the other characters. The correlation analysis between the characters of growth and yield components of wheat mutants showed that the number of grains per panicle was positively correlated with the grain weight observed, while the length of panicle stem was positively correlated with grain weight per genotype, number of panicles and leaf area. Hopefully some mutants produced could adapt to the tropical medium land, thus adding to the diversity of wheat germplasm in Indonesia, thereby reducing the import of wheat to Indonesia.How to CiteSari, L., Purwito, A., Sopandie, D., Purnamaningsih, R. & Sudarmonowati, E. (2016. Agronomic Characterization of Wheat Mutants (Triticum aestivum of M3 Generation Planted in Sukabumi. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3, 353-361. 

  15. Multicolor multicycle molecular profiling (M3P) with quantum dots for single-cell analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zrazhevskiy, Pavel; Lawrence D. True; Gao, Xiaohu

    2013-01-01

    Here we present a detailed protocol for molecular profiling of individual cultured mammalian cells using multicolor multicycle immunofluorescence with quantum dot probes. It includes instructions for cell culture growth and processing (2 h + 48–72 h for cell growth), preparation and characterization of universal quantum dot probes (4.5 h + overnight incubation), cyclic cell staining (~4.5 h per cycle), and image analysis (varies by application). Use of quantum dot fluorescent probes enables h...

  16. To what extent clay mineralogy affects soil aggregation? Consequences for soil organic matter stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Ugalde, O.; Barré, P.; Hubert, F.; Virto, I.; Chenu, C.; Ferrage, E.; Caner, L.

    2012-12-01

    Aggregation is a key process for soil functioning as it influences C storage, vulnerability to erosion and water holding capacity. While the influence of soil organic C on aggregation has been documented, much less is known about the role of soil mineralogy. Soils usually contain a mixture of clay minerals with contrasted surface properties, which should result on different abilities of clay minerals to aggregation. We took advantage of the intrinsic mineral heterogeneity of a temperate Luvisol to compare the role of clay minerals (illite, smectite, kaolinite, and mixed-layer illite-smectite) in aggregation. In a first step, grassland and tilled soil samples were fractionated in water in aggregate-size classes according to the hierarchical model of aggregation (Tisdall and Oades, 1982). Clay mineralogy and organic C in the aggregate-size classes were analyzed. The results showed that interstratified minerals containing swelling phases accumulated in aggregated fractions (>2 μm) compared to free clay fractions (500 μm) to micro-aggregates (50-250 μm). C concentration and C/N ratio followed the opposite trend. These results constitute a clay mineral-based evidence for the hierarchical model of aggregation, which postulates an increasing importance of the reactivity of clay minerals in the formation of micro-aggregates compared to larger aggregates. In the latter aggregates, formation relies on the physical enmeshment of particles by fungal hyphae, and root and microbial exudates. In a second step, micro-aggregates from the tilled soil samples were submitted to increasingly disaggregating treatments by sonication to evaluate the link between their water stability and clay mineralogy. Micro-aggregates with increasing stability showed an increase of interstratified minerals containing swelling phases and C concentration for low intensities of disaggregation (from 0 to 5 J mL-1). This suggests that swelling phases promote their stability. Swelling phases and organic C

  17. X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Instrument for Mineralogical Analysis at the Lunar Surface Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop LUNA, a compact and lightweight X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) / X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument for mineralogical analysis of regolith, rock...

  18. X-Ray Diffraction and Fluorescence Instrument for Mineralogical Analysis at the Lunar Surface Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a compact and lightweight X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) / X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) instrument for analysis of mineralogical composition of regolith,...

  19. Carbonate mineralogy and faunal relationship in tropical shallow water marine sediments: Cape Comorin, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hashimi, N.H.; Nair, R.R.; Kidwai, R.M.; Rao, V.P.

    The carbonate mineralogy of Recent sediments from the western and eastern continental shelves around Cape Comorin off the southern tip of India was determined by X-ray diffraction analyses. The results show that in the sediments where benthic...

  20. A Mexican kaolin deposit: XANES characterization, mineralogical phase analysis and applications

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martínez, A; Garza, L. L; Torres, L. M; Vázquez, F; López, W

    2009-01-01

    .... Mineralogical and morphological characteristics of the mineral are presented. The kaolin sample was formed mainly by kaolinite, but other minor phases were also detected such as quartz, cristobalite, tridymite, and dolomite...

  1. Mineralogical Composition of the Mexican Ordinary Chondrite Type Meteorite: A Raman, Infrared and XRD Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrooumov, M.

    2016-08-01

    The Raman microprobe (RMP), infrared (IR) and XRD analysis have been applied to the examination of mineralogical composition of seven mexican meteorites: Aldama, Cosina, El Pozo, Escalon, Nuevo Mercurio,Pacula, Zapotitlan Salinas.

  2. Geochemical and mineralogical maps for soils of the conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Geochemical and mineralogical maps along with a histogram, boxplot, and empirical cumulative distribution function plot for each element or mineral whose data are...

  3. Preliminary Results on Magnetic Mineralogy and Elemental Composition of Meteorites from Geological Museum of Kazan University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzina, D. M.; Nurgaliev, D. K.; Gareev, B. I.; Batalin, G. A.; Silantev, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    Thermomagnetic analysis (magnetic mineralogy) and Micro X-ray Fluorescence analysis (mapping) were made for collection of meteorites. As a result we have elements distribution on surface of meteorites and Fe-Ni presence in meteorites.

  4. Mineralogical aspects of Morro de Seis Lagos deposit (Amazonas, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Lucy; Almeida, Marcelo; Silveira, Francisco

    2014-05-01

    The alkaline body Morro dos Seis Lagos, situated in the northwest Amazonian region, is a Nb bearing deposit formed by thick lateritic regolith as circular geological feature about 5 km in diameter. The host rock of this deposit is an intensely weathered siderite carbonatite. The alkaline intrusion body was formed during the late Mesozoic and enriched during the Cenozoic by process of denudation of the surrounding rocks and formation of lateritic cover with thickness in the order of hundreds of meters. In this process, enrichment of Nb, Fe, Ti, Mn, P and rare earth elements (REE) occurred where the lateritic regolith represents the major Nb mineralization, with estimated inferred reserves of 2.9 billion ton@ 2.8 % Nb2O5, one of the largest deposits of Nb in the world. The mineralogical composition of the lateritic regolith has the predominance of the goethite and hematite, followed by oxy - hydroxides of Mn, Ti - Nb oxides, pyrochlore, cerianite and phosphates. The lateritic regolith samples showed high contents of Fe2O3 40 %, and is followed by elevated Th concentration, which locally has concentration higher than (18%). Another REE mineral is the cerianite. The main manganese minerals are hollandite, romanechite (BaMn9O16[OH4] - mixtures of manganese oxides) and amorphous Mn oxy - hydroxides. The higher concentration of MnO2 (about 40 %) is restricted to manganesiferous range, where manganese minerals occur as layers and filling voids, indicating strong remobilization by later process.

  5. Mineralogical characterization of airborne individual particulates in Beijing PM10

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Sen-lin; SHAO Long-yi; WU Ming-hong; JIAO Zheng

    2006-01-01

    This work mainly focuses on the mineralogical study of particulate matter(PM10) in Beijing. Samples were collected on polycarbonate filter from April, 2002 to March, 2003 in Beijing urban area. Scanning electronic microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray(SEM/EDX) was used to investigate individual mineral particles in Beijing PM10. 1454 individual mineral particulates from 48 samples were analysed by SEM/EDX. The results revealed that mineral particulates were complex and heterogeneous. 38kinds of minerals in PM10 were identified. The clay minerals, of annual average percentage of 30.1% , were the main composition among the identified minerals, and illite/smectite was the main composition in clay minerals, reaching up to 35%. Annual average percentage of quartz, calcite, compound particulates, carbonates were 13.5%, 10.9%, 11.95%, 10.31%, respectively. Annual average percentage less than 10% were gypsum, feldspar, dolomite, and so on. Fluorite, apatite, halite, barite and chloridize zinc (ZnCl2) were firstly identified in Beijing PM10. Sulfurization was found on surface of mineral particles, suggested extensive atmospheric reaction in air during summer.

  6. Chemical, Mineralogical, and Morphological Properties of Steel Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irem Zeynep Yildirim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Steel slag is a byproduct of the steelmaking and steel refining processes. This paper provides an overview of the different types of steel slag that are generated from basic-oxygen-furnace (BOF steelmaking, electric-arc-furnace (EAF steelmaking, and ladle-furnace steel refining processes. The mineralogical and morphological properties of BOF and electric-arc-furnace-ladle [EAF(L] slag samples generated from two steel plants in Indiana were determined through X-Ray Diffraction (XRD analyses and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM studies. The XRD patterns of both BOF and EAF(L slag samples were very complex, with several overlapping peaks resulting from the many minerals present in these samples. The XRD analyses indicated the presence of free MgO and CaO in both the BOF and EAF(L slag samples. SEM micrographs showed that the majority of the sand-size steel slag particles had subangular to angular shapes. Very rough surface textures with distinct crystal structures were observed on the sand-size particles of BOF and EAF(L slag samples under SEM. The characteristics of the steel slag samples considered in this study are discussed in the context of a detailed review of steel slag properties.

  7. Mineralogy of Pyroxene and Olivine in the Almahata Sitta Ureilite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikouchi, T.; Zolensky, M.; Takeda, H.; Hagiya, K.; Ohsumi, K; Satake, W.; Kurihara, T.; Dept. of Physics; Shaddad, M. H.

    2010-01-01

    The Almahata Sitta meteorite (hereafter "Alma") is the first example of a recovered asteroidal sample that fell to earth after detection still in the orbit (2008TC3 asteroid), and thus is critical to understand the relationship between meteorites and their asteroidal parent bodies [1]. Alma is a polymict ureilite showing a fine-grained brecciated texture with variable lithologies from black, porous to denser, white stones [1]. It is an anomalous ureilite because of wide compositional ranges of silicates with abundant pores often coated by vapor-deposit crystals [1]. Nevertheless, Alma has general similarities to all ureilites because of reduction textures of silicates suggestive of rapid cooling from high temperature as well as heterogeneous oxygen isotope compositions [e.g., 1-5]. Alma is especially unique because it spans the compositional range of known ureilites [1]. In this abstract we report detailed mineralogical and crystallographic investigations of two different fragments to further constrain its thermal history with regards to the nature of the ureilite parent body.

  8. Mineralogy maketh mountains: Granitic landscapes shaped by dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggleton, Richard A.

    2017-05-01

    In tectonically quiet regions, the shape of the landscape is controlled by the erosion resistance of the rocks. Erosion largely depends on the release of particles from the weathering rock, which in turn requires a degree of dissolution of the more soluble grains. The rate of dissolution of the common rock forming minerals allows the construction of a numerical Rock Weatherability Scale (RWS) based on the rock's modal mineralogical analysis. Applied regionally to three granitic landscape regions of the Bega Valley of southern New South Wales, the Tate Batholith and Featherbed Volcanics of north Queensland, and granitoids in the Beaufort region of Victoria, the mean elevation of the larger plutons in each region correlates highly (r = 0.83-0.93) with their RWS. Variation in composition within a pluton also shows there is a clear connection between changes in RWS and relief within the pluton. From these results it is apparent that the landscape of such granitic terrains is determined very largely by mineral dissolution rates, with plagioclase composition and content being a major factor.

  9. Mineralogy and microstructure of sintered lignite coal fly ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marina Ilic; Christopher Cheeseman; Christopher Sollars; Jonathan Knight [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    2003-02-01

    Lignite coal fly ash from the 'Nikola Tesla' power plant in Yugoslavia has been characterised, milled, compacted and sintered to form monolithic ceramic materials. The effect of firing at temperatures between 1130 and 1190{sup o}C on the density, water accessible porosity, mineralogy and microstructure of sintered samples is reported. This class C fly ash has an initial average particle size of 82 {mu}m and contains siliceous glass together with the crystalline phases quartz, anorthite, gehlenite, hematite and mullite. Milling the ash to an average particle size of 5.6 m, compacting and firing at 1170{sup o}C for 1 h produces materials with densities similar to clay-based ceramics that exhibit low water absorption. Sintering reduces the amount of glass, quartz, gehlenite and anhydrite, but increases formation of anorthite, mullite, hematite and cristobalite. SEM confirms the formation of a dense ceramic at 1170{sup o}C and indicates that pyroplastic effects cause pore formation and bloating at 1190{sup o}C. 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Chemical, Mineralogical, and Physical Properties of Martian Dust and Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.

    2017-01-01

    Global and regional dust storms on Mars have been observed from Earth-based telescopes, Mars orbiters, and surface rovers and landers. Dust storms can be global and regional. Dust is material that is suspended into the atmosphere by winds and has a particle size of 1-3 micrometer. Planetary scientist refer to loose unconsolidated materials at the surface as "soil." The term ''soil'' is used here to denote any loose, unconsolidated material that can be distinguished from rocks, bedrock, or strongly cohesive sediments. No implication for the presence or absence of organic materials or living matter is intended. Soil contains local and regional materials mixed with the globally distributed dust by aeolian processes. Loose, unconsolidated surface materials (dust and soil) may pose challenges for human exploration on Mars. Dust will no doubt adhere to spacesuits, vehicles, habitats, and other surface systems. What will be the impacts on human activity? The objective of this paper is to review the chemical, mineralogical, and physical properties of the martian dust and soil.

  11. Mineralogy of the Martian Surface: Crustal Composition to Surface Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, John F.

    1997-01-01

    The main results have been published in the refereed literature, and thus this report serves mainly to summarize the main findings and indicate where the detailed papers may be found. Reflectance spectroscopy has been an important tool for determining the mineralogic makeup of the near surface materials on Mars. Analysis of the spectral properties of the surface have demonstrated that these attributes are heterogeneous from the coarse spatial but high spectral resolution spectra obtained with telescopes to the high spatial but coarse spectral resolution Viking data (e.g. Arvidson et al., 1989; McEwen et al., 1989). Low albedo materials show strong evidence for the presence of igneous rock forming minerals while bright materials are generally interpreted as representing heavily altered crustal material. How these materials are physically and genetically related has important implications for understanding martian surface properties and processes, weathering histories and paths, and crustal composition. The goal of this research is to characterize the physical and chemical properties of low albedo materials on Mars and the relationship to intermediate and high albedo materials. Fundamental science questions to be pursued include: (1) the observed distributions of soil, rock, and dust a function of physical processes or weathering and (2) different stages of chemical and physical alteration fresh rock identified. These objectives will be addressed through detailed analyses and modelling of the ISM data from the Phobos-2 mission with corroborating evidence of surface composition and properties provided by data from the Viking mission.

  12. A geochemical and mineralogical approach to environmental protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Memmi, I. [Siena Univ., Siena (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze della Terra; Hunziker, J.C. [UNIL BFSH-2 CH, Institut de Mineralogie, Lausanne (Switzerland); Panichi, C. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, International Institute for Geothermal Research, Ghezzano, PI (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Chemical pollution of the biospheric environment by human activity has become a problem of regional and global scale. There is no doubt that the contribution of geochemistry and mineralogy in defining the extent of this problem and estimating its long-term effects on life-forms is fundamental. Most of the environmental pollution problems arise from human activity associated with the exploitation and utilisation of the Earth's resources, involving minerals and fluids in some way. These problems include waste generated by mining activity, industrial, domestic, and nuclear waste. Particular problems can arise form the use of minerals and rocks in buildings and monuments. The relationship between minerals and human health represents a special case. Minerals can, on the one hand, create a problem; but, on the other hand, due to their peculiar structural properties of potentially hazardous and also useful minerals, capable of adsorbing or neutralizing any toxic, acid and undesirable components. Geochemistry can make important contributions in defining background concentrations, in mapping and accounting for dispersion patterns, in understanding the chemical interaction of pollutants with natural dissolved constituents and mineral matter, in estimating residence times and the extent to which geochemical processes will remove pollutants from the environment.

  13. Notes on Lithology, Mineralogy, and Production for Lunar Simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, D. L.; Stoeser, D. B.; Benzel, W. M.; Schrader, C. M.; Edmunson, J. E.

    2011-01-01

    The creation of lunar simulants requires a very broad range of specialized knowledge and information. This document covers several topic areas relevant to lithology, mineralogy, and processing of feedstock materials that are necessary components of the NASA lunar simulant effort. The naming schemes used for both terrestrial and lunar igneous rocks are discussed. The conflict between the International Union of Geological Sciences standard and lunar geology is noted. The rock types known as impactites are introduced. The discussion of lithology is followed by a brief synopsis of pyroxene, plagioclase, and olivine, which are the major mineral constituents of the lunar crust. The remainder of the text addresses processing of materials, particularly the need for separation of feedstock minerals. To illustrate this need, the text includes descriptions of two norite feedstocks for lunar simulants: the Stillwater Complex in Montana, United States, and the Bushveld Complex in South Africa. Magnetic mineral separations, completed by Hazen Research, Inc. and Eriez Manufacturing Co. for the simulant task, are discussed.

  14. Visible to Near-IR Imaging Spectroscopy of Mars Using HST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J. F., III; Wolff, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    We have obtained new 530-1030 nm high resolution imaging spectroscopic observations of Mars from the Hubble Space Telescope. Initial results and interpretations concerning ferric and ferrous mineralogy of the Martian surface are presented.

  15. Mineralogy and Oxygen Isotope Compositions of an Unusual Hibonite-Perovskite Refractory Inclusion from Allende

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, L. P.; Snead, C.; Rahman, Z.; McKeegan, K. D.

    2012-01-01

    Hibonite-rich Ca- and Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are among the earliest formed solids that condensed in the early nebula. We discovered an unusual refractory inclusion from the Allende CV3 chondrite (SHAL) containing an approx 500 micron long single crystal of hibonite and co-existing coarse-grained perovskite. The mineralogy and petrography of SHAL show strong similarities to some FUN inclusions, especially HAL. Here we report on the mineralogy, petrography, mineral chemistry and oxygen isotopic compositions in SHAL.

  16. Skeletal mineralogy of coral recruits under high temperature and pCO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Foster

    2016-03-01

    Our results show that elevated pCO2 alone is unlikely to drive changes in the skeletal mineralogy of young corals. Not having an ability to switch from aragonite to calcite precipitation may leave corals and ultimately coral reef ecosystems more susceptible to predicted ocean acidification. An important area for prospective research would be the investigation of the combined impact of high pCO2 and reduced Mg ∕ Ca ratio on coral skeletal mineralogy.

  17. Mineralogical characteristic of rutile from Bonče, Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Sijakova-Ivanova, Tena; Boev, Blazo

    2014-01-01

    This paper gives mineralogical characteristic of rutile. Several samplesof rutile were collected for research by Scanning electron microscopy (SEM),coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and X-raydiffraction (XRD). SEM is especially useful because it gives elemental,mineralogical and morphological data at the same time. X-ray diffraction(XRD) is known as the best method for the identification and quantification ofminerals The instrument used was a XRD Schimadzu 6100. Coppe...

  18. Mineralogical and Thermal Analyses of a Bangle Shard from Harrappa, an Indus Valley Settlement in Pakistan

    CERN Document Server

    Kayani, Saheeb Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    In this research study we present initial results of a recent project in which mineralogical and thermal analysis were carried out on a terracotta bangle shard from Harrappa. We were surprised to find bentonite clay as the major constituent of the bangle shard. Also we have used knowledge of the mineralogical structure determined through X-ray diffraction and results of thermal analysis to predict value of firing temperature of the bangle shard.

  19. Peculiarities of lens and tail regeneration detected in newts after spaceflight aboard Foton M3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoryan, Eleonora N.; Almeida, Eduardo; Poplinskaya, Valentina; Novikova, Julia; Domaratskaya, Elena; Aleinikova, Karina; Souza, Kenneth; Skidmore, Mike; Grigoryan, Eleonora N.

    In September 2007 the joint, 12 day long experiment was carried out aboard Russian satellite Foton M3. The goal of the experiment was to study eye lens, tail and forelimb toe regeneration in adult 16 newts (Pl. waltl.) operated 10 days before taking-off. In spaceflight and synchronous ground control we used video recording, temperature and irradiation control, as well as constant availability of thymidine analog BrdU for its absorption via animals' skin. New techniques allowed us to analyze animals' behavior in hyperand microgravity periods of time, to take proper account of spaceflight factors, and measure accumulated pools of DNA-synthesizing cells in regenerating tissues. All tissue specimens obtained from animals were isolated in the day of landing and then prepared for morphological, immunochemical and molecular investigations. Synchronous control was shifted for two days and reproduced flight conditions except changes of gravity influence. As a result in flown animals as compared with synchronous ground control we found lens regeneration of 0.5-1 stage speeded up and an increased BrdU+ (S-phase) cell number in eye cornea, growth zone, limbus and newly forming lens. These features of regeneration were accompanied by an increase of FGF2 expression in eye growth zone and heat shock protein (HSP90) induction purely in retinal macroglial cells of regenerating eyes. Toe regeneration rate was equal and achieved the stage of accomplished healing of amputation area in both groups - "flown" and control animals. We found no essential differences in tail regeneration rate and tail regenerate sizes in the newts exposed to space and on ground. In both groups tail regeneration reached the stage IV-V when tail length and square were around 4.4 mm and 15.5 mm2, correspondingly. However we did observe remarkable changes of tail regenerate form and some of pigmentation. Computer morphometrical analysis showed that only in ground control animals the evident dorso

  20. Aqueous outcrops at Libya Montes, Mars: A close eye on morphology and mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirsch, Daniela; Bishop, Janice L.; Voigt, Joana; Tornabene, Livio L.; Erkeling, Gino; Hiesinger, Harald; Jaumann, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    We present the results of a photogeological mapping, morphological and spectral analyses of a geologically diverse region at the border of Libya Montes and Isidis Planitia that were applied using coordinated analyses of mineralogy from CRISM images and surface features from HiRISE and CTX images, as well as topographical information from HRSC DTMs. The Libya Montes are part of the southern rim-complex of the Isidis impact basin on Mars. The region is characterized by pre-Noachian and Noachian aged highland rocks alternating with multiple sedimentary units of Noachian to Amazonian age, some of them heavily dissected by dense valley networks. The region experienced a complex history of impact, volcanic, tectonic, fluvial and aeolian modification processes resulting in the geology observed today. The geological history of the region as revealed by the analysis comprises an emplacement of olivine-rich lava onto ancient basaltic bedrock, which was later covered by pyroxene-rich caprock. This latter extended top unit might either represent lava layers, presumably originating from the Syrtis Major province, or indurated mud flows emplaced by mud volcanism. The analyses suggest that the ancient bedrock has been partially altered to Fe-/Mg-smectites through hydrothermal alteration (presumably triggered by the Isidis impact) and/or hydrous alteration caused by fluvial activity. These clays feature a variety of morphologies and stratigraphical exposures. Some outcrops of the Fe-rich and Mg-rich smectites are intermixed with carbonates in places. The carbonate detections suggest aqueous alteration that is associated with Mg-/Fe-rich fluids under a CO2-rich atmosphere. Al-smectite have also been detected in morphologically diverse outcrops and may have been formed later via alteration of pyroxene-bearing caprock. The variability in phyllosilicates and presence of carbonates implies a changing alteration environment.

  1. Negative pH, efflorescent mineralogy, and consequences for environmental restoration at the Iron Mountain Superfund site, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D K; Alpers, C N

    1999-03-30

    The Richmond Mine of the Iron Mountain copper deposit contains some of the most acid mine waters ever reported. Values of pH have been measured as low as -3.6, combined metal concentrations as high as 200 g/liter, and sulfate concentrations as high as 760 g/liter. Copious quantities of soluble metal sulfate salts such as melanterite, chalcanthite, coquimbite, rhomboclase, voltaite, copiapite, and halotrichite have been identified, and some of these are forming from negative-pH mine waters. Geochemical calculations show that, under a mine-plugging remediation scenario, these salts would dissolve and the resultant 600,000-m3 mine pool would have a pH of 1 or less and contain several grams of dissolved metals per liter, much like the current portal effluent water. In the absence of plugging or other at-source control, current weathering rates indicate that the portal effluent will continue for approximately 3, 000 years. Other remedial actions have greatly reduced metal loads into downstream drainages and the Sacramento River, primarily by capturing the major acidic discharges and routing them to a lime neutralization plant. Incorporation of geochemical modeling and mineralogical expertise into the decision-making process for remediation can save time, save money, and reduce the likelihood of deleterious consequences.

  2. SAP is required for the development of innate phenotype in H2-M3-restricted CD8+ T cells1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bediako, Yaw; Bian, Yao; Zhang, Hong; Cho, Hoonsik; Stein, Paul L.; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2012-01-01

    H2-M3-restricted T cells have a pre-activated surface phenotype, rapidly expand and produce cytokines upon stimulation and as such, are classified as innate T cells. Unlike most innate T cells, M3-restricted T cells also express CD8αβ co-receptors and a diverse TCR repertoire: hallmarks of conventional MHC Ia-restricted CD8+ T cells. Although iNKT cells are also innate lymphocytes, they are selected exclusively on hematopoietic cells (HC), while M3-restricted T cells can be selected on either hematopoietic or thymic epithelial cells (TEC). Moreover, their phenotypes differ depending on what cells mediate their selection. Though there is a clear correlation between selection on HC and development of innate phenotype, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. SAP is required for the development of iNKT cells and mediates signals from SLAM receptors that are exclusively expressed on HC. Based on their dual selection pathway, M3-restricted T cells present a unique model for studying the development of innate T cell phenotype. Using both polyclonal and transgenic mouse models we demonstrate that while M3-restricted T cells are capable of developing in the absence of SAP, SAP is required for HC-mediated selection, development of pre-activated phenotype and heightened effector functions of M3-restricted T cells. These findings are significant because they directly demonstrate the need for SAP in HC-mediated acquisition of innate T cell phenotype and suggest that due to their SAP-dependent HC-mediated selection, M3-restricted T cells develop a pre-activated phenotype and an intrinsic ability to proliferate faster upon stimulation, allowing for an important role in the early response to infection. PMID:23041566

  3. Timescales of carbon turnover in soils with mixed crystalline mineralogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomo, Lesego; Trumbore, Susan E.; Bern, Carleton R.; Chadwick, Oliver A.

    2017-01-01

    Organic matter–mineral associations stabilize much of the carbon (C) stored globally in soils. Metastable short-range-order (SRO) minerals such as allophane and ferrihydrite provide one mechanism for long-term stabilization of organic matter in young soil. However, in soils with few SRO minerals and a predominance of crystalline aluminosilicate or Fe (and Al) oxyhydroxide, C turnover should be governed by chemisorption with those minerals. Here, we correlate mineral composition from soils containing small amounts of SRO minerals with mean turnover time (TT) of C estimated from radiocarbon (14C) in bulk soil, free light fraction and mineral-associated organic matter. We varied the mineral amount and composition by sampling ancient soils formed on different lithologies in arid to subhumid climates in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. Mineral contents in bulk soils were assessed using chemical extractions to quantify Fe oxyhydroxides and SRO minerals. Because of our interest in the role of silicate clay mineralogy, particularly smectite (2 : 1) and kaolinite (1 : 1), we separately quantified the mineralogy of the clay-sized fraction using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and measured 14C on the same fraction. Density separation demonstrated that mineral associated C accounted for 40–70 % of bulk soil organic C in A and B1 horizons for granite, nephelinite and arid-zone gabbro soils, and > 80 % in other soils. Organic matter strongly associated with the isolated clay-sized fraction represented only 9–47 % of the bulk soil C. The mean TT of C strongly associated with the clay-sized fraction increased with the amount of smectite (2 : 1 clays); in samples with > 40 % smectite it averaged 1020 ± 460 years. The C not strongly associated with clay-sized minerals, including a combination of low-density C, the C associated with minerals of sizes between 2 µm and 2 cm (including Fe oxyhydroxides as coatings), and C removed from clay

  4. Clay mineralogy in different geomorphic surfaces in sugarcane areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, L.; Marques, J., Jr.

    2012-04-01

    The crystallization of the oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum and kaolinite of clay fraction is the result of pedogenetic processes controlled by the relief. These minerals have influence on the physical and chemical attributes of soil and exhibit spatial dependence. The pattern of spatial distribution is influenced by forms of relief as the geomorphic surfaces. In this sense, the studies aimed at understanding the relationship between relief and the distribution pattern of the clay fraction attributes contribute to the delineation of specific areas of management in the field. The objective of this study was to evaluate the spatial distribution of oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum and kaolinite of clay fraction and its relationship with the physical and chemical attributes in different geomorphic surfaces. Soil samples were collected in a transect each 25 m (100 samples) and in the sides of the same (200 samples) as well as an area of 500 ha (1 sample each six hectare). Geomorphic surfaces (GS) in the transect were mapped in detail to support mapping the entire area. The soil samples were taken to the laboratory for chemical, physical, and mineralogical analysis, and the pattern of spatial distribution of soil attributes was obtained by statistics and geostatistics. The GS I is considered the oldest surface of the study area, with depositional character, and a slope ranging from 0 to 4%. GS II and III are considered to be eroded, and the surface II plan a gentle slope that extends from the edge of the surface until the beginning of I and III. The crystallographic characteristics of the oxides and hydroxides of iron and aluminum and kaolinite showed spatial dependence and the distribution pattern corresponding to the limits present of the GS in the field. Surfaces I and II showed the best environments to the degree of crystallinity of hematite and the surface III to the greatest degree of crystallinity of goethite agreeing to the pedoenvironment

  5. Timescales of carbon turnover in soils with mixed crystalline mineralogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomo, Lesego; Trumbore, Susan; Bern, Carleton R.; Chadwick, Oliver A.

    2017-01-01

    Organic matter-mineral associations stabilize much of the carbon (C) stored globally in soils. Metastable short-range-order (SRO) minerals such as allophane and ferrihydrite provide one mechanism for long-term stabilization of organic matter in young soil. However, in soils with few SRO minerals and a predominance of crystalline aluminosilicate or Fe (and Al) oxyhydroxide, C turnover should be governed by chemisorption with those minerals. Here, we correlate mineral composition from soils containing small amounts of SRO minerals with mean turnover time (TT) of C estimated from radiocarbon (14C) in bulk soil, free light fraction and mineral-associated organic matter. We varied the mineral amount and composition by sampling ancient soils formed on different lithologies in arid to subhumid climates in Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa. Mineral contents in bulk soils were assessed using chemical extractions to quantify Fe oxyhydroxides and SRO minerals. Because of our interest in the role of silicate clay mineralogy, particularly smectite (2 : 1) and kaolinite (1 : 1), we separately quantified the mineralogy of the clay-sized fraction using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and measured 14C on the same fraction. Density separation demonstrated that mineral associated C accounted for 40-70 % of bulk soil organic C in A and B1 horizons for granite, nephelinite and arid-zone gabbro soils, and > 80 % in other soils. Organic matter strongly associated with the isolated clay-sized fraction represented only 9-47 % of the bulk soil C. The mean TT of C strongly associated with the clay-sized fraction increased with the amount of smectite (2 : 1 clays); in samples with > 40 % smectite it averaged 1020 ± 460 years. The C not strongly associated with clay-sized minerals, including a combination of low-density C, the C associated with minerals of sizes between 2 µm and 2 cm (including Fe oxyhydroxides as coatings), and C removed from clay-sized material by 2 % hydrogen peroxide had

  6. Mineralogy of iron microbial mats from Loihi Seamount

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandy Marie Toner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Extensive mats of Fe oxyhydroxides and associated Fe-oxidizing microbial organisms form in diverse geochemical settings – freshwater seeps to deep-sea vents – where ever opposing Fe(II-oxygen gradients prevail. The mineralogy, reactivity, and structural transformations of Fe oxyhydroxides precipitated from submarine hydrothermal fluids within microbial mats remains elusive in active and fossil systems. In response, a study of Fe microbial mat formation at the Loihi Seamount was conducted to describe the physical and chemical characteristics of Fe-phases using extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, synchrotron radiation X-ray total scattering, low-temperature magnetic measurements, and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Particle sizes of 3.5-4.6 nm were estimated from magnetism data, and coherent scattering domain sizes as small as 1.6 nm are indicated by pair distribution function (PDF analysis. Disorder in the nanostructured Fe-bearing phases results in limited intermediate-range structural order: less than that of standard 2-line ferrihydrite (Fh, except for the Pohaku site. The short-range ordered natural Fh (FhSRO phases were stable at 4 °C in the presence of oxygen for at least 1 year and during 400 oC treatment. The observed stability of the FhSRO is consistent with magnetic observations that point to non-interacting nanoparticles. PDF analyses of total scattering data provide further evidence for FhSRO particles with a poorly ordered silica coating. The presence of coated particles explains the small coherent scattering domain for the mat minerals, as well as the stability of the minerals over time and against heating. The mineral properties observed here provide a starting point from which progressively older and more extensively altered iron deposits may be examined, with the ultimate goal of improved interpretation of past biogeochemical conditions and diagenetic processes.

  7. Clay mineralogy and magnetic susceptibility of Oxisols in geomorphic surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Arantes Camargo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies analyzing the variability of clay minerals and magnetic susceptibility provide data for the delineation of site-specific management areas since many of their attributes are important to agronomy and the environment. This study aimed to evaluate the spatial variability of clay minerals, magnetic susceptibility, adsorbed phosphorus and physical attributes in Oxisols of sandstones in different geomorphic surfaces. For that purpose, soil samples were collected every 25 m along a transect located within the area where the geomorphic surfaces were identified and mapped. The transect occupied the central portion of 500 ha, where it was also sampled for density purposes with one sample per six hectares. Soil samples were collected at a depth of 0.0-0.2 m. The results of the physical, chemical, mineralogical and magnetic susceptibility analyses were subjected to statistical and geostatistical analyses. The nature of the clay minerals and magnetic susceptibility was dependent on the variation of the soil parent material. High values of magnetic susceptibility were associated with the presence of maghemite and magnetite of coarse size. The spatial variability of crystallinity and the content of Fe oxides, as well as magnetic susceptibility, were dependent on the age of the geomorphic surfaces. The youngest surface had greater spatial variability of these attributes. The iron (goethite and hematite and aluminum (gibbsite oxides in the youngest geomorphic surface influenced the low values of soil density and high values of total pore volume, micropores and P adsorption. The characterization of the spatial variability of Fe oxides and susceptibility allowed for the delineation of homogeneous areas.

  8. Corrosion mineralogy of an 1800 Spanish piece of eight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, J.R. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Dept. of Geological Sciences, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States); Callahan, J.E. [Appalachain State Univ., Dept. of Geology, Boone, North Carolina (United States); Kimbell, J.T. [Tavernier, Florida (United States); Solberg, T.N. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Dept. of Geological Sciences, Blacksburg, Virginia (United States)

    2002-04-01

    Spanish colonial eight real silver coins, commonly called Pieces of Eight, were used throughout the Spanish-speaking world for hundreds of years. We undertook a detailed mineralogical, textural, and chemical investigation of an 1800 Carlos IIII eight real coin recovered from the wreck of the Spanish frigate Santa Leocadia, which sank on the rocky shore of Ecuador on November 16, 1800, with a loss of more than 140 lives and of 2,100,000 pesos of gold and silver coins. The coin is a typical eight real piece, composed of about 90% Ag and 10% Cu. It was buried in elastic sediments beneath the oxidized zone, such that it reacted with sulfur released by sulfate-reducing bacteria. Consequently, the coin has been totally encapsulated in a mixture of sand, gravel, and shell fragments cemented by metal sulfides. The residual coin consists of silver with small interspersed micrometric grains of copper. Reaction of the dissolved metal with the bacterially generated diagenetic sulfur in the intergranular fluids resulted in extensive cementation of the sediment particles by Ag and Cu sulfides. In the 1-mm zone immediately adjacent to the coin, Cu-bearing acanthite occurs as concentric layers with intervening zones of sand and clay. Beyond this zone, acanthite formed from Ag dissolved from the coin occurs as a more or less continuous interstitial cement with local small islands of covellite, CuS. Copper also occurs as films of Cu carbonate on quartz grains, as isolated grains of jalpaite Ag{sub 3}CuS{sub 2}, stromeyerite AgCuS, mckinstryite (Ag,Cu){sub 2}S, and as atacamite Cu{sub 2}C1(OH){sub 3}, which rim and replace detrital carbonate grains. (author)

  9. Mineralogy and geochemistry of Bobov Dol coals, Bulgaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassilev, S.V.; Yossifova, M.G.; Vassileva, C.G. (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. of Applied Mineralogy)

    1994-10-01

    The mineralogy, elemental composition and modes of occurrence of 49 elements in nine composite samples of Bobov Dol high-ash coals were studied by optical microscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry and chemical analysis. The major minerals were quartz, kaolinite, illite, plagioclase and K-feldspar and the minor minerals and phases were pyrite, marcasite, siderite, calcite, dolomite, gypsum, muscovite, montmorillonite and volcanic glass. The accessory minerals include a wide variety of minerals, such as galena, pyrrhotite, magnetite, hematite, goethite, chromite, rutile, anatase, corundum, gibbsite, biotite, chlorite, zircon, enstatite, garnet, jarosite, alunite, barite, polyhalite, aragonite, ankerite, witherite, apatite, halite and sylvite. The modes of occurrence and some genetic peculiarities of the above-mentioned minerals are described. Thirty-three elements occurred in concentrations higher than the respective Clarke values; especially S, Rb, Nb, Hf, Zn, Cu, Pb, Mn, Ti and U. The concentration trends and modes of occurrence of the trace elements are also discussed. In decreasing order of significance, the trace elements probably occur as element-organic compounds, as impurities in the mineral constituents, as major components in the minerals, as major and impurity components in the inorganic amorphous constituents, and in the fluid constituents. The Bobov Dol coals have undergone complex syngetenic, diagenetic and epigenetic mineralization processes associated with hydrothermal and volcanic activities. These processes were also accompanied by intensive tectonic movements, and possibly, by a later change from continental to marine sedimentation in the area after burial of the coal. 38 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs., 5 plates.

  10. Petrography and mineralogy of new lunar meteorite MIL090036

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Lanfang; CHEN Hongyi; MIAO Bingkui; XIA Zhipeng; YAO Jie

    2014-01-01

    MIL090036 is a previously unknown meteorite (a feldspathic lunar breccia) that was discovered in Antarctica. The detailed petrography and mineralogy of this meteorite forms the subject of this paper. It has a typical clastic texture that consists of various types of rock debris (e.g. anorthosite, gabbroic anorthosite, gabbro, regolith breccia, troctolite, microporphyritic crystalline impact melt and compound clasts), mineral crystal fragments (e.g. pyroxenes, plagioclase, olivine and ilmenite) and feldspathic glass clasts. The ifne-grained recrystallized minerals and mineral clasts are cemented together in a glassy groundmass. The anorthite content of plagioclase in the gabbro (An81-83) and anorthosite (An88-93) both have relatively low calcium content compared to those from other breccias (An90-98). The pyroxene composition (Fs12-35 Wo3-44 En22-79) in the rock debris, crystal mineral clasts and anorthositic glass clasts are relatively iron-deifcient compared to those from gabbro debris with melt glass (Fs37-65 Wo10-29 En21-49) and groundmass (Fs18-69 Wo3-45 En14-50). In contrast, the pyroxene grains in the gabbroic anorthosite display a narrow compositional range (Fs24-27 Wo7-14 En59-69). Olivine grains in mineral fragments and the groundmass have a wider compositional range (Fo57-79) than those in the rock debris (Fo67-77). The Fe/Mn ratio in olivine is in the range of 47 to 83 (average 76) and 76 to 112 (average 73) in pyroxenes, and hence classify within the lunar ifeld. The characteristics of texture, mineral assemblage and compositions suggest that MIL090036 possibly originated from a region beyond that of the Apollo and Luna samples. Further study of MIL090036 is therefore likely to lead to a better understanding of the geological processes on the Moon and the chemical composition of the lunar crust.

  11. Chemical-mineralogical characterisation of coarse recycled concrete aggregate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limbachiya, M C; Marrocchino, E; Koulouris, A

    2007-01-01

    The construction industry is now putting greater emphasis than ever before on increasing recycling and promoting more sustainable waste management practices. In keeping with this approach, many sectors of the industry have actively sought to encourage the use of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) as an alternative to primary aggregates in concrete production. The results of a laboratory experimental programme aimed at establishing chemical and mineralogical characteristics of coarse RCA and its likely influence on concrete performance are reported in this paper. Commercially produced coarse RCA and natural aggregates (16-4 mm size fraction) were tested. Results of X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses showed that original source of RCA had a negligible effect on the major elements and a comparable chemical composition between recycled and natural aggregates. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses results indicated the presence of calcite, portlandite and minor peaks of muscovite/illite in recycled aggregates, although they were directly proportioned to their original composition. The influence of 30%, 50%, and 100% coarse RCA on the chemical composition of equal design strength concrete has been established, and its suitability for use in a concrete application has been assessed. In this work, coarse RCA was used as a direct replacement for natural gravel in concrete production. Test results indicated that up to 30% coarse RCA had no effect on the main three oxides (SiO2, Al2O3 and CaO) of concrete, but thereafter there was a marginal decrease in SiO2 and increase in Al2O3 and CaO contents with increase in RCA content in the mix, reflecting the original constituent's composition.

  12. East African magadi (trona): flouride concentration and mineralogical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Joan M.

    1999-08-01

    Magadi from Lake Magadi, Kenya, Lake Natron, Tanzania, Lake Katwe, Uganda, El-Atrun, Sudan and efflorescent crust from the soil surface (scooped magadi) from northern Tanzania have been analysed chemically to determine fluoride and carbonates concentrations and by X-ray diffraction to determine the mineralogical composition. Magadi from Lake Natron and Lake Magadi are found to be very similar consisting mainly of trona (CO 32- + HCO 3- > 10.4 meq [g magadi] -1) mixed with halite and either kogarkoite or villaumite, respectively, resulting in fluoride concentrations up to 8.7 mg F - [g magadi] -1. The scooped magadi is not as pure with respect to trona as the crystalline magadi, but the fluoride content is of same order of magnitude (0.23-5.1 mg F - [g magadi] -1). The scooped magadi consists of trona (CO 32- + HCO 3 = 3.5-9.5 meq [g magadi] -1) with different mixtures of halite, quartz, villiaumite, kogarkoite and thermonatrite. No fluoride containing minerals are identified in magadi from Uganda and Sudan, probably due to the very low fluoride concentrations of 0.02 and < O.24 mg (g magadi) -1, respectively, indicating that these samples are not contaminated with fluoride. The Sudanese magadi is a different mixture of trona, halite and quartz resulting in a variation in the carbonate concentration of 4.6-11.9 meq (g magadi) -1. The magadi from Lake Katwe consists of trona (CO 32- + HCO 3- = 7.0 meq [g magadi] -1) mixed with burkeite and halite.

  13. 1750m3高炉煤气除尘改造及TRT发电技术的应用%De-dusting System Improvement and TRT Technology Application on the 1750m3 Blast Furnaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹海刚; 许强

    2012-01-01

    介绍了济钢2座1750m3高炉煤气湿法改干法涂尘及TRT发电的主体设备、主要技术参数及取得的经济效益。%On the two 1750m3 blast furnaces of Jinan Iron and Steel Co., the wet BFG de-ducting system is replaced with the dry de-dusting system and the TRT generation unit is installed. These equipment and their technical data and economic benefits are presented.

  14. Horizontal-Branch Models and the Second-Parameter Effect. IV. The Case of M3 and Palomar 3

    CERN Document Server

    Catelan, M; Rood, R T

    2001-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the "second-parameter pair" of globular clusters M3 (NGC 5272) and Palomar 3. Our main results can be summarized as follows: i) The horizontal-branch (HB) morphology of M3 is significantly bluer in its inner regions (observed with the Hubble Space Telescope) than in the cluster outskirts (observed from the ground), i.e., M3 has an internal second parameter. Most plausibly the mass loss on the red giant branch (RGB) has been more efficient in the inner than in the outer regions of the cluster. ii) The dispersion in mass of the Pal 3 HB is found to be very small -- consistent with zero -- and we argue that this is unlikely to be due to a statistical fluctuation. It is this small mass dispersion that leads to the most apparent difference in the HB morphologies of M3 and Pal 3. iii) The relative HB types of M3 and Pal 3, as measured by mean colors or parameters involving the number of blue, variable, and red HB stars, can easily be accounted for by a fairly small difference in ag...

  15. Acetylcholine acts through M3 muscarinic receptor to activate the EGFR signaling and promotes gastric cancer cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huangfei; Xia, Hongwei; Tang, Qiulin; Xu, Huanji; Wei, Guoqing; Chen, Ying; Dai, Xinyu; Gong, Qiyong; Bi, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Acetylcholine (ACh), known as a neurotransmitter, regulates the functions of numerous fundamental central and peripheral nervous system. Recently, emerging evidences indicate that ACh also plays an important role in tumorigenesis. However, little is known about the role of ACh in gastric cancer. Here, we reported that ACh could be auto-synthesized and released from MKN45 and BGC823 gastric cancer cells. Exogenous ACh promoted cell proliferation in a does-dependent manner. The M3R antagonist 4-DAMP, but not M1R antagonist trihexyphenidyl and M2/4 R antagonist AFDX-116, could reverse the ACh-induced cell proliferation. Moreover, ACh, via M3R, activated the EGFR signaling to induce the phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and AKT, and blocking EGFR pathway by specific inhibitor AG1478 suppressed the ACh induced cell proliferation. Furthermore, the M3R antagonist 4-DAMP and darifenacin could markedly inhibit gastric tumor formation in vivo. 4-DAMP could also significantly enhance the cytotoxic activity of 5-Fu against the MKN45 and BGC823 cells, and induce the expression of apoptosis-related proteins such as Bax and Caspase-3. Together, these findings indicated that the autocrine ACh could act through M3R and the EGFR signaling to promote gastric cancer cells proliferation, targeting M3R or EGFR may provide us a potential therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer treatment. PMID:28102288

  16. Genetic environments of the transferable plasmid-mediated blaCTX-M-3 gene in Serratia marcescens isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Pei-Yu; Peng, Chien-Fang

    2014-01-01

    In this study, genetic environments of the transferable plasmid-mediated blaCTX-M-3 gene were characterized among 14 isolates of cefotaxime-resistant Serratia marcescens using PCR and BLAST DNA sequence analysis. A total of 3 types of genetic architectures in the regions surrounding this blaCTX-M-3 gene were identified. Type I architecture was characterized by the presence of a complete insertion sequence of tnpA-ISEcp1, identified as interrupting a reverse IS26 sequence in the upstream region of the blaCTX-M-3 gene. A reverse-directional orf477 fragment was located downstream of the blaCTX-M-3 gene, which was in the same direction of the mucA gene. A common region containing the orf513 element was located upstream of the mucA gene. Moreover, a copy of the 3'-CS2 element was located immediately upstream of the orf513 element. A novel complex class 1 integron was characterized by the presence of the dfrA19 gene, which was flanked by two copies of class 1 integrons. This is the first report to describe the dfrA19 gene within a novel complex class 1 integron in S. marcescens isolates from Taiwan. This novel complex class 1 integron structure was located distantly upstream of the blaCTX-M-3 gene.

  17. Hypocholesterolemic effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus M3 isolated from Tibetan mushrooms on diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhong Xie

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus M3 isolated from Tibetan mushrooms on diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats, female Wistar rats were fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD for 28 d to generate hyperlipidemic models. Hyperlipidemic rats were assigned to four groups, which were individually treated with three different dosages of K. marxianus M3+HCD or physiological saline+HCD via oral gavage for 28 d. The total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels in the serum and liver of the rats were measured using commercially available enzyme kits. In addition, the liver morphology was also examined using hematoxylin and eosin staining and optical microscopy. According to our results, the serum and liver TC, TG, LDL-C levels and atherogenic index (AI were significantly decreased in rats orally administered K. marxianus M3 (p <0.01, and the HDL-C levels and anti atherogenic index (AAI were significantly increased (p <0.01 compared to the control group. Moreover, K. marxianus M3 treatment also reduced the build-up of lipid droplets in the liver and exhibited normal hepatocytes, suggesting a protective effect of K. marxianus M3 in hyperlipidemic rats.

  18. Hypocholesterolemic effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus M3 isolated from Tibetan mushrooms on diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yuanhong; Zhang, Hongxing; Liu, Hui; Xiong, Lixia; Gao, Xiuzhi; Jia, Hui; Lian, Zhengxing; Tong, Nengsheng; Han, Tao

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the effects of Kluyveromyces marxianus M3 isolated from Tibetan mushrooms on diet-induced hypercholesterolemia in rats, female Wistar rats were fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) for 28 d to generate hyperlipidemic models. Hyperlipidemic rats were assigned to four groups, which were individually treated with three different dosages of K. marxianus M3+HCD or physiological saline+HCD via oral gavage for 28 d. The total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in the serum and liver of the rats were measured using commercially available enzyme kits. In addition, the liver morphology was also examined using hematoxylin and eosin staining and optical microscopy. According to our results, the serum and liver TC, TG, LDL-C levels and atherogenic index (AI) were significantly decreased in rats orally administered K. marxianus M3 (p <0.01), and the HDL-C levels and anti atherogenic index (AAI) were significantly increased (p <0.01) compared to the control group. Moreover, K. marxianus M3 treatment also reduced the build-up of lipid droplets in the liver and exhibited normal hepatocytes, suggesting a protective effect of K. marxianus M3 in hyperlipidemic rats.

  19. EFFECT OF Nb ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES OF SPRAY FORMED M3 HIGH SPEED STEEL%Nb对喷射成形M3型高速钢组织和性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于一鹏; 黄进峰; 崔华; 蔡元华; 张济山

    2012-01-01

    为了利用NbC的高硬度和高热稳定性,并避免其在凝固过程中的过分长大,采用喷射成形快速凝固技术制备了M3型高速钢和以Nb代V的M3型高速钢.利用SEM,EDX和XRD等方法研究了Nb对喷射成形M3型高速钢沉积态组织的影响;利用SRV高温摩擦磨损试验机和三维白光干涉表面形貌仪研究了Nb对喷射成形M3型高速钢摩擦磨损性能的影响.结果表明,用等原子分数的Nb替代V,可大幅增加沉积态中一次MC型碳化物,减少一次M2C型碳化物,同时由于喷射成形高冷速的作用,使得MC碳化物尺寸减小,分布更弥散;这些MC型碳化物的存在是M3型高速钢的抗磨粒磨损性能提高的主要原因,但其对抗氧化性能并无贡献,在高载荷时抗氧化剥落磨损能力增加不明显;Nb对提高M3高速钢回火稳定性也有明显的作用.%Spray forming with a short process chains has been proven to be a powerful tool for the production of high-alloyed materials. Niobium, as a strong former for the carbide, will mainly form primary MC carbides, such as NbC, which can be formed via the reaction between Nb and C atoms at the beginning of solidification, and it can act as the inoculants and refine the cast structure of steel which can mainly form primary MC carbides. M3 high speed steel with or without Nb addition were prepared via spray forming. The effect of Nb on the microstructure of spray formed M3 high speed steel was investigated by SEM, EDX and XRD methods; the friction performances of these two steels were studied by SRV high temperature tribometer and 3D white-light interfering profilometer. The results show that the amount of primary MC carbides can increase sharply while the reduction of the amount of primary M2C due to the substitution of 2% Nb for 1% V (mass fraction) in M3 high speed steel. For the high cooling rate during the spray forming, the primary MC carbides can be refined and dispersed. Large number of primary MC carbides

  20. Clay mineralogy, organic carbon burial, and redox evolution in Proterozoic oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosca, Nicholas J.; Johnston, David T.; Mushegian, Alexandra; Rothman, Daniel H.; Summons, Roger E.; Knoll, Andrew H.

    2010-03-01

    Clay minerals formed through chemical weathering have long been implicated in the burial of organic matter (OM), but because diagenesis and metamorphism commonly obscure the signature of weathering-derived clays in Precambrian rocks, clay mineralogy and its role in OM burial through much of geologic time remains incompletely understood. Here we have analyzed the mineralogy, geochemistry and total organic carbon (TOC) of organic rich shales deposited in late Archean to early Cambrian sedimentary basins. Across all samples we have quantified the contribution of 1 M and 1 Md illite polytypes, clay minerals formed by diagenetic transformation of smectite and/or kaolinite-rich weathering products. This mineralogical signal, together with corrected paleo-weathering indices, indicates that late Archean and Mesoproterozoic samples were moderately to intensely weathered. However, in late Neoproterozoic basins, 2 M1 illite/mica dominates clay mineralogy and paleo-weathering indices sharply decrease, consistent with an influx of chemically immature and relatively unweathered sediment. A late Neoproterozoic switch to micaceous clays is inconsistent with hypotheses for oxygen history that require an increased flux of weathering-derived clays (i.e., smectite or kaolinite) across the Precambrian-Cambrian boundary. Compared to previous studies, our XRD data display the same variation in Schultz Ratio across the late Neoproterozoic, but we show the cause to be micaceous clay and not pedogenic clay; paleo-weathering signals cannot be recovered from bulk mineralogy without this distinction. We find little evidence to support a link between these mineralogical variations and organic carbon in our samples and conclude that modal clay mineralogy cannot by itself explain an Ediacaran increase in atmospheric oxygen driven by enhanced OM burial.

  1. The RR Lyrae Star Period - K-band Luminosity Relation of the Globular Cluster M3

    CERN Document Server

    Butler, D J

    2003-01-01

    That the RR Lyrae star period -- K-band luminosity relation is a promising tool as a distance indicator in the Milky Way and Local Group of Galaxies is apparent on observational and theoretical grounds in the literature. Less clear is the sensitivity of the relation, and consequently the physics of horizontal branch stars, to differences in stellar environment. In this paper, the first measurement of the (fundamental) period -- K-band luminosity relation for the central region of a globular cluster is presented. It is based on a sample of seven RR Lyrae stars imaged with adaptive optics. In addition, the relation for the outer region has been reanalyzed, and is found to be in good agreement with both the previous estimate by Longmore et al. (1990), and with the inner region relation, especially when irregular and double-mode RR Lyrae stars are excluded. Importantly, there is no difference between the slope of the inner and outer region relation within measurement uncertainties, suggesting no difference in evo...

  2. High temperature EPR study of the M3Fe4V6O24 (M = Cu, Zn, Mg and Mn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guskos Niko

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectra of M3Fe4V6O24 (M = Cu, Zn, Mg and Mn compounds in high temperature range (293 K to 493 K have been investigated. The role of magnetic (Cu, Mn and non-magnetic (Zn, Mg ions in M3Fe4V6O24 structure in formation of magnetic resonance spectra was studied. Temperature dependence of EPR parameters: resonance field, linewidth and integrated intensity were examined. Similarities and differences in temperature behavior of these parameters has been discussed in terms of different relaxation mechanisms and magnetic interactions in the spin systems. An important role of additional magnetic ions (M = Mn or Cu in the M3Fe4V6O24 structure has been identified and its consequences considered.

  3. Expression of the M3 Muscarinic Receptor on Orexin Neurons that Project to the Rostral Ventrolateral Medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yu-Wen E; Lee, Yen-Hsien; Chen, Jennifer Y S; Lin, Yen-Kuang; Hwang, Ling-Ling

    2016-05-01

    Activation of central cholinergic receptors causes a pressor response in rats, and the hypothalamus is important for this response. Projections from hypothalamic orexin neurons to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) are involved in sympatho-excitation of the cardiovascular system. A small population of orexin neurons is regulated by cholinergic inputs through M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3 R). To elucidate whether the M3 R on orexin neurons is involved in cardiosympathetic regulation through the RVLM, we examined the presence of the M3 R on retrograde-labeled RVLM-projecting orexin neurons. The retrograde tracer was unilaterally injected into the RVLM. Within the hypothalamus, retrograde-labeled neurons were located predominantly ipsilateral to the injection side. In the anterior hypothalamus (-1.5 to -2.3 mm to the bregma), retrograde-labeled neurons were densely distributed in the paraventricular nuclei and scattered in the retrochiasmatic area. At -2.3 to -3.5 mm from the bregma, labeled neurons were located in the regions where orexin neurons were situated, that is, the tuberal lateral hypothalamic area, perifornical area, and dorsomedial nuclei. Very few retrograde-labeled neurons were observed in the hypothalamus at -3.5 to -4.5 mm from the bregma. About 19.5% ± 1.6% of RVLM-projecting neurons in the tuberal hypothalamus were orexinergic. The M3 R was present on 18.7% ± 3.0% of RVLM-projecting orexin neurons. Injection of a muscarinic agonist, oxotremorine, in the perifornical area resulted in a pressor response, which was attenuated by a pretreatment of atropine. We conclude that cholinergic inputs to orexin neurons may be involved in cardiosympathetic regulation through the M3 R on the orexin neurons that directly project to the RVLM.

  4. Mineralogy of Soils from Different Agroecological Regions of Bangladesh : Region 18–Young Meghna Estuarine Floodplain

    OpenAIRE

    Akter, Fouzia; Moslehuddin, Abu Zofar Md; Kader, Mohammed Abdul; Sarker, Md. Mosharaf Hossain; Mori, Yuki

    2015-01-01

    Bangladesh is consisting of 30 Agroecological Regions (AEZs) and the applied agricultural research has been conducted based on this. In context of the lack of enough information on mineralogy based on AEZs, an attempt has been taken to study the mineralogy of important soils from all AEZs of Bangladesh in order to provide basic information for applied research. As part of this attempt, the mineralogy of twenty four soils from three representative soil series (Ramgati, Hatiya and Silonia) of A...

  5. The "chessboard" classification scheme of mineral deposits: Mineralogy and geology from aluminum to zirconium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Harald G.

    2010-06-01

    metamorphic) and structures. Cross sections and images illustrate the common ore types of each commodity. Ore takes priority over the mineral. The minerals and host rocks are listed by their chemical and mineralogical compositions, respectively, separated from the text but supplemented with cross-references to the columns and lines, where they prevalently occur. A metallogenetic-geodynamic overview is given at the bottom of each column in the spreadsheet. It may be taken as the "sum" or the " mean" of a number of geodynamic models and ideas put forward by the various researchers for all the deposits pertaining to a certain clan of lithology or structure. This classical or conservative view of metallotects related to the common plate tectonic settings is supplemented by an approach taken for the first time for such a number of deposits, using the concepts of sequence stratigraphy. This paper, so as to say, is a "launch pad" for a new mindset in metallogenesis rather than the final result. The relationship supergene-hypogene and syngenetic-epigenetic has been the topic of many studies for ages but to keep them as separate entities is often unworkable in practice, especially in the so-called epithermal or near-surface/shallow deposits. Vein-type and stratiform ore bodies are generally handled also very differently. To get these different structural elements (space) and various mineralizing processes (time) together and to allow for a forward modeling in mineral exploration, architectural elements of sequence stratigraphy are adapted to mineral resources. Deposits are geological bodies which need accommodation space created by the environment of formation and the tectonic/geodynamic setting through time. They are controlled by horizontal to subhorizontal reference planes and/or vertical structures. Prerequisites for the deposits to evolve are thermal and/or mechanical gradients. Thermal energy is for most of the settings under consideration deeply rooted in the mantle. A

  6. Investigationof Clay Mineralogy, Micromorphology and Evolution of Soils in Bajestan Playa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghasemzadeh Ganjehie

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Playa is one of the most important landscapes in arid regions which covers about 1% of the world's total land area. Study of playas is important from different points of view especially pedology, sedimentology, mineralogy, environmental geology, groundwater and surface water chemistry. More than 60 playas have been identified in Iran. Considering the fact that playas and surrounding landforms are important archive of landscape evolution and paleoenvironmental variations, it seems that less attention has been paid to them so far. Soils are known as indicators of the landscapes evolution. Previous studies in arid regions of Iran imply different periods of deposition and soil formation in playa and alluvial fans or pediments. Bajestan playa is one of the known playa in northeastern Iran, and the largest clay flat exists in this playa. There is no information on the soils and their evolution in Bajestan playa. The objective of this study were to 1 identify the soils in different landforms along a transect from alluvial fan to clay in Bajestan playa 2 determine the morphological, micromorphological and mineralogical characteristics of these soils 3 determine the periods of soil and landform evolution and 4 comparison of soils evolution of the study area to other arid regions of Iran. Material and Methods: The study area of approximately 20000 hectares is located in southeastern of KhorasanRazavi province. The climate of the study area is hot and dry with mean annual temperature and rainfall of 17.3 °C and 193 mm, respectively. Soil moisture regime is aridic with subdivisions of weak aridic and soil temperature regime is thermic. Firstly, landforms and geomorphic surfaces of the study area were recognized based on Google Earth images interpretations and field observations. Four main landforms were recognized in the study area. The landforms from north to the south of the study area were alluvial fan, intermediate alluvial fan- clay flat

  7. Study and Implementation of Floating-point Operations Based on Cortex-M3 Core%Cortex-M3内核浮点型运算的研究与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅静静; 王申良

    2011-01-01

    通过分析Cortex-M3内核的结构与浮点型格式,充分利用Cortex-M3内核中的分支预测、单周期乘法、硬件除法等众多功能强大的特性,使用Thumb-2指令集实现了单精度浮点型的加、减、乘、除与比较运算,并给出了加减法运算的流程图和除法运算的源程序.%By analyzing the Cortex-M3 core structure and floating-point format, this paper uses the Thumb-2 instruction set to achieve addition, subtraction, multiplication, division and comparison operations of single-precision floating-point numbers, making full use of such powerful features of Cortex-M3 core as branch prediction, single-cycle multiplication and hardware division. The flow chart of addition and subtraction operations, as well as the source program of division operation, is provided.

  8. TREATMENT OF ABNORMAL TEMPERATURE RISE OF 1 800 m3 BF HEARTH%宣钢1800 m3高炉炉缸温度异常升高的处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武建新; 匡祎

    2014-01-01

    This paper is aimed at the abnormal temperature rise of the 1800m3 BF hearth carbon bricks . Through correct diagnosis of furnace body corrosion condition , such measures are taken as increasing tita-nium load into the furnace , enhancing cooling intensity , enhancing tap -hole maintenance to guarantee tap-hole depth , changing field on time while tapping and so on , many hidden safety troubles are elimi-nated , and long-time and smooth operation of the 1 800 m3 BF is guaranteed .%针对2013年1月16日宣钢1800 m3高炉炉缸碳砖温度大幅度异常升高。通过正确诊断炉体侵蚀状况,采取提高入炉钛负荷、提高冷却强度、加强铁口维护保证铁口深度、出铁及时倒场等多项护炉措施,消除了安全隐患,保证了1800 m3高炉炉况长期稳定顺行。

  9. M3(Au,Ge)19 and M(3.25)(Au,Ge)18 (M = Ca, Yb): distinctive phase separations driven by configurational disorder in cubic YCd6-type derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qisheng; Corbett, John D

    2010-05-17

    Exploratory syntheses in the M-Au-Ge (M = Ca, Yb) systems have led to the discovery of two cleanly separated non-stoichiometric phases M(3)Au(approximately 14.4)Ge(approximately 4.6) (I) and M(3.25)Au(approximately 12.7)Ge(approximately 5.3) (II). Single crystal X-ray studies reveal that both (space group Im3) feature body-centered-cubic packing of five-shell multiply endohedral clusters that resemble those in the parent YCd(6) (= Y(3)Cd(18)) and are akin to approximate phases in other quasicrystal systems. However, differences resulting from various disorders in these are distinctive. The innermost cluster in the M(3)Au(approximately 14.4)Ge(approximately 4.6) phase (I) remains a disordered tetrahedron, as in the YCd(6) parent. In contrast, its counterpart in the electron-richer M(3.25)Au(approximately 12.7)Ge(approximately 5.3) phase (II) is a "rattling" M atom. The structural differentiations between I and II exhibit strong correlations between lattice parameters, cluster sizes, particular site occupancies, and valence electron counts.

  10. Comparative study of AISI M3:2 high speed steel produced through different techniques of manufacturing; Estudo comparativo de acos rapidos AISI M3:2 produzidos por diferentes processos de fabricacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo Filho, Oscar Olimpio de

    2006-07-01

    In this work AISI M3:2 high speed steels obtained through different techniques of manufacturing, submitted to the same heat treatment procedure were evaluated by measuring their mechanical properties of transverse rupture strength and hardness. Sinter 23 obtained by hot isostatic pressing (HIP), VWM3C obtained by the conventional route and a M3:2 high speed steel obtained by cold compaction of water atomized powders and vacuum sintered with and without the addition of a small quantity of carbon were evaluated after the same heat treatment procedure. The vacuum sintered M3:2 high speed steel can be an alternative to the more expensive high speed steel produced by hot isostatic pressing and with similar properties presented by the conventional one. The characterization of the vacuum sintered M3:2 high speed steel was performed by measuring the densities of the green compacts and after the sintering cycle. The sintering produced an acceptable microstructure and densities near to the theoretical. The transverse rupture strength was evaluated by means of three point bending tests and the hardness by means of Rockwell C and Vickers tests. The technique of scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the microstructure and to establish a relation with the property of transverse rupture strength. The structure was determined by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and the retained austenite was detected to all the conditions of heat treatment. The main contribution of this work is to establish a relation between the microstructure and the mechanical property of transverse rupture strength and to evaluate the AISI M3:2 vacuum sintered high speed steel as an alternative to the similar commercial high speed steels. (author)

  11. Mineralogy and Petrology of Comet Wild 2 Nucleus Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zolensky, M E; Zega, T J; Yano, H; Wirick, S; Westphal, A J; Weisberg, M K; Weber, I; Warren, J L; Velbel, M A; Tsuchiyama, A; Tsou, P; Toppani, A; Tomioka, N; Tomeoka, K; Teslich, N; Taheri, M; Susini, J; Stroud, R; Stephan, T; Stadermann, F J; Snead, C J; Simon, S B; Siminovici, A; See, T H; Robert, F; Rietmeijer, F M; Rao, W; Perronnet, M C; Papanastassiou, D A; Okudaira, K; Ohsumi, K; Ohnishi, I; Nakanura-Messenger, K; Nakamura, T; Mostefaoui, S; Mikouchi, T; Meibom, A; Matrajt, G; Marcus, M A; Leroux, H; Lemelle, L; Le, L; Lanzirotti, A; Langenhorst, F; Krot, A N; Keller, L P; Kearsley, A T; Joswiak, D; Jacob, D; Ishii, H; Harvey, R; Hagiya, K; Grossman, L; Graham, G A; Gounelle, M; Gillet, P; Genge, M J; Flynn, G; Ferrior, T; Fallon, S; Ebel, D S; Dai, Z R; Cordier, P; Chi, M; Butterworth, A L; Brownlee, D E; Bridges, J C; Brennan, S; Brearley, A; Bradley, J P; Bleuet, P; Bland, P A; Bastien, R

    2006-10-11

    The bulk of the Wild 2 samples appear to be weakly-constructed mixtures of nanometerscale grains with occasional much larger (>1{micro}m) ferromagnesian silicates, Fe-Ni sulfides, Fe-Ni metal and accessory phases. The very wide range of olivine and low-Ca pyroxene compositions in Wild 2 require a wide range of formation conditions, probably reflecting different formation locations in the protoplanetary disk. The restricted compositional ranges of Fe-Ni sulfides, the wide range for silicates, and absence of hydrous phases indicate that Wild 2 experienced little or no aqueous alteration. Less abundant Wild 2 materials include a refractory particle, whose presence appears to require large-scale radial transport in the early protoplanetary disk. The nature of cometary solids is of fundamental importance to our understanding of the early solar nebula and protoplanetary history. Until now we have had to study comets from afar using spectroscopy, or settle for analyses of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) of uncertain provenance. We report here mineralogical and petrographic analyses of particles derived directly from Comet Wild 2. All of the Wild 2 particles we have thus far examined have been modified in various ways by the capture process. All particles that may have been loose aggregates, ''traveling sand piles'', disaggregated into individual components with the larger, denser components penetrating more deeply into the aerogel. Individual grains experienced a wide range of heating effects that range from excellent preservation to melting (Fig. 1); such behavior was expected (1, 2 ,3). What is remarkable is the extreme variability of these modifications and the fact that severely modified and unmodified materials can be found within a micrometer of each other, requiring tremendous local temperature gradients. Fortunately, we have an internal gauge of impact collection heating. Fe-Ni sulfides are ubiquitous in the Wild 2 samples, are very

  12. Mineralogy of two Cryosoils fromWestern Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakumov, E.; Sapega, V.

    2009-04-01

    Investigations of Antarctic Cryosoils are very urgent now in context of finishing of International Polar Year, assessment of soil resources on the Sixth Continent and prognosis of soil evolution and stability in changing climate. Two soils were investigated on two climatic regions of Western Antarcica. The first was in continental climate (station "Russkaya" 74.45 S., 136.48 W.) and the second in the sea-shore ecoclimatic region (station "Leningradskaya", 69.30 S., 159.23 E.). In first case soils were described as thin (max 3 cm) coarse gravel low humus content layer, presented by sporadical spots of Cryosoils on the debrises of gneises iwth permafrost on the depth about 30 cm. The second soil was located in three polypedons situated in micro depressions on the gneises and basalts rocks with permafros depth about 35 cm. Soils was identified as Cryosoils on gneises, the solum thickness is more than 10 cm. On the base of soil mineralogical study the following peculiarities of Antarctic soils were revealed: - initial parent materials consists of quarts, spates, byotyte, granate and augite, - the ratio of coarse to thin fraction (on the diameter 1 mm) was 90:1 and 80:2 in Russkaya nad Leningradskaya stations correspondingly, which shows that the weathering process is more expressed in sea-shore ecoclimatic region. - "iron films" formation on the surface of stones, this process mostly expressed on the northern exposed slopes, which have a good insolation. Iron films presented by hetite and pyrolisite and mostly expessed in Russkaya station with extra-arid climate, - clay minerals was presented by: smectite (K-Na and Ca-Mg types), illite, chlorite and kaolinite, with some portion of mixedlayer fraction These data shows that the weathering process in very intensive and simultaneously going with new clay and amorphous minerals formation, in both cases of continental and sea-shore climatic environments. That is why it is possible to conclude that main soil formation process

  13. Mineralogy of the Santa Fe Tin deposit, Bolivia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Franco, Abigail; Alfonso, Pura; Canet, Carles; Garcia-Valles, Maite; Elvys Trujillo, Juan

    2014-05-01

    Santa Fe is a Sn-Zn-Pb-Ag ore deposit located in the Oruro district, Central Andean Tin Belt, Bolivia. Mineralization occurs in veins and disseminations. It is hosted in Silurian shales and greywackes. The sedimentary sequence is folded and unconformably covered by a volcanic complex of the Morococala Formation, mainly constituted by tuffs of Miocene age. A wide Nº40 shear zone and two systems of fracture are developed. A Nº40 fracture system, dipping 60ºW, which hosts Sn and Zn minerals, and other in the same direction but dipping 75ºE, which is related to Zn-Pb-Ag veins. The mineralization is associated to intrusive felsic magmatism. Although there are not intrusive rocks in Santa Fe, a dyke and the felsic San Pablo stock occur at a distance of about 10 km. In the present work we describe the geology and mineralogy of the Santa Fe deposit. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analyses were used to characterize the minerals. Veins are filled with quartz and an ore mineral assemblage of cassiterite, sulfides and sulfosalts. Cassiterite constitutes the earliest formed mineralization. Preliminar microprobe analyses indicate that it is nearly pure, with negligible contents in Nb and Ta. Rutile occurs as a late phase associated with a late generation of cassiterite. It forms thin neddle-like crystals. In addition, Sn is also present in sulfides as stannite, stannoidite and kësterite. Other sulfides are pyrrhotite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, galena, sphalerite, marchasite and argentite. Bismuthinite and berndite are found nin trace amounts. Sulfosalts include tetrahedrite, myarhyrite, boulangerite, jamesonite, franckeite, zinckenite, cilindrite and andorite. Associated with the mineralization, several phosphate minerals are found filling cavities and small fractures. The most abundant are monacite (Ce,La,Nd,Th)PO4 and plumbogummite (PbAl3(PO4)2(OH)5•(H2O)). Crandallite CaAl3(PO4)2(OH)5•(H2O) and vivianite (Fe3+(PO4)2•8(H2O)) also

  14. Mapping soil magnetic susceptibility and mineralogy in Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menshov, Oleksandr; Pereira, Paulo; Kruglov, Oleksandr; Sukhorada, Anatoliy

    2017-04-01

    Soil suatainable planning is fundamental for agricultural areas. Soil mapping and modeling are increasingly used in agricultural areas in the entire world (Brevik et al., 2016). They are beneficial to land managers, to reduce soil degradation, increase soil productivity and their restoration. Magnetic susceptibility (MS) methods are low cost and accurate for the developing maps of agricultural areas.. The objective of this work is to identify the minerals responsible for MS increase in soils from the two study areas in Poltava and Kharkiv region. The thermomagnetic analyses were conducted using the KLY-4 with an oven apparatus. The hysteresis parameters were measured with the Rotating Magnetometer at the Geophysical Centre Dourbes, Belgium. The results showed that all of samples from Kharkiv area and the majortity of the samples collected in Poltava area represent the pseudo single domain (PSD) zone particles in Day plot. According to Hanesch et al. (2006), the transformation of goethite, ferrihydrite or hematite to a stronger ferrimagnetic phase like magnetite or maghemite is common in strongly magnetic soils with high values of organic carbon content. In our case of thermomagnetic study, the first peak on the heating curve near 260 ˚C indicates the presence of ferrihydrite which gradually transforms into maghemite (Jordanova et al., 2013). A further decrease in the MS identified on the heating curve may be related to the transformation of the maghemite to hematite. A second MS peak on the heating curve near 530 ˚C and the ultimate loss of magnetic susceptibility near 580 ˚C were caused by the reduction of hematite to magnetite. The shape of the thermomagnetic curves suggests the presence of single domain (SD) particles at room temperature and their transformation to a superparamagnetic (SP) state under heating. Magnetic mineralogical analyses suggest the presence of highly magnetic minerals like magnetite and maghemite as well as slightly magnetic goethite

  15. CCD-Based XRD/XRF for Determining Environmental Mineralogy on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Bish, D. L.; Blake, D. F.; Chipera, S. J.

    2000-01-01

    Health effects from Martian dusts will be a concern for any manned Mars missions. Nuisance dusts plagued the Apollo astronauts, but dusts of more hazardous mineralogy, in habitats occupied by Mars astronauts weakened by a long-duration mission, may be more than a nuisance. Chemical hazards in Martian regolith attributable to S, Cl, Br, Cd, and Pb are known or strongly suspected to be present, but terrestrial studies of the health effects of dusts indicate that accurate determination of mineralogy is a critical factor in evaluating inhalation hazards. Mineral inhalation hazards such as the Group-I carcinogenic zeolite erionite, which is demonstrated to cause mesothelioma, cannot be identified by chemical analysis alone. Studies of palagonite analogs raise the possibility that erionite may occur on Mars. In addition to health effects concerns, environmental mineralogy has significant importance in resource extraction, groundwater use, and sustained agriculture. The high sulfur and chlorine content of Martian regolith will affect all of these uses, but the nature of mineralogic reservoirs for S and Cl will determine their uptake and concentration in extracted groundwater and in agricultural applications of regolith. Wet chemistry experiments planned for the Mars Environmental Compatibility Assessment (MECA) will define some of the consequences of water/soil interaction, but an understanding of the mineralogic basis for water-rock reactions is needed to understand the mechanisms of reaction and to apply the results of a few experiments to larger scales and different conditions.

  16. Mineralogic Zonation Within the Tuff Confining Unit, Yucca Flat, Nevada Test Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lance Prothro

    2005-09-01

    Recently acquired mineralogic data from drill hole samples in Yucca Flat show that the tuff confining unit (TCU) can be subdivided into three mineralogic zones based on the relative abundances of primary and secondary mineral assemblages. These zones are (1) an upper zone characterized by the abundance of the zeolite mineral clinoptilolite with lesser amounts of felsic and clay minerals; (2) a middle zone with felsic minerals dominant over clinoptilolite and clay minerals; and (3) a basal argillic zone where clay minerals are dominant over felsic minerals and clinoptilolite. Interpretation of the mineralogic data, along with lithologic, stratigraphic, and geophysical data from approximately 500 drill holes, reveals a three-layer mineralogic model for the TCU that shows all three zones are extensive beneath Yucca Flat. The mineralogic model will be used to subdivide the TCU in the Yucca Flat hydrostratigraphic framework model, resulting in a more accurate and versatile framework model. In addition, the identification of the type, quantity, and distribution of minerals within each TCU layer will permit modelers to better predict the spatial distribution and extent of contaminant transport from underground tests in Yucca Flat, at both the level of the hydrologic source term and the corrective action unit.

  17. Influence of mineralogical and heavy metal composition on natural radionuclide concentrations in the river sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, G; Ramasamy, V; Meenakshisundaram, V; Venkatachalapathy, R; Ponnusamy, V

    2011-10-01

    The natural radiation level has been determined for the sediment samples of the Ponnaiyar River with an aim of evaluating the radiation hazard. The mineralogical characterizations of the sediments have been carried out using the Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic technique. The relative distribution of major minerals is determined by calculating extinction coefficient. The concentration and spatial distribution of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, Cu, Zn and Ni) have been studied to understand the heavy metal contamination and its level of toxicity. To evaluate the potential toxicity, heavy metal concentrations are compared with different toxicological and geological reference values. The comparison results suggest that the present metals create an adverse effect on the aquatic ecosystems associated with this river. To assess the sediment contamination due to the studied heavy metals, the Pollution Load Index (PLI) is calculated. Multivariate Statistical analyses (Pearson Correlation, Cluster and Factor analysis) were carried out between the parameters obtained from radioactivity, mineralogical and geochemical analysis to know the existing relations. Obtained results showed that the effect of mineralogy on level of radioactivity should be significant. However, mineralogy effect on heavy metal composition in the sediments should be limited, indicating that other factors such as vicinity of the pollution sources are more important. Also, the influence of mineralogical characterization on level of radioactivity is significant, whereas the influence of the heavy metal composition on level of radioactivity should be limited.

  18. Optimization and Quality Control of Automated Quantitative Mineralogy Analysis for Acid Rock Drainage Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Pooler

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Low ore-grade waste samples from the Codelco Andina mine that were analyzed in an environmental and mineralogical test program for acid rock drainage prediction, revealed inconsistencies between the quantitative mineralogical data (QEMSCAN® and the results of geochemical characterizations by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS, LECO® furnace, and sequential extractions. For the QEMSCAN® results, biases were observed in the proportions of pyrite and calcium sulfate minerals detected. An analysis of the results indicated that the problems observed were likely associated with polished section preparation. Therefore, six different sample preparation protocols were tested and evaluated using three samples from the previous study. One of the methods, which involved particle size reduction and transverse section preparation, was identified as having the greatest potential for correcting the errors observed in the mineralogical analyses. Further, the biases in the quantities of calcium sulfate minerals detected were reduced through the use of ethylene glycol as a polishing lubricant. It is recommended that the sample preparation methodology described in this study be used in order to accurately quantify percentages of pyrite and calcium sulfate minerals in environmental mineralogical studies which use automated mineralogical analysis.

  19. Correlating Mineralogy and Amino Acid Contents of Milligram-Scale Murchison Carbonaceous Chondrite Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Aaron, S.; Berger, Eve L.; Locke, Darren R.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2015-01-01

    Amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, have been found to be indigenous in most of the carbonaceous chondrite groups. The abundances of amino acids, as well as their structural, enantiomeric and isotopic compositions differ significantly among meteorites of different groups and petrologic types. This suggests that there is a link between parent-body conditions, mineralogy and the synthesis and preservation of amino acids (and likely other organic molecules). However, elucidating specific causes for the observed differences in amino acid composition has proven extremely challenging because samples analyzed for amino acids are typically much larger ((is) approximately 100 mg powders) than the scale at which meteorite heterogeneity is observed (sub mm-scale differences, (is) approximately 1-mg or smaller samples). Thus, the effects of differences in mineralogy on amino acid abundances could not be easily discerned. Recent advances in the sensitivity of instrumentation have made possible the analysis of smaller samples for amino acids, enabling a new approach to investigate the link between mineralogical con-text and amino acid compositions/abundances in meteorites. Through coordinated mineral separation, mineral characterization and highly sensitive amino acid analyses, we have performed preliminary investigations into the relationship between meteorite mineralogy and amino acid composition. By linking amino acid data to mineralogy, we have started to identify amino acid-bearing mineral phases in different carbonaceous meteorites. The methodology and results of analyses performed on the Murchison meteorite are presented here.

  20. Geochemical and mineralogical maps for soils of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Cannon, William F.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Solano, Federico; Ellefsen, Karl J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey began sampling in 2007 for a low-density (1 site per 1,600 square kilometers, 4,857 sites) geochemical and mineralogical survey of soils in the conterminous United States as part of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project. The sampling protocol for the national-scale survey included, at each site, a sample from a depth of 0 to 5 centimeters, a composite of the soil A horizon, and a deeper sample from the soil C horizon or, if the top of the C horizon was at a depth greater than 1 meter, a sample from a depth of approximately 80–100 centimeters. The elements by methods that yield the total or near-total elemental content. The major mineralogical components in the samples from the soil A and C horizons were determined by a quantitative X-ray diffraction method using Rietveld refinement. Sampling in the conterminous United States was completed in 2010, with chemical and mineralogical analyses completed in May 2013. The resulting data set provides an estimate of the abundance and spatial distribution of chemical elements and minerals in soils of the conterminous United States and represents a baseline for soil geochemistry and mineralogy against which future changes may be recognized and quantified. This report releases geochemical and mineralogical maps along with a histogram, boxplot, and empirical cumulative distribution function plot for each element or mineral.

  1. Measurements at the Planetary Emissivity Laboratory in Support of MARA and the TIR Imager on the JAXA Hayabusa II Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbert, J.; Maturilli, A.; Grott, M.; Knollenberg, J.; Okada, T.; Kührt, E.

    2012-03-01

    At the Planetary Emissivity Laboratory (PEL) at DLR we perform measurements on analog materials to explore the possibility of mineralogical studies with the thermal infrared imager and the radiometer MARA (MAscot RAdiometer) on MASCOT.

  2. Discovery of Eclipsing Binary Central Stars in the Planetary Nebulae M 3-16, H 2-29 and M 2-19

    CERN Document Server

    Miszalski, B; Moffat, A F J; Parker, Q A; Udalski, A

    2008-01-01

    Progress in understanding the formation and evolution of planetary nebulae (PN) has been restricted by a paucity of well-determined central star masses. To address this deficiency we aim to (i) significantly increase the number of known eclipsing binary central stars of PN (CSPN), and subsequently (ii) directly obtain their masses and absolute dimensions by combining their light-curve parameters with planned radial velocity data. Using photometric data from the third phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) we have searched for periodic variability in a large sample of PN towards the Galactic Bulge using Fourier and phase-dispersion minimisation techniques. Among some dozen periodically variable CSPN found, we report here on three new eclipsing binaries: M 3-16, H 2-29 and M 2-19. We present images, confirmatory spectroscopy and light-curves of the systems.

  3. Reactor Dosimetry Applications Using RAPTOR-M3G:. a New Parallel 3-D Radiation Transport Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoni, Gianluca; Anderson, Stanwood L.

    2009-08-01

    The numerical solution of the Linearized Boltzmann Equation (LBE) via the Discrete Ordinates method (SN) requires extensive computational resources for large 3-D neutron and gamma transport applications due to the concurrent discretization of the angular, spatial, and energy domains. This paper will discuss the development RAPTOR-M3G (RApid Parallel Transport Of Radiation - Multiple 3D Geometries), a new 3-D parallel radiation transport code, and its application to the calculation of ex-vessel neutron dosimetry responses in the cavity of a commercial 2-loop Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). RAPTOR-M3G is based domain decomposition algorithms, where the spatial and angular domains are allocated and processed on multi-processor computer architectures. As compared to traditional single-processor applications, this approach reduces the computational load as well as the memory requirement per processor, yielding an efficient solution methodology for large 3-D problems. Measured neutron dosimetry responses in the reactor cavity air gap will be compared to the RAPTOR-M3G predictions. This paper is organized as follows: Section 1 discusses the RAPTOR-M3G methodology; Section 2 describes the 2-loop PWR model and the numerical results obtained. Section 3 addresses the parallel performance of the code, and Section 4 concludes this paper with final remarks and future work.

  4. Lead generation using pharmacophore mapping and three-dimensional database searching: application to muscarinic M(3) receptor antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, D P; Dougall, I G; Meghani, P; Liu, Y J; Flower, D R

    1999-08-26

    By using a pharmacophore model, a geometrical representation of the features necessary for molecules to show a particular biological activity, it is possible to search databases containing the 3D structures of molecules and identify novel compounds which may possess this activity. We describe our experiences of establishing a working 3D database system and its use in rational drug design. By using muscarinic M(3) receptor antagonists as an example, we show that it is possible to identify potent novel lead compounds using this approach. Pharmacophore generation based on the structures of known M(3) receptor antagonists, 3D database searching, and medium-throughput screening were used to identify candidate compounds. Three compounds were chosen to define the pharmacophore: a lung-selective M(3) antagonist patented by Pfizer and two Astra compounds which show affinity at the M(3) receptor. From these, a pharmacophore model was generated, using the program DISCO, and this was used subsequently to search a UNITY 3D database of proprietary compounds; 172 compounds were found to fit the pharmacophore. These compounds were then screened, and 1-[2-(2-(diethylamino)ethoxy)phenyl]-2-phenylethanone (pA(2) 6.67) was identified as the best hit, with N-[2-(piperidin-1-ylmethyl)cycohexyl]-2-propoxybenz amide (pA(2) 4. 83) and phenylcarbamic acid 2-(morpholin-4-ylmethyl)cyclohexyl ester (pA(2) 5.54) demonstrating lower activity. As well as its potency, 1-[2-(2-(diethylamino)ethoxy)phenyl]-2-phenylethanone is a simple structure with limited similarity to existing M(3) receptor antagonists.

  5. Mineralogical and Geochemical Investigations in the Perm State University (1916 – 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Iblaminov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The history of foundation and development of mineralogical and geochemical sciences on the Mineralogy and Petrography Department of the Perm State University for 100 years is presented. The achievements in the alluvial mineralogy and nanomineralogy are characterised. Relationship of development in the area of geochemical research on early stage with the European scientific school is discussed. The next stage is characterized by transition to investigations of trace elements and usage of the modern analytic base for environmental geochemistry. Petrographic and lithologic investigations have become the base for paleotectonic reconstruction of the Western Urals area. The study of distribution of mineral resources has been conducted on the base of specific minerageodynamic concept. The principles of minerageodinamic investigation of oil and gas basins, and methodology of reservoir study using modern technology were developed. The contribution of individual scientists in development in different scientific areas is illustrated.

  6. Geochemical and mineralogical data for soils of the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David B.; Cannon, William F.; Woodruff, Laurel G.; Solano, Federico; Kilburn, James E.; Fey, David L.

    2013-01-01

    In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a low-density (1 site per 1,600 square kilometers, 4,857 sites) geochemical and mineralogical survey of soils of the conterminous United States as part of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project. Sampling and analytical protocols were developed at a workshop in 2003, and pilot studies were conducted from 2004 to 2007 to test and refine these recommended protocols. The final sampling protocol for the national-scale survey included, at each site, a sample from a depth of 0 to 5 centimeters, a composite of the soil A horizon, and a deeper sample from the soil C horizon or, if the top of the C horizon was at a depth greater than 1 meter, from a depth of approximately 80–100 centimeters. The elements by methods that yield the total or near-total elemental content. The major mineralogical components in the samples from the soil A and C horizons were determined by a quantitative X-ray diffraction method using Rietveld refinement. Sampling in the conterminous United States was completed in 2010, with chemical and mineralogical analyses completed in May 2013. The resulting dataset provides an estimate of the abundance and spatial distribution of chemical elements and minerals in soils of the conterminous United States and represents a baseline for soil geochemistry and mineralogy against which future changes may be recognized and quantified. This report (1) describes the sampling, sample preparation, and analytical methods used; (2) gives details of the quality control protocols used to monitor the quality of chemical and mineralogical analyses over approximately six years; and (3) makes available the soil geochemical and mineralogical data in downloadable tables.

  7. 高顶压技术在莱钢1000m3高炉的应用%Application of High Top Pressure Technology in Laigang 1000 m3 Blast Furnace

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丰巧

    2015-01-01

    高压操作是强化高炉冶炼的一项重要措施,利于高炉炉况稳定顺行、提高煤气利用率,莱钢1000 m3高炉通过加强原料管理、增加鼓风动能、加强炉前管理等措施提高炉顶压力,取得了显著的经济效益。%High pressure operation is an important measure to strengthen the blast furnace smelting of blast furnace, can be conducive to the stable operation and the exploitation rate of gas.By improving raw material management, increasing the en-ergy of blast furnace, strengthening management measures to strengthen blast furnace top pressure, remarkable economic benefits has been achieved for Laigang 1000 m3 furnace.

  8. Development of Protection System Preventing 60 000 m3 Air Compressor from Stall%60000m3空压机喘振保护系统的研发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学波

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the reason and harm of air compressor stall in detail ,and elaborates the principle of the anti-stall control system .A protection system for 60 000 m3 air compressor is set up .By using the function of DCS and PLC ,we can make the control of compressor fast and reliable .This work has important reference value to the other anti-stall control systems .%简述了喘振的原理及危害。详细阐述了防喘振系统的控制原理,并建立了60000 m3空压机的保护系统,利用DCS和PLC的强大功能实现快速可靠的控制,对其他系统的防喘振控制有着重要的参考价值。

  9. M3 version 3.0: Verification and validation; Hydrochemical model of ground water at repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Javier B. (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)); Laaksoharju, Marcus (Geopoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden)); Skaarman, Erik (Abscondo, Bromma (Sweden)); Gurban, Ioana (3D-Terra (Canada))

    2009-01-15

    Hydrochemical evaluation is a complex type of work that is carried out by specialists. The outcome of this work is generally presented as qualitative models and process descriptions of a site. To support and help to quantify the processes in an objective way, a multivariate mathematical tool entitled M3 (Multivariate Mixing and Mass balance calculations) has been constructed. The computer code can be used to trace the origin of the groundwater, and to calculate the mixing proportions and mass balances from groundwater data. The M3 code is a groundwater response model, which means that changes in the groundwater chemistry in terms of sources and sinks are traced in relation to an ideal mixing model. The complexity of the measured groundwater data determines the configuration of the ideal mixing model. Deviations from the ideal mixing model are interpreted as being due to reactions. Assumptions concerning important mineral phases altering the groundwater or uncertainties associated with thermodynamic constants do not affect the modelling because the calculations are solely based on the measured groundwater composition. M3 uses the opposite approach to that of many standard hydrochemical models. In M3, mixing is evaluated and calculated first. The constituents that cannot be described by mixing are described by reactions. The M3 model consists of three steps: the first is a standard principal component analysis, followed by mixing and finally mass balance calculations. The measured groundwater composition can be described in terms of mixing proportions (%), while the sinks and sources of an element associated with reactions are reported in mg/L. This report contains a set of verification and validation exercises with the intention of building confidence in the use of the M3 methodology. At the same time, clear answers are given to questions related to the accuracy and the precision of the results, including the inherent uncertainties and the errors that can be made

  10. M3 version 3.0: Verification and validation; Hydrochemical model of ground water at repository site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, Javier B. (Dept. of Earth Sciences, Univ. of Zaragoza, Zaragoza (Spain)); Laaksoharju, Marcus (Geopoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden)); Skaarman, Erik (Abscondo, Bromma (Sweden)); Gurban, Ioana (3D-Terra (Canada))

    2009-01-15

    Hydrochemical evaluation is a complex type of work that is carried out by specialists. The outcome of this work is generally presented as qualitative models and process descriptions of a site. To support and help to quantify the processes in an objective way, a multivariate mathematical tool entitled M3 (Multivariate Mixing and Mass balance calculations) has been constructed. The computer code can be used to trace the origin of the groundwater, and to calculate the mixing proportions and mass balances from groundwater data. The M3 code is a groundwater response model, which means that changes in the groundwater chemistry in terms of sources and sinks are traced in relation to an ideal mixing model. The complexity of the measured groundwater data determines the configuration of the ideal mixing model. Deviations from the ideal mixing model are interpreted as being due to reactions. Assumptions concerning important mineral phases altering the groundwater or uncertainties associated with thermodynamic constants do not affect the modelling because the calculations are solely based on the measured groundwater composition. M3 uses the opposite approach to that of many standard hydrochemical models. In M3, mixing is evaluated and calculated first. The constituents that cannot be described by mixing are described by reactions. The M3 model consists of three steps: the first is a standard principal component analysis, followed by mixing and finally mass balance calculations. The measured groundwater composition can be described in terms of mixing proportions (%), while the sinks and sources of an element associated with reactions are reported in mg/L. This report contains a set of verification and validation exercises with the intention of building confidence in the use of the M3 methodology. At the same time, clear answers are given to questions related to the accuracy and the precision of the results, including the inherent uncertainties and the errors that can be made

  11. Restoration of Bottom Plate Leakage at 80,000 m3 Wiggins Gasholder%8万m3威金斯煤气柜柜底板泄漏修复

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董永涛

    2015-01-01

    8万m3威金斯柜在生产运行中柜底板发生泄漏,采取临时措施封堵后效果不佳,为了避免事态扩大停柜检修,针对柜底板蜂窝状腐蚀,以托补钢板的形式予以加强,消除煤气泄漏的安全隐患.

  12. Práctica de la mineralogía óptica

    OpenAIRE

    Parra Sánchez, Luis Norberto

    1986-01-01

    Resumen: El presente documento contiene los procedimientos más comunes de la mineralogía óptica acompañados de las tablas de mayor utilidad y por lo tanto lo único que pretende es agrupar técnicas y aclarar posibles dudas sobre el uso de la terminología. El contenido hace parte del curso regular de mineralogía óptica dictado en la Universidad Nacional y ha sido el resultado de varios años en la práctica de esta materia

  13. 基于ARM Cortex-M3的步进电机线性速度控制的实现%The Realization of Linear Speed Control of Stepper Motor Based on ARM Cortex-M3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗鑫; 张峰

    2009-01-01

    Conex-M3是ARM公司最新推出的基于ARMy7体系架构的处理核.步进电机已被广泛的应用于速度、位置等控制领域.本文实现了基于Codex-M3内核处理器的步进电机的线性速度控制.针对步进电机控制过程中易出现的失步和过冲现象,提出了一种步进电机加减速控制算法.首先,在Codex-M3内核处理器上移植了μCOS-Ⅱ实时操作系统.在此基础上,利用系统的API接口函数用程序实现了加减速控制算法,并最终实现了对两路步进电机的控制.

  14. Mineralogy and thermal properties of clay from Slatina (Ub, Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosevic, Maja; Logar, Mihovil; Kaludjerovic, Lazar; Jelic, Ivana

    2017-04-01

    The "Slatina" deposit, Ub, Serbia was opened in 1965 and represents one of few deposits exploited by "Kopovi" a.d., Ub, company. Deposit is composed of clay layers belonging to Neogene sediments that are widespread transgressive over granitoid rocks of Cer mountain and Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments. Clay is mostly of illite-montmorillonite-kaolinite type and they are generally used as ceramic materials while some of the layers are used as fire-resistant materials. In this study we present mineralogical and thermal characterization of two samples to determine their application as industrial materials. Chemical and mineral composition was determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), X-ray diffraction (XRD) on powder and oriented samples, infrared spectroscopy (IR) and granulometry. Cationic exchange capacity (CEC) and specific surface area (SSA) was determined using spectrophotometry and methylene blue (MB). Thermal properties where determined by gravimetry (120, 350, 600 and 1000 oC) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Quantitative mineral composition obtained by Rietveld refinement of combined chemical and XRD data shows that the sample 1(SC) is mainly smectite-illite (45%) and kaolinite (14%) clay with 19% of quartz, 10% feldspars and 7% of limonite, while sample 2(SV) is smectite-illite (43%) and kaolinite (11%) clay with 10% of quartz, 15% feldspars and 7% of limonite. Both samples have low content of impurities (carbonate minerals). Medium grain size (μm) goes from 1.02 (SSA = 104 m2/g) for sample 1(SC) to 0.71 (SSA = 117 m2/g) for sample 2(SV) while their CEC is 12.7 and 14.9 mmol/100g for 1(SC) and 2(SV) respectively. IR spectra of the samples shows larger amount of smectite clays with quartz and carbonate minerals for both samples which is in accordance with XRD data. DTA data shows couple of events that are endothermic. First one (100-200 oC) is associated with loss of moisture and constitutive water, second

  15. Insights into the stratigraphy of Mars' northern plains from impact crater mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Lu; Ehlmann, Bethany; Carter, John; Ernst, Carolyn; CRISM Team

    2016-10-01

    The northern lowland of Mars has an ancient basement, buried underneath widespread Hesperian lavas and outflow channel sediments, and may have recorded geologic and aqueous activity related to global climate, e.g., the existence of a northern ocean. To better understand the geologic record of this depositional basin, we conducted a comprehensive survey of the mineralogy of northern plains impact craters, using 1905 images covering 689 impact craters, acquired by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) onboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Mafic minerals are detected in 33% of all the craters, and hydrated minerals in 10% of the craters. Thus, though the northern plains surface is relatively spectrally homogeneous, the subsurface is spectrally diverse and includes a set of mafic (olivine and pyroxene) and hydrated minerals (Fe/Mg phyllosilicate, chlorite/prehnite, hydrated silica etc.) similar to the southern highlands. The distribution of hydrated minerals, especially Fe/Mg phyllosilicates, is more concentrated in large craters, while mafic minerals are relatively insensitive to crater size. This is consistent with a deeper origin for hydrated minerals compared to mafic minerals, or alternatively the post-impact formation of hydrated minerals due to impact-induced hydrothermal alteration only in the largest craters. Under the assumption of excavation from depth, we calculate the possible origin of these hydrated minerals to be -5000 ~ -6000 m relative to the global Mars Orbital Laser Altimeter (MOLA) datum, possibly representing the ancient basement buried by 1-2 km layer with mafic minerals. In contrast, the mafic materials are derived from only ~200 m deep. We also delineate several distinct topographic and geographic provinces. The large number of mafic mineral detections in Chryse Planitia probably indicates the influence of a local volcanic source; and Arcadia and Amazonis Planitiae probably have been resurfaced more recently

  16. [Biological experiments in flights of unmanned space craft Foton-M2 and Foton-M3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyin, E A

    2013-01-01

    Missions of unmanned spacecraft Foton-M2 (2005) and Foton-M3 (2007) of 16 and 12 days in duration, respectively, provided an opportunity to conduct the Russian/US experiments with snails (Helix lucorum and Helix aspera), newts (Pleurodeles waltli), geckos (Pachydactilus turneri) and microorganisms (Streptomyces lividans 66, E. coli and others). Besides, Foton-M3 carried a Russian experiment with Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). Objectives of the space experiments were to study the micro-g effects on the living systems' behavior, structure and functioning, post-traumatic regeneration of bone and organs, stable inheritance of plasmid pIJ 702, and melanin pigment synthesis by streptomycets. The survey paper presents the major findings of a large team of investigators.

  17. Mineralogy of evaporite deposits on Mars: Constraints from laboratory, field, and remote measurements of analog terrestrial acid saline lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, N.; Núñez, J. I.; Seelos, F. P., IV; Hook, S. J.; Baldridge, A. M.; Thomson, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Remote compositional data from imaging spectrometers such as CRISM, OMEGA, and TES, and high-resolution imagery from MOC, CTX, and HiRISE have provided invaluable information for improving our understanding of the composition and geologic history of the martian surface and identifying potential past and present habitable environments on Mars. Simulated CRISM spectra and summary parameter maps and HiRISE color images were generated using airborne hyperspectral data of two acid-saline lakes in Western Australia. These locations are applicable to Mars, as they contain a suite of clays, sulfates, and salts formed under variable pH and salinity - mineralogies similar to those observed in Noachian and Hesperian terrain. The remote datasets were used to make surface composition predictions which were then verified through field study and sample analysis. We find phyllosilicates intermixed with sulfates in sulfate-rich surfaces exhibit variable spectral responses, even for similar conditions and abundances seen in the field. Where sulfates, such as gypsum and alunite, are found, phyllosilicates are intermixed or reside beneath the surface yet are not always detected. This suggests that geologic complexities may mask phyllosilicate detection at or near the surface on Mars where only sulfates have so far been found.

  18. Electrochemical properties of mixed conducting (La,M)(CoFe) oxide perovskites (M=3DSr, Ca, and Ba)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevenson, J.W.; Armstrong, T.R.; Bates, J.L. [and others

    1996-04-01

    Electrical properties and oxygen permeation properties of solid mixed-conducting electrolytes (La,M)(CoFe) oxide perovskites (M=3DSr, Ca, and Ba) have been characterized. These materials are potentially useful as passive membranes to separate high purity oxygen from air and as the cathode in a fuel cell. Dilatometric linear expansion measurements were performed as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure to evaluate the stability.

  19. The Armys M-1 Abrams, M-2/M-3 Bradley, and M-1126 Stryker: Background and Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    entered service with the Army in 1980; the M-2/M-3 Bradley Fighting Vehicle in 1981; and the Stryker Combat Vehicle in 2001. Under current Army... Under current Army modernization plans, the Army envisions all three vehicles in service with Active and National Guard forces beyond FY2028...Information from this section, unless otherwise noted, is taken from Jane’s Armour and Artillery, 2011-2012, pp.177- 185, and the author’s personal

  20. Inhalation by design: dual pharmacology β-2 agonists/M3 antagonists for the treatment of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lyn H; Baldock, Helen; Bunnage, Mark E; Burrows, Jane; Clarke, Nick; Coghlan, Michele; Entwistle, David; Fairman, David; Feeder, Neil; Fulton, Craig; Hilton, Laura; James, Kim; Jones, Rhys M; Kenyon, Amy S; Marshall, Stuart; Newman, Sandra D; Osborne, Rachel; Patel, Sheena; Selby, Matthew D; Stuart, Emilio F; Trevethick, Michael A; Wright, Karen N; Price, David A

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes the successful design and development of dual pharmacology β-2 agonists-M3 antagonists, for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder using the principles of 'inhalation by design'. A key feature of this work is the combination of balanced potency and pharmacodynamic duration with desirable pharmacokinetic and material properties, whilst keeping synthetic complexity to a minimum. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Implications for Damage Recognition during Dpo4-Mediated Mutagenic Bypass of m1G and m3C Lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechkoblit, Olga; Delaney, James C.; Essigmann, John M.; Patel, Dinshaw J. (MIT); (MSKCC)

    2012-05-08

    DNA is susceptible to alkylation damage by a number of environmental agents that modify the Watson-Crick edge of the bases. Such lesions, if not repaired, may be bypassed by Y-family DNA polymerases. The bypass polymerase Dpo4 is strongly inhibited by 1-methylguanine (m1G) and 3-methylcytosine (m3C), with nucleotide incorporation opposite these lesions being predominantly mutagenic. Further, extension after insertion of both correct and incorrect bases, introduces additional base substitution and deletion errors. Crystal structures of the Dpo4 ternary extension complexes with correct and mismatched 3'-terminal primer bases opposite the lesions reveal that both m1G and m3C remain positioned within the DNA template/primer helix. However, both correct and incorrect pairing partners exhibit pronounced primer terminal nucleotide distortion, being primarily evicted from the DNA helix when opposite m1G or misaligned when pairing with m3C. Our studies provide insights into mechanisms related to hindered and mutagenic bypass of methylated lesions and models associated with damage recognition by repair demethylases.

  2. Drop by drop backscattered signal of a 50 × 50 × 50 m3 volume: A numerical experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gires, A.; Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.

    2016-09-01

    The goal of this paper is to analyse the influence of individual drop positions on a backscattered radar signal. This is achieved through a numerical experiment: a 3D rain drop field generator is developed and implemented over a volume of 50 × 50 × 50 m3, and then the sum of the electromagnetic waves backscattered by its hydrometeors is computed. Finally the temporal evolution over 1 s is modelled with simplistic assumptions. For the rainfall generator, the liquid water content (LWC) distribution is represented with the help of a multiplicative cascade down to 0.5 m, below which it is considered as homogeneous. Within each 0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 m3 patch, liquid water is distributed into drops, located randomly uniformly according to a pre-defined drop size distribution (DSD). Such configuration is compared with the one consisting of the same drops being uniformly distributed over the entire 50 × 50 × 50 m3 volume. Due to the fact that the radar wave length is much smaller than the size of a rainfall "patch", it appears that, in agreement with the theory, we retrieve an exponential distribution for potential measures on horizontal reflectivity. Much thinner dispersion is noticed for differential reflectivity. We show that a simple ballistic assumption for drop velocities does not enable the reproduction of radar observations, and turbulence should be taken into account. Finally the sensitivity of these outputs to the various model parameters is quantified.

  3. The surface accessibility of the glycine receptor M2-M3 loop is increased in the channel open state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J W; Han, N L; Haddrill, J; Pierce, K D; Schofield, P R

    2001-04-15

    Mutations in the extracellular M2-M3 loop of the glycine receptor (GlyR) alpha1 subunit have been shown previously to affect channel gating. In this study, the substituted cysteine accessibility method was used to investigate whether a structural rearrangement of the M2-M3 loop accompanies GlyR activation. All residues from R271C to V277C were covalently modified by both positively charged methanethiosulfonate ethyltrimethylammonium (MTSET) and negatively charged methanethiosulfonate ethylsulfonate (MTSES), implying that these residues form an irregular surface loop. The MTSET modification rate of all residues from R271C to K276C was faster in the glycine-bound state than in the unliganded state. MTSES modification of A272C, L274C, and V277C was also faster in the glycine-bound state. These results demonstrate that the surface accessibility of the M2-M3 loop is increased as the channel transitions from the closed to the open state, implying that either the loop itself or an overlying domain moves during channel activation.

  4. Mineralogy and pore water chemistry of a boiler ash from a MSW fluidized-bed incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodénan, F; Guyonnet, D; Piantone, P; Blanc, P

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the mineralogy and pore water chemistry of a boiler ash sampled from a municipal solid waste fluidized-bed incinerator, subject to 18 months of dynamic leaching in a large percolation column experiment. A particular focus is on the redox behaviour of Cr(VI) in relation to metal aluminium Al(0), as chromium may represent an environmental or health hazard. The leaching behaviour and interaction between Cr(VI) and Al(0) are interpreted on the basis of mineralogical evolutions observed over the 18-month period and of saturation indices calculated with the geochemical code PhreeqC and reviewed thermodynamic data. Results of mineralogical analyses show in particular the alteration of mineral phases during leaching (e.g. quartz and metal aluminium grains), while geochemical calculations suggest equilibria of percolating fluids with respect to specific mineral phases (e.g. monohydrocalcite and aluminium hydroxide). The combination of leaching data on a large scale and mineralogical analyses document the coupled leaching behaviour of aluminium and chromium, with chromium appearing in the pore fluids in its hexavalent and mobile state once metal aluminium is no longer available for chromium reduction.

  5. Arsenic in New England: Mineralogical and geochemical studies of sources and enrichment pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Foley, Nora K.

    2003-01-01

    Detailed mineralogical, geochemical and radiogenic isotopic studies of iron-sulfide and secondary iron oxy-hydroxide minerals in natural bedrock in coastal Maine and New Hampshire test the link between arsenic-rich sulfide minerals in bedrock and secondary oxy-hydroxide minerals. Samples were selected from over 70 bedrock localities, including 22 within the regionally extensive and sulfide-mineral-rich Penobscot Formation and 10 associated with mineral deposits from coastal New Hampshire and Maine, and coupled with data from drill core collected at several sites including areas where well waters contain anomalous As abundances (e.g., Northport, ME). The data were used to establish a diversity of primary and secondary mineralogical hosts for arsenic in bedrock of this part of New England. The studies show that bedrock mineralogy is critical to contributing arsenic to groundwater and suggest a number of mineralogical pathways for arsenic that define weathering processes. The studies show that lead isotopic compositions of the sulfides and iron oxy-hydroxides overlap and establish a genetic link between the sulfides and secondary minerals. The data and interpretive results were presented at Arsenic in New England -- A multidisciplinary Scientific Conference, Manchester, New Hampshire, May 29-31, 2002, sponsored by the New Hampshire Consortium on Arsenic, are available in abstract and poster (full size = 84 by 36 inch sheet) formats.

  6. X-ray diffraction results from mars science laboratory: Mineralogy of rocknest at Gale crater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bish, D.L.; Blake, D.F.; Vaniman, D.T.; Chipera, S.J.; Morris, R.V.; Ming, D.W.; Treiman, A.H.; Sarrazin, P.; Morrison, S.M.; Downs, R.T.; Achilles, C.N.; Yen, A.S.; Bristow, T.F.; Crisp, J.A.; Morookian, J.M.; Farmer, J.D.; Rampe, E.B.; Stolper, E.M.; Spanovich, N.; MSL Science Team, the

    2013-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity scooped samples of soil from the Rocknest aeolian bedform in Gale crater. Analysis of the soil with the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) x-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument revealed plagioclase (~An57), forsteritic olivine (~Fo62), augite, and pigeonite, w

  7. Ground Truth Mineralogy vs. Orbital Observations at the Bagnold Dune Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilles, C. N.; Downs, R. T.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Morris, R. V.; Treiman, A. H.; Morrison, S. M.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Bristow, T. F.

    2017-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity, is analyzing rock and sediments in Gale crater to provide in situ sedimentological, geochemical, and mineralogical assessments of the crater's geologic history. Curiosity's recent traverse through an active, basaltic eolian deposit, informally named the Bagnold Dunes, provided the opportunity for a multi-instrument investigation of the dune field.

  8. Size, surface texture, chemical composition and mineralogy interrelations in ferromanganese nodules of central Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Banakar, V.K.; Pattan, J.N.; Jauhari, P.

    Fiftyseven ferromanganese nodules, classified into 3 size class (4,4-6 and 6-8 cm diam.), from the siliceous sediments of central Indian Ocean were analysed for transition metals and representative sample from each size class for mineralogy. Smaller...

  9. Christian Herrgen y la institucionalización de la mineralogía en Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parra, Dolores

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the goals of the scientific policy of the governments of the Borbones were that of favors the disciplines subject to be applied for the necessary stimulus of the Spanish economy. Such it was the case of the Mineralogy, science that was developed and imparted in several scientific cultured institutions. One of these centers were the Cabinet of Natural History from Madrid, in which the work of the German specialist Christian Herrgen contributed to the institutionalization of the Spanish Mineralogy.

    Uno de los objetivos de la política científica de los gobiernos borbones fue la de potenciar aquellas disciplinas susceptibles de ser aplicadas en el necesario fomento de la economía española. Tal fue el caso de la Mineralogía, ciencia que fue desarrollada e impartida en varias instituciones científicas ilustradas. Uno de estos centros fue el Gabinete de Historia Natural de Madrid, en el que la labor del especialista alemán Christian Herrgen contribuyó a la institucionalización de la mineralogía española.

  10. Mineralogical, Spectral, and Compositional Changes During Heating of Hydrous Carbonaceous Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, T.; Matsuoka, M.; Yamashita, S.; Sato, Y.; Mogi, K.; Enokido, Y.; Nakata, A.; Okumura, S.; Furukawa, Y.; Zolensky, M.

    2017-01-01

    Hydrous carbonaceous chondrites experienced hydration and subsequent dehydration by heating, which resulted in a variety of mineralogical and spectral features [e. g., 1-6]. The degree of heating is classified according to heating stage (HS) II to IV based on mineralogy of phyllosilicates [2], because they change, with elevating temperature, to poorly crystal-line phases and subsequently to aggregates of small secondary anhydrous silicates of mainly olivine. Heating of hydrous carbonaceous chondrites also causes spectral changes and volatile loss [3-6]. Experimental heating of Murchison CM chondrite showed flattening of whole visible-near infrared spectra, especially weakening of the 3µm band strength [1, 4, 7]. In order to understand mineralogical, spectral, and compositional changes during heating of hydrous carbonaceous chondrites, we have carried out systematic investigation of mineralogy, reflectance spectra, and volatile composition of hydrated and dehydrated carbonaceous chondrites as well as experimentally-heated hydrous carbonaceous chondrites. In addition, we investigated reflectance spectra of tochilinite that is a major phase of CM chondrites and has a low dehydration temperature (250degC).

  11. Prediction of potential compressive strength of Portland clinker from its mineralogy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svinning, K.; Høskuldsson, Agnar; Justnes, H.

    2010-01-01

    Based on a statistical model first applied for prediction of compressive strength up to 28 d from the microstructure of Portland cement, potential compressive strength of clinker has been predicted from its mineralogy. The prediction model was evaluated by partial least squares regression. The mi...

  12. Mineralogy by X-ray Diffraction on Mars: The Chemin Instrument on Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaniman, D. T.; Bristow, T. F.; Bish, D. L.; Ming, D. W.; Blake, D. F.; Morris, R. V.; Rampe, E. B.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; Morrison, S. M.; Achilles, C. N.; Downs, R. T.; Farmer, J. D.; Crisp, J. A.; Morookian, J. M.; Des Marais, D. J.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Sarrazin, P.; Yen, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    To obtain detailed mineralogy information, the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity carries CheMin, the first X-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument used on a planet other than Earth. CheMin has provided the first in situ XRD analyses of full phase assemblages on another planet.

  13. Mineralogical analyses in various caves from the Băile Herculane area, the Cerna Passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Marincea

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we intend to show results from the mineralogical analyses performed on samples from three caves in the Baile Herculane area. All minerals presented here are described for the first time in the cave from which they were sampled.

  14. Ashes from oily sewage sludge combustion: chemistry, mineralogy and leaching properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Polc

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the current paper the chemical and mineralogical properties of bottom ash and fly ash from oily sewage sludge combustion are investigated. The mineralogical composition and the morphology of ashes were determined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD in combination with scanning electron microscopy with quantitative energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis (SEM-EDX. In addition, a leaching test results are presented to shed light on the potential toxicity of studied materials and their impact on the environment is discussed. Both of the studied materials are final products of thermal oxidation at industrial sludge incinerator. This facility aims to sanitary disposal of mechanical and biological sludge from industrial wastewater treatment plant. Bottom ash and fly ash are relatively stable solid products with slightly different chemical and mineralogical composition that reflects their different origin – burning condition in furnace vs. flues gas cleaning technology. Leaching tests of both mentioned materials were implemented under laboratory conditions. The aim of the laboratory tests was to determine the possibility of the pollutants release into the environment. The data presented herein support the importance of detailed mineralogical and geochemical study for the better understanding of the leaching tests. The obtained results showed that both of the sewage sludge ash samples exceed the criteria for accepting waste in landfilles established for Slovakia.

  15. Weathering trends and parent material characteristics of polygenetic oxisols from Minas Gerais, Brazil: I. Mineralogy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muggler, C.C.; Buurman, P.; Doesburg, van J.D.J.

    2007-01-01

    In geologically stable areas in the tropics, climatic changes and geomorphic cycles give origin to polygenetic soils. Polygenesis involves new soil formation phases taking place on preweathered materials from previous phases, resulting in soils with rather similar chemical and mineralogical properti

  16. Detailed description of oil shale organic and mineralogical heterogeneity via fourier transform infrared mircoscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, Kathryn E.; Birdwell, Justin E.; Foster, Michael; Gutierrez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Mineralogical and geochemical information on reservoir and source rocks is necessary to assess and produce from petroleum systems. The standard methods in the petroleum industry for obtaining these properties are bulk measurements on homogenized, generally crushed, and pulverized rock samples and can take from hours to days to perform. New methods using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy have been developed to more rapidly obtain information on mineralogy and geochemistry. However, these methods are also typically performed on bulk, homogenized samples. We present a new approach to rock sample characterization incorporating multivariate analysis and FTIR microscopy to provide non-destructive, spatially resolved mineralogy and geochemistry on whole rock samples. We are able to predict bulk mineralogy and organic carbon content within the same margin of error as standard characterization techniques, including X-ray diffraction (XRD) and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Validation of the method was performed using two oil shale samples from the Green River Formation in the Piceance Basin with differing sedimentary structures. One sample represents laminated Green River oil shales, and the other is representative of oil shale breccia. The FTIR microscopy results on the oil shales agree with XRD and LECO TOC data from the homogenized samples but also give additional detail regarding sample heterogeneity by providing information on the distribution of mineral phases and organic content. While measurements for this study were performed on oil shales, the method could also be applied to other geological samples, such as other mudrocks, complex carbonates, and soils.

  17. Sand and clay mineralogy of sal forest soils of the Doon Siwalik Himalayas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mukesh; R K Manhas; A K Tripathi; A K Raina; M K Gupta; S K Kamboj

    2011-02-01

    The peteromineralogical characterization of the soil was carried out for the 12 soil profiles exposed in the Shorea robusta dominated forests of the Siwalik forest division, Dehradun. The quartz was observed as the dominating light mineral fraction (64–80%) in all the profiles studied. Biotite, hornblende, zircon, tourmaline, rutile and opaques comprising of iron minerals constituted the heavy mineral fraction (20%). The mineralogy of both the sand and clay fractions revealed a mixed mineralogy. The clay minerals in the order of their dominance were vermiculite, illite, kaolinite and mixed layer minerals. The presence of vermiculite and illite in appreciable quantities indicates that these were synthesized from the K-rich soil solution, as orthoclase and micas were present in significant quantities in the sand minerals. The mineral suites identified in the study shows that the geological, climatological and topographical factors of the region collectively played a dominant role in their formation and transformation. After critical appraisal of the results, it may be deduced that the mineralogical composition, physicochemical properties and total elemental analysis of the soils do not show any deficiency of the bases and other plant nutrients in general. The inherent fertility of the soil is good as indicated by the sand and clay mineralogy of the soil and the biotite and feldspar together with the mica is an important source of nutrients for the vegetation in the soils of the Doon valley.

  18. Mineralogical Characteristics of Specimens of a Meteorwrong Fall from NW Iran

    CERN Document Server

    Pourkhorsandi, Hamed

    2014-01-01

    In the early hours of October 22, 2011, people of a small town in NW Iran, called Khameneh (38{\\deg}11'47" N, 45{\\deg}38'14" E) noticed sounds of some colliding objects to home roofs and yard floors. Mineralogical investigations revealed the terrestrial and man-made origin of these stony samples.

  19. Geochemical and mineralogical data for soils of the conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — In 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey began a low-density (1 site per 1,600 sq. km., 4857 sites) geochemical and mineralogical survey of soils of the conterminous...

  20. Structural and electronic properties of reduced transition metal oxide clusters, M3O8 and M3O8- (M = Cr, W), from photoelectron spectroscopy and quantum chemical calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shenggang; Zhai, Hua-Jin; Wang, Lai-Sheng; Dixon, David A

    2009-10-22

    We report a comparative study of reduced transition metal oxide clusters, M(3)O(8)(-) (M = Cr, W) anions and their neutrals, via anion photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) and density functional theory (DFT) and molecular orbital theory (CCSD(T)) calculations. Well-resolved PES spectra are obtained for M(3)O(8)(-) (M = Cr, W) at 193 and 157 nm photon energies. Different PES spectra are observed for M = Cr versus M = W. Extensive DFT and CCSD(T) calculations are performed to locate the ground and low-lying excited states for the neutrals and anions. The ground states of Cr(3)O(8) and Cr(3)O(8)(-) are predicted to be the (3)B(2) and (4)B(2) states of a C(2v) structure, respectively, revealing ferromagnetic spin coupling for Cr 3d electrons. In contrast, the ground states of W(3)O(8) and W(3)O(8)(-) are predicted to be the (1)A' state (C(s) symmetry) and the (2)A(1) state (C(2v) symmetry), respectively, showing metal-metal d-d bonding in the anion. The current cluster geometries are in qualitative agreement with prior DFT studies at the PBE level for M = Cr and the B3LYP level for M = W. The BP86 and PW91 functionals significantly outperform the B3LYP functional for the Cr species, in terms of relative energies, electron detachment energies, and electronic excitation energies, whereas the B3LYP functional is better for the W species. Accurate heats of formation for the ground states of M(3)O(8) are calculated from the clustering energies and the heats of formation of MO(2) and MO(3). The energetics have been used to predict redox reaction thermochemistry.

  1. Design of Instrument Lathe Control System Based on CORTEX-M3 Technology%基于CORTEX-M3技术的仪表车床控制系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李香泉; 刘浪; 洪耀球

    2012-01-01

    采用了基于CORTEX-M3核的STM32F103VCT6 ARM芯片作为核心,实现4轴步进电机控制功能,同时系统还实现了与基于MODBUS RTU协议的文本显示或工业触摸屏的通信功能,以及获取相关输入信号和控制继电器功能.

  2. 8×104m3威金斯转炉煤气柜密封膜破损修复处理%Renovation the Broken Sealing Membrane of 8×104m3 Wiggins Converter Gas Tank

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王树奇; 张军; 刘芳荣

    2013-01-01

    文章介绍了8× 104m3威金斯转炉煤气柜发生密封膜破损泄漏事故,分析了密封膜损坏的原因分析.希望通过此次事故,能提高运行人员和点检人员对八万转炉煤气柜的高度认识和密切关注,在以后的工作当中,避免此类事情的发生.

  3. Phylomineralogy of the coralline red algae: correlation of skeletal mineralogy with molecular phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A M; Sutherland, J E; Kregting, L; Farr, T J; Winter, D J

    2012-09-01

    The coralline algae in the orders Corallinales and Sporolithales (subclass Corallinophycidae), with their high degree of mineralogical variability, pose a challenge to projections regarding mineralogy and response to ocean acidification. Here we relate skeletal carbonate mineralogy to a well-established phylogenetic framework and draw inferences about the effects of future changes in sea-water chemistry on these calcified red algae. A collection of 191 coralline algal specimens from New Zealand, representing 13 genera and 28 species, included members of three families: Corallinaceae, Hapalidiaceae, and Sporolithaceae. While most skeletal specimens were entirely calcitic (range: 73-100 wt.% calcite, mean 97 wt.% calcite, std dev=5, n=172), a considerable number contained at least some aragonite. Mg in calcite ranged from 10.5 to 16.4 wt.% MgCO(3), with a mean of 13.1 wt.% MgCO(3) (std dev=1.1, n=172). The genera Mesophyllum and Lithophyllum were especially variable. Growth habit, too, was related to mineralogy: geniculate coralline algae do not generally contain any aragonite. Mg content varied among coralline families: the Corallinaceae had the highest Mg content, followed by the Sporolithaceae and the Hapalidiaceae. Despite the significant differences among families, variation and overlap prevent the use of carbonate mineralogy as a taxonomic character in the coralline algae. Latitude (as a proxy for water temperature) had only a slight relationship to Mg content in coralline algae, contrary to trends observed in other biomineralising taxa. Temperate magnesium calcites, like those produced by coralline algae, are particularly vulnerable to ocean acidification. Changes in biomineralisation or species distribution may occur over the next few decades, particularly to species producing high-Mg calcite, as pH and CO(2) dynamics change in coastal temperate oceans.

  4. Skeletal mineralogy of coral recruits under high temperature and pCO2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Foster

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aragonite, which is the polymorph of CaCO3 precipitated by modern corals during skeletal formation, has a higher solubility than the more stable polymorph calcite. This higher solubility leaves animals that produce aragonitic skeletons more vulnerable to anthropogenic ocean acidification. It is therefore, important to determine whether scleractinian corals have the plasticity to adapt and produce calcite in their skeletons in response to changing environmental conditions. Both high pCO2 and lower Mg / Ca ratios in seawater are thought to have driven changes in the skeletal mineralogy of major marine calcifiers in the past ∼540 myr. Experimentally reduced Mg / Ca ratios in ambient seawater have been shown to induce some calcite precipitation in both adult and newly settled modern corals, however, the impact of high pCO2 on the mineralogy of recruits is unknown. Here we determined the skeletal mineralogy of one-month old Acropora spicifera coral recruits grown under high temperature (+3 °C and pCO2 (∼900 μatm conditions, using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. We found that newly settled coral recruits produced entirely aragonitic skeletons regardless of the treatment. Our results show that elevated pCO2 alone is unlikely to drive changes in the skeletal mineralogy of young corals. Not having an ability to switch from aragonite to calcite precipitation may leave corals and ultimately coral reef ecosystems more susceptible to predicted ocean acidification. An important area for prospective research would be to investigate the combined impact of high pCO2 and reduced Mg / Ca ratio on coral skeletal mineralogy.

  5. Mineral Supertrumps: A new card game to assist learning of mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spandler, C.

    2015-12-01

    Mineralogy is considered one of the cornerstone subjects of geoscience curriculum. It provides the basic information from which we can understand the composition and behaviour of Earth and planetary materials, yet many students struggle to obtain adequate comprehension and knowledge of mineralogy during tertiary degree programs. Here, I introduce a new card game called "Mineral Supertrumps" that can be used to assist teaching of mineralogy at secondary and tertiary level. The card game is easy to learn and play, and is designed to promote active learning in a group environment. The game involves 3 to 6 people, and is similar to the "Top Trumps™" card games. The pack consists of 54 mineral cards, and 6 supertrump cards. Each mineral card includes information about the mineral such as the generic chemical formula, the classification, crystal system, the geological environment where the mineral is commonly found or formed, as well as information in the five playing categories (or trumps) of Hardness, Specific Gravity, Cleavage, Crustal Abundance, and Economic Value. The first three playing categories relate to distinct physical properties of the mineral, while last two categories rate the importance of the mineral in terms of abundance in the Earth's crust and value to modern societies. Results of a formal evaluation of the game by students in the second year of a tertiary geology program indicate that the game has clear benefits for learning about mineralogy. The majority of students enjoyed playing the game and considered it to be effective for enhancing learning about mineral properties and their application to other Earth Science disciplines. Therefore, inclusion of "Mineral Supertrumps" into Earth Science curriculum at secondary or tertiary level has the potential to redress the difficulties students face in learning of mineralogy, while requiring little to no adjustment to existing teaching programs.

  6. lOT Data Acquisition Substation for forestry ecology monitor Based on Cortex- M3%Cortex—M3的生态物联网数据采集分站设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李骏慧; 陶华; 俞哲伟; 宋军

    2011-01-01

    The IOT(Internet of things)data acquisition substation for forestry ecology monitor is proposed, which employs the Cortex- M3 processor as the CPU. Digital temperature humidity sensor, smoke sensor, C()2 sensor and digital luminance sensor are employed to acquire the environment information which is related with forestry ecology. Then the sensors data are collected by LM3S811 and ID of substation is added to data packet. Further more, LM3SSll transmits the data packet to servers using RF module.%以Cortex—M3处理器LM3S811为核心,设计了面向森林生态监测的物联网数据采集终端分站系统。通过单总线数字式温湿度传感器、烟雾传感器、CO2传感器和环境光亮度传感器分别采集温度、湿度、可燃性颗粒物、CO2含量和光照等与林木生态相关的环境信息和林场防火的相关信息。由LM3S81l处理器处理并添加分站ID和校验码后,采用无线模块传送给服务器。

  7. 100 m3/min往复式空压机长周期安全稳定运行研究%Study on Long, Safe and Stable Operation of 100 m3/min Reciprocating Air Compressor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈山

    2015-01-01

    介绍了安徽晋煤中能化工股份有限公司100 m3/min往复式空压机的工况,针对影响机组长周期稳定、安全运行的问题,采取了优化设备结构和工艺结构的措施,优化结果表明:年创造经济效益16.28万元,实现了节能降耗的目的。%This paper introduces the working conditions of 100 m3/min reciprocating air compressor of Anhui Jinmei Zhongneng Chemical Co. , Ltd. To solve the problem affecting long, safe and stable operation of the unit, the author optimizes the structures of the equipment and the process. The opti-mization results show that it has gained 162 800 RMB yuan/a economic benefit and achieved its energy-saving and consumption-reducing purpose.

  8. 石家庄陕鼓2×40000m^3/h空分设备设计优化%Optimized design of Shijiazhuang Shaanxi Blower Group 2 ×40000m^3/h air separation plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张岑; 卢子学

    2012-01-01

    At design stage of Shijiazhuang Shaanxi Blower Group 2 ×40000m^3/h air separation plants, it found unreasonable design in the nitrogen compression and supply system, air compressor vent silencer, and connection mode for feeding boosted air to plate-fin type heat exchanger, as well as the factors impairing stable and safe operation of the product continuous supply and air separation plant. Here, the optimization measures taken for the unreasonable factors are described, which puts a sound basis for stable run of the air separation plant.%在石家庄陕鼓2×40000m^3/h空分设备设计阶段,发现氮气压缩和供应系统、空压机放空消声器以及增压空气进板翅式换热器的连接方式设计不舍理,存在影响产品连续供应和空分设备稳定、安全运行的因素。介绍对这些不合理因素所采取的优化措施,为空分设备建成后稳定运行奠定基础。

  9. 3500m3/h绞吸挖泥船甲板机舱振动分析与优化%Analysis and Optimization of Deck Cabin Vibration in 3 500 m3/h Cutter Suction Dredger

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炜

    2015-01-01

    针对3500 m3/h绞吸式挖泥船的甲板机舱异常振动问题,建立机舱结构有限元模型,进行振动模态分析,发现甲板下支柱与柴油机工作频率耦合引起的共振是导致甲板机舱异常振动的主要原因,进行甲板机舱结构和立柱位置的优化,检测表明,优化后的结构有效避开了共振频率,振动速度峰值和加速度大幅下降,优化效果良好。%In view of abnormal vibration on deck engine room of 3 500 m3/h cutter suction dredger, the FE structural model of the engine room is established.Via the analysis of mode of vibration, resonance coupling of working frequency of the diesel en-gine with the pillar under deck is the primary cause for abnormal vibration of deck engine room.So the location of pillars is rede-signed to avoid the resonant frequency.The test results verify that the peaks of vibration acceleration and velocity are sharply de-creased;the effects of optimization are satisfactory.

  10. Logic control of molecular sieve purification system of 65000m3· h-1 air separation plant%65000m3·h-1空分设备分子筛纯化系统逻辑控制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玉芹

    2012-01-01

    The structure and technical process of molecular sieve purification system of 65000m3/ an air separation plant of Hebi coal and electeicity 600 ktpa methanol project are briefed, automatic valve closing / opening logical control of molecular sieve purification system, automatic / manual operation sequence control program,implementation of the sequence control program and optimized reform of the sequence control configuration program of the molecular sieve absorber in accordance with site operation conditions are described.%简介鹤壁煤电股份有限公司化工分公司空分厂65000m3·h-1空分设备分子筛纯化系统结构和工艺流程,介绍分子筛纯化系统阀门自动开关控制逻辑、顺控程序自动/手动运行、顺控程序执行过程,以及根据现场生产运行实际情况,对分子筛吸附器顺控组态程序进行的优化改进.

  11. Design of Low-cost LCD Touch Screen Based on Cortex-M3%基于Cortex-M3的低成本液晶触摸屏设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张勇; 邹卫军

    2014-01-01

    选用NXP公司内置LCD控制器的Cortex-M3处理器LPC1788作为主控,设计了一种低成本的液晶触摸屏。介绍了四线电阻式触摸屏与LPC1788的接口设计,移植emWin图形界面库为GUI提供支持。实际运用证明,低成本液晶触摸屏运行稳定,界面设计便捷。%This paper provides a Iow-cost LCD Touch Screen design which use LPC1788 as the processor.LPC1788 which is de-signed by NXP,is a SoC based on Cortex-M3 CPU and contains a buiId-in LCD controI er,and introduces the interface of 4-wire resistive touch pad with LPC1788.In addition,transpIant the graphicaI interface Iibrary emWin to provide best support for the design of GUI.The practicaI appIication shows this screen works stabIy and makes the interface design convenient.

  12. 基于ARM Cortex M3内核TFT触摸屏无线遥控设计%On Wireless Remote Control System Design Based on the ARM Cortex M3 core TFT Touch Screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金赐; 梁九兴

    2012-01-01

    The designing is based on Bluetooth communication through the ARM Contex M3 core microprocessor STM32F103VET6 and TEF color LCD touch screen to design a touch-screen remote control.This kind of remote control,through touching the controls displayed on the TFT color LCD of the host computer,triggers variety of control signals and then wireless Bluetooth module sends control signals.%本设计是建立在蓝牙通信下通过ARM Cortex M3内核的微处理器STM32F103VET6与TFT彩色液晶触摸屏来设计一种触摸屏遥控器。该遥控器通过触摸上位机TFT彩色液晶触摸屏上显示的各个控件来触发各种控制信号;无线蓝牙模块发送各种控制信号。

  13. Design and Realization of GUI Based on ARM Cortex-M3%基于ARM Cortex-M3的图形用户界面设计和实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩定

    2015-01-01

    采用基于Cortex-M3内核的LPC1788为主控芯片和320(RGB)*480 pixels的带触摸点阵液晶屏,应用emWin图形库设计了一款简单易用的小型人机交互界面,并提供大容量的图片存储空间和可扩展字库存储空间,便于用户使用,可以广泛应用于家庭自动化和工业控制领域。%The ARM Cortex-M3 kernel processor LPC1788 and 320*480 pixels LCD with touch is used to design a small Graphical User Interface. EmWin is a kind of open source software, which is used to GUI embedded system. It can be widely used in home automation and industrial control.

  14. 年产5000m3意杨LVL主材及设备量的计算与配置%Calculation and Configuration of Main Material and Equipment Quantity for Annual 5000m3 Populus LVL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋瞻

    2012-01-01

      LVL has become the fastest kind of wooden composite material product in the current woodworking industry. The configuration of materials and equipment of an enterprise located in Northern Jiangsu that manufactures 5000 m 3 Populus LVL annually is introduced, with emphasis placed on relevant design calculation and configuration of such main materials as veneer and adhesive and such main equipment as presses, with the aim to provide reference for China’s small and medium-sized plywood manufacturing enterprises in term of design of the materials and equipment for manufacturing Populus LVL products.%  LVL已成为当今木材加工行业发展速度最快的一种木质复合材料产品。介绍了苏北一家年产5000m3意杨LVL企业的加工材料与设备配置情况,着重对单板、胶黏剂主材及压机等主要设备进行了相关的设计计算与配置,为我国制造胶合板的中小型企业做好意杨LVL产品的主材及其设备的设计工作提供参考。

  15. DISCUSSION ABOUT HEAT BALANCE CALCULATION AND ENERGY SAVING FOR 2500 m3 BLAST FURNACE%承钢2500 m3高炉热平衡测算与节能探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀英

    2014-01-01

    以承钢3座2 500 m3高炉为研究对象,用第一总热平衡测试法进行了高炉热平衡测算.结果表明:承钢2 500 m3高炉近年来节能主要是降低了冷却软熔带带走热量约0.29 GJ/tFe,减少煤气带走热量约0.12 GJ/tFe,降低瓦斯灰带走热量约0.04 GJ/tFe.从测算结果可以看出,因高炉工艺优化吨铁耗风量降低后,收入项中热风带入的热量减少约0.4 GJ/tFe,碳素氧化带入的热量减少约0.12 GJ/tFe.介绍了承钢高炉近年采用的节能技术及应用效果,根据热平衡测算结果和目前的前沿节能技术,提出了承钢高炉进一步降低能耗的措施.

  16. Scale-up of industrial biodiesel production to 40 m(3) using a liquid lipase formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jason; Nordblad, Mathias; Martel, Hannah H; Chrabas, Brent; Wang, Huali; Nielsen, Per Munk; Woodley, John M

    2016-08-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the scale-up from an 80 L fed-batch scale to 40 m(3) along with the design of a 4 m(3) continuous process for enzymatic biodiesel production catalyzed by NS-40116 (a liquid formulation of a modified Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase). Based on the analysis of actual pilot plant data for the transesterification of used cooking oil and brown grease, we propose a method applying first order integral analysis to fed-batch data based on either the bound glycerol or free fatty acid content in the oil. This method greatly simplifies the modeling process and gives an indication of the effect of mixing at the various scales (80 L to 40 m(3) ) along with the prediction of the residence time needed to reach a desired conversion in a CSTR. Suitable process metrics reflecting commercial performance such as the reaction time, enzyme efficiency, and reactor productivity were evaluated for both the fed-batch and CSTR cases. Given similar operating conditions, the CSTR operation on average, has a reaction time which is 1.3 times greater than the fed-batch operation. We also showed how the process metrics can be used to quickly estimate the selling price of the enzyme. Assuming a biodiesel selling price of 0.6 USD/kg and a one-time use of the enzyme (0.1% (w/woil ) enzyme dosage); the enzyme can then be sold for 30 USD/kg which ensures that that the enzyme cost is not more than 5% of the biodiesel revenue. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1719-1728. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Theoretical study of neutral and charged Sc{sub n{<=}2}-(benzene){sub m{<=}3} clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maynez-Rojas, Miguel; Castro, Miguel, E-mail: castro@quetzal.pquim.unam.mx [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Departamento de Fisica y Quimica Teorica, DEPg. Facultad de Quimica (Mexico)

    2013-01-15

    Interactions of benzene molecules with scandium atoms, Sc{sub n{<=}2}-(C{sub 6}H{sub 6}){sub m{<=}3}, in the gas phase were studied by means of density functional theory. All-electron calculations were performed using the B3LYP hybrid functional in concert with 6-311+G(d,p) orbital basis sets for the Sc, C, and H atoms. Multiple-decker sandwich (MDS) structures are identified as the ground states for Sc{sub n{<=}2}-(C{sub 6}H{sub 6}){sub m{<=}3}, where the ligands are attached to the metal through Sc-C bonding, formed between the 3d electrons and the {pi}-clouds of the benzene rings. Significant distortion is produced on the absorbed benzene molecules by the metal-ligand bonding. Rice ball structures also appeared, but they were found at higher energies, in such a way that essentially MDS isomers may emerge in the molecular beams. Even the low number of valence electrons (3d{sup 2}4s{sup 1}) of the Sc atom; sextuple coordinations are formed, but they show different Sc-C bond lengths, diminishing the symmetry of neutral and charged clusters. The estimated ionization energies, in near agreement with experimental data, and electron affinities, suggest delocalization of the valence electrons through the network of 3d-{pi} bonds of Sc{sub 1,2}-(C{sub 6}H{sub 6}){sub m{<=}3}. The binding energies decrease with the absorption of more benzene molecules, and in some cases increase as more metal atoms are added to the cluster.

  18. Adsorption of aromatics on the (111) surface of PtM and PtM3 (M = Fe, Ni) alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensley, Alyssa; Schneider, Sebastian; Wang, Yong; McEwen, Jean-Sabin

    2015-09-18

    The adsorption of benzene and phenol was studied on PtM and PtM3 (111) surfaces, with M being either Ni or Fe. Under vacuum, the most favorable near surface structures showed an enrichment in Pt over the M species. An analysis of the electronic structure of the metal species in the clean surfaces with different near surface structures was done with the d-band model and showed that the Pt's d-states are significantly shifted away from the Fermi level due to the Pt-M interactions while the M species' d-states were less affected, with Ni's d-band shifting closer to the Fermi level and Fe's d-band shifting away from the Fermi level. The adsorption of aromatics, benzene and phenol, on several near surface structures for the PtM and PtM3 (111) surfaces showed that higher surface M concentrations resulted in a stronger adsorption due to the larger amount of charge transferred between the adsorbate and surface. However, compared to the adsorption of benzene and phenol on monometallic surfaces, the adsorption of these species on the PtM and PtM3 (111) surfaces was significantly weakened. Overall, our results show that the observed behavior of these Pt/Fe and Pt/Ni alloys is similar to that seen for the previously studied Pd/Fe surfaces. Furthermore, balancing the weakly adsorbing Pt surface species with the more strongly interacting Fe or Ni species can lead to the tailored adsorption of aromatics with applications in both hydrodeoxygenation and hydrogenation reactions by increasing the desorption rate of wanted aromatic products.

  19. Syntheses, crystal structure and magnetic properties of Rm+nCo5m+3nB2n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁敬魁; 陈怡; 陈小龙

    2001-01-01

    The phase relations at the 600℃ and 700℃ isothermal sections of the ternary systems R-Co-B for R= Nd, Pr and R = Sm, Gd respectively were summarized in this paper. For Rm+ n Co5m+3n B2n, two new types ofcompounds R3Co13B2(R=Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Dy, Ho, Er, Y) (m=2, n=1) andR5Co19B6(R=Pr, Nd) (m=2,n = 3 ) were synthesized by utilizing the principle of structural combination. Their crystalstructures and easymagnetization direction were determined by X-ray powder diffraction, and structures were refined by the Rietveldmethod. The Curie temperature Tc, saturation magnetization M8 and anisotropic field HA of the new compounds weremeasured using a vibrating-sample magnetometer, an extraction sample magnetometer and M(H) - H curves of samplesin different magnetization directions respectively. The Tc and Ms of Rm + n Co5 m + 3 n B2n increase with increasing values of mat a given n value. HA increases with an increase in n when m is kept invariable. The effects of the substitution of Ni for Co on the magnetic properties of Nd13 Co15- x Nix B2 were also investigated. It was found that TsR decreased monotonously as the concentration of Ni increased, and at x = 3 the easy magnetization direction becomes axial at room temperature. The relations between crystal structure and magnetic properties of Rm + nCo5m+ 3nB2n and the possible routes of synthesizing permanent magnetic materials are also discussed.

  20. Successful management of pulmonary hemorrhage and aspergillosis in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Gunbatar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old man presented with a one month history of gingival bleeding. He was diagnosed with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML-M3. During treatment he developed alveolar hemorrhage for which he was treated with a steroid. After the steroid treatment he developed a nodule, a cavitary lesion and atelectasia in the left lung. He was treated with voriconazole. After therapy with voriconazole his lesion significantly decreased. This case illustrates the efficacy and safety of antifungal therapy with voriconazole for aspergillosis complicated by AML.

  1. Successful management of pulmonary hemorrhage and aspergillosis in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunbatar, Hulya; Demir, Cengiz; Kara, Erdal; Esen, Ramazan; Sertogullarindan, Bunyamin; Asker, Selvi

    2015-01-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with a one month history of gingival bleeding. He was diagnosed with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML-M3). During treatment he developed alveolar hemorrhage for which he was treated with a steroid. After the steroid treatment he developed a nodule, a cavitary lesion and atelectasia in the left lung. He was treated with voriconazole. After therapy with voriconazole his lesion significantly decreased. This case illustrates the efficacy and safety of antifungal therapy with voriconazole for aspergillosis complicated by AML.

  2. Geology and mineralogy of the Auki Crater, Tyrrhena Terra, Mars: A possible post impact-induced hydrothermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrozzo, F. G.; Di Achille, G.; Salese, F.; Altieri, F.; Bellucci, G.

    2017-01-01

    A variety of hydrothermal environments have been documented in terrestrial impact structures. Due to both past water interactions and meteoritic bombardment on the surface of Mars, several authors have predicted various scenarios that include the formation of hydrothermal systems. Geological and mineralogical evidence of past hydrothermal activity have only recently been found on Mars. Here, we present a geological and mineralogical study of the Auki Crater using the spectral and visible imagery data acquired by the CRISM (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars), CTX (Context Camera) and HiRISE (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment) instruments on board the NASA MRO mission. The Auki Crater is a complex crater that is ∼38 km in diameter located in Tyrrhena Terra (96.8°E and 15.7°S) and shows a correlation between its mineralogy and morphology. The presence of minerals, such as smectite, silica, zeolite, serpentine, carbonate and chlorite, associated with morphological structures, such as mounds, polygonal terrains, fractures and veins, suggests that the Auki Crater may have hosted a post impact-induced hydrothermal system. Although the distribution of hydrated minerals in and around the central uplift and the stratigraphic relationships of some morphological units could also be explained by the excavation and exhumation of carbonate-rich bedrock units as a consequence of crater formation, we favor the hypothesis of impact-induced hydrothermal circulation within fractures and subsequent mineral deposition. The hydrothermal system could have been active for a relatively long period of time after the impact, thus producing a potential transient habitable environment. It must be a spectrally neutral component to emphasize the spectral features; It is an average of spectra taken in the same column of the numerator spectra to correct the residual instrument artifacts and reduce detector noise that changes from column to column; It must be taken in

  3. Mineralogy of S-complex Asteroids using Reflectance and Thermal Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, S. S.; Emery, J. P.; Marchis, F.; Enriquez, E.; Assafin, M.

    2013-12-01

    The S-type asteroids display an astounding diversity in mineralogy. They range from monomineralic olivine to complex olivine/pyroxene assemblages to basaltic assemblages. These materials are thought to be representative of an entire range of bodies that span essentially unmelted to bodies that experienced complete melting and igneous differentiation. Hence, the diverse silicate mineralogy for the S-type asteroids traces the thermal history of the asteroids a few Myr after formation. As such, determining the composition of S-type asteroids is a powerful investigative tool for understanding the post-accretionary thermal evolution, partial melting, and differentiation of the asteroids in the early Solar System. Moreover, the Sq and S(IV) are thought to be the parent bodies of ordinary chondrites (OCs), and therefore represent essentially unmelted or un-thermally processed materials. The mineralogy of these relatively unprocessed asteroids thus provide a window into investigating primitive Solar System materials, which were the building blocks of the terrestrial planets. The mineralogy of S-complex asteroids is typically determined using the 1- and 2-μm absorption bands related to olivine and pyroxene. Comparing the band centers, depths, and areas of these two features (i.e., band analysis) to calibrated laboratory data yields the general silicate mineralogy. Based on the near-infrared (NIR) band analysis, the S-type asteroids can be divided into seven subtypes, S(I - VII), with S(I)s being monomineralic olivine (mantle matieral), S(IV)s being analogous to OCs (primitive silicate material), and S(VII)s being basaltic material (igneously processed crustal material). The mid-infrared (MIR) thermal emission from asteroid surfaces exhibits a suite of silicate features due to Si-O stretching and O-Si-O bending vibrations near 10 and 18 μm, respectively. Marchis et al. (2012) demonstrated that the S-type asteroids exhibit diversity in their MIR emission. We seek to examine

  4. The Horizontal Branch in the UV Colour Magnitude Diagrams. II. The case of M3, M13 and M79

    CERN Document Server

    Dalessandro, Emanuele; Ferraro, Francesco R; Mucciarelli, Alessio; Cassisi, Santi

    2012-01-01

    We present a detailed comparison between far-UV/optical colour Magnitude Diagrams obtained with high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope data and suitable theoretical models for three Galactic Globular Clusters: M3, M13 and M79. These systems represents a classical example of clusters in the intermediate metallicity regime that, even sharing similar metal content and age, show remarkably different Horizontal Branch morphologies. As a consequence, the observed differences in the colour distributions of Horizontal Branch stars cannot be interpreted in terms of either first (metallicity) or a second parameter such as age. We investigate here the possible role of variations of initial Helium abundance (Y). Thanks to the use of a proper setup of far-UV filters, we are able to put strong constraints on the maximum Y (Y_{max}) values compatible with the data. We find differences Delta Y_{max} ~ 0.02-0.04 between the clusters with M13 showing the largest value (Y_{max} ~ 0.30) and M3 the smallest (Y_{max} ~ 0.27). In g...

  5. 安钢10万m3威金斯气柜利用效率探讨与应用%Efficiency Analysis and Application of Anyang Iron and Steel 100 000 m3 Wiggins Gasholder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海顺; 王志峰; 王祥凯; 张文杰; 赵卫兵

    2015-01-01

    As to the operating situation of Augang 100 000 Wiggins gas holder, this paper analyzes the efficiency factors of Wiggins gesholder, and puts forward improving weasuers, including establishing a liaision mechauism, adjusting part programs of micro oxygen analzer before gasholder in gasholder control system to improve the gas-holder efficiency.%针对安钢10万m3威金斯气柜运行现状,对影响威金斯气柜利用效率的因素进行了探讨,并提出了建立联络机制、调整气柜控制系统中气柜进口前微氧分析仪的部分程序等改进措施。采取有效措施后提高了气柜的利用效率。

  6. 高铝渣对济钢3200m3高炉冶炼的影响%Influence of High Al2O3 Slag on Operation of 3 200 m3 BF in Jinan Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军

    2015-01-01

    To the characteristics of high Al2O3 slag with higher viscosity, poor liquidity, and poor desulphurization ability, by adjusting the thermal system and distributing system, the Mg/Al ratio in the slag is controlled lager than 0.6 by increasing the MgO content in sintering, the MgO content in the slag is made between 8%-11%, the overall operation of 3 200 m3 BF in Jinan Steel can fit smelting requirement with high Al2O3 slag. Under the condition of slag ratio increase by 43 kg/t, the silicon in the pig iron was decreased, the desulphurization ability of the slag was strengthened and third grade iron was eliminated basically.%针对高铝渣特有的黏度高、流动性差、脱硫能力差的特点,济钢3 200 m3高炉通过调整热制度和布料制度,在烧结时提高MgO含量,控制渣中镁铝比>0.6,使渣中MgO含量在8%~11%,高炉的整体操作炉型适应了高铝渣的冶炼要求.在渣铁比升高43 kg/t的条件下,高炉生铁含硅降低,炉渣脱硫能力增强,基本杜绝了三类铁.

  7. New Technology Adopted and Operation Practice in No.3 3 200 m3 BF in Laiwu Steel%莱钢3#3200 m3高炉采用的新技术及生产实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾利军; 孟淑敏; 王冰

    2016-01-01

    In the paper, a series of new process and technology adopted in newly built No.3 3 200 m3 BF in laiwu steel are introduced, such as comprehensive technology of blast furnace longevity,multi nozzle type and fixed hopper of PW bell-less top, technology of axial cyclone deduster plus automatically discharging ash system, environmental INBA slag granulation technology, the dehumidified blast technology of BF and so on. The blast furnace was started up smoothly and reached the design product, in addition, all kinds of operation experience was happened, for example, intensified smelting, high coal ratio, large ore batch, limited production, wind-off without plan. The results were verified that every system ran normally and had better technical and economic index.%介绍了莱钢3#3200 m3高炉采用的长寿综合技术、多流嘴式料流分配器+固定料罐的PW无料钟炉顶设备、轴流旋风除尘器+吸排罐车自动卸灰系统、环保型INBA法渣处理技术、高炉脱湿鼓风技术等设计特点,高炉顺利开炉达产,历经强化冶炼、高煤比、大矿批、限产、无计划休风等不同操作实践,炉况顺行良好,各工艺系统运行正常,取得了良好的技术经济指标。

  8. Portable and Smart Ultrasonic Fluid Level Meter Based on ARM Cortex- M3%基于ARM Cortex - M3便携式智能超声波液位计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张根宝; 李秀平; 庞苏娟

    2012-01-01

    为了准确测量环境恶劣工业生产中的液位以保证生产效率,通过研究超声波测距工作原理,采用新型高性能、低功耗和低成本的ARM - Cortex M3内核微控制器,结合超声波技术、红外传输与DS1820温度补偿修正设计了一款便携式智能超声波液位计.其采用的先进微处理器以及无线传输的方式,简化了硬件电路,优化了软件编程.研究表明:该液位计设计提高了液位测量精度、实时性、灵活性与快速性.%To measure fluid level in poor industrial production conditions accurately for ensuring production efficiency,a portable intelligent correction ultrasonic fluid level meter was designed by studying the working principle of ultrasonic distance measurement. New high-performance, low power and low-cost ARM-Cortex M3 microcontroller core, combined with ultrasonic technology, infrared transmission and DS1820 temperature compensation were used in the level meter. The use of advanced microprocessor and wireless transmission, simplified hardware and optimized software programming. Studies show that the design of this fluid level gauge improved accuracy,timeliness,flexibility and rapidity of the level measurement.

  9. 莱钢3号3200 m3高炉设计创新与实践%Design innovation and practice of No. 3200 m3 BF in Laigang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冰; 孟淑敏; 贾利军

    2016-01-01

    莱钢3号3200m3高炉设计采用了串罐无料钟炉顶、软水密闭循环冷却、炉体全覆盖冷却壁、铜冷却壁、 UCAR热压小块炭砖、改进型顶燃式热风炉、环保型INBA渣处理、轴流式旋风除尘器、环保平坦化出铁场、全干法布袋除尘、高富氧喷煤等一系列先进实用、成熟可靠、清洁环保、高效长寿的新技术设备,为实现高炉“高效、优质、低耗、长寿、环保”的目标打下了坚实的基础。%A series of advanced and suitable , mature and reliable , clean and environmentally friendly, high efficiency and long campaign techniques were adopted in the design of No. 3 3200m3 BF in Laiwu Steel, such as BLT, closed loop soft water cooling, complete coverage of furnace body cooling stave, copper cooling staves, UCAR hot pressing small pieces of carbon brick, improved top combus-tion hot blast stove, environmental friendly INBA slag treatment, axial cyclone deduster, green flat cast house, completely dry method bag deduster, high oxygen enrichment PCI, all the new technolo-gies mentioned above has laid a solid foundation for blast the target of high efficiency, high quality, low consumption, long campaign and clean environmental protection.

  10. Hearth Erosion Situation Analysis for the 1 750 m3 Blast Furnace in Jinan Steel%济钢1750 m3高炉炉缸侵蚀情况分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张小伟; 张熙玮

    2015-01-01

    通过对生产条件及炉缸结构相同的济钢1#、3#1750 m3高炉炉缸侵蚀情况进行调查,发现1#高炉炉缸呈浅锅底—象脚状侵蚀,扒炉实测表明,炉缸、炉底交接处侵蚀最为严重,炭砖残存厚度最薄处仅为300 mm;3#高炉铁口附近炭砖出现不同程度裂纹,侵蚀严重处炭砖残存厚度600 mm。建议考虑炭砖的微孔度,使用高可靠性热电偶,降低炉底冷却水流量,增加炉缸冷却水流量等,以提高高炉寿命。%The hearth erosion of Jinan Steel’s No.1 and No.3 1 750 m3 BF have been investigated, although they have the same production conditions and hearth structure. It is found that the No.1 blast furnace hearth pale pot is like the foot-shaped erosion, griddle test shows junction of hearth and bottom are the most serious erosion position, the remaining thickness of the thinnest carbon brick is only 300 mm. The carbon bricks near the iron mouth of the No.3 BF have cracked to some extent, the remaining carbon brick thickness of severe erosion is 600 mm. To improve and prolong the life of the blast furnace, it is suggested that to apply the porous carbon bricks and high reliability thermocouples, reduce the cooling water flow for bottom, increase the cooling water flow of the hearth etc.

  11. Design of on-broad diagnose terminal with real-time warning based on CORTEX-M3%基于CORTEX-M3的实时车载诊断预警系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鲤文; 邹复民

    2013-01-01

    The design of ODB-II standard framework is based on embedded real-time operation and it can be realized on Cortex-M3 CPU core with uc/os II operating system. We have successful read real-time OBD-II data of vehicles from PC monitor and gather accident codes and sensor data through CAN bus, which can be used to evaluate the health of the automobiles, preventive against trouble, deduce the cost of driving and improve the driving safety. The advantage to the device is taking full account of all sorts of vehicle buses and put forward a kind of resolved scheme about remote on-boarded diagnosis in complicated vehicle circumstance.%基于嵌入式实时操作系统的OBD-Ⅱ诊断协议框架,以Cortex-M3为内核,采用uc/os Ⅱ操作系统实现了ISO15765协议,成功通过CAN总线读取了车辆的OBD-Ⅱ系统数据,通过上位机监控窗口,能实时检查汽车故障码与汽车传感器数据.可在此基础上评价汽车健康状况,并可对故障及早预防,降低行车成本,提供行车安全性;本设计充分考虑中国汽车市场主流总线发展的情况,提供了在复杂的车载环境下远程车载诊断设备的解决方案.

  12. First X-Ray Diffraction Results from Mars Science Laboratory: Mineralogy of Rocknest Aeolian Bedform at Gale Crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bish, D. L.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Chipera, S. J.; Sarrazin, P.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Treiman, A. H.; Downs, R. T.; Morrison, S. M.; Yen, A. S.; Achilles, C. N.; Morookian, J. M.; Farmer, J. D.; Crisp, J. A.; Rampe, E. B.; Stolper, E. M.; DesMarais, D. J.; Spanovich, N.; Anderson, R. C.

    2013-01-01

    Numerous orbital and landed observations of the martian surface suggest a reasonably uniform martian soil composition, likely as a result of global aeolian mixing [1, 2]. Chemical data for martian soils are abundant [e.g., 2, 3], and phase information has been provided by lander thermal emission and Moessbauer spectroscopic measurements [3, 4, 5, 6]. However, until now no X-ray diffraction (XRD) data were available for martian soil nor has XRD ever been used on another body apart from Earth. XRD is generally considered the most definitive method for determining the crystalline phases in solid samples, and it is the method of choice for determining mineralogy. CheMin s first XRD analysis on Mars coincided with the 100th anniversary of the discovery of X-ray diffraction by von Laue. Curiosity delivered scooped samples of loose, unconsolidated material ("soil") acquired from an aeolian bedform at the Rocknest locality to instruments in the body of the rover (the laboratory). Imaging shows that the soil has a range of particle sizes, of 1-2 mm and smaller, presumably representing contributions from global, regional, and local sources.

  13. THE INFLUENCE OF THE INGOT MOLD COOLING ON THE STRUCTURE OF SILUMINA CASTINGS AK15M3 AT VERTICAL CENTRIFUGAL CASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Stecenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influence of ways of the mold cooling on structure of castings with diameter of 135 mm from AK15M3 silumin at vertical centrifugal casting is investigated. It is established that for production of castings with diameter 135 mm from AK15M3 silumin with high mechanical and tribotechnical properties it is necessary to apply a shaped mould with water-spray cooling at expense of cooler of 0,42 m3/h.

  14. Mineralogical and geochemical investigation of clay-rich mine tailings from a closed phosphate mine, Bartow Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekeler, Mark P. S.; Morton, Julie; Lepp, Jill; Tselepis, Cynthia M.; Samsonov, Mikhail; Kearns, Lance E.

    2008-07-01

    Clay-rich mine tailings from phosphate mine operations in Florida are a major environmental and economic problem. Options for reclamation and restoration for these tailings are very limited and are fundamentally restricted by poor physical properties such as low mechanical strength, low hydraulic conductivity, and heavy metal content. The major control on these bulk physical properties is the mineralogy of the materials. Eight continuous push borings were obtained to investigate stratigraphy, mineralogy, aspects of geochemistry, and bulk properties of a deposit of clay-rich mine tailings from a phosphate mine near Bartow, Florida that ceased operations in the early 1970s. Stratigraphy is dominated by laminated clay-rich sediment with minor units of silt and sand. An intact kaolinite liner occurs near the impoundment walls and the impoundment floor has approximately 4 m of relief. Moisture content varies from 4.35 to 57.40 wt% and organic content varies from 0.41 to 9.53 wt%. Bulk XRF investigation indicates that the P2O5 concentrations vary from approximately 4 to 21 wt%. A very strong correlation ( r 2 = 0.92) between CaO and P2O5 indicates that apatite is a major control on the phosphate. The strong correlation ( r 2 = 0.77) of Al2O3 and TiO2 suggests that the source materials for this deposit are comparatively uniform. A number of heavy metal elements and trace elements occur. Cr, V, Ni, Cu are interpreted to be in phosphate minerals, largely apatite. Sr and Pb are interpreted to be in both phyllosilicates and phosphate minerals. Two populations of apatite were observed in the clay-sized fraction, one that was Fe and Si- bearing and another that was only Si-bearing. Fe-bearing apatite had Fe2O3 contents that varied from 0.38 to 5.32 wt% and SiO2 contents that varied from 0.90 to 3.32 wt%. The other apatite population had a wider range of SiO2 contents that varied from 0.77 to 8.80 wt%. TEM imaging shows that apatite grains are dominantly single crystals with

  15. Mineralogical Changes in a Predominantly Fluviolacustrine Succession at Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, E. B.; Ming, D. W.; Grotzinger. J. P.; Bristow, T. F.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Chipera, S. J.; Gellert, R.; Morris, R. V.; Morrison, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover landed in Gale crater in August 2012 to investigate the strata of lower Aeolis Mons (i.e., Mount Sharp) and characterize their depositional and diagenetic environments. Visible/short-wave infrared spectra from orbit of these strata show variations in phyllosilicate, sulfate, and Fe-oxide minerals, suggesting these units record environmental changes that occurred during the early Hesperian. Curiosity has traversed over 15 km and has climbed through Approx. 200 m of stratigraphic section, made up of predominantly fluviolacustrine (i.e., the Bradbury group and the Murray formation) and aeolian (i.e., the Stimson formation) units. Multiple geochemical and mineralogical instruments are onboard Curiosity to study these ancient rocks, including the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) instrument, which is an X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, and the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS).

  16. X-ray diffraction results from Mars Science Laboratory: mineralogy of Rocknest at Gale crater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bish, D L; Blake, D F; Vaniman, D T; Chipera, S J; Morris, R V; Ming, D W; Treiman, A H; Sarrazin, P; Morrison, S M; Downs, R T; Achilles, C N; Yen, A S; Bristow, T F; Crisp, J A; Morookian, J M; Farmer, J D; Rampe, E B; Stolper, E M; Spanovich, N

    2013-09-27

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity scooped samples of soil from the Rocknest aeolian bedform in Gale crater. Analysis of the soil with the Chemistry and Mineralogy (CheMin) x-ray diffraction (XRD) instrument revealed plagioclase (~An57), forsteritic olivine (~Fo62), augite, and pigeonite, with minor K-feldspar, magnetite, quartz, anhydrite, hematite, and ilmenite. The minor phases are present at, or near, detection limits. The soil also contains 27 ± 14 weight percent x-ray amorphous material, likely containing multiple Fe(3+)- and volatile-bearing phases, including possibly a substance resembling hisingerite. The crystalline component is similar to the normative mineralogy of certain basaltic rocks from Gusev crater on Mars and of martian basaltic meteorites. The amorphous component is similar to that found on Earth in places such as soils on the Mauna Kea volcano, Hawaii.

  17. Introducción a la mineralogía en educación infantil.

    OpenAIRE

    Bertol Trenado, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Con el presente trabajo se tratará de llevar a cabo una práctica educativa con el fin de introducir a los alumnos de Educación Infantil en el mundo de la mineralogía. Primeramente, se hará referencia a la historia de la mineralogía, comentando algunos acontecimientos importantes. Además, se realizará una explicación sobre los conceptos de rocas y minerales, así como sus propiedades y características. Después, se expondrá detalladamente la programación planteada para los alumnos, añadiendo una...

  18. Moessbauer study of the Fe mineralogy in two different Argentine soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mijovilovich, A. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina); Morras, H. [Instituto de Suelos, INTA-CIRN (Argentina); Causevic, H. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales (Argentina); Saragovi, C. [Departamento de Fisica, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (Argentina)

    1999-11-15

    Two Argentine soils featuring different characteristics and compositions (mollisols and ultisols) have been studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The first type has a weakly developed profile with a solum thickness of 40 cm; the Fe oxyhydroxides are present in low concentrations in mixtures with other slightly weathered minerals (e.g., quartz, feldspars, 2 : 1 phyllosilicates, etc.). The second one is a typic kandihumult, which is a highly weathered red coloured, deep soil. The Fe oxyhydroxides are abundant, mixed mainly with kaolinite clay minerals. Analyses of iron mineralogy show hematite and goethite in both soils. Their ratio is low in the first case and high in the last case. Magnetite-maghemite are also present in both situations, but in the mollisol their content is much lower than in the ultisol. The mineralogy found is related to the different lithological characteristics and processes of pedological evolution on both soils.

  19. Metasomatic Mechanism of Weathering-Pedogenesis of Carbonate Rocks: I. Mineralogical and Micro-Textural Evidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱立军; 李景阳

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of mineralogical, geochemical and micro-textural studies of the typical sections of the red weathering crust of carbonate rocks in the subtropical karst areas of Guizhou Province and Guangxi Autonomous Region, we have found, either on a microscopic or on a macroscopical scale and in different positions of the sections, the most direct and most important mineralogical and micro-textural evidence for the development of metasomatism in the process of weathering-pedogenesis of numerous carbonate rocks. This paper also has expounded for the first time and systematically the mechanism of metasomatism involved in the process of weathering pedogenesis of carbonate rocks and proposed the sequence of mineral metasomatic evolution in the process of weathering-pedogenesis of carbonate rocks.

  20. A comprehensive physico-chemical, mineralogical and morphological characterization of Indian mineral wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedam, Vidyadhar V; Jha, Rajesh; Labhasetwar, Pawan; Engelsen, Christian J

    2013-08-01

    This paper provides a comprehensive characterization of mineral waste such as fly ash, bottom ash, slag and construction demolition (C&D) collected from four different thermal power plants, three steel plants and three C&D waste generation sites in India. To determine utilisation potential and environmental concerns, as received fly ash, bottom ash, slag and C&D waste were analysed for physico-chemical, mineralogical and morphological properties. The physico-chemical properties analysed include pH, moisture content, acid insoluble residue, loss on ignition(LOI), carbon content, fineness, chloride content, sulphate content, reactive silica content, XRF and heavy metal analysis. Morphological and mineralogical characteristics were investigated using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray. Particle size distribution was obtained using particle size analyser. The material analysed has different compositions and were selected with a view to determine their suitability for different applications in cement and concrete industry and for further research studies.

  1. XRF Analysis of mineralogical matrix effects and differences between pulverized and fused ferromanganese slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VALENTINA ZIVANOVIC

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Determination and analysis is only as good as the sample preparation that preceded it. Even the most sophisticated analysis is worthless if it follows sloppy sampling and poor preparation. Whether one does plasma emission, infrared or X-ray fluorescence or another spectroscopic technique, it is essential to get reproducible and accurate analysis. This paper shows the effect of mineralogical matrix differences in quantitative measurements by XRF of the main elements (Al, Ca, Mg, Si, Mn and K as oxides of ferromanganese alloy slag. Fused and pulverized slag show a significant difference in XRF microstructure, micro heterogeneity and mineralogy although the results of measurements between pulverized and fused slag, expressed as a percentage of the main elements, is not different. Other analytical techniques such as ICP-OES and classical gravimetric and titrimetric were also used for checking the XRF calibration accuracy

  2. Confidence Hills Mineralogy and Chemin Results from Base of Mt. Sharp, Pahrump Hills, Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, P. D.; Bish, D. L.; Blake, D. F.; Vaniman, D. T.; Morris, R. V.; Ming, D. W.; Rampe, E. B.; Achilles, C. N.; Chipera, S. J.; Treiman, A. H.; hide

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover Curiosity recently completed its fourth drill sampling of sediments on Mars. The Confidence Hills (CH) sample was drilled from a rock located in the Pahrump Hills region at the base of Mt. Sharp in Gale Crater. The CheMin X-ray diffractometer completed five nights of analysis on the sample, more than previously executed for a drill sample, and the data have been analyzed using Rietveld refinement and full-pattern fitting to determine quantitative mineralogy. Confidence Hills mineralogy has several important characteristics: 1) abundant hematite and lesser magnetite; 2) a 10 angstrom phyllosilicate; 3) multiple feldspars including plagioclase and alkali feldspar; 4) mafic silicates including forsterite, orthopyroxene, and two types of clinopyroxene (Ca-rich and Ca-poor), consistent with a basaltic source; and 5) minor contributions from sulfur-bearing species including jarosite.

  3. Mineralogy and Microstructures of Shock-Induced Melt Veins in Chondrites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Thomas G.

    2000-01-01

    The applicability of phase equilibrium data to the interpretation of shock-induced melt veins can only be tested by a detailed study of melt- vein mineralogy to see how high-pressure assemblages vary as a function of shock conditions inferred from other indicators. We have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM), analytical electron microscopy (AEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron microprobe analysis (EMA) and optical petrography to characterize the mineralogy, microstructures, and compositions of melt veins and associated high-pressure minerals in shocked chondrites and SNC meteorites. In the processes, we have gained a better understanding of what melt veining can tell us about shock conditions and we have discovered new mineral phases in chondritic and SNC meteorites.

  4. Quantitative x-ray diffraction mineralogy of Los Angeles basin core samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, James R.; McIntyre, Brandie R.; Edwards, Brian D.; Lakota, Orion I.

    2006-01-01

    This report contains X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis of mineralogy for 81 sediment samples from cores taken from three drill holes in the Los Angeles Basin in 2000-2001. We analyzed 26 samples from Pier F core, 29 from Pier C core, and 26 from the Webster core. These three sites provide an offshore-onshore record across the Southern California coastal zone. This report is designed to be a data repository; these data will be used in further studies, including geochemical modeling as part of the CABRILLO project. Summary tables quantify the major mineral groups, whereas detailed mineralogy is presented in three appendices. The rationale, methodology, and techniques are described in the following paper.

  5. Mineralogical Variation of Chelyabinsk with Depth from the Surface of the Parent Meteoroid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, S.; Mikouchi, T.; Nagao, K.; Haba, M. K.; Hasegawa, H.; Komatsu, M.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2014-01-01

    The Chelyabinsk meteorite, which passed over the Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia on Feb. 15th, 2013, brought serious damage by the shock wave and airburst. The diameter of the parent meteoroid is estimated to be approximately 20 m in diameter [1]. It was reported that the impact by this meteorite shower was 4,000 times as large as the TNT explosive and this was the largest airburst on Earth since the asteroid impact in Tunguska, Russia in 1908. The mineralogy and geochemical study of the recovered samples shows that Chelyabinsk is an LL5 chondrite [1]. In this study we analyzed several fragments of Chelyabinsk whose noble gas compositions have been measured and depths from the surface of the parent meteoroid were estimated [2]. We examined how mineralogical characteristics change with depth from the surface. This kind of study has never been performed and thus may be able to offer significant information about the evolution of meteorite parent bodies.

  6. Mineralogy, petrology and chemistry of ANT-suite rocks from the lunar highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, M.; Keil, K.

    1977-01-01

    Anorthositic-noritic-troctolitic (ANT) rocks are the oldest and most abundant rocks of the lunar surface, and comprise about 90% of the suite of the lunar highlands. Consideration is given to the mineralogy, petrology, bulk chemistry, and origin of ANT-suite rocks. Problems associated in classifying and labeling lunar highland rocks because of textural complexities occurring from impact modifications are discussed. The mineralogy of ANT-suite rocks, dominated by plagioclase, olivine and pyrozene, and containing various minor minerals, is outlined. The petrology of ANT-suite rocks is reviewed along with the major element bulk composition of these rocks, noting that they are extremely depleted in K2O and P2O5. Various models describing the origin of ANT-suite rocks are summarized, and it is suggested that this origin involves a parental liquid of high-alumina basalt with low Fe/Fe+Mg.

  7. Characterisation of some Clays Used for Whiteware Ceramics I. Mineralogical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Benea

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain a semiquantitative mineralogical composition of raw materials used for whiteware ceramics, four different clay types were analysed by X-ray diffraction. Studies were carried out by using a combination of analyses of the bulk sample, and of the fine fraction. Using a well-established pre-treatment methodology (use of chemicals, ultrasonic treatment, dispersion procedures, clay mineral concentration by centrifugation and sedimentation, oriented and random powder preparation, cation saturation, expansion/dehydration methods, 12 X-ray diffractometer traces were obtained from each sample. Based on these informations it was possible to establish the qualitative mineralogical composition, and also a semiquantitative one using peak intensities and peak area corrected by various factors. Scanning electron microscopy was also used in order to illustrate the identified mineral phases.

  8. Expected Geochemical and Mineralogical Properties of Meteorites from Mercury: Inferences from Messenger Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; McCoy, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Meteorites from the Moon, Mars, and many types of asteroid bodies have been identified among our global inventory of meteorites, however samples of Mercury and Venus have not been identified. The absence of mercurian and venusian meteorites could be attributed to an inability to recognize them in our collections due to a paucity of geochemical information for Venus and Mercury. In the case of mercurian meteorites, this possibility is further supported by dynamical calculations that suggest mercurian meteorites should be present on Earth at a factor of 2-3 less than meteorites from Mars [1]. In the present study, we focus on the putative mineralogy of mercurian meteorites using data obtained from the MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, which has provided us with our first quantitative constraints on the geochemistry of planet Mercury. We have used the MESSENGER data to compile a list of mineralogical and geochemical characteristics that a meteorite from Mercury is likely to exhibit.

  9. On the Evolution of Dust Mineralogy, From Protoplanetary Disks to Planetary Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Oliveira, Isa; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; van Dishoeck, Ewine F; Augereau, Jean-Charles; Merin, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Mineralogical studies of silicate features emitted by dust grains in protoplanetary disks and Solar System bodies can shed light on the progress of planet formation. The significant fraction of crystalline material in comets, chondritic meteorites and interplanetary dust particles indicates a modification of the almost completely amorphous ISM dust from which they formed. The production of crystalline silicates thus must happen in protoplanetary disks, where dust evolves to build planets and planetesimals. Different scenarios have been proposed, but it is still unclear how and when this happens. This paper presents dust grain mineralogy of a complete sample of protoplanetary disks in the young Serpens cluster. These results are compared to those in the young Taurus region and to sources that have retained their protoplanetary disks in the older Upper Scorpius and Eta Chamaeleontis stellar clusters, using the same analysis technique for all samples. This comparison allows an investigation of the grain mineralo...

  10. Incorporating Environmental and Sustainability Issues into the Curriculum in a Mineralogy Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, G. W.

    2013-12-01

    A traditional curriculum in mineralogy addresses classic subject matter such as crystal chemistry, crystallography, systematic mineralogy and optical mineralogy. This is entirely reasonable and appropriate, as these time-honored aspects of mineralogy are fundamental to students' understanding of Earth Materials; they are also important building blocks for an understanding of other geologic disciplines such as petrology, structural geology, and sedimentology. Due to the impressive breadth and amount of subject material that is covered in most mineralogy courses, time constraints do not allow instructors to branch out into more contemporary subjects. In our increasingly technologically-advanced (and crowded) modern society, issues pertaining to the environment and sustainability are at the forefront of scientific thought. In many introductory physical geoscience courses these issues are addressed and incorporated into the curriculum, thereby giving students valuable scientific background in modern environmental issues. However, in upper division classes (such as mineralogy) there is little time or motivation for instructors to add new content or to connect the course content with current environmental or societal concerns, even though there may be significant and meaningful opportunities to do so throughout the quarter or semester. Consequently, many students' understanding of environmental issues remains at an introductory or cursory level. In my mineralogy class at the University of California San Diego (UCSD), I teach a traditional curriculum with a modern approach that uses dynamic lectures, makes use of multimedia, and also utilizes current best teaching practices. As a department, we have recently made an increased effort to educate our students about environmental issues. Accordingly, I have integrated environmental and sustainability topics (when they are pertinent) into the curriculum as a regular component of the course. These topics typically relate to how

  11. [Morphological changes in gastric wall of mongolian gerbils following the 12-day orbital flight aboard Foton-M3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiashkin, D A; Bykov, É G

    2012-01-01

    Gastric wall of Meriones unguiculatus is distinguished by species-specific properties arising from the peculiar proportion of interstitium, muscle and epithelial tissues. Exposure to the factors of the 12-d Foton-M3 flight led to microfocal lesions of the mucous coat, dystrophic developments in the acid glands, dissociation of the mucous barrier function and deterioration of its biosynthetic function. Modifications of the tinctorial properties of the interstitium reticulum in every stomach layer progressed concurrently with reductions in prismatic epithelium height, as well as in mucous and muscular layer thickness. It is assumed that existence in the low gravity aboard the Biosat stimulated involutory processes in the gastric wall. Animals of the ground synchronous control conducted in the flight equipment mockup (Kontur-L) exhibited though similar yet less pronounced changes.

  12. Elements in the canine distemper virus M 3' UTR contribute to control of replication efficiency and virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle E Anderson

    Full Text Available Canine distemper virus (CDV is a negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus within the genus Morbillivirus and the family Paramyxoviridae. The Morbillivirus genome is composed of six transcriptional units that are separated by untranslated regions (UTRs, which are relatively uniform in length, with the exception of the UTR between the matrix (M and fusion (F genes. This UTR is at least three times longer and in the case of CDV also highly variable. Exchange of the M-F region between different CDV strains did not affect virulence or disease phenotype, demonstrating that this region is functionally interchangeable. Viruses carrying the deletions in the M 3' UTR replicated more efficiently, which correlated with a reduction of virulence, suggesting that overall length as well as specific sequence motifs distributed throughout the region contribute to virulence.

  13. Conversión de diagramas de procesos en diagramas de casos de usos usando AToM3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLOS M. ZAPATA J.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Toda pieza de software se origina en el modelo verbal, con el cual se pueden definir los diferentes modelos conceptuales que acerquen el problema a una solución. Las herramientas convencionales para la construcción de los modelos conceptuales no toman en consideración las diferentes reglas de consistencia que se pueden presentar entre los diferentes modelos. En este artículo se emplea el AToM3 como herramienta para la definición de los meta-modelos del diagrama de procesos y el diagrama de casos de uso, con el fin de reexpresar el primero para obtener algunos elementos básicos del segundo.

  14. Anomalous Hall hysteresis in T m3F e5O12/Pt with strain-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chi; Sellappan, Pathikumar; Liu, Yawen; Xu, Yadong; Garay, Javier E.; Shi, Jing

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate robust interface strain-induced perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in atomically flat ferrimagnetic insulator T m3F e5O12 (TIG) films grown with pulsed laser deposition on a substituted G d3G a5O12 substrate which maximizes the tensile strain at the interface. In bilayers consisting of Pt and TIG, we observe large squared Hall hysteresis loops over a wide range of thicknesses of Pt at room temperature. When a thin Cu layer is inserted between Pt and TIG, the Hall hysteresis magnitude decays but stays finite as the thickness of Cu increases up to 5 nm. However, if the Cu layer is placed atop Pt instead, the Hall hysteresis magnitude is consistently larger than when the Cu layer with the same thickness is inserted in between for all Cu thicknesses. These results suggest that both the proximity-induced ferromagnetism and spin current contribute to the anomalous Hall effect.

  15. Photometric and spectroscopic observations of the F3+M3 eclipsing binary T-Lyr0-08070

    CERN Document Server

    Cakirli, O; Sipahi, E

    2012-01-01

    The multi-color photometric and spectroscopic observations of the newly discovered eclipsing binary T-Lyr0-08070 were obtained. The resultant light and radial velocities were analysed and the absolute parameters of the components were determined. The system is composed of an F3 and an M3 main-sequence stars. Masses and radii were estimated to be 1.37$\\pm$0.23 M$_{\\odot}$ and 1.60$\\pm$0.09 R$_{\\odot}$ for the primary and 0.32$\\pm$0.04 M$_{\\odot}$ and 0.86$\\pm$0.06R$_{\\odot}$ for the secondary star. The less massive secondary component has a radius at least two times larger with respect to its mass. Using the BVJHK magnitudes of the system we estimated an interstellar reddening of 0.22 mag and a distance to the system as 479$\\pm$36 pc.

  16. Moment Tensors and their Uncertainties for M3 Earthquakes in the Geysers, California, from Waveform Modeling and First Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilhem, A.; Dreger, D. S.; Hutchings, L. J.; Johnson, L.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate moment tensor solutions and their uncertainties for magnitude (M) ~3 earthquakes located in the northwest Geysers geothermal field, California. We are exploiting an unusual opportunity where data for M~3 events have been recorded by three different networks and have moment tensor solutions calculated by three different methods. We solve for both deviatoric and full moment tensor solutions. The data sets include local short-period instruments (4.5 Hz) of the 30 stations of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), with which we obtain waveform inversion solutions at relatively high frequencies (i.e., up to 2.5 Hz), and regionally distributed broadband stations operated by the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL), with which are used to provide waveform inversion solutions with data filtered at longer periods (i.e., > 10 sec). We also utilize the LBNL data to obtain moment tensor solutions by fitting the P-wave first motions. The USGS, LBNL, and BSL obtain different event locations, utilize different velocity models, and analyze different frequency bands and wave types (i.e., body waves for LBNL method and primarily surface waves for the BSL analysis). Preliminary results indicate that the BSL and LBNL waveform modeling analyses give similar results in terms of nodal plane characteristics, moment magnitude, and moment tensor decomposition. Analysis of the P-wave first motions recorded by LBNL stations can illuminate complexities in the source processes when compared to waveform moment tensor solutions. We discuss uncertainties in the source inversions that use broadband and/or short-period waveform modeling, and in the source inversions from first motions only. We also combine the different datasets and compare their individual importance as they can help illustrate the complex source processes happening in the Geysers. This study introduces the possibility to interpret the seismic sources as complex processes in which both shear and tensile

  17. Lack of cross-shelf transport of sediments on the western margin of India: Evidence from clay mineralogy

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramaswamy, V.; Nair, R.R.

    transported long distances along the shelf, cross-shelf transport appears to be minimal. Confirmatory evidence of qualitative differences in outer and inner shelf clays is provided by sediment trap clay mineralogy on the outer shelf. Clay bound pollutant...

  18. Mineralogy and petrograghy of some tin, lithium and beryllium bearing albite-pegmatites near Doade, Galicia, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hensen, B.J.

    1967-01-01

    The petrography and mineralogy of some Hercynian albite-pegmatites near Doade, Galicia, Spain is described. The mineral assemblage consists of albite, K-feldspar, quartz, muscovite, spodumene, petalite, cassiterite, beryl, columbitetantalite, montebrasite, apatite, eosphorite-childrenite, zircon, to

  19. Mineralogy, Petrology, Chronology, and Exposure History of the Chelyabinsk Meteorite and Parent Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Abell, P.; Agresti, D.; Berger, E. L.; Burton, A. S.; Delaney, J. S.; Fries, M. D.; Gibson, E. K.; Harrington, R.; Herzog, G. F.; Keller, L. P.; Locke, D.; Lindsay, F.; McCoy, T. J.; Morris, R. V.; Nagao, K.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Niles, P. B.; Nyquist, L.; Park, J.; Peng, Z. X.; Shih, C. Y.; Simon, J. I.; Swisher, C. C., III; Tappa, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Chelyabinsk meteorite fall on February 15, 2013 attracted much more attention worldwide than do most falls. A consortium led by JSC received 3 masses of Chelyabinsk (Chel-101, -102, -103) that were collected shortly after the fall and handled with care to minimize contamination. Initial studies were reported in 2013; we have studied these samples with a wide range of analytical techniques to better understand the mineralogy, petrology, chronology and exposure history of the Chelyabinsk parent body.

  20. Mineralogical Study of Zard Koh and Kulli Koh Iron Ore Deposits of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SULTAN AHMED KHOSO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Zard Koh and Kulli Koh are two recently discovered iron ore deposits, existing in the Chagai district, Balochistan, Pakistan. PSM (Pakistan Steel Mill Limited is interested to utilize these ore deposits at priority. Purpose of the present study was to assess the mineralogy of the Zard Koh and Kulli Koh iron ore deposits, as it plays a vital role in the selection of an appropriate processing method. The mineralogical study of ore deposits was carried out by XRD (X-Ray Diffraction, XRF (X-Ray Fluorescence, SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope attached with EDS (Energy Dispersive Spectroscope and SM (Stereomicroscope techniques. Results indicated that the Zard Koh ore is mainly composed of 60.15% maghemite, 23.57% pyrite, 4.07% chlorite, 10.30% grossular and 1.65% admontite minerals. The chemical analysis revealed that Zard Koh iron ore contains an average of 54.27% Fe, 12.73% S, 8.70% Si, 3.07% Al, 4.07% Ca, and 2.16% Mg. Similarly, the mineralogical study of the Kulli Koh iron ore indicated that, ore is containing 51.16% hematite, 29.24% quartz, 8.89% dravite, and 8.76% kaolinite minerals. Elemental analysis of different samples indicated that Kulli Koh iron ore contains an average composition of 40.23% Fe, 20.67% Si, 3.44% Ca, 3.81% Al and 3.25% Mg. Mineralogical study of the Zard Koh and Kulli Koh iron ore deposits suggested that these ore deposits can be beneficiated costeffectively by using magnetic separation techniques.

  1. Assessment of bioavailability of iron delivered to marine phytoplankton in different mineralogical forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Rawaa; Delmelle, Pierre; Journet, Emilie

    2017-04-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential element in cellular biochemical processes and its availability in the surface ocean limits phytoplankton-mediated fixation of C, i.e. the biological pump. In vast regions of the open ocean, atmospheric deposition of Fe-bearing continental dust and volcanic ash to the surface ocean acts as an important source of bioavailable Fe to phytoplankton. The capacity of dust and ash to alleviate Fe limitation is usually discussed in terms of Fe solubility, which has been shown to be controlled by speciation/mineralogy. However, little information exists on the relationship between Fe bioavailability and Fe speciation/mineralogy in dust and ash. In this study, Fe-bearing materials of known mineralogy, including three volcanic ash samples from different eruptions (Eyjafjallajökull 2010, Chaitén 2008 and Tungurahua 2012), two continental dust specimens (Douz and Banizoumbou) and three Fe-bearing minerals (illite/smectite, ferrihydrite, and goethite) were added to Fe-stressed cultures of Dunaliella tertiolecta, a marine algae commonly found in high-nutrient, low chlorophyll waters. Photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll content and cell population growth were measured at regular intervals during 168 h after Fe addition. Our results indicate that all the tested Fe-bearing materials induced a similar biological response; and were able to alleviate Fe stress in D. tertiolecta within 2 h from the beginning of the experiment and to induce cell growth up to 168 h. This unexpected finding contrasts with the traditional view that Fe speciation/mineralogy in dust and ash plays a key role in governing Fe bioavailability to phytoplankton. Supplementary measurements on the fractional solubility of Fe in dust and ash will be presented.

  2. Chemical, mineralogical and ceramic properties of kaolinitic materials from the Tresnuraghes mining district (Western Sardinia, Italy)

    OpenAIRE

    Dondi, Michele; Guarini, Guia; Ligas, Paola; Raimondo, Mariarosa; Palomba, Marcella; Uras, Ivo

    2001-01-01

    Kaolinitic materials crop out in the Tresnuraghes mining district (Western Sardinia, Italy). Three main kaolinitic deposits, located in the Patalza, Salamura and Su Fongarazzu areas, respectively, were investigated in order to assess their potential in the ceramic industry. The parent rock-types of this raw material are the Oligocene-Miocene rhyolitic-rhyodacitic ignimbrites. Chemical and mineralogical analyses were performed on representative samples of each deposit, by XRD and XRF methodolo...

  3. Geochemical evidence for repetitive intracrystal recrystallization during the mineralogical stabilization of some biogenic Mg calcites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, D.A. (Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Mineralogical stabilization of porcellaneous foraminifera is unique relative to other types of bioclasts in that these foraminifera is unique relative to other types of bioclasts in that these foraminifera can undergo stabilization to low-Mg calcite without any textural change. Holocene porcellaneous foraminifer from the freshwater diagenetic zone of the Schooner Cays, Bahamas, are in the midst of this alteration and thus provide a rare insight into the stabilization process. These bioclasts exhibit Mg loss and oxygen isotopic changes with no textural alteration at any scale. The mineralogical stabilization, or recrystallization, is a repetitive intracrystal process. Each recrystallization produces a calcite with a slightly lower Mg content than its predecessor. The stabilization rate is dependent on time and hydrologic flux; older phreatic-zone material is the most altered and younger vadose-zone material is the least altered. Numerical modeling of the chemical diagenesis suggests that the molar water:rock ratio of a single recrystallization is about 1:100 and that the resultant precipitate is not in equilibrium with the ambient pore waters. Repetitive recrystallizations, however, eventually yield a mineralogically stable low-Mg calcite that can be in equilibrium with the bulk pore waters. Complete mineralogical stabilization to LMC should occur at cumulative molar water:rock ratios of about 16 and requires hundreds to thousands of recrystallizations, each reducing Mg content by less than 0.01 mole %. The large number of recrystallizations with incrementally small chemical changes per recrystallization makes alteration of these foraminifera significantly different from single-step recrystallization of other types of bioclasts.

  4. Clay Mineralogy of AN Alluvial Aquifer in a Mountainous, Semiarid Terrain, AN Example from Rifle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, W. C.; Lim, D.; Zaunbrecher, L. K.; Pickering, R. A.; Williams, K. H.; Navarre-Sitchler, A.; Long, P. E.; Noel, V.; Bargar, J.; Qafoku, N. P.

    2015-12-01

    Alluvial sediments deposited along the Colorado River corridor in the semi-arid regions of central to western Colorado can be important hosts for legacy contamination including U, V, As and Se. These alluvial sediments host aquifers which are thought to provide important "hot spots" and "hot moments" for microbiological activity controlling organic carbon processing and fluxes in the subsurface. Relatively little is known about the clay mineralogy of these alluvial aquifers and the parent alluvial sediments in spite of the fact that they commonly include lenses of silt-clay materials. These lenses are typically more reduced than coarser grained materials, but zones of reduced and more oxidized materials are present in these alluvial aquifer sediments. The clay mineralogy of the non-reduced parent alluvial sediments of the alluvial aquifer located in Rifle, CO (USA) is composed of chlorite, smectite, illite, kaolinite and quartz. The clay mineralogy of non-reduced fine-grained materials at Rifle are composed of the same suite of minerals found in the sediments plus a vermiculite-smectite intergrade that occurs near the bottom of the aquifer near the top of the Wasatch Formation. The clay mineral assemblages of the system reflect the mineralogically immature character of the source sediments. These assemblages are consistent with sediments and soils that formed in a moderately low rainfall climate and suggestive of minimal transport of the alluvial sediments from their source areas. Chlorite, smectite, smectite-vermiculite intergrade, and illite are the likely phases involved in the sorption of organic carbon and related microbial redox transformations of metals in these sediments. Both the occurrence and abundance of chlorite, smectite-vermiculite, illite and smectite can therefore exert an important control on the contaminant fluxes and are important determinants of biogeofacies in mountainous, semiarid terrains.

  5. The mineralogy and chemistry of fine-grained sediments, Morphou Bay, Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The mineralogy and chemistry of the less than 20μm fraction of marine sediments at Morphou Bay, north-west Cyprus, are presented to characterise fine-grained sediment supplies from basic and ultrabasic rocks of the Troodos Massif within a typological setting. The sediments comprise a mixture of smectite, illite, kaolinite and iron rich chlorite. They also contain amorphous iron oxides/hydroxides, calcite (with some magnesium substitution for calcium and an amphibole. Spatial patterns in mineralogy occur: the near-shore sediments are rich in smectite, chlorite, amphibole and amorphous iron oxides/hydroxides, while the offshore sediments are rich in illite and calcite. The sediments are calcium, magnesium, iron, aluminium and potassium bearing, due to the presence of significant amounts of calcite (for Ca, clay minerals and aluminium and iron oxides/hydroxides. Potassium is present within the micaceous mineral illite, but it is also contained within other phases that are difficult to pinpoint. Statistical analysis reveals that the chemical composition of the sediments broadly follows the mineralogy with the dominant feature being related to spatial changes in the mineralogy. The patterns of change reflect a three component mix of clay-sized sediment types: (1 localised lithogenous sources rich in smectite with subsidiary amounts of amorphous iron oxides/hydroxides and amphibole, from Cyprus, the Troodos in particular, (2 illite rich and smectite chlorite and chlorite bearing material of lithogenous origin from other parts of the eastern Mediterranean and (3 calcite, mainly of marine origin. Keywords: smectite, illite, chlorite, kaolinite, calcite, sediments, Morphou Bay, Troodos, Cyprus, Mediterranean, calcium, potassium, magnesium, iron, silicon, phosphorus.

  6. The mineralogy and chemistry of cement and cement raw materials In the united arab emirates

    OpenAIRE

    Nasir, Sobhi J. [صبحي جابر نصر; El Etr, H.

    1996-01-01

    The raw materials, clinkers and cements from different cement factories in the United Arab Emirates have been investigated using polarizing microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and chemical analyses. The chemical and mineralogical analyses indicate that the local raw materials are suitable for cement industry. Geological review shows that there is a good potential for industrial-grade local occurrences of limestone, marl, gypsum and iron oxide, that may be ...

  7. Mineralogical Studies Related to Endemic Diseases in Rural P. R. China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, H. E.; Zheng, B.; Finkelman, R. B.

    2003-12-01

    Domestic combustion of coal for heating and cooking is mostly confined to the world's developing countries and probably involves about 1 billion persons in China, India, Indonesia, and Africa. Various endemic diseases affecting millions of people involving arsenic, selenium, and fluorine poisoning have been associated with domestic coal combustion in rural China. We have investigated the relationship between mineralized coals (and stone coals) and disease occurrences in Guizhou and Hubei Provinces. The mineralogy of the coals has been studied by a wide variety of techniques, including optical petrography, scanning electron microscopy, electron microprobe analysis, ion probe, Synchrotron XANES-EXAFS, and Raman spectroscopy. Arsenic enrichment (up to 3 weight percent) in Upper Permian Longtan Formation coals, southwestern Guizhou Province, occurs in both 3+ and 5+ valence states. Arsenic occurs in arsenopyrite, pyrite, Al-phosphate, scorodite, Fe-oxides, and as an organically-bound species. Fluorine poisoning, much more widespread than arsenic-poisoning, is related to burning F-rich coals and F-rich clays as admixtures. Mineralogical and chemical analysis suggests that the clays contain the fluorine probably substituting for the hydroxyl group. Localized selenium poisoning in Hubei Province is related to Se-rich stone coals. The selenium occurs as a native element and in rare mandarinoite. In these three cases, knowledge of the paragenesis and mineralogy of the element enrichment in coal was vital to help understand and mitigate the endemic diseases. For the situation concerning arsenic and selenium poisoning, suspect coals have been identified and mining from these deposits has been curtailed. Fluorine has been a much more difficult problem for the local public health officials as both the coal and clay in the burning admixture can contain high fluorine. Regional geochemical and mineralogical studies will help to define coal and clay with low fluorine, suitable for

  8. A Mexican kaolin deposit: XANES characterization, mineralogical phase analysis and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, A.; Garza, L. L.; L. M. Torres; Vázquez, F.; López, W.

    2009-01-01

    A kaolin obtained from Villa de Reyes, a region near to San Luis Potosí (México) was characterized by means of X-ray powder diffraction (XRD, optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-Ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES), thermal analysis (DTA/TGA), dilatometry (DIL), and chemical analysis. Mineralogical and morphological characteristics of the mineral are presented. The kaolin sample was formed mainly by kaolinite, but other minor phase...

  9. The Mechanism of Bitumen Adhesion to Aggregates. The Influence of Mineralogic Nature

    OpenAIRE

    Judele, Loredana

    2011-01-01

    The main function of bitumen is that of adhesive. It is necessary to realize either the linking of aggregate particles or the link between particles and surface. Although the occurrence of the premature break attributed to adhesives is relatively rare; the breaks can imply substantial expenses when they occur. The necessity of insuring a link between aggregate and bitumen is very important. The mineralogic nature of aggregate is, also, very important because the bitumen „prefers” basic ag...

  10. Influence of aggregate mineralogical composition on water resistance of aggregate–bitumen adhesion

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jizhe; Apeagyei, Alex K.; AIREY, Gordon D; Grenfell, James R.A.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of aggregate mineralogical composition on moistures sensitivity of aggregate–bitumen bonds were investigated using four aggregate types (two limestone and two granite)and two bitumen grades (40/60 penand70/100pen). Moisture sensitivity (or water resistance) of the aggregate–bitumen bonds were characterized using retained strength obtained from three different tensile tests (peel, PATTI and pull-off). The results showed significant differences in the amount of moisture absorbed ...

  11. Mineralogical, chemical and physical study of potential buffer and backfill materials from ABM. Test Package 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumpulainen, S.; Kiviranta, L. (B and Tech Oy, Helsinki (Finland))

    2011-07-15

    In the ABM experiment, three test packages with centre steel heaters surrounded by stacks of compacted bentonite rings of various clay materials were placed in boreholes in Aespoe tunnel. The first parcel was saturated with Aespoe groundwater and the heater was turned on simultaneously with the start of saturation. This parcel was excavated 30 months after its installation. Chemical, mineralogical and physical properties of the MX-80, Dep-CaN, Asha and Friedland clay samples from the ABM parcel 1 were analysed and compared to reference samples. Chemical analyses (ICP-AES, C, CO{sub 3}, S, water soluble SO{sub 4}, Fe2+/Fe3+), exchangeable cation analyses, mineralogical analyses (XRD, FTIR) and selective extractions were used to determine changes in the chemistry and mineralogy of ABM materials. Swelling pressure and hydraulic conductivity measurements were performed both for extracted samples and for ground and recompacted samples. Major changes in exchangeable cation composition were observed in all samples originating from equilibration with Aespoe groundwater and interactions with equilibrated waters from neighbouring block materials. Some minor changes in chemical composition were observed as well. Increases in soluble sulphate content in the vicinity of the heater were thought to result from precipitation of sulphate salts. Decreases in sodium content and increases in calcium content were ascribed to changes in exchangeable cations. Interaction with iron was observed to occur only in the close vicinity (first few mm) of the heater. No significantly measureable change in mineralogical composition was seen in any of the studied materials. Extracted Dep-CaN samples showed a slight decrease in swelling pressure. However, when the material was ground, compacted and measured again the swelling pressure was fully recovered. No related change in hydraulic conductivities was observed. (orig.)

  12. Geochemical and mineralogical fingerprints to distinguish the exploited ferruginous mineralisations of Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimuccio, Luca Antonio; Rodrigues, Nelson; Larocca, Felice; Pratas, João; Amado, Ana Margarida; de Carvalho, Luís A. E. Batista

    2017-02-01

    This study examines the geochemical and mineralogical variations in the ferruginous mineralisations that crop out within Grotta della Monaca, which is considered to be the most striking and best known example of a prehistoric iron mine-cave from the southern Apennines (Calabria, Italy). Previous archaeological research identified three local and distinct ancient exploitation phases of these ferruginous mineralisations: (1) an Upper Palaeolithic phase; (2) a Late Neolithic phase; and (3) a post-Medieval phase. These materials, which have various forms of complex mineralogical admixtures and range in colour from yellow-orange to red and darker brown shades, mainly consist of iron oxides/hydroxides (essentially goethite and lepidocrocite), which are often mixed with subordinate and variable amounts of other matrix components (carbonates, sulphates, arsenates, silicates and organic matter). Such ferruginous mineralisations generally correspond to geochemically heterogeneous massive dyke/vein/mammillary/stratiform facies that are exposed within the local caves along open fractures and inclined bedding planes and that partially cover cave wall niches/notches/pockets and ceiling cupolas/holes. Selected samples/sub-samples are analysed through a multi-technique approach with a handheld portable X-ray Fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction, micro-Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscope (both conventional and attenuated total reflection), which is combined with subsequent multivariate statistical analysis of the elemental concentration data. The geochemical and mineralogical results are used to individualise similar compositional clusters. As expected, the identified groups, each of which has very specific geochemical-mineralogical "fingerprints" and spatial distributions, enable us to identify the sampled ferruginous mineralisations. These specific mineral resources can be compared to similar raw materials that are found in other neighbouring archaeological sites, with

  13. Geological and Mineralogical-technological features chromite ore from nickel-weathering crusts Average Bug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perkov E.S.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Conditions of occurrence and distribution features of chromites ore bodies in the ultra-basic nickel bearing weathering crusts of Middle Bug Area are considered. Main types of exogenous chromites ores in weathering crusts and beyond of them are identified as well as mineralogical, chemical and grain features of mineralization are given. Obtained data are substantiated in order to apply them while developing the efficient schemes of mining and processing of exogenous chromites ores.

  14. Composition, mineralogy, and porosity of multiple asteroid systems from visible and near-infrared spectral data

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay, S.S.; Marchis, F.; Emery, J.P.; Enriquez Rascon, J.E.; Assafin, M.

    2015-01-01

    We provide a taxonomic and compositional characterization of Multiple Asteroid Systems (MASs) located in the main belt (MB) using visible and near-infrared (0.45-2.5 um) spectral data of 42 MB MASs. The mineralogical analysis is applied to determine meteorite analogs for the MASs, which, in turn, are applied to the MAS density measurements of Marchis et al. (2012) to estimate the system porosity. The macroporosities are used to evaluate the primary MAS formation hypotheses. The visible observ...

  15. Clay Mineralogical Study of the Tertiary Malubog Formation, Cebu Province, Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    ALETA, Dennis Gerald A.; TOMITA, Katsutoshi; KAWANO, Motoharu; ALETA, Josephine T.; LUPO, Elena S.

    2003-01-01

    The Early Miocene Malubog Formation (MbF) is one of the most widespread Tertiary formations in Central Cebu, Philippines. The formation consists of mudstone, shale and occasional beds of conglomerate, limestone and coal. It exhibits poor bedding and shows rapid lithologic changes vertically and horizontally. The formation is subdivided into several members which are all essentially coal measures and limestones. Mineralogical study of the Malubog Formation focused on the gently dipping strata ...

  16. Mineralogy of Fluvio-Lacustrine Sediments Investigated by Curiosity During the Prime Mission: Implications for Diagenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, Elizabeth B.; Morris, R. V.; Bish, D. L.; Vaniman, D. T.; Bristow, T. F.; Chipera, S. J.; Blake, D. F.; Ming, D. W.; Farmer, J. D.; Morrison, S. M.; Treiman, A. H.; Archilles, C. N.; Crisp, J. A.; DesMarais, D. J.; Downs, R. T.; Morookian, J. M.; Sarrazin, P.; Spanovich, N.; Yen, A. S.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity investigated sedimentary rocks that were deposited in a diversity of fluvio-lacustrine settings. The entire science payload was employed to characterize the mineralogy and chemistry of the Sheepbed mudstone at Yellowknife Bay and the Windjana sandstone at the Kimberley. Data from the CheMin instrument, a transmission Xray diffractometer, were used to determine the quantitative mineralogy of both samples. The Sheepbed mudstone contains detrital basaltic minerals, calcium sulfates, iron oxides or hydroxides, iron sulfides, trioctahedral smectite, and amorphous material. The mineral assemblage and chemical data from APXS suggest that the trioctahedral smectite and magnetite formed authigenically as a result of alteration of olivine. The apparent lack of higher-grade phyllosilicates (e.g., illite and chlorite) and the presence of anhydrite indicate diagenesis at 50- 80 ºC. The mineralogy of the Windjana sandstone is different than the Sheepbed mudstone. Windjana contains significant abundances of K-feldspar, low- and high-Ca pyroxenes, magnetite, phyllosilicates, and amorphous material. At least two distinct phyllosilicate phases exist: a 10 Å phase and a component that is expanded with a peak at 11.8 Å. The identity of the expanded phase is currently unknown, but could be a smectite with interlayer H2O, and the 10 Å phase could be illite or collapsed smectite. Further work is necessary to characterize the phyllosilicates, but the presence of illite could suggest that Windjana experienced burial diagenesis. Candidates for the cementing agents include fine-grained phyllosilicates, Fe-oxides, and/or amorphous material. Interpretations of CheMin data from the Windjana sandstone are ongoing at the time of writing, but we will present an estimate of the composition of the amorphous material from mass balance calculations using the APXS bulk chemistry and quantitative mineralogy from CheMin.

  17. Helix 8 and the i3 loop of the muscarinic M3 receptor are crucial sites for its regulation by the Gβ5-RGS7 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpinsky-Semper, Darla; Tayou, Junior; Levay, Konstantin; Schuchardt, Brett J; Bhat, Vikas; Volmar, Claude-Henry; Farooq, Amjad; Slepak, Vladlen Z

    2015-02-01

    The muscarinic M3 receptor (M3R) is a Gq-coupled receptor and is known to interact with many intracellular regulatory proteins. One of these molecules is Gβ5-RGS7, the permanently associated heterodimer of G protein β-subunit Gβ5 and RGS7, a regulator of G protein signaling. Gβ5-RGS7 can attenuate M3R-stimulated release of Ca(2+) from intracellular stores or enhance the influx of Ca(2+) across the plasma membrane. Here we show that deletion of amino acids 304-345 from the central portion of the i3 loop renders M3R insensitive to regulation by Gβ5-RGS7. In addition to the i3 loop, interaction of M3R with Gβ5-RGS7 requires helix 8. According to circular dichroism spectroscopy, the peptide corresponding to amino acids 548-567 in the C-terminus of M3R assumes an α-helical conformation. Substitution of Thr553 and Leu558 with Pro residues disrupts this α-helix and abolished binding to Gβ5-RGS7. Introduction of the double Pro substitution into full-length M3R (M3R(TP/LP)) prevents trafficking of the receptor to the cell surface. Using atropine or other antagonists as pharmacologic chaperones, we were able to increase the level of surface expression of the TP/LP mutant to levels comparable to that of wild-type M3R. However, M3R-stimulated calcium signaling is still severely compromised. These results show that the interaction of M3R with Gβ5-RGS7 requires helix 8 and the central portion of the i3 loop.

  18. Sediment mineralogy in the Bay of Havana (Cuba): its relation to natural and anthropogenic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Turiel, J. L.; Chinchón, J. S.; Maldonado, A.

    1996-02-01

    The mineralogical analysis by means of X-ray diffraction of the surficial sediments from the Bay of Havana (Cuba) allows us to identify and quantify the presence of quartz, feldspars, calcite, magnesium calcite, aragonite and dolomite. The distribution of these minerals permits us to distinguish the occurrence of five sedimentary environments (coastal marine, transitional bay-marine, bay, prodelta and Luyanó Drain environments) and related them to the general trends of sedimentary dynamics in the bay. The mineralogy of the coastal marine sediments is dominated by the composition of the local calcareous substratum, i.e., by magnesium calcite and dolomite. These minerals are associated with aragonite in the transitional environment existing between the marine and the bay environments. The sediments in the bay show high contents of aragonite and calcite, while quartz and feldspars are in important quantities in the sediments from the prodelta environments. These mineralogical features are consistent with the natural processes occuring in the Bay of Havana, while the composition of the sediments from the Luyanó Drain environment seem affected by the anthropogenic supply of this drain, showing very high contents of calcitic biogenic products.

  19. Mineralogical Plasticity Acts as a Compensatory Mechanism to the Impacts of Ocean Acidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Jonathan Y S; Russell, Bayden D; Connell, Sean D

    2017-02-15

    Calcifying organisms are considered particularly susceptible to the future impacts of ocean acidification (OA), but recent evidence suggests that they may be able to maintain calcification and overall fitness. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but may be attributed to mineralogical plasticity, which modifies the energetic cost of calcification. To test the hypothesis that mineralogical plasticity enables the maintenance of shell growth and functionality under OA conditions, we assessed the biological performance of a gastropod (respiration rate, feeding rate, somatic growth, and shell growth of Austrocochlea constricta) and analyzed its shell mechanical and geochemical properties (shell hardness, elastic modulus, amorphous calcium carbonate, calcite to aragonite ratio, and magnesium to calcium ratio). Despite minor metabolic depression and no increase in feeding rate, shell growth was faster under OA conditions, probably due to increased precipitation of calcite and trade-offs against inner shell density. In addition, the resulting shell was functionally suitable for increasingly "corrosive" oceans, i.e., harder and less soluble shells. We conclude that mineralogical plasticity may act as a compensatory mechanism to maintain overall performance of calcifying organisms under OA conditions and could be a cornerstone of calcifying organisms to acclimate to and maintain their ecological functions in acidifying oceans.

  20. Impact of pulp and paper mill effluents and solid wastes on soil mineralogical and physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Gopi; Bhattacharyya, Krishna G

    2015-03-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of the effluents and the solid wastes generated by a giant pulp and paper mill in the northeastern part of India on soil mineralogy of the area. The impacts were monitored by analysis of soil samples from seven sites located in the potential impact zone and a control site where any kind of effluent discharge or solid waste dumping was absent. The soil belonged to medium texture type (sandy clay loam, sandy loam, loamy sand, and silt loam), and the soil aggregate analysis indicated higher levels of organic carbon, pH, electrical conductivity, effective cation exchange capacity, and mean weight diameter at sites receiving effluents and solid wastes from the pulp and paper mill. Depletion in soil silica level and in feldspar and quartz contents and rise in iron and calcium contents at the sites receiving effluents from the pulp and paper mill indicated significant influence on soil mineralogy. The soil contained a mixture of minerals consisting of tectosilicates (with silicate frameworks as in quartz or feldspar), phylosilicates (layered clays like kaolinite, smectite, chlorite, illite, etc.), and carbonates. Absence of pure clay minerals indicated a state of heterogeneous intermediate soil clay transformation. The significance of the mixed mineralogy in relation to the disposal of effluents and dumping of solid wastes is discussed in details.

  1. Mineralogical Diversity in Lake Pavin: Connections with Water Column Chemistry and Biomineralization Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennyfer Miot

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available As biominerals are good tracers of microbial interactions with the environment, they may provide signatures of microbial evolution and paleoenvironmental conditions. Since modern analogues of past environments help with defining proxies and biosignatures, we explored microbe mineral interactions in the water column of a maar lake, located in France: Lake Pavin. This lake is considered as a potential Precambrian ocean analogue, as it is ferruginous and meromictic, i.e., stratified with a superficial O2-rich layer (mixolimnion and a deeper permanently anoxic layer (monimolimnion. We combined bulk chemical analyses of dissolved and particulate matter in combination with electron microscopy analyses of the particulate matter at different depths along the water column. The mineralogy changed along with water chemistry, and most of the minerals were intimately associated with microorganisms. Evolution of the redox conditions with depth leads to the successive precipitation of silica and carbonates, Mn-bearing, Fe-bearing and S-containing phases, with a predominance of phosphates in the monimolimnion. This scheme parallels the currently-assessed changes of microbial diversity with depth. The present results corroborate previous studies that suggested a strong influence of microbial activity on mineralogical diversity through extracellular and intracellular biomineralization. This paper reports detailed data on mineralogical profiles of the water column and encourages extended investigation of these processes.

  2. Arsenic mineralogy and mobility in the arsenic-rich historical mine waste dump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Michal; Drahota, Petr; Machovič, Vladimír; Böhmová, Vlasta; Mihaljevič, Martin

    2015-12-01

    A more than 250 year-old mine dump was studied to document the products of long-term arsenopyrite oxidation under natural conditions in a coarse-grained mine waste dump and to evaluate the environmental hazards associated with this material. Using complementary mineralogical and chemical approaches (SEM/EDS/WDS, XRD, micro-Raman spectroscopy, pore water analysis, chemical extraction techniques and thermodynamic PHREEQC-2 modeling), we documented the mineralogical/geochemical characteristics of the dumped arsenopyrite-rich material and environmental stability of the newly formed secondary minerals. A distinct mineralogical zonation was found (listed based on the distance from the decomposed arsenopyrite): scorodite (locally associated with native sulfur pseudomorphs) plus amorphous ferric arsenate (AFA/pitticite), kaňkite, As-bearing ferric (hydr)oxides and jarosite. Ferric arsenates and ferric (hydr)oxides were found to dissolve and again precipitate from downward migrating As-rich solutions cementing rock fragments. Acidic pore water (pH3.8) has elevated concentrations of As with an average value of about 2.9 mg L(-1). Aqueous As is highly correlated with pH (R2=0.97, pdump and underlying soil has been found to be very effective, suggesting limited environmental impact of the mine waste dump on the surrounding soil ecosystems.

  3. Characterization of raw and burnt oil shale from Dotternhausen: Petrographical and mineralogical evolution with temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiéry, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.thiery@mines-douai.fr [Mines Douai, LGCgE-GCE, F-59508 Douai (France); Université de Lille (France); Bourdot, Alexandra, E-mail: alexandra.bourdot@gmail.com [Mines Douai, LGCgE-GCE, F-59508 Douai (France); Bulteel, David, E-mail: david.bulteel@mines-douai.fr [Université de Lille (France)

    2015-08-15

    The Toarcian Posidonia shale from Dotternhausen, Germany, is quarried and burnt in a fluidized bed reactor to produce electricity. The combustion residue, namely burnt oil shale (BOS), is used in the adjacent cement work as an additive in blended cements. The starting material is a typical laminated oil shale with an organic matter content ranging from 6 to 18%. Mineral matter consists principally of quartz, feldspar, pyrite and clays. After calcination in the range, the resulting product, burnt oil shale, keeps the macroscopic layered texture however with different mineralogy (anhydrite, lime, iron oxides) and the formation of an amorphous phase. This one, studied under STEM, reveals a typical texture of incipient partial melting due to a long retention time (ca. 30 min) and quenching. An in-situ high temperature X-ray diffraction (HTXRD) allowed studying precisely the mineralogical changes associated with the temperature increase. - Highlights: • We present oil shale/burnt oil shale characterization. • The Posidonia Shale is burnt in a fluidized bed. • Mineralogical evolution with temperature is complex. • The burnt oil shale is used in composite cements.

  4. Chemical dispersants and pre-treatments to determine clay in soils with different mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Rodrigues

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the soil physical properties, including the clay content, is of utmost importance for agriculture. The behavior of apparently similar soils can differ in intrinsic characteristics determined by different formation processes and nature of the parent material. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of separate or combined pre-treatments, dispersion methods and chemical dispersant agents to determine clay in some soil classes, selected according to their mineralogy. Two Brazilian Oxisols, two Alfisols and one Mollisol with contrasting mineralogy were selected. Different treatments were applied: chemical substances as dispersants (lithium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, and hexametaphosphate; pre-treatment with dithionite, ammonium oxalate, and hydrogen peroxide to eliminate organic matter; and coarse sand as abrasive and ultrasound, to test their mechanical action. The conclusion was drawn that different treatments must be applied to determine clay, in view of the soil mineralogy. Lithium hydroxide was not efficient to disperse low-CEC electropositive soils and very efficient in dispersing high-CEC electronegative soils. The use of coarse sand as an abrasive increased the clay content of all soils and in all treatments in which dispersion occurred, with or without the use of chemical dispersants. The efficiency of coarse sand is not the same for all soil classes.

  5. Mineralogical and Geochemical Trends in a Fluviolacustrine Sequence in Gale Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampe, E.; Ming, D.; Morris, R.; Blake, D.; Vaniman, D.; Bristow, T.; Chipera, S.; Yen, A.; Grotzinger, J.; DesMarais, D.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory rover, Curiosity, landed at Gale crater in August 2012 and has been investigating a sequence of dominantly fluviolacustrine sediments deposited 3.6-3.2 billion years ago. Curiosity collects quantitative mineralogical data with the CheMin XRD/XRF instrument and quantitative chemical data with the APXS and ChemCam instruments. These datasets show stratigraphic mineralogical and geochemical variability that suggest a complex aqueous history. The Murray Formation, primarily composed of fine-laminated mudstone, has been studied in detail since the arrival at the Pahrump Hills in September 2014. CheMin data from four samples show variable amounts of iron oxides, phyllosilicates, sulfates, amorphous and crystalline silica, and mafic silicate minerals. Geochemical data throughout the section show that there is significant variability in Zn, Ni, and Mn concentrations. Mineralogical and geochemical trends with stratigraphy suggest one of possibly several aqueous episodes involved alteration in an open system under acidic pH, though other working hypotheses may explain these and other trends. Data from the Murray Formation contrast with those collected from the Sheepbed mudstone located approximately 60 meters below the base of the Murray Formation, which showed evidence for diagenesis in a closed system at circumneutral pH. Ca-sulfates filled late-stage veins in both mudstones.

  6. Role of ore mineralogy in optimizing conditions for bioleaching low-grade complex sulphide ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. A. OLUBAMBI; S. NDLOVU; J. H. POTGIETER; J. O. BORODE

    2008-01-01

    The role that ore mineralogy plays in understanding and optimizing the conditions favouring the bioleaching of complex sulphide ore containing high amounts of siderite was studied using mixed cultures of mesophilic bacteria, with emphasis on zinc,lead and copper recoveries. The influencing parameters investigated include particle size, stirring speed, volume of inoculum, pulp density, and pH. The results show that the mixed mesophilic cultures can extract about two and a half times the amount of zinc than copper over an equivalent period of time. The highest zinc and copper recoveries of 89.2% and 36.4% respectively are obtained at particle size of 75 μm, stirring speed of 150 r/min, pulp density of 10% (w/v), 12% (v/v) inoculum concentration, and a pH of 1.6. Variations in elemental composition within different particle sizes resulting from the mineralogy of the ore account for the bioleaching behaviour at varying particle sizes. The dissolution at varying pulp density, volume of inoculum, solution pH and the low solution potential observed are also influenced by ore mineralogy.

  7. Carbonatitic lavas in Catanda (Kwanza Sul, Angola): Mineralogical and geochemical constraints on the parental melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeny, Marc; Kamenetsky, Vadim S.; Melgarejo, Joan C.; Mangas, José; Manuel, José; Alfonso, Pura; Kamenetsky, Maya B.; Bambi, Aurora C. J. M.; Gonçalves, Antonio O.

    2015-09-01

    A set of small volcanic edifices with tuff ring and maar morphologies occur in the Catanda area, which is the only locality with extrusive carbonatites reported in Angola. Four outcrops of carbonatite lavas have been identified in this region and considering the mineralogical, textural and compositional features, we classify them as: silicocarbonatites (1), calciocarbonatites (2) and secondary calciocarbonatites produced by the alteration of primary natrocarbonatites (3). Even with their differences, we interpret these lava types as having been a single carbonatite suite related to the same parental magma. We have also estimated the composition of the parental magma from a study of melt inclusions hosted in magnetite microphenocrysts from all of these lavas. Melt inclusions revealed the presence of 13 different alkali-rich phases (e.g., nyerereite, shortite, halite and sylvite) that argues for an alkaline composition of the Catanda parental melts. Mineralogical, textural, compositional and isotopic features of some Catanda lavas are also similar to those described in altered natrocarbonatite localities worldwide such as Tinderet or Kerimasi, leading to our conclusion that the formation of some Catanda calciocarbonatite lavas was related to the occurrence of natrocarbonatite volcanism in this area. On the other hand, silicocarbonatite lavas, which are enriched in periclase, present very different mineralogical, compositional and isotopic features in comparison to the rest of Catanda lavas. We conclude that its formation was probably related to the decarbonation of primary dolomite bearing carbonatites.

  8. Georgia marble at the Minnesota State Capitol The Effects of Mineralogy and Climate on Durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitenack, Paul; Shotwell, L. Brad; Scheffler, Michael J.

    2016-11-01

    Based on visual observations and tests made of Georgia marble units that have been in service at the historic Minnesota State Capitol for 110 years, a fielddiscernible correlation exists between marble unit mineralogical composition and unit weathering performance. Field studies noted over the course of a five-year restoration project of the capitol exterior were used to categorize the original marble cladding into four perceptible types, which were evaluated by field testing that suggested a correlation between the textural and mineralogical differences within the marble and its long-term durability. To test this theory, field-issued repair assignments made during an exterior marble restoration project at the capitol were examined statistically. The nature and frequency of assigned repairs were compared to the type of marble from which they were originally fabricated to determine whether a correlation existed. The results of this comparison provided convincing statistical verification of the link between mineralogy and durability. This hypothesis was then verified through detailed petrographic analysis in a laboratory setting, which determined that marble consisting of a smaller, more interlocked grain configuration that was more dolomitic than calcitic in its basic chemistry consistently proved to be more durable in weathering performance over time. The paper describes the process followed by the authors to categorize and study the distinct varieties of Georgia marble present on the Minnesota State Capitol, and how this information was used to guide the restoration process with the intent of maximizing the anticipated service life of new marble replacements.

  9. Design of Dynamic Electrocardiogram Based on ARM Cortex-M3%基于ARM Cortex-M3的动态心电图机设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢建华; 刘海波; 刘瑞芳

    2012-01-01

    In order to enrich the product categories and function of the dynamic electrocardiogram,a new type of dynamic electrocardiogram product based on ARM (Advanced RISC Machines) Cortex-M3 is developed. The system hardware consists a processor minimum system,bioelectricity amplification module, storage module,LCD(Liquid Crstal Display) and touch screen module,high speed USB interface and the power module. For the system software, the platform was build based on CooCox CoOS embedded realtime operating system, the file system and USB middleware. The man-machine interface is realized by transplanting uC/GUI. The experiment results showed that the system could be used to control ECG signal collection,great capacity data storage and high-speed upload. The graphical user interface and real time waveform display are the innovative points.%针对目前动态心电图机产品种类和功能单一的现状,研制了基于ARM(Advanced RISC Machines) Cortex-M3的新型动态心电图机.硬件主要由处理器最小系统、生物电放大模块、存储模块、LCD (Liquid Cgstal Display)和触摸屏模块、高速USB接口和电源模块构成.软件开发基于CooCox CoOS嵌入式实时操作系统,同时使用了文件系统和USB等中间件.移植uC/GUI实现人机接口设计.测试结果表明,该系统不但实现了心电信号采集、大容量数据存储和高速上传的功能,而且创新性地增加了图形用户界面和实时波形显示功能.

  10. Car Design of WiFi Internet of Things Based on SCM Cortex-M3%基于Cortex-M3单片机的WiFi物联网小车的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤莉莉; 黄伟; 王春波; 方规

    2014-01-01

    使用无线互联网WiFi技术,采集小车上传感器的相关数据,并做相应的处理和控制,实现远程控制和监控功能。研究的范围包括Cortex-M3内核的LPC1768单片机软件的编程,单片机温度、速度、视屏的采集处理和传输,电脑软件的编程, Windows环境下的视屏处理、模拟速度表盘和模拟温度计的设计与实现以及TCP/IP通信实现等。方案采用自下而上的模块化编程方法,对温度和速度测试模块进行了模拟测试,对WiFi通信机制做了大量的数据分析,实现用电脑软件通过无线WiFi控制小车的运动、采集相关信息并显示等功能。%The purpose of this design is to use wireless Internet WiFi technology to collect the related data of car sensor,perform appropriate process and control,and ultimately realize remote control and monitoring functions.The study covers the SCM LPC1768 soft-ware programming of Cortex-M3 core,and the temperature,speed,screen capture processing and transmission of SCM,together with the design and implementation of screen processing,analog dial of speed,analog thermometer and TCP/IP communication under Windows environments.The scheme uses a bottom-up modular programming method to implement the simulation and test for temperature and speed testing module,perform much of data analysis of WiFi communication mechanism,and finally use computer software to achieve the control the car′s movement,collect and display relevant information through wireless WiFi.

  11. Design of mine DC electrical prospecting instrument based on ARM Cortex-M3 core%基于ARM Cortex-M3内核矿井直流电法仪的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁殿艳; 张仲礼; 王继矿; 汪凯斌; 李超

    2011-01-01

    DC electrical prospecting instrument has played an important role in preventing mine water disaster, but the traditional DC electrical prospecting instrument has some disadvantages such as high power consumption, small storage capacity, hard operation and difficulty to carry, for it is mostly developed utilizing MCS -51 microcontroller. These restrict the application of DC electrical prospecting instrument to a certain extent. This article begins with the working principle of mine DC electrical, improves the traditional DC electrical prospecting instrument utilizing STM32 microcomputer based on Cortex - M3 core and 24 - bit Σ - A ADC component, and redesigns the hardware and software of mine DC eldetrieal instrument. The improved instrument has the advantage of high accuracy, low cost, low power consumption, large storage capacity, convenient communication and friendly man-machine interface compared with traditional DC electrical prospecting instrument.%直流电法仪在预防煤矿水害中发挥重要作用,但传统直流电法仪的核心芯片多采用51系列单片机,具有功耗大、存储容量小、操作不方便,难以携带等缺点,在一定程度上制约了直流电法仪的应用.文中从矿井直流电法仪的工作原理出发,采用基于ARM Cortex-M3内核的STM32处理器和基于Σ-Δ技术的24位高分辨率ADC器件对传统矿井直流电法仪进行了升级、改造,重新设计了硬件电路和软件程序.与传统矿井直流电法仪相比,新设计的直流电法仪具有精度高、成本低、功耗小、存储容量大、通讯方便和人机界面友好等优点.

  12. Electrochemical studies on interplay of mineralogical variation and particle size on bioleaching low grade complex sulphide ores

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. A. OLUBAMBI; J. H. POTGIETER; S. NDLOVU; J. O. BORODE

    2009-01-01

    The interplay of mineralogical variation and mineral phase distribution within varying particle sizes on the dissolution behaviour of a low grade complex sulphide ore was investigated through bioleaching experiments and electrochemical technique. Investigations were carried out utilizing mineralogical data on the variations in mineral and phase distribution within particle sizes of<53 μm, 53-75 μm, 75-106 μm and 106-150 μm in mixed mesophilic cultures of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans and Leptospirillum ferrooxidans. Electrochemical behaviour was studied using particulate electrodes from the four varying particle sizes and from massive electrodes prepared from the two major sulphide mineral rich phases (sphalerite-rich and galena-rich) and a complex mineralogical phase of the bulk ore. Bioleaching studies reveal the highest recoveries at a particle size of 75 μm, while electrochemical investigations reveal the highest dissolution at particle size of 106 μm. Electrochemical results show that sphalerite rich phase has the highest dissolution rate while galena-rich complex phase has the least. SEM studies confirm the highest bacterial attack at the sphalerite-rich phase. The discrepancies between the dissolutions within particle sizes obtained from bioleaching experiments and electrochemical studies are consistent with and attributed both to the physical and mineralogical influences. Electrochemical behaviour is influenced and controlled by galvanic interaction resulting from mineralogical variation, while bioleaching behaviour is influenced by mineralogical variation as well as physical effect of particle size.

  13. Physicochemical Properties, Micromorphology and Clay Mineralogy of Soils Affected by Geological Formations, Geomorphology and Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bayat

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Soil genesis and development in arid and semi-arid areas are strongly affected by geological formations and geomorphic surfaces. Various morphological, physical, and geochemical soil properties at different geomorphic positions are usually attributed to different soil forming factors including parent material and climate. Due to variations in climate, geological formations (Quaternary, Neogene and Cretaceous and geomorphology, the aim of the present research was the study of genesis, development, clay mineralogy, and micromorphology of soils affected by climate, geology and geomorphology in Bardsir area, Kerman Province. Materials and Methods: The study area, 25000 ha, starts from Bardsir and extends to Khanesorkh elevations close to Sirjan city. The climate of the area is warm and semi-arid with mean annual temperature and precipitation of 14.9 °C and 199 mm, respectively. Soil moisture and temperature regimes of the area are aridic and mesic due to 1:2500000 map, provided by Soil and Water Research Institute. Moving to west and southwest, soil moisture regime of the area changes to xeric with increasing elevation. Using topography and geology maps (1:100000 together with Google Earth images, geomorphic surfaces and geologic formations of the area were investigated. Mantled pediment (pedons 1, 3, 7, and 8, rock pediment (pedon 2, semi-stable alluvial plain (pedon 6, unstable alluvial plain (pedon 5, piedmont plain (pedons 9 and 11, intermediate surface of alluvial plain and pediment (pedon 4, and old river terrace (pedon 10 are among geomorphic surfaces investigated in the area. Mantled pediment is composed of young Quaternary sediments and Cretaceous marls. Rock pediments are mainly formed by Cretaceous marls. Quaternary formations are dominant in alluvial plains. Alluvial terraces and intermediate surface of alluvial plain and pediment are dominated by Neogene conglomerates. Siltstone, sandstone, and Neogene marls together with

  14. Miniature robotic sample analysis lab for planetary in situ mineralogy and microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruzelecky, Roman; Wong, Brian; Haddad, Emile; Jamroz, Wes; Cloutis, Edward; Strong, Kimberly; Ghafoor, Nadeem; Jessen, Sean

    The current Martian surface conditions are relatively inhospitable, with average diurnal temperature ranges from 170 K to 268 K, a low air pressure of about 7 to 10 mbar consisting mainly of CO2 and negligible ozone to moderate the UV portion of the incident solar radiation. The intense UV effectively sterilizes the surface, and in combination with the low air pressure, makes any unbound surface liquid water unstable. However, there is mounting evidence to support the notion that the near subsurface of Mars may differ dramatically from the uppermost surface. The Inukshuk landed Mars mission, as initially developed under a pre-Phase A study for the Canadian Space Agency, focuses on the search for hydrated mineralogy and subsurface water sites that can provide evidence of past or present life. The mission will be achieved using a miniature suite of complementary spectral instruments operating in collaboration with a robotic tethered mole drill system for the systematic in situ subsurface exploration of the planetary mineralogy, water content and microbiology. The Inukshuk mission will, for the first time, study variations in the Mars subsurface characteristics and composition in detail at different locations. These will be correlated with the current planetary boundary layer conditions using an elevating Skycam platform and surface stand-off measurement capabilities. The subsurface analysis will be provided using a miniature bore-hole probe integrated within the mole driller and interfaced to the rover-based instrument suite using an IR fiber-optic link. This will allow subsurface mapping of the stratigraphy and composition in steps of a few mm to depths beyond 1 m. During the drilling, the bore-hole probe will be shielded using a wiper/shutter system. The in situ bore-hole analysis has an advantage for detecting biomarkers for astrobiology on Mars in that the alteration of the sample by surface radiation can be minimized. The bore-hole sample analysis will employ

  15. 77 FR 76598 - Notice of Receipt of Petition for Decision That Nonconforming 2006-2010 BMW M3 Passenger Cars Are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... vehicles that are not already so equipped; and (b) replacement of any non U.S.- model air bags, air bag...-2010 BMW M3 Passenger Cars Are Eligible for Importation AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety...-2010 BMW M3 passenger cars that were not originally manufactured to comply with all applicable Federal...

  16. 某10万m3钢储罐罐体变形的修复措施%The Rectification Methodof 100,000 m3 Steel Oil Storage Tank Wall Deformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应付钊; 丁伟

    2013-01-01

    The differential settlement of tank foundation or low quality tank erection will cause wall deformation of steel oil storage tank, the low quality tank erection will have greater effect on the lifting of floating roof than the differential settlement of tank foundation. In the paper, the reason causing wall deformation and rectification method were introduced, some questions that need considered during steel oil storage tank erection and high pressure filling method of cavity which is between tank bottom plate and tank foundation were pointed. Finally, some referable conclusions are obtained.%地基不均匀沉降和安装不当均会引起钢储罐罐体变形,安装不当引起的罐体变形比罐基础不均匀沉降造成的罐体变形对浮船升降影响可能更大.通过对某10万m3钢储罐产生罐壁变形的原因分析和纠偏措施介绍,提出了一些大型储罐在安装过程中应注意的问题,给出了罐体顶升后间隙采用高压吹填的处理措施,对同类工程设计有一定的借鉴意义.

  17. 基于nRF24L01和Cortex-M3的无线测控系统%Wireless measurement and control system based on nRF24L01 and Cortex-M3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁正道; 董丽莎; 王家斌

    2012-01-01

      在井下抢险或其它搜救现场,通常都需要一种远程遥测系统来取代人工进入一些危险场所。文中提出了一种基于nRF24L01和Cortex的无线测控系统的开发方法,简要讨论了其结构和开发原理,并详细介绍了该测控系统的硬件构造和软件开发流程%  On the downhole resuce and other rescue spot, a remote-measuring system is used to enter into the dangerous areas instead of persons. A design scheme of wireless measurement and control system based on RF24L01 and Cortex-M3 is given in the paper. In the paper a brief discussion on the structure and development principles of the system is made and the hardware construction and software development process are introduced in detail.

  18. Reconstructing the Holocene depositional environments along the northern coast of Sfax (Tunisia): Mineralogical and sedimentological approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamourou, Ali; Touir, Jamel; Fagel, Nathalie

    2017-05-01

    A sedimentological and mineralogical study of sedimentary cores allowed reconstructing the evolution of depositional environments along the Northern coast of Sfax (Tunisia). The aim of this research work is to identify the factors controlling the sedimentation from the Holocene to the Present time. Three 30-m sediment cores collected by drilling at 30 m water depth were analyzed for their color, magnetic susceptibility signal, grain size by laser diffraction, organic matter content by loss of ignition, carbonate content by calcimetry and mineralogy by X-ray diffraction on bulk powder and clay <2 μm. They broadly present the same sedimentological and mineralogical features. Microscopical observations of petrographic slides allowed identifying six main sedimentary facies. Bulk mineralogical assemblages comprised clay minerals, quartz, calcite, gypsum and K-feldspars were examined. Considerable change was observed in the carbonate content that mimicked the bioclaste abundance and diluted the detrital minerals (clay minerals, quartz and feldspars). The gypsum mainly occurred in the lower sedimentary columns (SC12 and SC9) and in the upper/middle of core SC6. The clay fraction was made of a mixture of kaolinite, illite, smectite and palygorskite with no clear variation through core depth. Both grain-size parameters and magnetic susceptibility profile showed a sharp transition in the upper 2-5 m of the sedimentological columns. Coarse, sandy to gravely sediments characterized by a low magnetic susceptibility signal were replaced by fine bioclastic-rich clayey sediments. The analysis of vertical succession of depositional facies revealed a fluvial depositional environment (coastal plain) basically marked by fluvial channels and inundation plains at the bottom of all cores. However, core-top sediments recorded a littoral marine environment with sand depositions rich in gastropods, lamellibranches and algæ. Depositional facies, sedimentological and mineralogical

  19. A complex magma reservoir system for a large volume intra- to extra-caldera ignimbrite: Mineralogical and chemical architecture of the VEI8, Permian Ora ignimbrite (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcock, M. A. W.; Bargossi, G. M.; Weinberg, R. F.; Gasparotto, G.; Cas, R. A. F.; Giordano, G.; Marocchi, M.

    2015-11-01

    Intra-caldera settings record a wealth of information on caldera-forming processes, yet field study is rarely possible due to lack of access and exposure. The Permian Ora Formation, Italy, preserves > 1000 m of vertical section through its intra-caldera succession. This provides an excellent opportunity to detail its mineralogical and geochemical architecture and gain understanding of the eruption evolution and insight into the pre-eruptive magma system. Detailed juvenile clast phenocryst and matrix crystal fragment point count and image analysis data, coupled with bulk-rock chemistry and single mineral compositional data, show that the Ora ignimbrite succession is rhyolitic (72.5-77.7% SiO2), crystal-rich (~ 25-57%; average 43%) and has a constant main mineral population (volcanic quartz + sanidine + plagioclase + biotite). Although a seemingly homogeneous ignimbrite succession, important subtle but detectable lateral and vertical variations in modal mineralogy and bulk-rock major and trace elements are identified here. The Ora Formation is comprised of multiple lithofacies, dominated by four densely welded ignimbrite lithofacies. They are crystal-rich, typically lithic-poor (cake' stratigraphy. The intra-caldera succession is divided into two depo-centres: Southern and Northern, with proximal extra-caldera deposits preserved to the south and north of the system. The Southern and Northern intra-caldera ignimbrite successions are discriminated by variations in total biotite crystal abundance. Detailed mineralogical and chemical data records decreases across the caldera system from south to north in biotite phenocrysts in the groundmass of juvenile clasts (average 12-2%), matrix biotite (average 7.5-2%) and plagioclase crystal fragments (average 18-6%), and total crystal fragment abundance in the matrix (average 47-37%); a biotite compositional change to iron-rich (0.57-0.78 Fe); and bulk-rock element decreases in Fe2O3, MgO, P2O5, Ce, Hf, V, La and Zr, and

  20. Tilting structures in inverse perovskites, M3TtO (M = Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu; Tt = Si, Ge, Sn, Pb).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuss, Jürgen; Mühle, Claus; Hayama, Kyouhei; Abdolazimi, Vahideh; Takagi, Hidenori

    2015-06-01

    Single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments were performed for a series of inverse perovskites, M3TtO (M = Ca, Sr, Ba, Eu; Tt = tetrel element: Si, Ge, Sn, Pb) in the temperature range 500-50 K. For Tt = Sn, Pb, they crystallize as an 'ideal' perovskite-type structure (Pm3m, cP5); however, all of them show distinct anisotropies of the displacement ellipsoids of the M atoms at room temperature. This behavior vanishes on cooling for M = Ca, Sr, Eu, and the structures can be regarded as `ideal' cubic perovskites at 50 K. The anisotropies of the displacement ellipsoids are much more enhanced in the case of the Ba compounds. Finally, their structures undergo a phase transition at ∼ 150 K. They change from cubic to orthorhombic (Ibmm, oI20) upon cooling, with slightly tilted OBa6 octahedra, and bonding angles O-Ba-O ≃ 174° (100 K). For the larger Ba(2+) cations, the structural changes are in agreement with smaller tolerance factors (t) as defined by Goldschmidt. Similar structural behavior is observed for Ca3TtO. Smaller Tt(4-) anions (Si, Ge) introduce reduced tolerance factors. Both compounds Ca3SiO and Ca3GeO with cubic structures at 500 K, change into orthorhombic (Ibmm) at room temperature. Whereby, Ca3SiO is the only representative within the M3TtO family where three polymorphs can be found within the temperature range 500-50 K: Pm3m-Ibmm-Pbnm. They show tiny differences in the tilting of the OCa6 octahedra, expressed by O-Ca-O bond angles of 180° (500 K), ∼ 174° (295 K) and 170° (100 K). For larger M (Sr, Eu, Ba), together with smaller Tt (Si, Ge) atoms, pronounced tilting of the OM6 octahedra, and bonding angles of O-M-O ≃ 160° (295 K) are observed. They crystallize in the anti-GdFeO3 type of structure (Pbnm, oP20), and no phase transitions occur between 500 and 50 K. The observed phase transitions are all accompanied by multiple twinning, in terms of pseudo-merohedry or reticular pseudo-merohedry.

  1. GABA(A) receptor M2-M3 loop secondary structure and changes in accessibility during channel gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Amal K; Chatav, Maya; Akabas, Myles H

    2002-11-08

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor M2-M3 loop structure and its role in gating were investigated using the substituted cysteine accessibility method. Residues from alpha(1)Arg-273 to alpha(1)Ile-289 were mutated to cysteine, one at a time. MTSET(+) or MTSES(-) reacted with all mutants from alpha(1)R273C to alpha(1)Y281C, except alpha(1)P277C, in the absence and presence of GABA. The MTSET(+) closed-state reaction rate was >1000 liters/mol-s at alpha(1)N274C, alpha(1)S275C, alpha(1)K278C, and alpha(1)Y281C and was <300 liters/mol-s at alpha(1)R273C, alpha(1)L276C, alpha(1)V279C, alpha(1)A280C, and alpha(1)A284C. These two groups of residues lie on opposite sides of an alpha-helix. The fast reacting group lies on a continuation of the M2 segment channel-lining helix face. This suggests that the M2 segment alpha-helix extends about two helical turns beyond alpha(1)N274 (20'), aligned with the extracellular ring of charge. At alpha(1)S275C, alpha(1)V279C, alpha(1)A280C, and alpha(1)A284C the reaction rate was faster in the presence of GABA. The reagents had no functional effect on the mutants from alpha(1)A282C to alpha(1)I289C, except alpha(1)A284C. Access may be sterically hindered possibly by close interaction with the extracellular domain. We suggest that the M2 segment alpha-helix extends beyond the predicted extracellular end of the M2 segment and that gating induces a conformational change in and/or around the N-terminal half of the M2-M3 loop. Implications for coupling ligand-evoked conformational changes in the extracellular domain to channel gating in the membrane-spanning domain are discussed.

  2. Molecular organization of the complex between the muscarinic M3 receptor and the regulator of G protein signaling, Gbeta(5)-RGS7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandiford, Simone L; Wang, Qiang; Levay, Konstantin; Buchwald, Peter; Slepak, Vladlen Z

    2010-06-22

    The complex of the regulator of G protein signaling (RGS), Gbeta(5)-RGS7, can inhibit signal transduction via the M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor (M3R). RGS7 consists of three distinct structural entities: the DEP domain and its extension DHEX, the Ggamma-like (GGL) domain, which is permanently bound to Gbeta subunit Gbeta(5), and the RGS domain responsible for the interaction with Galpha subunits. Inhibition of the M3R by Gbeta(5)-RGS7 is independent of the RGS domain but requires binding of the DEP domain to the third intracellular loop of the receptor. Recent studies identified the dynamic intramolecular interaction between the Gbeta(5) and DEP domains, which suggested that the Gbeta(5)-RGS7 dimer could alternate between the "open" and "closed" conformations. Here, we identified point mutations that weaken DEP-Gbeta(5) binding, presumably stabilizing the open state, and tested their effects on the interaction of Gbeta(5)-RGS7 with the M3R. We found that these mutations facilitated binding of Gbeta(5)-RGS7 to the recombinant third intracellular loop of the M3R but did not enhance its ability to inhibit M3R-mediated Ca(2+) mobilization. This led us to the idea that the M3R can effectively induce the Gbeta(5)-RGS7 dimer to open; such a mechanism would require a region of the receptor distinct from the third loop. Indeed, we found that the C-terminus of M3R interacts with Gbeta(5)-RGS7. Truncation of the C-terminus rendered the M3R insensitive to inhibition by wild-type Gbeta(5)-RGS7; however, the open mutant of Gbeta(5)-RGS7 was able to inhibit signaling by the truncated M3R. The GST fusion of the M3R C-tail could not bind to wild-type Gbeta(5)-RGS7 but could associate with its open mutant as well as with the separated recombinant DEP domain or Gbeta(5). Taken together, our data are consistent with the following model: interaction of the M3R with Gbeta(5)-RGS7 causes the DEP domain and Gbeta(5) to dissociate from each other and bind to the C-tail, and the DEP

  3. 基于Cortex-M3的电池内阻检测系统设计与实现%Design and implementation of battery internal resistance detection system based on Cortex-M3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐芳; 荆炳礼; 任志宏

    2015-01-01

    以电池为能源的各类电气设备,在工业生产、交通、军事、通信等领域广泛应用,电池性能对电子、电气设备的正常运行具有极其重要的作用。电池在使用过程中,其性能和容量会随充放电次数的增加而下降,所以,定期维护及检验电池性能,是保证电器设备可靠工作的重要内容。电池内阻是检验电池性能和容量的重要参数,通过内阻检测评估电池性能和容量参数,也是科学研究和工业应用的基本原理。电池内阻测量的常用方法一般采用电位差原理。但是,该测量方法对于大型设备的高容量电池存在测量误差大、发热、易损电池等弊端。本文采用基于Cortex-M3核32位微处理微计算机控制和电位差原理的智能内阻测量系统,实现了大容量电池的精确、快速、安全测量和高度智能化的故障诊断功能,具有重要的科学研究意义及实用价值。%All kinds of electrical equipment which use battery as energy sources, are widely used in the industrial production, transportation, military, communications and other fields. And the battery performance is of great importance to normal operation of electrical and electronic equipment. Because the performance and capacity of battery decreases with the increasing number of charge cycles and discharge, the regular maintenance and test of battery performance is the important to guarantee working reliability of electrical equipment. Evaluation battery performance and capacity by testing battery internal resistance, which is the vital parameter for battery performance and capacity, is the basic principles of scientific research and industrial application. Potential difference principle is common method to measure battery internal resistance, but in which the disadvantage is that causing large measurement error, producing heat and damaging battery easily for the large capacity battery of large equipment. In this

  4. Underground low flux neutron background measurements in LSM using a large volume (1m3) spherical proportional counter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savvidis, I.; Giomataris, I.; Bougamont, E.; Irastorza, I.; Aune, S.; Chapelier, M.; Charvin, P. H.; Colas, P.; Derre, J.; Ferrer, E.; Gerbier, G.; Gros, M.; Mangier, P.; Navick, X. F.; Salin, P.; Vergados, J. D.; Zampalo, M.

    2010-01-01

    A large volume (1m3) spherical proportional counter has been developed at CEA/Saclay, for low flux neutron measurements. The high voltage is applied to a small sphere 15mm in diameter, located in the center of the counter and the wall of the counter is grounded. Neutrons can be measured successfully, with high sensitivity, using 3He gas in the detector. The proton and tritium energy deposition in the drift gaseous volume, from the reaction 3He(n,p)3H, can provide the neutron spectra from thermal neutrons up to several MeV. The detector has been installed in the underground laboratory in Modane (LSM) to measure the neutron background. The sphere has been has been filled with gas mixture of Ar + 2% CH4 +3gr He-3, at 275 mbar. The thermal neutron peak is well separated from the cosmic ray and gamma background, permitting of neutron flux calculation. Other potential applications requiring large volume of about 10 m in radius are described in detail in reference

  5. Tests of shielding effectiveness of Kevlar and Nextel onboard the International Space Station and the Foton-M3 capsule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, M; Bengin, V; Casolino, M; Roca, V; Zanini, A; Durante, M

    2010-08-01

    Radiation assessment and protection in space is the first step in planning future missions to the Moon and Mars, where mission and number of space travelers will increase and the protection of the geomagnetic shielding against the cosmic radiation will be absent. In this framework, the shielding effectiveness of two flexible materials, Kevlar and Nextel, were tested, which are largely used in the construction of spacecrafts. Accelerator-based tests clearly demonstrated that Kevlar is an excellent shield for heavy ions, close to polyethylene, whereas Nextel shows poor shielding characteristics. Measurements on flight performed onboard of the International Space Station and of the Foton-M3 capsule have been carried out with special attention to the neutron component; shielded and unshielded detectors (thermoluminescence dosemeters, bubble detectors) were exposed to a real radiation environment to test the shielding properties of the materials under study. The results indicate no significant effects of shielding, suggesting that thin shields in low-Earth Orbit have little effect on absorbed dose.

  6. [Morphofunctional state of hepatocytes nuclear apparatus in Mongolian herbils after the flight on space apparatus Foton-M3].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiakshin, D A; Il'in, E A; Pashkov, A N

    2010-01-01

    Morphofunctional state of hepatocytes nuclear apparatus was analyzed in the liver of Mongolian gerbils Meriones unguiculatus returned from 12-d space flight of Foton-M3 (SF) and their vivarium and ground synchronous controls. Volume, ploidy and number of hepatocyte nuclei, nucleolus dimensions and number as well as contacts with karyolemma were determined in the central, intermediate and peripheral areas of the liver classical lobe. Also, total number of mitoses and amitoses was determined in the liver parenchyma. The vivarium control animals displayed specifics of the nucleus apparatus structure that depended on intralobe topography. Based on the selected criteria, high functional activity was characteristic of cells in the intermediate area. According to the criteria, nuclear apparatus in the synchronous control tended to down the functional activity The adaptive adjustment of nuclei in SF seemed to have been initiated by changes in the hepatic blood flow: volumes of hepatocyte nuclei and nucleoli increased as did the number of nuclei in cell, whereas ploidy made a decrease, especially in the intermediate area. Under the SF conditions, particularly important compensatory mechanism for the liver function was intensification of amitosis and consequent increase of the population of dinuclear hepatocytes.

  7. Full Stokes observations in the He I 1083 nm spectral region covering an M3.2 flare

    CERN Document Server

    Kuckein, C; Sainz, R Manso; Ramos, A Asensio

    2015-01-01

    We present an exceptional data set acquired with the Vacuum Tower Telescope (Tenerife, Spain) covering the pre-flare, flare, and post-flare stages of an M3.2 flare. The full Stokes spectropolarimetric observations were recorded with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter in the He I 1083.0 nm spectral region. The object under study was active region NOAA 11748 on 2013 May 17. During the flare the chomospheric He I 1083.0 nm intensity goes strongly into emission. However, the nearby photospheric Si I 1082.7 nm spectral line profile only gets shallower and stays in absorption. Linear polarization (Stokes Q and U) is detected in all lines of the He I triplet during the flare. Moreover, the circular polarization (Stokes V) is dominant during the flare, being the blue component of the He I triplet much stronger than the red component, and both are stronger than the Si I Stokes V profile. The Si I inversions reveal enormous changes of the photospheric magnetic field during the flare. Before the flare magnetic field conc...

  8. Reactor performance of a 750 m(3) anaerobic digestion plant: varied substrate input conditions impacting methanogenic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Andreas Otto; Malin, Cornelia; Lins, Philipp; Gstraunthaler, Gudrun; Illmer, Paul

    2014-10-01

    A 750 m(3) anaerobic digester was studied over a half year period including a shift from good reactor performance to a reduced one. Various abiotic parameters like volatile fatty acids (VFA) (formic-, acetic-, propionic-, (iso-)butyric-, (iso-)valeric-, lactic acid), total C, total N, NH4 -N, and total proteins, as well as the organic matter content and dry mass were determined. In addition several process parameters such as temperature, pH, retention time and input of substrate and the concentrations of CH4, H2, CO2 and H2S within the reactor were monitored continuously. The present study aimed at the investigation of the abundance of acetogens and total cell numbers and the microbial methanogenic community as derived from PCR-dHPLC analysis in order to put it into context with the determined abiotic parameters. An influence of substrate quantity on the efficiency of the anaerobic digestion process was found as well as a shift from a hydrogenotrophic in times of good reactor performance towards an acetoclastic dominated methanogenic community in times of reduced reactor performance. After the change in substrate conditions it took the methano-archaeal community about 5-6 weeks to be affected but then changes occurred quickly.

  9. Changing M3G/M6G ratios and pharmacodynamics in a cancer patient during long-term morphine treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gertrud; Christrup, Lona Louring; Sjøgren, Per;

    2002-01-01

    A cancer patient receiving long-term oral sustained-release morphine treatment and periodically presenting with unusually high plasma M3G/M6G ratios is described. We found the patient's formation of M6G more unstable and perhaps delayed compared to the formation of M3G. There is no apparent...... explanation for this phenomenon and the high M3G/M6G ratios had no implications for the patient's pain experience or side effects from the morphine treatment....

  10. Progress in TMT M3 system%TMT 望远镜三镜系统的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王富国; 杨飞; 赵宏超; 苏燕芹; 陈宝刚

    2013-01-01

    介绍30 m望远镜(TMT)的相关背景以及我国在TMT项目中承担的任务。从TMT三镜系统的总体要求出发,论述了三镜系统的两个主要部分(M3CA和M3PA)的具体要求、技术难点以及初步方案。针对M3CA,介绍了底支撑方案和侧支撑方案,采用Kinematic的底支撑方案时其面形精度RMS可以达到109.7 nm,SlopeRMS为0.95μrad,采用Kinematic的侧支撑方案时其面形精度RMS<15 nm,一阶谐振频率等于17.7 Hz,均达到了设计要求。针对M3PA,介绍了Tilt轴系和Rotator轴系的方案。最后,简要介绍了三镜控制系统(M3CS)的要求和目标。%The background of Thirty Meter Telescope(TMT) and its mission that we should take in hand are introdced.The detailed specifications and the preliminary scheme for the M 3CA and M3PA in the 3 mirror (M3) system are presented according to the general specification .Then, the two parts,axial support and later-al support of M3CA, are designed in detail.Due to the kinematic concept design used in both of axial support and lateral support, the mirror surface error can be reduced in a acceptable level .When the kinematic axial support scheme is taken, its surface accuracy RMS is 109.7 nm and Slope RMS is 0.95μrad, while the kine-matic lateral support scheme is taken, its surface accuracy RMS is 15 nm,and the first natural frequency can reach to 17.7 Hz.The design proposal for M3PA is discussed and the control system for M3 system(M3CS) is introduced briefly.

  11. 基于MDK RTX的Cortex-M3多任务应用设计%Multi-task Application Design Based on MDK RTX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方安平; 武永谊

    2008-01-01

    MDK RL-RTX是ARM公司推出的最新实时多任务内核,Cortex-M3是ARM公司最新发布的嵌入式处理器.将RL-RTX实时多任务内核应用到Cortex-M3处理器上,可大大提高代码密度,减少系统内存,提升系统性能.本文介绍了RL-RTX在Cortex-M3上的移植以及多任务应用设计方法.

  12. Using Predefined M3(μ3-O) Clusters as Building Blocks for an Isostructural Series of Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Li; Asgari, Mehrdad; Mieville, Pascal; Schouwink, Pascal; Bulut, Safak; Sun, Daniel T; Zhou, Zhongrui; Pattison, Philip; van Beek, Wouter; Queen, Wendy L

    2017-07-19

    Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted much attention in the past decade owing to their unprecedented internal surface areas, tunable topologies, designable surfaces, and various potential applications. One bottleneck in the field regarding MOF synthesis is controlling the metal-containing secondary building unit (SBU) incorporated into the structure. In this work we report the synthesis and characterization of five trimeric [M3(μ3-O)(CH3CO2)6](x) clusters (where M = Fe(3+), Cr(3+), Fe(3+)/Cr(3+), Fe(3+)/Co(2+), or Fe(3+)/Ni(2+) and x = +1 or 0). The monocarboxylate capping ligand, acetate in this case, readily undergoes exchange with several difunctional counterparts, including 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid (H2-BDC) and biphenyl-4,4'-dicarboxylic acid (H2-BPDC), for the formation of an isostructural series of MOFs, several of which are newly reported (for M = Fe(3+)/Cr(3+), Fe(3+)/Co(2+), and Fe(3+)/Ni(2+)) and show excellent CO2 adsorption properties. In this report, a host of techniques including NMR, ICP, and ESI-MS are used to probe the ligand exchange process and composition of the SBUs, and XAS is used to monitor the Fe(3+) and Cr(3+) environment throughout the reactions, giving strong evidence that the clusters stay intact throughout the MOF synthesis. This work reveals that predefined SBUs is an effective means to create metal-substituted analogues of known frameworks. Further, CO adsorption and in situ IR are used to probe accessibility of the metals after solvent removal. We show for the first time that the incorporation of the neutral clusters, containing weaker Lewis acids like Ni(2+) and Co(2+), can promote the formation of open metal sites in the MOF frameworks, structural features known to enhance the binding energy of small guest molecules like CO2.

  13. Mineralogy of Soils from Different Agraecological Regions of Bangladesh : Region 25 - Level Barind Tract and Region 27 - Noth-eastern Barind Tract

    OpenAIRE

    Moslehuddin, Abu Zofar Md; Habibullah; Moniruzzaman, Md.; Egashira, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    Bangladesh has been divided into 30 Agroecological Regions (AEZs) and the applied agricultural research has currently been conducted on this basis. In context of the lack of enough mineralogical information on the AEZ basis, an attempt has been taken to study mineralogy of important soils from all AEZs of Bangladesh in order to provide basic information for applied research. As a part of this attempt, the mineralogy of twelve soils from AEZ 25, Level Barind Tract, and that of ten soils from...

  14. Quantitative mineralogical characterization of chrome ore beneficiation plant tailing and its beneficiated products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S. K.

    2015-04-01

    Mineralogical characterization and liberation of valuable minerals are primary concerns in mineral processing industries. The present investigation focuses on quantitative mineralogy, elemental deportment, and locking-liberation characteristics of the beneficiation of tailings from a chrome ore beneficiation plant in the Sukinda region, Odisha; methods used for the study of the beneficiated tailings are QEMSCAN®, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and mineral chemistry by a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive spectrometer (SEM-EDS). The tailing sample was fine grained (69.48wt% below 45 μm size), containing 20.25wt% Cr2O3 and 39.19wt% Fe2O3, with a Cr:Fe mass ratio of 0.51. Mineralogical investigations using QEMSCAN studies revealed that chromite, goethite, and gibbsite are the dominant mineral phases with minor amounts of hematite, kaolinite, and quartz. The sample contained 34.22wt% chromite, and chromite liberation is more than 80% for grains smaller than 250 μm in size. Based on these results, it was predicted that liberated chromite and high-grade middling chromite particles could be separated from the gangue by various concentration techniques. The tailing sample was beneficiated by hydrocyclone, tabling, wet high-intensity magnetic separation (WHIMS), and flotation in order to recover the chromite. A chromite concentrate with 45.29wt% Cr2O3 and a Cr:Fe mass ratio of 1.85 can be produced from these low-grade chromite ore beneficiation plant rejects.

  15. Mineralogical discrimination of the pleistocene loess/paleosol sections in Srijem and Baranja, Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galović, Lidija; Peh, Zoran

    2016-06-01

    Previous investigations of the mineralogical composition of loess sections (loess, loess-like sediments, paleosols, alluvial intercalations) in the Carpathian Basin have concluded that the Danube River is the dominant control on the loessitic parent material. These investigations also identify a significant role for the Danube's tributaries in creating local variations. The north-south alignment of these sections forms a transect from the central part of the Carpathian Basin to its southern edge. In this work, the mineral origin of loess sediments was identified by using the multivariate statistical method of discriminant function analysis. Two models were constructed based on the modal composition as the suite of predictor (independent) variables: one is using geographic location as the a priori grouping criterion (SECTION); another employing the difference between the sampling media (LITHOLOGY). Both of the examined discriminant models demonstrate the existence of the mixing zones. The Erdut section is a clear mixture of the mineralogies at the other studied locations, while loesses appear generally intermediate in mineralogy between alluvium and paleosol. The main rationale for the observed difference in modal composition between the Šarengrad and other analyzed sections is the proximity of the Šarengrad section to the Sava River floodplain and Dinaric Ophiolite Zone (DOZ), both important source areas for aeolian sediments in the southern edge of the Carpathian Basin that transport material from the Central Bosnian Mountains unit of DOZ. Chemically, the most resistant heavy minerals together with opaque minerals are exclusively associated with paleosols, being typical products of geochemical pedogenic processes.

  16. Characterization of minothems at Libiola (NW Italy: morphological, mineralogical, and geochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Carbone

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to characterize in detail, the mineralogy of different-shaped concretions as well as to investigate the physico-chemical parameters of the associated mine drainage and drip waters in the Santa Barbara level of the Libiola Mine (NW Italy by several geochemical and mineralogical techniques. Under the term “minothems” we are grouping all those secondary minerals that occur under certain form or shape related to the conditions under which they formed but occur in a mine, or in any artificial underground environment (i.e., "mine speleothems". Different types of minothems (soda straw stalactites, stalactites, and draperies were sampled and analyzed. Mineralogical results showed that all the samples of stalactites, stalagmite and draperies are characterized by poorly crystalline goethite. There are significant differences either in their texture and chemistry. Stalactites are enriched in Zn, Cd, and Co in respect to other minothems and show botryoidal textures; some of these exhibit a concentric layering marked by the alternation of botryoidal and fibrous-radiating textures; the draperies are enriched in V and show aggregates of sub-spheroidal goethite forming compact mosaic textures. Geochemical investigations show that the composition and physico-chemical parameters of mine drainage and drip waters are different from the other acidic mine water occurrences in different areas of the Libiola Mine, where minothems are less abundant. All mine water samples contain Cu, Ni, and Zn in appreciable levels, and the physico-chemical conditions are consistent with the stability of ferrihydrite, which however tends to transform into goethite upon ageing.

  17. Fluid–rock interaction across the South Tibetan Detachment, Garhwal Himalaya (India): Mineralogical and geochemical evidences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anubhooti Saxena; Himanshu K Sachan; Pulok K Mukherjee; Dilip K Mukhopadhya

    2012-02-01

    The Malari Leucogranite in the Garhwal Himalaya is cut across by a continental-scale normal fault system called the South Tibetan Detachment (STD). A mineralogical, geochemical and fluid inclusion study of samples from the fault zone of the Malari Granite was performed to reveal the imprints of fluid–rock interaction. Fluid inclusion assemblages observed in the alteration zone indicate the presence of NaCl-dominated aqueous fluids with varied salinity of 6 –16 wt.% of NaCl equivalent. Mineralogical changes include the alteration of feldspar to muscovite and muscovite to chlorite. This alteration took place at temperatures of 275°–335°C and pressures between 1.9 and 4.2 kbars as revealed by the application of chlorite thermometry, fluid isochores, and presence of K-feldspar+muscovite+chlorite+quartz mineral assemblage. Geochemical mass-balance estimates predict 32% volume loss during alteration. An estimated fluid/rock ratio of 82 is based on loss of silica during alteration, and reveals presence of a moderately low amount of fluid at the time of faulting. Results of fluid inclusion and alteration mineralogy indicate that the Malari Leucogranites were exhumed due to normal faulting along the STD and erosion from mid-crustal levels. Most of the leucogranites in the Himalayas occur along the STD and possibly a regional-scale fluid flow all along the STD might have caused similar alteration of leucogranites along this tectonic break. Regional fluid flow was probably concentrated along the STD and channelized through mesoscopic fractures, microcracks and grain boundaries.

  18. Advances in EBSD and EBSD/EDS integration for the characterization of mineralogical samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palasse, L.; Goran, D.; Schwager, T.

    2013-12-01

    Electron BackScatter Diffraction (EBSD) is a well-known powerful technique for petrofabric studies using Scanning Electron Microscope. By assessing the quantitative microstructural information, i.e. crystallographic orientation data, it allows a large variety of applications: understanding the deformation mechanisms, seismic properties, metamorphic processes; and more recently, performing phase identification and discrimination when combined with Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS). However, it is known that for multiphase mineralogical samples, the information delivered either by EBSD or by EDS alone is not enough to successfully distinguish the present phases. Typical examples for EBSD related indexing issues are phases creating similar patterns; and for EDS technique alone, phases with similar chemical composition like calcite and aragonite, quartz and cristobalite. Recent software and hardware developments have significantly improved the data quality as well as the efficiency/productivity. This presentation aims to reveal the latest development in data processing that has transformed the combination of the two complementary techniques into a powerful tool for characterizing multiphase materials. Through geosciences application examples, we will present the advantages brought by this new approach which uses the quantified EDS results and EBSP to identify the correct phase, reducing the need of data cleaning, and without spending extra time at the SEM. We will also demonstrate how powerful EBSD indexing algorithm can overcome the limitation from sample preparation, with some examples of high hit rate achieved on polyphase mineralogical specimen and even on shock-metamorphosed minerals. Last but not least, recent developments also enable the investigation of nanostructured materials in the scanning electron microscope (SEM) by Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction (TKD). Through some mineralogical applications, we will demonstrate the high spatial resolution

  19. Orbital evidence for clay and acidic sulfate assemblages on Mars based on mineralogical analogs from Rio Tinto, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Hannah H.; Milliken, Ralph E.; Fernández-Remolar, David; Amils, Ricardo; Robertson, Kevin; Knoll, Andrew H.

    2016-09-01

    Outcrops of hydrated minerals are widespread across the surface of Mars, with clay minerals and sulfates being commonly identified phases. Orbitally-based reflectance spectra are often used to classify these hydrated components in terms of a single mineralogy, although most surfaces likely contain multiple minerals that have the potential to record local geochemical conditions and processes. Reflectance spectra for previously identified deposits in Ius and Melas Chasma within the Valles Marineris, Mars, exhibit an enigmatic feature with two distinct absorptions between 2.2 and 2.3 μm. This spectral 'doublet' feature is proposed to result from a mixture of hydrated minerals, although the identity of the minerals has remained ambiguous. Here we demonstrate that similar spectral doublet features are observed in airborne, field, and laboratory reflectance spectra of rock and sediment samples from Rio Tinto, Spain. Combined visible-near infrared reflectance spectra and X-ray diffraction measurements of these samples reveal that the doublet feature arises from a mixture of Al-phyllosilicate (illite or muscovite) and jarosite. Analyses of orbital data from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) shows that the martian spectral equivalents are also consistent with mixtures of Al-phyllosilicates and jarosite, where the Al-phyllosilicate may also include kaolinite and/or halloysite. A case study for a region within Ius Chasma demonstrates that the relative proportions of the Al-phyllosilicate(s) and jarosite vary within one stratigraphic unit as well as between stratigraphic units. The former observation suggests that the jarosite may be a diagenetic (authigenic) product and thus indicative of local pH and redox conditions, whereas the latter observation may be consistent with variations in sediment flux and/or fluid chemistry during sediment deposition.

  20. Comparison of techniques for discriminating hydrothermal alteration minerals with Airborne Imaging Spectrometer data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Sandra C.; Taranik, James V.

    1988-01-01

    Hydrothermal alteration mineralogy in the Tybo mining district of Nevada has been mapped on the basis of high spectral and spatial resolution Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data, using band ratios, principal component analysis, and a signature-matching algorithm to delineate the alteration zones and limestone foundations. The signature-matching algorithm is found to be the most effective method of discriminating alteration minerals, and is noted to be able to identify mineralogy by matching AIS image spectra with library reference spectra. AIS bands in the 2048-2337-nm portion of the spectrum accounted for the greatest amount of variance.

  1. A comparison between immunofluorescence staining on smears from Membrana nictitans (M3 test), immunohistopathology and routine pathology in cats with suspected feline infectious peritonitis (FIP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hök, K

    1991-01-01

    An indirect immunofluorescence method using smears from membrana nictitans (M3 test) to diagnose feline corona virus (FCV) infection was compared with immunohistopathology (using indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFFA) performed on organs (IFO], and routine pathology (RP) in cats with suspected feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). A close correlation between the 2 immunofluorescence methods (IFO and M3) was observed. Although the M3 test requires samples from only 1 organ per animal, both the sensitivity and specificity were high (80%), when compared to IFO (using samples from an average of 5 organs per animal). In 21% of the cats with suspected FIP typical pathological lesions were found. As the M3 test is relatively easy to perform, it could reduce work-load of pathology laboratories and provide valuable data for clinical and epidemiological use.

  2. Mineralogical, geochemical and hydrocarbon potential of subsurface Cretaceous shales, Northern Western Desert, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Mousa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty four Cretaceous shale core samples of Gibb Afia-1, Betty-1, Salam-1X and Mersa Matruh-1 wells were mineralogically and geochemically studied using XRD, XRF and Rock Eval Pyrolysis. Kaolinite, smectite and illite are the main clay minerals in addition to rare chlorite, while the non-clay minerals include quartz, calcite, dolomite and rare siderite. The shales were derived through intensive chemical weathering of mafic basement and older sedimentary rocks. These sediments were deposited in a near-shore shallow marine environment with some terrestrial material input. The shales have poor to fair organic content. It is marginally to rarely mature.

  3. Elemental composition and mineralogical characteristics of coastal marine sediments of Tutuila, American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, R J; Peshut, P J; Lasorsa, Brenda K

    2010-06-01

    Surface sediment samples were collected from 5 pristine coastal areas and 1 potentially contaminated coastal site on Tutuila, the main island of American Samoa, an isolated island group in the South Pacific Ocean. Samples were analysed for total element analysis (15 elements) and mineralogy. The results indicated no evidence of trace element contamination at any site, including Pago Pago Harbour. Inter-site variations could be explained assuming the sediments consisted predominantly of coralline sand and rubble with varying quantities of basaltic materials derived from local catchments.

  4. Comparison of the Mineralogy of Comet Wild 2 Coma Grains to Other Astromaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, David; Zolensky, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We propose that Kuiper Belt samples (in this case comet coma grains from the Jupiter family comet Wild 2) are recognizably different from the bulk of materials in outer belt asteroids, because of their different formation positions and times in the early solar system. We believe this despite similarities found between some Wild 2 grains and components of carbonaceous chondrites (i.e. some CAI and chondrules). Kuiper Belt samples must preserve measurable mineralogical and compositional evidence of formation at unique positions and times in the early solar nebula, and these formational differences must have imparted recognizable special characteristics. We hypothesize that these characteristics include: (1) Unique major element compositional ranges of common astromaterial minerals, especially olivine and pyroxene; (2) Unique minor element compositions of major silicate phases, especially olivine and low-Ca pyroxene; (3) Degree and effects of radiation processing -- including amorphous rims, metal coatings, and Glass with Embedded Metal and Sulfides (GEMS); (4) Presence of abundant presolar silicate grains as recognized by anomalous oxygen in silicates; (5) Oxidation state of the mineral assemblage. We are working our way through all available Wild 2 samples, selecting 1-2 non-consecutive viable TEM grids from each possible extracted Wild 2 grain. We especially prefer TEM grids from grains for which complete mineralogical details have not been published (which is to say the majority of the extracted grains). We are performing a basic mineralogic survey by E-beam techniques, to establish the essential features of the extracted Wild 2 grains. We are making a particular effort to carefully and accurately measure minor elements of olivine and pyroxene, as these minerals are widespread in astromaterials, and comparisons of their compositions will serve to place the Wild 2 silicates in contact with asteroids, meteorites and chondritic interplanetary dust particles

  5. Notas inéditas de Jovellanos sobre mineralogía

    OpenAIRE

    Ordaz Gargallo, Jorge; Gutiérrez Claverol, Manuel Alberto; Elena de LORENZO ÁLVAREZ

    2010-01-01

    Se presenta y analiza un manuscrito inédito de Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos sobre la historia de la mineralogía, que redactó durante su cautiverio en el Castillo de Bellver (Palma de Mallorca). En el escrito considera de gran importancia los conocimientos químicos como fuente de otras ramas del saber científico y sus aplicaciones en distintos ámbitos de la agricultura, minería e industria. El autor hace una síntesis histórica repasando los hombres de ciencia que en mayor medida contribuyeron ...

  6. Mineralogical and Biogeochemical Characteristics of Rhodolith from Wu Island, Jeju-do, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Y.; Kang, S.; Roh, E. H.

    2012-12-01

    This study focused on investigation of mineralogical and biogeochemical characteristics of the rhodoliths and examination of the rhodolith origin whether they were formed by chemical or biological processes. Rhodoliths are free-living forms of calcareous, coralline red algae formed under specific environmental conditions, but their formation processes are still controversial. The rhodoliths and sea water were sampled at Seogwang-ri coast in the western part of Wu Island, Jeju-do, Korea. The chemical compositions and pHs of sea water were measured by ICP-AES and pH meter. Microorganisms enriched from rhodoliths were aerobically cultured at room temperature in D-1 media containing various concentrations (0, 30, 100 mM) of Ca and Mg-acetate, and the microorganisms were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene DGGE analysis to confirm microbial diversity. Mineralogical characteristics of the rhodoliths and precipitates formed by the enriched microorganisms were determined by XRF, XRD, and SEM-EDS analyses. The sea water had a range of pH 6 to 7, and consisted of approximately 400 mg/L of Ca and 1200 mg/L of Mg which are low to form carbonate minerals by chemical process in natural environments. XRF and XRD analyses showed the rhodoliths mainly consisted of 46% CaO and 5 % MgO and mineralogy is Mg-rich calcite. A 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed the enriched microorganisms contained a carbonate forming microorganism, Proteus mirabilis. The enriched microorganisms precipitated carbonate minerals using D-1 media containing Ca- and Mg-acetate (30, 100 mM) and mineralogy of the precipitated carbonate mineral was Mg-rich calcite, whereas the microorganisms did not form carbonate minerals without Ca- and Mg-acetate in D-1 media. SEM-EDS analyses showed that the Mg-rich calcite formed by the microorganisms had a rhombohedron shape. And the Mg-rich calcite consisted of Ca, Si and Mg with extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). These results indicate that the rhodoliths at Seogwang-ri coast

  7. MICROMORPHOLOGICAL AND MINERALOGICAL STUDY OF THE HAPLIC LUVISOLS IN THE LIPOVA HILLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Uruioc

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the Haplic Luvisols situated on the south of the inferior course of Mureş, the Lipova Hills, comes to complete results of the previous researches regarding the formation and evolution of the soil of the Vinga Plain area. The presence of metamorphic and magmatic semirounded subangular and rounded litoclaste and granoclaste of a coarse sand size indicates the fluviatil origin of the primary material. This micromorphological and mineralogical study have proved to be beneficial in the understanding of the polyphasic character of the clay migration process which affect the kinds of the horizons that has been formed.

  8. The mineralogic evolution of the Martian surface through time: Implications from chemical reaction path modeling studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Ridley, W. I.; Debraal, J. D.; Reed, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical reaction path calculations were used to model the minerals that might have formed at or near the Martian surface as a result of volcano or meteorite impact driven hydrothermal systems; weathering at the Martian surface during an early warm, wet climate; and near-zero or sub-zero C brine-regolith reactions in the current cold climate. Although the chemical reaction path calculations carried out do not define the exact mineralogical evolution of the Martian surface over time, they do place valuable geochemical constraints on the types of minerals that formed from an aqueous phase under various surficial and geochemically complex conditions.

  9. Accounting for mineralogical composition and origin of soils and sedimentary rocks in thermal property predictions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rev I.Gavriliev

    2014-01-01

    A methodology for calculating the thermal conductivity of soils and rocks is developed which takes into account their origin and mineralogical composition. This method utilizes three approaches. One is founded on the structural modeling of contact heat interaction between particles and fills and estimates the statistical probability distribution of the particles in the volume of the medium. The second approach analyses perturbation to the temperature field of the matrix medium by ellipsoidal inclusions. The third approach is to find the mean thermal conductivity of the solid skeleton in the universal model at different composition of rock-forming minerals.

  10. Soil mineralogy and chemistry on Mars - Possible clues from salts and clays in SNC meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, James L.

    1992-01-01

    If the shergottite, nakhlite, and chassignite (SNC) meteorites' parent planet is Mars, then the aqueous precipitates found in them imply that oxidizing, water-based solutions may have been chemically active on that planet over the past 200-1300 million yrs. It is suggested that the mixture of aqueous precipitates found in the SNCs furnish a self-consistent model for the bulk elemental composition of surface sediments at the Viking Lander sites. Further mineralogical and stable-isotope studies of the secondary minerals may establish the limits for biological activity over the last 1300 million years of Mars' water-based chemistry.

  11. IMAGES, IMAGES, IMAGES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, A.

    1980-07-01

    The role of images of information (charts, diagrams, maps, and symbols) for effective presentation of facts and concepts is expanding dramatically because of advances in computer graphics technology, increasingly hetero-lingual, hetero-cultural world target populations of information providers, the urgent need to convey more efficiently vast amounts of information, the broadening population of (non-expert) computer users, the decrease of available time for reading texts and for decision making, and the general level of literacy. A coalition of visual performance experts, human engineering specialists, computer scientists, and graphic designers/artists is required to resolve human factors aspects of images of information. The need for, nature of, and benefits of interdisciplinary effort are discussed. The results of an interdisciplinary collaboration are demonstrated in a product for visualizing complex information about global energy interdependence. An invited panel will respond to the presentation.

  12. The use of occupation isoboles for analysis of a response mediated by two receptors: M2 and M3 muscarinic receptor subtype-induced mouse stomach contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braverman, Alan S; Tallarida, Ronald J; Ruggieri, Michael R

    2008-06-01

    Smooth muscle contains multiple muscarinic receptor subtypes, including M2 and M3. M2 receptors outnumber M3 receptors. Based on the potency of subtype selective anticholinergics, contraction is mediated by the M3 subtype. However, results from knockout (KO) mice show that the M2 receptor mediates approximately 45% of the contractile response produced by the M3 receptor. The traditional theory of one receptor mediating a response does not allow assessment of interactions between receptors when more than one receptor participates in a response. Our study was performed using a novel analysis method based on dual receptor occupancy to determine how M2 and M3 receptor subtypes interact to mediate contraction in mouse stomach. Cumulative carbachol concentration contractile responses were determined for wild-type, M2-KO, and M3-KO stomach body smooth muscle. Using affinity constants for carbachol at M2 and M3 cholinergic receptors, the concentration values were converted to fractional receptor occupation. The resulting occupation-effect relations showed maximum effects for the M2 and M3 subtypes, respectively. These occupation-effect relations allow determination of the additive (expected) isobole based on this dual occupancy, thereby providing a curve (mathematically derived) for comparison against the experimentally derived value in wild type. The actual values determined experimentally in the wild type were not statistically significantly different from that predicted by the isobole. This confirms that the interaction between these mutually occupied receptors is additive. The new method of analysis also expands the traditional Schild theory that was based on a single receptor type to which the agonist and antagonist bind.

  13. σ-Aromatic cyclic M3(+) (M = Cu, Ag, Au) clusters and their complexation with dimethyl imidazol-2-ylidene, pyridine, isoxazole, furan, noble gases and carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Sudip; Saha, Ranajit; Mandal, Subhajit; Chattaraj, Pratim K

    2016-04-28

    The σ-aromaticity of M3(+) (M = Cu, Ag, Au) is analyzed and compared with that of Li3(+) and a prototype σ-aromatic system, H3(+). Ligands (L) like dimethyl imidazol-2-ylidene, pyridine, isoxazole and furan are employed to stabilize these monocationic M3(+) clusters. They all bind M3(+) with favorable interaction energy. Dimethyl imidazol-2-ylidene forms the strongest bond with M3(+) followed by pyridine, isoxazole and furan. Electrostatic contribution is considerably more than that of orbital contribution in these M-L bonds. The orbital interaction arises from both L → M σ donation and L ← M back donation. M3(+) clusters also bind noble gas atoms and carbon monoxide effectively. In general, among the studied systems Au3(+) binds a given L most strongly followed by Cu3(+) and Ag3(+). Computation of the nucleus-independent chemical shift (NICS) and its different extensions like the NICS-rate and NICS in-plane component vs. NICS out-of-plane component shows that the σ-aromaticity in L bound M3(+) increases compared to that of bare clusters. The aromaticity in pyridine, isoxazole and furan bound Au3(+) complexes is quite comparable with that in the recently synthesized Zn3(C5(CH3)5)3(+). The energy gap between the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital also increases upon binding with L. The blue-shift and red-shift in the C-O stretching frequency of M3(CO)3(+) and M3(OC)3(+), respectively, are analyzed through reverse polarization of the σ- and π-orbitals of CO as well as the relative amount of OC → M σ donation and M → CO π back donation. The electron density analysis is also performed to gain further insight into the nature of interaction.

  14. The insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) induces angiogenesis via allosteric modulation of the M3 muscarinic receptor in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legeay, Samuel; Clere, Nicolas; Hilairet, Grégory; Do, Quoc-Tuan; Bernard, Philippe; Quignard, Jean-François; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique; Lapied, Bruno; Faure, Sébastien

    2016-06-27

    The insect repellent N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) has been reported to inhibit AChE (acetylcholinesterase) and to possess potential carcinogenic properties with excessive vascularization. In the present paper, we demonstrate that DEET specifically stimulates endothelial cells that promote angiogenesis which increases tumor growth. DEET activates cellular processes that lead to angiogenesis including proliferation, migration and adhesion. This is associated with an enhancement of NO production and VEGF expression in endothelial cells. M3 silencing or the use of a pharmacological M3 inhibitor abrogates all of these effects which reveals that DEET-induced angiogenesis is M3 sensitive. The experiments involving calcium signals in both endothelial and HEK cells overexpressing M3 receptors, as well as binding and docking studies demonstrate that DEET acts as an allosteric modulator of the M3 receptor. In addition, DEET inhibited AChE which increased acetylcholine bioavailability and binding to M3 receptors and also strengthened proangiogenic effects by an allosteric modulation.

  15. Real-time monitoring of genetically modified Chlamydomonas reinhardtii during the Foton M3 space mission and ground irradiation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambreva, Maya; Rea, Giuseppina; Antonacci, Amina; Serafini, Agnese; Damasso, Mario; Margonelli, Andrea; Johanningmeier, Udo; Bertalan, Ivo; Pezzotti, Gianni; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    Long-term space exploration, colonization or habitation requires biological life support systems capable to cope with the deleterious space environment. The use of oxygenic photosynthetic microrganisms is an intriguing possibility mainly for food, O2 and nutraceutical compounds production. The critical points of utilizing plantsor algae-based life support systems are the microgravity and the ionizing radiation, which can influence the performance of these organisms. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of space environment on the photosynthetic activity of various microrganisms and to select space stress-tolerant strains. Site-directed and random mutants of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii of Photosystem II D1 protein were used as a model system to test and select the amino acid substitutions capable to account for space stress tolerance. We focussed our studies also on the accumulation of the Photosystem II photoprotective carotenoids (the xantophylls violaxanthin, anteraxanthin and zeaxanthin), powerful antioxidants that epidemiological studies demonstrated to be human vision protectors. Metabolite profiling by quantitative HPLC methods revealed the organisms and the stress conditions capable to accumulate the highest pigment levels. In order to develop a project for a rationale metabolic engineering of algal secondary metabolites overproduction, we are performing expression analyses on the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway under physiological and mimicked space conditions. To identify the consequences of the space environment on the photosynthetic apparatus the changes in the Photosystem II efficiency were monitored in real time during the ESA-Russian Foton-M3 mission in September 2007. For the space flight a high-tech, multicell fluorescence biosensor, Photo-II, was designed and built by the Centre for Advanced Research in Space Optics in collaboration with Kayser-Italy, Biosensor and DAS. Photo-II is an automatic device

  16. 山钢集团3200m3高炉矿槽皮带上料最优控制%Optimised Bunker Charging Control for Belt Conveyor of shD Laiwu Steel Group Ltd.3200m3 BF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林; 王庆光; 闫新宏

    2013-01-01

    Thesy stem adopts optimized type control,successfully realized 400m main charging belt driving,automatically proportioning below bunker,bunker weighing hopper of the mixed control ,feed flow simulating model,FIFO type burden profile control model,image identification,fault self detecting functions etc,Thus it is well worthy of promotion and application.%  本系统采用最优控制,成功实现了上料主皮带驱动、槽下自动配料、矿石称量斗的混装控制、仿真料流模型、FIFO式料型控制模型、图像识别、故障自诊断等功能,具有广泛的推广及应用价值。

  17. Mineralogical determination in situ of a highly heterogeneous material using a miniaturized laser ablation mass spectrometer with high spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubeck, Anna; Tulej, Marek; Ivarsson, Magnus; Broman, Curt; Riedo, Andreas; McMahon, Sean; Wurz, Peter; Bengtson, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Techniques enabling in situ elemental and mineralogical analysis on extraterrestrial planets are strongly required for upcoming missions and are being continuously developed. There is ample need for quantitative and high-sensitivity analysis of elemental as well as isotopic composition of heterogeneous materials. Here we present in situ spatial and depth elemental profiles of a heterogeneous rock sample on a depth-scale of nanometres using a miniaturized laser ablation mass spectrometer (LMS) designed for planetary space missions. We show that the LMS spectra alone could provide highly detailed compositional, three-dimensional information and oxidation properties of a natural, heterogeneous rock sample. We also show that a combination of the LMS and Raman spectroscopy provide comprehensive mineralogical details of the investigated sample. These findings are of great importance for future space missions where quick, in situ determination of the mineralogy could play a role in the process of selecting a suitable spot for drilling.

  18. Mineralogical, textural, structural and geochemical aspects of Nakhlak lead mine, Isfahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Jazi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Nakhlak lead mine is located at the Nakhlak mountain 55 km NE of Anarak town in Isfahan province. The mineralogy is simple; galena and barite are the main primary minerals and cerussite is the main secondary mineral. Sphalerite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, tetrahedrite-tennantite and acanthite occur as minor and trace mineral inclusions in galena. Secondary minerals are anglesite, plattnerite, wulfenite and malachite. The host rock has undergone a pre-mineralization dolomitization process. Four types of dolomite have been identified which saddle dolomite is the most distinguished. Open space filling textures occur in the form of breccia, cockade, crustification and colloform. Analysis of the galena samples indicates presence of many trace elements in galena among which silver is the most important. Element pairs such as Ag-As, Zn-Cd, As-Cu and As-Sb are highly correlated. This correlation may be explained by the presence of inclusions. Ag-Sb-Bi ternary diagram indicates that galena samples from Nakhlak are rich in Ag and Sb and poor in Bi. Sb/Bi (3773 ratio in galena is suggestive of a low temperature of formation for the deposit. The Upper Cretaceous carbonate host rocks and their dolomitization, the stratabound and epigenetic mineralization, the absence of igneous activity, the open space filling texture, the simple mineralogy and geochemistry all point to a Mississippi valley type model for the Nakhlak Pb deposit.

  19. Mineralogical evidence for lamproite magma mixing and storage at mantle depths: Socovos fault lamproites, SE Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambeses, A.; Garcia-Casco, A.; Scarrow, J. H.; Montero, P.; Pérez-Valera, L. A.; Bea, F.

    2016-12-01

    Detailed textural and mineral chemistry characterisation of lamproites from the Socovos fault zone, SE Spain Neogene Volcanic Province (NVP) combining X-ray element maps and LA-ICP-MS spot analyses has provided valuable information about mantle depth ultrapotassic magma mixing processes. Despite having similar whole-rock compositions, rocks emplaced in the Socovos fault are mineralogically varied: including type-A olivine-phlogopite lamproites; and type-B clinopyroxene-phlogopite lamproites. The Ol-lacking type-B predates Ol-bearing type-A by c. 2 million years. We propose that the mineralogical variations, which are representative of lamproites in the NVP as a whole, indicate mantle source heterogeneities. Major and trace element compositions of mineral phases suggest both metasomatised harzburgite and veined pyroxenite sources that were most likely closely spatially related. Thin section scale textural and compositional variations in mineral phases reveal heterogeneous mantle- and primitive magma-derived crystals. The variety of crystals points to interaction and mingling-mixing of ultrapotassic magma batches at mantle depths prior crustal emplacement. The mixing apparently occurred in a mantle melting zone with a channelised flow regime and localised magma chambers-reservoirs. Magma interaction was interrupted when the Socovos and other lithosphere-scale faults tore down to the mantle source region, triggering rapid ascent of the heterogeneous lamproite magma.

  20. Relationship between water chemistry and sediment mineralogy in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field: a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valette-Silver, J.N. (Univ. de Perpignan, France); Thompson, J.M.; Ball, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    The chemical compositions of waters collected from the Cerro Prieto geothermal production wells and hydrothermal emanations are different. Compared to the Cerro Prieto well waters, the surficial waters generally contain significantly less potassium, slightly less calcium and chloride, and significantly more magnesium and sulfate. In comparison to the unaltered sediments, the changes in the mineralogy of the altered sediments appear to be controlled by the type of emanation (well, spring, mud pot, geyser, fumarole, or cold pool). However, an increase in quartz and potassium feldspar percentages seems to be characteristic of the majority of the sediments in contact with geothermal fluids. Preliminary attempts to model the chemical processes occurring in the Cerro Prieto geothermal field using chemical equilibrium calculations are reported. For this purpose the chemical compositions of thermal waters (well and surficial emanation) were used as input data to make calculations with SOLMNEQ and WATEQ2 computer programs. Then the theoretical mineral composition of altered sediments was predicted and compared to the mineralogy actually observed in the solid samples.